The Project Gutenberg EBook of Cleveland Past and Present, by Maurice Joblin

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Title: Cleveland Past and Present
       Its Representative Men, etc.

Author: Maurice Joblin

Posting Date: March 22, 2014 [EBook #9328]
Release Date: November, 2005
First Posted: September 23, 2003

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Produced by Distributed Proofreaders

Cleveland Past and Present

Its Representative Men

Comprising Biographical Sketches of Pioneer Settlers and Prominent Citizens

With a History of the City and Historical Sketches of Its Commerce, Manufactures, Ship Building, Railroads, Telegraphy, Schools, Churches, Etc., Profusely Illustrated with Photographic Views and Portraits


Photographically Illustrated by E. Decker


In many ways the story of the survey and first settlement of Cleveland has been made familiar to the public. It has been told at pioneer gatherings, reproduced in newspapers and periodicals, enlarged upon in directory prefaces and condensed for works of topographical reference. Within a short time Col. Charles Whittlesey has gathered up, collected, and arranged the abundant materials for the Early History of Cleveland in a handsome volume bearing that title.

But Col. Whittlesy's volume closes with the war of 1812, when Cleveland was still a pioneer settlement with but a few families. The history of the growth of that settlement to a village, its development into a commercial port, and then into a large and flourishing city, with a busy population of a hundred thousand persons, remained mostly unwritten, and no part of it existing in permanent form. The whole period is covered by the active lives of men yet with us who have grown up with the place, and with whose history that of the city is inseparably connected. It occurred to the projector of this work that a history of Cleveland could be written in the individual histories of its representative men, that such a volume would not only be a reliable account of the growth of the city in its general features and in the development of its several branches of industry, but would possess the additional advantage of the interest attaching to personal narrative. This idea has been faithfully worked out in the following pages, not without much labor and difficulty in the collection and arrangement of the materials. Besides the personal narratives, an introductory sketch to each of the departments of business into which the biographical sketches are grouped gives a brief account of the rise and present position of that particular industry; these, taken together, forming a full and accurate business and professional history of the city. An introductory sketch of the general history of Cleveland gives completeness to the whole, whilst the numerous illustrations and portraits add greatly to the interest and value of the work.

Numerous as are the sketches, it is not, of course, claimed that all are represented in the volume who deserve a place in it. This would be impossible in a work of ordinary dimensions, even were it convenient, or even possible, to obtain the necessary materials. The aim has been to sketch sufficient of the representative men in each leading business and professional department to give a fair idea of the nature and extent of that department. It is not a complete biographical dictionary of Cleveland, but a volume of biographical selections, made, as the lawyers say, "without prejudice."

History of Cleveland.

For the records of the first sixteen or seventeen years of the history of Cleveland, what may be styled its pioneer history, the local historian will hereafter be indebted to the work of Col. Whittlesey, where every known and reliable fact connected with that period of Cleveland's history is carefully preserved.

The city was originally comprised in lands purchased by the "Connecticut Land Company," and formed a portion of what is termed the Western Reserve. This company was organized in 1795, and in the month of May of the following year, it commissioned General Moses Cleaveland to superintend the survey of their lands, with a staff of forty-eight assistants. On the 22d of July, 1796, General Cleaveland, accompanied by Augustus Porter, the principal of the surveying department, and several others, entered the mouth of the Cuyahoga from the lake. Job P. Stiles and his wife are supposed to have been with the party. General Cleaveland continued his progress to Sandusky Bay, leaving enough men to put up a storehouse for the supplies, and a cabin for the accommodation of the surveyors. These were located a short distance south of St. Clair street, west of Union lane, at a spring in the side-hill, in rear of Scott's warehouse. During the season a cabin was put up for Stiles, on lot 53, east side of Bank street, north of the Herald Building, where Morgan & Root's block now stands. This was the first building for permanent settlement erected on the site of the city, although huts for temporary occupancy had been previously built in the neighborhood.

Upon the return of the party from Sandusky, Mr. Porter prepared the outlines of the city. He says: "I surveyed a piece of land designed for a town--its dimensions I do not recollect--probably equal to about a mile square, bounding west on the river, and north on the lake. I made a plot of this ground, and laid it off into streets and lots. Most or all the streets I surveyed myself, when I left it in charge of Mr. Holley to complete the survey of the lots."

The survey of the city was commenced on the 16th of September, and completed about the 1st of October, 1796. Holley's notes state that on Monday, October 17th, he "finished surveying in New Connecticut; weather rainy," and on the following day he records: "We left Cuyahoga at 3 o'clock 17 minutes, for home. We left at Cuyahoga, Job Stiles and wife, and Joseph Landon, with provisions for the Winter." Landon soon abandoned the spot and his place was taken by Edward Paine, who had arrived from the State of New York, for the purpose of trading with the Indians, and who may be considered the first mercantile man who transacted business in Cleveland. Thus, during the Winter of 1796-7, the population of the city consisted of three inhabitants. During the Winter a child is reputed to have been born in the cabin, which had only squaws for nurses.

Early in the Spring of 1797, James Kingsbury and family, from New England, with Elijah Gunn, one of the surveying party, all of whom had continued during the Winter at Conneaut, where they had endured incredible hardships, removed to Cleveland. His first cabin was put up on the site of the Case Block, east of the Public Square, but he subsequently removed to a point east of the present city limits, somewhere on a line with Kinsman Street. Here he remained until his death.

The next families who were attracted to this settlement were those of Major Lorenzo Carter and Ezekiel Hawley, who came from Kirtland, Vermont, the family of the Major being accompanied by Miss Cloe Inches. In the Spring of the following year, (1798,) the former gentleman sowed two acres of corn on the west side of Water street. He was also the first person who erected a frame building in the city, which he completed in 1802; but an unfortunate casualty proved fatal to the enterprise, for when he was about to occupy the residence it was totally destroyed by fire. In 1803, however, he erected another house on the site of the destroyed building, but on this occasion he confined himself to hewn logs.

The fourth addition of the season was that of Nathan Chapman and his family, who, like the patriarchs of yore, traveled with his herd, and marched into the Forest City at the head of two yoke of oxen and four milch cows, which were the first neat stock that fed from the rich pasturage on the banks of the Cuyahoga.

In the Summer of 1797, the surveying party returned to the Western Reserve and resumed their labors, with Cleveland as a head-quarters. It was a very sickly season and three of the number died, one of whom was David Eldridge, whose remains were interred in a piece of ground chosen as a cemetery, at the corner of Prospect and Ontario streets. This funeral occurred on the 3d of June, 1797, and is the first recorded in the city. Recently, while making some improvements to the buildings now occupying that location, some human bones were discovered.

Less than one month after the first funeral, occurred the first wedding. On the 1st of July, 1797, the marriage was solemnized of William Clement, of Erie, to Miss Cloe Inches, who had come to this city with the family of Major Lorenzo Carter. The ceremony was performed by Mr. Seth Hart, who was regarded by the surveying party as their chaplain.

In the beginning of the following year, (1798,) the population had increased to fifteen. No other immigration is recorded until that of Rodolphus Edwards and Nathaniel Doane and their families, in 1799, the latter consisting of nine persons. They journeyed from Chatham, Connecticut, and were occupied ninety-two days in their transit--a longer period than is now allowed to accomplish a voyage to the East Indies.

In 1799, the Land Company caused a road to be surveyed and partially worked, from Cleveland to the Pennsylvania line, about ten miles from the lake, which was the first road opened through the Reserve. In the Spring of that year Wheeler W. Williams, from Norwich, Connecticut, and Major Wyatt, erected a grist mill at the falls at Newburgh, and in 1800 a saw mill was also built by them; a substantial proof that sufficient corn and wheat were grown and lumber required to warrant the speculation.

The desire of moral culture and education did not relax in this lonely region, and in 1800, a township school was organized, and the children were taught by Sarah Doane. The site of the school house was near Kingsbury's, on the ridge road.

Cleveland received two additions in 1800, in the persons of David Clarke and Amos Spafford, the former of whom erected a house on Water street. The first sermon preached in Cleveland, was delivered in that year by the Rev. Joseph Badger, an agent of the Connecticut Missionary Society.

The years of 1798, 1799 and 1800, were remarkable for the early commencement of genial weather. Pinks were in bloom in February, and the peach trees were also in full blossom in March.

In 1801, the first distillery was erected by David Bryant. The memorable 4th of July of the same year was celebrated by the first ball in Cleveland. It took place at Major Carter's log house, on the slope from Superior street to the harbor, and was attended by thirty of both sexes.

The first village school was held in Major Carter's house in 1802, and the children were taught by Anna Spafford.

In 1803, Elisha Norton arrived in Cleveland with a stock of goods principally adapted to the Indian trade, which he exhibited for sale in Major Carter's house. The State of Ohio was this year admitted into the Union, and the first election was held at James Kingsbury's.

The first Post Office was established here in 1804, when letters were received and transmitted every seven days.

In 1805, the harbor was made a port of entry, and classed within the Erie district. In the same year the territory on the west side of Cuyahoga was ceded to the State by treaty. During the negotiations for that treaty, one of the commissioners, Hon. Gideon Granger, distinguished for talents, enterprise and forethought, uttered to his astonished associates this bold, and what was then deemed, extraordinary prediction: "Within fifty years an extensive city will occupy these grounds, and vessels will sail directly from this port into the Atlantic Ocean." The prediction has been fulfilled, though the latter portion of it required an extension of time, of a year or two to make the fulfilment literal.

In 1806, Nathan Perry and family and Judge Walworth removed to Cleveland the latter from Painesville. In the same year the first militia training occurred. The place of rendezvous was Doane's corner, and the muster amounted to about fifty men.

In 1809, the county of Cuyahoga was formed, Cleveland chosen as the county seat, and Amos Spafford was elected representative. The same year Abraham Hickox commenced business as a blacksmith, under the euphonious cognomen of "Uncle Abram."

On the 5th of June, 1810, the first Court of Record was held in a frame building erected by Elias and Harvey Murray, on the north side of Superior Street, of which Judge Ruggles was President, assisted by three Associate Judges. George Wallis and family arrived this year and opened a tavern. Samuel and Matthew Williamson began business as tanners. Dr. David Long commenced practice as a physician, and Alfred Kelley as the first attorney in Cleveland. Elias and Harvey Murray opened a store this year in Union lane, and may be termed the first general merchants.

In 1812, was the first trial for murder and the execution in Cleveland, that of the Indian O'Mic, for the murder of two white trappers near Sandusky City. In the same year the court house was built.

The first brick house erected in the city was that of J. E. and I. Kelley, in Superior Street. It was built in 1814; but the bricks were very unlike those of the present day, being more than twice their size. They were made in Cleveland. This edifice was soon succeeded by another of the same material, built by Alfred Kelley, in Water street.

In 1815, Cleveland was incorporated by the Legislature with a village charter and Alfred Kelley was the first President.

In 1816, the first bank was established in the city, under the title of the Commercial Bank of Lake Erie, of which Leonard Case took the management. In that year the number of vessels enrolled as hailing from the port of Cleveland, was but seven, and their aggregate burthen 430 tons.

In 1817, the first church was organized, which was the Episcopal church of Trinity; but it was not until 1828 that the edifice was erected on the corner of St. Clair and Seneca streets.

On the 31st of July, 1818, the first newspaper was printed in this city, "The Cleveland Gazette and Commercial Register." On the 1st of September in the same year, the first steam vessel entered the harbor, the "Walk-in-the-Water," commanded by Captain Fish, from Buffalo, putting in on its way to Detroit. It was 300 tons burthen, had accommodations for one hundred cabin and a greater number of steerage passengers, and was propelled at eight or ten miles an hour. Its arrival and departure were greeted with several rounds of artillery, and many persons accompanied her to Detroit.

In 1819, Mr. Barber built a log hut on the west side of the harbor, and may be considered the first permanent settler in Ohio City.

In 1830, was established a stage conveyance to Columbus, and in the autumn a second proceeded to Norwalk. In 1821, these efforts were followed by others, and two additional wagons were started, one for Pittsburgh and another for Buffalo.

In 1825, an appropriation was made by Government for the improvement of the harbor, being the first Government aid received for that purpose. The water in the river was frequently so shallow that it was customary for vessels to lie off in the lake and transfer passengers and freight by boats. On the 4th of July in that year ground was broken at Licking Summit for the Ohio canal, to connect the waters of Lake Erie at Cleveland with those of the Ohio river at Portsmouth.

In 1827, Mr. Walworth, the harbor-master and Government agent, proceeded to Washington, and after the most strenuous exertions, succeeded in obtaining a further grant of $10,000 for the improvement of the harbor. In the same year the Ohio canal was opened to Akron, and the first importation of coal to Cleveland made.

In 1828, a new court-house was erected on the Public Square.

The light-house, on the bluff at the end of Water street, was built in 1830, the lantern being one hundred and thirty-five feet above water level.

In 1832, the Ohio canal was finished and communication between the lake and the Ohio river opened. In the same year a new jail was built on Champlain street.

In 1834, some of the streets were graded, and the village assumed such importance that application for a city charter began to be talked of.

The population of the city had grown in 1835 to 5,080, having more than doubled in two years. There was at this time an immense rush of people to the West. Steamers ran from Buffalo to Detroit crowded with passengers at a fare of eight dollars, the number on board what would now be called small boats, sometimes reaching from five hundred to six hundred persons. The line hired steamers and fined them a hundred dollars if the round trip was not made in eight days. The slower boats, not being able to make that time with any certainty, frequently stopped at Cleveland, discharged their passengers, and put back to Buffalo. It sometimes chanced that the shore accommodations were insufficient for the great crowd of emigrants stopping over at this port, and the steamers were hired to lie off the port all night, that the passengers might have sleeping accommodations. In that year fire destroyed a large part of the business portion of Cleveland. At the same period James S. Clark built, at his own expense, the old Columbus street bridge, connecting Cleveland with Brooklyn township, and donated it to the city. Two years later this bridge was the occasion and scene of the famous "battle of the bridge," to be noticed in its proper place.

In 1836, Cleveland was granted a charter as a city. Greatly to the mortification of many of the citizens, the people across the river had received their charter for the organization of Ohio City before that for the city of Cleveland came to hand, and Ohio City, therefore, took precedence on point of age. This tended to embitter the jealous rivalry between the two cities, and it was only after long years that this feeling between the dwellers on the two sides of the river died out.

The settlement on the west side of the river had been made originally by Josiah Barber and Richard Lord. Soon after Alonzo Carter purchased on that side of the river and kept tavern in the "Red House," opposite Superior street. In 1831, the Buffalo Company purchased the Carter farm which covered the low land towards the mouth of the river, and the overlooking bluffs. They covered the low ground with warehouses, and the bluffs with stores and residences. Hotels were erected and preparations made for the building up of a city that should far eclipse the older settlement on the east side of the river. The company excavated a short ship canal from the Cuyahoga to the old river bed, at the east end, and the waters being high, a steamboat passed into the lake, through a natural channel at the west end.

When it was proposed to get a city charter for Cleveland, negotiations were entered into between the leading men on both sides of the river with the purpose of either consolidating the two villages into one city, or at least acting in harmony. The parties could agree neither on terms of consolidation nor on boundaries. The negotiations were broken off, and each side started its deputation to Columbus to procure a city charter, with the result we have already noticed.

Ohio City was ambitions to have a harbor of its own, entirely independent of Cleveland and to the advantages of which that city could lay no claim. The old river bed was to be deepened and the channel to the lake at the west end re-opened. As a preliminary to this ignoring of the Cleveland harbor entrance of the Cuyahoga, a canal was cut through the marsh, from opposite the entrance to the Ohio canal to the old river bed, which was thus to be made the terminus of the Ohio canal.

In 1837, city rivalry ran so high that it resulted in the "battle of the bridge." Both sides claimed jurisdiction over the Columbus street bridge built by Mr. Clark and donated for public use. Armed men turned out on either side to take possession of the disputed structure. A field piece was posted on the low ground on the Cleveland side, to rake the bridge. Guns, pistols, crowbars, clubs and stones were freely used on both sides. Men were wounded of both parties, three of them seriously. The draw was cut away, the middle pier and the western abutment partially blown down, and the field piece spiked by the west siders. But the sheriff and the city marshal of Cleveland appeared on the scene, gained possession of the dilapidated bridge, which had been given to the city of Cleveland, and lodged some of the rioters in thee county jail. This removed the bridge question from the camp and battle-field to the more peaceful locality of the courts.

In 1840, the population had increased to 6071, so that, notwithstanding that the city had been suffering from depression, there was an influx of a thousand persons in the last five years.

In 1841, the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal was completed, Connecting the Ohio Canal at Akron with the Ohio river at Beaver, Pennsylvania, and thus forming a water communication with Pittsburgh.

The United States Marine Hospital, pleasantly situated on the banks of the lake, was commenced in 1844 and not completed until 1852. It is surrounded by eight acres of ground, and is designed to accommodate one hundred and forty patients.

In 1845, the city voted to loan its credit for $200,000 towards the construction of a railroad from Cleveland to Columbus and Cincinnati, and subsequently the credit of the city was pledged for the loan of $100,000 towards the completion of the Cleveland and Erie or Lake Shore line.

In 1851, the 23d of February, the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad was opened for travel; and on the same day forty miles of the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad was likewise completed. These circumstances produced great rejoicings, for during the period of their construction the city had been almost daily adding to the number of its inhabitants, so that it had nearly doubled in the last six years, its population being now 21,140, and in the following year (1852) it added eighty-seven persons per week to its numbers, being then 25,670.

In 1858, the new court house was built and the old court house on the Public Square was taken down.

We have thus glanced at a few of the leading incidents in the history of the city. A more full and exact account will be found in the historical sketches prefacing each department in the body of the work, and still further details will be found in the biographical sketches. There only remains to be added here a few data in regard to the population, government, and officials of the city.

The population of Cleveland commenced in 1796, with four persons. Next year the number increased to fifteen, but in 1800, had fallen back to seven. The subsequent figures are: 1810, 57; 1820, about 150; 1825, about 500; 1830, United States census, 1,075; 1832, about 1,500; 1833, about 1,900; 1834, city census, 6,071, or with Ohio City, 7,648; 1845, 9,573, or with Ohio City, 12,035; 1846, Cleveland 10,135; 1850, United States census, 17,034, or with Ohio City, 20,984; 1851, city census, 21,140; 1852, 25,670; 1860, United States census for combined city, 43,838; 1866, 67,500; 1869, not less than 100,000.

The village of Cleveland was incorporated in 1814, and the first president of the village, elected in 1815, was Alfred Kelley. Twelve votes were cast at the election. In the following year he resigned his position, and his father, Daniel Kelley, was elected by the same number of votes, retaining his position until 1820, when Horace Perry was made president. In the following year he was succeeded by Reuben Wood. From the year 1821 to 1825, Leonard Case was regularly elected president of the corporation, but neglecting to qualify in the latter year, the recorder, E. Waterman, became president, ex-officio. Here the records are defective until the year 1828, when it appears Mr. Waterman received the double office of president and recorder. On account of ill-health he resigned, and on the 30th of May the trustees appointed Oirson Cathan as president. At the annual election in June, 1829, Dr. David Long was elected president, and during his presidency a fire-engine was purchased. Forty-eight votes were cast at this election. For the years 1830 and 1831, Richard Hilliard was president, and for the following year John W. Allen was chosen, and retained the position until 1835, one hundred and six votes being cast at the last named election.

The mayors of Ohio City, up to the time of the consolidation, were as follows; 1836, Josiah Barber; 1837, Francis A. Burrows; 1838-9, Norman C. Baldwin; 1840-41, Needham M. Standart; 1842, Francis A. Burrows; 1843, Richard Lord; 1844-5-6, D. H. Lamb; 1847, David Griffith; 1848, John Beverlin; 1849, Thomas Burnham; 1850-51-52, Benjamin Sheldon; 1853, Wm. B. Castle.

The first mayor of the city of Cleveland was John W. Willey, who held the office for two terms, namely, for the years 1836 and 1837, the term under the old constitution being but for one year. In 1858, the term was extended to two years, Abner C. Brownell being re-elected for the first two-year term. Under that mayoralty the consolidation of the two cities was effected, and the next mayor, according to the understanding, was taken from the late municipality of Ohio City, William B. Castle being elected for the term of 1855-6.

When Cleveland was raised to the dignity of a city, in 1836, it was divided into three wards, each ward represented by three councilmen and one alderman. In 1851, a fourth ward was added, the increased population rendering the re-arrangement necessary. In 1853, under the operation of the new constitution, the aldermen were dispensed with; the wards had previously been restricted to two trustees, or councilmen, each. In 1854, the two cities of Cleveland and Ohio City having been united, the consolidated city was divided into eleven wards. This number remained until 1868, when, by the annexation of additional territory, a re-division was necessitated, and the city districted into fifteen wards.

As an interesting and valuable contribution to the municipal history of the city we give the following complete record of the executive and legislative government of Cleveland since its organization as a city:

1836. Mayor--John W. Willey. President of the Council--Sherlock J. Andrews. Aldermen--Richard Hilliard, Joshua Mills, Nicholas Dockstader. Councilmen--1st Ward--Morris Hepburn, John R. St. John, William V. Craw. 2d Ward--Sherlock J. Andrews, Henry L. Noble, Edward Baldwin. 3d Ward--Aaron T. Strickland, Horace Canfield, Archibald M. C. Smith.

1837. Mayor--John W. Willey. President of the Council--Joshua Mills. Aldermen--Joshua Mills, Nicholas Dockstader, Jonathan Williams. Councilmen--1st Ward--George B. Merwin, Horace Canfield, Alfred Hall. 2d Ward--Edward Baldwin, Samuel Cook, Henry L. Noble. 3d Ward--Samuel Starkweather, Joseph K. Miller, Thomas Colahan.

1838. Mayor--Joshua Mills. President of the Council--Nicholas Dockstader. Aldermen--Nicholas Dockstader, Alfred Hall, Benjamin Harrington. Councilmen--1st Ward--George C. Dodge, Moses A. Eldridge, Herrick Childs. 2d Ward--Benjamin Andrews, Leonard Case, Henry Blair. 3d Ward--Melancthon Barnett, Thomas Colahan, Tom Lemen.

1839. Mayor--Joshua Mills. President of the Council--John A. Foot. Aldermen--Harvey Rice, Edward Baldwin, Richard Hilliard. Councilmen--1st Ward--George Mendenhall, Timothy P. Spencer, Moses Ross. 2d Ward--John A. Foot, Charles M. Giddings, Jefferson Thomas. 3d Ward--Thomas Bolton, Tom Lemen, John A. Vincent.

1840. Mayor--Nicholas Dockstader. President of the Council--William Milford. Aldermen--William Milford, William Lemen, Josiah A. Harris. Councilmen--1st Ward--Ashbel W. Walworth, David Hersch, John Barr. 2d Ward--David Allen, John A. Foot, Thomas M. Kelley. 3d Ward--Stephen Clary, Charles Bardburn, John A. Vincent.

1841. Mayor--John W. Allen. President of the Council--Thomas Bolton. Aldermen--William Milford, Thomas Bolton, Newton E. Crittenden. Councilmen--1st Ward--Nelson Hayward, Herrick Childs, George B. Tibbets. 2d Ward--Moses Kelly, W. J. Warner, M. C. Younglove. 3d Ward--Philo Scovill, Benj. Harrington, Miller M. Spangler. 1842. Mayor--Joshua Mills. President of the Council--Benjamin Harrington. Aldermen--Nelson Hayward, William Smyth, Benjamin Harrington. Councilmen--1st Ward--William D. Nott, Robert Bailey, Henry Morgan. 2d Ward--George Mendenhall, George Witherell, Jefferson Thomas. 3d Ward--William T. Goodwin, George Kirk, Levi Johnson.

1843. Mayor--Nelson Hayward. President of the Council--George A. Benedict. Aldermen--William D. Nott, Samuel Cook, Samuel Starkweather. Councilmen--1st Ward--Robert Bailey, John B. Wigman, James Church, Jr. 2d Ward--Stephen Clary, Alanson H. Lacy, George A. Benedict. 3d Ward--William T. Goodwin, John Wills, Alexander S. Cramer.

1844. Mayor--Samuel Starkweather. President of the Council--Melancthon Barnett. Aldermen--Leander M. Hubby, Stephen Clary, William T. Goodwin. Councilmen--1st Ward--Thomas Mell, George F. Marshall, E. St. John Bemis. 2d Ward--Charles Stetson, Jacob Lowman, John Outhwaite. 3d Ward--William F. Allen, Melancthon Barnett, John F. Warner.

1845. Mayor--Samuel Starkweather. President of the Council--Flavel W. Bingham. Aldermen--Charles W. Heard, George Witherell, L. O. Mathews. Councilmen--1st Ward--Flavel W. Bingham, Peter Caul, Samuel C. Ives. 2d Ward--James Gardner, Ellery G. Williams, David L. Wood. 3d Ward--Arthur Hughes, John A. Wheeler, Orville Gurley.

1846. Mayor--George Hoadley. President of the Council--Leander M. Hubby. Aldermen--Leander M. Hubby, John H. Gorham, Josiah A. Harris. Councilmen--1st Ward--E. St. John Bemis. John F. Chamberlain, John Gill. 2d Ward--William Case, William Bingham, John A. Wheeler. 3d Ward--William K. Adams Marshall Carson, Liakim L. Lyon.

1847. Mayor--Josiah A. Harris. President of the Council--Flavel W. Bingham. Aldermen--Flavel W. Bingham, William Case, Pierre A. Mathivet. Councilmen--1st Ward--David Clark Doan, Henry Everett, John Gill. 2d Ward--John Erwin, Charles Hickox, Henry B. Payne. 3d Ward--Alexander Seymour, Alexander S. Cramer, Orville Gurley.

1848. Mayor--Lorenzo A. Kelsey. President of the Council--Flavel W. Bingham. Aldermen--Flavel W. Bingham, William Case, Alexander Seymour. Councilmen--1st Ward--Richard Norton, John Gill, Charles M. Read. 2d Ward--Henry B. Payne, Leander M. Hubby, Thomas C. Floyd. 3d Ward--Samuel Starkweather, Robert Parks, William J. Gordon.

1849. Mayor--Flavel W. Bingham. President of the Council--William Case. Aldermen--William Case, Alexander Seymour, John Gill. Councilmen--1st Ward--David W. Cross, Richard Norton, Henry Everett. 2d Ward--Alexander McIntosh, John G. Mack, James Calyer. 3d Ward--Arthur Hughes, Abner C. Brownell Christopher Mollen.

1850. Mayor--William Case. President of the Council--Alexander Seymour. Aldermen--Alexander Seymour, John Gill, Leander M. Hubby. Councilmen--1st Ward--William Given, George Whitelaw, Buckley Stedman. 2d Ward--Alexander McIntosh, William Bingham, Samuel Williamson. 3d Ward--Arthur Hughes, Abner C. Brownell, Levi Johnson.

1851. Mayor--William Case. President of the Council--John Gill, Aldermen--John Gill, Leander M. Hubby, Abner C. Brownell, Buckley Stedman. Council-men--1st Ward--Jabez W. Fitch, George Whitelaw. 2d Ward--Alexander McIntosh, Thomas C. Floyd. 3d Ward--Stoughton Bliss, Miller M. Spangler. 4th Ward--Marshall S. Castle, James B. Wilbur.

1853. Mayor--Abner C. Brownell. President of the Council--Leander M, Hubby. Aldermen--John B. Wigman, Leander M. Hubby, Basil L. Spangler, Buckley Stedman. Councilmen--1st Ward--Henry Morgan, Aaron Merchant. 2d Ward--William H. Shell, Robert B. Bailey. 3d Ward--Stoughton Bliss, John B. Smith. 4th Ward--Admiral N. Gray, Henry Howe.

1853. Mayor--Abner C. Brownell. President of the Council--William H. Shell. Trustees--1st Ward--John B, Wigman, George F. Marshall. 2d Ward--William H. Shell, James Gardner. 3d Ward--William J. Gordon, Robert Reilley. 4th Ward--Henry Everett, Richard C. Parsons.

1854. Abner C. Brownell. President of the Council--Richard C. Parsons. Trustees--1st Ward--John B. Wigman, Charles Bradburn. 2d Ward--William H. Sholl, James Gardner. 3d Ward--Christopher Mollen, Robert Reilley. 4th Ward--Henry Everett, Richard C. Parsons. 5th Ward--Chauncey Tice, Mathew S. Cotterell. 6th Ward--Bolivar Butts, John A. Bishop. 7th Ward--W. C. B. Richardson, George W. Morrill. 8th Ward--A. C. Messenger, Charles W. Palmer. 9th Ward--Wells Porter, Albert Powell. 10th Ward--Plimmon C. Bennett, I. U. Masters. 11th Ward--Edward Russell, Frederick Sillbers.

1855. Mayor--William B. Castle. President of the Council--Charles Bradburn. Trustees--1st Ward--Charles Bradburn, E. A. Brock. 2d Ward--William H. Sholl, William T. Smith. 3d Ward--Christopher Mollen, Thomas S. Paddock. 4th Ward--William H. Stanley, Rensselaer R. Horrick. 5th Ward--Chauncey Tice, Irad L. Beardsley. 6th Ward--Bolivar Butts, John A. Bishop. 7th Ward--W. C. B. Richardson, George W. Morrill. 8th Ward--Charles W. Palmer, S. W. Johnson. 9th Ward--Albert Powell, William A. Wood. 10th Ward--I. U. Masters, Charles A. Crum. 11th Ward Edward Russell, S. Buhrer.

1856. Mayor--William B. Castle. President of the Council--Charles W. Palmer. Trustees--1st Ward--E. A. Brock, A. P. Winslow. 2d Ward--Wm. T. Smith, O. M. Oviatt. 8d Ward--T. S. Paddock, C. Mollen. 4th Ward--R. R. Herrick, C. S. Ransom. 5th Ward--C. Tice, F. T. Wallace. 6th Ward--J. A. Bishop, Harvey Rice. 7th Ward--G. W. Morrill, E. S. Willard. 8th Ward--S. W. Johnson, R. G. Hunt. 9th Ward--Sanford J. Lewis, Charles W. Palmer. 10th Ward--Charles A. Crum, I. U. Masters. 11th Ward--S. Buhrer, John Kirkpatrick.

1857. Mayor--Samuel Starkweather. President of the Council--Reuben G. Hunt. Trustees--1st Ward--A. P. Winslow, L. J. Rider. 2d Ward--O. M. Oviatt, Charles D. Williams. 3d Ward--C. Mollen, Charles Patrick 4th Ward--C. S. Ransom, R. R. Herrick. 5th Ward--F. T. Wallace, W. B. Rezner. 6th Ward--Harvey Rice, Jacob Mueller. 7th Ward--E. S. Willard, John A. Weber. 8th Ward--R. G. Hunt, B. G. Sweet. 9th Ward--C. W. Palmer, J. M. Coffinberry. 10th Ward--I. U. Masters, Charles A. Crum. 11th Ward--John Kirkpatrick, Daniel Stephan.

1858. Mayor--Samuel Starkweather. President of the Council--James M. Coffinberry. Trustees--1st Ward--L. J. Rider, George B. Senter. 2d Ward--Chas. D. Williams, O. M. Oviatt. 3d Ward--Levi Johnson, Randall Crawford. 4th Ward--R. R. Herrick, C. S. Ransom. 5th Ward--Wm. B. Rezner, G. H. Detmer. 6th Ward--Jacob Mueller, L. D. Thayer. 7th Ward--J. A. Weber, Thos. Thompson. 8th Ward--B. G. Sweet, Charles Winslow. 9th Ward--J. M. Coffinberry, John N. Ford. 10th Ward--A. G. Hopkinson, I. U. Masters. 11th Ward--Daniel Stephan, Alexander McLane.

1859. Mayor--George B. Senter. President of the Council--I. U. Masters. Trustees--1st Ward--L. J. Rider, James Christian. 2d Ward--O. M. Oviatt, Wm. H. Hayward. 3d Ward--Randall Crawford, Louis Heckman. 4th Ward--C. S. Ransom, Isaac H. Marshall. 5th Ward--G. H. Detmer, Jacob Hovey. 6th Ward--L. C. Thayer, Jared H. Clark. 7th Ward--Thos. Thompson, James R. Worswick. 8th Ward--Charles Winslow, C. L. Russell. 9th Ward--John H. Sargeant, E. H. Lewis. 10th Ward--I. U. Masters, A. G. Hopkinson. 11th Ward--A. McLane, Thomas Dixon.

1860. Mayor--George B. Senter. President of the Council--I. U. Masters Trustees--1st Ward--James Christian, Thomas Quayle. 2d Ward--W. H. Hayward, M. Oviatt. 3d Ward--Louis Heckman, H. S. Stevens. 4th Ward--I. H. Marshall, E. Thomas. 5th Ward--Jacob Hovey, W. B. Rezner. 6th Ward--Jared H. Clark, C. J. Ballard. 7th. Ward--Jas. R. Worswick, E. S. Willard. 8th Ward--C. L. Russell, J. Dwight Palmer. 9th Ward--E. H. Lewis, Wm. Sabin. 10th Ward--A. G. Hopkinson, I. U. Masters. 11th Ward--Thos. Dixon, Daniel Stephan.

1861. Mayor--Edward S. Flint. President of the Council--Henry S. Stevens. Trustees--1st Ward--Thomas Quayle, J. J. Benton. 2d Ward--O. M. Oviatt, T. N. Bond. 3d Ward--Henry S. Stevens, A. C. Keating. 4th Ward--E. Thomas, Henry Blair. 5th Ward--W. B. Rezner, Joseph Sturges. 6th Ward--C. J. Ballard, William Meyer. 7th Ward--E. S. Willard, P. M. Freese. 8th Ward--J. Dwight Palmer, Solon Corning. 9th Ward--Wm. Sabin, A. Anthony. 10th Ward--I. U. Masters, Wm. Wellhouse. 11th Ward--J. Coonrad, Thos. Dixon.

1862. Mayor--Edward S. Flint. President of the Council--I. U. Masters. Trustees--1st Ward--J. J. Benton, C. C. Rogers. 2d Ward--T. N. Bond. A. Roberts. 3d Ward--A. C. Keating, H. S. Stevens. 4th Ward--Henry Blair, E. Thomas. 5th Ward--Joseph Sturges, N. P. Payne. 6th Ward--Wm. Meyer, Jno. Huntington. 7th Ward--P. M. Freese, E. S. Willard. 8th Ward--Solon Corning, J. Dwight Palmer. 9th Ward--A. Anthony, A. T. Van Tassel. 10th Ward--Wm. Wellhouse, I. U. Masters. 11th Ward--Thos. Dixon, J. Coonrad.

1863. Mayor--Irvine U. Masters. President of the Council--H. S. Stevens. Trustees--1st Ward--C. C. Rogers, Thos. Jones, Jr. 2d Ward--A. Roberts, T. N. Bond. 3d Ward--H. S. Stevens, A. C. Keating. 4th Ward--E. Thomas, Henry Blair. 5th Ward--N. P. Payne, Joseph Sturges. 6th Ward--John Huntington, Geo. W. Gardner. 7th Ward--E. S. Willard, Peter Goldrick. 8th Ward--J. D. Palmer, Jos. Ransom. 9th Ward--A. T. Van Tassel, Percival Upton. 10th Ward--H. N. Bissett, George Presley. 11th Ward--J. Coonrad, Stephen Buhrer.

1864. Mayor--Irvine U. Masters. Mayor--George B. Senter, President of the Council--Thomas Jones, Jr. Trustees--1st Ward--Thomas Jones, Jr., Chas. C. Rogers. 2d Ward--T. N. Bond, Ansel Roberts. 3d Ward--A. C. Keating, Amos Townsend. 4th Ward--Henry Blair, David A. Dangler. 5th Ward--Joseph Sturges, B. P. Bowers. 6th Ward--George W. Gardner, John Huntington. 7th Ward--Peter Goldrick, E. S. Willard. 8th Ward--Joseph Randerson, Wm. H. Truscott. 9th Ward--Percival Upton, John Martin. 10th Ward--George Presley, Michael Crapser. 11th Ward--Stephen Buhrer, Edward Russell.

1865. Mayor--Herman M. Chapin. President of the Council--Thomas Jones, Jr. Trustees--1st Ward--Charles C. Rogers, Thomas Jones, Jr. 2d Ward--Ansel Roberts, Henry K. Raynolds. 3d Ward--Amos Townsend, Randall Crawford. 4th Ward--David A Dangler, Simson Thorman. 5th Ward--B. P. Bower, Joseph Sturges. 6th Ward--John Huntington, George W. Calkins. 7th Ward--E. S. Willard, Charles Pettingill. 8th Ward--William H. Truscott, Joseph Randerson. 9th Ward--John Martin, Fredrick W. Pelton. 10th Ward--John J. Weideman, George Presley. 11th Ward--Edward Russell, Stephen Buhrer.

1866. Mayor--Herman M. Chapin. President of the Council--P. W. Pelton. Trustees--1st Ward--Thos. Jones, Jr., Charles C. Rogers. 2d Ward--H. K. Raynolds, Ansel Roberts. 3d Ward--Randall Crawford, Amos Townsend. 4th Ward--Simson Thorman, Maurice H. Clark. 5th Ward--Joseph Sturges, Wm. Heisley. 6th Ward--George W. Calkins, John Huntington. 7th Ward--Charles B. Pettingill, Christopher Weigel. 8th Ward--Joseph Randerson, William H. Trascott. 9th Ward--Frederick W. Pelton, John Martin. 10th Ward--George Presley, Reuben H. Becker. 11th Ward--Stephen Buhrer, Robert Larnder.

1867. Mayor--Stephen Buhrer. President of the Council--Amos Townsend. Trustees--1st Ward--Charles C. Rogers, Silas Merchant. 2d Ward--Ansel Roberts, Peter Diemer. 3d Ward--Amos Townsend, J. C. Shields. 4th Ward--Maurice B. Clark, Proctor Thayer. 5th Ward--William Heisley, Thomas Purcell. 6th Ward--John Huntington, Edward Hart. 7th Ward--Christopher Weigel, Charles B. Pettingill. 8th Ward--William H. Truscott, Joseph Houstain. 9th Ward--John Martin, F. W. Pelton. 10th Ward--Reuben H. Becker, William Wellhouse. 11th Ward--Robert Larnder, Charles E. Gehring.

1868. Mayor--Stephen Buhrer. President of the Council--Amos Townsend. Trustees--1st Ward--Silas Merchant, C. C. Rogers. 2d Ward--Peter Diemer, H. G. Cleveland. 3d Ward--J. C. Shields, Amos Townsend. 4th Ward--Proctor Thayer, Maurice B. Clark. 5th Ward--Thos. Purcell, Nathan P. Payne. 6th Ward--Edwin Hart, John Huntington. 7th Ward--Charles B. Pettingill, George Angell. 8th Ward--Joseph Houstain, Patrick Carr. 9th Ward--F. W. Pelton, John Martin. 10th Ward--William Wellhouse, John J. Weideman 11th Ward--Charles E. Gehring, George L. Hurtnell. 13th Ward--E. C. Gaeckley, Benj. R. Beavis. 13th Ward--George Rettberg, Major Collins. 14th Ward--John Jokus, A. E. Massey. 15th Ward--B. Lied, John A. Ensign.

1869. Mayor--Stephen Buhrer. President of the Council--Amos Townsend. Trustee--1st Ward--C. C. Rogers, Silas Merchant. 2d Ward--H. G. Cleveland, Peter Diemer. 3d Ward--Amos Townsend, Charles Coates. 4th Ward--R. R. Herrick, Proctor Thayer. 5th Ward--Nathan P. Payne, Thomas Purcell. 6th Ward--John Huntington, W. P. Horton. 7th Ward--George Angell, Horace Fuller. 8th Ward--Patrick Carr, Patrick Smith. 9th Ward--John Martin, L. L. M. Coe. 10th Ward--John J. Weideman, Wm. Wellhouse. 11th Ward--George L. Hartnell, John G. Vetter. 12th Ward--Benj. R. Beavis, Eugene C. Gaeckley. 13th Ward--Major Collins, J. H. Slosson. 14th Ward--A. E. Massey, A. A. Jewett, 15th Ward--John A. Ensign, C. W. Coates.

[Illustration: With Respect, Levi Johnson]

Trade and Commerce.

The commercial history of the early years of Cleveland does not differ from that of most western settlements. When the white population numbered from a few dozen to a few hundred, it is difficult to define what was commerce and what mere barter for individual accommodation. Every man did a little trading on his own account. The carpenter, the tailor, the judge and the preacher were alike ready to vary their customary occupations by a dicker whenever an opportunity offered. The craftsman purchased what necessities or comforts he needed, and paid in the work of his hands. The possessor of one article of daily use traded his superfluity for another article, and for all articles furs and skins were legal tender, as they could be sent east and converted into money or merchandise.

The first strictly commercial transactions were with the Indians. They needed powder and lead for hunting, blankets for their comfort, beads for the adornment of the squaws, and the two great luxuries--or necessities--of frontier life, salt and whisky. In payment for these they brought game, to supply the settlers with fresh provisions, and skins, the currency of the West. In course of time the opening up of the country beyond made a new market for the salt, whisky, and salt provisions collected at Cleveland, and with these staples went occasionally a few articles of eastern made goods for the use of the frontiermen's wives. As the country became more settled the commercial importance of Cleveland increased, until it divided with Detroit and Buffalo the honors and profits of the commerce of the lakes.

Cleveland was settled in 1796. PFiveyears later the first commercial movement was made by the erection of a distillery for the purpose of providing an adequate supply of the basis of early western commerce--whisky. The trade operations were of a promiscuous and desultory character until about the year 1810, when a log warehouse was built by Major Carter, on the bank of the lake, between Meadow and Spring streets, and this was speedily followed by another, built by Elias and Harvey Murray, which became the centre of business and gossip for the village and the country round about. Of course a full supply of the great staple--whisky--was kept.

In 1813 Cleveland became a lively and prosperous place, it having been chosen as a depot of supplies and rendezvous for troops engaged in the war. A good business was done in selling to the army, in exchanging with the quartermasters, and in transporting troops and supplies. This was a flourishing time for Cleveland, and its inhabitants in many cases made small fortunes, realizing several hundred dollars in hard cash.

The close of the war brought the usual reaction, and the commerce of the embryo city lagged, but gradually improved under the stimulus of increasing emigration to the West. In 1816 it had reached such a point that a bank was deemed necessary to the proper transaction of trade, and the Commercial Bank of Lake Erie was opened, with Leonard Case as president. It had the misfortune of being born too soon, and its life consequently was not long. At the same time, the projectors of the bank were not wholly without warrant for their anticipations of success, for Cleveland was doing a good business and owned an extensive lake marine of seven craft, measuring in the aggregate four hundred and thirty tons.

The harbor facilities of Cleveland at this time were very few. The river mouth, to the westward of the present entrance, was frequently choked with sand, and sometimes to such an extent that persons could cross dry shod. Vessels of any considerable size--and a size then called "considerable" would now be held in very slight estimation--made no attempt to enter the river, but came to anchor outside, and were unloaded by lighters. In 1807 a scheme was set on foot for opening a line of communication for trading purposes between Lake Erie and the Ohio river, by cleaning out the channels of the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas riverspretentiousssage of boats and batteaux; a wagon road, seven miles long, from Old Portage to New Portage, making the connection between the two rivers. It was supposed that twelve thousand dollars would suffice for the purpose, and the Legislature authorized a lottery by which the funds were to be raised. There were to be twelve thousand eight hundred tickets at five dollars each, with prizes aggregating sixty-four thousand dollars, from which a deduction of twelve and a half per cent, was to be made. The drawing never came off, and the money paid for the tickets was refunded some years afterwards, without interest. In 1816 an attempt was made to improve the entrance to the harbor by means of a pier into the lake. A company was organized for the purpose, a charter obtained from the Legislature, and something done towards building the pier, but the storms soon washed the slight construction away.

Ten years later, the work of improving the harbor under the direction of the National Government was begun, the first appropriation being of five thousand dollars. A new channel was cut, piers commenced, and the work entered upon which has been carried on with varying energy to the present time. The opening of the river gave considerable impetus to the commerce of the place, which was then carried on wholly by lake.

The opening of the Ohio canal was the first grand starting point in the commercial history of Cleveland. It brought into connection with the lake highway to market a rich country rapidly filling up with industrious settlers, and the products of dairies, grain farms, and grazing lands were brought in great quantity to Cleveland, where they were exchanged for New York State salt, lake fish, and eastern merchandise. Two years after the opening of the canal, which was completed in 1832, the receipts amounted to over half a million bushels of wheat, a hundred thousand barrels of flour, a million pounds of butter and nearly seventy thousand pounds of cheese, with other articles in proportion. Business went on increasing with great rapidity; every one was getting rich, in pocket or on paper, and Cleveland was racing with its then rival, but now a part of itself, Ohio City, for the distinction of being the great commercial centre of the West. At that moment, in the year 1837, the great crash came and business of all kinds was paralyzed.

Cleveland was one of the first places in the West to recover. Its basis was good, and as the interior of Ohio became more peopled the trade of the canal increased and, of course, Cleveland was so much the more benefited. The opening of the Pennsylvania and Ohio canal, in 1841, opened communication with Pittsburgh and added a trade in iron, nails, and glass to the other branches of business. In 1844 the commerce of Cleveland by lake had reached an aggregate of twenty millions for the year.

The opening of the railroad to Columbus in 1851 marked the second step in the business history of the city. The canals brought business from the south-east, and by a slow and uncertain route from Cincinnati. The completion of the railroad gave direct and speedy connection with Cincinnati, with the rich valleys of the Miami, and with lands hitherto undeveloped or seeking other markets for their produce. Other railroads were rapidly built, and developed new avenues of commerce and new sources of wealth. The population increased rapidly. The streets were extended and lined with new buildings. Additional stores were opened and all departments felt the rush of new life. The lake commerce of the port, in spite of the business drawn off by competing railroads, increased in 1853 to a total of eighty-seven million dollars, more than four times the amount reached nine years before, after the canal System had been completed and was in full operation. The grain trade which once was the foundation of the commerce of the city, had fallen away owing the gradual removal of the wheat producing territory westward. It was asserted, and generally believed, that the canals had done all they could for the prosperity of the city, and that unless something new turned up for its benefit, Cleveland would remain at a stand-still, or increase only by very slow degrees. Business was extremely dull, the prospect looked dubious, many business men moved to other cities and more were preparing to follow. Just then two things occurred. The war broke out, and the Atlantic and Great Western railway was extended to Cleveland. The latter event opened a new market for trade in north-western Pennsylvania, and soon after, by sending a large proportion of the product of the oil regions to this point for refining or shipment, built up an immense and lucrative department of manufacture and commerce, whose effect was felt in all classes of business. The war stimulated manufactures, and by a sudden bound Cleveland set out on the path of permanent prosperity long pointed out by some far-seeing men, but until the time referred to strangely neglected. In a very few years the population more than doubled the existing facilities for business were found totally inadequate for the suddenly increased demands, and the most strenuous exertions of the builders failed to meet the call for new stores. Manufactory after manufactory came into existence, and with each there was an influx of population and a consequent increase in all departments of trade. And the work still goes on, every manufactory started creating some need hitherto unfelt, and thus rendering other manufactories necessary to supply the need.

A careful census of population and business, made towards the close of 1868, in compliance with a request from one department of the Government at Washington, showed that the population had increased to ninety thousand; the value of real estate was valued at fifty millions of dollars, and of personal property at thirty millions. The commerce, including receipts and shipments by lake, canal, and railroad, was taken at eight hundred and sixty-five millions of dollars; the value of manufactures for the year at nearly fifty millions; the lake arrivals and clearances at ten thousand, with an aggregate tonnage of over three millions of tons; and the number of vessels and canal boats owned here at nearly four hundred. Seventy years ago Major Carter resided here in lonely state with his family, being the only white family in the limits of what is now the city of Cleveland. The cash value of the entire trade of Cleveland at that time would not pay a very cheap clerk's salary now-a-days.

Levi Johnson

The biography of Levi Johnson is, in effect, the history of Cleveland, and a sketch of the more active period of his life involves the narrative of life in Cleveland during the earlier years of its existence. It is, therefore, of more than ordinary interest.

Mr. Johnson is a native of Herkimer county, New York, having been born in that county April 25th, 1786. He commenced life in a time and place that admitted of no idlers, young or old, and in his tenth year it was his weekly task to make and dip out a barrel of potash, he being too young to be employed with the others in wood-chopping. Until his fourteenth year he lived with an uncle, working on a farm, and laboring hard. At that age he determined to be a carpenter and joiner, and entered the shop of Ephraim Derrick, with whom he remained four years. At eighteen, he changed masters and worked with Laflet Remington, and at twenty-one changed again to Stephen Remington, with whom he worked at barn building one year.

It was whilst he was with Stephen Remington that an event occurred that shaped Levi Johnson's future life. Considerable interest had been excited in regard to Ohio, towards which emigrants were frequently seen taking their way. A brother of Stephen Remington was sent west to spy out the land and report on its desirableness as a home. This committee of one, on lands, came to Newburgh, and was so strongly impressed with the advantages of the place from which Cleveland was afterwards said to be but six miles distant, that he allowed his imagination to run away with his veracity. He wrote back that he had struck the richest country in the world; that the soil was marvelously fertile, and that corn grew so tall and strong that the raccoons ran up the stems and lodged on the ears out of the way of the dogs. Great was the excitement in Herkimer county when this report was received. Such wonderful growth of corn was never known in York State, but Ohio was a terra incognita, and Munchausen himself would have had a chance of being believed had he located his adventures in what was then the Far West. Stephen Remington quit barn-building, shut up his shop, packed up his tools and started in the Fall of 1807 for the new Eden, on Lake Erie. In the succeeding Spring, Johnson followed in his footsteps as far as East Bloomfield, near Canandaigua, where he worked during that Summer, building a meeting-house.

In the Fall of 1808, he shouldered his pack and set out on foot for the West. At Buffalo he found work and wintered there until February, when his uncle came along, bound also for the land of promise. There was room in the sleigh for Levi, and he was not loth to avail himself of the opportunity of making his journey quicker and easier than on foot. On the 10th of March, 1809, the sleigh and its load entered Cleveland.

By that time it had come to be hard sledding, so the sleigh was abandoned and the two travelers, determining to put farther west, mounted the horses and continued their journey to Huron county. Here they fell in with Judge Wright and Ruggles, who were surveying the Fire Lands. They wanted a saw-mill, and Johnson's uncle contracted to build one at the town of Jessup, now known as Wakeman. Levi turned back to Cleveland, and was fortunate in finding a home in the family of Judge Walworth. The Judge wanted an office built, and Johnson undertook to make it. Hitherto, all the houses were of logs; but the Judge, having a carpenter boarding in his family, aspired to something more pretentions. The building was to be frame. At that time Euclid was a flourishing settlement, and rejoiced in that important feature--a saw-mill. The lumber was brought from Euclid, the frame set up on Superior street, about where the American House now stands, and every day the gossips of the little settlement gathered to watch and discuss the progress of the first frame building in Cleveland. The work occupied forty days, and when it was completed, there was great pride in this new feature of Cleveland architecture. The erection of the first frame building marked the commencement of a new era.

That job done, Levi turned back to Huron to fulfill the contract made by his uncle for the erection of a saw-mill. This was a heavy job for so small a force, and between three and four months were spent in it. Slinging his kit of tools on his back, he then turned once more towards Cleveland, in which he settled down for the remainder of his life, the next two or three years being spent in building houses and barns in Cleveland, and in the more flourishing village of Newburgh. A saw-mill also was put up on Tinker's creek.

When Mr. Johnson was building the saw-mill at Jessup, he fell in with a young lady, Miss Montier, who enjoyed the distinction of being the first white girl that landed in Huron, where she lived with a family named Hawley. The young carpenter fell in love with the only pretty girl to be found in the neighborhood, and she was not unkindly disposed to the young man. When he returned to Cleveland she was induced to come also, and lived with Judge Walworth, at that time the great landed owner, and consequently prominent man in the thriving village of sixty inhabitants. In 1811, the couple were married.

In the Fall of 1812, Johnson made a contract with the County Commissioners, Messrs. Wright, Ruggles and Miles, to build a Court House and Jail on the Public Square, opposite where the First Presbyterian Church now stands. The material was to be logs, laid end-wise for greater security. The work was pushed forward rapidly the next Summer, and towards noon of September 12th, Johnson and his men were just putting the finishing touches to the building, when they were startled by what seemed the roar of distant thunder. On looking out of the windows not a cloud could be seen in the sky, but the reverberations continued, and at once the conviction that the noise was of cannons seized them. Throwing down their tools they ran to the bank of the lake, where nearly all the villagers at home to the number of about thirty, were already gathered, stretching their eyes to the westward, whence the sounds came. Now the reports of the cannon could be plainly distinguished. They knew that Perry's fleet had passed up the lake, and that, consequently, a battle could be at any moment expected. The louder reports told when the Americans fired, for their guns were of heavier caliber than the English. At last the firing ceased for a while. Then three loud reports, evidently American, were heard, and the little crowd, convinced that their side had won, gave three hearty cheers for Perry.

About two days afterwards, Johnson and a man named Rumidge picked up a large flat-boat that had been built by General Jessup for the conveyance of troops, and then abandoned. Each of the finders purchased a hundred bushels of potatoes, took them to the army at Put-in-Bay, quadrupling the money invested, and giving Johnson his first financial start in life.

As General Jessup needed the boat to transfer his troops to Malden, he retained it, taking Rumidge also into service, and leaving Johnson to return to Cleveland on the gunboat Somers, of which he was made pilot for the voyage. Shortly afterwards Rumidge returned with the boat and brought news that the American forces had fought a battle with the British at Moravian Town. Johnson resumed command of the flat-boat, and with his associate freighted it with supplies for the army at Detroit. The speculation was successful, and Johnson engaged with the quartermaster of the post to bring a cargo of clothing from Cleveland to Detroit. The season was far advanced, and the voyage was cut short by the ice in the upper part of the lake, so that the boat was headed for Huron, where the cargo was landed and the freight for that distance paid.

Johnson was now a man of means, the successful transactions with the army having given him more money than he had ever possessed at one time before. His voyages and trading success had given him a taste for similar occupations in the future, and his first step was to build a vessel for himself. His first essay in ship-building was something novel. The keel was laid for a ship of thirty-five tons, to be named the Pilot. There was no iron for spikes, but wooden pins supplied their place. Other devices of similar primitiveness were resorted to in the course of the work, and at last she was finished. Now came the question of launching, and it was not lightly to be answered. Modern builders sometimes meet with a difficulty owing to the ship sticking on the "ways," but this early ship-builder of Cleveland had a greater obstacle than this to overcome. He had built his ship with very slight reference to the lake on which she was to float. For convenience in getting timber, and other reasons, he had made his ship-yard about half a mile from the water, near where St. Paul's Church now stands on Euclid avenue, and the greasing of the "ways" and knocking out of the blocks would not ensure a successful launch. Here was a dilemma. Johnson pondered and then resolved. An appeal for aid was promptly responded to. The farmers from Euclid and Newburgh came in with twenty-eight yoke of cattle. The ship was hoisted on wheels and drawn in triumph down the main street to the foot of Superior street hill, where she was launched into the river amid the cheers of the assembled crowd.

This was not the first of Cleveland ship-building. About the year 1808, Major Carter built the Zephyr, used in bringing goods, salt, &c., from Buffalo. After good service she was laid up in a creek, a little below Black Rock, where she was found by the British during the war and burned. In 1810, the firm of Bixby & Murray built the Ohio, an important craft of somewhere about sixty tons burden, the ship-yard being lower down the river than the point from which Johnson's craft was subsequently launched. Towards the close of the war she was laid up at Buffalo, when the Government purchased her, cut her down, and converted her into a pilot boat.

Whilst Johnson was building his vessel another was under construction on the flats near the present location of the works of J. G. Hussey & Co. This craft, the Lady of the Lake, about thirty tons, was built by Mr. Gaylord, brother of the late Mrs. Leonard Case, and was sailed by Captain Stowe, between Detroit and Buffalo.

Johnson was now literally embarked on a sea of success. His little ship was in immediate requisition for army purposes. Cargoes of army stores were transported between Buffalo and Detroit. Two loads of soldiers were taken from Buffalo to the command of Major Camp, at Detroit, and on one of the return voyages the guns left by Harrison at Maumee were taken to Erie. The absconding of a quarter-master with the funds in his possession, among other sums three hundred dollars belonging to Johnson, was a serious drawback in the Summer's operations.

In the Spring of 1815, he recommenced carrying stores to Malden, reaching there on his first trip March 20th, and on this voyage Irad Kelley was a passenger. His second trip was made to Detroit. When passing Malden he was hailed from the fort, but as he paid no attention, Major Putoff fired a shot to make the vessel heave-to and leave the mail. The shot passed through the foresail, but was not heeded. A second shot was fired and then Johnson considered it prudent to heave-to and go ashore. He was sternly questioned as to his inattention to the first orders to heave to, and replied that being a young sailor he did not understand how to heave-to. The officer told him to bring the mail ashore, but was met with a refusal, it being contrary to instructions. Johnson started back to his craft and was followed by a party of men from the fort, who manned a boat and gave chase. Johnson, on boarding his vessel, spread sail, and being favored with a good breeze, drew away from his pursuers and reached Detroit, where he placed the mail in the post-office.

During the early part of the war, whilst Johnson was building his vessel and in other ways kept busy, he was chosen coroner of Cuyahoga, being the first to hold that office in the county. The sparseness of the population rendered his duties light, the only inquest during his term of office being over the body of an old man frozen to death in Euclid.

Samuel Baldwin was the first sheriff of the county, and Johnson was his first deputy. His first experience in office was noticeable. Major Jessup, in command of the troops, had brought to Cleveland from Pittsburgh a Mr. Robins, who built from thirty to forty flat bottomed boats, or batteaux, to be used in the transportation of the troops. The Major ran short of funds and left a balance unpaid in the cost of construction. Robins brought suit, and the Major, thinking the deputy sheriff probably had some unpleasant business for him, studiously avoided an interview with Johnson, and whenever they met by chance, pulled out his pistols and warned Johnson to keep his distance. It so happened, however, that no legal documents had been put in his hands for execution, so that the Major was alarmed without cause.

But the groundless scare of the impecunious Major was a trifling affair compared with the grand scare that overtook the whole people along the lake in the autumn of 1812, at the time of Hull's surrender One day a fleet of vessels was seen bearing down upon the coast. It was first noticed in the vicinity of Huron by a woman. No sooner had she seen the vessels bearing down towards the coast from the westward, than she rushed into the house, emptied her feather bed and placed the tick on a horse as a pack-saddle; then catching up one child before her and another behind, she rode at the top of the animal's speed, thinking torture and death lay behind her. Whenever she passed a house she raised an alarm, and at two o'clock in the morning, more dead than alive with terror and fatigue, she urged her jaded horse into the village of Cleveland, screaming at the top of her voice, "The British and Indians are coming! The British and Indians are coming!" Men slept lightly at that time, with their senses attent to every sound of danger. The shrieks of the woman and the dreaded notice of the approach of the merciless foe awoke the whole village and curdled the blood of the villagers with horror. In that brief announcement, "The British and Indians are coming," were concentrated possibilities of frightful outrage, carnage and devastation. Wild with the terror of her long and agonized night ride, the woman reiterated her piercing warning again and again, filling the air with her shouts. A chorus of voices, from the childish treble to the deep bass of the men, swelled the volume of sound and added to the confusion and alarm. In a few minutes every house was empty, and the entire population of the village swarmed around the exhausted woman and heard her brief story, broken by gasps for breath and by hysterical sobs. She insisted that a fleet was bearing down upon the coast with the purpose of spreading carnage and devastation along the whole lake frontier, that the vessels were crowded with British troops and merciless savages, and that before long the musket bail, the torch and the scalping knife would seek their victims among the inhabitants of Cleveland.

At once all was hurry; the entire population prepared for speedy flight. The greater part took to the woods in the direction of Euclid, the women and children being guarded by some of the men, the others remaining to reconnoiter, and, if possible, defend their property. As soon as the non-fighting portion of the settlement was cared for, a picked force of twenty-five men, contributed by Cleveland, Euclid and Newburgh, marched to the mouth of the river and kept guard. It was evening when this little army reached the river, and for hours after dark they patrolled the banks, listening intently for the approach of the enemy. About two o'clock in the morning a vessel was heard entering the river; the guards hastily gathered for the attack, but before firing, hailed the supposed foe; an answering hail was returned. "Who are you, and what have you on board?" shouted the river guards. "An American vessel loaded with Hull's troops!" was the reply. The astounded guard burst into laughter at their absurd scare. The alarm spread with greater swiftness than the report of the facts, and for days armed men came pouring into Cleveland from so far as Pittsburgh, prepared to beat back the enemy that existed only in their imagination.

It was during this year that the Indian, Omic, was hung for participating in the murder of the trappers, Gibbs and Wood, near Sandusky, in return for the shelter given by the trappers to their two murderers. After committing the murder, the Indians set fire to the hut, and the flames became the instrument of their capture, for some boys returning from Cold Creek Mill saw the fire, went to it, and discovered the partly consumed bodies of the murdered men. The murderers were demanded from the Indians, and Omic was captured by them and surrendered.

The prisoner was lodged in Major Carter's house until the trial which was held under a cherry tree at the corner of Water and Superior streets. Alfred Kelly prosecuted for the State, and Johnson was one of the jury. Omic was convicted and sentenced to be hung. Johnson, who sat on the jury that condemned him, was now employed to build the gallows to hang the criminal. When Omic was led out by Sheriff Baldwin to execution, he remarked that the gallows was too high. He then called for whisky and drank half a pint, which loosened his tongue, and he talked rapidly and incoherently, threatening to return in two days and wreak his revenge on all the pale-faces. More liquor was given him, and he asked for more, but Judge Walworth denounced the giving him more, that he might die drunk, as an outrage, and his supply of liquor was therefore stopped.

Time being up, Sheriff Baldwin was about to cut the drop-rope, when he saw that the condemned man had clutched the rope over his head to save his neck from being broken. The Sheriff dismounted from his horse, climbed up the gallows and tied the prisoner's hands more firmly behind his back. The gallows was braced, and Omic contrived to clutch one of the braces with his hands, fastened behind his back as they were, as he fell when the drop-rope was cut. He hung in that position for some time, until his strength gave way and he swung off. When he had hung sufficiently long, the by-standers drew him to the cross-beam of the gallows, when the rope broke and the body of the wretched murderer fell into his open grave beneath.

In the same year Mr. Johnson was path-master of Cleveland, and he retains in his possession the list of names of those who did work on the roads in that year, armed with good and sufficient shovels according to law.

Mr. Johnson's success as a ship-builder encouraged him to persevere in that business. In the autumn of 1815, he laid down the lines of the schooner Neptune, sixty-five tons burden, not far below the neighborhood of the Central market. In the following Spring she was launched, and run on Lake Erie, her first trip being to Buffalo, whence she returned with a cargo of merchandise for Jonathan Williamson, of Detroit. In the Fall of that year a half interest in the Neptune was sold to Richard H. Blinn, Seth Doan, and Dr. Long. In 1817, she made a trip to Mackinac, for the American Fur Company, and remained in that trade until the Fall of 1819.

In the Summer of 1818, Major Edwards, Paymaster Smith, and another army officer came to Mackinac on the Tiger, and engaged Mr. Johnson to take them to Green Bay, agreeing to pay him three hundred dollars for the trip. The same vessel, under Johnson's command, took the first load of troops from Green Bay to Chicago, after the massacre, Major Whistler engaging the ship for the purpose.

In 1824, Johnson left the Neptune, and in company with Turhooven & Brothers, built the steamer Enterprise, about two hundred and twenty tons burden. This was the first steam vessel built in Cleveland, and her hull was made near the site of the Winslow warehouse. The engine, of sixty to seventy horse power, was brought from Pittsburgh. Johnson ran her between Buffalo and Detroit until 1828, when hard times coming on and business threatening to be unprofitable, he sold his interest in her, and left the lakes. In company with Goodman and Wilkeson, he built the Commodore, on the Chagrin river, in the year 1830, and that closed his ship-building career.

By this time he had accumulated about thirty thousand dollars, a respectable fortune in those days, with which he invested largely in real estate, and waited the course of events to make his investments profitable.

In 1831, he contracted with the Government officers to build the light-house on Water street. In 1836, he built a light-house at Sandusky. In the following year he constructed seven hundred feet of the stone pier on the east side of the Cuyahoga river mouth. The first thing done in the latter work was the driving of spiles. Mr. Johnson became dissatisfied with the old system of driving spiles by horse-power, and purchased a steam engine for four hundred dollars. Making a large wooden wheel he rigged it after the style of the present spile-drivers, and in the course of two or three weeks, had the satisfaction of seeing the spiles driven with greatly increased speed and effect by steam-power.

About 1839, he took his new spile-driver to Maumee Bay and drove about nine hundred feet of spiling around Turtle Island, filling the enclosed space with earth to the height of three feet, to protect the light-house. In 1840, he built the Saginaw light-house, sixty-five feet high, with the adjoining dwelling. In 1842-3, he built the light-house on the Western Sister Island, at the west end of Lake Erie. In 1847, he completed his light-house work by building the Portage River light-house.

Besides his light-house building, Mr. Johnson erected in 1842 his stone residence on Water street, and in 1845, the Johnson House hotel on Superior street. The stone for the former was brought from Kingston, Canada West. In 1853, he built the Johnson Block, on Bank street, and in 1858, he put up the Marine Block at the mouth of the river. This completed his active work.

Since 1858, Mr. Johnson's sole occupation has been the care of his property and occasional speculations in real estate. By a long life of activity and prudence, and by the steady rise in real estate, he is now possessed of personal and landed property to the value of about six hundred thousand dollars, having come to the city with no other capital than his kit of tools, a strong arm, and an energetic purpose. Though eighty-three years of age, his health is good, his memory remarkably active, and all his faculties unimpaired. He has two sons and one daughter yet living, having lost two children. He has had nine grandchildren, and five great-grandchildren.

Noble H. Merwin.

In classifying the early commercial men of Cleveland, the name of Noble H. Merwin is justly entitled to stand among the first on the list. In fact he was the founder and father of her commerce, and a man not only noble in name, but noble in character.

He was born in New Milford, Ct., in 1782, received a good common school education, and married Minerva Buckingham, of that town. Soon after the war of 1812, he went to Georgia and there engaged in mercantile pursuits, having established a store at Savannah and also at Milledgeville. He came to Cleveland in 1815. His family rejoined him at Cleveland in February, 1816. In coming from Georgia they crossed the Alleghanies, and were six weeks in accomplishing the journey, having traveled all the way in wagons. The two elder children were born at New Milford, the other four at Cleveland. The oldest son, George B. Merwin, of Rockport, is now the only surviving member of the family.

After the family arrived at Cleveland, Mr. Merwin engaged in keeping a public house or tavern, as it was then designated, on the corner of Superior street and Vineyard lane, and about the same time established a warehouse at the foot of Superior street and commenced his career in the commerce of the lakes. He built the schooner Minerva, which was the first vessel registered at Washington, from the District of Cuyahoga, under the U. S. Revenue Laws. For many years Mr. Merwin, under contracts with the Government, furnished the supplies required at the U. S. Garrisons on the western frontiers, at Fort Gratiot, Mackinaw, Sault St. Marie, Green Bay and Chicago, as well as the Hudson Bay Company at the Sault St. Marie.

In a commercial point of view his business became extensive for those times, and he enjoyed the entire confidence of the Government and of business men generally throughout the lake country. He succeeded in accumulating a handsome fortune, which consisted mostly in vessel stocks and in lands. He owned a large breadth of lands, extending from the south side of Superior street to the river, which, since his time, has become exceedingly valuable.

But owing mainly to over-work in the various departments of his increasing business, while he was yet in the noon of manhood, his health became seriously impaired, and with a view to recruit it he sailed for the West Indies in 1829, and on the 3d day of November, of that year, died of consumption, at the Island of St. Thomas, in the 47th year of his age. He was a gentleman of fine personal appearance, measuring six feet and four inches in height, erect and well proportioned. In a word, he was a man of heart, and of generous impulses, honest, frank and cordial. In the circle in winch he moved, he was the friend of everybody and everybody was his friend.

John Blair.

The race of men who remember Cleveland in the day of its small beginnings, is fast passing away. Of those who were residents of the little village on the Cuyahoga fifty years ago, only about half a dozen now live in the flourishing city that occupies its site and inherits its name. One of these is John Blair, well known to all the Clevelanders of ante-railroad days, but who is probably a mere name to a large proportion of those who have crowded into the city of late years. Mr. Blair is one of the few remaining links that connect the rude village in the forest with the modern Forest City.

John Blair was born in Maryland on the 18th of December, 1793. His early years were spent in farming, but at the age of twenty-three he dropped the hoe and turned his back to the plow, resolving to come west and seek his fortune. From the time that he shook from his feet the dirt of the Maryland farm, he says, he has never done a whole day's work, at one time, at manual labor.

In 1819, he reached Cleveland, then an insignificant village of about a hundred and fifty inhabitants, who dwelt mostly in log houses, grouped at the foot of Superior street. At the corner of Water street and what is now Union lane, stood the pioneer hotel of Cleveland, the tavern of Major Carter, where good accommodations for man and beast were always to be found. The young Maryland adventurer was not overburdened with wealth when he landed in his future home, his entire cash capital being three dollars. But it was no discredit in those days to be poor, and three dollars was a fine capital to start business upon. In fact sonic of the then "old settlers," would have been glad to possess so much capital in ready money as a reserve fund.

But even in those days of primitive simplicity, three dollars would not support a man for any great length of time if there were no other sources of supply. Mr. Blair recognized the fact that no time must be wasted, and at once turned his attention to a chance for speculation. An opportunity immediately offered itself. An old Quaker, with speculation in his eye, entered Cleveland with two hundred and fifty fat hogs, expecting to find a good market. In this he was mistaken, and as hogs on foot were expensive to hold over for a better market, he determined to convert them into salt pork. Mr. Blair offered to turn pork-packer for a proper consideration; the offer was accepted, and this was Mr. Blair's first step in business.

Pork-packing, as a steady business, offered but little inducement, so Mr. Blair decided on establishing himself on the river as produce dealer and commission merchant. The capital required was small, and the work not exhaustive, for the facilities for shipping were slight and the amount to be shipped small; warehouses were of the most modest dimensions, and docks existed only in imagination. When the shipping merchant had a consignment to put on board one of the diminutive vessels that at intervals found their way into the port, the stuff was put on a flat boat and poled or rowed to the vessel's side, Business was conducted in a very leisurely manner, there being no occasion for hurry, and everybody concerned being willing to make the most of what little business there was. The slow moving Pennsylvania Dutch who had formed settlements in northeastern Ohio, and drove their wide wheeled wagons along the sometimes seemingly bottomless roads to Cleveland, plowed through the mud on the river bank in search of "de John Blair vat kips de white fishes," and after much chaffer, unloaded the flour and wheat from their wagons, and loaded up with fish and salt, sometimes giving three barrels of flour for one barrel of salt.

In 1827, the Ohio Canal was partially opened to Cleveland, and a revolution in trade was effected. The interior of the State was soon brought into communication with the enterprising merchants on Lake Erie and the Ohio river. Mr. Blair was prompt to avail himself of the opportunity to increase his trade. He built the first canal boat constructed in Cleveland, and launched her in 1828, near the site of the present Stone Mill, amid the plaudits of all the people of the village, who had turned out to witness the launching. As soon as the craft settled herself proudly on the bosom of the canal, Mr. Blair invited the spectators of the launch to come on board, and, with a good team of horses for motive power, the party were treated to an excursion as far as Eight Mile Lock and return, the whole day being consumed in the journey. Subsequently Mr. Blair became interested, with others, in a line of twelve boats, employing nearly one hundred horses to work them.

From this time Cleveland continued to grow and prosper. The products of the interior were brought in a steadily increasing stream to Cleveland by the canal, and shipped to Detroit, then the great mart of the western lakes. A strong tide of emigration had set towards Northern Michigan, and those seeking homes there had to be fed mainly by Ohio produce, for which Michigan fish and furs were given in exchange. But the opening of the Erie Canal placed a new market within reach, and Mr. Blair was among the first to take Ohio flour to New York, selling it there at fourteen dollars the barrel.

