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Title: A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan

Author: John U. Wolff

Release date: June 24, 2012 [eBook #40074]
Most recently updated: October 1, 2023

Language: English

Credits: Jeroen Hellingman, Scott Robertson and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net/
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*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK A DICTIONARY OF CEBUANO VISAYAN ***
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Transcriber’s Note

This dictionary uses letters with Unicode combining diacritics, such as ā́, an a with a macron and an acute accent. These may not render correctly on older browsers, resulting in the top-most accent being placed over the next letter.

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THE CORNELL UNIVERSITY SOUTHEAST ASIA PROGRAM

The Southeast Asia Program was organized at Cornell University in the Department of Far Eastern Studies in 1950. It is a teaching and research program of interdisciplinary studies in the humanities, social sciences, and some natural sciences. It deals with Southeast Asia as a region, and with the individual countries of the area: Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.

The activities of the Program are carried on both at Cornell and in Southeast Asia. They include an undergraduate and graduate curriculum at Cornell which provides instruction by specialists in Southeast Asian cultural history and present-day affairs and offers intensive training in each of the major languages of the area. The Program sponsors group research projects on Thailand, on Indonesia, on the Philippines, and on the area’s Chinese minorities. At the same time, individual staff and students of the Program have done field research in every Southeast Asian country.

A list of publications relating to Southeast Asia which may be obtained on prepaid order directly from the Program is given at the end of this volume. Information on Program staff, fellowships, requirements for degrees, and current course offerings will be found in an Announcement of the Department of Asian Studies, obtainable from the Director, Southeast Asia Program, 120 Uris Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850. [i]

A DICTIONARY OF CEBUANO VISAYAN
Cornell University, Southeast Asia Program
and
Linguistic Society of the Philippines
1972

[ii]

[Contents]

PREFACE

This work is a dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, the language of the central part of the Philippines and much of Mindanao. Although the explanations are given in English, the aim of this work is not to provide English equivalents but to explain Cebuano forms in terms of themselves. It is meant as a reference work for Cebuano speakers and as a tool for students of the Cebuano language. There is a total of some 25,000 entries and an addenda of 700 forms which were prepared after the dictionary had been composed.

This dictionary is the product of eleven years work by more than a hundred persons. The work was edited by me and is my responsibility, but the sources are entirely native, and all illustrations are composed by native speakers. The personnel who wrote up the entries are listed in Section 2.1, p. ix. The manuscript went through five versions, the final on an IBM selectric composer. The whole composition was done in Cebu City in five months’ time by Pacifico Briones, Nicolasito Catingan, Florecita Florido, Donata Laingo, and Grace Mendoza. The drafting and splicing were done by Carlito Gubaynon and Felismeno Simplicio. The proofreading and editing was done by me together with Mrs. Elizabeth Say, Mrs. Fe Cuenca, Richard Quiñanola, and my wife Ida Wolff. In the earlier stages of gathering, transcribing, and indexing materials a huge number of people participated, too numerous to mention by name. The entire dictionary through the final composed product was compiled from notes on index cards in the course of twenty-six months. My thanks go especially to the staff listed above and on p. ix for their cooperative spirit. Without their willingness to work overtime, this dictionary could not have been completed.

The work was supported from 1963 to 1966 by funds from Cornell University faculty research grants; 1966–7 by Office of Education contract No. 1-7-002672-2040; 1967–1968 by a Cornell University faculty research grant; 1968–1969 by a grant from the American Council of Learned Societies and by a grant from the Cornell University Philippine Project; 1969–1971 by Office of Education Contract No. 0-9-097718-3350. My trip to the Philippines was financed in 1966–1969 and again in 1970–71 by a Fulbright-Hayes faculty research grant. Without these sources of funds this dictionary could not have been completed.

This dictionary by no means exhausts the Cebuano language, and we hope in future years to produce an expanded and improved version with illustrations. To this end we welcome and would be most grateful for suggestions for corrections and additions.

J.U.W.

Southeast Asia Program
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York
August 1971 [iv]

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FOREWORD

The Southeast Asia Program takes particular pleasure in helping to make this Cebuano dictionary available. The language is, of course, of importance in itself, not only because of its wide use in the Philippines, but also because of its value to linguists and historical research.

In addition, we are especially pleased that this dictionary is a joint publication of the Southeast Asia Program and the Linguistic Society of the Philippines. We owe a special debt of gratitude to the Rev. Teodoro Llamzon, S. J., president of the Linguistic Society of the Philippines, for his gracious help and cooperation in attending to the many details involved in such a cooperative venture. We are also grateful to the Asia Foundation, which provided a partial subsidy to make publication possible.

We are confident that Professor Wolff’s research on Cebuano and the compilation of this work, covering a period of eleven years, has resulted in a useful reference work and in an important contribution to our knowledge of Philippine languages and cultures and to linguistics in general.

Robert B. Jones

Ithaca, New York
December, 1971 [v]

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CONTENTS

[vi]

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ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN THIS DICTIONARY

a, adj. adjective voc. vocative
Culu- prefix consisting of the initial consonant of the root followed by ulu x- x is a prefix
dat. dative -x x is a suffix
gen. genitive -x- x is infixed after the initial consonant
k.o. kind of x1, x2 there are two roots with the shape x, members of different morphemes
-l- infix consisting of l followed by the initial vowel of the root x-y x is a prefix, and y is a suffix
lit. literally x(y) y can be substituted for x with virtually no difference in meaning
n noun x-/y- x or, alternatively with no change in meaning, y
nom. nominative root
r- prefix consisting of the initial consonant followed by the first vowel of the root = alternative pronunciation. Defined under the form listed on the right
s.o. someone (→) shift to right: when an affix is added the vowel of the penult is shortened (Section 5.11, p. xii)
s.t. something (←) shift to left: when an affix is added the vowel of the penult is lengthened (Section 5.11, p. xii)
s.w. somewhere additions added to the entry on pp. 1140 ff.
v verb * root which is not used alone

[vii]

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INTRODUCTION

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1.0 Cebuano

This work is a dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, here called Cebuano for short. Cebuano is spoken in the central portions of the Philippines: on the islands of Cebu and Bohol, on the eastern half of Negros, western half of Leyte, along the northern coasts of Mindanao, and on smaller islands in the vicinity of these areas. A large portion of the urban population of Zamboanga, Davao, and Cotabato is Cebuano speaking. Cebuano is also widely spoken throughout the lowland areas of the entire eastern third of Mindanao, where it is spreading at the expense of the native languages (most of which are closely related to Cebuano). Cebuano is the trade language in most places in Mindanao where Cebuano-speaking populations and populations speaking other languages are in contact.

Cebuano is also called Sugbuanon and is one of more than a dozen languages or dialects which are given the name Bisayan or Visayan. Other types of Visayan are spoken in areas surrounding the Cebuano-speaking area on the north, east, west, and southeast. This dictionary is confined to Cebuano forms and does not include forms which are not Cebuano from other languages called Visayan spoken outside of the area we have delineated.

In the areas where Cebuano is native and, to a large extent, also in areas where Cebuano is a trade language, it is used for almost every aspect of daily life and for most formal occasions: radio-TV, social life, religious life, business, and the first two grades of school. Cebuano is also largely used in the later grades, although English is supposed to be the medium of instruction. In these areas Cebuano language publications enjoy a wide readership.

Somewhere between one-quarter and one-third of the population of the Philippines speaks Cebuano natively.1 But despite its numerical importance and wide use Cebuano lags far behind Tagalog (Pilipino) in prestige and development as a means of literary and scientific expression. In the schools the emphasis is almost entirely English: Cebuano composition is not a school subject, and students read nothing in Cebuano after the first two grades. In prestige Cebuano is losing ground: for the upper and middle class elite, with isolated praiseworthy exceptions, eloquence in Cebuano is not admired. In fact it is almost a matter of pride not to know Cebuano well. Thus, despite a phenomenal increase in literacy and in the total number of potential contributors and participants in Cebuano literature, output has declined in quantity and quality at an ever increasing rate over the past two generations. The cultivation and development of Cebuano is left to the least influential segments of the population, to whom English education and exposure to English publications are minimally available. These people still compose the vast majority of the population, but the influential classes that have grown up knowing only a dilute and inarticulate Cebuano are ever increasing in number, proportion, and prestige.

1.1 Dialects

The Cebuano language is remarkably uniform. There are differences, to be sure, but these differences are no greater than the differences found among the various varieties of English spoken around the world. There are scattered places within the Cebuano area which use a speech widely aberrant from what we describe here: Surigao, Bantayan Islands, and the Camotes Islands. Forms peculiar to those areas we have simply omitted except for a few widely used forms which tend to find their way into standard Cebuano as spoken by natives of these areas. Such forms are listed, but marked ‘dialectal’. Otherwise whatever forms we have found we have listed without comment, whether or not they are in current use throughout the Cebuano speech area. [viii]

1.12 Correct and incorrect speech

A happy consequence of the low regard which Cebuano speakers have of their own language is that the doctrine of correctness has never gained foothold. Dialectal differences are purely local, not social,2 and speakers regard whatever forms they are familiar with as correct. We have followed the same principle in this dictionary: no attempt is made to prescribe which forms or usages are appropriate, but rather we try to show which forms and usages occur. The various meanings of a given form are listed in such a way that their relation is readily discernible: meanings which are derived by extension or specialization from an original meaning are listed under subheadings of the original-meaning.3

Occasionally annotations such as ‘slang’, ‘euphemism’, ‘humorous’, ‘coarse’, and the like, are given. These annotations signal only that Cebuano speakers tend to regard these forms as such and that they occur only in styles of speech appropriate to these forms.4 We use the following terminology: Biblical, literary, metaphorical, humorous, euphemism, coarse, colloquial. The designation BIBLICAL indicates a form confined to liturgical language or the Bible; LITERARY indicates a form confined to high-flown styles, not ordinarily spoken; METAPHORICAL indicates a meaning recognized as metaphorical in some way (not necessarily confined to literary style); HUMOROUS, a meaning commonly given to a form, but not the primary meaning, which gives the feeling of an oft-repeated joke; EUPHEMISM, a form that is used to avoid saying s.t directly, the meaning of which is readily understood but not as jarring as if it had been said directly; COARSE, a form that clearly would jar the hearer and that is confined to speech used in anger or used as a sign of intimacy or disrespect; SLANG indicates a form confined to intimate speech among people of similar occupations or life styles; COLLOQUIAL indicates forms avoided in formal discourse or writing, but commonly used in normal speech even among non-intimates.

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2.0 Basis of this work

This dictionary is a comprehensive listing of approximately 25,000 Cebuano roots with English explanations of their meanings and uses and an indication of the affixational system to which each root is subject, with ample illustrations. Most of the forms here listed are taken from written sources or from taped oral sources of Cebuano of nearly a million words, gathered from all over the Cebuano speech area and covering a wide range of topics and styles. The written sources are some 400 issues of Cebuano publications: Bisaya, Silaw, and Bag-ong Suga, a few novenas, novels, and other collections that have been published.5 About ninety percent of the forms here listed come from these oral or printed sources. Forms which did not occur in these sources but which were well known to me or at least one of the members of the staff that composed this dictionary are also included. Further, any form which occurred in our sources which was not known to our personnel was not included.6 Although there are numerous published sources of Cebuano forms—dictionaries and anthropological and biological studies, we have not taken any forms from them that could not be confirmed directly from our texts or informants. [ix]

2.1 Personnel

The collection, transcription, and classification of the texts was carried out by a large staff in Cebu City, originating from all over the Cebuano speech area. The final stage, the writing up of the definitions, was carried by a small staff, exclusively native speakers of Cebuano now resident in Cebu: Miss E. Agapay, of Malitbog, Leyte, but also a long time resident of Talibon, Bohol, and in Guihulngan, Negros Oriental; Nicolas Ampatin, of Malitbog, Leyte; Abel Angus, of Tudela, Camotes; José Dioko, of Malaboyoc, Cebu; Mrs. E. Emnace, of Dumanjug, Cebu; Atty. A. Estorco, of Guihulngan, Negros Oriental; Everett Mendoza, of Maasin, Leyte; Mrs. D. Ag. Villondo, of Dumanjug, Cebu, but also a long time resident of Ozamis City, and Molave, Zamboanga del Sur.

2.2 Other sources

The scientific names for plants and shells are based upon specimens which were gathered and identified with their Cebuano names by reliable informants. The specimens were compared against the available literature, and where identification was certain, scientific names were given. Our scientific names for plants are taken from the following sources (in order—plants not listed in the first were referred to the second, those not in the first or second were referred to the third, and so forth): Brown, Quisumbing, Merrill, Steiner. For shellfish, we give no scientific names but follow the English terminology of Abbott, 1962. For the fishes and birds, we relied mainly on pictures for Cebuano identification. For fish available in the local markets, we could examine actual specimens. The scientific names of fish follow those given by Herre (1953) and for birds by Delacour and Myer.

We made heavy use of the anthropological sources listed in the bibliography but independently checked all information incorporated and used terminology listed in them only insofar as we could corroborate it.

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3.0 Phonology and transcription

The following chart gives the Cebuano phonemes and the articulation:

Consonants
bilabial apico-alveolar palatal dorsal glottal
voiceless stops p t c k ʔ
voiced stops b d j g
nasals m n ŋ
spirants s h
liquids w l, r y
Vowels
high- or mid-front low central high- or mid-back
i a u

In addition there is a fourth mid-central vowel which occurs dialectally (Bohol, Southern Leyte, Southern Cebu, and other scattered areas) but is not found in the dialect of Cebu City and is not transcribed here.7 The palatal stop /j/ in many dialects does not contrast with the cluster /dy/. In the dialect of the Camotes Islands there is also a voiced spirant /z/ which derives historically from /y/ but contrasts with /y/ currently.

Vowels may be long or short. Contrast between long and short vowels occurs only in the final and the penultimate syllable of the word: káun [kā́ʔun] ‘eat’ and nagdá [nagdā́] ‘is bringing’. Further, there is only one long vowel per word. There is also a phoneme of stress which has a very low contrastive function. For the most part stress can be determined by the phonological make-up of the word: 1 stress falls on the long vowel of the word if the word has a long vowel: nagdá [nagdā́], káun [kā́ʔun]. 2 for words that have no long vowel, stress is on the penultimate if it is [x]closed: tan-aw [tánʔaw] ‘see’; mugbù [múgbuʔ] ‘short’. If the penultimate is open and short, stress is on the ultimate: mala [malá] ‘dry’. Occasionally, in words with a closed penult the final syllable is stressed (marked here with a wedge): mandǎr [mandár] ‘order’; dughǐt [dughít] ‘instrument for poking’. In words with a long vowel in the ultimate syllable there is, in some dialects, a contrast between the stress on the first mora and stress on the second mora of the long vowel: nahū́g [nahúug] ‘fell’; húg [huúg] ‘woof’. This contrast does not obtain in all dialects.

3.2 Transcription

The transcription here adopted adheres as closely as possible to the spelling found in Cebuano publications and at the same time is strictly phonemic—that is, each phoneme is indicated, and no phoneme in a given environment is given more than one transcription. Our transcription follows the phonemic symbols given in the Chart 3.0 with the exceptions listed in the following sections.

3.21 Vowels

We write only three vowels: i, u, a. In Cebuano publications /i/ is sometimes written i, sometimes e, but with no consistency; and /u/ sometimes is written u, sometimes o (again with no consistency). But here the letters e and o are not used.

Long vowels are indicated with an acute accent: nagdá [nagdā́] ‘is bringing’, lána [lā́na] ‘coconut oil’. (Cebuano publications occasionally indicate long vowels by doubling them, but most frequently long vowels are ignored.)

Stress is not indicated if the placement is according to the rules given in Section 3.0, above. Where a word with a closed penult has a stress on the final syllable, this fact is indicated by a wedge: mandǎr [mandár] ‘order’. For words with a long vowel in the final syllable where the stress is on the final mora, the acute accent indicates the long vowel and stress on the final mora: húg [huúg] ‘woof, trák [traák] ‘bus’. For words with a long vowel in the final syllable where the stress is on the first mora, the stress on the first mora and length are indicated by a combination of a long mark and acute accent: nahū́g [nahúug] ‘fell’, ang-ā́ng [ʔangʔáang] ‘not quite’.

3.22 Glottal stop /ʔ/

In Cebuano publications /ʔ/ is only sometimes indicated.8 Here we indicate /ʔ/ in word or syllable final position with a grave accent written over the vowel which precedes the glottal stop: walà /waláʔ/ ‘no’, bàbà /báʔbaʔ/ ‘mouth’, làhib /láʔhib/ ‘slice’. (In Cebuano publications the glottal stop of these words is never indicated.)

In post-consonantal position we indicate /ʔ/ with a hyphen, as is done in most Cebuano publications: tan-aw /tanʔaw/ ‘see’. In other positions—that is, intervocalically and in word initial position, glottal stop is not written, as is also the usual practice in Cebuano publications: writing of two adjacent vowels or initial vowel serves to indicate a glottal stop:9 maáyu /maʔā́yu/ ‘good’, alas /ʔalás/ ‘ace’.

3.23 /ŋ/, /c/, /j/, /dy/, /ty/

The phoneme /ŋ/ is transcribed ng, as in Cebuano publications: bángun /báŋun/ ‘get up’. The sequence /ng/ is transcribed n-g: san-glas /sanglas/ ‘sunglasses’.

/c/ is transcribed ts, as in Cebuano publications: tsinílas /cinílas/ ‘slippers’10. The sequence /ty/ is transcribed ty (as in Cebuano publications): tyanggi /tyánggi/ ‘market’.

The phoneme /j/ is transcribed initially and medially as dy: dyíp /jíp/ ‘jeep’, dyus /jus/ ‘juice’. (In Cebuano publications /j/ is sometimes written dy, sometimes diy: diyip or dyip—i.e. the spelling of /j/ is no different from that of /dy/.) In final position /j/ is transcribed ds, following the usage in Cebuano publications: dyurds /jurj/ ‘a name—George’.11 The sequence /dy/ is transcribed [xi]diy: diyus /dyus/ ‘god’. (This sequence is spelled diy or, alternatively, dy in Cebuano publications.)12

3.24 Ciy and Cy; Cuw and Cw; ayi and ay; awu and aw

The contrast between /Ciy/ and /Cy/ and between /Cuw/ and /Cw/ (where C is any consonant) obtains only in the position where the /y/ or /w/ precedes a vowel of the final syllable (e.g. paliya [paliyá] ‘k.o. vegetable’ vs. palya [pálya] ‘fail’). When the /y/ or /w/ precedes a vowel of the penultimate or earlier syllable, the contrast does not obtain. If one consonant precedes the /y/ or /w/ we write Cy and Cw; biyà ‘leftovers’ but hibyaan /hi-byà-an/ ‘be left behind’; guwà ‘go out’, higwaan ‘gone out from’. If two consonants precede the /y/ or /w/ we write Ciy and Cuw respectively: pinsiyunáda ‘one who receives a pension’, nagkuwarisma ‘have a sad expression’ (but Kwarisma ‘Lent’).

Similarly, the contrast between /Vyi/ and /Vy/ or /Vwu/ and /Vw/ (where V is any vowel) obtains only when the /y/ or /yi/, /w/ or /wu/ are final in the word: bay ‘term of address’ vs. bayi ‘female’; mabaw ‘shallow’ vs. hibawu (or hibáwu) ‘know’. In closed final syllables or penultimate or earlier syllables the contrast does not obtain. We write Vyi and Vwu in closed syllables and Viy and Vuw in open syllables: bayinti ‘twenty’ but ayta ‘give me’; dawunggan ‘ear’ but awtu ‘car’.

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4.0 Listing of Entries

Cebuano is a language with a complex system of affixation and comparatively simple morphophonemic alternations. For this reason the listing of forms is strictly by root.13 Forms of the sort where the root is not really evident are listed with a cross-reference to the root. The order is strictly alphabetical with no regard to diacritical markings (hyphens or accent marks) except that forms without diacritical markings precede forms with diacritical markings.

The order of presentation is always root alone or root plus verbal affixes (Section 6.1f.) followed by verbal derivations (Section 6.2), followed by nominal and adjectival derivations, listed in alphabetical order (Section 7.0). Most roots occur as several parts of speech, and the determination of whether a root is basically a noun, adjective, or verb depends upon a series of morphological and syntactic criteria the details of which cannot be presented here.14 Roots which are basically adjectives are defined first as adjectives, then as nouns and verbs. Roots, basically nouns, are defined first as nouns, then as adjectives and verbs; and roots, basically verbs, are defined first as verbs and then as nouns and adjectives. For verbal forms a formula indicating the conjugation (set of inflectional affixes which may be added to them) is given. The formulas are explained in Sections 7.1ff. and 7.2ff. below.

The entries are liberally illustrated, with the primary aim of clarifying the meaning and with a secondary aim of exemplifying the morphological characteristics of the affixed forms. [xii]

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5.0 Alternations

5.1 Morphophonemic alternations

Since the listing in this dictionary is strictly by root, an outline of the important morphophonemic alternations is given here. In the entries nonpredictable morphophonemic alternations are indicated by writing the affixed forms out.

5.11 Shift of stress

The general rule is that an affixed form has the stress on the same syllable as the root alone. Where this general rule is broken, there is said to be SHIFT OF STRESS. When an affixed form has final stress where the root had penultimate stress, there is said to be SHIFT TO THE FINAL SYLLABLE, indicated by the symbol (→):

káun /kā́ʔun/ eat + nag-(→) = nagkaun /nagkaʔún/ is eating
tugnaw /túgnaw/ cold + -un(→) = tugnawun /tugnawún/ be cold

When an affixed form has penultimate stress where the root had final stress, there is said to be SHIFT TO THE PENULTIMATE SYLLABLE, indicated by the symbol (←):

sakay /sakáy/ ride + nag-(←) = nagsákay /nagsā́kay/ ride together

In many cases an unaffixed root has both final stress and penultimate stress (depending on the meaning). Whichever stress occurs with the prefix MU- (see the entry under MU-) is taken to be the stress of the root. Thus, the formation of the unaffixed root with a different stress pattern is said to be by the addition of an affix consisting of shift of stress alone:

inúm15 /ʔinúm/ drink + (←) = ínum /ʔī́num/ drink heavily
búnal /búnal/ beat + (→) = bunal /bunál/ club
5.12 Dropping of vowels

When a suffix is added to a root with a stressed final syllable, the tendency is to drop the vowel of the final syllable of the root:

dakup /dakúp/ arrest + -an = dakpan /dákpan/ be arrested
pisik /pisík/ splash + -an = piskan /pískan/ be splashed
lakat /lakát/ go + -unun = laktunun /laktunún/ errand

This occasionally also happens to roots with stressed penults:

kalímut /kalímut/ forget + -i = kalimti /kalímti/ forget it
5.13 Adding of /h/ or /ʔ/ to roots ending in a vowel when a suffix is added

Some roots which end in a vowel add /ʔ/ before a suffix, some roots add /h/, other roots add either /ʔ/ or /h/ (depending on which suffix):

bása /bása/ read + -un = basáhun /basáhun/ be read
adtu /ʔádtu/ go + -un = adtúun /ʔadtū́ʔun/ gone to get
kabaláka /kabaláka/ worry + -an = kabalak-an /kabalákʔan/ s.t. to worry about (with the vowel of the final syllable of the root dropped—5.12).
sulti /súlti/ talk + -un = sultíhun /sultī́hun/ talk it out
sulti /súlti/ talk + -ánay = sultiánay /sultiʔā́nay/ conversation
5.14 Metathesis

In affixed forms, the sequences /ʔC/ and /hC/ (where C is any consonant) almost always become /Cʔ/ and /Ch/:16

káun /káʔun/ eat + -a = kan-a /kánʔa/ eat it (with the final syllable of the root dropped).[xiii]
luhud /luhúd/ kneel + -an = ludhan /lúdhan/ kneel on (with the vowel of the final syllable of the root dropped).

The sequences /ʔVh/ usually becomes /hVʔ/ (where V is a vowel):

túu /túʔu/ believe + -an = tuhúan /tuhū́ʔan/ believable (where /h/ is intercalated by the rule of 5.13).

Sequences of a liquid or /s/ plus a consonant tend to be metathesized when a suffix is added if the vowel of the final syllable of the root is dropped.

ngálan /ŋálan/ name + -an = nganlan /ŋánlan/ be named
sulud /sulúd/ enter + -un = sudlun /súdlun/ enter it
inum /ʔinúm/ drink + -a = imna /ʔímna/ drink it
putus /putús/ wrap + -un = pustun /pústun/ wrap it
lusut /lusút/ go through + -an = lutsan /lū́can/ go through it

These alternations also manifest themselves in competing root forms: alhu /ʔálhu/ and hal-u /halʔu/ ‘pestle’; kalamunggay and kamalunggay ‘k.o. tree’.

5.15 Change of /r/ or /l/ to /d, g, h/

Intervocalically, /d/ usually becomes /r/ or, less frequently, /l/:

búkid mountain + ka-an = kabukíran or, alternatively, kabukílan mountains

Vice versa, in roots with intervocalic /l/ or /r/, the /l/ or /r/ may change to /d/ when final or abutting on a consonant.

walà /waláʔ/ be lost + -un = wad-un /wadʔun/ lose s.t. (with loss of the final vowel of the root).
hurut /hurút/ use up + -un = hutdun /hútdun/ use s.t. up (with metathesis).

When a /d/, /l/, or /r/ comes to abut on velar consonant it tends to change to /g/:17

pálung /páluŋ/ extinguish + -an = pagngan /págŋan/ extinguish it
haluk /halúk/ kiss + -an = hagkan /hágkan/ kiss it

/r/ or, occasionally, /l/ at the end of a root may change to /h/ when suffixes are added. These are almost always words of Spanish provenience.

mantinil make do with + -an = mantinihan make do with it
imbitar invite + -un = imbitahun invite him

5.2 Competing forms

Because of sound changes which took place over portions of the Cebuano-speaking areas but did not spread over the entire area and the subsequent spread of forms which reflect these changes, there are numerous competing forms which are of the same etymology and which usually (but not always) have the same meaning.18

Forms which are the same in meaning and which are related to each other in that one underwent the sound change and the other did not are defined only once and cross reference is made. Some sound changes are so common and regular that only the older form is listed, and it is to be taken for granted that the form which shows the sound change also normally occurs unless a statement to the contrary is made. [xiv]

5.21 Dropping of /l/
5.211 Intervocalic /l/

Most (but not all) roots which contain an /l/ between /a/’s and /u/’s compete with roots which lack /l/. The forms without /l/ are used generally in the Northeastern portion of the Cebuano area: all areas east of Cebu (Bohol, Masbate, Leyte and islands in between) and on the northern half of Cebu. In the Southwestern areas (Negros, southern half of Cebu and most of Mindanao, the /l/ forms predominate.

Between like vowels /l/ is dropped and the vowel is usually lengthened: kalabaw or kábaw ‘water buffalo’; balay or báy ‘house’; tutulu or tutú ‘three’. In closed syllables or in the case of /l/ beginning the antepenult, no compensatory lengthening takes place: kalatkat or katkat ‘climb’; kalamunggay or kamunggay ‘k.o. tree’.

Between /a/ and /u/ or /u/ and /a/, /l/ becomes /w/: lalum or lawum ‘deep’; sulab or suwab ‘blade’. The sequence /alu/ in the antepenult and penult or earlier in the root becomes /u/ in Cebu and northern Leyte but /awu/ in Bohol and southern Leyte: dalunggan or dunggan or dawunggan ‘ear’.

This alternation is for the most part confined to the root.19 Otherwise, it is so regular that only the forms containing /l/ are listed, and the presumption is made that the /l/ may be dropped unless a note is made to the contrary.20

5.212 Post-consonantal /l/

There is a tendency to drop post-consonantal /l/ usually (but not always) with compensatory lengthening of the vowel of the penult: kinahanglan or kinahángan ‘need’; aplud or apud ‘astringent in taste’; danglug or dángug or dangug ‘slippery’. The /l/-less forms are most common in the areas which drop intervocalic /l/. The dropping of post-consonantal /l/ is by no means as widespread as dropping of intervocalic /l/, and alternative forms are listed.

5.213 Final /l/

In Bohol and southern Leyte there is a tendency for /al/ at the end of a word to become /aw/ and /ul/ to become /u/: bagal or bagaw ‘shell’. In this case alternative forms are listed.

5.214 Change of /l/ to /y/

Historically, intervocalic /l/ in isolated dialects became /y/. Forms with /y/ for /l/ have spread throughout the Cebuano-speaking area, and some are in competition with /l/-retaining forms: tingáli or tingáyi ‘perhaps’; kalugpus or kayugpus (also kugpus—by the rule of 5.211) ‘fold the arms’. In this case, competing forms are listed with cross reference.

5.22 Assimilation and metathesis

There is a tendency for nasal consonants which abut on consonants to be assimilated: bungdul or bundul ‘poke’; hingbis or himbis ‘scales’; amgid or anggid (also ambid) ‘like’. This alternation is sporadic, and competing forms are listed.

There is some competition between forms with voiced and forms with voiceless consonants, where the competition derives from assimilation: tikbas or tigbas ‘strike with a blade’; bukdu or bugdu ‘bulging out’. Again the competing forms are listed.

There is also competition between forms which differ by virtue of metathesis: bungdul or dungbul (and dumbul) ‘poke’; itsa or ista ‘throw’; bàgu /baʔgu/ or bag-u /bagʔu/ ‘new’. (Cf. Section 5.14.) Competing forms that differ by virtue of metathesis are listed except for forms containing a sequence /Cʔ/ which invariably compete with forms containing /ʔC/.

5.23 Change of vowels

The vowel of the antepenult sporadically may change to /a/: kumusta or kamusta ‘how are, is’; batíis or bitíis ‘leg’. Occasionally /a/ or /u/ is assimilated to a following /y/ or an /i/ in the following syllable: biyà or bayà ‘leave’; musimus or misimus ‘lowly’. In these cases competing forms are listed. [xv]

5.24 Change of /y/ to /dy/

In Bohol and Southern Leyte /y/ becomes /j/ (written dy). Some forms with dy have spread throughout the Cebuano speech area or occur only in the Bohol-Southern Leyte speech. Such forms are listed with dy.21 Other forms with dy are listed as with y, and the reader may conclude that these forms have /dy/ in Bohol and Southern Leyte.

5.25 Competing forms where no sound change is involved

Roots which are not relatable by the above rules are given separate definitions. The exception to this rule is equivalent names of flora and fauna and technical terms which refer to exactly the same cultural forms: e.g. gwayabanu, labanu, malabanu, síku karabaw are all the same plant (Anona muricata); humagbus and hinablus both refer to the same relationship.

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6.1 Inflection

Verb forms are subject to the addition of a small list of affixes which we call INFLECTIONAL AFFIXES. The inflectional affixes specify three tenses: PAST, FUTURE, and SUBJUNCTIVE; four cases or voices: ACTIVE, DIRECT PASSIVE, LOCAL PASSIVE, and INSTRUMENTAL PASSIVE; and two modes: POTENTIAL and NONPOTENTIAL. The nonpotential forms are further broken down into two aspects: PUNCTUAL and DURATIVE. The punctual-durative distinction exists in all voices but is observed only in the active voice.22 In the passive voices punctual forms are used for all meanings, except for literary or dialectal styles where the durative-nondurative distinction is maintained. The following chart shows these affixes. Their meanings are listed and exemplified in entries in the dictionary listed under mu-, mag-1, maka-1, -un1, ma-1, -an1, i-1. 23 In the following [xvi]chart commas indicate forms which are in free variation (nearly synonymous and mutually substitutable). A preceding hyphen indicates a suffix, following hyphen a prefix, and hyphen in the middle, a circumfix. Dialectal affixes are not listed. The asterisks mark forms which are not normally used in colloquial speech.

Future Past Subjunctive
Active
Punctual mu- mi-, ni-, ning-, ming- mu-
Durative mag-, maga- nag-, naga-, ga- mag-, maga-
Potential maka-, ka- naka-, ka- maka-, ka-
Direct Passive
Punctual -un gi- -a
Durative paga-un* gina-* paga-a*
Potential ma- na- ma-
Local Passive
Punctual -an gi-an -i
Durative paga-an* gina-an* paga-i*
Potential ma-an, ka-an na-an ma-i, ka-i
Instrumental Passive
Punctual i- gi- i-
Durative iga-* gina-* iga-*
Potential ma-, ika- na-, gika- ma-, ika-

6.2 Verbal derivation

The inflectional affixes are added not only to roots (forms containing no other affixes) but also to derived bases (forms containing further affixes). The productive affixes which are added to roots to form bases which in turn may have inflectional affixes added to them are -ay, -an, pa-, paN-,24 ka-, hi-, ha-, hiN-, pakig-, paki-, panggi-, pani-, paniN-24. These affixes are given entries in the dictionary and exemplified there.

When the active inflectional affixes are added to verb bases which contain some of these derivative prefixes, they undergo morphophonemic alternations as shown in the following chart:

together with prefix ni- (mi-, ning-) becomes mu- becomes
paN- naN- maN-
pakig- nakig- makig-
paniN- naniN- maniN-
pani- nani- mani-
panggi- nanggi- manggi-

These affixes are given entries and defined there.

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7.0 Classification of roots according to their system of affixation

With the rich system of derivational and inflectional affixations to which Cebuano roots are subject, there are literally hundreds of different affixed forms for any given root. Since it is manifestly impossible to list exhaustively all affixations for any given root, we follow the principle here that PRODUCTIVE FORMATIONS are generally not listed unless there is s.t. especial [xvii]about their meanings or morphophonemics. By PRODUCTIVE FORMATIONS we mean affixes which are added to all, or almost all, members of a certain group of roots. For example, the affix ka-an2 is added to any root which refers to a plant to form a collective noun referring to a place where a group of that type of plant is found. The formation, ka-[plant]-an, is not listed except in cases where there is s.t. special about the affixation, as for example kalubinhan ‘coconut grove’ (from lubi) which undergoes special morphophonemics or kabaknitan ‘thicket’ (from baknit ‘k.o. vine’), where the meaning of the affixed form is not predictable from the meaning of the base and the affixes. The following productive affixes are listed only occasionally. For their meanings and a description of the type of roots to which they are added, see the entries: pa-1,2; paN-1a,c, panggi-, hi-/ha-; hiN-1; -ay/-anay; paka-2, doubling or Culu-; -in-1, -in2, ka-an2, -in-an1, -in-an2, ma-2.

The inflectional affixes which may be added to a given verb base in a given meaning are indicated by means of a formula which is explained in the following subsections. The derivational affixes paN-1a,c, pakig-, and ka- are also indicated with these formulas.

Our classification of verbs consists of two parts separated by a semicolon: the active and the passive. The active classes are indicated by capital letters A, B, C and numbers indicating subclasses; and the passive classes are indicated by minuscules a, b, and c followed by numbers indicating subclasses. E.g. palit ‘buy’, which is in class A; a, takes the active affixes listed for A (Section 7.11) and the passive affixes listed for a (Section 7.21). In the following subsections the verbs mentioned as examples of each conjugation class are listed with examples for all the relevant affixations.

7.1 Active verb classes

7.11 Class A conjugation, the action verbs

Verbs of class A refer to an action. If they are the predicate of the sentence, the subject is the agent of the action. If they are in attribute construction, the head is the agent of the action. They occur with mu-, meanings 1 and 225 (and thus also with mi-, ni-, etc.), mag-, meanings 1 and 2 (and thus also with nag-, naga-, maga-, etc.), maka- in all meanings (and thus also with naka-, ka-, etc.). (See the entries under these affixes for further illustration and explanation.) The entry for palit ‘buy’ illustrates this class; the entry for bisiklíta ‘bicycle’ indicates this class with verbs derived from noun roots, and the entry for hapit,2 ‘drop in s.w.’ illustrates this class referring to verbs of motion.

7.111 Subclasses of the class A conjugation

The numbers which follow the letter A indicate nonoccurrence of affixes. The symbol A1 indicates verbs of the A conjugation which do not occur with the punctual-active set, mu- (mi-, etc.). An example of a verb of this type is ikspidisiyun ‘go on an expedition’. The symbol A2 indicates that the base does not occur with the durative-active set, mag- (nag-, etc.). A verb of this class is sángit ‘catch, snag s.t.’. The symbol A3 indicates that the base does not occur with the potential-active set, maka- (naka-, etc.), e.g. habhab,3 ‘eat away a portion of s.t.’. Two numbers following the letter A indicate the absence of two of the three active affixes. E.g. A12 indicates a base which occurs only with maka- (naka-, etc.) but not with mu- and mag-, e.g. salà.

The symbol A13 indicates lack of mu- and maka- but occurrence of mag-, e.g. dahum ‘expect’.

The symbol S following a number indicates that the base occurs with the prefix represented, but that there is shift (Section 5.11). E.g. dalágan ‘run’ is in class A2S: it occurs with all three sets, but the penult is short when the durative affixes, mag-, etc., are added. Dáwat ‘receive’ is in class A3S: it occurs with all three active sets, but the penult is short when the potential affixes, maka-, etc., are added.

The symbol P following the letter A indicates that the unaffixed root and the root plus pa- have exactly the same meaning and are used interchangeably with the active affixes: e.g. mala ‘dry’.

The symbol A3P indicates that the root occurs with both maka- (naka-) and, alternatively, with makapa- (nakapa-) with no difference in meaning. Further, the base occurs with nonpotential [xviii]affixes, but with the nonpotential active affixes, pa- cannot be added to the base without changing the meaning. The symbol A123P means that the root occurs only with potential-active affixes (i.e., does not occur with mu- or mag-), but it does occur with maka- and also with makapa- having the same meaning as maka-, e.g. malarya ‘get malaria’.

The symbol N following A or A plus the numbers indicates that the prefix paN- can be added to the base together with the punctual-active affix, mu-, and with the potential-active affix maka- (naka-) but not with the durative affixes, and that the root alone is synonymous with the base plus paN-. That is to say, the form mu- (mi-)[root] and maN- (naN-)[root]26 are synonymous, and maka- (naka-)[root] is synonymous with nakapaN-[root] and makapaN-[root]. An example of a root of the AN conjugation is sanghid ‘ask permission’.

7.12 Class B conjugation, the stative verbs

Verbs of class B refer to s.t. that happened to s.o. or s.t. If they are the predicate of the sentence, the subject is the thing to which the event happened. Verbs of class B occur with mu- (mi-, etc.), meaning 3, mag- (nag-, etc.), meaning 3, ma- (na-, etc.), meaning 3, maka- (naka-, etc.) or, alternatively, makapa- (nakapa-) with a meaning ‘cause s.t. to become [so-and-so]’, and with magka-2 (nagka-, etc.). The entry for pula ‘red’ illustrates this conjugation. The entry for duktur ‘doctor’ illustrates a verb of this class formed from a noun root.

7.121 Subclasses of verbs of the B conjugation

Verbs of class B1 lack mu-, e.g. págud ‘get burnt’. Verbs of class B2 lack mag-, e.g. palanas ‘be eroded’. Verbs of B3 occur with maka- but have a meaning ‘become [so-and-so]’, e.g. laun ‘age’. Verbs of class B3(1) occur with maka- in two meanings: (1) become [so-and-so], and (2) cause to become [so-and-so]. In the latter meaning it also occurs with makapa- (nakapa-), e.g. lup-ut2 ‘thicken’. Verbs of class B4 lack na- (ma-). E.g. laúsag ‘got worse and worse’. Verbs of class B5 lack maka- (naka-) and verbs of class B6 lack magka-2, e.g. paliyar ‘for an engine to malfunction’. Many verbs in the class B conjugation have one or more of these conjugational features. E.g. duktur as a verb ‘become a doctor’ is in class B16,—i.e. it lacks mu- and lacks magka-.

The symbols S and N are used just as with the verbs of the A conjugation. The symbolization B2S indicates that the penult is short with the durative affixes (mag-, etc.), e.g. lúya ‘get weak’. A symbol BN indicates that paN- may be added to the base with the volitional affix (mu-) and that the root plus mu- (mi-, etc.) does not differ in meaning from the root plus maN- (naN-).26 An example of a verb of conjugation BN is pula.

7.13 Class C conjugation, the mutual action verbs

Verbs of class C refer to an action which two or more agents engage in mutually. Verbs in this class usually have a long penult and shift the stress to the penult if the final syllable of the unaffixed root is stressed. Verbs of this class occur with the durative prefixes, mag-1, (nag-, etc.), meaning 5, with the potential prefix magka-1 (nagka-), and with the prefix makig- (nakig-). The entry for sábut ‘come to an understanding’ (under sabut (←)) illustrates a verb of class C conjugation.

7.131 Subclasses of the class C conjugation

The symbol C1 refers to verbs which lack the durative set, mag-. The symbol C2 refers to verbs which lack the potential set, magka-. The symbol C3 refers to verbs which lack the set makig-. The listing for balíus ‘miss each other’ exemplifies a verb of class C13 (missing both mag-1 and makig-). The entry púyù ‘live together’ illustrates a verb of class C2 (lacking the potential form magka-1).

7.2 Passive verb classes

7.21 Class a verbs

Verbs of class a occur with direct passive affixes (see the entry for -un1), and the direct passive [xix]verb refers to a FOCUS27 which is the recipient of the action (see -un1, meaning 1). Verbs of class a normally also occur with the local passive affixes (see -an1) referring to a focus which is the place or beneficiary of the action (-an1, meaning 1). They also occur with the instrumental passive affixes (see i-1) in the instrumental, beneficial, and temporal meanings (i-1, meanings 2, 3, and 4). Palit ‘buy’ illustrates a verb of class a. Hapit ‘drop in’ and dalágan ‘run’ illustrate verbs of class a that refer to motion. Ábut (under ábut) ‘meet with each other’ illustrates a verb of class a conjugation referring to mutual action. Dakù illustrates an adjective with class a conjugation. Bisiklíta and duktur illustrate two different kinds of nouns with class a conjugation.

7.211 Subclasses of the class a conjugation

Verbs in class a1 lack a local passive; verbs in class a2 lack an instrumental passive (except in the benefactive and temporal meanings [-i1, meanings 3 and 4], to which all verbs in the language are subject). Verbs in class a12 lack both the local and the instrumental passive. The verb daug, 1 ‘overcome’ exemplifies this conjugation. Verbs in class a3 have only potential passive affixes, e.g. dungug, 1 ‘hear’. Verbs in class a4 refer to a focus which is the thing suffering from or affected by the thing referred to by the verb (-un1, meaning 2), e.g. malarya ‘get malaria’.

7.22 Class b verbs

Verbs of class b occur with a local passive affix, and the local passive refers to a focus which is the recipient of the action (see -an1, meaning 2). Verbs of this class also normally occur with the instrumental passive affixes (see i-1) in the instrumental, beneficial, and temporal meanings (i-1, meanings 2, 3, and 4). Haluk ‘kiss’ illustrates a verb of class b conjugation.

7.221 Subclasses of class b

The symbol b(1) indicates verbs of class b which lack the instrumental passive conjugation (in any but the benefactive and temporal meanings [i-1, meanings 3 and 4], to which all verbs in Cebuano are subject). An example of a b(1) verb is bantay ‘watch’.

The symbol b1 indicates verbs the local passives of which refer to a focus which is the place of the action (-an1, meaning 1) or, in another meaning, to the recipient of the action (-an1, in meaning 2). Laba ‘wash’ illustrates a verb of this type.

The symbol b2 indicates verbs of the a conjugation, the local passive of which refers to the place of the action, but which also occur with the affix hi-an(→) (hi-i), meaning 2, to refer to the accidental recipient of the action. Bása ‘read’ illustrates a verb in class ab2.

The symbol b3 indicates verbs the local passive of which refers to the reason for the action (-an1, meaning 5). Dalágan ‘run’ illustrates this class. The symbol b3(1) indicates verbs of class b3 which occur only with potential affixes (ma-/na-an/-i or, alternatively, gika-/ka-an/-i). Hadluk ‘be afraid’ illustrates a verb of b3(1).

The symbol b4 indicates verbs the local passive of which refers to a focus which is the thing affected by the action or the thing this verb refers to (-an1, meaning 4). Buntag, 3 ‘be overtaken by morning’ illustrates a verb of this class. The symbol b4(1) indicates verbs of class b4 which have only potential affixes. Walà ‘lose’ illustrates a verb of this class.

The symbol b5 refers to verbs the local passive and the direct passive of which are synonymous, i.e. occur with -un1, in meaning 1, and -an1, in meaning 2, where there is no difference between the two sets of affixation.28 Abli,2 ‘open’ illustrates a verb of this class.

The symbol b6 refers to verbs which have no passive other than the local passive and the instrumental passive in the benefactive or temporal meanings (-i1, meanings 3 and 4), and, further, the [xx]local passive refers to a focus which is the place or the beneficiary of the action (-an1, meaning 1), or, in the case of adjectives, refers to a focus which is the person who considered s.o. to be [adjective]. Kulumbítay ‘hang’ is an example of a verb of class b6. The symbol b6(1) refers to verbs of this sort which also occur with an instrumental passive in the instrumental meaning—i.e. the focus of the instrumental passive is the instrument with which the action of the verb is carried out (i-1, meaning 2). Dagkut, 1 ‘light’ is an example of a verb of class b6(1).

The symbol b7 indicates verbs the local passive of which refers to a focus which is s.t. diminished or added to (-an1, meaning 2a). Kúhà ‘take’ illustrates a verb of this conjugation.

The symbol b8 indicates verbs which have only potential local passives. Kamau ‘know’ (listed under mau) is a verb of class b8.

7.23 Class c verbs

Verbs of class c have instrumental passive affixes which refer to a focus which is the thing conveyed by the action or the direct recipient of the action (see i-1, meaning 1). Verbs of class c normally also occur with the local passive affixes (-an1) referring to a focus which is the place or the beneficiary of the action (-an1, meaning 1). Lábay ‘throw away’ illustrates a verb of this type. Dalágan,1 illustrates a verb of class c which refers to motion.

7.231 Subclasses of class c verbs

The symbol c1 indicates verbs for which the direct and the instrumental passive are synonymous (i.e. occur with -un1 in meaning 1 and with i-1 in meaning 1; and the meaning of the form composed of i- plus the base is synonymous with -un plus the base).29 Most verbs derived from adjectives are in class c1.

The symbol c2 indicates verbs for which the local and the instrumental passive forms are synonymous, where with the local passive and the instrumental passive forms refer to a focus which is the recipient of the action (-an1, meaning 2, and i-1, meaning 1). An example of a verb in class c2 is dusù ‘shove’.

The symbol c3 indicates verbs the instrumental passive of which refers to a focus which is the recipient of the action (i-, meaning 2), but which occur only with the potential affixes ika-, gika-. A verb in class c3 is isturya ‘talk to’.

The symbol c4 refers to verbs which optionally take a prefix ig-1 for the future instrumental passive nonpotential form and igka-1 for the future instrumental passive potential form. Dúngug,3 (listed under dungug (←)) ‘hear from’ is an example of a verb in class c4.

The symbol c5 refers to verbs the instrumental passive of which refers to a focus which is the reason on account of which the agent came into [such-and-such] a state (-i, meaning 5, and ika-1, meaning 2). Lípay ‘be happy’ is an example of a verb with c5 conjugation.

The symbol c6 refers to verbs of class c which do not occur with local passive affixes.


1 We arrive at this figure by totalling the population of towns and villages in Cebuano-speaking areas in the Census of 1960 (about seven and a half million). There are no accurate figures as to language affiliation for the population in the Philippines.

2 Use of English and to some extent, Spanish, has the function of distinguishing the upper classes from the ordinary folks, rather than class dialect.

3 Thus, for example, in our definition of danggit (a name given to a small fish) we define as follows: 1 name given to small species of Teuthis with dots. 2 by extension, name given to any small specimen or any species of Teuthis. This definition reflects the usage of fishermen who call any small dotted species of Teuthis, genuine danggit (danggit nga pyúr), but any species of Teuthis with no dots are called aberrant forms of the danggit—other related fish are called danggit sa hunásan ‘the danggit of the tidal flats’ or danggit nga ngisingisi ‘the danggit like the ngisingisi fish, etc.) Further, by fishermen these other species of Teuthis are given their own names: danghili and lilu kan; but among housewives and in the market all these fish are called danggit.

4 Just as in an English dictionary we must indicate that the term ‘vagina’ is appropriate to a family-planning lecture, whereas, ‘cunt’ is not, so in Cebuano we must indicate that the term kinatáwu sa babáyi ‘female genitalia’ is fine for a family planning lecture but bilat ‘cunt’ is not. We do this by characterizing kinatáwu sa babáyi as a euphemism and characterizing bilat as coarse. We do not wish to say that one of these alternative forms is better than the other, nor do we mean to say that ‘coarse’ forms in Cebuano are taboo. (They are not taboo in the same way that the English four-letter words are, even though for formal occasions they are avoided.)

5 Aside from a few catechisms and novenas, there are practically no specimens of Cebuano extant which antedate this century, and even prewar literary productions are extremely difficult to come by. Aside from the forms marked ‘Biblical’, everything here listed is contemporary speech.

6 Approximately five percent of our data is not included for lack of reliable informants. These are mainly forms of only local currency, a large portion of them from Bohol.

7 In the Cebuano of Cebu City and most Cebuano-speaking areas, the mid-central vowel falls together with /u/. Nice as it would have been to include information on which forms with /u/ are with a mid-central vowel dialectally, such information is extremely difficult to come by, and so we reluctantly had to leave this information to be supplied in future editions.

8 The glottal stop in post-consonantal position is usually indicated in Cebuano publications by a hyphen (as we do): tan-aw /tánʔaw/ ‘see’, spelled tan-aw (but sometimes also as tanaw). Between vowels a glottal stop is occasionally indicated, again with a hyphen: maáyu /maʔáyu/ ‘good’, spelled maayu, maayo, ma-ayo, or ma-ayu.

9 In initial position there is no contrast between /ʔ/ and its absence, and phonetically the [ʔ] is always articulated. Intervocalically there is no contrast between successive like vowels and like vowels separated by a /ʔ/ (between [aa] and [aʔa]; [uu] and [uʔu]; [ii] and [iʔi]), and phonetically the [ʔ] is always present. Between unlike vowels there is either a [ʔ] or a [w] or [y] glide.

10 [ts] does not contrast with [c]. Morphologically, when a suffix -s is added to a base which ends in /t/ the combination ts automatically becomes [c]: Rit ‘name’ plus -s ‘diminutive suffix’ = Rits [ric].

11 A sequence [ds] or [dy] does not occur in final position. When a suffix -s is added to a base ending with d the combination ds automatically becomes [j]: Pid ‘name’ plus -s ‘diminutive suffix’ = Pids [pij].

12 Our transcription of diy for /dy/ is unequivocal, as I have come across no case where [diy] occurs in contrast to [dy].

13 The exception to this rule is forms which contain dead affixes—affixes which are not part of the productive or even live Cebuano morphological (inflectional and derivational) systems. Examples are takílid ‘turn the back’, bakilid ‘slope’, which obviously have prefixes ta- and ba- respectively and are connected with the root kílid ‘side’. But since ba- and ta- are not part of the active Cebuano derivational system, we list them under takílid and bakilid (with a cross reference to the root kílid). Such forms behave like roots, and it would only complicate the task of the user if they were not to be listed with their dead affix.

14 One difference which sets off roots that are basically verbs from roots that are basically nouns and adjectives is that verb roots may occur unaffixed with the meaning ‘action of [doing so-and-so]’ whereas nouns and adjectives may not: Thus, lakaw ‘walk’, túyuk ‘turn’ are verbs because they occur unaffixed as nouns meaning the action of walking, turning: káda lakaw níya, ‘each time he walked’; káda túyuk níya, ‘each time he turned around’; but karsúnis ‘trousers’, ayruplánu ‘airplane’ are not because they do not occur in this meaning. (To express ‘action of wearing trousers’ the prefix pag- must be added to the noun karsúnis: Gidilì ang pagkarsúnis dinhi, ‘It is forbidden to wear pants here.’ Similarly a pag- must be added to ayruplánu to make a noun meaning ‘action of ...’: Ang pag-ayruplánu makapadali sa byáhi, ‘Taking a plane hastens the trip.’

Roots that are basically adjectives are distinguished from noun roots in that they occur with a prefix ka- in exclamations to mean ‘how very [adjective]!’ whereas nouns do not. Thus buguy ‘tramp’ is an adjective because it occurs with ka- in this meaning: kabuguy níya ‘what a tramp he is’, whereas kutsi ‘car’ is not. (To express, ‘what a car!’ the suffix -a(←) is used, not ka-: Ngilngígang kutsíha uy! ‘My! What a car!’)

15 The root is taken to be inum because the form containing mu- is muinum ‘will drink’.

16 However, this is true only of the Cebu City dialect. Other dialects retain /ʔC/: kàna /káʔna/ ‘eat it’.

17 Dialectally they change to /d/: hadkan, padngan.

18 In the strictest sense, of course, no two forms are the same in meaning: in English, for example, rather pronounced to rhyme with father is different in meaning from rather pronounced [ræd̵ər]. One is a strange or affected word and the other is a normal word. But which form is normal is all a matter of what part of the country one comes from, and a dictionary which is not regionally biased must list them as synonymous. Similarly, in Cebuano for any given speaker, where several forms compete, usually only one form is normal; but, as in the case of the two rather’s in English, the two competing forms are most often synonymous from the dictionary’s point of view.

19 The existence of forms similar in meaning with initial l and initial vowel, e.g. láragárag ‘for leaves to fall off’, shows that this sound change also crossed morphological boundaries when it was in effect.

20 Thus, for example: salámat ‘thanks’ is everywhere with /l/ and a notation to this effect is made in the listing of salámat. But for balay ‘house’, for example, we make no entry for báy because from the listing of balay with no further comment alone the reader may deduce a form báy.

21 There are also forms with dy (/j/) which do not come from an older /y/, e.g. pangadyi ‘pray’.

22 The occurrence of the tense affixation is predictable: a verb form which occurs with a given voice-mode affix in one tense occurs also in the same voice and mode in the other tenses. The voice, mode, and aspect affixes, however, are not predictable. Some verbs occur in one, some in two, some in three, some in all four voices; some occur only in the potential mode, some with only durative active affixes, and so forth.

23 These affixes are the future forms shown in the chart of this section. The entries define the voice and mode differences exhaustively. The difference in tense meanings (between future, past, and subjunctive) are described in this note. The forms designated FUTURE refer to future time (as the name suggests):

Palitun ku ang isdà, I will buy the fish.
Akuy mupalit ug isdà, I will buy some fish.
Kinahanglang palitun nímu, You must buy it.

They also may refer to habitual actions and general statements.

Maáyu siyang mulútug kík, He bakes cakes well.
Mupalit kug isdà káda adlaw, I buy fish every day.
Mupula ug lutúun, If you cook it, it will turn red or When you cook it, it turns red.

They may also refer to exhortations:

Palitun ta! Let’s buy it!
Mupalit tag isdà, Let’s buy some fish.

The forms designated PAST refer to past actions.

Gipalit ku ang isdà, I bought the fish.
Nakatilaw na kug isdà, I have already tasted fish.
Sa nagpalit kug isdà, As I was buying fish.

They also refer to actions still going on.

Naghilak ang bátà, The child is crying.
Naglútù pa siya sa isdà, He is still cooking the fish.

The forms designated as SUBJUNCTIVE occur in a phrase and following a form which itself indicates time: e.g. kagahápun ‘yesterday’, walà ‘not (past)’, anus-a ‘when (future)’, sa miáging Duminggu ‘last Sunday’, adtu ‘there (future)’, túa ‘there (present)’, and the like.

Ugmà níya palita, He will buy it tomorrow.
Anus-a nímu palita ang isdà? When will you buy the fish?
Didtu níya palita, He bought it there.
Sunud Duminggu níya palita, He will buy it next Sunday.
Walà níya palita, He did not buy it.

The passive subjunctive forms are also used as imperative forms:

Palita ang isdà! Buy the fish!
Ayaw lutúa, Don’t cook it.
Limpiyúhi ninyu! You (plural) clean it.

Further examples of the tense differences can be found in the definitions of the future case-mode affixes listed as entries in the dictionary. The listing under untà, 2a illustrates the use of the future and past in the apodosis of conditions contrary to fact.

24 The phonemic value of the morphophonemic symbol N is given in the following chart:

For roots beginning with N plus the initial consonant after root produces
p, b m
t, d, s n
k, ʔ (written as initial vowel), ng ng
l ngl or, alternatively, nl
other consonants or clusters of consonants ng plus initial consonant

Examples: palit + paN- = pamalit ‘buy’; baligyà + paN- = pamaligyà ‘sell’; tindug + paN- = panindug ‘stand’; dala + paN- = panala ‘bring’; sulud + paN- = panulud ‘enter’; kúhà + paN- = pangúhà ‘take’; ábang + paN- = pangábang ‘rent’; ngisi + paN- = pangisi ‘be intent on’; lútù + paN- = panglútù, panlútù ‘cook’; hisus + paN- = panghisus ‘exclaim Jesus!’.

25 See the entry for mu-.

26 maN- is analyzed morphophonemically as mu- plus paN-, and naN- as mi- plus paN-. See Section 6.2.

27 The term FOCUS is given to the word to which the verb refers. If the verb is the head of the predicate of the sentence, the FOCUS is the subject (in bold face in the following examples):

Gipalit níya ang pán, He bought the bread.

If the verb is the subject of the sentence, the FOCUS is the predicate:

Pán ang íyang gipalit, It was bread that he bought.

If the verb modifies a noun (is attribute to a noun), the noun is the FOCUS:

Ang pán nga íyang gipalit, The bread he bought.

28 In cases of bases which occur with direct passive affixes in the direct meaning (-un1, 1) and with local passives in the direct meaning (-an1, in meaning 1), but the two are not synonymous, the verb is classed ab.

29 If a base occurs with the direct and the instrumental passive, where i- has the meaning 1, but the direct and instrumental passive forms are not synonymous, the verb is said to be in class ac, e.g. lábay ‘throw’. Dalágan ‘run’ is an example of a verb referring to motion in the ac conjugation.

[1]

[Contents]

A

a n letter A. walay — illiterate.

-a subjunctive direct passive affix. see -un.

-a(←) 1 affix added to nouns forming words which refer to a specific one of several: Kanang isdáa, dílì kadtu, That fish there, not that one further over. Háing baláya ang íla? Which house is theirs? 1a added to possessive pronouns: the particular one that belongs to [so-and-so]. Dakù ang amúang balay, gamay tung iláha, Our house is large, and theirs is small. 2 affix added to adjectives to form exclamation. Dakúa uy! My! How big it is! Patyun tikaw, irúa ka! I’ll kill you, you dog you! Ngilngígang awtúha à! That’s some car!

á particle used as a pause word before starting to speak. 1 as a filler. Á, muanhi ka ugmà? Um, are you going to come here tomorrow? 2 deprecating or showing unimportance of what just preceded. Á, paríha ra nákù, Oh, it’s all the same to me. Á, nagkumidiya lang siya, Oh, he’s just joking. 3 showing mild disapproval. Á, dì nà mahímù, Oh, you can’t do that. 4 recalling or conceding s.t. Á, duha diay tu, Oh, yes. There were two of them, weren’t there. 4a preceding s.t. just found out. Á, Lítu diay ímung ngálan, Oh, so your name is Lito. Á, kanindut, Oh, how nice! 5 expressing relief. Á, nahuwasan ku, Ah, what a relief!

à particle preceding or following a sentence with an adjective predicate. 1 dismissing s.t. as impractical, too easy, impossible, etc. À, mu ra diay nà? Kasayun à! Oh, is that all there is to it? How easy it is! À, ása man ku mutúu nímu, Hm, you think I could believe you? 2 showing disapproval. À, hináya nímung mulíhuk, Hm! You sure work slowly! 3 showing surprise. À, kanindut nímug sinínà, How come you have such a beautiful dress on!

ā̀ = álà.

aba1 n breast of fowls.

aba2 exclamation of pleasure and surprise. Aba! Nakadaug ku, My! I won!

ábà tuy (from sábà dihà untuy) shut up! Ábà tuy, maáyu ka lang sa tayáda, wà kay tadtad, Shut up! You’re great at talking, but let’s see you do s.t.

abaa particle indicating disapproval (literary). Abaa! Mahū́g ka gánì dihà! Stop that! You might fall!

*abab taga- n hillbilly. pakataga- v [A13; a12] act, treat like, consider a hillbilly. Gipakatagaabab lang ku ninyu. Ihása, You just think I’m a hillbilly. Don’t try to fool me. — disáya a be the boss and not henpecked.

ab-ab v [A; a] 1 chew to pieces. Ab-ábun sa irù ang íyang hikut, The dog will chew up his rope. 2 eat away, erode. Ang pagluib ni Maríya nag-ab-ab sa íyang balatían, Maria’s infidelity ate away at his insides. Giab-ab ang íyang pinútì sa tayà, His sword was eaten away by rust. 3 fester. Ang nag-ab-ab kung núka, My festering wound.†

abad n abbot.

ábag v [A; b] give material help, help do work. Kinsa may mag-ábag nímu sa ímung pag-iskuyla? Who will help pay for your schooling? Abági ku áring pagsilhig, Help me sweep. n help given. ka- n helper.

abaga n sweet potatoes growing from the outer vines and not from the main root.

abága n shoulder. v [A2SN; b5] 1 take financial responsibility. Abagáhun (pangabagáhun, pangabagáhan) ni Mánuy níya ang galastúhan sa pag-iskuyla, His brother will shoulder his school expenses. 2 take responsibility for accomplishing s.t. Kita giyuy muabága (mangabága) áning prugramáha, We must undertake to carry out this program. (→) = abága, v. paN- n right-hand-man. abagáhun a broad-shouldered.

*abáhu — kunsidirasiyun, dispusisiyun n bound by s.o.’s will. Abáhu (báhu) kunsidirasiyun ku sa ákung bána, I am bound by my husband’s decisions.

abaka n 1 abaca plant: Musa textilis. 2 abaca fiber. abakahan, abakanhan, abakal n abaca plantation. v [A3] own an abaca plantation.

abakáda n alphabet.

abakal see abaka. [2]

abal n = balbal. v = abat.

abalu n assessed value. v [AB56; b5c] assess, be assessed at. Ug ikaw muabalu sa ákung yútà, ayawg dak-a, If you assess my land, don’t set it too high. Ang yútà miabalu (giabalu, giabaluhan) ug singkwinta mil, The land was assessed at fifty thousand pesos.

abalwasiyun n assessment. Purus dagkug abalwasiyun ang mga yútà dinhi sa syudad, The lots in the city all have high assessments.

abandunar v [A3P; c1] abandon, neglect. Nag-abandunar na lang siya sa íyang kaugalíngun sukad mamatay ang íyang asáwa, He neglected himself entirely after his wife died. Ayaw abandunaha (iabandunar) ang ímung pamilya, Do not abandon your family. abandunádu a 1 abandoned. 2 neglectful. v = abandunar.

abandúnu = abandunar.

ábang v 1 [A2S; b] rent. Ang usa ka kwartu giabángan sa tigúlang, The old man rents one of the rooms. 2 [b] hire a prostitute. 3 [A2; c] make an offering to a supernatural being for the use of land which is thought to be in his possession. Iábang ni nákung baktína álang sa uma, I will sacrifice this pig as rental for the land. n 1 rent paid. Pilay ábang nímu sa libru? How much rent did you pay for the book? 2 money paid a prostitute. 3 toil taken by supernatural beings. Kadtung nalumus dinhi ábang kunu tu sa ingkantu, The man who drowned here is said to have been the rent collected by the supernatural spirit. paN- v [A2] patronize a prostitute. -an(→)1 1, 2, 3 = ábang, n. 4 haunted place, place where departed spirits take a toll or rent. Abangan kunu kanang baláya. Náa giyuy mamatay káda túig, That house is haunted (lit. has a rental on it). Each year s.o. dies there.

abangan2 n k.o. rattan used as anchor rope for a búbu fish trap.

abánid v [A; c1] do s.t. step by step, and in sequence. Iabánid (abaníra) kini pagpintal arun dílì magkampat, Paint it one square at a time so it will come out even. a done in succession, order. Abánid ang íyang pagsukut sa mga istudyanti, He asked the students one after another in turn.

abaníku n 1 folding fan. 1a fan of any sort for fanning oneself. 2 blackberry lily, k.o. bulbous ornamental: Balamcanda chinensis. It is so called because the leaves are arranged like an opened fan. 3 = baníku. 4 kurta di- see kurta1. v 1 [a12] make into a fan. 2 [A; b6] fan s.o. paN- v [A2] fan oneself. inabaníku n s.t. made in such a way that it can be folded for storage, e.g., a folding chair, jackknife.

abansáda a exposed to the wind. v [B12; c1] for s.t. to be directly open to the wind. Naabansáda sa hángin ang ákung bukubuku, maung gisip-un ku, My back was directly exposed to the wind. That’s why I caught cold. Ayaw abansadáha (iabansáda) sa hángin ang inyung bintánà, Don’t put a window right where it catches the full breeze.

*abansi miting di — grand rally immediately prior to an election.

abansin v [A] advance, for a body of people to move forward. Ang mga Hapúnis miabansin sa pátag sa Lusun, The Japanese advanced over the plains of Luzon.

abanti a 1 forward, ahead. Abanti ka rang milingkud, You took a seat too far to the front. 2 ahead in score. v 1a [A2; c] move forward. Muabanti kag diyútay, matambug ka sa bangag, If you move forward any more, you will fall into the hole. Iabanti nang ímung awtug diyútay, Move your car forward a bit. 1b [A; a] be ahead, have more points in a game. Naabantíhan mu námug diyis puntus, We were ten points ahead of you. 2 [A2; a12] keep up with s.t. Dì ku makaabanti sa galastúhan sa iskuylahan, I cannot keep up with the school payments. 3 [A2; a12] endure work. Dì ku makaabanti sa pagdáru kay dautun ku, I can’t keep up with the plowing because I’m sickly. 4a [A] ask part payment in advance, especially in salary. 4b [c] give s.o. a cash advance on his salary or other payment. n 1 front wheel(s). Nahiyus ang abanti sa mutur, The front tire of the motorcycle is flat. 2 forward gear. 3 front seat in a car. atras — see atras.

abánu n factory-made cigar. v 1 [A; a12] make into a cigar. 2 [A123S] have, obtain a cigar. paN- v [A2] smoke a cigar.

abat n 1 any supernatural being or human with supernatural powers which shows itself in an unexpected and startling way. 2 one who is ‘it’ in games. v 1 [A2; a2] head off s.o. Maapsan pa nímu siya ug ímung abatun sa iskína, You can still catch up with him if you head him off at the corner. 2 [AN; a12] frighten s.o. by appearing suddenly or otherwise startling him. Ig-ági níya, abta siya, When he comes by, give him a scare. alabtan, abtanan a haunted, place where things appear suddenly. alabtun s.o. to whom spirits tend to show themselves. abat-ábat n game of tag. v [A13] 1 play tag. 2 try to meet without succeeding. Wà giyud mi magkítà, nag-abat-ábat lang, We just kept missing each other. [3]

ábat1 v [A2S; b6] hold on to s.t. fixed to support oneself. Ang tigúwang miábat sa pasamánu paingun sa táas, The old man held on to the bannister while going upstairs. -an(→) n a railing in shape of a ladder for baby to cling to when he starts to walk.

ábat2 v 1 [A; a1] feel with the hands, esp. to find s.t. out. Nag-ábat siya sa yáwi sa íyang bulsa kung wà ba hibyai, He felt for the key in his pocket to see if he hadn’t left it behind. Abátun ku ang íyang agtang ug hilanatun ba, I’ll touch her forehead to see if she is feverish. 2 [A123S; a12b2] feel s.t. with the sense of touch. Nakaabat ku sa kabugnaw sa sinihan, I felt the coolness of the movie house. Abátun gánì nímu ang kasakit, musamut giyud, If you think about the pain, it will get worse. 3 [A123S; b2] happen to notice, sense s.t. Nakaabat kung mu rag may misaka sa ámung báy, I sensed that s.o. had entered our house.

abay v 1 [AC; b6] move along together with s.t. moving. Lagmit hiligsan ang bátà kay nag-abay sa tartanilya, The child is likely to be run over because he is running alongside of the rig. Silang duha nag-ábay paglanguy, The two swam side by side. 1a — ug sawa have a snake born at the same time one is born. The snake is called one’s twin (kalúha) and is supposed to bring him and his family luck. Pagkatáwu sa ákung iyaan, giabayan (giabyan) ug sawa. Mau nang nadátù ang íyang inahan, When my aunt was born, a twin snake was born with her, and so her mother became rich. 2 [A2; c] go in with s.o. who buys or invests in s.t. Ug mupalit kag usa ka sákung humay muabay kug lima ka gantang, If you buy a sack of rice, I will go in with you for five ganta’s worth. Giabyan níyag singku písus ang ákung pusta, He went in for five pesos on my bet. 3 [AN] go in together in a fishing operation which requires several hands. 4 [c1] attach a gaff in the abay way (see abay, n 4). n 1 money paid as a share in a purchase or investment. Ang ákung abay bálig dus písus ra, My share is two pesos’ worth. 2 bridesmaid or best man. 3 man’s male friend. 3a title used by males of the same age to each other. short form: bay. Ása man ning dyípa, bay? Where is this jeep headed for, driver? 4 manner of tying a gaff to a cock level with and parallel to the spur to offset any advantage it may have over its opponent. maN-l-(←), maN-r- n persons who go in together in a fishing operation. -an, abyanan n life saver. abyan n 1 friend, companion. Alang kaníya walà siyay láing abyan kun dílì álak, He has no other friend except liquor. 2 supernatural being that provides a shaman or sorcerer with his power. v [C1] 1 be friends. Kita lay mag-abyan, Let’s be friends. 2 indulge in a bad habit. Walà siya makig-abyan sa huguyhúguy, He did not indulge in roaming about.

abgaw = adgaw. -un n k.o. snapper with a yellow streak along the body: Lutianus sp.

abhak v [A; b5] diminish s.t. by taking away or destroying part of it. Naabhak (naabhákan) ang íyang abága sa bála, The bullet tore a huge piece out of his shoulder. n hole left when s.t. is chopped off, out. Dakù kaáyu ang abhak sa káhuy, There’s a big cut in the tree. a done in such a way that s.t. is chopped off. Abhak nga pagkabuldúsir ang inyung nataran, Your yard was bulldozed clean.

abhul = abhung.

abhung a musty and flat in smell: damp clothing, rice, sweet potatoes, salted fish, et al. v [B; b6] be, become musty. -un(→) a of a musty kind.

abi = abir 1, 2.

ábi 1 [gen.] [gen.] thought, took for granted. Ábi nákug tinúud, I thought it was true. — nímu You know what? Ábi nímu? Nakit-an ku siya nga láig kúyug, You know what? I saw him going out with s.o. else. 2 — kay just because. Ábi kay nakadaug sa byúti kuntis midakù na ang úlu, Just because she won the beauty contest she thinks she is s.t. 3 — na lang s.o. might think that. Súkul. Ábi na lang, daug. Fight back. They might think you give up.

abiábi v [A; a12] show hospitality to. Mu giyud ning táwung iládu, abiabíhun giyud sa mga tagilungsud, The townspeople show hospitality to any famous visitor. maabiabíhun, manggiabiabíhun a hospitable.

abíba, abibar v [A; b5] cheer one on, encourage to do. Nag-abíba sa mga bátag binúang, Egging the children on in their naughtiness. n encouragement, egging on. maabibáhun a giving encouragement, egging on.

abíhid = alabíhid.

abilay = sambilay.

abilidad n ability, capacity or skill to accomplish s.t. v [A12] obtain a certain ability. abilidaran a skilled, able. Abilidaran nà si Tunyu. Bansayng mutínis, Tony has talent. He plays tennis well.

abilyána a tan-colored shoes. n tan polish. v [A13] polish shoes with a light tan polish, color them tan. Abilyanáha (abilyanáhi) ning sapátus kung putì, Dye these shoes of mine tan. Wà kuy bitung itum. Abilyanáhi [4]lang, I don’t have any black polish. Just put tan polish on them.

ábin v [A2C; b] 1 engage in an enterprise or game together. Mag-ábin ta sa pamaligyag pagkáun, Let’s become partners in selling food. 2 ally on oneself with. Mga hakug sa gahum ang miábin kaníya, People who were greedy for power allied themselves with him. Nakig-ábin aku kaníya sa íyang mga panglantaw sa unáhan, I share his views of the future. n partner in business or game. Ug siyay ákung ábin sa bíku kanúnay ming mudaug, When she is my partner in hopscotch, we always win. ka- n = ábin.

abintúra n 1 adventures. 2 adventure film, story. Makítà siya sa mga lílas abintúra, He appears in adventure films. v [A; b5] 1 try going s.w. for the adventure of it. Nag-abintúra mig katkat sa Manunggal, We went on an expedition to Mt. Manunggal. 2 = abinturar.

abinturar v [AN; b5] try one’s luck. Miabinturar (nangabinturar) lang siyag aplay básig madáwat, He tried his luck in applying in hopes he might be accepted. Abinturahi (abinturaha) lang si Maríyag hangyù, Try your luck with Maria and ask her. abinturíru, -a = abinturista. abinturista a adventurous, tending to try things out without knowing the outcome. Dì ku mugugul ug kwarta niánà kay dì ku abinturista. Básig dì musalir, I won’t invest my money on that because I’m not daring. It might just fail.

abir 1 particle used in calling attention to a point in contention. Ang diyus makagagáhum. Abir, unsáun man nímu pagpangutána diin siya manukad, God is almighty. All right then, how can you ask where He comes from? 1a particle used in inciting a person to do s.t. Abir, sulayi ug musalir ba nang paagíha, O.K. Just see if that procedure works out. Abir, sumbága kunu ku kay isumbung tikaw ni Pápa, All right, just try hitting me, and I’ll tell Daddy on you. 2 pause word expressing hesitation when one doesn’t know how to do s.t. Abir, lisúa nag hínay dúngan sa pagtulbuk ári, Let’s see now, turn that slowly and press this at the same time. 3 = ambi. 4 v [AN; ac] try one’s luck, take a stab at. Nangabir (miabir) lang siyag panlútù. Dì hinúun siya kamau, He just took a try at cooking. He doesn’t really know how. Abirun unyà nákug hangyù si Maríya, I’ll just take a stab at asking Maria. Iabir kunu ni sa ahinsiya ug dawátun ba, Try taking this to the pawnshop and see if they will accept it.

abirids n 1 average, the usual size or quantity. 2 average rating in school. Pasar ku kay utsinta ákung abirids, I passed because my average was eighty. v [A] 1 average so and so much. Makaabirids mig lima adlaw-adlaw, We can sell on the average five every day. 2 have an average grade of.

abiríya a be broken, inoperative. v [B] 1 for an engine to break down. Kining trak dílì magámit. Nag-abiríya man, This truck cannot be used. It is broken. 2 be under the weather. Naabiríya aku kay nagkalíbang aku gahápun, I’m not feeling well because I had diarrhea yesterday.

abirtu = abyirtu.

abis v [A; ab7] slice with a curved blade, cut a small or thin part from a bigger piece. Abisig diyútay nà, Slice a piece off of it. paN- v [A2] slice the terminal portion of a coconut bud to induce sap flow. Kaduha sila mangabis káda adlaw, They make an incision in the bud twice a day.

abísu n announcement of s.t. to come. v 1 [A; c] announce s.t. to come. Nag-abísu ang radyu nga adúnay bagyung umaábut, The radio announced that there is a typhoon coming. 2 [A12] receive an announcement. Nakaabísu ming way túbig ugmà, We received the announcement that there would be no water tomorrow.

abitsuylas = habitsuylas.

abitu n habit, a distinctive apparel worn by devotees, priests, monks, and the like. v [A] wear a habit.

abíyu n food, provisions, money, supplies for daily consumption. v [A; c] provide food, etc. Báhin sa mga kinahanglanun matag adlaw akuy muabíyu, As far as your daily needs go, I will provide. Abyúhan ta lang mug usa ka sákung humay matag búlan, We’ll supply you with one sack of rice a month.

abiyun n airplane. ka-an(←) n group of airplanes.

abkay v [A; a] dig up, out. Abkáyun ku ang kwarta nga ákung gilubung dinhi, I will dig up the money that I buried here.

abla v [A; c] speak to s.o. with some purpose in mind. Abláhi kunu si Máma, básin pag musugut, Try to talk mother into it. She might let us. n 1 persuasive talk. Dílì ka sugtun niánang bayhána kun walà kay abla, That woman will not accept you if you don’t sweet-talk her. 2 big talk. Abla lay nagdaghan. Walay líhuk, It was all just big talk. No action. paN- n art or technique of expressing one’s viewpoint. Malampúsun siyang abugádu kay maáyu siya sa pangabla, He is a successful lawyer because he has a [5]good technique in talking.

abládu n 1 delivered in spoken fashion. Ang kúru abládu, dílì kantáhun, The chorus is spoken, not sung. 2 lines of a play. v [A] speak lines.

ablása = abrása.

abli v [AB; b5] 1 open s.t., be open. Ikaw bay nag-abli sa pultahan? Were you the one who opened the door? Sulud lang kay nag-abli ang pultahan, Just come right in. The door is open. 2 begin, start a class, business, etc. Muabli ang klási sa Hunyu, Classes begin in June. Ablíhag (ablíhug) sayu ang klási sunud túig, Classes will open early next year. 3 found, establish an enterprise. Anus-a man ablíhi (ablíha) ang inyung iskuylahan sa panahì? When will you open your sewing school? n 1 opening. Dakug abli nang tarúha, That can has a big opening. 2 opening of classes. a 1 open. Abli ang bintánà. Sirhi ra gud, The window is open. Please close it. 2 be started. Abli na ang tindáhan. Palit ngadtug kapi, The store is open now. Go buy some coffee.

Abr. abbreviation for Abril, ‘April’.

abrap a 1 sudden. Abrap ra kaáyu nang ímung pag-anhi, Your coming is very sudden. 2 brusque. v [B12; c1] 1 be sudden, do s.t. by plunging right into it. 2 be brusque. Naabrap ra tu nímu pagkatubag, You answered in a brusque way.

abrása v [AC; bc3] walk side by side with. Hulat kay muabrása kug lakaw ninyu, Wait for me. I’m going to walk next to you. Dílì ta mag-abrásag lakaw sa karsádang hagip-ut, We shouldn’t walk side by side on a narrow street.

abrasadur n = tangdayan. v = tangday, 2.

abrasíti v [C2; c2] promenade arm in arm or side by side. Nakit-an kung ímung bánang may giabrasíting (giabrasitíhang) babáyi, I saw your husband walking arm in arm with a woman (with a woman holding on to his arms).

abrasyíti = abrasíti.

abri1 = abli. -dur n opener.†

abri2 = abyirtu2.

abrigána n s.t. that stimulates the appetite. Maáyung abrigána ang bír, Beer is good to stimulate the appetite.

abrigáwu n 1 apprentice on a ship. 2 one who works on a boat for his passage. v [A1; a12] 1 be an apprentice, apprentice s.o. to. 2 work in lieu of paying passage.

abrígu n shawl. v [A1; a] wear, make, receive a shawl.

Abril n April. v [a] 1 do s.t. in April. Magbakasyun mu sa Hunyu? Ah, Abrila lang, Will you take your vacation in June? Oh, just make it in April. 2 write down April in a document. Máyu ímung nabutang? Abrila lang hinúun, Did you write May? It should be April.

abriláta n can opener.

absin v [A2; b6] 1 absent, fail to attend work or class. Absínig kas-a nang klasíha nímu, Just miss your class this one time. 2 mark one absent. Absínan tikaw, I’ll mark you absent. n absence, time away from class. Daghag absin nímu Dyú, lagmit ka mahagbung, How many absences you have, Joe! You’re likely to flunk. hiN-, pala-, absiníru, absinus a given to missing classes. Anus-a gud nà siya makapasar nga absinus man nà sa klási, How can he pass if he always misses classes? — mayindid a absent-minded.

absinus see absin.

absulusiyun n absolution. v [b6] give absolution. Gilubung siya nga walà gánì kaabsulusyuni, He was buried without having received absolution.

absuwiltu n acquitted in court. v [A3P; a12] acquit.

abtik a 1 nimble, quick in reaction. Ang musáyaw sa tinikling kinahanglang abtik ug tiil, Whoever dances the tinikling has to have nimble feet. 2 fast, live in action. Mahuman ni dáyug abtik lang mutrabáhu, It will get done right away if you work rapidly. 3 cunning, sly. Abtik giyud siya kay midáwat imbis mubáyad, He sure is sharp. Instead of paying as he should have, he got paid. v [B] 1 get to be nimble. 2 get to be fast in action. Muabtik (maabtik) lagi ang íyang panglíhuk basta pakit-ug sápì, He’ll get moving fast as long as you show him money. 3 [B12] get to be cunning, sly. 4 [b4(1)] outsmart. Naabtikan sad ku sa bátà, The child put one over on me. paN- v [A2; b6] engage in chicanery. Ayaw kug pangabtíki kay suhítu ku, Don’t try to put a fast one over on me, because I know my way around.

abtung n rope used for tying the plow to the crosstree.

abu n 1 ashes. 2 = alabúhan. v 1 [A; a12] make ashes. Abuha nang mga palwa ug gam-ang sabun, Make the palm stems into ashes to make soap out of. 2 [B1256] be razed or burned to the ground. Pag-abut nákù naabu na ang balay, When I arrived, the house was already burned to the ground. ka-(←) v [A13] get ashes all over one. Nagkaábu ku kay misum-uk ku sa nasunúgan, I got ashes all over me because I went into the burned-out area. alabúhan n stove or [6]any place a fire for cooking is built. abuhun n ash-colored. Manuk nga abuhun, Gray-colored cock.

abuábu n k.o. fish.

*abubhu paN- v [A2; b6] be jealous of a loved one. n jealousy. abubhuan a jealous. Abubhuang bána, A jealous husband. mapangabubhúun a of a jealous type. Mapangabubhúun nga pasiklap, A jealous glance.

abud, ábud1 v [A; c] 1 throw grains, throw grains to. Ang bukbukung mais mauy iábud sa manuk, Throw the beetle-infested corn to the chickens. 2 drop grains into a hole in planting. Mag-abud sila sa ílang baul, They will plant their field. 3 feed grain into a mill. Ímu síging abdan (abúran) ang galingan, Keep feeding grains into the mill. 4 supply a factory with raw materials. Kanang kumpaniyáha mauy tig-abud sa mga papil sa imprinta, That company supplies paper to the printing press. 5 feed news, gossip. Aha! Ikaw diay nag-abud sa mga nutisya, So you were the one who spread the news! n 1 feed for fowls. 2 one’s turn to throw grains. Ákù na rung abud, It’s my turn to feed (the chickens). alabdan = abud, n 2.