In 1845, Mr. Blair, then in the prime of his vigor, being but fifty-two years old, resolved to quit a business in which he had been uniformly successful, and spend the remainder of his life in enjoying what he had acquired by diligence and enterprise. He was then the oldest merchant in the city, having been in business over a quarter of a century. For the past twenty-four years he has taken life easy, which he has been able to do from the sensible step he adopted of quitting active business before it wore him out. At the age of seventy-five he is still hale, hearty and vigorous, looking younger than his actual years, and possessing that great desideratum, a sound mind in a sound body.

Philo Scovill.

Familiar as is the name of Philo Scovill, but few of our citizens are aware that he was one of Cleveland's earliest merchants. It appears that circumstances, not altogether the choice of Mr. Scovill, induced him to come to Cleveland with a stock of drugs and groceries. His father was a millwright, and had brought up his son to the use of tools. He had no taste for his new calling, and so worked out of the store-keeping as speedily as possible, and commenced the erection of dwellings and stores in the then new country, being only second in the trade here to Levi Johnson. He continued in the building business until 1826, when he erected the Franklin House, on Superior street, on the next lot but one to the site of the Johnson House. Mr. Scovill at once became the landlord, and continued as such for twenty-three years, excepting an interval of a five years' lease.

About 1849, he left the hotel business to attend to his real estate interests. He was successful in his hotel business; and from time to time invested his surplus capital in lands adjacent to the city, which, within the last few years have become exceedingly valuable. Streets have been laid out upon his property, and inducements offered to settlers that insured a ready sale, and materially aided the growth of the city.

Mr. Scovill, as a man, has enjoyed the confidence of his fellow citizens to an unusual degree. He was hardworking, resolute, and exactly fitted by nature for the pioneer life of his choice, a life that, though toilsome, has left him still hale and vigorous, with the exception of the fruits of overwork, and perhaps exposure, in the form of rheumatism.

Mr. Scovill was born in Salisbury, Ct., November 30, 1791. He lived at that place until he was nine years of age, when his father moved to Cornwall, in the same county; thence to Shenango county, and from thence to Seneca county, N. Y. Here he lived on the banks of Seneca Lake nine years. After that he lived in Buffalo one year, from which point he came to Cleveland, as before stated.

Mr. Scovill was married February 16, 1819, to Miss Jemima Beebe. Mrs. S. is still living and enjoying excellent health.

Melancthon Barnett.

He who has had occasion to traverse Bank street many times, or to pass along Superior at the head of Bank, must have become familiar with the figure of a hale old gentleman, to be seen frequently on sunny days, standing on the steps of the Merchants Bank, or passing along Bank street between the bank and his residence, beyond Lake street. His clothes are not of showy material or fashionable cut, one hand is generally employed in holding a clay pipe, from which he draws comfort and inspiration, and which rarely leaves his lips when on the street, except to utter some bit of dry humor, in which he especially delights. That is Melancthon Barnett, one of the "oldest inhabitants" of the Forest City, and whose well known figure and quaint jokes will be missed by his many friends out of doors, as will his wise counsels within the bank parlor, when death shall at length summon him to leave his wonted haunts.

Mr. Barnett was born in Amenia, Dutchess county, New York, in 1789. At six years old he was taken with the remainder of the family to Oneida county, where he remained until 1812, when he removed to New Hartford, near Utica, and remained two years as clerk in a store. From that place he went to Cherry Valley, Otsego County, where he went as partner in the mercantile business, and continued there until 1825. In that year Mr. May came west to Cleveland for the purpose of opening a store, and Mr. Barnett came with him as clerk. In course of time he was advanced to the position of partner, and continued in business until 1834, when May and Barnett wound up their affairs as merchants, and became speculators in land. Their real estate business was carried on successfully for many years, the steady growth of the town making their investments profitable.

In 1843, Mr. Barnett was elected Treasurer of Cuyahoga county, and proved himself one of the most capable and scrupulously honest officers the county has ever had. He held the position six years, and the business not occupying his entire time, he also filled the office of Justice of the Peace, continuing his real estate transactions at the same time.

At the close of his career as a public officer he was elected Director of the City Bank, with which he has remained to the present time, rarely, if ever, being absent during the business hours of the bank.

Mr. Barnett was married May 15, 1815, to Miss Mary Clark, at Cherry Valley. Mrs. Barnett died April 21, 1840, in Cleveland, having borne five children. Only two of these yet live, the oldest, Augustus, being in the leather business at Watertown, Wisconsin, and the younger, James, in the hardware business in Cleveland. The latter is well known for his brilliant services at the head of the Ohio Artillery during the war, in Western Virginia and Tennessee, and no name is cherished with greater pride in Cleveland than that of General James Barnett.

Joel Scranton.

Joel Scranton, whose name is associated with much of the history of Cleveland, during the period when it grew from a small village to a city well on the way to permanent prosperity, was born in Belchertown, Mass., April 5, 1792. Whilst yet a child his parents removed with him to Otsego county, N. Y., where a considerable portion of his early life was spent. About the year 1820 he removed to Cleveland, where he engaged in business and remained until his death, of apoplexy, on the 9th of April, 1858, having just completed his sixty-sixth year.

In the later years of the village of Cleveland and the early days of the city, Mr. Scranton's leather and dry goods store, at the corner of Superior and Water streets, was a well known business landmark. In the prosecution of his business he succeeded in saving a comfortable competence, which was increased by his judicious investments in real estate. These last have, by the rapid growth of the city, and increase in value since his death, become highly valuable property.

Mr. Scranton was industrious, economical, and judicious in business transactions; of strong mind and well balanced judgment; a kind parent and a firm friend.

Orlando Cutter.

Orlando Cutter first beheld the harbor and city of Cleveland on the 30th of June, 1818, having spent nine dismal days on the schooner Ben Franklin, in the passage from Black Rock. He was landed in a yawl, at the mouth of the river, near a bluff that stood where the Toledo Railroad Machine Shops have since been built, about seventy-five rods west of the present entrance to the harbor. In those days the river entrance was of a very unreliable character, being sometimes entirely blocked up with sand, so that people walked across. It was no uncommon thing for people to ride over, or jump the outlet with the help of a pole.


Mr. Cutter walked along the beach and on the old road to Water street, and thence in a broiling sun to the frame tavern of Noble H. Merwin, on Vineyard lane, near Superior street. Here he was first introduced to Philo Scovill, a robust young carpenter, who was hewing timber for Merwin's new brick tavern, afterwards called the Mansion House.

Mr. Cutter had experienced what our city boys would regard as a rough beginning in life. At sixteen he went into a store at Royalton, Massachusetts, at a salary of four dollars a month and board; and at the end of a year had saved one dollar and a half. His pay being increased to one hundred dollars for the next year, he ventured upon the luxury of a pair of boots. In September, 1815, having proven his mettle as an active, capable and honest young man, he was translated to a large jobbing house, on Cornhill, Boston, the salary being board and clothing. Having been born at Jeffrey, New Hampshire, June 5, 1797, at the end of three years apprenticeship in the Boston establishment, he arrived at the age of twenty-one, and became his own master. The firm offered him a credit for dry goods to the amount of $10,000, with which to go west and seek his fortune, but before accepting the offer he concluded to go and see if he could find a suitable place for trade, but as he had no money, it was necessary to borrow $400 for the expenses of the trip. With a pair of well filled saddlebags as an outfit, he started, and in due time arrived at Black Rock, and from thence proceeded, as above narrated, to Cleveland, on a tour of examination.

Cleveland had then about two hundred inhabitants, and four stores. Water street was cleared out sufficiently for the purposes of travel to the lake. It was also prepared for a race course--for which purpose it was used for a number of years.

Twenty or thirty German teams from Pennsylvania, Stark, Wayne and other counties, laden with flour, each team having from four to six horses, encamped in Superior street at night, and gave Cleveland such a business appearance that Mr. Cutter took a fancy to it.

After two weeks, Mr. Cutter set sail in the schooner Wasp for Sandusky, where there was a natural harbor, and from thence in the Fire Fly, for Detroit. But his thoughts reverted to Cleveland, and forming a partnership with Messrs. Mack & Conant, of Detroit, the firm purchased twenty thousand dollars worth of dry goods, groceries, and a general assortment for an extensive establishment here.

In February, 1820, he married Miss Phelps, of Painesville, Ohio, who died in 1829, two of whose children are now living. His competitors in business were Nathan Perry, J. R. & I. Kelly, S. S. Dudley and Dr. David Long. It was only about a year after he opened in Cleveland when Mack & Conant failed, throwing the Cleveland purchase entirely upon him. After ten years of hard work, and close application, he paid off the whole, but at the close it left him only five hundred dollars in old goods. Ohio currency was not exactly money in those days. It was at a discount of twenty-five to thirty per cent. for eastern funds. There was, moreover, little of it, and there were stay laws, and the appraisal of personal, as well as real estate, under execution, rendering collections almost impossible. To illustrate: a man in Middleburg, Cuyahoga county, Ohio, owed Mr. Cutter seventy-five dollars. He went to attend the constable's sale, and found among the effects a dog appraised at ten dollars; rails ten cents each, and a watch worth five dollars valued at twenty dollars, so he left the place in disgust and hurried home, through the woods, in no placid frame of mind. Of four new shoes put on his horse that morning, three had been torn off by the mud, roots, and corduroy between Cleveland and Middleburg.

After closing up the old business, he posted books or turned his hand to whatever employment presented itself. Inactivity and despondency formed no part of his character. About 1827, there was a temporary business connection between himself and Thos. M. Kelly, after which he started again alone, adding the auction and commission business to that of a merchant.

Mr. Cutter, in November, 1832, was married to Miss Hilliard, sister of the late Richard Hilliard. Of this marriage there are seven children now living, most of them settled in the city. William L. is cashier of the Merchants National Bank; Edwin succeeded his father two years since at the old auction store in Bank street, and R. H. is the principal partner of Cutter & Co., upholsterers.

Going east in the Fall of 1821, Mr. Cutter, on his return, preferred the staunch steamer Walk-in-the-Water, to the Wasps, Fire Flies and Franklins, on board of which he had experienced so many buffetings. George Williams and John S. Strong were also of the same mind. These three old settlers, and about seventy others, went on board at Black Rock, in the afternoon. Eight yoke of oxen were required to assist the engines in getting her over the rapids into the open lake. In the night a furious gale arose, Capt. Rogers put back, but not being able to get into Buffalo Creek, came to anchor near its mouth. Being awfully sea sick, Mr. Cutter lay below, little caring where the Walk-in-the-Water went to. Her anchor, however, parted before morning, and she went ashore sidewise, on an easy sand beach, without loss of life.

This year completes his semi-centennial as a citizen of Cleveland, yet he is still hale and vigorous. He has gone through revulsions, and has enjoyed prosperity with equal equanimity, never indulging in idleness or ease, and has now come to a ripe old age possessed of an ample competence.

Peter Martin Weddell.

One of the most noted historical and topographical landmarks of Cleveland is the Weddell House. Its builder was one of the most valuable citizens of the Forest City.

Mr. P. M. Weddell was born in Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, in 1788. His father died before his birth, and his mother, marrying again, removed to Paris, Bourbon county, Kentucky, the State at that time deserving its sobriquet of the "dark and bloody ground," as the contest with the native savages was carried on with relentless fury on both sides. Under such circumstances it may well be supposed that he grew up with few educational or other advantages, and that his youth was one of vicissitudes and hardships.

At the age of fourteen he applied at a store for employment, what surplus clothing and effects he then possessed being carelessly flung over his shoulders. He promised to do any work they were pleased to set him at, and he thought he could satisfy them. This broad pledge was so well kept that at the age of nineteen he was made a partner. This partnership was soon closed by the death of the old member.

Young Weddell, with a vigorous body, good habits, a clear judgment, and some money, removed to Newark, Ohio, during the war of 1812. While he was successfully trading there, Miss Sophia Perry, of Cleveland, was sent to her friends at Newark for greater safety, and to acquire an education. She was but little past fifteen when she consented to be Mrs. Weddell, and they were married in November, 1815.

In 1820, Mr. Weddell removed from Newark to Cleveland and established himself in business on Superior street, taking a stand at once among the leading merchants of the place, a position he retained as long as he continued in business.

In 1823, Mrs. Weddell died, leaving three children, of whom H. P. Weddell is the only survivor. A portrait of her, by Peale, still remains in the family house, which confirms the remembrances of her friends that she possessed many charms both of person and of disposition. In the following year Mr. Weddell married Mrs. Eliza A. Bell, of Newark, who is still living, and whom every old citizen of Cleveland well knows and sincerely respects. In 1825, he formed a partnership with Mr. Edmund Clade, from Buffalo, and retired from active participation in business. In 1828, the partnership was dissolved. Three years afterwards he took into partnership with him his two clerks, Greenup C. Woods, his half brother, and Dudley Baldwin, the firm name being P. M. Weddell & Co. The firm lasted but four years, when Mr. Woods established himself in Newark, and Messrs. Weddell and Baldwin continued the business together until 1845.

When Mr. Weddell commenced his mercantile life it was no child's play. At that time there were no canals or railroads to facilitate commerce--scarcely were there any roads at all--specie was the only currency west of the mountains, and that had to be carried across the mountains from Pittsburgh on the backs of mules, and the merchandise returned in the same way. Long after, when traveling over the Alleghanies with a friend, Mr. Weddell frequently pointed to places on the road which he remembered, and of which he related interesting anecdotes. Several merchants would travel together and sometimes they would have guards, as the lonely uninhabited mountains were not altogether safe even in those days.

In 1823, Mr. Weddell built what was regarded as a princely brick residence and store on the corner of Superior and Bank streets, afterwards the site of the Weddell House. His surplus funds were invested in real estate, which soon began to increase in value at an astonishing rate, as the city grew in population and importance. On one of his lots upon Euclid street he built the stone cottage which he designed as a country retreat, and after his taking his clerks into partnership, he left the store mainly to their management, devoting his attention to the purchase and improvement of real estate, being generally regarded as a gentleman of wealth.

In the Spring of 1845 he began work upon the Weddell House, tearing away the store and mansion, where his fortune had been made. It was finished in two years. He then made a journey to New York to purchase furniture. On the way home he was attacked by typhoid fever, and in three weeks was in his grave.

As a merchant, Mr. Weddell had few superiors. His urbanity, industry, and care made him popular, successful, and safe, while his integrity and his liberality were well known to his correspondents and to all the religious and benevolent institutions of the times.

He was always willing and ready to aid and assist his young men; when he found one correct and capable he never refused a helping hand. Very few of his day were so liberal in this respect, or could point to so many who became prominent merchants by their aid as could Mr. Weddell.

At his death, Mr. Weddell was a man of such personal energy and business capacity, that he had promise of twenty more years of active life. Soon after the Rev. S. G. Aiken became pastor of the old Stone Church, Mr. Weddell became a communicant, and he died in the Christian faith. He bequeathed to the American Board of Foreign Missions the sum of five thousand dollars; to the Home Missionary Society five thousand dollars, and several other bequests amounting to some thousands to other benevolent institutions.

Dudley Baldwin

In 1819, Dudley Baldwin came to Cleveland from Ballston, New York, having as his principal capital a fair common school education. In course of time be found employment in the mercantile store of Mr. Weddell, and became one of his trusted clerks, being, after a few years, taken into partnership. The death of Mr. Weddell in 1847, terminated a connection that had existed pleasantly for over twenty years.

For the next few years Mr. Baldwin was chiefly engaged in closing up the affairs of Mr. Weddell, after which he engaged for a time in the manufacture of agricultural implements, until, from ill heath, he was compelled to relinquish business and seek restoration of health by travel and in quiet retirement.

Mr. Baldwin was identified with the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad from its inception, and during the darkest days of the undertaking he stood firmly by it, in connection with the other directors, never losing faith in its ultimate success--a success he has lived to see perfected. He has also, for a number of years, been a director of the Commercial Bank of Cleveland.

In religious principles Mr. Baldwin is a Presbyterian, and has long been connected with the Euclid street Presbyterian Church. He is known to all his acquaintances as a man of quiet unassuming manners, and of sterling worth.

Norman C. Baldwin.

Very many of those who settled on the Western Reserve, in the early days of its history, came from Connecticut, and the fact of so many Connecticut families being already here induced considerable emigration from that State long after the first rush was over. Among others of Connecticut birth who found their way eventually to Cleveland, was Norman C. Baldwin, born at Litchfield, July 29th, 1802, and spending his early years in the struggles which so many of the New England families of limited resources had to pass through in the early portion of the present century.

Whilst yet but a mere child he assisted his father in the work of the farm, but being left fatherless at the age of eight, he was sent two years afterwards to work in his cousin's store, where he remained four years. In his fourteenth year he left Litchfield for New Haven, where he found employment for a year with a provision packer.

At that time his mother joined the stream of emigration setting towards the Ohio, and with her came her children. Stopping at Hudson, Summit county, young Baldwin commenced trading on his own account, and built up a good business, which he managed alone for eighteen months and then formed a partnership with two of his brothers, the partnership lasting eight years. Then the firm was dissolved and Norman C. came to Cleveland, where he formed a partnership with Noble H. Merwin in the general produce business.

In 1830, the firm of Giddings, Baldwin & Co., which had succeeded that of Merwin & Baldwin, contained seven partners, of whom Mr. Baldwin is the only survivor. The business was mainly forwarding and commission, the forwarding being mostly by canal. The firm was one of the most important on the lakes, owning a line of boats, the Troy and Erie, from Portsmouth, on the Ohio river, to New York In those days the canal lines carried passengers as well as freight, the boats usually taking about thirty passengers and one thousand bushels of wheat. For emigrants, of whom many were pouring into the West, special boats were fitted up with accommodations, such as they were, for about a hundred and fifty passengers. In 1836, Mr. Baldwin left the mercantile business altogether, and thereafter devoted his attention to operations in real estate.

As illustrating the growth of the city and the consequent increasing value of city property, Mr. Baldwin relates having purchased in 1833 three parcels of land, neither of which cost over two thousand dollars, which are now estimated to be worth half a million of dollars each. In 1831, he was offered, in the course of his operations, a strip of land fronting on Superior street and running back to the canal, with a comfortable frame house thereon, for one thousand dollars. The price looked high and Mr. Baldwin, distrusting his own judgment, consulted 'Squire Cowles, then a prominent attorney. Mr. Cowles hesitated, thought the investment somewhat risky, although they might live to see the land worth thirty dollars a foot front. Heeding his own fears, which were not abated by the doubtful opinion of his adviser, Mr. Baldwin refused to purchase. That same land is worth now not merely thirty dollars a foot, but equivalent to three or four thousand dollars a foot front.

As showing the condition of the roads around Cleveland, and the mode of traveling in the early days of its history, it is narrated by Mr. Baldwin, that when living in Hudson he was fond of good horses and kept a team of which he was proud. The distance between Hudson and Cleveland was but twenty-four miles, but that distance had never been done in one day by any team. Mr. Baldwin thought the time had come for performing the feat, and accordingly set out on the journey. Just at tea time he drew rein in front of Merwin's tavern, at the corner of Superior street and Vineyard lane, and shouted to the landlord. The guests had just seated themselves to tea when Mr. Merwin rushed into the room in a state of great excitement, exclaiming, "For God's sake, gentlemen, come out and see a team that has been driven from Hudson to-day!" The guests left the table in a hurry and rushed to the door, scarcely crediting their own eyes.

Mr. Baldwin was married in 1829, and lost his wife in the Spring of 1867. Of this marriage there are now six children living and three dead. One son, Norman A., is engaged in agriculture in the neighborhood of the city.

Leverett Alcott.

Leverett Alcott was born in Walcott, New Haven county, Connecticut, in 1820. From early boyhood his taste was for mercantile pursuits. At the age of seventeen he obtained a position in an extensive country store at Bristol Basin, on the Farmington Canal, (now Plainville.) By diligence and perseverance, he was soon promoted from the duties of errand boy to a responsible position, and in course of time stood at the head of all the clerks in the establishment.

For the benefit of neophytes in commercial life, it may not be uninteresting to state how boys were made merchants in those days, and the remuneration they received for services. They were not (as is too often the case at the present time) transformed in a few months from crude green boys to merchants, but were obliged to learn the business by actual experience. An arrangement was made in this case for three years, on the following conditions: fifty dollars for the first year, seventy-five dollars for the second year, and one hundred dollars for the third and last year, with board in his employer's family. With this modest salary it required the utmost care and rigid economy to clothe and keep himself; but where there's a will there's a way, and the economy thus practiced in early life was no detriment in laying the foundation for a sound business career in after life. After having fulfilled his engagement with his employer, he spent some three years of mercantile life at the South, but the customs of the country, and the barbarous system of slavery were so repulsive to his feelings that he abandoned that field for the more congenial and prospectively profitable activities of the West, and in December, 1842, landed at Medina, in this State. In the Spring of 1845, a mercantile copartnership was formed with Mr. Augustus W. North, under the firm name of North & Alcott. During the subsequent Fall he married Miss Mary A. Williams, with the view of permanently settling at that place, but the mercantile prospects, and the growth of the town not appearing satisfactory to his views, the firm of North & Alcott was dissolved and the business discontinued, to be reconstructed and opened in a wider field and on a broader basis. Accordingly, in the Spring of 1849, (just twenty years ago,) a business arrangement was entered into with his present partner, Mr. Burrett W. Horton, a former school mate, under the firm name of Alcott & Horton. The business was to be the retailing of dry goods, and located at 177 Superior street, in Harrington's Block. The beginning was a moderate one, with a very limited capital, but what was lacking in capital was made up in energy, industry and perseverance. At first a retail trade only was contemplated, which was continued some four years, when the rapid growth of the city and increase of business induced them to open a wholesale department in the lofts of their store. Subsequently they closed their retail business and occupied the whole building for their jobbing trade; but their apartments were soon found to be too strait for their rapidly growing trade, and in August, 1855, they removed to the large new store, No. 141, in Clark's Block.

Mr. Alcott has a knowledge of human nature that imparts a keen perception of the character and motives of men, and hence, almost instinctively knows whom to trust. He is also quick in forming his judgment, ready in the adaptation of means to secure an end, vigorously prosecutes his plans, and seldom fails of a successful issue.

In a young and vigorous country like the United States, where so many opportunities are offered to ambition and laudable enterprise, and where too often, everything else but gold is lost sight of, it is refreshing to find some among our heaviest merchants, who recognize the fact, that man "cannot live by bread alone." Mr. Alcott, through all his active life has found time to attend to his religious duties. He has been for a long time connected with the Second Presbyterian Church, and for many years one of its elders. He was formerly President of the Young Men's Christian Association; actively engaged in missionary Sunday School work in the city--taking a lively interest in all Christian labor; a ready and willing giver toward public improvements, and all benevolent enterprises.

Richard Winslow.

On the evening of Sunday, August 9th, 1857, died, at nearly the ripe age of eighty-eight, Richard Winslow, the father of the Winslow family that have filled so important a place in the commercial and shipping history of Cleveland.

Mr. Winslow was born in Falmouth, Maine, September 6th, 1769, being descended in a direct line from Knelm Winslow, brother of Governor Edward Winslow, who played so important a part in the early history of Plymouth colony. In 1812, Mr. Winslow removed to North Carolina, where he lived for fourteen years, at Ocracoke, becoming largely interested in commerce, both internal and marine. Soon after his removal to that State, he married Miss Mary Nash Grandy, of Camden, N. C., who became the mother of eleven children, of whom but four, N. C., H. J., R. K., and Edward, are now alive. Mrs. Winslow died October, 1858, having survived her husband a little over one year.

In 1830, he decided to leave North Carolina and try his fortune in the West. A preliminary tour of observation brought him to Cleveland, then lively with business, and more lively still with expectancy of business to come from the completion of the canal, then in partial operation. Like many who preceded, and more who followed him, Mr. Winslow was struck with the natural advantages of Cleveland and concluded to try his fortunes here. The site of what is now known as the "Winslow warehouse," on the river, was owned by C. M. Giddings and Captain Belden, and a building was then in course of erection on it. Mr. Winslow purchased the property. He had strong faith in the growth of the city, but others did not have it to the same extent, and he was strongly urged not to attempt business so far down the river, where it was impossible that trade would ever reach him.

Immediately on concluding his purchase, he went to the eastern cities, where he purchased a large stock of teas and groceries, which he sent with his son, N. C., to Cleveland in the Fall. The stock arrived in December and was at once opened on Superior street, opposite Union lane. In the following May, Mr. Winslow followed with his family, purchased a lot on the south-east corner of the Public Square, and contracted with Levi Johnson for the erection of the house that was occupied by the Winslow family until the death of Mr. Winslow.

Unlike most of the early settlers in Cleveland, Mr. Winslow came with capital to invest at once in business, and by prudent management and far seeing enterprise that capital rapidly increased. He soon became agent for a line of vessels between Buffalo and Cleveland, and also of a line of canal boats. The first step toward his own shipping interests here, which subsequently assumed such proportions, was commenced by building the brig North Carolina. A few years later he was interested in building the steamer Bunker Hill, of 456 tons, which at that time was considered a very large size. To these were added, by himself and his sons, so many other lake craft that the family ranked among the foremost, if not the very foremost ship-owners on the chain of lakes, their sail vessels, propellers and steam-tugs being found everywhere on the western lake waters.

In 1854, Mr. Winslow retired from business, leaving his interest to be carried on by his sons, who inherited their father's business qualities. In his retirement, as in his active business life, he enjoyed the friendship of a very large social circle, to whom his frank, generous manners, warm attachments, and spotless honor commended him. He was a favorable specimen of the old school gentleman, warm and impulsive in his nature, quick to conceive and prompt to act, cordial in his greeting, strong in his attachments, and courteous to all.

His death was accelerated by an accident which seriously injured a leg he had badly injured several years before. To the last he preserved his faculties and his cheerfulness, and but for the injuries he had received would probably have lived for many years longer.

He was no politician, never sought office, but at the same time took a keen interest in public affairs, and did not neglect his duties or privileges as a citizen.

The three brothers in active conduct of the large marine interests known as the Winslows', are distributed as follows: N. C. at Buffalo, H. J. at New York, and R. K. at Cleveland, all of whom have been eminently successful.

Richard Hilliard.

Amongst Cleveland's earliest merchants who have already passed away, none deserve more honorable mention than Richard Hilliard. Like nearly all our men of mark, in early life he was obliged to sail against wind and tide. He was born at Chatham, New York, July 3, 1797. His father, David Hilliard, died when Richard was 14 years of age, he being at the time serving an apprenticeship with a hatter named Dore, at Albany. He was a lad of superior organization, and so, although obedient and obliging, had an extreme distaste for drudgery. A son of Mr. Dore one day threw down a pair of boots, saying, "Clean those boots Dick," when the lad concluded he would not do it, and at once prepared to leave for parts unknown. None of his friends knew of his whereabouts for several months, but at length learned he was at Skaneateles, with an older brother. Here he remained until he was about 18 years of age, being employed at clerking and school teaching, and ever mindful of his widowed mother and fatherless sisters.

From Skaneateles he removed to Black Rock and engaged himself as clerk to Mr. John Daly, a general merchant at that place. The young man soon gained the confidence of his employer and was admitted as a partner without capital. After a year or two, the firm moved to Cleveland, as a place of greater promise for trade. This occurred in 1824. They at once commenced business in the same line here on the site of the present Atwater Block, in a frame building of two compartments, one of which was used for dry goods, and the other for groceries. Mr. Daly was not an active partner in the business here, having given the entire management to Mr. Hilliard.

In 1827, Mr. Hilliard purchased Mr. Daly's entire interest, and continued alone for several years, till at length the demands of trade making it desirable to have a resident partner in New York to make purchases, he associated with himself Mr. William Hays, of that city. This partnership existed till the close of Mr. Hilliard's life.

As soon as business prospects warranted the investment, Mr. Hilliard secured a lot on Water street, and erected the block now occupied by Raymond & Lowe, and on taking possession of the new place of business, commenced the wholesale branch, and continued the same until 1856, when, being on his way home from New York, he took a severe cold, which was soon followed by congestion, and after one week's illness, died, deeply regretted by all who knew him.

He was a man of great business ability, and of strict integrity. He was not always appreciated, because his accurate foresight led him to advocate projects which the public generally were not ready to adopt. He labored most indefatigably for the construction of our Water Works, because he saw what the future wants of the city would be. The scheme was strongly opposed by many on account of the debt it would involve. But it was finally accomplished, and we are more indebted to Richard Hilliard for its achievement than to any other man.

Shortly after coming to Cleveland he became engaged to Miss Mary Merwin, daughter of Noble H. Merwin, who died before the marriage. He then brought his sister Sarah A. (now Mrs. O. Cutter) to live with him. In about a year from this time he was married to Miss Catharine Hays, of New York, who died about four years before Mr. Hilliard, leaving seven children.

S. H. Sheldon.

The lumber trade has grown to be a very important branch of the commerce of Cleveland, and some of its best and most enterprising citizens have been, or are now, engaged in it. Among these the name of Mr. Sheldon holds honorable prominence as one of the earliest in the trade, and who has always held place among the foremost engaged in it.

Mr. Sheldon's birth place was in Clinton, Oneida county, N. Y., where he was born August 12th, 1813. His early days were not passed among thornless roses. His father, a hard working farmer, died when the future lumber merchant was but eight years old. Young Sheldon remained on the homestead until he was sixteen years old, working hard, as did the others of the fatherless family, and snatching such crumbs of knowledge as could be obtained in the winter days, when time could be spared for schooling. On nearly reaching his sixteenth year, he went to Troy, N. Y., where he was received as an apprentice to the drug business, and served seven years in that capacity. As soon as his term of apprenticeship expired he set his face westward in search of fortune, as so many hundreds had done before him, and hundreds of thousands have done since.

In the year 1835, he reached Cleveland and at once started in trade as a druggist on Detroit Street, then in Ohio City, but now the West Side of Cleveland. At that time the West, generally, was enjoying seeming prosperity; everything was inflated and everyone was growing rich, on paper. Ohio City was then the city of the future, and fortune smiled on all its residents, and particularly on those who held real estate within its borders.

Four years later the commercial earthquake came and toppled over the whole fabric of trade and commerce in the West, reducing it to ruins. The entire West was devastated, and Ohio City received a blow from which, as a separate municipality, it never recovered. Among the others who suffered greatly by the disaster was Mr. Sheldon.

In 1842, he sold out his drug business, and went into the employ of another firm as an accountant, continuing in that position about two years. From this he went into business on his own account once more, this time dealing in groceries and provisions, which he continued to trade in until 1846, when he was attracted to the lumber trade, which he entered, in partnership with S. H. Fox. Four years later he disposed of his interest in the firm, and operated in lumber on his own account, not keeping a yard, but buying and selling by the cargo. In 1852, the firm of Sheldon & French was formed, a lumber yard opened, and the firm continued until the failure of the health of Mr. C. French. For a year after this event Mr. Sheldon carried on his business alone, and then took into partnership his son, Edward P. Sheldon, the firm becoming Sheldon & Son.

In April, 1869, the firm of Sheldon & Son merged into that of S. H. Sheldon & Co., being comprised of S. H. Sheldon & Son, and Sears & Holland, of East Saginaw, Mich.

The lumber trade of the city has been, generally, one of steady growth, and Mr. Sheldon's share in it has been of that character. It developed gradually, as the city grew in size and importance, and as the demand from the interior increased with the growth of towns and villages on the lines of canal and railroads. The beginning was small, and the earlier years of its progress full of difficulties, but in the end the trade reached large and lucrative proportions. Its highest point of prosperity was during the war, when the establishment of permanent camps through the State created a sudden and extensive demand for lumber, to build the numerous camp buildings. At that time the only perplexity of the lumber dealer was to find a supply sufficient for the demands pressing in from all quarters, for certain qualities.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, S. H. Sheldon]

From lumber to ship building is an easy transition, and Mr. Sheldon, five or six years since, became interested in lake craft, and added a fine three masted schooner to the lake marine. With the growth of manufactures in the city, he became interested in that direction also, connecting himself with the Etna Iron and Nail Works enterprise. He also took a deep interest in the formation of the People's Gas Company, for the supply of the West Side with gas, being one of the original supporters of the organization, and at present one of its directors.

In all his undertakings Mr. Sheldon has kept steadily in view the necessity of industry and economy, and it is the practice of these two mercantile virtues that has brought about his success. One trait of his business character is peculiar. He has, so far as possible, avoided recourse to law, holding the doctrine that, in most cases, when a debt could not be collected without the aid of a lawyer, it was not worth spending money for. In religious principles Mr. Sheldon is a Congregationalist, and has been connected for more than thirty years with the First Congregational Church, and during most of this time has discharged the duties of deacon, serving the church with fidelity and acceptance, in this official position. He has been identified with Sabbath school labors, as teacher and superintendent, and to his zeal and liberality the Detroit street Mission Sabbathe school largely owes its prosperity, and its present commodious chapel. In every Christian enterprise Deacon Sheldon has been among the foremost. No benevolent cause, whether local or general, has appealed to him in vain for pecuniary support, or Christian sympathy and countenance.

In 1836, Mr. Sheldon was married to Miss Cordelia H. Buxton, of Cleveland, a descendent of the English Buxtons, of philanthropic memory. Of the family of six children, one, the eldest, Henry A. Sheldon, died in 1842. The only surviving son became a partner with his father in 1866.

Charles Hickox.

Whether the conversion of wheat into flour can more properly be classed among manufactures or trade and commerce is a question for casuists to determine. There can be no question, however, that Charles Hickox takes his place, by right, among the merchants and commercial men of Cleveland, whether the grinding of wheat be a manufacture or not, for it is not alone by the milling business that Mr. Hickox has identified himself with the commerce of the city. He has gone through all the phases of Cleveland commercial life, having been connected with the produce and commission trade, owned lake vessels, and otherwise qualified himself for a place among the merchants and "river men," aside from the business in which he is widely known--that of an extensive mill owner.

Mr. Hickox came to Cleveland in 1837, from the state of New York, making his debut in the Forest City in the year of its greatest depression. For the first two years he engaged as clerk, and served his employers faithfully. Then, gaining confidence, and seeing an opening he struck out boldly for himself, setting up, as was usual in those days, in the commission and produce business. The constantly growing commerce of the place increased his business and made it lucrative. With far-seeing enterprise Mr. Hickox pushed his operations so that his trade rapidly increased and his consignments steadily grew in number and quantity. To accommodate it he purchased interests in shipping on the lake, and eventually became a large ship owner.

Seeing his opportunity, Mr. Hickox turned his attention to milling, and commenced operations at a mill in Akron, which he soon made known to the commercial world by the excellence and reliability of its brand. To this was, in time, added the water mill, on the canal, in Cleveland, near the weigh lock, which he held for five years and then sold. After the sale of the latter mill, he purchased the Cleveland Steam Mills on Merwin street, with a capacity of about three hundred and fifty barrels per day, and in 1867, he added the National Steam Mills, with a capacity of from five hundred to six hundred barrels daily. Whilst a large capital is invested in these mills, the number of men employed is less than in establishments where labor saving machinery has not been brought to such a pitch of perfection. About fifty men are directly employed in the mills, and a large number additional in the manufacture of barrels and sacks. A very large proportion of the flour from these mills is sold in sacks, from the fact that the entire product is sold in the home market, which speaks well for the estimation in which the brands are held. Mr. Charles W. Coe is in active partnership with Mr. Hickox, in the milling interests, the firm name being Coe & Hickox.

Mr. Hickox has taken deep interest in the railroad affairs of the city, and has been for some time a director of the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad Company. He is still as active and energetic as ever, well preserved in body and mind, and making his positive influence felt in all departments of business in which he becomes interested. He never tires of work, and, as he says of himself, he "holds his own well, at fifty-five."

Alexander Sackettt.

Alexander Sackett, son of Augustus Sackett, of Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., was born August 17th, 1814. He received a good mercantile education in New York City, and came from thence to Cleveland in 1835, and at once engaged in the wholesale and retail dry goods line, in the old block of Mr. Weddell, on Superior street. He continued with success in this business until 1854, when he went into commercial business on the river, and in which he remained until 1868, when he retired from trade circles to devote his whole attention to his real estate interests.

Mr. Sackett was married in 1836, to Harriet, daughter of Levi Johnson, Esq., of this city. They have five children living, and have lost two. The eldest daughter is the wife of Mr. Virgil T. Taylor, of this city, and the son is in his father's office.

Mr. Sackett is still hale, and may reasonably expect, without accident, to long enjoy the fruit of his labor.

George Mygatt.

Mr. Mygatt is a genuine pioneer of the Western Reserve, having come with his father, Comfort S. Mygatt, at the age of ten years, to the new settlement at Canfield, Mahoning county, Ohio, in the year 1807. He was born at Danbury, Ct., on 14th of June, 1797, when that village had not recovered from its conflagration by the British, during the Revolution. There were then visible, and for many years during his boyhood, buildings which were charred by fires kindled by English soldiers.

Mr. Mygatt's father was a merchant and farmer, at Canfield. He was an active, honest and successful man. The year previous to his emigration, his daughter, Polly, was married, at Danbury, to the late Elisha Whittlesey, who removed at once to Canfield, Ohio. Mr. Whittlesey, his son-in-law, took the contract to clear a piece of ground for Mr. Mygatt, laboring on the job with his axe and team.

At Danbury, George had as good an opportunity in school as any Connecticut lad could have, under the age of ten years. At Canfield there was little opportunity for gaining book knowledge. He was engaged with his father as clerk and general helper, until he was twenty years old. In 1818, he became clerk in the Western Reserve Bank, at Warren, and remained in that position two years, when he engaged in mercantile business in connection with his father-in-law, Mr. A. Adams. This partnership lasted five years, after which he carried on the business alone until 1833.

From 1829 to 1833, he was sheriff of Trumbull county, and had the disagreeable office of executing the murderer, Gardner.

In 1834, Mr. Mygatt became a financier, which may be said to be his profession. He was then appointed cashier of the Bank of Norwalk, Ohio. In 1836, he was appointed cashier of the Bank of Geauga, at Painesville, Ohio; and in 1846 he became President of the City Bank of Cleveland, holding the last named office until 1850. The firm of Mygatt & Brown was then formed, for private banking, and continued until 1857.

In 1855, he was elected a member of the House of Representatives, from Cuyahoga county, serving two sesssion.

[Illustration: Very Respectfully, George Mygatt]

The Merchants Bank of Cleveland, in 1857, became deeply involved, by the failure of the Ohio Life and Trust Company, of Cincinnati. Mr. Mygatt was appointed cashier at this time, when a memorable panic in finances was sweeping over the country. The bank sank a large part of its stock, but maintained its integrity, and continued to redeem its notes.

In 1861, he retired from active business, but, with his long habits of employment, it soon became irksome to him to be out of work, and in 1865 he became Secretary of the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad Company, a position he still retains, for the sake of being employed.

A large portion of Mr. Mygatt's time and means have always been devoted to benevolent purposes; Sunday schools, the annual contributions for the poor, the church, industrial schools, and, in fact, all charitable movements have found in him a ready response; he will long be remembered for his work's sake.

As a business man he was characterized by the strictest integrity, always preserving a quiet, considerate policy, and by incessant industry accomplished a great deal. For one who has reached the age of seventy-two, he possesses remarkable vigor, and we should judge, from the position he occupies, that his mental faculties are little impaired.

Mr. Mygatt was married in March, 1820, to Miss Eliza Freeman, of Warren, who is still living. Of their six children, four of whom arrived at mature age, and were married, only Mrs. F. T. Backus now survives.

Martin B. Scott.

Among the names of those who have done business on the river during the past quarter of a century, that of M. B. Scott, until his retirement a few years since, held a foremost place. Mr. Scott is a native of New York, having been born at Deerfield, near Utica, in that State, in March, 1801.

Mr. Scott is of Quaker stock; a lineal descendent in the sixth generation from the first American Quaker, (Richard Scott, one of the first settlers of Providence, R. I.,) and in the nineteenth generation from William Baliol Scott, of Scotts-Hall, Kent, England, in the line of Edward I. His Quaker ancestors suffered persecution at the hands of the Boston Puritans in 1658. The daughters of Richard Scott were cast into prison by Endicott, for avowing their Quaker faith, and his wife Katharine ( Marbury, youngest sister of the famous Mrs. Anne Hutchinson) was publicly scourged in Boston by order of court, for visiting and sympathizing with her Quaker brethren in prison.

One of the maxims of Mr. Scott's life, was to despise no honest employment, however laborious; if he failed to obtain such business as he desired, he took the next best opportunity that offered, a principle that might be profitably practiced by many young men of the present day. Deprived of a liberal education, by the pecuniary embarrassments of his father, who had a large family to support, he left the Utica Academy in 1820, and made an effort to learn a mechanical trade, with only partial success. He, for a time, alternately taught a country school in winter, and was engaged for the remainder of the year in internal commerce, as master of a boat, or as forwarding clerk, in the then prominent houses of De Graff, Walton & Co., and Cary & Dows, on the Mohawk river and Erie canal. This early training in the elements of commerce and navigation was the nucleus of his subsequent pursuits, and the foundation of his commercial success, although his operations were not on the gigantic scale of many others, who either amassed great fortunes, or sank into bankruptcy; he managed his affairs with such prudence, sagacity and integrity, that he never had occasion to compound with his creditors, or even ask for an extension.

Mr. Scott was interested in the first line of canal boats that ran through from Utica to New York. In the outset of Erie canal operations it was supposed that canal boats could not sail down the Hudson, and the freight was consequently transhipped at Albany. Experiment proved the fallacy of this belief, and thenceforward canal boats ran through to New York. A new line of steam tow-boats on the North river, called the Albany & Canal Tow-Boat Company, was formed, and Mr. Scott was appointed principal manager, first at Albany and then at New York.

In 1836, his health failed, owing to his close application to business, and under medical advice he performed a horseback journey through Michigan, Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin. On his way westward he stopped at Cleveland and was favorably impressed with what was then a small but flourishing town. In 1837, he returned from his western journey and resumed business, but again his health failed, and he was ordered to permanently abandon Albany and seek a more favorable climate. Remembering the advantages of Cleveland both for business and residence, he concluded to remove to that point.

Here he continued his connection with the forwarding business by opening an agency for the American Transportation Line of canal boats on the Erie canal, his office being at the foot of Superior street. In 1841, he engaged in the purchase and shipment of staves, the markets for which were Albany and New York. This branch of business he continued for about five years.

In 1844, he built a steam elevator on River street, near his old stand, it being the first brick building erected on the river front. With the completion of this building he turned his attention more particularly to grain, receiving it by canal from the interior. On the opening of the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati railroad, his elevator was easily connected with that line, and the first load of railroad wheat stored in Cleveland was received into his elevator.

About the year 1840, Mr. Scott became interested in the lake marine by the purchase of the brig Amazon, of 220 tons, then considered a craft of good size. At the time of the purchase, the West was flooded with wild-cat money, and specie was very scarce. The brig was sold by order of the Chancellor of Michigan, and specie demanded from the purchaser, a condition that made buyers shy. In 1842, Mr. Scott purchased the schooner John Grant, of 100 tons, and in the following three years added to his little fleet the schooner Panama, of 100 tons, and the brig Isabella, of over 300 tons, the latter being something highly respectable in the way of lake shipping.

Prudence, foresight, and careful enterprise made all his ventures reasonably successful. In 1865, he resolved to quit business and enjoy the competence he had acquired, first in foreign travel, to free himself more thoroughly from business cares, and then in lettered ease at home. In pursuance of this purpose he spent six months in Europe, returning with recruited energies to the enjoyment of the well stocked library of rare volumes collected during his years of active business, and largely added to during his foreign travels.

A few facts in Mr. Scott's life, exhibiting his thorough confidence in the Government and the cause of the Union, should not be passed over. The first investment in the original War Loan taken in Cleveland, if not in Ohio, was made by Mr. Scott, August 12th, 1861. He still retains and exhibits with justifiable pride, a certificate from the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, dated August 29th, 1861, stating that five thousand dollars had been received from him on account of the three years' treasury notes, and promising that they should be sent him as soon as prepared. From that time to the present he has invested freely in Government securities, being fully convinced of their safety.

Since his retirement from business and return from European travel, he has employed his leisure in literary pursuits, especially in genealogical and historical studies, and has frequently contributed to the journals of the day curious and interesting facts relating to the early settlers in New England, in correction of erroneous beliefs regarding them.

In 1840, Mr. Scott was married to Miss Mary Williamson, by whom he has had seven children, of whom three still live.

J. P. Robison.

Among the soldiers present at Braddock's defeat at Fort Duquesne, near Pittsburgh, was John Decker Robison, an American of Scotch descent, who also did good service during the Revolutionary war. When the war was over he married a Hollander living on the North River, and when a young family grew up about him, moved to western New York, where, building the first house in Canandaigua, he received a patent of six hundred acres of land and settled down as a farmer in Vienna, N. Y. One of his family was a boy, Peter Robison, who stuck to the farm until the ex-Revolutionary soldier had gone down to the tomb, and until he himself had reached several years beyond the meridian of life, when he obeyed the general law of American human nature, and moved toward the setting sun. Years before this step was taken he had married Miss Hetty H. Havens, of Lyons, N. Y., and raised a family of children, among them J. P. Robison, the subject of this sketch, who was born in Ontario county, on the 23rd of January, 1811.

Like his father, young Robison spent the earlier years of his life in working on the farm, and it was not until his sixteenth year that it was decided to give him a good education. He was then sent to Niffing's High School, at Vienna, N. Y., where he attained considerable proficiency in his studies, including Latin and Mathematics. Having developed a taste for medical studies he was admitted as a private pupil of Professer Woodward, of the Vermont College of Medicine, and graduated in November, 1831. Immediately on the completion of his studies he moved into Ohio and commenced practice in Bedford, Cuyahoga county, in February, 1832. He soon succeeded in building up a good practice, and for eleven years continued in the exercise of his profession.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, J. P. Robison]

Then Dr. Robison concluded to change his business. In company with W. B. Hillman he engaged in mercantile business at Bedford, opening a store and at the same time carrying on other descriptions of trade, such as milling, packing provisions, dealing in land, and other operations such as the speculative American is always ready to engage in. Among other things he started a chair factory and a tannery, and his active mind was always revolving projects for the increase of business, and, of course, of business profits.

But, whilst his hands were full of all kinds of business enterprises, Dr. Robison found abundant leisure for a different kind of occupation. He was an intimate friend and associate of Alexander Campbell, the leader of the Disciple movement, and organized a congregation of this faith in Bedford, which he preached to for sixteen years. When he commenced his ministerial labors in Bedford, (from whom, at no time, did he receive fee or reward,) his congregation numbered less than a dozen, but when he closed his term of service as a voluntary minister he left for his successor a congregation numbering four hundred and forty, showing conclusively that his ministering had not been in vain. Nor was his zeal for the faith as understood by the Disciples content with preaching during this long term of service. His purse was always ready for the calls of the church, and, in company with Alexander Campbell, he traveled from place to place throughout a great part of Ohio, addressing the vast concourses called together by the fame of the Disciple leader, then in the plenitude of his power and influence as a preacher and teacher. In these gatherings and in such company Dr. Robison enriched his mind and developed a great talent for extemporaneous address and discussion. Of a positive nature he brought strong earnestness and unflagging energy to the work in which he was engaged, and carried his hearers with him, as he himself was frequently borne away by the enthusiasm of his subject. The same earnestness and energy which made him so successful as a preacher served to make him popular and effective on the political platform, and in the cause of the soldiers of the Union in recent years. During the war he was active in procuring volunteers for the Union army, and whenever an effort was made to aid the cause of the Union Dr. Robison was among the foremost in the work. In politics Dr. Robison was an old Clay Whig. After the demolition of that party he voted with the Democrats. In 1861, he was chosen to the State Senate by the union of the War Democrats and Republicans, receiving the largest vote for any senator from this county. Since that time he has voted with the Republican party. His Senatorial career was highly honorable to himself and of value to his constituents, who found in him a faithful, active and intelligent representative.

It is as a packer of provisions that Dr. Robison has been for many years chiefly known. For twenty-five years he had been associated with General O. M. Oviatt in the packing business at Cleveland, and the brand of the firm had grown to be recognized everywhere as thoroughly reliable. In 1865, this partnership was dissolved, and Dr. Robison continued the business at first alone and afterwards in company with Archibald Baxter of New York. The scarcity of fat cattle in this vicinity compelled him in 1866 to remove his principal packing house to Chicago, where he continues to operate heavily, the amount paid out for cattle during the last season being over $300,000. In addition to the Chicago packing he has continued the work in Cleveland, and also for several years did something in that line at Lafayette, Indiana. The firm's brand, "The Buckeye", is well known and highly esteemed both in the United States and England, to which provisions bearing that mark are largely shipped.

Had Dr. Robison continued his practice as a physician he would undoubtedly have attained eminence in his profession, a leading physician having frequently borne testimony to his extraordinary skill in diagnosing disease, and urged him to devote his entire attention to his profession. But he preferred curing beef and pork to curing human bodies, and, so far as financial results are concerned, probably made a wise choice, though the judgment of human nature and insight into men's motives to which he attributes his success, would have served him in good stead in either line. At the age of fifty-eight, Dr. Robison is found in possession of a handsome competency, although he has all through life dealt with marked liberality toward all worthy objects of charity and patriotism. He is still in possession of much of the vigor that has characterized his business career, and we trust his life of usefulness may yet be long.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, T. P. Handy]

Truman P. Handy.

The oldest banker in Cleveland, and probably the oldest active banker in the State, is Truman P. Handy, now president of the Merchants National Bank. He has been identified with the banking business of Cleveland from his first arrival in the city, thirty-seven years ago, and throughout the whole time has been a successful financier, managing the institutions under his charge with unvarying skill and good fortune.

Mr. Handy was born in Paris, Oneida county, New York, January 17th, 1807. He had the advantage of a good academical education, and made preparation for entering college, which, however, he did not do, and at the close of his school term, spent the remaining time, until his eighteenth year, upon his father's farm, with the exception of two winters in which he taught school.

On reaching his eighteenth year it was decided that he should enter on a commercial life, and a year or two were spent in stores in Utica and New Hartford, N. Y., leaving the latter place in October, 1826, to take a position in the Bank of Geneva, Ontario county, N. Y., of which the Kev. H. Dwight was president. With this commenced Mr. Handy's long banking career. Five years were spent in this bank and then he accepted an invitation to remove to Buffalo, for the purpose of assisting in the organization of the Bank of Buffalo, of which he was made teller, and remained one year in that position. In March, 1832, the young banker married Miss Harriet N. Hall, of Geneva, and with his bride set out on the wedding tour, which was also one of business, to Cleveland.

Under other circumstances the journey would scarcely be deemed a pleasant one. It was in early Spring, and the weather was still inclement. The roads were bad, and the lumbering stage floundered heavily through mud, and amid obstructions that made the way one of discomfort, not unmixed with peril, for six weary days, between Geneva and Cleveland. But in addition to the fact that it was a bridal tour, the young couple were cheered by the prospect before them. The charter of the old Commercial Bank of Lake Erie, established in 1816, and which had gone under, had been purchased by the Hon. George Bancroft and his family in Massachusetts, and it was designed to resuscitate it under better auspices. Mr. Handy had been invited to become the cashier, and in pursuance of his acceptance of the invitation, was, with his bride, on his way to Cleveland.

The bank was organized on his arrival and commenced business on the lot now occupied by the Merchants National Bank, at the corner of Superior and Bank streets, the bank lot running back to the present site of the Herald building. Leonard Case, the president of the old Bank of Lake Erie, was president of the resuscitated bank, with T. P. Handy as cashier. It did a thriving business until 1842, when the term of its charter expired, and the Legislature refused to renew it, compelling the bank to go into liquidation. When the great crash of 1837 occurred, the bank had been compelled to take real estate in settlement of the liabilities of its involved customers, and thus the corporation became one of the greatest landholders of the city. Had the property been retained by the bank owners, it would by this time have been worth to them many millions of dollars.

The close of the bank and the winding up of its affairs necessitated the disposal of the real estate for the purpose of dividing the assets among the stockholders. Messrs. T. P. Handy, H. B. Payne, and Dudley Baldwin were appointed commissioners to close up the affairs of the bank and discharge its liabilities. This being done, the remaining cash and real estate were divided among the stockholders, who appointed Mr. Handy their trustee to dispose of the property. This was accomplished in 1845, when Mr. Handy made his final settlement. During the time subsequent to the close of the bank, he had been carrying on a private banking business under the name of T. P. Handy & Co.

In the Winter of 1845, the State Legislature passed a law authorizing the establishment of the State Bank of Ohio, and of independent banks. In November of that year, Mr. Handy organized the Commercial Branch of the State Bank of Ohio, with a capital of one hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars, and took position in it as cashier, the president being William A. Otis, and the directors, additional to Messrs. Otis and Handy, being John M. Woolsey, N. C. Winslow, and Jonathan Gillett. Mr. Handy was the acting manager of the institution, and so successful was his conduct of its affairs that the stockholders received an average of nearly twenty per cent. on their investment through nearly the whole time until the termination of its charter in 1865, a period of twenty years. His policy was liberal, but with remarkable judgment he avoided hazardous risks, and whilst the bank always had as much business as it could possibly accommodate, the tightest times never affected its credit.

Whilst the Commercial Branch Bank was having such uninterrupted success, the Merchants Branch of the State Bank of Ohio, on the same street, was experiencing a run of bad fortune. The failure of the Ohio Life and Trust Company embarrassed it for a time, and other causes conspired with this to cripple its resources. In 1861, the stockholders invited Mr. Handy to take charge of its affairs as president, and he accepted the trust. His usual success followed him to his new position, and the affairs of the bank were suddenly and permanently improved.

In February, 1865, in common with most of the State banking institutions, the Merchants Branch Bank stockholders decided to wind up the concern as a State institution, and avail themselves of the provisions of the National Banking Act. The Merchants National Bank was organized with an authorized capital of one million of dollars, of which six hundred thousand dollars was paid in, Mr. Handy assuming the presidency, and having associated with him in the management, Messrs. T. M. Kelley, M. Barnett, William Collins, James F. Clark, Samuel L. Mather, and William Bingham. Under this management the bank has thus far had an uninterrupted tide of prosperity, with every prospect of its continuance.

It is not alone as a banker that Mr. Handy has made himself prominent among the citizens of Cleveland, He has been intimately connected with other enterprises tending to increase the prosperity of the city, and it is remarkable that all the undertakings he has been connected with have proved profitable, to himself to a greater or less extent, as might be expected, but in a far greater degree to others, the stockholders, for whose interests he was laboring. Few, if any, men in Cleveland have made more money for others than has Mr. Handy.

In addition to his banking duties, he filled the position from 1850 to 1860, of treasurer of the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati railroad, and managed its finances with that skill and ability which were peculiarly needed in the earlier portion of that period, when the road was an experiment, carried on under the heaviest difficulties. In 1860, he resigned his position as treasurer, and is now a director in that company. He has also been interested in other railroads centering in Cleveland.

In 1856, a Cleveland built schooner left the lakes for the ocean, and crossed the Atlantic to Liverpool, thus commencing the direct trade between the lakes and European ports. In 1857, another Cleveland built vessel was sent across, loaded with staves and lumber, and returned with crockery and iron. The success of these Tentures attracted the attention of the enterprising business men of the lakes, and in the Spring of 1858, a fleet of ten vessels left Cleveland, all but one loaded with staves and lumber, for European ports. Their departure was marked by demonstrations on the part of the authorities and leading men of business, and with a fair breeze and good wishes the fleet bore away for salt water. Of the ten vessels, three were sent by Mr. Handy, the R. H. Harmon, bound for Liverpool, the D. B. Sexton, for London, and the J. F. Warner, for Glasgow. All of the vessels made quick and profitable trips, and the trade thus begun has been carried on with profit to the present time, although at the breaking out of the war American vessels were compelled to withdraw from it, leaving the enterprise wholly in the hands of English parties, who purchased vessels for the trade.

Whilst his vessels were in Europe, Mr. Handy availed himself of the opportunity to visit Great Britain and the Continent, to attend to his interests, and at the same time to study some of the institutions of the old world, especially the financial, religious and educational. In educational matters he had always taken a deep interest, having watched with a careful eye the growth of the public schools of Cleveland, and for some time was associated with Mr. Charles Bradburn in their management, as members of the Board of Education. And this, which was wholly a labor of love, with no remuneration but the consciousness of having done some good by hard work, was the only public office ever held by Mr. Handy, or ever desired by him. At the same time he was deeply interested in the growth and management of the Sunday schools of the city, and for many years has taken a leading part in all movements calculated to extend their field of usefulness and increase their efficiency. In Great Britain he visited the Sunday schools and was warmly welcomed by teachers and scholars, who were greatly interested in his account of the working of Sunday schools here, whilst the narration of his experiences on that side of the Atlantic frequently delighted the scholars at home on his return.

Although rapidly approaching the period allotted by the psalmist to man as his term of life, Mr. Handy is still as full of vigor and business energy as much younger men, and is as earnest as of old in managing large financial undertakings, or in teaching his class in Sunday school. His heart is as young at sixty-two, as at twenty-seven, and the secret of his continued health and vigor undoubtedly lies in his temperate and upright life, his kindly disposition, and that simple cheerfulness of spirit that makes him thoroughly at home in the society of children, who, in their turn, are thoroughly at home with him. One of the most energetic and successful of business men, he has never allowed business to so engross his time and attention as to leave no opportunity for religions or social duties or enjoyments. In this way he has won the confidence and esteem of all classes of citizens as a successful financier, a good citizen, a man of the strictest probity, a warm friend, and a genial acquaintance.

Mr. Handy has but one child living, a daughter, now the wife of Mr. John S. Newberry, of Detroit. His only other child, a boy, died in infancy.

[Illustration: C. Bradburn]

Charles Bradburn.

That Charles Bradburn is a merchant long and honorably known in the commercial history of Cleveland, and that he still retains a prominent place in the business circles which he entered thirty-three years ago, are undeniable facts. And yet, the great feature of Mr. Bradburn's busy life, and that of which he is justly most proud, is not his business successes, but his connection with the public schools of this city. His money, made by anxious care in his warehouse and among business men, was freely spent to promote the cause of education, and the labor, solicitude and anxiety with which he prosecuted his business, great as they necessarily were, must be counted small compared with his sacrifices of time and labor in the effort to extend and improve the school system and make the school houses of the city a source of gratulation and pride to the citizens. But whilst his hardest labor was in the service of the schools, it was purely a labor of love, whilst his work on the river was a labor of business, and therefore he must, in this record of Cleveland's noted men, take rank among his commercial brethren.

Mr. Bradburn was born at Attleborough, Massachusetts, July 16th, 1808. His father was a cotton manufacturer when that great industrial interest was in its infancy. The first manufacture in this country of several articles of twilled fabrics was in his factory.

At the age of seven years Charles Bradburn had the misfortune to lose his mother, a lady highly esteemed by all who knew her. This loss was a serious one, as it left him almost entirely to his own resources. When sixteen years old he entered the Lowell machine shop as an apprentice, and after a service of three years, graduated with a diploma from the Middlesex Mechanics Association. He served as a journeyman for two years, when, feeling that his education was not adequate to his wants, he left the mechanic's bench for the student's desk, entering the classical school of Professor Coffin at Ashfield, in the western part of the same State. Subsequently he resumed his mechanical labors, which he continued until 1833, part of the time as a journeyman, but during the greater part as a manufacturer on his own account. At that date he changed his business from manufacturing to commerce, opening a store in Lowell.

In 1836, he decided to remove to the West, and in that year brought his family to Cleveland, where he commenced the wholesale and retail grocery business in the wooden building now standing, adjoining the old City Buildings, which were not then finished. The next year he rented the two stores adjoining in the then new City Buildings, of which but a portion now remains. In 1840, he built the warehouse now standing at the foot of St. Clair street and moved his business to that place, abandoning the retail branch. At the same time he established a distillery on what was then known as "the island," on the west side of the river. In 1854, he removed to the spacious warehouses, 58 and 60 River street, now occupied by him and his partners under the same name, "C. Bradburn & Co.," that graced the walls of the City Buildings in 1836. During his long commercial life Mr. Bradburn has enjoyed largly theturnpikesnce and esteem of the commercial community and is now one of the most energetic business men of the city.

But it is in his devotion to the cause of knowledge and popular education that Mr. Bradburn appears especially as a representative man. He was one of the first officers of the Mercantile Library Association, and in its early history took much interest in its prosperity. His great work, however, lay in the schools. In a letter to a friend recently written, he, with characteristic modesty, writes: "After a life almost as long as is allotted to man, the only thing I find to glory in is having been able to render some service to the cause of popular education; to be called by so many of our ablest educators the father of our public schools, was glory enough, and ample compensation for many years of hard labor and the expenditure of much money in the cause."

Mr. Bradburn was in 1839 elected to the City Council from the Third ward. As chairman of the Committee on Fire and Water he reorganized the Fire Department, which was then in a wretched condition, and, with the assistance of Mr. J. L. Weatherly, who was made Chief Engineer, and the aid of new laws, made it one of the most efficient of any at that time existing in the country. As chairman of the Committee on Streets, at that time an office of much responsibility and labor, he rendered the city valuable service.

In 1841, he was elected a member and made chairman of the Board of School Managers. This body was merged into the Board of Education, and for several years he filled the office of president. For thirteen consecutive years he served as member of the Board of School Managers and of the Board of Education, during much of which time he had almost unaided control of the educational affairs of the city. Mr. Bradburn succeeded in getting through the Legislature a bill authorizing the establishment of a High School, the first institution of the kind, connected with the public schools, in the State of Ohio. A school of this character was started in June, 1846, and maintained in spite of fierce opposition. But there was no building to receive it, and its earlier years were spent in the basement of a church on Prospect street, the room being fitted up by Mr. Bradburn and rented by the city for fifty dollars per annum.

Feeling strongly that he could render better service to the cause of popular education in the City Council than he could in the Board of Education, in 1853 he resigned his seat in the latter body and was elected to the City Council. When Ohio City was united with Cleveland, he was chosen president of the united Councils.

Having, on taking his seat in the Council, been appointed to a position on the Committee on Schools, his first and continuous efforts were directed to bringing the Council to provide suitable buildings, not only for the High School, but for all the schools of the city. In consequence of his earnest and persistent labors an ordinance was passed authorizing a loan for school purposes of $30,000. The loan was negotiated at par without expense to the city. Mr. Bradburn, and the Building Committee, of which he was chairman, immediately made plans for the Central High School, and the Mayflower, Eagle and Alabama street Grammar schools, all of which were put under contract without delay, and finished under their supervision to the entire satisfaction of the Council and Board of Education. The teachers of the public schools in gratitude for his services in the cause of education, induced Mr. Bradburn to sit to Allen Smith, Jr., for his picture, which was then hung in the hall of the Central High School. At a subsequent date the High School teachers presented him with a massive gold-headed cane, engraved with a complimentary inscription, but this highly prized token was unfortunately lost, together with a number of other cherished mementoes and all the family pictures, in a fire which destroyed his residence in February, 1868. In the fire also perished a valuable library of over four hundred volumes, the result of a lifetime's collection, and Mr. Bradburn barely escaped with his own life from a third story window, being badly injured in the descent.

In public matters he has done but little during the past few years, devoting himself entirely to his business, but he may be seen on all occasions where the cause of popular education can be benefited by his presence. In 1848, he was the Whig candidate for Mayor, but, being ill at the time, gave the canvass no personal attention, and was defeated by a few votes, the opponents of the High School, of whatever party, voting against him.

To Mr. Bradburn the credit belongs of procuring, after a hard battle against parsimony and prejudice, the establishment of the first free High School in the West.

Samuel Raymond.

Samuel Raymond was born in Bethlem, Connecticut, March 19, 1805. Like most of the sons of New England, his boyhood was passed in plowing among the rocks on one of the stony farms of that rocky and hilly State. At the age of sixteen he commenced teaching the village school, and continued teaching for six years, a portion of that time being spent in New York State, in one of the many pretty towns that are scattered along on either side of the Hudson. Returning to Connecticut at the end of his six years' trial of teaching, he was employed to keep the books of the old and wealthy firm of Messrs. A. & C. Day, dry goods commission merchants, at Hartford. The late Governor Morgan, of New York, was, at the same time, a salesman in the house.

In 1833, Mr. Raymond married Mary North, daughter of James North, of New Britain, Conn.

In the Spring of 1835, he determined to try his fortune in the Far West, away out in Ohio. With Kansas as the present geographical centre of the Union, it is difficult for us to conceive of the New Englanders' idea of the West at that time. It was something of an undertaking. It was a journey of weeks, not a ride of twenty-three hours in a sleeping coach or palace car. It meant long and tedious days of staging--a monotonous ride along the Erie canal from Schenectady to some point a little farther west, and finally, when the lake was not frozen over, the perils of lake navigation. In 1835, Cleveland, Erie and Sandusky were all struggling for supremacy. When Mr. Raymond got as far west as Erie, he thought that might be a good place for him "to drive a stake," but the number of newly made graves suggested to him, on second thought, the propriety of getting out of the place as speedily as possible. Cleveland at that time was beginning to put on city airs--Kellogg's great hotel (the American) was slowly going up. The only vacant store to be had by Mr. R. was a little wooden building on the site of the present Rouse block--a location at that time about as far out of town as it would be safe for a prudent merchant to venture. Henry W. and Marvin Clark were associated with him in business, under the firm name of Raymond & Clark.

Mr. Raymond was a merchant of more than ordinary business ability, a man of scrupulous exactness in his business dealings. His extreme conservatism in business management carried him safely through every commercial crisis.

Like most business men Mr. Raymond had but little time to devote to political discussions. He voted the Whig ticket as long as the old Whig party had an existence. In religions principles he was a Presbyterian, and united with the First Presbyterian Church in 1840, at that time under the pastoral charge of Rev. Dr. S. C. Aiken.

In the Winter of 1866, in compliance with his physician's advice, he took a journey south for the benefit of his health, which had been impaired by his unremitting devotion to business. In company with a party of friends from Cincinnati, he and his wife left Louisville for Havana, in January. On the 2d of February a telegram was received by the remaining members of his family in Cleveland, informing them that Mr. Raymond was among the missing on the ill-fated steamer Carter, which was burned when within a few miles of Vicksburg.

When the alarm was given, Mr. Raymond and his wife were asleep. Hastily dressing themselves and providing themselves with life-preservers, they jumped through the cabin window, Mr. Raymond having a state-room door which he had wrenched from its hinges. Mrs. Raymond clung to a floating bale of hay and was saved after an hour of peril and suffering in the icy water. Nothing was seen of Mr. Raymond after he floated away from the wreck, clinging to the door. His death was mourned by a large circle of friends who appreciated his worth.

By diligence and economy he accumulated a valuable estate, leaving to his family property valued at two hundred and fifty thousand dollars.

Richard T. Lyon.

The first secretary of the Cleveland Board of Trade, and its president for the year 1869, Richard T. Lyon, is probably the oldest established merchant now doing business on the river. He arrived here in 1823, when there were but a few hundred people in the village, and for some time resided with his father-in-law, Noble H. Merwin, on the lot now occupied by Bishop's Block, about where M. Heisel's confectionary store now stands. In 1838, he entered as clerk in the forwarding house of Griffith, Standart & Co., at the foot of Superior street, continuing in that position until the Spring of 1841, when he formed a partnership with I. L. Hewitt, and carried on a forwarding and commission business on River street, under the firm name of Hewitt & Lyon. The partnership continued until 1847, when Mr. Hewitt retired, and Mr. Lyon continued the business in his own name at 67 Merwin street, where he has remained until the present time. In the Spring of 1868, his son, R. S. Lyon, was taken into partnership, the firm name being changed to R. T. Lyon & Son. For a number of years Mr. Lyon has been the largest dealer of salt in the city, having had the agency of the salt works in western New York.

Mr. Lyon has held, from his first entry into commercial life to the present time, the esteem and confidence of the business men of Cleveland, and that confidence has been shown by the fact, that for many years he was the treasurer of the Board of Trade, having been elected to that position on the organisation of the Board; was subsequently made vice-president, and in the Spring of 1869, was elected president. This compliment was well merited, for he is now one of the very few remaining members of the Board who took part in its organization, and has never flagged in his interest in its affairs.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, H. M. Chapin]

H. M. Chapin.

In the commercial, political, patriotic, and literary history of Cleveland for the past fifteen or twenty years, the name of H. M. Chapin will always have honorable prominence. In all these departments his persistent energy and unshaken faith, even in the darkest hours, have been potent for good.

Mr. Chapin was born in Walpole, N. H., July 29th, 1823, and received a good common school education. When fifteen years old, he removed to Boston, and entered a dry goods importing house, in which he remained nearly ten years. In the Spring of 1848, he left Boston for Cleveland, where he became a partner in the wholesale grocery warehouse of Charles Bradburn & Co., with whom he remained four years. In 1852, he commenced business as a provision dealer and packer of pork and beef. For a time it was up-hill work, but his native perseverance overcame all difficulties, and in the season of 1862-3, his business had grown to seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars. From that time there was a steady decline in the amount of packing done in Cleveland, the supply of cattle and hogs decreasing until but a very small quantity, in proportion to the facilities for packing, could be depended on. The slaughter-houses of Chicago arrested the great stream of live stock, and what escaped them went forward to the Atlantic cities for immediate consumption. In the Winter of 1867-8, Mr. Chapin, therefore, resolved to remove his packing business to Chicago, and commenced operations there with gratifying success. He intended abandoning Cleveland altogether as a packing point, but, contrary to his expectations, he has been able to resume the business here to a moderate extent. From 1862 to 1867, he carried on, in connection with the packing business, a very extensive coopering establishment, employing about fifty men, besides a large amount of machinery. Over a hundred and twenty-five men were at the same time employed in slaughtering and packing.

In addition to his ordinary business, and partly in connection with it, Mr. Chapin turned his attention to the question of insurance. It was a favorite maxim with him that the West was able to do its own insurance, and with this idea ever present, he was favorable to the establishment of home insurance companies. Of the Sun Fire Insurance Company, of Cleveland, he was for some years the vice-president, and labored earnestly for its success. Being a thorough believer in the principles of Homoeopathy, as well as an enthusiast on the subject of western insurance, he was a willing co-worker with a number of prominent citizens engaged in the organization of the Hahnemann Life Insurance Company, of Cleveland. The novel character of this company--it being the first of the kind in the United States--is sufficient warrant for a brief statement of its history. It was established in 1865, and numbered among its stockholders such leading business men and substantial capitalists as Wm. A. Otis, George Worthington, William Bingham, Stillman Witt, Selah Chamberlain, Dudley Baldwin, D. P. Eells, M. G. Younglove, and the Hon. B. F. Wade. The leading feature was the offer to insure those whose medical belief and practice were exclusively Homoeopathic, at lower rates than those subjecting themselves to Allopathic treatment. The theory on which this offer is based is, that all the evidence goes to show a lower rate of mortality under Homoeopathic than under Allopathic treatment. The Honorable William Baines, Insurance Commissioner of New York, in speaking of this company in his report, says: "The Hahnemann Life Insurance Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, is the first western company admitted into this State. It starts with a paid up capital of $200,000, one-half of which is deposited with the State Treasurer of Ohio, for the protection of policy holders. The company is organized on a basis of strength and capital, even larger than that required of New York corporations; it reduces the rate of premium to Homoeopathic members."

Of this company Mr. Chapin was made president, and in the management of this, as in everything which he undertakes, he infused a large amount of his energy, and made the company a complete success. During the present year his almost undivided attention has been given to the company's affairs, with marked effect on its rapidly increasing business.

In 1865, Mr. Chapin was elected Mayor of the city of Cleveland. The honor was not only unsought, but he was in entire ignorance of the whole affair until after his election. His name had not been mentioned in connection with that or any other office when he left the city on a business trip that kept him absent for several days. In the meantime the nominating convention of the Union Republican party was held, and there was some difficulty as to a choice between the persons named for the nomination as Mayor. In casting around for a way out of the difficulty, the name of Mr. Chapin was mentioned and instantly met with favor. He was nominated, elected by a strong majority, and the first intimation he received of the movement was reading the election returns in the Cleveland Herald, on his homeward journey.

He accepted the office in the spirit in which it had been conferred upon him. He understood that the people believed he was disposed and able to manage the affairs of the city vigorously and honestly, and he was not disposed to evade the responsibilities of the office. His time was devoted to the duties of his position, the different departments under his charge were carefully scrutinized, and whilst his strictness and vigorous execution of the laws made the offenders complain of his severity, there was no question raised as to his ability, integrity, or honest zeal for the city's interest. He discharged the duties of his office with scrupulous exactness, and he endeavored to make others do the same. During his administration it was no longer a reproach that the ordinances of the city stood

"Like the forfeits in a barbers shop, As much in mock as mark."

At the breaking out of the war, Mr. Chapin took an early and active part in stirring up the people to defend the Government of the Union. Wherever his money, influence, or active energy could be made serviceable, there he was always to be found. Having obtained the appropriation for the Twenty-Ninth Regiment, he worked diligently in raising, equipping, and sending it to the field, and spent much of his own time at the front in various capacities. The ladies who worked diligently for the comfort of the soldiers and the care of the sick and wounded, through the medium of the Ladies' Aid Association, found in Mr. Chapin an indefatigable assistant. He was ever ready with suggestion, active aid, and money, laboring day and night, either at the front, in the hospitals, or at home, in behalf of the soldier.

The Cleveland Library Association was another field in which Mr. Chapin's energy and business tact were manifested. In 1854, he was elected president of the Association, which had struggled along, a feeble organization, contending against numerous difficulties. Under his vigorous management the Association was brought to a higher degree of prosperity then it had ever witnessed; the income was largely increased, the number of books increased one-half, and a lively interest excited in the public mind concerning it. Mr. Chapin retired at the close of his term of office, and the affairs of the Association gradually lapsed into their former unsatisfactory condition. In 1858, an attempt was made to save it by revolutionizing its constitution and management. A new constitution was adopted, and under it Mr. Chapin was again elected president. The result was even more marked than in the previous instance. The number of members was nearly doubled, a load of debt that had accumulated through a number of years was removed, a large number of books added to the library, and the reading-room enlarged and improved. Again, after the lapse of ten years, Mr. Chapin has been called to the presidency of the Association, under circumstances precisely similar to those under which he had twice before assumed the duties of the position.

Mr. Chapin was married October 15th, 1849, to Matilda, daughter of John Fenno, of Boston. Of this marriage have been born six children, the oldest of whom, a son now nineteen years of age, is in the wholesale grocery of Edwards, Townsend & Co.; the others are all attending school.

Moses White.

Moses White, now one of the very few remaining early citizens of Cleveland, was born at Warwick, Hampshire county, Mass., February 25th, 1791. His father's name was Jacob White, a native of Menden, Mass., who traces back his ancestors as natives of that town, to as early a date as 1665.

Moses White, the subject of this memoir, being deprived, at a very early age, of his mother, by death, went to live in Mendon, with his maternal grandfather, Peter Penninian. Afterwards he went to Boston, where he learned the merchant tailor business, with one John Willson. From Boston he went to Providence, R. I., where he remained about two years, and where he became acquainted with Miss Mary Andrews, whom he afterwards married.

In 1813, being desirons of settling further west, he first went to Utica, N. Y., and after remaining there a few months, he proceeded, with a horse and buggy, to Cleveland, where he arrived in October, 1816, the population of the place then being only about 150.

He established himself here as a merchant tailor, and pursued the business steadily about twenty years, and with success. He afterwards established a store at Chillicothe, Ohio, which, not being under his own care, did not prove successful.

From his arrival in Cleveland, he was forward in all the moral and religious enterprises of the place, first in union with all the religious denominations represented, and afterwards he was more particularly identified with the Baptist Church, in which he has been for nearly forty years a deacon.

He now enjoys more than usual health and vigor for one of his age, and has the respect, confidence and esteem of every person who knows him.

His wife having died in 1858, he has since that date made it his home with his daughter, Mrs. J. P. Bishop, of Cleveland, with whom he now resides.

In many respects Deacon White's history furnishes an example worthy of imitation. In the times of his boyhood, in New England, when a boy did not possess the means for establishing himself in business, or of educating himself for some professional calling, and particularly if he was an orphan, he was required to learn some trade. In his case, his friends not only recommended this, but he was desirous himself, of doing it. He accordingly went from Mendon to Boston, a distance of about forty miles, where, alone and among strangers, he sought a place where he might serve as an apprentice. For days he wandered about seeking such an opportunity and finally fell in with John Willson, the merchant tailor before mentioned, who received him as an errand boy, and finally as an apprentice, in which position he continued, passing through all the grades incident to such employment, till he was twenty-one years of age.

Without father or mother, or friends to look up to for counsel and advice, he persevered, and preserved his integrity, having the confidence of all with whom he was associated.

In those early days, nothing was more common than to emigrate to the West, leaving the principles of New England education, in religion and morality, behind. Judging from accounts of society in Cleveland in very early times, such must have been the case of some, at least.

But such was not the case with the youthful Moses White. Though he found not many congenial spirits in this far-off western region, yet whenever, in the little village of Cleveland, he heard of a place of prayer, or a meeting, or association for the promotion of temperance or morality, thither he bent his footsteps. Now in a ripe and happy old age he enjoys, not only the retrospect, but also the present--and not only these, but he is constantly looking for a consummation of perfect happiness, beyond what either the past has, or the present life can afford.

Finally, so far as accumulating wealth is concerned, he has not been as fortunate as some, and yet less unfortunate than many others, and now enjoys a competence abundantly sufficient to provide for all his wants and to transmit something to his children. Well may worldly ones say, "O that my last days might be like his!"

David H. Beardsley.

Mr. Beardsley does not claim to be a pioneer, but an early settler of the second class, having arrived in Cleveland with his family in June, 1826. Cleveland is supposed to have then had about five hundred people. He was of Quaker origin, and lived at New Preston, Connecticut, before he removed to Ohio. He was of course anxious to obtain employment, and being a beautiful penman, a contract was soon made with the late Judge Willey, who was the county auditor, to serve as his clerk, at one dollar per day. He was employed about thirty days in making the county duplicate. The taxable property of the county at that time amounted to the sum of two hundred and sixty-eight thousand, seven hundred and seventy-one dollars. When Mr. Beardsley was deputy auditor, all the public business centered in the old log court house, on the northwest quarter of the Square.

On the fourth of July, 1827, the Ohio canal was opened to lock seventeen, near Akron, and the canal commissioners, prominent among whom was his friend Alfred Kelley, were in need of a scrupulously honest man, and a good clerk, for the purpose of collecting tolls. They found all the necessary qualifications of integrity, assiduity, and accuracy in Mr. Beardsley, who was therefore appointed, the day not having arrived when qualification for office should be the last of recommendations. The collectorship may be said to have been Mr. Beardsley's profession. He spent in the office most of the period of active life, in twenty-three years, undisturbed by the changes of administration. To our ears this may sound incredible.

Mr. Beardsley's salary was at first three hundred dollars per annum, increasing to twelve hundred before the close of his services. He collected the sum of one million, three hundred and ninety-eight thousand, six hundred and forty-two dollars and sixty-eight cents. His accounts were models of nicety as well as accuracy, errors and discrepancies being equally unknown.

Being a gentleman of simple tastes and habits, with few wants, he has acquired a comfortable competence, without acquiring a thirst for gold, and without withholding his substance from charitable and public purposes. He is highly esteemed by all who know him, for a life-long consistency of character, and sterling qualities as a man and a friend. The writer occasionally sees him on our crowded streets, although quite feeble, with a mind perfectly serene, and well aware that his race is almost run. His record is worthy of emulation.

Thomas Augustus Walton.

When the genial countenance and kindly voice of T. A. Walton were missed from the customary gatherings of the river merchants, it was felt that something had been lost which not even a lucky speculation, or a good run of trade, could not restore. When the news of his sudden death, whilst on a foreign tour for the restoration of his health, was received, there was genuine sorrow among his old business associates, and poignant grief with many who had learned to look on him not merely as a successful merchant, but as a man of tender heart and open hand when suffering and distress appealed to him for sympathy and aid.

Mr. Walton was born in London, and to the last he looked with affection to the city of his birth. His education was gained at the City of London School. After leaving school he was brought up to mercantile pursuits, and in 1830, concluding that there was a better opening in that line in America, he came to this country, bringing with him a considerable amount of money. For a few years he remained in New York, loaning his capital, for which he always found ready customers, but unfortunately they were not all as ready to pay as to borrow. He lost large sums, and was driven to the conclusion that for a man of his openness of character and confiding honesty, New York was an unprofitable location. The representations of a friend, combined with dissatisfaction with his experience in the commercial metropolis, determined him to seek his fortune in the West. Evansburg, Ohio, had been represented to him as a desirable place in which to live, a thriving business point, and adjacent to good hunting ground. This combination of attractions determined him, and he set out for Evansburg with what remained of his capital.

But the attractions of Evansburg soon wearied him. Neither his social, commercial, nor sportsmanlike hopes were fulfilled by the facts, and Mr. Walton speedily turned his back on the place of so much promise and so little realization. Cleveland was the rising place of the West, and to Cleveland he came, and established himself, as was the custom with new comers of a commercial turn, in the produce and commission trade. Following the old maxim, he stuck to his business and his business stuck to him. The old frame warehouse in front of which he hung out his sign in 1838, was occupied by him for twenty-five years, until January, 1863, when he retired from active business and was succeeded in the same building by his nephew, Thomas Walton, who still retains the business and the old location.

Mr. Walton's nice sense of honor commended him to a large circle of customers in the interior and in Michigan, whilst nearly all the Canadian business with Cleveland passed through his hands. His Canadian customers relied implicitly on his word, and the fact that he always retained his old friends, and received constant accessions of new, sufficiently proved that their confidence was not misplaced.

In the Spring of 1863, soon after his retirement from business, he went to England with the intention of staying a year or two and then returning to enjoy the remainder of his life in ease in this country. Whilst in England he paid a visit to some friends in Southampton, and whilst taking a bath in a movable bathing-house on the beach, probably was seized with cramp and suffocated by water getting into his lungs. The news of his death caused a painful shock in business, social, and religious circles, where he had been so well known and so highly esteemed.

For a long term of years Mr. Walton was the presiding officer of the St. George's Society of Cleveland, and that benevolent institution owed its usefulness in great measure to his indefatigable zeal in the cause, and to his unstinted liberality. To the distressed of any nation he never turned a deaf ear, but to the needy and suffering of his native country he was ever liberal, and accompanied his unostentatious charities with kind words and manifestations of sincere interest that were frequently as beneficial to the recipient as the money itself. He was also a valued member of the Masonic Order.

In religious belief he was an Episcopalian, and was long one of the leading members of Trinity Church. His devotion was unaffectedly sincere, and though he made no vaunt of his religious principles or hopes, there could be no question of his deep, earnest convictions. Kind, courteous, ever thinking of the good of others, and wholly unselfish, Mr. Walton was a good specimen of the true Christian gentleman.

Although of English birth, and clinging affectionately to all that reminded him of his native land, he was a thorough supporter of American institutions, and an admirer of the American character. Deeply and warmly as he loved the land of his birth, his affection was even stronger for the land of his adoption, and it was his purpose to have returned from his visit to his boyhood's home and settle down in peaceful content in the chosen home of his manhood, until death should lay him in an American grave. When the war broke out he was an earnest and unshrinking supporter of the Government, and his means were freely used for its support, and for the comfort of the soldiers who were fighting its battles. Though alien born, and associated intimately with people of like birth, there was no native American that could surpass him in love for the Union, and few that exceeded him, in proportion to his means, in contributions to the defence of the Union.

In the language of his favorite Shakespeare, it might be said of him

His life was gentle, and the elements
So mixed in him, that nature might stand up
And say to all the world, This was a man!

George Worthington.

Prominent among the business firms of Cleveland, is that of George Worthington & Co., a house which stands in the front rank both on account of the business done, and of its integrity and honorable dealing.

Mr. Worthington, the founder and head of the firm, was born in Cooperstown, N. Y., September 21st, 1813. He received a good common school education, and then entered on a business career by becoming clerk in a hardware store in Utica, in 1830, remaining in that position until 1834, when he came to Cleveland and commenced business as a hardware dealer on his own account. His first store was on the corner of Superior and Union lane, on the site of the clothing store of Isaac A. Isaacs, and the first goods received by him were drawn by oxen owned by a man who did all the carting at that time. Cleveland was then but a small town, and most of the trading was done with the teamsters that came from Wooster and other points south, bringing pork, grain, and other products, and taking back merchandise. Trade was brisk, but cash scarce, nearly all the operations being more in the nature of barter than of purchase and sale.

After remaining three years in his first store, he removed to the corner of Water and Superior streets, on the site of the present National Bank building, and in that location he remained thirty years, during which time he witnessed the growth of Cleveland from a small town to a large and prosperous city.

When he had been established about fifteen years, Mr. Worthington began rapidly to enlarge his business, and he associated with him Mr. James Barnett and Mr. Edward Bingham, at present members of the firm. About that time they commenced wholesaling, and gradually built up a business from five thousand dollars the first year, to a million dollars. This, however, involved a vast amount of labor, and an indomitable determination to succeed by driving business. Mr. Worthington, in the absence of railroads or other public conveyance, traveled through the adjacent townships and counties on horseback, introducing his wares, and obtaining orders which would be filled by the carriers' wagons.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, G. Worthington]

Railroads revolutionized trade and gave an impetus to everything, and establishments that were on a firm footing before were prepared to take advantage of circumstances. This was the case with Mr. Worthington. His wholesale business has grown enormously, especially since 1860.

About 1862, Mr. Worthington projected the Cleveland Iron and Nail Works, and, in connection with Mr. W. Bingham, matured the plans and got the works into successful operation in about one year from broaching the project, the work turned out being of the best quality. The owners of the works can sell readily all they make, and furnish active and steady employment for about two hundred men.

Mr. Worthington has also been extensively interested in blast furnaces and coal mining, in the vicinity of Cleveland, and has been very successful in them also.

At the present time the Cleveland Iron and Nail Company is erecting the first blast furnace within the city limits, calculated for a capacity of about three hundred tons per week. The firm have also built works on their grounds for the manufacture of gas pipe, which have been in successful operation for about a year, with the exception of a delay caused by a fire. This is an important work in a city so rapidly growing as Cleveland, and will retain many thousand of dollars formerly sent to Philadelphia and other points.

On the passage of the National Bank Law, Mr. Worthington and a number of other capitalists of the city, organized the First National Bank of Cleveland, with a capital of four hundred thousand dollars, which has been very successful. Mr. Worthington was elected president on its organization, and still retains the office. He is a director of the Ohio Savings and Loan Bank, of this city. He is also largely interested in the local Insurance interests; vice-president of the Sun, and also interested in the Cleveland and Commercial, and is a director of the Hahnemann Life Insurance Company. He is also president of the Cleveland Iron Mining Company, one of the most successful organizations of the kind in the country.

No one man, probably, has done more towards building up the business portion of the city than has Mr. Worthington. His first building was erected on the corner of Ontario and St. Clair streets, now occupied by H. Johnson. Since that time he has erected fifty dwelling-houses, and fourteen stores.

In 1840, he was married to Miss Maria C. Blackmar, of Cleveland, by the Rev. Dr. Aiken. Of the marriage six children have been born, two sons and four daughters, all living. The oldest son, Ralph, is now a member of the firm.

In 1862, Mr. Worthington became interested in the wholesale dry goods business in New York City, and has been quite successful in the enterprise.

Mr. Worthington is a good specimen of a self-made man, who was not spoiled in the making. Hard work did not harden his character, nor has prosperity turned his head. Coming to Cleveland without a dollar, he has built up a large fortune by sheer hard work, close application to business and strict business habits. He at the same time built up a fine reputation by his integrity of character and scrupulous honesty in his dealings. At fifty-six years of age, his health is now, as it has always been, remarkably good; he has never been detained from business on account of sickness.

N. E. Crittenden.

One of the best known names in this city, to new as well as old citizens, is that of N. E. Crittenden. For very many years his jewelry establishment has been a landmark in the business district "on the hill," and the greater part of the population, for about forty years, have taken their time from his clock.

Mr. Crittenden is a Massachusetts Yankee in birth and pedigree, having been born at Conway, July 25th, 1804. In his earlier years he received a good common school education, and at the age of eighteen was bound apprentice to the jewelry and watch-making business, serving four years at Geneva, N. Y., and then removing to Batavia, where he was employed two years at the trade, and in Albany one year. In the latter city he married Miss Mary A. Ogden, soon after the ceremony moving to Batavia, where, however, he made but a short stay. He had determined on setting up on his own account, and Batavia presented no opening for him. That land of hope and promise, the West, tempted him as it had tempted others, and with five hundred dollars in jewelry, purchased on credit, he started westward in search of a place in which to turn his jewelry into cash.

Taking vessel at Buffalo he came to Cleveland, but there was no harbor, and the vessel stopped outside to land any passengers for that place, and then resumed her trip. Mr. Crittenden concluded not to end his voyage until he had gone farther, and stuck by the ship until he reached Detroit, where he landed and investigated with a view to settling. The prospect was not inviting. In order to do business there it was necessary to understand and speak Canadian French, and Mr. Crittenden's acquirements in that direction were not extensive. Detroit was clearly no place for him.

Whilst roaming around the place he fell in with Mr. Walbridge, who was seeking a location to open a dry goods business. He too was dissatisfied with the inducements Detroit offered, and had almost resolved to abandon the attempt and go home. Mr. Crittenden had reached the same conclusion, and the two took the boat on the return trip, thoroughly disenchanted with the business prospects of the West. When the boat reached Cleveland they concluded to land and take a look at the place before they utterly turned their backs on the western country.

It was in September, 1826. The village was pleasantly situated, and the location impressed the strangers favorably. The houses had an appearance of thrift and comfort, and there was an air of New England enterprise about the settlement that confirmed the good impression formed at the approach. Mr. Crittenden turned to his companion and announced his determination to go no farther; he had found the object of his search. That he might satisfy himself of the probable future of the settlement he got a conveyance and rode into the country to see what were the surroundings of the embryo city. As he passed up through the street his ears were saluted with drum and fife, the people were all out in their holiday clothes, and teams, loaded with old folks and young folks, were coming into town, for it was "general training." The farther he rode and the more he saw, the more firmly he became convinced that here was to be his future home, and before long his five hundred dollars' worth of jewelry found purchasers among the lads and lasses, and some of the older folks, of Cleveland.

His first store occupied the site of his present store on Superior street, and here, in a little building, he opened his original stock. The land he subsequently purchased of Levi Johnson, through the medium of Leonard Case, the purchase money being one thousand dollars for twenty-eight feet, with three years' time in which to make the payments. The exorbitant price horrified some of the old settlers, and one of them gravely shook his head, announcing his firm belief that such a sum of money for such a bit of land would turn Levi Johnson's head with unlooked for prosperity. The price would scarcely be called high in the present day, when land then considered far away in the distant country sells readily at higher rates. In the spring of 1827, having secured his store and sold out most of his original stock, he started East to make his first purchases and to bring his wife to Cleveland. His friends were surprised and gratified at his early return on such an errand. With his wife he brought some housekeeping articles, among other things the third carpet ever brought to the settlement.

In 1833, he had so far succeeded in business as to warrant his tearing down the old store and building in its stead a store and dwelling combined. Great was the admiration of the people at this building and it was considered a just source of pride by the people of Cleveland, for to the store was an open front, the first seen in the place, and to the private entrance to the dwelling was attached the first door-bell in Cleveland. The glass front and the tingling bell were unfailing sources of attraction until others adopted the novelty and public curiosity became sated. The building was well known to all who lived in the city previous to 1865, for it remained until, at that date, it had to give way to the larger, more elegant, and far more costly structure.

In 1843, Mr. Crittenden purchased the Giddings place, on the north side of the Public Square, with the stone residence on it, then considered an elegant mansion. The price paid for the lot, house and furniture was ten thousand dollars--a high price as rates then were, but marvellously cheap now. To that house he removed his family from over his store, and lived there twenty-five years, when it was turned over to business purposes.

About the year 1853, he erected the fine business block on Water street, now occupied by Stillson, Leek & Doering, at a cost of fifteen thousand dollars. In 1868, he put up the handsome block on the same street that is occupied by Childs & Co. The cost of this was not less than forty thousand dollars, and it is a decided ornament to the street. The purchase of the land and the erection of those elegant blocks, in addition to the one occupied by his own business, furnish sufficient evidence of the prosperity of his jewelry business, the regular stock of which has grown from an investment of five hundred dollars to one of more than a hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, N. E. Crittenden]

But it must not be supposed that this prosperity was uninterrupted throughout Mr. Crittenden's business life. There were dark storms which threatened disastrous wreck, and nothing but stead-fastness of purpose and force of character brought him through. In 1836 the financial tornado swept over the land and stripped nearly every business man bare. When the storm was at its height Mr. Crittenden found himself with fifty thousand dollars of New York debts past due, and without the money to pay them. Collections were cut off, and whilst he was thus unable to raise the means from his debtors, his creditors were likewise stopped from pouncing upon him. Other men in like condition were compounding with their creditors, and thus getting out of their difficulties by partial repudiation. Mr. Crittenden declined to avail himself of the opportunity, and, in course of time, his creditors were paid in full, though that result was brought about by years of toil, of steady, persistent application to business, of shrewd financiering, and of rigid economy.

In his early days in Cleveland he was chosen one of the village trustees. In 1828, when he held that office, and Richard Hilliard was president of the Board of Trustees, the members gathered one afternoon in an office and voted an appropriation of two hundred dollars to put the village in proper order. Great was the outcry at this wastefulness, on the part of some of the tax payers. One of the old citizens, who yet lives, met Mr. Crittenden and wanted to know what on earth the trustees could find in the village to spend two hundred dollars about. At a later date, when Cleveland was a city and Mr. Crittenden a member of the Council, it was voted to appropriate ten thousand dollars to protect the lake front from encroachments by the lake. Again was Mr. Crittenden met and upbraided for his extravagance in municipal affairs, such conduct tending to bankrupt the city.

It is Mr. Crittenden's pride that he has had no serious litigation, his care in making contracts having saved him the unpleasant necessity of resorting to legal means to compel his debtors to fulfil their obligations. But whilst looking thus sharply after his own interests, avarice or parsimony has formed no part of his character, and he has been liberal according to his means.

William A. Otis.

William A. Otis was one of those pioneer business men, who settled in Ohio during the dark times which followed the war of 1812. He was one of those to whom we owe much, but of whom the present generation know little; who without capital or education gave an impetus to the Western settlement, by integrity, personal energy, economy, and good sense. By force of character alone, which was their only capital, they wrought such wonders that the wilderness was literally transposed into fruitful fields.

Mr. Otis left his paternal home in Massachusetts, about the year 1818, on foot, to seek a home in the West. Having reached Johnstown, in the Allegheny Mountains, he hired for a few months as man of all work, in an iron establishment, and thence set forward, travelling as before, by way of Pittsburgh, to the township of Bloomfield, in Trumbull county, Ohio. His physical constitution was equal to the labors of a new country, which had nothing to recommend it but a rich soil, and which required above all things perseverance and hard work. He cleared land, furnished the settlers with goods, for which they paid in ashes, or wheat, and kept a comfortable tavern for the accommodation of travelers. The ashes were manufactured by himself into "black salts" or impure potash, more often styled "Pots," which was the only strictly cash article in the country. It was necessary to haul the casks of potash to the mouth of Beaver river, or to Pittsburgh, from whence they drifted on flat boats down the Ohio and Mississippi to New Orleans, and from thence were shipped to New York. Much of the teaming he did himself.

The "Pots" were exchanged at Pittsburgh for goods, or if shipped furnished a credit for the purchases, with which his wagon was loaded, on the return to Bloomfield. Currency did not in those days enter into the course of trade, because there was barely enough of it in the country to pay taxes. Mr. Otis was frequently obliged to furnish his customers with cash for this purpose. When the Erie Canal was finished to Buffalo, the wheat of the settlers on the Reserve, for the first time, became a cash article. They had an abundance of grain, which they were glad to dispose of at twenty-five cents a bushel, payable principally in goods. The canal furnished a better outlet for potash than the river. Mr. Otis determined to try a venture in flour at New York, which he considered the first lot sent there from the Reserve.

There were no flour barrels, and no coopers, at Bloomfield, but a few miles north towards the lake there was a good custom grist mill. He went into the woods, cut an oak tree, set his men to saw it into blocks of the right length, from which the rough staves were split. The wheat which his customers brought in, was stored at the mill and ground. When the cooper stuff was seasoned, the barrels were made, rough enough, but strong, and his stock of flour and potash hauled through the mud thirty-five miles to the mouth of Ashtabula creek. A schooner was at anchor outside, and as soon as his venture was on board, he took passage with it to Buffalo, and by canal to New York. The New York dealers were surprised and gratified, for they perceived at once the capacity of a new country on the shores of Lake Erie, of which they had hitherto only known in theory, not in practical results. In quality the flour was not behind that of the Genesee country, which seemed a wonder in their eyes. They purchased it readily and offered every encouragement to the trade and the trader. In process of time, wool and pork were added to the staples for the New York market. It was by this course of incessant activity during near twenty years of country business, coupled with a sure judgment, that Mr. Otis gradually acquired a moderate money capital. In 1835 or 1836, he came to this city, with his hard earned experience in traffic, and with more ready cash than most of our produce dealers then possessed, and entered upon a wider field of enterprise. He continued to purchase and sell the old class of articles, pork, flour and potash, to which iron soon became an important addition. His capital and experience brought him at once into connection with many public enterprises, which became necessary to an expanding country, especially such as relate to transportation. One of the earliest tumpikes in northeastern Ohio was made through Bloomfield, from Warren to Ashtabula. Steamers made their appearance on Lake Erie, and the Ohio canal extended navigation into the interior. In all these auxiliaries to trade in the heavy products of the country, Mr. Otis had a friendly interest, and when railways began to be discussed he saw their value at once. Finally, after his usual deliberation, he decided that the manufacture of iron was a safe and profitable business at Cleveland; he became the pioneer iron master of the place, with the usual result of his operations--a large profit on his investment.

This example and success laid the foundation of iron manufactures here. It required something more than the talents of a shrewd country merchant, or of a mere money lender, to foresee the coming wants of trade in a growing State, to invest in its banks, railroads and manufactures, and to render all these investments profitable. With his increase in wealth there was in Mr. Otis no increase of display, and no relaxation of the economy of early life, but an increasing liberality in public charities, particularly those connected with religion. When compared with the briskness of modern traffic he was slow and cautious; but having finally reached a conclusion he never flagged in the pursuit of his plans. He belonged to a past generation, but to a class of dealers whose judgment and perseverance built up the business of the country on a sure basis. In the midst of a speculative community in flush times, he appeared to be cold, dilatory, and over cautions, but he saw more clearly and further into the future of a business than younger and more impulsive minds, who had less experience in its revulsions.

For a number of years previous to his death Mr. Otis was largely interested in the banking business of the city. He took a prominent part in the organization of the State Bank of Ohio, was the originator of the Society for Savings in Cleveland, and was for thirteen years its president, and at the time of his death was president of the Commercial National Bank. He was also connected with the banking firm of Wicks, Otis & Brownell.

In connection with a notice of the originator of the Savings Bank in Cleveland it is appropriate to briefly sketch the history of that organization, which has worked so much good and which ranks to-day among the most important and most valued institutions in the city. The suggestion was first made by Mr. Otis in the Winter of 1848-9, and its organization was advocated on the ground of public benevolence. At the request of several prominent persons, Mr. S. H. Mather, the present secretary and treasurer, examined the character and practices of several eastern institutions of a similar character. A charter was drafted, principally from those of two well known institutions of the kind then in operation at Boston and Hartford. In the New England States every city and many villages and country towns have organizations of this character.

In March, 1849, the Legislature granted corporate powers to W. A. Otis, H. W. Clark, L. Handerson, J. Lyman, M. L. Hewitt, N. Brainard, Ralph Cowles, J. H. Gorham, A. Seymour, D. A. Shepard, James Gardner, J. A. Harris, J. H. Bingham, J. A. Briggs, S. H. Mather, J. A. Foot, and C. J. Woolson, and their successors, to be appointed by themselves, the corporate powers to continue thirty years. The corporators appointed John W. Allen president, S. H. Mather secretary, and J. F. Taintor treasurer, and commenced business in August, 1849, at the rear of the Merchants Bank, on Bank street. Mr. Taintor was at the time teller in the Merchants Bank, and it was supposed that he could attend to all the business of the Savings Society outside of banking hours. This was soon found to be impracticable, and at the end of about two years Mr. Taintor withdrew, leaving to Mr. Mather the joint office of secretary and treasurer.

At the end of three years the deposits were only $100,000. In the latter part of the year 1856, the society became able to have a better office, and moved into 118 Bank street, corner of Frankfort, under the Weddell house. The deposits in 1859, after ten years of business, were only about $300,000, but the concern had been so closely managed that a surplus was accumulating from the profits on investments over the six per cent. interest paid to depositors. From that time the business of the institution steadily increased until on the 1st day of January, 1869, its deposits considerably exceeded two and a half millions of dollars, and out of a large surplus had been built one of the finest and most substantial buildings in the city, on the north side of the Park. Such have been the fruits of the suggestion of Mr. Otis; such the success of the organization in which he took so deep an interest during his life.

On the announcement of the death of Mr. Otis, a meeting of bankers was immediately called for the purpose of taking some action in testimony of their respect for the deceased. All the banks were fully represented, as were the private banking firms. T. M. Kelly, of the Merchants National Bank, was called to the chair, and J. O. Buell, of the Second National Bank, appointed secretary. Appropriate remarks were made by the chairman and others, after which a committee, composed of T. P. Handy, H. B. Payne, Joseph Perkins, Henry Wick, and E. B. Hale, reported the following resolutions, testifying to the respect and esteem felt for Mr. Otis as a man of business, as a good citizen, and as a Christian:

It having pleased God to remove from our midst, on the morning of the 11th inst., Wm. A. Otis, who, for more than 22 years, has been associated with many of us in the business of banking, and has occupied a prominent position both in the early organization of the State Bank of Ohio, and of the Society for Savings of Cleveland, of which latter Society he was for thirteen years president, and at the time of his death was the president of the Commercial Bank of this city, and who by his wise counsels, his high regard for integrity and mercantile honors as well as by an exemplary Christian life, had secured the esteem and confidence of his associates and fellow citizens, and who, after a good old age, has been quietly gathered to his rest, therefore,

Resolved, That while we deeply mourn the loss of our departed brother, we commend his virtues, and especially his high standard of Christian integrity, for the imitation of the young men of our city as the most certain means to a successful business life, and a fitting preparation for its final close.

Resolved, That we deeply sympathize with the family of our deceased friend in the loss that both they and we are called to sustain, feeling assured that after so long a life of Christian fidelity this loss, to him is an infinite gain.

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions, signed by the Chairman and Secretary, be furnished the family of the deceased and be duly published in our city papers.

J. C. Buell, Secretary. T. M. Kelly, Chairman. Cleveland, May 12, 1868.

E. P. Morgan.

"He who works most achieves most," is a good motto in business, and in pursuits of all kinds. This has been the principle on which E. P. Morgan has acted throughout life, and a faithful persistence in carrying it out has resulted in building up a mammoth business and the consequent possession of a handsome fortune.

Mr. Morgan was born in New London, Connecticut, in 1807. His early years were spent at home and in attending school, where a good common education was gained. In his fifteenth year he was taken from school and placed in a store, where he acquired those business habits which have made him a successful and wealthy merchant. At the age of twenty-one, he set up in business for himself, at Middlefield, Massachusetts, carrying on a store, and at the same time engaging in the manufacture of woolen goods. In this store he continued twelve years, doing the whole time a thriving and profitable business.

In 1841, he bade adieu to Massachusetts and came west to Ohio, taking up his future home in Cleveland. He plunged into business immediately on arriving, opening a store on the north side of Superior street, in the place now occupied by the store of Mould & Numsen. In 1857, he saw what he believed to be a more eligible site for business in the corner of Superior and Seneca streets, and to that point he removed in 1858. At the same time the firm of Morgan & Root was formed by admitting to partnership Mr. R. R. Root. To the retail dry goods business was now added a wholesale department, as also a millinery department, and subsequently a grocery. The business was vigorously pushed and every department grew with remarkable rapidity, until store after store was added to the establishment. The "corner store" became known far and wide, and a very large country trade was built up in the jobbing department. During the last three years of the war, the business of the firm reached an amount greater than had ever been anticipated by its members, and the old quarters, capable no longer of extension, became too strait for the expanding operations. A number of lots on the east side of Bank street, between the Herald building and Frankfort street, being purchased by Morgan & Root, were speedily disencumbered of the drinking saloons and petty shops that covered them, and on their site soon arose one of the finest business blocks in the city, estimated to cost sixty thousand dollars in addition to the cost of the land. When the block was finished the wholesale department of the business was removed to the new building, leaving the retail department to be carried on in the old store. In February, 1869, the retail business was sold out to new parties, and thereafter the firm of Morgan & Root confined itself exclusively to the wholesale trade.

That Mr. Morgan is one of the best business men of the city is proved by the fact that he has failed in no one of his undertakings; not that he has always sailed on a smooth current of success, but that when difficulties arose his indomitable perseverance enabled him to overcome them. He engaged in no enterprise without its having been based on good evidence and sound judgment; he never wavered in his adherence to it, nor slackened for a moment his endeavors to prove his faith sound; nor has he once been disappointed as to the result. Few men have shown a like perseverance. His habits of keen investigation and strict attention to his affairs, enabled him to do a very safe, though a very enterprising business, and consequently he had little occasion for professional acquaintance with lawyers.

In addition to his mercantile business, Mr. Morgan has interested himself in insurance matters, being president of the State Fire Insurance Company, of Cleveland, which position he has held since the organization of the company in 1863. Under his presidency the company has done a safe and successful business, and has extended its operations so that it has offices in Connecticut and other parts of New England. He is also connected with the banking affairs of the city. In the earlier years of his business in Cleveland, he became interested in the construction of the canal around the rapids of Saut St. Marie, and during the progress of the work had a store open at the Saut.

In 1864, he built his residence on Euclid street, near the corner of Huntington street, where he has resided since that time. Though sixty-two years of age, he is still as active and vigorous as ever, and bids fair to long be an active member, in fact as well as in title, of the firm of Morgan & Root.

In religious principles Mr. Morgan is a Presbyterian. For a long time he was a member of the Second Presbyterian Church, but of late has been connected with the Euclid street Presbyterian Church.

In 1832, he was married to Miss Laura Nash, of Middleford, Mass., by whom he has had seven children, all but one of whom still live. The oldest son, William Morgan, now thirty-one years old, is engaged in the manufacture and sale of lubricating oils. The second son, Edmund N. Morgan, is an assistant in his father's store. A daughter, Helen, is the wife of Mr. J. B. Merriam, of Cleveland.

Robert Hanna.

The commercial interests of Cleveland and of the Lake Superior mineral region have for many years been intimately connected, several of the now prominent citizens of Cleveland having been attracted to Lake Superior by the reports of its mineral riches at the time those riches were first made generally known, and Cleveland being found a convenient base of supplies for the mining enterprises on the shores of the "father of lakes."

One of the earliest to take an interest in this trade was Robert Hanna. Whilst living in Columbiana county, Ohio, where he had been brought up, he was attracted by the representations of the mineral riches of the far off northern lakes, and in 1845 he started off to see for himself what was truth in these reports, and what exaggeration. Traveling and exploration in the wilds of the Lake Superior country were very difficult in that day, and those who were anxious to make a fortune out of the bowels of the earth had to rough it, pretty much as the seekers of gold have to now in the tangled wilderness to the west of Lake Superior. Mr. Hanna spent four months in careful exploration, and at length becoming satisfied that there was something in the rumors of mineral riches, obtained from the department, in whose charge the territory then was, a permit to locate three square miles of copper lands. This being accomplished, he returned to set about the organization of a company to work the prospective mines.

Whilst at Marquette, on his return from exploring the copper region, Mr. Hanna fell in with a man who had been exploring the country back of that place, and who brought in a specimen of iron ore which he had come across in his search. The ore was so heavy, and apparently rich in iron, that it was taken to a blacksmith, who, without any preparatory reduction of the ore, forged from it a rude horseshoe. The astonishment of those hitherto unacquainted with the existence of raw iron so nearly pure metal, can be imagined.

But Mr. Hanna's attention, like those of most of the searchers after minerals in that region, was absorbed in copper, and as we have seen, he located his copper tract and returned home to provide means for working it. A company was formed, materials purchased and miners engaged, and the work pressed forward vigorously. The question of forwarding supplies being now an important one, Mr. Hanna removed to Cleveland, that being the most favorable point for the purchase and shipment of the articles needed, and opened a wholesale grocery establishment in 1852, combining with it a forwarding and commission business. At that time the wholesale grocery business was in its infancy, there being but two or three establishments of the kind in Cleveland.

For some time after the establishment of Mr. Hanna in the wholesale grocery business, the carrying trade between Cleveland and Lake Superior was mostly in the hands of the Turner Brothers, whose one steamer, the Northerner, was able to do all the business that offered, both in freight and passengers. Mr. Hanna's firm, then composed of himself, his brother, Leonard Hanna, and H. Garretson, under the firm name of Hanna, Garretson & Co., decided on the bold step of competing for the trade by building a steamer of their own. The City of Superior, a screw steamer, was built in Cleveland, under the especial supervision of Dr. Leonard Hanna, and the most scrupulous care was exercised to make her in all respects a model boat for the trade. Great strength of hull and power of machinery were insisted on, in order to withstand the dangers of the formidable coast when the fierce storms of the Fall season rendered navigation hazardous. Accommodation for passengers on the voyage, which took several days for its full extent, had to be provided, and great care was taken in this respect to make the voyage as attractive as possible, attention having been somewhat turned to the Lake Superior country as a Summer resort, where the sultry beats of the "lower country" could be exchanged for pure air and cooling breezes. When launched, the City of Superior proved a complete success, and her first voyage up was a perfect ovation, a new era having been opened in the history of travel between the upper and middle lakes. But, unhappily, this fine steamer was lost in a storm after a few voyages, although the great strength of her hull kept her intact, though lying across a rock, until she could be completely stripped of her cargo, furniture and machinery.

No time was spent in fruitless lamentations over the destruction of the work of which they were so proud, and about which so many anticipations for the future had been indulged in. No sooner had the news been confirmed, than a contract was made for the construction of another steamer, larger and better in all respects than her unfortunate predecessor, and the result was the Northern Light, which proved a great favorite, and is still running. Other steamers were chartered to run in connection with her, and their success caused rival lines to be run, thus building up the Lake Superior trade to dimensions exceeding the most sanguine expectations of the pioneers in it. To this house belongs a very large share of the credit due for bringing such an important proportion of this trade to Cleveland. When Mr. Hanna first endeavored to interest the people of Cleveland in Lake Superior matters, he was frequently met with inquiries as to the whereabouts, not only of the copper region of Lake Superior, but of Lake Superior itself, about which very confused notions existed.

The copper company organized by Mr. Hanna expended over half a million dollars in developing the deposit, and produced several hundred tons of ore, but it was not a financial success, the fine copper not being in paying proportion in the ore. After a few years Mr. Hanna sold out his interest in this company, but has retained interests in other enterprises in that region, some of which have been very remunerative.

By the death of Dr. Leonard Hanna, and the withdrawal of Mr. Garretson, the firm of Hanna, Garretson & Co. became dissolved, and was changed to Robert Hanna & Co., the younger members of the Hanna families taking interest in the firm. Recently Robert Hanna has retired from active participation in its affairs, having turned his attention in other directions. During the past four years he has been engaged in the oil refining business, having a refinery with a capacity of a hundred and sixty barrels a day, which has proved very successful. He is also president of the Cleveland Malleable Iron Works, the first of the kind in this part of the country, and which at present promises well. The gentlemen associated with Mr. Hanna in this enterprise have united with him in the determination to make it a successful enterprise, and have such management for it that it can scarcely fail to meet their expectations.

In 1868, Mr. Hanna projected what resulted in the organization and establishment of the Ohio National Bank, of Cleveland, on January 1st, 1869, with an authorized capital of one million dollars, and with a paid up capital of six hundred thousand dollars. It was organized with more especial reference to the interests of merchants, mechanics and manufacturers, and men representing these respective interests are the principal owners of its stock. The institution thus far gives promise of complete success. Mr. Hanna is the president; A. Cobb, vice-president; John McClymonds, cashier.

Still in the prime of life, Mr. Hanna has the satisfaction of knowing that he has been very successful, has built up a large fortune for himself and done a very important work in building up the material interests of the city, both commercial and manufacturing. Although well able to retire from active life, and live in ease at his fine residence on Prospect street, he prefers to do what yet lies in his power to build up the prosperity of Cleveland still higher.

S. F. Lester.

Samuel F. Lester was born in Albany county, New York, in 1818. His youth was spent under advantageous circumstances, and he obtained a good education. At the age of fifteen he left the Academy where he had been studying and entered on his commercial education by becoming clerk in a country store, where he remained five years. Having reached his twentieth year, he bade adieu to home, and came west to seek his fortune. His first stay was at Clinton, Michigan, where he carried on business successfully for three years, and married Miss Cornelia Eliza Brown, of Tecumseh, daughter to General Joseph W. Brown, and niece of Major General Jacob Brown, of Brownville, N. Y., the hero of Chippewa, Fort Erie and Sackett's Harbor.

At the expiration of the three years Mr. Lester's health gave way, through his assiduous devotion to business, and he returned to his father's house in Albany county, New York, remaining there a year, unable to engage in business of any kind. For the two succeeding years he worked on his father's farm, and in this way succeeded in regaining his health.

In March, 1845, he again turned his face westward, and landed at Cleveland, where he became a member of the firm of Hubby, Hughes & Co., remaining in it until its dissolution. The house of Hubby, Hughes & Co. carried on a very extensive business on the lakes and canal. The firm, in connection with J. C. Evans, of Buffalo, projected the first line of propellers between Buffalo, Cleveland and Toledo, and the line was a decided financial success. It continued to do a steadily increasing business until the consolidation of most of the independent lines into the American Transportation Co.'s line. A number of lake vessels also belonged the house, and a line of canal boats belonging to the firm ran between Cleveland and Portsmouth, and between Cleveland and Pittsburgh.

In connection with the firm of William A. Otis & Co., the firm built the first elevator for railroad business in the city, the elevator, at the foot of River street, being now occupied by W. F. Otis & Son. Subsequent to this the firm erected the National Mills, at the heavy cost of seventy thousand dollars, it being then, and now, one of the finest and most costly mills in the State of Ohio.

In 1858, the firm of Hubby, Hughes & Co. was dissolved, and the business was carried on under the firm name of Hughes & Lester, which was continued successfully until 1862. In January of that year, Mr. Lester went to New York on the business of the firm. Whilst there he was suddenly stricken with paralysis, and lay unknown and helpless for sometime. He was at length identified and cared for, but for a long time was in great danger, and for a still longer time utterly unable to do business of any kind. His serious and continued illness necessitated the breaking up of the firm, and accordingly on the first of January, 1863, the firm of Hughes & Lester was dissolved. On the following March, his health having been partially restored, Mr. Lester once more entered into business, opening a produce commission warehouse, and meeting with success.

It is the just pride of Mr. Lester that he has always escaped litigation It is also a fact worthy of notice and imitation, that Mr. Lester has always given strict personal attention to all the details of his business knowing them all from the cellar to the counting-room, in the latter of which places he is most thoroughly at home.

Mr. Lester was one of the original stockholders of the Commercial Insurance Company, and a director and member of the executive committee for several years. He has twice been elected Commissioner of Water Works. Mr. Lester has, all through his commercial life enjoyed to an unusual degree, the confidence and esteem of his fellow citizens.

[Illustration: "Yours Truly, A. Bradley"]

Alva Bradley.

To the very many who see for the first time the name of Alva Bradley, the question will naturally arise, "Who is he?" and some wonder may be expressed at finding a name so little known to the general public on the list of those who have contributed largely to the commercial prosperity of Cleveland. And yet Alva Bradley is one of the largest ship-owners of the city, and his name is well enough known among those interested in the shipping of the western lakes. That he is no better known outside of his peculiar circle of business men is owing solely to his modest and unostentatious character, he preferring to pursue the even tenor of his way and confine himself strictly to his own affairs.

Captain Bradley was born in Connecticut in the year 1814, and lived in that State until his ninth year. Then his father emigrated to Ohio, taking his family with him, and settled in Lorain county. Young Bradley had few advantages in early life. He earned his first pair of boots by chopping wood, and when the first suspenders, knitted by his mother, were worn out, the next pair were paid for by chopping hoop-poles.

Until his twenty-first year he worked with his father on a farm, and then left to seek his fortune in the world, with all his effects carried under his arm, wrapped in a cotton handkerchief. His first entry on independent life was as a deck-hand, before the mast of the schooner Liberty. In that capacity he remained two years, and then, having acquired a good knowledge of seamanship, was made mate, holding that rank two years. In 1839, he rose a step higher, and for two seasons was master of the Commodore Lawrence.

Captain Bradley now commenced his career as an owner as well as master of vessels. In 1841, he had built for him, in company with Mr. A. Cobb, then a merchant at Birmingham, Ohio, the schooner South America, of 104 tons. When she was completed he took command of her and sailed her for three seasons. In 1844, in company with Mr. Cobb, he had built the schooner Birmingham, of 135 tons burden, and taking command of her himself, sailed her three years. In 1848, the same parties built the Ellington, of 185 tons, which Capt. Bradley sailed for one year. The following year he shifted his command to the propeller Indiana, 350 tons burden, which he and his associate, Mr. Cobb, had built for the Buffalo and Chicago trade. Capt. Bradley ran her himself three years and then returned to a sailing vessel, having late in the season of 1852, turned off the stocks a smart new schooner, the Oregon, of 190 tons burden, which he ran to the end of her first season, and then bade adieu to sea-faring life. During his many years' life on the lakes, in various craft and under all kinds of circumstances, it is remarkable that he never met with a serious casualty; he was enterprising, active, vigorous in mind and body; a prudent business man and at the same time a thorough sailor.

In the spring of 1853, he resumed his work of increasing his lake navy by building the Challenge, of 238 tons, followed by one or more vessels yearly. In 1854 was built the Bay City, 190 tons; in 1855 the C. G. Griswold, 359 tons; in 1856 the schooners Queen City, 368 tons, and Wellington, 300 tons; in 1858 the schooner Exchange, 390 tons. At this point he rested three years and then resumed work.

In 1861 was built, in company with other parties, the S. H. Kimball, 418 tons; in 1863 the Wagstaff, 412 tons; in 1864 the J. F. Gard, 370 tons; in 1865 the schooner Escanaba, 568 tons; in 1866-7, the schooner Negaunee, 850 tons, a splendid vessel, costing over $52,000, which has been running in the Lake Superior iron ore trade, and which has proved a very profitable investment; in 1868 he built the schooner Fayette Brown, 713 tons, and the tug W. Cushing, for harbor towing; in 1869 the S. F. Tilden, 1,000 tons, was launched from the yard of Quayle & Martin, completing the list of vessels built by or for Captain Bradley, making a list of nineteen vessels, and a tug, besides a number of vessels purchased. The present fleet is composed of nine vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of nearly five thousand tons, besides two tugs, one plying in Cleveland harbor and the other, in which he has half interest, at the Sault.

The record of the vessels built for Captain Bradley, and their respective tonnage, given above, shows at a glance the gradual development of the lake shipping commerce. The first of his fleet, the South America, 104 tons, built in 1841, was a very respectable craft in her day. From that time there was a steady increase in the tonnage of the vessels built, until it culminates in the S. F. Tilden, with carrying capacity of a thousand tons burden, but just launched from the stocks.

Though owning at one time or another such a large fleet of vessels, the casualties to them were very few, and the enterprise has proved steadily remunerative. The schr. Dayton, Maria Cobb, Oregon, South America, and Queen City, is the complete list of vessels lost.

Though shipping absorbed the greater portion of Captain Bradley's attention, his interest was not wholly confined to this branch of business. His time, means, and energy were largely employed in the manufacture of iron, and in other commercial interests. It is his pride that though so largely interested in business of different kinds, he has had but one case of litigation, and that with an insurance company. His record needs no eulogy; it speaks for itself as the record of a man of energy, enterprise and prudence.

Captain Bradley's health had for some years not been good, but is now improving, and there is a reasonable prospect that one who has done so much to develop the shipping interest of the port will live for some time yet to enjoy the fruits of his energy and industry.

Mr. Bradley was married in August, 1849, to Ellen Burgess, of Milan, Ohio, who is still living. Of the marriage, four children have been born, three girls and one boy.

Wellington P. Cooke.

The history of W. P. Cooke is an instance of what can be accomplished under the most adverse circumstances, when to persistent energy and laudable ambition are added the patience and faith born of religions training.

The parents of Mr. Cooke were pioneer settlers in Otsego county, New York, where his father died whilst Wellington was quite a small boy. His mother removed to a still newer country, Macomb county, Michigan, and there died, leaving the lad to fight his own way through the world without the advantages of either money or education. In the year 1838, being then but thirteen years old, he became a printer's apprentice. Subsequently he removed to Chagrin Falls, Ohio, where he secured some educational privileges at a seminary, obtaining the money for his necessary expenses by working early in the morning, at night, and on Saturday. He found employment in the village and among the neighboring farmers. But with all his efforts his lot was a hard one. He often needed the necessaries, to say nothing of the comforts of life, frequently making his morning and evening meal out of potatoes and salt, the former being of his own cooking, as he boarded himself. These articles were purchased in many instances by money received for sawing wood on the school holiday of Saturday.

In 1843, he came to Cleveland, tramping in from Chagrin Falls on foot, and having half a dollar as his sole capital with which to commence life in the city. His first attempt to gain work was in a printing office, where he succeeded in getting a case, receiving his pay, according to the custom of the times, in orders on grocery and clothing stores. After this he was foreman and compositor in the office of a monthly publication, called the Farmers' Journal, where he continued to devote his spare time to reading and study. Subsequently he became a clerk in a grocery store at a salary of ninety-six dollars a year. With this small sum he not only supported himself, but gave pecuniary aid to a sister, and something to the church.

In 1848, he obtained an interest in the business, and the partnership thus continued for three years. His reputation as a moral and religious man, together with a great spirit of enterprise, rapidly enlarged his business, and pointed out new channels for money-making.

[Illustration: W. P. Cooke]

In 1850, he disposed of the grocery business, and directed his whole efforts to the hide and leather trade. In this he showed much judgment, for the business he selected has proved to be one of the most extensive and profitable of the West. A nephew, since deceased, about this time became a partner. The premises occupied became too small, and a lot on Water street was purchased, where a fine store was erected, which is the present place of business.

The firm, which for some time existed as W. P. Cooke & Co., has been changed to Cooke & Denison, the junior partner being a former clerk, and under that name it is well known throughout the country, and especially in the West, as one of the largest establishments in the West dealing in leather, hides, wool, pelts and oil.

Mr. Cooke joined the Methodist Church at a very early age, and to the religious influences with which he was thus surrounded, he attributes much of his success in life. As a Church-member he was led to avoid all places of doubtful morality, and thus escaped the temptations and vices which destroy so many young men. He has always been strictly temperate, and does not use tobacco in any form. He is now prominently connected with the First Methodist Episcopal Church of Cleveland, and is noted as a zealous laborer in the Sunday School cause.

Mr. Cooke's religion is not of that kind that is left in the church pew on Sunday night, to remain undisturbed until the next Sunday morning, but is carried into all his relations of life and influences all his movements. The principles of justice and charity taught by the Christian faith are by him carried into his business dealings and social relations. Strictly just in business transactions, liberal in his charities to worthy objects, and generous to the church, he exemplifies in his life the fact that true Christian principles are not incompatible with strict business habits, and conduce to commercial success. Remembering his early difficulties, he takes particular interest in young men, sympathizing with them in their struggles, and aiding them with counsel and timely assistance where needed.

Hiram Garretson.

The firm of Hanna, Garretson & Co. has already been mentioned. The second member of the firm, while it existed under that name, Hiram Garretson, came like the others from Columbiana county, where he had been brought up, although not a native of the county. Mr. Garretson was born in York county, Pennsylvania, his parents being respectable members of the Society of Friends. When he was very young the family removed to Columbiana county, Ohio, where the senior Garretson opened a country store in New Lisbon. Hiram was sent to school, receiving a good district school education, and was then taken into his father's store as clerk, in which occupation he remained until he was nineteen years old. At that age he left home and engaged in trade on the rivers, taking charge of a trading boat running from Pittsburgh to New Orleans. This class of boats has not yet entirely passed away from the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. The villages along the river banks were small and badly supplied with stores, depending mainly for their supplies on the coasting boats. These are rudely constructed craft, well stocked with merchandise of all kinds, that drop leisurely down the river, tying up at every village or place where there is probability of a trade, and remaining there as long as the stay can be made profitable, then passing on to the next. When New Orleans has at last been reached, the boat is sold to be broken up for its materials, and the trader returns by steamer to get ready for another voyage down. It was in business of this description that Mr. Garretson engaged for a time, and in his voyages down the river and dealings with all sorts of people in different States, he acquired a valuable knowledge of business and men that has stood him since in good stead.

At length he tired of this kind of trading and returned to New Lisbon, and carried on a moderately successful business until the Winter of 1851. At that time a marked change came over the fortunes of New Lisbon. Up to that period it had been a flourishing business place, its advantages of location on the canal in a fertile district, making it one of the best places of trade in that portion of the State. But the construction of Fort Wayne and Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroads effected a great and disadvantageous change in the business of New Lisbon. The Fort Wayne road passed it a few miles north, and the Cleveland and Pittsburgh road ran about an equal distance west. Thus New Lisbon was cut off from all the commercial cities, and found its sources of supply tapped at every point by the railroads. Realizing the fate that had overtaken the town, Mr. Garretson, at the opening of the year 1852, closed up his affairs in Columbiana county and removed to Cleveland. There he became associated in business with Messrs. Leonard and Robert Hanna, and the firm of Hanna, Garretson & Co. was established.

The successful operations of that firm have already been chronicled in these pages, and it only remains in this place to note the fact, that to the success achieved, the energy and uprightness of Mr. Garretson contributed in full proportion. The partnership lasted nine years.

On its dissolution Mr. Garretson established the house of H. Garretson & Co., on Water street, with a shipping house on the river. The business of the new firm was exactly similar to that of the old one, including a wholesale grocery trade, with a Lake Superior commission and shipping business. A line of fine steamers was run to Lake Superior, and the high reputation Mr. Garretson enjoyed among the people of that section of country, enabled him to build up a very large business in supplying their wants. In addition, the new firm found customers rapidly increasing in northern and western Ohio, in Michigan, and in other adjoining States. The operations of the firm extended rapidly until it stood, at the close of the year 1867, among the very foremost in the amount of its annual sales, whilst the business was eminently a safe and solidly successful one.

On the first of November, 1867, Mr. Garretson sold out his wholesale grocery business, and thus closed a mercantile career extending in this city over sixteen years. His attention was then turned to banking. No sooner had he retired from mercantile life than he projected and organized the Cleveland Banking Company, which went into operation under his presidency February 1st, 1868, with a capital of three hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars. It immediately found all the business it was able to do, and under the skillful management of Mr. Garretson it has become one of the most reliable and important financial institutions of the city.

It can truthfully be said of Mr. Garretson, that his success in business has been owing not more to his shrewdness and foresight than to his mercantile honor and social qualities. He made personal friends of his business customers, and by courteous attention, as well as by scrupulous regard for their interests, retained their good will and secured their custom. In all the relations of business and social life, Mr. Garretson has uniformly borne himself in such manner as to win the respect and confidence of those brought into contact with him.

John Barr.

John Barr was born in Liberty township, Trumbull county, (now Mahoning,) Ohio, June 26th, 1804. His ancestors, on both sides, were from Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, though on his father's side they originally came from the north of England, in the days of William Penn; and his mother's, from Germany.

His grandfather, Alexander Barr, was killed by the Indians, in 1785, on the Miami, a short distance below, where Hamilton, in Butler county, now stands. His parents removed from Westmoreland county, Pa., to Youngstown, in 1800; and his father settled as the Presbyterian pastor of a church in that place, and resided there till 1820, when he removed to Wooster, Wayne county, in this State. The subject of this sketch was raised on a farm, literally in the woods, and experienced the usual privations and vicissitudes attendant on pioneer life. The new country and poverty of his parents prevented his receiving a common English education, and it was not until after he was of age that he mastered Murray's syntax and Daboll's arithmetic.

On leaving home in 1825, he repaired to the Ohio canal, (then in process of construction,) where he labored for two years, at various points between Boston and Tinker's creek; where, with hundreds of others, he was prostrated by the malaria of that unhealthy valley.

In 1828, he settled in Cleveland, and acted as deputy for the late Edward Baldwin, sheriff. He took the census of the county in 1830, and was elected sheriff that year, which office he held till 1834. Cleveland city at that time, contained one thousand and seventy-one inhabitants; its northern boundary was the lake, Erie street on the east, and the Cuyahoga river on the west.

In 1835, when the idea of connecting Cleveland with other places by means of railroads, was conceived by John W. Willey, James S. Clarke, T. P. Handy, Edmund Clark, R. Hilliard, O. M. Gidings, H. B. Payne, Anson Haydn, H. Canfield and others, Mr. Barr joined in and spent a good deal of time in furthering the project. Late in the Fall of that year, he visited Cincinnati, distributing petitions along the line of a proposed route to Cincinnati from Cleveland, and spent most of the Winter at Columbus, during the session of the Legislature. A charter for that road, and one for a road to Pittsburgh, being granted, Mr. Barr brought the first copies of them, duly certified under the seal of the State, to this city.

During 1836 and 7, Mr. Barr devoted a good deal of time in collecting statistics of this port, the business of the city, its population, &c., &c., and also of the west generally, and laying them before the public in the papers of Philadelphia and other eastern cities. In company with Mr. Willey and the late Governor Tod, he visited Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and Boston, endeavoring to enlist the attention of capitalists to aid in those enterprises. But the crash of 1837, and the general prostration of business, that followed all over the country, rendered it unavailing. In the Winter of 1838, Mr. Gidings, S. Starkweather, Frederick Whittlesey, Wm. B. Lloyd and Mr. Barr were appointed a committee to attend a railroad convention at Harrisburgh, Pa., to promote the project of the railroad from Cleveland to Philadelphia, by way of Pittsburgh. In 1838 and 9, at the request of John W. Willey, he still spent much of his time in sending a series of articles on the importance of the project, that were published monthly in the North American, a paper in Philadelphia devoted to such projects.

Through the disastrous state of the times, these various measures had to yield, and become, for the time being, failures; but time has shown that those who were engaged in them were only in advance of the spirit and means of the age. In 1844, when this subject again arrested the attention of the Cleveland public, Mr. Barr, although crushed by the storm of 1837, again resumed the subject with his pen, and gave to the public in the National Magazine, published in New York, quite a history of the city, its early settlement, &c., together with a full description of the shipping on their lakes, tonnage, trade, &c., that cost weeks of hard labor and patience, more particularly to place our city in a favorable view before the eastern public.

In 1846, a friend of Mr. B. sent him a petition to circulate and send to the Hon. Thomas Corwin, one of Ohio's Senators, asking Congress for aid to survey and establish a railroad to the Pacific.

In circulating this petition, Mr. Barr was gravely inquired of by one of our citizens, "if he expected to live to see such a road built?" Mr. Barr replied, "if he should live to the usual age of men, he did expect to see it commenced, and perhaps built." The reply was, "If you do, you will be an older man than Methusalah!" Both have lived to know that great work has been achieved.

Mr. Barr procured over six hundred names to his petition, which was duly presented by Mr. Corwin. Cleveland has now reason to be proud of the interests she manifested in that great work, at so early a day.

In 1857, Mr. Barr brought the first petroleum to this city, made from cannel coal, to be used as a source of light. This was new and regarded as utopian. The article was very odorous, and failed to be acceptable to the public, but as time rolled on, improvements in refining were made, and now the largest manufacturing business in our city is that of petroleum.

Few, if any, of citizens have spent more time and pains in collecting and giving to the public reminiscences of early days and early settlers--those who located in this region, and who under such privations, trials, hardships and sufferings commenced levelling these mighty forests, erecting log cabins, and in due time made this formidable wilderness "bud and blossom as the rose." In that respect Mr. Barr has done much to preserve and lay before the public from time to time, brief histories of many of those brave men and women who left their homes and friends in the east, and comparative comforts, to settle in the western wilderness, to build up homes for their children and future generations. Howe's history of Ohio, and Col. Chas. Whittlesey's history of the city of Cleveland, bear witness that his generous heart and gifted pen have furnished tributes of respect to the memory of the noble pioneers, after the battle of life with them was over, and thus supplying links to our historic chain that makes it comparatively perfect.

Among the many reminiscences of early times related to us by Mr. Barr, there is one we cannot deny ourselves the pleasure of relating, and preserving: William Coleman, Esq., came to Euclid in 1803, selected a lot of land and with his family settled upon it in 1804. For several years the few settlers experienced a good deal of inconvenience in having only the wild game of the country for meat, and which, at certain seasons of the year, was unfit for the table. In the Spring the streams that put into the lake abounded with excellent fish, and the season lasted about four weeks. The question arose, "could these fish be preserved in salt for future use?" The universal answer was No! The idea of preserving fresh water fish in salt seemed incredible; the red man was appealed to, but he shook his head in contempt at the idea, and in broken English said, "put him on pole, dry him over smoke." One Spring Mr. Coleman repaired to Rocky River, famous for its fine pike and pickerel, and laid in his stock, carefully laid them down in salt, which cost him over thirty dollars a barrel, (at a great risk, as his neighbors thought,) and watched them carefully from time to time till harvest. Much to his own and his neighbors' satisfaction, he found it a success, and proved not only a happy change of diet for health, but also a luxury, unknown before. From this circumstance, small at that time, originated a new source of comfort, which proved, in time, a mine of wealth to the West, and a luxury to the persons who located in the interior of the State. Well was it said by the school boy of Massachusetts about those days, "Tall oaks from little acorns grow, large streams from little fountains flow."

Mr. Barr says he made this circumstance a matter of much research and inquiry, and fully believes that to William Coleman belongs the credit for so useful and important a discovery.

J. B. Cobb.

The oldest bookselling house in Cleveland is that of the Cobbs, now existing under the firm name of Cobb, Andrews & Co. It has grown with the growth of the city, from a small concern where a few books and a limited stock of stationery were kept as adjuncts to a job printing office, to a large establishment doing an extensive business throughout the northern half of Ohio and north-western Pennsylvania, and in parts of Michigan and Indiana, and which has planted in Chicago a branch that has grown to be equal in importance with the parent establishment. Through financial storm and sunshine this house has steadily grown, without a mishap, and now ranks as one of the most important and staunchest business houses in the city.

The head of the firm, Junius Brutus Cobb, was born in 1822, received a good common school education, and was then sent to learn the trade of a cabinet-maker. When his apprenticeship expired he worked for a short time as a journeyman, but was dissatisfied with the trade, and for a year or two taught school. In 1842, he decided to try his fortune in the West, and reached Cleveland, where he found employment as clerk in the store of M. C. Younglove. Mr. Younglove was then doing a job printing business, and kept in addition a stock of books and stationery. Opportunity sometime after offering, two younger brothers of Mr. Cobb followed him, and were employed by Mr. Younglove. In 1848, the three brothers united in the purchase of an interest in the establishment, and the firm of M. C. Younglove & Co. was formed, the store being located in the American House building. Here the firm remained some years, the book trade steadily increasing, until the old quarters were too strait for its accommodation.

In April 1852, Mr. Younglove parted with his entire interest in the concern to his partners, and the firm name of J. B. Cobb & Co. was adopted. Before this the printing department had been abandoned, and the concern was run as a book and stationery store, with a bindery attached. The old store being too small, new and more commodious quarters were found further up Superior street on the opposite side, and with the change the business increased with greater rapidity than previously.

In February, 1864, it was decided to open a similar house in Chicago. A store was engaged, and Mr. J. B. Cobb went up to open it, taking with him a relative of the firm who had formerly been their clerk, Mr. Daniel Pritchard. The business of the new establishment instantly became large and remunerative, the jobbing trade commencing auspiciously, and rapidly increasing to extensive dimensions. At the same time the parent house in Cleveland added a wholesale department to its former retail trade, and this grew rapidly, the need of such an establishment being keenly felt by the numerous small stores throughout the country that had hitherto been dependent on Cincinnati or the dealers at the East. The rapid growth of business in the two establishments necessitated a new arrangement of the firm, and Cobb, Pritchard & Co. took charge of the Chicago house, whilst Cobb, Andrews & Co. manage the Cleveland establishment. The latter firm was made by the accession of Mr. Theodore A. Andrews, who had been brought up as a clerk in the house, taking his place as a partner in April, 1865. Mr. J. B. Cobb took up his residence in Chicago, leaving his brothers, C. C. and B. J., in Cleveland.

The Cobbs have maintained for themselves a high reputation for honesty, fair dealing, and courtesy in business, and in this way have secured prosperity. The trade that, when they first took it, amounted to about $25,000 a year, had grown, in 1868, to over $200,000. The qualities that gained for the head of the firm so many valuable business friends, was shared in by his brothers, and these again impressed them on the young men brought up under their control. The result is seen in the large number of customers frequenting the store daily, and in the extensive wholesale trade done.

A. G. Colwell.

Mr. Colwell is a native of Madison county, New York, and came to Cleveland in 1852, soon after the opening of the different railroads had given the city an important start in the road to prosperity. Mr. Colwell immediately engaged in the hardware trade, on Ontario street, where he has continued to the present day. As the city grew in size, and its area of commerce extended, the business of Mr. Colwell steadily increased. The retail trade gradually developed into wholesale, and this grew into important proportions, pushing its ramifications through northern Ohio, Michigan, and north-western Pennsylvania.

Mr. Colwell has attended closely to his business, taking no other interest in public affairs than is the duty of every good citizen. But whilst carefully conducting his business he has found time for the gratification of a cultivated taste in literature, and has taken pleasure in participating in every movement designed to foster a similar taste in others. In a recent tour in Europe, undertaken for the benefit of his health, he visited the principal points of literary and artistic interest, and brought back with him many rare and curious souvenirs of travel.

William Bingham.

Whilst few men, if there are any, in the city of Cleveland are more highly respected than William Bingham, there are none less desirous of notoriety in any form. To do his duty to himself, his family, and his fellow men, and to do it quietly and unobtrusively, is the extent of Mr. Bingham's ambition, so far as can be judged by the whole tenor of his life. Did the matter rest with him, no notice of him would have appeared in this work, but to omit him would be a manifest injustice, and would at the same time render the volume imperfect.

Mr. Bingham is a native of Andover, Connecticut, and on his arrival here from the East, became a clerk in George Worthington's hardware store. After a few years' service in this capacity, he set up in the same line for himself, and for about a quarter of a century has carried on business with marked success. The operations of the firm of William Bingham & Co., though at first small, have grown to large proportions, and Mr. Bingham has grown rich, not through lucky operations, but by steady, persistent application to business, aided by sound judgment and powerful will. In addition to his hardware business, he is interested with Mr. Worthington in the Iron and Nail works, and has furnace interests in the Mahoning Valley.

In all his dealings, commercial or otherwise, he has been strictly conscientious, and this has secured for him the esteem of all with whom he has come in contact, and the respect and confidence of the general public. His word is inviolable, and no one has ever uttered a whisper against his unsullied integrity. In all works of genuine charity, his aid is efficaciously, though unobtrusively given, whenever required. To the young men in his employ, he is as much a father in his care of their interests and conduct, as he is an employer.

In politics, Mr. Bingham has steadily acted with the Republican party, but he is in no degree a politician. He has been chosen by the people to places of municipal trust, but always without any desire on his part, and solely because those selecting him considered his services would be valuable to the city; and whenever selected as a candidate, he has been elected, the opposing party having full confidence in his ability and integrity. In his case, the place invariably sought the man, and not the man the place; and it has always been with great reluctance, and because it seemed the good of the people required it, that he consented to hold public office. It would be better for the people were there more men like William Bingham, and sufficient wisdom among political managers to invoke their services on behalf of the public.

William J. Gordon.

A history of the leading commercial men of Cleveland, with no mention of W. J. Gordon, would be not much unlike the play of Hamlet with the part of the Danish prince omitted. Few men in the city have occupied so prominent a position in its mercantile history as has Mr. Gordon; but, from a natural distaste of public notice of any kind, on the part of Mr. Gordon, we are comparatively without data, and obliged to depend upon what we know of his history in general.

Mr. Gordon was brought up on a New Jersey farm, on which the battle of Monmouth was fought, and that had remained for generations, and still is, in the possession of his family. His earliest recollections were of rural life, its boyish enjoyments and boyish tasks. He obtained a good common school education, such as could be obtained in that neighborhood. Whilst yet a lad he manifested a strong taste for business pursuits; and to gratify and develop that taste he was sent to New York, where he became a clerk.

But, young as he was, he reasoned that there was a better chance for a successful struggle in the new West than in the already crowded marts of the East, and that for the young man of energy and enterprise, there was every prospect of achieving distinction and fortune in assisting to build up the business of the new western cities. With this impression he bade adieu to New York in 1838, and started westward on a tour of observation, he being then in his twentieth year. He reached Erie without stopping, and remained there for some time, carefully observing its commercial facilities and its prospects for the future. Not altogether satisfied with these, he moved farther west, and made his next stay in Cleveland. Here he speedily became convinced that a great future was before that city, and he determined to remain and share in its benefits. A wholesale grocery establishment was opened, small at first, as suited his means and the limited requirements of the place, but which more than kept pace with the progress of the city.

Mr. Gordon believed that to shrewdness and persistence all things are possible. His constant endeavor was to discover new avenues of trade, or new modes of doing business, and then to utilize his discoveries to the full extent, by persistent energy and unwearied industry. He was always on the alert to find a new customer for his wares, and to discover a cheaper place to purchase his stock, or a better way of bringing them home. Whilst thus securing unusual advantages in supplying himself with goods, Mr. Gordon was losing no opportunity of pushing his business among the buyers. His agents were diligently scouring the country, looking up new customers, and carefully observing the operations of old customers, to ascertain how their trade could best be stimulated and developed, to the mutual profit of the retailer and the wholesale dealer from whom he obtained his supplies. Men of pushing character and large business acquaintance were sought out and engaged, that they might aid in developing the business of the establishment. As these withdrew, to set up in business for themselves, others took their place. It is a noticable fact that no house has sent out more young men who have achieved success for themselves; and that success was undoubtedly in large measure due to the training received under Mr. Gordon.

He tolerated no sluggards around his establishment. A hard worker himself, those around him were stimulated to hard work. He was at the warehouse with the earliest clerk and left it with the latest. He demanded unflagging industry from his employees, but asked no more than he manifested himself. It was through this persistent energy that he achieved success where others might have failed.

When Mr. Gordon's capital had increased to such an extent as to warrant his employment of some of the surplus in investment outside of his regular business, he made some highly profitable operations of this kind. Among them was his uniting with some others of like foresight in the purchase of a tract of mineral land on Lake Superior, and the formation of iron mining companies which, though not immediately profitable, eventually yielded an enormous percentage on the original outlay, and bids fair to be equally profitable for many years to come, besides being a source of immense wealth to the city.

In 1857, Mr. Gordon's health failed, and since that time he has paid but little personal attention to business, but by an extended tour to Europe, it has been in a great measure restored, and being still in the meridian of life, he has the prospect, unless some mishap occurs, of long enjoying the fruits of his far-sighted intelligence and unwearied industry.

Henry Wick

Lemuel Wick, the father of Henry, was among the early settlers of Youngstown. The Rev. William Wick, his uncle, preached from time to time as a missionary of the Presbyterian church, in the settlements on the border of Pennsylvania and Ohio, as early as 1779. Henry's father was a merchant, in whose store be became a clerk at the age of fifteen. At twenty-one he engaged in the project of a rolling-mill at Youngstown, which proved successful. In company with a brother, his father's interest in the store was purchased, and, having a successful future in prospect, Mr. Wick married, about that time, Miss Mary Hine, of Youngstown, whose father was a prominent lawyer of that place. In 1848, he became a citizen of Cleveland, disposing of the rolling mill to Brown, Bonnell & Co., who have since become leading iron men of the Mahoning Valley.