ábud2 n ornamental bulbous plant: Eurycles amboinensis. The leaves are applied over the bladder to facilitate urination.

ábud3 n k.o. head louse lighter in color and with a longer and more slender body than the ordinary head louse (kútu).

abug1 n dust. v 1 [B46; a4b4(1)] become dusty. Muabug ang karsáda ug dúgayng uwanun, The road gets dusty if the rains come late. Giabug ang ámung balay kay dúgay na nga wà puy-i, Our house became all dusty because it hadn’t been lived in for a long time. Tabúni ang libru arun dílì maabugan, Cover the books so they won’t get dusty. 2 [B1256] turn into dust. Sa kadugáyan kitang tanan maabug, In the end we will all turn to dust. ka-(←) v [A13] get dust all over it. Nagkaábug ang ákung buhuk tungud sa byáhi, My hair is all covered with dust because I’ve just gotten off the bus. -un a dusty. -l-an(←) exposed to dust. Kining kwartúha alabúgan. Duul man gud sa karsáda, This room is exposed to dust. It’s close to the street.

*abug2 paN- euphemism for pangabughu. see *abubhu.

ábug1 v [A; a] 1 chase, drive, drive away. Abúga ang bábuy ngadtu sa tangkal, Drive the pig into the pen. Abúgi sa lángaw ang lamísa, Drive the flies away from the table. 2 drive s.o. to do s.t. Ang kaúlaw mauy nag-ábug kanákù pagpaháwà sa ámung lungsud, Shame drove me to move out of town. (→) n stick with strips of paper, plastic, etc., attached on one end, used to chase flies away. -an(→) n an enclosure of the fish corral into which the fish are driven before being caught.

ábug2 = abyug.

abugáda n female lawyer.

abugádu n lawyer. v 1 [B16; a2] be, become a lawyer. 2 [A; b] speak for s.o. Abugadúhan ta lang ka kay wà kay pangabla, I’ll speak for you because you don’t have the knack of saying what you want. abugaduhun a lawyer-like. Abugaduhung pangatarúngan, Lawyer-like reasoning.

abugágu n dumb lawyer (play on the words abugádu ‘lawyer’ and gágu ‘stupid’).

abugar = abugádu, v 2.

abugasíya n 1 law course. 2 law profession. Sa abugasíya kinahanglan mamakak ug panalagsa, In the law profession it is necessary to lie once in a while.

abughu, abughù = *abubhu.

abukádu n avocado or alligator pear: Persea sp. It is usually eaten with sugar and milk.

abúkay n k.o. white cockatoo, often kept as pet: Cacatua haematuropygia. (→), abúkay v [A] for babies to make noises like a cockatoo.

abunansiya = abunda.

abunda a 1 abundant. Abunda ang bugas karun, There’s plenty of rice now. 2 have plenty. Ug abunda ka sa sápì, mamalit kag yútà, If you have lots of money, you should buy land. v [B] be, become abundant. Unyà ra ta mamalit ug mangga ug muabunda (maabunda) na, We will buy mangoes later when they become abundant. n abundance.

abundansiya = abunda.

ábung1 v [A; c] bar, block the way. Abúngan ta ning karsádag dakung batu, Let’s block the road with a big stone. n k.o. fishing equipment consisting of dried coconut leaves tied to a raft. (→) n s.t. which blocks the way. Ang káhuy nga abung sa pultahan, The wood that was blocking the door. a in the path of the wind, smoke, smells, and the like. Abung sa hángin, Exposed to the wind. Abung ka kaáyu sa íyang dautang tingúhà, You are very much exposed to his evil powers. pa-(→), pa- v 1 [A13; ac] put in an exposed position. Ug magpaabung ka sa sílit sa túbig, mahumud ka, If you put yourself in the path of a jet of water, you’ll get wet. Paabungig asu ang mangga, (Make the fire so that) the mango tree will be in [7]the path of the smoke. n k.o. fishing whereby a net is set across the path of a fish. 2 [a] give allowance in measuring s.t. Paabungan ug diyútay ang sukud ígù pagsipilya, Measure it with a little allowance for planing. Mutíru gánì kag langgam nga naglupad paabungig diyútay, If you shoot at a flying bird, aim a little ahead. paN- v [A2] do s.t. in anticipation of a favor or reward. Buútan nà siya run kay nangábung man nga hitagaan ug diyis, He’s obedient this time because he’s anticipating getting a dime. n preparation of oil and plants medicinal roots and herbs used as a protection against some evil.†

abungaw1 n k.o. tiny, light brown insect which swarms over food and the like, similar in appearance to a fly. v [a4] be infested with abungaw.

abungaw2 = bungaw.

abúnu n 1 fertilizer. 2 transfusion or infusion. Nagkinahanglan siyag abúnu kay gisulgan sa dugù, He needs a transfusion because he lost a lot of blood. v [A; c] 1 put fertilizer on. Abunúhi ang rúsas, Put fertilizer on the roses. 2 give a transfusion or infusion. 3 supplement, fill in. Ikaw bay mag-abúnu sa kúlang? Will you make up the lack? Ang gísu mauy iabúnu sa batsi, They use limestone to fill the rough spots in the road.

aburídu a — ang úlu, pangísip, etc. be upset, irritable. v [B] be upset. Kadtung ímung tahù nakaaburídu (nakapaaburídu) sa ákung úlu, Your news got me all upset.

abusáda = abusádu (female).

abusádu a tending to take advantage, infringe on rights. Abusádu ang mga kutsíru dinhi. Basta muulan, pabayrun ta nílag dubli, The rig drivers are abusive. If it rains, they double the fare. Nagníwang lang nà siya kay abusádu man gud sa íyang láwas, He is thin because he neglects his body. v [B126] become abusive.

abusar v 1 [A3; b(1)] a do s.t. one is not entitled to, take advantage of s.o. by infringing on his rights. Nag-abusar siya paggáwì sa makinilya nga way pananghid, He took the liberty of using the typewriter without permission. Giabusahan sila sa magbabaligyà kay way kumpitinsiya, The storekeeper took advantage of them because there was no competition. b mistreat one’s health. Nag-abusar ka lang sa ímung láwas sa ímung pag-inum, You’re abusing your health with all your drinking. 2 [A] do s.t. to a superfluous degree. Wà na nà magkaun; nag-abusar na nà, That is not eating; that is excessive indulgence.

abúsu n taking advantage, acting beyond one’s rights. Ang pagdáwat sa suburnu usa sa mga abúsu, Taking bribes is one of their abuses. v = abusar.

abut v 1 [A; a12] arrive, reach a place. Dì pa makaabut (maabut) ang suwat, The letter won’t have arrived yet. Duul ra. Maabut ug lud-an, It’s close by, within spitting distance (can be reached by spitting). 1a [A; ac] lead to and reach a place. Muabut ba ning karsadáha sa subà? Does this road reach the river? Kining lugára dílì abutun sa táub, The tide doesn’t get as far as this place. 1b [A; ac] reach s.t. with the arms. Maabut ba nímu ang sanga? Can you reach the branch? Iabut kunu nang ímung kamut sa bungbung, Reach your hands out to the wall. 1c [B; b4] reach an amount, last a certain length. Ang ákung swildu dílì muabut ug dus mil, My salary doesn’t reach two thousand. Walà abtig duha ka adlaw ang bugas, The rice did not last two days. 1d — sa hunàhúnà come to the mind. 1e [b4] receive money. Abtan (abutan) ku tingálig kwarta rung hápun, I’ll probably get my money this afternoon. 2 [a4] have a feeling come over one. Giabut siyag kakulbà, A feeling of terror came over her. 3a [A23; b4] catch s.o. doing s.t. Si Turyuy nakaabut nílang nagháluk, It was Torio who came upon them kissing. 3b [b4] be overtaken. Abtan kag gabíi sa dálan, You will be overtaken by night on the road. 4 [A2; b4] come to an orgasm. Dílì giyud muabut ang lamì, She won’t have an orgasm. (The delicious feeling will not arrive.) Abtan ra gihápun síya basta maningkámut ang duruha, She will have an orgasm if both try their best. 5 [A23] for an event or season of the year to come around. Dì na madúgay muabut na ang Pasku, It won’t be long before Christmas comes. 6 [A12; b] be on time for s.t. Nakaabut ka ba sa panahun sa Katsílà? Do you go back as far as the Spanish times? Maabtan pa nímu ang barku, You can still catch the boat. 7a [A12; a1] afford to pay for s.t. Dì ku makaabut ug palit niánà, I can’t afford to buy that. Wà siyay ikaabut sa báyad, He has no funds to meet the payments with. 7b [a3] can be done, reached. Tabángan tikaw kútub sa ákung maabut, I’ll help you as much as I can. 8 [A; b6] stay temporarily some place. Háin man ka mag-abut run? Where are you staying now? n 1 s.t. or s.o. that has arrived s.w. Dílì ni karáan uy. Bag-u ning abut, This is not old stock. It just arrived. Bag-u kung abut dinhi. Wà pa ku kadumdum, I am a newcomer here. I don’t [8]know how to get there. 2 yield, proceeds from an effort, income, harvest. Pilay abut sa yútà káda túig? How much does the land yield each year? Gamay rag abut ang munisipyu, The town has a small income. (←) v [C; ac] 1 meet together. Abútun nákù ang duha ka tumuy, I will make the two ends meet. Mau kadtung lugára ang ámung gikaabútan (gipanag-abútan), That is the place where we met. 2 overlap in time. Nag-ábut na man gánì ang sinanggì karun ug sa miáging túig, This year’s corn crop overlaps with last year’s. (I.e., this year’s crop was harvested before last year’s crop had been used up.) 3 [A13] — ang ginháwa be panting for breath (gasps of breath overlap). Giúyug siya sa ubu. Nag-ábut ang íyang pagginháwa, He was shaken by his coughing fit. He was panting for breath. pa-(←) v [A; a] wait in expectation for. Dì na ku mupaábut sa kumbira, I won’t wait for the party. Paabútun tikaw hangtud sa alas kwatru, I’ll wait for you until four o’clock. abut-abut v [A3; b6] arrive in close succession. Nag-abut-abut ang mga bisíta, Visitors came one after another. abut-ábut v [A3; b6] go every now and then. Nag-abut-ábut nà siya sa Hungkung, She goes to Hong Kong often. siN- v [A13] 1 for a time, event to approach. Nagsingabut ang pista, The fiesta is approaching. 1a for one’s time of the month to approach. Nagsingabut na, maung saputun, She’s in a bad mood because her time of the month is approaching. 2 be in expectations of, look forward to. Nagsingabut ku nga mahuman ang trabáhug sayu, I’m expecting to finish the work early. -l-un(←) n 1 subject to periodic attacks of an illness. 2 s.o. who has the fortune of getting a large yield from an effort. alabtan, abtanan n place one usually stays temporarily. -l-an-(←) n 1 = abtanan. 2 place one meets s.o. else. um-r-(←), um-l-(←), tali-, tali-(←), sali-, sali-(←) n about to arrive. May umaábut (umalábut, taliabut, taliábut, saliabut, saliábut) nga mga bisíta, There are some visitors about to arrive.†

abwag v [AP; c1] break up, scatter. Miabwag ang mitambung sa ráli pag-ulan, The people at the rally scattered when it started to rain. Abwagun (iabwag) nátù ang mga papil, Let us scatter the pieces of paper.

abyadur n aviator. v [B156; a12] be, make into an aviator.†

abyan see abay.

abyasiyun, abyasyun n aviation.

abyirtu1 a open. Abyirtu ang ganghaan, The door is open. v [A2PB; c1] open s.t.; be opened.

abyirtu2 n seventh chord. v [A2; c1] play a seventh chord. Iabyirtu (abyirtúha) ang tapuy ig-abut sa dapit nga muingun ‘Matam-is uyámut’, When you get to the part that goes ‘How very sweet ...’ play a seventh chord.

abyug v [A; c1] rock s.t. hanging back and forth. Abyúga (iabyug) lang ang bátà sa dúyan kun muhílak na, Just rock the baby in the hammock if he starts to cry. n action of rocking s.t.

A.D. Anno Domini.

ád1 v [A; ac] add up. Ádun (adun) nátù ni, Let’s add this up. Iád ang kwatru ári, Add the four to this column.

ád2 = álad.

ada 1 particle showing that s.t. is not important. Ada, irù ra gud tu. Kahadluk na man nímu! Heck, that was just a dog. What a scaredy cat you are! 2 particle expressing annoyance. Ada! Sábà na, Oh, be quiet! — uruy = ada, 1. — uy particle expressing exasperation at being unable to cope with s.t. (used only by women). Da uy, lisud kaáyu, Oh dear! That is so hard!

áda n mythological beings represented as beautiful maidens living in forests, streams, etc. v [B126] become an áda.

adá = ada.

ad-ad v [A; a] slice into thin, but not long pieces. Ang baláni ad-árun únà iláwug sa bábuy, The banana trunk is chopped up finely before it is fed to the pigs. ad-aran n slicing board.

Adan name: Adam.

adbans n advance payment on a salary, debt, etc. v 1 [AP; cP] give an advance. Adbansan ka nákug singku, I’ll advance you five pesos. 2 [A; a] ask for an advance. Muadbans akug singku pára sa kumpra, I would like to have five pesos in advance for shopping. 3 [A; c] for soldiers to advance. Miadbans ang mga Hapun, The Japanese advanced. Ílang giadbans ang mga kanyun, They put the artillery on the front line. — gard n 1 a contingent sent ahead to the front. 2 s.t. sent s.w. to prepare the way (humorous metaphor). Nag-una ang mga adbans gard kay silay magpriparar, The advance guard has gone ahead because they will get things ready.

adbaysir n adviser. v [A13; b6] act as class adviser in school. Giadbaysíran ku ang primíru anyu, I am adviser to the freshmen. klas — class adviser in school. idituryal — editorial advisor.

adbintista n a Seventh Day Adventist. v [B1256] [9]be, become a Seventh Day Adventist.

adbirbiyu n adverb.

Adbiyintu n Advent.

adgaw n k.o. small tree: Premna odorata. The leaves are fragrant and used medicinally.

adía short form: día 1 is here (nearer me than you). Adía sa táas ang lamísa, ikanáug, The table is up here. Bring it downstairs. 2 in narration: now, at this juncture. Nalípay siya kay, día, nadátù na man pud siya, He was happy because, here he was, he managed to become rich in turn.

ádik n drug addict. v [B1256] become a drug addict.

adilantádu a 1 developed, advanced. Adilantádu ang Pilipínas sa Aprika sa panguma, The Philippines is ahead of Africa in agriculture. 2 for a watch to be advanced.

adilantar = adilantu.

adilantu v [B2] become better. Dílì ta muadilantu niánang pangitáa, Our financial situation won’t improve if that is the only way we can make our living. kaadilantúhan n improvement. Pára sa kaadilantúhan sa átung panimúyù, For the improvement of our standard of living.

adilpa n oleander, k.o. highly poisonous, tall ornamental shrub with showy pink or white flowers: Nerium indicum.

adimas furthermore, besides. Adimas utúkan man sab siya, Besides, he’s intelligent, too.

adingmasin n adding machine. v [a12] add up on a machine. Adingmasina lang ni arun way sayup, Add this up on the machine, so there won’t be any mistakes.

adinúwid n adenoids. v [a4] have adenoid trouble.

adisir, adísir before [so-and-so] happens. Adisir ka muadtu, pagtilipunu úsà, Before you go there, phone him first.

adiyus, adiyús 1 farewell (literary). 2 — na lámang never mind, forget about s.t. expended for nothing. Ug mupahulam ka níyag kwarta, adiyus na lang, If you lend him money, you might as well kiss it goodbye. 3 exclamation at the unpleasant consequences of s.t. one has observed taking place. Adiyús nabásag na hinúun, Oh Jesus! It broke! Adiyús nalimtan nákù ag pitáka, Jesus! I forgot my purse!

adlaw n 1 sun. 2 day. May adlaw nga magbásul ka, The day will come that you will be sorry. 2a day, as opposed to night. pila ka — it won’t be long. Pila ka adlaw makapánaw ta sa búwan, Soon we’ll be able to take trips to the moon. 2b one’s day for winning. Ímu tanang adlaw, You get all the breaks. 3 birthday. 4 amount earned in a day. Singku ra may íyang adlaw niánà, He only gets five pesos a day from it. — sa minatay All Soul’s Day. Mahal nga — Holy Week. v 1 [A3; b6] receive a certain amount daily. Muadlaw kug tagduha ka líbu ka písus, I net two thousand pesos a day. Adláwi lang siyag tag-diyis, Pay him ten pesos per day. 2 [A; b6] celebrate a birthday. Adtu nyà sa ámù kay mag-adlaw ku, Come to my house for my birthday party. adlaw-adlaw every day. -an a for it to be daylight. Ayaw úsà pagpaúli. Adláwan pa bítaw, Don’t go home yet! It’s still daylight anyway. -an(→) n food used to celebrate a birthday with. Iháwa na ang adlawan, Slaughter the birthday pig. -in- a 1 daily, by the day. 2 lukewarm (lit. put in the sun). Túbig inadlaw, Warm water. v 1 [A; a2] do on a daily basis. Inadlawun (inadláwun) ka nákug dúaw, I will visit you daily. 2 [A; c1] make water warm. -in-an n birthday present. ka-an n birthday, day of patron saint. ka-un n dawn. Mugíkan ku ugmà sa kaadláwun, I’ll leave tomorrow at dawn. pang- n 1 s.t. used during daytime. Sanínang pang-adlaw, Dress for daytime wear. 2 day shift work. tala-an n diary. ti- 1 = ting-. 2 a sunny. Sa buntag tiadlaw, apan sa hápun nag-ulan, In the morning it was sunny, but in the afternoon it rained. ting- n dry season.†

adlib2, adlip1 ad lib in music. v [A; b6(1)] perform music ad lib.

adlip2 v [A; ab27] slice into long pieces. Adlípa ang mangga sa makatulu, Slice the mango into three pieces. Hiadlipan ákung tudlù, My finger got cut as I was slicing s.t. n slice.

adlù n k.o. fish.

administradur n 1 administrator of an estate. 2 head of a government agency. v [A; a2] be an administrator.

administrasiyun n the administration incumbent at a certain period. Sa administrasiyun ni Garsíya, During Garcia’s administration.

administratíbu n administrative.

admirar v [A; b] admire. Ug buhátun nà nímu, admirahan ka giyud, If you do that, people will admire you for it.†

admisiyun n 1 general admission section in a theater or stadium. 2 cost of admission in a theater or stadium. 3 admission slip to an exam.

admitar v 1 [A; b(1)] admit, concede a point. Admitahi lang nà, Just admit it. 2 [A; a12] admit to a hospital.

admitídu n one who has conceded a point, admitted s.t. Admitídu siya nga siya nakadawat [10]sa sulat, He admits that he has received the letter.

admitir = admitar.

adngan n k.o. small fish.

adpan v [B1; a4] be slightly scorched to the point of being discolored. Naadpan (giadpan) ang ákung pánit, My skin became tanned. -an a tending to get easily tanned.

adris n address. way — n tough guy, police character (lit. one who does not have an established residence). Ikaw nga maistru makigbúnù ánang way adris, You, a teacher, want to fight with that police character? v [A; c] write an address. Unsay ákung iadris sa suwat? What address shall I put on the letter?

adtu1 1 there (far away, future). Adtu ku higdà sa íla, I will sleep there at their house. 2 will go s.w. far. Adtu ku sa Karbun, I’m going to the market. 3 there he (she, etc.) goes doing it (although he shouldn’t be). Adtu nanghambug na sad, There he goes again, showing off. v 1 [A2; b3c] go, bring to a place. Nakaadtu na ku didtu kas-a, I went there once. Unsa mang lugára ang giadtúan ninyu? What place did you go to? Iadtu kini ngadtu sa íla, Go bring this to their house. 2 [A13; a2] go get s.t. Ikaw bay nag-adtu kang Pidru arun paanhíun siya? Were you the one who went to Pedro’s to tell him to come? Ug dì ka manáug ánang kahúya adtúun tika, If you do not come down from that tree, I’ll come up after you. hi-/ha- v [B1256; b6] happen to go. Diyútay ra kaáyu ang mahiadtu sa mga táwu, A very small amount seeps down to the people. adtuan v [A13] always go s.w. Mag-adtuan ku sa íla káda buntag, I always go see them every morning. adtuúnun, aladtúun n things one has to get. a hard to get to. Dì ku muadtu sa inyu kay aladtúun kaáyu, I won’t go to your place because it is hard to get to. umaadtúay, umaadtu n about to go. kaadtuun a feel very much like going s.w.

adtu2 1 short for niadtu. 2 short for kaniadtu. 3 = kadtu (dialectal).

adtut = adtu (colloquial).

adubádu = adubáwu.

adubáwu1 n meat cooked in salt, vinegar with spices then fried, with fat or liquid leftover. v [A; a] cook adubáwu. Átù lang adubawúhun ning bábuy, We’ll just make adubáwu out of this pork.

adubáwu2 = kútil, n, v1.

adúbi n adobe, bricks made of clay. v [A; a12] build s.t. with adobe.

adúbu n meat fried in salt and vinegar. v [A; a] cook adúbu.

adul a mentally deficient. Dì giyud kasabut ang adul bísag unsáug isplikar, No matter how you explain it to the imbecile, he will never understand.

*adult n — idyukisyun adult education.†

adultiryu n adultery.

ad-un = adúna (dialectal).

adúna short form: dúna there is, are, will be. Dúnay libru sa lamísa, There is a book on the table. -y [subject] [subject] has. Dúnay libru si Huwan, John has a book. paka- v [A; a] 1 strive to have s.t. Bisag wà kuy kwarta, pakaadunáhun giyud aku nímu, Even though I have no money, you want to force me to get some. 2 = pakaadunáhan. adunáhan a wealthy. Usa siya sa mga adunáhan sa ámung lungsud, He is one of the wealthy people in our town. pakaadunáhan v [A13; a12] pretend to be wealthy, consider to be wealthy. Nagpakaadunáhan siya bisag way nahut, He pretends to be rich even though he hasn’t got a penny. Gipakaadunáhan ba aku nímu? Do you think I’m rich?

aduptǎr v [A; a12] adopt a child.†

adurnu n decoration. v [A; c] decorate. Nindut kaáyu ang kapilya nga giadurnúhan ug búlak, The chapel was beautifully decorated with flowers. paN- v [A2] make oneself up, put on s.t. special. Nangadurnu ang mga dalága, The girls are getting themselves all fixed up.

adwána n customs.†

*adyà -an a selective, choosy. Adyaan man gud nang bayhána; mau nga wà maminyù, That woman is choosy; that is why she did not get married. v [B12] become choosy.

adyaks n 1 a brand name for a dish cleanser. 2 prostitute (slang).

adyas v [A; c] put at a specific setting, adjust. Ákung adyasun (iadyas) ang pabílu sa sugà, I’ll adjust the lamp wick.

adyinda n agenda. v [A; c] put on the agenda. Iadyinda nà sa sunud míting, Put that in the agenda for the next meeting.

adyinumútu n brand of monosodium glutamate. v [A; bc] cook with Ajinomoto.

ag short form: g subject marker for specific or past time subject (dialectal). Ag táwung gibukbuk sa buguy namatay ganíha, The man that was mauled by the ruffian died a while ago. — sa past time substitute for sa. Pwirting uwánga ag sa irù, My, how that dog barked.

agaab v [A2; b3] cry out loudly. Miagaab ang bátà kay giilúgan sa íyang duláan, The child cried loudly when his toys were [11]snatched away.

agáak = akáak.

*agad — ug, y it would be a good thing if such-and-such were the case. Agad pag magtuun ka imbis magdúlà, It would be better for you to study instead of playing. Agad pa untay nagduktur ka sa kaping mag-abugádu, It would have been nice if you had become a doctor instead of a lawyer. — nga it was good enough as it was before a change took place. Agad siyang natúlug, ngánu pa mang ímung gipúkaw? He was doing all right sleeping. What did you have to go and wake him up for?

ágad = alágad. paN- v [A2; b6] for a prospective bridegroom to stay in the girl’s place just prior to the marriage ceremony in order to serve the family. Pangagáran úsà nímu ang ginikánan arun kauyúnan ka níla, You serve the girl’s parents so that they will come to like you. -um- n son-in-law. v [A23S; a12] take as a son-in-law. umagarun n prospective son-in-law.

agad-ad1 a slightly rubbery, but soft to chew. Ang alud-ud sa manuk agad-ad kaúnun, Chicken cartilage is soft to chew.

agad-ad2 v [A] grunt contentedly. Muagad-ad ang anay ug magpasúsu sa íyang mga baktin, A sow grunts when nursing its litter. n prolonged grunt of contentment emitted by pigs.

ag-ag = alag-ag.

*agagang hi-/ha- v [B1256] hesitate doing s.t. due to indecision or confusion. Nahiagagang siya pagdáwat sa rigálu, She hesitated before accepting the present.

agáhad v [A; b6] clear one’s throat. Miagáhad siya, unyà nangluwà, He cleared his throat, then spat. n action of clearing the throat.

ágak v 1 [A; a12] give the hand to lead or lend support. Akù siyang agákun tapun sa karsáda, I’ll help him cross the street. 2 [A; a12] guide s.o. in moral principles. Kitang mga hamtung angayang muágak sa mga batan-un, We older folks should guide the younger generation. -ay = ágak. mag-r-(→), mag-r- n trainer, one who guides others in learning s.t. -l-un(→) a weak, to be led when walking. Gúlang na táwun si Lúlu alagakun ug mulakaw, Grandpa is so old that he is to be led when he walks.†

agak-ak v [A] 1 for chickens to make the clucking sound of being disturbed. Miagak-ak ang manuk kay nasangkilan, The chicken squawked when s.o. touched it. 2 cackle, squawk with laughter.

agálun (from ágad) n master, boss. v 1 [A123S] happen to get a master. Nakaagawun akug dagmalan, I happened to work for a cruel master. 2 [A2SN] for animals or possessions to allow only the owner to make use of it. Nag-agawun kining ákung kabáyù, aku ray makakabayù, My horse is choosy. I’m the only one who can ride on him. paN- v [A2S; b(1)] work for a master. Mangagálun lang kug way láing kapangabuhían, I’ll work as a servant if I can’t find any other job. Insik ang íyang gipangagawunan, He worked for a Chinese.†

agan-an n sand-like pellets which are the droppings of a k.o. wood-boring insect. v [a4b4] be infested with wood-borers. -un(→) a having agan-an.

agáng 1 exclamation uttered upon experiencing pain. Agáng sakíta! Ouch, how painful! 2 exclamation of disbelief or disgust. Agáng, ikaw na lang nawnga ang manlangyaw? Tapulan! Humph! The likes of you immigrating? You’re too lazy.

agang-agang v 1 [A; b(1)] hesitate before doing s.t. Miagang-agang kug palit, mau nga naunhan aku, I hesitated before buying, so s.o. got it before me. Dílì ku nímu ángay nga agang-agangan, You should not hesitate (to ask) me. 2 [AN23; a12] shoulder work, responsibility, and other duties which ought to be done by s.o. else. Dílì maáyu nga ang mga inahan mauy muagang-agang (mangagang-agang) sa trabáhu sa balay ug dagkù na ang mga anak, It’s not good for a mother to do the household chores when her children are big. -un a tending to shouldering work, responsibilities, and the like which should be done by other persons.

agap a 1 in a great hurry to do s.t. Agap ka ra kaáyung misudyà níya, You were much too quick to remind him he was wrong. 2 intensely interested in obtaining s.t. Aku nga agap ug salapì mihátag sa ákung láwas, Greedy for money, I surrendered my body. v [A13; a12] 1 make haste to. Agapun nátù pagtabuk únà magbálud, Let’s make haste to cross before the waves rise. 2 be after s.t. Nagpabulubuútan uruy nà siya kay nag-agap man ug dulsi, He is pretending to be well-behaved because he is interested in getting candy.

agápang n k.o. mullet.

agára v [A; a2] claim as his own s.t. owned in common with s.o. else or belonging to s.o. else. Hasta ang ákung tutbras ímung agaráhun, You want to lay claim to my toothbrush, too? Giagaráhan mig yútà sa asindíru, The landowner laid claim to our land.

agaray ouch! Agaray! Bídang sakíta nímung [12]mangusì! Ouch! That pinch hurt. v [A] say ‘ouch’.

ágas v [A2S; b6] flow from an opening. Nag-agas na ang túbig, There is water now. (Lit. The water is flowing now.) Giagásan ang dálan ug gasulína, Gasoline flowed over the street. (→) a leaky. Agas kaáyu ang táru, The can is leaky. — ug pálad spendthrift (lit. having leaky hands).

agaw short form: gaw title for people who are cousins. Anía si Agaw Tídu, Here is Cousin Tido. ig-(←) n cousin: children of one’s parent’s sibling or parent’s ig-ágaw. ig-(←) igtagsa first cousin, children of a parent’s siblings. ig-(←) igtagurha second cousin, children of a parent’s ig-ágaw igtagsa. ig-(←) igtagutlu third cousin, children of a parent’s ig-ágaw igtagurha. ig-(←) sa kasingkásing n a lover one pretends is his cousin in public. mag-(←), manag-(←) n people who are ig-ágaw with each other. pag-agáwan, panag-agáwan n sa — related by virtue of being ig-ágaw to the (grand)parents or (grand)children of one’s cousin. Uyuan ku siya sa panag-agáwan, He is my uncle by being a cousin of my parents. Pag-umangkun ku siya sa panag-agáwan, She is my niece by being a daughter of my cousin.†

ágaw v [A, A3S; a] take s.t. away from s.o. Ayawg agáwa ang duláan sa bátà, Don’t take the toy away from the child. -an(→) a fond of snatching. Babáying agawag bána, A woman that is a husband snatcher. maN-r- n one who snatches.

agáwun = agálun.

agay ouch!

ágay v [A2S; b6] flow from a faucet, in a stream. Dílì muágay ang túbig kay gisiradúhan ang grípu, The water won’t flow because the faucet is closed. Nag-ágay ang íyang mga lúhà, Her tears flowed.

agay-ay1 = agan-an.

agbat v 1 = ábat1, v. 2 [A; ab2] go after s.o. to catch up with him. Dalì, agbata si Tátay, Quick, go catch up with Father. Maagbatan pa nímu ang íyang grádu, You can still catch up to him in your grades.

agbáti = alugbáti.

agbaw = adgaw.

agbay = alagbay.

agbun n fine particles of soil or ashes. v 1 [A] fly in fine particles. Ayawg isagudsud ang ímung tiil kay muagbun ang abug, Don’t drag your feet because dust will fly. 2 [B12] turn to dust. Nagkaagbun na ang mga karáang mga papílis, The old papers are turning into dust.

agda v [AN; a12] invite s.o. to do s.t. Miagda (nangagda) ku níya ug pakigkalígù, I invited him to join me in going swimming. Paghulat lag agdáhun kag káun, Just wait until you’re invited to eat. n request, invitation to s.o. to do s.t. alagdahun, agdahúnun n one who has to be told to do things. Ang alagdahung binatunan maáyu dáyung ilísan, A servant that needs a special invitation to work should be immediately replaced.

agdul = arul, v 2.

agh written representation of throaty sound produced in uttering a gasp of pain or in clearing the throat.

aghad = ughad.

aghat v 1 [A; a12b2] challenge s.o. to a fight. Aghátun siya nátug sumbagay, Let’s challenge him to a fight. 2 [A3P; a12] induce, prompt s.o. to do s.t. Ang kapubri makaaghat (makapaaghat) nátù sa pagpangáwat, Poverty can drive us to steal. Aghátun tikaw sa pagbása sa libru, I will urge you to read the book. ma-un a provoking, inviting. Nadápit ku pagdúul níya sa maaghátun niyang pahiyum, I was drawn to her by her inviting smile.

aghud v [A3; b(1)] force oneself to bear with a backbreaking task. Ngánung nag-aghud ka mag-uma nga tigúlang ka na man? Why are you breaking your back farming when you are old?

aghup a tender in feelings or treatment. ma- a tender. v [a12] do in a tender way. Giaghup ku silag buyag, I scolded them tenderly.

aghuy1 n supernatural being which does good, does not show itself, and puts itself at the service of a single sorcerer and no other person. He cures sick persons and sorcery victims only through the intercession of this sorcerer. He also acts as a spy for the sorcerer. -an n a sorcerer with an aghuy.

aghuy2 v [A; ab5] shout over distance to attract attention. Adtúa na lang; ayaw na lang aghuya (aghuyi), Just go to him; don’t shout to call his attention. n a shout over a distance.

agi 1 oh my!, expression of surprise. Agi, kadakù ánang isdáa! Oh my! How big that fish is! 1a expression of revulsion to s.t. perceived. Agi, kangilngig naadtu! My! how terrible that was! 1b expression of objection to s.t. different from what is desired. Agi! Dì man nà mau! My! That is not the one I asked for. 1c expression of happiness at s.t. found out. Agi, kanindut, kun tinúud, My! How nice, if it’s true. 2 expression of sudden pain. Agi! Sakíta, Ow! That hurts.

ági v [A2S3S; b6] 1 go by, through a place. [13]Dílì ku muági dihà kay náay irù, I won’t go that way because there’s a dog there. 1a [A2S; c] for food to be cooked in s.t. Dì ku makakáug sud-an nga giági ug mantíkà, I can’t eat food that was cooked in fat. 2 for time to go by. Nakadaug aku sa swipstik sa miáging simána, I won the sweepstakes last week. Sa nag-aging mga búlan, nagkaluya pud siya, As the months went by, he became steadily weaker. 3 gone through one’s hands, had experience with one. Pila na ka babáyi ang niági kaníya? How many women have gone through his hands? Daghan na ang ispisyalista nga miági kaníya, Many specialists have examined her. 4 have experienced s.t. Nakaagi na ku sa pagpamutsatsu, I have already experienced being a servant. 5 [A23] for a writing instrument to work. Dì na muági ning bulpína, This ballpoint pen doesn’t write any more. n 1 path traversed. Mibálik siya sa íyang ági, He retraced his steps. 2 result of the action of some instrument. Ági sa gabas, The kerf of the saw. Ági sa lápis, The imprint of the pencil. Ági sa makina, Stitches of the sewing machine. Ági sa bunal, Welts made by a whip. Ági sa dáru, Furrows. 3 handwriting. 4 output, work accomplished. Gamay kaáyu siyag ági kay tapulan, He has little output because he’s lazy. 6 profits. Dakù siyag ági sa pagpahulam, He made big profits from his usury. 7 transient. Ági lang ang íyang kasukù, His anger will soon pass. 8 — ug, sa by way of, as an expression of. Kining rilu ágig handumánan nátù, This watch is by way of remembrance. (→) v [A; ac] pass by to pick up or leave s.t. on the way. Agiun tika unyà, I’ll stop by to pick you up. Iagi ang karsunsilyu sa ka Pidru, Bring the shorts to Pedro’s on your way. a leaky. Tárung agi, A leaky can. v [B1256] become leaky. pa- v 1 [A; ac] cause to go in a certain way. Unsáun man nátù pagpaági nga dílì mailhan? How will we do it so it won’t be recognized? Ang íyang gugma gipaági níya sa suwat, He made his love known through letters. n way. Unsay maáyung paági sa paglútug bam-i? What is a good way to prepare noodles? pina- n means. Nabuksan ang kandádu pinaági sa yáwi, The lock was opened by means of a key. paN- v [b4] for an expectant mother to have her bag of waters break. Gipangagían na siya piru wà pa magbatì, Her bag of waters has broken, but she is not in labor yet. agiánan n 1 passageway. Makalapus ka ngadtu kay náa may agiánan, You can pass through there because there is a passageway. 2 a means to an end or accomplishment. Kanang hulamhúlam ug libru mauy usa ka pasángil, agiánan sa panagsulátay níla, Borrowing each other’s books was a means for them to write each other. alagían n = agiánan. a near a place people pass. Ang ílang balay alagían kanang paingun ta sa lungsud, Their house is right on the way when we go to town. -um-r-, -um-l- n 1 about to pass. 2 of a passing character. Umaági (umalági) ra ning ulána, This is just a passing rain. ka- n an event, happening, or experience. Ang súnug usa ka kaági nga dílì malimtan, The conflagration is an unforgettable event. kaaginhun, maaginhun a full of history, eventful.†

ágid = amgid.

agigísing n temples, hair on the temples.

agíik n creak, squeak. v [A; c1] creak, squeak. Nag-agíik ang íyang mga túhud, His knees creaked. Ayawg agiíka (iagíik) ang sira, Don’t let the door creak.

agik-ik v [A; b6] laugh, but not openly. Nag-agik-ik sila pagpangutut sa maistra, They snickered when the teacher broke wind.

agil v [AN; b5] shave hair off (not beard). Ug mangagil (mangágil) ka sa bábuy ayawg samári ang pánit, When you shave the pig, do not damage the skin. Ayaw ug agila (agili) ang patilya, Don’t shave the sideburns. n razor. ig-l-(←) n razor to shave pig bristle.

agila n eagle.

agímud v [AN; c1] stick out the lips in pouting or in displeasure. Muagímud (mangagímud) man lang ug átung sugúun, He just puckers his lips when we ask him to run an errand.

*aginaldu mísa di- = mísa digalyu.

agíngay n k.o. tall hairy grass of open fields used as forage.

aginsud = agínud.

agínud v [A2S; a] 1 move dragging s.t. on the ground. Nag-agínud ang bakul padúng sa simbahan, The cripple dragged himself to the church. 2 move forward slowly but steadily. Miagínud ang barku pagsulud sa dungguánan, The boat slowly moved into the dock. n slow, dragging movement. Agínud sa hálas, The creeping of a snake. Ang agínud sa mga úras, The slow passing of the hours.

agipu n piece of wood with a glowing or burning tip.

agiri 1 ouch! 2 exclamation of jubilation.

agis-is n white scales on skin of the type which develop when the skin is dry. v [B6; a4] develop whitish scales on skin. Muagis-is (maagis-is, agis-isun) ang íyang bagtak, Her legs develop whitish scales. [14]

agit-it1 n squeaking strident sound made by two surfaces rubbing against each other. v [B] squeak stridently, become squeaky. Kasábà sad íning siráha, muagit-it (nag-agit-it) man, How noisy this door is! It squeaks.

agit-it2 n 1 white streaks of dirt or dried up perspiration. 2 dirt that sticks to things or the skin. v [a4b4] be begrimed with agit-it. Giagit-itan (giagit-it) ang ímung líug, Your neck is streaked with dirt. -un(→) a covered with agit-it.

agítung a burnt to charcoal. v [B2; c1] get burnt to become charcoal. Miagítung (naagítung) ang mais nga ákung gisugba, I broiled the corn on the cob until it turned to charcoal. (→) n fire kept burning low over a long period of time so that it won’t have to be rekindled.

ágiw n fine, white ashes. v [AB2; a12] burn to white ashes, cause to burn to ashes. Muágiw (maágiw) na gánì nang úling tayhúpi, When the charcoal turns to ashes, blow some of them away. Mag-ágiw kug tabákù nga itambal, I’ll make some tobacco ashes to use as medicine. pa- v 1 [A; c1] let s.t. turn into ashes. Ayaw ipaágiw (paagíwa) ang úling, Don’t let the charcoal burn to ashes. 2 [A; ac] have s.o. make ashes. -l-an, -anan n ash tray.

agkut = hagkut.

aglidulsi = limunsítu.

aglípay, aglipayánu n member of the Aglipayan religious sect. v [B1] become an Aglipayan.

agmang n k.o. eel.

agmud n grunting, snorting noises. v [AN; c1] grunt, snort. Ígù lang siyang miagmud (nangagmud) sa ákung pagpananghid, He just grunted when I asked his permission.

agngan n = adngan.

agni v [A; a12] urge s.o. to do s.t. Giagni siya sa pagpaúlì sa asáwa, He was urged to return to his wife.

agnus n holy charm or relic affixed to the body to ward off evil. v [A1; b] wear an agnus.

agpan = adpan.

agpang n a thin piece of bamboo, three or four inches in length used to set the size of the hole in weaving fish nets.

agpas v [A; a12b2] 1 go after s.o. to catch up with him. Agpása, kay wà tu siya kabayad, Go after him. He hasn’t paid. 2 meet a seller’s offer. Dì pud ku muagpas ug baynti ánang sapatúsa, I would not even give you twenty for those shoes. 3 catch up in time. Dì na nákù maagpas ang trabáhu, taudtaud na kung naabsin, I can’t catch up with the work. I’ve been absent too long. 4 be after, interested in obtaining s.t. Kwarta lay íyang giagpas, All she’s after is money. 5 [A12; b5] a catch a meaning. Wà siya kaagpas sa lísu, He didn’t catch the joke. b know the cause or defect. Wà ku kaagpas unsay dipiktu íning mutúra, I can’t figure out what is wrong with this motorcycle. 6 [AN; c] think of s.t. to say. Walà nay ikapangagpas (ikaagpas) ang dalága sa pagpamalíbad, The girl could think of no more excuses for refusing him. n highest price offered in buying s.t. Pila man giyuy agpas mu? What is the highest price you offer? pa- v [A; c] say s.t. additional as an afterthought. Mipaagpas siyag túgun sa paglakaw nákù, He called after me to ask me to do s.t. for him as I was leaving. paN- v [A] 1 go after s.t. and take advantage of it in time. Mangagpas ta sa higayun samtang barátu pa, Let’s take advantage of the opportunity while it is still cheap. 2 figure s.t. out. May nangagpas nga láin siyag túyù, S.o. figured out that he had evil intentions. n 1 interpretation of a situation. 2 a second planting to replace seeds that did not do well. Namatay ang ubang tanum. Pangagpas ning tanúma, Some of the plants died. This planting is to replace them.†

agrabiyar v [A2] have a complaint about treatment. Makaagrabiyar ka pa uruy nga nakabintahà ka man, You claim you’re being treated unfairly, though before, you had the advantage.

agrabyádu a 1 taking offense. Agrabyádu ku sa ímung gisulti, I feel offended at what you said. 2 having a grievance, reason for complaint.

agrabyu v [A2; a2b3] have a complaint about a treatment. Ayaw agrabyúha ning ákung gibúhat, Don’t complain about what I did. n s.t. which gives rise to grievances. Ang agrabyu sa mga Pilipínu gíkan sa mga Katsílà walà na maagwanta, The Filipinos could no longer endure their grievances against the Spaniards.

agri, agridulsi = limunsítu.

agrigáwu = abrigáwu.

agrikultúra n agriculture. agrikulturista n agriculturist. v [B156] be an agriculturist.

agriminsur n land surveyor. v [B156] be a land surveyor.

agrísib = agrisíba, agrisíbu.

agrisíba a 1 = agrisíbu, (female). 2 aggressive, eager for sex. Agrisíba kunu ang mga mistísa, They say the mestiza girls are sexually aggressive. v [B12] be sexually aggressive. [15]

agrisíbu a aggressive. v [B1; b] be aggressive. -in- a in an aggressive manner. v [A13; a12] do s.t. aggressively. Inagrisibúhun nátù pag-aplay ang trabáhu, Let’s be aggressive in our application for the job.

agsa1 v [A; b5] work on s.t. and be paid with half of product. Muagsa ku sa ímung tíkug kay wà kuy puhúnan, I will work with your material for half the output, as I have none of my own.

agsa2 = igtagsa. see agaw.

agsing v [A; b2] for a missile to graze s.o. Ígù lang nakaagsing ang bála sa íyang agtang, The bullet just grazed his forehead.

agtà n 1 supernatural man of dark complexion and extraordinary size, said to inhabit trees, cliffs, or empty houses. He is said to play practical jokes on people, kidnap them. He has a large cigar in his mouth. 2 name occasionally given to Negritos.

agtang n 1 forehead. 2 region just above the genitalia (humorous metaphorical). (→) v [A; a12] hit at the forehead. Agtangun tika run, I will hit you on the forehead. -un a having a prominent forehead.

agtì v [BN] 1 become very dark due to heat. Miagtì (nangagtì) íyang nawung sa ínit, His face has become black because of the sun. 2 be dry and brittle. Ning-agtì ang káhuy, The wood became dry and brittle.

agú exclamation of woe or pain: ouch! Agú! Kalisud sa way inahan, Woe, how difficult it is to have no mother. v [A2] exclaim agú.

Agu. abbreviation for Agustu, August.

agū̀ = agúlù.

agubhub n hollow thudding sound. v [A] resound with hollow thudding sound. Miagubhub ang platapurma nga ílang gisayáwan ug tiniil, The platform they were dancing on in their bare feet resounded with a thudding sound.

agub-ub1 a crunchy and hard to chew, like hardtack. Agub-ub kaúnun ang sinángag pasì, Fried corn grains are crunchy to eat. v [A4] make crunchy sound.

agub-ub2 n mold. v [A123P; a4b4] be moldy. Giagub-ub (giagub-uban) ang surísu nga dúgayng gitagúan, The sausages have become moldy because they were kept too long.

agud = arun1 (dialectal).

agúha n 1 big sewing needle for sewing up sacks. 2 name given to any large needle or safety pin.

aguhilya n 1 U-shaped hairpin. 2 a small needle bigger than the ordinary sewing needle, but smaller than the agúha. 3 hypodermic needle. v 1 [A; a] use an aguhilya. Aguhilyáun lang ni nátung gisì sa sáku, Let’s sew the sack with a large needle. Ug dílì ka mukáun, maaguhilyáan ka sa duktur, If you refuse to eat, the doctor will have to use his needle on you. 2 [a12] make an aguhilya.

agúhù n Australian pine: Casuarina equistifolia. Lumber and ornamental tree. The roots and bark have medicinal uses. Young specimens are used as Christmas trees.

aguk-uk v [A; b3] laugh vigorously in suppressed or stifled laughter. Muaguk-uk giyud kug katáwa kun mahinumdum ku, I break into suppressed laughter when I think about it. n vigorous but suppressed laughter. n k.o. grunt: Pomadasys hasta.

agúkuy see alagúkuy.

agul a with the hair completely shaved off. v = agil.

agulang see gúlang.

agúlù v [A2S] groan, moan. Ngánung nag-agúlù man ka, may sakit ka ba sa tiyan? Why are you groaning? Do you have a stomach ache? n groan.

agum = lagum.

águm v [B1256; b4(1)] 1 undergo a bitter or painful experience. Naágum sa dakung kapildíhan ang lungsud adtung bagyúha, The town suffered a great loss in that storm. 2 get full use out of some benefit s.o. bestows on one. Makaminyù ka na kay naágum na ku sa ímung kabudlay, I allow you to get married because I made use of your labor (while you were single). pa- v [A12] cause one to learn a lesson. Ang dakung pildi nakapaágum nákù, Losing a large amount taught me a lesson. hi-/ha- = águm. ka-an n bitter experience.

agumáa n chub or striped mackerel: Rastrelliger sp.

agúmud v [A2; c] grunt. Nag-agumud ang bábuy nga naglúnang, The pig was grunting as he wallowed in the mud.

agum-um n k.o. large dove.

águng n gong. v [A; a] sound a gong.

agúngal n corn cob.

agung-ung1 n loud sound that reverberates. v [AB46] reverberate, make s.t. reverberate. Muagung-ung na gánì ang ayruplánu, When the roar of the airplane resounds.

agung-ung2 v [A; b3] whine in a somewhat suppressed way, as in pain. Nakaagung-ung sa kasakit ang irù nga gibunálan, The dog he whipped whined in pain.

agúnguy n prolonged wail of grief or pain, any wailing-like sound. Agúnguy sa ambulansiya, The wail of the ambulance. v [A; b3] wail. Dì man angayang agungúyan nang [16]samára, That wound is nothing to wail about.

aguníyas n death knell at a funeral; also the knell on Good Friday to indicate the hour of Christ’s death. v [A; b6] sound the death knell.

aguntù v [A] emit a short grunt when hit in the pit of the stomach or when exerting an effort. Miaguntù siya dihang naigù sa kutukutu, He groaned when he was hit in the pit of the stomach. n short grunt.

agup-up n mildew, mold. v [a4b4] get mildewed, moldy. Ayawg paumgi ang ímung dintru arun dílì agup-upun, Don’t let your shirt get moist so that it won’t get mildewed. Giagup-up (giagup-upan) na ang sud-ang hikalimtan, The food they forgot about got all moldy. -un(→) a mildewy, moldy.

aguruy ouch! Aguruy, ngánung namáak man ka? Ouch! Why did you bite me? v [A] cry ‘ouch’.

águs v [A2S] ooze, flow out slowly. Miágus ang nánà, The pus oozed out.

agusahis n k.o. shrub or small tree. The leaves have rough upper surface and are used as sandpaper: Ficus odorata and ulmifolia. v [A13; b(1)] sand s.t. with agusahis leaves.

Agustu n August. v see abril.

agus-us n 1 delicacy made of cornstarch mixed with sugar, water, and sometimes other ingredients made into cylindrical rolls with banana leaves and broiled. 2 delicacy made of sweet potatoes and pork wrapped in coconut leaves. v [AC12; a2] make agus-us.

agut a 1 simple-minded. Dalì mutúu ang agut, The simple-minded fool believes anything you tell him. 2 slow, stunted in growth. Agut ka man. Hilabwan na man lang ka sa ímung manghud, You are stunted. Your little brother is taller than you are. v 1 [B; a] be ignorant, simple-minded. Makaagut man diay ning mag-istar ug búkid, Staying in the mountains makes you simple-minded. 2 be stunted in growth. -un a of a stunted or simple-minded sort. Agutun mig kalíwat, We are a family of short people.

agút a gritty. Agút ang ginamus sa bás, The fish paste is gritty with sand. v [B; b] become gritty.

agútay n k.o. wild banana, producing 2″ long seedy fruit with a yellowish peel and sweet orange meat when ripe.

aguting n 1 k.o. tobacco blight which makes the leaves turn whitish and curl up when they are dried. 2 k.o. banana blight which forms spots and makes the meat hard and inedible. v [a4] be affected with aguting.

agutíut n squeaking, creaking sound produced by two surfaces rubbing against each other. v [A] for surfaces to squeak, creak. Muagutíut man ning ákung sapátus, My shoes squeak.

agutnga v [A; b6] emit a somewhat prolonged grunt as when one is lifting a heavy load or has suffered pain. Miagutnga siya sa kabug-at sa íyang gipas-an, He groaned under the load he was carrying. n grunt.

agut-ut1 n squeaking sound like that made by chewing on meat. v [A] make a squeaking sound.

agut-ut2 a stunted in growth. v [B; a] be stunted in growth. Nagkaagut-ut ang mga tanum kay kúlang na sa tambuk ang yútà, The plants are coming out stunted because the soil is infertile.

agut-ut3 a painful in a throbbing, gnawing way. v [B46; b4] be throbbingly painful. Nag-agut-ut ang ákung hubag, My boil is giving me a gnawing pain. Muhílak ku ug agut-utan ku sa ákung upirasyun, I cry if the wound from my operation gnaws painfully.

agúut a for s.t. soft or smooth to have a sandy, gritty texture because of improper cooking or some hard materials mixed in with it. Agúut pa kaáyu ning kan-un, pataudtauri pa, This rice is still hard in the center. Leave it on a little longer. v [B; b6] be gritty. Nag-agúut ang ginamus sa balas, The fish paste is gritty because of the sand.

aguy 1 ouch! Aguy, sakíta! Nasuyuran kus buyug, Ouch! It hurts. I was stung by a wasp! 2 particle expressing pleasant surprise. Aguy! Dúna diay kuy bag-ung sapátus, Yipee! I have a new pair of shoes! v [A] shout aguy.

aguyangyang1 n a k.o. poisonous field spider with a red tip at the abdomen.

aguyangyang2 n k.o. wild annual vine that bears small, poisonous beans which are hard and red with a black tip. The beans are used ornamentally and medicinally: Abrus precatorius.

agwa n perfume, lotion. — bindíta n holy water. v 1 [A; b6] apply perfume to s.o. 2 [A12] get perfume. paN- v [A2] use perfume. Humut ka dà. Nangagwa ka ba? You smell nice. Are you using perfume? agwahan n perfume atomizer. — uksináda n hydrogen peroxide.

agwáda v [A; a2] fetch water. Agwadáhan lang tikag túbig, I’ll fetch water for you. paN- v [A2] fetch water for a fee. n the occupation of fetching water. Makasapì pud siyag diyútay sa pangagwáda, He can earn a little money in fetching water.† [17]

agwádu a watery, of a thin mixture. Pagkaagwádu sa ímung tsukuláti, mu rag hinúgas, How watery your chocolate is. It is like dishwater. v [A; a12] make a thin mixture.†

agwadur n water vendor. v [B156] be a water vendor.

agwanta v 1 [A; a12] endure, put up with. Walay pawntinping muagwanta ánang ímung ginawian, No pen can last the way you are using it. Dì kung kaagwanta níya, I cannot stand her. Agwantahun lang nátù ang kagútum, We’ll just endure our hunger. 2 [A; b5] put up with. Bisag bagìbian ang asáwa, agwantahan (agwantahun) ku na lang, My wife is a shrew, but I’ll just put up with her. — nga how very. Agwantang lisúra, My! How difficult it is! — muy Can you imagine! Agwanta mu bay mupalit ug kadilak mukás dáyun! Can you imagine? He bought a Cadillac for cash! -du, -dur(→) a able to endure. Agwantadur ang tagabaryu sa trabáhu, Village folk can endure hard work. see alsomaríya.

agwardiyinti n refined alcohol, usually used in making liquor.

agwas n public water system. Ámung túbig gíkan sa agwas, Our water comes from the public supply. — putablis = agwas.

agwasil n = alguwasil.

agwásun n k.o. large poisonous snake, black on the back and yellow-bellied.

ah particle expressing rejection or denial. Ah! Dílì kanà mahímù, Oh! That’s impossible. Ah, dì ku. Kápuy, Oh, I don’t want to. It’s too much like work.

aha aha! Aha! Nasakpan ka na giyud, Aha! At last I’ve caught you!

aháan n k.o. blue-lined snapper: Lutianus rivulatus.

áhag v [A; a] 1 sift fine particles from coarser ones. Ahágun ku ang ginaling kapi, I’ll sift the ground coffee. 2 shake the remaining grains out of rice straw. Ahága ang uhut, Shake out the straw. 3 choose the best or biggest from a group. Ikaw bay muáhag sa maáyung klásing isdà, You choose the best fish. -an n sifter for milled corn.

áhak a crazy (used only in exclamations). Aháka sad nímu uy! You’re nuts! v [a4] be crazy. Gipabáyad kag singku? Giáhak, She made you pay five pesos? Is she out of her mind? Wà ku nímu sugta. Ahákun ka pa untà, You don’t accept me? I hope you go mad.

áhas1 v [A; a] 1 haul in a fishing net. Ahásun ni Durik ug sayu ang íyang púkut, Doric will haul in his net early. 2 get s.t. from s.t. Wà tay maáhas ug mangasáwa tag way kanghu, There’s no profit in marrying a poor woman.

áhas2 v [A12; c1] separate husked from unhusked rice. Ahása (iáhas) pag-alig-ig ang gilubuk, Separate the husked from the unhusked rice by shaking it.

ahat a 1 done before the proper time. Ahat nga kamatáyun, Premature death. 2 forced. Ahat nga pahiyum, A forced smile. Ahat nga pagkaminyù, Forced marriage. v 1 [A23] do s.t. suddenly and unexpectedly. Giunsa man nímu tung bátà nga miahat maghílak? What did you do to the child that it cried suddenly? 2 [B3(1); a12] a do s.t. before the proper time. Kinsa may nag-ahat ug pùpù sa mangga? Who picked the mango prematurely? Naahat siyag pagkabut-an pagkamatay sa íyang amahan, He had to become a grown-up before his time, when his father died. b do s.t. at an inopportune time. Nakaahat lang kug katáwa. Nangutut man gud ka! I couldn’t help laughing. You broke wind! 3 be forced into doing s.t. by circumstances. Miahat kug huwam ug kwarta, I was forced to borrow money. athanay v [C3] force each other to do s.t.

ahaw a lacking entirely. Ahaw sa tanum ang yútà nga palanas, The rocky area is bare of plants. Ahaw ang bátà sa pagpanggà sa inahan, The child lacks a mother’s love. n vegetable cooked with no meat or other condiments except, perhaps, tomatoes, onions, and salt. v 1 [B1; b6] be empty, lacking. Nag-ahaw ang ákung kinabúhì sukad aku papháa sa trabáhu, My life has been empty ever since I was fired. Giahawan aku sa ímung pangatarúngan, I consider your reasoning to be empty. 2 [A13; a] cook vegetables plain. Ahawun ku ang útan, I will cook the vegetables plain.†

ahay exclamation expressing utter tiredness or frustration. Ahay, kapait ning walay ginikánan, My! How bitter it is not to have parents.

ahidris n chess set. v [AC3; c3] play chess. -an(→) n chessboard.

ahinghu n tiny shrub grown in flower pots, not native to the Visayas: Crossostephium chinense.

ahinsiya n 1 pawnshop. 2 agency. Ahinsiya sa trabáhu, Employment agency. v [A13] open up a pawnshop.

ahinti n agent, one who sells on commission. Níay ahinti sa sabun, There’s a man selling soap here. v [BN56; b6] be a salesman on commission. Ahintíhan ku ning ímung yútà, I’ll be your agent in selling the land. — sa bábuy one with an AB (humorous). [18]

ahítu n marigold.

áhù = ákù; see aku. idyaidya ahuáhù see idyaidya.

áhug v [AC; ac] mix s.t. moist or wet with s.t. dry. Nag-áhug ang gátas ug harína, The flour and the milk are mixed together. (→) n mixture. Gátas, harína, kámay. Hustu giyud nang ahug, Milk, flour, sugar are just the right mixture.

áhus n garlic. (→) v [c] season with garlic. Dì ba nímu ahusan ang tinúlang isdà? Are you not going to season the stewed fish with garlic? -an(→) n garlic patch. ahus-áhus n = awrúra2. ahus-ahus n ornamental vine with purple flowers which smells somewhat like garlic. — nga putì n k.o. ornamental bulb with white flowers.

ak word used in writing to represent the sound of a blow.

akáak v [A] make a cracking sound, loud creaking sound. Miakáak ang pultahan sa pag-abri námù, The door creaked (went aak) when we opened it.

ákab = abhak.

akadimíya n academy.

ak-ak v [A; a2] peel, rip off, usually s.t. not flexible. Ikaw bay muak-ak sa pánit sa káhuy? Will you strip the bark off the tree? Naak-ak ang lapalapa sa ákung sapátus, The sole of my shoe came off.

ákal a bulging and bulky in the pocket or pocketbook. v [B] be bulgy. Nag-ákal ang íyang bulsa sa batu, His pocket was bulging with rocks.

akasya n monkey-pod tree, a large tree extensively planted as shade tree and producing excellent lumber: Samanea saman. akasyahan n acacia tree stand.

akata, akatar v [A; b5] look after, take care of. Kinsa may muakatar sa tigúlang ug muuban ku nímu? Who will look after the old man if I go with you? Ang táwung kasámuk ray akatahan (akatahun) dì giyud muhangtud, A man that has nothing to do except look for trouble will not live long.

akawntant n accountant. v [B16] be an accountant.

akba v 1 [B3(1); c] lean on the chest with the arms hanging over the edge. Nag-akba siya sa pasamánu samtang nagtambù sa sílung, She was leaning over the banister as she looked downstairs. 2 [A; c1P] carry s.o. with his chest just below or against the shoulder. Iakba (akbaha, ipaakba) ang bátà arun manug-ab, Pick up the child with his chest facing you to burp him.

akbay = alagbay.

akbù v [A; a] lean on the lower arms. Nag-akbù siya sa bintánà, She’s in the window leaning on her arms. Ayaw ug akbúi nang balabag, Don’t lean on that rail. -anan n rail over which one usually leans. Akbuánan sa kumpisyunaryu, Confessional rail.

akhab = abhak.

akin = nakinnákin.

akip v [B6; c1] be included, include oneself in s.t. Ang bátang mag-akip ug sulti sa dagkù way batásan, A child who joins in an adults’ conversation is ill-mannered. Kinsay nakaakip ug kúhà sa ákung papílis? Who accidentally took my papers along with his? akip-akipun a tending to include oneself in on things.

aklas v [A; a2] go on strike. Ug dílì ta tugtan, aklásun nátù, If our demands are not met, we’ll strike. Giaklásan ang kumpaníya, They went on strike against the company. n strike of workers.

akmù = akbù.

akni n acne.

aknit v [A; a2] peel s.t. flexible off in such a way that it does not get torn. Akníta ang silyu, Peel the stamps off carefully.

aksì v [A; a] tear off flexible material attached or pasted to s.t. Wà níya aksía ang pahibalu nga gitaput sa bungbung, He didn’t rip off the poster pasted on the wall.

aksidinti n 1 accident. 2 accident, happenstance. Aksidinti lang nga nagkítà mi, We just met by accident. v [B126] have an accident. Naaksidinti si Pidru, Pedro had an accident.

aksidu n acid, usually hydrochloric acid. v [A] put acid. Aksiduhan nímug diyútay ang batiríya, Put a little acid in the battery. ka-(←) v [A13] get covered with acid.

aksintu n accent, mark. v [A3; b6] put an accent, mark.

aksiyun n 1 action, movement. 2 interest or part owned in a business. May aksiyun siya sa Maníla Iliktrik, He has part interest in the Manila Electric Company. Usa lang ka aksiyun sa swipstik, One share of a lottery ticket. v [A2; b] make a move to, show signs of doing s.t. Wà makaaksiyun ug pamúlak ang tanum, The plants haven’t shown any signs of flowering yet. Giaksiyunan ku siyag pátid, I made a move to kick him. -ista n one who has an interest or share in a business.

aksul n axle. v [A13; a] make into, supply with an axle. Giaksúlan níya ang karumátag káhuy, He put a wooden axle on the cart.

akta n minutes of a business meeting.

aktibidádis n activities. [19]

aktibista n political activist.

aktíbu a active, energetic. Aktíbu kaáyu ang inyung mga bátà, Your children are very active. Aktíbung mimbru, An active member. Bulkan nga aktíbu, An active volcano. Ingridiyinting aktíbu, An active ingredient. v [B2; b6] get to be active.

akting n 1 acting, functioning in a temporary capacity. 2 way of acting. Layhan ku sa akting ni Gluriya Rumíru, I like Gloria Romero’s acting.

aktitud n attitude. Ang aktitud sa mga táwu báhin sa prisidinti, The people’s attitude towards the president.

aktris n actress. v [B156] be an actress. -l-un(→) a having the looks or character of an actress. Musalir sa pilikula si Tirya kay alaktrisun ug hitsúra, Terry will do well in the film because she has the appearance of an actress.

aktu n 1 the act of doing s.t. Ang tanang mga aktu sa simbahan pagabayran na, You have to pay for every church ceremony now. Nasakpan siya sa aktu, He was caught in the act. 1a acts in the church. Aktu sa pagbásul, kuntrisiyun, Act of Contrition. 2 the time that s.t. happens. Sa aksidinti tulu ang namatay sa aktu, In the accident three died on the spot. Ang táwu nga náa sa aktu sa kamatáyun dílì mamakak, A man does not lie when he is at the point of death. 3 acts of a legislative body. 4 acts of a drama. v 1 [b4(1)] be caught in doing an act. Hiaktuhan siyang nangáwat, He was caught in the act of stealing. 2 [A] a engage in some action. Ug muaktu siyag dautan, singgit, If he acts suspiciously, scream. b show signs of dying. Ug muaktu na, ipatawag ku, If he shows signs of dying, send for me.

aktur n actor on stage or screen. v [B156] be an actor. -l-un(→) a be like an actor. — kantur n actor-singer.

aktuwal n sa — 1 at the very moment. Sa aktuwal na giyud siya midágan, gitirúhan dáyun, The very moment he made to run away, he was shot. 2 in person, in real life. Sa aktuwal batan-un pa kay sa litrátu, He is younger looking in real life than in his picture. Isturiya lang nà. Dílì sa aktuwal, It’s just a story, not real.

aku I, me. Aku lang, Let me do it. Short form: ku. Adtu na ku (aku), I’m going now. ay — nímu expression of helpless frustration at s.o.’s incompetence. Ay ku nímu, undù. Mag-unsa man lang ka ug wà na ku, My God, son. What will you do when I am not around any more! tig-akuaku a always say ‘aku’. Tig-akuaku ka man bisag dílì ka kamau, You don’t know how, but you keep saying ‘lemme’. ákù 1 preposed gen.: me, my. Ákung anak, My child. Ákung gibása, I read it. 2 be mine. Ákù nà, That is mine. Unsa may ákù niánà? What do I get out of that? v [B1256] become mine. Maákù ka na giyud, At last you will be mine. — na May I have to keep? Ákù na nang kindi, ha? May I have that candy? Ang — gud 1 what worries me. Ang ákù gud ug dì siya kaanhi, What worries me is if he can’t come. 2 all I am concerned with, interested in. Ang ákù gud nga makatinir kug pruyba, All I care about is that I can have proof. maakuakuun a tending to want things for oneself. akúa mine as opposed to other things that are not. Akúa nà, That one (as opposed to the others) is mine. kanákù dat.: me. Ihátag kanákù, Give it to me. Nagtan-aw siya kanákù, He was looking at me. ku 1 nom. (short for aku). 2 gen.: = nákù. nákù 1 gen.: my, by me. Anak nákù, My son. Gibása nákù, I read it. — ug (short for gipakaingun nákù) I thought. Nákug muadtu ka, I thought you would go. 2 short for kanákù.

áku (from aku) v [A12] 1 stand to do s.t. Dì ku kaákug tan-aw nímu, I cannot stand to look at you. 2 = paN-. paN- v 1 [A2] have nerve to do s.t. Walà giyud ku makapangáku (makaáku) sa pagbuyag kang Maríya, I couldn’t gather the nerve to admonish Maria. 2 [A2; b5] do s.t. on one’s own responsibility. Dílì ku mangáku sa pagpaandar sa makina, I will not take it on myself to start the engine. Ngánung gipangakúhan (gipangáku) man nímu nag-istrungkar? Why did you take it on yourself to take that apart? n particular responsibility or task. Dakù kaáyung pangáku sa lungsud ang pagtúkud sa simbahan, It was a great responsibility which the town undertook to build the church. kaakúhan, kapangakúhan n responsibility. Kaakúhan (kapangakúhan) sa usa ka amahan, A father’s responsibility. akuakuhan, maakuakuhan, manggiakuakuhan a tending to take things on oneself one should not. Akuakuhan kaáyu siya manlísù sa twirka, He likes to take it on himself to mess around with the screws. v [B12] get to be so that one takes on things one should not.

akub v [AC; ac] fit s.t. over s.t. else face to face so that the edges meet, or the edge of the cover overlaps the edges of the thing covered. Kinsa may nag-akub sa nígu sa tabig? Who covered the clothes basket with a winnowing tray? Ang duha ka bagaw sa imbaw nag-ákub, The two shells of the clam fit together precisely. Akúba ang duha [20]ka papil, Lay the two papers face to face with the edges even. Akbi ang pawntinpin, Put the top on the fountain pen. (←) n things that fit against each other with the outer edges matching. Duha ka ákub ang ílang kík, Their cake has two layers.

ákud1 a for the chest to be tight or heart to be heaving. Nagsubsub ang ákud sa íyang dughan. Gihúbak na sad, Her wheezing fits in her chest intensified. She was having another asthma attack.

ákud2 v [AB126; b5] disable, be disabled. Naákud ang táwu nga nabalían sa páa, The man who broke his thigh became crippled. Akúrun (akúran) tikaw run yawáa ka, I’ll disable you, you devil. (→) n cripple.

akúdi v [A; b5c] mind, take care, look after. Maakúdi (maakudíhan) nákù ang tanan kung mga anak bísag wà kuy katábang, I can take care of all my children even without a helper. Akudíha, akudíhig maáyu nang ímung kabílin, Take good care of your inheritance.

akulitu n 1 altar boy, server in a mass. 2 one who is at a person’s beck and call and kowtows to him. Ása man nà mudáut ni Markus. Akulitu man nà siya, He would never talk against Marcos. All he is is his yes-man. v [B56] be a server.

akumpaniing n one who stays with a patient in a hospital to look after his needs. Kaning katríha pára sa akumpaniing, This bed is for the one who stays in the room with the patient to attend to him. v [B; a] be, become the one who stays with a patient in a hospital to attend to his needs. Giakumpaniing ku sa ámung silíngan nga naaksidinti, I went to the hospital to stay in the room with our neighbor that met an accident.

akumpaniyamintu n accompaniment in music.

akumpaniyar v [A; b] 1 accompany s.o. in music. Akumpanyahi aku sa ímung sista, Accompany me with your guitar. 2 go with s.o. Akumpanyahi ku didtu bi, Accompany me there.

akumplísi n accomplice.

akup-akup v [A3; a12] monopolize a job, possession, or enjoyment of s.t. Kinsay layhan mutábang nga muakup-akup man siya sa mga trabahuun? Who likes to help when he monopolizes all the work? Ayaw akup-akupa ang tanang duwáan, Don’t monopolize all of the toys.

akurdiyun n accordion. v [A] play the accordion.

akusádu see akusar.

akusar v [A; b5c1] accuse. Ayaw ku akusaha (akusahi, iakusar), Don’t accuse me. akusádu n one accused, defendant. akusasiyun n accusation.

akwaryum n aquarium.

akwintans n acquaintance. — parti n get-acquainted party.

akyut a acute, critical sickness. v [B] for a sickness to become acute. Naakyut ang íyang apindisaytis, His appendicitis has gotten acute.

*ala (not without l) — úna 1 one o’clock. 2 going once (in auction). Dusintus. Ala úna, alas dus, alas tris, sirtu, Two hundred. Going once, going twice, gone. v [B5; b] see alas1.

Ála (not without l) n Allah.

alà v [A13P; c6] avoid engaging in certain activities, esp. eating proscribed foods. Dì gánì ka mag-alà sa ímung pagkáun, dì ka giyud mamaáyu, If you don’t avoid eating proscribed foods, you will never get better. Kining ákung balatían mauy nakaalà (nakapaalà) nákù sa pagkalígù sa dágat, My ailment has kept me from bathing in the sea. walay — not avoiding things, esp. in eating. Wà siyay alà. Mukáun bisag unsa, He’s not choosy. He’ll eat anything. paN-(←) v 1 [A; b] for pregnant women to conceive an intense desire for or dislike for s.t. Si Íli nangálà sa ímung ilung, básin pag muliwat ang bátà, Ely has a great liking for your nose. Maybe her baby will get that nose. Manggang hilaw ang íyang gipangaláan, She had an intense craving for green mangoes. 2 [A] be in the early months of pregnancy. Bag-u pa siyang nanganak, nangálà na pud, She just had a baby, but she’s pregnant again.

álà v [b] be mistaken for another person. Naaláan ku siyang kawatan, I mistook him for a thief.

alabádu (not without l) v [AN; c1] say the final prayer in a novena, on any day. Hápit na mahuman ang pangadyì kay nag-alabádu na, The prayer is about to end because they are offering the final prayer.

alabanit = rabanit.

alabíhid n wild tree in same genus as siriguylas with sour leaves and fruits: Spondias pinnata. The leaves and fruits are used in stews, and the leaves have medicinal uses.

alabútun see abut.

álad n 1 wooden fence, enclosure. 2 pig sty. v [A1; a] enclose in a fence. Alára ning babúya, Put this pig in an enclosure. Alári ang mga tinanum, Put a fence around the plants.

alagad v [A13; a12] wait for s.o. to do s.t. Muagad lang ku sa inyung hukum, I am guided by your decision. Panahun ray ákung [21]agdun, I will let time decide. ulualágad, agad-ágad v 1 [A13; c1] put off doing s.t. temporarily until s.t. else happens. Mag-agad-ágad ku sa pag-abut ni Tátay úsà ku mulakaw, I am waiting for Dad to get here before I go. Iagad-ágad (agad-agára) lang úsà ang báyad, Put the payment off awhile. 2 [a12] put off doing s.t. to wait for s.o. Agad-agára ku kadiyut arun magkúyug ta, Wait a second for me, so we can go together.

alágad (not without l) n 1 servant, employee. — sa baláud law officer. 2 service rendered. Mapasalamátun kami sa alágad sa Krus nga Pula, We are grateful for the services of the Red Cross. v [A; c] 1 serve, be a servant or employee. Dílì siya layhang mualágad sa pamilya nga daghag kasíra, She doesn’t like to serve in a household with lots of boarders. Nag-alágad siya sa gubyirnu, He works for the government. Dúgay ku níyang gialagáran, ningbíyà na lang ku sa tindáhan, It took her a long time to wait on me, so I just left the store. 2 attend to, care for. Aku ang mualágad sa bátà samtang túa pa sa huspital ang inahan, I will take care of the child while the mother is in the hospital. kaalagáran n duty. maalagárun a serving conscientiously. Kanímu maalagárun, Your faithful servant. alagdun a requiring intensive care. Alagdung masakitun, Patients who require intensive care.

alag-ag v [A; a] sift. Ag-águn ta ni rung buli, Let’s sift the buri flour. -l-un(→) n powdered matter ready for sifting. -an(→) n a device for sifting.

alagási n k.o. small tree of thickets producing soft wood: Leucosyke capitellata.

alagaw = adgaw.

alagay v [A; b3] groan in pain. Nag-alagay siya sa kasakit, He groaned in pain.

alagbáti = alugbáti.

alagbay v [AC; c] to put one’s arm around s.o.’s shoulders. Miagbay ang ryumáhun sa nars, The rheumatic patient put his arm around the nurse’s shoulders. Ayaw ku agbáyi, Don’t put your arm around my shoulder.

alagúbay = bagaybay.

alagúkuy n k.o. light orange crab living in holes along the shore. It is about an inch across, and one claw is much bigger than the other.

aláhas (not without l) n jewelry. maN-r-(→), alahíru n jewelry dealer.

alahíru = mangangalahas. see aláhas.

álak (not without l) n liquor, strong alcoholic beverage.

alakáak n k.o. edible mollusk resembling the chiton, about an inch in length.

alakri (not without l) n sealing wax, for package, letters, etc. v [b] seal s.t. with sealing wax.

alaksiw (not without l) n hard liquor of the cheapest sort.

al-al1 a adult, full-grown birds. Lisud tudlúag sulti ning al-al nga piríku, It’s hard to teach a full-grown parrot to speak. v [B15] become full-grown. Samtang nagkaal-al ang langgam nagsúgud pud ug kapakápa, As the bird was growing up it began to flap its wings.

al-al2 n childish in action, particularly in speech and articulation. Kadakù na nímu. Al-al gihápun kang musulti, How big you are, but you still talk like a child! v [B] become, consider childish. Mual-al giyud ang bátà basta labihan sa paráyig, A child will stay immature as long as he is spoiled.

alálay (not without l) n one who helps or supports s.o. in doing s.t. (slang). Dì siya mahadluk mamarigla kay daghan mag alálay, He is not afraid to maul anybody without provocation because he has plenty of supporters. v [A; b(1)] help s.o. (slang). Alaláyan ta ka sa pag-iksplikar, I’ll help you explain.

*álam (not without l) ka- n knowledge of some special field, specific know-how. Wà kuy kaálam sa pagpanghílut, I have no expertise in massage. kinaadman n 1 general knowledge. Lalum siyag kinaadman, He is deeply learned. 2 special magical knowledge. ma- a know how to [do]. Maálam siya nga mutukar ug pyánu, He knows how to play the piano. ma-un, manggi-un, makinaadmánun a wise, knowledgeable. Nahibúlung ang mga tigúlang sa makinaadmánun nga tubag ni Hisus, The old men were amazed at Jesus’ wise answers. pakama-un, pakamanggiun, pakamakinaadmánun v [A13; a12] pretend to be, consider wise.†

alámag n 1 reflected, luminescent light. Ang alámag nga ímung makítà sa túbig gíkan sa sugà sa mga mananagat, The light you see in the water is from the fishermen’s lamps. 2 may, walay — (l not dropped) a be informed, uninformed. Walà siyay alámag sa baláud, He is ignorant of the law. b have awareness of a happening. Pagbisíta námù sa uspital walà na siyay alámag, When we visited him in the hospital he had no awareness of his surroundings. v (l usually dropped) 1 [AP2S; b2S] gleam, cause to gleam, usually with reflected light. Ang kaháit sa suwab miámag, The blade gleamed because [22]of its sharpness. Mialámag ang íyang mata sa túmang kalípay, Her eyes gleamed with joy. Ang mga sugà nag-ámag (nag-amag, nagpaámag) sa túbig, The water reflected the lights. 2 [APB; c] enlighten, make aware. Mialámag sa ákung panumdúman ang hustung tubag, The correct answer presented itself to my mind. Kun alamágan lang sa Diyus ang Santu Pápa, If God would only enlighten the Pope. paN- v [A; b5] stay up late in doing s.t. Nangalámag aku pagpanahì, I stayed up late sewing. (→) n 1 k.o. glowing toadstool. 2 k.o. fish. amag-amag, amagan n k.o. small fish.

alam-álam v [A; c] 1 coax s.o. to do s.t. he does not want to do. Alam-alámi siya, Coax him. 2 mollify or assuage s.o. by comforting him. ma-un a 1 coaxing. 2 assuaging. ‘Dì bitaw ka nákù unsáun,’ maalam-alámun níyang sulti, ‘I’m not going to hurt you,’ she said, mollifying me.

alambíhid, alambíhud = alabíhid.

alambri1 n wire. -ng pinutus insulated wire. -ng tunukun barbed wire.

alambri2 = alambrilyu.

alambrilyu n name given to several ornamental ferns, e.g., Adiantum capillus-veneris.

alambríru (not without l) n the rigger in logging. v [B6; c1] be, make s.o. the cable man in logging.

alampad v [A12C; ac] go up alongside, be side by side. Miampad siya sa ákung sakayan, He tied up alongside of my boat. Nagkaampad mi ug lingkud sa sini, We happened to sit side by side in the movie. n being beside. ka- n one who is alongside of one.

alampat n intelligence, brilliance of mind. Alampat sa pagbálak, Brilliance in writing poetry.

álan a having a bitter taste similar to that of half-cooked kamunggay leaves. v [B; b6] be bitterish in taste. Muálan ang kamunggay ug haúnun kun dì pa lútù, Kamunggay leaves become somewhat bitter if you fail to cook them well.

álang (not without l) for the sake of. Kini álang kanímu, This is for you. Álang kanákù dílì nà ángayng ikasukù, As far as I’m concerned, that’s nothing worth getting angry about.

alangáang n for weather to be oppressively hot and moist with no wind. Alangáang kaáyu; tingáli muulan, It is very hot and muggy; maybe it’s going to rain. v 1 [B2S] be muggy. 2 [B2S3] ache with heat. Mualangáang (maalangáang) ang ímung kamut ug makahikap kag dugà sa síli, Your fingers will hurt if you let hot pepper juice get on them.

alang-álang a 1 not quite time, unseasonable. Ang-ā́ng na run igikan. Dì na ka kaabut, It’s no use going now. You’ll never make it. Ang-ā́ng iadtu run kay sayu pa, No use going so early. 2 not quite the right amount. Alang-álang pa ning kwartang ilukat sa prinda, This money is insufficient to pay off the mortgage. Ang-ā́ng ning panaptúna pára karsúnis, This is not enough cloth for a pair of pants. 3 not up to a certain level. Ang-ā́ng pagkapanday, It was poorly done. Sumbágun ta untà ka, apan ang-ā́ng ka ra nákù, I would love to fight you, but you’re too small for me. 4 somewhat, but not quite. Ang lamì alang-álang nangkà, alang-álang pinya, The taste is somewhat like jackfruit, somewhat like pineapple. n 1 it would be silly if, it would be the wrong thing to do if. Ang-ā́ng dílì dawátun. Gihátag man, It would be silly not to accept it. It was given to you, wasn’t it? Ang-ā́ng akuy manghúgas nga náa may masúgù, Why should I do the dishes when there’s s.o. I can tell to do them. 2 of course. ‘Malígù ka?’—‘Ang-ā́ng. Mau bitaw nay átung gianhi,’ ‘Are you going to swim?’—‘Of course, that’s what we came here for, isn’t it?’ v [A; b5c1] 1 do s.t. poorly, halfway. Ug alang-alángun (alang-alángan, ialang-álang) nà nímug búhat, ay na lang, If you’re going to do a poor job, never mind. 2 do s.t. at an inopportune time. Dílì pa ku run mualang-álang ug minyù nga walà kuy salapì, I’m not going to go and get married at this time when I don’t have any money. 3 [B256N; b4(1)] arrive a little too late or early for s.t. Mangang-ā́ng kug larga, I’ll leave a bit ahead. 4 [b4] lacking s.t. Naang-ángan ku sa kwarta, I am short of money. 5 [ab2] be put in a difficult situation by s.t. inopportune. Ímu kung alang-alángug pangutána nga náa may láing namátì, You put me in a difficult situation asking that question when s.o. else is listening. 6 [A23] have hesitations about doing s.t. Dílì giyud aku mualang-álang nímug pangutánag dílì pa tinúud, I wouldn’t have reservations about asking you if it weren’t true. 7 [b6] consider s.t. alang-álang. Giang-ā́ngan aku sa íyang hitsúra, I consider his looks not up to par. Giang-ā́ngan akug hangyù níya, It’s a bad time for me to ask him. (→) = alang-álang, v, a3. paN- v [A2; c6] eat a single heavy meal in between mealtimes to make one do for two. Mangalang-álang lang ta kay kúlang tag bugas, Let’s eat two meals in one because we don’t have enough rice. n single [23]meal eaten in place of two.

alangíing a giving off intense and penetrating heat in the atmosphere. v [B2S] be very hot. Basta ting-init mag-alangíing ang adlaw sa palis, During summer the sun gets to be stinging hot in the early afternoon.

alangílan n k.o. medium- to large-sized tree which produces a multitude of fragrant flowers, esp. in May and June: Cananga odorata. The flowers are made into flower necklaces, and a scented oil is extracted from them which is made into perfume.

alangísig = alingísi.

alangitngit n woody herb of open waste places; used as a poultice: Ehretia microphylla.

alangsúhan n a medium-sized forest tree: Alphitonia philippinensis.

alapáhap n k.o. fish.

alap-alap v [BN16] be in doubt, uncertain of. Nagpangalap-alap (nag-alap-alap) ku nga muanhi pa siya, I doubt if he is still coming.

alap-ap n k.o. fungus skin disease characterized by white splotches on the skin. v [a4] be infected with alap-ap. Giap-ap ang íyang pánit, She had ap-ap on her skin. -un(→) a covered with or infected with alap-ap.

alarma (not without l) n 1 alarm, sound notifying danger. 2 report of danger. May alarma nga náay púga, There was an alarm out that there was a jailbreak. v 1 [A; b6] give an alarm. Alarmáhan ta sa gwardiya ug muabut ang kuntra, The guard will give us a warning when the enemy arrives. 2 [A; c] report danger. Walà pa ialarma sa pulisíya ang túlis, The police has not been given an alarm about the robbery.†

aláru (not without l) n arrowroot: Maranta arundinacea.