After a few years of mercantile business at Cleveland, the banking house of Wick, Otis & Brownell was formed, and was successfully managed for two years, when the brothers Wick purchased the interest of the other partners, and continued together until 1857, when the firm name was changed to Henry & A. H. Wick, father and son, and has thus continued until the present time.

Mr. Wick is a man of more than ordinary business ability, and has, throughout his long commercial life, so directed his talent as to preserve an unsullied character, and enjoy the unlimited confidence of his fellow citizens, in addition to a handsome competence. Speculations were always avoided by him, because he believed that, in a young and healthy country like this, men may accumulate property fast enough in the legitimate channels of trade, coupled with frugality, temperance and industry. Many of his employees, by following his example, have become eminently successful in business.

Mr. Wick was born February 28, 1807, and, consequently, is in his sixty-third year, although he has lost little of the elasticity of his step or his business faculty.

William Edwards

The firm of Edwards, Townsend & Co. now ranks among the leading houses in the city, doing an enormous business, and respected everywhere for its enterprise and integrity. The head of the firm, William Edwards, was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, June 6, 1831. At the age of fifteen, he entered mercantile life as a clerk, and remained in that position in Springfield six years. In 1852, he came to Cleveland, that year having brought many New Englanders here on account of the recent opening of the railroads. His first year was spent in clerking for W. J. Gordon, who then had by far the most important wholesale grocery establishment in the city.

At the end of the year Mr. Edwards, having two thousand five hundred dollars capital, resolved on setting up a jobbing grocery establishment for himself, and in company with Mr. Treat, opened a store on Canal street, doing business in a small way, and being their own accountants, salesmen and porters. The first year's business footed up sales to the amount of thirty-seven thousand dollars only, but the young firm was not discouraged. The next year opened with brighter prospects. The first year's customers were pleased with the firm, and satisfied that they were honest, as well as active and energetic, they returned to buy again and brought new customers. Orders came in rapidly, and by the middle of the third year the sales had grown to the rate of sixty thousand dollars per year. At that point, Mr. Edwards purchased the interest of his partner and looked about for a new associate in business.

Mr. Hiram Iddings, of Trumbull county, became partner, and with his accession, the business increased more rapidly than before. Both members of the firm used every honorable means to push their business, and with almost unvarying success. New fields were sought out and the old ones carefully canvassed. As before, nearly every new customer became a constant purchaser, being thoroughly satisfied with the treatment received, and new customers were added. The territory served widened, and the reputation of the house for enterprise and fair dealing spread. In 1862, the sales had grown to two hundred and forty thousand dollars. More aid was necessary to attend to the business of the firm, and on the first of October, in that year Mr. Amos Townsend was added to the firm, which then became Edwards, Iddings & Co. A year from that time Mr. Iddings died, and on the first of January, 1864, a change was made in the title of the firm to Edwards, Townsend & Co., Mr. J. B. Parsons being admitted as the third partner. Under that title and organization it still continues.

The business of the firm has kept fully abreast with the progress of the city. The members are shrewd, enterprising, always on the lookout for new openings for trade, and ready to take instant advantage of them. They each have a happy faculty of making friends, and still happier faculty of retaining them. The proof of this is seen in the increasing sales, which now amount to one million dollars a year, the customers being scattered through northern Ohio, Pennsylvania, and a portion of Michigan. Their extensive stores on Water street are constantly busy with customers and with the receipt and shipment of goods.

Mr. Edwards has attained prosperity, not by the favor of others, but by fighting his own battle of life with indomitable perseverance and imperturbable good humer. He has worked hard and persistently, but at the same time acted on the belief that "care killed a cat," and that "a light heart makes work light." His hearty good humor has had no small share in attracting and retaining customers, and has at the same time enabled him to rationally enjoy the prosperity his labors have brought him. But his good humor never leads him to abate a jot of his shrewd watchfulness in business matters, and to his prudence and keen observation are owing the fact that he has almost wholly escaped litigation. At thirty-eight years old he takes rank among the foremost and most successful marchants of Cleveland, whilst his frank, hearty manners, his warm friendship, and his liberal unselfish benevolence which distributes charity with an unstinting, though intelligent hand, rank Mr. Edwards among the most valued and most valuable of citizens.

Amos Townsend

Amos Townsend was born near Pittsburgh in 1831, and received a good common English education. At fifteen years old, he left school and entered a store at Pittsburgh, in which he remained three years, and then removed to Mansfield, Ohio, where, young as he was, he set up in business for himself, retailing goods, and remaining a citizen of that town during the greater part of nine years.

During his residence in Mansfield, the Kansas troubles broke out and arrived at such a pitch that a Congressional committee, comprised of Messrs. John Sherman of Ohio, W. A. Howard of Michigan, and W. A. Oliver of Missouri, was appointed to proceed to Kansas and investigate the facts in regard to General Stringfellow's opposition to Governor Reeder's administration. Mr. Sherman procured the appointment of Mr. Townsend as United States Marshal, and he accompanied the commission to the scene of disturbance. He was on a hill near Lawrence when he saw the passe comitatus of the United States Marshal of the Territory batter down the Free State Hotel, it having been indicted as a nuisance by the Grand Jury. Shortly afterwards, Mr. Townsend was taken prisoner by General Stringfellow, but on ascertaining his position he was released.

In 1858, he came to Cleveland, having been engaged by Gordon, McMillan & Co. In that establishment, he remained nearly five years, and then became partner in the firm of Edwards, Iddings & Co., which, on the death of Mr. Iddings, became Edwards, Townsend & Co. The operations of that firm have already been spoken of.

Mr. Townsend has served a full apprenticeship to the business in which he is now engaged, and is familiar with all its details from the cellar to the counting-room. As a skillful financier, he has few superiors, and the large operations of the firm bear evidence to this in the regularity and safety with which they are conducted.

In 1866, the Republicans of the Third Ward chose him as their candidate for member of the City Council, of which he was afterwards chosen president. He not only polled the full vote of the party, but drew a large number of Democratic votes, and was elected by a good majority, although the ward has generally been considered Democratic, and has retained his seat to the present time, his personal popularity among all classes, combined with the unexceptionable record he made in the Council, overcoming all opposition. At the organization of the new Council for 1869, he was unanimously re-elected president, a fact as complimentary as it is rare, it being the almost invariable custom for each party to vote for its own candidate, even where the result of the election is a foregone conclusion. He was in the same year suggested as the Republican candidate for Mayor, and would undoubtedly have been chosen to that office had he not considered it incompatible with proper attention to the large and rapidly increasing business of his firm.

[Illustration: Your Friend, D. A. Dangler]

David A. Dangler.

David A. Dangler, like scores of other successful men in Cleveland, is a conqueror of adverse circumstances. In taking a cursory glance at the early history of representative Clevelanders, noticed in this volume, it will be readily seen that our business firms are largely composed of men who, in early life, were compelled to divide their time between work on the farm and attendance at the district school. Much of the debilitating dissipation common in cities has been escaped by them; and hence, they have both sound minds to project, and vigorous bodies to execute.

Mr. Dangler found it necessary, at the early age of seven years, to do something towards carrying on his father's farm in Stark county, Ohio. During the Winter months, he had the benefit of a district school until 1838, when, at the age of fourteen, he was employed in a dry goods store at Canton, as boy of all work. Here, he won the confidence of his employers, and by closely saving his limited wages, was able to attend school six months more, which completed his education. With this exception, he continued to serve in the same store until 1845, when, with a very limited capital, the savings from his wages, he commenced on his own account, in the same business.

In 1850, he left the trade in dry goods and took up that in hardware. The late Mr. John Tennis, who was also a Stark county man, and Mr. Dangler, in 1853, formed a partnership for jobbing in this line at Cleveland. The success of the concern was all that reasonable men could expect. Their connection continued until 1867, when it expired by limitation. They were among the first wholesale firms on Water Street, and this enlarged field of commercial operations gave full exercise to the talent and energy of Mr. Dangler. Trade was pushed in all directions, and in a remarkably short time they succeeded in building up a lucrative business.

Success did not make a miser of Mr. Dangler. On the breaking out of the rebellion, he entered with all his native enthusiasm into the home duties of the war. In August, 1862, he took a prominent part in the organization of ward committees for raising recruits and providing for the familles of soldiers. A large part of his time during the war was devoted to this work, and will ever be remembered with gratitude by scores of families for timely assistance rendered during that trying ordeal. In the Fourth ward, where he lives, there never was a man drafted to fill its quota.

In 1864, he was elected a member of the City Council, and in 1865, a member of the House of Representatives for Cuyahoga County, by the Republican party. These public trusts were so well filled that in 1867, he was returned to the Senate, representing the most important commercial district of the State except one, and at all times being watchful and active in the interests of his constituents. Among the important measures originated by him in the Legislature, are the Metropolitan Police, State Charities, State Gas Inspection, and the Building and Loan Association Acts. The last mentioned act has been very extensively taken advantage of among his immediate constituents. No less than ten societies have been organized in this city, under it, and have already been productive of much good among the laboring class, by enabling them to obtain homesteads on easy terms. The capital stock of these societies amounts to over three million dollars, and if the act is as highly appreciated throughout the State as it is here, the benefit accruing therefrom will be almost incalculable, inasmuch as the monthly payments would, in many cases, be squandered; whereas, now, they are not only saved, but secure a share of the profits of the association in proportion to the stock held. The successful working of these institutions must be exceedingly gratifying to Mr. Dangler. He is an active, energetic and impulsive member, though not without considerable tact, and generally successful in putting his measures through. As a speaker he is clear-headed, terse and forcible, and on subjects appealing to patriotism, really eloquent.

Mr. Dangler is liberal with his means, with broad plans, not for himself alone, but for the public; indeed, we have few men among us more public spirited than he. To this new element of self-made and successful men, the city owes much of the unparalleled development of the few past years. Their energy and commercial intelligence have inaugurated a new order of things here, placing Cleveland in the front rank of western cities.

Mr. Dangler has recently formed a new partnership, and is again engaged in the hardware business, having established the new firm of Dangler & Bowman, on Superior Street. He is still young and vigorous, and has it yet in his power to accomplish much.

T. S. Beckwith.

In speaking of the mercantile interests of Cleveland as developed by her prominent operators, it is with pleasure we produce a brief notice of Mr. T. S. Beckwith, one of our well known and most successful merchants. He was born in Lyme, CT, Jan. 11, 1821. Until he was fourteen, he remained on the farm with his father, at which time he commenced clerking in a store in Brownville, Jefferson Co., N. Y., and remained four years. He then came to Cleveland and at once engaged as a clerk with Alexander Sacket, who was then carrying on business on Superior Street, precisely where Mr. Beckwith's carpet store now stands. After two years with Mr. Sacket, he went as clerk with P. M. Weddell & Co., in which capacity he served four years, when he was taken into partnership with P. M. Weddell, Dudley Baldwin and W. E. Beckwith, his brother, and in this firm did business in the dry goods line for about four years, when he and his brother, alone, carried on business several years, and finally Mr. Henry Wick became associated with them and another store was started. Both stores were continued about four years, when the firm dissolved, and another formed under the name of Beckwith, Sterling & Co., composed of T. S. Beckwith, F. A. Sterling and G. Clayes. This firm was dissolved after two or three years and the subject of this sketch left the dry goods business and opened the first store for the exclusive sale of carpets in Cleveland. After five or six years, his former partner, F. A. Sterling, again became associated with him. The firm of Beckwith & Sterling existed three years when they admitted two young men in their employ, O. Baker and W. R. Havens.

Mr. Beckwith is a thorough business man, quick to form judgment and quick to act upon it. He is among our best financiers, nearly always makes an investment pay. When he was regularly employed as a salesman, he was hard to match, and one great secret of his success as such was his courteous demeanor to all, whether rich or poor, and an industrious effort to please. We recommend those of our young men who desire to succeed in business to study one of the principal keys to T. S. Beckwith's success--a polite attention to all. It will pay.

Mr. Beckwith's business has grown with the city, and the profits with it, and although he has only attained to the meridian of life, and in the full enjoyment of mental and physical energy, he has acquired a handsome competency.

Besides his mercantile interest, Mr. B. has aided in giving to Cleveland the character of a manufacturing city, having invested largely in the white lead factory of this city, which is under the management of Mr. J. H. Morley, an account of which will be seen in the Manufacturing Department of this work.

Business has not, however, engrossed the whole of Mr. Beckwith's time and talents. He is as thorough a worker in the cause of religion, morality and benevolence as in trade. For a number of years, he has been an active member of the Second Presbyterian church of this city, always taking a lively interest in the Sunday school connected with the church. He was also as indefatigable in the interests of the Bethel Church and Sunday school of this city, and which is now doing a noble work in the city.

Mr. B. was married in 1849, to Miss Sarah Oliphant of Grandville, Washington Co., N. Y. Two children of this marriage are living and a third dead.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, Elias Sims]

Elias Sims.

Although Mr. Sims has not been strictly a man of commerce among us, his life labor has been one wholly devoted to enterprises that are strictly conducive to that foundation of a commonwealth. Properly placed, he would be with general contractors, but as we have not material sufficient for a department under that head, he must take rank among the men whose trade has been facilitated by his enterprise.

Elias Sims was born at Onondaga, New York, August 4. 1818, and is another striking instance of the value of early dependence on one's own resources. Until he was fifteen years of age, Elias worked on a farm, when he concluded to leave it, and strike out for himself on another line. He worked as a laborer on the New York canal for some time, and being a lad of great force of character with a keen eye to business, he was very soon selected as an overseer. He held this situation for about two years when he became deputy superintendent of the works, being at the time only in his eighteenth year. After considerable experience in this business, he concluded there was an opportunity to make more money by contracting than by working on a salary, and consequently resigned his office and commenced on a work for which he was eminently adapted by nature, and one in which he subsequently became remarkably successful, as, indeed, was his first contract, for it resulted in a profit of several thousand dollars. Men did not become millionaires in such short order then as now, and so much money so easily obtained almost unbalanced the young contractor. It made him less careful in his estimates, and, as may be easily judged, his next job swallowed the whole of his capital, and compelled him to become overseer again.

The next speculation he engaged in was the building of a tug, in connection with two others, and which proved a success. After some time, he obtained a dredging contract at Port Stanley, Canada, and being very successful in this he entered into it as a permanent business, and appeared among the live men of Cleveland in 1856, as a contractor for dredging the "old river bed". From year to year, this contract for dredging at Cleveland has been continued, and in addition to this, he has executed some immense jobs at Grand Haven, Mich., Erie, Pa., and Milwaukee, Wis., in which he has been uniformly successful. He also contracted largely in the construction of the Great Western Rail Road, in Canada, and canal locks in Iowa. He is interested in propellers on the lakes, and has two tugs and three dredges in this harbor.

Mr. Sims may well be styled a pioneer in the system of dredging, by means of which all the lake harbors have been able to receive vessels of double the old tonnage. Although of a quiet, he is not by any means of an indolent temperament, and has exhibited business energy in a way that did not make much noise, but which led to sure results. Mr. Sims was one of the contractors and one of the proprietors of the Rocky River Rail Road and Hotel. He is also interested in the People's Gas Company of the West Side, and we are driven to the conclusion that such a long series of successes in such undertakings cannot be due to accident; there must be for foundation, a clear, calculating mind, and the ability to execute well what is well planned. Projects in which others had failed became profitable under his management. He is still in the vigor of life going on as usual with his contracts.

In 1838, Mr. Sims married Miss Fosburgh, of Onondaga Co., N. Y.; of the marriage three children were born, Mrs. Sloane of Buffalo, Mrs. Evatt of Cleveland, deceased, and Mrs. Wm. Starkweather of Cleveland.

Joseph Perkins.

One of the most noticeable mansions on the north side of Euclid Avenue is the tasteful and substantial stone building a little west of Sterling Avenue, which, from its general style of architecture and its handsome surroundings of lawn and shrubberies, resembles the comfortable country home of a family of wealth and taste in England. This is the residence of Joseph Perkins, and in its neat, home-like beauty, gives at once a good idea of the character of its owner, and a perpetual invitation to repose.

Mr. Perkins was born July 5, 1819, in Warren, Ohio, his father being Simon Perkins of that place. His educational advantages were food, and after leaving school he entered his father's office. Born to comfortable circumstances he never had occasion to struggle for an existence as have so many of the now wealthy citizens of Cleveland, but, on the other hand, the acquisition of riches without hard labor for it did not, as in so many other cases, prove his ruin, nor did he spend his days in idleness. On his father's death, he was one of his executors and gave his whole attention to the task of closing up the estate. That duty performed, he came to Cleveland and found abundant occupation in managing his own estate and in executing the duties devolving upon him through his appointments to places of trust in banks, railroads, and other organizations. For several years, he was a director of the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad Company and took an active part in its affairs. On the death of Governor Tod, he was chosen president of the company, a position he still retains and the duties of which he performs with scrupulous fidelity. He is also president of the Second National Bank. During the building of the Euclid Street Presbyterian Church, he was a member of the building committee, and has taken an active interest in the affairs of that church for many years. He was also a member of the building committee of the Savings Bank Society and of the building committee of the National Bank Building.

In 1837, Mr. Perkins united with the Presbyterian Church, of which he has since remained an active and influential member, the scene of his profession being in Marietta, where he listened to the teachings of the Rev. Mr. Bingham.

In October, 1840, he married Miss Martha E. Steele, of Marietta, by whom he has had six children, four of whom still survive.

Mr. Perkins is a man of no ordinary character, and it is unfortunate for the world that there are so few of his mould in comparison with the whole number of people. The governing principle of his life is religion, his actions are directed by his conscience. Although rich and controlling large means, he is utterly free from the sin of avarice, and, though fully appreciating the value of money, he respects it mainly for the power of doing good it gives the possessor. His liberality is great, but is guided by a wise caution instead of being squandered indiscriminately. He dislikes being imposed upon by unworthy petitioners, and therefore narrowly investigates alleged cases of distress before relieving them. When satisfied that the object is worthy, his aid is generous and ungrudging. His ear is ever open to the tale of distress, his hand ever open when the distress is found to be real instead of simulated to impose upon the charitable. He has been known to leave his mails untouched all day that he might trace out and relieve cases of genuine affliction or suffering. His time and best judgment are given to the widow and fatherless, nor is his counsel empty-handed. In business matters, the rule of his life is not to claim the lion's share, although furnishing the means for an enterprise, but to deal with others as he would have done by him under similar circumstances. He believes that by pursuing this policy, he has reaped greater material advantages than if he had pursued a grasping policy, whilst his conscience is the easier for his forbearance. His firm determination to do right in every transaction and under all circumstances has in his case given fresh proof of the truth of the adage that "honesty is the best policy."

Nor, though among the wealthy of the city, is he an aristocrat in feeling. To him, the poor soldier's widow, the laborer's wife, and the wife of the millionaire are equal in their claims upon his courtesy and his attention. He is in feeling one of the people, yet utterly innocent of the arts of the demagogue, and repudiating with firmness any attempt to bring him forward into political life, against the heats and confusion of which his modest and quiet character revolts.

Although not of robust health, he is enabled to get through a large amount of work by methodical habits and by a strict avoidance of injurious haste and worry. His leisure is spent in the enjoyments of his beautiful home and in the cultivation of a fine artistic taste which has been developed and gratified by a tour among the principal art centers of Europe.

Hinman B. Hurlbut.

Himnan B. Hurlbut, a lineal descendant of Governor Hinman, of Connecticut, was born in St. Lawrence County, New York, July 29, 1818. In his boyhood, he received such education as the common schools provided, and the time not spent in the school room was employed on his father's farm, he being the youngest of a large family and required to help along with the others.

At the age of fifteen, he left the farm and engaged as clerk in the mercantile business in Washington, St. Lawrence County, where he remained about three years.

In 1836, he removed to Cleveland and commenced the study of law with his brother, H. A. Hurlbut, then practicing law here. On August 7th, 1839, he was admitted to practice, and at once went to Massillon, Stark county, where he opened an office for the practice of his profession. His cash capital when he started for his prospective field of labor, consisted of three dollars and twenty-five cents. The disbursement of this sum was as follows: three dollars for his packet fare to Massillon; twenty-five cents for three sheets of paper and two packets of tobacco. His worldly goods were all contained in a hair trunk; the most valuable item of which was his law library, comprising two volumes, Blackstone and Kent's Commentaries. Our readers may well be assured that Mr. Hurlbut was dreadfully in earnest about that time to commence business. He soon succeeded in making a commencement; his talent and industry were rewarded by one of the largest and most lucrative practices in that section, extending through Wayne, Holmes, Tuscarawas, Carroll, Columbiana, and Summit counties. As a lawyer he was very successful. He continued the practice of his profession until 1850, four years of which time he was the law partner of Hon. D. K. Cartter.

Some three years before retiring from his law practice, he became interested in banking at Massillon, and in 1850, organized the Merchants Bank, of Massillon, with a capital of $100,000. This was in connection with Dr. I. Steese, who is still president of the bank, with the capital increased to $200,000. It was and is a very successful enterprise.

In 1852, still retaining most of his interest in the bank at Massillon, he came to Cleveland, and commenced a private banking business, under the firm name of Hurlbut & Go., under the American House, and continuing about one year, when he purchased from the directors of the Merchants Bank the charter of the Bank of Commerce, and at once commenced business under it, with Mr. Parker Handy as president, and himself as cashier. About a year afterwards Mr. Handy resigned, and Mr. Joseph Berkins became president. The stock was increased from time to time till it reached $250,000, and then reorganized under the name of the Second National Bank of Cleveland, with the same officers, and nearly the same board, with a capital stock of $600,000, and its success may be judged when we say that it has a reserve fund of over $400,000, and it may well be characterized as one of the strongest, if not the strongest bank in Ohio.

Mr. Hurlbut was cashier from the commencement, and labored assiduously in its interests, so that the Second National Bank of Cleveland is eminently the fruit of his labor and skill. Mr. Hurlbut was obliged to resign his position January 1, 1866, on account of failing health, induced by excessive mental application, and was succeeded by the assistant cashier, J. O. Buell, who still retains the office. On resigning, he was made vice president, which position he still retains. He took a trip to Europe, where he remained two years, returning much improved.

Besides his official duties here, in 1864, in connection with Messrs. J. Perkins, A. Stone and S. Witt, he purchased of the Board of Control, the charter of the Toledo Branch of the State Bank of Ohio, which also proved a great success, paying in the neighborhood of twenty-five percent per annum. It was reorganized under the National Bank Law. Mr. Hurlbut held no official position in this bank, but assisted in its management.

For some years, he has been a director of the Bellefontaine Railroad Company, and on the consolidation of that company with the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad Company, was made a director of the consolidated line. He has added to his interests in banks and railroads some important investments in the iron interests of the city, and through his shrewd observation and extensive business knowledge, has managed to make his investments profitable. For fifteen years, he was a member of the State Board of Control of the State Bank of Ohio. From the organization of the Protestant General Hospital of Cleveland, he has been its president.

Mr. Hurlbut's sole official connection with politics was his serving as a delegate from the Seventeenth Ohio District in the Philadelphia Convention that nominated General Taylor. He is in no degree a politician, but always takes an active interest as a private citizen and voter, in the discussion of political questions. His tastes are elegant and refined, and since his virtual retirement from the pressing duties of business, he has found enjoyment in the cultivation of those tastes. His manners are affable and genial, his disposition frank and generous. In business matters, he has always been prompt, and has never allowed his engagements to lie unfulfilled or be postponed.

[Illustration: "Yours truly, E. I. Baldwin"]

Elbert Irving Baldwin.

The dry goods establishment of E. I. Baldwin & Co. is one of the best known business houses of Cleveland. Its reputation extends widely beyond the limits of the city, and throughout a large portion of the State it is known as one of the places to be visited whenever a shopping excursion is made to Cleveland.

Elbert Irving Baldwin, the founder and head of the firm, was born in New Haven, Connecticut, May 13, 1829. He received excellent early educational advantages, in preparation for a literary life, but as his health was not equal to this, he turned his attention to mercantile pursuits, when about eighteen years of age, by engaging as clerk in the dry goods house of Sandford & Allen, in his native town. With the firm he remained several years, and then engaged for about two years with a dry goods firm in New York city.

In October, 1853, Mr. Baldwin came to Cleveland, and on the completion of Northrup & Spangler's Block, commenced the retail branch of the dry goods business, his father, S. I. Baldwin, being a partner in the business for the first three years. Mr. Baldwin opened out with a stock of goods costing sixteen thousand dollars, and at the close of the first year had made sales to the amount of forty-three thousand dollars. This was an encouraging result for those times, and he correctly judged that it was but the foundation of a large and lucrative business. Each succeeding year, without any exception, has brought an increase of business, till the annual sales of the firm are in the vicinity of a million dollars, which, in a retail business, in a city of Cleveland's size, is very large; and fairly entitles him to be regarded as the most successful dry goods merchant Cleveland has ever had. Having from the first conducted business in a strictly honorable manner, selling only good articles at reasonable profits, and allowing no misrepresentations, the result is, that many of the customers of the house are of fifteen years' continuance. This, in conjunction with the natural growth of the trade growing out of an increase in the population, now gives his house the appearance of a central dry goods market.

Besides endeavoring to deal faithfully with customers, he inaugurated the one price and cash system of trade, so as to be faithful to himself and his creditors, and the result of all is--immense success.

To meet the demands of trade, in 1868, his firm purchased a piece of land whereon stood part of the well known City Buildings, on Superior street, and erected the elegant store now occupied by them, at an expense of over one hundred thousand dollars. It has been selected by us as a symbolic title page, representing Cleveland present, and is at once an ornament to the city, and a monument to untiring industry and integrity. The building has a frontage of forty-two and a half feet, a depth of one hundred and fifty feet, and a height of eighty feet, overtopping all the blocks in the city. The front is of Amherst sandstone. The building is divided into five stories, with a basement; the ground floor, occupied by the store, having five hundred feet of counter-room. Without, the architectural taste displayed was unexceptionably good, the building having an appearance of lightness and elegance, whilst at the same time conveying an idea of strength and solidity. The store is fitted up in the most sumptuous manner, and is of itself an attraction to visitors, to say nothing of the rich wares always there displayed.

On the retirement of his father, Mr. Baldwin associated with himself his brother-in-law, H. R. Hatch, and in 1863, Mr. W. S. Tyler, an employee, was admitted to an interest in the business, and in 1866, Mr. G. C. F. Hayne, another employee, became a partner. This is an excellent custom, and we are glad to see so many of our heavy merchants acknowledging the integrity and ability of their clerks in the same way.

Mr. Baldwin has now the general superintendence of the whole business; and, although he is not, nor ever has been, physically strong, is very active, and there is little that escapes his observation.

He was married, August, 1855, to Miss Mary Janette Sterling, of Lima, Livingston county, New York. The fruits of the marriage were three children now living, and one daughter who died.

Mr. Baldwin has been connected with the Second Presbyterian church about thirteen years, and has taken an active interest in the Sunday school. He was trustee of the church for several years, and has always been found ready to aid in the furtherance of every good work.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, G. N. Abbey]

Grove N. Abbey.

The trade in stoneware is a very important branch of the business of Cleveland, and this lies in the hands of one firm, of which Grove N. Abbey is the leading member. As the West generally is supplied from the parent house of the Abbeys, or from one or other of the branch establishments through the West, in which Mr. Abbey holds an interest, it would be manifestly out of place to omit, in a work of this character, a reference to him and his operations.

Mr. Abbey was born in Portland, Connecticut, August 19th, 1818. He was the eleventh of a family of thirteen, of whom seven yet live. The father, Asaph, died at the age of fifty-five. The mother, Ruth Hollister, survived her husband thirty years, the last twenty-two of which were spent in the family of her son Grove N., and died February 20th, 1868, at the advanced age of eighty-six. As before said, she had thirteen children, twelve of whom married, and thus enabled her to remark, as she repeatedly did, that she had had twenty-four children. Before her death she had seventy-one grandchildren added to the list of her descendants, besides fifty-seven great-grandchildren, and one of the fourth generation, making in all one hundred and forty-two descendants.

At the age of sixteen, G. N. Abbey bade adieu to his New England home and set out for the West. A good portion of his first year after leaving home was spent in Pittsburgh, which he then left for Ohio, where he has since resided; twenty-one years in Akron, and the remainder of the time in Cleveland. His first experience in Akron was as a clerk, from which he rose to the position of merchant on his own account, carrying on business until 1856. In the Spring of the preceding year he commenced business on River street, Cleveland, in the sale of Akron stoneware, in which he had become interested, and in 1856, removed his family to Cleveland, where he has since that time resided, retaining his mercantile interests in Akron until 1858.

When Mr. Abbey was carrying on a mercantile business in Akron, his attention was called to the growing importance of the manufacture and trade in stoneware, made from the clay of the Springfield clay-bed, which has since become famous for the superior quality of stoneware made from it. The pioneer in the business was David Abbey, a brother of Grove, who died in Chicago, in 1856. The extension of railways to Akron rapidly developed the trade in stoneware, and the Abbey family turned their exclusive attention to it. The trade grew to importance wherever the articles found their way. To obtain greater facilities for sale and distribution, Mr. Grove N. Abbey came to Cleveland and obtained storage privileges in a warehouse on River street, at the foot of St. Clair hill. Soon the increase of business justified the engagement of the whole building, and from that time the growth of the trade has been rapid and permanent. Brandi houses were established in Chicago, Indianapolis, and St. Louis, and the parent houses in Akron and Cleveland have been kept busy in supplying the needs of these branches as well as of their own. The character of the article dealt in became known throughout the West, and wherever introduced the trade soon increased in importance. The result has been a gratifying success to the Abbeys, and the addition of a large revenue to the county of Summit.

In all their various ramifications of business, Mr. Abbey has occupied an important position. In addition to providing for the home trade, he has exercised constant personal supervision over the supplying of the western branches. The negotiations between dealers and manufacturers have mostly been managed by him, and the importance of these negotiations may be judged from the fact that the requirements of the customers of Abbey & Co. regulate the amount of stoneware manufactured in Summit county, and thus affect the business and revenues of the county.

The business of the Cleveland house of G. N. Abbey & Co. has gradually been increased by the introduction of other articles of a kindred nature, such as the brown and yellow ware, manufactured at East Liverpool, Ohio, glassware from Pittsburgh and New York, and fire-brick and fire-clay. The position of Cleveland renders it the natural distributing point for those wares, and the extensive facilities possessed by Mr. Abbey, and his long experience in the business, place the monopoly of the trade in his hands. That nothing but good has grown out of this virtual monopoly, is seen in the fact that the business is steadily increasing, that no dissatisfaction is expressed by the customers, and that no litigations have taken place during the long business career of the house, extending over a hundred years in Cleveland.

During the last six years the firm has had some interest in vessels on the lakes, and these interests have been carefully watched by Mr. Abbey, who has entire control.

It will be rightly inferred from what has already been said, that Mr. Abbey has achieved success in business. That success is due to no lucky accident or extraneous circumstances, but is the natural result of devoted attachment to business, keen insight, and a determination to follow, as far as practicable, the golden rule of doing as you would be done by, and of a desire to avoid all misunderstandings.

If there be one business faculty more than another, prominent in Mr. Abbey, it is that of ability to do a large business, on a small capital; having, like nearly all of our merchants, commenced business with nothing that his own hands had not earned, and passing through all the trials incident to mercantile life in a young country, he has become an excellent financier. Naturally of a genial temperament, and inclined to look on the bright side of things, he glides over reverses and difficulties easier than some people, yet he has always keenly felt, and often deplored, the want of such early advantages as children of the present day possess.

Being early interested in the cause of temperance, he has persistently endeavored to spread its beneficial effects by means of temperance organizations, and in April, 1869, he was nominated as temperance candidate for Mayor on the first strictly temperance municipal ticket ever put in nomination in Cleveland. The result was the polling of a temperance vote of about ten per cent, of the whole vote cast.

Twenty-seven years since, whilst in business at Akron, he was induced to make a profession of faith and be received into the Congregational church. The faith then professed has never been renounced, and he is now an active member of Plymouth Congregational church in Cleveland.

On November 4th, 1844, Mr. Abbey married Miss Sarah Goodale, of Kent, Ohio, but who came originally from Massachusetts. Of this marriage there were four children, three of whom are still living; the oldest being married to Charles H. White, of Chicago, Illinois. The other daughter and a son remain with the family at home.

B. W. Jenness.

Mr. Jenness was born in Deerfield, New Hampshire, July 14, 1806, received a good academical education and in 1823 removed from Deerfield to Strafford, in the same State, where he engaged in merchandizing, continuing in that occupation for thirty years, and finding it reasonably remunerative. In addition to keeping his store he filled the position of postmaster of the town for fifteen years, being appointed under several successive administrations. He represented the town in the lower branch of the State Legislature, and held the office of High Sheriff for over five years, the county which he officiated in having since been carved out into several counties. On leaving that office he became Probate Judge, which position he retained five years and then resigned, although the terms of office were such that he could have retained his position until he was seventy years of age. He was nominated by the Breckenridge party for Governor of the State, but declined. In 1845-6, he was appointed to the Senate of the United States, to fill out the unexpired term of the Hon. Levi Woodbury, who was appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1850, he was a member of the Constitutional Convention to revise the constitution of New Hampshire, after which he retired to private life, and has allowed politics to take their own course without his aid.

Mr. Jenness came to Cleveland seven years ago, but immediately after his arrival started into the lumber business here with vigor, and has followed it up in the same way, until now he has become so intimately connected with Cleveland commerce that he seems like an old settler who has grown up with the city. He superintended the whole business here from the first, whilst his partners attended to the manufacturing department at their mills in Michigan, until May 1st, 1869, when Mr. Jenness bought out their entire interests. He has succeeded in building up a business equal to the best in that line in the short space of seven years, which speaks well for the energy and business ability displayed.

In addition to his lumber business Mr. Jenness, in connection with three others, built the propeller B. W. Jenness, for carrying lumber and trading from Buffalo to Chicago and intermediate ports. She carries about 330,000 feet of lumber, and cost $50,000. He has also been part owner of several other vessels since he has resided here.

[Illustration: Very Truly Yours B. W. Jenness?]

Mr. Jenness is a man of the most active temperament, he no sooner decides that a thing has to be done than he does it with all his might. One may form an idea of him by seeing him write his name; as quick as the pen touches the paper it is off like a flash of lightning, with the signature complete. He is broad and powerfully built, and to all appearance can endure as much as most men, although sixty-three years of age. Like other successful men, he attributes his success to strict attention to business in person. In politics he has always been a Democrat. In religion he is very liberal, favoring Baptists, Presbyterians, Congregationalists and Unitarians when occasion serves. He is held in esteem by all who know him, and we trust he may have many years of usefulness before him.

Mr. Jenness was married in 1827 to Miss Nancy Shackford, of Strafford, New Hampshire, whom it was his misfortune to lose in May, 1868, leaving two daughters the sole survivors of a family of five, the three sons being dead.

John Fletcher Warner.

The late J. F. Warner was a native of Burlington, Vermont, on the border of Lake Champlain. His parents were poor, and his early advantages were limited. At an early age he became a sort of cabin boy on one of the Lake Champlain steamers. Mr. Warner came to Cleveland in 1833 or 1834, and went into the employ of Wellman, Winch & Co., who then kept a warehouse near the present site of the Erie elevator. Mr. Warner often related to his friends with much glee, a little incident that occurred in connection with his engagement to labor for this firm. It appears that it was represented to him that he was desired to travel for the house; and he, with visions of a span of white horses, elegant outfit, and an easy time, readily accepted the proposition to travel for them. But his bright expectations were soon clouded; his horse was shown him and his course of travel was the circle around a horse power used for elevating grain from vessels, prior to the erection of any steam grain elevators in the city. He saw he had been the victim of a practical joke, and commenced his travel with as good a grace as possible, under the circumstances.

Mr. Warner remained with this firm for about two years, and then became warehouseman for Ransom, Baldwin & Co., which was composed of John G. Ransom, now residing in Hamilton, Canada, Stephen A. Baldwin, deceased, Charles M. Giddings, deceased, and William H. Bruce, then residing at Green Bay, and, we believe, now deceased. In 1838 or 1839, this firm was dissolved, and merged into Ransom, McNair & Co. Mathew McNair, Jr., the junior partner of this firm, whom the older residents will recollect, is now residing in California. Mr. Warner continued with this firm until they retired from business, and then he formed a business connection with Augustus Handy and Ralph H. Harmon. We do not know whether it was prior or subsequent to this partnership that he lived for a year or two at Tonawanda, but are under the impression that it was prior; but at the time of the Tonawanda speculation, gotten up by Clevelanders, he was induced to go there.

After about two or three years, the firm with which Mr. Warner was connected, moved to Chicago, but being all Clevelanders, and Chicago not being congenial to them, the firm soon dissolved, and the members of it moved back to Cleveland, since which time Mr. Warner was employed in no active business. At intervals he had made investments that proved profitable, and not being in very robust health, had but little ambition, and lived in comparative retirement. He was one of those who loved to talk over old times, and never forgot old faces. He was as charitable as his means would permit towards worthy objects, and preserved through all his business relations a character for strict integrity. He was a man of strong friendships, frank in his avowals, and left a circle of business and social friends who will remember him as an upright, warm-hearted, and public spirited man, who lived in good report, and died sincerely lamented.

For many years Mr. Warner had been more or less an invalid, though not often confined to his house, with Bright's disease of the kidneys. In November, 1868, it assumed a more serious phase, and on December 19th, 1868, terminated his life. About eight months previously, he suffered the loss of his beloved wife, while spending the colder months in Florida, which had a very depressing effect upon him, and took from him a very necessary incentive to life.

A. V. Cannon.

On the 10th of July, 1867, died, after a very short illness, A. V. Cannon, one of the most promising of the young business men of Cleveland, beloved by his intimate associates, and esteemed by the whole business community brought in contact with him, and thus able to learn his worth.

Mr. Cannon was a native of the Western Reserve, having been born in Streetsboro', Portage county, in 1834. On leaving school he entered the store of Babcock & Hurd, in Aurora, in that county, and when those gentleman removed to Cleveland he accompanied them and remained in their establishment some time, making a twelve years' stay with them altogether.

He then went into the produce and commission business, and one year later formed a partnership with Mr. J. F. Freeman, which existed until dissolved by death. For two years before his death his health had been impaired, and he had been confined to his house for about eighteen months with an affection of the leg, but had recovered sufficiently to attend to business, and was in a fair way of perfect recovery. As a relaxation from business, he visited some friends in the West. On his return he was seized with inflammation of the bowels and died after a very brief illness.

Mr. Cannon was one of the kindest of men, universally respected in business circles for his integrity and probity, and in the social circle for his mild and gentle manners and Christian spirit. He died at the early age of thirty-three, without an enemy, and with the confidence, the esteem and the love of all who knew him. On the announcement of his death the Board of Trade passed resolutions of respect and sorrow, paying high tributes to his business, social, and Christian qualities. He was buried with full Masonic honors, being a valued member of that order.

Mr. Cannon was married June 8th, 1863, to Mary, daughter of the late David Morris, and left one child, a daughter, now five years of age, very bright and promising.

At the meeting of the Board of Trade, the announcement of Mr. Cannon's death was made by Mr. H. S. Davis, in the following terms:

It is with feelings of profound sorrow that I announce the decease of A. V. Cannon, Esq., a much respected member of this Board. He has been stricken down suddenly, in the hour of his manhood, and in the midst of his usefulness. I have known Mr. Cannon from his early manhood, and can bear testimony to his untiring industry, strict integrity, and the purity of his character in all the relations of life. He was earnest in business, pleasant and affable in his demeanor, beloved by all who knew him, and it is not too much to say that in his death the Board has met with an irreparable loss.

We cannot lose such men without feeling that it comes very close to ourselves, and let us pause in the midst of our daily avocations to pay our parting respects to the memory of one who, were he living, would be first to recognize it as being due to others, and I would therefore suggest to the meinbers of this Board, that so far as possible they attend his funeral.

Mr. R. T. Lyon offered the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted:

Resolved, That we learn with much regret and sorrow the death of our esteemed friend and member of this Board of Trade, Mr. A. V. Cannon, noted for his modesty, honesty, business qualifications, strict integrity and moral principles, and worthy of the imitation of us all; and in these manifestations of our respect and regard we sympathise with the family and friends of the deceased in their sorrow and affliction.

Resolved, That we will make it our duty to attend the funeral of the deceased at the appointed time.

Resolved, That the daily session of this Board be suspended on the day of the funeral of the deceased.

Resolved, That a copy of the above resolutions be transmitted to the family of the deceased, by the Secretary.

H. F. Brayton.

If there be a business man in Cleveland without an enemy, we think it must be H. F. Brayton. He has been connected with various branches of business in this city for thirty-three years, and enjoyed to an unusual degree the confidence of his fellow citizens.

H. F. Brayton was born in Jefferson county, New York, November 22, 1812. He obtained a good academical education, and at the age of eighteen went to New York city and engaged as a clerk in a dry goods store, where he remained six years. During that time he became secretary of the first total abstinence society ever organized in that city. He was also treasurer of the Young Men's Anti-Slavery Society in that city, so far back as 1834, when Abolition doctrines were very unpopular. He it was that engaged the noted Theodore D. Weld and sent him out to the Western Reserve to lecture on the subject, and who succeeded in a very marked degree in bringing the masses over on to Abolition ground, and from which, in this section, they never receded until every bondman's fetter was broken. John Jay, our present minister to Austria, was, at the same time, one of the directors of the Society. He also connected himself with the Liberty party, being associated with Salmon P. Chase, in its early history. He next glided into the Free Soil party, and from that to the Republican.

In 1836, Mr. Brayton left New York and came to Cleveland, and very soon became book-keeper of the old Bank of Cleveland, and remained in the same position three years. He then went to Columbus and became cashier of a bank. After one year he resigned and came back to Cleveland, where he engaged in private banking, and continued the same for about ten years.

In 1850, Mr. Brayton became the first agent of the Continental Insurance Company, in this city, and still retains the office. This has been one of the most successful companies in the country. He is also the agent of the Washington Insurance Company, and the peculiarity of the two companies is, that the assured participate in the profits.

In January, 1869, his son, H. G. Brayton, became interested in his father's business, under the firm name of H. F. Brayton & Son. H. F. Brayton is also a partner in another insurance agency in the city. About six years since he went to New York and took charge of the agency department of the Columbia Insurance Company, and continued in the discharge of the duties of the office for one year, when the agency business was discontinued in that company, and Mr. Brayton accepted a like situation in the Resolute Insurance Company, where he remained about two years, and then returned to Cleveland, where his business had been carried on as usual during the three years of his absence.

Mr. Brayton has not devoted his entire attention to banking and insurance since his residence in Cleveland. From 1854 to 1857, he was connected with the firm of I. C. Pendleton & Co. in the coal trade, and previous to this he was the secretary of the Ohio Coal Company, which dealt principally in Pittsburgh coal for gas purposes. He is also at present engaged in the foreign passenger and real estate business.

Mr. Brayton was for a number of years president of the Cleveland Board of Underwriters, but resigned on leaving the city for New York, as already narrated.

On coming to Cleveland Mr. Brayton united with the First Presbyterian church, and has continued his connection with that denomination in the various societies in the city until the present time, and has been a worthy and consistent member.

The first impression a stranger receives of H. F. Brayton is, that he is a high toned gentleman, and every subsequent interview is certain to confirm it. He is a man of strict business habits, and expects his dues, and yet his large benevolence and goodness of heart not only prevents the slightest approach to meanness, but often causes him to suffer wrong rather than be thought to be doing wrong himself. Were it otherwise, he would have been one of the richest men in Cleveland to-day, for he posseses both the ability and energy.

O. A. Childs.

Among our most energetic firms is that of O. A. Childs & Co., manufacturers and wholesale dealers in boots and shoes, Water street. It was commenced by Messrs. Seymour & Crowell near twenty years since. It became Crowell & Childs in 1856, and so continued until 1864, when, by the death of Mr. Crowell, it became O. A. Childs & Co. The business of this firm has steadily increased from the first and their yearly sales now amount to about $700,000.

In 1857, they commenced manufacturing a portion of their own goods, and since 1860 have manufactured all their leading lines, i.e., those they depend upon for service. Their trade extends through Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Pennsylvania, a large amount being annually transacted in the Lake Superior region.

Although born in Massachusetts, Mr. Childs has lived in this city from boyhood and may with propriety be called a Clevelander. He is still a young and active merchant and one who has made himself a thorough, competent business man in all its details, from the cellar to the counting room. This, with unlimited energy, has brought him success.

James McDermott.

Among the mercantile interests, having their headquarters at Cleveland, which during a comparatively few years have grown into prominent sources of wealth and are yearly expanding in value and adding to the material prosperity of the city, the Building Stone and Grindstone interest is worthy of especial mention. Only a very few years since this trade was in its infancy, and as late as 1863 had not come to be recognized as worthy of special efforts for its development. That it then became so is in great measure owing to the sagacity and enterprise of the firm of James McDermott & Co.

James McDermott was born in the village of Whitby, county of Ontario, Canada West, on the 19th of September, 1836. His father, who is still living, is by birth an Irishman and a native of the city of Dublin. His mother, who is also living, was born in the county of Ontario, Canada West. The father of Mr. McDermott is a man of considerable culture, and in all the relations of life has been distinguished for great energy and the strictest probity. His mother is no less distinguished for her uprightness and her clear perception of moral duty, and especially for the energy and determination of her character.

James McDermott is the oldest of a family of eleven children, and as not unfrequently happens to an oldest son, where the parents are in moderate circumstances, James found himself at an early period of his life clothed with important duties connected with the care of the family. When in his twelfth year the family moved from the village of Whitby to a farm in the same township, and here came a change in the relations of the young lad, in the new duties he was required to assume, which laid the foundation of those correct business habits which have given him his present honorable position in the business community. His father occupied the post of United States Consul and Harbor Master (the latter embracing all the functions of a Collectorship) at the port of Whitby, together with several local offices which required his whole attention on every day of the week except Sunday. During the week, therefore, much of the business connected with the working and care of the farm was devolved upon James. The farm, being a new one, required to be cleared, and in this labor the young lad did his full share, manifesting always the most indefatigable industry. The family remained on the farm some seven or eight years, during which time James became an adept in all kinds of farm work.

Young McDermott's opportunities for obtaining an education, at best limited, were still further restricted by his farm life, and during the years thus spent his progress in mental attainments was very moderate, embracing only what he could gather during a few weeks of winter from a country school in the elementary branches.

A change at last came when the family quit the farm and removed to Whitby, in the year 1856. James was now twenty years of age, and being thrown into intimate contact with a larger number of his fellow men than ever before, the ambitions and impulses of his young manhood were more keenly stirred. He entered the office of his father, who still occupied the position of Harbor Master, and, though entirely ignorant of the duties, he quickly acquired a knowledge of the entire business and fulfilled all its requirements with entire satisfaction. He here realized, however, more fully, his defective education, which he determined to improve with the least possible delay. Only a few months were spent in his new position when he decided to set out in the world to seek his own fortune. Accordingly on the 10th of June, 1856, having packed all his personal property in a diminutive trunk, he bade adieu to his old home. Two days after his departure from home young McDermott arrived in Cleveland and went thence to Berea, where, as the sequel shows, was to be the scene of his future enterprise. He had acquired some knowledge of carpenter work, and so obtained a situation on the Methodist Episcopal church, then in course of erection. Here he worked until harvest time, when he went into the harvest field, working for one dollar per day. He worked through harvest and upon its conclusion took the first step in fulfillment of his design to improve his education, and entered school at Baldwin University. He had no money to pay for tuition, but this he provided for by sweeping the chapel, laboratory and halls of the college, earning sufficient money to meet his other wants, which were of course kept down to a very modest scale (as he boarded himself), by working in the stone quarries and cutting wood for the students. He studied hard and earnestly, and made good progress, finishing his first term with very satisfactory results. Among his acquirements during this period was a knowledge of the art of Oriental pearl painting, and during the Fall vacation he turned this accomplishment to advantage by teaching the art in Cleveland, going from house to house for this purpose, and obtaining fifty cents per lesson. In this way he earned sufficient to pay his tuition at the University during the next term, provide himself with necessary books, and furnish his means of living. Having concluded another term at the University, in the Fall of 1857, young McDermott came to Cleveland and took a course of writing lessons at a Commercial College. He attained considerable proficiency in penmanship, and in the winter of 1857-8 taught writing classes at Loweville and Youngstown, Mahoning county, and at the Female College at Poland, Ohio, meeting with good success and giving entire satisfaction. In February, 1858, Mr. McDermott got his first introduction to the grindstone business, having received an appointment from a firm at Berea to travel in Canada and solicit orders on commission. He visited Canada and worked hard, often walking twenty miles a day, from station to station, to save time, carrying his satchel on his back, and paying his expenses by teaching the process of pearl painting. The trip was entirely successful, and Mr. McDermott returned to Berea in the Summer with a handsome sum in pocket. Still anxious regarding his education, he again entered Baldwin University, attending through the Fall term. In November of this year he came to Cleveland, passed an examination and received a certificate to teach school, and upon this opened a school in Middleburgh township, Cuyahoga county, making his evenings available by teaching writing and spelling classes. At the conclusion of the first term, in February, 1859, he started upon a second trip to Canada, to solicit orders for stone, this time on his own account. The venture was prosecuted with his usual industry, and was highly successful. He returned to Berea in the Summer considerably better off financially than when he left it, and having, meanwhile, placed a brother and two sisters at school in the University at his own expense, he once again entered upon a course of study. He remained, however, but two months, in consequence of the illness of his father calling him to Whitby to assume the duties of his father's office. Here he remained some two months, when his father's recovery enabled him to return to Berea. He commenced a commercial course, but was permitted to pursue it barely a month when he was prostrated by a severe attack of typhoid fever from which he did not recover for nearly four months, his life being several times despaired of. As soon as his health was sufficiently restored, Mr. McDermott again identified himself with the grindstone trade and made two trips to Canada, both very successful, between May and September, 1860, and then finished his commercial course. On the 19th of September, his twenty-fourth birthday, Mr. McDermott was married at East Townsend, Huron county, Ohio, to Miss Henrietta Scott, who had been a teacher in the Baldwin University, and a lady of superior accomplishments.

In this year he met with the most serious misfortune of his business life. He shipped a cargo of stone for Canada, and the vessel encountering a storm which disabled her, a large portion of the cargo was thrown overboard. The cargo was insured in the Quaker City Insurance Company of Philadelphia, but before the claim could be adjusted the Company failed, and Mr. McDermott was rendered a considerable sum worse off than nothing. This misfortune, however, only served to stimulate his energy, and having established a good credit by the promptitude with which he had always met his business engagements, and at the same time created a high impression of his business qualifications, those with whom he had traded, and in whose debt he had been brought, encouraged him to continue business by allowing him all the time he should require to repair his losses and make himself whole. He soon made another trip to Canada with the most gratifying result, taking orders for upwards of three hundred tons of stone, the returns from which paid off all his indebtedness and left him something more than even with the world.

From January to August, 1862, was spent by Mr. McDermott in Lower Canada, chiefly among the French population, and was one of the most successful periods of his business experience thus far. Returning to Berea, we next find him on his way to Cincinnati as one of a company of "Squirrel Hunters" in response to a well-remembered call of Gov. Tod for a force to resist the threatened invasion of the State by the Confederate forces under Kirby Smith. Arriving at Cincinnati it was found that the patriotic citizens of Ohio had so freely answered the demand upon them that more than enough to protect the State against several times the menacing army were already on the ground, and the Berea company was permitted to return home. The remaining months of the year were passed by Mr. McDermott in making preparations and perfecting plans for the ensuing year's business.

[Illustration: Yours Respectfully, James McDermott]

On the 30th of January, 1863, Mr. McDermott formed a copartnership with John Worthington, who was engaged in the building stone trade at Brownhelm, Lorain county, Ohio, the firm taking the title of Worthington & McDermott. The firm immediately erected works for turning large grindstones for manufactories, and distinguished their first Spring's business by sending to New York city the first cargo of building stone ever shipped there from Ohio. During this year they furnished the stone for all the trimmings and carved work on the Government buildings at Ottawa, the capital of the Dominion of Canada, and also for a number of buildings in Montreal and other cities and towns of Canada. The year's business was heavy, and the result was largely due to the energy and enterprise of Mr. McDermott. In the latter part of the year Mr. McDermott took up his residence in Cleveland, where he had purchased a house, and in the spring of 1864 the office of the firm was removed to Cleveland.

The business of the firm was now growing vigorously, the result of the year 1864 being in the highest degree satisfactory, not alone in the pecuniary returns, but in the wider extension of the trade and the introduction of the Ohio stone to markets where it had previously been unknown, and where it has since been in steady and large demand. Near the close of the year the firm of Worthington & McDermott was dissolved, and Mr. McDermott purchased of the Wallaces the old quarry at Berea originally opened by John Baldwin over forty years ago. He took into partnership his brother William and established the firm of J. McDermott & Co. The new firm went actively to work in developing its quarry, mining and manufacturing block and grindstones, and succeeded rapidly in establishing valuable business connections and enlarging the stone trade of this section. Among the first improvements introduced was the building of a railroad track Connecting the quarry with the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati track, and other facilities for the expeditions handling and getting out stone were added as promptly as practicable. In the spring of 1865 the firm filled a contract with the Cleveland and Toledo Railroad Company for stone with which to replace the wooden bridges along the line of the road. During the year the firm made extensive progress in developing its quarry, trenching to a greater depth than had yet been reached in any of the quarries, and obtaining a quality of building stone superior to any produced up to this time in Ohio, which very soon became, and is still, in large demand. In the spring of 1866, the firm sold the first five hundred tons of Berea rock block stone that ever went to New York city, and succeeded in so far interesting several of the largest builders of the metropolis in this stone as to induce them to visit the Berea quarries. During the year 1867, the firm sent to New York all the clear rock block stone they could get out, and also filled several large contracts for block stone with the Cleveland and Toledo and Lake Shore Railroad Companies, doing this year a very large business. On the 1st of January, 1867, the firm was increased by taking in another brother, Mr. Michael McDermott, the firm name remaining unchanged.

The house of J. McDermott & Co. occupies at this time a leading position in the stone trade of Ohio, and indeed of the West, not alone in the amount of its annual business, but in credit, character and influence, and in these latter respects it is hardly surpassed by any mercantile house in Northern Ohio. The trade of the house not only extends to nearly every State of the Union and the Dominion of Canada, but the product of its quarries finds a market in Mexico, South America and other parts of the world. During 1867, this house furnished the stone for fourteen blocks and fronts in New York city, and a number of buildings in Boston, New Haven and other cities, and in 1868, the business was largely increased. A single firm of builders in New York city erected during that year fifteen buildings and fronts for which J. McDermott & Co. furnished the stone.

The quarries owned by this firm embrace twenty-five acres of land of which less than an acre has been worked out. In 1867, they turned out 106,200 cubic feet of block stone, 46,000 feet of flagging, 119 car loads of rough block stone, and 1,510 tons of small grindstones. These quarries are valued at $200,000, and the excellent quality of the stone produced is amply attested by the large and increasing demand for it.

The business of the house of J. McDermott & Co. is under the immediate personal supervision of Mr. James McDermott, to whose experience, enterprise and business capacity its marked success is due. Mr. McDermott has taken an active interest in all that relates to the stone business, and also to whatever tends to build up the prosperity of Cleveland. In 1866 and 1867, he visited Washington to procure the modification of the internal tax and import duty on stone, and was successful in his endeavors. He also brought about the organization of the "Association of the Grindstone and Block Stone Manufactures of Northern Ohio," a work which was not accomplished without much difficulty, in spite of the fact that it was for the mutual benefit of all engaged in the trade. It should be mentioned in this connection that the firm issued a valuable series of tables of weights of grindstones, and rules for computing the same, now in general use by manufacturers, and which was chiefly compiled by Mrs. McDermott. The most recent public work of Mr. McDermott was his active labor in organizing the Cleveland, Wooster and Zanesville Railroad Company, to which he has devoted time, money and labor.

Mr. McDermott is still young, being but thirty-two years old, of fine physical proportions, a robust constitution, and clear, comprehensive mind. His healthfulness, and also his success in business, he attributes in large measure to his habit of strict temperance. In business matters he is prompt, scrupulously conscientious, and holding a verbal engagement to be as binding as the most carefully drawn contract. In private and social circles he is warm-hearted, cheerful, and every way a pleasant companion.

J. A. Redington.

J. A. Redington is son of Captain John Redington, formerly of Saratoga county, New York, who, when nineteen years of age, ran away from his stepfather, who abused him, and volunteered into the Revolutionary army, where he served seven years, and was taken prisoner by the British, and incarcerated in the Sugar House, New York. There the privation that fell to his lot in the great struggle for freedom, nearly killed him. Had Capt. Redington lived till the present time he would have been one hundred and twelve years old. J. A. Redington, the subject of this sketch, was born June 4, 1818, when his father was sixty-one years old, and there were five children born to the old soldier afterwards. At the birth of the last, he was seventy-two years of age.

Ten years of the boyhood of J. A. was spent with an uncle in Vermont, where he received a good common school education. While living at that place his father died, and at the age of sixteen he had a keen realization of the situation. He had nothing, and could not mend matters where he was, so he determined to go home to his mother and see if he could be of service there. After remaining with his mother a year, he engaged with a ship-chandler at Oswego, for twenty-five dollars per year and board. After a few months his employer closed up, leaving him out of employment. About a year from this time, his former employer, who had gone to Cleveland, wrote him that if he would come to Cleveland he would employ him again. He worked his passage on a canal boat from his home to Oswego, where he took passage on board a vessel just leaving for Cleveland.

The late Chester Deming was the gentleman who had engaged his services. He received two hundred dollars the first year, three hundred the second year, and four hundred the third, on which handsome salary, for those times, he concluded to marry.

Mr. Deming closed up his business here in 1841, and Mr. Redington commenced on his own account, dealing in oats, wheat and other grains. This continued about a year when he formed a partnership for the purpose of opening a general furnishing house for vessels. He did a successful business, but as it was only during the summer months, he established a dry goods store in connection with it on the West Side. This enterprise was only partially successful, and so he closed it up, and for several years was employed as clerk on board a steam boat.

In 1856, he, in connection with Mr. Bacon, commenced the shipping and forwarding business, built the vessel E. C. Roberts, which was a profitable investment, and also ran the propeller Manhattan. This partnership was dissolved after two years, Mr. Redington retaining his vessel interests. He is now engaged in mercantile pursuits on the river, dealing principally in pig metal.

By dint of hard work and a determination to succeed in spite of adverse circumstances, and by strict integrity, he has accomplished his purpose and acquired a comfortable competency.

Samuel Sage Coe.

S. S. Coe has been favorably known in the business circles of Cleveland for over thirty years, and, although he has not succeeded in amassing as much wealth as some of his competitors, yet his fortitude has enabled him to glide over reverses easily, and enjoy somewhat of life as it came.

Mr. Coe was born in Oswego, New York, October 6th, 1819. He obtained all the education a widowed mother could give him before he was twelve years of age, when he entered a country store and remained five years. The only recreation he had during that time was a trip to Niagara, on the schooner Saratoga, with Capt. Dolph. Howe, with whom some of our citizens are well acquainted. In 1836, he went to New York and clerked in the hardware store of Wolf, Bishop & Co., and returned to Oswego in June, 1837. Not being able to find employment there, he concluded to try his fortune in the West, and at once took the schooner Charles Crooks, bound for Cleveland. Mr. Coe landed in this city July 19th, 1837, his cash capital being at the time one dollar and twenty-five cents. After a few days a situation was obtained in the office of Ransom, McNair & Co., with a salary of thirty dollars per month, out of which he had to board himself. He remained with this firm until about 1841, when he went into the employ of B. F. Smith & Co., composed of B. F. Smith, now residing at Buffalo, as superintendent of the Buffalo and Erie Railroad, and George Woodward, now residing at Milwaukee, with whom he remained until 1845, when he engaged in business for himself, in the firm of Doddridge & Coe, in the forwarding and commission line. In about one year this firm dissolved, and Mr. Coe went into the same business with his brother, Chas. W., under the style of S. S. Coe & Co. This firm was unfortunate, and existed only one year.

In 1848, while doing a small commission business alone, he was offered, and accepted, the agency of the Merchants' Insurance Company, of Milwaukee, and labored faithfully for them one year, and, at its close, his premiums amounted to less than two hundred dollars. This was the first insurance company with which he was ever connected.

In 1851, Mr. Coe organized and got into operation the Commercial Mutual Insurance Company, of this city, acting as its Secretary for about one year and a half, when he resigned, and went into the insurance agency business, with which he has ever since been identified.

In 1865, Mr. Henry F. Clark desired him to reorganize the Cleveland Insurance Company, the charter of which was granted by the State of Ohio in 1830, and which was successfully managed by his father, Mr. Edmund Clark, until his death. Mr. Coe undertook and completed the task, and operations re-commenced April 1st, of the same year, on a paid up cash capital of one hundred thousand dollars, increased in 1866, to one hundred and fifty thousand; and in 1867, to two hundred thousand dollars, and now increased to its limit, five hundred thousand dollars, making it the largest cash capital company in the State of Ohio, a credit to the city and to the State at large.

Mr. Coe is the right man in the right place, as the successful workings of this company fully demonstrate. He, as secretary, devotes his whole attention to the interest of the company. H. B. Payne is the president, and S. D. McMillan, vice-president.

In looking over a correspondence of about twenty years ago, in search of some data connected with Mr. Coe's history, we came on the following letters, which will be read with amusement by old Clevelanders, as reminiscences of the ante-railroad period, and for the allusions to public and political events of that day, as well as for the contrast between the irascible tone of one letter, and the cool humor of the other:

Messrs. S. S. Coe & Co., Cleveland, Ohio:

Gentlemen,--No one dislikes, more than we do, to grumble or find fault, but we hate just as bad to have our boats detained beyond a reasonable time, at your place; and when our boats leave here for your place, we look for them back at a certain time; and if they do not get here soon after that time, it disarranges all our calculations and proves a great loss to us. All our boats were detained a week on account of a break in our canal, and then to be detained beyond a reasonable time in port, makes it worse. Mr. Wheeler, at Akron, is the only man on the Ohio canal, that we know of, that has been in the business longer than we have on our canal, and we defy you to find a boatman on our canal or river that will say we ever detained them beyond a reasonable time; and there is no need of it if men do as they would be done by, and the situation our river has been in this geason has been vexatious enough for any one. Time is money, and eight or ten boats being detained a day or two counts up. The J. Larkin left for your place to-day.

Tours truly,

S. Adams & Co.

Cleveland, July 29th, 1848. Messrs. Sam'l Adams & Co., Dresden, O.:

Gentlemen,--Your esteemed favor of the 25th inst. is at hand.

It has been a matter of some considerable interest to us to ascertain, if possible, as to which city takes precedence in age, Zanesville or Cleveland.

As, which incident is first in date, the cutting of the bridle path from Wheeling to the Muskingum by Old Zane, or the coasting of our lake to the Cuyahoga of the exploring party under Old Stow. Your Mr. Adams, we are quite sure, can give us the much desired information.

We see it stated that our good Democratic candidate for President once resided at or near your beautiful village. You may be familiar with his early history--we wish to know, if such a thing is possible, whether he commenced his political career as a Federalist or a Democrat, and whether he did or did not break his sword at the disgraceful surrender of that old coward Hull; but more than all, as we think it most important of all, is, did he, or did he not, when at the age of nineteen, wear that emblem of Federalism, the black cockade. To this last question we beg you will give us an answer if such a thing be possible.

While troubling you in this manner, for which we beg your kind indulgence, may we also ask you as to the condition, moral and physical of your returned volunteers? Report says they have been badly treated; we are anxious to know as to this, for if so, and commanded by Whig' officers, we can make political capital out of it against the Whig party; if not, we can make capital against the administration; we do not care which, as our object is to do justice to both parties. Can you tell us which candidate they will support. They are important in numbers, and from their high character, will carry a great, moral force with them; and on this last account we have supposed they would oppose General Taylor, as it has been said he used profane language at the battle of Buena Vista.

We are erecting here a new and beautiful theater, it opens Aug. 21. We hope we may see you here at that time.

Your ob't serv'ts,

S. S. Coe & Co.

P.S. You are right as to the unnecessary detention at this place of canal boats; it is an evil of great turpitude. We never do so. Aside from the great loss to owner, it affects the morals of the crews, and in this we know the oldest forwarder on the canal, Mr. Wheeler, will agree with us.

John Long Severance.

Conspicuous among those former residents of Cleveland who have passed away and left only a pleasant memory behind them, is John Long Severance, who died about ten years ago, mourned by a wide circle of friends, whom his many lovable qualities had brought around him.

Mr. Severance was born in 1822, his father being Dr. Robert Severance, of Shelburne, Massachusetts. His parents dying within a few months of each other, when he was but nine years old, young Severance was adopted by the late Dr. Long, of Cleveland, who gave him every advantage in the way of education that could be procured in the city. A college course was intended but his delicate health forbade this, and in his sixteenth year he was taken into the old Commercial Bank of Lake Erie, and then into the reorganized institution, remaining there twenty years.

His health, never good, broke down entirely under the fatiguing duties of the bank, and he was compelled to resign his connection with that institution and seek a restoration of his wasted vigor by a voyage to Europe. At Southampton, England, he died on the 30th August, 1859, at the age of thirty-seven, surrounded by every attention which kind friends and sympathizing strangers could bestow upon him.

Mr. Severance was a man of many rare and sterling attractions. His social qualities, passion for music, and love for little children, as well as sincere attachment to a large circle of friends, caused general mourning for his death. He was one of the founders of the Second Presbyterian church, and by the members of that body his loss was keenly felt. He had always felt a deep interest in the prosperity of the church, contributing largely through his rare ability as a musician, both in the choir and in the Sunday schools, to the welfare of the congregation, until he was obliged to abandon those services on account of advancing disease. With rare energy and many reasons for desiring to live, he was slow to believe that he must fall in early manhood before the destroyer. And while he was not afraid to die, and expressed a firm confidence in God in whatever event, he felt it to be his duty to struggle for a longer life, and no doubt prolonged his days in this manner. He was consistent, uniform, earnest, stable, both in faith and practice; always punctual in the discharge of his business and Christian duties, his attendance in the church, and his labors in the mission and Sunday schools. His last letter before death, written to an intimate personal and business friend, said: "I feel quite sure the disease is making rapid progress, but this gives me no uneasiness or alarm, nor have I experienced any feeling but that I am hastening home. The prospect would be dark indeed with no hope in Christ, no deep and abiding trust in God's pardoning love. This trust in him has sustained me through every trial, and this hope in Christ and his all-atoning blood grows brighter every day, taking away the fear of death, and lighting up the pathway through the dark valley, through which so many of my loved ones have already passed."

[Illustration: D. Sanford]

Daniel Sanford.

The late Daniel Sanford, whose name is held in esteem by old Clevelanders, was born in Milford, Connecticut, in 1803. At a very early age he left his home and went to New York where he learned the trade of a ship joiner, one of his first jobs being upon the cabins of the Fairfield, the first steamer on the East River.

In 1834, he came to Cleveland and worked for some time at his trade as a journeyman ship joiner. In coming time he aspired to build ships on his own account, and for this purpose formed a partnership with Luther Moses. The first work done by the firm was on the steamer New York, and subsequently the steamers Ohio and Saratoga were built by them. In addition to these a very large number of propellers and sailing vessels were built, and canal boats almost without number. The mere list of crafts of one description and another, built by this firm, would take considerable space in our pages.

In 1849, the firm, which had done so much important work in the ship yards, was dissolved and Mr. Sanford changed his business from ship-building to dealing in lumber, which he entered upon on a large scale and continued under the title of D. Sanford, and subsequently Sanford & Son, until his death, which occurred on Sunday morning, September 22, 1864, after an illness of about four weeks, the disease being inflammation of the bowels.

Mr. Sanford came to Cleveland with but five hundred dollars in his pocket, but he worked his way with prudence and economy till he had acquired a handsome property. His business on his death descended to his third son, Nelson Sanford, who has conducted it prudently and with success.

He was earnestly patriotic, and on the outbreak of the war for the Union he took a lively interest in everything pertaining to it. Becoming satisfied that the rebels never intended submission to the lawful authorities until they were flogged into submission, he strongly urged their severe punishment, and contributed liberally to send men into the field.

Mr. Sanford was a strong advocate of the consolidation of Ohio City and Cleveland, and in his position of member of the Ohio City Council aided materially in bringing about the result. He was no politician, but was not one of those who make that fact an excuse for taking no interest in public affairs. He had decided views on public matters, and never avoided his duties as a citizen.

In whatever concerned the welfare of the city he took strong interest, and was one of the first stockholders of the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad Company, as he was also of the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad Company.

Every dollar of Mr. Sanford's money was honestly earned; not a hard, mean, or wrongful action tarnished a single penny passing into his hands. Had he been avaricious he might have died worth half a million dollars, but he was infinitely richer in the blessings of hundreds of poor people who were the secret recipients of his bounty. He had "a hand open as day for melting charity." Yet in his good deeds he never let his left hand know what his right hand did. His last words on earth were of a character in keeping with his whole life. Calling his youngest son to his bedside he said, "Benjamin, be honest in all your transactions." On the tomb of David Sanford can with truth be written: "An honest man--the noblest work of God."

Charles W. Coe.

Charles W. Coe, so long and favorably known in our business circles, was born in Oswego, New York, March 19th, 1822. His grandfather, Col. Eli Parsons, was a soldier in the Revolution, and prominent in the Shay's Rebellion, in Massachusetts. His father was a physician of much note in Oswego, and died about 1828, leaving two children; Charles, the younger, is the subject of this sketch. Like a great many other physicians, he left a number of old accounts of no value, and not a great deal besides, so that Charles and his brother had to strike out early in life to do something towards getting a living, and hence educational matters did not receive all the desired attention.

Charles came to Cleveland in 1840, and at once engaged as clerk with N. E. Crittenden, jeweler. He remained in that situation about a year, when he returned to Oswego, and after the lapse of two years, came back to Cleveland, and entered into the employ of Pease & Allen, produce and commission merchants, with whom he remained until 1849. At that time, he went into the employ of Mr. Charles Hickox, and continued with him until 1855, when he took an interest with Mr. Hickox in the milling business, already referred to in this work, and in which he still continues.

Mr. Coe has won his present prominent position among the business men of Cleveland by shrewd foresight and close attention to business. He is a hard worker and a keen observer of the fluctuations of business, mingling prudence with enterprise to such a degree that, whilst he has driven a profitable business, it has always been a safe one. He is frank, unselfish, and free hearted. Whilst having had reason to appreciate the value of money, he esteems it not so much on its own account as on account of the domestic comforts and enjoyments its judicious expenditure brings.

S. M. Strong

The drug establishment of Strong & Armstrong stands foremost in that branch of the business of Cleveland and has achieved a wide reputation, having an extensive trade not only through Northern Ohio, but in Indiana, Michigan and Pennsylvania, drawing custom away from Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and Detroit in territory previously considered naturally tributary to those places.

S. M. Strong, the leading partner of the firm, is a native Buckeye, having been born in Lorain County, Ohio, in 1833. His boyhood was spent in acquiring a good common school education, after obtaining which he became clerk in a drug store at Elyria, entering it at the age of sixteen and remaining about two years when, in 1850, he accompanied his employer, who removed to Cleveland, and remained with him there three years more.

At the end of that time, he entered Gaylord's drug store, in which he continued about two years, when he turned his attention to pushing a fever and ague remedy which he had been at work on for several years previous. Four years he devoted to this work, finding a partial success, and then he formed a partnership with A. C. Armstrong, of Medina county, for the purpose of building up a wholesale and retailing business. The business of Henderson & Punderson, which was established in 1836, was purchased, and the new firm of Strong & Armstrong opened business in the old place, No. 199 Superior street. At first the business was carried on in a limited way, the total of jobbing and retail sales for the first year amounting to but $75,000. But the partners were young, energetic, and full of hope. They pushed their trade vigorously, attended closely to the details of the business, and mingled enterprise with prudent economy so well that they were soon gratified at finding their business annually growing larger and more profitable. In less than ten years their trade has grown from about $75,000 in a year to over $600,000, and their limited establishment so enlarged as to require the services of twenty-four assistants. The business, though large, has been managed with such care and prudence as to render losses very light and litigation almost wholly unnecessary.