*alas1 (not without l) [number] [so-and-so] o’clock. Alas dus na ba? Is it two o’clock yet? Alas sayis ang puntaríya sa pusil, The sight of his gun is at six o’clock. Ala úna, — dus, — tris (in auction) going once, going twice, gone! túlin pa sa — kwatru faster than blazes. v [B5; b4(1)] be [so-and-so] o’clock. Nialas tris na lang, wà gihápun, It got to be three and he still did not come. Sa nag-alas dus na, nagsúgud na sila, When it was two o’clock, they began. Ug maalas kwatru na, ayaw na lag lakaw, If it gets to be four, don’t bother going. Pagkaala úna na, namatay, By one o’clock he was dead. Nagkaalas dúsi na lang, It was getting toward twelve o’clock. Naalasnuybihan mig mata, We didn’t wake up until nine. (We were overtaken by nine o’clock in waking up.) Alas dusa (ialas dus) ang pagsúgud, Have it start at two. ika- at [so-and-so] o’clock. Sa ikaalas singku ang taknà, At five o’clock. (At the fifth o’clock hour.)

alas2 (not without l) n ace, a card or die marked with a single spot. v [B23; a12] be an ace, draw an ace. Mualas (maalas) gánì ning ákung mahulbut, pildi ka, If I draw an ace, you lose.

alasan (not without l) n chestnut-colored horse with small white speckles.

alas dúsi n name given to various ornamental plants, the flowers of which tend to open at noon or midnight.

alasíman = ulasíman.

alasiwsiw = alisiwsiw.

alas kwatru = marabilyas.

alas utsu n k.o. ornamental climbing cactus the fragrant flowers of which open around eight in the evening and close within two or three hours: Hylocereus sp.

alasúus n k.o. fish: Sillago sp.

alat n big and tall wide-mouthed basket with loose hexagonal mesh weave. v [A] make into an alat.

álat1 (not without l) n cop (slang).

álat2 (not without l) n salted eggs.

alatan n k.o. grunt: Plectorhynchus sp.

aláut (not without l. from dáut) a unfortunate, wretched. Aláut nga biktima sa bagyu, The unfortunate victims of the typhoon. v [APB12] make, become wretched.

alaw (not without l) v [A; a12] 1 watch s.o. from hiding unobserved. Iring nga nag-alaw sa pisù, The cat that is stalking the chick. Alawa ag bátà ug unsay buhátun, Spy on the child and see what he does. 2 watch for, wait for. Pag-alaw didtu ug taksi, Watch for a taxi. 3 [A3; a12] be after s.t. with a hidden motive. Ang íyang kadátù ray alawun sa mangulitáwu, Her suitors are only after her wealth. alaw-álaw v [A; b5] try to get to see s.o. hard to see by catching him s.w. Dúgay kung gaalaw-álaw ánang pulitikúha arun irikumindar ku, I have been trying for the longest time to run into that politician so he will recommend me.

álaw (not without l) not have (slang for walà). Álaw kuy bugas, I don’t have anything to eat.

aláwans (not without l) n 1 allowance, amount of money given regularly. 2 leeway, extra space. v [A; c6] 1 give or receive an allowance. Mualáwans akug singku písus, I will get an allowance of five pesos. Mualáwans ku nímug singku, I will give you an allowance of five pesos. 2 give allowance, leeway. Mag-aláwans kag purgáda arun dì [24]háyan mamabà, Leave an inch allowance so it won’t come out too short.

alawíhaw = aluwíhaw.

alawiswis (not without l) n 1 bamboo stem an inch around or less: the top part of a stem or a young stem. 2 the top part of a palm frond.

aláyun n group of people who work together on jobs on a more or less permanent basis. The person for whom the job is done has an obligation to repay each worker with an equal amount of time. v 1 [A2C; b5c4] work on the aláyun basis. Alayúnun (alayúnan) nátù ang pagpananggì, We’ll harvest on the mutual help basis. Alayúnan tika karun, ug impas na, I’ll work for you now, and we’re all square. 2 [A3; b6(1)] do s.t. as a favor. Nag-aláyun siya nákug hatud ngadtu, He did me the favor of taking me there. Alayúni siyag panghúgas, Do him the favor of helping him wash the dishes. Ialáyun kug kúhag túbig, Please get me some water. 2a please. Aláyun, ambi ra nang libru, Please, give me that book. ka- n one with whom one has an aláyun arrangement. -an n work obligation one has.

alayupiyup = aliyupyup.

alba n alb, a type of priest’s garment. v [A; a] wear an alb, make into an alb. -in- n dress shaped like an alb. v [A; a] wear, make into a dress of this sort.

albaháka n name given to several herbs with a sweet mint-like aroma used as a condiment, medicinally, and for delousing fowls. 1 Ocimum basilicum. 2 = kalugungkugung.

albangku clear away from the sides of the billiard table. Albangku, mga mirun, Spectators, get out of the way.

albáti = alugbáti.

albínu n albino.

albularyu = arbularyu.

album n album, scrapbook. v 1 [A; c] put in an album. Albúmun ku ning ákung mga ritrátu, I’ll collect these pictures in an album. 2 [A12] get or obtain an album.

algudun n cotton as manufactured, commercial cotton.

alguwasil n 1 s.o. employed as a general office boy-janitor combination in offices in Spanish times. 2 constable. v [B6; a] be an alguwasil.

alhíbi n a large water container with a faucet at the bottom.

alhu n pestle. v 1 [A12] make into a pestle. 2 [a12] hit with a pestle. Alhúun tika run, I’ll hit you with a pestle.

áli v [A; c] block a path, prevent passage, be a barrier. Ang bahà nakaáli sa ámung pagtabuk, The flood prevented us from crossing to the other side. Gialíhan ku ang íyang dálan, I blocked his way. Kiring kaban iáli sa pultahan, Put this trunk as a barrier behind the door. (→) n 1 barrier. 2 a gill net set as a barrier to catch stunned fish.

*alibagbag pa- v [A; b6] avoid answering or seeming to heed by speaking off the topic, or pretend to be doing s.t. else in order to avoid the embarrassment of a confrontation. Ayaw paalibagbag ug basabása myintras gisultíhan ka nákù, Don’t sit there reading while I am talking to you. Gialibagbágan (gipaalibagbágan) ku níyag tubag kay dì man siya muadmitir nákù, He answered me off the topic to avoid admitting it.

alibangbang n 1 butterfly. 2a butterfly fish: Chaetodon sp. 2b by extension, angel fish: Holacanthus sp. 3 k.o. seashell. -un butterfly fish.

alibángu a bothering others by being noisy. v [B1; b6] bother s.o. by being noisy. Gialibangúhan ku sa ímung pangyawyaw, I find your grumbling bothersome.

alibay1 n excuse for failing to do s.t. v [A; c] give an excuse. Ialibay nga namatyan kag lúla, Give the excuse that your grandmother died.

alibhat v [A; b5] head s.o. off. Mualibhat lang ta sa parid, Let’s catch up to the parade by heading it off. Alibháti (alibháta) siya. Didtu ági sa luyu, Head him off by going around the other way.

alíbi = alhíbi.

alibusbus n k.o. winged large red house ants that come in swarms, esp. during rainy days, and hover around bright lights.

alibwag v [AB3(1); aPc] disperse, scatter in all directions, scatter s.t. Mialibwag ang báhù sa kasuuksuukan, The smell spread to every corner. Kinsay nag-alibwag sa duldul? Who scattered the kapok all over the place? Alibwágun ang punduk sa tirgas, The tear gas will disperse the crowd.

alibyu n 1 alleviation, improvement of an affliction. 2 improvement. Walay alibyu ang ámung kahimtang, Our financial condition is no better. v [APB; b3c5] get better, make s.t. get better in health. Ang biks mualibyu (mupaalibyu) sa sip-un, Vicks alleviates a cold. Mialibyu ang ákung ubu, My cold got better.

alid-an, alid-i see alíli.

alig-alig v [AP; b(1)] 1 do s.t. which is not one’s ordinary duty, take s.t. on oneself. Ngánung gialig-aligan man nà nímug táud nga wà pa man mahuman ug pintal? Why [25]did you go and put it up when we hadn’t finished painting it? 2 undertake a task which one is not up to doing. Bisag dì kamau mudrayib, mualig-alig nà siyag maníhu, He doesn’t know how to drive, but he takes it on himself to do so.

aligasiyun n allegation.

aligatu n fiery particles carried off from a fire by the updraft. v [A; b6] give off flaming particles. Piligru ug aligatuhan ang atup nga nípà, It’s dangerous if flying embers hit the roof because it is palm thatch.

aligáya v [A; b6] take a nap. Nag-aligáya siya sa dúyan, He is taking his nap in the hammock.

aligi n the yellow fat of crabs. v [A13; b4] 1 for crabs to have fat in abundant quantities. Kasag nga gialigihan, Crabs with plenty of fat. 2 for dirt to be present in thick rolls like fat on a crab. Nag-aligi ang buling sa ímung líug, You have deep rolls of dirt on your neck.

alig-ig v [A; a] 1 separate coarse and fine grains by shaking them on a tray. A jerking motion is made in one direction so that the heavier grains collect at one end of the tray. Alig-íga ang ginaling, Shake out the ground corn. 2 rock vigorously from side to side. Makusug nga línug nga mialig-ig sa Manílà, A strong earthquake that rocked Manila. Pastilan níyang nakaalig-ig sa samput dihang hápit na, My, how she moved her buttocks from side to side when she was about to come. 3 shake up personnel. Kinsay gialig-ig ni Markus? Who did Marcos dismiss (from his cabinet)? -in-ay n shake-up of personnel. Human sa iliksiyun, dakù giyung inalig-ígay, After the election, there will be a big shake-up. -un(→), -unun n ground cereal to be winnowed.

aligri a lively, gay. Aligri ang ílang piging, Their party was gay. Aligring ikúyug si Pingping, Pingping would be fun to take along. v [B; a] be or become gay or lively. aligrihun a of a lively type.

aliguríya n parable, allegory. v [A2; c1] speak by way of allegory.

aligutgut1 n a prayer imploring the saving of a soul recited or sung in recitation-response style at the end of a novena.

aligutgut2 n rancor, deep abiding anger. v [B; b3] feel rancor, bitterness, or hatred. Gialigutgútan níya si Pidru, He feels rancor towards Pedro. Ang ímung pagbutar sa píkas mauy íyang gikaaligutgútan pag-áyu, What embittered him most is that you voted for the other side. ka- n = aligutgut2.

alihid v [B; c16] lean to one side. Nag-alihid ang balay sa kadáan, The house is leaning to one side from age. Nagkaalihid ang linaktan sa táwung nagdalag bug-at, The man is walking leaning to one side because of the burden he’s carrying.

alíid v [A2S; a12] stagger under a heavy load. Nag-aliid ang bátà ug pas-an sa táru, The child is staggering under the weight of the can of water. Nag-aliid siya sa túmang kawad-un, He was staggering under the burden of his poverty.

alikabu = abug1.

alikási a nervously restless. v [B; b6] be nervous and restless. Mualikási (maalikási) kug maduul na ang ting-iksam, I get nervous when exams approach.

alikáti n long-nosed pliers. v [a12] do s.t. with a long-nosed pliers. Gialikáti ang paglarut sa ákung ngípun, My tooth was extracted using a long-nosed pliers.

alikáti sa múrus n k.o. herb of waste places, growing to 2′, widely used as a poultice for wounds. It has alternate ovate leaves with dentate margins, decreasing in size toward the ends of the branches and multiple branching, with a branch growing in the axils of the larger leaves. Flowers are in axillary spikes, colored green, with small, tri-segmented fruit in the calyx, bearing tiny rounded seeds.

alikúmù (from kúmù) n k.o. sea crab with roundish bulging body, 2″ in length, yellowish green, with fat stubby claws and appendages for paddling. Not usually eaten.

alikún n k.o. fish.

alikway n 1 shoots of the taro (gabi) before they develop leaves. 2 k.o. vegetable eaten by the Suban-un.

alíli v [AC; ac2] swap, exchange. Kinsay mualílig kabáyù sa ákung kábaw? Who will swap a horse for my carabao? Nagkaalíli kami sa ámung pawntinpin, We took each other’s pens by mistake. Alilíhun ta ning síya ug kulumpiyu, Let’s put the chair where the rocking chair is and put the rocking chair here where the chair is.

alíling n k.o. ant, slightly bigger than the red ant (umígas), dark orange, somewhat translucent. It does not bite and is found swarming in all directions over sugar.

alílis = alíli.

alilúya n 1 alleluia, song in the church. 2 the name given to the child playing the role of the angel in the pageant performed on Easter Sunday dawn depicting the meeting of Mary and the Lord Jesus (súgat). The child is suspended from an arch which is placed in the spot where Mary and Jesus [26]are to meet after their separate processions from the cathedral. 3 name of this pageant.

alilúyuk n whirlpool. v [B46; b(1)] form a whirlpool. Mualilúyuk ang subà ug magbahà, The river forms a whirlpool when it floods.

álim1 v [APB2S] heal, make s.t. heal. Muálim (maálim) ning ákung samad, My wound will heal. Kining tambála muálim (mupaálim) sa ímung núka, This medicine will heal your sore. Panahun ray makaálim (makapaálim) sa ímung kaguul, Only time will assuage your sorrow. pa- v [A; a] allow s.t. to heal.

álim2 = álum.

alíma (from líma) v [A; b] take care of s.o. by administering to his needs. Alimáhi ang ímung manghud, Take good care of your younger brother. n hand (dialectal).

alimadmad = alimatmat.

aliman n German.

alimángu n k.o. edible crab of tidal swamps, black on the back, but lighter on the inside and on claws. It has large meaty claws, is round in shape, thick-shelled, without spikes and occasionally reaches 10″ in diameter. alimanguhun a having large lower arms and small biceps like a crab.

Alimanya n Germany.

alimása v [A; a] wash the body, esp. the lower limbs. Akuy mualimása (mag-alimása) sa mga bátà, I’ll wash the children. paN- v [A] wash oneself.

alimásag n k.o. edible crab.

alimatmat v [A12; b8] 1 regain consciousness. Dihà na ku makaalimatmat ug buut sa uspital, I was in the hospital when I regained consciousness. 2 have earliest awareness of life. Sukad ku makaalimatmat ug buut wà pa ku hibunali, I have not been spanked since the earliest time I can remember.

alimátuk n leech. v [a4b4] be infested with leeches. ka- v [A13] covered with leeches. -an(→) n place infested with leeches.

alimbrilyu = alambrilyu.

alimbúkad (from bukad) v [A2S] 1 expand in an upward direction, well upwards. Mialimbúkad ang asu pagkasúnug sa asíti sa baril, The smoke welled up as the oil in the barrel burned. 2 for feelings to well up. Mialimbúkad sa íyang kahiladman ang kahínam, A feeling of eager expectations welled up inside him. 3 pull in the cheeks and stick out the lips slightly in an expression of distaste. n an underwater source of a lake from which water rushes into the lake.

alimgas n tobacco seed. -an(→) n tobacco seed container.

alimgat = alinggat.

alimpatakan n 1 the mind as the seat of thinking processes. Isilsil pag-áyu sa inyung alimpatakan arun dì giyud ninyu hikalimtan, Imprint it indelibly in your mind so you don’t forget it ever. 2 cranium. Dakdákan ku nang ímung alimpatakan, I’ll knock you on your skull.

alimpúlu n 1 crown, part of the skull in the back where the hair forms a whorl. 2 topmost part of a mountain. 3 = alimpúlus. alimpulúhan n place where the crown is or place analogous to it. Nakatungtung siya sa alimpúhan sa dakung batu, He was perched on the topmost part of the rock. kinaalimpuluhan n the very spot at the center of the back of the head.

alimpúlus n small whirlwind. v [B346; a4b4] for there to be a whirlwind. Naukab ang ámung atup nga nípà dihang mialimpús, Our thatched roof was blown away when there was a small whirlwind.

alimpuyang = luy-aluy-a. see luy-a.

alimpuyas n k.o. plant similar to luy-aluy-a, the rhizomes of which are used medicinally: Curcuma zedoaria.

alimpuying = luy-aluy-a. see luy-a.

alimugmug = limugmug.

alimúkaw n 1 state of semiconsciousness just before falling asleep or awakening. Ang íyang gisulti búnga lang sa íyang alimúkaw, What he said was the product of his semiconsciousness. 2 action of the sort performed by fully conscious persons performed in one’s sleep. Wà ka nákù tuyúag igù. Alimúkaw lang kadtu, I didn’t mean to strike you. I did it in my sleep. v [b4] do s.t. in one’s sleep of the sort one normally does awake. Nanáug siya tungang gabíi. Gialimukáwan diay, He went downstairs in the middle of his sleep.

alimúkun n k.o. wild dove with white ears and light brown feathers speckled with black: Phapitreron leucotis.

alimúngaw (from bungaw) = alimúkaw.

alimungáwung n s.t. faintly similar to s.t. else in appearance. Alimungáwung ang hitsúra sa plurdilis sa ahítu, The zinnia is faintly like a marigold in appearance. v 1 [BC13; b6] come to resemble faintly. Mialimungáwung (naalimungáwung) ang bátang sinagup kaníla, The adopted child came to look like them. 2 [A12; b8] faintly discern a resemblance. Nakaalimungáwung ku nímu kay may-ungmay-ung ka sa ímung igsúun, I recognized you because you look like your brother. Hing-alimungawúngan siya sa bantay [27]nga mauy nangáwat sa kwarta, The guard faintly recognized him as the one who stole the money.

alimúsan n k.o. fish raised in fishponds: Paraplotosus albilabris.

alimúut (from púut) a confining, oppressive so as to make people feel uncomfortably hot. Alimúut nang naylung isul-ub, Nylon is oppressively hot to wear. Alimúut sa Magalyánis, way hángin, It’s oppressively hot downtown. There’s no wind. — ug nawung 1 sour-faced. 2 be so ugly as not to have one redeeming feature in one’s face. v [B; b3] be oppressively warm. Mualimúut (maalimúut) ang kwartu ug mahápun, It gets hot (might get hot) in the room in the afternoon. Gialimuútan (gialimut-an) ka? Do you feel hot?

alimyun n sweet smell, fragrance. Ang alimyun sa mga búlak, The fragrance of the flowers. paN- v [A; b(1)] smell sweet, give off fragrance. Nangalimyun ang mga dalága nga nagpadúng sa bayli, The girls that were headed for the dance smelled sweet.

alindáhaw n drizzle. v [A; b4] drizzle.

alindánaw (from danaw) n dragonfly.

alindánga a hot and sticky. v [B; b4] become hot and sticky. Hukásun ku ning ákung swítir kay gialindangáhan ku, I’ll take my sweater off because I feel hot and sticky.

alindángay a slightly feverish, uneasy in the body because of a slight fever. Dì ku mutarbáhu run kay mu rag alindángay ang ákung láwas, I won’t work today because my body is somewhat feverish. v [B; a4] have a slight fever, be restless. Nag-alindángay ang bátà kay gihilantan, The child is restless because he has a fever.

alindasay v [B46] uneasy, restless in place one is lying. Nag-alindasay ang bátang taas kaáyug hilánat, The child was restless because of his high fever.

alinga v [A; b5] give one’s attention to, care for. Walà siya mag-alinga sa daghang táwung nagpaábut kaníya, He paid no attention to the people waiting for him. Alingaha (alingahi)g maáyu ang mga bátà samtang wà ku dinhi, Watch the children carefully while I’m not here.

alingabngab v [B; b6c1] for s.t. to be wide open. Mualingabngab (maalingabngab) nang ímung samad ug dì tahiun, If you don’t stitch that wound, it will gape. Nag-alingabngab ang ímung pitáka, wà kasirhi, Your bag is wide open. You didn’t close it. Ayaw alingabngaba (ialingabngab) ang ímung bàbà arun dì masudlag lángaw, If you open your mouth wide like that, flies will get in it.

alingagngag n upper part of throat and back part of oral cavity, including the soft palate. -an(→) n the general area where the alingagngag is.

alingása1 a annoyingly noisy. Alingása ang bátà, The child is annoyingly noisy. Alingása ang íyang pandungug, His ears are full of a disturbing din. v [B1; a2] be noisy. ka- n noise.

alingása2 a feeling hot and humid. Alingása kining sinináang isul-ub, This shirt is hot to wear. v [B; b6] be hot. Ug maalingása (mualingása) ang panahun, mulupad ta sa Bagyu, When it gets hot, we fly to Baguio. n = ka-. ka- n heat.

alingásu (from asu) a smoky. v [B; b6] get filled with smoke. Ug magsugba ka dinhi, mualingásu (maalingásu) ang kwartu, If you broil food here, the room will get filled with smoke. n smokiness. Ang alingásu mauy nakalagum sa pintal, Smoke tarnished the paint. alingasúhun a of a somewhat smoky sort.

*alingawngaw1 pa- v [A; b6] pretend not to hear or see or know about s.t. one knows very well about. Mipaalingawngaw siyag basabása labun síging pasiplat, She pretended to be absorbed in her reading, but she kept on peeping out from the corner of her eyes. Mipaalingawngaw ang mangingilad dakù nga wà siya makautang nákù sa maung kantidad, The swindler denied knowing anything about the money he owed me.

alingawngaw2 n a k.o. very small gnats that swarm over leftover foods. v [a4] have alingawngaw swarming over it. Gialingawngaw ang kan-un, The food had gnats all over it.

alinggánay = linggánay.

alinggat v [A12; b8] be aware, take notice of s.t. Nakaalinggat ka ba nga niwangniwang na run si Tasya? Have you noticed that Tasia is a little thinner now? Hialinggatan nákù nga wà na ang táwu, I noticed that the man was gone.

alingíing = alangíing.

alingísi a making a piercing, screeching noise. Alingísi siyag tíngug, She has a piercing voice. v [B; a2] be noisy. Naalingísi ang tíngug sa kutsi sa gibríkan, The car screeched as the brakes were put on.

alingísig = alingísi.

alingisngis a making very high-pitched and drawn out piercing noise. Ayaw ug ikágis ang ímung kuku sa pisára kay alingisngis, Don’t run your fingernails over the blackboard because it’s screechy. v [B; c1] be high-pitched and screeching. Nag-alingisngis ang sín nga gigúyud, The iron sheeting they [28]are dragging is making a screeching sound.

alingit a short-tempered, irritable. v [B; ab3] be irritable. Pakatulga nang bátà ug udtu arun dílì mualingit (maalingit), Have the child take an afternoon nap so he won’t be irritable later. Mauy ialingit (alingitan) níya ug hilabtan ang íyang gamit, If you touch his things it will make him mad.

alingiting n intense dry heat, greater than alangíing. v [B; b6] be exceedingly hot. Ang adlaw mag-alingiting lang, basta kwarisma, The sun is scorching during Lent.

alingkawas = lingkawas.

alingugngug a noisy in a constant drumming way. Alingugngug kaáyu ang tíngug sa tambul, The drum made an annoying sound. v [B] be annoyingly noisy. n constant noise which drums in the ears.

alinsúub a warm, moist and stuffy without wind. Alinsúub ang panahun. Kauwanun tingáli, The weather is hot and stuffy. It’s probably going to rain. v [B; b6] be hot and airless. Nag-alinsúub lang ang barungbárung, The shanty is cramped and poorly ventilated.

alintabu v [B; c1] turn over, producing a loud turmoil. Nagkaalintabu ang mga balud, The waves churned more and more vigorously. Nag-alintabu sa hilabihang kayugut ang ákung kahiladman, I was in complete turmoil within myself because of my great anger. Alintabuhun (ialintabu) ku ning mga gamit nátù ug dílì ka musugut, I’ll turn this house upside down if you don’t agree. n noise produced by things turned upside down with a crash.

alinupung (from túpung) v [A3; a] 1 for vertical things to be almost the same height, esp. for children to be so close together they are almost the same height. Ug alinupungun ninyu ang inyung anak, magsangkiig mu, If you have your children one after another, you’ll reel under the burden. 2 coming one after another (figurative). Nag-alinupung nga suliran, Problems that come one after another.

alipadnu n k.o. edible fresh-water limpet of dark olive green to grey color, oblong, growing to 1″. It clings to stones.

alipadsay v [B; c1] 1 for good-sized things to be scattered. Ang ímung mga butang nagkaalipadsay lang sa kwartu, Your things are scattered all over the room. Alipadsáyun (ialipadsay) ang mga papílis sa hángin, The papers will be scattered by the wind. 2 for s.t. to be consumed rapidly as if scattered. Kadalì rang mualipadsay ang kwarta karun, How quickly money vanishes these days. Gialipadsay lag kausa ang mga pagkáung giaray sa lamísa, The food that was heaped on the table vanished in one fell swoop.

alipanti = ilipanti.

alipasa v [B46; b4] for a child lying in bed to be restless due to discomfort, worry, etc. Ang bútud sa tiyan mauy makaalipasa (makapaalipasa) sa bátà, Gas pains can cause a child to become restless.

alipáta, alipátà n k.o. medium-sized tree of the seashore, the ashes of which are used for soap making. Ingredient for a broth to counter bárang: Excoecaria agallocha.

alipatpat a for vision to be blurred. v [BN] become blurred or bleary. Mialipatpat (nangalipatpat) ang ákung panan-aw sa dúgay nákung binása, My vision became blurred from reading too long.

alip-ip1 n 1 person’s back reaching from the shoulders as far as the waist. 2 waist, part on the side directly beneath the lower rib.

alip-ip2 v [AP] 1 hide by making oneself as small as possible behind s.t. Mialip-ip (mipaalip-ip) ang kawatan sa bungbung, The robber pressed himself against the wall so he couldn’t be seen. 2 peer or look furtively from behind s.t. Ang sanlahun mialip-ip (mipaalip-ip) lang ug tan-aw sa luyu sa bintánà, The leper peered furtively from behind the windows.

alipúlu = alimpúlu.

alipúlung v [b4] feel dizzy. Alipudngan ku ug gutmun ku, I feel dizzy when I’m hungry.

alipunga, alipungà n 1 eczema caused by allergy. 2 athlete’s foot. v [a4] get a rash or athlete’s foot. Alipungahun ku ug malígù kug sayu sa buntag, I get a rash when I bathe early in the morning.

alipúnga1 a having difficulty in breathing. v [BN; a4b4] have difficulty in breathing. Nangalipunga ang ákung gininháwa kay gibutdan aku, I had a hard time breathing because of the gas in my stomach.

alipúnga2 a noisily bothersome. Alipúnga ning batáa, síging hílak, The child is very bothersome. He keeps crying. v [BN; b6] be noisily bothersome.

aliputu, alipútu a short tempered because of s.t. which is weighing on the mind. Alipútu run nà siya kay napildi sa súgal, He is in an irritable mood because he lost in gambling. v [B; a2c5] get to be in a bad mood. Gialipútu na sad ku níya sa íyang mga binúang, He irritated me with his foolishness.

alíraw = líraw.

alirdyik a 1 allergic. 2 tending to react to s.t. nice more than usual (humorous). Alirdyik kus mga gwápa, Good-looking girls turn me [29]on. v [B12; a4b3(1)] be allergic. Ug mutúu kang alirdyik, maalirdyik ka núun, If you think you’re allergic to s.t. you will be allergic. Gialirdyik kug pasáyan, I’m allergic to shrimps. Unsay ímung kaalirdyíkan? What caused your allergy?†

alírung v [AB3(1); c] gather around s.t. Nag-alírung ang mga táwu sa sugálan, The people stood around the gambling table. Nag-alírung siya sa silya sa lamísa, He put the chairs around the table. n 1 people gathered around. 2 the surroundings, the space around. Ang mga gángis lámay nagtingug sa alírung, Only the crickets were chirping in the area.

alisbu n bad smell permeating the air. Ang alisbu sa patayng irù, The stench of the dead dog. v [BN46; b4(1)] give off a bad smell. Naalisbuhan ku sa báhù sa íhì, The stench of the urine reached me.

alisbung = alisbu.

alisdan, alisdi = ilisdan/-i.

alisiwsiw n k.o. grasshopper about 25 to 30 mm. long, abounding in open grasslands, light yellow-green dorsal side and yellowish dirty gray underside, not glossy. Not migratory or destructive to crops.

alisngaw v [A; b6] 1 evaporate, give off steam. Mualisngaw ang alkuhul, The alcohol will evaporate. Ínit pa diay ang túbig kay nag-alisngaw man, The water is still hot, then, because it’s giving off steam. 2 for anger to vent itself. Mualisngaw na ning ákung kasukù, I’m going to blow up in a minute. n steam or evaporation given off. paN- v [A; b6] give off a smell. Nangalisngaw ang tanglad, The lemon grass gave off a pleasant smell. -in- n 1 thing given off as steam or evaporation. 2 shadow, small portion of a character trait which is exuded. Ug daghan may natuntu níya, inalisngaw lang tu sa íyang kamaldítu, He cheated lots of people, but that was just a fraction of his mischief. Kadtung kasábà inalisngaw lang tu sa ákung kasukù, The scolding was just a faint shadow of what I really felt.

alistu a 1a energetic. Alistu siyang mutrabáhu, He works energetically. b agile. Alistu siyang milikay, He dodged agily. 2 shrewd, clever. Alistu siyang musabut, He understands things readily. Alistu, apuntin, puygu! Ready, aim, fire! 3 do s.t. well. Alistu siyang mulútù, She cooks well. v 1 [B2] be energetic, agile. Mualistu (maalistu) ka man lang ug makakità ug kwarta, You only move if you see money. 2 [B1] be clever, smart. Ug makig-úban ka sa mga abtik maalistu ka giyud, If you go around with shrewd people, you’ll become shrewd, too. Alistu ka lang kay itug-an tikang Pápa, Better watch out because I’ll tell Father on you. 3 [b4(1)] be outsmarted. Naglágut ku kay naalistuhan kung Husi, I’m mad because Jose put one over on me.

alisuksuk = saluksuk2.

alitundan n k.o. banana with light yellow skin, which grows to six inches. One of the most important commercial bananas, it is eaten uncooked.

aliwálang = alíling.

aliwarus v [A13] be restless in expectation of s.t. Nag-aliwarus siyang nagpaábut sa íyang trátu, She nervously awaited her sweetheart.

aliwárus a nuisance, annoyance caused by noise and motion. Ang daghang pidikab mauy nakaaliwárus (nakapaaliwárus) sa karsáda, The large number of pedicabs are a nuisance in the streets. Maaliwárus lang ang balay kun magdagandágan ang mga bátà, The house will just be in commotion if the children keep running about.

alíwas n large monkey, ape. -un a ape-like.

aliwasa, aliwása v [B2S; a4b34] restless because of discomfort or worry. Nag-aliwasa siya kay nagabin-an ang íyang bátà, She was restless because her child came home late.

aliyupyup n shrub of clearings: Pseuderantheum bicolor. The leaves are used for uterine bleeding and roots and trunk for stomach ache.

alkabála n fee charged for the use of a space to vend. v [A; c] charge a fee for that. Alkabaláhan kag bayinti, You will be charged twenty centavos for a place in the market.

alkaldi n mayor. v [B126] be mayor.

alkampur n 1 camphor wood. 2 name of a folk dance. -adu, asayti -adu, di- camphorated oil.

alkansi a losing, without gain or advantage. Alkansi kaáyu kug singkwintay ibáyad mu, I lose a lot if you pay fifty. Alkansi aku niya sa pagkáun, I lose on his food. Alkansi aku níya sa báhin, I lose out the way it is divided. n 1 loss. Dakù silag alkansi sa ílang nigusyu, They incurred a big loss in their business. 2 lacking in amount. Dus mitrus alkansi sa sukud pára sa usa ka páris karsúnis, Two meters is not enough material for a pair of pants. Alkansi ning ímung gihátag sa pagpangumpra, You haven’t given me enough shopping money. v [B; c] 1 incur a loss. Alkansíhan aku nímug diyútay, You will take a small loss on me. 2 cause to take a loss. Alkansíhun aku nímug singkwinta [30]ray ímung ihátag, You will make me take a loss if you only give me fifty pesos. 3 [AP; a] cause to get insufficient return from an investment. Ug siyay ímung suluguun, mag-alkansi lang siya sa káun, If he is your servant, you lose out on his food. — sa lutaw v [APB] cause to have a small amount of freeboard, have less freeboard. Ang karga mualkansi sa lutaw sa sakayan, The cargo lessens the amount of freeboard which the boat has.

alkansíya n container for saving coins, piggy bank. v [A; a2c] make, obtain, put in a piggy bank. Ialkansíya ang kwartang ímung hikit-an, Put the money you found into the piggy bank.

alkaydi n = alkaldi.

alkila = arkila.

alkitran n mixture of tar and creosote painted on wood to preserve it. v [AN; a1b] apply, make into tar of this sort.

alkúba n 1 ceiling. Amákan ang alkúba sa ílang balay, The ceiling of their house is made of woven bamboo. 2 space between the ceiling and roof, attic. Isang-at sa alkúba ang mga ginámit nga kahun, Put the used boxes in the attic. 3 canopy of a bed. v [A; b6(1)] put a ceiling.

alkuhíris n mosaic disease that affects abaca and bananas. v [a4] get mosaic disease.

alkuhul n alcohol. -íra n alcohol container with a pouring spout.

alkumbra n 1 rug. 2 k.o. tall ornamental ginger plant with soft velvety leaves: Costus speciosus.

alkuntra n s.t. put behind s.t. else which is to be hammered in order to absorb the blow, acting as a counterpoise. v 1 [a] make into a counterpoise. Alkuntráhig pintul dinhing pikása ug paknga ug martilyu sa píkas, Put a piece of wood on this side to absorb the blow and strike it with a hammer on the other side. 2 [A; c1] react in opposition to s.t. Ang pagkagastadur sa asáwa gialkuntráhan (gialkuntra) sa katihik sa bána, The husband’s tightfistedness acted as a counterpoise (was used as a counterpoise) to the wife’s spending.

almagri n powder put on materials to dye them red or brown prior to applying finish. v [A; b6] apply almagri powder. Átung almagríhan ang simintu arun mapula, We’ll dye the cement so that it gets red.

almamátir n Alma Mater.

almanáki n almanac. v 1 [a12] do by means of an almanac. Ug lisdan kag hunàhúnag ngálan, almanakíhun na lang nátù, If you have a hard time thinking of a name, let’s find one in the almanac. 2 [A12] obtain an almanac.

almasíga n almaciga, a large forest tree producing lumber, balaw, and the dammar resin important in trade since prehistoric times: Agathis philippinensis. v [A; a12] make s.t. of almaciga wood.

almasin n 1 dry goods store. Sapían siya kay dakug almasin, He is rich because he has a big store. 2 a k.o. thick cloth with large prints, not locally woven, formerly sold in stores. Ang panaptung almasin naúsu sa mga mil nuybi sintus bayinti, The almasin cloth was widely used in the twenties.

almindras n almonds.

almiranti n admiral. v [B156; a12] be an admiral.

almiris n a small mortar used in cooking or pharmaceutical work. v [a12] make into a small mortar.

almirul n prepared starch used for clothing. v 1 [AN; b] starch clothes. Ímu na bang gialmirulan ang karsúnis? Have you starched the pants yet? 2 [a12] make into starch.

almismutyimpu occupying a certain position concurrently. Prisidinti siya, almismutyimpu tisuríru, He’s president and at the same time treasurer.

almuháda n uterus of female animals.

almuhadun n cushion. v [a] make into a cushion.

almundigas n dish consisting of meat balls with plain sauce. v [A1; c1] make this dish.

almunída n bargain sale. v [A; c] sell at a cheap price. Gialmunidáhan aku ug balay, I was offered a house for sale at a low price.

almuránas n hemorrhoids. v [a4] be afflicted with hemorrhoids. Kanà kunung hingaug síli lagmit almuranásun, They say people who eat hot peppers tend to get hemorrhoids.

alpa n harp. v [A1; a12] make a harp. paN- [A; b6] play the harp.

alpabitayis v [A; a12] alphabetize. Alpabitayisa kunu ring lista sa mga ngálan, Please alphabetize this list.

alpáka n alpaca cloth.

alpalpa n alfalfa. alpalpahan n alfalfa field.

alpilir n safety pin. v [A; b6] put a safety pin in s.t. Ímu lang alpiliran ang karsúnis kay wà nay butúnis, Just put a safety pin in the trousers because they have no buttons. paN- v [A] pin oneself up with a safety pin. Mangalpilir ku arun dì mahushus ang ákung sáya, I’ll use a safety pin so my skirt won’t slip down. — dinágum = dinágum. see dágum.

alpiril, alpirin = alpilir.

alpirisíya n k.o. children’s disease. [31]

alpumbra n rug, carpet. v [b6] put or spread a carpet on.

alpunsínu n style of haircut where the hair is short at the side, but enough is left on the top to part in the middle (the style worn by King Alfonso of Spain). v [a12] cut the hair in the alpunsínu style.

alput n prostitute (euphemism for púta). v [B16; a12] become, make into a prostitute.

alsa v 1 [A; a12] lift s.t. from underneath. Alsáhun nátù ning lamísa, Let’s lift the table. 2 [A2] rise in rebellion. Mialsa ang mga Pilipínu bátuk sa Katsílà, The Filipinos rose against the Spaniards. 3 [A] for dough to rise in baking. Ug mualsa na gánì ang minása, When the dough rises. 4 [A6; b4] — ang kabúhì for the kabúhì to rise out of its place from fright. Gialsáhan ku sa kabúhì sa pagbutu, I had a severe case of fright when it exploded. n 1 action of having lifted. Tulu ka alsa, kutasan na ku, If I do three lifts, I’m out of breath. 2 load that can be carried in a trip. Pila ka alsa úsà matiwas ug hákut? How many loads till it’s all delivered? — butang v [B1456; c6] for various medicines to be applied in succession without waiting for results. -in- n k.o. haircut where the top of the head has hair and the sides cropped short. -du — ug kabúhì a easily frightened. Alsádu ra pud nímug kabúhì, kasíkas ra tu sa dáhun, How jittery you are. It was only the rustling of leaves. v [B12] get to be easily frightened. Naalsádu ang ákung kabúhì sukad ku makatunub ug bitin, Ever since I stepped on a snake, I have been jittery. — ug kamut quick to lift the hand in anger. v [B12] be quick to lift the hand in anger. -myintu n uprising, revolt. Ang alsamyintu bátuk sa Katsílà, The uprising against the Spaniards. v [A; a12] rise up. Dílì ni madala ug kumpirinsiya, alsamyintúhun lang nátù ni, A conference is no good. We’ll have to revolt in this case.

*alta — prisyun n high blood pressure. v [B12; a4] have high blood pressure. Ayawg hingárig káug tambuk kay alta prisyunun (maalta prisyun) ka, Don’t keep eating fat because you will get (might get) high blood pressure. — susyidad high society. di- n dignitaries. Ang prisidinti gitagbù sa mga dialta, The president was met by the dignitaries. a suitable for high society. di- mar a high-class, luxurious.

altar n altar.

altu1 v [A3P; b(1)] halt. Mialtu siya pagkabatì sa mandar, He halted on hearing the command. Gialtúhan úsag kadiyut ang trabáhu karun sa mína, The work in the mine has come to a stop for the moment.

altu2 n alto voice, part, or instrument. v [A; b6] play or sing the alto part. Altúhi ang átung áwit, You sing the alto to our song.

*alu (not without l) aluálu v [A; a12] tease. Ug mag-aluálu kas irù, paakan ka, If you tease the dog, you will get bitten. Ayaw alualúha ang bungì, Don’t tease the harelip. n act of teasing. alualuhan a fond of teasing. v [B12] get to be fond of teasing. maalualuhun a of a teasing nature. aluhánay n game of tag where everybody chases everybody else. v [C; c3] play tag.

álù n channel in tidal flats.

alubíhid = alabíhid.

alud-ud n 1 s.t. which has the chewing quality of soft bones: the tender part of a stem, the husk of young coconuts near the bud, bone cartilage. Nahíwì ang íyang ilung kay napislat ang alud-ud, His nose got crooked because the cartilage was squashed. 2 top half of the coconut bud which is soft and edible with a somewhat bitter taste. -un a having the quality of alud-ud.

alug v [A; a] go down to get water. Mag-alug ang tagabúkid ug túbig, The mountaineers will be going down to get water.

alugbáti n k.o. vine, the leaves of which are widely used as a vegetable. Wild and cultivated, it has cordate leaves which come in green and purple-tinged varieties, slightly mucilagenous when cooked: Basilla rubra. v [A1; b6] cook alugbáti.

alug-ug v [A; c] shake in short jerky motions. Gialug-ug níya sa butilya ang túbig, He sloshed the water around in the bottle.

aluhánay see *alu.

aluhípan = ulahípan.

alukaba n eggshell.

alukabhang n 1 shell of eggs, sea shell, cartridge shell. 2 housing, skeletal structure of s.t. Maáyung pagkahimulbul. Alukabhang na lay nahibilin, It was completely stripped down. The only thing that remained of the car was the frame of the body.

alúla (not without l) n cylindrical basket made of coconut leaves, holding about two bushels, container for buláhan. v 1 [A; a] make an alúla. 2 [A; bc1] put s.t. into an alúla. Aluláhun (ialúla) nátù ning buwáhan arun itúmud, We will put the lanzones in the alúla to bring them to market.

alum n mole. -an a having a mole. (←) n snappers which have dorsal moles on the side just in front of the tail: Lutianus sp. -un a having lots of moles.

álum n k.o. small tree, with itchy leaves which are used as a poultice: Melanolepis [32]multiglandulosa.

aluminum (not without l) n aluminum metal. — rápir n aluminum foil.

alumínus (not without l) [so-and-so] (which is not desirable) is better than for s.t. else to happen. Pangayúun, pangayúun. Alumínus hulaman nga dílì iúlì, If you want it, ask for it. Better than borrowing s.t. without giving it back. Puwis palitan ta ka. Alumínus maghásul ka, All right, I’ll buy you some. Better than you bothering me all the time.

alumnus (not without l) n breed of large, meaty pig with a short snout, broad face, and roundish body.

alum-um a for the sky to be overcast. v 1 [B] become overcast. Mialum-um ang búwan, The moon became covered with a thin veil of clouds. 2 [b7c1] dim s.t. Alum-úmi (alum-uma, ialum-um) ang síga sa pulawan, Turn the night lamp down. 3 [b] be surpassed, put into the shadow by s.t. better. Gwápa siya apan naalum-uman siya ni Tidang, She is beautiful, but she is overshadowed by Tidang.

álun n long rolling wave, swell. v [B46; a4] for there to be big waves. Miálun sa dágat paghuyup sa amíhan, The sea had big waves when the northwind blew. Manday dinhà na mi sa píliw giálun hinúun mi, Just as we reached the shallow waters we were buffeted by big waves.

alundris1 (not without l) n sewing thread. v 1 [b6] thread a needle. Ákung gialundrísan ang makina, I threaded the machine. 2 [a1] make into sewing thread.

alundris2 n wild vine with a disagreeable odor, the berries of which are edible: Passiflora foetida.

álung1 v [A; b6] cast a shadow over s.t. Ang taas káhuy nag-álung sa ákung gardin, The tall tree casts a shadow over my garden. Ang íyang panganduy alúngan sa kahadluk, His hopes are overshadowed by fear. n place that is overshadowed. Muayun sa áwung ang kapi, Coffee plants do best in the shade.

álung2 v [A2; b6] be attracted to go near s.t. Ang dinagkutan nga kandílà gialúngan sa mga anunugba, The moths were attracted to the lighted candle. n fish attracted to the light in fishing that uses lights. Mga tugnus ang mga álung nákù, The fish attracted to my light were sardines. alung-álung v [ANP; b5] secretly keep watch on s.o. in hopes of getting a chance to see him. Ang laláking nangulitáwu níya pirming muawung-áwung (mangawung-áwung, mupaawung-áwung) níya sa dálan, The man who is courting her keeps waiting in the street for a chance to talk with her.

alungáing n jaw, mandible. -un a having a prominent jawbone.

alungaug a having a heavy feeling in the head from lack of sleep, hangover, blow, etc. v [BN] for head to be heavy. Mialungaug (naalungaug, nangalungaug) ang ákung úlu sa íyang kusug nga sumbag, I got a headache after she smacked me one.

alungnan = unlan. see ulun.

álup v [B] 1 for light, sense of sight to become dim. Nag-álup man nang ímung kaláyu, Your fire is low. Nagkaálup na ang íyang panan-aw, His sight is getting dim now. 2 for sounds to dim. Sa nagkalayù siya, nagkaálup pud ang íyang tíngug, As she got further away, her voice grew fainter. (→) a dim. Alup ang sugà, The light is dim.

alupaup = álup, 1.

alupì (from lupi) n k.o. tidbit made from grated young corn, optionally with milk or coconut milk, wrapped in corn husks and boiled. v [A; a12] make into an alupì.

alup-up, alupuup = álup, 1.

*álus pa- v [A; b5] stretch one’s patience, control oneself when provoked or distressed. Dì ku makapaálus sa mga táwung gágu, I can’t tolerate morons. Paalúsa (paalúsi) lang nang ímung bána ug masukù kay daghan mag prublíma, Just be patient with your husband when he gets angry because he is beset with many problems.

alusíman = ulasíman.

alut v [AC2; b(1)] 1 shave the head. 2 cut hair. Aluti ku, Cut my hair. 3 [A; b7] eat a portion of food intended for s.o. else. Ubang míd muawut sa litsi sa bátà, There are maids that help themselves to the baby’s milk. n 1 shaved bald. 2 haircut. Wà kay alut, You need a haircut. pa- v [A1; b(1)] get a haircut, have s.o. get a haircut. Magpaalut ku, I’ll get a haircut. Paalutan ku si Pidru, I’ll have Pedro get a haircut.

aluwíhaw n k.o. tree of second growth forest bearing small, depressed, globular yellow fruit, edible but acidic.

aluy1 (not without l) subjunctive passive verb [so-and-so] almost happened. Aluy siya hiligsi, He was almost run over.

aluy2 n k.o. large mackerel or tuna.

áluy (not without l) n money (slang).

aluyan = ayayan. see ayay.

alúyuk (not without l) n part of the skull where the hair forms a whorl. -an a having a whorl on the head. Gwápu si Pidru kay aluyúkan sa buna, Pedro is handsome because he has a whorl on the front of his [33]head. kina-an(→) n topmost or innermost part of s.t. Ang mga Magahat túa magpuyù sa kinaaluyukan sa lasang, The Magahats live in the very center of the forest. see úyuk.

alyádu n 1 ally. 2 employee (humorous). Alyádu siya nákù sa upisína, He’s an employee of mine in the office. v 1 [AC; b5] ally with, to become an ally with. Maáyung alyadúhun (alyadúhan) ang Pilipínas, It is good to make an ally of (ally oneself with) the Philippines. 2 [A; c1] have an employee.

alyádus = alyádu.

alyansa n alliance. v [C2; b(1)] have an alliance. Ang Amirika gialyansáhan sa Pilipínas, The Philippines had an alliance with America.

alyas n alias. v [B1; c] give, have an alias. Alyásan ka ug Rúhas, You’ll be given the name Roxas as an alias.

alyin n aliens (euphemism for Chinese).

*ama — námù n the Lord’s Prayer. short form: manámù. paN- v [A; b5] go to s.o. as if he were one’s father to ask for help. Kinsay inyung gipangama (gipangamahan) sa pagkasúd sa inyung bátà sa trabáhu? Who did you approach to get a job for your son? amaáma n stepfather. amaáma sa buti n the first single eruption of smallpox before spreading. amahan n father. — námù n the Lord’s Prayer. v [A1] act as, have a father. Dimálas nga nakaamahan kag mangtas, It is unfortunate that you have a beast for a father. pangamahan v 1 [A2] act as a father. Siya na lang ang nangamahan sa mga bátang ilu, He was the only one left to act as a father to the orphaned children. 2 [A2; b(1)] sponsor. Ang balaudun gipangamahan ni Briyúnis, The bill was sponsored by Briones. 3 = pangama. amáun n godfather in any ceremony.

amá (from ama) expression uttered when frightened: help! Amá! Náay sawa! Help! There’s a snake!

ámag = alámag, v, n1.

amaga n k.o. forest tree: Diospyros sp.

amag-amag (from alámag) n k.o. fish that stays near the shore and glows.

amagan see alámag.

amagus n small, black, fresh-water shrimp that has a small white stripe on the back. a black-complexioned.

amágus n k.o. shrub bearing juicy dark red berries, 1 cm. in diameter with a nauseous taste: Homonoia riparia.

amahan see *ama.

amahung n k.o. bivalve of sea, greenish brown in color, oblong, 2″ in length, with orange meat. Found clinging to rocks. Popularly eaten preserved in salt.

amákan n bamboo matting woven with a k.o. twill weave, commonly used for walling. The weft is passed over two and under two warp pieces. The successive weft is passed over two and under two warp pieces again, but such that the second weft passes over one and under one of the warp pieces that the first weft had passed over, and over one and under one of the warp pieces that the first weft had passed under. v [A; a12] weave amákan. -in- n s.t. woven like amákan.

am-am v [B1256] 1 be open-mouthed from having eaten s.t. spicy. Naam-am (nahaam-am) ang ákung bàbà sa síling kulikut, I opened my mouth wide when I ate the hot peppers. 2 feel stung by words of derogation which are true. Nahaam-am (naam-am) ku pag-ingun níya nga tapulan kaáyu ku, I got stung by her words that I was very lazy. hi-/ha- = am-am.

am-ám = alam-álam.

amamahung = amahung.

amamakul n k.o. edible mushroom that grows on decayed banana stalks. It has a slender stem, thin skin, and is dark grey in color.

amamaliw (from baliw) n s.o. incestuous who gets struck by a thunderbolt as divine punishment. v [B126] become an amamaliw.

amamangkas n k.o. thick-bodied and thick-shelled, edible, fresh-water crab growing to 3″, found in rivers and rice paddies. They are so called because they climb on water lilies and ride them (angkas) to the sea.

amamangluy n insect similar to the katydid. It makes a chirping sound in the evening.

amamangpang n k.o. fish of shallow waters.

amamaylan = baylan.

amang a 1 mute. Unsáun pagtubag ni Pidru ug amang siya? How can Pedro answer if he is mute? 2 silent. Ang bungbung ray amang nga saksi sa ílang gibúhat, The walls were the mute witnesses to their deeds. v [B123(1)] become mute, struck speechless. Naamang si Pidru sa pagkadungug sa balità, Peter was struck speechless upon hearing the news. -in- n pantomime, in sign language.

amang-amang v [A; b(1)] have the nerve to do s.t. which an ordinary person wouldn’t dare do. Mu ra nay ímung abilidad, unyà mag-amang-amang kag pangulitáwu sa anak sa ímung manidyir? You are a nobody, but you dare propose to your manager’s daughter? [34]

amangtan n k.o. fish of shallow waters.

*amanti prinsipi — Prince Charming.

amánus a equal, even stevens. Pildi kug diyis, pildi sad kag diyis, dì amánus na ta, I lost ten pesos and you lost ten pesos, so that makes us even. v 1 [B1C; c1] make things come out even. Amanúsun (iamánus) ku lang ang ímung útang sa útang ni Máma kanímu, You owe me the same amount my mother owes you, so I’ll call it even. 2 [C; c1] call it quits, declare a tie. Amanúsun (iamánus) ta ning átung tsis, Let’s call our chess game quits.

amapúlun n blood clots in the womb after delivery. v [b4] have blood clots in the womb after delivery. Giamapúnan ku mau nga misakit ang ákung tiyan, I had blood clots in my womb so I had stomach pains.

amapúng n wild vine with round leaves and bell-shaped white axillary flowers. The leaves are cooked as a vegetable.

amargúsu = paliya.

amarilyu a yellow. v [B; a] be, color s.t. yellow. Ug dulaw ipulug, maamarilyu ang buluk, If you dye it with turmeric, it will come out yellow.

amaspas n sawfish.

amasúna n amazon.

amat a bad, ugly, poor in quality. Amat ang klási ning panaptúna, This cloth is of poor quality. Amat siyag batásan, She has bad ways about her. v [B; a2] be poor in quality, bad, ugly. Ayawg amata nà pagbúhat, Don’t do it untidily.

ámat n sweet potato sprout, esp. those which come from potatoes missed in the harvest. paN- v [A2; b(1)] dig out the leftover sweet potatoes that have sprouted. Nangámat silag kamúting ílang isugba, They looked for leftover sweet potatoes to broil.

amátung n method of catching crabs by using shredded coconut as bait. v [A; a] catch land crabs by strewing coconut around.

amatyur n 1 singing contest for amateurs. Muapil ka sa amatyur sa diway-arsi? Will you take part in the singing contest over DYRC? 2 amateur singer, athlete, etc. v [A1; b(1)] hold an amateur contest.

amáun see ama.

amaw n feeble-minded. Ang amaw maglisud ug sabut sa mga túgun, The feeble-minded person has a hard time understanding instructions. v [B12] be, become feeble-minded. -un a of a feeble-minded sort.

ámay n 1 marrow of the bones. 2 outermost layer of the timber next to the bark. v [c1] make s.t. out of this material.

amáyung a gloomy, lightly overcast. v [B] be or become gloomy, lightly overcast. Muamáyung gánì hipúsa ang binulad nga humay, If it gets overcast, gather the rice grains.

ambà v [A; b3] low, moo. Nag-ambà ang báka, The cow is lowing.

ambáhan v [A; b(1)] go s.w. in a large group. Nag-ambáhan ang mga táwung nanagbù sa bag-ung kardinal, The people trooped in to greet the new cardinal. n large moving group.

ambak1 v [A; c] jump down to a lower place. Ang túbig nga nag-ambak sa línaw gíkan sa humayan, The water that falls into the pool comes from the ricefield. Giambakan ku sa ungguy, The monkey jumped down on me. Iambak nang písì didtu, Throw that rope down there. ambak-ambak1 v [A; b(1)] jump up and down.†

ambak2 n headhunters in Negros of former times who killed strangers to bury with their dead.

ambak-ambak2 n k.o. fish.

ambalang n k.o. edible seaweed found in tidal flats. It is green, soft, and has short straight branches similar to corals.

ambáng = ambalang.

ambangul = umbangul.

ambas a equal in some way. Ambas si Pidru ug Husi ug abilidad, Pedro and Jose are equal in ability. v [BC3; b] be equal in quality or ability. Muambas ang tíngug mu sa kang Husi, Your voice is just like Jose’s. Dílì kaambásan kining pintúra, This paint job cannot be matched.†

ambaw n a k.o. small mouse.

ambi 1 give it to me. Ambi ra gud ang butilya, Let me have the bottle. 2 particle used in making a request or asking permission. Ambi, tugtúga kunu tung ‘Sa Kabukíran’, Here, play ‘In the Mountains’. Ambi, pasimhúta kunu ta, Here, let me take a whiff. 3 here, let’s give it a try. Ambi, átung basáhun áring pahináha. Día tingáli, Here, let me take a look at this page. It’s probably here. 4 particle expressing a concession for the sake of argument. Ambi, ug walà pa ka dinhi, dì tà ka hikit-an, All right, if you were not here, nobody could have seen you, right?

ambid, ambig = amgid.

ambihas, ambíhas a two things parallel or face to face but one slightly behind or to the side. Ambíhas ang duha ka gawang, The two doors are opposite but not face to face. v 1 [B56; a12] for things to be parallel but not face to face or in line. Ug muambíhas ang paglátid muhíwì ang bungbung, If the measurements are out of line, [35]the wall will turn out crooked. Ambihása pagbutang ang duha ka silya arun makakità ang maglingkud sa luyu, Stagger the two chairs so that whoever is at the back can see. 2 [C] pass each other while travelling in opposite directions along the parallel routes. Ang duha ka trín nagkaambíhas, The two trains passed each other.

ambilay v [A; c1] carry s.t. with a strap slung over the shoulder. Nag-ambilay siya sa íyang kamira, He is carrying his camera slung over his shoulder. Iambilay nang ripli, Carry your rifle slung over your shoulder.

ambir = abir.

ambisiyun n ambition, aspiration. Mu ray íyang ambisiyun ang pagkamaistru, Being a teacher is his only ambition. v [A1N] aspire. Nag-ambisiyun (nangambisiyun) siyag palit ug awtu, He has ambitions of buying a car.†

ambisyúsu a ambitious. Kining búang nga ambisyúsu kaáyu nangulitáwu sa prinsísa, This ambitious fool is courting the princess. v [B12] become ambitious.

ambit v 1 [A; a2b7] get a share. Kiri rang usa ka kílu ákung ambítun, I’ll take only this one kilogram as my share. Ambítan tag duha ka gantang ning ímung humay, I’ll take six quarts as my portion of your rice. Ambíti kug gamay, Let me have a small share. — sa kasubù, kalípay share in one’s sorrow, happiness. 2 [A2; a2] get in on gossip. Diin na pud ka makaambit ánang tabía? Where did you hear that gossip?

ambù v [AN; acP] overlook, look from a high point, tower over. Ambúa tung táwu sa sílung, Look down at the man downstairs. Ang gamayng balay giambúan sa dakung balay, The large house towered over the small one.

ambug v 1 [Ab2; ac] go, bring down from the mountains to the lowlands. Unsay ímung ambúgun? What are you going down to get? Iambug ning kamúti arun ibaligyà, Bring these sweet potatoes down to sell them. 2 [A13] looking over. Ang káhuy nag-ambug sa ngilit sa pangpang, The tree is overlooking the edge of the cliff. pa- v [a] build s.t. so it overlooks. Gipaambug ku ang ámung payag sa ngilit sa pangpang, I built my hut looking over the edge of the cliff.

ambúhut v [A] belch forth smoke. Nag-ambúhut ang asu, Smoke is billowing up. pa- v [A; b(1)] blow smoke from cigarette. Gipaambuhútan níya ang ákung nawung, He blew smoke into my face. -an n whale.

ambulansiya n ambulance. v 1 [A13; a12] go by ambulance. Ambulansiyáhun nátù ang angul, Let’s take the injured person in an ambulance. 2 [a12] make into an ambulance.

*ambung1 -an a beautiful, handsome. Ambúngan kaáyu ka ánang sinináa, You are very handsome in that shirt. v [B12] become beautiful, handsome. ka- n beauty, handsomeness. Ang kaambung ni Maríya walay ingun, Mary’s beauty is unequalled.

*ambung2 -an a giving the illusion of bigness or bulk. Ambúngan kang tan-áwun ánang sinináa, piru wà ka muángay, You look impressively big in that dress, but you don’t look good in it. v [B2] look impressively big and bulky. Nagkaambungan ang labadúra nga ákung gihurnu, The batter that I am baking is beginning to rise.

ambus v 1 [AN; b(1)] ambush, waylay. 2 [A2] go meet a girl at her place of work or study to accompany her home. Nía na pud si Pidru nangambus sa íyang giulitawhan, Here comes Pedro to meet his girl friend and take her home. 3 join a group with food or other provisions to avail oneself of them (colloquial). Nangambus lang ku sa ílang bálun, I just joined them and got some of their picnic food. Makaambus ku sa ímung hábul? Can I use part of your blanket?

ambut I don’t know. Ambut ug kinsa nang bayhána, I don’t know who that woman is. [gen.] it’s up to [gen.]. Ambut nímug pilay ihátag, It’s up to you how much we should give. — sa lángaw, lagung, kágang I don’t know and I don’t care (it’s up to the fly, crab). Ambut sa lángaw ug muanhi, I don’t know if he’s coming, and I don’t care. paN- v [A] say ‘I don’t know’. Ug pangutan-un, mangambut lang, If you ask him, he just says he doesn’t know.

ambuy1 n a nickname of Pablo. a 1 a slow-witted person. Ambuy ka man diay, ngánung ímu nang gikaun? What did you eat that for, you fool? 2 penniless. Ayaw nà sugta, ambuy nà, Don’t marry him. He doesn’t have a penny. v 1 [AB; a] be, become slow-witted, make a fool of s.o. Ang gugma mauy nakaambuy (nakapaambuy) sa ákung anak, Love has dulled my son’s wits. 2 [B12; a1] be short of cash, penniless.

ambuy2 n a style of men’s sport shirt the lower end of which extends below the level of the buttocks and with two tapering slits on the sides, close-fitting around the waist. v 1 [A] wear this sort of shirt. 2 [c1] tailor into this sort of shirt.

amgid a similar. v 1 [BC; ac1c3] be similar. [36]Miamgid (naamgid) ang istatuwa sa mudílu, The statue grew to be more and more like the model. Ngánung nagkaamgid ang inyung tubag? Why were your answers similar? Iamgid (amgíra) lang ang ímung sinulat sa ákù, Make your composition like mine. 2 [A2; b] imitate. Ang mga Insik maáyung muamgid sa mga búhat sa Hapun, The Chinese imitate the Japanese products well. Giamgiran (giamgíran) sa arkitiktu ang dibúhu sa katidral, The architect imitated the sketch of the cathedral. 3 [A; ac] compare. Amgíra sila kung háin ang maanyag, Compare them to judge which one is most beautiful. Ang íyang kaanyag ikaamgid sa bitúun, Her beauty can be compared to the stars. n one’s double. Ákung kalúha nang ákung amgid, The fellow that looks just like me is my twin brother. ig-, ka- = amgid, n.

amgu v [A12; b8] be aware of s.t. Mauy ákung naamguhan nga dinhay miabli sa bintánà, All I was aware of was that s.o. opened the window. paghi-, pagka- upon reaching consciousness. Paghiamgu (pagkaamgu) níya, dihà na siya sa uspital, When he regained consciousness, he was in the hospital.

amíga n 1 close friend (female). 2 girl friend (circumlocution to avoid saying trátu ‘fiancée’). miga (vocative) friend.

amígas = hulmígas.

amígu n 1 close friend. 2 boy friend (circumlocution). v 1 [C; a12] be friends. Mag-amígu ta, Let’s be friends! Amigúha siya kay makatábang nátù, Befriend him, because he can help us. 2 [A123S] get as a friend. Nakaamigu kug tagaadwána, I managed to make friends with s.o. in the customs. paN- v [A23] become friends. Ayaw pangamígug buguy, Do not become friends with those no-goods. migu (vocative) friend. Ása ka, migu? Where are you going, friend?

amíhan n wind from the north. paN- v [A23] blow from the north. Kun Nubimbri mangamíhan, The northwind blows in November. n northeast monsoon time. Uktubri hangtud sa Disyimbri mauy pangamíhan, It’s the northeast monsoon from October to December. -an(→) n north, northern. Milálin sila sa Amihanang Lusun, They moved to Northern Luzon.

amimihid, amimihig (from bihig) n fiddler crab, k.o. small crab of tidal flats with one large red claw bigger than the other which moves in a fiddling-like motion.

amimislun n kidney of animals.

amimitas (from bítas) n k.o. large biting black and red ants with long pincers, found in rotten wood.

amin amen. v 1 [A; b(1)] kiss the hand or take a hand to the forehead. Amini si Tiyù mu, Kiss your uncle’s hand. 2 [A3; b(1)] give in, concede, surrender. Human sa ámung panagbúngul miamin siya kanákù, After we had not been on speaking terms, he gave in to me. Ang mayur lang kunuy íyang aminan, He says he will surrender only to the mayor. amin-ámin n food prepared for the last day of the novena (slang). v [A13; b] prepare some food for the guests on the last day of a novena. Mutambung ta sa katapúsan ug mag-amin-ámin sila, We will attend the last day of the novena if they prepare s.t. pa- v [A; a] have s.o. kiss the hand. Paaminun tikaw áring kinúmù! I’ll let you kiss my fist (i.e. smack you one).†

amindar v [A; a] 1 amend. Muamindar sa baláud ang Kungrísu, Congress will amend the law. Nag-amindar ang hunta sa mga lagdà niíni, The board is amending its policies. 2 make amends for. Nakaamindar giyud siyas íyang mga salà, He was able to make amends for his offenses. 3 restore good feelings. Giamindar níya ang nagúbà nílang panaghigalaay, He patched their broken friendship up.

Amirika n America.

Amirikána short forms: Amirkána, Mirkána. n 1 American woman. 2 sport or suit jacket. v [A; a] wear, make into, get a jacket. Mag-amirkána ka ba sa bayli? Will you wear a jacket to the dance?

amirikanayis a Americanized. v [B12] become Americanized. Nagkaamirikanayis ang ininglisan ni Prid, Fred’s way of speaking English is becoming Americanized.

Amirikánu short forms: Amirkánu, Mirkánu. n American. -in- v [A; c1] speak English.

amirul = almirul.

amistad n amnesty.

amitu n amice.

ampa v [AC2; b6] want to have just as much work and not a bit more than the others. Ang mga suluguun dì paalkansi. Gustu giyung makig-ampa sa trabáhu, Helpers insist on a fair deal. They argue about who has the most work. Unsang trabahúa nang inyung giampáhan? What work are you bickering about? ampaampa = ampa.

ampad = alampad.

ampáhan n k.o. good-sized carangoid fish that fetches a high price.

ampaláya = paliya.

ampapángig = apapángig.

ampara v [A; a12] interrupt a wedding ceremony by objecting. Wà makaampara sa kasal ang puyùpúyù, The common-law wife [37]couldn’t interrupt the wedding.

ampaw n delicacy consisting of puffed rice coated with caramel and stuck into bricks. v [A1; a12] make ampaw.

ampay a 1 favorite. Ampay ku ang mangga, Mangoes are my favorite. 2 much to one’s liking. Ampay kaáyu níya nga tawgun siya ug lúlu, He likes it very much if they call him ‘granddad’.

ampáyir n umpire. Si Pidru bay ampáyir sa buksing? Is Pedro the umpire in boxing? v [A; b(1)] be the umpire. Ampayíri ring dúlà, Umpire this game.

amping v [A; b(1)] treat s.t. with care, be careful with s.t. Mag-amping ka arun dílì ka masámad, Be careful so you don’t get hurt. Ampíngi nang makinilya, Be careful with that typewriter. ma-un, ma-in-un a careful. Maampíngun (mainampíngun) siyang nanáug sa dakung káhuy, He was careful in going down the big tree.†

ampityatru n amphitheater. v [A1] make an amphitheater. -in- n an amphitheater. v [B1456; a12] be constructed into an amphitheater.

ampiyun1 n opium. v [A12; a12] obtain opium, make opium. Ang lísu mauy ampiyunun, They make opium from the seeds. paN- v [A2; b(1)] smoke opium. Kasagáran sa mangampiyun Insik, It’s usually Chinese who smoke opium. -íru n opium addict. v [B126] be, become an opium addict.

ampiyun2 n a small tree that bears large yellow flowers and large black pods reaching 40 cm. The pulp found in the pod is used to cure stomach pains: Cassia sp.

ampli n short for amplipáyir.

amplipáyir n amplifier, public address system. v [A1] use a public address system. -an n possessing, having a public address system.

ampù v [A; c] 1 pray, worship. Dílì mu ampúan ang mga diyusdíyus, Don’t worship false gods. Birhin Maríya, ig-ampù mu kami, Virgin Mary, pray for us. Giampù ku ang ímung kalampúsan, I pray for your success. 2 adore. Giampúan ku ang ímung kaanyag, I worship your beauty. 3 [A2; b6] surrender, turn oneself in to the authorities. Mamatay ku úsà ku muampù, I’ll die before I will turn myself in. 3a admit one was wrong or ask for forgiveness in order to make up. Dì ku muampù nímu kay wà kuy salà, I won’t take steps to make up with you because I didn’t do anything wrong. -l-anan n 1 altar, place one worships. 2 thing worshipped. ma-un, ma-in-un, ma-l-un a prayerful. mag-r-, mag-l- n one who prays on behalf of another. Ang mga santus mauy mag-alampù (mag-aampù), The saints are the intercessors.

ampúngul n head of octopus or squid (including the tentacles of the squid).

amu = mau (dialectal).

ámu vocative short form: mu n master, employer. Makagáwì ba ta sa ímung tilipunu, mu? May I use your phone, boss? v [A123S] happen to have a master, employer. Lisud ning makaamu tag istriktu, It’s difficult if you happen to have a strict employer. paN- v [A2] have s.o. as an employer. Nakapangámu na ku ug Katsílà, I have already experienced having a Spaniard as employer. maistru — n one who oversees the preparation of s.t., e.g. the head chef on a boat or the quality controller in a factory.

amù n monkey, ape. Pubri pa sa amù, Poorer than a monkey (which has what looks like two one-centavo coins in its buttocks). inúlug — waxing gibbous moon. v [B126; b6] get broke (get to be like a monkey that has only two centavos) (colloquial). a broke. -ay(←) n Mr. Monkey. Si Amúay nangáwat sa ságing ni Baúhay, Mr. Monkey stole Mr. Turtle’s bananas. -l-an(←) n place infested with monkeys.†

ámù see kami.

amul a for a blade to be very dull. Amul ang sundang, The machete is dull. v [B12; a12] become dull. -an, -un a of dull kind.

amúma v [A; b5] take care of s.o. and guide him. Giamúma (giamumáhan) siya sa inaína sáma sa kaugalíngung anak, Her stepmother took care of her like her own child.

*amumun — lumban sa dágat n sundials, k.o. sea shell.

amumúng v [a4] lose one’s way under spell of evil spirit. Kun amumúngun ka baliha lang ang ímung sinínà arun makatultul kag bálik, If you lose your way, put your clothes on inside out, and you’ll find your way back.

amumunggut = tibalas.

amumungpung n k.o. edible top shell reaching an inch, pyramid-shaped.

amumuntag n k.o. octopus which tends to come out when the moon rises.

amung v [A; c1] drag s.t. to perdition, bring s.t. to ruin together with it. Ang mga latang kamátis makaamung sa uban, The rotten tomatoes can ruin the others that are packed together with them. Ayaw ku iamung (amunga) sa inyung kabúang, Do not involve me in your foolishness. Sa pinusílay naamung ang inusinting bátà, During the gunfight an innocent child was hit in the crossfire. paN- v [A2] 1 exert bad influence. 2 try [38]s.t. on a long shot. Nangamung siyag pangulitáwu, básig sugtun, He tried his luck at courting her in hopes of succeeding. amung-ámung v [A; b(1)] 1 inflict malicious, needless harm. Ang mga tulisan nag-amung-ámung pa giyud níya, The bandits raped her as well. Giamung-amungan tingáli ang masitíra sa irù kay nangabúak man, The dogs probably messed up the flower pots, because they are broken. 2 tease maliciously. Giamung-amúngan níla ang irù paghikut ug láta, They teased the dog by tying a can to it. amung-amungan, maamung-amungun a maliciously destructive.

amunistal v [A; c6] register for marriage in the church. n payment for church services in marriage. Mahal ang amunistal sa kasal nga ispisyal, The payment for the church services in a special marriage is dear.

amur n liking. Wà giyud kuy amur sa dayuk, I cannot bring myself to like salted fish innards. Gitugkan siyag amur kang Birtu, She developed a liking for Bert. — prupiyu amor propio.

amurádu n k.o. red, thick, sweet banana, eaten raw. It is starchier than the yellow bananas usually sold commercially in the States.

amural v [A; a12] 1 speak one’s love to. Giamural níya si Maríya, piru wà sugta, He proposed to Maria, but she turned him down. 2 speak out one’s purpose asking for s.t. Nag-amural kung Tiyù pára sa ákung karsúnis, I am asking my uncle for money to buy a pair of pants.

amur sikrítu n bleeding heart, k.o. ornamental vine with heart-shaped flowers: Clerodendrum thomponae.

amursíku n k.o. crab grass with long towering stems bearing barbed spikelets which adhere to the clothes: Andropogon aciculatus. ka- v [A13] be full of amorseco spikes. Nagkaamursíku ang ákung sinínà, My dress has amorseco all over it.

amurtisasiyun n amortization. v 1 [A1] be amortized. Ang ákung útang nag-amurtisasiyun ug dusyintus matag búlan, The amortization on my debt is two hundred every month. 2 [ac] pay off an amortization. Amurtisasyunan ku ang útang ug katungà, I’ll amortize half of my debt.

amurúsu n delinquency in paying off an obligation. Upat ka búwan ang ákung amurúsu sa bangku, I’m four months delinquent in my payments to the bank. v [B1256] be delinquent in paying off an obligation.

ámut n contribution. Pilay ámut sa salusálù káda usa? How much is each person’s contribution to the party? v [A; c] 1 contribute. Daghan siyag ikaámut sa kauswágan sa násud, He has much to contribute to the development of the country. 2 contribute to increase the intensity or quality. Ang kaígang nakaámut sa íyang kapungut, The heat contributed to making his anger worse. -l-an, -l-an(→) n contribution. Pagkadaghag alamútan (alamutan) sa iskuylahan, makapubri! You can go broke with all the contributions you have to make in school.

amúti = kamúti.

ámuy1 n 1 icon. 2 the name of God used in speaking to small children. Ayaw pangáway kay masukù ang ámuy, Don’t quarrel because God will get angry.

ámuy2 n term of address for very old men of respectability. Kanà si Ámuy Militun kapitan sa panahun sa Katsílà, Amoy Meliton was a village head during the Spanish times. v [a12] call s.o. Amoy.

amyun v [BN] emit a sweet fragrance. Miamyun (nangamyun) ang kahumut sa mga búlak, The flowers emitted a sweet fragrance. ka- n sweet smell.

-an1 local passive verb affix, future. (past gi-an; subjunctive -i. Potential forms: past na-an; future ma-an or, alternatively, ka-an; subjunctive ma-i or, alternatively, ka-i.) Not all verbs occur with this affix, and those that do may occur with only one or two or all of the meanings. 1 [do] for, at, on, in. Palitan ku siyag kík, I will buy him cake (or buy cake from him). Gipalitan ku siya, I bought some for (from) him. Wà ku siya paliti, I didn’t buy any for (from) him. Mapalitan (kapalitan) ku siya, I can buy some for (from) him. Napalitan ku siya, I managed to buy some for (from) him. Wà ku siya mapaliti (kapaliti), I couldn’t buy any for (from) him. 1a with noun bases: give, provide s.o. [noun]. Sirúhan ka nákù, I will give you a zero. Sapatúsan ku ang bátà, I will put shoes on the child. 2 [do] directly to s.o. or s.t. Hagkan ku ikaw, I will kiss you. Bantayan ninyu ang prísu, Watch the prisoner. 2a [do] to part of s.t. Kuháan ku ang ímung kík ug gamay, I will take a little of your cake. Kunhúran ku ang prisyu, I will take a little off the price. 3 with verbs from adjectives: consider s.t. as. Lisdan siya sa átung sinultihan, He will find our language difficult. Gipilahan ka lang uruy niánà? Do you consider that a small amount? 4 have [verb] happen to one. Naulanan aku, I was caught in the rain. Labdan ka sa úlu, You will get a headache. (It will happen to you that your head will ache.) 5 [39][do] because of, due to. Unsay gihilákan mu? What is it you are crying about? Dílì nà ángayng kabalak-an, That is not worth getting worried over. 6 do in [such-and-such a manner]. Usaan nà nákug alsa, I will lift that with one (hand). Datadatáhan ku nag báyad, I will pay for that in installments. 7 work off a debt, pay for by [do]ing. Mahímù nímung trabahúan ang ímung útang nákù, You may work off your debt to me. Buk-an kug lubi kining bugas, I’ll pay for this rice by splitting coconuts.

-an2 suffix forming verb bases to which the prefixes mag-, tig- and pag- may be added. The verb with these affixes always has stress on the final syllable and means ‘[do] s.t. at a certain place habitually’. Mag-anhian siya dinhig maduminggu, He comes here on Sundays. Siyay tig-anhian dinhi, He comes here often. Sa ímung pag-adtuan didtu, nakailaíla kag usa ka Mang Tiryu? In the times you’ve been going to that place, did you ever meet a certain Mang Terio?

-an3 noun forming affix. 1 forming nouns which refer to a place where s.t. is found, done, held, located. Humayan, Rice field. Tubaan, Place where toddy is sold. Baskitbulan, Place basketball is played. Habagatan, West (place from which the habágat ‘west wind’ blows). Bairan, Sharpener (thing on which one sharpens). Tindáhan, Store (place one sells). 2 forming nouns which refer to a person possessed of a certain power. Nouns of this sort always have long penults. Tambálan, Folk doctor. Hilútan, Doctor specializing in massage. Barángan, A sorcerer with magic insects at his disposal.

-an4 adjective forming affix. 1 forming adjectives which mean ‘characterized by being [so-and-so]’. Words of this sort have the stress on the final syllable. Langasan, Of a noisy type. Talawan, Cowardly. Gahian, Of a hard sort. 2 added to nouns to form adjectives which mean ‘having [so-and-so]’. Utúkan, Brainy. Kwartáhan, Moneyed.

-an(→) short for hi-an(→).

-an- infix optionally added to all forms with the prefixes nag-, mag-, pag-, indicating that affixed forms refer to more than one person. Nanagsábut sila, They made (plurally) an agreement. Duha ka managsúun, Two brothers. Ang ílang panagsábut, Their (plural) agreement with each other.

anā̀ 1 expression of surprise. a at s.t. pleasant. Anā̀, kanindut sa ímung ariyus, Oh what beautiful earrings you have! b at s.t. which causes worry. Anā̀! Nabuak, Oh-Oh! It broke. 2 expression chiding s.o. Anā̀! Nagpabuyag man ka! My! You’re making a nuisance of yourself.

ánà = niánà. see kanà.

anáa short form: náa. 1 be there (near you). Náa ba dihà ang yáwi? Do you have (is there) the key? 1a be employed at, work at. Náa siya sa Atlas, He works for Atlas. Náa ra siya sa báy, He is always at home. 2 there is. Náay suwat pára nímu, There is a letter for you. 3a dat. [dat.] has. Náa kaníya ang yáwi, He has the key. 3b it depends upon [dat.]. Náa ra nímug muadtu ta, It’s up to you if we should go. 3c be menstruating. Dílì mudúul ang bána ug náa sa asáwa, A husband cannot have intercourse with his wife when she is menstruating. 4 unsa may — niánà, sa [noun]? what does that, [noun] have to do with it? Unsa ba guy náa sa idad? And what does age have to do with it? pagka- n the state of being there. Ang íyang pagkaanáa sa balay, His presence in the house. paka- v [A13; a12] strive to have s.t. Ímu kung pakaanaáhun bisan wà kuy nahut, You try to get s.t. from me even though I haven’t anything. anaáhun a well-to-do.

ánab (from bána) n husband (slang).

anabu n k.o. shrub or small tree which produces strong bark fiber of commercial importance: Abroma augusta.

anabyung = hinagdung.

ánad v 1 [B23(1); b(1)] take to, become fond of. Pakúgus ang bátà nga nakaánad na nímu, A child that has become fond of you will want you to carry him. 2 [B2S; b8] get accustomed, get in the habit of doing s.t. Muánad (maánad) siyag panghilabut sa ákung butang, He will (might) get used to touching my things. Naandan na níya ang pamakak, She is accustomed to lying. Ang naandan nga paági, The usual way. 2a [b8] treat s.o. too familiarly. Hiandan ka lang; ábi níla maáyu ka man, They’re just abusing you; they think you’re nice. Naandan ka níya ug kumidiya, He has gotten in the habit of joking with you (when he should not have). (→) a 1 accustomed to, familiar with s.t. Anad kaáyu ku ug byáhi, I am accustomed to travelling. 2 tame. Anad ang langgam, The bird is tame. Kaanad nga batáa bísan kinsa makakúgus níya, That child is not afraid of people. Anybody can hold him. v [B12] become accustomed. Ug maanad ka na ánang trabahúa, dì ka na lisdan, When you get used to the work, you won’t find it hard. anaran a having a special appeal to animals, children, etc. so that they feel immediately at home. [40]

ánag v [A; a12b(1)] broil crops to eat. Anága ang mais nga húmuk, Broil the soft corn. -in- n broiled crop. -un(→) n young corn. Gitanuk níla ang anagun, They broiled the young corn. v [B3] for corn to be at an edible but not yet full-grown stage. Nag-anagun na ang mais. Hápit na ang sanggì, The corn is growing ears. Harvest time is near. anagunan n field of corn with young ears.

anagási = alagási.

anagu, anágu n hazy, unclear image. Ang anágu sa dálan gibantayan pag-áyu sa draybir, The driver paid close attention to the blurred outline of the road. v [B2S] appear hazily. Nag-anagu ang balay sa bungtud tungud sa gábun, The house on the hill was hazy because of the mist.

anahà n k.o. small ant with a light tan color and with a black spot on the body and which takes to sugar. It inflicts a mild bite. v [B125; a4] be infested with anahà ants. Sus, nagkaanahà (gianahà) ang asúkar! Heavens! The sugar is swarming with ants.

anáhaw n k.o. palm with fan-shaped leaves: Livistona rotundifolia. The leaves are used for mats, hats, etc. Potted anáhaw are widely used for ornamental purposes. — lagwis = anáhaw. — mubù ornamental palm similar in appearance to anáhaw: Licuala spinosa.

anak n son, daughter. — sa búhat 1 laborer. 2 accustomed to hard work. Way báli kanà, kay anak man aku sa búhat, I don’t mind that, because I’m used to hard work. 3 poor people. Lisud ang panginabúhì sa mga anak sa búhat, Life for the poor is very difficult nowadays. — sa bunyag godson or daughter at baptism. — sa gawas illegitimate child. — sa húlaw short person (son of the dry, lean times). — sa kágang exclamation of discomfiture: My! Anak sa kágang! Ngánu nga naílad ka man! My heavens! Why did you let them cheat you! — sa sápì child that has been adopted by purchase. v [AN; cN] 1 give birth. Dì na muanak (manganak) nà si Kurdapya kay gúlang na, Cordapia will not have any more children because she’s old. Nag-anak siyag kalúha, She had twins. Ang banig nga gianakan (giangkan, gipanganakan), The mat she gave birth on. Diin ka ianak (ipanganak)? Where were you born? 2 [A12] happen to have for a child. Nakaanak si Pidru ug abilidaran, Pedro had a genius for a son. (←) n in prayers: Son of God. Sa ngálan sa Amahan, sa Ának, sa Ispiritu Santu ..., In the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost ... pa- v 1 [A; a2] assist in childbirth, cause s.t. to be born. Mananabang ang nagpaanak kanákù, A folk-midwife assisted me in childbirth. Paangka siya sa matirniti, Let her have her baby in the clinic. 2 [A; b(1)] make pregnant. Ang mutsatsa gipaangkan sa kutsíru, The rig driver got the maid pregnant. palaangkanan n delivery table. pinaangkan n 1 illegitimate child. 2 one who gave birth out of wedlock. (Cf. paangkan v 1, below.) paN- v 1 = anak, v. 2 [A] sponsor in a baptism. Aku ang nanganak ni Bíbi sa bunyag, I was Baby’s godfather in her baptism. paN-(←) n pebble in game of pungga. pinanganak n godson or daughter. anak-ának n 1 adopted child. Anak-ának ra man nà si Kadyu kay walay bátà ang magtiáyun, Cadio is just an adopted child because the couple is childless. 2 in a child’s game, the pretend child. angkan a having given birth. Yàyà ug láwas ni si Kurdapya mu rag angkan, Cordapia’s body is flabby like a woman that has just given birth. Angkan na siyang dakù pagkaminyù níla, It was well known that she had had a child before they got married. paangkan v [A13] make s.o. pregnant. Kinsa may nagpaangkan sa labandíra? Who made the laundry woman pregnant? pinaangkan n one who gave birth to an illegitimate child. angkánun a for people to be prolific in childbirth. Angkánun (palaának) kaáyu si Maríya. Manganak káda túig, Maria is prolific. She gives birth every year. alangkan n delivery room. hinangkan, hingangkan n hen that has raised a brood. ig-(←) n relative of any sort. v [A12; c1] be related. Naig-ának siya sa mga Blangku kay naasáwa man níya ang anak, He became related to the Blancos because he married the daughter. ig-alának n 1 child in the womb. 2 in a condition about to give birth. Ig-alának na kaáyu ang íyang tiyan, Her stomach looks as though she’s about to give birth. -in- n 1 godson, daughter in any ceremony. Inanak ku siya sa kasal, He is my godson because I sponsored his wedding. 2 child born. Bag-ung inanak, Newly born child. mag-alának, taliának, umaának n about to give birth. -un(←) 1 = inanak. 2 = pag-umangkun. pala-(←) a 1 for people or animals to be prolific in childbirth. Palaának ang ákung anay, My pig is very prolific. 2 prolific in output. see also pag-umangkun, mantiának, taguangkan.†

anam v 1 [A; c1] take care of s.t. as fast or before the next comes around. Anamun (ianam) ku nig hákut sa táas, I will take these upstairs as fast as they arrive. 2 [A23] become gradually. Samtang sila nag-ínum, [41]nag-anam kapula ang íyang nawung, As they were drinking, his face gradually got redder and redder. pa- [A] waste time. Dì ku paanam sa úras, I won’t waste time.