Ship Building

For years Cleveland has been the principal ship building port on the lakes. Of late the ship building interest here has shared the depression felt by it throughout the Union, but it is still an important interest, and before long will probably resume its activity.

The first vessel reported built in the vicinity of Cleveland was the Zephyr, thirty tons burthen, built by Mr. Carter, in 1808, for the trade of the village. The precise spot of her building is not recorded. She was burned at Conjocketa Creek, near Black Rock. The next was the Ohio, of sixty tons, built by Murray and Bixby, in 1810, and launched from the East bank of the river near the spot now occupied by Pettit & Holland's warehouse. She was sailed by John Austen and afterwards became a gunboat in Perry's fleet, but took no part in the battle of Lake Erie, being absent on special service.

In 1813, Levi Johnson built the Pilot. The story of her construction and launch has already been told in the sketch of Levi Johnson's life. In that sketch also will be found the account of most of the early ship building of Cleveland, he being the principal ship builder of the pioneer days.

In 1821, Philo Taylor built the Prudence, which was launched on the river opposite where the New England block now stands.

In 1826, John Blair built the Macedonian, of sixty tons, and in the same year the Lake Serpent, forty tons, was built by Captain Bartiss and sailed by him.

The first steamboat built in Cleveland was the Enterprise, built by Levi Johnson in 1826, but not floated into the lake until the following year.

The enterprise of ship building pursued a steady course in Cleveland for a number of years, a few vessels being added annually, until about the year 1853, when the business took a sudden start and made rapid progress. For the next few years the ship yards were busy and the ship building interest was one of the most important branches of the business of the city. In 1856, a total of thirty-seven lake crafts, sail and steam, was reported built, having a tonnage of nearly sixteen thousand tons. During the past twenty years, nearly five hundred vessels of all kinds, for lake navigation, have been built in the district of Cuyahoga, and of these all but a small proportion were built in Cleveland. The description of vessels built has greatly altered during that time, the size of the largest class having more than trebled. During the year 1868, there were built in this port four propellers, one steamer and three schooners, with an aggregate of 3,279 tons. This is much less in number and tonnage than in some previous years, but still gives Cleveland the lead in the ship building of the lakes. The absorption of the flats on the lower part of the river for railroad and manufacturing purposes, and for lumber yards, has seriously incommoded the ship building interests by restricting the space available for ship yards.

In the division of the ship building business of the lakes in past years, the construction of large side-wheel steamers was principally carried on at Buffalo, whilst in first class propellers and sailing vessels Cleveland immeasurably distanced all competitors, both in the quantity and quality of the craft turned out. As the demand for side-wheel steamers lessened, the site of their construction was removed from Buffalo to Detroit. Cleveland-built propellers, however, take front rank, and Cleveland-built sail vessels have found their way over every part of the lake chain, sailed down the Atlantic coast from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to South American ports, and crossing the Atlantic, have penetrated nearly every European sea. Everywhere they have done credit to their builders by their speed, sea worthiness, and excellent construction.

Just here it is proper to place, on record the history of an attempt to establish a direct trade with Europe, which gave abundant promise of good results, both to the commercial and ship building interests of the city. It has already been referred to in this work, but it appropriately falls within the scope of this sketch.

In the year 1856, the schooner Dean Richmond, of 379 tons, was built by Quayle & Martin in Cleveland, for C. J. Kershaw, of Chicago. This vessel was loaded with wheat and under the command of Capt. D. C. Pierce, sailed from Chicago to Liverpool. She arrived in good time, having made a quick passage, and astonished the English people by her rig, and from the fact of her having come from the inland lakes of America to Europe. The schooner was sold in Liverpool, and her new owners changed her name to the Belina, and placed her in the trade between Liverpool and Brazil, on which route she made quick and successful trips.

In 1857, the same builders turned out the barque c.J. Kershaw, of 380 tons burthen, having built her for Capt. D. G. Pierce, who was the pioneer captain in the trade. The Kershaw was loaded with staves, cedar posts and black walnut lumber. In the Fall, she started on her return with a load of crockery and iron, but was twice driven back by terrific gales and had to go into dock for repairs. This brought her into St. Lawrence river so late, that she was frozen in the Lachine Canal. Early in 1858, she arrived in Cleveland with her cargo in excellent order and to the perfect satisfaction of the consignees.

About the time that the Kershaw was launched, a small British schooner, the Madeira Pet of 123 tons, came from Liverpool through the rivers and lakes to Chicago, with a cargo of hardware, cutlery, glass, &c., on speculation. The enterprise was not successful, and no more attempts were made to establish a direct trade between Chicago and European ports.

During the Spring and Summer of 1858, several of the leading business men of Cleveland entered with vigor into the trade, and a respectable fleet of vessels was dispatched to European ports. A new barque, the D. C. Pierce, was built for Messrs. Pierce & Barney and sent to Liverpool with a cargo of staves and black walnut lumber. The same parties sent the C. J. Kershaw to London with a similar cargo, and the Chieftain and Black Hawk, with the same kind of freight. Mr. T. P. Handy sent the R. H. Harmon with staves and black walnut lumber to Liverpool, the D. B. Sexton with a similar cargo to London, and the J. F. Warner with a cargo of the same kind to Glasgow. Mr. H. E. Howe sent the new barque H. E. Howe to London with a cargo of staves and lumber. Col. N. M. Standart sent the Correspondent to Liverpool with a load of wheat, and Mr. C. Reis freighted the Harvest to Hamburgh with a cargo of lumber, staves and fancy woods. This made a fleet of ten vessels, owned and freighted by Cleveland merchants, with a total tonnage of about 3,600 tons. Two vessels were sent out from Detroit with similar cargoes, but the enterprise was pre-eminently a Cleveland one.

All of the Cleveland fleet disposed of their cargoes to good advantage. Six of them returned with cargoes of crockery, bar iron, pig iron, and salt. This part of the trip also proved successful. It was the intention of the owners to sell some of the vessels in England, but the shipping interests were so prostrated that it was impossible to dispose of the ships at anything like a fair price. They therefore still remained in the hands of Cleveland owners, but four of them did not return to the Lakes. The D. B. Sexton went up the Mediterranean; the H. E. Howe went on a voyage to South America, the Harvest to the West Indies, and the C. J. Kershaw was employed in the Mediterranean trade. Wherever any of the Cleveland vessels went, they called forth complimentary remarks by their fleetness and steadiness in heavy weather.

In the following year, other vessels were sent out and made successful trips. The remarkable sea-going qualities exhibited by these lake-built crafts, outsailing, as they did, ocean clippers and weathering gales that sent sea-going ships flying helpless before the storm, attracted the attention of Eastern ship-owners, and orders were received for vessels to be built for the Atlantic coasting trade. The outbreak of the war gave a severe check to the direct trade, which passed into the hands of an English firm who still continue to run vessels between Cleveland and Liverpool, and in the depressed condition of the American carrying trade on the ocean there was no longer a demand for new vessels for the coasting trade. With a revival of business in that line, and an enlargement of the canals between Lake Erie and tidewater, so as to allow the passage of larger vessels, there is a probability that a brisk demand for Cleveland vessels for the salt water will yet spring up.

[Illustration: Respectfully, S. W. Johnson]

Seth W. Johnson.

The name of Seth W. Johnson has for more than thirty years been closely and prominently identified with the ship building interests of Cleveland. He saw the business in its infancy, was largely accessory to its growth into the important proportions it at last assumed, and though no longer engaged in the business, his withdrawal from it is so recent that the mention of his name suggests, to those familiar with the affairs of the city for a number of years, the incessant tapping of the shipwrights' hammers and visions of skeleton ships gradually assuming the form and substance in which they are to carry the commerce of the great West to market.

Mr. Johnson was a native of Middle Haddam, Middlesex County, Connecticut, his mother, who died October 17, 1868, being formerly Miss Mary Whitmore, born at Middletown, Middlesex County, Connecticut, in 1780, and his father, Henry Johnson, born in 1776, and died July 6, 1869. Seth W. Johnson was the second son and third child of a family of nine, all of whom, with both father and mother, were alive on the 16th of October, 1868, the oldest child being then about sixty-one years old, and the youngest over forty.

Young Johnson worked with his father a short time as a farmer, but not feeling in his element in the plow field or in the cow yard, he followed the bent of his mechanical tastes, and engaged himself to work in a ship yard. He commenced work in this line when about fourteen years old, and served out his full apprenticeship of seven years, when he set up in business for himself, taking full charge of the work of finishing ships. This he carried on for three years with considerable success.

But New England, he rightly judged, was too narrow a field for the young man who wished to improve his prospects and with narrow means lay the foundation of a liberal competence. The West offered the most promise, and to the West he accordingly came, taking his kit of tools with him. Landing in Cleveland in the Fall of 1834, he satisfied himself that here was the proper place for the exercise of his knowledge and abilities, and here, accordingly, he prepared to make his home. Before settling down to steady business in Cleveland he made a trip to Perrysburgh, on the Maumee, where he assisted in finishing the Commodore Perry. This work done he returned to Cleveland in the Spring of 1835, and opened his ship yard, at first confining himself to the repair of vessels. But soon he was called on to build as well as repair. The steamboat Constellation was completed by him at Black River, and the steamboat Robert Fulton, built at Cleveland by Griffith, Standart & Co.

In 1844, Mr. Johnson associated with him Mr. E. Tisdale, and the firm of Johnson & Tisdale acquired honorable fame as ship builders along the entire chain of lakes and beyond. The copartnership lasted nineteen years. Before the formation of this partnership, Mr. Tisdale had commenced the building of a railway for docking vessels, and this was the first firm to lift vessels for the purpose of repairing them. With his first work, in 1835, in Cleveland, he commenced the acquisition of vessel property, and steadily pursued the policy of taking this kind of stock, until he became a large ship owner as well as ship builder.

The discovery of the mineral resources of the Lake Superior region attracted a large number of people to that locality, the only feasible means of communication with which was by lake. The Saut rapids prevented the assent of vessels from the lower lakes, and to meet the requirements of the trade that suddenly sprung into existence two vessels were built on Lake Superior, the freights being carried across the portage around the rapids. These vessels being insufficient for the needs, it became a question whether others could not be taken across the portage from below and launched on the waters of the upper lake. Messrs. Johnson & Tisdale thought it could be done, and took the contract for thus transporting the schooner Swallow and steamer Julia Palmer. They were hauled two miles on greased slides or ways and safely launched on the bosom of the "father of lakes." The undertaking was considered one of great difficulty, if not of absolute impossibility, and its success gave Messrs. Johnson & Tisdale widespread notoriety.

When the first considerable fleet of Lake-built vessels left Cleveland for European ports direct--as already described in this volume--Mr. Johnson took one of his vessels, loaded with staves. She made a successful voyage, remained in Europe two years, engaged in the coasting trade, and then returned. His strange looking craft attracted considerable attention among the skippers of about forty sea-going vessels wind bound at the same time at the Land's End, and much ridicule was thrown on her odd looks, so unlike the English salt water shipping. But the laugh came in on the other side when her superior sailing qualities enabled her to run so close to the wind as to quickly double the point, make her port, unload and reload, and sail for another voyage before one of the others could beat around the Land's End and get in. Since that time he has sold two vessels, the Vanguard and Howell Hoppeck, to be placed by other parties in the direct line between Cleveland and Liverpool.

Mr. Johnson has taken considerable interest in matters outside of the ship building business, but which aided in developing the trade and increasing the prosperity of Cleveland. He aided in the formation of some of the railroad enterprises of the city although he has now withdrawn his interests from all but one. He also was interested in the Commercial Insurance Company, but has retired from active business and devotes his whole care to the management of his property, which has been added to by large investments in real estate in various portions of the Southern States.

He was married July 15, 1840, to Miss A. S. Norton of Middle Haddam, Conn., the native place of both, and by the marriage has had three children. The oldest, a daughter, died when seven years old; the two sons are still living, the oldest being engaged in the coffee and tea business in Buffalo, N. Y., with his father; the other at present being in North Carolina engaged in the lumber trade.

With commendable prudence Mr. Johnson has known when to quit active business and enjoy the fruits of his labor while he has a healthy mind and body capable of enjoying it, and which, without accident, he undoubtedly will have for many years to come. Hard work and close attention to business have been the cause of his success, and hence he will be able to appreciate the blessings of an ample competency. In social life Mr. Johnson is looked upon as a man of genial temperament, kindly disposition, and strong social qualities. He is universally respected by all who know him.

Thomas Quayle.

The names of Quayle and Martin are as familiar in the mouths of vessel men on the lakes as household words. The firm attained honorable prominence in the ship building records of Cleveland, and their work is among the best that floats upon the western waters.

Thomas Quayle, the senior member of the firm of Quayle & Martin, was born in the Isle of Man, May 9th, 1811, and came to America in 1827, coming straight to Cleveland, where he has remained ever since. He learned his trade of ship building from Mr. Church, of Huron, Ohio, who enjoyed an excellent reputation in that line. After working as journeyman till 1847, he formed a copartnership with John Codey, and at once started business. This firm lasted about three years, during which time, among other work, they built a vessel named the Caroline, and another, the Shakespeare. When the last named was completed, the California fever had just broken out. Mr. Codey caught the disease, the firm dissolved, and he went off to the land of gold. Mr. Quayle soon after associated himself with Luther Moses, with whom he did business for about two years, during which time they did an almost incredible amount of business, considering the short space of time, having from six to seven vessels on the stocks at once, and turning out two sets a year. One year after Mr. Moses left the firm a copartnership was formed with John Martin.

The new firm at once went into business on a large scale. From the time of their organization to the present, the firm built seventy-two vessels, comprising brigs, schooners, barques, tugs, and propellers. In one year they built thirteen vessels, and eight vessels, complete, in a year has been no unfrequent task successfully performed. Among others, they built the barque W. T. Graves, which carried the largest cargo of any fresh water vessel afloat. The propeller Dean Richmond is another of their build, and is also one of the largest on the lakes; besides these, four first class vessels built for Mr. Frank Perew, deserve mention as giving character to Cleveland ship building. They are named the Mary E. Perew, D. P. Dobbin, Chandler J. Wells, and J. G. Marston. Besides the building of vessels, they have for some years been owners of vessels, and are at present interested in several large craft. The firm of Quayle & Martin recently finished a new tug of their own, the J. H. Martin intended to be used by them in the port of Erie.

[Illustration: Yours Respectfully, Thomas Quayle]

Mr. Quayle was married in 1835, to Eleanor Cannon, of the Isle of Man, by whom he has had eleven children, of whom seven are living. The eldest son, Thomas, is ship builder by trade, and is still connected with the vessel interests, though not building them. W. H. is also of the same trade as his father, and engaged with him, as is also Geo. L. Chas. E. has been a number of years with Alcott & Horton.

Mr. Quayle stands high among the citizens of Cleveland for integrity and sterling character generally. He always fulfills his obligations, whether to employer or employed. He has worked hard with his own hands, and given personal supervision to all his work, believing that the eye of the master and the hand of the workman combined assure good work. He is strict in fulfilling all his contracts, and in this way has acquired a fine reputation and a handsome fortune. But that point has not been reached without a severe and continuous struggle against adverse circumstances, which were overcome only by a determined will and patient labor that conquered all.

Mr. Quayle's first wife died in September, 1860. He was married again February 8th, 1867, to Miss Mary Proudfoot, of this city.

Elihu M. Peck.

Another of the ship builders who have assisted greatly in building up the commerce and reputation of the port of Cleveland, is Elihu M. Peck. The vessels built by him, or by the firm of Peck & Masters, which existed about nine years, are known over the lakes. A large proportion of the work done, especially in the later years, was in the construction of propellers, of which several of the finest specimens afloat were made in that yard.

Mr. Peck was born in Otsego county, New York, in 1822, and on reaching his sixteenth year, came west and learned the art of ship building in this vicinity. On completing his education in this business, he worked for a time as a journeyman. In 1847, he set up for himself, and his first work was the construction of the schooner Jenny Lind, of 200 tons. When she was finished he ceased building new vessels for some years, and turned his attention exclusively to the repair of old vessels, at which he found abundant occupation. His yard was always busy, for the growing lake marine demanded a large and steadily increasing amount of annual repairs.

In 1855, a partnership was formed with I. U. Masters, and the new firm immediately entered upon the construction of new vessels. The first craft launched from their stocks was the Ocean Wave, the first of a fleet of fifty built by the firm previous to its dissolution and the death of Mr. Masters. They form a fleet of which the builders had good reason to be proud, for a glance at their names will recall the whole history of the lake marine for the past fourteen years. What strides have been made in the improvement of the lake marine is plainly shown by the increase in the tonnage of the vessels built, whilst to those familiar with the lake trade, the names will call up recollections of the crafts that will give a yet better idea of the progress made.

The barque Ocean Wave, the first built by the new firm, was followed by the Julia Dean, of 460 tons. These were followed in rapid succession by the Kenosha, schooner Iowa, 370 tons, barque B. S. Shephard, 500 tons, schooners Ralph Campbell, 240 tons, A. H. Stevens, 240 tons, David Tod, 460 tons, and Ellen Williams, 380 tons; barque De Soto, 570 tons; schooners John S. Newhouse, 370 tons, W. B. Castle, 230 tons, Baltic, 360 tons, Midnight, 370 tons, and J. T. Ayer, 380 tons. At this time they undertook the construction of propellers, and the first two built were at once remarked for their correct proportions, beauty of finish, and strength of hull. They were the Evergreen City, 612 tons, and the Fountain City, 820 tons. The schooner Ellen White, 160 tons, was built, and then the firm resumed work on propellers. The Cornet, 624 tons, and Rocket of the same size, were built and put into the railroad line running from Buffalo westward. These were models of beauty and strength. Next came the schooners Metropolis, 360 tons, Mary B. Hale, 360 tons, and E. M. Peck, 168 tons; barque Colorado, 503 tons; propeller Detroit, 398 tons; barques Unadilla, 567 tons, C. P. Sherman, 568 tons, Sunrise, 598 tons, Golden Fleece, 609 tons, and Northwest, 630 tons; tugs W. B. Castle, 219 tons and I. U. Masters, 203 tons; barque S. V. R. Watson, 678 tons; propeller Toledo, 621 tons; tug Hector, 204 tons; propellers Winslow, 920 tons, Idaho, 920 tons, Atlantic, 660 tons, Meteor, 730 tons, Pewabic, 730 tons, Metamora, 300 tons, and Octavia, 450 tons. This ended the operations of the firm of Peck & Masters, in 1864. The firm was dissolved and Mr. Masters died.

[Illustration: Truly, E. M. Peck]

Mr. Peck now carried on his ship yard alone, and his first work was the filling of a contract to build two steam Revenue cutters for service on the lakes. The John Sherman, of 500 tons, and the A. P. Fessenden, of the same size, were turned out, and no better work could possibly be found. The Government officers promptly accepted the vessels and declared them more than up to the requirements of the contract. They were pronounced models of beauty, strength, and speed.

The cutters were followed by the schooner Oak Leaf, 390 tons; propellers Messenger, 400 tons, and Nebraska, 1,300 tons, the latter, one of the finest steamers put on the lakes; schooner David Stewart, 675 tons; propellers Manistee, 400 tons, and City of Concord, 400 tons. Two other propellers, one of 1,000 tons, and one of about 300 tons, were added in the season of 1869.

It will be seen that nearly all the vessels, whether sail or steam, built by Mr. Peck, were of the first class, being mainly barques and large propellers. They will be recognized by those familiar with lake commerce, as models in size, beauty, and strength, whilst several have made unusually quick trips.

Mr. Peck has enjoyed an unusual measure of success. The work of his hands has prospered, and he has earned his reward, not only in reputation but in substantial prosperity. He has aimed not only to equal the best work done by others, but studied how to improve on his own work. The result has been a constant improvement in the style and quality of his vessels, so that excellent as the last new hull may have been, it was almost sure to be excelled by the next one that left the stocks. And whilst thus giving close attention to the mechanical details of his business, he was skillful in managing the financial part of it so as to secure the rewards honestly won by industry and skill. He always kept his affairs in such order that no serious financial difficulty ever troubled him.

Nor was he an avaricious, though a prudent man. A working man himself, he was in thorough sympathy with his workmen, and in the slack season, instead of discharging his men and thus entailing want upon them, he built vessels on speculation, merely that he might keep the men busy and their families from suffering. Providentially these speculations were always successful, thus illustrating the proverb, that "there is he that scattereth, and yet increaseth."

Mr. Peck took an active part in the formation of the People's Gas Light Company, and is now president of that organization. He is also a director of the Savings Loan Association.

John Martin.

John Martin, of the firm of Quayle & Martin, was born in the county of Antrim, Ireland, December 15th, 1824, of poor parents, with whom he came to Canada when but nine years of age. At the age of fourteen he commenced working in a ship yard in Montreal, by turning grindstone. He soon attracted the attention of the proprietor by his using handily the tools of the workmen while they were at dinner, and he was furnished tools and set to work at the trade. He continued in this employ for about two years, and during the time, with a view to fitting himself for the business of life, he attended school in the evenings. He then worked his passage to French Creek, New York, having at the time of leaving only a dollar and a half in money. At French Creek he engaged with G. S. Weeks, one of the best ship builders on the lakes, and remained with him at French Creek two years, when Mr. Weeks moved to Oswego, Mr. Martin accompanying him to that place, and continuing in his employ two years longer. Mr. Martin then went to Detroit, where he worked a year on the steamboat Wisconsin.

In 1843, he came to Cleveland and commenced work for G. W. Jones, on the steamboat Empire. This work finished, he commenced sub-contracting, wrecking, planking, and jobbing generally, until 1846, when he went into the employ of another firm, with whom he worked two years.

At the end of that time his employers were owing him more than they could pay, so, to square the matter, he bought an interest in their business. But this did not mend the matter, as it proved to be an interest in their debts, more than in their business, they being deeply involved. The firm owned the brig Courtland, and one of the members had sailed her for some time at a great loss. Young Martin took his place and proved himself master of the situation, by reducing the liabilities of the firm to about $2,500. That done he sold the vessel, dissolved partnership, and commenced planking and general jobbing again. After a time he built a vessel for Moses & Quayle. He found frequent employment in wrecking jobs, being very successful at such work.

[Illustration: Yours truly, John Martin]

The three years thus occupied gave him a start in life. He cleared off the indebtedness of the old firm and had $3,000 ahead. He then took the contract for building the brig John G. Deshler, for Handy, Warren & Co. This was a very successful contract, and gave Mr. Martin a handsome lift, and enabled him to take an interest with Mr. Quayle, under the firm name of Quayle & Martin, a brief mention of its operations being made in the sketch of Mr. Quayle's life.

In 1858, Mr. Martin loaded the John G. Deshler and D. C. Pierce with staves and made a successful trip to England, and on the return brought one of the spans for the Victoria bridge at Montreal. In 1859, he took over two more cargoes in the same vessels, selling one in Cork, and the other in Glasgow. Nor was this the only connection of the firm with the direct lake and ocean trade. They have built vessels for Liverpool parties, for ocean service, and also two vessels for New York parties for the same purpose. Six of these vessels have also been sold out of the lake service for ocean navigation, and have been used on the ocean for five or six years with great success. The John G. Deshler, which had been transferred to the ocean, as previously mentioned, was sunk by the rebels at the outbreak of the war, and was a total loss to the firm. The latest work of the firm is a fine vessel for A. Bradley, that will carry a thousand tons of iron ore.

Mr. Martin has proved himself admirably adapted to the line of business it was his fortune to learn, and this, of course, together with close attention to business, furnishes the clue to his success. He is emphatically a self-made man, and can therefore appreciate the handsome competence that has crowned his labors so early in life, he being now but 45 years of age.

During the war Mr. Martin was actively and earnestly on the side of the Government. He was never idle, and always ready to furnish his share, and far more than his share, to the work of suppressing the rebellion. He furnished three substitutes for the army, and was active in promoting volunteering.

Mr. Martin was married to Miss Mary Picket, of Devonshire, England, whose father and grandfather were both Episcopal clergymen. Three children were born of this marriage; a son, who is now book-keeper for the firm, and two daughters.

Mr. Martin has enjoyed the confidence of his neighbors to so high a degree, that he has represented the Ninth Ward in the City Council for six successive years.

The Bench and Bar

The leading points in the history of legal affairs in Cleveland have already been noticed with sufficient fullness in the sketch of the history of Cleveland, especially so far as relates more immediately to the earlier portion of that history. The following biographical sketches give a good general idea of the progress of affairs in relation to the Bench and Bar of the city within the active life of the present generation. It is therefore unnecessary at this place to detail more than a few incidental facts.

The township of Cleveland, of the county of Trumbull, was organized in 1800. The first justice of the Quorum, for the new township, was James Kingsbury, and the first Justice, not of the Quorum, was Amos Spafford. The first constables were Stephen Gilbert and Lorenzo Carter.

In 1810, the county of Cuyahoga was organized and Cleveland made the county seat. The court-house, of logs, was two years afterwards built on the Public Square, as narrated in previuos portions of this work. The county was organized on the 9th May, and on 5th of June a County Court was held with the following officers:

Presiding Judge.--Benjamin Ruggles
Associate Judges.--Nathan Perry, Sen., Augustus Gilbert, Timothy Doan.
Clerk.--John Walworth.
Sheriff.--Smith S. Baldwin.

The first lawyer in Cleveland, under the county organization, arrived here the same year and put out his shingle with the name of "Alfred Kelley" inscribed thereon. Previous to this the law business had all been done by Samuel Huntington, who arrived in 1801. At the time of the organization of the court, the court-house had not been built, and the first session was held in Murray's store, which had just been built. The first business was the finding of a bill by the grand jury for petit larceny, and several for the offence of selling whisky to Indians, and selling foreign goods without license.

The first execution was that of the Indian Omic, which took place June 24th, 1812, as previously narrated.

In March, 1836, Cleveland was incorporated as a city, and henceforth to the ordinary courts of the county was added a city court for cognizance of offences against the ordinances.

In the year 1848, a Superior Court was organized, with Sherlock J. Andrew as judge, and G. A. Benedict as clerk. This court existed but a short time, when it expired by reason of the adoption of the new constitution of the State, which made no provision for its continuance.

In 1855, Cleveland was selected as the seat of a District and Circuit Court of the United States.

As a matter of curiosity, the following list of Attorneys and Counsellors in Cleveland, in 1837, is taken from McCabe's Cleveland and Ohio City Directory, those not practising at that time being marked with an asterisk: Joseph Adams, John W. Allen, Sherlock J. Andrews, Oliver P. Baldwin, John Barr, Phillip Battell, George A. Benedict, Henry W. Billings, Elijah Bingham,* Flavius Bingham, Thomas Bolton, James A. Briggs, Varnum J. Card, Leonard Case,* Richard M. Chapman, Alexander L. Collins, James L. Conger, Samuel Cowles,* Henry H. Dodge, John Erwin, Simeon Ford, John A. Foot, James K. Hitchcock, George Hoadly, James M. Hoyt, Seth T. Hurd, Moses Kelley, George T. Kingsley, William B. Lloyd, George W. Lynde, Samuel Mather, Daniel Parish, Henry B. Payne, Francis Randal, Harvey Rice, O. S. St. John, Wyllys Silliman, George W. Stanley, Samuel Starkweather, John M. Sterling,* Charles Stetson, Charles Whittlesey, Frederick Whittlesey,* John W. Willey,* Samuel Williamson, Hiram V. Wilson.

[Illustration: Alfred Kelley]

Alfred Kelley.

Alfred Kelley was born at Middletown, Conn., Nov. 7th, 1789. He was the second son of Daniel and Jemima Kelley. His mother's maiden name was Stow. She was a sister of Judge Joshua Stow, and also of Judge Silas Stow of Lowville, N. Y. The latter was the father of Judge Horatio Stow, of Buffalo, N. Y., and of Alexander Stow, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Wisconsin, both of whom were men of great talents and distinction. In the winter of 1798, Alfred Kelley removed with his father's family to Lowville, N. Y. His father was President Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Lewis county, N. Y., was one of the founders of Lowville Academy and President of its Board of Trustees.

Alfred Kelley was educated at Fairfield Academy, N. Y. He read law at Whitesboro, N. Y., three years, in the office of Jonas Platt, a judge of the Supreme Court of that State.

In the Spring of 1810, in company with Joshua Stow, Dr. J. P. Kirtland, and others, he removed to Cleveland,--traveling on horseback. At the November term 1810, on motion of Peter Hitchcock, Alfred Kelley was admitted as an attorney of the Court of Common Pleas for Cuyahoga county. On the same day, being his 21st birth day, he was appointed Public Prosecutor as the successor of Peter Hitchcock, late Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Ohio. Mr. Kelley continued Prosecutor till 1821, when he resigned. In October 1814, he was elected from Cuyahoga county a member of the Ohio House of Representatives, being barely old enough under the Constitution when the Legislature met to take his seat in that body and being the youngest member. Chillicothe was then the temporary State capital.

On the 25th of August, 1817. Alfred Kelley was married to Mary S. Welles, oldest daughter of Major Melancthon Wolsey Welles, of Lowville, N. Y. They had eleven children of whom six are now living.

He continued, with intervals, a member of the Ohio Legislature from Cuyahoga county, from 1814 until 1822, when he was appointed, with others, State Canal Commissioner, by an act of the General Assembly, empowering the Commissioners to make examinations, surveys and estimates, to ascertain the practicability of connecting Lake Erie with the Ohio River, by canal.

The Ohio Canal is a monument to the enterprise, energy, integrity and sagacity of Alfred Kelley. He was acting Commissioner during its construction and the onerous and responsible service was performed with such fidelity and economy that the actual cost did not exceed the estimate! The dimensions of the Ohio Canal were the same as those of the Erie Canal of N. Y., but the number of locks was nearly double. The Erie Canal was 363 miles in length, its total cost was $7,143,789, and cost per mile $19,679. The Ohio Canal is 307 miles in length, its total cost was $4,695,824, and cost per mile $15,300, being less than that of any other canal constructed on this continent. The Ohio Canal was finished about 1830. The labor in the then facilities for conducting important public enterprises was Herculean, but Mr. Kelley's indomitable will, and iron constitution and physique triumphed over all difficulties. Mr. Kelley neither charged nor received any pay for his first year's services in superintending the preliminary explorations and surveys for the Ohio Canal. The pay of the Acting Canal Commissioner was $3,00 [sic] per day. When the work was done he resigned as Canal Commissioner, and retired from public service to attend to his private affairs, and recuperate his shattered constitution and health. In the Fall of 1830, he became a resident of Columbus. In October, 1836, he was elected to the Ohio House of Representatives from Franklin county, and was re-elected to the same office in the next two Legislatures. He was Chairman of the Ohio Whig State Central Committee in 1840, a year distinguished for a great political revolution and the election of Wm. H. Harrison to the Presidency, and was one of the most active and influential managers of that campaign.

Mr. Kelley was appointed State Fund Commissioner in 1840, a period of great financial embarrassment and distress. In 1841 and '42, a formidable party arose in the Legislature and in the State, which advocated the non-payment of the maturing interest upon the State debt, and the repudiation of the debt itself. This was a time which indeed tried the souls of men. Mr. Kelley went to New York, and such was the confidence reposed in his integrity and practical ability--notwithstanding the underhanded and atrocious means employed by the repudiators, to defeat his object--that he was enabled to raise in that city (where no one could be found willing to loan money to the sovereign State of Ohio) nearly a quarter of a million of dollars on his own personal security, and thus by his generous efforts, and by his alone, the interest was paid at maturity, and the State of Ohio was saved from repudiation. At the time that Mr. Kelley thus volunteered himself as security for the State, (an act which was done contrary to the advice of his friends,) such was the unenlightened state of public opinion, such the moral obtuseness of some, nay, many men in power, that the chances were a hundred to one that no effective measure would be adopted to save the public credit--none to indemnify him.

In 1844, he was elected to the State Senate from the Franklin district. It was during this term that he originated the bill to organize the State Bank of Ohio, and other banking companies, which by general consent among bankers and financiers, was the best of American banking laws. His banking System was successfully in operation during the whole twenty years of its charter. Many of the most valuable provisions of the present National banking law were taken from Mr. Kelley's bill to "organize the State Bank of Ohio." Many of the provisions of this law were original and novel, and evinced deep thought and a profound knowledge of this department of political science. For several years, and during some of the most trying periods in the financial history of Ohio, and of the country, Mr. Kelley was a member of the Board of Control of the State Bank of Ohio; and part of the time was President of the Board. It was also during this Senatorial term that Mr. Kelley originated the present Revenue System of the State. The main principles of this Revenue or Tax law were subsequently incorporated in the new Constitution of Ohio.

While Mr. Kelley was a member of the Legislature few valuable general laws can be found in the Statute books which did not originate with him, and most of the measures requiring laborious investigation and profound thought were entrusted to him. He was the author, in 1818, of the first Legislative bill--either in this country or in Europe--to abolish imprisonment for debt.

It then failed to become a law. In a letter to a friend, dated Jan. 16th, 1819, Mr. Kelley said: "The House has to-day disagreed by a small majority, to my favorite bill to abolish imprisonment for debt. I was not disappointed, although at first, a large majority seemed in favor of it. The time will come when the absurdity as well as inhumanity of adding oppression to misfortune will be acknowledged; and if I should live to see that day I shall exult in the consciousness of having early combatted one of the worst prejudices of the age." In 1831, the Legislature of New York passed the first law abolishing imprisonment for debt.

At the end of this Senatorial term he was elected President of the Columbus & Xenia Railroad Company, and was actively engaged upon all the duties of that enterprise until it was finished; soon after which he resigned. While this road was in progress, upon the urgent solicitation of the active promoters of the C., C. & C. R. R., Mr. Kelley accepted the Presidency of that Company, and began the work with his usual order and ability.

His zeal and labors upon this enterprise were only surpassed in his work upon the Ohio Canal. He solicited subscriptions to the capital stock; located much of the route; procured rights of way; attended in person to the purchase of materials; the procuring of money, and the details of the construction of the road, and continued the ever working president of the road until he resigned, a short time after its completion. With his own hands he dug the first shovel of earth, and laid the last rail upon this road. It is but just to say, that the citizens of Cleveland and the people of Ohio are more indebted to Alfred Kelley than to any other man for the C., C. & C. R. R. He was still acting president of the C. & X. and the C., C. & C. Companies, when he was chosen, in 1850, president of the C., P. & A., or Lake Shore R. R. Company. He was actively engaged upon this road in the performance of duties similar to those done upon the C., C. & C. road until its completion in 1853, when he resigned. It was while he was president of this road that the famous riots occurred at Erie and Harbor Creek, Pa., in opposition to the construction of the road through Pennsylvania. The success of the company in this formidable contest was largely due to the sagacity, forbearance and indomitable will of Alfred Kelley. When he took charge of these railroads, such enterprises at the West had but little credit at the East. The roads constructed by him have paid regular dividends from the time of their completion. He continued until his death an active director in these companies.

In October, 1857, he was again elected to the State Senate from Columbus, being then 64 years of age, and the oldest member of the Legislature. This was his last appearance in public life. During the last year of this service his health was declining. Although so much debilitated that prudence required confinement to his house, if not to his bed, yet such was his fidelity to his trust, that he went daily to the Senate and carried through the Legislature several important measures to ascertain the true condition of the State Treasury, and to secure the public funds from further depredations.

At the end of this term he retired from public life hoping to regain his health; but his constitution was too much broken to admit of re-establishment. He did not appear to be affected with any specific disease, but seemed gradually wasting away from an over-taxed mind and body. His oft quoted maxim was, "It is better to wear out than to rust out." He was only confined to his room a few days previous to his death, and on Friday, the 2d day of December, 1863, his pure spirit left its earthly tenement so gently that the friends who surrounded him could scarcely determine when it ascended. Mr. Kelley was twenty-four years in the service of the people of Ohio, in the Legislature, and as Canal Commissioner, and Fund Commissioner. His history would be almost a complete financial and political history of Ohio. He gave a greater impulse to the physical development of Ohio, and left upon its statute books higher proofs of wisdom and forecast than any who had preceded him. Indeed, few persons have ever lived who, merely by personal exertions, have left behind them more numerous and lasting monuments of patient and useful labor.

Note.--For much of this sketch we are indebted to an unpublished "Memoir of Alfred Kelley," by the late Judge Gustavus Swan, of Columbus.

Leonard Case

The late Leonard Case was the second child and oldest son of Magdalene and Mesech Case, of Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania. His mother, who was a native of Winchester, Virginia, was of German extraction, her maiden name being Extene. His father, believed to have been of English ancestry, was born in Sussex county, New Jersey. For nearly forty years Mr. Mesech Case suffered from asthma to the extent of making him a partial invalid, and hence much of the management of his affairs devolved upon his wife, a woman of superior character, educated beyond the average of those days, energetic, having good executive ability, and blessed with robust health. The family cultivated a small farm in Pennsylvania, which yielded but a moderate support, so that when news came of the land of rich promise beyond the mountains, where the soil yielded with an abundance marvellous in the eyes of those who painfully cultivated and carefully gathered in the older States, they collected their implements and stock, packed their household effects, disposed of the farm, and, crossing the mountains, settled down somewhere between the western foot of the Alleghanies and Pittsburgh. This, however, was not the land of promise. The reports they had heard in their Westmoreland home of the soil which produced crops almost without care, and which embarrassed by their abundant yield, came from still farther west, and again the Case household took up the line of march, settling down finally upon a farm of two hundred acres near Warren, Trumbull county, Ohio, in the year 1800.

There were then five children in the Case household, Leonard, the oldest son, and the subject of this biographical sketch, being then sixteen years old, having been born in Westmoreland county, Penn., July 20th, 1784. In the invalid condition of his father, and being the oldest son of the family, young Leonard was compelled to take a prominent part in the management of the affairs of the farm. In the Spring succeeding the removal to Trumbull, he started out in search of working oxen needed for the Spring work. The task was a difficult one, and he traveled for some time, becoming much heated with the walk and the anxiety. On his return he had to cross a stream several times whilst he was in this heated condition, the result being the contracting of a severe cold which settled in his limbs and brought on an inflammation that confined him to his bed for months.

It was late in the Fall of 1801, when he recovered sufficiently to arise from his bed. But he arose as a cripple. The injury he had received from his unfortunate journey was permanent, and he was unable for some time after his rising from a sick bed to walk, or even to stand. Thus helpless in body, whilst active in mind, he pondered over his future. As a farmer he was no longer of any use, and unless some other mode of livelihood was adopted he must remain a dependent on his relations. This was galling his independent nature, and he determined to avoid it if possible.

[Illustration: I am Respectfully Leonard Case]

His hands were free if his feet gave promise of but little usefulness. He concluded that the pen would be a fitter implement for his purposes than the plow, and he took measures accordingly. Whilst lying in bed, unable to rise, he had a board fastened before him in such a manner as to serve for a desk. With this contrivance he worked diligently, whilst lying otherwise helpless, to acquire the rudiments of knowledge. He learned to write and cipher with moderate ease and correctness, and when he had matured the contents of an arithmetical text book, which was the property of his mother, he borrowed a few works on the higher branches of mathematics from some surveyors in the neighborhood. From the knowledge in this way acquired, he conceived the desire to be a surveyor and he set to work energetically to perfect himself in that science so far as it could be done by books. He was embarrassed by the want of even the most simple instruments. A semi-circle for measuring angles was made by cutting a groove the required shape on a piece of soft wood, and filling it by melting and running in a pewter spoon, making an arc of metal on which the graduated scale was etched. A pair of dividers was improvised from a piece of hickory, by making the centre thin, bending it over, putting pins at the points, and regulating its spread by twisting a cord.

But more education was needed, and if he expected to pursue the path he had marked out in his mind, he must leave his home and venture out in the world. To do this, money was needed, for to a cripple like him the first struggle in the battle of life would be almost hopeless, if he entered on it totally without resources. As seen, he had already manifested a strong mechanical bent. He was domestic carpenter, making and repairing such articles as were needed in the household. This ability he immediately commenced to turn to account. A rude chair suitable to his needs was mounted on wheels, and in this he was able to reach the edge of the woods surrounding the house, where he cut twigs and made baskets, which were purchased by the neighbors. Other jobs requiring mechanical skill were done by him for the neighborhood, and in this way a small fund was gradually accumulated with which to make his meditated start in life.

In 1806, he was able to set out from home and reach the village of Warren, where he concluded that a better opportunity existed for obtaining work with his pen. He found employment as clerk in the Land Commissioner's office, where his industry, zeal, and strong desire to improve both his knowledge and opportunities, soon brought him into notice and gained for him many valuable friends. Chief among these was Mr. John D. Edwards, a lawyer, holding the office of recorder of Trumbull county, which then comprised all the Western Reserve. Mr. Edwards proved a fast friend to Mr. Case, and his memory was ever held in respect by the latter. He advised the young clerk to add a knowledge of law to his other acquirements, and furnished him with books with which to prosecute his studies, until he was at length admitted to the bar. In addition, he gave him such writing as fell in his way to be given out, and thus aided in enabling him to support himself.

The war of 1812 found Mr. Case at Warren, having, among his other duties, that of the collection of non-resident taxes on the Western Reserve, for which he had to furnish what was then considered heavy bail. Having to go to Chillicothe to make his settlement, he prepared for the journey by making a careful disposition of all his official matters, so that in case of misfortune to him, there would be no difficulty in settling his affairs, and no loss to his bail. The money belonging to the several townships was parcelled out, enveloped, and marked in readiness to hand over to the several trustees. The parcels were then deposited with his friend, Mr. Edwards, with directions to pay over to the proper parties should he not return in time. The journey was made without mishap, but on his return Mr. Case found that his friend had set out to join the army on the Maumee, and had died suddenly on the way. To the gratification of Mr. Case, however, the money was found where he had left it, untouched.

In 1816, Mr. Case received the appointment of cashier of the Commercial Bank of Lake Erie, just organized in Cleveland. He immediately removed to Cleveland and entered on the discharge of his duties. These did not occupy the whole of his time, so with the avocations of a banker he coupled the practice of law and also the business of land agent. The bank, in common with most of the similar institutions of the time, was compelled to suspend operations, but was revived in after years with Mr. Case as president. Of those who were connected as officers with the original organization, Mr. Case gave the least promise of a long life, but yet he outlived all his colleagues.

With the close of the bank he devoted himself more earnestly to the practice of the law and the prosecution of his business as a land agent. The active practice of the law was abandoned in 1834, but the land agency was continued until a comparatively recent period, when his infirmities, and the care of his own estate, grown into large proportions, rendered it necessary for him to decline all business for others.

Mr. Case had a natural taste for the investigation of land titles and studying the history of the earlier land owners. His business as a land agent gave him scope for the gratification of this taste, and his appointment as agent for the management of the Western Reserve school lands, enabled him still further to prosecute his researches, whilst his strong memory retained the facts acquired until he became complete master of the whole history of the titles derived from the Connecticut Land Company.

From his earliest connection with Cleveland, Mr. Case took a lively interest in the affairs of the village, the improvement of the streets, maintenance and enlargement of the schools, and the extension of religious influences. For all these purposes he contributed liberally, and spent much time and labor. To his thoughtfulness and public spirit are due the commencement of the work of planting shade trees on the streets, which has added so much to the beauty of the city, and has won for it the cognomen of the Forest City. From 1821 to 1825, he was president of the village, and was judicious and energetic in the management of its affairs. On the erection of Cuyahoga county, he was its first auditor. He was subsequently sent to the State Legislature, where he distinguished himself by his persistent labors in behalf of the Ohio canals. He headed the subscription to the stock of the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad Company with the sum of five thousand dollars, and became a director in the Company. His good sense, a judgment that rarely erred, his extensive knowledge of the village and surrounding country, and the cheerful readiness with which he gave counsel, whenever requested in good faith, caused him to be the confidential adviser of the county and municipal officials, after he had ceased to take an active part in public affairs.

One of the rules from which he never deviated, was in no case to contract a debt beyond his ability to pay within two years without depending on a sale of property. In this way he was enabled to accumulate acre after acre in what has since proved to be valuable portions of the city, and thus to acquire a vast estate, which, in his later years, became steadily remunerative.

Mr. Case was a man of uncommon industry, of high integrity, and strong common sense. His manner to strangers, especially when interrupted in business, was brusque, and gave an unfavorable impression to those unacquainted with his real character, which was uniformly cheerful and kind. As a seller of land, he was both just and generous, and from no one ever came the complaint of oppressive or ungenerous treatment. Although not a member of any church organization, he had strong religious tendencies, of a liberal cast.

Mr. Case died December 7th, 1864, leaving one son, Leonard Case, the other son, William, having died a short time earlier.

Reuben Wood.

Honorable Reuben Wood, an early settler of Cleveland, was born in Rutland county, Vermont, in 1792. In early life he worked on a farm in Summer and taught school in Winter. Resolving to achieve more than this, he went to Canada and studied the classics under the tuition of an English clergyman, and while there commenced the study of law with Hon. Barnabas Bidwell. When war was declared in 1812, young Wood, with all other resident Americans were required to leave Canada. He then went to Middletown, Vt., where he completed his legal studies in the office of Gen. Jonas Clark, an eminent lawyer of that place.

In 1818, he married, and emigrated to Cleveland, where he arrived September of that year, a stranger, and without money. He at once entered upon a successful practice, and soon became distinguished as a lawyer and advocate.

In 1825, he was elected a member of the State Senate, and was twice re-elected to the same position.

In 1830, he was elected President Judge of the Third Judicial Circuit.

In 1833, he was elected a Judge of the Supreme Court, and at the close of his term was re-elected. For the last three years of his second term he was Chief Justice. As a Judge he was noted for sound logic, and the clearness of his decisions.

In 1850, Judge Wood was elected by the Democratic party Governor of the State by eleven thousand majority, and was re-elected Governor in 1851, under the new constitution, by a majority of twenty-six thousand.

In 1853, he was appointed, by the Government, Consul to Valparaiso, South America. While there, he, for some months, at the request of the Government, discharged the duties of a Minister Plenipotentiary to Chili.

On his return from Chili, he returned to his farm in Rockport, near Cleveland, where he died, October 2, 1864, generally esteemed, and highly respected by all who knew him.

John W. Willey.

John W. Willey was a native of New Hampshire, being born in 1797. He pursued a regular course of study at Dartmouth College, under the encouragement of the distinguished President Wheelock, after whom he had been named. He studied law in New York.

In 1822, being then twenty-five years of age, he came West and settled in Cleveland. At that time it had but one tavern, no church, no railroads, no canal, an occasional steamboat only, three or four stores and a few hundred inhabitants; such was the then picture of a settlement now approaching to a city of a hundred thousand people. Small as Cleveland then was, professionally, Mr. Willey had been preceded by men of decided ability. Alfred Kelley, Leonard Case, and the late Gov. Wood, had taken possession of the field four, six and twelve years before him, and were men of far more than ordinary ability. Mr. Willey was peculiarly adapted to such circumstances as these. Thoroughly versed in legal principles, of a keen and penetrating mind, a logician by nature, fertile and ready of expedient, with a persuasive eloquence, enlivened with wit and humor, he at once rose to prominence at the bar of Northern Ohio. The Cuyahoga bar was for many years considered the strongest in the State, but amongst all of its talented members, each with his own peculiar forte, for the faculty of close and long-continued reasoning, clearness of statement, nice discrimination, and never ending ingenuity, he had no superior.

In 1827, Mr. Willey was partially withdrawn from practice, by being elected to the Legislature, where he served three years as Representative and three as Senator, until 1832.

He was the first Mayor of Cleveland, being elected in 1836, and re-elected in 1837, by large majorities, and prepared the original laws and ordinances for the government of the city.

He was amongst the earliest projectors, prior to the reverses of 1836 and 1837, of the railroads to Columbus and Cincinnati, and to Pittsburgh.

In 1840, he was appointed to the bench, thus restoring him to those studies and subjects of thought from which years of public and of business life had diverted him. No sooner had he assumed this new position than by common consent it was recognized as the one above all others he was best fitted to adorn. Possessing the power which so few men have, of close, concentrated, continuous thought, he was at the same time prompt in his decisions. His instructions to juries, and his legal judgments, usually pronounced at considerable length, were marked by that precision of statement, clearness of analysis, and felicity of language, which made them seem like the flowing of a silver stream.

Judge Willey, at the time of his death, which occurred in June, 1841, was President Judge of the Fourteenth Judicial District. He died deeply regretted by a large circle of professional and other friends, who had become much attached to him for his many virtues, uniform and dignified, yet unostentatious life.

In the Western Law Journal for 1852, we find a judicial anecdote related of Mr. Willey, in illustration of his wit, and immovable self-possession. The writer says: "At his last term in Cleveland we happened in while he was pronouncing sentence upon a number of criminals who had been convicted during the week, of penitentiary offenses. One of them, a stubborn looking fellow, who, to the usual preliminary question of whether he had anything to offer why the sentence of the law should not be pronounced upon him, had replied somewhat truculently, that he had 'nothing to say,' but who when the judge was proceeding in a few prefatory remarks to explain to the man how fairly he had been tried, etc., broke in upon the court by exclaiming that 'he did'nt care if the court had convicted him, he wasn't guilty any how.' 'That will be a consolation to you,' rejoined the judge, with unusual benignity, and with a voice full of sympathy and compassion, 'That will be a consolation to you, in the hour of your confinement, for we read in the good Book that it is better to suffer wrong, than do wrong.' In the irrepressible burst of laughter which followed this unexpected response, all joined except the judge and the culprit."

[Illustration: Truly Yours, S. Andrews]

Sherlock J. Andrews.

Judge Andrews was born November, 1801, in the quiet New England village of Wallingford, Connecticut. His father was a prominent physician at that place, where he spent a long and useful life in the practice of his profession. He lived to a good old age, a Christian gentleman of the old school.

Although Wallingford is but a short day's travel from Yale, even under the old System of horse and shay, or horse and saddle, young Andrews was sent out of New England to Union College, at Schenectady, New York, where he graduated about the year 1821.

Soon after this time the elder Silliman was at Wallingford, and being in need of an assistant in Chemistry and a private secretary, he offered the position to Mr. Andrews, which was accepted. It seems to have been mutually a happy relation. In his diary, Prof. Silliman says, "he was a young man of a vigorous and active mind, energetic and quick in his decisions and movements, with a warm heart and a genial temper, of the best moral and social habits, a quiet and skillful penman, an agreeable inmate of my family, in which we made him quite at home. We found we had acquired an interesting and valuable friend as well as a good professional assistant. It is true he had, when he came, no experience in practical Chemistry. He had everything to learn, but learned rapidly, as he had real industry and love of knowledge. Before the end of the first term he proved that we had made a happy choice. He continued about four years serving with ability, and the zeal of an affectionate son, without whom I could scarce have retained my place in the College." During this experience in the field of sciences, Mr. Andrews had pursued the study of the law at the Law School of New Haven, with the same ardor, and in 1825, removed to Cleveland, and established himself as an attorney.

In 1828, he married Miss Ursula Allen, of Litchfield, Connecticut, daughter of the late John Allen, a member of Congress from that State, who was also the father of Hon. John W. Allen, of this city. The late Samuel Cowles had preceded Mr. Andrews here in the profession and offered him a partnership. Their competitors were the late Governor Wood and Judge John W. Willey, who were partners, and Judge Starkweather, who still survives. Considering the limited business of the place, which scarcely numbered five hundred inhabitants, the profession was evidently overstocked then, as it has been ever since. Briefless lawyers had, however, a wide field to cultivate outside this county, embracing at least all the counties of the Reserve; with horse and saddle-bags, they followed the Court in its travels, judges and attorneys splashing through the mud on terms of democratic equality.

Judge Andrews gave immediate promise of celebrity as an advocate. With a sensitive and nervous temperament, he entered sympathetically into the case of his client, making it his own. He possessed a brilliant readiness of manner, full of skillful thrusts, hits, and witticisms. His correct New England morals were not deteriorated by contact with the more loose codes of a new western town. In his clear and earnest voice there was that magnetic influence, which is necessary to complete the style of any orator, and which is a gift solely of nature. As a technical pleader, though he stood high, there were others upon the circuit equally gifted. But in a cause where his convictions of justice and of legal right were fixed, there was not among his contemporaries, in the courts of this State, an advocate, whose efforts were so nearly irresistible before a jury. He has command of sarcasm and invective, without coarseness. He attacks oppression, meanness and fraud as if they were offences not only against the public, but against himself. He has never strayed from the profession to engage in any speculations or occupations to divert his thoughts from pure law, except for two years from 1840, while he held a seat in Congress. In 1848, the Legislature elected him judge of the Superior Court of Cuyahoga county, a place he continued to hold till the Court was abolished. As a judge he was eminently successful, his decisions having been overruled by higher courts only in a single instance, and that owing to a clerical mistake. In politics he was evidently not at home. After leaving the bench, Judge Andrews returned to the practice, but has been chiefly employed as associate counsel, occasionally addressing juries on important cases.

As an advocate, Judge Andrews, during his whole professional career, has been in the very foremost rank, with a reputation confined neither to county, or even State lines. Distinguished for clear conceptions of legal principles, and their varied relations to practical life, he has also shown rare ability in judging of mixed questions of law and fact. His legal opinions, therefore, have ever been held in the highest esteem.

But as jury lawyer, Judge Andrews has achieved successes so remarkable as to have secured a permanent place in the traditions of the bar, and the history of judicial proceedings in Northern Ohio. The older lawyers have vivid recollections of a multitude of cases when he was in full practice, and in his prime, in which his ready insight into character--his power to sift testimony and bring into clear relief the lines of truth involved in complicated causes--his ability to state the legal principles so that the jury could intelligently apply them to the facts--his humor--his pure wit--his pathos, at times bringing unfeigned tears to the eyes of both judge and jurors--his burning scorn of fraud--and his appeal on behalf of what he believed to be right, so impetuous with enthusiasm, so condensed and incisive in expression, and so felicitous in illustration, as to be well nigh irresistible.

Yet, highly as Judge Andrews has adorned his profession, it is simply justice to say in conclusion, that his unblemished character in every relation has adorned his manhood. He has been far more than a mere lawyer. With a keen relish for historical and philosophical inquiry--a wide acquaintance with literature, and an earnest sympathy with the advanced lines of thought in the present age, his life has also been practically subordinated to the faultless morality of Christianity. A community is truly enriched, when it possesses, and can present to its younger members, such shining instances of success in honorable endeavor, and sterling excellence in character and example.

John W. Allen.

Mr. Allen, though not among the first attorneys who settled in Cleveland, was upon the ground early among the second generation. Samuel Huntington was the first lawyer of the place, becoming a resident here in the year 1801. Alfred Kelley was his successor, commencing his legal career as soon as the county courts were organized in 1810. In 1816, Leonard Case was added to the profession and in 1818 the late Governor Wood and Samuel Cowles, and about 1822, John W. Willey About the year 1826, soon after the construction of the Ohio canal was commenced, a troop of young lawyers took possession of the field, some of whom still survive, Sherlock J. Andrews, Samuel Starkweather and John W. Allen. They were all from Yankee land, in pursuit of fame and fortune. Mr. Allen originated in Litchfield county, Connecticut, a place prolific in prominent characters. His father, John Allen, was a member of Congress from that State.

From 1831 to 1835, inclusive, he was elected annually to be president of the village corporation of Cleveland, and mayor of the city corporation of Cleveland 1841. In 1835-7, Mr. Allen represented the district of which Cuyahoga county was a part, in the Ohio Senate, and in 1836 was elected to the Congress of the United States, commencing with the famous extra session of September, 1837, as an old line Clay Whig, and was re-elected in 1838.

As soon as Cleveland assumed the position of a city in 1836, the subject of railways became one of the prominent public questions. A portion of the citizens were of the opinion that they had yielded enough to the spirit of modern innovation when the Ohio canal was suffered to enter Cleveland. This had banished the Dutch wagons entirely, and railroads might complete our ruin entirely, by banishing canal boats. Mr. Allen, and the new comers generally, took the opposite side. While he was rising to a leading public position he labored zealously in the cause of railways in harmony with his political opponents John W. Willey, Richard Hilliard, James S. Clark and others, most of whom are dead. But for his zeal and perseverence the Cleveland & Columbus Railroad Company would not have been organized probably for years after it was and then it was done almost in spite of many of the large property holders of that day, who looked upon the enterprise as chimerical.

Mr. Allen's free and generous manner not only rendered him popular among his political friends, but prevented bitterness and personality on the part of his opponents. During those years of prosperity he led a thoroughly active life, not only as an attorney with a large practice, but as an indefatigable public servant. In fact, through life he has given to the public the first and best of his efforts. He never became a finished advocate and speaker, but his enterprise and integrity secured him a large business, most of which was litigated in the counties of the Western Reserve.

Not long after Mr. Allen commenced practice in Ohio he married Miss Ann Maria Perkins of Warren, Trumbull county, an auspicious connection which was soon terminated by her death. His second wife was Miss Harriet Mather, of New London county, Connecticut, who is now living, and was the mother of two sons and two daughters, one son and one daughter now surviving.

[Illustration: J. W. Allen]

The financial storm of 1837-8 did so much damage to Mr. Allen's fortune, as well as some unsuccessful efforts in the construction of local rail roads ahead of time, that its effects are not yet gone. Being young and energetic, with a large property, with few debts of his own, it would have affected him but little, had he not been too generous towards his friends in the way of endorsements.

In the winter of 1849-50, he was appointed under a resolution of the Legislature the Agent of the State to examine into the claims of the State on the General Government growing out of the grants of land in aid of the canals and which had been twice settled and receipted for in full, which occupied him five years at Washington. In this he was eminently successful and did the State great service, and had the State performed its part of the bargain as well as Mr. Allen did his, the result would have been a rich compensation for his labors. His was the only case of repudiation ever perpetrated by Ohio and he may well charge the State with punic faith toward him.

When the State Bank of Ohio, consisting of branches scattered throughout the State under the general management of a board of control, was authorized by an act of the Legislature about the year 1846, and which was the soundest system ever devised by any State Government, Mr. Allen was one of the five Commissioners charged with the duty of putting the machinery in operation.

Very few of the present generation realize the obligation of this city to him, and his public spirited coadjutors of thirty years since, for the solid prosperity it now enjoys.

Hiram V. Willson.

The first judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio, will long be remembered by the bar and public of that District, for the ability, dignity, and purity with which, for over eleven years, he administered justice. When at last he lay down to his final rest, there was no voice raised in censure of any one of his acts, and tributes of heartfelt praise of his life, and sorrow for his loss, were laid on his grave by men of all parties and shades of opinion. As lawyer, judge, citizen, and man, Judge Willson won the respect and confidence of all with whom he was brought into social or official contact.

Hiram V. Willson was born in April, 1808, in Madison county, New York. Graduating at Hamilton College in 1832, he commenced the study of law in the office of the Hon. Jared Willson, of Canandaigua, New York. Subsequently he visited Virginia, read law in the office of Francis S. Key, of Washington, and for a time aided his slender pecuniary means by teaching in a classical school in the Shenandoah Valley. During his early legal studies he laid the foundations of that legal knowledge for which he was afterwards distinguished, and acquired that familiarity with the text-books and reports which made him a safe, prompt, and prudent counsellor. At school, college, and in the Shenandoah Valley, he maintained a close intimacy with the Hon. Henry B. Payne, then a young man of about his own age. In 1833, he removed to Painesville, but soon changed his residence to Cleveland, where he and his intimate friend, H. B. Payne, formed a law partnership.

Long after, when at a banquet tendered by the bar of Cleveland in honor of the organization of the United States Court for the Northern District of Ohio, Judge Willson referred to the auspices under which the young firm commenced business. The following toast had been offered:

The First Judge of the Northern District of Ohio: In the history and eminent success of a twenty years' practice at the Bar, we have the fullest assurance that whatever industry, talent, and integrity can achieve for the character of this long sought for court, will be accomplished by the gentleman who has been appointed to preside over its deliberations.

In responding to the toast, Judge Willson spoke highly of the character of the profession, and then made a warm appeal to the young lawyers. He said that all there had been young lawyers and knew the struggles and difficulties that hang around the lawyer's early path, and which cloud to him his future, and nothing is so welcome, so genial to a young lawyer's heart as to be taken in hand by an older legal brother. He said he could talk with feeling on the subject, for the memory was yet green of the days when two penniless young men came to Ohio to take life's start, and when as discouragements, and almost despair, seemed to lie in wait for them, there was an older lawyer who held out a friendly hand to aid them, and who bid them take courage and persevere. Who that friend was he signified by offering, with much feeling, a toast to the memory of Judge Willey.

But the young firm did not long need friendly counsel to cheer them in the midst of discouragements. Although they were but young men, and Willey, Congar, and Andrews were eminent lawyers in full practice, they soon took place in the front rank of the profession. Business flowed in upon them, and from 1837 to 1840, the number of suits brought by them in the Court of Common Pleas averaged two hundred and fifty per year; whilst during the same time they appeared for the defence in twice that number of cases annually. Briefs in all those cases were, to a great extent, prepared by Judge Willson. Upon Mr. Payne's retirement, a partnership was formed with Hon. Edward Wade and Reuben Hitchcock, and after a while the firm was changed to Willson, Wade & Wade. Under these partnerships the extensive business and high reputation of the old firm were preserved and increased.

In 1852, Judge Willson ran for Congress on the Democratic ticket, against William Case on the Whig and Edward Wade on the Free Soil tickets. Mr. Wade was elected, but Judge Willson received a very handsome vote.

In the Winter of 1854, a bill was introduced to divide the State of Ohio, for United States judicial purposes, into two districts. The members of the Cleveland Bar pressed the matter vigorously, and after a sharp struggle in Congress, the bill creating the United States Court for the Northern District of Ohio was passed. During the pendency of the measure, and when the prospects were unfavorable for its passage, Judge Willson was chosen by the Cleveland Bar to proceed to Washington and labor in the interest of the bill. This was done, and the final triumph of the bill was doubtless owing in great measure to his unwearied industry in its behalf. In March, 1855, President Pierce appointed Mr. Willson judge of the District Court just authorized.

The formation of the court and the appointment of Judge Willson as its presiding officer, gave general satisfaction. A banquet was held by the lawyers to celebrate the event, and although Judge Willson was a strong political partizan, the leading lawyers of all parties vied with each other in testifying their entire confidence in the ability and impartiality of the new judge. Nor was their confidence misplaced. In becoming a judge he ceased to be a politician, and no purely political, or personal, motives swayed his decisions. He was admitted by all to have been an upright judge.

The new court found plenty to do. In addition to the ordinary criminal and civil business, the location of the court on the lake border brought to it a large amount of admiralty cases. In such cases, the extensive knowledge and critical acumen of Judge Willson were favorably displayed. Many of his decisions were models of deep research and lucid statement. One of his earliest decisions of this character was in relation to maritime liens. The steamboat America had been abandoned and sunk, and only a part of her tackle and rigging saved. These were attached for debt for materials, and the question arose on the legality of the claim against articles no longer a part of the vessel. Judge Willson held that the maritime lien of men for wages, and material men for supplies, is a proprietary interest in the vessel itself, and can not be diverted by the acts of the owner or by any casualty, until the claim is paid, and that such lien inheres to the ship and all her parts wherever found and whoever may be the owner. In the case of L. Wick vs. the schooner Samuel Strong, in 1855, Judge Willson reviewed the history and intent of the common carrier act of Ohio, in an opinion of much interest. A case, not in admiralty, but in the criminal business of the court, gave the judge another opportunity for falling back on his inexhaustible stores of legal and historical knowledge. The question was on the point whether the action of a grand jury was legal in returning a bill of indictment found only by fourteen members, the fifteenth member being absent and taking no part in the proceedings. Judge Willson reviewed the matter at length, citing precedents of the English and American courts for several centuries to show that the action was legal.

A very noticeable case was what is known in the legal history of Cleveland as "The Bridge Case," in which Charles Avery sued the city of Cleveland, to prevent the construction of a bridge across the Cuyahoga, at the foot of Lighthouse street. The questions arising were: the legislative authority of the city to bridge the river, and whether the bridge would be a nuisance, damaging the complainant's private property. The decision of Judge Willson, granting a preliminary injunction until further evidence could be taken, was a thorough review of the law relating to water highways and their obstructions. In the opinion on the Parker water-wheel case, he exhibited a clear knowledge of mechanics, and gave an exhaustive exposition of the law of patents. In the case of Hoag vs the propeller Cataract, the law of collision was set forth and numerous precedents cited. In 1860, important decisions were given in respect to the extent of United States jurisdiction on the Western lakes and rivers. It was decided, and the decisions supported by voluminous precedents, that the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction possessed by the District Courts of the United States, on the Western lakes and rivers, under the Constitution and Act of 1789, was independent of the Act of 1845, and unaffected thereby; and also that the District Courts of the United States, having under the Constitution and Acts of Congress, exclusive original cognizance of all civil causes of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, the Courts of Common Law are precluded from proceeding in rem to enforce such maritime claims.

These are but a very few of the many important cases coming before Judge Willson's court and decided by him in a manner that made his decisions important precedents.

The judicial administration of Judge Willson was noticeable also for its connection with events of national importance. And here it should be again repeated, that in all his conduct on the bench he divested himself of personal or party predilections and prejudices. To him it was of no consequence who were parties to the case, or what the political effect of a decision would be; he inquired only what were the facts in the matter and what the law bearing upon them. The keynote of his character in this respect may be known from an extract taken from his charge to the grand jury in the Winter term of 1856, in which it was expected a case would come before that body of alleged impropriety or crime by a Government officer, growing out of party zeal during a very heated political canvass. The passions of men were intensely excited at the time of the delivery of the charge, and that address had the effect of suddenly cooling down the popular mind, in the city and vicinity at least, and of bringing about a better state of feeling. After referring impressively to the language of the oath taken by the grand jury, to present none through malice, and except none through favouritism, Judge Willson said:

It was but yesterday our ears were deafened by the turmoil and clamour of political strife, shaking the great national fabric to its centre, and threatening the stability of the Government itself. In that fearful conflict for the control of the Executive and Legislative Departments of the Federal Government, all the evil passions of men seem to have been aroused. Vituperation and scandal, malice, hatred and ill-will had blotted out from the land all brotherly love, and swept away those characteristics which should distinguish us as a nation of Christians.

How important, then, it is for us, coming up here to perform the duties incident to the courts, to come with minds free from prejudice, free from passions, and free from the influence of the angry elements around us. To come with a fixed purpose of administering justice with truth, according to the laws of the land. A dangerous political contagion has become rampant in our country, invading the holy sanctuaries of the "Prince of Peace" and polluting the very fountains of Eternal Truth.

God forbid the time may ever come when the temples of justice in our land shall be desecrated by this unhallowed and contaminating influence, or by wanton disregard of the Constitution, or by a perfidious delinquency on the part of the ministers of the law. Here let passion and prejudice find no abiding place. Here let equal and exact justice be meted out to all men--to rich and to the poor--to the high and the low, and above all things, with you, gentlemen, here preserve with scrupulons fidelity the sanctity of your oaths, and discharge your whole duty without fear and without favour. Put justice to the line and truth to the plummet, and act up fully to the obligations of that oath, and you will ever enjoy those rich consolations which always flow from a conscientious discharge of a sworn duty.

To men of your intelligence and probity, these admonitions are, perhaps, unnecessary. Knowing, however, the reluctance and pain with which the misconduct of men in office is inquired into, by those who cherish the same political sentiments, I am confident, gentlemen, that in times like these, you can not exercise too great caution in excluding from your minds all considerations, as to whether the party charged before you is the appointee of this or of that administration, or whether he belongs to this or that political organization or party.

In 1858, came before the court the historic case of the Oberlin-Wellington Rescue. The facts of the case were, briefly, that on the first of March, 1857, a negro slave named John, the property of John G. Bacon, of Kentucky, escaped across the river into Ohio. In October, 1858, the negro was traced out and arrested within the Northern District of Ohio, by one Anderson Jennings, holding a power of attorney from Bacon. In company with an assistant named Love, Jennings took the negro to Wellington, Lorain county, with the purpose of taking the cars for Cincinnati, and thence returning the negro to Kentucky and remitting him to slavery. A number of residents of Oberlin concerted a plan of rescue marched to Wellington, entered the hotel where John was kept, took him from his captors, placed him in a buggy, and carried him off. Indictments were found against the leading rescuers, who comprised among others some of the leading men of the college and village of Oberlin, and they were brought to trial, fined, and imprisoned. The trial created great excitement, and, whilst it was pending, a monster demonstration against the Fugitive Slave Law was held on the Public Square, midway between the building where the court held its sessions and the jail in which the accused were confined. At one time fears were entertained of violence, threats being freely uttered by some of the more headstrong that the law should be defied and the prisoners released by force. Cooler counsels prevailed, and the law, odious as it was felt to be, was allowed to take its course. In this exciting time the charges and judgments of Judge Willson were calm and dispassionate, wholly divested of partisanship, and merely pointing out the provisions of the law and the necessity of obedience to it, however irksome such obedience might be, until it was repealed.

[Illustration: H. V. Willson]

In the November term of 1859, when the public mind was still agitated by the John Brown raid and by the tragic affairs succeeding it, and when the excitement of the Oberlin-Wellington Rescue had not wholly subsided, the attention of Judge Willson was called to these matters by the District Attorney, and in his charge to the grand jury he took occasion to define the law of treason, with especial bearing on those events. It was a clear, logical exposition of the law, pointing out the line of distinction between a meeting for the expression of opinions hostile to the Government and a gathering for the purpose of violently opposing or overturning the Government.

In 1861, when the rebellion had broken out, and it was supposed sympathizers with it were in Ohio plotting aid to the rebels, Judge Willson delivered a charge to the grand jury, again defining the law in regard to conspiracy and treason, and in the course of his address took occasion to unreservedly condemn the motives and actions of the rebels. He said:

The loyal people of this great nation have enjoyed the blessings of our excellent Constitution too long and too well, to be insensible of its value or to permit its destruction. They have not yet been schooled to the heresy, that this noble Government is a mere myth, or that it is destitute of the inherent power of perpetuating its own existence. On the contrary, next to their religion, they love and cherish it above all things on earth, not only because it is the rich and sacred legacy of a revered and patriotic ancestry, but because it is a Government of law, possessing the authority to maintain social and civil order, giving to its citizens security of property, of person and of life.

It is not surprising, therefore, that this bold and mad rebellion in the Southern States, has excited, in all patriotic hearts, a spontaneous and indignant feeling against treason and traitors, wherever they may be found in our land. It is a rebellion without cause and without justification. It had its conception in the wicked hearts of ambitious men. Possibly, some of the chief conspirators may be actuated by the spirit of the sacrilegious incendiary who fired the Ephesian temple to immortalize his name by the infamy of the act.

Let the motives of the conspirators be what they may, this open, organized and armed resistance to the Government of the United States is treason, and those engaged in it justly merit the penalty denounced against traitors.

Nor should we be misled by false notions of the reserved right of the States to secede from the Union. This assumed right, claimed by the States in rebellion, is false in theory; it is of the highest criminalty in practice, and without the semblance of authority in the Constitution. The right of secession, (said the lamented Webster,) "as a practical right, existing under the Constitution, is simply an absurdity; for it supposes resistance to Government under the authority of the Government itself--it supposes dismemberment without violating the principles of Union--it supposes opposition to law without crime--it sanctions the violation of oaths without responsibility, and the total overthrow of the Government without revolution."

The history of this wicked rebellion already shows that many of those who have shared the largest in the offices and emoluments, as well as in the blessings of the National Government, have fallen the lowest in infamy in attempting its overthrow.

If this Union is to be perpetuated, and the Government itself is to exist as a power among the nations, its laws must be enforced at all hazards and at any cost. And especially should courts and juries do their whole duty, without respect to persons, when crimes are committed, tending to the subversion of the Government and the destruction of our cherished institutions.

At the January term, 1864, he delivered another admirable charge, in which he discussed the questions arising under the then recent act of Congress authorizing a draft under the direction of the President without the intervention of the State authorities, and by a very logical and conclusive argument established the constitutional validity of the act in question. The crime of resisting the draft, obstructing its execution by the officers appointed for that purpose, and enticing soldiers to desert, were defined with great clearness, resisting the enrolling officer being held to be within the offences embraced in the act. These were but a few of the topics treated by the Judge. The entire charge was able, well-timed and patriotic, and was admirably calculated to conciliate and unite public opinion in support of the law and the measures of the Government to enforce it.

In 1865, the health of Judge Willson began to give way and symptoms of consumption appeared. He was strongly urged by his friends to leave his business for a time and seek the restoration of his health in a milder climate. As Winter approached he yielded to their persuasions and visited New Orleans and the West Indies. Unhappily the weather was unusually severe for those latitudes, and he derived no benefit from his trip. He was glad to reach the quiet and comfort of home once more. His sense of duty was so strong that, though unfit to leave his home, he came down to the city, opened court, so as to set the machinery in order, but found himself unable to preside and was compelled to return home, where he awaited in patience the coming of the destroyer.

On the evening of November 11th, 1866, he died. A few hours before his death he suffered much, his breathing being labored and painful. As his end approached, however, he became easier, and his life went out without a struggle. Some months earlier, the Judge, who had for years been an attendant of the services in the First Presbyterian church, and an active supporter of that congregation, made a profession of religion and received the rite of baptism. He was perfectly conscious to the close of his life, and although hopeful of recovery, as is usual with the victims of consumption, had been fully aware of his precarious situation, and had thoughtfully contemplated his approaching end. He left a widow and a daughter, Mrs. Chamberlin, well provided for.

On the announcement of his death the members of the Cleveland Bar immediately assembled, and young or old, of all shades of opinion in the profession, vied with each other in bearing testimony to the uprightness, ability, and moral worth of the deceased. His death occasioned unaffected sorrow among those who had known him, and among the large number of his legal brethren who had greater or less opportunities of official intercourse with him he did not leave a single enemy. The Bar meeting unanimously adopted the following resolutions of respect:

We, the members of the Bar of the Northern District of Ohio having learned that our brother, the Hon. Hiram V. Willson, departed this life yesterday evening, (Nov. 11,) at his residence, and desiring to pay a tribute of affection and respect to one who was our beloved associate at this Bar for twenty-one years, and anxious also to acknowledge our obligation to him, by whose influence and labors the Courts of the United States were established in our midst, and who has so ably and uprightly presided over those Courts for a period of more than eleven years, do hereby

Resolve, 1st. That in the death of Judge Willson the Bench has lost a learned, upright and fearless Judge, ever doing right and equity among the suitors of his Court, fearing only the errors and mistakes to which a fallible human judgment is ever liable. Urbanity and courtesy to the older members of the Bar, protecting and loving kindness to its younger members, and deep and abiding interest in the reputation of all, were among his distinguishing characteristics.

2d. That in him we have lost a near and dear friend, disliked, disrelished by none, but esteemed and loved by all.

3d. That we wear the usual mourning and attend his funeral in a body, on Wednesday next.

4th. That the Chairman of this Committee present this report to our Court of Common Pleas, and request the same to be entered on the record of said Court.

5th. That the United States District Attorney for Northern Ohio be requested to present this report to the Circuit and District Courts of said District at their next term and request that the same be entered and recorded in said Courts.

6th. That the officers of this meeting be directed to send a copy of its proceedings to the family of the deceased.

At the opening of the next term of the United States District Court under Judge Sherman, the successor to Judge Willson, these resolutions were read, and warm eulogies on the deceased were made by U. S. District Attorney, F. J. Dickman, U. S. Commissioner Bushnell White, George W. Willey Esq., Hon. K. P. Spalding and Judge Sherman.

The funeral services over the remains of Judge Willson were held in the First Presbyterian church, conducted by Rev. Dr. Atterburry, assisted by Rev. Dr. Aiken. The Supreme Court of Ohio, United States Courts of Pennsylvania and Michigan, the Cleveland Bench and Bar, and the City Government were fully represented at the ceremonies, which were also participated in by a very large concourse of citizens.

Samuel Starkweather.

As a member of the legal profession, both on the Bench and at the Bar, as the chief magistrate of the city, and as an United States revenue officer, and as a citizen of Cleveland, Samuel Starkweather has held honorable prominence for forty years.

He was born in the village of Pawtucket, Massachusetts, on the border of Rhode Island, a village celebrated as the seat of the first cotton manufactures in the United States. He was the son of the Honorable Oliver Starkweather, an extensive and successful manufacturer, and grandson of the Honorable Ephraim Starkweather, who was prominent among the patriots of the Revolution.

The subject of this sketch worked on a farm until nearly seventeen years of age, when he began to fit himself for college, after which he entered Brown University, Rhode Island, where he graduated with the second honors of his class, in the year 1822, and was soon afterward elected a tutor in that institution, which position he held until the year 1824, when he resigned, to commence the study of the law, which he pursued in the office of Judge Swift, in Windham, Connecticut, and afterwards in attendance upon the lectures of Chancellor Kent, of New York. He was admitted to the Bar of Ohio at Columbus, in the Winter of 1826-7, and soon after settled in Cleveland, then a village of a few hundred inhabitants, and was recognized as a lawyer of learning and ability in this and the adjoining counties.

Mr. Starkweather was prominent among the leaders of the Democratic party of this State, when its principles were well defined, and was a strong adherent to the administrations of Presidents Jackson and Van Buren, but his being always in the political minority in the part of the State in which he lived, prevented those high political preferments which otherwise would have been conferred upon him. In this connection it is proper to say, that for Mr. Starkweather to have attained the highest eminence in the legal profession, it was only necessary that he should have made it his specialty.

Under the administrations of Presidents Jackson and Van Buren, Mr. Starkweather held the office of Collector of Customs of this District, and Superintendent of Light-Houses, and under his supervision most of the sites were purchased, and the light-houses erected on the Southern shore of Lake Erie. He continued to hold these offices in connection with his practice of the law, until 1840.

In 1844, Mr. Starkweather was elected Mayor of the city of Cleveland, having previously taken a leading part in the City Councils. He was re-elected in 1845, and was again elected Mayor in 1857, for two years, and in these positions was active in promoting those improvements in the city which have tended to its prosperity and beauty. To Mr. Starkweather the public schools of the city are much indebted for the interest which he has always taken in their behalf; and to his advocacy and efforts, with those of Mr. Charles Bradburn, the High School of the city owes its first establishment.

In the early struggles for advancing the schemes of railroads, the accomplishment of which has made Cleveland the great city of commerce and manufactures, no one was more active than Mr. Starkweather. When the project of building the Cleveland & Columbus road was at a stand-still, and was on the point of being, for the time, abandoned, as a final effort a meeting of the business men of Cleveland was called. The speech of Mr. Starkweather on that occasion, parts of which are quoted to this day, had the effect to breathe into that enterprise the breath of life, and from that meeting it went immediately onward to its final completion. So well were the services of Mr. Starkweather in behalf of that road appreciated at the time, that one of the Directors proposed that he should have a pass upon it for life.

Mr. Starkweather, in 1852, was the first Judge elected to the Court of Common Pleas for Cuyahoga county, under the new constitution of the State, in which position he served for five years with ability and satisfaction to the members of the Bar and the public generally. For a considerable portion of his term, the entire docket of both civil and criminal business devolved on Mm, when an additional Judge was allowed the county. He presided at some very important State trials, in which, as in the disposition of a very large amount of civil business, he exhibited abundant legal learning and judicial discrimination.

Since he retired from the Bench he has been known as a citizen of wealth, of retired habits, but of influence in public affairs, and retaining to the full the conversational gifts which have made him the life and charm of social and professional circles. Indeed it may be said that either at the Bar, in well remembered efforts of marked brilliancy as an advocate, or on the Bench, occasionally illuminating the soberness of judicial proceedings, or in assemblies on prominent public occasions occurring all through his life, eloquence, wit and humor seemed ready to his use. A fine belle lettres scholar, classical, historical and biographical adornments and incidents seemed always naturally to flow in to enrich his discourse, whether in private or public. He has often been spoken of as of the Corwin cast, perhaps a slight personal resemblance aiding the suggestion. He certainly has the like gifts of the charming conversationalist and the popular orator, in which last capacity, for many years, he was the prompt choice of the public on leading occasions, such as at the grand reception given to Van Buren after his defeat in 1840; the magnificent reception tendered by the city to Kossuth; at the completion of the Cleveland & Columbus Railway on the 22nd of February, 1852; at the dedication of Woodland Cemetery, and at many other times when the public were most anxious to put a gifted man forward.

[Illustration: Truly Yours, Moses Kelly]

Moses Kelly.

The subject of this sketch was born January 21st, 1809, in the township of Groveland, now county of Livingston, then county of Ontario, State of New York. He was the oldest son of Daniel Kelly, who emigrated from the State of Pennsylvania to Western New York in the year 1797. He is of Scotch-Irish descent in the paternal line, and of German descent on the side of his mother. His great grandfather, on his father's side, emigrated from the North of Ireland to America, early in the eighteenth century, and settled in the State of Pennsylvania, within a few miles of the city of Philadelphia; his grandfather, born there, was a Revolutionary soldier. Mr. Kelly lived with his father, on a farm in Groveland, until he was eighteen years old, having the usual advantages, and following the ordinary pursuits of a farmer's son.

At the age of eighteen he entered the High School on Temple Hill, in the village of Genesee, Livingston county, New York, and commenced preparing for college, under the tuition of that eminent scholar and accomplished educator, the late Cornelius C. Felton, who subsequently became President of Harvard University. Mr. Kelly entered the Freshman class at Harvard in 1829, and graduated with his class in the year 1833. He immediately commenced the study of the law, with the late Orlando Hastings, Esq., of Rochester, N. Y., and read three years in his office and under his direction, when he was admitted to practice. He came to Cleveland in the year 1836, and formed a law copartnership with his old friend, college classmate and chum, the Hon. Thomas Bolton; the firm name was Bolton & Kelly. This partnership continued until the year 1851, when S. O. Griswold Esq., who had been their law student, was taken into the firm; the firm name thereafter being Bolton, Kelly & Griswold. This connection continued until the close of the year 1856, when Mr. Bolton was elected Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. Since Judge Bolton retired from the firm Messrs. Kelly & Griswold have continued the practice of law under that firm name, and are still engaged in the practice.

Mr. Kelly has made commercial law and equity jurisprudence his special studies, and in these branches of the law his great skill and learning are acknowledged by all his brethren. Indeed, as an equity lawyer he stands at the head of the profession.

It will be seen from the year 1836 until the present time, Mr. Kelly has devoted himself closely to the practice of the law; the only interruption to this was a two years service as State senator in the legislature of Ohio during the years 1844 and 1845. He was elected to the senate by the Whig party of the counties of Cuyahoga and Geauga, these two counties then composing one senatorial district. During the first session of the General Assembly, of which he was a member, the Democrats had a majority in the Senate while the Whigs had the control of the lower house. As is usual when a legislature is thus politically divided, no measures of general interest were adopted. But there happened during that session to arise a question which showed Mr. Kelly's independence, and true character. The Democracy had made complaint of the Whig extravagance and laid great claim on their own part to retrenchment and economy in the State administration. The Whigs to make political capital, proposed a bill reducing the salaries of all State officers; the salary of the Judges was put at $750 per year and the pay of all other State officials in the same ratio. The measure was adopted by the party caucus, and was carried through the lower house.

It was hoped by many that the Senate, being Democratic, would defeat the bill, and thus the Whigs would have credit for great economy at the expense of the Democrats. But when it came to that body, the Democracy, not to be out done by their opponents, favored the bill.

Mr. Kelly, singly and alone of all his party, opposed the measure, and spoke and voted against it. The bill was finally carried but was repealed in the course of a year or two afterwards.

The most prominent subject before the legislature at the second session was the establishment of a suitable banking system for the State. The business men of Cleveland were in favor of free banks, but the great body of the Whig party were strongly in favor of a State Bank and branches, and having a majority in both houses in the session of 1845 were determined to establish that system. Mr. Kelly succeeded in engrafting upon the State Bank scheme the Independent Bank system, with State stocks pledged to secure the circulation, and also in adding additional checks and safeguards to the State Bank. His efforts in this direction were duly appreciated by his constituents, and at a public meeting, called by the principal business men of the city, irrespective of party, his action on the Bank bill was specially approved.

It is to be observed also that the present National Bank system is modeled after the plan of free banking advocated by Mr. Kelly at that time.

During the same session a question arose in which Mr. Kelly took an active part, in opposition to the great body of his party, the event of which vindicated his sagacity and practical statesmanship. The question was upon a bill to grant to the Ohio Life and Trust Company authority to issue bills to circulate as currency, to the extent of half a million of dollars. At the time this bill was introduced no banking System had been adopted by the legislature; most of the charters of the old banks had expired prior to that time, and the State was without an adequate bank circulation of its own. The chief stockholders and managers of that corporation were men of high character and great wealth. The company had been successfully managed, and its credit was then deservedly high. Also the principal men of the company were leading Whigs, among these were Judges Jacob Burnett and John E. Wright of Cincinnati, Nathaniel Wright of Cincinnati and Alfred Kelley Esq., who was also at the same time a member of the senate from the Franklin district, and this application on the part of the company was backed by the presence and Personal influence of these gentlemen. The plea made by this company for this additional banking privilege was exceedingly plausible, and the measure was approved in a caucus of the Whig members almost without inquiry. The bill was introduced into the Senate by the Hon. Alfred Kelley, and its success was considered certain. Mr. Moses Kelly, alone of his party, expressed his opposition to the bill. Urged as the measure was by so many leading men,' and introduced by the acknowledged leader of the party, it seemed that such opposition must be fruitless. But on the third reading of the bill Mr. Kelly attacked it in a speech of great vigor, and strength of argument. He opposed it as unjust towards any banking system that might be established and as unwise in giving additional privileges to an already powerful corporation. Bat he opposed it chiefly because it gave to the corporation power to issue bills as money simply on individual security. He contended that whenever the State permitted any corporation or organization to issue bills to pass as money the faith of the State should be pledged to their ultimate redemption. While paying a high compliment to the ability and integrity of the managers of the Ohio Life and Trust Company, he declared there was no security but what in the future it might pass into the control of Wall street shavers and brokers, and from thence to ruin, and the people of the State left remediless with a worthless circulation in their hands. His vigorous opposition, and the strength of his argument awakened the attention of the party to the evils of the measure, and notwithstanding its powerful backing, the bill was effectually killed by Mr. Kelly's speech.

Mr. Alfred Kelley was greatly grieved at the failure of this measure. He however lived to see his error, and the ruinous failure of that company through the recklessness of the Wall street management into whose hands, as had been predicted, that company finally fell. Judge John C. Wright, now in Columbus, advocated the aforesaid measure. He was then the senior editor of the Cincinnati Gazette, and the influence of his paper was given to the bill. Although old, he was in the full enjoyment of his powers of intellect, and at that time wielded a great influence in the political affairs of the State. It happened that he was present in the senate chamber when Mr. Kelly made his speech against the bill; although chagrined at the defeat of the measure in which he had such personal interest, so struck was he with the originality and force of the argument of Mr. Kelly, and with his independence of character, and ability to rise above mere party considerations in his legislative career, that he sought Mr. Kelly's personal acquaintance, and during the remainder of his life there existed a warm personal friendship between them.

At the expiration of his term of service Mr. Kelly returned to the practice and ever since has devoted his energies to his profession. The office of Bolton & Kelly has been the school of many prominent lawyers. Among the members of the Cleveland Bar who studied under them are Messrs. F. T. Backus, George Willey, John E. Cary and his present partner, Mr. Griswold. Mr. Kelly was City Attorney in the year 1839, and a member of the City Council in 1841. While he was in the Council he was active in support of the Lake Shore improvement, which stopped the rapid encroachment of the Lake upon the shore in front of Lake street.

In 1849, Mr. Kelly was appointed by the legislature one of the Commissioners of the city of Cleveland to subscribe on behalf of the city to the capital stock of the Cleveland & Pittsburgh Railroad Company. He accepted the trust, and for a number of successive years thereafter, until the stock of the city in that road was disposed of, was chosen a Director of the Cleveland & Pittsburgh Railroad Company, to represent the interests of this city in the capital stock of that company.

In September, 1866, he was appointed by President Johnson District Attorney of the United States for the Northern District of Ohio, and held the office until the next March, not having been confirmed by the Radical senate for the reason that he had been a member of the Philadelphia Convention of the previous summer.

On the organization of the City Bank of Cleveland under the law of 1845, Mr. Kelly became a stockholder therein and was a director, and its attorney, during its existence, and has continued in the same connection with the National City Bank which succeeded the former. He also for a number of years has been a director and attorney of the Cuyahoga Steam Furnace Company.

Mr. Kelly was one of the organizers of St. Paul's Episcopal church, and has always remained a liberal supporter of the same.

He was married in the year 1839 to Jane, the daughter of Gen. Hezekiah Howe, of New Haven, Conn.

In 1850, Mr. Kelly purchased a tract of about thirty acres, being a part of what was then known as the "Giddings farm," fronting on Euclid avenue, a short distance East of Willson avenue. Here he soon after erected a tasteful dwelling, where he has since resided, and where in the leisure snatched from professional avocations he has gratified his taste for horticultural and agricultural pursuits.

In person Mr. Kelly is tall and spare, and dignified in demeanor, and although he has reached three score, he is still active and in good health. His character for integrity is unblemished and in his long professional career has never been known to uphold or defend a dishonorable cause. His rule has been to decline advocating causes which, in his judgment, have neither merits nor justice. In social intercourse he is affable and genial, and in public, private and professional life, has always commanded the respect, esteem and confidence of his fellow men. Firm in his convictions of duty, and resolute in doing it, yet so respectful and courteous to opponents is he that he may be said to be a man without an enemy.

The great rise in real estate and his professional earnings have rendered Mr. Kelly, if not what in these days would be called wealthy, comparatively rich, and surrounded, as he is, by an affectionate family and kind friends and possessed of all the enjoyments which culture and a successful life brings, we trust he may long continue amongst us.

Thomas Bolton.

It has been said of history, that it should never venture to deal except with periods comparatively remote. And this was doubtless true when literature was venal, or in any way subservient to royal or to party power.

It has been alike suggested of biography, that it cannot be securely trusted in the portrayal of the living. And this is no doubt true where political or partisan objects are sought to be subserved. But with this exception the most faithful portraits may naturally be expected where the subjects of them are before us, and familiarly known to us. And so that the hand refrains from those warmer tints which personal friendship might inspire, and simply aims at sketches which the general judgment may recognize and approve, the task, however difficult, cannot be said to be unsafe.

Thomas Bolton was born in Scipio, Cayuga county, New York, November 29th, 1809. His father was an extensive farmer in that section of western New York, where rich fields, and flowing streams, and beautiful scenery, are happily combined.

At seventeen he entered the High School on Temple Hill, in Geneseo, where he fitted for college; and in the Fall of 1829, he entered Harvard University, where he graduated in 1833, the first in his class in mathematics. In this connection, it is pleasant to advert to the fact that his most intimate schoolmate, classmate and fellow graduate, was Hon. Moses Kelly, who was afterwards his partner in the law for many years at Cleveland, and that between the two from boyhood down to the present day, there has been a steadfast and unbroken life-friendship almost fraternal, both now in affluence, but still living side by side. Such life-long friendships are unusual, but whenever they do exist, they imply the presence in both parties of true and trusty qualities which preserve their character as pure cement, exposed to any atmosphere, or tried in any furnace.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, Thomas Bolton]

After graduating, Mr. Bolton entered upon the study of law at Canandaigua, in the office of John G. Spencer, now deceased, but then a strong and distinguished name in the profession. At the end of a year he came west, to seek a permanent location to further pursue his studies and enter upon the practice, first stopping at Cleveland, on finding that any further west was hardly within the pale of civilization. Cleveland itself was then, September, 1834, but a mere village, of about twenty-five hundred inhabitants. Superior street had not been graded, and at its western terminus was higher than the first story of the Atwater Block, and the bank of the lake extended fifteen rods out beyond the present Union Depot. The village did not become a city till 1836, when at a public meeting to determine upon the corporate limits, Mr. Bolton was appointed on a committee to draft the charter, and urged that both sides of the river should be embraced, but was overruled, and Ohio City was established on the other side of the river as a sort of rival, but since consolidated with Cleveland. His connection with city affairs was renewed as Councilman in 1839, and as Alderman in 1841.

But to go back to his professional life. Having studied law in the office of James L. Conger, at Cleveland, for a year, he was admitted to the Bar in September, 1835, by the Supreme Court of Ohio, on the Circuit, Chief Justice Peter Hitchcock, that Nestor among judges, then presiding. He was in partnership with Mr. Conger for a year, when he bought him out and sent for his old college friend, Mr. Kelly, with whom he formed a partnership, which continued until the Fall of 1856, a period of twenty years, when he was elected to the Bench.

As bearing upon his political career, it may be narrated, that in the Fall of 1839, he was elected prosecuting attorney of the county, at which time the Whig party was largely in the ascendancy, commanding from 1,500 to 2,000 majority, though he was a Democrat and nominated by the Democrats for the office. Two years later, at the expiration of his term, he was strongly solicited by both parties to take the office another term, but declined in consequence of the inadequacy of the salary.

An incident occurred during his term as prosecuting attorney which had a marked effect upon the politics of Cleveland and its vicinity. Up to 1841, slave-owners were in the habit of sending their agents to Cleveland and causing their runaway slaves to be arrested and taken before a magistrate, when a warrant would be obtained to return the slave, and he would be carried back into slavery. All this was done openly and publicly, creating little or no excitement, and Mr. Bolton, in the practice of his profession, was more frequently employed for this purpose than any other attorney in the city. In the Spring of 1841, three negroes, who were claimed as slaves, had run away from New Orleans and were in Buffalo. The agent of their master applied to a law firm in Cleveland for assistance. At that time, slaves arrested in Buffalo were in the habit of claiming a trial by jury, which was granted. To avoid a jury, with its sympathies, it was thought advisable to get the negroes into Ohio, and, accordingly, one of the attorneys, the agent and a negro of Cleveland, repaired to Buffalo. On their return the three negroes came with them, and it was said they had been kidnapped. On their arrival at Cleveland, the negroes were arrested under the law of Congress as fugitives from service, and lodged in the county jail. This information coming to the ears of the few Abolitionists then in the city, among others the late Hon. Edward Wade and Hon. John A. Foot, lawyers at the time in full practice, they applied to the jailor for admission to consult with the negroes. But public opinion was so strongly prejudiced against the Abolitionists that neither the jailor nor the sheriff would permit any of them to communicate with the prisoners. Accidentally, a colored man inquired of Mr. Bolton if he would take up their defence. He readily assented, and being prosecuting attorney of the county, and it being well understood that he was not an Abolitionist, the doors of the jail were readily opened to him, and he immediately made preparations for a vigorous defence of the prisoners. A writ of habeas corpus was immediately applied for to Judge Barber, one of the associate judges at the time; the negroes were brought before him, and their case continued for ninety days, to prepare for a defence.

When it was known about town that Mr. Bolton had undertaken the defence of the negroes, great indignation was excited, and many threatened to tear down his office, and to use violence toward his person. This only aroused him to greater energy and effort in behalf of the prisoners. In the meantime indictments were procured in Buffalo against the alleged kidnappers, and the excitement in the city greatly increased, so that on the day of the trial the court-house was packed with people. After an investigation, which lasted two days, the court discharged the defendants and they went acquit.

From the iniquitous proceeding in the case, and the manner in which it was prosecuted, and the excitement it produced, the community was led to reflect upon the iniquity of the system and the oppression of the law; and from that day till the slave-girl Lucy was sent back into Virginia slavery, in 1862, (to appease, it is said, the wrath of the rebels,) not a negro was sent back into slavery from the city of Cleveland, or county of Cuyahoga.

Mr. Bolton left the Democratic party in 1848, or, as he claims, it left him when it adopted its national platform of that year. He then joined the Free Soil party, and was a delegate to the Buffalo Convention, and one of its secretaries. In February, 1856, he assisted in organizing the Republican party at the Pittsburgh Convention, and in the Summer of the same year was a delegate from this Congressional District in the Philadelphia Convention, which nominated Fremont and Dayton.

When he was admitted to the Bar, the Court of Common Pleas, under the old Constitution, consisted of four members, a president judge and three associates, elected by the Legislature, and the Supreme Court of the State consisted of four judges, also chosen by the Legislature. A session of the Supreme Court was held by two of its members once a year in each county, and three sessions a year were held by the Court of Common Pleas in this and the adjoining counties. In 1835, Hon. Matthew Birchard, of Warren, was president judge. He was succeeded by Hon. Van R. Humphrey, of Hudson, and he by Hon. John W. Willey, of Cleveland, who died during his term. Hon. Reuben Hitchcock was appointed by the Governor to fill the vacancy, and Hon. Benjamin Bissel, of Painesville, was elected by the Legislature during the next session. Hon. Philemon Bliss, then of Elyria, and now Supreme Judge of Missouri, was afterward elected, and his term was cut short in 1851, by the adoption of the new Constitution, under which the judges were elected by the people for the term of five years. Hon. Samuel Starkweather was the first judge elected under the new system, and in 1856. Mr. Bolton was chosen his successor. In 1861, he was unanimounanimouslynated and elected without opposition, and in 1866, at the expiration of his second term, he retired from the Bench and the Bar.

We thus complete our outline sketch of the professional, judicial, and political career of one of our most prominent and respected citizens.

He came to the Bar of Cleveland before Cleveland was a city, and entered upon practice with that force and earnestness which were the ruling elements of his nature. He had able competitors, but he was a strong man amongst them. His promptness in the courts was proverbial. He was always ready, and if he granted indulgences he never asked for any. He was less given to books than his partner, Mr. Kelly, who was the student and chancery member of the firm, but in the ordinary departments of the common law and in criminal practice, he was always at home. He prepared his causes with the most thorough premeditation of the line of his own evidence, and of all the opposing evidence that could possibly be anticipated. Hence he moved with rapidity and precision, and was never taken by surprise. His arguments were not elaborate, or studied in point of finish, but they were strong, downright practical, and to the point. In this sense he was a fine and effective speaker to courts and juries.

These same characteristics he exhibited upon the Bench. Hardy and vigorous in his perceptions and understanding--thoroughly versed and ready in the law of pleadings and evidence--bringing to bear on the civil code, the logical training of the common law system--his ten years of service as a judge were honorable to himself and valuable to the public. In all the phases of his career and life he has been thoroughly upright.

Retired upon an ample fortune, amassed by forecast and business energy--fond of his home, and devoted with entire liberality to the education of his children--independent of office and in all other ways--strong and robust as ever in person and in mind--he is still a power in any direction wherever he chooses so to be. His broad, projecting brow, his direct and forcible speech and bearing, symbolize his character. They assure you of vital energy, strong, practical comprehension, directness and will. He may have more of the "fortiter in re" than of the "suaviter in modo" but all who know him have faith in his truth, implicit reliance upon the hearty fidelity of his friendships, and assurance, that he is always loyal to his convictions, both in public and in private life.

James M. Hoyt.

Several years since, the writer of this was in conversation with a poor man who had a hard struggle with misfortune and sickness in his attempt to rear a large family, and secure them a humble homestead. In the course of conversation the name of James M. Hoyt was mentioned, and the poor man was inquired of who that gentleman was. "Lawyer Hoyt?" he replied, "why he's the honest lawyer, God bless him!" He who could acquire this title among the poor must be no ordinary man.

[Illustration: James M. Hoyt]

James M. Hoyt was born in Utica, New York, January 16, 1815. The circumstances of his parents were such that he was enabled to acquire a good education, and graduated at Hamilton College, Clinton, New York, in 1834. On leaving College he commenced the study of law in Utica, but soon removed to Cleveland, where, in February, 1836, he read law in the office of Andrews & Foot. He remained with them in that capacity for one year, when a partnership was formed under the name of Andrews, Foot & Hoyt, which lasted about twelve years, and was dissolved only by the appointment of Judge Andrews to the bench of the Superior Court of Cuyahoga county. The firm of Foot & Hoyt continued four years longer, until in 1853, Mr. Hoyt withdrew from the practice of law and turned his attention wholly to the business of real estate, not as a broker, but as an operator on his own account, or in company with others, nearly all his operations being adjacent to the city. For the last twenty years his transactions have been very heavy, having made of land belonging to him wholly, or in part, in the city of Cleveland and its environs, thirty-one recorded sub-divisions, covering an area of five hundred acres, on which he has personally, or in connection with others interested with him, opened and named no less than seventy-six streets, including the well-known Croton, Laurel, Greenwood, Humbolt, Mahoning, Kelly, Lynden, Maple, Mayflower and Siegel streets, and Longwood avenue. He was also largely instrumental in opening Prospect beyond Hudson, and sold nearly half of the land on Kinsman street, besides selling a large amount of land on Superior and St. Clair streets; also on the West Side, Madison avenue, Long street, Colgate street and Waverly avenue. He has sold in all 3000 lots in Cleveland.

Mr. Hoyt united with the Baptist church in Utica in 1835. Soon after coming to Cleveland he became connected with the First Baptist church Sunday school, and was its superintendent twenty-six years, when he resigned, and became teacher of a congregational Bible class, which labor of love he has performed for about three years, and still continues.

In 1854, he was licensed to preach the Gospel, by the church with which he was connected. He was never ordained, and never contemplated being, but simply desired to testify to Christian truth as a business man on the principle of "He that heareth, let him say come." For the past fifteen years he has labored in that capacity more or less in nearly all the Protestant denominations in the city and elsewhere.

In 1854, he was elected President of the Ohio Baptist State Convention, and has been re-elected annually ever since, and has held anniversaries in nearly every city of the State. In 1866, he was elected president of the American Baptist Home Mission Society, being the national organization for missions for North America, has been re-elected annually, and still holds the office. Through all this time Mr. Hoyt has made many public addresses, and given lectures on both secular and religious subjects, in addition to publishing a number of articles, reviews and other literary work.

He was married in 1836 to Miss Mary Ella Beebe, in the city of New York. Of this marriage have been born six children, five of whom are living. The oldest daughter, Mary Ella, died in 1854, aged fourteen. The oldest son, Wayland, is in the Baptist ministry, and is now pastor of the Strong Place Baptist church, Brooklyn, N. Y. The second son, Colgate, is now clerk and assistant in his father's business. The daughter, Lydia, is the wife of Mr. E. J. Farmer, banker of this city.

We do not think it is exaggeration to say, that not a man in the city has more entwined himself with the affection of the people than Mr. Hoyt. For many years he has had the power to do untold evil to the poor, and to do it with a show of justice and legality, but this power was never exercised. Of the thousands of lots sold by him, a very large proportion have been for homesteads for the poor, hundreds of whom became involved through sickness, or other misfortunes, and were not able to make payments when due; many men died and left encumbered homes for widows to struggle on with, but they never lacked a friend in James M. Hoyt. Other creditors would sometimes crowd such persons, but to the extent of his ability he always kept them at bay, and if the load was in any case too heavy, would sell for the embarrassed owners, and give them the benefit of the rise in property. Time and again have we heard such things from the grateful poor.

He is liberal with his means, contributing freely for religious and charitable purposes. In politics he has ever sided with the party of progress, and, although not a politician, has added his means and exertions to the cause whenever necessary. During the war against the rebellion he was an energetic supporter of the Government, and rendered valuable aid to the cause of loyalty by his money and influence.

Mr. Hoyt, since his retirement from the legal profession, has devoted much time to those liberal studies which are too apt to be neglected amid the engrossing engagements of the Bar. He is a ripe scholar in English history, and especially in the period between the Revolution of 1688 and the accession of the House of Hanover. With an eminently practical turn of mind, he is not disinclined to meta-physical investigations, and we well remember the enthusiasm and keen zest with which he passed many winter evenings at the house of a friend in reading, analyzing, and applying the canons of criticism to Burke's Essay on the Sublime and Beautiful. His article on Miracles, published in the October number, 1863, of the Christian Review, contains one of the most searching examinations of Hume's doctrines extant. It presents a vexed subject in a new and striking light, and offers an unanswerable argument to the sophistries of the great skeptic. The article has been widely circulated and much admired for its logical acumen, and its striking simplification of an apparently complex subject. With the faculty, in a large degree, of presenting abstract truth in a form plain, attractive and intelligible to the common understanding, it is to be hoped that Mr. Hoyt will continue to contribute to the higher departments of our periodical literature, and thus by his studies and his pen add to his present usefulness in his daily avocation, for we seldom find one blessed with such a versatility of talent. He is methodical in everything, and thorough in everything. In short, he is a good lawyer, a good preacher, a good citizen, a good business man, a good father, a good neighbor, and a true friend. He is now only fifty-four years of age, both mentally and physically vigorous, and we sincerely hope his life of usefulness may be extended many years.

Franklin T. Backus.

Franklin T. Backus, was born in Lee, Berkshire county, Massachusetts, May 6th, 1813. He was the son of Thomas and Rebecca Backus. While Franklin T. was very young, his father removed to Lansing, New York, where he shortly died, leaving a large family of young children to the care of his surviving widow, with limited means for their support and education. In consequence of this, the subject of this sketch was early in life inured to hardy exercise upon a farm, to which, in after life, he has attributed his strong constitution, and ability to endure confinement, and the severest mental toil incident to an extensive legal practice.

It would be inappropriate in a brief sketch, to refer to and narrate incidents of boyhood days, and they are therefore passed over. Mr. Backus, while in early youth, became possessed of an unconquerable desire for knowledge, and while laboring with his hands, his mind was busy determining how he should secure the advantages of education. No superficial acquirements could satisfy him. Added to native talents, of a high order, were thoroughness and perseverance in everything which he resolved to undertake, and these traits applied particularly to him as a student. After resolving to obtain a thorough classical education, he set about it in earnest, and in an unusually short period of time, prepared himself, and on examination, entered the junior class of Yale College in 1834. Though the only time actually spent in college was during his junior and senior years, yet his standing was very high, and he graduated at Yale in 1836, occupying a position of one of the best mathematicians in his class. Soon after, he was tendered the position of assistant professor, or instructor in that venerable institution, an honor accorded to but few in so short a time after graduation.

On leaving Yale, Mr. Backus settled in Cleveland, Ohio, where he established a classical school, which at once became very popular and successful, and shortly afterwards commenced the study of law with Messrs. Bolton & Kelly, who were among the leading members of the Cuyahoga county Bar.

In August, 1839, he was admitted to the practice of law at Cleveland, the Supreme Court then being in session there, and entered at once upon the practice of his profession, in which, from the beginning, he took a high position. He was also an active politician, and as a member of the Whig party, participated largely in its active operations in the State, as well as in his own district, and was frequently a recipient of its honors.

In 1841, he was elected to the office of prosecuting attorney of Cuyahoga county, having been nominated to that office in a contest in which several who were older and more experienced in the profession than he, were candidates. His administration of the office was in the highest degree able and successful, and so met the approval of the public, that he was renominated by his party and elected for the second term of two years.

In January, 1842, Mr. Backus was married to Miss Lucy Mygatt, daughter of George Mygatt, Esq., then of Painesville, now of Cleveland. The choice was a most suitable and wise one, and Mrs. Backus still lives, the light and joy of their home.

In 1846, Mr. Backus was elected as a member of the House of Representatives in the Ohio Legislature, and continued there only one term, refusing a renomination. In 1848, he was elected to the Senate of Ohio, in which he took a commanding position, and was widely talked of among his friends in various parts of the State as a suitable candidate for the United States Senate, as well as for the House of Representatives in Congress.

From the breaking out of the Rebellion to its close, he was as strenuous an advocate as any one could be, of putting down the Rebellion at any hazard of blood and treasure, but differed widely as to some of the measures and policy adopted by the Government, and consequently, did not, at, or about the close of the war, act with the Republican party, nor has he since; and though not an active politician, he is now generally recognized as a member of the Democratic party.

In 1840, Mr. Backus associated himself in the legal practice with J. P. Bishop, Esq., with whom he continued for fifteen years. Mr. Bishop was afterwards chosen one of the judges of the Court of Common Pleas of the Cleveland district. Afterwards, for several years, he was associated with that able jurist, Judge R. P. Ranney, and now, for some years, he has been associated with E. J. Estep, Esq., in his profession.

That he stood high in his profession in the State as well as in Cleveland, is shown by the fact that he was nominated, by the Whig party, as candidate for Supreme Judge of Ohio, and afterwards by the Republican party for the same office, but failed of an election because the party nominating him was unsuccessful each of those years in Ohio.

Mr. Backus' life for the last twenty years has been almost exclusively devoted to his profession. When the railroads were projected which made Cleveland one of their terminations he embarked in the enterprise of their location and construction, and was early retained as their attorney and counsel, and has been acting as such to the present time. The Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad, from the beginning, so far as legal services have been required, has been under his special supervision. His knowledge of the department of law appertaining to corporations, and his ability as a corporation lawyer, it is believed, is not surpassed. The same may be said of him as a land lawyer, especially in regard to all questions arising in the northern part of this State. In short, Mr. Backus has had a very wide and varied experience in almost every branch of legal practice, and in every case in which he has suffered himself to be retained, he has made it a principle to be thorough and accurate, and to possess himself of a full knowledge of his case in all its aspects.

As a summary as to Mr. Backus as a lawyer, it is the opinion of those best acquainted with him and his professional ability, acquirements and experience, that, as a whole, he is unsurpassed by any in the State.

In nearly all the great enterprises of the city his advice and co-operation have been sought, and where legal advice and aid have been required, his services have often been called into requisition by the city. He not only has occupied the position professionally, before spoken of, but has, and does, still occupy high positions of trust, both for the city and individuals, and in such matters it may be safely said, there are few men living in whom more implicit confidence is reposed.

The extent of his varied legal practice can only be judged of in part, by his appearance in court. His business out of court has constituted by far the largest and most important part of his practice, and has always been done with a view to saving his client from litigation in future, so far as possible, and this he has accomplished.

In pecuniary matters Mr. Backus has been successful, not only as the fruits of arduous professional labors, but in other respects.

Mr. Backus is a very benevolent and liberal man, also, but his generosity is not in the beaten track. It is bestowed unseen and unknown by the public, and his own judgment selects the object of his bounty. His friendship when once bestowed is undying and changes not with time or circumstances so long as the person on whom it is bestowed proves worthy of his confidence.

[Illustration: Yours truly, J. P. Bishop]

Jesse P. Bishop.

Judge Bishop was born in New Haven, Vermont, June 1, 1815, and was taken with his father's family to St. Lawrence county, New York, whilst yet a child. His father died when he was but nine years old, and his mother returned to Vermont, taking her children with her. As soon as he was of age to be serviceable, he was apprenticed to a farmer until his fourteenth year, at the expiration of which time he resided with an uncle until his seventeenth year, when he left farm work in order to acquire an education. He studied hard for four or five years, partly maintaining himself by teaching school, and at length had prepared himself for a collegiate course.

In 1836, he came to Cleveland, and after an experience in a counting-room one season, he concluded that he was better adapted for a literary life. Accordingly he entered Western Reserve College, and on examination was admitted to the senior class.

In 1838, he began the study of law with Hon. Rufus P. Spalding, afterwards with Andrews, Foote & Hoyt, and subsequently with Varnum J. Card, and was admitted to practice August, 1839, when he immediately entered into partnership with Mr. Card, who, however, died about one year later, and Mr. Bishop formed a partnership with F. T. Backus. This business connection continued fifteen years.

In 1856, Mr. Bishop was elected to the Common Pleas Judgeship of this county and district, and served with great satisfaction both to members of the profession and to the public. His decisions were characterized by a painstaking research, and an exhaustless consideration of the principles of law involved, indicating a clear, accurate and discriminating mind. It is believed that very few of his decisions were ever reversed by a higher court, which is of itself sufficient testimony to his ability and industry. At the end of his term he declined being a candidate, and at once resumed the practice of law. In this he still continues, having associated with him Seymour F. Adams, recently of the Lewis county Bar, New York.

Mr. Bishop's life has been one of constant application to business, having no idle time, and scarcely any leisure moments. With him a decision is not reached by intuition, but by careful study, but when he takes hold of a subject he studies it thoroughly to its conclusion, and is master of all its points. Although Mr. Bishop has never been what may be termed physically robust, he possesses great power of prolonged mental application. And being also endowed with a most remarkably retentive memory, his mind is stored with a very comprehensive knowledge of law. And if there be one faculty of his mind more than another, that gives character to the man, it is his prodigious memory of facts. In a case that recently came under our notice, Judge Bishop gave evidence pertaining to a matter that occurred some twenty years since, with apparently as much precision as if the events occurred but yesterday.

In social and religions circles Judge Bishop ranks high. He is agreeable in private life, and thoroughly conscientious in moral and religious matters. He has long been a valued and honored member of the Baptist denomination. By his uprightness of character, courtesy of demeanor, and general good qualities, he has won the respect and esteem of a very large circle.

Henry H. Dodge.

Amongst the very earliest settlers in Cleveland, was Samuel Dodge, the father of the subject of this notice, who emigrated from Westmoreland, New Hampshire, to this place, in 1797, being then about 21 years of age. On arriving at Cleveland he built a log shanty, and remained about one year, when he went to Detroit, and remained about the same length of time, and returned to Cleveland, which he considered his home. Here and in the adjoining township he resided to the day of his death, which occurred October 3d, 1854, aged 78 years. About seven years after coming to Cleveland he married a Miss Nancy Doan, of Connecticut, who died in Cleveland, December 19th, 1863, leaving two sons, George C. and Henry H.

It is said that Samuel Dodge built the first frame building in this city, about the year 1800, and which was a barn for Governor Samuel Huntington, at that time living at Painesville. His proper business was that of a wheelwright, but adapted himself to all kinds of wood-work in the new country. During the war of 1812, he took a contract of Major Jessup, the commander at this point, for building a large number of boats for the Government, both here and at Erie.

[Illustration: Respectfully Yours, Henry H Dodge]

Henry H. was born August 19th, 1810, and enjoyed what educational advantages Cleveland afforded, finishing his education under Hon. Harvey Rice. At the age of twenty he commenced the study of law with Hon. John W. Willey. In 1835, he married Miss Mary Ann Willey, a niece of Mr. Willey, of which marriage seven children were born. Mrs. Dodge died February 4, 1867.

Mr. Dodge was admitted to the Bar at the same time with H. V. Willson and H. B. Payne, in 1834. He at once entered into partnership with Mr. Willey, and continued with him until the latter was elected to the president judgeship of the Court of Common Pleas, in 1840. Mr. Dodge then withdrew from the practice of law to devote his whole attention to the duties of a disbursing agent of the United States, for public works, to which he had been appointed two years previously. He held that position until 1841. He was also commissioner of insolvents during 1837 and 1838.

In 1850, he was appointed State engineer, having charge of public works, and retained the position until 1855. On the organization of the United States District Court for Northern Ohio, he was appointed United States Commissioner, and held that office for three years. In 1859, he was again appointed State engineer, and continued as such until 1862, since which time he has devoted himself wholly to his real estate interests, opening up new streets, building tenement houses, and materially aiding in the growth and beauty of the eastern portion of the city. As early as 1837, he built the large brick block on the corner of Ontario and Prospect streets, formerly known as the Farmers' Block, which was, at that time, one of the largest in the city.

Mr. Dodge, through all his offices of trust as well as private business, has maintained a character for integrity and honor. He is unassuming and affable, and well calculated to enjoy the handsome competency accruing from the rise of his early real estate purchases, and being of a remarkably kind and benevolent disposition, one of his chief pleasures arises from the consciousness of doing good, by assisting those who are in need, to the extent of his ability. During the war he was most active in the country's cause, and spent his time and means freely in furnishing substitutes and rendering comfort to the families of our brave defenders, and we think, more than anything else, this desire to promote the prosperity and happiness of mankind, gives character to him.

Mr. Dodge has resided on Euclid avenue over thirty years, having built the residence now owned by General Oviatt, adjoining the present residence of Mr. D. P. Eells, in 1838, the site at that time being outside the city limits. After a few years he sold this to Thomas Bolton, and in 1840, built a brick cottage opposite Brownell street, which he occupied about fifteen years, when it gave place to the present edifice, the land having been in the family since the year 1800.

James M. Coffinberry.

Judge Coffinberry is a native of Mansfield, Ohio, having been born in that town in 1818. He studied law with his father, Andrew Coffinberry, Esq., then located at Perrysburg, in the western part of the State, and upon his admission to the Bar in 1841, opened a law office in connection with his father in Maumee City. He very early obtained the public confidence, being appreciated for his high personal and professional integrity, and giving evidence of fine abilities as a lawyer and advocate, he was elected and served as prosecuting attorney for Lucas county for several years. About the year 1845, he removed to Hancock county, and purchased and edited the Findlay Herald, a Whig paper of that day, and for about ten years practiced his profession with credit and success in the large circuit of Hancock, Allen, Putnam, Van Wert, and Wood counties.

In 1855, he removed to Cleveland, where he entered very readily into a good practice, and for six years confirmed the good reputation which he brought with him, and took high rank at a Bar which numbers among its members sortie of the best lawyers in the State.

In 1861, he was elected judge of the Court of Common Pleas, and performed the duties of the office for his full term of five years, with credit to himself and to the eminent satisfaction of the public, and an appreciative Bar. The kind and genial traits are characteristics of Judge Coffinberry's mind, and his quiet manners upon the Bench made it always agreeable for both lawyers and suitors doing business in his court. His charges to the jury were always plain, clear, and forcible, and in the course of his judicial service, he delivered some very able opinions, verbal and written, which elicited the favorable consideration of the profession, and it is understood that no judicial opinion pronounced by him has ever been reversed on review of a higher court. The charge to the jury on the trial of Dr. John W. Hughes, for the murder of Tamzen Parsons, of Bedford, which took place in December, 1865, was acknowledged by the Cleveland Bar to be one of the ablest ever delivered from the Cuyahoga Bench.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, J. M. Coffinberry]

Judge Coffinberry is remarkable for an apparently intuitive perception of legal truth, which gives to his argument at the Bar, and as a lawyer and judge, to his opinions, a tone of originality. He has a fine appreciation of the learning of the profession, but though not, strictly speaking, technical in his administration of the law, he is never unmindful of its nicest distinctions, but makes them subservient to his broad and liberal views of the case. He has now returned to the practice of his profession, and is regarded as among the best advocates of the Cleveland Bar.

While Mr. Coffinberry has won distinction as a lawyer, the following record will show that he is amongst our most enterprising and energetic business men, outside of his profession: He is president of the Midas Insurance Company; a director in the Willow Bank Coal Company; a director of the Tuscarawas Iron and Coal Company; was one of the projectors of the People's Gas and Coke Company, of the West Side; has been a director of the Mahoning Railroad Company; director and attorney for the Fremont and Indiana Railroad Company; took an active interest in the construction of the West Side street railroad, and also the Rocky River Railroad; he was a member of the City Council for two years, and president of that body.

In politics, he was formerly a Whig, but now acts with the Democrats. He was principal Secretary of the Great Union Convention that nominated the late David Tod for Governor.

Judge Coffinberry has been successful in almost every undertaking, and has richly deserved it.

James Mason.

No member of the Cleveland legal fraternity stands higher in the respect of his colleagues and the general public, both for legal abilities and personal qualities, than James Mason. As a lawyer he stands in the front rank of the profession, his extensive reading, well balanced judgment, and logical reasoning, making him one of the most reliable counsellors and successful practitioners, whether before a court or a jury, whilst no more valuable or respected citizen is found among the list of residents of Cleveland.

Mr. Mason was born in the Autumn of 1816, in Canton, Ohio, of Vermont stock, his parents having early emigrated to this State. He was carefully educated at a good school in Trumbull county, and spent two years in Western Reserve College. In 1835, he entered the senior class in Jefferson College and graduated with the class of 1836.

On leaving College he studied law with Hon. A. W. Loomis, in New Lisbon, Ohio, and was admitted to the Bar in 1839, when he practiced in partnership with his preceptor until 1845. With the close of this partnership he went abroad and spent some time in foreign travel, returning in 1851, when he removed to Cleveland and opened a law office. His abilities and assiduous attention to business soon brought him a large and remunerative practice. Among other business he became the legal adviser of the Cleveland & Toledo Railroad Company, and also one of its directors. The value of his connection with the company was speedily recognized and acknowledged. Business of the highest class came to him until he has come to find his time fully occupied by the best class of practice.

The duties of his profession, though laborious, are not allowed to engross the whole of his time to the exclusion of domestic pleasures and social enjoyments. The general culture of Mr. Mason's mind, in addition to his legal attainments, and his affable manner, make him an agreeable companion for social intercourse, and together with his sterling qualities as a man, and his patriotism as a citizen, have won for him a host of friends warmly attached to him, and loyally resolved to do him honor.

Mr. Mason was married in 1853, to Miss Caroline Robinson, of Willoughby. Of this marriage there are five children.

Daniel R. Tilden.

The name of Daniel R. Tilden has long been familiar in Cleveland and its vicinity. For fifteen years he has held the office of Probate Judge of Cuyahoga county, and from the nature of his office, has been brought into connection with a large proportion of the citizens, and become intimately acquainted with their personal and family affairs. Many of these business acquaintances became warm personal friends, and it is believed that neither by his official, nor by his private life, has Judge Tilden made one real enemy.

Mr. Tilden was born in Lebanon, Connecticut, November 5th, 1806, He received a fair common school education, and on reaching his eighteenth year, left his native State for the South, residing four years in North Carolina and Virginia. But the South was not a congenial soil for the son of the genuine Yankee State, so he turned his steps westward, and set out for Ohio. At Garrettsville, Portage county, he halted awhile, and then went to study law with Mr. Pierson, at Ravenna. To complete his legal education, he entered the office of R. P. Spalding, and studied with him for some time.

In 1831, a movement was on foot to agitate the question of abolishing slavery. The movement was exceedingly unpopular, and it required considerable nerve to profess abolition sentiments. Now, when no other principle is avowed, it scarcely seems possible that men, now among us in the prime of life, had to endure obloquy, ridicule, and even danger, for expressing sentiments that no one now dreams of dissenting from. Among the first to espouse the abolition doctrines was Judge Tilden. With Robert F. Paine he commenced the work of organizing an Abolition Society in Garrettsville, the first of the kind in Portage county. In this work he labored with unwearied zeal, and became extensively known as one of the most prominent and active of anti-slavery leaders.

In 1832, Mr. Tilden was elected justice of the peace, and continued in that office four years; soon after the conclusion of the term, he formed a law partnership with Judge Spalding, at Ravenna. This arrangement continued about four years, when he formed a partnership with W. S. G. Otis, which lasted about three years, and was terminated by Judge Tilden becoming prosecuting attorney, an office he held four years.

In 1842, Judge Tilden was elected to Congress as a Whig, from the district composed of Summit, Portage, and Trumbull counties, and was in the House of Representatives during the exciting debates relative to the annexation of Texas and the Mexican war. He, with twelve others, took a bold stand against the war, making several speeches of very marked ability. He and his associates, among whom were Gov. Vance, Columbus Delano, and Joseph Root, refused to vote for the bill furnishing means to carry on the war, because of the preamble to the bill, which said: "Whereas, we are, by the act of Mexico, become engaged in war," &c., &c. This, Judge Tilden and his associates considered false, they would not vote for the bill until it was stricken out, and the names of these thirteen were sent throughout the country surrounded with a funeral border.

At the Baltimore Convention that nominated General Scott, Judge Tilden represented Lake and Summit counties; and at the Philadelphia Convention that nominated Taylor, he represented Summit, Trumbull, and Portage.

In 1852, Judge Tilden removed to Cleveland and formed a law partnership with Hon. H. B. Payne. Two years afterwards he was elected Probate Judge, of Cuyahoga county, and filled the position with such marked satisfaction to his constituents that he was re-elected at the close of every term, and still holds the office he has filled for fifteen consecutive years.

When practicing law, Judge Tilden was distinguished for his abilities as an advocate, and his qualifications for the judicial office he fills is attested by his repeated re-elections to it. His officiai conduct has been marked by uniform kindness, attention to the duties of his office, and the interests of those having business with it, and a constant endeavor to do right by all, whether rich or poor, learned or ignorant. If he has committed any errors--and no Judge, from the Supreme Court down, but must plead guilty to some--they have been errors of judgment only, and not of interest. No one can deny to Judge Tilden unimpeached honesty of purpose, warmth of heart, and an earnest endeavor to deal justly with all men.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, C. M. Palmer]

Charles W. Palmer.

Prominent among the young men of the profession who promise to take and worthily fill the places of the old leaders of the Cleveland Bar now partly superannuated and soon to retire from active life, is Charles W. Palmer.

Mr. Palmer was born in Norwich, New London county, Connecticut, September 8, 1826. Nine years after, his father, Joseph B. Palmer removed to Cleveland with his family, and was for a time engaged in the storage business on the river. He is now in the employ of the Cleveland & Pittsburgh Railroad Company. Charles had only the advantages of the common schools until he was sixteen, but before he reached that age he had manifested an industry at his books which promised well for his future. He taught school on "the ridge" West of Cleveland, walking out to the school house and back before and after school hours, and at the same time prosecuting his own studies. He prepared for College under Rev. S. B. Canfield and W. D. Beattie, of Cleveland, and when nearly eighteen was admitted to Western Reserve College at Hudson. He graduated in 1848, with the highest honors of his class. For two years after graduation he was principal of the High School in Akron, and the next year a tutor in Western Reserve College. Coming to Cleveland again after this, he studied law in the office of Judge Foote, and was admitted to the Bar in the Fall of 1853. In the Spring of the following year he made his first success in political life, being elected to the City Council. In the Spring of 1859, he was elected city attorney. The duties of this office he discharged satisfactorily to all, and found the practice it brought a material help in his profession. In the Fall of 1863, Mr. Palmer was elected prosecuting attorney for the county. Here he was brought very prominently into notice by the successful prosecution of several important cases.

In his profession, Mr. Palmer has been a constantly rising man, until now he is on one or the other side of most of the important cases in our courts. His reputation as a criminal lawyer is especially high. In 1865, he prosecuted the celebrated Hughes murder case successfully. Two years afterwards he defended McConnell, the murderer, and in 1868, defended Mrs. Victor, in one of the most remarkable poisoning cases ever brought into court. His argument in the latter case was a masterpiece of legal acumen, forcible exposition, and polished speech. Mr. Palmer began the practice of law in Cleveland in the firm of Palmer & Austin. Afterwards he was associated with R. B. Dennis, Esq., and at present he is senior in the firm of Palmer & De Wolf.

In July, 1819, Mr. Palmer married Miss Sabrina Parks, of Hudson, Ohio. This estimable lady died in little more than a year after the marriage, leaving a son but a few weeks old. The son still survives. In 1855, Mr. Palmer married Miss Minerva Stone, a sister of Mr. S. S. Stone, of Cleveland. This second wife died in childbed eleven months after marriage, and in 1858, Mr. Palmer married his present wife. She was Miss Lucy Hubbell, a daughter of Calvin Hubbell, Esq., of New York. By this marriage there is a son now about ten years old.

In politics, Mr. Palmer has been a member of the Republican party since its organization. He gave the war for the Union an earnest, active and powerful support. No man appreciated more thoroughly the principles involved in that contest, and few indeed have the power to present those principles so well as he. His party services have been numerous and efficient. A man of fine personal appearance, with a fair, open face, which carries with it the conviction of sincerity in all he says, possessed of a grace of manner which makes it a pleasure to hear him on any subject, and having such a command of language as to enable him to put his thoughts in the fittest words, he is of course a favorite speaker always. He has a conscientiousness in all he does, which never allows him to treat carelessly any matter, even in an unexpected public speech. There are few men in Cleveland who carry so much weight in speaking, whether it be before a court and jury, or to a general assembly of people. Taking an intelligent interest in all public affairs, he yet devotes himself studiously to his profession, in which he has as bright prospects as any man at his age need wish for.

William Collins.

William Collins was born at Lowville, New York, the county seat of Lewis county, February 22, 1818. He was a son of Ela Collins, who was a son of General Oliver Collins, of Oneida county, New York, and Maria Clinton, daughter of Rev. Isaac Clinton, of Lowville.

Mr. Collins read law with his father, and was admitted to practice in the courts of New York, at Rochester, in September, 1813. In October, 1843, he formed a copartnership with his father, under the firm name of E. & W. Collins. They continued in active and successful practice until the death of his father, in 1849. Immediately after Mr. Collins' admission to the Bar, he was elected, as the successor of his father, public prosecutor. This office he held until 1846, when he resigned, having been elected, by the Democratic party, in November, 1846, at the age of twenty-seven, a member of the House of Representatives, in the Thirtieth Congress. The district represented by him was composed of Lewis and St. Lawrence counties. He was in Congress in the years 1847-8-9, during the first agitation of the question of extending slavery to the free territories. Mr. Collins opposed the proposed extension with much zeal and ability. Among his speeches will be found one delivered July 28, 1848, on the "Bill to establish the territorial government of Oregon," advocating the Wilmot Proviso. Apart from its merit as a brilliant literary production, it contains many passages that will be read with much interest by the general reader, as showing the beginning of the end at which we have arrived. Slavery itself having now become a matter of history, we think it will be of interest to introduce the following extracts from the Congressional Globe of July, 1848:

I shall assume, then, sir, that the institution does not exist in our late Mexican acquisitions, but that it has been effectually prohibited. The real question, then, is shall the laws securing freedom in these Territories be abolished, and slavery established? This is indeed, sir, a question of the gravest magnitude. To millions of the oppressed and degraded children of Africa, it is an issue upon which depends all that is dear to them in life--all that is bitter in the hour of death. It seems to me, sir, that they are even now stretching forth their dark hands, and beseeching us, in the name of the God of liberty whom our fathers worshipped, to remove from them the poisoned cup of bondage--to forge for them no more chains. The termination of this question also involves the dearest interests of every person in this country who desires to sustain himself by honorable labor. It intimately concerns our national honor, reputation, and progress in the great family of nations. The two hundred and fifty thousand immigrants who annually land upon our shores are in pursuit of 'free soil and free labor.' Can we pronounce in favor of slavery, without danger to our experiment at self-government? If we thus decide, what will become of the cherished hopes of the friends of civilization, Christianity, and human progress?

Those who insist upon preserving freedom in the Territories, have no desire to disturb the institution of slavery in the States. The Constitution confers upon them no such authority. They could not interfere with it if they would, and they would not if they could. They have ever heretofore been, and still are, ready strictly to fulfil the constitutional provisions upon this subject.

I shall aim to discuss this question with a proper regard for the most sensitive feelings of our brethren of the slave States, but also, sir, with a plainness commensurate with its profound importance. The legislatures of thirteen of the States of the Union, including Delaware, which still has two thousand slaves, have passed resolutions instructing their Senators and requesting their Representatives in Congress to oppose any further extension of slavery. There is but one sentiment upon this subject throughout the free States--it is that of eternal and uncompromising hostility to the project. They will never consent that the free and virgin soil of the Territories shall be blighted and cursed by the tears of the slave, while they have a will to determine, or a muscle to resist.

The proposition to make this Government the instrument for planting slavery upon soil now free, is regarded by a few at the North as so improbable and monstrous, that they have refused to believe that it is seriously entertained. Startling as the proposal is, it is nevertheless true.

* * * * *

Another argument employed by these apologists is, that the 'Proviso,' or a law prohibiting slavery in these Territories, is unnecessary; that it is an abstraction--a 'firebrand' employed by demagogues and factionists to kindle strife in the Democratic party; that the Territories are now free, and that they will so continue, unless an act of Congress is passed establishing slavery. It is impossible to avoid asking ourselves why, if these gentlemen are sincere--if they truly believe that slavery can not and will not go there, and they do not desire that it should--why they so strenuously oppose the passage of such a prohibition? If their views are correct, then such a law would be a mere harmless superfluity. But, sir, this 'firebrand of freedom' is a thing more exalted and noble than a mere abstraction. It is wielded by men of strong arms, adamantine will, and hearts animated by the divine impulses of patriotism and liberty. They have registered a vow in Heaven to employ every lawful and constitutional means to roll back the dark tide of slavery from the temple of Freedom, and vindicate the character of the Republic from the disgrace and reproach of establishing slavery in a free territory. We are no abstractionists. The Representatives in this Congress from the fifteen slaveholding States of the Union, without an exception, and without distinction of party, avow an intention to carry their slaves into these Territories, and there hold them in bondage. They assert, with passionate vehemence, that they have such a constitutional right. They have even told us, sir, that, regardless of the remonstrances of the people of the North--heedless of any prohibitory law of Congress upon the subject, they would invade the free soil of the Pacific, and take with them their slaves, and weapons of defence! Are these declarations abstractions? Do they make no appeal for immediate, energetic and prohibitory legislation?

[Illustration: W. Collins]

When driven from every other argument, gentlemen of the South threaten, that if the 'Proviso' or a law prohibiting slavery in free territory, is passed, they will dissolve the Union. At the North, the dissolution of the Union is not regarded as among possible events. Its value is never calculated. It has been cemented by too many common and glorious sacrifices and struggles; it is protected by too many pious invocations of its magnanimous founders, to be easily severed. The cause by which these fraternal bonds are sundered must be other than a refusal on the part of the free States to allow the Government to establish slavery in free territory. A submission to the will of the majority is a fundamental principle of our institutions. If the North are overborne in this contest, they must and will submit. If the demands of the South are denied by the decision of the majority, a like cheerful and ready acquiesence is expected. Until, however, the majority have decided, no legal and constitutional efforts to exclude slavery from these Territories will be abated by passionate threats against the peace and perpetuity of the Union. The Union would never have been formed had the present demand of the slave States been made and insisted upon. A proposition in the Constitutional Convention to make the Government a propagandist of slavery in free territory, would have been indignantly rejected.

Whilst we stand here, upon the floor of the American Congress, at the noon of the nineteenth century, gravely discussing whether or not we will extend and perpetuate slavery, the monarchical governments of Europe are striking off shackles and 'letting the oppressed go free.' Slavery has been abolished by the French colonies. Portugal, Spain, and Russia, are moving in the work of emancipation. Within a few years England has given liberty to eight hundred thousand slaves. She has expended, within the last forty years, one hundred millions of dollars in suppressing the slave trade. Is it reserved for the Government of 'free, happy America,' in the midst of examples like these, to be fastening corroding chains upon human beings? Sooner than be involved in such stupendous guilt, let our name and existence perish among the nations.

On the part of the North no 'compromises' can be made. But one answer--a stern, unyielding NO--will be given to all such proposals. We have made all the concessions that we can make, or ought to make. If a law under the name of a 'compromise' is passed, planting slavery upon a single square mile of free territory, it will have no rest. REPEAL! will be shouted from the mountain tops of the North, and reverberated in thunder tones through the valleys. The preservation of 'free soil for free men,' will alone be satisfactory. For this purpose, the passage of an act of Congress prohibiting slavery in free territory, will be unceasingly urged, until the great measure is consummated.

During this Congress, although the anti-slavery-extension men were in a minority in both branches, all compromise bills were defeated, and their defeat was due in a good degree to the industrious and vigilant efforts of Mr. Collins, and a few associates in the House.

Mr. Collins was tendered a renomination to the thirty-first Congress, but having determined to remove to the West, he declined, and Preston King was elected in his stead. He continued, with much success, the business of the late firm of E. & W. Collins, until December, 1853, when he removed to Cleveland and opened a law office. He was soon elected a director of the Merchants Bank of Cleveland, and of the Lake Shore Railway Company. Subsequently he became a director in the Bellefontaine Railway Company; the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati and Indianapolis Railway Company; the Jamestown and Franklin Railway Company, of Pennsylvania; the East Cleveland Street Railroad Company; the Mercer Iron and Coal Company, of Pennsylvania, and the Merchants National Bank, of Cleveland, the active duties of which positions have absorbed very much of his attention and time. He has occasionally appeared in the courts here in litigated cases, but has mainly confined his professional work to his office. Mr. Collins had a high standing as a lawyer in New York, and has fully sustained his early reputation here. He is most remarkable for an admirably fair and clear way of stating and arguing to the court and jury, the questions both of law and fact. This contributed greatly to his success, not only as a forensic advocate, but as a political orator, and legislative debater.

The sympathies of Mr. Collins having always been on the side of freedom, he joined the Republican party on its organization, and has remained faithful to its principles. When the Rebellion broke out he threw himself heartily into the cause of the Union, and contributed freely with money and labor in every available way for the furtherance of the Union cause. He served on the local military and other committees, working faithfully and energetically, and contributing largely to the excellent record Cleveland and the county made during the war, by repeatedly and promptly filling the quota of troops required, and by liberal contributions in aid of the sick and wounded soldiers. Whenever an effort was needed, the voice of Mr. Collins was heard exhorting the people earnestly to energetic action and liberal contributions, and his exhortations were promptly and efficiently seconded by his own example. With him precept and practice went together.

Such men as Mr. Collins would do the people valuable service were they chosen to fill responsible places in the legislative councils and executive departments of the State and Nation. But in these days something more than--or it may too often be said--something different from abilities of the description possessed by Mr. Collins, seems to be required to secure the favor of the people, or rather of the political managers. He is of too ingenuous a nature to yield to the intrigues and servility, too often, now-a-days, demanded of political candidates by the managers.

On November 20th, 1816, Mr. Collins was married at Columbus, to Jane, second daughter of the late Alfred Kelly--the two families having been early neighbors and friends in New York. Two children of this marriage survive, Frederick and Walter, the former seventeen years of age at the present time, and the latter fourteen.

Rufus Percival Ranney.

Rufus P. Ranney, one of the most profound jurists this country has produced, was born at Blandford, Massachusetts, October 30, 1813. His father, Rufus Ranney, was an honest, industrious farmer, of Scotch descent. His mother, whose maiden name was Dottie D. Blair, came from revolutionary stock.

About the year 1822, Rufus Ranney removed with his family to Ohio. After a short stay at Fairport, Lake county, they finally located at Freedom, Portage county, where they made a permanent settlement upon a farm. It was there that Rufus P. Ranney spent the years of his early manhood, and there his parents lived until their decease. Judge Ranney's father was highly respected in the neighborhood where he lived, and, though in humble circumstances, did all within his power for the education of his children, training them in the pathway of honesty and integrity--traits of character which have marked the public and private career of his distinguished son. His mother, an amiable woman who had received a good education, was very attentive to her children, and her son, Rufus P. doubtless owes much of whatever he has been in life to her early teachings.

Until he became of age, Rufus P. Ranney was engaged upon his father's farm, obtaining, during the winter season, a few weeks education at such schools as a country village then afforded. He attended the college at Hudson for a season, but circumstances prevented his remaining long enough to graduate with his class.

In the year 1835, having determined to make a start in life for himself, he left his home and traveled on foot to Jefferson, Ashtabula county. In a speech made by him at Ashtabula in September, 1868, he referred to the time of his arrival at Jefferson, his worldly goods consisting of the clothing upon his person, and one extra shirt, which he carried in the top of his hat.

Entering the office of Benjamin F. Wade, he applied himself with diligence to the study of the law, and after a clerkship of one year was admitted to the Bar. Soon afterward he entered into partnership with his preceptor. The firm of Wade & Ranney was a powerful one, and "ruled the circuit" of North Eastern Ohio. For several years it enjoyed an extensive practice. The firm was dissolved upon the removal of Judge Ranney to Warren, (1844,) and Mr. Wade was soon afterward chosen President Judge of the Third Judicial District, from which position he was transferred to the Senate of the United States.

In 1846, and again in 1848, Judge Ranney was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress. In the Trumbull district the Whig party was largely in the majority, and though Judge Ranney was defeated, he ran considerably ahead of the general ticket, reducing the Whig majority to hundreds, when before, that party had triumphed by thousands.

The people having determined that a convention be held to form a new constitution, Judge Ranney was chosen to represent the counties of Trumbull and Geauga. The convention was held in 1850. It was composed of the first men of the State; both parties seem to have vied with each other in sending their ablest representatives. There were William Medill, its President, who afterwards became Governor of the State; the venerable Ex-Governor Vance; Henry Stanbery, late Attorney General of the United States; Peter Hitchcock, for thirty years a judge of the Supreme Court; Benjamin Stanton, long a member of Congress; Judges Joseph E. Swan, Sherlock J. Andrews, Simeon Nash and William Kennon; Charles Reemelin, D. P. Leadbetter, William Sawyer, and others not less prominent in the Judicial and political annals of Ohio.

In that convention, Rufus P. Ranney greatly distinguished himself. Although but thirty-six years of age he commanded the respect and admiration of all its members, and won for himself a high reputation as a sound lawyer and ready debater. No one was more looked to for advice, and none more generally correct in giving it. He was, in fact, a leader, whose council, in almost every instance, was acceded to by the convention. All the propositions which he introduced were for the welfare and benefit of the people. In the official report of the debates will be found his views upon nearly or quite all of the questions which agitated the convention. He was the champion of the people against monopolies, and many of the most important provisions in the constitution are the work of his hand.

The course which he pursued met the hearty approval of the people and made his name prominent throughout the State. In response to the wishes of the members of the legal profession, and the general desire of the public, he was, by the legislature of 1851, chosen one of the judges of the Supreme Court. When the new constitution went into effect, he was elected to the same position by a large majority.

Judge Ranney occupied a place upon the Supreme Bench until 1856, when he resigned on account of ill health. That year he was a member of the Cincinnati National Convention, which nominated James Buchanan for President.

In March, 1857, Judge Ranney, unsolicited on his part, received from President Buchanan the appointment of United States Attorney for the Northern District of Ohio. This position he held until July, when he resigned. He then removed to Cleveland, where he resumed the practice of his profession, as a member of the firm of Ranney, Backus & Noble.

In 1859, Governor Chase tendered him the appointment of commissioner to examine and report upon the condition of the State Treasury, this being soon after the Gibson-Breslin defalcation, by which the State lost several hundred thousand dollars. Judge Ranney declined this appointment. The same year he was unanimously nominated by the Democratic State convention as the candidate of that party for Governor--his opponent on the Republican ticket being the Hon. William Dennison, of Franklin county, late Post-Master General of the United States. After a most gallant canvass, Judge Ranney failed of an election, though he ran ahead of the other candidates on the ticket in all parts of the State.

In 1862, against his personal wishes, he was nominated by the Democracy for Judge of the Supreme Court. He consented to be a candidate only after the convention had positively refused to accept his declination. The Republican nominee was his law partner, the Hon. Franklin T. Backus, one of the most prominent members of the Cuyahoga Bar. The result was the election of Judge Ranney by a decided majority, and although party lines were closely drawn, he again ran ahead of his ticket several thousand votes.

He held the position of judge of the Supreme Court until 1864, when he resigned. Some months afterwards he resumed the practice of his profession in connection with his son-in-law, Mr. T. Kelley Bolton.

During the same year, (1864) he was chosen one of the delegates at large to the Democratic National Convention, which nominated George B. McClellan for President, and was selected by the Ohio delegation as the member from Ohio of the Democratic National Committee, holding that position until 1868. In the late Presidential campaign, his name headed the Democratic electoral ticket. This closes his public record. It is an interesting one, and though briefly given, exhibits this fact, viz.: the confidence and regard in which he has ever been held by the Democracy of Ohio. Year after year his voice has been heard throughout the State in defence of the Constitution and laws, and the honors which his party have bestowed upon him, are but a merited tribute to his energy, ability, and integrity of character.

As a lawyer, Judge Ranney has ever held the front rank in his profession. His practice has been extensive and important; probably no attorney in the State has, during the past ten years, been retained in as many cases. Possessed of a strong, discriminating mind, capable of enduring long continued mental labor, he unites with activity and energy a determined spirit, which enables him to overcome obstacles which would appal most men.

Judge Ranney is as logical as eloquent, and when his great reasoning powers are brought into full sway, formidable must be the opponent to overcome him. His arguments in court are peculiarly appropriate, clear, calm, and strong; without wordy declamation, vehement gesture, or passionate appeal; he seldom fails to carry his point, even when the odds seem overwhelmingly against him.

Judge Ranney has a mind richly stored with not only the treasures of his profession, but of ancient and modern classics, and the best literature of the day. He is a great reader, and though he writes but little, whatever proceeds from his pen is marked by elegance and culture.