-anan1 affix added to verbs to form nouns which have meanings analogous to the meanings of the local passive verbs. Cf. -an1. 1 place or person for whom s.t. is done. Palitánan sa bugas, Place one buys rice. Lingkuránan, Seat. Hatagánan sa limus, Persons to whom the alms are given. 2 thing to which s.t. is to be done. Labhanan, Wash to be done. Handumánan, Keepsake (thing which one thinks back on).

-anan2(→) alternant of -an2 used with roots that have a short penultimate vowel that is dropped on suffixation. Maghagkanan sa tiil sa birhin, They kiss the feet of the Virgin.

an-an n k.o. small tree of thickets: Buchanania arborescens.

ananaklaw (from saklaw) n k.o. tiny house spider that jumps on its prey.

ananakyud (from sakyud) n k.o. bird of the seashore that moves its buttocks up and down.

ananamsi n k.o. small timber tree.

anananggal n k.o. unglù who, when under his supernatural spell, detaches the portion of his body above the waist from the lower portion and flies away with trailing intestines in search of his prey, leaving the lower portion. This detachment occurs only at night, and the anananggal dies if the sun strikes any portion of the separated body. He can also be killed by putting salt on the lower portion. see also tanggal.

ananangkil (from sangkil) n k.o. small hawk with black and brown speckles on a light brown and white background.

anapug n 1 k.o. soft shale. 2 soft coral rock. -an n place where there is shale or coral rock. -un a full of shale, coral rock.

ánas v [B; c1] landslide. Muánas (maánas) gánì kanang búkid, malubung giyud mung búhì, If there is a landslide on that mountain, you’ll be buried alive. Kun mukusug ang ulan, iánas kanang ímung baul, If it rains hard, your field will be washed down.

ánaw1 v [A; a12] determine truth by careful deliberation. Anáwa ang tahù úsà ipublikar, Verify the report before publishing it.

ánaw2 n area of the surface of the sea which has a different texture from the surrounding area, usually visible when the sea is calm.

anawnsir n 1 announcer. 2 dispatcher of buses and jeeps (slang). v [A13; a12] be, make into an announcer.

anay1 (from ina) n 1 sow. 2 woman that is a mother. Dílì ka ángay nga mag-istiwardis kay anay ka na, You are not fit to be a stewardess because you are a mother now. -un, -un(←) n pig raised to bear a litter. v [A; a12] raise to be a sow. Anayúnun ni nátung baktin, Let’s use this piglet for a sow. -l-un(←), -unun(←) a for a woman that is nursing to be thin like a sow that has been nursing her litter.

anay2 (from ina) exclamation uttered in fear. Anay! Náay íhu! Help! Sharks!

ánay1 n termite. v [a4b4] be infested with termites. Gianáyan (giánay) ang balay, The house was infested with termites.

ánay2 = únà (dialectal). paN- n 1 first born. Mu ni si Bingbing ámung pangánay, This is Bingbing, our eldest child. 2 one who bears a child for the first time. Pangánay ka ra ba ayaw paghárig katúlug, This is your first time to bear a child. Don’t sleep too much.

-anay alternant of -ay1.

anay-anay n k.o. small fish of shallow water belonging to the family Blennidae.

anda1 give me. Anda ug súpas bi kay gigútum ku, Give me some cookies because I’m hungry.

anda2 be gone! leave! (Biblical usage). Anda, Samuel sa paglakat, Be gone, Samuel. Be on your way.

andadur n walker on rollers for a baby to learn to walk on. v [A1; a12] obtain, make into, use a walker. Makalakaw na siya apan mag-andadur, He can walk, but only with a walker.

*andak paN- v [A] boast that one can do s.t. Nagpangandak siya nga musúkul siya nímu bísan anus-a, He was boasting that he would stand up to you any time. n boasting that one can do s.t. -an(→) a boastful about things one can do. v [B12] get to be boastful. Nagkaandakan siya samtang nagkasuhitu sa pag-áyu sa makina, He got so he claimed he could do more and more as he grew better at fixing engines. mapaN-un, maN-un a over-confident. Mapangandákung tingúhà, Over-ambitious in one’s aims.

andam a prepared. Andam ka na sa pagtubag? Are you prepared to answer? Andam na ang tanan, Everything is ready. v [A; c1] prepare s.t. Kinsay muandam sa pagkáun? Who will prepare the food? Mag-andam ka sa kamatáyun, Prepare for death. n preparation for a banquet. Dílì dakù ang andam níla sa kumbira, They did not make big preparations for the banquet. paN- v [A] 1 prepare. 2 get ready for, be on guard. [42]Pangandam sa banhig, Be ready for an attack. n preparation. mapaN-un a watchful.

andamyu n gangplank. v [A1; a] make into, put a gangplank to s.t.

andána n 1 storey. 2 deck of a multi-decked ship. v [b6] construct a house in storeys.

andar v 1 [A] for s.t. mechanical to run. Dílì muandar ang awtu, The car won’t start. 2 [A2] for a peculiar trait to show itself. Miandar na pug íyang pagkahinugsū́g, His fondness for teasing is making its appearance again. 3 [A2; b2] make trouble. Giandaran níya ang tindíra, He made trouble for the salesgirl. n the way an engine runs. Maáyu ug andar ang ákung makina, My machine runs well. hiN- a fond of making trouble.

andarul n 1 k.o. chair for an infant suspended from a springpole or from springs in which the baby can bounce around. 2 = andadur.

andas n a stretcher-like contraption used to carry a corpse. v [A12] make into, carry in a stretcher-like contraption. Andásun níla ang minatay, They will carry the body in a stretcher.

*andaw tuli — circumcised naturally from birth, born with the glans penis exposed.

andáyag n medicine of snake feces, herbs, bark for stomach complaints.

andáyun = undayun.

anding n title for an older female to whom one is related.

andir a 1 short for andir dibúnal, bakyà, sáya be dominated, subjugated to one’s wife. 2 subordinate to. Andir ku ni Kapitan Santus, Captain Santos is my superior. 3 be a student of. Andir ku ni Lúpis sa mat, I studied math with Lopez. 4 under the net in tennis, volleyball, etc. v 1 [A; a12] dominate. Dì giyud ku maandir, I will not be henpecked. 2 [B1256] get to be under s.o., student of s.o. 3 [B1256] for the ball to be under the net. 4 in phrases: — dibakyà, búnal, sáya = andir, 1. — ditíbul n s.t. given under the table. Ug way andir ditíbul dì mulusut ang ímung papílis, Your papers won’t get through without s.t. given under the table. v [A; c1] bribe. — grawun n underground place, cellar. Dúnay andir grawun ámung balay, Our house has a cellar. — gul n 1 the area directly beneath the goal in basketball. 2 being directly beneath the basket. Ayawg syát ug way andir gul, Don’t shoot if there is no one in the area under the basket. 3 a shot from directly beneath the basket. v 1 [A] man the area beneath the basket. 2 [A; c6] make a shot from directly beneath the basket. Inigpása nákù nímu iandir gul dáyun, When I pass you the ball, shoot from directly beneath the basket. — ids underage. v [B1256] be underage. — kúbir n undercover agent. v [B156] be an undercover agent. — pas n underpass. — tayim undertime in job. v [B6; b] do undertime.†

andu, andù1 v 1 [A1; a12] expect to realize s.t. out of s.t. Mag-andu kag hángin ánang pangitáa, You will get exactly nothing from that sort of livelihood. Unsay maandu mu ánang pagpúnay ug katúlug? What do you expect to get out of sleeping all the time? 2 [A; a] sum up, make an account of. Nag-andu siya sa mga butang nga wà gánì níya mahímu, She is counting up things for credit to get credit for them, when she hasn’t even done them. Ayaw kug paningli, kay ug andúhun nátù ag ákung nagastu nímu, dì ka kabayad, Do not try to collect what I owe you, because if we sum up all that I spent on you, you could never pay. 3 [A; b4(1)] lay open one’s cards. Kun makaandu na ka, dì ka na makapunù, When you have already laid your cards on the table, you cannot add any more cards. 3a pag- (inig-) pa but actually, when it came (comes) to the test (when the cards were laid on the table). Sígi siyang hangyù. Pag-andù pa, dì diay gustu, He kept begging, but when I finally agreed to it, he didn’t want to. Padatùdátù siya. Pag-andù pa, pubri kaáyu, He pretended to be rich. But when it came to the test, he turned out to be poor. n way — not certain. Wà pay andu ug maghíkay ba mi sa pyista, We’re undecided as yet whether to prepare for the fiesta. andúhay n confrontation. v [C] have a confrontation. Mag-andúhay ta arun mahúsay ang tanan, Let’s have it out to settle everything. anduhúnun n matter to be decided. Anduhúnun pa ning ákung pagpaiskuyla nímug midisína, I’m not sure whether we will send you to medical school.

andù2 n k.o. tall wild tuber the corm of which is eaten in times of famine: Amorphophallus campanulatus.

andù3 = angdù.

andúhaw = agumáa.

andúhay see andu.

ang short form: ng 1 subject marker. Nawálà ang libru, The book is lost. 2 marker for definite predicate. Ang íyang libru mauy nawálà, It was his book that was lost. 3 following a form meaning including, together with. Sitinta ang ábang, apil ang túbig, The rent is seventy pesos including the water. 4 preceding forms referring to quantity or measurement: each. Ang ábang, sitinta ang [43]búlan, The rent is seventy a month.

ánga1 n the fry of some kinds of goby.

ánga2 = ángal.

angáang = alangáang.

ángal v [B; b3] find s.t. to complain about. Unsa may angálan nímu sa trabáhu ug sayun man gáling? What is there to complain about when the job is so easy? -an a given to complaints.†

angalaskálas n k.o. green crab with splotches of dirty yellow between, 2½″–3″ in diameter, commonly found on wharves.

angan-ángan v [A; b5c1] delay awhile. Muangan-ángan ku ug pila ka minútu, I will wait for a few minutes more. Angan-angána (angan-angáni, iangan-ángan) ang ímung paglarga, Put off your departure.

ang-ang n 1 steps of stairs, ladder. 2 grade or year of a course. Náa pa siya sa ikaduhang ang-ang sa abugasíya, He is still in the second year of his law course. v [A3; a1] put steps into, make into steps. Ang-ángan lang nímug tulu ang hagdan, Just put three steps in the stairs. -an(→) n = ang-ang.

angat1 n teeth marks. Angat sa pinaakan sa hálas, Teeth marks of a snake.

*angat2 — sa as [such-and-such] approaches. Ínit ang kampanya angat sa iliksyun, The campaign went into high gear as elections approached. v [B145] for an event to approach. Nag-angat na ang pista, Fiesta time is approaching.

ángat v [A; ac] go, bring up a hill or place in the hills. Angátun sa mga turista ang bulkan sa Mayun, The tourists are going to climb Mount Mayon. Iángat ni nátù sa bū́d, We will bring this up the hill. paN- n tool for mountain-climbing. angatun a steep to climb.

ángay ought to. Ángay kang magtuun arun makapasar ka, You ought to study if you want to pass. Dì nà ángay nímu ikabaláka, You should not worry about that. a 1 fitting, proper, right time or situation. Ángay ni nímung kulúra, This color suits you. 2 evenly cut, equally spaced. Ángayng pagkaputul ang mga pánid, The pages are evenly cut. Ángayng pagkatisuk ang mga pásuk, The stakes are evenly spaced. v 1a [B3S6; b8] be appropriate. Miángay ang ímung ilung sa ímung nawung, Your nose goes well with your face. 1b [A23S] like s.t., consider s.t. suitable to one’s taste. Dílì ku muángay ánang tubà nga initlugan, I don’t like toddy mixed with eggs. 2a [A; a] make s.t. equal, even. Angáya ang káyu, Make the flame even. 2b [A; a12] tune a musical instrument. Angáyun ta ning pyánu, Let’s tune this piano. 2c [C; a12] treat each other equally, do s.t. equally to several people. Mag-ángay mig káun sa ámù. Way pinihig, We all eat the same food at home. Nobody gets anything special. Angáyun ta mug dukduk sa úlu, I will knock you all on your heads. 2d [C; b] be in agreement. Nag-ángay ang ílang mga disisyun, They were in agreement in their decisions. (→) walay —(→) a unbecoming, ugly. v [B12] be unbecoming, ugly. Mawalà kay angay ug itum isul-ub, It will not become you if you wear black. pa-, pahi- v [A; c] 1 put, place carefully in order. Gipaángay (gipahiángay) níya ang búlak sa bukag, He placed the flowers carefully in the basket. 2 furnish. Gipaangáyan mig pridyidir, We were furnished a refrigerator. pa-(→) v [A; b] make s.t. even. Paangayi ang linung-ag, Let the food get cooked evenly. -an(→) a for a person to be becoming, proper. v [B] get to be becoming. Nagkaangayan ka sa ímung úban, Your grey hairs become you more and more. ka-an n just, equal treatment. ma-un n just, equal. Maangáyung pagbáhin sa kabílin, A just division of the inheritance. maki-un a tending to be on equal terms with everyone.

angdù v [A; a12] consent. Dílì siya muandù ánang paagíha kay lángan, He won’t consent to doing it that way because it’s too slow. Andúun ka lang ug dílì siya mubúhat sa gisúgù, He will just say yes to you and then won’t do what you told him to. ma-un a readily giving one’s consent.

anggà n nickname. Si Bituy ang ákung anggà, My nickname is Bitoy. v [A; c] give a nickname. Gianggáan siya ug pakà, They nicknamed him ‘frog’.

anggal n 1 birds that have their full feathers but cannot fly yet. 2 for children to be nearly grown up. Ayaw paghulat nga hungitun ka sa ímung inahan, anggal ka na, Don’t wait for your mother to feed you. You’re grown-up now. a grown-up and still unable to speak properly.

anggid = amgid.

angguy n familiar term of address for boy or man much younger than speaker: sonny, lad. Purbída, angguy, lisud nà kung masukù, If he gets angry, lad, he is hard to control. v [A13; a12] call s.o. angguy.

anghal v [B] become ajar. pa- v [b5] keep s.t. ajar. Paanghála (paanghali) ang pultahan arun makítà sila, Keep the door ajar so we can see them.

anghaw = anghal.

anghil n 1 angel. 2 short for — magbalantay. [44]Gibyáan siya sa íyang anghil, Her guardian angel left her. v [A12; b2] save s.o. like a guardian angel. Ang paghut sa irù nakaanghil kay nakamata ku, The dog’s barking saved me in the nick of time because I woke up. — magbalantay n guardian angel.

anghilika n k.o. flowering herb, cultivated and wild, which has large succulent, ovoid, undulating leaves from which new plants sprout: Bryophyllum pinnatum.

anghinghu = ahinghu.

anghit a smell bad like the body, rancid meat, milk, goats, cows. v [B; b6] get to smell bad. Muanghit ang rípridyirítur ug butangan ug karni sa kanding, The refrigerator will smell if you put goat meat into it. ka- n foul smell. Ang kaanghit sa litsi dílì kaáyu ísug, Milk does not have a terribly strong smell.

angíing = alangíing.

angílan = alangílan.

ángin v [A; c1] bring s.t. to ruin together with it. Ang ínum nakaángin sa ákung pagtuun, Drinking brought my studies to ruination. Daghang kinabúhing naángin pagkahúlug sa trák, Many people lost their lives when the bus fell.

angitngit = alangitngit.

angka v 1 [B4] for s.t. to get loose, give way. Muangka dáyun ang tikud sa sapátus, The heels of the shoes will come off right away. Miangka ang silya tungud sa íyang kabug-at, The chair gave way because she was too heavy. 2 [c1] remove s.t. to leave a gap. Ayaw iangka (angkáha) ang tabun sa kaldíru, Do not lift the cover off the pot. 3 [A23; b3] quit doing s.t., a job. Muangka ka na nga wà pay úras? You’re quitting now, when it hasn’t even been an hour? Hápit na mamatay, piru wà gihápun muangka ang ugis, The white cock was nearly dead, but he didn’t desist.†

angkab v [A; ab7] take a big bite. Angkábun (angkában) ku ug kausa ning ímung mansánas, May I take one big bite from your apple? n bite, result of the bite. Dakug angkab ang irù, The dog has a big bite.

angkas v 1 [A; b] ride mounted on s.t. Bátang nag-angkas ug kábaw, A child mounted on a water buffalo. 2 [AC; c] ride double on a cycle or horse. Nag-angkas sila sa mutur, They rode one behind the other on the motorcycle. Iangkas ta ka sa bisiklíta, I’ll take you on the back of my bicycle. -anan n carrier at the back part of the bicycle.

angkat v [A; a12] take s.t. for resale on credit. Angkátun sà run nákù ang isdà kay walà kuy puhúnan, I’ll take the fish on credit this time because I have no capital. n amount for which s.t. is taken on credit. Dì ni ikabaligyà ug tris kay kwatru ang angkat áni, I can’t let you have it for three because I had to pay four for it. maN-l-, maN-r- n one who obtains things for sale on credit.

angkla n 1 anchor. 2 anchor-type contraption used for fishing for squid. v [A12; a12] obtain, make into an anchor.

angkub n a covering over the opening of a small boat, the analogue of a deck on large boats. v 1 [AN; b5] make, put a cover for a boat. Ílang angkubun (angkuban) ang sakayan ug playwud, They will make a plywood cover for the boat. 2 [AN; ac] fill s.t. in to cover up a deficiency. Angkúba ra ang lab-ang sa ímung pinintálan, Fill in the spots you missed painting. Angkúbi ang kúwang sa ákung twisyun, Make up the balance of my tuition fees. Iangkub kining usa ka gantang humay arun mahustung usa ka bákid, Add this one ganta of rice to make it one cavan. a 1 for boats to be covered, having an angkub. 2 complete, nothing lacking. Angkub ang ímung paghátag kanámù sa diriksiyun, You gave complete directions.

angkun v [A; a12] claim as one’s own, admit authorship of an act. Dì siya muangkun nga siyay may salà, He will not admit that he is wrong. Kinsay nag-angkun nga iyáha ning libru? Who is claiming that this book is his? 2 [A2; a12] acquire, get as one’s portion, share or luck. Mau niy pálad ákung naangkun, This is my lot in life. 2a [A23] be in a certain situation. Dílì siya gustung muangkun sa kinabúhing pinubri, He does not want to lead the life of a poor man. 3 [A3; a12] take as one’s share of contributions or responsibility. Akuy muangkun sa ilimnun, I’ll take care of the drinks. Angkúnun ku ang panghúgas sa plátu, I’ll take care of washing the plates. n share claimed, turn being claimed. Ákung angkun ning lutíha, This lot is my share. Ákung angkun sa pag-adurnu sa simbahan ugmà, It’s my turn to decorate the church tomorrow. maN-r- n one who lays claim to things that are not his. hiN-, -íru a fond of claiming as one’s own.

anglit n small earthen pot. Anglit ray lung-ági kay duha ra ta, Just cook in the small earthen pot because there is only two of us. v [A12; a12] get, make into a small earthen pot.

angsu a smelling of urine. Angsu ang ílang kasilyas, Their toilet smells. v [BN; b6] become smelly. ka- n foulness. angsúhan n 1 k.o. small ash-grey shark that has an odor [45]like urine. 2 = alangsúhan.

angsud a 1 having body odor. Kalígù na kay angsud ka na kaáyu, Take a bath. You have awful b.o. 2 = angsu. v [BN] have b.o.

angtad a be in line of sight. Angtad ra sa bintánà ang tíbi, You can watch TV through the window. Maigù giyud nà siya kay angtad kaáyu siya sa ákung punting, I can hit him because he is in my line of fire. v [B; c1] be where one can see it. Naangtad (miangtad) sa ákung mga mata ang ugdu sa íyang dughan, Her bulging breasts were right in my line of sight. Ug ímung ibutang ang sámin dinhi muangtad (maangtad) sa sílaw sa adlaw, If you put the mirror here, the sun’s rays will be reflected directly off of it. pa- v [A; ac] put s.t. in the line of sight. Ang nawung bayà sa nagpaangtad, mu ra ug gwápa, Some nerve of her to make herself the center of attention, as if she were beautiful.

angtud a having the smell of burnt hair, cloth, or flesh without fat. v [BN; b6] smell of burnt hair. Náay nangangtud kay nagsúnug siya sa balhíbu, S.t. smells bad because he is burning feathers. angturun a smelling somewhat of burnt feathers.

anguangu v [a4] be senile. Gianguangu ka na, You’re getting senile. anguanguhun a somewhat senile.

angul, ángul v [B126] be injured to the point of incapacity. Tulu ang naángul sa aksidinti, Three people were injured in the accident. (→) n injured and incapacitated persons or animals. Ang mga angul giíhaw, The injured animals were slaughtered. Angul nga bitiránu, Incapacitated veteran. angul-angul v [A13; a12] satisfy only partly. Angul-angulun man ku nímu sa diyútay nga pagkáun, I won’t get full with just a little food.

angulunkulun n k.o. large black hornet, the dwelling of which looks like a clay pot (kúlun).

angus = angsu.

angut, ángut1 a disfigured by pockmarks or large scars. v [B2] be disfigured by thick pockmarks or large scars.

ángut2 v [A2; c1] 1 last long. Makaángut kahà nang nagpinal hangtud matígum ang tanang anak? Can the dying man last until all his children get here? Iángut (angúta) ang ginamus hangtud tápus búlan, Make the salted fish last until the end of the month. 2 persevere, have strength to endure. Dì na ku makaángut ug saka sa hagdan, I don’t have the strength to climb the stairs.

anhà there, far from the first person, near the second person; or near s.t. remote in time but just referred to. Anhà ibutang ang mga mangga, Put the mangoes down near you. Anhà ra bítaw nà, You’ll get it (lit. it will be there) in good time. — pa that’s the only time [so-and-so] will happen. Anhà pa ku makaawtu ug makadaug ku sa swipstik, I could get a car only if I were to win the sweepstakes. — ku I bet on. Anhà ku sa putì, I will bet on the white cock. v 1 [A2; b3c] go there. Muanhà ku dihà, I will go there. 2 [A13; a2] go get s.t. Kinsa may nag-anhà nímu dihà gahápun? Who went to get you yesterday? Anháun ku nà rung hápun, I will go to your place for it this afternoon. anhaan v [A13] habitually go s.w. hi-/ha- v [B1256; b8] happen to go, be brought. Nahaanhà sa inyu ang librung ipaari untà nákù, The book which was supposed to be sent to me, wound up in your place. kaanhaun a feel like going s.w.

anhi 1 here, in this place. Anhi ibutang ang síya, Put the chair here. 2 let’s get to [such-and-such] a matter. Karun anhi kita báhin sa túbig nga gawíun sa panimalay, Now let’s get to the matter of water for household use. v 1 [A2; b3c] come, bring here. Muanhi ka ba ugmà? Will you come here tomorrow? Ianhi nà dinhi, Bring it here. 2 [A13; a2] come to get s.t. Nag-anhi ku sa libru, I came for the book. Anhíun ta ka rung hápun, I’ll come here to get you this afternoon. anhian v [A13] habitually go s.w. hi-/ha- v [B1256; b8] happen to come, be brought here. Nahianhi lang mi dinhi sa ámung libutlíbut, In our wandering, we wound up here. kaanhiun a feel like coming here.

anhin, anhing the late. Si anhing Uy, The late Uy. v [B1256; a12] be, become dead, kill. Anhíngun ta ka run ug magbinúang ka nákù, I will kill you if you make a fool of me.

anhuy a smell of boiled starchy foods which have been burnt. v [BN; a2] for boiled starchy foods to smell burnt. Ang kamúti maanhuy ug pahubsan, The sweet potatoes will get a burnt odor if you let the water boil away.

áni v [A; a12] 1 harvest (usually rice, but by extension, other crops). 2 get benefit from s.t. Way maáni sa ímung pagsúgal, You can get no benefit from your gambling. n harvest. Dakù mig áni nga humay rung tuíga, We had a big rice harvest this year. -in- n harvested rice or millet.

anía short form: nía is here, where you and I are. Anía si Pidru sa Sibu, Pedro is here in Cebu. Aníay dus písus, Here is two pesos. Mau kanay nía sa ákung hunàhúnà, That is [46]what is (here) in my mind. — kanákù 1 I have. 2 I’m menstruating.

aniag = taniag.

ánib1 n 1 chapter in a book. 2 a span of time in one’s life. Ang panahun sa gúbat mauy usa ka maitum nga ánib sa ákung kinabúhì, The war period was a dark chapter in my life.

*ánib2 ka- allies. Ang mga huk kaánib sa mga kumunista, The Huks are allies of the Communists. v [C2; c] be allies.

aníbal n syrup. v [A; a1] make, have syrup.

anibirsaryu n anniversary. v [A; b6] celebrate one’s anniversary. Anibirsaryúhan giyud níla ang pitsa sa kasal, They will celebrate their wedding anniversary.

aníbung n fishtail palm: Caryota spp. It is found in forests and used as flooring.

anig-ig v [B46] for a stream to flow slowly and gently. Nag-anig-ig ang sapà kay taudtaud na mang way ulan, The brook is flowing slowly and gently because it has not rained for some time.

aníhag (from síhag) v 1 [A; c1] peer or look through s.t. transparent. Dihay mianihag (nag-anihag) sa bildung takup, S.o. peered through the glass shutter. 2 [B26] be clearly visible through s.t. transparent. Muanihag ang mga isdà kun tin-aw ang túbig, You can see the fish clearly when the water is clear. Maanihag ang íyang láwas sa nipis nga sinínà, Her body showed through her flimsy dress. 3 [B] become clear or transparent. Muanihag (maanihag) ang bildu kun trapúhan, The glass will become transparent if you wipe it. 4 [B4N] become bright and clear. Mianihag (nanganihag) na ang kadaúgan sa kandidátu, The candidate’s victory is already clear. Nagkaanihag na ang lángit, The sky is getting clearer. n crystal ball.

anii n shade tree: Erythrina fusca.

anikad = aninikad.

anílaw n name given to trees of the genera Columbia and Grewia. The anílaw are small trees or shrubs found in second growth forests.

anilyu n 1 game in which a number of one-inch rattan or metal rings with ribbons are suspended at a height within reach of a player riding a bicycle. The contestants speed towards them holding a dart, trying to hook a ring with it. 2 the ring used in such a game. v [A13; b6] play anilyu.

animal n vile, brutal person. Buhíi ku, animal! Let me go, you beast! v [B] become a vile person.

animar v [A; b5] encourage. Ikaw giyuy nag-animar níla sa binúang, You encouraged them to be naughty. Akù siyang gianimar (gianimahan) sa pagpaninda, I encouraged her to open a small store.

animas a 1 for a person to be emaciated and ugly in appearance. Pagkasakit níya sa tísis, daut siya kaáyu daw animas, When he got sick with TB he became thin, like a skeleton. 2 term of reproach: You beast! Paháwà dihà animása ka! Get out of there, you beast, you! paN- v [A2; b6(1)] say a prayer for the dead when the church bells ring at eight o’clock in the evening.

animasiyun n animation.

anímik, animiku n anemic. v [B] become anemic.

animu n consciousness, awareness. Nawad-an siya sa animu, She lost consciousness. Walà intáwuy animu ang bána sa gibúhat sa asáwa, The husband has no idea of what his wife is doing.

animya n anemia. v [a4] get anemia. Káun ug atay arun dílì ka animyáhun, Eat liver so you won’t get anemia.

anínag v [BN; b6] become visible. Mianínag ang usa ka hanap nga pahíyum sa íyang mga ngábil, A faint smile appeared on her lips. Wà pa manganínag ang adlaw, The sun had not yet appeared. Ang íyang nawung naaninágan sa ispat, Her face appeared in the rays of the flashlight.

anínaw v 1 [A; a12] observe carefully. Gianínaw níya kun natúlug na ba ang tanan únà manáug, She looked carefully to see, listened carefully to hear, if everybody was asleep before going out. 2 [A12; a3] come to sense s.t. Samtang natagpilaw siya, nakaanínaw siyag kasíkas sa píkas lawak, As he was dozing off to sleep, he noticed a rustling sound in the next room. Naanínaw ku nga buntag na diay, I became aware that it was already morning. n observation. Sa ákung anínaw wà siyay gustu nímu, I notice that she doesn’t like you.

anindut short form: nindut a nice, beautiful. Nindut ímung bistídu, You have a beautiful dress on. Kanindut sa pagkáun, What nice food! — nímu à sarcastic expression of disapproval. Nindut nímu à, ímung gilingkúran ang ákung kálù! How nice of you to sit on my hat! v [APB; a2] become, make s.t. beautiful. Kinsay munindut (mupanindut) sa intabládu? Who will beautify the stage? Nindúta ang ímung diskursu, Make your talk fancy. ma- a nice, beautiful.

aninikad (from síkad) n k.o. edible small conch which moves forward with a kicking-like [47]motion.

aniningsing (from singsing) n ring finger.

aniníput (from kíput) n firefly. Makaiksplikar ka ngánung musíga ang aniníput? Can you explain why the firefly lights up? kità ug — see stars. Suntuk nga nakapakakità nákug aniníput, A blow that made me see stars. paN- v [A23] see stars. Nanganiníput ákung panan-aw sa nasumbagan ku níya, I saw stars (lit. fireflies formed in my sight) when he struck me.

anínu n shadow. dakù ug — important, prominent person. v [A; a2] cast a shadow on. Muanínu ang káhuy sa tanáman, The tree will cast a shadow on the garden. paN- v [A2] reflect a certain feeling, for a feeling to reflect itself. Nanganínu ang kamatáyun sa íyang panagway (sa kamatáyun ang íyang panagway), Her face showed that she was a dying woman.

anipay n k.o. vine producing oval pods covered with irritating hairs: Mucuna nigricans.

anis n fennel. v [B6] cook s.t. with fennel. -ádu n flavored with fennel. v [a12] flavor s.t. with fennel.

ánis, ánist a 1 honest. 2 in earnest. Ánis ka, way klási? You’re not kidding me, are you? There’s no classes today? v [B12] be honest. Maánist man lang nà siya ug arayan ug bunal, He is honest only when they show him the whip. anisay v [A13] play without a referee, agreeing to call the points honestly. Mag-anisay lang ta kay wà may muripiri, We’ll just play honestly since there’s no referee. n playing without referee.

anis-is a immaculately white and smooth. Anis-is nga pamánit, Smooth, fair complexion. Anis-is ang lángit, The sky is smooth and white. v [B] become, make smooth and white. Muanis-is ang bisting putig labhag Tayid, White clothing becomes immaculate if you wash it with Tide.

anislag n k.o. shrub or small tree used for firewood: Securinaga flexuosa.†

anistisya n anesthesia. v [A; a12] anesthetize. Parabir ka upirahan, anistisyáhun úsà ka, Before you are operated, you will be anesthetized.

ánit n leather. Ang bag nga ánit mas lig-un kay sa plastik, A bag made of leather is much stronger than one of plastic. v [A; b] remove the skin, peels.†

anítu n supernatural beings which do not show themselves and do good to people. Ang mga anítu mag-uban kanímu sa inyung pánaw, May the good spirits accompany you in your trip!

aníyu n the short rope passed through the nose of a carabao to which the tether rope is joined. v [A; b] put an aníyu, use as an aníyu.

anlit n = anglit.

ansir n answer. v [A; c] answer a letter, question, problem. Ansíran ku na ba nang sulat? Shall I answer that letter? Unsay ákung iansir? What answer shall I give?

*ansiyánu n — sa simbahan church elder.

ansu = angsu.

ansuy v [A123P; b4] get infected. Ang húgaw nga túbig mauy nakaansuy (nakapaansuy) sa íyang samad, The dirty water caused his wound to get infected. Ansúyan ang samad, The wound will get infected.†

antad = angtad.

antagunismu n antagonism. Ang antagunismu tálì sa duha ka tríbu, The antagonism between the two tribes.

antáhay v [A3P; b1] hesitate, have second thoughts about doing s.t. Ang maldítung anak dì muantáhay sa súkul bisag ginikánan, The naughty child doesn’t hesitate to talk back to his own parents. Wà nà nákù antaháyig palit, I had no hesitations about buying that.

antak v [A; b36] stamp one’s foot. Ayaw kug antáki sa tiil, Don’t stamp your foot at me. Ayaw ug antáki ang kartun, Don’t stamp on the cardboard box.

antaw a for things at a distance to be visible. Ang Buhul antaw sa Talísay, Bohol is visible from Talisay. v [B156] be visible. Sa unáhan ang íyang balay nag-antaw, His house is visible in the distance. pa- v 1 [A; b6] be at a distance. Gipaantáwan níla ang namúhì ug dinamíta, They kept their distance from the dynamiters. 2 [A13] look at s.t. from a distant, detached point of view. Magpaantaw lang siya sa mga katarúngan ug dílì muapil sa lantúgì, He just takes a detached view of the reasons and doesn’t get into the argument. 3 [A13] be aloof. Sa mga tígum si Lúlit magpaantaw ug dílì muapil sa kulukabildu, At parties Lolette would keep to herself and not join in any of the conversations.

anti1 n k.o. erect branched weed, the leaves of which have a peppery taste and are used as a vegetable: Solanum nigrum.

anti-2 anti-. Anti-Amirikánu, Anti-American.

anti3 n 1 aunt, parent’s or grandparent’s sisters or their female cousins of any degree. 2 title given to such a relation.

antibayutiku n antibiotic.

antígu a know how to. Dì ku antígung mupasipála, I don’t know how to harm others. v [B123; b8] know how to do s.t. Makaantígu [48]ka ba nga mukuskus ug sista? Do you know how to play the guitar? Unsay ímung naantiguhan sa tantu nímung tuuntúun? What have you learned to do after studying so much? -in-(→) a requiring skill or know-how. Ang pagdala ug awtu sa syudad inantigu, It takes skill to drive a car in the city.

antíhay v 1 [A; c] dodge a blow. Wà níya iantíhay ang íyang kamut, mau nga naigù, He did not get his hand out of the way in time, so it was hit. 2 [A; b6] avoid a fight because of cowardice. Ikaw na lay ákung antiháyan? Do you think I would avoid a fight with you?

antikristu n anti-Christ.

antimánu v 1 [A; b5c1] do s.t. early before s.t. else happens. Muantimánu kug lakaw arun dílì hiabtan sa ulan, I will leave early before I get caught in the rain. Antimanúhun (antimanúhan) ta sila ug sulti arun dílì hiunhan, Let’s tell them early before s.o. else does. 2a [A3P; a12] kill s.t. with a single blow. Wà nímu maantimánug patay ang bábuy, You didn’t kill the pig at the first blow. 2b [A3P; b5c1] do s.t. immediately with finality. Iantimánu (antimanúhun, antimanúhan) giyud ang pagbalíbad arun dílì na magbalikbálik, You should refuse him with finality then and there so that he will not keep coming back. a for a killing to be done with one blow.

antína n antenna, aerial. v [A; a] put, make into an antenna.

anting-anting n a charm, amulet. Naghábak siya ug anting-anting arun dì siya madutlan sa bála, He is wearing an amulet so that bullets cannot penetrate him. v [A1; a] wear, have, make into an amulet. Gianting-antíngan ang igtalarì, The cock had a charm tied to it.

antipára n 1 eyeglasses. 2 diving goggles. v [AN; a] make into, wear eyeglasses or diving goggles.

antipas n mask covering the eyes. v [A1; ac] wear, obtain, make into a mask. Walà giyud mailhi ang kawatan kay nag-antipas man, They could not recognize the thief because he was wearing a mask.

antipatiku n antagonistic. v [B12; a] be, make s.o. antagonistic. Ayawg adtu sa íla kay giantipatikuhan ka sa íyang ginikánan, Don’t go to their house because her parents are antagonistic to you.

antipúlu n k.o. toilet with a long hole dug as the receptacle for waste.

antipun = awrúra1.

antipúna n a prayer in a novena or rosary, read by the leader.

antirábis n anti-rabies vaccine.

antis before doing s.t. Antis nímu lung-ága nà, hugási úsà, Wash it before you cook it.

antisiptiku n antiseptic.

antisípu n advance payment. Díay singku nga sabtun antisípu sa ímung kabáyù, Here is five pesos as down payment for your horse. v [A; c] give down payment.

antitirhi n genital organs (derogatory). Pagtárug lingkud arun dílì makítà ang ímung antitirhi, Sit properly so you don’t display your genitalia to the whole world.

antiúhus, antiyúhus n eyeglasses. v [AN2; a] wear, make into, get eyeglasses. Kadtung nag-antiyúhus si Pidru, The one wearing eyeglasses is Pedro.†

antū̀ = antúlu.

antúan n medium-sized tree of second growth forests: Pittosporum pentandrum.

antúbung n k.o. large, branching coral.

antud a = angtud.

antug1 v [A; c] 1 toss the coin in a coin-tossing game (hantak). Ayaw ug antúgi ning batúha, Don’t toss coins on this stone. 2 slam s.t. down as a coin is slammed down. Iantug ta ka run, I’ll throw you on the ground (said to a child one is holding in his arms). 3 shoot the ball in a basketball game. Inigkagunit níyag búla muantug dáyun, The moment he gets hold of the ball, he shoots it right away. n turn to toss the coin. -an(→) n place on which coins are thrown in hantak. -un(→) n coins used in hantak.

antug2 a rather heavy to lift. Antug ra kanang malíta nímu, That suitcase is too heavy for you. Antug nga káhuy, Dense and heavy wood. v [B2] become heavy.

antúhuy = anhuy.

antúlang (not without l) n k.o. big bivalve, the empty shells of which are used for decorative purposes.

antulánga n hibiscus. — nga lut-ud n double or triple petaled hibiscus. — nga asul n a blue hibiscus, cultivated as an ornamental: Hibiscus syriacus.

antulíhaw n k.o. small yellow-colored bird. -un a having the yellowish color of this bird.

antúlù v [B2] pause in surprise, be taken aback. Miantū̀ (naantū̀) siya sa pultahan pagkadungug sa singgit sa sulud, He paused in surprise at the door when he heard the cry within.

antus v [A; a1] 1 endure, stand. Mag-antus arun masantus, Endure if you are to become a saint. Makaantus ka ba sa kabahù sa lápuk? Can you stand the stench of the mud? [49]Antúsun ku na lang ang íyang mga pagtámay kanákù, I will just endure his words of disparagement. 2 suffer. Nag-antus siyag dúgay úsà mamatay, She suffered for a long time before she died. -l-un a needing endurance, perseverance. Alantúsun kaáyu ning batáa kay mahilak, This child needs patient handling because he is very sensitive. ma-in-un, ma-un a patient, persevering. Ang mainantúsun nga kinaíya ni Husi mauy makapalampus níya, Jose’s patient nature will make him succeed.

antutu v [B46; b6] pour forth smoke in quantities. Dakù giyung hikáya kay nag-antutu ang kusína, It must be a big feast because their kitchen has been belching forth smoke.

antuwánga = antulánga.

anu = unsa (dialectal).

ánud v [AP; c1] for the current to carry s.t. off. Ang bahà nag-ánud (nagpaánud) sa ílang balay, The flood washed their house away. Walà siya anúra (iánud) sa lawud, He wasn’t carried off into the deep. (→) n 1 things carried away by floodwater. 2 a person who just drifted s.w. or into s.t. Usa lang siya ka anud sa pulitika, He is s.o. who just drifted into politics. 3 = pa-(→). pati- v [A; c1] allow oneself to go with the current, but with control. Kun kapúyun siya sa paglinánguy mupatiánud lang siya sa sulug, When she becomes tired of swimming, she just lets herself drift in the current. Patianúrun (ipatiánud) námù sa luyu sa sakayan ang bugkus sa káhuy, We will let the bundle of wood be carried along behind the boat. pa-(→) n drift net which is left to float in the sea and catches fish by the gills. paN- n cloud. kapanganúran n clouds. panganúrun n spirits of children that have died unbaptized that are believed to be wafted in the skies.

anugas n k.o. small tree which is a violent contact poison: Semecarpus cuneiformis.

anúgun short form: núgun (from hinúgun) what a pity, it is a waste. Anúgun sa ímung nawung, I expected more of you. (Lit. Your nice face is just being wasted.) Anúgun nga walà siya dinhi, What a pity he’s not here! v [B1256; b6] consider s.t. a waste. Naanúgun na lang ang kwarta, The money just went to waste. Gianugnan ku sa mga patátas nga gipanglábay, I considered it a waste that the potatoes should be thrown away. paN- v [A12] feel bad about s.t. wasted. Nanganúgun ku sa kwartang giusíkan, I feel bad about the money that went to waste.

anugut n torch made from dried coconut blossom sheaths.

anúhus = anúus.

*anuk, *ánuk pa- v [A3; b(1)] keep cooked food over the embers so that it will be evenly cooked. Ayaw haúna inighubas, paanuki úsà, Don’t remove the pot when the water evaporates. Let it stay over the fire.

anular v [A; a12] annul, void. Anulahun ang kuntrátu kay walay pirma, The contract will be annulled because it has no signature.

anumalíya n anomaly, usually said euphemistically of fraudulent transactions.

-anun adjective forming affix added to roots which are nouns and which usually occur in the alternant -nun, with the a of the penult dropped. 1 having the characteristics of [noun]. Hariánun nga balay, A palatial (lit. kingly) house. Yawan-ung hunàhúnà, Devilish thoughts. 2 being from [such-and-such] a place or like s.t. from that place. Dagatnun nga mga binúhat, Creatures of the sea. Bul-ánun, One from Bohol. Bukidnun, A mountaineer.

an-un = unsáun (dialectal). see unsa.

anúnang1 n name given to sharks that look like sawfishes and guitarfishes.

anúnang2 n k.o. small tree with a yellow-white fruit like a cherry, round and with a single pit: Cordia dichotoma. The fruit is mucilaginous and is used for paste. A sticky sap in the inner portion of the bark is scraped off for poultices.

anúnas n k.o. heart-shaped fruit similar to átis: Anona reticulata.

anunimus n anonymous person. Anunimus ang nagpadala sa sulat, The person who sent the letter remained anonymous.

anunsiyu n announcement. v [A; c] announce. Ianunsiyu sa radyu, Announce it over the radio.

anunugba (from sugba) n moth that gathers around a light at night. v [B1256] be, become a moth.

anunugbu (from sugbu) n k.o. brown edible fresh-water crab reaching 3″ in diameter, usually used as bait in bantak fishing.

anupug = anapug.

anup-up = alup.

ánur a an honor student. v [B1236] make the honor roll. Nakaánur (naánur) ku kas-a, I made the honor roll once. — rul honor roll. v = ánur.

anus-a when? (future). Anus-a nímu dad-a? When will you bring it? Anus-a pa gud ku mutúu! I certainly would not believe that! (Lit. When would I ever believe that?)

anut n second growth. v [B13(1)6; b4] become a second-growth forest. Ang kaíngin [50]kaniadtu hápit na pud maanut, What was once a clearing is now practically a jungle again.

anutasiyun n annotation.

anúus n soot. anak sa — a very dark-complexioned person. v [A23; b(1)] give off soot. Ug muanúus ang sugà, pagamyi ang pabílu, If the lamp gives off soot, shorten the wick.

anuwal n a school yearbook. v [A1] publish, get a yearbook.

anyag a for s.t. in nature or women to be beautiful. v [AB2; b5] become, make beautiful. Naanyag si Maríya human siya mamulbus, Maria became beautiful after she powdered herself. ka- n beauty. Ang kaanyag sa palíbut, The beauty of the surroundings. ma- a beautiful.

anyil n bluing for wash. v [A; b6] put bluing in wash.†

anyu n 1 a certain year. Unsang anyúha ka matáwu? What year were you born? 2 [such-and-such] a grade, year in school. Ang ákung bátà sigundu anyu na sa hayskul, My son is already a sophomore in high school. — nuybu New Year. v 1 [AN] celebrate New Year’s. Manganyu nuybu (mag-anyu nuybu) ku dinhi, I will celebrate New Year’s here. 2 [B256] get to be New Year’s.

anyus following a number of Spanish origin: [so-and-so] many years. Bayinti anyus na ku dinhi, I have been here for twenty years.

apa = apla.

ápa n thin pastry of the sort used as ice cream cones or wrappers of egg rolls. 1a ice cream cone. 1b by extension, crackers. v [A1; a12] make, make into thin pastry.

apáhap = alapáhap.

apáli n k.o. oval-shaped, smooth-textured yam, cultivated and growing wild: Dioscorea esculenta.

apan1 but, on the contrary. n defect in a person. Táwu nga walay apan, A person without defect. v [A12] constitute the defect in s.o. or s.t. Maáyu ang lawlaw. Ang nakaapan bukugun, Salted sardines are good; the only thing wrong with them is that they are boney. apan-ápan v [A13; b6] keep saying ‘but’ to avoid doing s.t. Lakaw na, way apan-ápan, Get going, no but’s about it. Mag-apan-ápan siyag sugúun, He keeps saying ‘but’ when you tell him to do s.t.

apan2, apan-apan1 = alisiwsiw.

apan-apan2 n dish prepared from the young stems of kangkung cut into strips, cooked with spices and vinegar. v [A; c1] prepare apan-apan.

ap-andawun n the situation in a game of mahjong where to obtain mahjong (go out) the player needs to complete only a single straight (sequences of three pieces in numerical order) such that either the lower number of the higher number will complete the sequence. E.g., if a player is complete for mahjong except for one straight for which he has only the pieces five and six, he needs either seven or four to make the straight complete and get mahjong, and thus he is in the ap-andawun situation.

ap-ap = alap-ap.

apapángig n jaws. v [a12] hit in the jaw. -un a have prominent jaws. v [B1246] get a prominent jaw.

aparadur n wardrobe, cupboard. Ibutang ang sud-an sa aparadur, Put the food in the cupboard. v [a12] make into cupboard, wardrobe.

aparátu n apparatus.

aparisyun n apparition.

apartmin, apartmint n apartment. v [A1; a2] get, make, make into apartments.

ápas v 1 [A2; a12b2] follow and catch up with. Muápas níya ang íyang asáwa sa Rúma, His wife will join him in Rome. 2 [A; a12] go after s.o. to bring him home. Apása siya sa iskuyláhan, Go get him at school. 3 [A; a12] go as high as [such-and-such] an amount in buying s.t. Dílì ku muápas (muapas) ug bayinti sa ímung bábuy, I will not go as high as twenty for your pig. n 1 amount offered in bargaining after an original offer was made. Kwatru ni. Dì mahímug tris. Pilay ímung ápas? This costs four pesos. Three is not enough. How high will you offer? 2 s.t. uttered to s.o. leaving as a reminder. Ápas pahinumdum, A reminder as he is leaving. 3 — sumpay n sequel. Ang ‘Fili’ ni Risal ápas sumpay sa íyang ‘Noli’, Rizal’s ‘Fili’ is a sequel to his ‘Noli’. (→) 1 = ápas, 3. 2 [A12; b(1)] catch up, overtake. Dì ku makaapas nímu sa lumbà, I can not overtake you in a foot race. Hiapsan ku sa ulan, I will be caught in the rain. 3 [A12; a3] get meaning of. Dílì nákù maapas ang íyang gisulti, I cannot get what he’s talking about. 4 [A12; a2] keep up with work. Dílì siya makaapas ug utaw sa ákung paglaba, He cannot keep ironing as fast as I wash. Apasun ku ning trabáhu, I will keep up with the work. 5 effect s.t. Dílì maapas sa tambal, The medicine cannot help. 6 [A13; a12] be after s.t. Nag-apas ka lang sa íyang sápì, You’re only after her money. apas-apas v [A] keep doing one after another. Nag-apas-apas ug abut ang mga bisíta, The [51]visitors kept coming, one after another. apas-ápas v [A; a12] run after. Giapas-ápas siya sa íyang trátu, Her boyfriend ran after her. pa- = paagpas. see agpas. apsunun, alapsunun a requiring instant attention. Ayaw kug langána kay apsunun ning trabáhu, Don’t delay me because this work needs instant attention.

apat [so-and-so] would be, would have been better. Apat magtuun ka kay sa magdúlà, You’d do better to study than to play. Apat pag ímung gipalit ug baktin, You would have done better to buy a pig with the money. — kay the situation was fine except s.t. happened to make it bad. Apat kay wà tà tu maghilak, ímung gihilabtan, He wasn’t crying. What did you have to mess with him for? Apat kay dì ku muuban, gipugus. Naapil ku sa kasábà, I didn’t want to go with you, but you forced me. Now I got in trouble along with you. n action of saying ‘apat’. Walay apat nga mag-una, The apat (‘it would have been better’) always comes afterwards.

ápaw v [B23(1); b(1)] for the surface level of water to rise above s.t. Wà maápaw ang túbig sa bugas, The water was not enough to submerge the rice. Muápaw ang bahà sa taytáyan ug mukusug ang ulan, The flood will rise above the bridge if there is a downpour. Giapáwan sa sabaw ang sálad, The salad was submerged in the sauce.

apay1 n salad made of sweet potato tops. v [A; a] prepare a salad of sweet potato tops.

apay2 a pale-complexioned. Apay siya kay anímik, He is pale because he is anemic. v [B2N; b3] become pale. Miapay (naapay) siya sa kahadluk, She grew pale in fright.

apáyud n fan. v [A; b] 1 fan s.t. Ikay muapáyud sa kaláyu, You fan the fire. Apayúri ra ang mga bisíta, Fan the visitors. 2 make into a fan. paN- v [A13] fan oneself. Nangapáyud siya kay giinítan, She fanned herself because she felt hot.

apdu n 1 gall, bile. 2 s.t. bitter to endure. Apdu sa kamatuúran, The bitter truth. ispísu ug — brave.

ápid v [A; c1] arrange things of approximately the same size in a neat stack. Akuy muápid sa mga pinalantsa arun dì malum-it, I will stack the ironed clothes neatly so that they do not get crumpled. apid-apid 1 be stacked. 2 numerous. Apid-apid na ang íyang útang, He has debts to the ceiling. v [A; c1] 1 stack. 2 be numerous. Giapid-apid man gud níya ang íyang trátu, He has numerous sweethearts (lit. stacked them up).

apidábit n affidavit.

apíki a 1 inadequate in space. Apíki ang gamayng balay pára kanámung tanan, A small house is inadequate for all of us. 2 be in a tight financial position. 3 having little time. Apíki ang panahung itiwas sa trabáhu, There wasn’t enough time to finish the job. 4 homely to the point that one is hard put to find any redeeming feature. Apíkig nawung tanan íyang mga bátà, His children are all homely. 5 too near s.t. Apíki sa karsáda ang balay, The house is too near the street. 6 near. Apíki sa simbahan ang ámù, We live near the church. v 1 [B12; b(1)] get to be short of space, money, time. Ang pyánu nakaapíki (nakapaapíki) sa sála, The piano took up too much space in the living room. Hing-apikihan ku sa kwarta karun, I happen to be short of money now. 2 [A; a12b2] press s.o. by not giving him time or room for maneuver. Ayaw ku apikíha, dì lagi ku, Don’t try to force me. I told you I won’t. Dílì sila mubáyad ug dílì apikíhun, They won’t pay if you don’t press them. Naapikhan ku sa ahinti, mipalit na lang ku, The agent cornered me, so I just bought one.

apikta = apiktǎr.†

apiktǎr v [A; b(1)] affect. Dílì ku apiktahan (apiktaran) ug usa lang ka básu nga ram, One glass of rum isn’t enough to affect me.

apil a be included. Ang ábang sitinta apil ang sugà, The rent is seventy including light. walay — [subject] [subject] is not included. Wà kay apil sa dúlà, You are not included in the game. v 1 [A13; c1] include, put s.t. with s.t. else. Kinsay nag-apil sa ákung bulpin didtu sa sagbut? Who threw my ballpoint pen out with the trash? Apilun (iapil) ku ni ug lútù karung gabíi, I will include this in our dinner tonight. 2 [B26; b6] participate, take part in. Muapil ka sa ámung dúlà? Will you take part in our game? Maapil ka unyà sa kasábà, You might get scolded as well. apil-apil v [A] include oneself when one shouldn’t. Dílì ka muapil-apil ug isturya sa mga tigúlang, You must not insinuate yourself in the grown-ups’ conversation. manggiapil-apilun a given to including oneself in conversations. maN-r-(←) n participants.

apilar v [A; c] appeal to a higher court. Iapilar nátù ang kásu ug mapildi ta, We will appeal our case if we lose. apilasiyun n appeal to a higher court. Kurti diapilasyúnis n Court of Appeals.

apílu v [A2; b(1)] take sides with s.o. Ngánung muapílu ka man níya nga sayup man níya? Why do you take his side when he is [52]at fault?

apilyídu n surname. v [A1; c] have, give [such-and-such] a surname. Unáhun pagtawag ang nag-apilyídug Abad, Those who are named Abad will be called first. Giapilyidúhan siyag Krus gikúhà gíkan sa nagkúgus sa bunyag, He was surnamed Cruz, after his sponsor in baptism.

apindiks n the appendix in the body.†

apindisaytis n appendicitis. v [A123P; a4] cause, be afflicted with appendicitis.

áping n 1 cheek. 2 surface (metaphorical). Ang sakayan mitadlas sa áping sa dágat, The boat traversed the surface of the sea. paN- v [A2] for the cheeks to fill out. Uy katambuk na ni Lári. Nangáping na, Larry has gained weight. His cheeks have filled out. ka-an n the cheeks.

apínig v [A2; b(1)] side with. Apinígan nátù si Magsaysay karung iliksiyun, We’ll support Magsaysay this coming election.

apir n social affair.

ápir n 1 short for ápir baks upper box in a theater, boxing ring. 2 short for ápir kat upper cut in boxing. v [A2] hit with an upper cut. Pagbantay kun muápir si Balug, Watch out when Balug hits you with an upper cut.

ápir baks n upper box of a theater or boxing ring.

ápir kat n uppercut in boxing. v [A; a12] hit with an uppercut. Ápir katun bítaw siya ug sagunsun, plat lagi, He was hit repeatedly with an uppercut, and so he fell flat.

apirmatíbu a affirmative.

apisiyun n 1 craze for s.t. May apisiyun siya sa dyás, She is crazy about jazz. 2 have a knack for doing s.t. Wà kuy apisiyun sa panggansilyu, I have no great ability at crocheting. -áda, -ádu n having a passion for s.t. Apisyunádu siya sa baksing, He is a boxing fan. v [B12] develop a passion for s.t. Naapisyunáda siya sa bayli human makatilaw kas-a, She became passionate over dancing after she tried it once.

apítung n name given to three species of primary forest trees, source of timber and balaw resin: Dipterocarpus spp.

apla a 1 = aplud. 2 having a flat, insipid taste like tahuri beans. v [B; b6] become apla in taste.

aplay v 1 [A; b6] apply for a job. Giaplayan ba nímu ang trabáhu? Did you apply for the job? 1a try one’s hand at courting a girl (humorous). Ug wà pa kay trátu, muaplay ku, If you have no boy friend, I’d like to apply. 2 [AN; b6] apply cosmetics. Dì ka ba muaplay (mangaplay) ug mik-ap? Aren’t you going to put make-up on?

áp lay upsy-daisy. Íyang giaswat ang bátà ug miingun ‘áp lay’, He lifted the child and said ‘upsy-daisy’.

aplikasiyun n application.

aplud a having an insipid to slightly bitter taste with an astringent effect, such as unripe bananas. v [B; b6] get to have an aplud taste and texture. Ang tungug mauy makaaplud (makapaaplud) sa tubà, Mangrove bark is what gives the palm toddy its astringent taste.

Aprika n Africa. -na n African woman. -nu n African man.

aprindis, aprintis n apprentice. v [B136; a2] be, make into an apprentice.

apríta v [A; a2b2] 1 force s.o. to do s.t. by pressuring him. Hing-apritahan siya pagpatug-an, He was pressured into revealing the information. 2 [A; a12] hurry up, rush doing s.t. Mag-apríta tag lakaw kay umuúlan, Let’s walk fast because it’s about to rain. -du a pesteringly insistent.

apritáda (from prítu) n dish made of sauteed meat, peppers, peas, and potatoes or bananas. v [A; b2] make apritáda.

aprubar v [A; b(1)] approve a request. Aprubahan ku lang ning hangyù, I’ll just approve this request. aprubádu a 1 approved. 2 be in favor of s.t. Háin may ímung gustu? Aprubádu ka íning planúha? Which do you like? Are you in favor of this plan? 3 proven to be good. Ang Linimintu Sluwan aprubádu nga maáyu sa panakit sa kalawásan, Sloan’s liniment is proven the best for body pains. v [B1256] get to be approved. Ug maaprubádu ang ákung lún, If my loan is approved.

aptan see atup.

apu n grandchild. paN- v [A2] have grandchildren. Unsang idára ka nangapu? At what age did you have grandchildren? apuhan n grandparent. — sa sungkud, túhud, matag bagul Great, great-great, great-great-great grandchild, respectively.

ápù v [APB2S; c1P] pierce into or go into a hole as far as it will go, cause s.t. to do so. Siyay miápù (mipaápù) sa lansang, He drove the nail all the way in. Nag-apù ang gasulinadur ug kusug ang dágan, The accelerator was all the way down and it went fast. Nagkaapù na ang táwu sa lungag nga íyang gikubkub, The man is getting hidden beneath the hole he is digging. a gone all the way into a hole.

apud = aplud.

ápud v 1 [A; b5c] give each. Apúrun (apúran) [53]ta mu ug tagurha ka libru, I will give each of you two books. 2 [B15] to have [so-and-so-many] each. Nag-ápud silag pusil, They each have a rifle. 3 [A12] be enough for each to have a share. Kining prútas dílì makaápud kanátù, These fruits are not enough for all of us. maN- n cost one centavo each. Ang dulsi mangápud, The candies are one centavo each. pang- n distribution. Gipadayúnan ang pang-ápud sa humstid, They continued giving out homestead sites. apud-apud v [AN; c] distribute, divide among. Ang pusta giapud-apud sa daghang táwu, The bet was divided up among many people.

ápug1 n lime made from burnt seashells. v [A; a12] make lime. Mag-ápug ta pára mam-un, Let’s make lime for our betel chewing. -l-an n 1 lime container for tobacco or betel chewers. 2 lime factory.

ápug2 ‘no win’ in a kind of lottery where a black piece of paper, indicating no win, may be drawn. Walà pay nakadaug, pulus ápug ang nahulbutan, No one has won because all the numbers drawn turned out to be ápug. v 1 [B1256; a12] turn out to be ápug. 2 [B12] for a business to fail. Nagkaapug ang íyang nigusyu tungud sa íyang pagkasugarul, His business is failing because of his gambling.

ápul1 n coagulated blood. Dinhay daghang ápul namilit sa sundang, A lot of coagulated blood was sticking to the bolo. v [B3(1); b6] for blood to coagulate. Dílì makaápul (maápul) ang dugù kay atimanun ug trápu sa nars, The blood cannot coagulate because the nurse keeps wiping it away.

ápul2 n apple.

apung v 1 [A; b6] keep watch, wake over s.t. Miapung siya sa masakitun, She kept watch over the patient. Nag-apung ang purman sa nagtrabáhu, The foreman was watching the workers. Giapungan níla ang minatay, They kept wake over the body. 2 [A13; b6] stand around looking at s.t. Nag-apung siya ni Maríyang wà mutíngug níya, He was standing by, watching Maria, but she didn’t say anything. 3 [A3] be s.w. without doing anything, hang around a place. Nía ka na sad mag-apung sa tubaan, Here you are again, hanging around the toddy stand.

ápung v [A2; b(1)] for fish to gather in a mass. Sugà nga giapúngan sa mga bulinaw, Light that the anchovies were attracted to. n mass of fish.

apuntadur n prompter in a drama. v [B156] be the prompter.

apuntasiyun n prompting in a drama.

apunti v [A; c] record, list s.t. down. Akuy muapunti sa ímung gikúhà, I’ll write down the amount you borrowed.

*apuntin Alistu, —, puygu Ready, aim, fire!

apúpa a in the path of s.t. that comes from a general direction: rain, wind, smell, etc. Ang Sibu apúpa sa bagyu, Cebu is in the path of the storm. Apúpa ang ákung gilingkúran sa báhù, The place I’m sitting is right in the path of the smell. v 1 [B1256] get into the path of. 2 [cP] put in the path of. Ayaw iapúpa (ipaapúpa) ang bátà dihà. Banlásan námù ang salug, Don’t put the child in the way of the water we are going to splash over the floor. pa- v 1 [A; a1c] go into the path of. 2 [A; b6] place oneself in full view of s.o. Nagpaapúpa si Kurdaping sa mga laláki samtang nalígù, The fairy stood where the boys could look at him while he was bathing.

apura v [A; c1b2] hurry s.o., s.t. up. Mag-apura kug tuun, I’ll study quickly. Ayaw apuraha ang draybir kay piligru tag mabanggà, You must not tell the driver to hurry because we might have an accident. Apuraha (iapura) ang panihápun. Gigútum na ku, Hurry the dinner up. I’m hungry. -du(←) a wanting things done in a hurry. Apurádu kaáyu siya kay gustu siya nga mahuman dáyun, He always rushes people up because he wants things done right away. v [B1256] wanting to do things in a hurry.

apúru n facing, piece of cloth added to a material to allow for a hem or any turning. v [A; a2] add, make into facing.

apus n string for spinning a top. v [a12] hit s.t. with, make into the string for a top. Apsun (apusun) nímu ang kasing arun magsígi ug úgung, You hit the top with the string so that it will continue to spin.

apustrupi n apostrophe.

apustǔl1 n apostle.

apustǔl2 n k.o. paddy rice with elongated white grains. v [A; a2] plant apustǔl. Apustulun námù ámung basakan, We will plant our paddy to apustǔl.

apustulis n 1 apostle. 2 persons who take part in a tableau of the Last Supper presented on Holy Thursday.

apuwintmint n 1 appointment to a job or office. 2 date, appointment to meet with s.o.

apuy n boil which goes deep into the flesh and develops slowly, esp. around the knees.

apúya n pulpy, fibrous material left after extracting the juice of s.t. Apúya sa amirul nga balanghuy, The pulpy material left after starch has been extracted from the cassava. Apúya sa kapi, Coffee grounds. v [54][b6] consider pulpy. Giapuyáhan na ku ning nilugáwa kay wà na may lanut, This porridge is all pulp because there is no water.

apuyus n maggots. v [a4] be maggotty. Ang kusáhus giapuyus kay dílì maáyung pagkabulad, The jerked meat is full of maggots because it was not well-dried.

apyu n variety of celery with a thin body and light green leaves.

apyug n 1 general debility brought about as a result of sickness or malnutrition. Human sa tákig gitaptan siya sa apyug, After his malaria a general debility settled over him. 2 weakling. v [a4] get to be weak. -un(→) a weak, debilitated. v [B12] get to be weak, debilitated.

árà = anáa (dialectal).

árab1 v [AB; c1] burn s.t. with a rapid bright flame and then die down. Ang kaláyu miárab sa kakugnan, The fire burned the cogon grass. (→) a burning readily. Kining tabakúa barut kay arab, This is a poor k.o. tobacco because it burns fast.

árab2 v [AP; b5P] cut s.t. without hesitating or caring much about the result. Kinsay nag-árab sa ákung karsunisun? Nadáut na, Who did such a sloppy job of cutting my trousers? Now, they are ruined. Giarában (giárab) lang nímu ang ákung buhuk, You cut my hair too short and in a careless way.

arabi n tall breed of horse with a white coat and slender body.

arabun n k.o. special sticky rice used for the preparation of confections.

arabya = gwayabanu.

aradur n full-grown male carabao.

árag v [BN] for leaves to fall off. Mangárag ang dáhun sa arbul ug ting-init, The poinciana loses its leaves in the hot season.

arang 1 possible and fitting. Arang himúung upisína kining baláya, This is a good house to make into an office. Wà kuy arang ikabáyad, I don’t have enough to pay the debt. Dì tà nà arang isulti níya, That is not a fitting thing to say to him. Kinsay arang mugámit niíni? Who has the right to use this? 2 walay, kinsay — no one has, who has more right and power. Kinsay arang sa Diyus? Who is more powerful than God? Walay arang nákù dinhi. Ákù ning tanan, No one has more rights around here than I have. All this belongs to me. 3 followed by exclamation: My, how! Arang paíta! My! How bitter it is! v [B256] fit, be accommodated. Muarang ning pirnúha ánang bangag? Will this bolt get into that hole? Maarang ba tang tanan sa dyíp? Can all of us get into the jeep? kun ma- please. Kun maarang ayaw ug sábà, Please don’t make any noise. (←) = arang, 3. -an a presentable, all right. Arangan tà siyag hitsúra apan tagabúkid, She looks all right, but she’s a mountain girl. arang-arang, maarang-arang a a bit better. Arang-arang (maarang-arang) ning ákung sapátus sa imúha, My shoes are a bit better than yours. v [B] get better. Miarang-arang (naarang-arang) na ang ákung památì, I’m feeling a bit better now. Nagkaarang-arang na ang ílang kahimtang, Their financial situation is improving. ka-an n being well-off financially.

árang v [A13; a12] call off a game. Arángun ta ning dáma kay sígi ku nímung limbúngan, We’ll call off this checker game because you keep cheating.

arangka1 v [A; b(1)] speak seriously in order to convince. Arangkáhi si Tasing, básig musugut, Speak seriously to Tasing. She might accept.

arangka2, arangkǎr v [A; a12] 1 force s.t. open, by prying s.t. off. Ug way yáwi dì arangkáhun! If there’s no key, then force it open! 2 disassemble a machine. Siyay nag-arangkar sa makina, He was the one who disassembled the engine.

aransil n 1 church fees. 2 schedule posting church fees.

aranya, aranyas n 1 chandelier. 2 teardrop-shaped pieces of crystal that hang on a chandelier. 3 earring with a pendant shaped like a teardrop. 4 k.o. hanging fancy hibiscus: Hibiscus schizopetalus. 5 = tahuri (so called because the tahuri is teardrop-shaped).

arapal (from dápal) n a cactus similar to the prickly pear, but thornless: Nopalea cochinellifera. v [A13] appear in distinct rounded lumps like a cactus. Nag-arapal nga pangánud, Billowing clouds.

aráru = aláru.

áras1 n coins used in a marriage ceremony.

áras2 n tars produced by burning s.t. v [A13] form, produce tar. Ang kwáku kusug muáras, The pipe collects lots of tars. -un a producing tar. Ang byatilis arásung kahúya, The ipil-ipil is a tree that forms lots of tars.

áras3 = káras1.

*arasti paN- v [A2; b6(1)] 1 venture to do s.t. which one is incapable of doing satisfactorily. Nangarasti kag gubà niánà, ug karun unsa, dì na ka makaúlì? You took it on yourself to take that thing apart, and now you can’t get it back together again? 2 take a long chance on s.t. Pangarastíhi lang siyag hangyù. Básig musugut, Try and ask her. [55]She might just agree.

arastri n loading, unloading, transshipping service of goods shipped from abroad.

árat1 a 1 for throat to be sore. 2 for citrus to have an acrid taste. v 1 [B3N; a2b4] for the throat to be sore. Nangárat ang ákung tutunlan sa pagsinyágit, My throat became sore from shouting. Arátan ka gánì sa tutunlan ubhun ka, If your throat becomes sore, you are going to catch cold. 2 [B; b6] turn out to have an acrid taste.

árat2 n actions to impress others. Bídag árat ning tawhána, My, how that man puts on. pa- v [A1; b(1)] do s.t. to impress s.o. Dì ku kapaarátan níya. Wà siyay ikapaárat nákù, He can’t impress me. There’s nothing he can do that will impress me.

arawkarya n k.o. ornamental tree similar to a fir but with bright green needles and with fewer branches.

aray1 = agay.

aray2 v [AP; cP] set s.t. out before s.o. Giarayan (gipaarayan) ku siya ug tulu ka butilya, ug mikanta dáyun, I put three bottles in front of him, and he sang at once. Pagkáun nga giaray (gipaaray) kaníla, The food that was set before them.

arayis n skipper of small boats. v [B156] become, make into skipper.

arbul1 v [AN; b5] join s.o. in s.t. they have to eat, drink, ask for a smoke. Mangarbul (muarbul) na sad nig sigarilyu, He’ll probably come over to get a cigarette from us.

arbul2 n the royal poinciana tree: Delonix regia.†

arbularyu n a folk doctor who deals with plants. v [B156] be, become an arbularyu. pa- v [A1; b6(1)] have s.o. treated by an arbularyu. Paarbularyúhi na lang nà, kay dì madá sa duktur, Let an arbularyu treat it because a regular doctor can do nothing.

argabyádu = agrabyádu.

argabyu = agrabyu.

argardulsi = limunsítu.

argh word used in writing to represent sound of coughing.

argulya n 1 metal ring. 2 k.o. merry-go-round consisting of a wheel mounted on a pole from which metal chains with rings at the end dangle. To operate this contrivance the child holds on to a ring and runs around generating momentum until he can swing around holding on to the ring. Other children can ride by holding rings suspended from the other chains.

argumintu n 1 arguments for or against s.t. 2 argument, discussion. v [C; a12] argue with s.o. about s.t. Nagkaargumintu mi mahitungud sa báyad, We had an argument about the payment. Argumintúhun nátù ni ug dílì ta magkaúyun, We will argue this out if we can’t make each other see eye to eye.

ari 1 here (near speaker but not near person spoken to). Ari ibutang ang lamísa, Put the table over here. Ari na mi, We’re on our way (lit. will be over here) now. 2 let’s go over to the following point. Karun ari ta sa ikaduhang ánib sa libru, Now, let’s turn to the second chapter of the book. v 1 [A2; c] come over here, bring here. Makaari ka sa Lúnis? Can you come over on Monday? Iari nákù ang bátà kay akuy bantay, Bring the child over here and I’ll watch (him). 2 [A13; a2] come to get. Kinsa may mag-ari diri sa libru? Who is going to come here to get the book? Aria diri ang libru, kay dì ku makahatud, Come here to get the book, because I have no time to deliver it. umari ka, marika come here (said by superiors to inferiors). Marika ra gud Pidung, Come here, Pedong. (←)1 = ari. hi-/ha- v [B1256; b6] wind up here. arian v [A13] always come here. ariúnun, alaríun n things one has to come here to get.

ári2 = niíri. see kiri.

aríba1 n a percentage deducted by the operator of a gambling game from the proceeds of the winner. Bayri úsà ang aríba arun makítag pilay limpiyu, Pay the rake-off first so we can determine the net winnings. v [A; b6(1)] pay the owner his rake-off. Aribáhan úsà nátù ang bulangan únà bahína ang daug, We’ll pay the arena’s percentage first before we divide the winnings. -dur(→) 1 one who rents out gambling devices for a percentage of the winnings. 2 one who gambles with s.o.’s gambling equipment and pays a percentage to him. v [B16; a12] be, become a gambling device operator.

aríba2 v [A; c1] hoist, lift. Wà makaaríba pagdúngan ang mga nanaglálung sa balay, The persons who were moving the house didn’t lift it together. Iaríba (aribáha) ang láyag, Hoist the sail.

aríba3 v [A; b] block the way. Kuháa nang nakaaríbang batu, Remove that stone blocking the way. Giaribáhan nákù ang awtu, I blocked the path of the car.

aribáda v [A2; c] go, put s.w. for refuge or safekeeping. Didtu mi nakaaribáda sa simbahan pagbagyu, We took refuge in the church during the typhoon. Ug dúnay Hapun iaribáda sa lángub ang mga babáyi, Hide the women in the cave when the Japanese [56]soldiers come.

arigláda = arigládu, 1.

arigládu a 1 neat, orderly. Arigládu siyang mamisti, She dresses neatly. Arigládu na ang ímung kwartu, Your room is in order now. 2 prepared, ready. Arigládu na ang papílis pára sa ímung byáhi, The papers for your trip are all in order. Arigládu na ang panihápun, Dinner is ready now. 3 in agreement. Arigládu na. Adtu ta ugmà, It’s all arranged. We’ll go tomorrow. 3a for a quarrel to be settled. Arigládu na ang ílang áway, Their fight is settled now. 3b surely; it’s all right. Makagáwì ku sa ímung tilipunu? Arigládu, May I use your phone? Surely. v [B1256] get neat, in order, reconciled.

ariglǎr v [A; a12] 1 arrange, put in good order. Tabángi ku pag-ariglǎr sa ákung buhuk, Help me fix my hair. Nakaariglǎr ka na ba sa ákung katri? Have you made my bed yet? 2a attend to, take care of. Wà ku kapanglaba kay nag-ariglǎr ku sa mga bátà, I wasn’t able to do the washing because I was looking after the children. 2b [A3; a12] take charge of, assume responsibility for. Ariglahun ku ang mga gastus sa ímung pag-iskuyla, I will take charge of your school expenses. 3 [A; a12] settle a case, quarrel. Ariglaha na lang ang inyung áway, Settle your dispute. 4a [a12] beat s.o. up (lit. put him in order). Ariglahun ta ning limbungan, Let’s beat this cheater up. 4b do away with s.o. Giingun nga ariglahun si Bituy sa mga buguy, The thugs said they would liquidate Bitoy. 5 [AN; a12] treat an illness with ariglǎr. n treatment in folk medicine with special water made magic by having had a piece of paper with a magic formula (urasiyun) put into it. The water is either drunk or applied directly over the diseased part, and the person under this treatment is prohibited from uttering curse words. paN- v [A2] groom oneself nicely. Nangariglǎr na siya kay mamisíta man ni Tíba, He is grooming himself carefully because he is going to visit Tiba.

ariglu n settlement, compromise. Maáyu pa ang ariglu nga alang-álang kay sa burúka, A poor compromise is better than a court case. v [A; a12] settle by arbitration. Ariglúhun mu sa kapitan sa baryu, The barrio captain will arbitrate between you two.

arikmitik = aritmitik.

arimadur n the one who brings the fighting cocks into the arena when they are ready.

arimar v [A; b5] enliven, help cheer up. Ang kumidiyanti mauy mag-arimar sa dúlà, The comedian brings a note of comedy to the play. Arimáha (arimáhi) ang subù nímung inahan, Cheer up your mother because she is sad.

arína = harína.

arindu n lease on land or s.t. that produces an income. Ang arindu sa ímung yútà mulungtad ug lima ka túig, The lease on your land will last for five years. Mil písus ra ang arindu sa ákung yútà pára lima ka túig, The lease on my land is a thousand pesos for five years. v [A; b(1)] lease. Giarindúhan ku ang ílang panágat, I leased their fishing equipment.

aringkil n clattering sound. Ang aringkil sa mga táru, The clattering of the cans. v [A] clatter, clink. Miaringkil ang mga butilya dihang gipamakling sa iring, The bottles clattered when the cat knocked them over.

arinúla n chamber pot. v [b6] provide with a chamber pot.

*arisgǎr paN- v [A; b6] try s.t. regardless of the consequences. Mangarisgǎr kug panágat bisag dakù ang balud, I will venture out to sea even though there are big waves. Nagpangarisgǎr siyag tindug bisag lúya pa ang láwas, He’s trying bravely to get up even though his body is weak. arisgádu a daring, bold. Ug arisgádu ka pa, mulátay ka sa usa ka bulus kawáyan, If you are daring, you will cross over on a bamboo pole. v [B12] become daring.

aristǎr v [A; a12] put under arrest. Aristahun ta ka, I’ll put you under arrest. aristádu be under arrest. Aristádu ka. Ayawg líhuk, You’re under arrest. Don’t move. v [B1256] be arrested. Kun maaristádu ka gánì, ayaw giyud pagsúkul, If you are ever arrested, don’t resist.

*aristu mandamyintu di- warrant of arrest.

aristukrata a snooty, snobbish in behavior. v [B12; b6] become condescending, snooty.

árit (from tíra) v [AC; a2b2] have sexual intercourse (slang). Kuyugkúyug pa sa ímung trátu ug magabíi hing-aritan unyà ka, Keep going with that boy at night, and you’re going to wind up in bed with him.†

arítis = ariyus.

aritmitik n arithmetic. v [A2; a12] figure things out. Maáyung muaritmitik ning bat-ána, swítung way Santa Kláwus, This child figures things out fast. He knows there is no Santa Claus.

aritmitika, aritmitiku = aritmitik.

arítus = ariyus.

aríya1 v 1 [A; b7c1] lower. Ariyáhi ang písì ug dupa, Pay out a fathom of rope. Iaríya [57](ariyáha) na ang láyag, Lower the sail. 2 [A; c] 2a unload cargo. Iaríya na ang mga kargang humay, The rice cargo will be unloaded now. 2b throw overboard. Iaríya tanang mga karga arun masalbar ta, Throw the cargo overboard so that we may be saved. 3 [a2] come out, be released. Miaríya na ang tumatub, The bag of waters has broken. 4 [A; c] dispose of s.t. by sale. Iaríya dáyun ang abut inigprisyu, Sell the produce at once when the price rises. 5 [A; c] move from one place to another. Muaríya mi íning baláya kay mahal ug ábang, We will move from this house because the rent is too high.†

aríya2 v [A; b(1)] beat up thoroughly or rape. Giariyáhan ang impurmir sa mga ismaglir, The smugglers mauled the informer.

ariyádu timber (the tree is falling)!

ariyus n 1 earrings. 2 seal made of metal fastened to s.t. with wire which locks it. v [A; a] 1 put on, make into earrings. Kinsay nag-ariyus sa bátà? Who put earrings on the child? 2 put a seal on s.t. Dì mahilabtan ang kuntadur kay giariyúsan, Nobody can tamper with the meter because it has a seal on it. paN- v [A2] wear earrings. Ang laláki karun mangaríyus na, Men are wearing earrings these days.

ark word used in writing to represent sound of infliction of pain.

arka n 1 Noah’s ark. 2 ark of the covenant. v [A; a] make, make into the ark.

arkabála = alkabála.

arkanghil n archangel. Si San Migil Arkanghil, St. Michael the Archangel.

arkaydi = alkaldi.

arkila v [AN; b] rent. Inarkilahan lang kining baláya, We’re just renting this house. n amount of rent. Pilay arkila sa dyíp? How much is the rent for the jeep?

arkitiktu n architect. v [B156; a12] become, make into an architect. -ra n architecture course, subject.

arku n 1 arch placed over a thoroughfare to commemorate s.t. 2 arc. v [A13; a12b(1)] 1 make, put an arch s.w. 2 [A] form an arc. Miarku ang ági sa kwítis, The fireworks formed an arch.

arkuhul = alkuhul.

arkus = arku.

armáda n armada.

armádu aarmed. Usa ka grúpung armádu ang mitúlis sa bálu, An armed group robbed the widow. v [B1256] be, become armed.

armamintu n armament. Lumbà sa armamintu, Armament race.

armar v [A; c] set up s.t. folded or in pieces, or set s.t. in its proper place so it may be operated. Nag-armar siya sa ulutáwan, He is setting up the ironing board. Nag-armar mig mga kanyun líbut sa planta, We emplaced cannons around the plant. Ang bumba sa túbig iarmar duul sa kanal, Emplace the water pump near the canal.

armas n 1 arms, weapon. 2 penis (humorous euphemism). — dimánu bladed weapons. — dipuygu firearms.

armatyur n armature of an electric motor or generator. v [b(1)] put the armature on a motor.

armi n army.

armikat n crew cut. pa- v [A13] get a crew cut. Magpaarmikat ku kay mag-ar-utísi mi ugmà, I will get a crew cut because we have ROTC tomorrow.

armirul = almirul.

armistisyu n armistice. v [A1; b(1)] have an armistice. Mag-armistisyu sila sa Bitnam, They will have an armistice in Viet Nam.

armunyum, armunyun n harmonium. v [AN13] play the harmonium.

arníbal = aníbal.

arnika1 n = anghilika.

arnika2 n arnica. tintúra — tincture of arnica.

arnis v 1 [A; b(1)] throw s.o. off balance by tripping or shoving. Ug ímung arnísan ang ímung kadúlà mapáwul ka, It’s a foul if you trip your fellow player. 2 [C; c3] fence using sticks. n fencing with sticks.

arpa = alpa.

arpilir, arpiril = alpilir.

arsa = alsa.

arsii n RCA, abbreviation for the Philippine Government Rice and Corn Administration. Bugas arsii, Rice from the RCA.

arsubispu n archbishop. v [B16; a12] be, make into an archbishop. arsubispádu n archbishopric.

art. n abbreviation for artikulu.

artal = altar.

arti n art. Arti sa pamálak, Art of poetry. may, walay — be (not be) artistic. May arti siyang mukanta, She sings artfully. a 1 affected. Arti kaáyu nga manulti ning buánga, mu rag unsay nakamauhan, The fool speaks in an affected way. You’d think he knew s.t. 2 affected in dress. Pastilang artíhang mamisti ning bayhána, My! That woman sure does overdress. v [B3N; a2] 1 for speech or behavior to be affected. 2 overdress, have too much make-up on. 3 [A23] put on an act. Maáyu muarti, makalingaw sa naguul, He puts on a good act which could entertain people who are sad. artiarti v [A; b6] do s.t. unessential and unnecessary [58]just to put on a big show. Tuhi, muartiarti pa nà siyag pamaláyi bísag dúgay na nílang púyù, Phooey, he puts on a show of asking for the girl’s hand, as if they hadn’t already been living together for a long time. n action of doing unnecessary things just for show. Ug náay mangasáwa nákù, minyù dáyun sa way daghang artiarti, If s.o. asks me to marry him, I’ll say yes, without fuss and bother. pa- v [A; b6] make a show of doing s.t. Magpaarti silag hulgà nímu, piru ayawg tagda, They will put a big show of threatening you, but pay no attention. paN- n things one wears for vanity’s sake. Nangáyù siyag lipstik, ariyus ug uban pang mga pangarti, She asked for lipstick, earrings, and other vanities. di- a artistic. Panulat nga diarti, Artistic writings.

artikulu n 1 article, a piece published. 2 article of a law.

artiliyiríya n artillery.

artipisyal a 1 artificial, affected and not natural. Dalágang syudadnun nga púlus artipisyal ang panglihuk, City girls that always put on. 2 not naturally occurring, contrived. Ang kangihit sa humay artipisyal dílì tungud sa húlaw, The scarcity of rice is artificial and not due to the drought. v [B; a12] become, make artificial.

artista n actor, actress. v [B15; a12] be, become an actor. Gustu siyang mag-artista sa Haliwud, She wants to become an actress in Hollywood. -in- v [A; a1] put on an act. Nag-inartista siyag hangyù, He’s putting on an act while he is asking for it.