As a Judge, he was courteous, affable and indulgent. His decisions are his best monuments. They exhibit profound learning, sound judgment and extensive research. No judge was more popular upon the Bench. Dignified and benevolent, he enjoyed in an eminent degree the confidence of the Bar and the public. He had the constant respect of those who differed from him in opinion, and when he resigned his seat upon the Bench, the best men of all parties expressed regret at his retirement from a position which he had so much adorned. Pre-eminent in legal knowledge, Rufus P. Ranney has reflected honor upon the judiciary of our country, and is one of the ablest of the many learned men who have graced the Supreme Bench of our State with their presence.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, C. T. Sherman]

Charles Taylor Sherman.

The Sherman family was among the earliest settlers in Massachusetts and Connecticut. They and their descendants were men of note in their respective Colonies, of strong, practical minds, pure and lofty in moral tone and character.

They were early actors in the settlement and development of Ohio. Taylor Sherman, the grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was a judge of one of the Superior Courts of Connecticut, and was one of the trustees of the Fire Land Company, to whom was granted, by the State of Connecticut, the lands now comprised by the counties of Huron and Erie, in Ohio. As early as 1800, he was in Ohio, and also in subsequent years, attending to the surveying and allotting the lands to the owners, who suffered from fire in the excursions of Arnold and Tryon, in Connecticut, in the Revolutionary war.

His son, Charles R. Sherman, and father of Charles T. Sherman, emigrated to Ohio in 1810, and settled in Lancaster, Fairfield county, Ohio. He early became distinguished at the Bar, among the strong and able lawyers then practicing in Central Ohio. In 1824, he was elected one of the judges of the Supreme Court of Ohio, and died in 1830, whilst in the performance of his duties.

Charles T. Sherman, of whose life these notes are made, was born in Lancaster, February 3, 1813, and is Ohio born and reared. He was educated and graduated at the Ohio University, in Athens, Ohio, in 1832, and admitted to the Bar in 1835. He settled in Mansfield, Richland county, and continued in the practice of his profession until he was appointed judge of the United States Court for the Northern District of Ohio, in Mardi, 1867.

He never sought to obtain any public office, but rather carefully avoided it. He always esteemed it fortunate that he resided in a county and section in which the majority was opposed to him in political sentiments. He however took a leading part in developing and forwarding public improvements in his county. He contributed liberally by his labors and influence in locating and constructing through his county the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad, and the Mansfield & Sandusky Railroad. For many years he was a director in both roads, and general soliciter of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad, and a leading spirit in its management.

He was also appointed by Mr. Lincoln to serve four years as one of the Government Directors of the Pacific Railroad, and largely contributed to its success in its early days.

The Bar of Richland county always ranked among the first in Northern Ohio. Among the oldest members who were in full practice when Judge Sherman went there, were Jacob Parker, afterwards Judge of the Common Pleas, Andrew Coffinberry, one of the most genial and kind hearted men, and, withal, an excellent lawyer, John M. May, who commenced the practice of the law in 1815, and is still living, and James Purdy, Orris Parrish of Columbus, William Stanbery, of Newark, Hosmer and Henry B. Curtis, of Mt. Vernon, and Edward Avery, of Wooster, afterwards Judge of the Supreme Court, all practiced in that county. In later days and cotemporaneous with Judge Sherman, were Thomas W. Bartley, Jacob Brinkerhoof, and Josiah Scott, all of whom occupied the Bench of the Supreme Court of Ohio, James Stewart, Judge of the Common Pleas, S. J. Kirkwood, afterwards Governor of Iowa, and U. S. Senator from that State, together with R. G. Hurd and Columbus Delano, of Mt. Vernon, and C. L. Boalt and J. M. Root, of Norwalk.

Judge Sherman ranked with those later and younger members of the Bar, and enjoyed a practice equal to any, and more lucrative probably, than any of them. He was quiet and unostentatious in his profession, and, seemingly, only sought to do his whole duty to his clients and obtain the good will of his fellow citizens.

A short time after the breaking out of the rebellion, he was appointed Provost Marshal of some twenty counties in Northern Ohio, by the War Department, and organized four regiments that went into the service, and subsequently served on a commission to settle and adjust claims on the Government arising in the West.

Upon his appointment to the Bench he resigned his position on the Railroads, with the intention of devoting his whole time to the duties of his judicial office. For more than two years he has presided with entire satisfaction to the public and the members of the Cleveland Bar, proving himself to be a strong, capable, common-sense, business judge; and by his habitual courteous demeanor has made a host of legal and other friends during his short residence in this city.

[Illustration: Very Respectfully, R. P. Spalding]

Rufus P. Spalding.

In a work professing to deal with the "representative men" of Cleveland, it is eminently proper that he who has represented the interests of Cleveland in Congress for six years with a fidelity unsurpassed by any of his predecessors in the national councils, and who won for the district he represented a prominence hitherto not accorded to it, should find a conspicuous place. The six years' service of Judge Spalding in Congress as the Representative from the Eighteenth Ohio District forms a period in the history of the city of which the citizens, irrespective of party predilections, have reason to be proud.

Rufus Paine Spalding is a native of Massachusetts, having been born on the 3rd of May, 1798, at West Tisbury, on the island of Martha's Vineyard. The remote ancestor of the Spaldings was Edward Spalding, who is recorded as having been "made a Freeman" at Braintree, Massachusetts, in 1640. Edward Spalding's son Benjamin emigrated from Massachusetts to Connecticut about fifteen years after that date, and settled in Plainfield, Windham county. The great grandson of Benjamin Spalding, and the father of Rufus Paine Spalding, Dr. Rufus Spalding, had in 1798, been for some time a resident of West Tisbury, where he practiced medicine.

When his son was fourteen years old Dr. Spalding removed to Connecticut and resided in Norwich. Rufus P. Spalding, having been prepared for college, entered Yale at the proper time, and graduated in 1817, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The class in which he graduated contained names that afterwards acquired lustre in judicial, legislative, and ecclesiastical circles.

From the first Mr. Spalding's tendency was towards the legal profession, and immediately on leaving college he prepared himself by study for the practice of the law. He was fortunate in the choice of an instructor, having entered the office of the Hon. Zephaniah Swift, Chief Justice of Connecticut, who is known to the profession as the learned author of the "Digest." He profited so well by the instructions he received, that, on his leaving the office, Judge Swift complimented him highly on his proficiency, and predicted for the young lawyer a successful career, if he remained true to his profession. On completing his term of reading law, and being admitted to the Bar, he left New England to push his fortune in the West, and in December, 1819, reached the old "Post of Arkansas," removing soon after to Little Rock, where he put out his shingle as a lawyer, in partnership with Samuel Dinsman, who has since reached the gubernatorial chair of New Hampshire. Here he remained about a year and a half, when he turned his face eastward, and in passing through Ohio, stopped at Warren, the county town of Trumbull county. Here he was induced to remain, the chances of practice being represented as good, and his profound knowledge of law, ability in making that knowledge serviceable, and unwearied industry, enabled him to soon build up an extensive legal connection, which he retained and increased during his sixteen years stay in Warren.

From Warren he removed to Ravenna, in the adjoining county of Portage. He had not long been in the county before the people recognized the abilities and power of Mr. Spalding, and he was chosen to represent that county in the State Legislature. The contest for the position was sharp, for Mr. Spalding was a new man in the county, and it was considered by many proper that older residents should represent so important a constituency. But the recognized ability of Mr. Spalding outweighed all objections on the ground of recent residency, and he was elected by a majority of one.

During his term in the Legislature, and mainly through his efforts, the county of Summit was erected, and Mr. Spalding at once became a resident of the new county by removing his place of residence to Akron. At the next election he offered himself as a representative of Summit in the legislature, and was accepted. On the organization of the House of Representatives he was chosen speaker, and won the approbation of the whole body by the ability and impartiality with which he presided over the proceedings. During this term of office the question of repudiating the State debt was broached. Mr. Spalding took strong ground against such a course, holding it not only disgraceful but suicidal. In this he was supported by the late John Brough, then Auditor of State, and largely through the bold and persistent opposition of these gentlemen the scheme was dropped.

In the Legislative session of 1848-9, the two houses of the General Assembly united in electing Mr. Spalding a judge of the Supreme Court of the State for the constitutional term of seven years. But when four years of the term remained unexpired, the operation of the new constitution ended the pending terms of all offices, and devolved the election of Supreme Court judges upon the people instead of on the General Assembly. Judge Spalding declined being a candidate for the office in a popular canvass, and so the advantages of his ripe legal and judicial knowledge was lost to the Bench of the State. Concurrent testimony shows that no decisions were held in greater respect by the lawyers and the public, for their uprightness and justice, whilst to the legal fraternity in particular, they commended themselves by their logical force, and terse, clear, emphatic style and precision of expression that rendered them models of judicial literature. His judicial opinions are contained in volumes 18, 19 and 20 of the Ohio Reports.

On his retirement from the Bench of the State, Judge Spalding returned to the practice of the law with renewed ardor. Cleveland, presenting a wider field for the exercise of his abilities, he removed to that city and at once took front rank among the many able members of the profession. His profound knowledge of the law, power as a debater, and his ability of creating a strong impression on both courts and juries, built up for him an extensive and lucrative practice. When he spoke he carried conviction, it being all but impossible to resist the solid array of arguments and terse, incisive style. The same characteristics that made him afterwards so powerful in Congress had great effect on the most intelligent juries, and exercised a marked influence on the judges engaged in trying the causes in which he was interested as advocate.

Although the law claimed his first attention, and was his choice, Judge Spalding was no indifferent spectator of the course of politics. He had been trained a Democrat, and was a powerful worker in that party. But all his convictions were on the side of justice and freedom, and when, in 1850, the Fugitive Slave Law wedded Democracy to slavery, Judge Spalding, in common with thousands of others, broke through the party traces, and joined the "Free Soil" party, opposed to the extention of slavery. At the Free Soil convention of 1852, he was an active and prominent delegate, and on his nomination, John P. Hale was made the candidate for the Presidency.

On the formation of the Republican party, pledged to the restriction of the slave power, Judge Spalding took an active part in carrying out the principles of that organization. He was a member of the Pittsburgh Convention of 1856, at which the party was organized, and was a delegate at large for the State of Ohio at the Philadelphia Convention that nominated John C. Fremont. From that time he labored earnestly for the success of Republican principles, and the good effect of his efforts were frequently acknowledged by the party.

In October, 1862, he was chosen to succeed Mr. Riddle as Representative of the Eighteenth Congressional District in Congress. The wisdom of the choice was almost immediately made manifest. Judge Spalding had not long occupied his seat in the House of Representatives before "the member from the Cleveland District" became noticed for the interest he took in questions of importance, the soundness of his views, and the ability with which they were urged. He took part in all the leading debates, and with such effect that he commanded the attention of the House whenever he spoke, and the leaders listened respectfully to his suggestions. He was appointed a member of the Standing Committee on Naval Affairs, and of the Committee on Revolutionary Pensions, and on the formation of a Select Committee on the Bankrupt Law, he was made its Chairman. In committee he was noticeable for his punctuality, patient and conscientious attention to the drudgery of committee work, and the system with which he was enabled to despatch large amounts of it satisfactorily.

In 1864, he was re-elected to his seat, and in that term was made a member of the Standing Committee on Appropriations, and retained his former position on the Committee on Bankruptcy, the chairmanship of which was held by Mr. Jenckes. In this Congress Judge Spalding took a leading part in the important debates on the subject of Reconstruction, and impressed his influence on the Legislation upon this matter. In the early days of the session he made a speech, in which he indicated the measures he regarded best adapted for the for the purpose of properly reconstructing the rebel States. The speech attracted great attention, both within and without Congress, and the suggestions therein contained were for the most part subsequently adopted, and worked into the Reconstruction Laws. The military features of Reconstruction, which formed an integral part of the legislation, originated in an amendment proposed by Judge Spalding, when the first Reconstruction Bill of Thaddeus Stevens was presented.

In 1866, he was again re-elected to Congress, his national services, as well as his fidelity to the local interests of his constituents, having secured for him that distinguished compliment. In this Congress he continued to occupy a prominent position, and was recognized as one of the leading men on the Republican side, though not so thoroughly partizan as to accept all the measures proposed in the name of the Republican party. He differed occasionally with the dominant section of the party, when he believed their zeal outran discretion and sound policy, and the judgment of the country has in most cases pronounced him to have acted rightly. In this Congress he served on the Committee on Appropriations, the Committee on the Revision of the Laws of the United States, and upon the Joint Committee on the Library of Congress. In the debates on the financial questions that enlisted the attention of Congress at this session he took a leading part, and in May, 1868, he delivered a speech on "The Political and Financial condition of the Country," which took strong ground against the unconstitutionality of the Legal Tenders, whilst approving the passage of the Legal Tender Act as a measure of military necessity at the time. With this Congress Judge Spalding's legislative career closed. The duties of the position, always faithfully performed by him, were growing too onerous, and at his time of life, though still full of activity and healthy vigor, it was urged that he should enjoy more ease than was possibly consistent with his idea of a proper fulfillment of the trust of member of Congress. He therefore wrote a letter to his constituents several months before the period of nomination, positively declining a renomination, and withdrawing from public life.

The determination of Judge Spalding to withdraw from active political life was a matter of surprise and regret to his colleagues in Congress, who had learned to value his sound judgment, ripe scholarship, earnest patriotism, and great legislative ability. It was a positive loss to the people of the Eighteenth Ohio District, for never had the interests of that district been better cared for. To Cleveland, especially, he proved in reality a representative member. The wishes of his constituents were promptly attended to, their interests carefully guarded, and no stone left unturned in the endeavor to benefit the city and its people. In the Congressional session and out of it, he was ever on the watch for opportunities to advance the interests of his constituents, and in complying with the daily requests for advice and assistance, he did so, not grudgingly or reluctantly, but with earnestness and hearty good will, as if it were a matter of his own personal concern. The withdrawal of Judge Spalding from public political life, was a loss to the national councils in which he had achieved distinction, but was a still greater loss to the constituency he represented.

Judge Spalding has returned to the legal profession, of which he ranks among the brightest lights, and finds in its practice, and in the quiet enjoyment of social and domestic life, a satisfaction which his public career, brilliant as it was, failed to give. In his seventy-second year, he is yet in the full enjoyment of all his faculties, physical and mental, and is the picture of sound health and mental vigor.

Judge Spalding has been married twice. In October, 1822, he was married to Lucretia A. Swift, oldest daughter of his preceptor in legal studies. Seven children were born of this marriage, of whom but three yet live: Col. Zeph. S. Spalding, United States Consul at Honolulu, Brevet Captain George S. Spalding, First Lieutenant 33d U. S. Infantry, and Mrs. Lucretia McIlrath, wife of Charles McIlrath, of St. Paul, Minnesota. In January, 1859, Judge Spalding was married to his present wife, oldest daughter of Dr. William S. Pierson, of Windsor, Connecticut.

W. S. C. Otis.

W. S. C. Otis was born in Cummington, Hampshire county, Massachusetts, August 24th, 1808. His father was a farmer in narrow circumstances, who, owing to the loss of property, was able to bestow upon his children only such an education as could be obtained in the district schools of a purely agricultural district. Books were scarce, and as poor in quality as meagre in quantity; but being a lad with literary tastes, a desire for information, and an omnivorous appetite for reading, every book that fell in the way of young Otis was eagerly seized and its contents ravenously devoured. The life of a poor farmer, with its ceaseless drudgery and petty needs, was distasteful to the lad, and he was anxious to obtain a collegiate education, and thus become fitted to fight the battle of life with brain instead of muscle. His ambition was not discouraged by his father, but there was a great difficulty in the way of its gratification--the want of money. Mr. Otis was utterly unable to give his son any pecuniary assistance, though ready to resign his claim on his son's time; an important sacrifice when the demands of a large family and the straitness of his means are taken into consideration. Application was made for admission to West Point Military Academy, but unfortunately a Congressman's son was also a candidate for the appointment, and of course the friendless son of a poor struggling farmer had to go to the wall. This was a heavy blow and sore discouragement.

When the subject of this sketch was about seventeen or eighteen years old his father emigrated to Ohio, leaving his son behind with only forty dollars in money, who, after making arrangements with his brother, W. A. Otis, to furnish him such pecuniary aid as he might need, proceeded to fit himself for college under the Rev. Roswell Hawks, of Cummington, devoting only one year to preparation, and entered Williams College in the Fall of 1826. In order to lighten the burden upon his brother, he taught school two Winters during his college course, and graduated in the autumn of 1830, among the best scholars of the class.

Before graduating, he was appointed principal of Gates' Academy, in Marlborough, Massachusetts, and entered upon the duties of the appointment; but at the expiration of the year he followed the rest of the family to Ohio, and in the month of September, 1831, commenced reading law with Whittlesey & Newton, of Canfield, Ohio. In September, 1833, he was admitted to the Bar, and immediately commenced the practice of the law in Ravenna, Portage county, where he continued to reside till 1840.

In June, 1840, after the county of Summit was organized, Mr. Otis moved to Akron, where he resided and continued to practice his profession until January, 1854. While a resident of Summit county he was elected Prosecuting Attorney of the county for two years. He also filled the position of president of the Akron Bank, from its organization, till January, 1854, and was a member of the Board of Control of the State Bank of Ohio, and member of the Convention which formed the present Constitution of the State of Ohio. While a member of the Convention he devised and reported to that body the scheme for the apportionment of the members of the House of Representatives, which, with slight modifications, was adopted into the Constitution, and is now the system in this State. While a member of the Constitutional Convention, he acquired a distaste for political life, and resolved to abandon it, a resolution to which he has since constantly adhered.

In January, 1854, Mr. Otis was elected vice-president of the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad Company, and in order to better perform the duties of the position, he removed to Cleveland, taking charge of the operations of the road and the finances of the Company. In the Winter of 1854 and 1855, he was tendered the presidency of the Bellefontaine and Indiana Railroad Company, but declined, and in the Spring of 1855, resumed the practice of his profession. Soon afterwards he was elected the Solicitor of the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad Company, and continued to act as such until he resigned the position in May, 1869, and since that time he has confined himself strictly to the practice of law.

As a lawyer Mr. Otis ranks high in his profession, having a very extensive knowledge of the law in all its ramifications, and a readiness in the application of his knowledge that enables him to baffle and confound his opponents without descending to mere pettifogging.

For many years he has been a member either of the Congregational or Presbyterian churches in the places in which he has resided; and has always taken great pleasure in studying the Bible, and great satisfaction in teaching it to others, hence the secret of the spotless morality and unswerving integrity he has maintained through life.

Mr. Otis was married in January, 1836, to Hannah, daughter of the late G. Mygatt, and sister of George Mygatt, of Cleveland. She died without issue in April, 1840. In November, 1842, he was married to Laura L., daughter of the late Judge Lyman, of Ravenna.

Franklin J. Dickman.

Franklin J. Dickman is a native of Petersburg, Virginia, where his parents have long resided. At the age of sixteen he entered the Junior class of Brown University, at Providence, Rhode Island, and at the age of eighteen graduated with the salutatory honors of his class. In the same class were the Hon. S. S. Cox, Lieutenant Governor Francis Wayland, of Connecticut, and the Rev. James C. Fletcher, now so well known for his travels in Brazil.

On leaving college Mr. Dickman studied law in the office of the late Charles F. Tillinghest and ex-Chief Justice Bradley, at Providence, and after completing his studies he commenced the practice of his profession in the same city, continuing with success until he removed to Cleveland.

His entry on public life was early. In 1857, the Democracy of Rhode Island selected him as their candidate for Attorney General of the State, and it is a noticeable fact that although running on the Democratic ticket, he received almost the entire colored vote of the State. In 1858, he was appointed a member of the Board of Visitors to the Military Academy at West Point, and was chosen Secretary of the Board. In that capacity he drew up the report of the Board for that year, which was subsequently published by order of the Secretary of War.

In December, 1858, he removed to Cleveland, rightly considering that its growth and prosperity, and the important cases continually arising out of its commercial business, rendered it a good field for a man of knowledge and of energy to put that knowledge to account. He entered on the practice of his profession with zeal, and speedily reaped his reward in a large business.

Up to the breaking out of the war Mr. Dickman had acted with the Democratic party, but when treason culminated with rebellion, he joined those of his political associates who disregarded party lines and united with the Republicans in forming the Union party. Although fitted for college with Roger A. Pryor, of Petersburg, and though his parents remained in Petersburg during the war, Mr. Dickman took strong ground against the rebellion and all who gave it encouragement.

In 1861, he was nominated for member of the State Legislature from this city, and was elected by a large majority. In that body he was made chairman of the Committee on Railroads and also placed on the Judiciary Committee. In the latter capacity the subject of military arrests came under his notice, and his speech on that subject was considered so able and exhaustive an exposition of that subject that it was published at the request of the Judiciary Committee and widely circulated through the State.

At the close of his legislative term he formed a law partnership with Judge Spalding, which still continues, and re-entered assiduously on the duties of his profession, devoting most of his attention to admirality, marine insurance, and patent cases. In these he has been very successful.

In 1867, President Johnson appointed Mr. Dickman United States District Attorney for the Northern District of Ohio. The appointment was received with satisfaction by all shades of political opinions, and Mr. Dickman continued to perform its duties to, the approbation of all having business with the court until early in 1869, when he resigned the position in order to confine himself more closely to his private practice. It is admitted on all sides that the duties of his office were faithfully and ably performed. Of the great number of criminal cases brought before the court by him only two escaped conviction, thus evidencing the merit, care and attention given to the getting up of the cases for trial. Such uniformity in securing conviction is very unusual.

Mr. Dickman is a gentleman of fine literary tastes, extensive reading, and rare classical attainments. The relaxation from his legal duties is found mainly in his library among the highest class of authors. His frequent orations for the literary societies of Brown University and the University of Michigan, and other occasions, have been marked by scholarly finish and have always been received with approval. During the existence of the Knickerbocker Magazine, before its decadence, he contributed to its pages a series of valuable articles on "Butler's Horae Juridical," and on "The Revolution of 1688."

Cherishing a high ideal of professional attainments and ability, Mr. Dickman has realized it to a degree remarkable for a young man. With ample acquirements he has clear conceptions, and broad views of the principles of legal science, frequently never attained by older lawyers, even after a large and life-long practice. His habits of study are wisely methodized, so as to husband time, and make his efforts tell without waste upon results.

A very marked feature also in his character, is a rigorous but highly intelligent economy. Upon a limited practice in Rhode Island, before coming to Cleveland, he not only sustained himself, but accumulated a considerable sum as a basis upon which he could rely with honorable independence in a new field. This was done in circumstances in which multitudes of young men at this day, would by self-indulgence and lavish outlay, have become embarrassed by debt.

The example of a wise economy in one familiar with the first social surroundings--an economy supplying means for a rich and broad literary culture, under the guidance of liberal tastes, yet rigid as to self-control--but ever avoiding parsimony, is far too rare among young men in this lavish and wasteful age. The young man who shows what enlightened self-control, what high probity and fidelity to the details of little wants and expenditures can do to lift a man high above debt, to thrift and self-reliance, is a valuable citizen, exerting an influence as wholesome as it is wise, manly, and rare.

Mr. Dickman, in his mental growth, aims at the solid, rather than the merely sensational; the lasting, rather than the transient. Gifted naturally with vigorous and admirably balanced powers, the right use of which has enriched him already with ample mental furniture, and with habits the most exemplary, and a high character, established upon an intelligent religions basis, the future to him is full of promise of the most honorable achievements.

In 1862, Mr. Dickman was married to Miss Annie E. Niel, daughter of Robert Neil, of Columbus, Ohio, and has two children living.

James M. Jones.

The subject of this sketch is the third son of Thomas and Mary Ann Jones, who emigrated from England to the United States, and settled in Cleveland in the Spring of 1831, where they still reside, They were the parents of nine sons and four daughters, all of whom, save one son and one daughter, are still living.

James Milton Jones enjoyed only such moderate advantages in the way of education as were afforded by the common and high schools of the day, and by the classical and English school of the late lamented and most accomplished educator, H. D. Beattie, A. M.; but his memory was good, he was a close student, and he therefore readily and easily familiarized himself with the studies in which he engaged. He early manifested unusual taste and fondness for composition, and his inclination and talent in that direction were much cultivated and improved by assiduous study of the best standard works in prose and poetry.

On leaving school he became interested as a partner in the marble manufactory of T. Jones & Sons, and acquired a practical knowledge of the business, but never applied himself very closely to its duties.

He joined various literary and forensic societies about the year 1850, composed of some of the best literary and professional talent among the young men of the city, where essays, poems, and discussions on all topics of the day were embraced in the order of exercises; and he soon became marked for his thorough preparation of and familiarity with the subjects of debate, and regarded as a speaker of more than ordinary promise.

He became a frequent contributor, (but never in his own name,) in prose and poetry, to the literary, as well as the daily papers of the day, and especially to the daily Plain Dealer, of which the late J. W. Gray, Esq., was then the accomplished and witty editor, and by whom Mr. Jones was much encouraged, and his contributions frequently commended. As specimens of his poetic contributions, we give the following. It should be noted that with his entry on the actual duties of professional life, Mr. Jones bade a final adieu to the muses:

Woodland Reveries.

In this deep shady dell, Where the soft breezes swell, And beautiful wood-sprites by pearly streams wander-- Where the sweet perfume breathes, O'er angel twined wreaths, Luxuriantly blooming the mossy trees under-- Here, beneath the bright vine Whose leaves intertwine, I'm dreaming of thee, my lost Angeline!

Oh! I think of the time-- Of the warm spring time, When with thee I've wandered, and with thee I've dallied; E're my soul had once dreamed That the roses which seemed So fadeless, could leave thy warm cheek cold and pallid, Or thy dear form decline, From its radiance divine, To press the cold grave sod, my own Angeline!

While the pale starlight laves, With its shadowy waves, A brow, that with memory's anguish is throbbing; Each quivering leaf, Seems trembling with grief, That's borne on the zephyr's low sorrowful sobbing. For that dear form of thine, So oft pressed to mine, My angel-claimed lost one, my own Angeline!

As the stream leaps along, And I list to its song, It sounds like the surging of sorrow's dark river;

When o'er my young bride, Passed its dark rolling tide, And bore her away from my bosum forever; Yes; bore thee to shine In regions divine, Resplendently lovely, and pure, Angeline!

And there, as I gaze On its bright sparkling face, Where pearly white ripples are merrily gleaming, Reflecting each star That shines from afar, The face of my lost one seems tenderly beaming; Yes! there beside mine, Are thy features benign, By memory mirrored, my own Angeline!

As I gently recline, 'Neath the clustering vine, The veil from futurity's vista is lifted, And adown life's wild tide, I rapidly glide, And into eternity's ocean am drifted; And there, soul of mine In regions divine, I meet thee, to part nevermore, Angeline!

A Wreck! A Wreck! "Man the Life Boat."

The blackness of midnight hung over the ocean, And savagely, shrilly, the Storm Spirit screamed. Athwart the dark billows, which wild in commotion, Sublimely, yet awfully, heavenward streamed.

A bark that but rode from her moorings at morning, 'Neath bright sunny skies, and prosperous gales, With streamlet and banner, in beauty adorning Her tapering masts and snowy white sails,

Now rolls in the trough of the tempest-plowed surges! A wreck! madly urged to a rocky bound shore; Where from the dark jaws of wild ocean emerges, To fear-stricken hearts its ominous roar

Her sails are in ribbons, her banners in tatters! Her masts are afloat from the perilous wreck, And now o'er the billows the Tempest Fiend scatters With one mighty effort her hurricane deck!

The voice of the clarion-toned captain is ringing, Above the hoarse murmuring roar of the surge, And an echoing voice, seems sepulchrally flinging, Far back o'er the waves, for the vessel, a dirge.

And now the doomed vessel is beating and crashing, With violence on the dark, rough, rugged rocks; And the tempest-tossed surge, while resistlessly dashing Around her, each effort to save her but mocks.

The lightnings play luridly, fiercely above her, Illuming with horror the wind-cloven waves! Displaying the wreck, as their flashes discover, The victims despairingly gaze on their graves.

For forked and furious, the fiery flung flashes, Gleam o'er the sad wreck like a funeral pyre; And louder and louder each thunder clap crashes. The air in a roar! the billows on fire!

The heart-anguished cries o'er the pitiless waters, Are borne on the blast of the thunder-rocked air, As husbands and wives, as sons and as daughters, Unite in a wild shrieking wail of despair.

But now from the moss covered fisherman's dwelling, The Life-Boat is manned by the chivalrous brave! Though the wild howling storm of the tempest is swelling, They'll peril their own lives, the wrecked ones to save.

And now to the merciless surges they launch her, And back she is flung to the white-pebbled beach! Now cleaves the wild surf, for never a stauncher, Or braver crew mounted a deadlier breach.

Now swift o'er the waves madly bounding and dashing! The nobly manned life-boat speeds on her lone way, Now sinks she below, the waves o'er her splashing, Now cleaves like arrow, the white foaming spray.

And now for a moment she's hid from our vision, As darkness, and thick gloom enshroud her frail form; A flash! and we see that the life-saving mission, Still skims o'er the waves like a Bird of the Storm.

Hurrah! they have triumphed! the wrecked ones no longer Resignedly list to the ocean's hoarse roar; But now with strong arms, that bright Hope has made stronger, They pull with a hearty good-will for the shore.

Hurrah! and Hurrah! on the whirlwind's commotion, And the howl of the storm, uprose cheers from the land; From hearts throbbing wildly with grateful emotion, As safely she reaches the surf-beaten strand.

The Æronaut's Song.

Up! up! from the ground, for the chords that bound Us to earth are rent in twain; And our Aerial boat shall gracefully float, Far, far, o'er the sea and main.

O'er the forest trees, on the rippling breeze, We'll proudly soar away: And higher and higher, will still aspire, Toward realms of endless day.

To regions on high, like an arrow we fly, Through limitless fields of air; And away apace, through trackless space, The giddiest flight we dare.

Earth's brilliance fades, and her everglades Assumes a softer hue; Her hills and dales, her lake gemmed vales Are glorious to the view.

Meandering round enchanted ground, Earth's crystal rivers seem; So far below to brightly flow, Like liquid silver's stream.

Her cloud capped hills o'er rocks and rills, That proudly seem to stand, Now fade like gleams in passing dreams Of lovely fairy land.

Yet on we mount to the drainless fount, Of wild tempestuous storms; And our fairy shrouds now kiss the clouds; In all their varied forms.

Proud man, who at birth was king of the earth, Soon made himself lord of the sea; And now we arise to empyrean skies, For kings of the air are we.

Grim centuries old to the past have rolled, Since the stars from chaos-woke; Yet no earth-born sound hath this deep, profound And solemn silence broke.

The highest note of the lark ne'er floats To this region of sunless cloud; Nor hath eagle bird the silence stir'd, With his screaming, shrill and loud.

Yet our joyous song, as we sweep along In pathless realms afloat, Rings on the air and trembles there, From out our fairy boat.

On eddying waves a thousand caves, Where Aerial spirits throng, Repeat each tone as though they'd known Our unfamiliar song.

O'er billowy seas with fresh'ning breeze, 'Tis glorious oft to roam; And joy to mark a graceful bark, Divide the salt sea foam:

And joy to wake at morning break, When huntsman's bugle sounds, And gaily lead on fiery steed, In chase of deer and hounds.

But moonlight sail with fresh'ning gale, Or merry chase afar, Can ne'er compare with flight through air, In our Aerial Car.

Early in 1853, Mr. Gray, who was also then postmaster, offered him a position in the Cleveland post-office, which he accepted, and entered upon its duties; but at the end of two months, being dissatisfied with the dull routine and monotony of such an occupation, he threw up his position; and having, on the very day he left the post-office, decided to adopt the legal profession, before night he had secured a position in the law office of Charles Stetson, Esq., then in large and active practice, and had entered upon the study of the law, where he continued for over a year and a half, pursuing his studies with assiduity and success. He then entered the law office of Hon. William Collins and pursued his studies with him until June, 1855, when he was admitted to the Bar by the District Court in Delaware, Delaware county, Ohio.

[Illustration: Yours Very Truly, James M. Jones.]

Shortly after his admission to the Bar, he was retained as leading counsel for the defence in the famous "Townsend McHenry" extradition case, a proceeding pending before U. S. Commissioner Grannis, on the charge that the prisoner, who claimed to be Robert McHenry, was no other than the notorious William Townsend, a well known, desperate Canadian highway robber and murderer; and in this Mr. Jones attracted attention by the skill with which he managed it. Indeed, it became necessary to send to Canada for several successive lots of witnesses, before they could make a case. The prisoner was, however, taken to Canada and put upon his trial for murder as William Townsend, the sole question on the trial being one of identity; and a more extraordinary trial in that respect cannot be found in history. And although on the trial about one hundred witnesses testified to his being the veritable William Townsend, he was, nevertheless, able to produce a still larger number of equally credible witnesses to testify that they knew Townsend, and this was not the man, and also such an array of circumstances as satisfied the jury he was not the man, and he was acquitted!

Mr. Jones was nominated by the Republican party of Cleveland as judge of the City Court, in 1857, but in common with the entire ticket, was defeated. He was an early adherent of the old Liberty party, and a warm advocate on the stump and elsewhere, of the election of John C. Fremont to the Presidency, and a firm supporter of Lincoln's administration.

He was appointed Attorney for the Western Union Telegraph Company, one of the largest corporations in the United States, in the year 1865, and has ever since continued, as such attorney, to have charge and supervision of a large and peculiar legal business for the company, extending over the various States and Territories embraced in what is known as the Central Division of the territory covered by its lines. He has made telegraph law a speciality for several years, and has probably had as large and extended experience in that comparatively new and peculiar branch of the law as any other attorney in the country.

He was elected Prosecuting Attorney for the county of Cuyahoga, in the Fall of 1867, and was distinguished during his term for the zeal, fidelity, and ability with which he discharged his officiai duties. It fell to his lot to prosecute many important and difficult criminal cases; prominent among them was the trial of Sarah M. Victor, for the murder, by poison, of her brother, William Parquette. The case was peculiar and remarkable; the murdered man had lain in his grave a whole year before suspicions were aroused that his death was caused by foul play; slight circumstances directed attention to suspicious appearances in the case, which a quiet investigation did not diminish. The prosecutor, therefore, caused the body to be secretly disinterred, and engaged J. L. Cassells, an accomplished chemist, to subject the body to a chemical analysis, which on being done, arsenic in sufficient quantity to produce death was found in the stomach and other internal organs. Her arrest for murder, therefore, immediately took place. The circumstances of the case were well calculated to arouse an intense interest in the public mind as to the result of the trial. The facts that the alleged poisoner was a woman, that the murdered man was her own brother, that her own sister was supposed to be an important witness against her, that the murder, if murder it was, was in the highest degree cruel, mercenary, and devilish, that at the time of her arrest she was prominently connected with religious and benevolent institutions of the city, though it was well known she had previously led an irregular life, and the profound secrecy in which the dark deed had slumbered for a whole year, all seemed to concur in riveting public attention upon it; and yet, previous to the trial, the belief was prevalent in the community generally, as well as among the members of the Bar, that however guilty the prisoner might be, she would not be convicted. In this belief the prosecutor did not share, but at once went to work with his accustomed energy to unravel the evidences of the great crime; and for many weeks, with an energy that never flagged, himself and his assistant, H. B. DeWolf, Esq., patiently and persistently explored the dark secrets of her life, examined hundreds of witnesses, and inextricably wound the coils of evidence around her.

The case, which was tried in the May term of the Court of Common Pleas, 1868, lasted fourteen days, was fully reported phonographically, and made about twenty-seven hundred pages of testimony, which was pronounced, when closed on the part of the State, "a marvelous net-work of circumstantial evidence."

The case was closed by Mr. Jones in an able and conclusive speech of six hours in length. The prisoner was convicted by the jury after but a brief deliberation, and she was sentenced to be hanged, but her sentence was afterward commuted to imprisonment for life. In numerous other important and warmly contested criminal cases Mr. Jones has been almost uniformly successful, displaying in them all, much tact, self-possession, and legal ability.

Mr. Jones was married at Chagrin Falls, Cuyahoga county, Ohio, February 8th, 1860, by the Rev. Luther Lee, to Ermina W., daughter of Harmon and Leonora Barrows, of the latter place.


Citizens of Cleveland are justly proud of their Public Schools, and of the system of education under which they are conducted, but yet the history of these schools, until within a few years, was one of struggle against parsimony and prejudice. It was only by persistent efforts on the part of a few public-spirited citizens, who believed that money spent in educating the masses is the best investment that can possibly be made, that the Public School system of Cleveland has attained its present excellence, and the miserable make-shift school buildings, in which the children of the city were taught have given place to the large, convenient and elegant buildings of the present.

The first public school of Cleveland, the "Cleveland Free School," was established in March, 1830, "for the education of male and female children of every religious denomination," and was supported by the city. It was held for years in the basement of the Bethel church, which was then a frame building, measuring forty by thirty feet, situated at the corner of Diamond street and Superior Street hill. In 1837, the average number of pupils in attendance was ninety males and forty-six females. There were also the Young Ladies' Seminary, or the old "Academy," on St. Clair street, presided over by Miss Harrison, and the Cleveland Female Seminary, in Farmer's Block, corner of Ontario and Prospect streets, incorporated April, 1837, with Henry Sexton, Benjamin Rouse, H. H. Dodge, A. P. Smith, and A. Wheeler as trustees. At that date, Ohio City supported two district and one free school, but the attendance is not recorded.

The story of the growth of the school system of the State and of its local development in the city of Cleveland is mainly told in the biography of Mr. Harvey Rice, on pages following this, and in the preceding pages which sketch the history of Mr. Charles Bradburn. All that is necessary to be given here, is a brief summary of some of the leading events in the history of the Cleveland Public Schools as prepared by one who took a leading part in their organization and development.

The Public Schools were organized under the city charter in 1837, and the control vested in a board of five school managers, elected by the Council. The chairman of the board was styled the acting manager, and was secretary and Superintendant of repairs and of discipline. This original arrangement was succeeded in 1853, by a board of seven members, appointed by the Council. In 1854, when Cleveland and Ohio City were united, another change occurred. One member of the school board from each of the eleven Wards was chosen by the Council. In 1856, the number was reduced to five, and finally, in 1859, by authority of a law of the State, the members of the Board of Education, one from each Ward, were elected by the people, for the term of one year, which was extended to two years in 1862, and so remains to the present time. The powers of the board were greatly enlarged by a law passed in the Spring of 1869.

Charles Bradburn was the first acting manager, secretary and superintendent, assisted and encouraged by a few warm friends of education, chief of whom, at this time, was Geo. Willey. In 1840, Mr. Andrew Freese was employed as principal teacher, and soon became actual superintendent, though not formally clothed with that authority until several years afterwards. In the meantime, school buildings were erected on Prospect street, Rockwell street, West St. Clair street and Kentucky street, (West Side).

For several years the course of instruction was quite limited, and of low grade. The school buildings, then supposed to be large and commodious, were soon crowded with scholars very much mixed, as to standing, and moving forward amid much confusion. In 1841, the second stories of the Prospect street and Bockwell street buildings were converted into grammar schools of a higher grade. The West St. Clair street school was the first one arranged for the improved grading of primary and secondary schools in separate departments.

In 1850, the board directed Mr. Freese to exercise a general superintendence over the classification, instruction and discipline in all the grammar and subordinate schools, but no superintendent was authorized by law, until 1853. It was full time that some authority should be introduced to correct the abuses which had insensibly and unavoidably crept into the discipline and course of instruction, and vigorous enforcement of strict rules brought out a fierce opposition from anxious, but ill-informed and partial parents, who felt provoked and discouraged by the discovery that their children were in classes far ahead of their actual qualifications and must be put back to be more thoroughly drilled in preparatory studies. Gradually confusion gave place to order, scholars were ranked as near as could be according to their actual standing; the grades arranged as Primary, Secondary, Intermediate and Grammar departments, the entire course consummated in the East and West High Schools. But all this was the work of immense labor, extending through years of ceaseless effort and expense, little anticipated by the people, or perhaps by the hopeful projectors of the system, when they so manfully entered upon the undertaking. Twenty-six years ago the entire corps of teachers numbered only fifteen. In 1848, they had increased to twenty. In that year, children under six years of age were excluded, to the great disgust of many fond mothers who thought the public school the very best place to keep the troublesome young ones out of their way.

Under the general school law a portion of the taxes collected was set apart for the support of the schools, while a special fund for school buildings was raised, from time to time, by direct taxation, or by loan, and buildings erected in the different Wards as the city increased in extent.

In 1846, the East High School was opened in the basement of the old Universalist Church (now the Plymouth Church) on Prospect street, near Erie street. A strong opposition was made to this advanced step. It was objected to as illegal, which it actually was, though that was soon remedied; and as unnecessary and unreasonable.

It is gratifying to know that many of those strenuous opponents are now among the warm friends of the High Schools, and justly proud of their success.

Richard Fry, then Principal of the West St Clair school, distinguished himself by his writings through the press, and his speeches at public meetings, in advocating the claims of the High School, and thus powerfully sustained its friends in their unpopular contest. The law authorizing a High School limited the whole course to two years, and required one year's previous attendance at one of the grammar schools.

In 1851, a regular course of instruction was adopted, extending to three years, but still confined to English studies. In 1856, the Latin and Greek languages were introduced, and in 1859, the German was added to the full course. These ancient and foreign languages were optional with the students, as well as the French language, which was introduced some years later.

The first graduated class consisted of ten scholars, eight of whom afterwards became teachers. Indeed, it soon became evident that the High School was not only the best, but almost the only reliable source of supplying teachers for the subordinate schools, which were fast increasing. The extreme difficulty of procuring competent and reliable teachers had, all along, been one of the greatest embarrassments in carrying forward a course of instruction, extensive, thorough, and heretofore almost unknown west of the mountains.

The original design of one central High School was found to be unsuited to the extended territory on both sides of the river, and two High Schools were substituted.

The East High School building was completed and opened in 1856. The West High School was first opened in the Kentucky street building, and continued there for several years, until in 1861, the new building was completed.

In 1861, Mr. Freese was relieved from the superintendency which had become too laborious for his declining health, and L. M. Oviatt took the management for two years, when he was succeeded by Anson Smyth, formerly State Superintendent. On his resignation, Mr. Andrew J. Rickoff, of Cincinnati, was called to the position. Under his management important changes in the classification and management of the schools have been introduced.

The prominence given to Messrs Bradburn, Willey and Freese, in the history of the public schools, is not intended to disparage or undervalue the services rendered by many others, without whose hearty and efficient co-operation the whole undertaking would have failed. Prominent among these cooperators were J. D. Cleveland, J. Fitch, Dr. Maynard, Harvey Rice, Bev. J. A. Thome, T. P. Handy, W. D. Beattie, (since deceased,) R. B. Dennis, Ansel Roberts, L. M. Oviatt, and Thos. Jones, Jr.

In 1868, there were eighteen male, and one hundred and thirty-nine female teachers employed in the public schools of the city, making an aggregate of one hundred and fifty seven. The total number of pupils enrolled was 10,154. The average number belonging to the schools, 7060, and the average daily attendance, 6623.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, Harvey Rice]

Harvey Rice

In the Ohio Educational Monthly for April, 1860, appeared a pretty full biography of Hon. Harvey Rice, who has filled an important position in connection with the educational interests of Ohio. From that account we learn that Mr. Rice is a native of Massachusetts. He was born June 11th, 1800. In 1824, he graduated from Williams College, and the same year removed to Cleveland. He came to Ohio a stranger and without influential friends here or elsewhere to aid his efforts for advancement. When he landed at Cleveland he owned nothing but the clothes he wore, and three dollars in his pocket. At that time Cleveland contained but 400 inhabitants.

Making no disclosure as to the low state of his treasury and the rather dull prospect for an immediate replenishing of the same, he took lodgings at the best public house the town afforded, at the rate of two dollars and a half per week. At the expiration of one week he paid his board bill and removed to a private boarding-house, with but fifty cents left, and commenced teaching a classical school in the old academy on St. Clair street. About the same time he commenced the study of the law under the direction of Reuben Wood, then a prominent member of the Cleveland Bar, and at the expiration of two years was admitted to practice, and entered into copartnership with his former instructor, which continued until Mr. Wood was elected to the Bench.

In 1829, he was elected Justice of the Peace, and in 1830, elected to represent his district in the State Legislature. Soon after, without solicitation on his part, he was appointed an agent for the sale of the Western Reserve school lands, a tract of fifty-six thousand acres, situated in the Virginia Military District. He opened a land office at Millersburgh, in Holmes county, for the sales, and in the course of three years sold all the lands, and paid the avails, nearly one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, into the State Treasury, as a school fund for the exclusive benefit of educating the children of the Western Reserve, the interest of which is now annually paid by the State for that purpose.

In 1833, Mr. Rice returned to Cleveland, and was appointed Clerk of the Common Pleas and Supreme Courts, an office in which he faithfully served for seven years, and in 1834 and 1836, was nominated by the Democratic Convention as a candidate for Congress, and received the united support of the party, though without expectation of success, as the Democrats were largely in the minority. He was the first Democrat ever sent to the Legislature from Cuyahoga county, and, while serving in that body, was considered one of its ablest and most influential members. He was appointed by the House one of the select committee for revising the statutes of the State, and while in that capacity, introduced and advocated with acknowledged ability many new provisions, which still retain their place upon our statute book.

The natural abilities of Mr. Rice are of a very high order. His mind is thoroughly disciplined and cultivated, and for the comparatively short time he practiced at the Bar, he obtained an enviable reputation for legal ability, sound, practical, discriminating judgment and gentlemanly deportment.

He is well known as an able contributor to many of the best periodicals of the day, and is a graceful and exceedingly vigorous writer. His imagination is rich and glowing, and his mind well stored by a long and judicious course of mental training. We have seen some articles of Mr. Rice's which compare favorably with those of the best writers of the day.

The following, which we find in the "Nineteenth Century," we take the liberty of publishing here, and look upon it as a meritorious and beautiful poem:

The Moral Hero.

With heart that trusteth still, Set high your mark; And though with human ill The warfare may be dark, Resolve to conquer, and you will!

Resolve, then onward press, Fearless and true: Believe it--Heaven will bless The brave--and still renew Your hope and courage in distress.

Press on, nor stay to ask For friendship's aid; Deign not to wear a mask Nor wield a coward's blade, But still persist, though hard the task.

Rest not--inglorious rest Unnerves the man; Struggle--'tis God's behest! Fill up life's little span With God-like deeds--it is the test--

Test of the high-born soul, And lofty aim; The test in History's scroll Of every honored name--None but the brave shall win the goal'

Go act the hero's part, And in the strife, Strike with the hero's heart For liberty and life-- Ay, strike for Truth; preserve her chart'

Her chart unstain'd preserve, 'Twill guide you right. Press on and never swerve, But keep your armer bright, And struggle still with firmer nerve.

What though the tempest rage, Buffet the sea! Where duty calls, engage: And ever striving be The moral hero of the Age!

In the fall of 1851, Mr. Rice was put in nomination for the State Senate, and was elected by a majority exceeding seven hundred votes.

The General Assembly to which he was now returned, was the first that convened under the new Constitution. Upon this body devolved the responsibility of reconstructing the statutes of the State, and adapting them to the requisition of the Constitution, so as to secure to the people the practical benefits of the great reforms which had been achieved by its adoption. Mr. Rice contributed quite as much as any other member to the important legislation of the two sessions held by that General Assembly. It was said of him that he was always at his post. The degree of influence which he exercised as a legislator, was such as few have the good fortune to wield.

Among the variety of measures which engaged his attention, he took a prominent part in procuring the passage of the act which authorized the establishment of two additional lunatic asylums in the State.

His course in relation to the subject of common schools attracted public attention throughout the State, and called forth from the press commendations of a very complimentary character. The correspondent of a paper published at Newark, writing from Columbus, remarks as follows:

Senator Rice, of Cuyahoga, has in charge a bill for the reorganization of schools and providing for their supervision.

No better man than Mr. Rice could have been selected for this work. He is a model man and a model Senator. Clear headed, sound minded, carefully and fully educated, with a painstaking disposition, he is the ablest chairman of the standing committee on schools that any Ohio Legislature ever had. Deeply impressed with the great importance of the subject--of the stern necessity which exists for basing our whole republican form of government on the intelligence of the people, he has carefully provided a bill, which, if enacted into a law, will give a good common school education to every child in the State, and in so doing, has been equally careful that the money raised for that purpose be not squandered. The bill provides for a State Commissioner of Common Schools, and it has been mentioned to me as a matter of deep regret, that the Constitution excludes Mr. Rice from being a candidate for that office--no member of the Legislature being eligible to an office created while he was a member, until one year after the expiration of his term of office.

On the question of the final passage of the bill, Mr. Rice addressed the Senate in a concluding speech, which was published, and very generally noticed by the press. Among these notices, a leading paper published at Cleveland, with a magnanimity rarely possessed by a political opponent, makes the following comments and quotations:

Mr. Rice made the closing speech on the School Bill, in the Senate, on the 24th. It was his Bill. He had labored over it, and for it, a long time, and given to it every consideration, and gained for it every counsel, which, by any possibility, he could gain.

The text of his speech was the language of the Constitution itself; the duty of securing 'a thorough and efficient system of common schools throughout the State.'

Mr. Rice goes into detail on the school bill, and, regretting that we have not room for the detail, we close our synopsis of his very sensible speech by quoting its conclusion:

"It is certainly much cheaper, as well as much wiser, to educate than to punish. How much of crime would be prevented if a higher order of education were generally diffused among all classes. A well educated and enlightened people will have but little occasion for criminal courts, jails and penitentiaries. The educated man has ordinarily too much self-respect, too much regard for moral principle and the value of a good character to stoop to crime. In short, sir, the perpetuity of the government, and security of the citizen, and of property, depend upon the virtue and intelligence of the people.

"By the provisions of this bill, it is intended to make our common schools what they ought to be--the colleges of the people--'cheap enough for the poorest, and good enough for the richest.' With but a slight increase of taxation, schools of different grades can be established and maintained in every township of the State, and the sons and daughters of our farmers and mechanics have an opportunity of acquiring a finished education, equally with the more favored of the land. And, in this way, the elements of mind now slumbering among the uneducated masses, like the fine unwrought marble in the quarry, will be aroused and brought out to challenge the admiration of the world-Philosophers and sages will abound everywhere, on the farm and in the workshop. And many a man of genius will stand out from among the masses, and exhibit a brilliancy of intellect, which will be recognized in the circling years of the great future, as

'A light, a landmark on the cliffs of time.'

"It is only the educated man who is competent to interrogate nature, and comprehend her revelations. Though I would not break down the aristocracy of knowledge of the present age, yet, sir, I would level up, and equalize, and thus create, if I may be allowed the expression, a democracy of knowledge. In this way, and in this way only, can men be made equal in fact--equal in their social and political relations--equal in mental refinement, and in a just appreciation of what constitutes man the brother of his fellow man.

"In conclusion, sir, allow me to express my belief, that the day is not far distant when Ohio, in the noble cause of popular education and of human rights, will 'lead the column,' and become, what she is capable of becoming--a star of the first magnitude--the brightest in the galaxy of our American Union."

A proud hour now came for Mr. Rice! A good and glorious one for the State! The roll of the Senate was called, and that body, on the 24th day of January, 1853, proceeded to cast its final vote upon the bill, when only two negatives were announced.

Another bill, of scarcely less importance than the school bill, was introduced into the Senate by Mr. Rice, near the heel of the adjourned session, which with him was a favorite measure, and which seemed to meet with the hearty approbation of the public. It had for its object the establishment of a "State Reform School," expressly designed for juvenile offenders.

But owing to the late day of the session in which the bill was introduced, though very favorably received by the senate, a motion was made to postpone it until the next session. In reference to this motion, without attempting to make a formal speech, Mr. Rice explained briefly the object contemplated by the bill. His remarks relating as they did to a subject of public interest, were reported and published. The bill, at a subsequent session, resulted in establishing the present Reform Farm School.

The eminent services which he has rendered the State in the promotion of her educational interests will be long and gratefully remembered by those of his fellow citizens who properly appreciate the true objects of life, and who wish to secure to themselves, to their children, and to the generations which will follow them, the social blessings which flow from a high degree of refinement, intelligence and moral virtue.

While a member of the City Council, in 1857, Mr. Rice took the lead in establishing the Cleveland Industrial School, and was chairman of the committee that put it into successful operation. It has now grown to be one of the most important charitable institutions in Cleveland. Mr. Rice is still active in extending its usefulness.

In the same year he originated the project, and introduced the resolution into the Council, authorizing the erection of the Perry Monument which now graces the Public Park of the city. The cost of the Monument, by the terms of the resolution, was made to depend on the voluntary subscriptions of the citizens. Mr. Rice was appointed Chairman of the Monument Committee, and after three years of persevering effort, succeeded in carrying the object of the resolution into effect. The Monument was inaugurated with imposing ceremonies, on the 10th of September, 1860, the anniversary of Perry's victory on Lake Erie. Mr. Bancroft, the historian, delivered the Inaugural Address. As carefully estimated, not less than one hundred thousand people attended the inauguration. In carrying out the programme the battle of Lake Erie was reproduced, in a mock fight, on the Lake in front of the city. It was a proud day for Cleveland. Both the Monument and the inauguration were pronounced a perfect success.

In 1861, Mr. Rice, being elected to the Board of Education, was appointed President of the Board, and during his term of office rendered essential service in promoting the educational interests of the city. In fact, he has always been a zealous friend and advocate of popular education. In his literary career he has become widely known as the author of "Mount Vernon, and Other Poems"--a volume containing two hundred and fifty pages which has reached a fifth edition.

In 1862, Mr. Rice was appointed by the Governor of the State, with the concurrence of the War Department, a commissioner for Cuyahoga county, to conduct the first draft made in the county during the late civil war. In executing this delicate task he acquitted himself with firmness, integrity, and discretion. While in the discharge of his duties he found his office one morning suddenly besieged by some five or six hundred excited citizens, who were armed with pistols and other weapons, threatening to demolish the office and destroy the records. They had been instigated to make this demonstration by false rumors regarding the fairness of the draft. Mr. Rice met the crisis firmly, sent to the military camp on the Heights for a detachment of soldiers, infantry and artillery, who came to his relief on the "double quick," and dispersed the riotous assemblage. To satisfy the disaffected that all was right and just in relation to the draft, Mr. Rice proposed that they should appoint a committee of their own to investigate the state of affairs in the draft office. They did so, and with his aid an elaborate examination was made, and the committee reported that the draft had been conducted fairly and justly in all respects. Mr. Rice then proceeded with the draft, and as luck would have it, two of the committee, who had been ring-leaders in getting up the demonstration, were drafted on the spot, and every body seemed pleased with the result.

In 1867, Mr. Rice, wishing to express his regard for the cause of Missions, as well as for the college where he graduated, erected at his own expense, and with the approval of the college authorities, a beautiful marble monument in Mission Park, at Williamstown, Mass., commemorative of the origin of American Foreign Missions. The park is a part of the college domains, and within it there is a maple grove where a few pious young students of the college, in the summer of 1806, held occasional prayer-meetings. At one of these meetings a shower of rain compelled them to seek the shelter of a neighboring haystack, where they continued their exercises, and where one of their number, Samuel J. Mills, first suggested the idea of a mission to foreign heathen lands, as being a religions duty. In this noble and philanthropic thought his associates all concurred, and there, while at the haystack, consecrated themselves in solemn prayer, to the great work. From this circumstance originated American Foreign Missions. The monument was planned by Mr. Rice It is erected on the spot where the haystack stood, is twelve feet in height, and surmounted with a marble globe three feet in diameter, and cut in map lines. The face of the monument has the inscription, "The Field is the World," followed with a haystack, sculptured in bas relief, and the names of the five young men, who held the prayer-meeting, and the date 1806. The monument was dedicated July 28th, 1867, at the maple grove, in the park. A large audience was present. Mr. Rice, by special request, delivered the dedicatory address, which was received with a high degree of satisfaction, and afterwards published, with the other proceedings, in pamphlet form.

Mr. Rice has accumulated a reasonable share of "this world's goods;" has been twice married--first in 1828, and afterwards in 1840.

He has a wife, three sons and three daughters still living, and now leads, comparatively, a retired, yet not an idle life.

He still has the appearance of a well preserved gentleman, he is six feet in height, erect and of good proportions, and his general personal appearance is pleasing. In manner he is a true gentleman,--modest and kind, but prompt and decided. Two of his sons, Capt. Percy W. Rice and James S. Rice, are settled in business at Cleveland. The youngest son, Harvey Rice, Jr., resides in California. The three daughters are married and settled--one in California and the other two in Cleveland. Mrs. Rice is a lady of refinement, exemplary, and much beloved and respected. As a family, but few have been more highly favored, or lived in more perfect harmony.

Andrew Freese

The name of Andrew Freese will always hold a place of honor in the scholastic records of Cleveland. No educator in the city is held in such affectionate esteem by a large class of former pupils, and none better deserves the grateful tributes paid to his abilities as a teacher and his worth as a citizen.

Mr. Freese was born in Levant, Penobscot county, Maine, on November 1st, 1816. His father was a farmer, but Andrew was of such slender frame and weak constitution that he was completely unfitted for farming life. His father destined him to be a printer, and took him to the nearest printing office to show him how types were set and newspapers printed. The boy was not favorably impressed with what he saw, and begged to be allowed to enter college. This was considered out of the question, his father being too poor to provide the necessary funds. But the boy's heart was set upon it, and he thought that by teaching school for a time he could obtain money enough to complete his own education. This idea he carried into execution, and had no sooner entered on the business of teaching than he realized that he had found his true vocation. He continued to teach and study until his collegiate course was completed, and then he resolved to fit himself for the business of teaching by studying the best systems of education, as laid down in the most approved books and practiced in the most successful schools. He examined the best school buildings, and brought away plans of construction, and models of their furniture. The most thorough teachers were consulted as to the results of their experience, and when he had thus acquired a thorough mastery of the whole science of teaching, instead of setting out as an educational empiric, he resolved to seek the West as a better field for turning his knowledge to account, than was the East, where educators were far too numerous to make the business profitable.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, Andrew Freese]

Mr. Freese came to Cleveland in 1840, and offered his services to the Board of School Managers as a teacher. His rare ability was appreciated, he was immediately engaged, and was at once recognized as the head of the schools. There was then only the general school law to work under. The law as then understood, made it almost a crime to give instruction in the higher branches of even an English education. There was then no high schools, or graded schools in the great State of Ohio. To Cleveland, and to Mr. Freese, belong the honor of establishing the first free high school in the State. The scholars from that school may now be found in almost every State in the Union, eminent in all departments of life. They have been met with as Governors, jurists, mechanicians, and artists, and the first inquiry from them all has been, "Is Mr. Freese still with you? All I am, and all I have, I owe to him; may God forever bless him."

The high school was established in July, 1846, and Mr. Freese at once placed at its head. Those unfriendly to public schools, and especially to this department, offered him large inducements to engage in a private school, but Mr. Freese had faith in the success of the experiment, and was determined not to abandon it until its success was insured. The pay given by the city was but a beggarly pittance, and his labors inside and out of the school room were exceedingly arduous, but no discouragement could daunt his zeal, and he resisted blandishments as he treated opposition, with indifference. The unexpected and severe labors imposed upon him shattered his health, but with him love overcame all other considerations, and he persisted. In June, 1853, the office of Superintendent of Instruction was created, and tendered to Mr. Freese, who held it until 1861, when his failing health admonished him to retire. Recently he was summoned from his retirement to take the position of principal of the Central High school, now grown to proportions its founders scarcely dared hope for it. It was with extreme reluctance that Mr. Freese consented to resume his old profession, but he finally did so, working with great zeal and success until the close of the Summer term of 1869, when, immediately after re-election by a highly complimentary vote, he was compelled, by the condition of his health, to resign his position and bid a final farewell to the profession he so much loved. The proceedings of the Board of Education in relation to the resignation of Mr. Freese are of interest, as showing the high value set upon his services to the cause of education.

The following communication was presented to the Board:

To the Honorable the Board of Education of the city of Cleveland:

Gentlemen: I have to submit herewith the resignation of Mr. Andrew Freese, who has for the past year acted as principal of the Central High school.

On account of ill health it was with great reluctance that Mr. Freese went into this position. In accordance, however, with the advice of friends, he finally yielded to persuasion and entered upon the discharge of its duties with the well known earnestness of his character. The result has been marked in the earnestness with which his able corps of assistants associated with him have co-operated to promote the highest interests of the school, and of each and all its pupils. It has been specially marked, too, by the increased devotion of all the scholars to their studies, and the ready acquiescence with which they have obeyed all the rules and regulations of your Board.

In taking leave of Mr. Freese it is due to him that I should thus formally and earnestly record my high appreciation of his services. Furthermore, it may not be inappropriate for me testify to the fact, that much of the hearty earnestness of the corps of teachers with which I am now laboring, is due to the influence of this gentleman when he held the office which I now hold.

Andrew J. Rickoff, Superintendent of Instruction.

The Board of Education having received and accepted the resignation of Andrew Freese, Esq., principal of the Central High School, Mr. Perkins offered the following resolutions, which were adopted:
Resolved, That the thanks of the Board are hereby tendered to Mr. Freese, for the valuable services he has rendered in the various relations he has sustained to the public schools of this city during the last quarter of a century. In every position he has been called to fill, he has proved himself faithful to the trust committed to his keeping. To him more than any other are we indebted for the deservedly elevated character of our System of graded schools.
Resolved, That the president and secretary of the Board be requested to communicate to Mr. Freese the feeling of regret occasioned by his withdrawal from our service, together with a certified copy of its action this evening.

Mr. Freese was the originator of the celebrated outline maps. Many years before any were published by Mitchell, they were in use here, and may still be found on some of the walls and floors of our old school houses, where they were placed by Mr. Freese. What Horace Mann and William Colburn did for the schools of New England, Andrew Freese has done for the schools of the West. Almost immediately after commencing his labors he began to protest to the Board of School Managers against our school laws; under them he could do no justice to himself or his scholars. His efforts were aided by the Board of School Managers, and after a hard contest with city and State authorities, the laws were altered so as to give us one of the best school systems in the world. The first free high school in the State was started by Mr. Freese, in the basement of an old church, at a rent of fifty dollars per annum, and this was regarded by some of our largest tax payers as so great an outrage that they threatened to resist the payment of their taxes. The school now enjoys the use of a palatial building, and our grammar schools have the use of the most elegant and convenient structures for educational purposes in the State. Many of our citizens devoted their time and money to bring about this great change, which has done and is doing so much for the welfare of our city. But perhaps no one man has done so much as Mr. Freese.

It would be difficult, if not impossible, to overrate the services of Mr. Freese to the cause of education in Cleveland. It was the sole business of his life, and he entered on it with utter unselfishness. With him the cause was everything, self nothing. He traveled far, spent his own slender funds freely, and labored assiduously in the endeavor to secure the best of everything in plan and machinery, for the city schools. He had no ambition outside or beyond the school room, and his shrinking modesty prevented him claiming the credit justly due him for the unintermitted and successful labors performed within the school walls.

Anson Smyth.

Among the citizens of Ohio, few are more worthy of mention than Rev. Anson Smyth. There is not a township in the State in which his influence has not been felt, nor a school district in which his name is not honored. He has labored to uplift the intellectual, social, and moral status of our great commonwealth, and his impress is left on the highest and most sacred interests of the people.

Though born in Pennsylvania, Mr. Smyth is none the less a New Englander. His parents and older brothers and sisters were natives of New England. There many of his early years were spent, and there he received both his collegiate and his theological education. There for two years he taught school, and for three, was pastor of a church. Thus it is seen, that while his birth makes him a Pennsylvanian, his blood and education make him a Yankee.

Mr. Smyth is a self-made man. By his unaided energies he surmounted the difficulties that stood in the way of his advancement, and has achieved distinction by a career of great usefulness. His father was a man of high respectability, and most excellent character. He was a farmer in moderate circumstances, and being well advanced in life, and declining in health, when his youngest son, the tenth of twelve children, determined to acquire a liberal education, he was unable to do anything for his assistance. But the boy had a brave heart, and he went forward, strong in the idea that "there is nothing impossible to him that wills." At first by manual labor, and afterwards by teaching, he contrived to secure funds for meeting those expenses which demanded ready payment. When he left the theological seminary he owed several hundred dollars, all of which he paid from his first earnings.

After preaching for three years at the East, Mr. Smyth accepted a call to the pastoral charge of a church in Michigan. It was a village of a few hundred people, in a new and wild region. Society was in a chaotic condition, and there were but few who had either the ability or the disposition to do much for the young pastor's support or encouragement. The locality was unhealthy, and Mr. Smyth suffered severely from prevalent diseases. But during a ministry there of four years, he was eminently successful, and he left the church four times as strong as he found it.

In 1847, Mr. Smyth came to Ohio, and, after spending a few months in Cleveland, received and accepted a call to the pastorate of the Presbyterian church in Toledo. He entered upon his new charge with zeal and energy. He labored faithfully for the advancement of the cause of Christ in that rising town, but owing to chronic alienation among the members of his church, from the beginning he felt the need of that degree of co-operation and sympathy necessary to insure the full benefit of his labors. Still, the condition of affairs greatly improved under his ministry; the membership of the church being nearly doubled, and the congregation largely increased. At the end of three years he resigned his charge and entered upon that department of public service in which he has acquired most honorable distinction.

[Illustration: Yours truly, Anson Smyth]

Until 1850, the facilities for education in Toledo were all in the future. While pastor of the church there, Mr. Smyth felt keenly the need of establishing a good system of schools ere the town should become confirmed in the habit of neglecting so important an interest. A few of the citizens took hold of the business with energy; the "Akron School Law" was adopted, and a Board of Education elected. Mr. Smyth was placed at the head of the movement. This was a position he had never expected to fill, but, regarding it as a field of usefulness, a field in which to serve God and society, not less sacred than that of the pastoral office, he went to his new work without a doubt that thereby he was doing the will of God. In many particulars the business Mr. Smyth found upon his hands was new and strange to him. He had had no experience in organizing schools upon the graded plan. Eighteen years ago there were very few good schools in Ohio. Lorin Andrews, at Massillon, Dr. Lord, at Columbus, M. F. Cowdery, at Sandusky, Andrew Freese, at Cleveland, and H. H. Barney, at Cincinnati, were the leaders in the educational reformation, then rising into notice. Not till three years afterwards was our noble school law enacted. But Mr. Smyth took hold of the great work entrusted to him with characteristic energy. He read much and thought more upon the best plan of organizing a school system for the city, and when he left there, in 1856, the schools of Toledo had gained a most enviable character. They were regarded as among the best in the country, and their Superintendent had acquired the reputation of being one of the wisest and most successful educators in America. The Board of Education committed the entire management of the schools to him. The selection of teachers, the classification and discipline of the schools, the course of study, and the examinations were just what Mr. Smyth was pleased to make them. He gathered around him a corps of teachers equal to the best in the State, and the schools were the pride of the citizens. When he resigned, in closing an article upon the subject, the Blade remarked: "We regard the retirement of Mr. Smyth as no less than a public calamity."

At a meeting of the State Teachers Association, in December, 1855, Mr. Smyth was unanimously elected President of that body, also editor of the Journal of Education. In the following February he removed to Columbus, and entered upon his editorial duties. His success in his new field was most satisfactory to all who were interested in the cause which he represented.

In May, 1856, the Republican State Convention nominated Mr. Smyth for the office of State Commissioner of Schools. This was an honor as unexpected by him as it was satisfactory to the people. He was elected by a large majority, and in February, 1857, entered upon the discharge of the duties of his new office. In this high position he remained six years, having been re-elected in 1859.

Mr. Smyth was not disheartened when he found his post at the head of the educational forces of the State, environed with most serious embarrassments. The general school law had been in operation three years, encountering the hostility of a large portion of the people, who were persistent in their efforts to secure its repeal, or extensive modification. It was regarded as doubtful whether it could much longer survive in the face of the antagonism which confronted it. But when Mr. Smyth turned the office over to his successor, in 1863, the law had become popular, and strong in the regards of nearly all the people. The changes which it had experienced were improvements, and it was everywhere working out its own praise.

In this sketch, Mr. Smyth's labors and successes in the Commissionership can not be detailed. He spared no pains in promoting the interests which the State had confided to him. Whether looking after members of the legislature who were working against the law, or performing ordinary office duties, or traveling and addressing the people, he showed untiring industry and enthusiastic devotion to the good cause. When he declined, another nomination, the State Teachers' Association, at their meeting in Mount Vernon, passed a resolution highly approving his administration. David Tod, then Governor, wrote of him to a friend: "The most faithful manner in which Mr. Smyth has discharged the arduous duties of School Commissioner of our State for the last six years, involving, as it did, the expenditure of millions of money, without the loss of a dollar, has won for him my fullest confidence and profound respect. He is an excellent business man, and a Christian gentleman." No man ever left an office stronger in the confidence and esteem of the people.

Mr. Smyth did not propose to continue longer in the educational field, and declined many invitations to positions at the head of institutions of learning. But, very unexpectedly to him, he was elected Superintendent of Instruction for Cleveland. A strong inclination to reside here, and the urgency of friends, secured his acceptance. He removed to this city in July, 1863, and was warmly welcomed by the people.

At that time, the Board of Education was in many things subordinate to the City Council, and these two bodies not always working harmoniously prevented the adoption of many reforms advocated by the Superintendant. Still, Mr. Smyth's administration was a period of great prosperity and advancement with the Cleveland schools. The gradation and classification were improved; modes of teaching were introduced which greatly promoted the purposes of education. Through his influence the use of the rod in the schools was to a great extent discontinued, while better order was secured. His success in the selection of teachers was remarkable. He seemed to have an intuitive knowledge of character, and next to none of those he placed in charge of schools proved failures. His power over teachers was very great. While he was exacting in his demands, never excusing negligence, he knew how to temper authority with kind and courteous manners.

In the management of schools, Mr. Smyth required that due regard be had to manners and morals. Arithmetic and grammar were not, in his estimation, more important than politeness and Christian morality. He encouraged the ornamentation of the school rooms with plants, flowers and engravings, which has been so generally adopted, thus rendering them attractive and conducive to taste and refinement.

For five successive years Mr. Smyth was re-elected, but the last election he declined to accept, having entered into business arrangements, that he might pay needed attention to pecuniary interests. During his superintendence the number of teachers employed in the schools increased from eighty to one hundred and thirty; the splendid school buildings now approaching completion, were planned and put under contract, the School Library was established, and all school interests were most prosperons. When he retired from the superintendence of the schools, nearly two years ago, the Leader expressed the public sentiment in regard to his services, in the following terms: "It is with unfeigned regret that we announce the resignation of Rev. Anson Smyth, as Superintendent of Instruction in this city. He has discharged the duties of this office for four years with ability and efficiency. The educational interests of the city have been guarded with jealous care; and the excellent condition of our public schools, the firm, judicious discipline that is enforced, and the thorough system of instruction well attest his zeal, ability and faithfulness. To the teachers of the schools and the citizens generally, he has given the most unqualified satisfaction, and all will sincerely regret the circumstances which have induced him to retire."

Mr. Smyth has never given up pulpit services, but has averaged to preach one sermon per Sunday ever since resigning his pastoral charge in Toledo, eighteen years ago. Though a Presbyterian in doctrine, and loyal to that church, he is remarkably free from sectarian exclusiveness, and all evangelical churches seek and obtain his ministerial services.

Within the last year he has given more than twenty addresses at college commencements, and before literary and educational associations, while he has been obliged to decline numerous applications for like labors.

The weight of fifty years and the work of a life of very great activity rest lightly upon him. He is possessed of robust health, and is as marked for energy and vivacity as he was twenty years ago. But few men, who at his age have accomplished so much labor, seem still so able to repeat their life-work.

R. F. Humiston.

The family of Humiston, or Humbastone, as it was originally called, is one of considerable antiquity, and its American branch dates from an early period in the history of this country, John Humbastone, its founder, having settled in New Haven, Connecticut, towards the middle of the seventeenth century. For over two hundred years the family, or a portion of it, resided in the same neighborhood, about seven miles out of New Haven, on the Quinnipiac river. At the breaking out of the Revolutionary War, several members of the family took part in the struggle on the side of the patriots, and did good service.