*artisyánu púsu — artesian well.

*árù ka- v [A13] be in varied profusion. Nagkaárù ang mga pagkáun nga giaray, Food was set before them in lavish profusion. pa- v 1 [A; c] ask for s.t. to one’s heart’s desire. Nagpaárù na sad siya sa mga pahindik, She is asking for cosmetics to her heart’s desire. 2 [A; c1] lavish on s.o. to his heart’s content. Gipaarúan na lang siyag unsay gustu, They gave him whatever he wanted to his heart’s content.

aruk n money (slang). -an a having money (slang).

arul v 1 [A3; b6] shave the hair off the head. Giarulan ang binilanggung patyunun, The condemned prisoner had his hair shaved off. 2 [BN; b6] lose hair, feathers. Muarul (mangarul) ang manuk ihás ug mating-init, Wild chickens shed their feathers in the hot season.

arúma n spiny shrub or small tree similar to ipil-ipil, used for firewood. Said to be the plant from which Christ’s crown of thorns was made: Acacia farnesiana.

arun1 in order to. Mupaúlì siya arun pag-utaw (nga mangutaw), She is going home to iron. kay — in order to, so that. Magtígum ku kay arun makapalit kug awtu, I will save so that I can buy a car. — ingnun in order to be said, to be mistaken for. Nagpulupangutána siya arun ingnun walà masáyud, He keeps asking questions so they will think he does not know. pa-, paka- ingnun v [A13] make false pretenses. Adtu siya magpakaarun-ingnun (magpaarun-ingnun) nga dakung táwu, There he goes making pretenses that he is an important person. paarun-árun v [A13] do s.t. under pretenses. Nagpaarun-árun siya ug diskursu bísan ug dílì siya kamau, He made pretensions of delivering a speech though he doesn’t know how.

arun2 (from karun) 1 particle calling s.o.’s attention when he is being spoken to. Arun, Pidru, gitawag ka, Hey, Pedro! S.o. is calling you! 2 particle introducing a new subject. Arun, muadtu ka sa Amirika? Now, are you going to America?

árun see karun.

arunsa v 1 [A; c] move, move s.t. over. Iarunsa ngari ang kahun, Move the box this way. 2 [B] advance, progress. Muarunsa ang táwu ug magkúgi, A person who works hard will prosper. 3 [b7c1] advance, move s.t. ahead in time. Arunsáhun (iarunsa, arunsáhan) nátù ang adlaw sa kasal, Let us advance the date of the marriage. 4 [B] become more and more. Nag-arunsa siya pagkaabusáda, She is getting more and more abusive. 5 [APB; b7c1] raise, rise. Muabut na ang bag-u nátung isták, mag-arunsa (magpaarunsa) ta sa prisyu, When the new stock arrives, let’s raise the price. Muarunsa ang prisyu sa humay, The price of rice will rise. n progress, advancement. Gamay ang arunsa sa íyang swildu, He received a very small increase in pay.

arus1 v [A; a] cut a growth short: hair, grass, hedge; strip the leaves, fruits, or flowers from a plant. Kinsay miarus sa mga rúsas? Who picked all of the roses? Naarus ang íyang kílay dihang mikalit pagsiláub ang kaláyu, Her eyebrow was singed off when the flame suddenly flared up. Giarusan ku siya kay gikutu, I cut her hair short because she has lice.

*arus2 — ala balinsiyána n Arroz a la Valenciana. — kaldu n rice porridge with chicken. — kun kamarun n rice with shrimp. v [A] prepare a rice dish.

ar-utísi n ROTC. v [A] hold, attend ROTC. Dílì ku muar-utísi rung hápun kay sakit [59]ákung tiil, I will not attend ROTC drill this afternoon because my foot hurts. Mag-ar-utísi ba ta ugmà? Will we have ROTC tomorrow?

aruwákà n 1 k.o. ornamental plant with flowers that bloom at midnight. 2 prostitute. v [B; b6] become a prostitute.

aruy = agay.

arya = aríya.

aryat a for women to be vain, choosy, affected, and coquettish. v [B1N; b6] be aryat. Nangaryat na sad ang byúda, The widow is putting on airs. -in- v [B4; a] act in a vain, affected way. Kuntra ku giyud nang mag-inaryat ug sinultihan, How I hate those women that are affected in their speech.

aryindu = arindu.

asa v [A3; b6] pay attention to, take s.o.’s word or behavior seriously. Ayawg ashi (asahi) ang sulti sa hubug, Don’t take a drunk’s words seriously.

ása1 1 where? (future). Ása ka muiskuyla? Where will you go to school? 1a going where? Ása ka? Where are you going? 2 which (of several) will... Ása kang siníha mutan-aw? Which movie will you go to see? 3 [verb] how could [so-and-so] ever happen? Ása gud siya mutúu nímu? How could she ever believe you? 4 (short for mahi-) What ever happened to...? Ása na man tung ákung bulpin? Now, where did my pen go to? 5 such-and-such a thing is likely to be there in due time. Ása man nang bisiklítag madakù ka, It’ll be time enough to get a bicycle when you get big. (Lit. Where will your bicycle be when you grow up.) Ayaw pangulitáwu. Ása ra man nà ug matituládu ka, Don’t propose yet. She’ll still be there (lit. where will she be) after you have graduated. Ása ka ra man unyà. Magkítà ra ta, You’ll be right there (where I can get you). We’ll meet again some day. i- what can you do with, of what use will it be? Iása man nà nímung mga dáang papil? What good are those old papers to you? ‘Gustu ka?’—‘Iása.’ ‘Do you want it?’ ‘No. What good is it to me?’ ma- 1 = ása, 5. 2 = mahi-. hi-/ha- v [B1256] where did/will it wind up at. Bísag mahiása ku, mabúhì, Wherever I wind up, I can survive.

ása2 v [A; b5] keep doing s.t. Inay gipahílum miása hinúun, We told her to stop crying, but she kept on. Wà kay búhat nga mahímù ug mag-ása kag hinuktuk, You won’t accomplish anything if you keep brooding. Asáhan (asáhun) bítaw námù ug tan-aw, midukù lagi, We kept staring at her until she finally bowed her head.

ása3 v [ab(1)] hope. Makaása ba mi sa ímung pagbálik? Can we hope for your return? Si Dun Magnu ang ílang giasáhan nga muluwas kaníla, They hoped Don Magno would save them.

asádu a roasted, broiled rare. v [B1256; a12] roast, broil rare. Ayawg lutúa, asadúha lang, Don’t cook it through. Just broil it rare.

asal v [A; a] roast over hot coals (not said of sea food). Kinsay nag-asal íni nga kagubkub man? Who roasted this pig that it is so crisp? aslunun, alaslun n a pig of the size right for roasting. -in- n roast pig.

asamblíya n the assembly, the lawmaking body of the Philippine Commonwealth.

as-as a for leaves to be very dry. v [B2; a12P] for leaves to become very dry. Nagkaas-as ang patayng dáhun nga nabulad, The leaves are getting dried out well under the sun.

asáwa n wife. — sa banig good-for-nothing wife (lit. good only in bed). v [A123S; a3] happen to get for a wife, can marry. Nakaasawa siyag iridíra, He got an heiress for a wife. Maasáwa ku siya, I can marry her. paN- v [A1; a12] for men to get married. Dì ku siya pangasaw-un, I refuse to marry her. pa-, papaN- v [c4] be married off to. Ipaasáwa (ipapangasáwa) ba gud siya nákù ánang hubug? Would I allow her to marry that drunk? maN-l- n bridegroom-to-be. igpaN-r-(→) n 1 s.t. used for marriage. Ang kang Lúlit ang gugma igpapangasawa, As far as Lolet was concerned love (i.e. sex) was s.t. reserved for marriage. Igpapangasawa ning bábuy, This pig is to be slaughtered at his wedding. 2 desirous of getting married. Igpapangasawa na kaáyu ang ákung ginháwa, I am very ready to get married. pangasaw-unun, pangalasaw-un wife-to-be.†

asayti n lubricating oil. v [A1; b] apply lubricating oil. Asaytíhig diyútay arun dílì muígut, Apply a little lubricating oil so that it won’t squeak. — dibakalaw cod liver oil. — dikastur castor oil. — diulíbu olive oil.

asbistus n asbestos. v [b(1)] put asbestos sheets on s.t.

asdang v [A; a] move forward to attack, face in battle. Asdángun ta ang mga Hapun, We will attack the Japanese. n advance, attack.

asgad a very salty. v [B; a] become salty. Ug asin sa lawlaw iasgad, mudúgang sa lamì ug muasgad gihápun ang sabaw, If you salt the soup with fish salt, the soup will become more delicious and get salty at the same time. -in- n salt pork.

ási 1 expression needling a person for pretending. Ási, patulugtúlug. Bákun na dihà, [60]Ha, pretending to sleep, are you? Get up! Ási, padilìdílì, apan gustu uruy, Ha, you pretend you don’t want any, but you do. 2 chiding a person jokingly for s.t. one notices for the first time. Ási, bag-u ta run ug sapátus, My! I see we have new shoes today. Ási, kúyug man lagi ka, Ah, I see you are going out with him! 3 chiding a person for acting beyond his station. Ási, pasugùsúgù pa man siya nákù! Hey! Where do you get off ordering me around! asiasi v [A; b5] 1 rush in to do s.t. without thought. Dì ni maáyung asiasihung (asiasihang) trabahúa, This isn’t the sort of thing you should rush in to do without thinking. 2 presume to do s.t., taking a person for granted. Nag-asiasi ka lang ug kúhà sa ákung mangga sa way pupananghid nákù, You presumed to take a mango without bothering to ask my permission. Dì nà nímu maasiasing tawhána, He isn’t the sort of man you can take for granted (rush into doing anything you want him to do on the spur of the moment). 3 [AP; b5] presume to do s.t. one cannot do. Nag-asiasi (nagpaasiasi) ka mang mag-istrungkar íning makinilya. Na karun, iúlì, You presumed to take the typewriter apart. Now let’s see you put it back together. manggiasiasihun, maasiasihun, asiasihun a presumptuous, taking for granted.

asidu n acid. Kining tambála makalínis sa asidu, This medicine can dissolve the acid. v [b(1)] apply acid to s.t. Asiduhi ang labábu, Apply acid to the wash bowl.

asikásu v [A; a12] 1 pay attention to. Wà na lang asikasúhi níya ang mga biaybíay, He just paid no attention to the words of derision. 2 attend to. Wà siya mag-asikásu sa íyang pamisti, She didn’t pay attention to her appearance. Dì ku makaasikásu sa ákung papílis, I cannot attend to my papers. Asikasúha ang mga bisíta, Tend to the visitors. 3 make an issue out of s.t. Ug mag-asikásu ka ánang diyútayng tabì, If you make an issue out of that small gossip.

asiláda n a girl student who works for her board and lodging in a dormitory run by nuns. v [B16; a12] be an asiláda. Nakaiskuyla ku kay nag-asiláda man ku, I was able to study because I had a job in a dormitory.

asílu n asylum for orphans, destitute people.

asíman = ulasíman.

asin n salt. walay — without substance, unbelievable. Walay asin ang íyang mga púlung, His words cannot be believed. v 1 [A] form salt. Muasin ang túbig sa dágat ug itúsun, Sea water forms salt if you boil it. 2 [A; b(1)] make salt. Nag-asin siya, He’s making salt. 3 [A; a12] preserve food with salt. Asinun ta ning karni, Let’s preserve this meat with salt. 4 [A; b(1)] season with salt. Asini ang sabaw, Put salt in the soup. -in- n food preserved in salt. -l-an(←) n salt factory. pang-an(←) n salt beds.

asin-ásin n rice or corn cooked to a mushy consistency. v [A; a] boil rice or corn grits soft, but not watery. Asin-asína ang sampuraduhun, Cook the rice and chocolate into a pudding.

asinda n plantation. asindíru n plantation owner. v [B56] become a plantation owner.†

asinsiyun n Ascension Day.

asinsu v [A; a12] improve economically. Dílì ka makaasinsu ánang panginabuhía, You can not better yourself financially in that line of work. n improvement in economic situation. Walay asinsu kining lungsúra, This town hasn’t shown any improvement.

*as-ip pa- v [A1; b(1)] pretend to be what one is not. Magpaas-ip bayà siyang dátù unyà pubri diay, She is pretending to be well-off although she is poor.

asir v 1 [A2] come out successfully. Sulayi lang ning tambála básig muasir, Just try this medicine. It might be effective. 2 [AN; c1] assert. Kinahanglan giyud nga mangasir ka sa ímung katungud sa pagkaasáwa, You’ve got to assert your rights as a wife. pa- [A; c] prove s.t. by making it come out. Ipaasir sab ang ímung pagkaduktur, dílì kay dukturduktur lang, Prove to them that you are a genuine doctor, not just a quack.

asíras n sidewalk. v [A1; b(1)] put a sidewalk. Maáyung asirásan ang kílid sa kalyi, It’d be good to put a sidewalk at the side of the street.

asiráwu a for a steel to be mild-tempered, soft. Asiráwu nang kutsilyúha kay dalì rang mahábul, That knife is mild-tempered because it easily gets dull. v [B12; a12] for steel to come out mild-tempered.†

asíru n 1 steel. 2 steel wire leader of fishlines. v [A13; b(1)] attach a steel wire leader.

asistinsiya n financial assistance given in social or civic programs.

asistǐr v [A; c] 1 give aid in doing work. Muasistir sila sa pagtúkud sa balay, They will help build the house. 2 assist at a mass.†

asíti = asayti.

asitíra n oil can. v [a12] make into an oil can.

asitun n acetone. v [b(1)] put or apply acetone. Asitunan lag diyútay ug mahuswà ang kútiks, Just apply a little acetone on it, and the nail polish will come off. [61]

aslay v [A3P; b6] splash up, for grains to bounce up. Ayawg ibundak ang baldi kay muaslay ang túbig, Don’t bang the pail down because the water will splash out. Ang humay nag-aslay tungud sa ímung linubkan, The way you are pounding it is making the rice fly up.

aslum a 1 sour. 2 cross, sour in facial expression. v 1 [B; a12] be, become sour. Way kaláki ang tubà nga nag-aslum lang, The palm toddy is no good because it is sour. Aslúmun nátù ang kahiláda, Let’s make the lemonade good and sour. 2 [BN; a12] be sour-faced. Mangaslum dáyun íyang nawung ug badlúngun siya, Her face gets a sour expression if she is told to stop doing s.t.

asnat v [A; a1] lift s.t. heavy. Asnáta ang lamísa arun dì magasgas ang salug, Lift the table when you carry it so you don’t scratch the floor.

asnu n ass.

aspaltu n asphalt. v [A; a12] apply asphalt. Aspaltúhun ang baskitbulan, The basketball court will be asphalted. aspaltádu a paved with asphalt.

asparagus n asparagus. — irmúsu ornamental herb with leaves like asparagus.

aspíra ultima n = mansanilya.

aspiranti n aspirant for a position. v [B] become an aspirant. Dì ku mag-aspiranti sa pagkaprisidinti kay hikuntrahan ta, I don’t want to be a candidate for president because I will make enemies.

aspirasiyun n aspiration. v [b(1)] aspire. Ang pagkaduktur mauy íyang giaspirasyunan, He aspired to be a doctor.

aspirin, aspirína n aspirin.

asta = hasta.

astri n ash tray. v [a12] make into an ash tray.

astrunawta n astronaut.

astrunumíya n astronomy.

astrunumu n astronomer. v [B1256; a12] be, become an astronomer.

astrunut n astronaut. v [B1256; a12] be, become an astronaut.

asu n 1 smoke. Way asu nga makumkum, You can’t hide smoke in your fist. (No secret can be kept for long.) 2 fumes. v 1 [A] give off smoke, fumes. Ngánung nag-asu man ang dapug? Why is the hearth giving off smoke? 2 [b4] be in path of smoke. Ayawg dáub dihà kay maasuhan mi diri, Don’t build a fire there because we’re right in the path of the smoke. 3 [B1246] go up in smoke, be for naught. Ang kwartang gigugul nímu naasu lang, The money you invested was for naught. pa- v [A; b6] fumigate, apply smoke to plants to make them bear. Paasuhi ang mangga arun mamúwak, Smoke the mango tree so it will bloom. asuasu v 1 [A] give off smoke continuously. 2 [A3; b(1)] come fast and thick, in rapid succession. Miasuasu ang íyang kúmù, The blows from his fists came fast and furiously. alasúhan a exposed to smoke. n chimney.

ásud v 1 [A2C; ac] for two or more people to pound cereal in mortar together and in synchronization. Asúra (iásud) ang mga lubuk, Do your pounding alternately—when one lifts, the other comes down. 2 [A13; b(1)] come one after another in rapid succession, like several people pounding rice on one pestle. Nag-ásud ang pangutána sa mga piryudista, The newspapermen’s questions came in rapid succession. Giasúran ug haluk ang bátà sa mga dalága, The girls smothered the baby with kisses. asud-asud v [A13; b(1)] = ásud, 2.

asúgi n head of a match.

asúkal = asúkar.

asúkar n refined sugar. v 1 [A13B23] make into, become sugar. Ang sintral nag-asúkar sa tubu, The mill is making refined sugar. Ug muasúkar na ang binúkal nga dugà, When the boiled juice forms sugar. 2 [c] put sugar into s.t. Giasukaran ba nímu ang kapi? Have you put sugar in the coffee? asukaríra n sugar container for table use.

asul a blue. — marína, marínu navy blue. v [BN; a1] be blue. Nag-asul ang lawud, The deep part of the sea looks blue.

asunting n k.o. erect branching shrub, wild but occasionally planted as ornamental. The leaves are used in treating skin fungi: Cassia alata.

asuntu n 1 court case. 2 matter, concern to be reckoned with. Asuntu sa kasingkásing, A matter of the heart. v [C2; a12] have a court case. Asuntúhun pa ba nátù kini nga gamay ra man? Shall we make a court case out of this small matter?

asupli n sulphur. v [b6] put sulphur on s.t. Asuplíhan kunu nang núka, Put sulphur on the sores.

asupri = asupli.

asus = hisus, 2.

asusasiyun n association, organization.

asusíluy n k.o. black and white songbird, the magpie robin: Copsychus saularis.

asusína = asusínas, 1.

asusínas n 1 k.o. bulbous ornamental plant with spikes of fragrant white flowers, borne in pairs: Polianthes tuberosa. 2 k.o. dried banana blossoms used as a spice. v [b6] spice with banana blossoms. [62]

asusisyun = asusasiyun.

asusyit v [A2C12; b(1)] associate with people. Maáyu nà siyang datúa kay muasusyit (makig-asusyit) sa mga pubri, That rich man is a fine man because he associates with the poor. n associate. — iditur associate editor.

asutíya n open porch. Adtu mi manglingkud sa asutíya ug walay ulan, We sit on the porch when it doesn’t rain. v [A13; b6] construct, attach an open porch.

asúus = alasúus.

ásuy v [A; c1] tell, relate. Lisud asúyun (iásuy) ang ákung kaági, It is hard to relate my experiences. Památì, asúyan ta kag isturya, Listen, I’ll tell you a story. Ang naásuy nga tigúlang, The old man I mentioned just now. n story, narration. hiN- n conversation. Ang ílang hingásuy milungtad sa gabíi, Their conversation lasted into the night. v [A1; b6] engage in story-telling. Naghingásuy siya sa kaági níya sa gíra, He was telling stories about his experiences in the war. -l-un a be a long story.

aswang = unglù.

aswas (from asáwa) wife (slang).

aswat v 1 [A; a1] lift s.t. heavy. Aswáta ang malíta, Pick up the suitcase. 2 [A12; a12] lift part of one’s body. Aswáta ímung tiil bi, Please lift your foot.

Asya n Asia.

asyinda n 1 plantation. 2 department of finance in government. v [a12] make into a plantation. Asyindáhun ug tubu ang yútà, Turn the land into a sugar plantation.

asyíti = asayti.

asyus a finicky, fussy. Asyus kaáyu siya. Dì mukáun ug munggus, dì muhigdag salug, magsingárig ílis, He’s terribly finicky: he doesn’t eat beans, won’t sleep on the floor, and keeps changing clothes. paN- v 1 [A] be overly finicky. 2 [A2] dress up. Nangasyus man ta run, náa bay mamisíta? We are all dressed up today, aren’t we? Is s.o. coming over?

asyúsa = asyúsu, (female).

asyúsu a 1 = asyus. 2 choosy about whom one is friendly with. Asyúsu kaáyu. Dì na mutagad námù, He’s very hoity-toity. He doesn’t notice us any more. v [B12; b6] become finicky or choosy.

asyútis n k.o. small tree, the seeds of which produce a reddish-brown dye: Bixa orellana.

át = alat.

átà n ink of squids and similar creatures. wà nay — be out of semen (lit. ink). Magminyù pa giyud ang tigúwang bisag wà nay átà, The old man is going to marry again, even though his semen is all dried up. v [B1456] be black as ink. Nag-átà ang kagabhíun, The night was pitch-dark. ka- v [A13] get ink from the squid all over oneself. Nagkaátà ang ímung dintru, You got ink from the squid all over your shirt.

átab1 v [A13] for the mouth to move vigorously in eating or talking. Nag-átab ang ímung bàbà ug úsap sa mani, Your mouth is moving vigorously chewing peanuts. pa- v [A1; b(1)] engage in idle talk. Nagpaátab siya ug tabì nga ikaw pinaangkan, He spread the word around that you are an illegitimate child. Ug paatában ka gánì sa íyang pagkadátù, If he gives you big talk about his being rich. pasi-, pasi-(→) v [A; c] boast. Nagpasiátab siyang daghang trátu, He is boasting that he has lots of girl friends.

átab2 (from bátà) n girl friend (slang). v [A12] get a girl friend. Makaátab kahà ning hitsúra ku? Do you think s.o. with my face can get a girl friend?

atábay n open well. v [A3S; b6] dig a well.

átad v [A13; b(1)] be spread in profuse disarray. Wà makítà ang yútà nga giatáran sa mga dáhun, You couldn’t see the ground for all the leaves scattered over it.

atádu = atáru.

atáhu = muhun.

átak v 1 [APB3(1); a] for s.t. which is of some weight and attached to s.t. to fall off. Ug muátak (mupaátak) kug búnga, bantayig ása tugdun, If I knock one down, watch where it lands. Naátak sa kaínit ang mga tuytuy, The buds fell off the tree because of the heat. 2 [B12; b8] for the eyes to bulge out, a symptom of a fatal disease caused by sorcery. Namatay siya. Naatákan man sa mata, He died because he got the bulging eye disease.

atakar v [A2; a12] 1 for a sickness to attack one. 2 dare to approach s.o. Unyà na atakara ug báli kun maáyug buut, Approach him for a cash advance later when he’s in a good mood.

atáki v 1 [A; a12] attack, assault. Atakíhun nátù ang Hapun, We will attack the Japanese. 2 [A; a12b2] attack s.o. personally. Ug manuburnu ka atakíhun ka sa mga piryudista, If you give bribes, the newspapers will attack you. 3 [a12] be attacked by a sickness. Giatáki sa kasingkásing si Pápa, Dad had a heart attack. n 1 attack, assault on s.t. 2 attack of a disease. — silibrǎr n cerebral thrombosis.

atáman v [A; a3] manage to keep up with a large quantity. Dì na maatáman ang daghang asayinmint, I can’t keep up with all [63]the assignments.

atang v 1 [A; b(1)] watch, but not carefully, keep an eye on. Atngi (atangi) ang linung-ag arun dílì muáwas, Keep an eye on the rice so it won’t boil over. 2 [A; b(1)] watch for s.t. or s.o. to pass. Ímu tang atngan ang trák arun makasakay ta, You should watch for the bus so that we can get on. (←)1 [A; b(1)] ambush. Ang mga girilya nag-átang sa mga Hapun, The guerillas are ambushing the Japanese. 3 [A2N] meet one’s girl friend at her place of work or study to accompany her. Túa siya nangátang sa íyang trátu, There he is, waiting for his girl friend to bring her home. n ambush.

átang2 n shelf set next to a stove at the same height with it to hold the pots and pans. Haúna ang tinúla ug ibutang sa átang, Take the fish stew off the stove and put it on the sideboard. v [A13; a12b(1)] put a sideboard next to a stove.

atáru v [A; a2] make s.t. into portions for sale. Atarúha sa tagdus písus ang bábuy, Cut the pork into pieces and put them together into portions worth two pesos each. n a portion for sale. Ang tabákù tagdiyis ang atáru, The tobacco leaves are ten cents a bundle.

átas v 1 [B126] be sickly, retarded in growth after being made to do s.t. before reaching the proper age. Maátas ang baktin kun sayung lutásun, The piglet will be stunted if you wean it prematurely. 2 [A; a12] wear out a razor blade. (→) a worn out dull. v [B] get worn out. Muatas ang labáha, The razor will get dull.

at-at1 v 1 [A; a] make an opening by pushing two sides apart. Midakù ang lungag sa kural kay íya mang giat-at ang alambri, There is a big hole in the fence because he pushed the wire strands apart. 2 [A; c1] bring s.t. to public knowledge by telling the whole story. At-átun (iat-at) ku nang tanang líhuk nímu ngadtu ni Tátay, I’ll tell Father everything you did. 3 [AB12; a] find out in complete detail, be found out. Ang ditiktib miat-at sa hinungdan sa súnug, The detective investigated in detail the cause of the fire. Nagkaat-at na ang mistiryu sa íyang pagkawā̀, The mystery of her disappearance is gradually coming to light.

at-at2 = ak-ak.

atatalu = hantatalu.

atay n 1 liver. 2 liver as the seat of emotions. makapakitbì, makapakúlù sa — makes the blood curdle. makapadakù sa — make s.t. go to one’s head. 3 bàbà sa — n pit of the stomach. v [a1] hit in the liver. Giatay siya pagdunggab, He was stabbed in the liver.

atay-átay n 1 pit of the stomach. 2 the hollow or fleshy part of the palm and its analogue in the foot. Natunuk siya sa atay-átay sa íyang tiil, He got a thorn in the arch of his sole. 3 k.o. ornamental shrub with mottled red or green elliptic leaves and smooth margins: Graptophyllum pictum. v [A3; a12] be hit on the solar plexus or on the fleshy part of the palm or sole of the foot.†

átay n illness of chicken. v [a12] 1 be affected with chicken cholera. Walà ba atáya ang inyung manuk? Are not your chickens affected with chicken cholera? Atáyun ka untà, Why don’t you drop dead? 2 [a4] be, act in a way that arouses annoyance and disapproval. Giátay nang bayhána. Miápas na pud, That damn woman. She followed me again. 2a gi- Damn! Giátay, mabdus na sad ku! Damn, I’m pregnant again! -l-un, -unun a susceptible to chicken cholera.

atbang (from atubang) across, opposite. Ang íla atbang sa ámù, Their place is across from ours. — sa hángin where one can get the full benefit of the breeze. v [C; ac] 1 be in the place across. Mag-atbang ang ílang balay, Their houses are across from each other. Atbángun ta silag lingkud, Let’s have them sit opposite each other. 2 be opponents. Atbángan ta ka bísag unsay partídu mu, I’ll be your opponent whatever your party is. pa- v [A; b(1)] go to a place opposite s.o. so he can see you. Gipaatbángan ni Kurding ang gwápung laláki, Cording took a seat opposite the handsome young man. ka- n opponent, rival. Kinsay ímung kaatbang sa tínis, sa pangulitáwu níya? Who is your opponent in tennis, rival in courting her?

atbu v [A; b6P] 1 for emotions to surge up and burst forth. Miatbu ang ákung kalípay, My heart leaped with happiness. Bantay. Hiatbuhan ka unyà sa ákung kasukù, Watch out. I’ll blow up in anger at you. 2 for very fine particles to fly up and be scattered in the air. Nag-atbu ang duldul sa unlan, The kapok flew out of the pillow. Giatbúhan (gipaatbúhan) lang ku níya sa asu. Wà giyud mutubag, He just blew smoke in my face. He didn’t reply at all.

atbug v [A; b(1)] 1 fly up in thick quantities. Miatbug ang lángaw pag-itsa nákù sa basúra, The flies rose in a swarm when I threw out the garbage. 2 for emotions to burst forth.

athag = kulangkulang. see kúlang. [64]

atibás = tibalas.

átik (from bulátik) a show-off, boastful. v [AP; b6] get s.t. from s.o. by flattery or other verbal chicanery. Kahibáwu siyang muátik (mupaátik) ni Lúla, He’s good at getting things out of Grandma. Ayawg hátag kay giatíkan ka lang, Don’t give him any. He’s just putting you on to get s.t. from you. n 1 s.t. said to get s.t. from s.o. 2 pocket money (slang). atik-átik = átik, v. pa- v 1 = átik. 2 [A; c] show off. Ipaátik níya ang bag-u níyang kutsi, He will show off his new car.

atiman v [A; a12] 1 give s.t. the attention that it requires. Dì siya makaatiman sa mga bátà, She cannot look after the children. Atimana ang ímung pagtuun, Tend to your studies. 2 keep up doing s.t. Dì ku maatiman ning labhanan, daghan kaáyu, I can’t keep up with all this laundry.

atimúya n k.o. large fruit similar to the guayabana, but with yellowish flesh and a flat taste: Anona sp.

atin v [A2; b(1)] attend classes or a meeting. Dì ku muatin sa klási, I won’t attend classes.

atindan, atindant n hospital attendant. v [B16; b(1)] be a hospital attendant.

atindída = atindídu (female).

atindídu a 1 attentive, courteous. Atindídu siya sa íyang pamisti, He dresses carefully. Atindídu siya sa mga bisíta, She attends to the visitors courteously. 2 paying attention to things that are not one’s business. Atindídu kaáyu nà siya sa sayup sa uban, He is very observant of other peoples’ mistakes.

atindir v 1 [A2; b6] attend classes or a meeting. Kumpirinsyang ákung giatindiran (giatindihan), The conference I attended. 2 [A; b5] give one’s attention to s.t. Dúna kuy asuntu nga atindihan (atindihun), I have a court case to attend to. Atindihi (atindiha) ang mga bisíta, Attend to the visitors.

atinsiyun n 1 attention, special care. Nagkinahanglan ug atinsiyun ang masakitun, The patient needs special attention. 2 attention! Atinsiyun mga sinyúris, Attention, Ladies and Gentlemen!

átip v [A; c1] 1 join pieces by sewing, welding, or pasting. Maátip pa kahà nang maáyu mang pagkagidlay? Do you think it can still be put back together in one piece? It is completely torn up. 2 put a crazy person in a kapok tree stock to cure him. Atípa ang búang sa duldul, Put the crazy man in the stocks.

atipú, atipúlu n name given to several large wild trees of the breadfruit family which have small to medium fruits, the seeds of which are eaten: Artocarpus spp.

átis n 1 sugar apple, a widely planted sweet fruit with numerous black seeds: Anona squamosa. 2 bruise, cussing out, or anything unpleasant that can be inflicted on one (slang). Unsa bay sígig tagawtaw dihà. Mangáyù ka bag átis? What are you grumbling about. You want me to box you? Si Nanit hinúun walà kaáyu makatilaw ug átis, Nanette, however, escaped the cussing-out.

atlíta n athlete.

atmuspíra n atmosphere surrounding the earth.

atnga, atngal n 1 teat, nipple. Gisakitan siya sa atngal human magpasúsu, Her nipples hurt after she suckled the baby. 2 the lower right-angled corner of a sack or one of the four corners of a pillow. Ug mag-aswat mug sáku usa ninyu maggunit sa atngal, If you lift a sack, one of you hold the lower corner.

atngaw = atngal.

atráka v [A; a12] 1 get close to s.t. not easy to approach. Mu rag dílì muatráka sa kaláyu ang mga bumbíru, It looks as though the firemen will not get close to the fire. Dì ku kaatráka níya kay dátù, I feel ashamed to approach her because she is rich. 2 attack a job with dispatch. Ug dílì ka muatráka sa trabáhu, wà kay umintu, If you don’t do your work with dispatch, you won’t make progress. Atrakáha lang siya pagpaningil, Get in there and press her to pay you. 3 [A2; a12] hold one’s own in a conversation. Burung. Dì kaatrákag kukabildu, She lacks social grace. She can’t keep a conversation going.

atraksiyun n attraction, s.t. that appeals. Ang Luníta usa sa mga atraksiyun sa Manílà, The Luneta park is one of the attractions in Manila. Bisag unsáug arti, wà giyud kay atraksiyun, No matter how much you put on, you still don’t have sex-appeal.

atraktíbu a attractive. v [B12] become attractive.

atras n 1 rear wheel. Nahyúsan mi sa atras, We had a flat tire in the rear. 2 rear part of vehicles. Adtu ikarga sa atras, Load it in the back. 3 reverse gear. Ang kambiyu dílì musulud sa atras, The gear won’t shift into reverse. — abanti a sewing machine capable of forward and backward movement. v [A] 1 back up a vehicle. Iatras ang trák, Back the truck up. 2 back out of an agreement. Dì ku muatras sa átung sábut, I will not back out of our agreement. 3 give way, back off from. Dì ta ka atrásan, I won’t [65]give ground to you.†

atrasádu a late, not on time. Alas nuybi na, atrasádu ka kaáyu, It’s nine o’clock now. You’re very late. v [B123(1)6; a2b3] be, late. Atrasadúhun nátù ang átung paglarga, Let’s start late.

atrasar v [AP; a2b3] delay s.t. Ayawg atrasara ang ákung paniudtu, Don’t delay my lunch. Unsa kahay naatrasahan ni Pípi? What could have delayed Pepe?

atrasáwu = atrasádu.

atrásu v [AP; a12P] 1 = atrasar. 2 cause s.t. to become delayed or get behindhand in fulfilling an obligation. Ug maatrásu ta ug duha ka adlaw, dakù ang multa, There is a big fine if you are two days delinquent. 3a [A12] have done a wrong to s.o. which requires retribution. Nakaatrásu ka nákù, panimaslan ta ka, You have done me a wrong. I’ll get revenge. 3b have a debt which one has failed to pay. n 1a delay. Ang atrásu nakapaalkansi námug dakù, The delay caused us great loss. 1b fine imposed for a delay. 2 wrong done to s.o. Unsay atrásu nákù nímu? What wrong have I done you?

atribídu see atribir.

atribir v [A3] do s.t. one has no business doing. Kinsay nag-atribir ug arangka niíni? Who went and took this apart? paN- v touch s.t. one has no business touching, mix into things not of one’s business. Nangatribir ka pud sa ákung butang, ha? So you dared to touch my things, did you? atribídu a doing things one has no business doing. Atribídu ka bisag dílì kamau, You take it on yourself even if you don’t know how. Atribídu ka sa mga áway bisag wà kay lábut, You mix into quarrels that are none of your business. v [B12] get to be atribídu.

atril1 n music stand, lectern. v [A; c1] use, use for a music stand, lectern. Muatril ka pa nga namimurya na man nímu ang písa? Will you use a music stand even if you’ve memorized the piece?

atril2 v [B46; a12] for dust, dirt to be thick. Miatril ang abug paglabay sa trák, Dust filled the air when the bus passed. Nag-atril ang buling sa ímung tangkúgù, You have thick dirt on your nape.

atripisyu, atripisyun n s.t. one is occupied with temporarily or one’s work. Pagpanágat mauy íyang atripisyu, Fishing is his occupation.

atsa n axe, hatchet. v 1 [A23; a12] hit, chop s.t. with an ax. Aku lay muatsa ánang irúa ug mabúang nà, I will hit that dog with an axe if it has distemper. 2 [a12] make into an axe.†

atsaatsa v [B1] be hard pressed doing s.t. because of its being more than one can handle. Nagkaatsaatsa kug pangítag ikabáyad sa ákung mga útang, I am going crazy trying to look for money to pay my debts.

atsal n 1 pickles made of shredded green papaya and various other vegetables cut in slivers. 2 name given to various varieties of large peppers, e.g., sweet pepper, long hot pepper: Capsicum annuum. v 1 [A; a12] make papaya pickles. 2 [A1; b6] cook sweet pepper, put sweet peppers into s.t.

atsar = atsal.

atsára = atsal, 1.

atsay1 n 1 kept woman, paramour (coarse). 2 maid of all work, servant (coarse). v 1 [A12B; a2] become a mistress, manage to get a mistress. Nakaatsay na kug mistísa, Dung, Let me tell you, son, I have already had a mistress of Spanish blood. Giatsayan ka lang nákù. Tinúud kung asáwa, arun ka masáyud, You think I’m your mistress? Well, in case you didn’t know, I’m your wife. 2 [A3; a2] be paid female help. Nakaatsay na ku sa tagasinyur istap, I’ve already tasted what it’s like to be a helper to the Senior Staff.

*atsay2 gi- euphemism for giátay, an expression of displeasure at s.o.’s behavior. Giatsay ka ba nga natúlug ka man dihà? What are you doing sleeping there? Are you crazy?

atsi1 n name of letter H.

atsi2 n sneeze, act of sneezing. v [A2N; b6] sneeze. Ug muatsi (mangatsi) ka, panap-ung sa ímung bàbà, If you sneeze, cover your mouth.

atsuytis = asyútis.

atu v [A12; a12] keep up doing s.t. to things as they come up. Makaatu ka ba sa mga balayranan sa iskuyláhan? Can you keep up with the school fees? Atuhun nímug laba ang mga bulingun, You should wash the soiled clothes as soon as they get dirty.

átu = adtu.

átù see kita.

atúa short form: túa is there, far away. Atúa (túa) pa ba siya puyù sa Manílà? Does he still live (there) in Manila? Tua na. Bag-u pa siyang milakaw, He’s gone (lit. over there). He just left.

átub1 n 1 stone prison cell. 2 pile of stones put s.w. to attract fish and crabs and get them where they can be readily found. 3 pit with a flimsy top for trapping animals. v 1 [A1; a] construct an átub. 2 [A2N; a1] trap in a pitfall. Nakaátub (nakapangátub) mig bábuy ihálas, We trapped a wild pig in [66]a pitfall.

átub2 v [A; b5] soak maguey leaves in the sea to soften them. Atúban (atúbun) ang magay unyà labhan, Maguey leaves are soaked and the flesh is washed off.

átub3 v [A3; b6] fall in great quantities. Miátub ang bumba sa syudad, Bombs rained on the city. Nag-átub ang ulan, The rain was pouring down. pa- v [A3] 1 expose oneself to a downpour. 2 expose oneself to danger. Hiilugan ka sa búlag magpaátub ka, They’ll get the ball away from you if you just stand there.

atubang v 1 [A; c1] face towards. Sígi ka lang nag-atubang sa ispíhu, You’re always looking at yourself in (lit. facing) the mirror. Iatubang ang ispíhu ngari, Face the mirror this way. 2 [A2; a12] set oneself to doing s.t. as it needs to be done. Daghan akung buluhatung atubangun, I have lots of work to do. Atubangun kug báyad ang instulmin, I’ll pay the installments as they come up. (←) v 1 [A3C; c3] be face to face with s.o. Nag-atúbang silag lingkud, They were sitting face to face. 2 [A3; a12] receive, entertain visitors. Kinahanglan atubángun ang mamisíta, If s.o. visits you, you have to receive him. 3 [AN2; a12] go see s.o. to talk things over. Ikaw bay muatúbang (mangatúbang) sa hípi? Will you go to see the chief to talk things over? Kinsay ákung atubángun (pangatubángun)? Who shall I go to see to talk it over with? 3a speak for a girl’s hand. Sa pamaláyi ang dakung táwu mauy mangatúbang, In arranging a marriage, the intermediary will speak to her parents. pa- towards, in a direction to. v [A; c1] go in a direction to (lit. make oneself face). Nagdagan si Pidru nagpaatubang sa baybay, Peter was running toward the shore. Paatubanga ang barútu sa píliw, Head the boat for the shallows. -ay v [C] meet face to face in a confrontation. -an n genitalia usually female (euphemism). -an(←) 1 place in front of, in the face of. Wà giyud siya mag-usab atubángan sa mapait nga kalisud, He hasn’t changed in the face of bitter difficulties. Ang irù túa gihukut sa atubángan, The dog is tied in the front yard. Gibundak níya ang libru sa ákung atubángan, He banged the book down in my presence. 2 = atubangan.

átud particle showing displeasure (euphemism for giátay). Átud, nawà man ta, Darn! We are lost. gi- darn! Giátud ka bang nangindiyan ka man, Darn you! You didn’t show up for our date.

atug n clitoris. taas ug — having a shrill voice (humorous).

atug-atug v [AP; a] presume to take responsibility or present oneself and one’s services unasked. Nakaatug-atug (nakapaatug-atug) si Píli pagtábang sa táwu kay nalúuy siya, Fely forced her help on the man unasked because she pitied him.

atul coincide in time. Ang íyang adlaw atul sa bag-ung túig, His birthday coincides with New Year’s. v 1 [A2C; c1] do s.t. at the same time as s.t. else happens. Dì ka muatul ug labang ug dúnay awtung muági, Do not cross at the same time that there’s a car coming. Nag-átul mig pamisíta sa ka Lusing, We happened to visit Lucing at the same time. Atulun (iatul) nílag pangáun ang pamisíta, They make their visits coincide with mealtime. 2 [b2] for s.t. to happen to one coincidentally with s.t. else. Hiatlan mig ulan sa Magalyánis, We were caught in the rain downtown. Naatlan níya si Bin nga bugnaw ang úlu, This time, she chanced to come on Ben while he was cool-headed.

atuli n 1 earwax. 2 materials like earwax. a yellow paste. b tobacco tars. c yellow, hardened grease sticking in corners of machinery. v [A; ac1] make, apply paste to. Nagkayabkáyab nang mga drúwing sa bungbung. Iatuli (atuliha) ra, The drawings are flapping up and down on the wall. Paste them down. (←) = atuli, 2a. paN- v = panghiN-. hiN- n instrument for getting earwax out. v [A; b(1)] remove earwax. Akuy muhingatuli sa bátà, I will remove the child’s earwax. panghiN- v [A2; b(1)] remove one’s earwax. Dílì maáyung manghingatuli sa kadaghánan, It’s not good to remove one’s earwax in public.

átum1 n atom.

*átum2 atum-atum 1 = atug-atug. 2 [A; a] attach undue importance to s.t., pay s.t. heed which is not worth it. Ang muatum-atum sa sulti sa gamayng bátà buang, Whoever gives importance to everything a child says is a fool. Sigíhan man kug súngug, nakaatum-atum ku, They teased me mercilessly, so I rose to the bait. 3 = pangarasti. see *arasti. atum-atumun a tending to give undue importance to s.t. -ay v [A; ab5] give s.t. careful and diligent attention. Kinahanglan atumáyun ang mga ginikánan sa ílang pagkatigúlang, One should give good care to his parents in their old age. Láin man ang ímung giatumáyan (giatúmay), dílì ang gisúgù nímu, Instead of sticking to your chores, your attention was elsewhere.

atumátik n 1 s.t. automatic. Atumátik ning ákung kamira, My camera is automatic. 2 [67]automatic pistol. 3 snap fastener for clothing. v [A; b6(1)] attach, close a snap fastener. Atumatíki ang likud, Put a snap fastener on the back (or snap the back).

*atúmik — bam atom bomb. — ids atomic age.

atumika a atomic, nuclear. Bumba atumika, Atomic bomb.

atung = atang.

atup n 1 roof. 2 paper covering for a kite. v [A; c] 1 put a roof. Aptan (atpan) tag sín ímung balay, We’ll put a galvanized iron roof on your house. 2 cover a kite.

atup-atup1 n k.o. roundish sea crab around nine square inches in size with scalloped edges.

aturga, aturgǎr v [AN; b5] take on responsibility, assume work without being asked to. Giaturgǎr (giaturgaran, giaturgahan) nákù ang pagdáwat sa urdir, I took on the responsibility of receiving the order.

aturni n 1 public attorney, lawyer. 2 short form: turni title of address for lawyers. Maáyung buntag, turni, Good morning, Attorney. v [B15] be, become an attorney.

atutung n blackening of the teeth. v [A123P; a4] get blackened teeth. Ug dì ta manipilyu atutungun ta, If you don’t brush your teeth, you’ll get black spots on them. ka- v [A13] having black spots on the teeth. Nagkaatutung íyang ngípun, His teeth has black places all over them.

aw, àw 1 particle preceding a statement made to correct oneself. Tagdus písus, aw, dus singkwinta diay, It’s two, I mean, two-fifty. 1a particle preceding an afterthought. Aw kanà lang diay, ímu na nà, Oh that. You can have that. 2 particle preceding a statement or question meaning ‘is that so?’ and shows surprise. Aw, mau diay nà? Oh! Is that so! 3 pause word before starting to speak. Aw, makahímù ba tag gáwì sa ímung tilipunu? Er, may I use your phone? 4 particle preceding a predetermined answer: ‘of course’. Aw, ú. Mabalibáran ba gud nà nákù? Yes, of course. How could I refuse that!

áwà1 n k.o. fish, the ten-pounder: Elops hawaiensis.

áwà2 v 1 [B126; b5c1] envy, be jealous. Ngánung maáwà ka man sa ímung igsúun? Why should you be jealous of your sister? Makaáwà man nang ímung kahimtang, Your circumstances inspire envy. Dílì man nà ángay awáun (awáan, iáwà), That is not worth envying. 2 [B1; b5c1] be worried. Mag-áwà man ka nga wà may nahinabù? Why are you worried when nothing terrible has happened?

awáaw a deserted place. Giatángan sila sa dapit nga awáaw, They were ambushed at the remote and lonely spot. v [B] be, become deserted and lonely.

awahi = ulahi.

áwak n continuous vaginal bleeding, severe or slight. v [A123P; a4b4] have continuous vaginal bleeding. Giáwak (giawákan) ka na ba sukad? Did you ever suffer continuous vaginal bleeding?

awang1 n space between the upper two front teeth. In folk belief, a woman is thought to be oversexed if she has this gap. v [b4] for s.o. to have a wide gap between the two front teeth. Birgatinya kunu ang babáying awangan, They say that a woman is oversexed if she has a wide gap between her two front teeth.

awang2 n k.o. small fresh-water crab that is edible.

áwas v 1 [A2S; b6] for liquid to boil over, spill over the top of a container. Muáwas ang sabaw, The soup will boil over. Nag-awas ang túbig sa baldi, The water in the pail is running over. 1a [b4] have wet dreams. Awásan siyag magabíi, He has wet dreams at night. 1b [B256] — sa kalindaryu pass thirty (Lit. go over the number in the calendar—slang). Miáwas (naáwas) na lang síya sa kalindaryu, wà pa giyud maminyù, She is past thirty and still hasn’t gotten married. 2 [A2S] for blows to miss the mark. Muáwas lang ang kúmù kay maáyung mulikay ang kuntra, Since his opponent dodge well his fist won’t hit the mark. pa- v [A; a12] parry, ward off blows. Paawásun níya ang pipila ka sukmag úsà siya mubálus, He will ward off several blows before he retaliates. (→) a abundant to overflowing. Ang Hapun karun awas sa mga pruduktu, Japan has products in abundance. —, -an(→) ug pálad spendthrift, extravagant. -an(→) sa apdu k.o. sickness. awasánan n down spout of a roof gutter.

awat, áwat1 v [A; ac] imitate, follow after. Kusug kitang muawat sa múda sa mga kanù, We are quick to imitate American fashions. Awata ang ákung linaktan, Imitate my way of walking. Iawat ang ímung linihukan sa ákù, Make your movements be like mine.

áwat2 v [A; a12] part or disengage persons fighting. Awáta sila kay magpatyanay unyà, Break them up because they might kill each other.

aw-aw v [A; ab2] bark. Ay lag dágan ug aw-áwun (hiaw-awan) ka sa irù, Don’t run if the dog barks at you. n dish prepared from dog meat (slang). Aw-aw ang ílang gisumsum, [68]They had dog meat to go with their drinks.

áway v [AC; a12b3] quarrel, fight. Awáyun ta ka run, I will quarrel with you. Ug dì madalag sulti, átù ning awáyun, We’ll fight it out if we can’t talk it out. Unsa may inyung giawáyan? What are you two quarreling about? Ang pátag nga ílang gipanag-awáyan, The plains where they did battle. Gikaáway ku siya, I had a fight with him. n fight, quarrel. -an(→) n in a game, a piece used to hit off others or used to determine the first performer of the game. ka- n enemy. pala-(→) a quarrelsome. Dì ku makigdúlà nímu kay palaaway ka, I will not play with you because you’re quarrelsome. v [B12] become quarrelsome.

awdisyun n audition. v [A; a12] audition.

awditíbu n telephone receiver.

awditur n auditor.

awdituryum n auditorium.

awgid = amgid.

awhag v [A; b5] urge s.o. to do s.t. Miawhag námù ang pulis sa pagpadágan ug hínay, The police urged us to drive slowly. Awhágun (awhágan) ta mu sa pagdagínut, I urge you to economize. ma-un a persuasive, urging. Maawhágung mga púlung, Words of persuasion.†

awhu n k.o. barracuda.

awíhaw = aluwíhaw.

áwil v [A; b] paddle a boat to make it stay in place. Awíli ang sakayan arun dílì ta iánud, Paddle the boat in place so we won’t be carried away.

áwit v 1 [A; a] sing. Unsa may íyang awítun? What will she sing? Awítan ta ka, I will sing you a song. 2 [A2; b6] sing, squeal (slang). Hibaw-an na mung tanan kay nakaáwit na ang dinakpan, You are all known because the suspect has squealed. 3 [A; b6] scold. Hastilang nakaáwit ni Nánay mu, naghápun man lang, How your mother scolds. It lasts till afternoon. 4 [b] demand a person’s possessions (slang). Pagsulud níyas prísu, giawítan dáyun ang íyang púlu, As soon as he entered the prison, they demanded his shirt right away. n song. karáang — old, oft-repeated story.

awlà n k.o. fish.

*awra — mismu right then and there. Awra mismung gipapaháwà ang kiriwan nga mutsatsa, They dismissed the maid on the spot because she was a thief. Anus-a ta mulakat? Awra mismu? When shall we leave? Right away?

awrúra1 n 1 religious procession held in time of pestilence in the early morning or late evening hours for the purpose of preventing further pestilence. 2 religious procession held on eight consecutive evenings before the feast day of saints. This procession is held after the novena. v [A; b6] hold a procession of this sort.

awrúra2 n name given to several k.o. ornamental bulbous plants.

Awstriyanhun n Austrian.

awsud n k.o. barracuda.

awtburd n outboard motor or motorboat.

awting n outing. v [A1; b6] have or hold an outing. Ang klási mag-awting sa Talísay ugmà, The class will have an outing at Talisay tomorrow.

awtlit n 1 drain for liquids. Naglúmung ang túbig dinhi kay walay awtlit, Water stagnates here because there is no outlet. 2 electric outlet. v 1 [b(1)] supply with a drain for water or electric outlet; make an outlet.

awtu n car. v [A13; a] go by, get a car. Dílì maawtu, You can’t go there by car. awtúhan a having an auto. v [B1256] getting to have a car.

awtugrap n autograph book, book of dedications. v [A; b(1)] write in an autograph book.

awtumátik, awtumatiku = atumátik.

awtumubil = awtu.

awtunumíya n autonomy.

awtupsi, awtupsíya n autopsy. v [A; b5] perform an autopsy. Awtupsiyáhun (awtupsiyáhan, awtupsíhun) ang minatay antis ilubung, The cadaver will be autopsied before it is buried.

awtur n 1 author of a book. 2 author of an act.

awturidad n 1 authority, right to do s.t. Wà kay awturidad sa pagpapaháwà nákù áning yutáa, You have no authority to eject me from this land. 2 governmental authorities. Ang awturidad nag-awhag sa mga táwu sa pagpabáyad sa mga buluhísan, The authorities are enjoining the people to pay their taxes. Gipangítà siya sa awturidad, He is being hunted by the authorities. 3 authority, expert in s.t. Si Manang usa ka awturidad sa madyung, Manang is an authority on mahjong. v [B1256] be an authority on s.t.

awturisar v [A; b6] authorize, empower.

awturisasyun n authorization.

awu- see also alu-.

áwug1 v [A3; c] furnish s.t. for free or as a privilege. Giawgan siyag dyip sa gubyirnu, The government furnishes him with a jeep. Walay buhis ang mga baligyang iáwug sa Amirika sa íyang mga sundálu, The goods [69]that America furnishes her soldiers are tax-free.

áwug2 n magical charm hung on fruit and vegetable plants to protect them from thieves. This charm may harm the culprit who eats it or give him some illusion which prevents him from leaving the place until he gets caught. v [A; b] apply a charm of this sort. Awgi ang kalbásà arun way mangáwat, Hang a charm on the squash so nobody will steal it. -in-an n fruit trees on which a charm has been hung; fruits from such trees.

áwuk = unglù.

awuk-uk = uk-uk.

awul v [A2; b6] go awol. Ug dílì ku tugtan, muawul na lang ku, If they don’t give me permission, I will go awol.

awumbak n dried piece of banana trunk.

áwut1 a 1 be out in a ball game. 2 be out of a place, out of stock, etc. — ab bawuns, lak, istak, etc. out of bounds, luck, stock, etc. Awut ab tápik ka, You are out of order, off the subject. v 1 [A3P; a2] make s.o. or s.t. out in ball games. Nakaáwut na ang pitsir ug duha, The pitcher has already struck two batters out. Hiawtan silag duha, They have had two outs. 2 [B56] get to be out of a place, out of luck, stock, etc. Muáwut ku ugmà, I’ll get out of this place tomorrow. Maáwut ang búla, The ball will go out of bounds.

áwut2 = alut.

awutsayid n out of bounds. v [B12; a12] go out of bounds. Ug maawtsayid ang búla ning sirbíha, pildi ta, If the ball goes out of bounds on this serve, we lose.

áwuy n k.o. shrub that bears umbels of black pellet-sized berries which are edible. The leaves are used as a fish poison and are applied to wounds to stop bleeding: Calliocarpa eriochlona. — agkut k.o. áwuy that is hairy: Calliocarpa formosana.

awyan = ayayan. see ayay.

ay1 1 expression dismissing what follows as unimportant. Ay kanà, ihátag na lang nà, Oh that! Just give it away. 2 particle showing exasperation or frustrated helplessness. Ay, Inday. Wà pa giyud ka makat-un? Goodness, my dear. Can’t you ever learn? Ay, ulahi ka na, nahurut na ug kahálin, Oh you are too late. They’re all sold out. Ay, kapait ning kinabuhía, My, how difficult life is. 3 particle preceding an exclamation of delight. Ay, kanindut sa búlak! Oh, what a beautiful flower.

ay2 particle following s.t. which calls attention to s.t. Si Pidru ay, Mam. Nanghíwì nákù, Teacher, Pedro was making faces at me. Pagkabuta nímu. Túa sa iskína ay, How blind you are! It’s right there at the corner! Kining bataána ay. Nagsígi lag dúlag lápuk, My, this child. He keeps playing in the mud. únu, dus, —, tris one, two, three, go!

ay3 = ayaw.

ay4 n a pair of mahjong pieces of the same number and design. In order to get mahjong, a set must contain an ay.

-ay1 affix forming verbs which refer 1 to reciprocal actions. Naglalisay sila, They argued back and forth. Nagtutukay sila, They stared at each other. Naghigugmáay sila, They were in love with one another. 2 to intense actions. Naghilákay sila, They cried and cried. Naghikayay sila kay pista ugmà, They were busy preparing because the fiesta was the following day.

-ay2 affix added to verbs to form nouns referring to manner in which s.t. is done. Maghúlin ta, bihagay, Let’s play marbles for keeps (in the manner of bíhag ‘capture’). Magtínis ta, sirbisahay, Let’s play tennis. The loser buys beer (lit. in the beer manner). Tagsingkwinta ang gatus, way piliay, They cost fifty a hundred, but no choosing.

ayà = wayà.

ayaan = iyaan. see iyà.

ayáay n time when water is slack at low tide before rising or at high tide before ebbing. v [B; b4] become slack tide. Maáyung ipamúkut ug muayáay ang dágat, A good time to go net fishing is when the water is slack.

ayad1 v [A; b(1)] 1 refuse to go through with s.t., have second thoughts, esp. about buying. Walay makaayad áning prisyung kubus, No one can have second thoughts about buying it at this low price. 2 reject an offer. Ikaw pa lay miayad sa ákung panábang, You’re the only one so far who has refused my aid. Pagkaaláut ning gugmang ímung giayran, Pity the one whose love you spurned. 3 avoid, refrain contact with. Nangayad siya sa mga pagkáun kay nanamkun, She couldn’t stand food because she was pregnant. Giayran siya sa mga táwu human siya mabangkarúta, People avoided him after he went bankrupt. 4 particle expressing eagerness. ‘Mukáun kag mangga?’—‘Ayad!’ ‘Do you want to eat mangoes?’—‘Sure thing. (Lit. Would I avoid them?)’ inayran n s.t. spurned, avoided. Inayran sa katilingban, Spurned by society.

ayad2 v [A; a12] repair s.t. Ayrun nákù ang munyíka nga natangtángag kamut, I’ll fix [70]the doll that lost one of its arms.

áyag v [A; a12] sift, separate the coarse from the fine. Ayágun ang bugas arun malain ang pínu, The rice is sifted so the fine particles can be separated. -an(→) n sifter, sieve.

ayágak = iyágak.

áyam v [A; a] 1 for a dog to chase s.t. Háin íning irúa ang nag-áyam sa manuk? Which dog chased the chicken? 2 hunt with dogs where the dog keeps track of the spoor. Bakatin ang ílang giáyam, They are hunting for wild pigs. paN- v [A] go hunting with dogs. Nangáyam sila sa lasang, They went hunting in the forest. n 1 occupation of hunting with dogs. 2 s.t. used to hunt. 3 hunting trip. -an(→) n place one hunts. ig-l-(→) = paN-, 3. maN-r-(→) n hunter. pinaN-an n s.t. caught hunting.

ayang-ang a in full view, uncovered. v [B] be open to full view. Muayang-ang gánì ang pultahan, musulud dáyun ang irù, If the door is open, the dog will get in. Nag-ayang-ang ang mga pinalit sa mga bukas nga bukag, The goods they bought were in full view in the open baskets. pa- v [A; ac2] expose s.t. to full view. Magpaayang-ang lang nà siya bísan ug daghang táwu, She sits in such a way that she exposes her crotch, even when there are a lot of people around. Nakapaayang-ang siya sa íyang kasukù, She exposed her anger. Paayang-anga lang nang pultahan sa ímung kwartu, Leave your door partly open. Ayaw paayang-angi ang sud-an, Don’t leave the food exposed. -un, -an a careless of speech and ways.

ay-ar payib n IR5, k.o. recently-introduced strain of rice.

ayaw short form: ay don’t do! Ayaw ug syágit. Ayaw pagsiyágit, Do not shout. Ayaw ug kabaláka, ayaw kabaláka, ayaw pagkabaláka, Don’t worry. — lang 1 never mind doing. Ayaw lang ug sirhi nang pwirta, Don’t bother closing the door. ‘Gustu ka?’—‘Ayaw lang,’ ‘Do you want any?’—‘No, thanks.’ 2 don’t (it’s a small thing to ask). Ay lang ingna ánà, Don’t do like that! — na stop doing. Ayaw nag hílak, Stop crying. Ayaw na, Tay. Dì na ku muusab, That’s enough, Dad. I won’t do it again. — na lang don’t bother doing what you’ve started or made a motion to do. Ay na lang kug ihatud, Don’t bother taking me home. — na lang ku ánà don’t give me that reason. Ay na lang ku ánà. Nakabatì na ku ánang rasúna, Don’t give me that. I’ve heard that line before. — na ku, ta (nímu) don’t try to fool me. Ay na lang ku nímu, Syu. Swítu na kaáyu ku nímu, Don’t try to put one over me, Cio. I know you too well already.

áyaw v [A2; b6] for a child to cry when not allowed to go with s.o. Natural, ang bátà muáyaw sa inahan, It’s natural for a child to cry when he’s not allowed to go with his mother.

ayawan = awayan. see áway.

ayáwat = iyáwat.

ayay particle 1 expressing pleasant surprise. Ayay, kanindut! Yippie. How nice! 2 expressing pain. Ayay, kasakit, Ouch. How painful. -an a overly sensitive and easily incapacitated by pain or sickness. Ayayan kaáyung batáa maung dì magpaindiksiyun, This child is a terrible sissy. She won’t let them give her a shot. v [B12] be a big sissy.

aybru n 1 eyebrow. 2 eyebrow pencil. v [A; b6] apply eyebrow pencil on s.o. paN- v [A2] apply eyebrow pencil on oneself.

ayda n kerosene pressure lantern (so called from the brand name).

aydi n identification card.

ayhà1 v [A; ac] talk s.o. into doing s.t., esp. buying. Ayháun ku siya sa ámù, I’ll persuade her to stay at our place. Singsing nga kináwat ang giayhà sa táwu, They offered the man a stolen ring.

ayhà2 before [so-and-so] happens. Mikáun siya ayhà mulakaw, He ate before he left the house. — na only then will, does [so-and-so] happen. Ayhà na ka bayri ug maintrígu mu ang risíbu, You get paid only when you hand over the receipt. — pa only then did [so-and-so] happen. Hápit na mahurut ayhà pa ku tagái, I wasn’t given any until they were almost all gone.

ayhab v [a4] menstruate (euphemism). Giayhab ka? Are you menstruating?

ayis n ice. — bag n ice bag. v [b6] apply an ice bag to. — baks n refrigerator. — drap n popsicle. v [A; a12] make, make into a popsicle. — kap = ayis bag. — kindi n ice candy. — krim n ice cream. v [A13; a12] make, make into ice cream. — kiyub n ice cubes. — pik n ice pick. v [a1] use an ice pick on, stab with an ice pick. v 1 [a] make ice. Maáyu muayis ang ripridiyirítur, The refrigerator makes ice well. 2 [B3; c1P] freeze. Dalì rang muayis (maayis, mag-ayis) ang ayis kindi kun ibutang sa prísir, The ice candy will freeze quickly if you put it in the freezer. 3 [A; b5] preserve s.t. with ice. Inaysan ba nang isdà? Has that fish been kept with ice?

ayis-ayis v 1 [AC; a1] flirt with the eyes. Maistra man diay tung ákung giayis-aysan, I just found out that the lady I was making eyes at was a teacher. 2 [A; b5] eye s.o. [71]or s.t. for a purpose. Nakaayis-ayis ku niánang sinináa, I have been eyeing that dress. n flirtation with the eyes.

ayri n air that gets into s.o.’s body causing disorder. Kuyaw sa ayri nang paságad lag indiksiyun, If you’re careless in giving shots, there is danger of air getting into the body. v 1 [B246; b4] for air to get into the body. Ayawg pahangin humag kalígù kay ayrihan ka, Don’t expose yourself to the wind after you bathe, for air might get into you. 2 [A; b6] admit air into a kerosene pressure lamp. Ayríhag hínay arun dílì musiláub, Let air into it slowly so it won’t flare up. 3 [A2; c] get on a bicycle by stepping on the pedal which is in an up position, so that the wheel is propelled as one steps on the pedal. Iayri ang bisiklíta inigsakay nímu, Pump the pedal as you get on the bike. 4 [A; b6] mount a woman (slang). Nindut ayríhan nang bayhána, It’d be nice to have intercourse with that woman.

ayruplánu n airplane. — nga báyut n light plane. v [A13; a12] go by, ride a plane. Ayruplanúhun ta lang ang Manílà, Let’s go to Manila by airplane.

aysyid n eye shadow. v [A; b6] apply eye shadow on s.o. Aysíran kang manang mu, Big sister will apply eye shadow on you. paN- v [A2] apply eye shadow on oneself.

ayta1 n Aeta, the Negritos.

ayta2 short form for tagái ta ‘give me’. Ayta duha kabuuk bi, Let me have two, please.

áyu v 1a [A13; a12] do s.t. well. Ayúha nig limpiyu, Clean this carefully. Gitan-aw níya pag-áyu ang sulud, He looked carefully into the insides. 1b do s.t. to an intense degree. Giáyu siya ug kastígu, He was severely punished. Nasukù siya pag-áyu, He got very angry. 2 [A3] do well in a given situation. Muáyu ang mais dinhi kay hustu sa ulan, Corn will do well here because there is enough rain. 3 [A; a12] repair, restore into working order. Ikay muáyu sa awtu kay ikay nakadáut, You repair the car because you ruined it. Ayúha ning ákung mutur, Repair my motorcycle. 4 [B12] get better. Naáyu na ku. Wà na ku hilanti, I am well now. I don’t have a fever any more. — ang buut v [B4] be in a good mood. Muáyu ang íyang buut ug bisitáhan siya ni Piduy, She gets in a good mood when Pedoy visits her. Giayúhan siya sa buut, She is in a good mood. 5 [A23; b6] treat s.o. nicely. Muáyu ka lang nákù ug magkinahanglan kag sápì, You treat me nicely only if you want money. Ug dì ka níla ayúhan, ayawg tagda, If they don’t treat you nicely, never mind. 6 [c] be on good terms with one another. Nagkaáyu na ba mung duha? Have you two gotten to be on good terms yet? ma- a short forms: maay, máyu 1 nice, good, well. Maáyu ning librúha, This book is good. Maáyu siyang magkinatsilà, He speaks Spanish well. 2 -ng buntag, hápun, etc. Good morning, afternoon, etc. -ng Pasku Merry Christmas. 2a greeting upon arriving at s.o.’s premises (short for maáyung buntag, etc.). Maáyu. Uy wà may táwu, Hello! Oh, there’s nobody home. 3a — nga bátà beautiful. Maáyung bátà ang íyang asáwa, He has a beautiful wife. 3b — láki of exceptional ability in s.t. Si Tiryu maáyung láki sa pamálak, Terio has exceptional ability in poetry. 4 ug ma- done well, to an intense degree. Gilimpiyuhag maáyu, It was well cleaned. Gibunálag maáyu, Got a good beating. v [B] be good, better. Ug mumaáyu ang guwà, padayúni, If it gives a good outcome, continue with it. Ug mamaáyu ang íyang tíngug sa mayik, dawáta pára sa amatyur, If his voice turns out good with the microphone, accept him for the singing contest. Namaáyu na ku sa sakit, I recovered from the sickness. Nagkamaayu ang íyang ági, His penmanship is getting better. Nagmaáyu ang tilimad-un ug walay kapakyásan, The indications are good, and it won’t fail. mina-(→) a in a good way. ayuáyu v 1 [A13] behave properly. Mag-ayuáyu ka sa ímung paglakaw, You behave properly on your trip. pag- goodbye, be careful on your trip. 2 [A23; b5] treat nicely. Ayuayúhun (ayuayúhan) ka lang níya pagkakarun, He is just treating you nice for now. pahi-/paka- v [A13; a12] cure an illness. Didtu siya magpakaáyu (magpahiáyu) sa Manílà sa íyang sakit, He was in Manila to get treated for his sickness. paayuáyu v [A13] pretend to be nice. Nagpaayuáyu ang libakíra, The scandalmonger is pretending to be nice. ka-, kama- how nice, well. Kaáyu (kamaáyu) nímung manista, How nicely you play! Kaáyu gyung latiguhun nímu, How nice it would be to whip you! ka- short forms: kaay, káyu very, very much. Mahal kaáyu, It’s very expensive. Gustu ku kaáyu, I want to very much. alayúhan n repair shop. alayuhun n s.t. to be repaired. kaayúhan n benefit.

ayù (from káyù) a asking for trouble. v [A13] ask for trouble. Nag-ayù ka ug kasab-an? Are you asking for a scolding?

ayúda v [A; b] 1 help. Ayudáhi kug alsa ári, Help me lift this. 2 give s.t. as a help. Ang mga Láyuns nag-ayúda ug kinahun nga sardínas, The Lions gave boxes of sardines as [72]aid. n aid, help given. — dikampu aide-de-camp. -nti n 1 helper. Ayudanti sa imprinta, A helper in the printing press. 2 aide-de-camp. v [B; a12] be, become a helper, aide-de-camp.

ayudi n intra-uterine device (I.U.D.) pa- v [A] have an I.U.D. installed.

áyum v [APB3(1); a12] 1 for a wound to be healed or cured. Dalì rang miáyum (naáyum) ang samad, It took only a short time for the wound to heal. 2 free from troubles, grief, evil habits. Ang panahun muáyum (mupaáyum) sa kaguul, Time will make us forget our sorrows. 3 [A; a12] repair, mend, fix. Muáyum siyag sapátus gubà, He repairs torn shoes. Ayúma ang ímung sinínà kay hugut da, Fix your dress because it’s too tight. ayum-áyum v 1 [A1; c1] fix s.t. up quickly in a makeshift way. Nag-ayum-áyum siya sa kunut sa íyang sinínà, She hurriedly smoothed over her wrinkled dress. Kini makaayum-áyum sa ímung kagútum, This will alleviate your hunger temporarily. Ayum-ayúma (iayum-áyum) lang nang hiwì sa bukag, Just straighten out the crooked basket quickly. 2 [AP; b6P] make do with s.t. Maáyu siyang muayum-áyum (mupaayum-áyum) sa tinábas sa pagtahì ug bistídu, She is good in making do with remnants in sewing her dresses. 3 [AP; bP] put up with s.t. temporarily. Ayum-ayúmi (paayum-ayúmi) lang ang íyang kasábà, Tutal, ági man lang nà, Try to put up with her scolding. Anyway, it won’t last.

ayun moving dragged along with s.t. Midágan ang barútu ayun sa súg, The boat is travelling along with the current. v 1 [B2] go with, for s.t. to harmonize with s.t. else. Kining dintrúha muayun sa ímung karsúnis, This shirt goes well with your pants. 2 [A2C3; b(1)] like, come to like. Ug ákung kaayunan ang buluk, ákung palitun ang panaptun, If I like the color, I will buy the cloth. Wà magkaáyun ang magtiáyun, maung nagkabúlag, The couple couldn’t get along very well so they separated. pa- = pahi-. pahi- v 1 [A2; c6] make s.t. fit with, conform to s.t. else. Ang balay gipahiayun sa ílang gustu, The house was built exactly according to their wishes. 2 [A; b6] put up with s.t., adjust oneself to s.t. Pahiayunan ku lang ang ílang hukum, I will just go along with their decision. ti- see tiáyun.

áyun = aláyun.

*ayup pa- v [A13; b(1)] let s.t. cook over low heat before taking it off the stove. Paayupi ang linung-ag kadiyut úsà haúna, Let the rice stay on the fire awhile before you take it off.

ayup-up = álup, 1.

ayus v [A; b(1)] refuse to have intercourse with one’s new husband. Ang bána nga giayusan sa asáwa, The husband whose wife refused to sleep with him.

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B

ba 1 question marker used in questions with no interrogative. Muanhi ka ba ugmà? Will you come here tomorrow? 1a with indirect questions: whether. Pangutan-a si Husi ug nahinumdum ba siya, Ask José if he remembers it. 1b was it [so-and-so]? Písus ba tu ímung gihátag nákù? Was it a peso you gave me? 2 dì, dílì — 2a isn’t that the case? Mulikù ta sa tuu, dì ba? We turn right, don’t we? 2b [so-and-so] is surely going to be the consequence. Hilabti nang makinilya. Dì ba latiguhun tika, Just touch that typewriter. You think I’m not going to smack you one? 3 with interrogatives: particle indicating impatience or a strong questioning tone. Pila bay plíti? How much is it now? unsa — what do you say? how about it? Unsa ba, palitun nátù tung awtu? How about it? Shall we buy that car? — gud particle indicating disbelief. Mangáwat ba gud ku? Do you think I would steal? 4 shall we say? Muanhi ka ug sayu ugmà, mga alas sayis ba, Come here early tomorrow, shall we say, six o’clock? 5 X — Y — either X or Y. Muanhi ka dáyun. Pagkaugmà ba, sa sunud adlaw ba, Come here as soon as possible. Either the next day or the day after that. 6 particle asking if the hearer understands. Si Mistir Krus tu, ag maistru ba, That was Mr. Cruz, the teacher, you know. Sugkáyun, pára ba maáyung pagkaságul, Stir it so, you know, it will get well-mixed. [73]7 in exclamations: 7a how unbelievable that it is that way! Pagkabúang ba gayud nákù, How could I be so foolish! 7b though. Itusmaw sa ínit nga túbig? Pagkamakalulúuy ba sab, Throw it into boiling water? How pitiful! laliman ka — can you beat that! Laliman ka ba niánà! Bayran ang tulu ka awtu ug kás! Can you beat that! Paying cash for the three cars! tíaw mu — Just imagine. Tíaw mu bay latiguhun sa publiku! Imagine! Being whipped in public! ra — see ra.

1 = báli, 2 (dialectal). 2 = bála2.

*bà (from sábà) — dihà it is not true, despite what you say. Bà dihà! Gustu lagi ku nímu, Oh, come on. I do so like you! Bà dihà uy. Wà ka man lagi manghúwat, Oh, shut up! You did not wait for me.

báag1 v [APB; c1] 1 make, become embers. Nagbáag (nagpabáag) akug igpaplantsa, I’m making embers for the iron. Nabáag na ang tibuuk balángay únà mahiabut ang bumbíru, The whole village was already in embers before the firemen arrived. 2 heat s.t., become hot. Nagkabáag ang kaínit sa mga táwu nga nagkaduul ang iliksyun, The people are becoming more and more heated up as the election approaches. Baága (ibáag) ra ning gátas, Please heat this milk. n heat. Ang báag sa adlaw mauy nakaitum kanákù, The heat of the sun has made me black. (→), baagbaag v [B; c] for actions to become incoherent, aimless. Nabaagbaag (nabaag) ang íyang diklarasiyun, His declaration became senseless and incoherent. Nagkabaagbaag siyag panghangyù ug pakitábang, She went around everywhere asking for help. baagbaagun a of an incoherent sort.

baang, báang1 v 1 [B3; c] plug up a hole. Sagbut ang nakabaang sa imburnal, Garbage has choked up the sewer. 2 [A; c] stuff s.t. into the mouth. Pakit-ag kan-unun dì ba mubáang dáyun, Show him s.t. to eat and he’ll shove it into his mouth instantly. n action of opening the mouth to shove food into it.†

báang2 v [A; a] extract starch from the buri palm. (→) n buri starch.

báat = baláat.

báb = babhir.

baba, bába = bála2.

bàbà n 1 mouth. 2 any mouth-like opening. Bàbà sa lángub, Mouth of the cave. Bàbà sa butilya, Mouth of the bottle. — sa atay pit of the stomach. v 1 [A12; a12] hit in the mouth. Bàbaun (bàbáun) ku siyag pátid, I’ll kick him in the mouth. 2 [A; b6(1)] put a mouth-like opening. Bàbáan ku ang alkansíya, I’ll saw a slit on the piggy bank. 3 [b2] utter a truth without even knowing that one is doing so. Hibàbaan nákù siya nga nangáwat, I hit on him as the thief without even knowing it. paN- v 1 [A1; b6] rant at or scold s.o. in a loud voice. Nagpamàbà na sad ang maldíta níyang asáwa, His termagant wife is ranting at him again. 2 [A23] say words glibly. Maáyu siya mamàbà mau nga daghang trátu, He is glib. That is why he has many girl friends. 3 [A2; b6(1)] say special prayers to ward off evil. Manágan giyud ang mga dautang ispiritu ug pamàbáan nákù, The evil spirits will run away from me if I utter special prayers against them. n 1 ranting. 2 gift of gab. 3 prayers to ward off evil. -in- n oral. Nahagbung ku sa pasúlit nga binàbà, I failed in the oral examination. -an, -un a tending to rant in a loud voice. tigpaN- n spokesman, press relations officer. Ang tigpamàbà sa wilgista abugádu, The strikers have a lawyer as their spokesman.†

babad v [A; c1] 1 turn around on its axis. Wà makababad ang pála sa pambut kay nagápus sa sámù, The boat propeller would not turn because seaweeds were entangled in it. Ibabad (babara) ang ímung kayril, Twirl your key chain. 2 brandish. Nagbabad ang pildírung kaáway sa bandírang putì, The defeated enemy waved the white flag.

bábad1 v 1 [A; c1] make a torch by binding dry strips of coconut leaves, coconut sheaths, or similar materials together. 2 [c1] swing a torch made in this way to cause it to flare up. Ibábad (babára) ang sû arun mudakù ang síga, Swing the torch to fan up the light.

bábad2 v [A; c] immerse or soak in liquid. Dì ku mubábad sa túbig kay dalì ra kung tugnawun, I won’t immerse myself in the water because I easily catch chills. Gibábad ang karni sa túyù, The meat was soaked in soy sauce.

bábag1 = balábag, v1, 2, 3, n1, 3.

bábag2 a for meals to be irregular and scanty. v 1 [A] eat meals on an irregular and scanty basis. Mahibalu bayà gud ku mubábag ug káun, I know how to make do with irregular and scanty meals. 2 [B] for meals to become irregular and scanty. Nabábag ang ílang káun sa nasakit ang amahan, Their meals got to be irregular and scanty when their father got sick.

babaw n place up s.w. hiN-/haN-(←), hiN-/haN- v [B5] get to be almost full. Muhimábaw (muhimabaw) na gánì ang baldi, sirhi ang grípu, When the pail is almost full, close the faucet. i-, i-(←) n 1 place high up. Si [74]Guryu túa sa ibábaw nangáhuy, Goryo is in the hills gathering firewood. 2 place on top of s.t. Ibabaw (ibábaw) sa lamísa, On top of the table. Ibabaw sa patay kung láwas, Over my dead body. i- a high. Ibabaw ra ang inyu sa ámù, Your place is higher than ours. Ibabawng balay balauránan, Senate. — pa niánà in addition to that. v [b6P] 1 put s.t. on top of s.t. else. Giibabwan (gipaibabwan) ku sa ákung sinínà ang ímung libru, I placed my clothes on top of your book. 2 put s.t. higher. Ibabwi (paibabwi) lag diyútay, Just elevate it a little. pai- v 1 [A] soar up. Mipaibabaw ang uwak nga gilútus sa banug, The crow soared up because it was pursued by the hawk. 2 [B125] be the part on top. Ang nawung sa panaptun mauy maibabaw, The right side of the cloth should be on the outside. tig-(←) v [A23P; b6P] 1 go to surface. Mitigbábaw (mipatigbábaw) ang submarínu sa dágat, The submarine surfaced in the sea. 2 came out distinctly. Mitigbábaw (mipatigbábaw) giyud ang íyang tíngug bísan sa kasábà, His voice came out distinctly despite the noise. 3 prevail. Sa katapúsan mutigbábaw (mupatigbábaw) gayud ang katarúngan, In the end justice prevails. Ang gibátì níya kang Túni gitigbabáwan (gipatigbabáwan) sa gibátì níya kang Prid, Her feelings for Fred prevailed over her feelings for Tony. patig- v 1 = tig-. 2 [A; c] air out a sentiment, heave a prayer, etc. to s.o. above. Ipatigbábaw ang inyung pasalámat ngadtu kang Hiyúba, Offer your prayers of thanksgiving to Jehovah.

bábay bye-bye. v [A; b6] for a child to say bye-bye. hiN- a fond of waving bye-bye.

babáyi see bayi.

babaylan = baylan.

babha n slash. v [B; b5] have a wide slash in it. Nagbabha ang íyang kílid, His side was slashed wide open.

babhir n bobbed hairstyle. v 1 [A; c] bob hair. 2 [A13] wear one’s hair bobbed.

babil a be bothered with s.t. s.o. is carrying. Ayaw pagdalag mga bátà kay babil ka unyà kaáyu, Don’t take the children. They’ll be a nuisance. (←), babil v [A; a] be a burden. Nakababil (nakabábil) sa ákung paghigdà kining pistúla sa ákung luyu, This pistol in my hip pocket bothered me as I lay down to sleep. ka-(←) v [A13] 1 have difficulty in carrying more than one can. Nagkabábil kug dala sa mga kartun, I was having a hard time carrying all the different cartons. 2 be in great disorder. Nagkabábil ang kwartu kay way nanghípus, The room was in great disorder because no one picked it up.

bábit1 n heavy metal or stone used by a deep-sea diver to weigh him down. v [A; c6] use a weight in diving. Ang mga mananawum ug pirlas magbábit inigsáwum níla, The pearl divers use a weight when they dive.

bábit2 n female sex organ (slang).

bábul gam n bubble gum. v 1 [A1] chew, get bubble gum. 2 [A13; b6] put bubble gum s.w.

babung, bábung a good-looking girl (slang).

babuy v [a4] have an epileptic fit. Mibuwà íyang bàbà dihang gibabuy siya, He was frothing when he had an epileptic seizure. -un n epileptic.

bábuy1 n pig, pork. Mahal ang bábuy karun, Pork is high now. — ihálas, sulup wild pig. v 1 [A12] obtain a pig. Nakabábuy aku ug tulu ka buuk sa pagbatun ku sa íyang anay, I got three pigs for taking care of his sow. 2 [AP; a2] a corner, pin down. Nakabábuy (nakapabábuy) ang mga Písi sa mga Múrus sa pulù, The P.C. blockaded the Moros on the island. Nabábuy kami tungud sa dakung bahà, We were blocked in because of the great flood. b checkmate (in chess). Babúyun nákù ang ímung piyun, I’m going to checkmate your pawn. c [AP; c1] tie up capital. Ang ákung kwarta nabábuy sa nigusyu, My money is tied up in business. a piggish, dirty. — ug balatían swinish, having no moral qualms. paka- v [a12] consider, treat like a pig. Gipakabábuy lang ku nímu, You just treat me like a pig. -an(→) n piggery. v [A1] have, obtain a piggery. -in- a 1 like a pig. 2 for a scolding to be abusive. v [A; a12] 1 treat like a pig. Gibinábuy ku nílag hikut, They hog-tied me. 2 be mercilessly scolded. Gibinábuy ku níyag kasábà, He scolded me abusively. mag-r-(→) n pig-dealer.

bábuy2 n bulge in a muscle which results from a blow. v [B246] have a muscle bulge. Mibábuy ákung buktun, My arm got a charley horse.

babuybabuy n 1 k.o. louse which hides in crannies and lives in damp places. 2 k.o. cowrie. v [a4] infested with wood lice. Gibabuybabuy ang hugasan, The sink is infested with wood lice. 3 = bábuy2.

bad-ay v 1 [B1] be placed transversely across. Nagbad-ay ang buktun sa bána sa tiyan sa íyang asáwa, The husband’s arm lay across his wife’s stomach. 2 [AN] appear prominently in a bulge along the surface. Mibad-ay (namad-ay) sa yútà ang gamut sa akasya, The roots of the monkeypod tree stick out along the ground. Barikus nga namad-ay (mibad-ay) sa bitíis, Varicose veins [75]appearing prominently on the legs. paN- v [A23] be strewn about. Pagkahū́g sa trák namad-ay ang daghang patay, When the truck fell, dead bodies were strewn all about.

badaybaday = baraybaray.

badbad1 v 1 [AB123; a] untie, get untied. Nakabadbad ang bábuy sa íyang gihigtan, The pig got loose from where he was tied. Badbára na ang bindáhi, Undo the bandage. 2 [A; a] liquidate a debt. Badbárun (badbarun) ku ang ákung útang, I will pay off my debts. 3 [A; a] solve a problem. Badbárun ra nátù ang prublíma, We’ll solve the problem. 4 [A; a] translate. Ang ubra ni Línin wà pa mabadbad sa Binisayà, The works of Lenin have not been translated into Visayan. a resolved, paid off. badbaran n skein holder, a device to hold a skein of thread as it is being reeled.

badbad2 n k.o. thorny tree.

badigard n bodyguard. v [B; b] 1 be, become a bodyguard. 2 watch over. Gibadigaran si Tasyug maáyu sa asáwa kay himabayi, Tacio’s wife watched him closely because he is fond of women.†

badingding n term of endearment to a baby. Kumusta ang ákung badingding? How is my little darling? a very dear. Badingding kaáyu ning ákung anak, This baby is very dear to me. v [A23; a12] make s.o. his little darling.

badlipánis a 1 badly punished in boxing. Badlipánis siya sa siks ráwun, He was badly punished in the sixth round. 2 have undergone sexual intercourse. v [AP; a12] 1 maul s.o. in boxing. 2 have heavy sexual activity with a woman. Nabadlipánis siya sa íyang bána, Her husband gave her a good sexual going over.

badlis v 1 [AB3; a] draw a line, for a line to show itself. Mibadlis sa íyang agtang ang dagkung ugat, His forehead was prominently lined with veins. Mibadlis sa íyang nawung ang kahadluk, Fear was written all over his face. Kinsay nagbadlis sa átung bungbung? Who drew a line on our wall? 1a cross out the mark made by a bettor in cockfighting as an indication that the bet is taken on. Misulud aku sa galyíra ug gibadlísan ku ang naglugrug tris-idus, I went into the arena and I took on the bet of three to two. 2 [A; b6] set limits to a person’s behavior. Badlísan ku ning tawhána kay nagdahan ang batásan, I will put a stop to this guy because he’s getting worse and worse. n 1 lines in the skin. 1a — sa pálad, kinabúhì n fate. Mau tingáli giyuy badlis sa íyang pálad nga maminyù siyag kriminal, Perhaps it was her fate to marry a criminal. 2 line drawn. 3 Ash Wednesday. — Myirkulis, ting- = badlis, 3. -an a 1 having lines. 2 name given to k.o. danggit and sapsap that have light vertical lines on the upper sides.

badlit = kadlit.

badlun n name given to various k.o. crevalles and pompanos: Caranx compressus, stellates; Gnathanodon speciosus, etc.

badlung v [A; a12] tell s.o. to stop doing s.t., admonish. Ang kanáway mubadlung sa tímug, The west wind makes the east wind stop blowing. Badlúngun nímu ang himabáyi nímung bána, You should admonish your husband because he chases after women. n admonishment not to do s.t. pa- v [A; ac] 1 allow s.o. to admonish one. Dì giyud nà siya pabadlung, He won’t obey (allow anyone to tell him to stop). 2 act in such a way as to cause admonishment. Nagpabadlung na pud ka, You’re making a nuisance of yourself again. -un(→) a deserving to be told to stop, troublemaker. ma-un a admonishing. Mabadlúngung tinan-awan, An admonishing look.

badmintun n badminton. v [A; a] play badminton.

badúduy n children’s word for genitalia.

bad-un = balad-un. see balà1.

badung n k.o. long sword made by Muslims.

badut = barut.

badútu = barútu.

badyang1 n k.o. tuberous plant with arrow-shaped leaves reaching 4′ and more. Edible but itchy root, grown as ornamental and wild: Alocasia macrorrhiza.

badyang2 = báyang1.

badyángun n k.o. fish, a small bulgan.

badyi = bayi.

badyibadyi = bayingbaying.

badyikdyik a for a girl to be sexy (slang). Badyikdyik kaáyu, She’s very sexy. n s.o.’s mistress. v 1 [B2; b6] become sexy. 2 [a12] make into one’s mistress. -an a keeping a woman. Badyikdyíkan siya kay kwartáhan, He keeps a woman because he’s got lots of dough.

badyit1 n budget. Ang badyit sa Pilipínas mikábat nag duha ka bilyun, The budget of the Philippines has reached two billion. v [A] budget, allocate money. Kamau ka bang mubadyit sa ímung kítà? Do you know how to budget your income?

badyit2 = kadlit.

badyù a for sweet potatoes to have a rotten, sour taste. Badyù ang lamì sa kamúti nga giúlud, Sweet potatoes that are infested with [76]worms taste rotten. v [a4] get infested with rot. Gibadyù ang tanan nílang mga kamúti, Their sweet potatoes are all infested with rot. -un a of a rotten and sour quality.

badyung n prolonged humming, droning, buzzing sound. v 1 [A] make a droning sound. Magdalì ta kay mibadyung nang ayruplánu, Let’s hurry because the airplane has started to drone. 2 [A; b6] strike close to s.t. so as to cause a whizzing sound without actually hitting it. Badyúngan ku sa ákung kúmù ang ímung nawung, I’ll make your face feel the whizzing sound of my fists.

bag word used in writing to indicate the sound of a blow.

bág n 1 bag, pocketbook. 2 kitty in a mahjong game. 3 = indibág. v [A] have, obtain a bag. Babáying nagbág ug putì, A lady with a white bag.†

bága n embers. mukáug — be a tough character (eat live embers). v 1 [AB; a2] make, become embers. Nabága (mibága) ang úling, The charcoal turned into embers. Bagáha ang úling kay mangutaw ku, Make embers because I’m going to iron. 2 [A2S] glow. Nagbaga ang plantsa, The iron is glowing. (→) v [A; b56] broil small dried fish by putting them in a plate with embers and shaking them. Bagaha (bagahi) ang bulinaw, Broil the anchovies. (→) n k.o. red fish. bagabaga n 1 name given to various k.o. fish with bright red scales; soldier fish, esp. Holocentrus spp. and Myripristis spp. 2 k.o. centipede with bright red body. bagahan a having live coals. baghanan n grill.

bagà a 1 thick in dimension. Ang ámung lamísa hinímù sa bagà nga tabla, Our table is made of thick wood. 2 dense. Bagà kaáyu ang duut sa táwu, A dense crowd of people. 3 rich (from — ug bulsa ‘fat walleted’). — ug búang misbehaving in an unusual way. Bagà ug búang si Línu kay nanglìlì samtang nalígù ang íyang maistra, Lino is very naughty because he peeped while his teacher was taking a bath. — ug gwatsi making subtle pranks which are not easily seen through. — ug nawung brazen. Bagà ug nawung ning tawhána. Bisan ug wà gustuhi mangulitáwu lang gihápun, This man sure has a lot of nerve. Even though she does not like him, he still continues to court her. v [B; a] 1 thicken. Undángi ug mubagà (mabagà) na ang pintal, Stop when the paint thickens. 2 become dense. Mibagà ang panun sa táwu pag-abut sa prisidinti, The crowd became dense when the president arrived. 3 become rich. Nabagà (mibagà) siya pag-intra níya sa pulitika, He became rich when he entered politics. 4 — ang búang misbehave seriously. Mubagà ang íyang búang kun mahubug, He misbehaves seriously when he is drunk. 5 — ang nawung be completely brazen. Nagbagà lang ang nawung ánang bayhána. Bisag dílì kaíla pangayúan, That woman is completely shameless. She asks for things from complete strangers. pa-(←), pa- sa nawung v [A; c] do s.t. despite the shame it might bring. Nagpabágà lang siya ug hangyù nga papangasáwa, She swallowed her pride and begged him to marry her. kabalag-un, gibag-un n thickness. kinabag-an n thickest.

bágà n lungs.

bagaang v [B156] be burdened, loaded with a heavy responsibility. Aku ang nagbagaang ug gastu sa ímung pagtuun ug pagbuguybúguy hinúuy ímung ibálus? I bore the burden of your schooling, but how do you repay me? You bum around. Ikaw ang nabagaang sa tanang mga buluhatun, All the household responsibilities are shoved onto you.

bagáang v [B1256] 1 feel a burning pain upon eating hot, spicy food. Nabagáang ku sa síli pagkáun nákug sálad, When I ate the salad I felt the hot sting of the peppers. 2 be stung by insulting words which are true. Nabagáang ku sa insultu sa maistru, I was stung by the teacher’s insulting remarks.

bagàbà n edible seaweed found clinging to offshore rocks, roughly cylindrical, branching and hard as bone cartilage. paN- v [A2; b] gather this seaweed.

bagákay n k.o. thin bamboo with long internodes in yellow and green varieties, used for baskets, flutes, etc.: Schizostachyum lima and some other non-climbing species. -un a 1 having a yellowish color. 2 long and thin like bagákay. 3 = bugawísan.

bagal1, bágal1 a 1 lumpy. Bagal kaáyu ang yútà pagdáru níla, The soil was very lumpy when they plowed the field. 2 have s.t. protruding in a lump. Bágal ang íyang kílid kay dihà may pistúla, There was s.t. protruding on his side because he had a pistol. 3 = bagul, a. n impacted, chunky earth. Dagkù kaáyu ang bagal sa yútà sa daruhan, The lumps of earth in the fields are very big. v [B] 1 become lumpy. 2 be protruding. 3 = bagul, v. bagalbagal v [B] become lumpy. Ang kapi mibagalbagal kay ang túbig wà pa man mubúkal, The powdered coffee was full of lumps because the water was not boiling.

bagal2, bágal2 n shell of eggs, cartridges, and [77]all shellfish but shrimps. Bagal sa mga kinhasun, Shells from the sea animals. Bagal sa blastingkap, Empty shells of a dynamite blasting cap. (←), -an(←) n k.o. shrimp of tidal swamps, growing to 3″ with a thick transparent shell.

bagalnga n small tree of thickets: Melia azedarach.

bagamundu a 1 vagrant. 2 a variation of the game kulilísi in which two groups, each with their own leader, complete in verse, the one group trying to gain the privilege of being admitted to the wake where they can join the other group in the game. v 1 [B16] become a vagabond. Nabagamundu si Uskar kay way pirmaninting pinuy-ánan, Oscar became a vagabond because he has no permanent place to stay. 2 [A; b6] play the game bagamundu.

bagan = mau ra ug (dialectal). see mau.

bagánaw n pool of water left after rain or after water has been washed over a dry area. v [B; c] become a pool of water. Ang kusug nga ulan nakapabagánaw (nakabagánaw) sa túbig, The heavy rain has turned the puddle into pools.

bágang n 1 k.o. beetle found on coconuts. 2 k.o. brown beetle commonly found in the Australian pine (agúhu).

bag-ang n molars. Mikágut ang íyang bag-ang sa labihang kalágut, He gritted his teeth in extreme anger. v 1 [a12] hit in the molars. 2 [a3] be hit by the truth of a statement that hurts. Nabag-ang siya sa ákung sulti kay hingmatud-an, My words hit him in a vital spot because they happened to be true. -an a 1 having molars. 2 be completely outstanding because of some possessions. Siya mauy bag-ángang dátù sa ámù, He is well-known for his wealth in our town. v [B12] become rich, powerful.

bag-ángan n 1 spotted eagle ray: Aetobatus narinari. 2 k.o. red and black porgy: Lethrinius rhodopterus.

bagansiya n vagrancy. v [a3] charged with vagrancy. Nabagansiya si Rus kay nasakpan nga namampam, Rose was charged with vagrancy because she was caught engaging in prostitution.

bag-as v [B12] 1 for animal tissue to decay and dry up. Ug mabag-as, dílì na bahù, Once it has decayed and dried, it doesn’t smell. 2 for tough guys to die (slang). Nabag-as na ang matun, The tough guy kicked off.

bagási, bagásu n bagasse, dried pulp of the sugar cane. bagasíru n employee in a sugar mill who gathers the pulp. v [B6; a2] be, become a pulp-gatherer.

bágat v 1 [AC; ac] meet, esp. on the sea. Nagbágat ang duha ka barku, The two ships met on the sea. Adtu níla ikabágat ang matahum nílang kaugmáun, There they will meet their rosy future. 2 [AC; ac2] barter products (from the notion that one goes to meet a fisherman and exchanges s.t. for his fish). Átung bagátun ang isig nátù kaabut, We will exchange our products with each other. Bagátan (ibágat) ku ning ákung humay ug isdà, I will barter my rice for fish.

bagatúngul = balbangáan.

bagaw1 as if (dialectal).

bagaw2 = bagal2.

bag-aw v [B1256] be kept waiting. Nabag-aw man lang kug pinaábut nímu, You kept me waiting for a long time.

bágay a 1 befitting, becoming. Bágay kaáyu sa íyang nawung ang antipára, His glasses are very becoming on his face. 2 for instruments to be in tune. Bágay na nang ímung sista, Your guitar is tuned now. 2a for voices to be blended. Bágay kaáyu ang ílang mga tíngug, Their voices are well blended. v 1 [B2C] harmonize with, match. Mibágay sa kurti sa íyang láwas ang íyang sinínà, Her dress is very good for her sort of body. Nagbágay ang íyang bag ug sapátus, Her bag and shoes match. 2 [A; a] tune musical instruments. Mubágay pa ku sa sista, I’ll tune the guitar first. 3 [B2; a1c3] for words to rhyme. Ang púlung ‘úlud’ dílì mubágay sa ‘pálad’, The word ‘worm’ doesn’t rhyme with ‘palm’. paN- n rhyming, verse-making.

bagaybay n fat in a fish that develops into eggs. v [B34; b4] develop bagaybay. Mau rung panahúna ang bangrus mubagaybay, This is the time the milkfish develops egg fat. -un a 1 having bagaybay. 2 big-stomached. Bagaybáyun ug tiyan ang mga táwung tambuk, Obese people have big stomachs.

*bagbag pati- = alibagbag.

bagdal a for a face to be too chubby to be pretty. v [BN] be, become too chubby. Mubagdal nang ímung nawung ug manambuk ka, Your face will be too chubby if you grow stout. Ang íyang nawung namagdal sa hupung, Her face swelled with edema.

bagduk v 1 [A; b5] puncture, make a small hole in. May mibagduk tingáli sa ligid kay mihiyus man, S.t. must have punctured the tire because it is flat. 2 [AB] for s.t. with a pointed tip to pierce and stick into s.t., cause it to do so. Ang tumuy sa kutsilyu nga nahúlug mibagduk sa yútà, The knife fell and the tip stuck into the ground. n 1 puncture. [78]2 s.t. pierced into s.t.

*bagduy táwung — one who roams about without purpose. bagduybagduy v [A; b1] roam around purposelessly instead of doing what one is supposed to do. Nagbagduybagduy lang nà siya. Wà giyud nà siyay nahímù, He just roams about. He hasn’t done anything. -an a fond of roaming about.

baghak n k.o. medium-sized grouper.

baghas1 = hashas, 1.

baghas2 a having offensive, rude manners. v [B2; b6] get to be crude, offensive. Nagkabaghas siya sukad muintrag ínum, He has become cruder since he took to drinking.

baghud a tough, hard in feelings, character. Ang íyang pahíyum mudani bísan kinsa nga baghud ug balatían, Her smile wins over the hardest of hearts.

baghut v 1 [A; b6] prompt s.o. to think ill about s.t. Kinsay nibaghut sa átung ámu nga ipabalhin ku? Who talked against me to have prompted the boss to transfer me? 2 [A; b3c] rant loudly in anger or complaint. Pangutána únà unsay hinungdan. Dílì kay mubaghut ka lang dihà dáyun, Find out what the matter is before you go ranting and raving right away. n s.t. said to s.o. against s.o. else to influence him.

bagìbì v [A; b6] talk foolishly, rant often with no one present. Nagbagìbì si Maríya kay walà pa gihápun ang íyang bána, Mary is ranting because her husband still isn’t home. -an(→) n given to ranting and raving. v [B1256] become a ranter.

bag-id v [AB46; ac] rub back and forth against. Mibag-id ang bábuy sa batu kay gikatlan, The pig brushed itself against the stone because it itched. Kamau ka bang mubag-id ug kawáyan arun mukáyu? Do you know how to rub two sticks together to make fire? Nabag-iran ang ákung dyíp, Some car grazed my jeep. Gibag-id níya ang íyang áping sa ákù, He rubbed his cheek against mine. n sticks to make fire.

báging v [A; a12] work out with a punching bag. Bagíngun ta ning ímung pansing bag, I’ll have a workout on your punching bag.

bágis1 a 1 be completely careless of all rules of decorum, esp. proper dress. Bágis kaáyu siya kay magtiniil lang ug musimba, He is a hippy because he goes to church barefooted. 2 be grossly misbehaved in general. 3 be a tough, ruffian. v [B12] get to be grossly misbehaved. -in- v 1 [A; a2] appear unkempt. Bisan ug makabinágis ka ug kausa itsapuyráhun ka, If you appear unkempt just once you will get kicked out. 2 [A] act as if one doesn’t care what others say. Ug aku diay binagísan níya, hilatiguhan giyud, If he misbehaves toward me, I’ll give him a beating.

bágis2 = badlis.

bagit v 1 [A13] invite or provoke a bad outcome. Nagbagit ka giyud sa ímung kadaútan, You are certainly courting disaster for yourself. 2 [AP] cause to be aroused or stimulated. Kining pamisti nímu nagbagit (nagpabagit) sa yawan-ung hunàhúnà sa mga laláki, The way you dress arouses devilish passions in a man. bagitbagit v [A13; a12] provoke s.o. into action. Nagbagitbagit ka giyud sa ímung bána niánang ímung pagkasabaan, You’re provoking your husband to anger with your nagging. mabagitbagitun a provocative. Pahíyum nga mabagitbagitun, Provocative smile.

bagíyus n loud hissing or whizzing sound. v [A; b6] whizz loudly. Mibagíyus ang hángin tungud sa bagyu, The wind whizzed because of the typhoon. Nagbagíyus ang trák nga kusug kaáyung nagdagan, The truck roared as it moved rapidly.

baglis = badlis.

bagnas = bagnus.

bagnid v [A; c1] shred papaya, cassava, and things of similar consistency. Bagníra (ibagnid) na ang kapáyas kay átung kiláwun, Shred the papaya because we are going to pickle it.

bagnud v [A; b6(1)] rub s.t. solid against s.t. hard and even. Kinsay nagbagnud ug plurwaks sa sawug? Who applied wax to the floor?

bagnus v [A; c] rub s.t. on s.t. with force. Nagbagnus mi ug kandílà sa plantsa arun dílì tay-an, We rub a candle against the iron so it won’t get rusty. Ayawg bagnúsi ang ákung bukubuku, paghíri lang, Don’t rub my back hard, just wipe it on gently.

bagnut v [A; a] pull out by the roots with great force. Nagbagnut siya sa dakung káhuy, He pulled a big tree out by the roots. n weeds. Adtu ang mga manuk mangitlug sa tag-as nga mga bagnut, The chickens lay their eggs in the tall weeds. a 1 weedy. 2 of no use, a parasite. Bagnut siya sa ílang pamilya. Dílì siya mutábang sa buluhatun, He is a parasite in their family. He doesn’t help with the chores. -un(→) a 1 weedy. 2 untidy. Bagnutun kaáyu ang íyang hitsúra. Walay sudlay ang buhuk, Her appearance is very untidy. She didn’t comb her hair.

bagransiya = bagansiya.

bagrung n racing sound of engines, wind. v [A] roar. Mibagrung ang awtu, The car roared. Nagbagrung ang hángin mu rag bagyu, [79]The wind is roaring like a storm.

bagsak1 v [B; c] 1 fall heavily on the ground. Mibagsak ang lubi sa ákung tungud, A coconut fell in front of me. Ibagsak ku ning ákung gidala sa ímung tiil, I will drop this thing I’m carrying on your feet. Nabagsak ang dyít sa lasang, The jet plane crashed in the forest. 2 fail in school. Nabagsak siya kay way tuuntúun, He failed because he did not study.

bagsak2 v [A; c] give a bribe. Bagsáki lang ang supirbisur arun ka masulud, Just give the supervisor a bribe so you can get a job. n s.t. given as a bribe. hiN- a fond of giving bribes.

bagsak3 n scare lines in fishing gear to drive the fish back into the net.

bagsang = balagsang.

bagtak n calf of the leg. -un a having prominent calves.

bagtas1 = baktas.

bagtas2 n part of the beach with a broad strip of sand usually not reached by the tide. -un = bagtas2.

bagtì a bone-dry. Ang bagtì nga káhuy maáyung isugnud kay sigaun, Bone-dry wood is good for fuel because it burns easily. v [BN] become very dried out because of heat. Namagtì (mibagtì) ang yútà sa kaínit, The earth is cracking with heat. -an n place where earthenware is fired for final seasoning.

bagtik a hard because of being full. v [B; a] get hard. Bagtíkun nátù ang búla arun kusug muuntul, Let’s pump the ball hard so that it bounces well. n 1 hardened sap of the píli tree (Canarium luzonicum) used for caulking in the walling of small boats. 2 = balaw, 1. -an a of a hard sort.

bagting n ringing noise. Ang bagting sa rilu nakapúkaw nákù, I was awakened by the alarm clock. dì kadungug, kabatì ug — easily insulted, quick to take offense. Dì nà siya kabatì ug bagting, dáyun siyag kasukù, He can’t take it. He gets angry if he hears s.t. he doesn’t like. — sa kampána, lángit point in childbirth where the baby crowns and the mother feels the most intense pain. v 1 [APB; a] ring, make s.t. ring. Akuy mubagting (mupabagting) sa kampána sa tingpamúhì, I ring the bell for dismissal. Mubagting ang kampána sa alas diyis, The bell will ring at ten. 2 [B246] reach the point of highest pain in childbirth.†

bagtuk a hardened, crystallized. v [APBN] become, make hard. Namagtuk (mibagtuk) ang lápuk, The mud hardened. Ang túbig bugnaw mubagtuk (mupabagtuk) sa aníbal, Cold water will make the syrup crystallize. -un n a k.o. corn in which the young grains harden instead of developing.†

bagtus n small children. Duha na ka bagtus ang ákung pakan-un, I have two children to feed.

bágu n small wild tree the leaves of which are used as a vegetable: Gnetum gnemon.

bagù1 n disease characterized by general debility, swelling in the region of the stomach, and yellowish skin. It commonly occurs in swampy areas and is thought to be caused by snails or mosquitoes. v [a4] get bagù.

bagù2 n responsibility, lookout. Ulahi ka man, wà nay pagkáun. Ímu nang bagù, You are late and the food is gone. That’s your problem. Dakù kug bagù sa bangku, I owe a lot of money to the bank.

bag-u a 1 new. -ng Túgun New Testament. 2 modern. Ang mga batan-un sa bag-ung panahun agrisíbu, The youth nowadays is aggressive. -ng túbù the modern generation. -ng túig New Year. 3 recently, just now. Bag-u siyang abut, He is a new arrival here. Bag-u pa siyang milakaw, He just left. Bag-u pang gabíi pagsaka sa kawatan, It was early evening when the thief entered. karung — recently, of late. Gidugù siya karung bag-u, She recently menstruated. v 1 [B2] be, become new. Mubag-u (mabag-u) nga tan-áwun ang sapátus basta limpiyáhan, Shoes will look new if you clean them. 2 [AP1B1; a] change s.t. for the better, become better. Dì ka gánì magbag-u, If you don’t reform. Nagbag-u sila sa ílang panagway, They made their faces over anew. 3 [A12; c] obtain s.t. new. Nakabag-u siyag awtu pagkadaug sa swipstik, He got a new car when he won the sweepstakes. Bag-úhan (baghúan) kug ligid ang ákung dyíp, I’ll buy new tires for my jeep. Unsa mang gumáha ang ímung ibag-u? What brand of tires are you going to replace them with? 4 [b4] feel strange, unaccustomed. Naglísud pa siya kay gibag-úhan pa sa trabáhu, He’s having a hard time because he’s unaccustomed to the work. 5 -ng túig [B256; b4(1)] for it to be New Year’s. paN- nga túig v [A2; c] celebrate New Year’s. Didtu mi sa Hungkung mamag-ung túig, We celebrated New Year’s in H. K. -in- a modern. Ang binag-ung paági sa panguma, The modern way of farming. v [B15] change. Nagbinag-u nga nadátù, He changed when he became rich. mabinag-úhun a fond of modern things. bag-úhay a short while ago. Bag-úhay pa lang giyud tung nilakaw si Ramun, Ramon left just a while ago.† [80]

bagubhu n deep, hollow sound produced by rapping s.t. v [B46] make a deep, hollow sound. Mibagubhu ang ákung bukubuku nga íyang gipukpuk, He pounded me on my back with a thump.

Bagúbu, Bagúbù, Bagùbù n Bagobo tribe of Davao and their language.

bagudlus n a roaring sound of the sea or wind. v 1 [A] roar. Inighurus sa tímug, magbagudlus ang hángin, When the east wind blows, the wind roars. 2 [A1] run fast. Nagbagudlus kug dágan sa dihang gigukud kug irung búang, I ran fast when the mad dog chased me.

bagukbuk n k.o. weevil that eats lumber and secretes round and very fine waste matter.

bagul1 n 1 coconut shell. 2 head (slang). Gamíta ang ímung bagul, Use your head. a uncomfortable to have weigh on one or put one’s weight on because of things which protrude. Ang lantay bagul higdáan, It is uncomfortable to lie on bamboo slats. v [B] become uncomfortable. Ug butangan nímug kamúti ang sáku mubagul lukdúhun, If you put sweet potatoes into the sack, it will become uncomfortable to carry. (←) n a child’s game played with coconut shells or slippers where one child puts his shell on the ground and the other child (under various impediments) throws his own shell and tries to hit the first child’s. v [AC; ac] play bágul. bagulbágul n skull. Buk-un ku ang bagulbágul nímu, I’ll crack your skull. ka-an n place where there are many scattered coconut shells. sam-(←) n = bágul.

bagulbul v [A; b3c5] grumble, complain about a grievance. Ngánung magbagulbul ka man nga giángay ta man mug hátag? Why are you grumbling when I gave you all the same amount? n grumbling. Ang mga bagulbul sa katawhan nakapabalísa sa pamúnù, The grumbling of the people had the President worried. -an(→) a given to grumbling.

bagumbáyan n snack made of old bread, sugared and fried.

bagun n 1 wheelbarrow. 2 railroad freight car. Tulu ka bagung tubu, Three freight cars full of sugar cane. v [c1] transport in a wheelbarrow, freight car. Bagunun (ibagun) ta lang ning balas, Let’s carry this sand in the wheelbarrow.

bágun = balágun.

bagunbun a for containers to be bulging. v [B46] become bulging with content. Nagbagunbun ang íyang bursa sa kwarta, His pocket is bulging with money.

bagunbúnun n k.o. grey and brown coloration of chicken feathers, cock having that color feathers.

bagung1 = bagun, 2.

*bagung2 pa- v [A13] fail to show reaction to s.t., stay put and be unmoved. Bisan ug unsáun nákug búnal ang kabáyù, nagpabagung na lang, No matter how much I struck the horse, it just stayed put.

bag-ung = balag-ung.

bagungun, bagúngun n k.o. small edible cerith shell of swamps. v [A12] obtain bagungun. paN- v [A2] get this shellfish.

bagunul a for a surface to be lumpy. Bagunul ang karsáda kay walà mapisun, The road is not smooth because it hasn’t been rolled. v [B] become lumpy.

bagurus = bagudlus.

bágus1 v [A; b(1)] smooth a piece of wood with a knife. Bagúsan ku ang kawáyan sa kurta, I’ll smooth the bamboo with the knife. -in-, -in-an n s.t. smoothed.

bágus2 n 1 tong, protection money. 2 one who dodges or evades the payment of s.t. Bágus nà siya. Wà mubáyad ug buhis, He is a tax evader. He did not pay taxes. v 1 [A12N; b6c1] get money by extortion. Ang pulis mamágus sa tindáhang Insik, The police extorts protection money from the Chinese stores. 2 [A12N; a] avoid payment, enjoy s.t. without paying. Nakabágus (nakapamágus) siya sa trák kay pulis man, He didn’t have to pay bus fare because he is a policeman. paN- v 1, 2 = bágus, v. 3 [A2] play truant. Nahagbung siya kay pirming mamágus, He flunked because he is always truant. maN-r-(→) n truant.

bagutbut v [A; b3c5] mumble under one’s breath in complaint. Ígù ra siyang makabagutbut. Dì man siya makaáku sa pagtubag, All he could do was grumble under his breath. He didn’t dare answer. n mumbling. -an(→) a tending to grumble under one’s breath.

bagúud v [B12S46] be heavily burdened. Nagbaguud siya sa usa ka alat nga mangga, She was staggering under the load of a basketful of mangoes. Nagbaguud ku sa mga útang, I’m staggering under the burden of my debts.

bagúung n salted and fermented fish paste.

bagwísan n k.o. fish.

bagyang = badyang1.

bagyu n typhoon. v [A; a4] for there to be a typhoon. Nagbagyu run sa Batánis, There’s a typhoon now in the Batanes Islands. Bagyuhun gánì ta, manglúpad giyud ang átung nípang atup, If a typhoon hits us, our thatched roof will surely be blown off. talibagyu, bumabagyu, balagyuhun n about [81]to have a typhoon.†

bagyu bins n green and wax beans, the pods of which are eaten: Phaseolus vulgaris.

*báha kamara — Lower House of Congress.

bahà n flood. v [B46; b4] 1 flow in a flood, flood over. Mibahà ang sapà sa kakusug sa ulan, The river flooded over because of the heavy rain. Gibahaan (gibaháan) ang ámung sílung, The lower portion of our house was flooded. 2 come in great quantity, experience in great intensity. Mubahà ang sápì karung iliksiyun, Money will flow this coming election. Gibaháan ang ákung galamhan sa túmang kalípay, I was overwhelmed with joy. 3 [a4] sneeze. Bahaun (bàhun) ka ug mutan-aw kas adlaw, You will sneeze if you look at the sun. bahàbáhà v [A1] go, come in throngs and swarms. Nagbahàbáhà ang mga táwu sa kadalánan kay musúgat sa Santu Pápa, People are flooding the streets to meet the Pope. balaháan, bahaánan n subject to floods.

báhad v [A; bc] 1 threaten to do s.t. Nagbáhad síyang ikíha ka, He was threatening to sue you. 2 make up one’s mind to do s.t. one is really not in a position to do. Dúgay na nákung gibaháran nang awtúhang palitun, I have been threatening to buy that car for the longest time. n 1 threat. 2 mutual agreement to meet s.w. for a fight or contest. May báhad silang magsumbagay sa plása, They have an agreement to have a fight in the plaza. mabahárun a threatening.

baháda a 1 downhill grade. 2 for a price to be low. Baháda ang prisyu sa mais run, The price of corn is low now. v 1 [A] go downhill on a road. Kusug kaáyu ning dyípa kun magbaháda, This jeep runs fast when it goes downhill. 2 [B] go down in price.

bahádu a 1 below normal, low. May bagyung umalábut. Bahádu ang barumítru, A typhoon is coming. The barometer is below normal. Bahádu ang prisyu sa kupras, The price of copra is low. 2 in a bad mood. Pagbantay mu. Bahádu bayà ang átung maistra run, Better be careful. Our teacher is in a bad mood today. v [B2] be in a bad mood, go down below normal.

bahag n G-string. Dì masaghirag bahag bayhána, That woman is terribly fertile. (Lit. You can’t brush a g-string against her without her getting pregnant.) v [A; a] wear, make a g-string. Gibahag níya ang íyang kamisin, He made a g-string out of his undershirt. — ang íkug v [B] 1 tuck the tail between legs. Mabahag ang íkug sa irù basta daug, A defeated dog tucks his tail between his legs. 2 run away in cowardice. Mibahag ang íyang íkug nga gigúkud sa íyang kaáway, He turned tail when his enemy pursued him. bahagbahag n harmless k.o. long thin jellyfish, semi-transparent, resembling a snake. Used in sorcery called sampal.

baháhà n bleat of sheep and goats. v [A; b6] bleat.

báhak 1 = baláhak. 2†.

bahakhak v [A] laugh boisterously. n boisterous laughter.

bahal n palm toddy one or two days old. v [A1PB26; a2] make, become bahal. Ibaligyà ta ning tanan kay bahalan unyà ta, Let’s sell all of this, otherwise, our toddy will turn into bahal on us. a for palm toddy to be aged two or three days. — nga syíti birnis = síti birnis. see birnis.

bahálà n in charge of, responsible for. Aku nay bahálà sa tanan, I’ll take care of everything. — na I don’t care what happens, come what may. Bahálà nag unsay mahitabù basta makabawus lang ku, I don’t care what happens as long as I can get even. paN- v [A2] 1 say one doesn’t care. Ákù siyang giingnan ayaw pagminyù, namahálà lang, When I told him not to get married, he just said he didn’t care. 2 assume responsibility for. Akuy mamahálà sa balayranan, I’ll take charge of the payments.

bahalína n coconut toddy aged for several months. v [A1; a12] make aged palm toddy. Bahalináun ta ning tubáa, Let’s have this palm toddy age.

báhan n 1 team of militia workers. Tulu ka báhan sa písi, Three teams of constabulary men. 2 type of net fishing with a large group of people. v [A; a12] tie in a row, large groups. Itángag ang púkut didtu sa búkung ug bunut. Unyà bahánun, Put the net on top of the shells and husks; then tie them in a row to the net. bahanbáhan v [C] gang around. Nagbahanbáhan na pud ang mga batan-un sa átung baryu, The youngsters are running around in gangs in our neighborhood. Dílì ku mutúgut nga makigbahanbáhan ka sa mga buguy, I don’t like you to gang around with those good-for-nothing fellows.

bahandì n wealth, treasure. maN-, maN-r- n treasurer. Mamahandì (mamamahandì) sa lungsud, The treasurer of the town. -ánun a wealthy. Kun dì ka bahandiánun, dì ka mapílì, If you are not wealthy, you will not get elected.

bahar a be low-priced at a certain season. Bahar ang mangga ug maabril, In April the price of mangoes is low. v [B] go down in price. pa- v [ab7] lower the price. Pabaharan [82]ang prisyu unyà, The price will go down after a while.

bahas = bahasbáhas. bahasbáhas v [A3; cP] go back and forth over an area rapidly. Ang dyit mibahasbáhas sa nahagsáan, The jet flew back and forth swiftly over the crash site. Dílì ka makakità sa tubag ug ímu lang ibahasbáhas (ipabahasbáhas) ang tinan-awan sa panid, You will never find the answer if you just let your eyes roam over the page.

báhas v [A; c1] 1 put an end to. Áway ang nagbáhas sa bayli, A quarrel ended the dance early. Sila ang nakabáhas sa pagkáun sa walà pa muabut ang mga bisíta, They consumed all the food before the visitors arrived. 2 cancel. Mubáhas giyud siya sa ímung lisinsiya, He will cancel your license. Ibáhas (bahásun) ang mga byáhi kun magbagyu, They cancel the flights if there is a storm.

bahaulu = bahuulu.

báhaw1 v [A; c1] put food out to eat. Pagbáhaw na, Serve the dinner now. Ibáhaw (baháwa) ang kan-un sa panay, Put the rice on the clay plate. -an(→) n 1 plate for an individual serving. 2 home plate in tubigtúbig game, the area behind the last guarded line or pair of squares. v [A1; c] use s.t. as a plate.

báhaw2 a 1 left over from before and not quite fresh. Ayaw aku sirbíhig báhawng pán, Don’t serve me old bread. Alisdi kanang túbig kay báhaw, Change this water. It’s left over from before. 2 old, stale news. Báhaw na nang balitáa, That’s old news. 3 fighting cock set out to fight a second time within a day or two after having fought. Báhaw na nang manúka. Lagmit bun-un nà, That cock is stale. Most likely he’ll be defeated. v [A1; a2b4] reserve food for some later time. Baháwun ta ning bibingka, Let’s put these rice cakes aside for later. Kanúnay lang ming baháwan káda káun, We always have food left over each meal. paN- n 1 breakfast. 2 late afternoon snack consisting of rice or corn. v [A2; c6] eat breakfast, late afternoon meal. pamahawbahaw v [A2; c2] take a snack from the leftovers. Dúna ba tay ipamahawbahaw dihà? Do we have any leftovers to have as a snack? bahawbahaw n k.o. small insects that swarm over leftover food or garbage. v [a4] be infested with this sort of insect.

bahay1 n rice which got wet before having been threshed. Bahay nga gilung-ag búsà dílì mutúbù, You cooked slightly spoiled rice, so it won’t rise. v [B2; a] become spoiled through getting wet.

bahay2 n k.o. forest tree, the tuberous roots of which are eaten in times of famine.

bahayan n 1 rope sewn to the edge of a net to make it stiff and as a place to attach floats. 2 longline in longline fishing (palangri) to which several leaders with hooks are attached. v [A3; c1] put rope on edge of net.

báhì n 1 the hard portion of a palm trunk. 2 cane or club made of a palm trunk.

bahig v [A; a12] sort, separate according to different classes or sizes. Bahigun nátù ang lubi sa tulu ka grúpu, We will sort the coconut into three groups.

bahignit a flirtatious, trying to attract a man’s attention. Bahignit kaáyu. Mangúnag kablit, She’s flirtatious. She nudges men to get their attention. n term of endearment of infants.

bahíhì, bahihì, bahìhì n 1 neighing of a horse, bleating of a sheep or goat. 2 sound like neighing. v [A; c1] neigh, bleat.

bahikhik v [A; b3] high-pitched, somewhat restrained laughter. Mibahikhik sila nga namátì sa malaw-ay nga isturya, They snickered as they listened to the dirty stories.

bahilya n complete set of dishes.

báhin v 1 [A; ac] divide into shares. Bahínun ta ni sa upat, Let’s divide this into four pieces. Gibahínan ku níyag upat ka isdà, He shared four fish with me. 2 [A3S] get a share. Makabahin kag daghang isdà ug magbuntag ka, You get a larger share of fish if you stay until morning. n 1 share. Átung hiwáun sa upat ka báhin, Let’s cut it into four shares. 2 section, portion. Dúnay báhin nga binisayà ang Príman, The Freeman has a Visayan section. Báhin sa tulumanun, Section in the program. 3 turn. Ákung báhin nga pakantáhun, My turn to sing. 4 role in a play. Kumidiyanti ang ákung báhin sa dráma, My role in the play is that of a comedian. 5 regarding. Unsay ímung ikasulti báhin niánà? What do you have to say concerning that? sa ákung — for my part. Sa ákung báhin wà kuy ikasulti niánà, As for me, I have nothing to say about that. sa láing (luyung) — on the other hand. Mupatúu siya apan sa láing (luyung) báhin magpadáyun sa pagluib, He makes you believe he is loyal, but behind your back he continues his treachery. -ay(→) n the manner of sharing. Nalípay ang mga saup mahitungud sa bahinay sa bag-ung baláud, The tenants are happy about the division of the crops under the new law. ka- n 1 person with whom one shares s.t. Kabáhin ka sa ákung kalípay ug [83]kasákit, You share my happiness and sorrows with me. 2 = báhin, 5. ka-anan n inheritance. Ang pinaangkan may katungud sa kabahinánan sa ílang ginikánan, Illegitimate children have a right to an inheritance from their parents.

bahirig a tilted, leaning to one side. v [B; c1] lean to one side. Nagbahirig ang mga tanum tungud sa kusug nga hángin, The plants are leaning because of the strong wind. Ayaw ibahirig (bahiriga) pagtáud ang halígi, Don’t install the post in a leaning position.

bahis v [A2] go back and forth. Nagbahis ang mga pulis sa dálan nga nangítà sa mga tulisan, The policemen are going back and forth over the streets looking for the bandits. (←) v [A13] go back and forth without regard to anyone or anything else. Nagbáhis na ang buáya; walà siyay gikahadlúkan, The crocodile went about where he chose. He feared no one.

bahista n bass fiddle, guitar player. v [A] be a bass player.

bahíya n bay. Ang bahíya sa Manílà, Manila Bay.

báhu1 no wonder, it is not surprising considering that [subject] is what it is. Báhu ning tapulan, diyútay rag ági, No wonder this fellow doesn’t accomplish anything. He’s so lazy.

báhu2 n 1 bass singer. 2 bass instrument. v [A; b6(1)] play, sing bass.

báhu3 see abáhu.

báhu4, bàhu = baw-u.

bahù a 1 odorous, ill-smelling. Limpiyúhi ang kasilyas kay bahù kaáyu, Clean the toilet because it stinks. 2 having been ‘it’ in a game for a long time. (←) n smell, odor. Ang báhù sa litsun abut sa ámù, The smell of the roast pig reaches our place. — nga smell of. Báhung singut, Smell of sweat. — nga paryinti having some sort of distant tie of kinship. Walà miy báhù nga paryinti. Nagkaparíha lang ang ámung apilyídu, We are not related. We just happen to have the same name. v 1 [B; a2] be, become smelly. Mubahù ang banig kay giihían man sa bátà, The mat will become smelly because the child urinated on it. 2 [A12] a smell. Nakabahù ka ba átung humut nga rúsas? Did you smell the fragrance of the roses? b = paniN-, 3. 3 (→) 1 [B12; a] for meat and fruits to rot, spoil. Nabahù ang karni kay walà nímu malútù gahápun, The meat became spoiled because you did not cook it yesterday. 2 [a12] cause coconut milk to ferment in making oil. Bahúa úsà ang túnù unyà lanáha, You first ferment the coconut milk, then make it into oil. tiN- v [A12; b8] perceive odor. Nakatimahù ka ba ug patay nga ilagà? Do you smell a dead rat? paniN-(←) v 1 [A23] emit odor. Nanimáhù kang nangkà, You smell of jackfruit. 1a -ng kandílà death is near (lit. the odor of candles is being emitted—facetious usage). Lúya na kaáyu ang masakitun. Nanimáhù nang kandílà, The patient is weak. You can smell the funereal candles. 2 [A] smell, perceive odor. Midágan ang lagsaw dihang nakapanimahù ug táwu, The deer ran when it perceived the odor of man. 3 [A2] find out, get wind of. Nanimáhù ug unsang kumbiráha maáyu níyang suhútan, He’s finding out what party is good to attend. Ag tuntu nakapanimahù (nakabahù) sa ámung mga plánu, The fool got wind of our plans. ig-(←) n — nga paryinti be in any way a relative of. Dílì ka igbáhù nga paryinti ni Títa. Makaminyù mu, You are in no way related to Tita. You two can get married. ka- n stench. Ang kabahù sa yánang dílì maagwanta, I can’t endure the stench of the pool of mud.†

báhud v [B2] for wounds to swell and redden. Mibáhud ang íyang núka kay hiinitan man, His wound became swollen because it was exposed to the sun. Ug musúd kag mintiryu mubáhud ang ímung kabahung, If you go into a cemetery your wound might swell and redden.

bahug v [A; c] 1 put liquid or fat into the staple food. Mubahug lang siyag mantíkà kay dì mukáun ug útan, He mixes lard with his corn because he doesn’t eat vegetables. 2 feed leftovers to. Ibahug na lang ang pán ngadtu sa ítik, Toss the bread to the ducks. -in-, -in-an n food mixed with soup, lard, or water. Ang íyang binahug (binahugan) gikaun sa irù, The dog ate his food mixed with soup. bahugbáhug v [A; b] 1 do s.t. in large amounts. Nagbahugbáhug kamig katáwa sa íla, We had a barrel of laughs at their house. 2 have a free-for-all fight. n 1 s.t. done in plentiful quantities. Bahugbáhug ang ínum sa kasal, There was drinking done on a large scale at the wedding. 2 free-for-all fight.

bahùlu = bahuulu.

bàhun see bahà, v3.

bahut a boastful, talking about one’s accomplishments or abilities in too obvious a manner. Kadaghan ku nang nabátì kanang bahut nímung isturya, How many times have I already heard your boastful stories! v [B12] become boastful.

bahuulu n k.o. crevally: Caranx melampygus.

báid v [A3P; a] 1 rub s.t. on s.t. else to sharpen [84]it to make it shiny. Baírun ku ang sanggut, I’ll sharpen the scythe. Ibáid sa simintu ang batu arun masínaw, Rub the stone on the cement floor so that it will get shiny. 2 perfect s.t. Nagbáid siya sa mananayaw sa hustung panlíhuk, He helped the dancer perfect her steps. Ang diksiyunaryu mauy nakabáid (nakapabáid) sa ákung ininglis, The dictionary sharpened my English. bairan n s.t. to sharpen s.t. baidbáid v [A13C; c] brush or rub s.t. against s.t. lightly as if sharpening. Nagbaidbáid siya sa íyang mga kamut, He rubbed his palms together.

baíid v [A; c1] brush one’s body or part of the body lightly against s.t. Gibaiíran ku sa ákung iring, My pet cat rubbed itself on me.

bail a for fruit or root crops to be hardened due to exposure to heat or mishandling. Bail ang kamúti kay nabuwad sa ínit, The sweet potatoes are hard because they were left in the sun. v [B2; b6] get hardened. — ug náwung a shameless. Bail ug náwung bayhána kay dì lang mubáli ug insultu, That woman certainly is shameless because she doesn’t mind insults. pa-, pa-(←) v [A; b6c1] do s.t. despite the shame it brings. Nagpabail (nagpabáil) siyag pangáyug hinábang kay way kadangpan, He swallowed his pride to ask for help because he has no one to turn to.

bais n k.o. large, edible fresh-water eel of brown color, growing to 4′ and more: Anguilla sp.

baíwas v [C3] for two persons to fail to meet because one had left when the other arrived. Nagkabaíwas ta kay pag-abut nákù mu say paglakaw nímu, We missed each other because when I arrived, you had left.

baka v [A; b(1)] bleach clothing under the sun. Gibakhan (gibakahan) níya ang mga hábul, She spread the sheets under the sun to bleach.

báka1 n cow, beef. -ng túru bull. bakahan n cattle ranch. — (ng) litsíra n 1 source of financial support. Ang iyaan kung sapían mauy báka litsíra sa ákung pagtuun, My rich aunt supported me in my studies. 2 one who constantly gives money to s.o. who is playing him for a sucker. v [B1256] become a provider or be played for a sucker.

báka2 1 it doesn’t matter, never mind if. Báka mu lang ug pilay magastu mu sa uspital basta maáyu ka lang, It doesn’t matter how much you will spend for your hospitalization, as long as you are cured. Báka ug dì ka musugut nákù. Náa may daghang babáyi, I don’t care if you don’t accept me. There are plenty of fish in the ocean. 2 = baláka.

bákà v [A13] walk with the legs apart. bakàbakà v [A] walk with the legs apart.

bakaang v [B] walk with legs spread apart. Nagbakaang siya tungud sa hubag, He walked with his legs spread apart because of his boil. a having legs spread apart in walking.

bakabáka= kinalabaw, 1. see kábaw.

bakag = baklag.

bakagan n k.o. bony, reddish, flat fish, as wide as the palm and about 1′ in length. v [B2] become thin and bony. Nabakagan siya sa pagkapilian sa pagkáun, She is thin and bony because she is choosy in her food.

bakak a be a lie, false. Bakak kaáyu nang íyang diklarasiyun, His allegation is a big lie. v [A; c] tell a lie. Dì ku mubakak nímu, I won’t tell you a lie. Ang mga numiru dílì mamakak, Figures don’t lie. panghiN- v [A; b15] deny, show s.t. to be false. Mapanghimakak (kapanghimakakan) nákù ang ímung tabì, I can prove your gossip false. -un(←) a liar.

bakalaw n codfish. panimáhung — v [A23] smell bad. Nanimáhù kang bakalaw, You smell terrible.

bakáling n k.o. ring-like contrivance used to steady round-bottomed pots when put s.w. v [A13; a] make into a steadying ring. Bakalíngun nímu ang sáku arun katungtúngan sa kúlun, We’ll fix this sack so that you can put the round-bottomed pot on it.

bakan n k.o. fish. bakanbákan n k.o. goatfish.

bákan n k.o. tree important for driving away the unglù: Litsea sp.

bakanan = balakanan.

bakang a 1 bowlegged. 2 deprecatory term for the Japanese. v [B] become bowlegged. Mabakang (mubakang) ang bátà kun punáyan ug tambid, A child becomes bowlegged if he is always carried astride. (←) v [B125] get tired out from looking for s.t. Diin ka ba nga nabákang man kug pinangítà nímu? Where have you been? I’ve gotten so tired (lit. become bowlegged) looking for you.

bakanti n 1 vacancy. Wà na mi manáwat ug bag-ung kawáni kay way bakanti, We’re not accepting new employees because there’s no vacancy. 2 vacant place. Nangítà mig bakanting lingkuránan, We were looking for a vacant seat. 3 piece of land left to lie fallow. v 1 [B126; b(1)] for a vacancy to open up, leave s.t. vacant. Magubà ang balay nga bakantíhag dúgay, A house that is left vacant for a long time will go to pieces. 2 [B126] for a piece of land to lie fallow.

bak-ap v [A; b5] shoulder expenses. Bak-apan (bak-apun) ku ang tanang balayran, I’ll [85]take care of all the expenses.

bákas n one who contributes capital to a venture. Ang ákung bákas dakug gipuhúnan sa ámung nigusyu, My partner has chipped in a sizeable capital to our partnership. v [C; ac] be partners. Dílì na sila magkumpitinsiya. Bakásun níla ang ílang nigusyu, They will join their businesses in a partnership. Kanang ímu usa ka líbu ibákas na lang sa átung puhúnan, Add your one thousand to our capital. ka- = bákas, n.

bakasi = balakasi.

bakasiyun n vacation. v [A; b6] take, spend vacation. Adtu ku sa Hungkung bakasiyun, I will spend my vacation in H. K. -ista n one who is taking a vacation. Ang Bagyu nagsugwak sa mga bakasyunista, Baguio is crowded with vacationers.

bakat n k.o. hamper, a woven container about 2′ high with a top. -in- k.o. large, round, smooth tomato.

bakatin n wild pig.

bakatya v [A; a1] 1 subject s.o. to hard, severe treatment. Kusug mubakatyag súgù nang agalúna, That master drives (his servants) to work very hard. Gibakatya siyag bukbuk sa mga buguy, He was severely mauled by the roughnecks. 2 discipline s.o. wild, unruly. Mabuútan ang irù ug dúnay makabakatya íni, A dog will become meek if s.o. disciplines it.

bakawan = bakhaw1.

bákay v [A2; c] 1 move the line from which one starts, shoots, puts, etc. in a game. Mubákay siya kay ang íyang dyúlin simpig man sa bungbung, He moved his shooting line because his marble was right against the wall. Ibákay lang níya ang búla sa gulp kay natambug man sa línaw, He will just move his golf ball because it landed in a pond. 2 move, move s.t. from its place. Mibákay siya dihang dihay miági, He moved to make room when s.o. passed by. Layù silag gibakáyan ug puyù, The place they have moved to now is far away.

bakaybakay n k.o. dark brown and brittle starfish with narrow rays.

bakbak1 n frog, toad.

bakbak2 n path of hardened dirt. v [B1256] harden from being trod upon. Nabakbak ang tugkaran sa ímung pagbinalikbálik, The yard got all trampled down the way you kept going back and forth through it.

bakbak3 n abaca hemp made from the outer stalks of the abaca.

bakbak4 n 1 piece of metal or precious stone used to ornament a surface, usually a comb. 2 sole of footgear. Pánit ang bakbak sa íyang sapátus, His shoes have leather soles. v [A; b] 1 inlay with precious metal, stones. Sudlayng binakbákan ug sinúbung, A comb plated with gold. 2 put soles on footgear.

bakbak5 = balakbak.

bakgráwun n 1 background, past experience, origin. Sutáa únang íyang bakgráwun únà sugta, Verify his background first before you accept his proposal. Wà kaáyu siyay bakgráwun. Dì siya makaapas sa liksiyun, He doesn’t have a very good background. He cannot catch on to the lesson. 2 background of painting or picture. 3 one who is staying out of the limelight. 4 one who assists in a performance in a lesser role. Mas maáyung mukanta ang bakgráwun kay sa istar, The background sings better than the star. 5 attendant on a public performer, manager of a sportsman. Gitunúlan ang buksiadur ug tualya sa íyang bakgráwun, The manager gave the boxer a towel. 6 one who supports another in a fight, provides fire cover for another. v [A; b1] be the background in performing, attending a public performer, support s.o. in a fight. Bakgrawnan ta kag mukanta ka, I’ll accompany you if you sing. Bakgrawni aku inigtabuk nákù, Cover me when I cross over to the other side of the street. pa- v [A] stay out of the limelight. Pabakráwun lang siya kay maúlaw siya níla, He will just stay in the background because he is shy.†

bakgut v [A; b5c] cut s.t. off with a motion in the direction of the agent, usually with a sickle. Dì ka makabakgut sa búlig sa ságing, You cannot cut the bunch of bananas down. Bakgutan (bakgutun) ku nang líug sa irù, I will slit that dog’s neck. n stroke, action of cutting.

bakhad v [B1; b6] for s.t. tied to get undone. Mabakhad ang higut ug dì nímu ayúhun ug bángan, The string will get undone if you don’t tie it tight.

bakhaw1 n mangrove tree: Rhizophora spp.

bakhaw2 n k.o. dish made of blanched greens or raw meat or fish garnished with onions, tomatoes, and vinegar. v [A; a] make bakhaw. -in- = bakhaw2.

bakhù v [A; b36] sob. Gibakhúan ku níya sa íyang mga kaguul, She sobbingly poured out her sorrows to me. n sob. ma-un a full of sobs. Sa mabakhúung tíngug, In a sobbing voice.

bakhuy n doll of cloth or plastic.

bakì n frog.†

bákid n cavan, a measure for grain equivalent to 25 gantas (approximately three bushels). [86]

bakig a very thin, emaciated. v [B] become emaciated.

bakik joking euphemism for bakak.

bakikaw a awkward, graceless. Ang walhun bakikaw tan-áwun nga manahì, A left-handed person looks graceless when he sews. v [B1; a] become clumsy, do s.t. clumsily, awkwardly. Bakikawun gánì nímug kúgus ang bátà mahúlug giyud nà, You’ll drop the child if you carry it in such a clumsy way.

bakíki = balakíki.

bakilid a steeply sloping. Bakilid kaáyu ang ámung gitúngas, We’re climbing a very steep slope. n slope. kabakildan n slopes.

báking1 n backing, material put in back of s.t. to give it support. v [A; a] provide with a backing.

báking2 v [A; c] back up, put a vehicle in reverse. Ibáking ang dyíp, Back the jeep up.

bakintul v [B] miss one’s step, walk with a limp because s.t. is wrong with one’s shoe or the path one is traversing. Mibakintul ku kay nakatunub kug gamayng batu, I missed my step because I stepped on a small rock. Nagbakintul kug lakaw kay nawálà ang píkas kung tikud, I walk unevenly because one of my heels got lost. Culu- v [A1] walk unevenly.

bákir n backer in an application, financial undertaking. Bákir siya nákù sa ákung nigusyu, He is my backer in my business. v [B6; b(1)] become a backer, back s.t.

bakíru v [A; b6] pasture. Gibakirúhan nákù sa uma ang kanding, I pastured the goat in the fields. n shepherd, cowherd.

bakíta n plunger of a child’s toy as, for example, of a popgun.

bakíya n young female carabao or cow ready to reproduce.

baklà a homosexual. v [B] be a homosexual. Ug makig-uban-úban kag mga baklà, mabaklà sad ka, If you pal around with fairies, you’ll become one, too. paN- v [A23] engage in male prostitution.

baklag a having a putrid odor of rotten food or decayed flesh. v [B2] become putrid. Nabaklag na lang ang ilagà wà gayud níla ilubung, They did not bury the rat even though it has become putrid.

baklarit n stew made from dog’s meat, spices, and vegetables. v [A; a] make, obtain dog stew. Baklaritun ta nang inyung irù, Let’s butcher your dog and make him into stew.

baklaw n bracelet. v [A; a] wear, make into, get a bracelet.

baklay v [A; ac] go on foot. Bakláyun ta lang ang piyir, Let’s just walk to the pier.

bakliad, baklíad v [B; c1] bend one’s body far backward. Mubaklíad gánì ang bátà hayan mahúlug, If the baby bends too far back, it is likely to fall. Ibaklíad (bakliára) ug maáyu ang ímung láwas, Bend your body far back.

baklid v [A; a12] pin s.o.’s hand behind his back. Siyay mibaklid sa ákung kamut samtang gikuláta ku sa íyang mga kaúban, He pinned my arms behind me while his companions pummelled me. panghiN-, paniN- = -in-, v 1. -in- a folded behind the back. Milakaw siya binaklid ang íyang mga kamut, He walked away with his hands folded behind his back. v 1 [A] fold one’s hands behind one’s back. Mibinaklid (nanghimaklid, nanimaklid) siyang nagpasupásu sa hawanan, He paced the courtyard with his hands folded behind his back. 2 [a12] = baklid.

baknal a 1 too big for the thing it was put in. Baknal kaáyu ang pistúla sa háwak, There is no room for the pistol in the waist. 2 be too big for the situation. Baknal ang kaniyun nga gigámit didtu sa Bitnam, The cannons they use in Viet Nam are too big for the job they have to do. v 1 [AB; a2] bulge out, make s.t. bulge out. Unsa man nang nagbaknal sa ímung bulsa? What is making your pocket bulge? 2 [A; c] put s.t. which juts up on a road to block it or cause passers-by to stumble. Átung baknálan ang agiánan ug dakung batu, We’ll block the road with a huge stone. 3 [b6] consider s.t. too big. n s.t. bulging or which prevents easy passage. -an = bakal, a2.

baknit n k.o. wild, thorny vine with yellowish, inedible berries. ka-an n thicket. v [B12] become a thicket. Nakabaknitan ang uma nga gibyáan, Our abandoned farm grew into a thicket.

bakpi n back pay. v [A12] collect one’s back pay.

bakráyid v [A; c] ride at the back of a bicycle or motorcycle. Gibakráyid níya ang íyang anak, He carried his son on the back of his bicycle.†

baksan see bakus.

baksidur n boxer. v [B16; a12] become a boxer. Magbaksidur ka gánì kinahanglan lig-un kag túhud, If you want to become a boxer, you must have strong legs.

baksing n boxing. v 1 [A; b6] have a boxing match. 2 [a12] box s.o. Baksingun ta ka run, I’ll box you one now. -an n boxing ring.

baksir = baksidur.

baksiwà a contrary, nonconforming. Baksiwà [87]nga pagkabátà, A contrary child. v [AC; c1] 1 be contrary to, be not in conformity. Mubaksiwà giyud nà siya sa gustu sa ámung inahan, She always does s.t. contrary to our mother’s wishes. Nagkabaksíwa ang ílang pangatarúngan, Their reasons did not tally. Baksiwaun (ibaksiwà) man gud nímug sabut ang ákung sulti, You always place a wrong meaning on what I say. 2 put in a head to toe arrangement. Nagbaksíwà sila paghigdà, They lay down beside each other with their heads on opposite ends. Ibaksiwà (baksiwáun) nákù ang pagpahimútang sa káhuy, I will arrange the wood so that the bigger ends are next to the smaller ends. 3 [C13] pass by one another without seeing each other. Wà sila magkítà kay nagkabaksíwà lang sila sa dálan, They did not meet because they just passed each other on the road. (←) [B] be intertwining. Bágun nga nagbaksíwà, Intertwining vines.

baktas v [A; a2] 1 traverse on foot. Taas pa ang ákung baktásun arun matúman ku ang ákung ginadamgu, I still have a long road to traverse if my dreams are to be realized. 2 cut across. Gibaktásan ku ang daruhan, I took a short cut across the plowed field. -ay(→) n walkathon. Siyay nakadaug sa baktasay, He won the walkathon. v [C] have a walkathon.

baktin1 n 1 piglet. 2 children, kids (familiar usage). Nag-iskuyla na ang ákung mga baktin, My kids go to school now. v [A12] obtain piglet. Nakabaktin kug duha pagbatun ku sa íyang anay, I got myself two piglets for rearing his sow. -ay v [C] bet with piglets. Baktinay ta, kinsay mudaug, Let’s bet piglets as to who will win.

baktin2 v [B46; b6] get a charley horse. Namaktìn (mibaktin) ákung buktun, My arms got a charley horse. baktinbaktin n bulging part of the calf or biceps.

baktirya n bacteria.

bakù a stoop-shouldered. v [B; a] become hunched. Makabakù (makapabakù) nímu ang magsígig dúkù nga magsulat, You’ll become stoop-shouldered if you bend like that when you write.

bakud v [AC2; c1] run in a gallop. Mibakud ang kabáyù, The horse galloped away. Nakigbakud siya sa mga bátà, He ran around with the children.

bákud1 v [AB25; ac1] 1 get up from lying position, make s.t. lying erect. Mibákud siyag sayu, He got up early. Dì ku kabákud sa halígi, I cannot raise the post. Bakúrun sa nars ang masakitun, The nurse will make the patient get up. Wà ku ibákud (bakúra) ang halígi, I did not raise the post. 2 — ug nigusyu v [A; c1] start a business. Dì ta makabákud ug nigusyu ug way puhúnan, We cannot start a business if we don’t have capital. 3 [AP; a12] save one’s name or honor from public humiliation. Kamung mga anak mau na lay mubákud (mupabákud) sa átung apilyídu nga gihugawhugawan ug maáyu sa inyung amahan, Only you, the children, can save our family name which your father has sullied.

bákud2 v [A; c1] tie s.t. together, fasten to s.t. Nakabákud na siya sa mga káhuy, She has tied the firewood into bundles. Gibákud siya sa halígi, He was tied to the post. Bakúra (ibákud) ang mga papil, Tie the papers in bundles. (→) n bond, fetters.

bakudbakud n k.o. wrasse.

bakukang n 1 k.o. large rhinoceros beetle, found in coconut trees. 2 name given to small brown beetles or to june bugs (= daging). 3 — sa úlu have difficulty in understanding. Bakukang ang sulud sa ímung úlu kay dì ka kasabut, Your head is full of beetles because you can’t understand. v [a4] be infested with beetles.

bakúku n k.o. fish.

bakúkun v [AB; c1] coil, roll into a loop. Mibakúkun akug lukay arun dúna kitay ikasulù, I coiled up some palm fronds to give us s.t. to use as a torch. Mibakúkun ang baksan, The python coiled itself up. n coil.

bakul a crippled in the leg. v (←) [B126] become crippled.

bákul n belt buckle. v [A; b] put a buckle on s.t.

bakúlan n k.o. mullet with small scales.

bakulaw n ugly-faced supernatural being said to abduct small children and hide them from their parents. Ayaw pagsábà kay tingálig dad-un ka sa bakulaw, Be quiet or the bakulaw will get you.

bakulkul n trap to catch wild fowl with a noose. paN- v [A2] catch chickens and birds with a bakulkul.

bakulud n rounded stone found in the sea and exposed at low tide.

bakulung n a loop, usually made of cloth, put under things carried on the head. v [A; a] make into a buffer, put a buffer on the head.

bákun = bákud1.

bakúna v [A; b] vaccinate. Akuy mubakúna sa mga bátà, I will vaccinate the children. n vaccination. -dur(→) n one who administers vaccine. v [B156] be the one who innoculates.

bakunáwa n a monster that is said to swallow [88]the sun or moon during an eclipse. The bakunáwa is said to be disturbed by noise and will release the sun or moon if noise is made.

bákung1 n k.o. common rice with white grains of average length.

bákung2 = pagiyun.

bakúngan n k.o. sea cucumber (balat).

bakúngun n k.o. talisáyun-colored cock with dark green feathers interspersed with yellow feathers on the wings, sides, and breast.

bakus n 1 belt. 2 champion’s title in sports like boxing. Upat ka túig níyang kuput sa bakus pagkakampiyun, He held the championship title for four years. — sa amù n a belt believed to be worn by female monkeys during pregnancy and shed after delivery. A woman who happens to find it should wear it during pregnancy to give her an easy delivery. hugut sa — v [A1C12; c1] take measures to meet a difficult situation, tighten the belt in the face of financial difficulties. Hugtun (ihugut) nátù ang átung bakus, kay naapikihan ta sa kwarta, Let’s tighten our belts because we’re short of money. v [A; c] 1 wear a belt. 2 tie around the waist. Gibakus níya sa háwak ang íyang bálun, He tied his provisions around his waist. 3 [A; ab2] whip with a belt. Baksun ka gayud ni Tátay, Father will surely whip you with a belt. baksan n k.o. python with bands.

bàkus n small rope used to prevent a yoke from slipping. It is tied to both ends of the yoke and runs under the neck.

bákut = gipakaingun (dialectal). see ingun1.

bakutut v [B46] 1 stagger under a load that is too heavy. Makabakutut (makapabakutut) man sad ang kabug-at niíning baskíta, The weight of this basket can make one stagger. 2 stagger under the burden of debts.

bakwì v [A2; a12] take back what one said. Bakwía ang ímung gisulti, Take back what you said. n retraction. Ang bakwì ni Risal mahitungud sa tinuhúan, Rizal’s retraction of what he said about religion.

bakwit v [A; b2c] flee s.w. in war time. Didtu mi mubakwit sa búkid, We evacuated to the mountains. n war refugee. Napunù sa bakwit ang kampu, The camp is full of war refugees.

bakyà1 n 1 k.o. slipper with wooden sole. 2 k.o. boxfish. v 1 [A; a] wear, make into wooden slippers. Nagbakyà siya ngadtu sa tyanggihan, She wore wooden slippers to the market. Kining kahúya maáyung bakyáun, This wood is good for bakyas. 2 [A; a12] beat with a wooden slipper. Bakyaun siya sa asáwa ug mahubug, His wife beats him with wooden slipper when he’s drunk.

bakyà2 a appealing to the bakyà crowd (the proletariat). Bakyà kaáyung salidáha, A movie very appealing to the proletariat. v [B12; b6] get to be appealing to the proletariat. — krawud n proletariat (those wearing bakyà).

bakyánu a skillful, adept. Bakyánu nang batáa sa pamakak, That child fibs pretty well. v [B1] be skillful, adept. Magbakyánu ka sa pagmakinilya arun makaimpliyar ka dáyun, Get adept at typing so you can find a job right away.

bakyaw v [A; c] swing the arm to strike a blow.

bala, bála1 (not without l) n 1 bullet. 2 staples. 3 money. v [A; c] 1 load gun, stapler. Maáyu lang kang ibála sa kaniyun, You are just good for cannon fodder. 2a put s.t. in s.t. to make it appear bigger or weightier. Ang kupras baláhag balas, The copra was mixed with sand. 2b mix s.t. in with s.t. else to hide it. Ang pinaldung panaptun gibaláhag sigarilyu, The bales of cloth had cigarettes hidden inside of them. balahan a loaded. Pagbantay kay balahan nang pistúla, Be careful. That pistol is loaded.

bála2 v [A; a12] carry s.t. on the back, not tied. Akuy mubála nímu inigtabuk sa sapà, I’ll carry you piggy-back when we cross the river. Baláha (balha) kanang sáku, Carry that sack on your back. gi- gilukdu full of happiness, mischief, worries, and other emotions (lit. carried on the back and on the head). Ang gwatsi ánang tawhána gibá gilukdu, That man is chock-full of mischief.

balà1 (not without l) v [A; a12] find out information about an event that has happened (who stole s.t., where s.t. stolen or lost is, who committed a crime, etc.) by means of an egg. The egg is made to stand on its end on the edge of a tumbler. Then a yes-no question is put to it. If the answer is yes, the egg remains upright. If the answer is no, the egg falls. Balaun ang bábuy kay sigúrung gikáwat tu, We’ll divine information about the pig, because it surely was stolen. balad-un n omen, a sign which prophesizes s.t. Ang kumíta mauy usa ka bad-un nga may umaábut nga kagúbut, A comet is a sign of a forthcoming war. tiking balad-un phrase used to address the gecko (house lizard) in asking him to foretell whether s.t. will happen. The question is put to the gecko before he sounds. After he sounds the question is repeated. If the gecko sounds [89]an odd number of times the answer is affirmative. If even, the answer is negative. Tiking balad-un, muulan ugmà? Prophet gecko, will it rain tomorrow?

balà2 = balálà.

bálà (not without l) v [A; c] warn so as to prohibit certain actions. Gibaláan na man mu, You have been warned and prohibited. Úsà ka mamusil sa háyup ibálà úsà, Before you start shooting stray animals, make a warning prohibiting it. n warning that prohibits.

baláan a holy, sacred. Gahum sa mga baláan, Power of the saints. paka- v [a12] considered sacred. Gipakabaláan sa mga bumbay ang báka, The Hindus considered the cow a sacred animal. -un saintly. Balaánun ang ákung tingúhà kanímu, I have noble intentions toward you.

baláat v [A; a] tie s.t. around s.t. Baátun ta ning sugnud, Let’s bundle the firewood. Baáti íyang bàbà arun dì kasyágit, Gag her mouth so she can’t shout. n s.t. tied around s.t.

balábag v [A2S; c1] 1 lie across a path. Balabágun (ibábag) nátù pagbutang ang káhuy, Let’s put the tree across the road. Gibabágan ang agiánan sa mga batu, The path was blocked by rocks. 2 block s.o.’s way. Ikaw ray nakabábag sa ákung kalípay, You are the only one who stands in the way of my happiness. 3 for a fetus to be in a transverse position. Naglísud siya pag-anak kay nagbalábag (nagbalabag) ang bátà, She had a hard labor because the child was in a transverse position. n 1 a piece of wood or metal which lies across s.t. Ang balabag mauy naglambing sa duha ka kasku, The crossbeam holds the two hulls of the boat together. 2 cross (not without l in this meaning). Gilansang si Hisus sa balábag, Jesus was nailed to a cross. 3 s.t. which bars the way. Dílì balábag sa hangtúray nílang panaghigála, It is not a bar to their eternal friendship. (→) n = balábag, n. -an(→) n fishes with a transverse line, e.g., k.o. snappers.

balabála n a children’s game played by hitting a ball one tosses himself with a stick. If another player catches the ball, he comes up to bat. v [A1] play this game.

baladaw = balaraw.

baladbad = badbad1.

baládin (not without l) n wooden container for palm toddy in the shape of a tapered cylinder. v [A13; a12] make a wooden container for palm toddy.

balad-un see balà1.

bálag v 1 [A123S; b8] find s.t. by running across. Nakabalag silag mga ismaglir sa lawud, They ran into some smugglers on the high seas. 2 [AC; a] go meet s.o. Balága siya didtu sa piyir, Go meet him at the pier. balagbalag v [A13] go around everywhere looking for s.o. or s.t. Nagbagbág ang inahan ug pangítag kwarta, The mother went around everywhere looking for money. hi- v [A2C; ac] encounter, meet s.o. Nahibálag ku na gayud siya, At last I found him. Maghibálag ra gayud ta, We will certainly meet.

balaghuy a lanky, ungracefully tall and thin. v [B] be lanky. Nagbalaghuy ang láwas sa tin-idyir, Teen-agers have lanky bodies.

balagsang a for like things in a row to lack pieces, having pieces missing. Balagsang ang mais kay pagawpaw ang gitamnan, The ears of corn lacked grains because the land was infertile. v [BN] for pieces in a row to fall out, come out having pieces missing. Kanang baratuhung klási sa sudlay dalì rang mamagsang, It doesn’t take long for the teeth to fall out of cheap combs. -un(→) a characterized by having members missing.

balagtásan (not without l) n contest of reasoning between two men consisting of spoken dialogue in high-flown language. v [AC2] hold such a contest.

balagtuk n rat.

balagúlà, balagúlan (not without l) n three quarters of a coconut shell used as container for water to wash the vagina.

balágun n vine. v [B2S46] grow like a vine.

balag-ung n animal trap that clasps, snares, or encloses the animal. v [A; ab2] 1 catch with, set a balag-ung. Ákung gibalag-úngan ang sawa, piru wà mabalag-ung, I set a trap for the snake, but I did not catch it. 2 entrap s.o. into doing s.t. Bantay kay balag-úngun ka sa pagpatug-an, Watch out! You’ll be trapped into revealing it. 3 [a12] make s.t. into a balag-ung.

baláhak n deep festering sore, bigger than a kabahung. v [B12; a4] get to be, get a large sore. Nabáhak ang íyang samad, His wound became a festering sore. Gibáhak siya kay wà níya tambáli ang íyang samad, He developed a festering sore because he left his wound unattended.

balahálà n gods and goddesses (poetic).

balahíbu = balhíbu.

bálak v [A; c1] recite verses. Balákun (ibálak) nákù ang ultimu adiyus ni Risal, I am going to recite Rizal’s ‘Last Farewell’. n poem. paN- v [A23] write poetry. n poetry. mag-r- n poet. -nun a poetic. v [B12] become poetic. [90]

baláka v [B1256; b3c5] be concerned, worried. Ayaw kabaláka kay akuy mahibalu sa tanan, Don’t worry because I’ll take care of everything. Unsa may ímung gikabalak-an? What are you worrying about? mabalak-un, mabalakhun a characterized by concern, worry. Mabalakhung tíngug, Worried voice. — ku, ka what do I care. Baláka kug mabaklag siya. Dílì giyud aku muápas níya, I don’t care if she rots. I won’t run after her.

balakanan n doorsill.

balak-ang n = balat-ang. v [B; c1] stand, squat with the thighs apart. Nagbalak-ang ang tindíra ug mani sa íyang paglingkud, The peanut vendor squatted with her legs apart.

balakasi n k.o. small eel. Husi balakasi, tadtárun muliksi. Tadtárun mukubul, paryintis tubul, José is an eel, strike him with a knife and he will jump. If you strike him and he tautens up, he’s akin to hard feces. (Teasing rhyme said to children named José, in reference to the actions of the balakasi when struck.)

balakbak n 1 cloth or similar material to lie, walk, sit on. Duguun ang bakbak nga giangkan, The sheets on which she lay when she gave birth are all bloody. 2 diaper. v 1 [A; a] put material under s.o. to be on. Gibakbákan ug puting panaptun ang tumbanan sa bag-ung kinasal, The newly-weds had a white cloth spread for them to walk over. 2 underlay, be the thing in which s.t. is rooted. Ang íyang panáad gibakbákan ug mga pasálig, His promises were backed up by assurances. Lúhà ug singut ang gibakbak sa ákung paglampus, My success is rooted in sweat and tears. 3 put a diaper on. Bakbáki ang bátà, Put a diaper on the baby.

balakíki n a chicken colored black with white speckles, and sometimes with other colors. balakikíhun n fish colored black with speckles (sharks, rays, et al.)

balalà a 1 slow to comprehend. Balà kaáyu siya sa klási, He is very dull in class. 2 very inferior in quality, roughly or hurriedly done. (←) v 1 [B2] become dull. Mubalálà (mabalálà) kag dì ka magtuun, You’ll become dull if you do not study. 2 [B1] get to be inferior in quality. Nagkabalà ang íyang tinahian nga nagkadaghan ang íyang súkì, Her sewing is getting to be more and more inferior in quality since she started to get lots of customers.†

balalantì n small tree, the leaves of which have a medicinal use. The wood is of magical importance, esp. in sorcery. If food cooked by its fire is stolen, the thief suffers.

balalátuk n k.o. woodpecker.

balalaw (not without l) n stiff loop or hoop. v [A; a12] make, make into, put a loop.

balanà n crack in s.t. that has absolutely no give. Walà na nay dáta ang íhi kay may balanà, That axle is useless because it has a crack. v [B] get a crack in it. Mubalanà (mabalanà) ang básu basta butangan ug ínit túbig, The glass will crack if you put hot water in it. -un a having a crack.

balának n general name for large mullets: Mugilidae. -un a flat-headed, like a mullet: term for fishes, snakes, people.

balanban1 n k.o. half beak: Hemirhamphus spp.

balanban2 n a branching reed, the main stem of which is split and used in weaving and in sewing nipa shingles: Donnax cannaeformis.

balandra (not without l) n 1 barrel with rounded sides. 2 large, flat-bottomed boat mainly used for carrying logs or rocks. 3 fat woman shaped like a barrel. 4 wooden slippers (bakyà) which are poorly made and clumsy to wear. Balandra man nang ímung bakyà, Your slippers are like a boat. v [BN] become fat like a boat or barrel.

bal-ang = lab-ang.

balángas n mange, skin disease of dogs. v [a4] have mange. -un(→) a mangy. v [B125] become mangy. Mabalangasun ang irù ug pakan-un ug alukabhang sa kasag, The dog will become mangy if you feed it crab shells.

balángaw (from dángaw) n rainbow. v [AN; b6] for there to be a rainbow. Dílì na mag-ulan basta mamángaw (mubángaw), It will not rain any more if there’s a rainbow. -an n 1 k.o. leech with a rainbow-like stripe on its back. 2 bulinaw (anchovy) with a stripe through the middle.

balángay (not without l) n 1 barrio, the smallest unit of self-government. 2 k.o. large boat. -nun n pertaining to the barrio. tagi- n resident of a barrio. katagi- n fellow resident of a barrio.

balangbalang (not without l) v [A; a12] pummel by several persons. Gibalangbalang sa mga silíngan ang kawatan, The neighbors pummelled the thief.

balangbálang n a child’s game played by two groups whereby they try to capture each other by a process of guessing.

balanghitaw n small crocodile.

balanghútan n k.o. lizard fish, family Synodontidae.

balanghuy = bulanghuy.

balangúbang n k.o. medium-sized soft wood tree, the bark of which is used for walling: Shorea negrosensis. [91]

balangus (not without l) v [A; c] eat voraciously. Ayaw ibalangus ang ímung pagkáun arun dílì ka hituk-an, Do not gobble your food or you’ll choke.

baláni1 n 1 trunk of a banana or abaca plant. 2 pieces of the banana trunk.

baláni2 see batu1.

balansi (not without l) n 1 accounting. 2 balance. Nawad-an siyag balansi, He lost his balance. v 1 [A; a2] make an accounting of. Balansíhan ta ka sa ímung útang, I’ll make an accounting to you of your debts. 2 [A] 2a maintain one’s balance. 2b sway from side to side in keeping in an upright position. Nagbalansi ang barku sa dakung balud, The ship rocked back and forth in the high waves.

balansíkul n k.o. small tuna.

balantak n a small woven fish or eel trap with inwardly slanting tines to allow entrance but no exit. v 1 [A12; a12] catch with a balantak. 2 [A; a12] make into such a trap. 3 [c] put out a balantak. paN- v [A2] fish with a balantak. Namantak sila sa sapà, They are trapping fish in the river.

balantì = balalantì.

balantígun n k.o. bird.

balantíyung n varieties of climbing squashes, long, sausage-shaped or jar-shaped: varieties of Lagenaria leucantha.

balanus (not without l) v 1 [A13; b(1)] mourn. Kaming mahabilin magbalanus, Those of us who are left behind will grieve. 2 [A1] repent. Magbalanus ka sa kaulahían, You will repent in the end. n 1 grief, mourning. 2 repentance.

balaraw n k.o. dagger. v [a12] make into, strike with a dagger.

balas n sand. v 1 [A3; b6] put sand s.w. 2 [B3(1)] form sand-like particles. Mubalas ang dugù ug dugáyun sa káyu, Blood stew forms grains if you leave it over the fire too long. ka-(←) v [A13] have sand all over it.

balasbas v 1 [AN; cP] go along parallel to s.t. Ibalasbas (ipabalasbas) pagdala ang káhuy sa asíras, Go along the sidewalk when you carry the wood. 2 [A; c1] put s.t. in a row parallel to s.t. Ibalasbas (balasbása) ug tanum ang kapáyas sa ímung kural, Plant papayas along your fence. n ornamental planted along walks ( = atay-átay. see atay.)

balaslúkun a naughty, mischievous. Balaslúkun kaáyu ning batáa. Kusug kaáyung mupahílak sa íyang mga manghud, The naughty child enjoys making his younger brothers and sisters cry. v [B12] be, become naughty.

balasúbas (not without l) n one who avoids meeting his obligations. Balasúbas kaáyu siyang muswildu. Utsu ang sábut, dus ray báyad, He is immoral in the way he pays wages. He promises eight pesos, but two is all you get. v [B12] be a person who avoids meeting obligations.

balat n 1 sea cucumber. 2 one considered not to count for anything. Ngánung wà man ku nímu bahíni? Unsa ku, balat lang? Why didn’t you give me any? Don’t I count for anything? — hanginan k.o. sea cucumber that shrinks up when taken out of the water so much that it seems to disappear. — úwak n k.o. black sea cucumber edible when dried.

balat-ang n the hips and pelvic region. v [a4] have pains in the pelvic region. Balat-ángun siya ug magrigla, She has pains in the pelvic region when she menstruates. -un a having prominent hips.

balátik1 n trap consisting of a trip rope which releases a spear. v 1 [A; ab2] catch with, set a balátik. Hingbalatikan ang irù, The dog got speared in the trap. 2 [A; b6] set a balátik. Balatíkan nákù ag maisan, I will put a trap in the cornfield. 3 [a12] make a balátik.

balátik2 n name of a constellation having three stars in a row.

balátung n k.o. string bean, reaching more than a foot and less than an inch around. The most commonly grown string bean: Vigna sesquipedialis. sintas — n a variety longer than ordinary balátung. batungbatung n k.o. wild vine with a bean similar to the balátung, but inedible. -in-(→) n k.o. banana the fruit of which is light yellowish green, long and thin, eaten raw when ripe.

balatwánun n k.o. small sea fish: Gerres sp.

baláud v [A; c] 1 issue an order. Gibalaúran kung Tátay sa dílì na pagtabakù, Father ordered me not to smoke. 2 give a warning. Gibalaúran tang may bagyung taliábut, We have been warned that there’s a typhoon coming. n 1 (not without l) law, rules and regulations. Ayaw supáka ang baláud, Do not break the law. 2 warning. batakang — constitution. balauránan n place where laws are passed. Ubus, ibabaw balauránan, Lower, upper house. mag-r-(→) n lawmaker, -un(→), balaurun, balaudnun n bill, future law.

balaúngun = buluungun.

balaw (not without l) n 1 a resinous preparation used to caulk and waterproof a boat, obtained from the sap of the apítung and almasíga. 2 k.o. timber tree, light species of trees called apítung. 3 reddish-brown color [92]in feathers of fowls. v [A; c] waterproof a boat with balaw. Balawan nímu ang tibuuk kílid, Caulk the seams and put resin all over the sides.

bálaw v 1 [B12] get tired of doing s.t. which takes a long time. Nabálaw kug pinaábut nímu, I got tired of waiting for you. 2 [B1] be satisfied to the point of not desiring any more, do as much as one wants to. Magbálaw akug bayli karung gabíi, I will dance to my heart’s content this evening. Nabálaw na kug kináug karni, I got tired of eating meat. ka-an, ka-un(→) n ending up by being completely satiated. Walay kabaláwan ang íyang kagútum, There is no satisfying his hunger.

balawbaw v 1 [A; c] put s.t. over s.t. else. Ang kík gibawbáwan ug aysing, The cake was topped with icing. Ibawbaw ang báhaw sa bag-ung kan-un, Put the leftover rice on top of the newly-cooked rice. 2 [A; a] skim off the topmost portion of s.t. Bawbáwun ku ang ispúma sa sabaw, I’ll skim off the foam from the soup.

balay n 1 house. — alampuánan house of worship. — sa lawàlawà spiderweb. — sa ligwan, putyúkan beehive, hornet’s nest. — lungsud city hall. — patigáyun business firm. 2 home base in games. v [A; b] build a house. Nagbalay siya daplin sa baybáyun, He built a house near the shore. Balayan kung ímung lúti, I’ll build a house on your lot. (←) v [A; a] form a thought, compose a song. Mubálay kug bálak, I’ll compose a poem. Baláya ang ímung tubag sa ímung hunàhúnà, Work your answer out carefully in your mind. -an n 1 home base in a game of hide and seek or in baseball. 2 network of bamboo strips mounted like a platform for climbing plants. v [A2] reach home in baseball, touch base in hide and seek. Ug mubayan kag úna sa búang, libri ka, If you reach the goal ahead of the one who’s it, you’re free. -anan n 1 matchbox. Isulud ang palítu sa bayanan, Place the matchsticks in the matchbox. 2 shell of eggs, sea animals. Bayanan sa itlug, Egg shells. Bayanan sa pawíkan, Turtle shell. Bayanan sa kinhasun, Clam shell. 3 = -an. 4 — sa utut female genitalia (humorous slang). ka-an n group of homes. paN- n 1 housing project, group of homes. Ang pruyiktu sa pamalay álang sa mga kabus, The housing project for the poor. 2 s.t. used in the house. Pamalay na lang ning sinináa, This dress is only for house use. 3 roof framework of a house. paniN- n 1 household. Buluhatun sa panimalay, Household chores. 2 home. Ang asáwa mauy hára sa panimalay, The wife is the queen of the home. tag-, tag-(←) n owner of the house. tig-un(←) n 1 framework of a house. Hápit na mahuman ang tigbáyun sa ákung balay, The framework of my house is almost finished. 2 framework of one’s thoughts. Natumpag ang tigbáyun sa ákung mga damgu, The framework of my dreams collapsed. gam-(←) see gambálay. panum- see tungbálay.†

balaybay v [A; c1] put in a row. Balaybáyun (ibalaybay) nátù ang misitíra sa agiánan, Let’s put a row of flower tubs along the walk. n things put in a row. paN- v [A2; b6] go in, along a certain line. Namalaybay sila sa asíras, They walked on the sidewalk.

baláyung n large hardwood tree with a short trunk and long branches. The wood is deep, dark cordovan and is very hard and highly resistant to deterioration.

balbag v [A3P; a12] break into pieces due to an impact. Nabalbag ang bagul nga gimartilyu, The coconut shell got smashed when I hammered it.

balbakúwa n dish composed of beef or carabao legs, tails, ears, and skin, stewed with bones and with spices and peas. v [A; a] make beef, carabao stew.

balbal n k.o. possessed person (unglù) that has a need to go after sick people’s blood or livers. paN- v [A2] for the balbal to go out and perpetrate his evil deeds.

balbangáan a for fruits to be in the stage where they are just about to ripen but still hard. v [B] reach the ripening stage.

balbas n 1 beard. 2 instrument for shaving. v 1 [A; b6(1)] shave s.o. Balbásan ta nang ímung bigúti, Let’s shave your mustache off. 2 [A12] shave oneself. Makabalbas kag way saminsámin? Can you shave without a mirror? paN-, panghiN- v [A2] shave oneself. Wà pa ku mamalbas (manghimalbas), I haven’t shaved yet.

balbíru = barbíru.

balbula = barbula.

balda v [A; a] 1 disable, maim. Baldáha ang tiil arun dì kadágan, Break his legs so he can’t run away. Gibaldáhan ang táwu nga misúkul sa pulis, The man who resisted the policeman was maimed. 2 disturb, prevent s.o. from doing s.t. properly. Ang mga tin-idyir mubaldag apil-apil sa sáyaw, The teenagers that get into the act keep us from dancing properly. Baldáhun ku sa makadiyut ang inyung panagsulti, May I disturb your conversation a minute? n s.t. that disturbs. -du a crippled, maimed. Pagkatáwu níya, baldádu na siyag kamut, He was [93]born with a crippled hand. v [B12; a] get maimed, maim. Baldadúhun ta ka run, I’m going to cripple you, you damn ...

baldi n 1 pail. 2 storm signal consisting of a cone made of canvas raised by day in combination with a ball. v [A; b6] fetch water in a pail. Magbaldi aku didtu ug túbig, I’ll go there to fetch a pail of water.

baldíyu v [A; b6] flood with water for the purpose of cleaning. Nagbaldíyu mi sa kusína, We flushed water over the kitchen.

baldúsa n tile. v [a12] make s.t. of tile. Baldusáhun ta ning átung salug, Let’s have a tile floor.†

balhas n 1 perspiration. 2 prickly heat. v [B24; a4] perspire. Mubalhas ku ug mulampásu sa sawug, I’ll perspire if I scrub the floor. Gibalhas ku human pag-inum sa aspirin, I sweated after taking aspirin.

balhíbu n hair on the body, but not pubic hairs, hair of animals, feathers. Bagà ang balhíbu sa íyang íluk, He has thick hair in his armpits. Hámis ug balhíbu ang iring, The cat has soft fur. Putì ang balhíbu sa ákung hiniktan, My fighting cock has white feathers. sámag, paríhug — similar in traits. Ang mga táwung susámag balhíbu magkaúyun giyud, Birds of a feather flock together. (→) v [A12; b8] 1a better in feather coloration. Ang tubaung parísag buyugun makabalhibu, Toddy-colored feathers win over honey-colored ones. 1b beat invariably in a competition. Nabalhibuan mung mga tagabaryu námung mga tagasyudad, We city people can outdo you country people. 2 overawe, impress s.o. to the extent that he gets flustered or completely eats out of one’s hands. Nabalhibuan ku niánang bayhána. Dílì ku makabungat sa ákung túyù, I was overawed by that woman. I couldn’t say what I wanted to. 3 for one’s heart to soften to one. Nabalhibuan ku ánang tihíka. Aku ray makapangáyù níyag kwarta. Way láin, That old skinflint has a soft spot in his heart for me. I can ask him for money, but no one else can. paN- v [A2] 1a select fighting cocks on the basis of feather coloration. Mamalhíbu ku sa ímung bayungbáyung kay maghukut kug igtalarì, I’ll make a selection from your young cocks to raise into a fighting cock. 1b size up an opponent’s cock by the feathers. 2 [A2S] grow feathers. Namalhíbu na ang kuyabug, The nestlings are growing feathers now. lúpig sa balhibuay come off the worse when it comes to comparing feathers. Lúpig ka sa balhibuay kun itárì nímu ang ugis sa tubaun, Don’t pit your white cock against a toddy-colored one because you lose just from the color combination. balhibuun a hairy. -un ug dílà tending to backbite. -un ug kamut tending to swipe things.

balhin (from halin) v 1 [A; c1] 1a move s.t. from one place to another. Balhínun (ibalhin) ta kini didtu sa kusína, Let’s transfer this to the kitchen. 1b move domestic animals to the shade, to a new grazing area. Talina, ang kábaw balhína (ibalhin), Move the carabao, Talina. 2 [AP] move, emigrate from one place to another. Mibalhin kami sa dakbayan, We moved to the city. 3 [B] become changed. Nabalhin (mibalhin) ang íyang taras sa nagkadakù siya, His character changed as he grew older. ka-an n change. May kabalhínan ang íyang kinaíya sa nadátù na, His character changed after he became rich. ma-un a changeable. Ang babáyi mabalhínun sáma sa bagyu, Women are fickle like typhoons. -un(→), balhinbalhin n k.o. movable fish corral.

balhug v 1 [A; c] insert s.t. long in a place under s.t. or between s.t. Akuy mibalhug niánang linipak ngadtu sa binugkus, I inserted those bamboo slats into the bundle. Ibalhug iláwum sa katri ang malíta, Slip the valise under the bed. 2 [A3P; a] put into an enclosure. Akuy mibalhug sa manuk sa tangkal, I put the chicken in the cage. Gibalhug siya sa karsil, He was thrown in jail.

balhun n 1 rope tied from one end of the yoke to the other end, passing below the neck, so the yoke won’t slip off. 2 bellyband of harness. v [A; b] apply, use as bellyband or yoke rope.

bali1 a reversed, backwards. Bali ang pagkasul-ub nang ímung sapátus, You put your shoes on backwards. v 1 [A; a12] turn s.t. over. Balihun nátung sinugbang isdà, Let’s turn the fish we’re broiling over. 2 [A; a12] plow the field the second time to turn the clods over (in place of harrowing—pagkaras). Magbali ta run arun kapugas ta ugmà, Let’s plow the field the second time so we can plant tomorrow. 3 [A2] for wind to change direction, switch party loyalty. Mibali ang hángin, The wind changed direction. Kun wà ku makabali sa Libiral, pildi ku, If I hadn’t changed to the Liberal Party, I would have lost. 4 [a12] be reversed, wrong side out, backwards. Dì na mabali ang ákung hukum, My decision cannot be reversed. Nabali na ang kalibútan kay ang babáyi mau nay mangulitáwu, The world has turned upside down because it’s the women who court the men now. Nabali na [94]ba nímu ang punda? Have you turned the pillow cases inside out? 5 [A23] — ug pangutána respond to a question with another question instead of answering it. 6 [C; a] be placed in opposite directions from each other. Nagbáli silag higdà, They were lying head to foot. Balíhun nátù pagbutang ang sapátus sa kartun, Let’s put the shoes tip to toe in the box. paN- v 1 [A23] put clothes on wrong side out or shoes backwards. Namali ka man sa ímung sinínà, You have your clothes on inside out. 2 turn cloth wrong side out. Namali ku sa mga linabhan arun dílì hilubaran, I turned the wash inside out so it wouldn’t fade. balibáli v [A; a12] do first on one side and then on the other. Ang íyang amahan mauy mibalibálig sagpà níya, Her father slapped her on both cheeks. Gibalibáli níyag pas-an ang sag-ub, As he carried the water container he kept shifting it from shoulder to shoulder. — ug kasábà scold severely. Balibalíhun bítaw siyag kasábà wà katíngug, He never said a word when he was scolded severely. a reversible. Ang ákung dyákit balibáli, I have a reversible jacket. -in- v [A; a] speak in secret code, way. Antígu ka ba nga mubinali? Do you know how to speak Hog Latin?†

báli a 1 be worth it (not used negatively). Písus ang palit nímu sa isdà? Báli sad, You paid a peso for the fish. It was worth it. — walà unimportant, worth ignoring. 2 serves one right. Nadagmà ang bátà. Báli, The child fell. Serves him right. 3 — ug worth, in the amount, quantity, duration of. Bálig písus nga bugas, One peso’s worth of rice. Pabukálag bálig tungà sa taknà, Boil it for half an hour. 4 — nga with exclamation: how very much! Báling buánga nímu, How very naughty of you. mas — nga it would be better if. Mas báli nga mamatay, It would be better to die. walay — it doesn’t matter. Way bálig mahal, basta maáyung klási, It doesn’t matter if it costs a lot, as long as it is good. v 1 [a12] 1a dílì, walà, ayaw — not pay s.t. any mind. Ayaw balíha ang mga tabì, Don’t pay attention to the gossip. 1b gi- walà ignored, treated as insignificant. Gibáli walà na siya ni Armi, Armi just ignored her from then on. 2 [A; ab1] a sign a chit for goods taken in a store. Mubáli lang kug bugas, I’ll just sign a chit for some rice. b ask for an advance. Si Uskar ang átung balíhan, Let’s ask for an advance from Oscar. n 1 a chit signed for goods taken in a store. 2 amount taken in advance from wages. May báli kung trayinta písus sa ákung ámu, I had an advance of thirty pesos from my boss.†

bálì v [A; a] break s.t. long. Mibálì siyag sanga, He broke off a twig. Nabálì ang ákung buktun, I broke my arm. Túhud lay ibálì ánà, Break it off with your knee. — ang súngay put s.o. in his place. Balían ku siya sa íyang súngay arun dílì na mag-abusar, I’ll put her in her place so she won’t be so abusive any more. (→) a 1 for an elongated thing to be broken. 2 s.o. who is new at s.t., ignorant. Balì ka pang mumaníhu, You’re still just learning how to drive. Balì siyag linaktan, He carries himself like a greenhorn. 3 foolish in trying to do s.t. one doesn’t even know how to do. Balì ning tawhána. Midrayib sa dyíp, unyà dì diay kamau, He’s a fool. He tries to drive the jeep when he doesn’t even know how to. balìbálì n 1 k.o. rifle that is bent when cocked, usually a double-barreled gun. 2 = bulinaw.†

baliad a in a motion with the back bent. Baliad na run ákung daybing, Now I will do a back dive. v [B3; c1] bend one’s body backward with a rapid motion, do s.t. on one’s back. Nagbaliad siya paglanguy, He was swimming on his back.

baliálà (not without l) n the Malaysian fantail, a small bird that moves its tail up and down while perched: Rhipidura javanica. -un a characterized by constant moving around or changing positions, fidgety.

balíbad v 1 [A2S; c] refuse s.o. or s.t. Balibáran gánì ku nímu, patyun ta ka, If you turn me down, I’ll kill you. 2 [AN2] give an excuse for not doing s.t. Mibalíbad (namalíbad) siyang dì musulti kay pagaw siya, He got out of giving the speech with the excuse that he was hoarse. n 1 refusal. Ang ímung balíbad way kapuslánan kun tiúnan kag pusil, No use trying to refuse when s.o. points a gun at you. 2 excuse. Nakadawat mig balíbad níya nga dì siya makaanhi, We already received his excuse that he couldn’t come. paN- v [A] say s.t. is not the case. Namalíbad siya nga wà siya mahigugma kaníya, She said she did not love him. balibaran a fond of giving excuses.

balibag v [A; c] throw s.t. away, get rid of, throw. Ayaw nag ibalibag. Magámit pa man, Don’t throw it away. We can still use it.

balibay = balibag.

balíbud1 v [A3P; ab16(1)] wind s.t. around s.t. Ibalíbud (balibúra) ang hílu sa káhuy arun dì magubut, Wind the thread around the stick so it will not get tangled up.

balíbud2 v [A; c] scatter grains, small solids over an area. Balibúrig sibúyas ang sabaw, Sprinkle onions on the soup. Ibalíbud ning [95]pulbus sa salug, Sprinkle this powder on the floor.

balibul n 1 volleyball. 2 volleyball style of playing billiards: the table is divided into two territories, and each player must make a carom inside his territory. v [A; b6] play volleyball. -an n volleyball court.†

balibung v [A; c] cover the space between the upper edges of the roof at the ridge. Sín ang maáyung ibalibung sa atup, Galvanized iron is a good material to put over the ridge of the roof. -an n 1 ridge of the roof. 2 the material which covers the ridge.

balidbid v [A; b6] trickle down in drops, clinging to s.t. Íyang gipahíran ang lúhà nga mibalidbid sa íyang áping, She wiped the tears that trickled down her cheeks.

balidikturyan n 1 valedictorian. 2 one who excels in s.t. Basta mahitungud na gánì sa babáyi, balidikturyan siya ánang buháta, He’s an expert when it comes to women. v [B3; a12] become the valedictorian.

balighù n different from the expected. Dakung balighù, gipusil siya apan wà dutli, How strange! He was shot but was not hurt. Siya ray anak nga balighù sa ginikánan, He is the parent’s problem child.

balighut n bow, loop, that can be easily untied by pulling one end of the string. v [A; b6(1)] tie a knot on s.t. Akuy mubalighut sa listun sa bátà, I’ll tie the child’s shoelace. Balighúti ang kumingking arun dì malímut, Tie a string around his little finger so he won’t forget.

baligkawang = balat-ang.

baligkus = balighut.

baligsálà = balinsálà.

baligtad a 1 wrong side out, up. Baligtad nang pagkatahì kay nailáwum ang karaygan, It was sewed with the wrong side out because the material that was meant to face is on the inside. 2 contrary to what is expected. Baligtad ang nahitabù kay inay silútan, gigantíhan na hinúun, Just the opposite happened: instead of being punished, he was rewarded. v [A; c1] put wrong side up or out. Nagbaligtad ang kahun ay, básig mahùhù ang sulud, The box is upside down. The contents might fall out. Ayaw ibaligtad (baligtára) pagladlad ang mga magasin, Do not display the magazines upside down.

baligtus n 1 tight knot that won’t come undone. 2 thumb-sized bundle of sorted abaca fiber for weaving, knotted at one end. v 1 [A; c1] tie in a knot. Baligtúsa (ibaligtus) makaduha arun masigúru, Tie the knot twice to make it secure. 2 [A; a12] tie abaca fiber into a bundle as thick as one’s thumb by knotting the end. Baligtúsa ang sinudlay nga iskuhídu, Bundle the sorted fine abaca fiber.

baligwat v 1 [A13; c6] use s.t. as a crowbar to move s.t. else. Ayaw ug ibaligwat ang páyung sa ríhas, Don’t use the umbrella as a crowbar to move the grill. 2 [a12] break one’s arm or leg by moving it accidentally after it has been wedged tight in place (i.e. having it act like a crowbar). Nabálì íyang tiil kay nabaligwat sa pagkabulásut níya sa bangag, He broke his leg when he stepped into the hole because when he fell, his leg was wedged on the edge of the hole. n crowbar.

baligyà v [A; c] sell. Gibaligyáan ku níyag sigarilyu, He sold me some cigarettes. n merchandise, wares for sale. Nagpátad ang daghang baligyà sa asíras, The sidewalks are teeming with things for sale. Dílì kini baligyà. Ákù ni, This is not for sale. It’s mine. palit — buying and selling. Nanginabúhì ku sa palit baligyà, I make my living by buying and selling. maN-ay, maN-r- n one who sells for a living.

bálik v 1 [A2; b5] go, come back, come back to get s.t. Kanus-a ka man mubálik? When will you come back? Balíkun (balíkan) nákù ang ákung nahikalimtan, I’ll come back for the things I forgot. 1a [A13; c] put, give s.t. back. Ibálik ra ni ngadtu, Put this back. 2 [B23; b6] return to his former state. Mibálik (nabálik) na ang kangayà sa íyang panagway, Her happy expression returned to her face. Balíkan ang yútà sa íyang katambuk kun abunúhan, The soil will regain its fertility if you add fertilizer. 3 [b4] have a relapse. Gibalíkan siya sa íyang sakit kay nangalsag bug-at, He had a relapse because he carried s.t. too heavy for him. 4 [A; b5c] [do] again. Balíki (balíka) nig tahì, Sew this over again. Balíkun ku ikaw ug pangutána, I will ask you again. Maúlaw ku ug ibálik nag pangutána, I would be embarrassed if that question were asked a second time. 4a [a12] revive. Naghandum sila nga untà balíkun ang pilikulang Binisayà, They’re thinking about reviving Visayan movies. n subject repeated in school. balikbálik v [B2; ac2] 1 do again. 2 come back again. Balikbálik unyà mu, ha? Bye. Come back and see us again, will you? balikbalik n 1 k.o. small tree used in countersorcery because of its magical powers to cause evil to return to the perpetrator. 2 k.o. small bird. sum-(→), tum-(→) see sumbalik. [96]

balíkas n curses. v [A; a1c] curse. Mubalíkas giyud aku nímu ug mahitabù, I’ll curse you if it happens. Ayawg balikása (balikasa) ang mga binatunan, Don’t curse the servants. -an(→) a foul-mouthed, fond of uttering indecent words. v [B126] become foul-mouthed.

balikawang = balat-ang.

balikhaw n collarbone. v [BN2] have prominent collarbones. Namalikhaw siya pagguwà níya sa uspital, You could see his collarbones when he got out of the hospital.

balikid = balilikid.

balikig 1 euphemism for balikug, 2 (= balikù, 2). 2 = balikù.

balíkis v [A; c] coil, put around s.t. else. Mibalíkis ang baksan sa bábuy, The python coiled around the pig’s body. Nakabalíkis ang íyang kamut sa ákung háwak, He managed to put his arm around my waist. Ayaw ug ibalíkis ang písì sa halígi, Don’t coil that rope around the post. n k.o. itchy and fast-spreading skin disease which spreads around the body in the area of the hips.

baliktad = baligtad.

baliktus v 1 = baligtus. 2 [B] be wrapped around, coil oneself around. Mibaliktus (nabaliktus) ang hálas sa sanga, The snake was coiled around a branch. Ang íyang mga buktun nagbaliktus sa líug sa kawatan, He wrapped his arms around the thief’s neck. n bundle. Paliti akug usa ka baliktus káhuy, Buy me a bundle of wood.

balikù a 1 crooked, not straight. 2 crooked, dishonest. Balikung pulitiku, Crooked politician. v [AB; a12] be, make s.t. crooked. Balikuun ta ning túbu, Let’s bend this water pipe. — nga lyábi n wrench with a socket head to fit over a bolt.

balíkud v [A3; b6c1] coil, make a circular loop of. Ibalíkud (balikúra) ang alambri, Coil the wire up.

balikug = balikù.

balikugkug a for wires or string-like things to be curled or twisted inwards at the end. Balikugkug ang udlut sa paku, The fern frond is curled at its tip. v [APB; a] curl or twist s.t. at the tip with a general direction pointing to the base, be curled or twisted at its end. Mibalikugkug (nabalikugkug) ang dáhun sa túmang kaínit sa adlaw, The leaves curled in the intense heat of the sun.

balíkus = balíkis.

balikutkut v [AB3; a] bunch, fold, curl up in an irregular way, cause s.t. to do so. Ang úlud nga gihíkap mibalikutkut, The worm curled up when s.o. touched it. Ayaw balikutkúta ang písì. Ibalibud ug káhuy, Don’t just bunch up the rope. Wind it around a stick. a folded up in an irregular way. Dì ku mupalit niánang balikutkut nga sín, I won’t buy that wrinkled galvanized iron sheet.

balikutsa n candy made of the hardened syrup obtained from coconut milk and sugar. v [A; a2] make balikutsa.

balikwaut a lacking in grace, balance, euphony. Balikwaut pamináwun ang litiral kaáyung pagkahúbad, A literal translation lacks euphony. v [B6; a2] be awkward. Mibalikwaut (nabalikwaut) ang linaktan sa dalágang gitihulan sa kalakin-an, The girl walked awkwardly when the boys whistled at her. Balikwautun ku pagtágik unyà han-áyag maáyu, I’ll compose it in a rough way, then rearrange it well.

balikwit = bakwit.

balíla n wolf herring: Chirocentrus dorab.

balíli n general name for grasses that do not grow tall. — tsína k.o. purple ornamental grass grown popularly in hanging pots. kabalilinhan n grassy area.

balilikid, balilíkid v [A; b5] 1 turn around, look back. Gibalilíkid (gibalilikdan) nákù ang táwung mitawag nákù, I turned back to the man who was calling me. 2 look back to one’s past or people behind, below in rank. Ug masapían ka na, dílì ka na mubalilikid sa ímung gigikánan, When you become rich, you won’t turn back to where you came from.

balimbúgay n k.o. bivalve.

balimbing = balingbing.

báling n large fish net operated by several people. v 1 [AN; a] catch fish with a large net. Makúhà ang bansíkul ug balíngun, Mackerel can be caught with a net. 2 [A12; b8] catch in a police dragnet. Sa katapúsan nabalingan ra gayud ang tulisan, At last the robbers were caught in the dragnet. 3 [A2N3PC; a1] trap, capture by stratagem. Ang ímung sinultihan mauy makabáling (makapabáling) kanímu, Your speech will entrap you. 3a [A3SN; a12] for two parties to make a secret agreement in gambling in order to bilk a third player. Dakù ang ákung pildi kay nabáling man ku, I lost heavily because they duped me. 4 [A23PC; ab2c] capture one’s attention, affections. Nagkabáling ang ílang tinan-awan, Their eyes met. Balíngun níya ang ímung pagtagad, He will capture your attention. Wà níya ibáling ang íyang pagtagad ngadtu sa uban, He did not turn his affections to the others. (→) n = báling. paN- v [A; b6] fish with nets. n fishing with nets. hiN-, maN-r-(→) a one who likes to ensnare people. Dalì rang ikítà [97]ug áway, himáling (mamamaling) tuhù, She looks for trouble. She likes to ensnare people. n 1 fish caught with nets. 2 s.t. captured by stratagem.

balingag a careless, inattentive to what one is about. Balingag ka man gud, mu nang nakalimtan nímu ang malíta, You’re careless. That’s why you forgot the suitcase. v [B1] 1 be careless and forget s.t. 2 mistake s.o. for s.o. else. Nabalingag ku nímu kang Husi, maung gisampit ta ka, I mistook you for José. That’s why I called you.

balingay v [A; bc1] hook s.t. at the back of the shoulder, esp. the bamboo palm-toddy container (kawit). Balingaya (ibalingay) ang kawit, Carry the toddy tube hooked on your shoulder.

balingbing n carambola, a small cultivated tree with oblong fruit having longitudinal angular lobes. The fruit is fleshy and acidic and consumed fresh or pickled: Averrhoa carambola.

balíngit = tukaw.

balingkágas v [B2; b6] become skinny because of overindulgence in vice. Makabalingkágas (makapabalingkágas) nang pagsilábig pamutakal, Overindulgence in women can make one skinny.

balingkawang = balat-ang.

balingkút a hard to please. Pagkabalingkút bayang tawhána. Dílì madalag paayun-áyun, How stubborn he is. No matter how hard you try, you can’t persuade him. v [B] become hard to please.

balingug = balingag.

balinsalà, balinsálà n k.o. small edible bivalve clam.

balinsay n k.o. game of tossing a handful of small objects, usually cowries, to be caught by the back of the hand, and then tossed again caught on the palm. The pieces that fall to the floor are paired off. In each pair one is made to hit the other by flicking it. If the player misses or hits more than one piece, he’s burnt (pasù) and loses his turn. The object is to get rid of the pieces without losing one’s turn. v 1 [C2; ac] play balinsay. 2 [A] toss things in the air as if playing balinsay. Dì balinsáyun ang kwarta kay makagábà, Don’t flip money in the air because it will bring you divine retribution.

balinsáyaw = sayaw.

balinsiyána n 1 Arroz a la Valenciana. 2 type of stitch whereby the seam is sewn twice in such a way that it won’t frazzle and is invisible. v [A; a] 1 make into Arroz a la Valenciana. 2 sew with a double stitch.

balinsuguan see súgù.

balinsúngag v [B1; c1] be placed with the ends in a random disorderly way. Ayaw balinsungága (ibalinsúngag) pagbutang ang mga sugnud arun dílì muílug ug lugar, Don’t stack the firewood in any old way so it won’t occupy too much room. ka- v [A13] be completely topsy-turvy. Nagkabalinsúngag ang mga patayng sundálu sa nataran sa panggubátan, The soldiers were lying about in every which way on the battlefield.

balintang = balintung2.

balintawak n 1 a woman’s dress consisting of a blouse with puffed butterfly sleeves, a long striped skirt, and a piece of cloth overlaid. v [A; a] wear, make into a balintawak. 2 = linambid. see lambid.

balintayins n one’s Valentine on Valentine’s day. — dí n Valentine’s Day. — kard Valentine’s greeting card. — parti Valentine’s party. v [A1; c6] hold a Valentine’s party.

balintung1 n k.o. mackerel or tuna.

balintung2 v [A1B2; c1] get knocked down, fall down from a standing position with force. Mibalintung (nabalintung) siyang naigù sa ákung kúmù, He came down with a crash when I hit him with my fist. Kinsay nagbalintung sa mga síya? Who knocked the chairs down? Culu- v [A13] 1 turn over writhing. Unsa bay nakáun mung nagbulubalintung ka man dihà? What did you eat that makes you writhe? 2 somersault.

balintúwad v [B] 1 fall headlong on the face. Pagkasángit sa ákung tiil sa bágun, nabalintúwad ku, My foot tripped on a vine, and I tumbled forward. 2 [a] pick s.o. up by the feet and hold him upside down. Musúkul ka gánì balintuwárun ta ka, If you defy me, I’ll turn you upside down.

balirung1 n fishing trap of tidal flats consisting of stones piled waist-high arranged in a large rectangle, with a hole for entrance but no easy exits, such that when the tide goes out the fish are bunched in the tidal pools. v [A; a] make a balirung. paN- v [A; b1] catch fish with the balirung.

balirung2 v [A; ac] throw a stick such that it spins in flight. Ug dílì nímu maabut ang búnga, balirunga lang, If you cannot reach the fruit, throw a stick at it to get it down. Ibalirung kining putput sa irù, Throw this stick at the dog. n stick used for throwing at s.t.

balirúsu a stubborn, not open to advice and reproach. v [B12; b6] become stubborn; consider s.o. as such. Nabalirúsu nang batáa kay way disiplína, That child became wilful because of lack of discipline.

bal-is n hand tool used to strip abaca. v [A; c1] make an abaca stripper. [98]

balísa v [B126; b3(1)c5] be anxious, apprehensive. Ang wà níya pag-ulì nakabalísa (nakapabalísa) nákù, His failure to come home worried me.

balisádà, balisálà = balinsálà.

*balisbis -an n 1 eaves, overhanging portion of a roof. 2 place beneath the eaves where rain drops to. Kanali ang balisbísan, Make a canal beneath the eaves where rain drops to. 3 narrow yard close to the house. paN- v [A12] walk along the sides of a house. Mamalisbis lang ta arun dílì mahumud sa ulan, Let’s walk along the sides of the houses so we won’t get wet. paN-an = paN-.†

balísing v [A; c1] 1 transfer an activity elsewhere. Ibalísing (balisíngun) ni nátung átung ínum, Let us move our drinking spree s.w. else. 2 move a piece in a game of marbles from an obstructed place to s.w. else the same distance from the goal. 3 [A; b4(1)] have s.o. take a base in baseball. Nagbalísing ba ang ampáyir sa bátir? Did the umpire tell the batter to take a base? Nabalisíngan ang ílang pitsir ug upat ka bátir, That pitcher had four batters take a base on him. 4 [A2; b6] for a husband to turn his attention elsewhere. Hustis sa nayitklab ang gibalisíngan sa bána, The husband turned his attentions to a night club hostess. hiN-, hiN-(→) a inclined to move one’s piece in a game.

baliskad v [A; a1] 1 turn inside out. Akuy mibaliskad sa linabhan, I turned the wash inside out. Binaliskad ang baráha, Cards, face up on the table. 2 undo a knot. Baliskára ang higut, Untie the knot.

baliskug v [B2] become curled up, rolled. Ang ínit ang nakabaliskug (nakapabaliskug) sa pláka, The heat has caused the record to curl.

balista v 1 [B26; a] flip over backward. Mibalista siya pagkaigù sa ákung kúmù, He fell over backward when he got the full force of my blows. Balistáha siya, makahímù ka ba, Flip him over backward if you can do it. 2 [A; c1] turn s.t. inside out. Bisag balistáhun (ibalista) pa ning ákung bulsa, wà giyuy tayà, You may turn my pocket inside out, but you won’t find a penny.†

balísung1 a exactly the contrary. Balísung kanà sa ákung nadungug, That is just the opposite of what I heard. Balísung ang ílang paghigdà, They were lying head to foot. Dakung balísung: ang babáyi magkarsúnis ug ang laláki magbistída, It’s completely backwards: the women wear pants and the men wear dresses. v [AB; c1] become just the opposite, turned around; turn s.t. around. Kun mubalísung ang íyang buut, dì siya muanhi, If he changes his mind, he won’t come. Mubalísung ang dáut sa nagpadala niíni, The sorcery will boomerang on the person who sent it. Ayaw balisúnga (ibalísung) ang húnus sa lamísa, Don’t put the drawer in the table backwards.

balísung2 n jackknife. v [a] make into a jackknife, stab with a jackknife. Gibalísung siya sa íyang asáwa, His wife stabbed him with a jackknife.

balità n 1 news. 2 bad omen, esp. portending death. 2a oath: it is true (lit. may it be a bad omen). dakù nga — sensational news. v 1 [A; c] tell news. Ikaguul mu kining ákung ibalità, You will feel sad about the news that I’m going to tell you. 1a [A12] receive news. Nakabalità ka nga minyù na ku? Have you heard that I’m married now? 2 [A13; b(1)] appear as a bad omen. Nagbalità si Pidru kay sa walà pa mi masáyud sa íyang kamatáyun dihay nagpat-akpat-ak nga dugù sa salug, Pedro appeared to us with a bad omen, because before we learned of his death, we saw spots of blood on the floor.†

balit-ad a inside out, belly-side up, front-side back. Balit-ad pagkasul-ub ang ímung kamisin, You have your undershirt on backwards (or inside out). v [ABN; a] be, make wrong-side up, out. Ang hiwing pulitiku mubalit-ad sa tinúud, The crooked politician twists the truth. Mibalit-ad (nabalit-ad, namalit-ad) ang atup sa kusug nga hángin, The wind turned the roof upside down.

balitang n 1 short piece of wood or metal. Also the name given to pieces of wood which serve a purpose. 1a whippletree of a plow. 1b wood used in stripping abaca, around which the end of the abaca is wound and which is pulled to force the abaca through the stripper. 1c wood used in fishing with a net that is pulled: the people who pull the net hold on to the balitang and hold it in a vertical position so that the top edge is directly above the bottom edge of the net. 2 piece of bone, vein, or tendon supposed to lie across the vagina which obstructs the easy birth of a child. v 1a [A; a] hurl a short stick at. Balitanga ang manuk, Hurl the stick at the chicken. 2 [A; a] make into wood used as whippletree, net holder, etc. 3 [A123P; a4b4] have an obstructing bone in the vagina. Gibalitang (gibalitangan) man si Títa, galisud ug anak, Tita had an obstruction in her vagina so that she had a difficult delivery. 4 [AN; a] make a whippletree for a plow or piece of wood for a [99]net.

balítang n female sexual organ.

balítaw a 1 an improvised courtship song consisting of stanzas sung alternately by a boy and the girl he is asking the hand of (in practice by their spokesmen). The stanza consists of four rhymed lines, in any rhyme scheme, with the last two repeated. Each line ideally consists of twelve syllables, though this number is often not strictly adhered to. In modern times the balítaw is not used in courtship, but for social occasions where people show their skill at improvisation. 2 = bítaw. v [A; a] sing a balítaw.

balíti = dalakit.

balituk v [A; b6] 1 do a back somersault, flip over backwards. Maáyung mubalituk ang sirkadur, An acrobat flips over backwards with ease. 2 go back on a promise. Mibalituk siya sa íyang sáad, He took back his promise. 3 switch party loyalty. Ang Nasyunalista mauy íyang balitukan, He’ll defect from (or defect to) the Nacionalista Party. 4 [B26] for a contribution to be returned to the author. Mibalituk ang íyang tampu, His article was rejected.

balitùtù a very tightly tied. Bugtúa na lang kay balitùtù pagkabaligtus, Just cut it because it is knotted tight. v [A; c1] make a knot very tight. -in- n knot tied in such a way that it is hard to undo.

baliug (from líug) v [A; c] wear s.t. around the neck. Nagbaliug siyag panyù, He wore a handkerchief around his neck. n band around the neck.

balíus v [C13; c3] pass one another going in different directions. Nagkabalíus mi kay pag-abut nákù mu say íyang paglakaw, We missed each other because when I arrived, he had just left.

baliw n 1 k.o. tall pandanus, the leaves of which are used for coarse mats and baskets: Pandanus copelandii. 2 mat made from this pandanus.

báliw n divine punishment, usually for incest, consisting of being struck by lightning and turned into stone. Báliw ímung maánig pahimuslan mung ímung anak, You’ll earn divine wrath if you make love with your daughter. v [a4] 1 be struck with lightning and turned into stone. 2 be hit by lightning. Gibáliw ang lubi, The coconut was hit by lightning. 3 be crazy. Wà ka balíwa. Tigúwang ka na makigminyug diyisisayis? Are you out of your mind? At your age you want to marry a sixteen-year-old?

baliwag, balíwag a inverted, inverse, in the opposite direction, not straight. Baliwag man kag tinan-awan, You are shifty-eyed. v [AB; c1] shift, turn to opposite direction, be shifted. Nagbaliwag ang íyang tubag sa ámung gipanagsultíhan, Her answer was far from the subject of what we were talking about. Baliwagun (ibaliwag) ta ning láyag, Let us shift the sails.

balíwas = balíus.

baliwliw v [AB3; ac1] turn around on itself in the air, cause s.t. to do so. Mibaliwliw (nabaliwliw) ang ayruplánu sa hángin sa pagkamatay sa makina niíni, The plane spun in the air when its engine stopped. Ibaliwliw (baliwlíwa) nang káhuy, Throw that stick so that it whirls. Baliwlíwun tika, I will throw a stick at you. n stick thrown in a game of sátung.

baliyug1 a crooked, not straight. v [B1; a2] be, become crooked, not straight. Nagkabaliyug na ang punúan sa lubi samtang nagkataas, The coconut tree trunk is getting more and more crooked as it grows taller.

baliyug2 n necklace (coined word). v 1 [A; b6(1)] wear a necklace. 2 [a12] make into a necklace.

balkun n front porch. v [A; b6] put a front porch to s.t.

balkunáhi = balkun.

balkuni n balcony in a moviehouse.

balsa n 1 sled consisting of a shaft hitched to a draft animal and a platform dragged along the ground. 2 raft. v 1 [A; ac1] bring s.t. with a sled or raft. Balsáha ang mabdus sa lungsud, Let the pregnant woman ride the sled to town. Ibalsa (balsáha) ang lubi sa tabuk, Send the coconuts across on a raft (or by tying them together into a raft). 2 [A] do work with a sled or raft. 3 [A1; a] go s.w. on a sled, raft. Mabalsa ba ang tabuk? Can you reach the other side with a raft? 4 [A; a] carry or lift a load. Makabalsa giyug daghang makáun si Tátay basta makadaug sa búwang, Father brings home a load of goodies when he wins at the cockfights. Gibalsa sa bána ang asáwa ug gibundak sa katri, The husband lifted his wife and threw her on the bed.

balsamu n ointment for the muscles of the type sold through SE Asia under the brand ‘Tiger Balm’.

balsi n waltz. v [A; a] waltz.

balu I don’t know. Balu lag háin siya, I don’t know where he is. v = hi-/ha-. hi-/ha- v 1 [B1236; b] know s.t., how to do s.t. Kahibalu ka bang mulanguy? Do you know how to swim? Nakahibáwu ku nga nagdaut ka, I found out you were sick. Dì ku gustung [100]hibaw-an (hibal-an) ang tinagúan, I don’t want the secret to be known. 2 [B1236] take care of a problem. Akuy mahibalu sa tanan, I’ll take care of everything. hibal-anay, hibaw-anay v [c3] know s.t. about each other. Naghibaw-anay kami sa ámung sikrítu, We know each other’s secrets. pahi- v [A; ac] inform, announce. n announcement. May pahibalu nga walay klási, There’s an announcement that there’ll be no classes. kahi- n knowledge. May kahibalu aku sa makina, I have knowledge about engines. manggihibalúun a learned.

bálu1 n widow, widower. v [B126] lose one’s spouse. manggibalúhan a widow or widower that tends to lose her or his spouse.

bálu2, balù1, bálù1 v [A12] feel shame and hurt from not being given s.t. Nabálù ku kay aku ray wà tagái, You hurt me because you gave some to everybody but me. ka- feeling of shame and hurt for not being given s.t.

balù2 n garfish with upper and lower beaks of approximately the same size: Ablennis hians, Tylosurus crocodilus.

balù3 n a knot that easily comes undone by pulling at one end of the string. v [A] tie into a slip knot. Baluun kug higut ang listun, I’ll tie the lace in a slip knot.

bálù2 v [A; a1] for supernatural beings, or persons acting like such to appear suddenly to frighten people. Baw-un nátù siya sa may dákit, Let’s scare him near the banyan tree.

baluarti = balwarti.

balubálu 1 [so-and-so] seemed unlikely, but that is what happened. Maáyu nátung libak níya. Balubálu dinhà ra sa átung luyu, We were talking about him. We didn’t expect it, but there he was in back of us. 2 actually, when in fact, the truth is otherwise. Pasukùsúkù kaáyu, balubálu nahigugma diay, She pretends to be angry when in fact she’s in love. Kusug kaáyung manulti, balubálu talawan, He talks big, but actually he is a coward. 3 despite the fact. Balubálung dakug grádu way batásan, You might be highly-educated, but you are ill-mannered.

balùbalù, balùbálù = balubálu, 3.

balud n waves. a curved, curled in a single upward curve. Balud siyag piluk, She has curly eyelashes. v 1 [a] be struck by waves. Malúnud nang sakayánag balurun ug kusug, That boat will sink if it is struck by big waves. 2 [A; a] curl s.t. upwards. Balura ang ímung kamut, Make your fingers bend upwards. (←) a having high waves. Bálud run kay dúnay bagyu, There’s a huge surf because there’s a storm. v 1 [B; b6] for there to be huge waves. Magbálud kag maglínaw manágat giyud siya, He goes to sea, whether there are huge waves or whether it is calm. 2 [a4] be caught in high seas. Gibálud kami didtu sa kinalawran, We were overtaken by high seas far out from shore.

bálud n k.o. cream-colored wild pigeon: Ducula bicolor.

balug a s.t. elongated that is bent or curved. Bawug kanang tubúha, That water pipe is bent. Ang balug mung piluk, Your curly eyelashes. n s.t. that is characteristically bent: a bow, the crosspiece of a kite, spring for a trap. (←) v 1 [AB3(1); a] bend into a curve, be bent. Magbáwug ku ug uway, I’ll bend some rattan. Mubáwug (mabáwug) ang káhuy basta hibug-atan sa búnga, The tree becomes bent if the fruits on it are too heavy. 2 [A; a] make, use a bow or crosspiece of a kite, spring for a trap.

balugbug n k.o. small tree bearing pods with three to six marble-sized and shaped seeds. v [BN5] be like marbles in size. Namawugbug ang íyang singut sa pagtinarbáhu, He was sweating marbles from working so hard.

báluk n 1 layer of fluffy fibrous material that sticks to the lower end of the palm frond, used as a compress for open wounds or tinder. 2 tinder consisting of this material and charred coconut husks. v [b(1)] put báluk on s.t.

balúkag n 1 bristle from plants or animals. Balúkag sa bábuy, Pig’s bristle. 2 pubic hair (vulgar). 3 corncobs.

balukanad n k.o. forest tree.

balúkat v 1 = lúkat, v. 2 [AN; a12] dig into one’s past. Dílì ku gustung mubalúkat (mamalúkat) sa ímung mapait nga kagahápun, I do not like to dig into your bitter past.

balukbáluk n k.o. shade tree of the seashore.

balukbuk1 v [A; b] dig up the soil around the lower portions of a small plant. Bukbúki ang rúsas, Dig up the soil around the roses. n soil dug up around a plant.

balukbuk2 v 1 [A; a] pound s.t. into very fine particles or powder. Bukbúkun ku ning bugas nga iamirul, I’ll pound the rice for starch. 2 [A; a1b2] maul, rain blows on s.o. Hibukbukan siya sa mamarigla, The hoodlums mauled him.

balukbuk3 n 1 k.o. weevil that bores in grains, like corn. 2 k.o. worm that bores into root crops. v [A123P; a42] be infested with these insects. -un of a type infested with these insects. v [B126] become infested with balukbuk.

balukbuk4 n 1 finishing touches. Balukbuk [101]na lang ning átù kay human na ang trabáhu, All we have to do is the finishing touches because the work is done. 2 seasoning for foods. Mulamì ang sud-an bísan way balukbuk kun maáyu kang mulútù, Food tastes good even without seasoning if you are a good cook. v 1 [A3; b(1)] do finishing touches. 2 [A3; b(1)] add a little to s.t. to enrich it or season it. Balukbúkan tag balas ang simintu kay húmuk da, Let’s add sand to the cement because it’s too watery.

baluktut a hunchbacked. v [B1; a2] 1 make, become hunchbacked. 2 be overly burdened. Nabuktut akug pinangítà ug inyu rang inúmun, I have been staggering under the burden of earning money, and all you do is drink it up.

balúkun = bakúkun.

balúkut v [A3P; b6] 1 wrap up in a blanket, mat, or the like. Nagbúkut kug hábul kay tugnaw, I wrapped myself in a blanket because it was cold. Balukúti ug bakbak ang bátà, Wrap the child in a diaper. 2 for darkness, silence, and the like to surround or cover one entirely. Gibukútan sa kahílum ang sam-ang, The cemetery was enveloped in silence.

balúlang (not without l) n breed of fighting cock which runs away when wounded. a one who quits when hurt. Balúlang nang baksidúra kay muundang ug masámad, That boxer is chicken because he quits when he is hurt. mistísu — ugly person of mixed blood.

balun1 (not without l) n 1 balloon. 2 wide bicycle tire of American type bicycles. — tayir = balun, 2.

balun2 n pad of paper.

bálun n food, money to take along on a trip. Ma, ambi na ang bálun, bi, Mom, can I have my spending money for school? v 1 [A; a] take along food or money. Mubálun ku sa trabáhu, I bring my lunch to work. 2 [A1; a] harbor emotions. Balúnun ku sa lubngánan ang átung gugma, I’ll carry our love to the grave. pa- v [A; ac] 1 give s.t. to s.o. to take along. 2 give s.t. in addition to s.t. else which was already sufficient. Humag sagpà gipabalúnan pag kasábà, Not only was he slapped, he was administered a sound scolding as well. n 1 thing given to s.o. who leaves, or to a retiring employee. Ang pabálun sa tigúlang bayinti mil písus, The old man was given twenty thousand pesos as retirement pay. 2 prayer said for the soul of the dead on the night of the day of burial. 3 food brought by the Chinese to the cemetery at funerals or on special days for the use of the departed soul. balunbálun = pa-an. -anan(→), -anan n lunch box, picnic basket. r-an, pa-an, -anan(→) n 1 sides of the monkey’s mouth where food to be chewed later is stored, crop of fowls. 2 stomach (slang). balunbalúnan n Adam’s apple.†

balunábid n k.o. dwarf herring: Dussumieri sp.

balúnas v [A; c] clean s.t. by flushing water on it and scrubbing it. Ákung gibalunásan ang banig nga giihían, I washed the mat that the child wet.

balunbalúnan see bálun.

balungag n hunk of s.t. paN- v [A2; c6] mouth a large hunk of food. À! Ipamungag man lang nímu ang karni! My! You sure eat your meat in large hunks.

balúngan n k.o. banana similar in flavor to the bángan but longer and green when ripe: Musa sapientum var. suaveolens.

balungbálung n shanty, roughly built wooden house. v [A1; a] build a shanty. Nagbalungbálung sila daplin sa dálan, They built a shanty at the edge of the street.

balúngus n pubic hairs. kuskus — see kuskus1. -un a adult, big enough to have pubic hair.

balúnus n 1 k.o. forest liana, the bark of which is used as shampoo: Entada phaseolides. 2 name also given to other vines which have bark containing saponin.

balur n value. Pilay balur ning singsínga? How much is this ring worth? v [A] be worth [so-and-so] much. pa- v [A; c] show off. Ipabalur dáyun nang íyang pagkaabyadur, He boasts about his ability as an aviator.†

bálus v 1 [A3S; b1c] do back to s.o. what he did to the agent. Mibálus akug pahiyum, I smiled back at her. Wà pa ku makabálus (makabalus) sa ímung suwat, I haven’t had the chance to answer your letter. Balúsan (baslan) ku ang ímung kaáyu, I will repay your goodness. Balúsan (baslan) ku ikaw, I will repay you. Pagka walay igabálus mu, How ungrateful (repaying nothing) you are! 2 [A; a] for s.t. to happen one way and then the opposite way. Balúsa pagtahì ang kílid, Sew the seams twice: once inverted and then the right way around. Ang kalípay balúsan (baslan) ug kasákit, Happiness is followed by sorrow in turn. 3 [C3] for a brother and sister to marry people that are also brothers and sisters. n 1 thing done in return or response to s.t. 2 person whose sibling of the opposite sex is married to a sibling of the spouse. paniN-(→) v [A2; c] take vengeance on, avenge. Panimaslan ku [102]ang kamatáyun sa ákung igsúun, I’ll avenge my brother’s death. n revenge. pamalusbálus v [A23S; c] return a favor, repay a moral obligation. balaslan, baslanan, pamaslan n 1 things to be done to repay a debt. 2 days owing in the aláyun. -in-an n plaid in design. paN- n hind toe of a fowl which is bent backwards. Ang langgam nga way pamálus dì makabátug, A bird that has no hind toe cannot perch.

balusbus v [A3P; c1] rip, slit s.t. open. Nabusbus ang sáku kay gidasuk ang sulud, The sack burst open because it had been stuffed too full. Busbúsi ang sáku, gilit ang ibusbus, Slit the sack with a blade. n place s.t. has been ripped open.

baluskag v 1 [A; a] unravel, loosen s.t. Kinsa ang mibaluskag niíning putus? Who untied this bundle? Nagbaluskag mi ug midiyas arun gamítun ug usab ang hílu, We unraveled socks to use the thread again. Baluskagun nátù ang íyang bakus, Let’s loosen her girdle. 2 [B] for flowers to blossom forth.

balut (not without l) n duck eggs that have been allowed to develop, but not hatch, and then cooked. v [A1; a] cook, make into balut.

balúta n ballot for election, contest.

balútu (not without l) = barútu.

baluybuy n general name for olive shells.

balúyut n bag made of straw (buli or tíkug). v [a] make into a straw bag.

balwarti n 1 political stronghold, place where a politician gets most of the votes. 2 territory of a gang, turf. Balwarti sa mga buguy, Territory belonging to the ruffians.

balyákag n wild vine with a tuberous, edible root, in the same genus as apáli, said to be the food of supernatural people that inhabit the forest: Dioscorea esculenta. paN- v [A2] gather balyákag. Ang mamalyákag maghílum, When you gather balyákag keep silent.

balyína n whale.

balyu = baylu.

bám n bomb. atúmik, haydrudyin, kúbalt — atomic, hydrogen, cobalt bomb.

bamba a for women to be fat. Bamba kaáyu nà siya kay way tihiktíhik nga mukáun, She is very stout because she eats without restraint. v [B2; b6] for a woman to become very stout.

bamban = banban1, 2.

bambu1 n bamboo, one of the suits in mahjong that has a design consisting of two bamboo nodes, colored green.

bam-i n k.o. dish made of fine noodles, chicken, shrimps, and spices. v [A; a] make bam-i.

báming v [A; ab2] rain blows on s.o. Bamíngun nátù ang kawatan, Let’s rain blows on the thief.

bámir1 n one whose position in a volleyball game is to spike the ball. v [B1256; c6] be the spiker.

bámir2 n bomber. a for a woman to be extremely obese like a bomber (humorous). Bámir kaáyu ang íyang trátu, His sweetheart is extremely obese. v [B2] be, become extremely obese.

bampir n bumper of a motor vehicle. v [A] make into, put a bumper.

bampíra n vampire. v [B156] become a vampire.

bámus come on, let’s go. Bámus mga bátà, adtu ta sa simbahan, Come on, children. Let us go to church.

bána n husband. v [A123S; a12] get, take for a husband. Si Dína nakabana ug Nigru, Dina was married to a Negro. Usa ka hingpit nga laláki ang ákung banáhun, If I get married, it will have to be a complete gentleman. paN- v [A23S; a] for women to get married. Uy Pilar, mamána ka na, Pilar, you should get married now! pamanhunun n husband-to-be. banabána n common-law husband. v [A12; c1] have, take a common-law husband.

*banà1 ka-, paka- v [A13; c] dílì, walà — fail to pay attention, remain unconcerned. Walà siya magkabanà (magpakabanà) sa ákung mga prublíma, He did not pay any attention to my problems. Walà giyud níya ikabanà (ipakabanà) ang nahitabù nákù, He remained unconcerned about what happened to me. banàbánà n estimation. Sa ímung banàbánà, maáyu ba siyang táwu? Do you size him up as a good man? v [A; a12] make an estimate. Banàbanáa kun pila, Estimate how much it will cost.†

banà2 = balanà.

banáag n ray of light. Ang banáag sa adlaw, The sun’s rays. v [A2S; c] give a bright light. Sulù ang gibanáag níya sa dálan, He lighted the way with a torch. a bright. Banáag kaáyu ang síga sa pitrumaks, The petromax gave off a bright light.

banaba n medium-sized tree of the secondary forest, also planted for its lilac or pink flowers. The leaves are commonly used as a tea for kidney and stomach disorders: Lagerstroemia speciosa.

banag n k.o. woody, spiked vine found in thickets, the tips and fruit of which are used medicinally: Smilax bracteata. [103]

banagan n lobster. paN- v [A2] catch lobsters.

banagbánag n daybreak. v [AN] 1 daybreak. Mibanagbánag (namanagbánag) nang kabuntágun, The day broke. 2 for a solution to dawn upon one. Mibanagbánag (namanagbánag) nang kasulbáran sa ákung suliran, The solution of the problem dawned on me.

banáhaw = anáhaw.

banahían n 1 entrails of a human. 2 human genitalia (coarse term).

bának = balának.

banal a hardened, pressed solid. Banal na ang dálan nga kanúnayng agiagíag sakyanan, The road that the vehicles keep passing over has been pressed down hard. v [B; a2] be hardened, pressed solid and firm. Banala ang ímung láwas sa bug-at nga trabáhu, Harden your body by heavy work.

banásay n k.o. small, brightly-colored fish.

banáta n 1 section, flat piece cut from a whole. Nanglatas kami sa lagpad nga banáta sa pilapilan, We traversed the wide sections of the rice field. 2 division in a cabinet or room. Sa kinaubsang banáta sa aparadur, On the lowest shelf of the cabinet. Ang banáta nakapangitngit sa kwartu, The partition made the room dark. 3 sheet of woven cloth, a fathom wide. v [A; c1] 1 divide into sections, partition. Arun way sámuk ibanáta (banatáha) ang yútà, So there will be no disagreement, divide the land. 2 do s.t. by pieces. Banatáhun (ibanáta) ku pagpalit ang panaptun, I will buy the cloth cut into pieces. 3 [A; c] put a shelf, section.

bánaw v 1 [APB; c] for liquids to be spread over an area, spread liquids. Daghang dugù ang mibánaw sa kalsáda, The road was streaming with blood. Kinsay nagbánaw (nagpabánaw) sa túbig sa salug? Who poured the water over the floor? -an(→) n container of water for fowl to drink or bathe in.

banawug, banáwug1 n k.o. coral that looks like a leafless shrub. The body is sponge-like in consistency and tough. The color varies: black, red, orange, dark brown.

banáwug2 n 1 strand of hair that grows by itself in a place where there is no other hair. 2 a similar characteristic of chickens, a wire-like feather that is said to give a cock special fighting abilities. 3 the vine of the balyákag which climbs up bamboos and other tall plants. banawgan a possessing a banáwug.

bánay1 n tassel of plants. paN- v [A] growing tassels. Namánay na ang mais, The corn is growing tassels now.

bánay2 n 1 immediate family consisting of parents and their children. 2 family consisting of ascendants, descendants, and lateral relations as well. ka- n one who is related by blood. ka-an n group of people related by blood.

bánay3 = ubánay. see uban.

banban1, 2 = balanban1, 2.

banbánun1 a 1 a white and brown striped color of cats. 2 cats tending to steal food. 3 persons going to parties and taking as much food as they can get at. Banbánun sad nímug simud! Wà may pistang palabyun, You sure are greedy! You don’t miss a fiesta. 4 be greedy for women. Banbánun sad nang lakíha. Bísan kinsa man lang, What a sex maniac he is. Anyone will do.

banbánun2 n k.o. centipede with a light green body.

banda1 v [B3(1); c1] for s.t. heavy to strike and bounce off s.t. Nabanda (mibanda) ang batu sa bungbung, The stone bounced off the wall. tris bandas n shot in billiards in which the ball bounces three times against the edges of the table before hitting the ball aimed at. bandabanda v [B1] bounce back and forth, reverberate. Nagbandabanda ang íyang tíngug sa dapit nga mamíngaw, His voice reverberated in the lonely place.

banda2 n band of musicians. v [a2] make a band.

banda3 n band, strip of cloth. 1 cloth worn diagonally in front of one as a mark of having obtained a certain honor or rank. 2 band wound around a sack filled with s.t. v [A; c] put a band on s.t. binandáhan n banded sack full of copra.

bandála (not without l) n similar items stacked neatly, usually in staggered fashion. v [A; a12c] stack into neat piles. Ibandála ning tabakúa didtu sa iskína, Stack this tobacco up at the corner.

bandána n bandana or scarf worn over the head as a protection. v [A; a] wear, make into a bandana.

banday = bangday.

bandì n large, closely woven bamboo hamper with or without a cover for clothes or farm produce. v [a12] make into a hamper.

bandída = bandídu (female).

bandídu n bandit, highwayman. v [B; a12] be, become a bandit.

bandíha n 1 food or drinks brought to a party. Magdala giyud kag bandíha sa pagpangunggu, [104]You must bring food when you go to ask for a woman’s hand. 2 food given to the leader of prayers by the family sponsoring the prayers. 3 = bandihádu. v [A; c] contribute food to a feast, give food to a prayer leader. Píkas sa bábuy ang ílang gibandíha sa katapúsan, They brought half of a pig to the feast concluding the novena. -du large platter, large shallow serving dish. -wu n 1 precious stone, oval in shape (like a platter). Bandiháwu ang íyang singsing brilyanti, The diamond in her ring is shaped like a platter. 2 one who receives the food offering after leading prayers for a family. Bandiháwu giyud ang mananabtan, The person who leads a novena receives some gifts.

bandi klak n time clock.

bandílà = bandíra.

bandilyu v [A; c] cry out an announcement. Nagbandilyu ang písi nga kurpyu alas nuybi, The P.C. announced that the curfew was at nine. n public announcement.

bandíra n 1 flag, banner. 2 s.t. flapping like a flag, visible for all to see. Bitára ang ímung kamisun kay nagdayag ang ímung bandíra, You pull your slip up because it (lit. flag) shows. v 1 [a] make into a flag, put a flag on. 2 [AB6; c] put s.t. in view; brandish a weapon, be in full view. Bandiráhan ku bítaw sa pinútì, dágan lagi, He ran away when I brandished my sword at him. Ímu mang gibandíra ang ímung kadautan, You are brandishing your wickedness for all to see. 2a [B6] be very much above, ahead of everyone else. Labihan siyang namandíra (mibandíra) sa indigay, She was very much in the lead in the contest.

bandíra ispanyúla n ornamental tuberous plant, name given to species of sagingsaging (Canna spp.) which have large orange, red, or white flowers.

bandíyu = bandyu.

bandmidyurit n band majorette. v [B; a12] become a band majorette.

bandu1 v [A; ac] spin a top, throw a spinning top. Ayaw bandúha ang ákung kumagkù, Don’t throw the top on my toe.

bandu2 n group of people united for a common purpose.†

bandul n bundle of things tied together. Tagpíla ang bandul sa rilip? How much does a bundle of second-hand clothing cost? v [A; a] tie in a bundle. Bandúlun tang sugnud, Let’s bundle the firewood. -in- n bank roll.

bandung1 n large boat to bring the net and fishermen out to the fishing grounds, consisting of a pair of smaller boats or a wide boat so made that a platform can be placed across it.

bandung2 n k.o. spotted sea eel.

bandurin = banduríya.

banduríya, bandurya n 1 stringed instrument with 4 to 8 pairs of strings, played with a plectrum, with a long neck, a round steel-rimmed sound box covered with skin, and with a wooden resonator. 2 k.o. fish. v [A; a] play a banduríya. banduryáhun n k.o. shark that resembles a bandurya when viewed from above.

banduy = bagduy.

bandyu n musical instrument similar to the banjo, but with 6 double strings and a shorter neck, about 10″ long. v [A] play this instrument. bandyubandyu n k.o. fish with long spines and a roundish body that resembles a banjo: Argyrops spinifer.

bang n word used in writing to indicate the sound of an explosion.

banga a boring. v [B1246; a4b4] become bored, be fed up. Makabanga ning búhat nga mau ra gihápun adlaw-adlaw, Doing the same thing day after day makes one bored. Gibanga (gibanghan) na kaáyu kug kináun niíning isdà sa tibuuk simána, I am fed up eating this same fish the whole week long. ka- n boredom, weariness.

bangà1 a 1 slow in comprehension, incompetent. 2 poor in quality. Bangà ning awtúha, This car is no good. v [B; b6] be of poor quality. Ngánung mibangà (nabangà) man ang íyang inawayan karun? Why is his style of fighting lousy today?

bangà2 n k.o. water jar with an obovate body and a narrow neck.

bangáag v [A2S] cry loudly with the mouth wide open. Mibangáag ang bátà nga giindiksyunan, The child howled when he was given a shot.

bángag v [AB2; a] make a hole, have a hole in it. Nabángag (mibángag) ang íyang ngípun kay sígig káug karmilítus, He got lots of holes in his teeth because he keeps eating hard candies. Mibángag ang ilagà sa bungbung, The rat made a hole in the wall. (→) n 1 hole into s.t. or through s.t. 2 woman’s genitalia (coarse). — sa ímung ina, ubù, Damn you! (Lit. You are your mother’s cunt.) -un a having holes.

bángal1 v [A12; b8] come across s.t. in the sea. Hibangalan ang mga pasahíru sa barkung nalúnud, They came across the survivors of the ship that sunk. paN- v [A2] go to the sea to look for s.t. Namángal silag lubi human sa bahà, They went to the sea to look for coconuts after the flood. Mamángal tag sud-anun, Let’s meet the fishermen [105]to buy s.t. for dinner (lit. look for s.t. on the sea for dinner).

bángal2 v [A; c] shove s.t. big into the mouth. Ibángal lang níya ang usa ka buuk kamúti, He will just shove a whole sweet potato into his mouth.

bangalga = bagalnga.

bángan1 v [A; a] 1 tie a bunch of long things together. Bangánun nátù ang lipak arun sayun pas-ánun, Let’s tie a string around the bamboo slats to make them easy to carry. Bangáni ang ímung buhuk kay hángin, Tie s.t. around your hair because it’s windy. 2 tie s.t. around s.t. long. n long things tied together. Tagpíla ang bángan sa káhuy? How much does a bundle of wood cost? (→) string used to tie around s.t. Ang bangan nga ímung gibugkus nabugtù, The string you tied it with snapped. bangnanan n makeshift roofed shed into which small boats are placed.

bángan2 n k.o. sweet yellow banana, longer than alitundan, very much like those sold in the States. It is eaten raw and more difficult to digest than the alitundan: Musa sapientum var. lacatan.

bangánga v [A1; c1] open one’s mouth wide. n distance the mouth opens. Dakù siyag bangánga kun manghuy-ab, He opens his mouth wide when he yawns.

bángas1 n hair on the chest, arms, and cheeks. v [a4] get hair on these parts. -un a hairy.

bángas2 1 interjection directed at s.o. who does s.t. disgusting or annoying, said good-naturedly. Bángas ka! Nasakpan na hinúun ta niíni dà! Darn! Now we’re caught. 2 good-natured expression of disbelief. Bángas ka! Ikaw na lay mupasar sa bár? What! The likes of you pass the bar exam?

bangáti n k.o. wild tree.

bángaw1 = balángaw.

bángaw2 n party with lots of food. v 1 [A2N; a2] attend a feast. Ása man ka mamángaw (mubángaw) inigpista? What parties are you going to during the fiesta? 2 [A1] hold a feast. -an(→) n place or house where a feast is held.

bangawug n a small valley with an easy slope, a low, flat area between hills. v [B1256] be at a valley.

bangaybángay v [A13; b(1)] dilly-dally, work slowly and lazily. Daghan ang mga buluhatun unyà bangaybangáyun pa, There is so much work to do, but you are only dilly-dallying. -an(→), -un(→) a slow and lazy.

bangbang v [A2; a12] 1 control s.t. Dílì na mabangbang ang íyang kahimabayi, His fondness for women cannot be controlled. 2 come face to face with s.t. in hopes of overcoming it. Mubangbang giyud siya sa kasukù sa íyang amahan, He’ll stand up to his father’s anger. Bangbángun ba ninyu ang bagyu? Will you go out in the storm?

bangday v [AB] be placed, place s.t. transversely across s.t. or pile up in criss-crossing fashion. Inig-abut níya mubanday dáyun siya sa kátri, As soon as she arrives she throws herself across the bed. Nagbanday siya sa íyang tiil sa silya, He is putting his foot across the chair. bangdaybangday n snack consisting of fried sliced bananas (kardába or sab-a) laid one over the other with a thick dough. v 1 [A; a] make bangdaybangday. 2 be criss-crossing.†

banggà n 1 contest of any sort for a winner. Akuy midaug sa banggà sa áwit, I won the singing contest. 2 crash of vehicles bumping into each other. Duhay patay sa banggà dihà sa iskína, Two people died in the crash on the corner. v 1 [C; a] hold a contest. 2 [AC; ab2] bump into s.t. with force. Mibanggà ang bátà níya, The child bumped into her. Ang barku nakabanggà ug búya, The ship crashed into a buoy. 3 [AN2; a2] meet goods before they reach the market to get them cheaper. Adtu ta sa paradahan kay mamanggà ta ug utanun, Let’s go to the bus stop and get vegetables. maN-r-, maN-ay n buyers who meet and buy from a source before the goods reach the market.

banggì v [A3; a] break s.t. off with a snap. Mibanggì siyag sanga, He broke a branch. Nabanggì ang íyang lápis, His pencil broke in two.

banggiítan a 1 notorious. Banggiítang magdadaut sa mga panágat, A notorious destroyer of fishing traps. 2 well-known for some skill. Banggiítang abugádu, Well-known lawyer. v [B12; b6] become notorious, well-known for a skill.

banggíra n projection in the window which holds the eating utensils in daily use. v [A1; a] make, provide with a banggíra. banggirahan = banggíra.

banggis v [A; b] scrape, scrub s.t. off a surface. Kutsilyu ang íyang ibanggis sa húgaw sa lamísa, She’ll use a table knife to scrape the dirt off the table.

banggud v [A; a] rub s.t. with pressure against s.t. else causing it to get chafed, shredded, grated. Akuy mubanggud sa mais, I will shred the corn. Nabanggud ang ákung abága pagkasalibay nákù sa mutur, My shoulder got chafed when I was thrown off my motorcycle. banggúran, bangguran n shredder. [106]

banggun1 n k.o. blight that infests banana and cacao fruits. The fruit gets hardened with brown spots all over, rendering it unfit for consumption. v [a4] be infested with this blight. -un a banggun-infested.

banggun2 a idiotic.

banggus v 1 [A; c1] rub s.t. against a rough surface, but not with great pressure. Magbanggus ku sa kapáyas nga salárun, I’ll shred the papayas to make into a salad. Nabanggus ang ákung túhud sa ákung pagkadagmà, My knee got chafed when I stumbled. 2 [A; b6(1)] scrub to clean. Ákung gibanggúsan ug lugud ang buling sa íyang likud, I scrubbed the dirt off his back with a stone.

banghag v 1 [A; a12b2] snap at s.o. Mamanghag nang irúa ug duúlun, That dog will snap if you approach it. 2 [A; b5] snap, speak sharply and curtly. Ayaw siyag duúlag may trabáhu kay banghágun (banghágan) ka, Don’t go near him when he’s doing s.t. because he’ll snap at you.†

banghat = hangbat.

banghaw a having the sour smell which develops in cooking starches which are waterlogged, e.g., corn which has been ground without being fully dried, yams which got waterlogged in rain-soaked ground, etc. v [B; a2] have this sour smell. Mibanghaw (nabanghaw) ang kamúti kay nahúmul ug tulu ka adlaw, The sweet potatoes developed a rotten smell because they soaked for three days.

banghilig, banghílig a sloping (sharply or not sharply). Lugsánay makasáka ang trák kung banghilig, The truck hardly can make it up a slope. v [B; c1] be sloping. Nagkabanghilig ang ámung gibaktásan, The place where we hiked slopes gradually.

banghitaw n = balanghitaw.

banghutin, banghuting = balanghutan.

bángì v [AC; abc3] be on bad terms with each other. Nagbángì mi mahitungud sa kwarta, We had a misunderstanding about money. ka-an n reason for bad feelings.

bángig = bángì.

bángil v 1 [A; b5c] put s.t. beneath or next to s.t. to keep it from jiggling, rolling, sliding, etc. Bangíli (bangíla) ang ligid sa trák, Put a block against the wheels of the truck. 2 [a] eat s.t. before a drinking bout (prop up one’s stomach). Unsay ímung gibángil únà muinum? What did you eat before you drank? 3 [A; c] use a charm to insure success in business or gambling. 4 [A; b5] induce s.o. with a bribe. Bangílun (bangílan) ta siyag tubà arun maabtik sugúun, Give him some toddy to get him to work a bit faster. 5 [A; b] trip a player while running or jumping. (→) n 1 s.t. placed beneath to keep a thing steady or in position. Butangig bangil ang silya arun mupundu, Put a prop beneath the chair so it will be steady. 2 food to stave off hunger. 2a food taken before drinks (slang). 2b — sa tinggutum food eaten in place of rice or corn in famine times. 3 charm for gambling or business. 4 s.t. given as an inducement to goad s.o. into action. paN- v [A2] use a charm in gambling or in business. bangilbángil v [A; b] support, fill in the gaps. Ang kamúti ibangilbángil sa pagkáun, Sweet potatoes aren’t the principal food. They are s.t. extra to fill in when there isn’t enough other food. n s.t. that supports. Bangilbángil nà siya nákù sa trabáhu, He is my helper in my job.

bangilid = bakilid.

bángin [so-and-so] might just happen. Ayaw paglihuk bángin mabughat ka, Don’t move. You might have a relapse.

bangingi a nagging, scolding repeatedly. v [B] nag, keep making the same complaints. Mubangingi dáyun siyag higabhian kug paúlì, She starts nagging the moment I arrive home late.

bangíngi v [A2; a12] turn back to bite or fight with s.o. Mubangíngig páak ang iring ug gunítan sa íkug, The cat will turn its head to fight if you hold it by the tail. Ayaw lang nà siya pahunúnga arun dì ka bangingíhun ug áway, Don’t try to stop her or she’ll turn on you, too.

bangis a fierce. v [B2; b4] become fierce. Mubangis (mabangis) ang irù ug higtan, A dog becomes fierce if it is kept tied. -un a of a fierce sort. ma- a very fierce. v [B1456] be fierce. Nagmabangis ang kapaláran kaníya, Fate was very cruel to him.

bangitaw = balanghitaw.

bangka v 1 [A; c] treat, pay the bill for entertainment or food consumed in entertainment. Bangkáhan ta mu ug panihápun, I’ll treat you to dinner. 2 [A; a] deal cards, throw dice, or act as a banker in a gambling game. Bangkáha ang baráha, Deal the cards. n banker or dealer in a gambling game. -dur(→) n = bangka, n.

bangkà n banca, a one-piece dug-out between 5 to 15 meters optionally with one or two masts and/or a motor, and/or outriggers. v [A13; ac1] 1 ride a banca. Bangkáa lang ang Líti, Just take a banca to Leyte. Bangkáa (ibangkà) ang karga, Take the cargo in the banca.

*bangkáag hi-an/ka-an n 1 knowledge about [107]a certain field or skill. Wà kuy hibangkaágan (kabangkaágan) sa radiyu, I have no understanding of radios. 2 awareness. Wà kuy hibangkaágan sa súnug gabíi, I have no knowledge about the fire last night. hi-an v [B1256] be learned, found out about. Wà siyay nahibangkaágan sa íyang tulu ka túig nga paglangyaw, He didn’t learn a thing from his three years abroad.

bangkal n large tree of the secondary forest, hollow in the lower portion of the trunk: Nauclea orientalis.

bangkarúta a bankrupt. v [B12; a2] be bankrupt. Nabangkarúta siya pag-intra sa pulitika, He became bankrupt when he entered politics.

bangkarúti = bangkarúta.

bangkat = bakat.

bangkaw1 n 1 spear which is thrown. 2 piece in mahjong with the image of a dagger. v [A; a1b2] throw, thrust a spear at. Bangkáwun ta ang usa, I’ll throw a spear at the deer. Hibangkawan ang kawatan, The thief was hit with a spear. paN- v [A2] hunt with a spear.

bangkaw2 = bangkal.

bangkawbangkaw n end of the spinal column. v [A12; a12] hit s.o. at the end of the spinal column.

bangkay n corpse (slang). Bangkay na dihang nakit-an si Pidru, Pedro was a corpse by the time they found him.

bangkbuk n bankbook.

bangkil n canine tooth, fangs. -an a with prominent fangs. Bangkilan na ang bábuy nga ámung giíhaw, The pig that we slaughtered had long fangs.

bangkiling n k.o. small, deciduous, cultivated tree which has a rounded, light green fruit, fleshy and sour, used as a flavoring for vinegarized dishes or eaten pickled: Cicca acida.

bangkilya1 n percentage of the amount won, given to the owner of a gambling place or equipment after each game. v [A; b6(1)] give the owner of a gambling equipment a percentage of the winnings for each game.

bangkilya2 n helper, assistant in doing s.t. v [A; c1] serve as helper, assistant in s.o.’s work. Bangkilyáhun (ibangkilya) tikaw sa pag-asal ug bábuy, You will be my assistant in roasting the pig.

bangkíru1 n 1 = bangka, n. 2 banker. Mga bangkíru ang naghuput sa puhúnan sa nigusyu, The bankers hold the capital in business. v [B16] be a banker.

bangkíru2 n one who operates a banca. v [B16] be a banca operator.

bangkíti n banquet. v [AC12; b6(1)] hold a banquet. paN- v [A2; b6] go to a banquet.

bangkítu n stool. v [a12] make into a stool.

bangkíwà n stem of a boat.

bangkiwag a awkward. Bangkiwag nga linihukan, Awkward movement. v 1 [B; c1] be awkward. 2 [AN3PB; a] put things s.w. awkwardly such that they stick out or are in s.o.’s way; be awkwardly put s.w. Nagbangkiwag ang mga palítu pagkahúlug, The toothpicks fell so that they were sticking out every which way.

bangkíyu n 1 toilet seat. 2 toilet seat for children to sit on or to put on a toilet. v [a12] make into a toilet seat.

bangkiyud (from kíyud) = baliálà.

bangkrap = bangkarúta.

bangku n bank. papil di- bank notes, paper money. v [c1] deposit money in the bank. Ibangku (bangkúhun) ku ning ákung pinangitáan, I’ll deposit my earnings in the bank. paN- n banking activities.†

bangkù n bench, three-, four-legged stool. v 1 [a12] make into a bench. 2 [A; c1] keep a player on the bench. Bangkuun (ibangkù) lang siya kanúnay kay dì man pirs páyib, He’s always kept on the bench because he is not one of the top five players.

bangkulísan n k.o. fish.

bangkulíya n despondency over love. v [A123P; a4] be despondent over love. Gibangkulíya ang babáying wà makasulay ug trátu, The woman became despondent because she had never had a lover.

bangkung1 v [A; c1] dry, thinly sliced bananas, sweet potatoes, cassava, and other root crops. -in- n sun-dried slices of banana and root crops.

*bangkung2 v [a4] gone crazy. Muiskuyla kang Duminggu karun, gibangkung ka? Have you gone crazy? Going to school when it’s a Sunday!

bangrus = bangus.

bangs n bangs. v [A1; c] wear, form into bangs. Angayan kang magbangs, You look beautiful with bangs.

bangsi n general name for various k.o. flying fish. paN- v [A2] go fishing for flying fish.

bangu = banga.

bangúbang = balangúbang.

bangug1 a 1 groggy, drunk. Bangug pa ang buksiyadur sa kastígung nadáwat, The boxer is groggy from the punishment he received. 2 stupid, unable to understand, no matter how carefully explained to. v [B2; a12] get groggy, drunk. Nabangug (mibangug) ang isdà sa butu sa dinamíta, The fish got groggy from the dynamite explosion. Gustu ba [108]ku ninyung bangugun niíning tubà? Do you want to make me groggy with this toddy?

bangug2 n 1 hog cholera, an infectious disease of swine. 2 epithet or curse word. Bangug! Unsa ba ni! Damn! What is this! v [a12] 1 suffer from hog cholera. Gibangug nang babúya, That pig is suffering from hog cholera. 2 [a12] damn you! Bangugun ka pa untà, I hope you go to hell.

bang-ug a foul smell of liquids that have stagnated or food that has spoiled because it has not been freely exposed to air. v [B; b6] 1 become smelly due to stagnation. Mabang-ug ang kík ug dúgay nga gitaklúban, Cake which has been left covered tight too long develops a bad smell. Nagbang-ug ang túbig sa akwaryum, The water in the aquarium is stagnant and smelly. 2 be pent up too long and thus get rotten. Nabang-ug na lang ang íyang pagbátì kay wà níya ikapaháyag, She kept her feelings bottled up inside too long (lit. till they rotted).

bangun1 n k.o. úbi.

bangun2 n main floor beams of a house to which the joists (busaug) are nailed.

bángun v 1 [A2; b2] get up from a lying position. Mubángun kug sayu, I’ll get up early. Hibangunan ta gánì ka, búnal giyud, As soon as I can get up I’ll spank you. 2 [AP; c1] make s.t. lying erect. Mabughat kag mubángun (mupabángun) ka ánà, You’ll have a relapse if you lift that. 3 redeem one’s honor. Bangúna (ibángun) ang kanhing kadunggánan sa átung kalíwat, Redeem the former honor of our race. 4 [a12] revive the name of a deceased relative by naming s.o. after him. Bangúnun ku ang ngálan ni anhing lúlu pinaági sa ákung anak, I will bring grandfather’s name to life again through my son. (→)3 v [A; c1] put a boat on a small elevated platform or wedges when it is beached to prevent it from getting rotten or infested with shipworms. n wedge used to put a boat on.

bangúngut n a nightmare which is said to frighten its victim to death. v [a4] have an attack of bangúngut.

bangus n milkfish: Chanos chanos.

bangut v [A; b6(1)] tie up s.o. or s.t.’s mouth or the lower part of the face. Bangútan ku ang kábaw arun dílì makakaun sa mais, I’ll tie up the carabao’s mouth so it can’t get at the corn. (→) n 1 muzzle, rope tied around an animal’s mouth, gag. 2 face covering. Ayaw siya kuhái sa bangut arun dílì makasinggit (mailhan), Don’t take off her gag (mask) so she cannot shout (be recognized). -an(→) v [A13] be in mourning. Nagbangutan ang bánay sa namatay, The family of the deceased was in mourning.

bangyaw v [A; c] spread information, publicize s.t. Siya ang nagbangyaw nga si Linda gilúgus, She told the whole world that Linda was raped. Gibangyáwan níla ang mga pagánu mahitungud sa Ginúu, They preached about God to the pagans.

bangyáw n sound made by children in war games to imitate the sound of bullets.

banhà 1 noisy in a loud way. 2 exclamation telling s.o. to shut up or to stop making noise. Banhà! ni mirkádu, Be quiet! This is not the market, you know. Banhà! Wà kay lábut, Shut up! It’s none of your business. v 1 [A1; a2] make noise, consider s.t. noisy. Dì ta magbanhà sulud sa simbahan, Let’s not make noise inside the church. 2 [A3; c] divulge s.t. Wà ku magbanhà ning sikritúha sa uban, I never said a word about this secret to anyone. n loud voice. ka- n = banhà, n.

banhal n a k.o. machete about 20″ long with a blade, the top and bottom of which curve together into a point. On the top edge about three-quarters of the way toward the end there is a hook.

banhaw v [A3; a2] bring back to life. Kanang awíta mibanhaw sa ákung kabatan-un, That song brings me back to my youth. Si Kristu ang nagbanhaw ni Lasarus, Christ resurrected Lazarus.

banhig v [A; b6] 1 lie in wait to kill or maul. Ug Bitkung ang makabanhig way mabúhì, When the Vietcong ambush, no one survives. 2 waylay s.o. bringing produce to the market to buy from him directly. Way mulapus mangga dinhi basta hibanhigan sa babaw, No mangoes reach here if s.o. buys them on the way. 3 lay in wait for one’s girl to take her home. 4 ask to join s.o. in his food or s.t. else he has bought s.w.

banhud a numb from loss of circulation or anesthesia. v [BN; a4b4] become numb, for limbs to fall asleep. Mibanhud (nabanhud, namanhud, gibanhud) ákung samput pagliningkud, My buttocks became numb from sitting too long. Nagbanhud pa ákung lagus, My gums are still anesthetized. Gibanhúran ku, Part of me is numb.

banhutin, banhuting = balanghutan.

báni = baláni1.

ban-id n band-aid. v [c] put a band-aid on.

banidad n 1 indulgement in personal vanity, usually in a conceited manner. Subra ra ang banidad ánang bayhána bísag pubri, magpakadátù, That girl puts on too much. She pretends to be rich though she’s poor. 2 a [109]woman’s self-respect.

banig n woven straw sleeping mat. higdà, lígid sa — be bedridden (lit. lie on the mat). Dúgay na si Ilisabit Tílur nga naglígid sa banig, Elizabeth Taylor has been bedridden for a long time. v 1 [A; ac] spread, make a mat. Maáyung banigun ang tíkug, Tikug is good for making mats. Gibanigan ang bátà, The child had a mat spread for him. 2 [B] form a layer, spread profusely over an area. Mibanig sa yútà ang dáhung layà, The leaves formed a layer on the ground.

banika n 1 area suited for dry farming, not for wet rice cultivation. 2 rural region. v [A1; a12] engage in dry farming, cultivate into a farm. Banikahun níya ang bakilid, He will cultivate the slope. banikanhun a rural, from the country. kabanikahan n fields.

baníku (from abaníku) n 1 a sailboat, usually used for fishing, the sail of which is rolled and unfurled like a fan. 2 a boat like a landing barge, one end of which opens and closes like a fan. v [b(1)c1] make a boat of the baníku type.

banílad n k.o. large tree.

banilya n vanilla. v [c] put, use vanilla.

banitlung n k.o. hardwood tree.

baniug a very much of public knowledge. Baniug kaáyu ang pag-adtu níla sa búwan, Their trip to the moon is very well known. v [A1PB; c] become, make s.t. of public knowledge. Ang tabì mubaniug (mabaniug) sa tibuuk lungsud, The gossip has become known throughout the town. Wà ikabaniug dinhi ang ímung kaminyúun, Your marriage was not made public here. see also tíug.

bankil = bangkil.

bankíyu = bangkíyu.

banlag n small but for temporary shelter or rest. v [A; c1] build a rest hut.

banlas v [A3P; c16] 1 for water to carry s.t. Kusug baháa kay nakabanlas (nakapabanlas) ug payag, It was a bad flood. It washed a hut away. 2 wash away (figuratively). Banlásun (ibanlas) niánang awíta ang ákung kaguul, That song will wash away my grief. n s.t. washed up. Kining mga batúha banlas kini sa ibabaw, These rocks have been washed down from above.

banlaw v [A; b] rinse, clean with water. Nakabanlaw na ku sa kusína, I have rinsed the kitchen floor. Banláwun ku na ang linadlad, I will rinse the clothes which have been bleached. panghiN- v [A2; b7] rinse oneself off with water. Humag kalígù manghimanlaw ka, After bathing, rinse yourself off. Ímung túbig ákung gipanghimanláwan, I took some of your water to rinse myself off. -an(→) n vessel used for rinsing clothes in. -anan(→), -unun(→) n things to be rinsed.

banlud v [A3P; c] 1 put, toss s.t. into an enclosed space. Akuy nagbanlud sa kargamintu sa ráning burd, I dumped the baggage into the space under the floor boards. 2 put s.o. into a difficult situation or condition. Ang kapalahúbug mauy nagbanlud (nagpabanlud) níya sa kadáut, His alcoholism got him into trouble.

banlun n 1 ban-lon. 2 shirt made of ban-lon. v [A] wear, get a ban-lon shirt.

banlus v [A; ac] rub s.t. on or against s.t. Kinsay nagbanlus ug batu sa bildu nga nagaras man? Who rubbed a stone against the glass? There’s a scratch on it. Bíks ang gibanlus níya sa dughan sa bátà, He rubbed Vick’s ointment on the child’s chest. Ibanlus (banlúsa) nang buling sa lamísa ug basang panaptun, Get the dirt off the table by rubbing it with a wet cloth. n rubbing oil, ointment.

banlut v 1 [A; b] clean the skin of a dressed chicken of prickles or slimy substance. Asin ang ibanlut niánang manúka, Use salt to clean the chicken’s skin. 2 [a4] have the sickness banlut. n k.o. skin disease where a white crust is formed which peels off, exposing red skin and leaving a scar, commonly affecting the feet and hands.

bansa1 n k.o. half beak (fish).

bansa2, bansà n a territorial unit, state. v [a12] be a state. Sukad mabansà ang Haway, Ever since Hawaii became a state. Tinípung — n United States.

bansag n name. Kandalaw ang bansag sa ámung baryu kaniadtu, Our village was formerly named Kandalaw. v [A3; c] call s.t. or s.o. with a certain name. Gibanságan siyag bakì, He was nicknamed ‘frog’. ka- n having the same family name. Markus ang íyang ngálan, kabansag sa ámung pangúlu, Marcos is his name, the same name as the President’s. v [c3] be of the same family name. -un n family name. v [A; c1] have the surname. Nagbanságun siyag Ríyis, His family name is Reyes.

bansalan (not without l) n rudder of a boat.

bansay a skillful, proficient. Bansay kaáyu siyang mudúlag ahidris, He plays chess expertly. v 1 [AP; a] train s.o. Akuy mubansay sa buksidur, I’ll train the boxer. 2 [A; a] practice, rehearse. Nagbansay siya sa áwit, She is practicing the song. paka- v [A13] make oneself adept at s.t. Nagpakabansay siya sa karáti tungud sa trabáhu níyang kuyaw, She made herself an expert in karate [110]because of her dangerous job. bansaybansay n annual military training. ma-in-un a in an expert way.

bansíkul = balansíkul.

bansil n gold cap on a tooth. v [A; a] put, make into a gold cap on a tooth.

bansíli v [C; ac] 1 swap, barter. Magbansíli ta. Ímu ring lápis, ákù ang bulpin, Let’s swap. Take the pencil and give me the ball-point pen. Ayaw ipúnang átung hiraminta arun dílì magkabansíli, Don’t put our tools together so they won’t get mixed up. Bansilíhan nákug mais ang isdà, I’ll barter corn for fish. 2 put s.t. in the place of s.t. else. Ibansíli ning lamísa adtung pasistur, Let’s put this table where the small table is.

bansiwag v [B346; c1] for long things to stick out prominently. Mibansiwag ang báraw sa íyang bulsa, The knife stuck out prominently from his pocket. Ayaw bansiwaga (ibansiwag) ímung síku iniglayat nímu, Don’t stick out your elbows when you jump.

bantà v [A3P; a] 1 warn s.o. not to do s.t. Ang pahibalung ‘pagbantay sa irù’ mauy mubantà sa mga táwu, The notice ‘beware of dogs’ will warn the people off. 2 [A; b4] plan to do harm to s.t. Gibantáan nga sunúgun ang lungsud sa mga Húks, The Huks are planning to burn the town. bantàbantà v [A; a12] make an estimate of a quantity. Bantàbantáun kug makaganansiya ba ku, I will make an estimate of whether I’ll make a profit or not. n estimate, calculation.

bantáaw a be situated in clear view from the distance. Bantáaw kaáyu ang syudad didtu sa búkid Manunggal, You get a good view of the city from Mount Manunggal. v [B3] be, become clear in view from the distance. Ihigut ang kábaw niánang nagbantáaw nga lubi, Tie the carabao to the coconut tree which we can see clearly from here. n the clear view of s.t. from a distance. Sa bantáaw lang sa liyun mahadluk aku, Just the sight of a lion from the distance scares me.

bantak = balantak.

bantal v [A; a] bundle s.t. Bantála ang mga bulingun, Bundle the dirty clothes. Písing lig-un ang ibantal sa magasin, Use a strong string to bundle the magazine. n bundle.

bantam a bantam, compact car. v [b6] consider a car a bantam.

bantam wit n bantamweight.

bantang a in plain view and recognizable. v [B3; c1] come into view. Kablítang gátu ug mubantang (mabantang) ang langgam, Pull the trigger when the bird comes into clear view. Nagbantang ang páa sa babáyi, The woman’s thighs are in full view. n bearing. Gidáyig ku ang bantang sa íyang hinigtan, I admire the bearing of his fighting cock.

bantawan n stage or platform.

bantay v [A; b(1)] 1 watch s.t., keep watch over. Wà siyay ági, nagbantay lang sa úras, He doesn’t work. He just watches the clock. Pag-iskápu sa binilanggù kinsay nagbantay? When the prisoner escaped, who was on guard? Dílì siya kasiyut ug daghan ug akuy makabantay, He can’t shoot the ball if I guard him. Bantayi ang linung-ag, Watch the rice. 1a take care of plants, esp. coconuts. Nagbantay sila sa kalubihan, They were tending their coconut plantation. 2 notice, be aware of s.t. impending. Nadunggaban siya kay walà siya makabantay sa usa ka handus, He got stabbed because he was not aware of the thrust. 3 watch out for, beware of. Pagbantay sa mangunguut, Watch out for pickpockets. Bantayi ni nga dílì maumgan, Take care so it won’t get wet. 4 watch for s.t. to pass. Ibantay kug taksi, Watch for a cab for me. n guard. Namúga ang mga prísu kay natúlug ang bantay, The prisoners escaped because the guard fell asleep. bantaybantay, — sa balutbut, talikud various species of colorful fish that lurk in the reefs and snap at prey: e.g. Diploprium bifascatium. -l-an n guardhouse, guard post. Butangig bantay kanúnay ang balantayan (bantayan), Always keep a guard in the guardhouse. -l-an, -anan a needful of careful watching. Ang bátang bag-u pang mulakaw bantayánan kaáyu, A child who is still starting to walk needs careful watching. hiN-un a minding other people’s business. ma-in-un, ma-un a watchful. Ang mabinantáyung (mabantáyung) mata sa Diyus, The watchful eyes of God. mag-r-, mag-l- n 1 one who watches over s.t. Magbalantay sa tindáhan, Storekeeper. Magbalantay sa sam-ang, Cemetery caretaker. 2 sergeant-at-arms. anghil — see anghil. — sa kalínaw guardian of peace.

bantáyan = batáyan.

bantáyug n monument. v [b] put a monument s.w.

bantì = balalantì.

bantigì n good-luck charm. v [A; c1] use a good-luck charm. Ang síngin nga lísu sa nangkà mabantigì sa paninda, Twin seeds from jackfruits can be used as a good-luck charm when one sells things.

bantílis n hard, fine-grained stone with a smooth surface, gray in color and spots of white. Bantílis kag kasingkásing, You have [111]a heart of granite.

banting n 1 rope or chain tied to s.t. to steady it, hold it down. Hugti ang banting sa balay kay talibagyu, Tighten the rope holding the house because a typhoon is coming. 2 fetter placed on the feet of prisoners. v [A; ac] secure or steady s.t. by fastening s.t. to it; make into a fastening rope. Ug nakabanting ka pa sa bungsud, dílì untà maánud, Had you secured the fish corral, it wouldn’t have been washed away. Lambu ang ibanting sa tabánug, Use a string to balance the kite.†

bantingbanting v [A; a12] for boats to rock from side to side, rock like a boat. Magbantingbanting siyag lakaw kun hubug, He walks with a rocking gait when he is drunk.

bantíyung n 1 oval-shaped squash, a variety of Lagenaria leucanthea. 2 = balantíyung. -un a have sagging breasts like oval-shaped squash.

bantug a famous, notorious. Bantug kaáyung ngálan sa nátad sa pulitika ang Usminya, Osmeña is a well-known name in the field of politics. — ra no wonder [such-and-such] a particular thing happened. Bantug rang dílì kasulti kay amang diay, No wonder he couldn’t talk. He’s a deaf-mute. — na man just because. Bantug na mang nagkinahanglan kug kwarta patas-an nímug tantu, Just because I need money you increase the interest. v [B12; c1] become famous, notorious. pasi- v [A; c] boast about one’s ability, skill. Maúlaw ku magpasibantug sa ákung kadátù, I’m ashamed to brag about my wealth. n bragging. ka- n fame, honor. Ang kabantug ni Ilurdi sa pamuksing, Elorde’s fame as a boxer. -an a famous, notorious. Bantúgan nga mananambal, A well-known doctor. v [B12] become famous, notorious.

bantuk a 1 hard and compact. Bantuk kaáyung unud sa gábi, Taro meat is very firm. 2 for muscles to be firm. Bantuk kaáyu siyag kaunuran, He has firm muscles. Bída, bantuk giyung busúga, My, I’m filled to bursting! 3 — sa dughan filling the breast. Kalípay nga bantuk sa dughan, Happiness that fills the breast. — ug nawung shameless, hardened to others’ opinions. — ug úlu a thick-skulled. Bantuk kag úlu. Kápuy itudlù nímu, You are thick-skulled. It’s terrible to try to teach you. b stubborn. v [APB3; a] 1 make s.t. harden, harden. Mibantuk (nabantuk) ang basakan sa kataas sa húlaw, The rice field hardened because of the long drought. Bantúkun nátù ang nataran kay himúung baylihan, Let’s tramp the yard down so we can use it as a dance floor. 2 inure, get inured to s.t. Nagbantuk na ning ákung nawung sa mga biaybíay, I have become hardened to their taunts. Nagkabantuk na ang ákung dughan sa kaguul, My heart has become hardened to grief.†

bantul1 n k.o. small, excellent eating fish with poisonous spines, not deadly but very painful, and a frog-like face.

*bantul2 gi- has [subject] gone crazy! Gibantul ka ba dihà? Have you gone crazy?

bantúlay v [A; b6] pound buri palm strips in a wooden trough-like mortar to get the starch out. -an(→) n a trough in which strips of buri palm are laid lengthwise and pounded.

bantulinaw a 1 daytime weather conditions where there is a light cloud cover: the sun shines but its heat is mitigated. 2 for the sea to be rippling slightly, but on the whole calm. v [B; b6] 1 be, become lightly overcast. Nagkabantulinaw na man, maáyu nang iduwà, Now that it is gradually clouding over lightly, it is a good time to play. 2 for the sea to be rippling slightly.

bantulínaw n k.o. shiny black or greyish-black olive shell, or a species with jet-black speckles.

bantut n light thudding sound of a falling object. v [B26] 1 make a light thudding sound in falling. Nahúlug nga pútut tung mibantut, That thudding sound was a coconut bud that fell. 2 for a top to fail to spin. 3 [B2; c1] for a business to fail. Ang súgal makapabantut sa nigusyu, Gambling can cause a business to fail. -un(←) a 1 having tendency not to spin well. Bantutun ang kasing gaan, Light tops tend not to spin well. 2 having a tendency to fail in business.

bánu v [B126] for work or an undertaking to come out good. Nabánu tingáli ang íyang pagpaninda kay midakù man ang íyang tindáhan, Her business must have been successful because she has enlarged her store.

banug n k.o. large hawk with chocolate-brown feathers and a white-colored breast. v [b6] consider a hawk. (←) call to drive away chickens. -un n 1 brown and white combination of chicken feathers. 2 name given to rays with wide wing-like extensions of the body which flap as they move through the water, esp. the eagle ray: Aetobatus narinari. banugbánug, tala-(←) n kite. v [A2SN; a2] fly, make into a kite. Magbanugbánug (magtalabanug) ta sa plása, Let’s fly a kite in the plaza.

bánug, ban-ug a for fruits to be bruised. v [AB2; a] 1 soften fruits, for fruits to get bruised. Muban-ug (maban-ug) ang kapáyas [112]ug sigíhag híkap, The papaya will get bruised if you keep touching it. 2 bruise by pounding. Ban-úgun giyud nang tulisag hisakpan, They will beat up that robber if they catch him.

ban-uk1 n sickness caused by a spirit of the woods (banwaánun) which intrudes sand, feathers, and hairs into the body. The sickness results from bathing in streams or bathing anywhere on Tuesdays and Fridays or may be on the instigation of a sorcerer. The symptoms are stomach pain followed by intense itchy rashes. The cure is túub. v [A; a4b4] cause to get ban-uk.

ban-uk2 a 1 lush, plentiful in growth. Ban-uk kaáyu ang sagbut sa ákung pilapilan, Weeds are growing lush in my rice field. 2 for a mass to be well-packed. Pwirting ban-úka sa baráha sa kahun. Maglisud ta paghulbut ug usa, The cards are very tightly packed into the box. We’ll have a hard time taking one. v 1 [B26; c1] get packed in tight. 2 [B; aPb] become lush. Nagkaban-uk ang buhuk ni Bal nga nagkadakù, Bal’s hair is becoming thicker as he is growing bigger.

banus1 a implanted close to each other. v [B2; c16] for standing things to be implanted close to each other. Mibanus (nabanus) ang humayan nga giabunúhan, The field which was fertilized grew densely. Banusun (ibanus) gánì pagtanum ang mga lubi dílì mubúnga, Coconut trees planted too close to each other will not bear fruit.

banus2, bánus v 1 [A2; a2] for s.t. to happen after s.t. else happened. Mibanus ang kaínit human muulan, The sun shone after the rain shower. Bansun gánì ang tímug, mukalma ang bagyu, The typhoon abates when the east wind lets up. 2 [A; a12] take over after s.o. Bansi ku dinhi sa kusína kay gikápuy ku, Take my place in the kitchen because I’m tired. 3 [AN; b5] put on or wear s.t. which belongs to s.o. else. Mamanus ku sa ímung tráhi kay wà kuy ikapatahì, I’ll wear your suit because I don’t have money to have one made. Maluag ang midiyas ug bansan (bansun) sa dakug tiil, The socks will loosen if s.o. with big feet wears them first. banusbánus v 1 [C; b5] take turns in doing s.t. Magbanusbánus tag dala sa baskit, Let’s take turns in carrying the basket. Banusbanúsi (banusbanúsa) ninyug pas-an ang kawáyan, Take turns in carrying the bamboo on your shoulders. 2 [A3] occur repeatedly one after the other. Magbanusbánus ang kalípay ug kasákit, Joys and sorrows follow one another repeatedly.

banúut n sheath of a coconut blossom.

banwa1 n thicket. Adtu ta maggapud ug igsulugnud sa banwa, Let’s cut firewood in the woods. v [A1PB; a2] become a thicket, let s.t. revert to the forest. Nagbanwa (nagpabanwa) kug usa ka iktarya, I purposely allowed a hectare of my farm to revert to thicket. banwaánun 1 from the forest. Banwaánung sunuy, Wild rooster. 2 = tagabanwa. taga-, tagi-, banwaánun n supernatural beings which inhabit woodlands, victimize people by rendering them invisible, and are capable of inflicting diseases. Sometimes they show themselves and even make love to women.

banwa2 n 1 fatherland. Pilipínas ang ngán sa ámung banwa, Our country is called the Philippines. 2 town, village. Ang banwa sa Mandáwi mauswágun, The town of Mandaue is progressive.

banwag v [A; b6(1)] 1 illuminate a place. Banwágan kung agiánan sa súlù, I’ll light the way with a torch. 2 enlighten s.o. Ang ímung tambag mu ray makabanwag sa íyang kaisípan, Only your counsel can enlighten his mind. n illumination.†

banwági n k.o. tree.

banwas = balúnas.

banyágà n rascal, scoundrel. Pangitáun kung banyágà nga nag-ílad nákù, I’ll look for the rascal who swindled me. v [B2; b6] be a scoundrel.

banyak v [A; b6(1)] kick or shove with the sole of a foot. Banyáka (banyáki) ug kusug ang bisiklíta, Pedal the bicycle hard.

banyira n tub or big basin for children to take a bath in or for washing clothes. v [a12] make into a tub or big basin.

banyu n bathroom. v [A; a] construct, add a bathroom. — publiku n public bath.

banyumaríya n double boiler.

banyus n medicine rubbed on one. v [A; b6(1)] rub medicinal materials on s.o. paN- v [A2] rub medicinal materials on oneself.

bápul, bápuls n baffle in a loudspeaker.

bapur n steamship or any large ship propelled by machinery. v [A1; b4] take a boat. Nagbapur ku padúlung sa Sibu, I took a boat in going to Cebu. — digíra n battleship. — mirkantil n merchant ship. bapurbápur v 1 [A1; c1] smoke cigars. 2 [C] have sexual intercourse (riding on each other like on a boat) (humorous).

bár1 n bar examination for would-be lawyers. v [A] take the bar examination.

bár2 n the B.A.R., Browning automatic rifle.

bár3 n cocktail lounge, usually of the sort which have bar-girls of ill-repute.

bara1 v 1 [A; a2] put a boat in dry-dock. 2 [113][B12; a2] run aground. Nabara sa píliw ang barku, The boat ran aground in shallow waters. -díru n be in dry dock. v [A3P; c1] put a boat in dry dock. baradiruhan n dry dock.

bára n 1 steel bar, rod. — dikabra crowbar. 2 frame of a bicycle. 3 measurement, the span from the shoulder to the tip of the opposite hand with the arm extended. 4 — i — eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth. Pamaslan tikaw bára i bára sa ímung gibúhat kanákù, I will repay you eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth for what you have done to me. 4a punishment sent to a philanderer that his daughter falls victim to a philanderer. Bára nà níya nga gipaangkan ang íyang anak kay himabáyi man, It’s his punishment for being a philanderer that his daughter was made pregnant. v 1 [A13; a12] make into a bar. 2 [b4] for a girl to suffer at the hands of a philanderer as a punishment to her father. Baráhan ang átung anak ug magsígi kag pamabáyi, Our daughter will become a victim herself if you keep chasing women. 3 [A2C; c1] for a brother and sister in one family to marry a brother and sister in another. Gibára sa mga Kurtis ug Sansis ang ílang mga anak, A son and daughter of the Corteses’ married a son and daughter of the Sanchezes’. barabára n shaft for a horse carriage. v [a] make into a shaft for a carriage, put a shaft on. barabara n shaft in a pressurized kerosene lantern which holds the needle controlling the width of the orifice through which the vaporized kerosene passes. barahan n 1 yard-*stick. 2 criterion for measuring s.t. -in-(→) n k.o. cloth of cheap quality with big, checkered prints. v [A; b6] wear this sort of cloth.†

baradíru n see bara1.

bárag v [B256; a12P] lose one’s footing, stagger from a blow or drunkenness. Mibárag (nabárag) siya pagsumbag nákù, He staggered when I boxed him. Barágun (pabarágun) ta ka niíning usa ka básung tubà, I’ll make you stagger with this glass of palm toddy.

baragbárag v [A] pace back and forth in front of s.o., usually with a purpose. Mubaragbárag ang amahan ug pamisitáhan ang íyang dalága, When s.o. visits the daughter, the father paces back and forth conspicuously in front of them.

baráha n playing card. bistu ang — it is clear what you (he, etc.) has up his sleeve. — nga dunut highly improbable excuse for doing s.t. Ayaw kug sugali ánang ímung baráha nga dunut, Don’t hand me those phoney excuses. 1a mahjong piece. v [AC2; a1] play cards. Nakigbaráha nákù ang duha ka sugarul, The two gamblers asked me to play cards with them. Mánu ta. Baraháun, Let’s decide who will be first with cards. -dur(→) n dealer in cards. v 1 [B16; a12] be the dealer. 2 [A12] hire, have as a card dealer.

barak n leg muscles.

bárak n barracks. v [a2] make into barracks.

baráka n a room added to a house as an extension. v [A1; b6(1)] construct an extension to a house. -in- n hip roof with sloping ends and sloping sides. v [c1] construct a hip roof.

barandilya, barandilyas n fence or balustrade made of rails and posts. v [A1; c1] put, make into a railing.

bárang n 1 k.o. sorcery whereby insects are introduced into the intended victim. 2 insect, usually a mutant specimen, with which bárang sorcery is performed. v [A; a12] practice bárang on s.o. Barángun siya ni Danílu, Danilo will inflict his sorcery on him. -an(→) n sorcerer.

baranggay n 1 a unit of government of the pre-Spanish Filipinos, the titular head of whom was the dátù or sultan. 2 = balángay. 3 a nightly rosary held by turns in the houses in a certain neighborhood. Átù rung turnu sa baranggay, Tonight, the nightly rosary of the baranggay will be held in our house. v 1 [A2C23] hold a baranggay. 2 [A13] go to one’s girl friend’s house, as the members of a prayer group go to s.o.’s house for the baranggay (colloquial).

barasbáras = barabára. see bára.

barásu = brásu.

barat a 1 cheap, petty: refusing to pay a reasonable price and heeding matters not worth one’s attention. 2 cheap, vulgar. Barat na kaáyu nang bayhána, bísan kinsa lang ang ubanan, That woman is very cheap. Anybody can have her. v 1 [B; b6] for a person to become cheap. Mauy ibarat nímu ug ímu siyang ashan, You will come to be vulgar if you attach importance to what she says. 2 [B; c1] for things to be of little value, inferior, make s.t. in an inferior way. Mibarat (nabarat) ang písu, The peso has become devalued. Ayúha pagtahì. Ayawg barata (ibarat), Sew that dress well. Don’t put out s.t. cheap. -íra a fond of bargaining prices down too much. v [B12] be a haggler. Makabastus ang labihang pagkabaratíra, It is degrading to bargain too hard. -íru = baratíra (male).

baratíha n piece of wood about 1″ thick, 2″ [114]wide and anywhere from one foot up in length, usually used for flooring. v [a] make into floorboards.

baratilyu n bargain sale. v [A1; c1] hold a bargain sale. Baratilyúhun (ibaratilyu) níla ang ílang uld istak, Their old stock is going to be on sale. paN- v [A2; b(1)] buy s.t. on sale. Mamaratilyu kug sapátus, I’ll buy shoes that are on sale.

baratíru see barat.

barátu1 a low price. Barátu kaáyu ang palalítun ug sirbisyu sa Hungkung, Goods and services are very cheap in H. K. v 1 [B; a2] become, be cheap. Mubarátu (mabarátu) ang bugas kun ting-ani, Rice gets to be cheap during harvest time. 2 [AP; b6] cheapen, make contemptible. Ang babáying mukúyug ug láki bísan ása nagbarátu (nagpabarátu) sa íyang kaugalíngun, A woman who goes just anywhere with a man cheapens herself. baratuhun a of a cheap sort. Sinínang baratuhun, A cheap shirt.

barátu2 n cut from one’s winnings. Tagái kug barátu sa daug nímu sa búlang, Give me a cut from your winnings in the cockpit. v [A; c] give s.o. a cut from one’s winnings.

baraw, báraw1 v [A; a12b2] interrupt the tossing of the coin in gambling to annul that particular toss. Baráwa nang antugun kun suspitsádu ka sa inantugan, Interrupt the toss if you are suspicious about the way the coins are being tossed. (→) expression used to squelch a friendly request for s.t. ‘Daúgan ka man. Paliti kug sapátus, ha?’—‘Baraw. Píla ra guy daug.’ ‘You won in gambling. How about buying me a pair of shoes?’—‘Just hold your horses there. That much I didn’t win.’

báraw2 v 1 [C] for fighting cocks to hit each other with their gaffs while in the air.

báraw3 = balaraw.

barawan n k.o. large squid (núkus).

baraybaray v 1 [A; a12] pile s.t. up. Baraybaraya ang mga kahun simpig sa bungbung, Pile the boxes against the wall. 2 [AB36; c1] fall, put in line. Mibaraybaray sila atubángan sa maistru, They lined up before the teacher.

barbahan n wooden container for coconut palm toddy in the shape of a rectangle 3′ by 4′.

barbas1 v [A; bc] wash infected skin with boiled leaves of medicinal herbs. Mu rag nagamay ang kabahung nga nabarbasan, The ulcer seemed to get smaller after it was cleaned and washed. n the water and boiled leaves of medicinal herbs used in washing sores, ulcers, and other skin diseases.

barbas2 = balbas.

barbikiyu n food barbecued on a stick. v [A; a] barbecue s.t.

barbil n bar bell. v [A; a12] exercise with a, make into a bar bell. -ádu, -áwu a having a well-developed physique of the sort that results from exercising with a bar bell. v [B126] become well-built.

barbir n barber. — siyap = barbiríya. -íya n barbershop.

barbíru n barber. v [B16; a12] become, make into a barber. barbiruhan n barbershop.

barbityurits n barbiturates.

barbula n valve in a pipe or tire.

barbun v [A12; b(1)] go to a banquet only for the sake of eating. Mamarbun si Isku sa bunyag sa anak ni Uduy, Isko will certainly be there for the food when Odoy’s son is baptized. n act of attending a banquet for eating alone. Kung pamarbun na gánì ang hisgútan way katupung ni Alù, Talking of going to parties just for the food, no one can beat Alo. -íru a attending banquets for the sake of food alone.

barda = balda.

bardádu n = baldádu. see balda.

bards1 n barge. v 1 [A1; a12] take a barge. 2 [A2; a12] make into a barge.

bardut a prostitute (slang). v [B126; b6] be, become a prostitute. paN- v [A2; b6] patronize a prostitute.

bargas n k.o. plow made of steel (so called after the brand name Vargas).

barì n a k.o. sickle for cutting long and thick grass, with the blade at the outside edge, and fastened to a wooden handle about 3′ long. v [A; a] cut grass with a barì.

barikus n varicose veins. v [a4b4] have varicose veins. Barikusun (barikusan) kag maghayhil ka, You’ll get varicose veins if you wear high heels.

baril1 n barrel, drum.

baril2 v [A; ab2] shoot s.o. or s.t. with a gun. Si Risal dihà barila sa Luníta, Rizal was executed at the Luneta.

barílis1 n k.o. blue-finned tuna which grows to 3′.

barílis2 n metal drums for oil.

barína n screw auger for making holes. — dimánu n a screw auger with no brace, gimlet. v [A; b] bore a hole with a drill. Barináhi ang káhuy úsà twirkáhi, Drill a hole in the wood before you put in the screw.

barínis n water container made of an internodal section of bamboo. v [A13; a12] make, make into a water container of this sort. [115]

barinúgan a stubborn, refusing to yield or comply. Barinúgan kaáyung igsuúna kay dílì mupatúu sa ákung tambag, He is a stubborn brother because he refuses to heed my advice. v [B12; b6] be, become stubborn.

barinuhan = barinúgan.

bárit n barrette for holding the hair in place. v [A; a] wear, make into a barrette.

baríta n bar of soap, chocolate, etc. Tagsingkwinta na ang baríta sa sabun, Soap costs fifty cents a bar now. v [A; a] form, make into a bar. Baritáhun ta ning tsukulit, Let’s form this chocolate into bars.

baritun n 1 = baritunu. 2 baritone musical instrument. 2a brass wind instrument: the baritone. 2b baritone saxophone.

baritunu n a baritone voice or s.o. with a baritone voice. v [B; a] be a baritone; sing in the baritone. Mubaritunu (mabaritunu) tingáli ning ákung tíngug ug maulitáwu na ku, I will probably have a baritone voice when I reach adolescence. Magbaritunu ku kay kúlang sila, I’ll sing with the baritones because there’s not enough of them. Baritunúhi nang íyang kanta, Sing the baritone part to the song.

barkáda n people one goes around with. Giimbitar kung ákung mga barkáda sa ákung adlaw, I invited my cronies to my birthday party. v [C1; a1c3] go around together. Way kaláki ning magbarkáda, It’s no good to go around with a gang. mag- n people who are gang mates. Nadáhig siya sa imbistigasiyun kay magbarkáda man sila sa nakapatay, He was also investigated because he was in the same gang as the murderer. ka- n gang mate. barkadur a fond of going around with one’s gang.

barkilyus n baked sweet made from flour, eggs, sugar and rolled into crisp hollow tubes. v [A; a] make barquillos.

barku n large ship. hibyaan sa — 1 not catch the boat. 2 failed to get married. walà kuy — I’m poor. v [A1; a] take a ship.

barnáti v 1 [A; a12] drive s.o. to work very hard. Gibarnáti pagpagúna ang sinuhúlan, The hired laborer was made to work hard weeding. 2 [B16] become skilled in s.t. after constant, strenuous training. Ang pagtrabáhu níya sa talyir nakabarnáti (nakapabarnáti) níya sa makina, His work in the shop made him skilled with machines.

barnis n varnish. v [A; b6(1)] varnish s.t. Barnísan kung ímung sungkud, I’ll varnish your cane.

barpin n an ornamental pin with a clasp. v [A; c1] wear an ornamental pin.

bartíha n 1 plank, board. Gilugkat ang usa ka bartíha sa bungbung, One plank was torn off the wall. 2 parcel, block of land. Bahínun sa tulu ka bartíha ang ílang yútà, Their land will be divided into three parcels. 3 share. v 1 [A; a1] make, or cut into planks or boards. 2 [A; b6(1)] put a board between two things. Bartihái ang kanal arun makalabang ang kutsi, Place some planks over the canal so the car can pass over it. 3 [A; a] divide, cut up into pieces or sections. Hukum ang mubartíha (magbartíha) sa yútà nga iapud-apud sa mga anak, A judge will apportion the land that will be distributed among the children. Bartiháa ang kík sa walu ka bátà, Divide the cake among the eight children. 3a [A] get a share or a part of. Nakabartíha siyag duha ka gatus sa usa ka byáhi, His share in one trip was two hundred pesos.

bartindir n bartender, one who acts as a bartender. v [B36; a] be the one who mixes the drinks.

bartulína n cell for the solitary confinement of a prisoner. v [A; c1] place in solitary. Ayaw panguláta arun dì ka bartulináhun (ibartulína), Don’t fight with anybody or you will get put in solitary.

bartuníku n k.o. fish, the climbing perch: Anabas testudines.

baru, báru n large cylindrical water or rice container made from tin plate or an empty petroleum can, having a capacity of around 5–6 gallons. v [a12] make into such a container.

barug v 1 [APB36; c1P] stand, stand up, cause to do so. Mubarug kita inigtugtug sa nasudnung áwit, Let us stand when the national anthem is played. Mibarug ang íya pagbása níya ug librung law-ay, He got a bone on (lit. his stood up) when he read the dirty book. Nagbarug (nagpabarug) siya sa masakitun, He helped the sick man get to his feet. 1a [B3(1)46; c1] for a building to stand, be built. Sa katapúsan nagbarug nang balay nga ákung gitúkud, At last the house I constructed was built. 2 [A2; c2] stand up for one’s opinions or principles. Makabarug ra giyud sa katapúsan ang matúud, Truth prevails in the end. Barugi (ibarug) ang katinúud sa ímung gipanulti, Stand up for the truth of your statement. 3 [A; b6] stand for, act as proxy for s.o., guarantee for s.o.’s obligations or rights. Akuy nagbarug sa íyang útang sa bangku, I stood as guarantor for his debts to the bank. Gibarugan ku ni tiyù pagpamaláyi nákù kay wà si Tátay, My uncle stood for my father when I made the formal marriage proposal. [116]4 [B12; c1P] get standing in a community. Ang makabarug (makapabarug) sa táwu ang íyang prupisyun, A man’s profession gives him dignity. 5 [B2] look good in s.t., for s.t. to become one. Dì ka mubarug sa míni kay tag-as kag tul-an, You don’t look good in a mini because you have long legs. n 1 height. Mubù ug barug, Of a short height. 2 bearing and features. Ang íyang barug daw istadista, His bearing is statesman-like. paN- n 1 stature and/or features of a person. Ambúngang pamarug, Handsome features. 2 one’s standing in a profession or any group. -ánan n principle. Táwung way barugánan, A man without principles. (←)-an a for a person to have a good bearing. Barúgan nga pagkalaláki, Good-looking man.

barumbáda v [A; c] squander s.t. valuable. Nagbarumbáda lang ka sa ímung kabílin, You are squandering your inheritance. Ibarumbáda lang níyang íyang nindut nga sinínà, gihímung pambáy, She wastes her beautiful dress, using it around the house.

barumbádu a 1 ill-mannered. Barumbádu nang anáka kay dì mangáyug katahúran sa íyang katiguwángan, That child is ill-mannered because he doesn’t greet his folks. 2 careless in dress; wearing clothing untidily or in such a way as to destroy it. Barumbádu siyang mamisti. Lúpig pay buguy, He dresses terribly, worse than a tramp. 3 vagabond, vagrant. v 1 [B2; b6] become ill-mannered. 2 [B3(1)6; c] become careless of one’s dress, treat clothes carelessly. Ayaw ibarumbádu kanang ímung púlung putì sa tubaan, Don’t ruin your white shirt wearing it to the toddy stand. 3 [B1; b6] become a vagabond. Nagbarumbádu siya sukad mapapha sa trabáhu, He became a tramp after he lost his job.

barumitir, barumitru n barometer. v [b6(1)] measure s.t. with a barometer.

barung n fancy, embroidered shirt with long sleeves used for formal wear. It slips over the head and is worn outside of the trousers. — púlu short-sleeved version of the barong with buttons all the way down. — Tagálug, Pilipínu = barung. v [A; a] wear, make into barong.

barungbárung = balungbálung.

barúnguy n k.o. flying fish, name given to several smaller species.

barut n tobacco that is of the lowest class. Ibaligyag kinilu ang barut, The cheapest k.o. tobacco is sold by the kilogram. a 1 inferior in quality. Dalì rang mulubad ang panaptung barut, A cloth which is inferior in quality easily fades. 2 ugly to look at. v [B; a] be, become inferior in quality or ugly. Mibarut (nabarut) ang lamì sa tabákung wà maputus, The tobacco lost its flavor because it hadn’t been wrapped. Nagkabarut ang átung dapit kay midagsang ang iskwátir, This place is turning into an eyesore because of the proliferation of the squatters.

bárut n the inedible pulp of the jackfruit which surrounds the edible flesh.

barútu n small boat with a dug-out bottom, plank or sawali sidings, and usually with outriggers. v [A13; c1] ride a small boat. Magbarútu ta paingun sa Sámar, Let’s take a boat to Samar. Barutúha (ibarútu) ang masakitun sa píkas pulù, Transport the patient to the other island on a boat. paN- v [A2C12; b6(1)] go boating. Nakigpamarútu nákù ang ákung trátu, My boy friend asked me to go boating with him.

baryabli a changeable, fickle. Ning tyimpung baryabli ang dátù mapubri, ang pubri maadunáhan, In these uncertain times the rich become poor and the poor, rich. v [B2] be variable. Ang bili sa palalítun kanúnayng mubaryabli (mabaryabli), Retail prices are constantly fluctuating.

baryu n 1 barrio, the smallest territorial unit of government. 2 the country as opposed to the city or town. Láay ang kinabúhì sa baryu, Life in the country is boring. v [APB26; a12] be, become, make into a barrio. Kining urdinansáha ang mibaryu (mipabaryu) sa Pásil, This ordinance made Pasil a barrio. — nga way kaldíru, kū́n n a barrio without pots, a humorous allusion to the place where a person heads after death. — kapitan n captain of the barrio, the barrio chief. — kawunsil n barrio council, the lawmaking body of the barrio. tininti dil — n barrio lieutenant, the title formerly given to the head of a barrio. baryubaryu v [c] 1 stay in separate groups, not mingling with the rest. Nagbaryubaryu ang mga dátù ug musimus nga bisíta, The rich visitors were in separate groups from the poor visitors. 2 for each to do his own, not work cooperatively. Magbaryubaryu lang tag plíti, Each of us pays his own fare. Ug makigbaryubaryu mu, maglain lang pud mi, If you want to do it on your own, then we’ll do ours on our own, too. baryuhánun n 1 resident of rural areas. Kadaghánan sa baryuhánun dinhi magbabául, Most of the barrio folk here are farmers. tagi- n resident of a barrio. katagi- n barrio-mate.

bás = balas.

bása v [A3S; ab2] 1 read. Dílì ku makabasa, I cannot read. Wà ku kabasa ánà, I haven’t [117]had a chance to read that. Basáha ang Biblíya, Read the Bible. Basáhi siya, Read to him. Hibasahan gánì ni Tátay ang sulat sa ímung trátu, If Father reads your boy friend’s love letter. 2 interpret signs, omens. Inighuman ug urasiyun sa básu, basáhun dáyun sa tambálan ang ímung mga sakit, After the shaman says the magic words into a glass, he will read your sickness in it. 3 [a3] understand, get the meaning. Nabása ku sa ímung mata nga gihigugma mu siya gihápun, I can read in your eyes that you still love him. hiN-(→) a fond of reading. kabasahun a feel very much like reading. balasahun n reading matter. mag-r-/l-(→), um-r-/l-(→) n the readers of a certain publication. tig- a in the habit of reading.†

basà a 1 wet. 2 watery, soft. Dì ku gustug kan-un nga basà ang pagkalútù, I don’t like rice with too much water in it. 3 — ang papil ruined reputation. Walay musugut níya kay basà na ang íyang papil sa pagkapalikíru, Nobody has accepted his marriage proposals because he has a bad reputation as a philanderer. 4 — ang tíngug raspy voiced. v 1 [APB12; b5] wet s.t., become wet. Ang ulan mauy mubasà (mupabasà) sa pilapilan, The rain will wet the ricefields. Bas-i (bas-a) kanang ímung túhud, Wet your knee a little. Mabasà lang nà siya kun malígù, He doesn’t have intercourse. (Lit. He only gets wet when he takes a bath.) 2 [A; b5] wash s.t. Si Pitra mubasà áning húgawng lamísa, Petra will wash this dirty table. 3 [a] cook, using more water than usual. Gibasà níya paglung-ag ang kan-un, She cooked the rice soft (with more water than usual). 4 [A13] bathe with s.t. on. Bísan sulud sa banyung sirádu nagbasà gihápun, Even in the privacy of her bathroom, she bathed with s.t. on. 5 [B1256] — ang papil for reputation to be ruined. hiN-(←) v [A; b] wash s.o.’s feet. Himasái ang mga bátà únà pakatulga, Wash the children’s feet before you put them to sleep. panghiN-(←) v [A2] wash one’s feet. Nanghimásà ka na? Have you washed your feet? -un a watery.

básag1 n large, rectangular bamboo hamper for storing dirty clothes. v [a1] make into this k.o. hamper.

básag2 v 1 [AB126; a1] for s.t. not thick to split or shatter, split or shatter s.t. Kinsay nagbásag sa pinggan? Who broke the plate? Nabásag ang sista, The guitar cracked. 2 [B12] for the voice to crack. Mabásag ang tíngug kun bayungbáyung na, When you reach adolescence, your voice cracks. (→) a 1 cracked, shattered. Ayaw gamíta nang sag-úba kay basag na, Don’t use that bamboo container because it is cracked. 2 cracked in voice.

basagbasag n k.o. garfish.

basagbásag n glabella, the part of the frontal bone between the two eyebrows, extending a little above and below.

basak n field of wet-cultivated rice. v [A; a1] cultivate a rice field. Basakun ku nang usa ka iktariya, I will make that one hectare into a rice field. -an n rice field.

basal v [A; a] bang on s.t. to produce noise. Basalun námung táru ug may iskilipsi, We’ll beat the kerosene cans when there’s an eclipse. n anything used in banging. Basal sa bumbu, The drumstick.

basalyu, basalyus1 n vassal. v [a12] make into a vassal.

basalyus2 n loyal circle of followers (colloquial). Ang basalyus sa pulitiku, The inner circle of the politician’s followers. v [B126] be, become loyal followers of ...

basangag, basángag a a toothless mouth that is wide open. v 1 [B56; c1] for a toothless mouth to be wide open, as in laughing. 2 [B2] for the gum to lose a row of teeth leaving a large gap. Nabasangag íyang lagus, There was a big gap in his gums.

basar n a shop or department store that sells various kinds of goods. v [a12b6] make into a bazaar.

basas, básas v [A12; b(1)] have the upper hand, be on the winning end. Wà kay basasan ánang bayhána, You have no chance of getting the upper hand with that woman.

basbas1 v [A; b] chop off nodes, lumps, etc. in wood or bamboo. Gibasbásan níya ang mga lipak pára sa ílang sáwug, He cleaned and smoothed the bamboo strips for the flooring. -in- n chips, particles removed from wood that has been cleaned. -in-an a 1 carefully smoothed wood. 2 carefully selected words. Binasbásan ang íyang mga púlung, His words are carefully selected.

basbas2 v [A; b] husk corn. Basbasi ang mais, Husk the corn. n husks of corn.

basbas3 v [A; a12] train with constant repetition. Akuy mibasbas níyas ínum, I taught him to drink. Nabasbas ku sa trabáhu human mamatay si Pápa, I learned how to work after Papa died. Gibasbas níya ang irù pagsáyaw, He trained the dog to dance.

basbas4 = balasbas.

basdak v [B6; ac] be tight and bulging due to fullness, esp. the stomach. Basdákun tang átung tiyan, Let’s fill our stomachs chock-full. Ginabas ang átung ibasdak sa pansing bag, Let’s fill the punching bag full [118]of sawdust.

bashuy = bas-uy, 1.

bási1 n 1 rice wine. 2 wine made from sugar cane. v [a1] make into rice or sugar cane wine.

bási2 n military base. — nabal naval base. v [A2; a2b6] establish a military base.

bási3 v [A; c1] base a conclusion or course of action on s.t. Ang maáyu mauy basíhi sa ímung kinabúhì, Base your life on what is good. Ayaw giyud ibási (basíha) ang ímung paghukum sa íyang sulti, Don’t base your decision on what she says. n basis.

bási4, básì = básin.

basíbas v [AN2] daybreak. Mibasíbas (namasíbas) nang kabuntágun, Morning was breaking.

basilika n basilica.

basilin n vaseline. v [b6(1)] rub vaseline on.

básin 1 [so-and-so] might happen but I hope not, lest [so-and-so] happen. Pagdala ug páyung, básig muulan, Take along an umbrella. It might rain. Buháta dáyun, básin ug malímut ka, Do it the first thing. You might forget to do it. 2 I hope [so-and-so]. Básin pag manwildu sila run, I hope they will give us our salary today. Básin ug mahúlug tà ka ánang káhuy, I hope you fall out of that tree. paN- v 1 [A2; b6] try one’s luck. Pamasíni ug paningil, mubáyad tingáli siya, Try your luck collecting from him. He might just pay up. 2 [A2; b8] pin one’s hopes on s.o. Mamásin ku sa ákung kamanghúran nga maduktur, I am pinning my hopes on my youngest child’s becoming a doctor. panghiN- v [A2; b8] hope for s.t. to happen. Nanghimásin lang ku nga dílì ulúrun ang mais, I am just hoping that my corn won’t get infested with worms. pamasinbásin v [A; b6] try one’s luck with pretty slender chances of success. Mamasinbásin lang ta. Piláhay ug swirtihun, Let’s try a long shot. Who knows, we might be lucky.

basiyar v [A; c] transfer the contents of a container to another container. Sáku ang basiyari sa bugas, Transfer the rice to a sack.

basiyu, basíyu n 1 empty container. 1a empty cartridge shell. 2 empty plate to eat off of. Panghatágig basíyu ang mga bisíta, Give the visitors empty plates. v 1 [B2; a12] for containers to be empty. 2 [AN; c] set the table. Pamasíyu na, Set the table now. Ang plátung bag-u mauy ibasíyu, Set the new plates on the table. 3 for machinery (gears, propellers, etc.) not to engage. Mubasíyu ang kadína sa bisiklíta, The bicycle chain fails to engage. Ug mubasíyu ang pála sa bangkà muusab ang inandaran, When the propeller of the boat gets out of the water, the noise of the motor changes in quality.

baska1 a for corn or rice to be cooked dry and loose. v [B6; a12b6] for rice to be cooked dry and loose. Mubaska (mabaska) ang linung-ag nga mais kun kúlang ug túbig, The corn grits will be dry if they lack water.

baska2 v [APB; c1] for things not liquid to fill s.t. to capacity, be filled. Undángi pagtakus sa bugas kung mabaska (mubaska) na ang sáku, Stop pouring the rice into the sack if it is already filled to capacity. Nagbaska ning ákung tíyan, My stomach is full to capacity. n chock-full, bulging due to fullness.

baskad = buskag.

baskag = buskag.

baskit n 1 basket. 2 = baskit bul. v [A1; a] 1 make into a basket. 2 [A; c6] a intercept correspondence before it reaches its destination. Gibaskit sa inahan ang suwat sa íyang anak, The mother intercepted the letter for her daughter (and threw it away). b throw away correspondence. Gibaskit lang intáwun ang ákung aplikasyun, My application was just consigned to the circular file.

baskit bul n basketball game. v [AC; b6] play basketball. -an n basketball court.†

baskug a strong and healthy, vigorous in movement. Baskug kaáyu siyang manglihuklihuk kay batan-un pa, He is full of pep because he is still young. v 1 [B2; a] be strong and healthy. Ang gátas makabaskug (makapabaskug) sa láwas, Milk makes you strong. 2 [A; b7c1] do in a brisk and vigorous manner. Baskúga (ibaskug, baskúgi) ang pagsíkad sa bisiklíta, Pedal the bicycle more briskly. 3 — ang kabúhì v [B3(1)] for the pit of the stomach to palpitate rapidly in pain due to kabúhì. Mabaskug ákung kabúhì basta mukáun kug útang tinunuan, The pit of my stomach palpitates fast if I eat vegetable stew cooked in coconut milk.

baskula n scales for weighing, where the fulcrum is not in the middle, e.g., steelyard.

baslan see bálus.

basngag v [A; b5c] utter sharp words in anger or impatience. Mamasngag siyag samuksamukun kun magtrabáhu, He snaps at people when he is disturbed while working.

basnig n a haul seine net, round in shape, for catching fish which run in schools and can be attracted by light. paN- v [A2; b] fish with the basnig.

basta 1 provided that, if and only if. Ihátag ku ning risíbu basta bayran ku nímu, I will give you the receipt provided that you pay me. Bísag magabin-an ka, basta na lang madala ákung gitúgun, Even if it takes half [119]the night, so long as you do what you were told to do. 2 [so-and-so] is the case, no matter what anyone says. Na, basta, náa lagi, Well, that’s the way it is. There is, believe it or not. 3 with commands reminding a person to keep his promise: don’t forget! Basta ayaw giyud ug pakítà dinhig usab, Mark this, don’t ever show your face here again. Basta ha? Muuban ku, Don’t forget now. I want to go along. — nga, kay — to make the story short, suffice it to say that. Basta nga (kay basta) pagpanganti níya, nangatágak ang buláwan, Anyway, when he made a wish, gold pieces fell out. — kay = basta, 1, 2. bastabasta a not very exact, accurate. v [c1] do s.t. in an inaccurate way. Ug bastabastáhun (ibastabasta) nímu, alkansi ta, If you do it any old way, we will lose money. dílì — not just ordinary. Dílì bastabasta tung kasála, That was no ordinary wedding.

bastanti sufficient in amount for a certain need. ‘Ígù ning lima?’—‘Bastanti.’ ‘Will these five do?’—‘Yes. They’re just enough.’ v [B126] be sufficient. Ang diklarasyun sa tistígus mauy nakabastanti (nakapabastanti) sa ibidinsiya, The declaration of the witness was enough to make the evidence sufficient.

bastar v [A2; c5] be enough, sufficient. Dílì makabastar (ikabastar) nang kwartáha sa ákung kinahanglanun, That money is not enough for my needs.

bastarda1 v 1 [B; c1] set, be placed across s.t. diagonally. Nagbastarda ang hubug sa dálan, The drunk was lying diagonally across the road. Bastardáha (ibastarda) pagtáud sa rayna ang banda, Put the band diagonally across the queen. 2 [B; c1] be crooked, not straight. Nagbastarda ang linya sa mga kadíti, The cadets’ line is crooked.

*bastarda2 íha di- illegitimate daughter.

bastardu1 a for a course or direction to be off to the side and not directly into. v [B56; a1] be off to one side. Nagbastardu ámung ági tungud sa sulug, Our course was off to one side because of the current.

*bastardu2 íhu di- illegitimate child.

bastid a 1 for a bulb to be burnt out. 2 be out in blackjack. v 1 [A; a12] spurn a suitor (slang). Gibastid si Husi sa íyang gipangulitawhan, The girl Jose is courting spurned him. 2 [B126] for a bulb to burn out. 3 [B126] go over twenty-one in blackjack. Wà ka ba mabastid? Didn’t you go over twenty-one?

bastidur1 = birsu1.

bastidur2 n rounded frame for use in embroidery. v [A1; a] use, make into an embroidery frame.

bastika n the hard core of thick abaca rope which remains when the rope is worn out. Ayaw ilábay ang písì. Magámit pa ang bastika niíni, Don’t throw the rope away. The hard core can still be used.

bastipul = bustipul.

bastiyan n 1 man’s name. 2 euphemism for bastus.

bastruk v [A; a1] strike s.o. with the butt of a gun. Bastrúkun ku siya ning karbin, I’ll strike him with the butt of this carbine.

bastun n 1 walking stick, usually polished and sometimes with carved designs. 2 package, bar, long like a cane. Usa ka bastung sabun, A long bar of soap. Usa ka bastung sigarilyu, A carton of cigarettes. — di San Husi = kilála. v 1 [A; a] use, make into a cane. 2 [A2; a] hit with a cane. 3 [A; a12] make into long bar-shaped cakes or packages. -íru n jailer. v [A1; a12] be a jailer.

bastus1 a acting in a morally reprehensible way. Kabastus, mangílad ug buta, How reprehensible! Cheating a blind man! Nagkalingaw ug isturyag bastus, They were amusing themselves telling dirty stories. [B2; b6] to be morally reprehensible. paka- v [A13; a12] act in a reprehensible way, treat, regard s.o. as reprehensible. Nagpakabastus ka ánang ímung pangitsúra, The way you’re dressed, you look reprehensible.

bastus2 n clubs in the Spanish cards. v [B12; b4(1)] for a club to be drawn. Hibastusan ang ákung karta, I drew a club, or My cards were beaten by a club.

básu n 1 drinking glass. 2 the Virgin Mary (Biblical). Básung ispirituhánun, The Spiritual vessel (of God’s grace). v [a12] make into a drinking glass. binasúan n dance with glasses on the hands and head. v [A3] dance the glass dance.

bas-ug v [A; c] heave a load onto the shoulders. Siya ra ang mibas-ug sa dakung bukag, He heaved the large basket onto his shoulders by himself.

basúka n bazooka. v [A; a] fire a bazooka at.

básul1 v 1 [A2; bc3] blame s.o. for a fault. Mubásul aku nímu, I will blame you. Ang draybir ang gibásul (gibasúlan) sa aksidinti, The driver was blamed for the accident. Unsa may ikabásul nímu nákù nga nagtúman man ku? What are you blaming me for, since I did what you said? 2 [A13; b3] repent, regret having done s.t. Nagbásul kung walà mupadáyun pagtuun, I regretted that I did not continue my studies. Wà kuy kabasúlan sa ákung gibúhat, I did nothing I regret. pag- n repentance. [120]

básul2 n k.o. hairy caterpillar with hair that produces an itchy prick. v [a4b4] have básul on it, be pricked by a básul. Gibásul ang bayábas, The guava tree has caterpillars on it. Hibasulan ku, I was pricked by a básul.

básul3 n whitlow, an inflammation at the edge of the finger- or toenails. v [B126; a4b4] become, have a whitlow. Mabásul nà ug dílì tambálan, That will turn into a whitlow if you don’t put medicine on it. Dì ku makatayip kay gibásul (gibasúlan) ang ákung tudlù, I can’t type because I have an inflammation on my finger.

básun = básin.

basúni n 1 thorn lodged in the flesh. 2 s.t. which causes a sharp emotional pain. Basúni sa ákung dughan ang ímung pag-ayad, It was a thorn in my heart that you spurned my love. v [B3(1)6] for a thorn to be lodged in the flesh. Mubasúni ang tunuk sa tuyum sa ímung tiil, The sea urchin’s thorn will lodge in your foot. Nabasúni sa láwas ang bála, The bullet was lodged in the body.

basúra n 1 garbage. 2 one’s dirty secrets, kept from the public. Nangahúkad ang ílang mga basúra, They washed their dirty linen in public. v [a12] 1 make into a garbage container. 2 [A; c] throw s.t. into the garbage. basurahan n receptacle for garbage.

basuríru n garbage collector. v [B156; a2b] be, make into a garbage collector.

bas-uy n 1 simple stew made of pork flesh and innards, fried in spices and thrown in boiling water, usually prepared at feasts to be given to the helpers. 2 stew made from bananas or tubers boiled in water and sweetened. v [A; a2] make bas-uy.

baswat v [A; a] lift or carry s.t. heavy, usually by holding the bottom. Gibaswat sa nubyu ang nubya padúng sa naghulat nga awtu, The bridegroom carried the bride to the waiting automobile.

basyaw v [B26] for a depressed area to gather water. Mubasyaw (mabasyaw) ang nátad inig-ulan, The yard becomes a pool when it rains. n standing water that gathers on a depressed area.

bat n baseball bat. v [A; a1] bat a ball.

bát1 n butt of a gun. v [A1; a] make a butt.

bát2 = bátir1.

bát3 = balat.

báta1 v [A; a] divide into equal groups or portions for sale. Batáha sa dúsi ka bugkus ang kamunggay, Divide the vegetables into twelve equal bundles. n portion for sale. batabáta v [A; a12] estimate the quantity of s.t. Batabatáha ang íyang pangidarun, Estimate how old she is.

báta2 n woman’s nightgown. — dibanyu bathrobe. v [A; a] wear, make into a nightgown. Dì siya mubáta ug nipis, She won’t wear a flimsy nightgown.

bátà n 1 child. 2 son or daughter. 3 mistress, concubine. 4 bodyguard, protege of s.o. of high rank. Nag-abusar ábi bátà man sa prisidinti, He’s abusive because he’s the president’s protege. — nga lintì tough, ruffian. kanay — attaboy, that’s the way you should be. a 1 young, in the early period of life or growth. Bákang bátà, Young cow, heifer. Matul-id nímung hiwing káhuy kun bátà pa, You can straighten a crooked tree while it’s young. Bátà siyang tan-áwun, She looks very young. 2 a novice in the field. Bátà pa íyang pagkaduktur, He’s still a novice at practicing medicine. 3 for the hour to be early. Bátà pa ang kagabhíun, The night is still young. v 1 [B2; a] get to be young-looking. Mibátà kang tan-áwun niánang sinináa, You look young in that dress. 2 [A12; a12] make s.o. his mistress or protegee. Nakabátà kug mistísa, I had a mistress with a Spanish blood. Matun íyang gibátà, He made a goon into his protege. (→) v 1 [A; a12] rear s.o. from childhood. Gibátà ku ni Tiyù pagkamatay ni Tátay, My uncle took care of me after my father died. 2 [B1; c1] grow up in a certain atmosphere. Nagbatà aku sa kakabus, I grew up in poverty. Bataa (ibatà) siya sa kabuútan, Rear him in an atmosphere of honesty. paka- v [A13; a12] act like, consider, treat like a child. Ayaw ku pakabatáa. Antígu na bítaw ku, Don’t treat me like a baby. I know how already! batàbátà n 1 right-hand man. 2 bodyguard. 3 protege. 4 errand boy, right-hand man. v [A2; a1] request s.o. to run an errand for him. Ibatàbátà ra kug palit ug bínu, Do me a favor and get some wine. batàbatà n younger. v = binátà. batàbataun a 1 childish. 2 fond of children. -in- a acting like a child. v [A; c1] act like a child. Ayawg ibinátà (binatáa) ang ímung sinultihan, Don’t talk in a childish way. Ug binatáan ku níya, mawálà ákung kasukù, When she acts like a little child to me, my anger vanishes. binat-an n way s.o. takes care of children. ka- n childhood friend. ka-an n children. batan-un a young, youthful. Batan-un pa siyang naminyù, He got married while he was still quite young. kabatan-un n 1 the days of one’s youth. Kun handúmun nátù ang átung kabatan-un, When we reminisce about our youth. 2 state of being young. -ut(→) n naughty child, usually used as a term of address. Uy bataut ka, Hey, you naughty boy! a childish [121]in behavior. Dalága ka na piru bataut gihápun, You’re grown-up, but you act like a child. v [B12] become childish.

Bataan n Bataan, a province in Southwestern Luzon. — dí n Bataan Day.

batad n sorghum, k.o. coarse grass used for forage: Andropogon sorghum.

batadbátad n the space between the anus and the genitalia.

bátak v 1 [AB12; a] split s.t. long or break s.t. open; be split, broken open. Nagbátak siyag kawáyan, He is splitting bamboo. Ayaw batáka ang nangkà kay hilaw pa, Don’t split the jackfruit open because it is still unripe. Palakul ang ibátak sa káhuy, Split the wood lengthwise with an axe. 2 [b(1)] pay off debts by splitting coconuts or bamboo. (→) a cracked, broken. Batak ang dakung kaldíru, The large kettle is cracked. -an(→) n board where s.t. is sliced, esp. in circumcisions. l-an(→) n 1 clumps of bamboo from which bamboo stems are usually taken. 2 debt to be paid off by splitting bamboo or coconuts open.

batakan n 1 measuring stick, ruler. 2 principle by which judgment of s.t. is gauged. Ang púlung sa Diyus mauy batakan sa kinabúhì, Our lives are based on the word of God. — nga baláud n basic law, the Constitution.

batakbatak n 1 k.o. frog that croaks very loudly. 2 loquacious person.

batal n hardened part on an otherwise soft or medium-soft surface. Dúnay batal sa abukádu, There was a hard spot in the avocado. Dúnay batal sa kutsun, There was a hard lump in the mattress. Mga batal sa samad, Clots of blood in the wound. v [B6] 1 be s.t. hard in an otherwise soft area. Mibatal ang pistúla sa íyang bulsa, One could feel a hard place in his pocket where his pistol was. 2 be, become brazen. Mibatal (nabatal) na ning náwung kug síging pangútang, I have become shameless from constantly borrowing money. — ang náwung a shameless, hardened to insults. pa- v [A; b6(1)] stay put, refuse to move or budge from a position. Nagpabatal lang siya sa íyang gilingkúran bísag gipasíbug, He did not budge from his seat even when he was asked to move a little. -an n flat floor of wood or stone raised above the ground found at the back of the kitchen, used for storing water jars, and washing. It usually has steps going down. v [A; c1] make, add a batalan.

bataliyun = batalyun.

batalya n 1 battle. 1a fight (humorous usage). 2 soldiers arrayed for battle. 3 any large group of persons going s.w. or grouped together. v [A13] have a fight, conflict, or battle. Kasayu ninyung nagbatalya ganína, How early you were at it this morning! -dur(→) a one who fights for principles, causes, etc. Batalyadur kaáyu nang bayhána, That woman is a great fighter.

batalyun n battalion. v [a2] make into a battalion.

*batánas way — ill-bred, no manners (euphemism for way batásan).

batang1 n = apáli.

batang2, bátang1 v [A; c] lie prostrate. Nagbatang na ang masakitun ug pila ka búlan sa banig, The patient has been bed-ridden for several months. Ibatang ang ímung láwas sa baybáyun, Lie down on the beach. v 1 [A; c1] keep still without moving. Ipabatang (pabatanga) ímung tuu, suntuk sa wala, Keep your right arm in place and hit with your left. 2 stay in a place permanently. Pabatangun ku nímu dinhi hangtud sa hangtud? Will you make me stay in this place forever? 3 stick around s.w. without doing anything. Nagpabatang ka dihà nga daghan man tag trabáhu? Why are you sitting around there doing nothing when there is so much to do? pa-(←) n k.o. longline fishing, usually for sharks.

bátang2 n log. tulud — see tulud.

bat-ang = balat-ang.

batangbátang n hook of an earring.

batanggas n things that originate in the province of Batangas. 1 jackknife. 2 a breed of chicken popularly used in cockfighting because of its remarkable strength and fierceness. v [A1; b6] stab with, make into a jackknife.

batangginya n native of the province of Batangas (female). v [B126] be, become a Batangueña.

bátas v [A; a] 1 cut down bamboo poles. 2 split bamboo poles. 3 [b(1)] pay off a debt by splitting or cutting down bamboos. Ákù lang batásan ning ákung útang nímu, I’ll pay off my debt to you by cutting bamboos down.

batásan n 1 custom, usual way of acting. Batásan námung mangadyì únà mangáun, It’s our custom to pray before eating. 2 one’s manners, way of dealing with s.o. Maáyung batásan, Good way of dealing with people. Way batásan, Having no manners. v [A23; c1] make doing s.t. a habit. Nabatásan na sa mga kutsíru ang pagpílì sa ílang sakay, The rig drivers have gotten into the habit of choosing their passengers. Ibatásan (batasánun) ku sa ákung mga anak ang kamatinahúrun, I will train my children to be respectful. [122]paN- n proper behavior, the social conventions. Pamatásan sa mga militar ang pagsaludar, Saluting is a part of military courtesy. n set of customs.

bátaw = bulay.

batáyan n a bird trap made of bamboo with a bait or bird decoy. The bird is caught when it alights on the trigger mechanism which snaps a noose as the bird perches on it. v [a] make into a batáyan. paN- v [A2; a] catch birds with a batáyan.

batbat v [A; c1] relate or describe an event in detail. Batbáta (ibatbat) sa hukmánan ang ímung nasaksihan, Explain to the court what you saw.

bathálà n 1 God. Makagagáhum ang (si) Bathálà, God is all powerful. 2 a god. Ang salapì nahímung bathálà álang kaníya, Money became his god. v [c1] worship like a god. Ikaw ang ákung bathaláun (ibathálà) hangtud sa hangtud, I will worship you like a god forever. paka- v [A13; a12] act like a god, treat like a god. Ángay nga pakabathaláun ang bána sa asáwa, It is only right that a wife treat her husband like a god. Culu- n false gods, idols. v [A; a] worship false gods.

bathay v [B3(1)46N; b6] s.t. which appears prominently on part of one’s body. Mibathay (namathay) ang ugat sa íyang agtang, Veins stood out prominently on his forehead.

batì a 1 inferior in quality. Ayaw pagpalit ug sinínang batì, Don’t buy clothes which are inferior in quality. 2 ugly (derisive). Batig dagway, Ugly in face. v 1 [B; a2] for s.t. to get to be of poor quality. Mabatì ang lamì sa tinúlang isdag kaugmaan, Fish stew develops a bad flavor if you keep it till the following day. 2 [B; a1] get to be ugly. Mauy nakabatì (nakapabatì) sa átung syudad ning mga balungbálung, These shacks are what makes our city ugly.

bátì1 v 1 [A23; a12] feel s.t., have symptoms of a sickness. Dì ka mubátig kasakit íning dagúma, You won’t feel anything from this needle. Gibátì ba nímu ang kahapdus? Did you feel the pain? 2a [a4] feel s.t. that affects the whole body. Gibátì siya ug katugnaw, She felt cold. 2b be sensitive to, emotionally disturbed by. Batíun kug kamíngaw, I feel lonely. 3 [A123S; a2b2] hear. Dì siya makabatì kay bungul, He cannot hear because he is deaf. Nabátì níya ang dahúnug sa litì, He heard the rumbling sound of the thunder. Hingbatian kung ílang panagsulti, I overheard their conversation. 4 [A23] sympathize with. Mubátì sa ímung kalisud ang ímung kadúgù, Your kin will sympathize with you in your hardship. a audible. Bátì kaáyu sa ámù ang ímung katáwa, We can clearly hear your laughter from our house. (→) v [A13; a12] be in labor. Nagbatì na siya. Dad-a sa matirniti, She’s in labor. Bring her to the clinic. Hináut nga láki nang íyang gibatì, I hope it’s a boy she is in labor with. paN- v 1 [a1] perceive s.t. through physical sensation. Pamatía ang ákung pulsu, Feel my pulse. 2 [A2S; a] listen. Wà ka ba mamátì sa ákung sulti? Weren’t you listening to my story? Pamatíun ta ning plakáha, Let’s listen to this record. n 1 feeling, state of the body. Láin ang ákung památì karun, I feel rather unwell today. 2 opinion. Unsay památì mu báhin niánà? What is your opinion about that? paniN- = paN-, 2. pabatìbátì v 1 [A; ac] say s.t. bad within s.o.’s earshot. Pabatìbatíun ku níyag mga púlung nga pahiubus, He says hurting words within my hearing. 2 say or ask for s.t. by hints with indirection. Mupabatìbátì siya nímu kay nakagustu siya sa ímung rilu, He will give you hints (lit. let you overhear) because he likes your watch. -in- n a beloved person. Binátì nga asáwa, Beloved wife. -l-an n 1 feelings, sensitivities. Gisamáran mung ákung balatían, You hurt my feelings. 2 sickness. Balatían nga tísis, The sickness of T.B. ma-in-un a sympathetic, showing one’s sufferings. pag- n feelings toward s.o.†

bátì2 n 1 hog cholera, a deadly disease affecting pigs. 2 by extension, fowl cholera. v [a4] be infected with hog cholera.

batibáti v [A; a2] do s.t. severely and repeatedly to s.o. Akuy nagbatibáti ug kuláta sa kawatan, I rained blows on the thief. Pastilan níyang nakabatibáti ug kasábà, My! How mercilessly she scolded them! Gibatibáti silag dril, They were drilled mercilessly.

batid a skilled, having specialized training. Batid kaáyu siya sa makina, He’s an expert on engines. v [AB12; a2] get to be an expert or a specialist. Akuy mibatid (mipabatid) níya sa pangisdà, I made him an expert in fishing. paka- v [A13] make oneself expert in. Nagpakabatid ku sa pyánu, I made myself expert in piano playing.

batíis n 1 leg, esp. the lower leg. 2 legs of pants. v [A; c1] make a leg for toys, trousers, etc. Kining bulpin ang batiísun (ibatíis) sa munyíka, Make these ballpoint pens into the legs for your doll. hiN- v [A; b] wash s.o.’s legs. Himatiísi ang bátà, Wash the child’s legs. panghiN- v [A1; b] wash one’s legs. Manghimatíis ku únà matúlug, [123]I’ll wash my legs before I go to bed. -un a having good strong legs.

batikan, batíkan a for a person to be famous. Ang batíkang aktur sa mga lílas dramátik, The famous movie actor. v [B2; c1] become famous.

Batikánu n Vatican.

batikubra n k.o. snake.

batikúla n crupper, part of saddle or harness which goes around the tail. v [A; c1] put on, make into a crupper.

batikúlun n 1 gizzard, the second stomach of a bird. 2 stomach (humorous usage). Dì musakit ang batikúlun kug musugut kag sa dílì, It won’t bother my stomach (lit. gizzard) whether you accept me or not.

batil1 n full-bodied cargo boat without outriggers. It moves by means of a sail or an engine.

batil2 v [A; a] beat or whip eggs, cream, etc. Batila ang sikwáti úsà iságul, Whip up the chocolate before mixing it in. Tubag batilan sa tungug, sa úlu námù makahúngug, Toddy with mangrove bark mixed into it goes to the head. n utensil for beating.

batimbátim = batinbátin2.

bátin1 n k.o. hide and seek played by teams. v [A12C2; b6] play bátin. batinbátin1 = bátin1.

bátin2 v [A; ac2] call a pig. Batína ang bábuy arun kalawgan, Call the pigs so I can feed them. n the call or summons for a pig. -an, -an(→) n s.t. beaten to call pigs.

batinbátin2 n fruit of fruiting trees or vegetables in the early stages of formation. Daghan nang mga batinbátin ang mangga, There are lots of young fruits on the mango tree. v [A; b6] grow into young fruits. Mibatinbátin na ang mga búnga sa tsíkus, The sapodilla fruits have made their appearance now.

báting v [A1; a] go swimming. Magbáting ta sa Talísay, Let’s go bathing in Talisay. — sut, siyut n bathing suit. san — v [A1; b6] take a sunbath.

batingaw n k.o. mousetrap with a trigger mechanism that snaps. v 1 [A; a] catch with a mousetrap. 2 [A2; c1] make into a mousetrap.

batinggílan = batinggúlan. see batinggul.

batinggul a headstrong, stubborn, not listening to advice. -an a = batinggul. v [B12; b6] get to be stubborn. ka-an n stubbornness.

bátir1 n 1 baseball bat. 2 one at bat. 3 one’s turn in batting. v [A; a1] strike with a bat.

bátir2 n butter. v [A3; c] put butter on.

batiri, batiríya n battery. v [A; a] use a battery, put a battery in.

batirplay urkids n k.o. orchid.

batirul n tall pot made of clay or metal for cooking chocolate. v [A; b6] cook in the chocolate pot. -in- v [A; c1] put one’s hands on the hips like the handle of a chocolate pot. Nagbinatirul siyag bantay sa nagtrabáhu, She stood with her hands on her hips while she watched the workers. n medium-sized fish corral in the shape of a chocolate pot, put in 1 to 3 fathoms of water.

batis n batiste, a fine, thin linen or muslin.

batiwtiw n tailor bird, the song of which is popularly said to be, ‘Dakug putus’, ‘Having a large penis’: Orthotomus atrogularis.

batiyà n a shallow and wide basin usually with a crumpled side for laundry. v [a1] make this sort of wash basin.

batsi1 n potholes in streets. v [B2; c1] for roads to have potholes, make potholes. Mubatsi (mabatsi) ang kalsádag síging lunúpan, A road that gets flooded will get full of potholes. batsihun a full of potholes.

batsi2 (slang, from sibat) v 1 [A2; c] get out of s.t., run away. Mibatsi si Títù sa íyang buluhatun, Tito bugged out of the chores. Nakabatsi ang mamumúnù sa prisuhan, The prisoner escaped from the jail. Batsíhan pa nà nímung ímung asáwa, If you just run away from your wife. Ákung ibatsi ang ákung trátu, I will run away with my girl friend. 2 [A; ac1] steal, get s.t. by foul or illegal means. Si Pilu ang mubatsi sa ilimnun, Pilo will steal the drinks.

batsíhì n k.o. edible marine nerite snails.

batsilyir n 1 B.A. degree. 2 one who holds the B.A.

batu1 n 1 rock, stone, pebble. 2 precious stone, kidney stone. 3 s.t. that has hardened. Batu na ang kukakúla, The coca-cola has frozen solid now. 4 piece used in a game of checkers, chess, sungkà, or any game that uses pieces. 5 flint in a lighter. 6 -ng búhì n k.o. stone which is heavy, compact, hard, whitish, and which pops when heated. v 1 [B; a1P] harden into stone. Ayaw paulani ang simintu kay mubatu nà, Don’t expose the cement to the rain because it will harden. Batuhun pagpagáhì ang balikutsa, Let the coconut candy harden like stone. 2 [AP; a2P] a stand stock-still like a stone. Mubatu (mupabatu) man lang ug sugúun, He just stands there when he’s told to do s.t. b harden oneself to s.t. Nabatu na ang nawung niánang bayhána, That woman has become hardened to insults. 3 [A; c] put a stone in jewelry. Úpal ang ibatu sa singsing, Use opal for a stone in your ring. 4 [A; b] [124]put as an anchor or sinker. Batuhi ug dakù, Use a big stone for sinker. 5 [b6(1)] put a flint in a lighter. — baláni n magnet, lodestone. v [B12; a1] become a magnet, impart magnetic force to s.t. batubalaníhun a magnetizing. Batubalaníhung pahiyum, A magnetic smile. (←) v 1 [A; b5] to throw stones at. Batúun (batúan) nátù ang irung búang, Let’s stone the mad dog. 2 [A; a] line, pave s.t. with stones. Batúhi ang karsáda, Pave the road with stones. n the action of stoning. paN- n 1 anchor, sinker. 2 anchor man in a relay. Si Grig ang ílang pamatu (pangbatu) sa lumbà, Greg is their anchor man in the relay. 3 a person who can be relied upon in emergencies, the best bet in a contest. 4 spending money. Náa bay pamatu nímu? Do you have any money to spend? v [c1] 1 use or make as anchor or sinker. 2 be anchor man, best bet. 3 use for spending money. batubátu n 1 anchor. 2 sinker on a fishing line. 3 stone used for artificial jewelry. v [A; c1] 1 put, use as a sinker. Batubatúhan ang iring nga lumsan, Put a sinker on the cat you are going to drown. 2 pelt with stones. 3 put in a stone in fancy jewelry. -in- n k.o. úbi that is firm and round or oval-shaped. batuun a 1 full of rocks, stones. 2 pimply-faced. 3 fruits of seeds or hardened parts.†

batu2 v [A; a2] borrow money, buy s.t., usually basic commodities, on credit. Mubatu kug duha ka gantang bugas, I’ll buy two gantas of rice on credit. Magbatu kug kinyintus kang Dun Pakítu kay magbáy ku, I’ll borrow five hundred pesos from Don Paquito to build my house.

batúan n good-sized basket of any shape, but shallow, usually loosely woven, with no cover, used as a container for farm produce. v [A12; a1] make or use a batúan.

batubára n boom, a spar extending along the bottom of the sail attached to the mast. v [A; ac1] make into, attach a boom of this sort.

batud n k.o. fish.

bátud n grub of a coconut beetle (bakukang). v [a4] 1 be infested with bátud. 2 be crazy. Gibátud ka dihà? Are you crazy?

bátug1 v [A2S; b6] 1 perch on s.t., alight to perch. Mibátug ang tulábung sa bukubuku sa kábaw, The heron landed on the carabao’s back. Ang panan-aw ni Husi didtu magbatug sa gwápang babáyi, Joseph let his gaze rest on the beautiful woman. Tabúning pagkáun arun dì batúgan sa lángaw, Cover the food or the flies will get on it. 2 for children to go home at supper time. Uy! Památug na mu! Urasiyun na, Hey! You kids go home now. It’s time for prayers.

bátug2 = bat-ug.

bat-ug n k.o. barracuda.

bátuk1 against, versus. Ang áway ni Balug bátuk Di Liyun, The fight of Balug versus De Leon. Tambal bátuk sa sip-un, A medicine against colds. v 1 [A23C12; b(1)] oppose. Dì aku mubátuk sa ákung mga labaw, I will not oppose my superiors. Ayaw batúki ang pagbuut sa ímung ginikánan, Don’t oppose the wishes of your parents. 2 [A; b] respond to a hurt by being cold or silent to the perpetrator. Dílì maáyung magbátuk sa ginikánan kun kasab-an, It’s no good to feel resentment against your parents if they scold you. ma-in-un a resentful, tending to respond to slights by coldness.

bátuk2 n a small area different in color or texture from the background. Ang irù dúnay itum nga bátuk sa masigkakílid, The dog has a black spot on either side. v [A; a] dye s.t.

bátuk3 = balalátuk.

batul1 a 1 for smooth or soft surfaces to have hard spots. 2 hard, brazen in character. v 1 [B4] get to have rough spots. Nagkabátul man ning manggáha, This mango is full of hard spots. 2 [B3N] get to be hard or brazen in character. Mibátul ang íyang nawung, She got to be shameless. Nagkabatul na ang kasingkásing níya, Her heart is becoming hardened.

batul2 n k.o. seaweed.

bátul1 n 1 = bátud. 2 = básul2. 3 slow-moving or slow-witted person. v = bátud, v.

bátul2 v [a4] 1 for everything to go wrong at once. Gibátul ning ákung pagkabutang. Nabuthan ku ug nahutdan pug gasulína, Everything has been going haywire. I got a flat and ran out of gasoline. 2 be crazy. Gibátul ka nga sagúlan nímug tubà ang kapi? Have you gone crazy mixing palm toddy into the coffee?

bat-ul n hard lumps found in fleshy fruits. v [a4] for fruits to get lumps in them. Gibat-ul ang ságing, The bananas have lumps in them. ka- v [A13] be full of lumps. Nagkabat-ul ang mangga, The mangoes are full of lumps.

batulang = batúan.

batun1 v 1 [A1; b(1)] have or possess s.t. Nagbatun siya ug dakung hibalu, He is deeply learned. Ayaw batuni ang pagdumut, Do not nurse your hatred. 2 [A; b(1)] have a servant. Nakabatun kamig kiriwan kaáyu, We had a thieving servant. 3 [A; b(1)] take [125]care of s.t. Kinsay mibatun sa bátà pagkapíang niíni? Who was looking after the child when he broke his leg? Batuni kinig maáyu kay handumánan ni nátù, Take good care of this because it is a souvenir. 4 [AN; b(1)] raise and take care of s.o. else’s domesticated animal for a consideration, usually for half the offspring. Siyay namatun sa ákung anay, He raised my sow for half the litter. -in-an n servant. v [B1256] become a servant. binatnan n 1 animal raised for s.o. 2 foster child.

batun2 n baton. v [A; b] 1 conduct an orchestra, choir, etc. Inig-áwit ninyu, ákung batunan, When you sing, I’ll conduct. 2 [A; a] make into a baton.

batung n net used for trapping animals by placing it across the path or dropping it over the animal. (←), batung v 1 [A1; ab2] trap animals with a net. Batunga ninyu ang bakatin, Catch the wild pig in a trap. 2 [A; ab2] make into a net trap.

bátung = balátung.

batúnis = butúnis.

bátus n 1 claquer, a person or group of persons hired to clap or root. Mga bátus kadtung namakpak níya, Those who applauded for him were paid claquers. 2 follower, person who defends s.o. or is on his side. Wà dihà ang tanang bátus sa bágis, Not all the ruffian’s followers were there. 3 underlings, protege of a politician. Bátus siya sa mayur, He is one of the mayor’s boys. v 1 [B56; a12] be, make into claquer, defender, protege of a politician.

bat-us n stomach discomfort due to overeating. v [A3P] 1 cause stomach discomfort. 2 [a4] suffer from over-satiation. Kun gibat-us ka ligdan ug gantang, If you feel discomfort from overeating, roll a quart jar over your stomach.

batúta n 1 baton. 2 policeman’s billy. 3 penis (slang). v 1 [A; b] conduct an orchestra. 2 [a12] make into, strike with a nightstick or baton.

batuwang n = batúan.

batuytuy n k.o. conch.

batwan n k.o. small tree of the secondary forest.

batwánun = balatwánun.

batyà = batiyà.

batyag v 1 [A; b8] notice, be aware of s.t. Wà ku makabatyag sa ulan kay nahinánuk aku, I didn’t notice the rain because I was sound asleep. Nabatyagan ku siya nga milabay dinhi, I noticed him passing by here. 2 [A3P] make s.o. aware. Ang paghut sa irù nakabatyag (nakapabatyag) kanákù nga dinhay misulud, The dog’s barking made me aware that s.o. had come in. 3 [A2N; a12Nb2] have physical sensations. Mubatyag ka gánì sa kutukutu mu, risulta na nà sa ínum, If you feel pain in the pit of your stomach, it’s the result of drinking. Pamatyágun (batyágun) nímu ang kasakit unyà, You will feel the pain later. n feeling, sensation. Pamatyag sa kaluud, A sensation of vomiting.

bau n land or fresh-water turtle. paN- v