Caleb Humiston (the name had been corrupted in the course of time) was of the third generation in descent from John Humbastone, the original settler in New Haven. He was born on the old homestead on the Quinnipiac river, inherited a portion of it, and lived there until he was thirty years old. Then he removed to Berkshire county, Massachusetts, settling down in 1816 on a farm he had purchased in Great Barrington. He was at this time a farmer in comfortable circumstances, but misfortune came upon him, his property passed from his control, and he was reduced to extremely narrow circumstances. When this misfortune came upon him he had already been burdened with a large family. Ten children had been born, one of whom died, but the others grew up and had to be provided for, the family consisting of seven boys and two girls. It is a noteworthy fact, that with the exception of the child who died in infancy, and Caleb Humeston himself, there has been no death in the family for over half a century, the youngest of them now living being thirty-eight years old. The family had been noted for its longevity, the average age of the ancestors of the present generation being between seventy and eighty years.

R. F. Humiston, whose life we propose briefly to sketch, was born in Great Barrington, July 29th, 1821. The misfortune suffered by his father overtook him when R. F. was nine years old, and from that time each one of the children was capable to do something towards earning a living. Tools were provided for each, proper work marked out, and every one held responsible for the faithful performance of the allotted task. As long as could be afforded, the children were sent to the district school, but the grade of education provided was low, and the knowledge acquired meagre. In his ninth year, R. F. Humiston was taken from school and put to earn his living with a neighbor, with whom he remained a year, and was then placed to work in a cotton factory at Stockbridge, Mass. His duty in this establishment was to tend a spinning jenny, and the winter hours of labor were from six o'clock in the morning to eight at night, with half an hour's intermission for dinner.

His health failing through the severity of this labor, his parents took him from this factory and placed him in another factory, for the manufacture of cotton batting and wadding, in West Stockbridge. Here he remained several months, but was obliged to leave on account of sickness.

In the Spring of 1833, the family removed to Ohio. After selling his farm and paying his debts, Caleb Humiston had barely sufficient left with which to reach Hudson, Ohio. Here he engaged in making brick, the subject of this sketch, twelve years old, assisting in the brick yard. Change of climate, hard work, and want brought sickness on the whole family, and before R. F. Humiston was fifteen years old the physicians pronounced his constitution entirely broken down, and that he could never do severe labor. He availed himself of an offer to become clerk of a store in Hudson, and clerked there and in Cleveland until he was sixteen years old. When clerk in a Cleveland bookstore, the proprietor failed and the books were taken to Buffalo, young Humiston receiving an offer of a clerkship in that city. This he declined, refusing to desert his family, who were in poverty, and working hard. His health having been partially restored, he took off his good clothes and re-entered the brick yard, where he remained until he was eighteen years old. Whilst in the store he had learned to keep books, and turned this knowledge to account in arranging his fathers business. A number of the better class of citizens of Hudson insisted on the boy having an education, and a merchant offered to bear the expense of a collegiate course, but the boy was too useful in his father's business to be spared, and so the opportunity was lost.

But the brick-making did not suit the boy, who was ambitious, and desirous of learning. In the Winter after he was eighteen, he went to learn the trade of a carpenter, agreeing to pay his father for his unexpired time as soon as he became of age. He learned the carpenter's trade of Samuel Johnson, in Ravenna, an intelligent man, who was highly respected by his neighbors, and whose influence was of great benefit to his apprentice, forming correct habits, and giving him moral and intellectual training.

Young Humiston was ambitious to excel as a mechanic, and spent his evenings in studying architecture and examining plans for buildings. There was no eight or ten hour system in those days. Mechanics worked from daylight to dark, frequently continuing their labors sixteen hours. Under this severe strain his health again gave way, and in September, 1841, he was reluctantly compelled to abandon the trade of a carpenter, except to work about three days in the week in order to pay his board.

At this point he determined to gain an education, and endeavor to earn a living by his brain, since his muscles failed him. He returned to Hudson with the purpose of entering college, his entire capital being ten cents in money and a few tools, with which he hoped to earn enough to pay for his board and tuition. He remained at the college five years, working at his trade by the hour, and doing odd jobs, teaching an occasional term, and working hard as a carpenter in vacations. His studies and labors were unremitting, sometimes allowing him but three hours' sleep out of the twenty-four. As might be expected, his health again gave way, and he was obliged to leave. The college conferred on him the honorary degree of M. A., and the Wesleyan University, at Delaware, Ohio, subsequently conferred the same degree, both without solicitation.

[Illustration: R. F. Humiston.]

On leaving college he went into the nursery business, not having physical stamina sufficient to prosecute his studies for the ministry, as intended. In this business he continued directly for eighteen months, and partially for five or six years.

In the Fall of 1847, he commenced teaching in the public schools in Cuyahoga Falls, and in the following Spring established a private school, the Cuyahoga Falls Seminary. At the end of that year he was elected Superintendent of Public Instruction and principal of the high school. He continued his seminary, having assistants, and the privilege being allowed him of spending a portion of his time in the management of that establishment. In the Fall of 1849, he came to Cleveland and was appointed principal of the Rockwell street grammar school, where he remained seven years, bringing up the school from a low pitch to rank among the foremost in the city. His salary, when he began to teach in Cleveland was but five hundred dollars, and out of this he had to provide for two families, his own and that of his parents. To add to his small stipend, he taught evening school, and took agencies in the vacation. At the same time he was repeatedly offered other situations at better salaries, and was invited to become the principal of a State Normal school. He tendered his resignation as principal of the Rockwell street school, but was induced to remain on promise of increase of salary. Finally, becoming weary of that hope deferred that maketh the heart sick, he resigned and was engaged at a much higher salary, to establish, under the patronage of an association of leading citizens, the Cleveland Academy. This enterprise was very successful, and the position pleasant, a fine corps of assistants being gathered around him.

After two years labor in this position, some gentlemen connected with the property on University Heights, requested him to engage in the enterprise of a school on the Heights, in the building erected for a college under president Mahan, but which now lay unfinished and unoccupied, the college scheme having failed. They offered rent and grounds free, but he refused, until they agreed to sell him the whole property for a nominal sum, if he could acquire a clear title, the ownership having become badly involved by the failure of the college. This he eventually accomplished after much labor, and took possession of the property in 1856.

The task was a gigantic one to a man like Mr. Humiston, with limited funds and uncertain health. The building was unfinished and needed considerable expenditure to put it in shape for occupation. The location though very promising in the distant future, was then very inconvenient of access, and was therefore objectionable. But Mr. Humiston possessed a determined will and he set to work without delay. He borrowed money, fitted up a portion of the building, and opened the Cleveland Institute with strong hopes for the future, but gloomy prospects in the present.

About the middle of the second year the building took fire and a large portion of the interior was destroyed. The school was closed for six months, and with characteristic energy Mr. Humiston went to work to repair damages, enlarging the building, and again involving himself in debt to meet the expense. Success crowned his enterprise. The number of scholars increased rapidly, and again the building had to be enlarged and improved.

The institute was continued ten years, and the gross income in its later years ranged from $20,000 to $31,000 per year. During nearly the whole time Mr. Humiston taught himself, and usually five hours out of the six devoted to studies. At the same time he gave medical lectures at the Western Homoeopathic College, and managed all the affairs of the institute, keeping no agent or steward. He purchased and fitted up in the institute a fine chemical and philosophical apparatus, collected a good library and several valuable cabinets of specimens in natural history, geology, and mineralogy. The corps of teachers was large and of superior talents.

In 1868, Mr. Humiston, considering that he had earned a respite from his arduous and unremitting labors, accepted an offer from some gentlemen desirous of establishing a Homoeopathic Hospital, and sold his building' with half the adjoining grounds for $35,000. He then accepted the tender of the agency of the American Missionary Association in Great Britain, and early in 1869 left for Europe, having previously visited the South in order to acquaint himself with the condition of the freedmen, whose cause he designed especially to present. After a year or more spent in this work he designs visiting the remainder of Europe, North Africa, and the Holy Land.

Mr. Humiston has, since 1859, held the position of Professor of Chemistry and Toxicology in the Western Homoeopathic College, and has given ten courses of lectures in that institution. Each year he insisted on resigning, but the resignation has always been refused. On closing his educational career he again resigned, but the college again refused to accept his resignation, promising to supply his place temporarily during his absence in Europe.

The distinguishing characteristic of Mr. Humiston is his strong will, and this is well exemplified in the fact that although born with a constitutional fierce thirst for liquor, he has been able to continue in right habits of temperance through all temptation, though at the cost of many powerful struggles with his inordinate cravings. He is a man of strong religions convictions, and has been so from his youth up. For many years he was connected with the Methodist church on University Heights. As an educator he ranks among the best in the State, and was held in deservedly high esteem by those who had themselves been taught by him, or whose children had been brought up under his tuition.


First of the railroads of any description chartered in connection with Cleveland were the Cleveland and Newburgh and Cleveland and Bedford Railroad Companies. The first named was incorporated in 1835, built soon after, and for some time run by horse power, hauling stone and timber, and occasionally passengers. It was eventually abandoned. The Cleveland and Bedford was never built. Another local road, run by horse power, with wooden rails, was, about the same time, constructed between the city and East Cleveland, passing up Euclid street.

The Ohio Railroad was of a different character. It was intended to run along the lake shore from the Pennsylvania line to Toledo, mostly to be built on piles. Considerable work was done, though no iron laid, when the financial crisis overwhelmed it and its kindred schemes. The piles driven for the track are yet visible in places between Cleveland and Sandusky. The rights of the company, as far as they existed, afterwards became the property of the Junction Railroad Company, now the Cleveland and Toledo. Of the same period, was the Cleveland, Warren and Pittsburgh. This was chartered in 1836, the act of incorporation authorizing the construction of a railroad from Cleveland, in the direction of Pittsburgh, to the State line of Pennsylvania. At the point of intersection with the State line, the charter provided for the union of the road with any other road which the State of Pennsylvania might authorize from Pittsburgh, or any other point below the Ohio river, running in the direction of Cleveland, in order that a continuous route might be perfected from Cleveland to Pittsburgh, under the authority of both States. The charter was very loose in its provisions, allowing the president and directors to create and sell stock as in their judgement occasion might require, without limit as to the amount issued, except that it should not exceed the needs of the company. Plenary powers were granted to the company in the selection of a route, the condemnation of land, and like "full and discretionary power" was granted to the company in "the use and occupancy of the road, in the transportation of persons or property, either by the force and power of steam, or animals, or any mechanical or other power, or any combination of them, which the company may think proper to employ." The cost of the line was estimated to be less than $7,000 per mile. The road was to be an extension of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, a branch of which was to extend to Pittsburgh, and thus would "give the whole vast region of the western lakes an opportunity of marketing their products in, and receiving their foreign produce from Philadelphia and Baltimore, at least rive weeks earlier in the season, and at much less expense," than was accomplished at New York.

In the same year a charter was obtained for the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad, connecting Cleveland and Cincinnati by the way of Columbus.

None of the roads were built under these charters. The financial panic of 1837 swept them all into oblivion, together with a multitude of other roads projected throughout the country. Some of them were heard of no more, and others were revived in after years, the charters greatly amended, and the roads eventually built. The design of the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad Company was eventually carried out to the extent of building a line to Columbus and there connecting with railroads extending to Cincinnati. The Cleveland, Warren and Pittsburgh charter was dug up, amended, and made authority for organization of the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad, whilst the original route was mainly occupied by the new Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad.

The Cleveland and Bedford was at last rendered unnecessary by the Cleveland and Pittsburgh passing over its route, whilst the Cleveland and Newburgh reap-pears as a street railroad, for passengers only, the original design of a local railroad for freight being abandoned thirty odd years ago.

In 1845, the lapsed charter of the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad Company was revived, revised, and a new company organized, with John W. Allen, Richard Hilliard, Jolin M. Woolsey and H. B. Payne as Cleveland directors, and John W. Allen as president. Between the organization of the company and the construction of the road there was a wide gulf of difficulties, jealousies and enmities, bridged over at last by untiring perseverance and unwavering faith in the final success of the undertaking. The story of the struggle is told incidentally in the biographical sketches of those connected with the enterprise. All that we have to do here is, to briefly sketch the leading features in the narrative as it has been already told, after a careful examination of the documentary history of the company. That account says the incorporation of the company had been obtained in the year 1845, with a proviso authorizing the city of Cleveland to subscribe two millions of dollars to the stock. The bonds of the city were promptly given, but before any money could be obtained upon these bonds it was necessary that a further subscription should be made by the citizens, not only to meet the current expenses, but to give assurance to capitalists abroad that the people here were really in earnest, and would not suffer the undertaking to fall through. After a thorough canvass of the city, by two well known and respected citizens, it was found that not more than twenty-five thousand dollars could be obtained. There was both a scarcity of cash and a lack of faith in the enterprise.

John M. Woolsey was sent to Cincinnati to negotiate the city bonds with the Ohio Life and Trust Company; to Pittsburgh to ascertain upon what terms iron could be obtained; and to Philadelphia and New York to enlist the sympathy and help of capitalists. The mission was a failure. The common strap iron of that day could not be obtained without cash on delivery, and the money could not be procured on any terms. Cleveland was too far off, and entirely unknown to the moneyed men of the eastern cities. Thus, in the Spring of 1847, one of the very darkest periods in our history, it was determined to abandon the enterprise for the time, and await a more favorable season.

In this desperate extremity Mr. Hilliard and Mr. Payne volunteered another and last effort of three months personal labor to arouse their fellow citizens to a proper sense of the importance and ultimate value of this grand undertaking. By patient perseverance they succeeded in securing a leading subscription of five thousand dollars from Leonard Case, who also consented to become a director of the company. The ultimate result of the solicitations was the subscription of about $40,000 additional to the amount previously pledged. About the same time an accession of the utmost importance was made when Alfred Kelley, of Columbus, accepted the presidency of the road, contrary to his inclination to retire from further public duties and to the strong remonstrances of his personal friends. Through the influence of Mr. Dwight, of Springfield, Mass., the directors secured the services of Captain Childs, well known among Eastern capitalists as a skillful engineer, and his endorsement of the company did much to advance its credit abroad. But it was still necessary to secure a large disposal of stock at home, and to effect this, a liberal additional assessment upon the friends of the road was made and accepted. Mr. Childs finally recommended Mr. Harbeck, who, in company with Stillman Witt and Amasa Stone, Jr., undertook and carried out the building of the road to its completion.

In February, 1851, the first through train arrived from Columbus, bringing the State authorities and the Legislature, to celebrate the union of the two cities. Thus the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad was the pioneer of the series of the now enlarged, and most important enterprises so clearly identified with the growth of the city. The chairman of the building committee stated at the opening of the new depot, that during the entire building of that road, there was not a dollar paid as a bribe to either the Legislature or the City Council, to receive their favors.

The terminus of the road at Cleveland was originally intended to be on Scranton's Flats, but it was afterwards determined to bring the road across the river to the site of the old New England House. Appreciating the importance of extending it to the lake shore, the contractors agreed to grade the road free of charge from that point to the lake, and it was accordingly carried forward to its present terminus.

In 1869, the road was consolidated with the Bellefontaine line, thus placing its western terminus in Indianapolis. Its southern stem had previously been extended by way of the Delaware Cut-Off to Springfield, thus opening another connection with Cincinnati.

We have already said that the charter of the Cleveland, Warren and Pittsburgh Railroad, after sleeping for several years, was dug up, amended, and the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad Company organized under it. The resuscitation of the charter took place in March, 1845, when the route was changed from "the most direct in the direction of Pittsburgh," to "the most direct, practicable, and least expensive route to the Ohio river, at the most suitable point." The company organized at Ravenna, in October of the same year, with James Stewart, of Wellsville, as president, A. G. Cattell, as secretary, and Cyrus Prentiss, as treasurer. The route was surveyed, meetings held in aid of the project, and in July, 1847, the first contracts let from Wellsville northward, and the work of construction commenced. The northern end dragged, owing to the slow coming in of subscriptions, and the work was not fully let until 1849.

In February, 1851, the line was opened from Cleveland to Hudson, and the General Assembly and State officers who had come to Cleveland to attend the celebration of the opening of the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad, accepted an invitation to ride over the new railroad to Hudson. A short supply of provisions at Hudson, and the ditching of the train on the return trip, made the weary and hungry legislators long remember their pioneer trip over the unfinished Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad. In March following, the track was completed to Ravenna, in November to Hanover, at which time free passes for "each stockholder and his lady," and "landholders through whose land the road passes, with their wives," were issued, good for one ride over the line and return, that they might see the whole of the stupendous undertaking and admire it. In January 1852, connection was made with the Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad at Alliance, and a route thus opened to Pittsburgh, and in March, of the same year, the line was opened to Wellsville, and connection with the Ohio river perfected, thus completing the work laid out in the amended charter.

At different times, subsequently, authority was granted by the General Assembly for the extension of the line and the construction of branches. In this way the River Division was built, connecting the Wellsville end with Pittsburgh by a junction with the Ohio and Pennsylvania at Rochester, and with the Baltimore and Ohio and Central Ohio, by a line to Bellair. The Tuscarawas Branch was built to New Philadelphia, and there stopped, though its original purpose was to form a connection with the Steubenville and Indiana Railroad. Authority was also given to build a branch from Hudson towards the Ohio and Pennsylvania and any line running in the direction of Columbus. A separate company afterwards constructed this "Akron Branch," or Cleveland, Zanesville and Cincinnati Railroad, so far as Millersburgh. The Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad has had a serious financial struggle to go through, but it has come out as an important and prosperous line. It is now working under a consolidation of earnings with the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago, formerly known as the Ohio and Pennsylvania.

The Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula Railroad Company, now, after several consolidations and changes of title, forming part of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad Company, was part of the general plan of the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad, was built under much of the same influence, and has always been intimately connected with it in its working. The charter was obtained by special act in 1848, and empowered the corporators to build a line by way of Painesville, through Ashtabula county, to the Pennsylvania State line, and to continue their line into that State to any point authorized by the Pennsylvania Legislature. That part of the road extending to Erie, in the State of Pennsylvania, was constructed under the charter of the Franklin Canal Company, passed by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, the 21st day of May, 1846, and amended April 9th, 1849, giving it authority to construct a railroad.

The company was organized August 1st, 1849, by the selection of Alfred Kelley, Samuel L. Seldin, Heman B. Ely, George E. Gillett, David R. Paige, Laphnor Lake and Peleg P. Sanford as directors, and Heman B. Ely as president, and the surveys from Cleveland were made under the superintendence of Frederick Harbeck as chief engineer, and from the State line to Erie he acted as consulting engineer, filling both situations until his death, which occurred in the month of February, 1851. A contract for the construction of the road from Cleveland to the State line of Pennsylvania was made with Frederick Harbeck, A. Stone, Jr., and Stillman Witt, on the 26th day of July, 1850, but the work progressed slowly for six months after the contract was concluded, principally for the reason that there was no confidence in the ability of a railroad from Cleveland to Erie or Buffalo to compete with the lake in the transportation of persons and property, and the contractors expended more than $100,000 of their means before a like amount could be raised through all other sources. In the month of January, 1851, the Hon. Alfred Kelley was appointed general agent of the company with unlimited authority to raise funds and press forward the work of completion. He entered upon his duties with his usual indomitable perseverance and energy, fully seconded by the directors and contractors, and they had the satisfaction of passing a locomotive over its entire length late in the autumn of the year 1852.

The act conferring authority on the Franklin Canal Company to construct a railroad from the State line of Ohio to the city of Erie, being regarded by the Legislature of the State of Pennsylvania as doubtful, they repealed it on the 28th day of January, 1854. On the 5th day of May, 1856, the Legislature of the State of Pennsylvania passed an act authorizing the Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula Railroad Company to purchase the road as constructed from the State line to Erie, and to operate it under the general law of the State of Pennsylvania, passed the 19th day of February, 1849. The history of the Pennsylvania portion of the line reflects no credit on that State. The petty and vexations "Erie War" in 1854, by which a portion of the people of Erie attempted to prevent a through connection of the road at that place, and the unjustifiable expenses to which the company were subjected by the Legislature, are blots on the record of that State.

The road was operated jointly with the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad until April 1st, 1855, when the management was divided. In 1869, it was consolidated, first with the Cleveland and Toledo and then with the Michigan Southern and Buffalo and Erie Railroads. The Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula has been one of the most profitable railroads in the country.

The story of the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad Company--one of persistent struggle against apparently insurmountable difficulties, is told in great part in the sketch of the life of Jacob Perkins, to whose labors and sacrifices the success of the undertaking is in great measure due. The road was projected to develope more fully the mineral and agricultural resource of Trumbull and Mahoning counties, and to find a market for their products in Pittsburgh or Cleveland. Unlike many projected railroads, the first object of this line was a local trade; the through business anticipated was a secondary consideration. The Company was incorporated in 1851, and the first meeting of stockholders held at, Warren, Trumbull county, in June, 1852, when $300,000 local subscriptions were reported and it was determined to survey and prepare estimates for the road. The directors under whom this work was commenced were Jacob Perkins, Frederick Kinsman and Charles Smith, of Warren, David Tod, of Youngstown, Dudley Baldwin of Cleveland, Robert Cunningham, of New Castle, and James Magee, of Philadelphia. In order to aid the enterprise by securing connections, they opened negotiations with the Pennsylvania and Ohio Railroad, and the Pittsburgh and Erie Railroad, but without success. About the same time a contract was made with the Junction Railroad, afterwards merged in the Cleveland and Toledo Road, for purchase of ground near the mouth of the Cuyahoga river, on the west side, and the right of way obtained through a portion of Ohio City, and through Scranton's Hill to the west end of the Columbus street bridge, near which the freight depot was afterwards established. In 1853, the principal office of the Company was removed to Cleveland, which was made the head quarters of the Company.

After surveying different routes and hesitating over the choice between them, it was decided to build the road from Cleveland, on the West Side, and running through Scranton's hill to Newburgh, Bedford, Aurora, Mantua and Warren, fifty-three miles, and thence down the Mahoning Valley to Youngstown and Poland, to the east line of the State.

Repeated attempts were made to induce the Legislature of Pennsylvania to authorize an extension of the road in that State, but owing to the opposition of the Pittsburgh and Erie Bailroad, and especially of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad, the desired permission was finally refused. The estimated aggregate cost of the road was about one and three-quarter millions of dollars, and when the principal contracts for labor and iron were made, there was a very fair prospect of disposing of the bonds of the company to advantage, and thus, in addition to the loans effected in Philadelphia, New York and at home, the means to complete the work were reasonably anticipated. In the Directors' Report of 1854, they were obliged to announce unlooked for embarrassments, growing out of the altered condition of the money market. The story of the seemingly hopeless, but finally successful, struggle that followed is told in another part of this work. At length, in 1857, after five or six years of persevering efforts, and most perplexing difficulties, the road was opened through to Youngstown; substantial machine shops were built at Cleveland, station houses erected along the route, and the coal and iron of the Mahoning Valley were made accessible by a quick and easy route.

In October, 1863, the road was leased for ninety-nine years to the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad, which had already laid a broad gauge upon the track, That company now controls the main line to Youngstown, with the several branches to Hubbard and the coal mines. The narrow gauge is kept up for the use of the Mahoning trains, freight and passenger, while the broad gauge is used by the Atlantic and Great Western through trains. The track has been extended to the shore of the old river bed, an extensive wharfage established, and large facilities obtained for connecting the traffic of the road with the lake commerce.

The Cleveland and Toledo Railroad Company was formed by the consolidation of two rival and nearly parallel lines. One of the companies thus united, was incorporated as the Junction Railroad Company, and the other by the name of the Toledo, Norwalk and Cleveland Railroad Company. The former was incorporated by an act of the legislature of Ohio, passed on the second day of March, 1846; and the latter, by an act of the seventh of March, 1850. The Junction Railroad Company, by its original charter and two amendments, in 1861, was authorized to construct a railroad from the city of Cleveland to the west line of the State by such route as the directors might determine, with power to construct branches to any points within the counties through which the main line might pass. The charter of the Toledo, Norwalk and Cleveland Railroad Company, authorized the construction of a railroad from Toledo, by the way of Norwalk, in the county of Huron, to a connection with the Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati Railroad, at some point in the counties of Huron or Lorain. The authorized capital stock of the Junction Company was three millions, and that of the other company, two millions of dollars.

The consolidation was effected, and the new company organized on the first of September, A. D. 1853, under the specific provisions of the twelfth section of the amendment to the Toledo, Norwalk and Cleveland Railroad charter, passed on the first of March, 1850. Under its charter, the Toledo, Norwalk and Cleveland Railroad Company constructed a road from the east bank of the Maumee river, opposite the city of Toledo, to Grafton, where it connects with the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad, twenty-five miles south-west from the city of Cleveland, being a distance of eighty-seven and one-half miles, all of which was finished and put into operation in January, 1853. This became known as the Southern Division of the Cleveland and Toledo Railroad.

The Northern Division, or Junction Railroad, was originally intended to run from Cleveland, west side, via Berea and Sandusky, westward to a point on the Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana Railroad some twenty miles west of Toledo, and crossing the track of the Toledo, Norwalk and Cleveland Railroad at a point about eight miles east of the same city. The road was opened between Cleveland and Sandusky and operations commenced upon it in the Fall of 1858, immediately after the consolidation. The original project of a separate line to the west was carried out by the consolidated corporation so far as to construct the road to its intersection with the old Toledo, Norwalk and Cleveland track, from which point both lines approached Toledo over the same right of way. This line was operated over its whole length until the 31st day of December, 1858, on which day the use for regular business of that portion lying west of Sandusky was discontinued, and all the through travel and traffic turned upon the Southern Division. On the 30th of July, 1856, a contract was entered into with the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad Company by which the Cleveland and Toledo Company acquired the right to use the track of the first named company from Grafton to Cleveland, for the Southern Division trains, and from Berea to Cleveland for the Northern Division, and thence forward all trains were run into, and departed from, the Union Depot in Cleveland--a change which soon resulted in the practical abandonment, for the time, of that portion of the Northern Division lying between Berea and Cleveland on the west side of Cuyahoga river. This arrangement, together with the completion, in 1855, of a bridge over the Maumee river at Toledo, enabled the company to receive and discharge its passengers in union depots at each end of its line. During the years 1865 and 1866, about eight miles of new road were constructed between Elyria on the Northern Division, and Oberlin on the Southern Division, for the purpose of allowing all trains to leave and come upon the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Road at Berea, thirteen miles, instead of Grafton, twenty-five miles from Cleveland. This new piece of road was opened for business on the 10th of September, 1866, and the road between Oberlin and Grafton immediately abandoned, The construction of a bridge near the mouth of the Cuyahoga river at Cleveland, brought the Northern Division line between Cleveland and Berea once more into use, and over it the freight trains of the line are now run. In 1869, the company was made part of the Consolidated line between Buffalo and Chicago.

The Atlantic and Great Western Railroad, by its lease of the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad, has become an important part of the Cleveland railroad System. The company was organized in 1851, as the Franklin and Warren Railroad Company, to build a road from Franklin Mills (now Kent) in Portage County, to Warren, in Trumbull county, with power to extend to a point in the eastern line of the State, northeast of Warren and southwesterly to Dayton, Ohio. In July, 1853, operations were actively commenced along the whole line, but were soon seriously retarded by financial embarrassments. In 1854, the Franklin and Warren Railroad Company, under authority of an Act of the General Assembly of 1853, changed its name to the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad Company. Two years before, a project had been started to extend the broad gauge of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad through Ohio, northeastern Pennsylvania and southwestern New York, to connect with the New York and Erie Railroad. This route would run through Meadville, Pennsylvania, Warren, Kent, Akron and Galion to Dayton, Ohio. In 1858, the Meadville Railroad Company changed their name to the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad Company of Pennsylvania. In 1859, a company was organized in the State of New York, under the name of the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad in New York, and purchased in 1860 of the New York and Erie Railroad Company thirty eight miles of their road, from Salamanca to near Ashville. These thirty eight miles with eleven miles of new line, make up the entire length of line of this road in the State of New York. Each of the above companies made contracts for the building of their respective roads.

In the Fall of 1858, negotiations were commenced in London with James McHenry, for the means to carry on the work. T. W. Kennard, a civil engineer, came over as the attorney of Mr. McHenry, and engineer in chief of the whole work. In 1862, the road was opened from Corry to Meadville, Pennsylvania. In 1863, it was extended to Warren, and in the next year to Ravenna and Akron--202 miles from Salamanca.

In October, 1863, the three companies above named, leased for ninety-nine years, the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad, extending from Cleveland southerly to Youngstown, Ohio, sixty-seven miles. This road has a narrow gauge track crossing the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad at Leavittsburgh, Ohio, fifty miles south of Cleveland. The Atlantic and Great Western Company laid a rail on either side of the narrow track, thus carrying the broad gauge into Cleveland, and a broad gauge train from the city of New York entered Cleveland on the evening of November 3rd, 1863. Subsequently the several companies forming the Atlantic and Great Western line were consolidated into one line, and this again was, in 1869, consolidated with the Erie Railway.

Besides opening a new and important thoroughfare to the East, this line has opened up to Cleveland the resources of north-western Pennsylvania, and in the oil product has added an immense and highly profitable trade to the business of the city.

Several lines have been built, connecting with and adding business to the railroads leading to Cleveland, but of these it is not the province of this work to speak. A large number of new railroads have been from time to time projected in various directions. Some of these "paper railroads" have intrinsic merit, and these, or lines aiming at the same objects, will eventually be built.

[Illustration: Yours truly, Jacob Perkins]

Jacob Perkins.

Jacob Perkins was born at Warren, Trumbull county, Ohio, September 1st, 1822, being next to the youngest of the children of Gen. Simon Perkins, one of the earliest and most prominent, business men of norther Ohio, a land agent of large business, and the owner of extensive tracts of land. In his early years Jacob Perkins developed a strong inclination for study, acquiring knowledge with unusual facility, and gratifying his intense passion for reading useful works by every means within his power.

He commenced fitting himself for college at the Burton Academy, then under the direction of Mr. H. L. Hitchcock, now president of Western Reserve College, and completed his preparation at Middletown, Connecticut, in the school of Isaac Webb. He entered Yale College in 1837.

While in college he was distinguished for the elegance of his style and the wide range of his literary acquirements. He delivered the philosophic oration at his junior exhibition, and was chosen second editor of "Yale Literary Magazine," a position in which he took great interest, and filled to the satisfaction and pride of his class. His college course was, however, interrupted by a long and severe illness before the close of his junior year, which compelled him to leave his studies and (to his permanent regret) prevented him from graduating with his own class. He returned the following year and was graduated with the class of 1842.

He entered his father's office at Warren, and was occupied with its business until, upon the death of his father, some two years afterwards, he became one of his executors.

During his residence at Warren he appeared occasionally before home audiences as a public speaker, and always with great acceptance.

In politics, he early adopted strong anti-slavery principles, then not the popular doctrine, and they were always freely and openly advocated. Of an address delivered in 1848, which was published and attracted very considerable local attention, the editor of the Chronicle remarked, "We have listened to the best orators of the land, from the Connecticut to the Mississippi, and can truly say, by none have we been so thoroughly delighted in every particular as by this effort of our distinguished townsman." The oration discussed the true theory of human rights and the legitimate powers of human government--and the following extract gives the spirit of his political principles on the subject of slavery:

The object of law is not to make rights, but to define and maintain them; man possesses them before the existence of law, the same as he does afterwards. No matter what government may extend its control over him; no matter how miserable or how sinful the mother in whose arms his eyes opened to the day; no matter in what hovel his infancy is nursed; no matter what complexion--an Indian or an African sun may have burned upon him, this may decide the privileges which he is able to assert, but can not affect the existence of his rights. His self-mastery is the gift of his creator, and oppression, only, can take it away.

Without solicitation he was nominated and elected a member of the Convention that framed the present Constitution of Ohio. His associates from the district were Judges Peter Hitchcock and R. P. Ranney, and although "he was the youngest member but one of the Convention--and in the minority, his influence and position were excelled by few."

He was one of the Senatorial Presidential Electors for Ohio on the Fremont ticket in 1856.

In the intellectual progress of the young about him, and the building up of schools and colleges, he took especial interest. He first suggested and urged upon President Pierce to adopt the conditions of the present "Permanent Fund of Western Reserve College," rather than to solicit unconditional contributions, which experience had proved were so easily absorbed by present necessities, and left the future as poor as the past. In connection with his brothers, he made the first subscription to that fund. The embarrassment arising from his railroad enterprise prevented him from increasing that contribution. The wisdom of his suggestions was subsequently shown, when, during the rupture and consequent embarrassment under which the college labored, the income of this fund had a very important, if not vital share in saving it from abandonment, and afterwards proved the nucleus of its present endowment.

He was always efficient in favoring improvements. He was associated with Hon. F. Kinsman and his brother in founding the beautiful Woodland Cemetery at Warren. The land was purchased and the ground laid out by them, and then transferred to the present corporation.

Soon after his return from the Constitutional Convention, he became interested in the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad. He was most influential in obtaining the charter and organizing the company, of which he was elected president, and became the principal, almost sole financial manager.

Owing to prior and conflicting railroad interests, little aid could be obtained for his project in either of the terminal cities, Cleveland and Pittsburgh, and the work was commenced in 1853 with a comparatively small stock subscription. A tightening money market prevented any considerable increase of the stock list, or a favorable disposition of the bonds of the road, and the financial crisis a few years afterwards so reduced the value of the securities of this, as of all unfinished railroads, as practically to shut them out of the market. In this emergency the alternative presented itself to Mr. Perkins and his resident directors, either to abandon the enterprise and bankrupt the company, with the entire loss of the amount expended, or to push it forward to completion by the pledge, and at the risk of their private fortunes, credit, and reputations.

In this, the darkest day of the enterprise, Mr. Perkins manifested his confidence in its ultimate success, and his generous willingness to meet fully his share of the hazard to be incurred, by proposing to them, jointly with him, to assume that risk; and agreeing that in case of disaster, he would himself pay the first $100,000 of loss, and thereafter share it equally with them.

With a devotion to the interests entrusted to them, a determination rarely equalled in the history of our railroad enterprises, they unanimously accepted this proposition, and determined to complete the road, at least to a remunerative point in the coal fields of the Mahoning Valley.

The financial storm was so much more severe and longer continued than the wisest had calculated upon, that for years the result was regarded by them and the friends of the enterprise with painful suspense. In the interest of the road Mr. Perkins spent the Spring of 1854 in England, without achieving any important financial results.

At length, in 1856, the road was opened to Youngstown, and its receipts, carefully husbanded, began slowly to lessen the floating debt, by that time grown to frightful proportions, and carried solely by the pledge of the private property and credit of the president and Ohio directors. These directors, consisting of Hon. Frederick Kinsman and Charles Smith, of Warren, Governor David Tod, of Briar Hill, Judge Reuben Hitchcock, of Painesville, and Dudley Baldwin, of Cleveland, by the free use of their widely known and high business credit, without distrust or dissension, sustained the president through that long and severe trial, a trial which can never be realized except by those who shared its burdens. The president and these directors should ever be held in honor by the stockholders of the company, whose investment they saved from utter loss, and by the business men of the entire Mahoning Valley, and not less by the city of Cleveland; for the mining and manufacturing interests developed by their exertions and sacrifices, lie at the very foundation of the present prosperity of both.

Before, however, the road was enabled to free itself from financial embarrassment, so to as commence making a satisfactory return to the stockholders, which Mr. Perkins was exceedingly anxious to see accomplished under his own presidency--his failing health compelled him to leave its active management, and he died before the bright day dawned upon the enterprise.

He said to a friend during his last illness, with characteristic distinctness: "If I die, you may inscribe on my tomb stone, Died of the Mahoning Railroad;" so great had been his devotion to the interests of the road, and so severe the personal exposures which its supervision had required of him, who was characteristically more thoughtful of every interest confided to his care, than of his own health.

He was married October 24th, 1850, to Miss Elizabeth O. Tod, daughter of Dr. J. I. Tod, of Milton, Trumbull county, Ohio, and removed his family to Cleveland in 1856. Of three children, only one, Jacob Bishop, survives him. Mrs. Perkins died of rapid consumption, June 4th, 1857, and his devoted attention at the sick bed of his wife greatly facilitated the development of the same insidious disease, which was gradually to undermine his own naturally vigorous constitution.

The business necessities of his road, embarrassed and pressing as they were, united with his uniform self-forgetfulness, prevented his giving attention to his personal comfort and health, long after his friends saw the shadow of the destroyer falling upon his path. He was finally, in great prostration of health and strength, compelled to leave the active duties of the road and spent the latter part of the Winter of 1857-8 in the Southern States, but returned in the Spring with little or no improvement. He continued to fail; during the Summer and in the Fall of 1858 he again went South in the vain hope of at least physical relief, and died in Havana, Cuba, January 12th, 1859. His remains were embalmed and brought home by his physician who had accompanied him--and were interred at Warren, in Woodland Cemetery, where so many of his family repose around him. A special train from either end of the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad brought the board of directors and an unusually large number of business and personal friends to join the long procession which followed "the last of earth" to its resting place.

One of the editorial notices of his death, at the time, very justly remarks of him:

He was a man of mark, and through strength of talent, moral firmness and urbanity of manner, wielded an influence seldom possessed by a man of his years. In addition to his remarkable business capacity, Mr. Perkins was a man of high literary taste, which was constantly improving and enriching his mind. He continued, even amid his pressing-business engagements, his habits of study and general reading. Mr. Perkins belonged to that exceptional class of cases in which great wealth, inherited, does not injure the recipient.

An editorial of a Warren paper, mentioning his death, says:

He was born in this town in 1821, and from his boyhood exhibited a mental capacity and energy which was only the promise of the brilliancy of his manhood. To his exertion, his personal influence and liberal investment of capital the country is indebted for the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad. To his unremitting labor in this enterprise he has sacrificed personal comfort and convenience, and we fear, shortened his days by his labors and exposure in bringing the work to completion. Known widely as Mr. Perkins has been by his active part in public enterprises, his loss will be felt throughout the State, but we who have known him both as boy and man, have a deeper interest in him, and the sympathies of the people of Warren, with his relatives, will have much of the nature of personal grief for one directly connected with them.

Said a classmate in the class meeting of 1862:

Although his name on the catalogue ranks with the class of 1842, his affections were with us, and he always regarded himself of our number. He visited New Haven frequently during the latter part of his life, in connection with a railway enterprise, in which he was interested, and exhibited the same large-heartedness and intellectual superiority which won for him universal respect during his college course.

A gentleman who knew Mr. Perkins intimately, and as a director was associated with him in the construction of the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad, and in carrying its debt, wrote of him as follows:

The management and construction of the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad by Mr. Perkins, under circumstances the most difficult and trying, were well calculated to test his powers, and, in that work he proved himself possessed of business capacity rarely equalled, sustained by unquestioned integrity, and remarkable energy. These qualifications, united with his large wealth, gave him the requisite influence with business men and capitalists. His devotion to the interests of the road, his abiding confidence in a favorable result, and his clear and just appreciation of its value, and importance to the community, called forth his best efforts, and were essential conditions of success. To him more than to any other individual are the projection, inauguration, and accomplishment of this enterprise attributable. From its earliest projection, he had a most comprehensive and clear view of its importance to the city of Cleveland and the Mahoning Valley, and confidently anticipated for them, in the event of its completion, a rapidity and extent of development and prosperity, which were then regarded as visionary, but which the result has fully demonstrated.

His life was spared to witness only the commencement of this prosperity, nor can it be doubted, that his close application, and unremitting efforts to forward the work shortened his life materially. His deep and absorbing interest in it, prevented the precautionary measures and relaxations, which in all probability would have prolonged his life for years. His associates in the board saw the danger and urged him to earlier and more decided measures for relief. He too was aware of their importance. But the constant demand upon his time and strength, and the continually recurring necessities of the enterprise, which he had so much at heart, were urgent, and so absorbed his thoughts and energies, that he delayed until it was obvious that relaxation could afford merely temporary relief.

In his intercourse with the board, Mr. Perkins was uniformly courteous and gentlemanly, always giving respectful attention to the suggestions of his associates, but ever proving himself thoroughly posted; readily comprehending the most judicious measures, and clearly demonstrating their wisdom. Entire harmony in the action of the directors was the result, and all had the fullest confidence in him. While his business capacity and integrity commanded their highest admiration, his urbanity, kindness and marked social qualities secured their strong personal attachment, and by them his decease was regarded as a severe personal affliction, as well as a great public loss.

Thus is briefly noticed, one who dying comparatively early, had given evidence of great business capacity, as well as the promise of unusual power and popularity with the people of his own State, and nation.

William Case.

A work professing to give sketches, however brief and incomplete, of the representative men of Cleveland, would be manifestly defective did it omit notice of the late William Case, a gentleman of sterling worth and great popularity, who was identified with much of the material progress of the city, who had a host of deeply attached friends while living, and whose memory is cherished with affectionate esteem.

[Illustration: William Case]

William Case was born to prosperity, but this, which to very many has proved the greatest misfortune of their lives, was to him no evil, but, on the contrary, a good, inasmuch as it gave him opportunity for gratifying his liberal tastes, and his desire to advance the general welfare. From his father, Leonard Case, he inherited an extraordinary business capacity, indomitable energy, and strong common sense, with correct habits. To these inherited traits he added an extensive knowledge, acquired both from books and men, and made practical by keen observation, and liberal ideas, which he carried into his business and social affairs. In all relations of life he was ever a gentleman, in the true meaning of the word, courteous to all, the rich and the poor alike, and with an instinctive repugnance to everything mean, oppressive or hypocritical. With regard to himself, he was modest to a fault, shrinking from everything that might by any possibility be construed into ostentation or self-glorification. This tribute the writer of these lines,--who owed him nothing but friendship, and who was in no way a recipient of any favor from him, other than his good will,--is glad of an opportunity to pay, and this testimony to his good qualities, falls short of the facts.

William Case takes his place in this department of our work by virtue of the fact that he was an early friend to the railroad enterprises of Cleveland. He contributed largely to the Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula Railroad, and for four years and a half, until August, 1858, was president of that company. Under his management the railroad prospered and paid large dividends, and when he left that position it was with the regret of all his subordinates, whose esteem had been won by his kindness and courtesy.

But it was not alone as a railroad man that Mr. Case won for himself the title to a place among the leading representative men of the city. He grew up with Cleveland, and was alive to the interests of the growing city. No scheme of real improvement but found a friend in him. He was energetic in forwarding movements for bettering the condition of the streets; he took a leading part in the location and establishment of the Water Works. Anxious to effect an improvement in the business architecture of the city, in which Cleveland was so far behind cities of less pretension, he projected and carried on far towards completion the Case Block, which stands to-day the largest and most noticeable business building in the city, and which contains one of the finest public halls in the West. Mr. Case died before completion of the building, which unforeseen difficulties made of great cost, but his plans so far as known--including some of great generosity, such as the donation of a fine suite of rooms to the Cleveland Library Association--have been faithfully carried out.

In 1846, Mr. Case was elected member of the City Council from the Second Ward, and served in that position four years. In that body he was noted for his advocacy of every measure tending to the improvement of the city, and the development of its industrial and commercial resources.

In the Spring of 1850, he was nominated, on the Whig ticket, for mayor of Cleveland, and was elected by a large majority, against a strong Democratic opponent, his personal popularity being shown by his running ahead of his ticket. His administration was marked with such energy, ability and public spirit, that in the following year--the office then being annually elective--he was re-elected by an increased majority, and ran still further ahead of his ticket.

In 1852, the Whig convention for the Nineteenth Congressional District, which then included Cuyahoga county, assembled at Painesville, under the presidency of Mon. Peter Hitchcock. Mr. Case was there nominated for Congress by acclamation, and the canvass was carried on by the Whigs with great enthusiasm. But the Democracy and the Free Soil party were against him, and under the excitement growing out of anti-slavery agitation, the Free Soil candidate, Hon. Edward Wade, was elected, though closely pressed by Mr. Case. From that time Mr. Case, who was not in any respect a politician, and who had at no time a desire or need for office, took no active part in politics.

Mr. Case did not possess a strong constitution, and early in life his medical attendant reported against his being sent to college, as the application would be too severe a strain on his health. In accordance with the advice then given, he devoted much attention to hunting, fishing, and to horticultural and agricultural pursuits. But these were insufficient to save him, and he died April 19th, 1862, whilst yet in the prime of life, being but forty years old.

Amasa Stone, Jr.

Conspicuous among the railroad managers connected with Cleveland, indeed occupying a prominent position in the list of the railroad magnates of the country, is the name of Amasa Stone, Jr. The high position he has attained, and the wealth he has secured, are the rewards of his own perseverance, industry, and foresight; every dollar he has earned represents a material benefit to the public at large in the increase of manufacturing or traveling facilities.

Mr. Stone was born in the town of Charlton, Worcester county, Massachusetts, April 27th, 1818. He is of Puritan stock, the founder of the American branch of the family having-landed at Boston in 1632, from the ship Increase, which brought a colony of Puritans from England. The first settlement of the family was at Waltham. The father of Mr. Stone, also named Amasa, is now alive, hale and hearty, at the age of ninety years.

Young Amasa Stone lived with his parents and worked upon the farm, attending the town district school in its sessions, until he was seventeen years old, when he engaged with an older brother for three years, to learn the trade of a builder. His pay for the first year was to be forty dollars, increasing ten dollars yearly, and to furnish his own clothing. At the end of the second year, thinking he could do better, he purchased the remainder of his time for a nominal sum, and from that time was his own master. In the Winter of 1837-8, he attended the academy of Professer Bailey, in Worcester, Mass., having saved sufficient from his small wages to pay the expenses of a single term.

His first work on his own account was a contract to do the joiner work of a house building by Col. Temple, at Worcester. The work was done, and in part payment he took a note of a manufacturing firm for $130; within a few months the firm failed, the note became worthless, and the first earnings of the young builder were lost. That note Mr. Stone still preserves as a memento.

The following year, at the age of twenty, he joined his two older brothers in a contract for the construction of a church edifice in the town of East Brookfield, Mass. In the succeeding year, 1839, he engaged with his brother-in-law, Mr. William Howe, to act as foreman in the erection of two church edifices and several dwelling-houses in Warren, Mass.

During this time Mr. Howe was engaged in perfecting his invention of what is known as the Howe truss bridge. After securing his patent Mr. Howe contracted to build the superstructure of the bridge across the Connecticut river, at Springfield, for the Western Railroad Company. Mr. Stone engaged with him in this work. During a part of the first year he was employed on the foundations of the structure in the bed of the river. Thereafter until the year 1842, he was employed constantly by Mr. Howe in the erection of railway and other bridges, and railway depot buildings. In the Winter of 1841, his duties were most trying and arduous. About a thousand lineal feet of bridging on the Western Railroad, in the Green Mountains, had to be completed, and Mr. Stone and his men were called upon to carry the work through. In some locations the sun could scarcely be seen, the gorges were so deep and narrow, while during a large portion of the time the thermometer ranged below zero. But the work was successfully completed.

In the year 1842, he formed a copartnership with Mr. A. Boody, and purchased from Mr. Howe his bridge patent for the New England States, including all improvements and renewals. Subsequently an arrangement was concluded with Mr. D. L. Harris, under the name of Boody, Stone & Co., for the purpose of contracting for the construction of railways, railway bridges, and similar work, the mechanical details generally to be under the charge of Mr. Stone. In the year 1845, Mr. Stone was appointed superintendent of the New Haven, Hartford and Springfield Railroad, he, however, still continuing his partnership in the firm of Boody, Stone & Co., and the business of the firm becoming so heavy that within a year from the time of his appointment he resigned his office as superintendent.

Circumstances occurred previous to his appointment that may be worthy of remark. The purchase of the bridge patent, before alluded to, was for the sum of forty thousand dollars, to be paid in annual instalments. A few years after the purchase some defects showed themselves in the bridges that had been erected on this plan, and many prominent engineers had come to the conclusion that it was not superior to, if it equalled, the truss plan of Col. Long, the arch and truss of Burr, or the lattice plan of Ithial Towne, and the firm of Boody, Stone & Co. began to fear that they had made a bad bargain in the purchase of the patent. Mr. Stone, in relating the incident to a friend, said: "I came to the conclusion that something must be done or there must be a failure, and it must not be a failure. The night following was a sleepless one, at least until three o'clock in the morning. I thought, and rolled and tumbled, until time and again I was almost exhausted in my inventive thoughts, and in despair, when at last an idea came to my mind that relieved me. I perfected it in my mind's eye, and then came to the conclusion that it would not only restore the reputation of the Howe bridge, but would prove to be a better combination of wood and iron for bridges than then existed, and could not and would not in principle be improved upon. Sleep immediately came. I afterwards, with models, proved my conclusions and have not, up to this time, changed them." It seems that the invention consisted in the introduction of longitudinal keys and clamps in the lower chords, to prevent their elongation, and iron socket bearings instead of wooden for the braces and bolts, to avoid compression and shrinkage of the timber, which was the great defect in the original invention, and the adoption of single instead of double intersection in the arrangement of the braces, the latter being the arrangement in the original invention.

In the autumn of 1846, an incident occurred that may be worthy of notice. On the 14th day of October, when walking in Broadway, New York, Mr. Stone met the president of the New Haven, Hartford and Springfield Railroad, who had in his hand a telegram, stating that the bridge across the Connecticut river at Enfield Falls, one-fourth of a mile long, had been carried away by a hurricane. The president asked the advice of Mr. Stone, who stated that the timber for that structure was furnished by Messrs. Campbell & Moody, of that city, and advised that he order it duplicated at once. The president, a very faithful officer, but disinclined to take responsibilities, asked Mr. Stone to take the responsibility of ordering it. Mr. Stone replied, "Not unless I am president." The timber was, however, ordered, and at the request of the president, Mr. Stone went immediately with him to Springfield, where a committee of the board was called together, and he was asked to propose terms, and the shortest time upon which his firm would contract to complete the bridge. He stated that his terms would be high, as the season was late and would likely be unfavorable before so heavy a work could be completed, and further suggested that if they chose to appoint him manager of the work, he would accept and do the best he could for them. He was immediately appointed sole manager of the work, and the board placed at his control all the resources of the company. The work was immediately commenced by bringing to the site men and material, and it was completed, and a locomotive and train of cars run across it by Mr. Stone within forty days from the day the order was given for its erection. The structure consisted of seven spans of seventy-seven feet each, with two other spans at each end of about fifty feet each. Mr. Stone has been heard to state that he regarded this as one of the most important events of his life, and that no one was more astonished than himself at the result. He was rewarded by complimentary resolutions, and a check for one thousand dollars by the company.

The following Winter the partnership of Boody, Stone & Co. was dissolved by mutual consent, and the territory that their contract for the bridge patent covered was divided, by Mr. Stone taking the States of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island, and Mr. Boody the other three States. A new partnership was then formed between Mr. Stone and Mr. Harris, which continued until the year 1849.

From the year 1839 to 1850, the residence of Mr. Stone, most of the time, was in Springfield, Mass., but the numerous contracts in which he was interested called him into ten different States, He served several years as a director in the Agawam Bank, was also a director for several years, and one of the building committee in the Agawam Canal Company, which erected and run a cotton mill of ten thousand spindles, in the town of West Springfield.

In the autumn of 1848, he formed a partnership with Mr. Stillman Witt and Mr. Frederick Harbach, who contracted with the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad Company to construct and equip the road from Cleveland to Columbus. This was the largest contract that had, at that time, been entered into, of this character, by any one party or firm in the United States. A large amount of the capital stock was taken in part payment for the work. It was generally regarded as a hazardous adventure, but the work was carried through in accordance with the terms of the contract, and proved to be a profitable investment for its stockholders. In his partnership contract it was stipulated that he was to act as financial agent at the East, to send out the necessary mechanics, and to occasionally visit the work, but was not to change his residence. Events, however, occurred that required his constant presence in Ohio, and in the Spring of 1850, he moved his family to Cleveland, where they have since resided. In the Winter of 1850-1, the road was opened for business through from Cleveland to Columbus, and Mr. Stone was appointed its superintendent.

[Illustration: Respectfully, Amasa Stone, Jr.]

In the Fall of 1850, the firm of Harbach, Stone & Witt contracted with the Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula Railroad Company to construct the railroad from Cleveland to the State line of Pennsylvania, and furnish it with cars, and to take in part payment for the work a large amount of the stock and bonds of the Company. Soon after the execution of this contract, Mr. Harbach died suddenly in the city of New York, and the completion of the work devolved on Messrs. Stone and Witt. The completion of the road through to Erie principally devolved upon the Cleveland company, and was attended with many difficulties, as the Legislature of Pennsylvania seemed determined that no road should be built through the State along the shore of Lake Erie, and the general impression was, at that time, that the construction of a road along the shore of the lake was a wild scheme and would prove a failure. It was difficult to get capital subscribed and more difficult to collect instalments. The contractors having confidence in its success, prosecuted the work with vigor up to a period when they found they had expended more than $200,000, while the aggregate amount that the railroad company was able to raise and pay them was less than $100,000. An effort was then made, with success, to engage the services of Mr. Alfred Kelley. His well known character, aided by the reputation of others who were elected directors, and a subscription from the city of Cleveland of $100,000, enabled the company to meet its engagements with the contractors, who carried the work forward to completion, and the road was opened through to Erie in the Winter of 1852, when Mr. Stone was appointed its superintendent. Notwithstanding the great expense that had to be incurred in crossing the deep ravines in the State of Pennsylvania, and the heavy burdens imposed on the company by that State, it has proved to be one of the most successful railroad enterprises in the United States.

In the year 1852, Mr. Stone was elected a director in both Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati, and the Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula Railroad Companies, and has held that office in both companies continuously up to the present date. He also continued to hold the office of superintendent of both roads until the year 1854, when he insisted on being relieved in consequence of failing health, caused by the arduous labors which seemed unavoidably to devolve upon him. He was elected president of the Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula Railroad Company in the year 1857, which office he has continued to hold for twelve successive years, until 1869.

In 1868, the Cleveland and Toledo Railroad was leased perpetually to the Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula Railroad Company, at which time he was also elected President of the former company.

In the year 1855, he, with Mr. Witt, contracted to build the Chicago and Milwaukee Railroad, and was for many years a director in that company, and for awhile its president.

For several years he held the office of director in the Merchants Bank, of Cleveland. From its first organization until it was closed up, he was director in the Bank of Commerce, of Cleveland, and has been director in the Second National Bank, and the Commercial National Bank, of Cleveland, and the Cleveland Banking Company, from the time of their respective organizations until the present time. He was for some years president of the Toledo Branch of the State Bank, at Toledo. He was elected a director in the Jamestown and Franklin Railroad Company in the year 1863, which office he has held until the present time. In the same year he was elected president of the Mercer Iron and Coal Company and held the office until the close of the year 1868.

Mr. Stone aided in the establishment of several manufactories at this point. During the construction of the railroads from Cleveland, his firm carried on extensive car shops in the city, where cars were constructed, not only for those two roads, but for several others. He gave financial aid and personal influence to the establishment and maintenance of several leading iron manufacturing establishments and machine shops. In the year 1861-2, he erected, in the city of Cleveland, a woolen mill of five sets of machinery, and for several years ran it and turned out more goods annually than any other mill in the state of Ohio. He subsequently sold it to Alton Pope & Sons.

He is often pleased to note the progress in American enterprise, and among other events that has come under his own observation, relates the following: In the year 1839, he commenced his first railroad service upon the foundation of a bridge that was then being erected across the Connecticut river at Springfield, Mass., of 1260 feet in length. It was regarded as a very difficult undertaking, as the bed of the river was composed mostly of quicksand, and a rise of 25-1/2 feet in the river had to be provided for, and floating ice, its full width, fifteen inches in thickness. Maj. George W. Whistler, the first of his profession, was chief engineer of the work, and he had as advisers Maj. McNeal, Capt. Swift, and other eminent engineers. The work was about three years under construction, at a cost of over $131,000, and every effort was made to keep its cost at the lowest possible point, at the same time making certain the stability of the structure. Within nine years from the time of its completion, a similar structure, in every particular, was to be constructed across the same river, at Hartford, twenty-six miles below. Its length varied but a few feet, although it covered more water, and its foundations and other contingencies were quite as difficult and unfavorable. Mr. Stone concluded a contract for its construction for the firm of Stone & Harris, complete, for the sum of $77,000, and to have it ready for the cars in twenty months. The work was executed in accordance with the terms of the contract, and has not only proved as substantial as that at Springfield, but in many particulars, more so. It was the pride of Mr. Stone for many reasons, (among others, that it was stated by many that it could not be done for this sum of money,) to personally superintend this work himself, and to put in practice some of his own inventions, the most important of which was the cutting off the foundation piles with a saw arranged on a scow, propelled by a steam engine, and the sinking of the piers below water by means of screws. The result proved to be satisfactory, and as favorable, in a financial point of view, as he estimated. It will be noticed that the bridge structure, complete, at Hartford, cost $54,000 less than that at Springfield, of like character.

He has been interested in the construction of more than ten miles in length of truss bridging, and in the construction of roofs of large buildings, covering more than fifteen acres of ground, most of which he designed and personally superintended their election. The last extensive structure that he designed, and the election of which he personally superintended, was the Union Passenger Depot, at Cleveland. He was the first person that designed and erected pivot draw-bridges of long spans, which, however, have been much increased in length of span by other parties since. He was also the first to design and erect a dome roof of a span of 150 feet, sufficient to cover three lengths of a locomotive with its tender, and numerous are the improvements he has introduced in the construction of railroad cars and locomotives. The only eight-wheeled dump gravel car in successful use was designed and put in practice by him.

For a number of years Mr. Stone has been trustee of the First Presbyterian Church Society of Cleveland, and still holds that office. He was chairman of the building committee in the election of the new church edifice, and when it was burned down, was again elected chairman of the building committee, and given full charge of the reconstruction of the building.

In 1868, Mr. Stone visited Europe, being compelled to seek relief, for a brief period, from the exhausting cares of his numerous business engagements. He is expected to return in the Fall of this year, ready to again engage in the active prosecution of the important enterprises with which he is connected, and in which he has won such distinction by his sound common sense, sound judgment, unresting energy, and practicable knowledge. In whatever he undertakes there is good reason for believing that the success he has hitherto met will still attend his efforts.

Stillman Witt

Connected indissolubly with the story of the rise and progress of the important railroad interests of Cleveland and northern Ohio, is the name of Stillman Witt. As one of the builders of the pioneer railroad from the city, and of the next in point of time, which has since become one of the foremost lines of the country in importance and profitableness, Mr. Witt deserves honorable record among the men who have contributed most to make Cleveland what it is to-day, a rich, populous, and rapidly growing city.

Stillman Witt is a self-made man, and unlike some of this class, his self-manufacture will stand the test of close criticism. The material has not been spoiled or warped in the process. Those who know him best know that the struggles of his early years have not soured his disposition or hardened his feelings, and that access of fortune has not made him purse-proud. The Stillman Witt of to-day, rich and influential, is the same Stillman Witt who paddled a ferry boat at about forty cents a day, and was happy in his good fortune.

Mr. Witt was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, January 4th, 1808. His parentage was humble, and, in consequence, his facilities for obtaining an education very limited. When about thirteen years old, his father moved with his family to Troy, New York, where young Stillman was hired by Richard P. Hart to run a skiff ferry, the wages being ten dollars per month, which the lad thought a sum sufficient to secure his independence. Among the passengers frequently crossing the ferry was Mr. Canvass White, U. S. Engineer, at that time superintending the construction of public works in various parts of the country. Mr. White took a strong fancy to the juvenile ferryman, and was so much impressed by the interest the boy manifested in construction, that he applied to Stillman's father for permission to take the lad and educate him in his own profession. The permission was granted, and from that day dates the career of the future railroad builder.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, S. Witt]

Young Witt was greatly pleased with his new profession, and devoted himself to it with such zeal and faithfulness that he grew rapidly in the esteem of his patron. When he had sufficiently progressed to be entrusted with works of such importance, he was dispatched in different directions to construct bridges and canals as the agent of Mr. White. In this manner he superintended the construction of the bridge at Cohoes Falls, on the Mohawk river, four miles above Troy, where, in conjunction with Mr. White, he laid out a town which has since grown to a population of thirty thousand. The side cut on the Erie canal, at Port Schuyler, was dug under his management, and the docks there, since covered with factories, were built by him. When these were completed he was dispatched into Pennsylvania, with twenty-four carpenters, all his seniors, to build a State bridge at the mouth of the Juniata, from Duncan Island to Peter's Mountain. He was then ordered to the work on the Louisville and Portland canal, but before this was completed he was taken sick and remained a prisoner in a sick room at Albany for thirteen months.

With his recovery came a temporary change of occupation. Abandoning for a time his work of bridge building and canal digging, he took charge of the steamboat James Farley, the first lake-canal boat that towed through, without transhipment, to New York. This was followed by his taking charge, for between two and three years, of Dr. Nott's steamboat Novelty. Next he became manager of the Hudson River Association line of boats, in which capacity he remained during the existence of the association, ten years. The Albany and Boston Railroad having been opened, Mr. Witt was invited to become its manager at Albany, and accepted the trust, remaining in that position seven years and a half.

Now came the most important epoch in Mr. Witt's life. After a hard struggle the scheme for the construction of a railroad between Cleveland and Columbus assumed definite shape, a company was organized and was prepared to go to work when contractors should be found who would build the road with a little money and a good deal of faith. Mr. Witt's opportunity had come. At the end of a four days' toilsome journey from Buffalo in a cab, he reached Cleveland, and satisfactory arrangements were finally entered into. A firm was formed, under the name of Harbach, Stone & Witt, and the work commenced. The story of the building of the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad has already been told in another part of this volume; it is a story of hoping almost against hope, of desperate struggles against opposition and indifference, and of final triumph. Mr. Witt's part in the struggle was an important one, and the solid benefit resulting from the success that crowned the enterprise was well deserved by him.

Before the work of construction was half completed, Mr. Harbach died, and the firm remained Stone & Witt, under which name it has become familiar to all parts of the American railroad world. The road was opened between Cleveland and Columbus in 1851, and the success that speedily followed the opening, demonstrated the wisdom of the projectors of the line, and justified the faith of its contractors. The three years of construction had not terminated before Messrs. Stone & Witt undertook the construction of the Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula Railroad, and in two years this road, now one of the richest and most powerful lines of the country, was completed. This was followed, sometime after, by the building of the Chicago and Milwaukee Railroad, which required but one year to construct, although built in the best manner.

With the completion of the Chicago and Milwaukee road Mr. Witt's active career as a railroad builder ceased. Since that time he has been chiefly employed in the management of his extensive railroad and banking interests, having been at different periods a director in the Michigan Southern; Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati; Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula; Cleveland and Pittsburgh; Chicago and Milwaukee, and Bellefontaine and Indiana railroads, besides being vice-president of two of these roads and president of one of them. His connection with the Bellefontaine and Indiana Railroad is noticeable from the fact that it was by his sagacity and unwearied energy, ably assisted by the late Governor Brough, as general manager, that the company was raised from absolute insolvency to a high rank among dividend paying lines. Mr. Witt had gone into the undertaking with a number of other Clevelanders, had all but lost his entire investment, but had never lost faith in the ultimate success of the line, or flagged for an instant in his efforts to bring about that success. The event proved the justness of his conclusions.

In addition to his railroad engagements, Mr. Witt is president of the Sun Insurance Company, of Cleveland; director of the Second National, and Commercial National Banks, and Cleveland Banking Company; also, of the Bank of Toledo. His interests are not all centered in railroad and banking enterprises, he having investments in the Cleveland Chemical Works, and in several other enterprises that contribute to the prosperity of the city.

Mr. Witt was married in June, 1834, to Miss Eliza A. Douglass, of Albany, but who was a native of Rhode Island. Of the four children who were the fruit of this marriage, but two survive. The elder daughter, Mary, is now the wife of Mr. Dan P. Eells, of Cleveland. The younger, Emma, is the wife of Col. W. H. Harris, of the United States Army, now in command of the arsenal at Indianapolis.

Mr. Witt's qualifications as a business man are attested by his success, won not by a mere stroke of luck, but by far-seeing sagacity, quick decision, and untiring industry. From first to last he never encountered a failure, not because fortune chanced always to be on his side, but because shrewdness and forethought enabled him to provide against misfortune. As a citizen he has always pursued a liberal and enlightened policy, ever ready to unite in whatever promised to be for the public good. In social life he has a wide circle of attached friends, and not a single enemy. Genial, unselfish, deeply attached to his family, and with a warm side for humanity in general, Mr. Witt has made for himself more friends than perhaps he himself is aware of.

Wealth and position have enabled him to do numerous acts of kindness, and his disposition has prompted him to perform those acts without ostentation and with a gracefulness that gave twofold value to the act.

In religious belief Mr. Witt is a Baptist, having joined with that church organization in Albany, thirty-one years ago. For years he has been a valuable and highly respected member of the First Baptist Church in Cleveland.

James Farmer.

Although James Farmer has been a resident of Cleveland but thirteen years, and cannot, therefore, be ranked among the old settlers of the city, he is looked upon as one of its most respected citizens, whose word is as good as a secured bond, and whose sound judgment and stability of character place him among the most valuable class of business men. But though prudent in business affairs, and of deeply earnest character in all relations of life, Mr. Farmer has not allowed the stern realities of life to obscure the lighter qualities that serve to make life endurable. Always cheerful in manner and genial in disposition, with a quaint appreciation of the humorous side of things, he endeavors to round off the sharp corners of practical life with a pleasant and genial smile. A meditative faculty of mind, untrammeled by the opinions or dicta of others, has led Mr. Farmer into independent paths of thought and action, in all his affairs. Before taking any course, he has thought it out for himself, and decided on his action, in accordance with his conscientious convictions of right, independent of considerations of mere worldly notice.

Mr. Farmer was born near Augusta, Georgia, July 19th, 1802. His early opportunities for acquiring an education were scant, only such knowledge being gained as could be picked up in a common school, where the rudiments of an education only are taught. Until his twenty-first year, his time was chiefly spent on his father's farm, but on attaining his majority he concluded to strike out a different path for himself, and coming north, he engages in the manufacture of salt, and in the milling business, at Salineville, Ohio. His means were small, but by assiduous attention to business he was moderately successful. Four years later he added a store for general marchandise to his mill and salt works, and thus added to his property.

In the Spring of 1847, Mr. Farmer, imbued with the spirit of progress, and appreciating in advance the benefits to accrue from the proposed Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad, entered with spirit into the enterprise, worked hard in procuring subscriptions to the stock, and aided in various ways to its consummation. For several years he held the position of president of the company, and it was through his labors in this channel of commerce, that he became so thoroughly identified with the progress and prosperity of Cleveland.

[Illustration: Very Respectfully, James Farmer]

On the completion of the railroad, Mr. Farmer was among the first to avail himself of the increased facilities for business offered by the road, and embarked in the coal trade, having previously owned coal fields in Salineville. These coal fields were now worked, and the product shipped by railroad to Cleveland and other points.

In the Spring of 1856, he removed to Cleveland, abandoning the mercantile business after devoting to it thirty-two years of his life, and having been completely successful. His coal fields still continue to furnish supplies to the coal market of Cleveland.

So far as human power can be said to control human affairs, Mr. Farmer has been wholly the architect of his own fortunes. The prosperity that has attended his efforts has been due to the close attention given his legitimate business, his strictness in making and keeping contracts, his prudent economy, and his nice sense of commercial honor and general honesty. What man can do to make honest success, he has endeavored to do, and Providence has smiled upon his efforts.

Mr Farmer is still a hale appearing gentleman, though sixty-seven years old, retaining most of his mental vigor, and much of his physical stamina, and will, we trust, be permitted to remain among us for years to come, that he may enjoy the fruits of his labor, and have the satisfaction felt by those only who minister to the necessities of others.

In 1834, Mr. Farmer was married to Miss Meribah Butler, of Columbiana county, Ohio, by whom he has had seven children, of whom five still live--one son and four daughters. The son, Mr. E. J. Farmer, has been for some years engaged in the banking business in Cleveland.

The father of Mr. James Farmer joined the Society of Friends, and was an honored member of that society. His family were all brought up in the same faith, and Mr. James Farmer has maintained his connection with the society, by the members of which he is held in high respect and esteem.

George B. Ely.

George B. Ely is a native of Jefferson county, New York, a county which has contributed many good citizens to the population of Cleveland. He was born in the town of Adams, June 23d, 1817, received a good academical education, and when seventeen left the academy to become clerk with Judge Foster, under whose auspices he came to Cleveland. After serving with Judge Foster one year in Cleveland, he accepted the position of book-keeper in the forwarding house of Pease & Allen, on the river, remaining in this position until 1843. At that date he removed to Milan, Erie county, then at the head of slackwater navigation on the Huron river. Here he engaged in trading in wheat, and in the general forwarding business, and also became interested in lake shipping, doing business under the firm name of Wilber & Ely.

In 1851, the railroad between Columbus and Cleveland was completed, and the course of trade was almost entirely diverted from its old channels. The business of Milan fell away rapidly, and the forwarding trade at that point was completely at an end, Mr. Ely closed up his connection with the place in the Spring of 1852, and removed to Cleveland, where he had engaged a warehouse with the intention of continuing in the forwarding business, but was induced to take the secretaryship of the Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula Railroad, many of his old business and personal friends having become interested in that undertaking and desiring the benefit of his business tact and experience. About a year after his accession to the company, the offices of secretary and treasurer were combined, and Mr. Ely assumed charge of the joint offices. Three years later he was elected a director of the company and has continued in that position to the present time. At various times he has been chosen vice-president of the company. In 1868, he was elected president of the Cleveland and Toledo Railroad Company, retaining that position until the consolidation of the company with the Cleveland and Erie Railroad Company, and the formation of the Lake Shore Railroad Company. Mr. Ely is now the oldest officer in point of service in the Consolidated company, and is about the oldest employee. During all his long service he has been an indefatigable worker, having the interests of the line always at heart, and his arduous and faithful services have contributed their full share to the prosperity of the company.

[Illustration: Yours Respectfully, Geo. B. Ely]

Whilst always watchful for the interests of the road with which he was connected, Mr. Ely found time to engage in other enterprises tending to advance the material interests of the city. In connection with Messrs. R. H. Harman, A. M. Harman, and L. M. Coe, he projected and built the Cleveland City Forge and put it into successful operation in the year 1864. This forge has now four large hammers at work, and preparations are making for two others, and it gives employment to about eighty skilled workmen. He was one of the projectors of the Pennsylvania Coal Company, of Cleveland, an organization having five thousand acres of coal lands in Mercer county, Pennsylvania, and now that the Jamestown and Franklin Railroad is completed, the prospects of ample returns for the outlay are good. Sixty tons of good coal are daily delivered in Cleveland, whilst the best markets of the product are found in Erie, Buffalo, and the Pennsylvania oil regions. Of this company Mr. Ely is treasurer and one of its directors.

Among his other business connections he was a director in the old Bank of Commerce from its early days until it was reorganized as the Second National Bank, and is still a director under the new organization. He is also a director in the Citizens Savings and Loan Association, and is interested in the Cleveland Banking Company.

Mr. Ely has been the architect of his own fortune, and attributes his success in life to close application to business and a firm determination never to live beyond his income. He is now fifty-two years old, enjoys vigorous health, and has never been seriously sick. From present appearances he has a fair prospect of a long life in which to enjoy the fruits of his labors, and to pass the afternoon and evening of his life amid domestic comforts earned by industry and the esteem of a large circle of friends to whom he has become endeared by his many social qualities and personal virtues.

In 1843, he was married to Miss Gertrude S. Harman, of Brooklyn, Michigan, and formerly of Oswego, New York. They have one son, now twenty-five years old, who has charge of the Cleveland City Forge, and one daughter, Helen, aged seventeen, who is now at school.

Worthy S. Streator.

Dr. Streator, as he is still called, although for many years he has abandoned the active practice of medicine, was born in Madison county, New York, October 16th, 1816. He received an academical education, and at the age of eighteen he entered a medical college, where he remained four years. On completing his medical course he went to Aurora, Portage county, Ohio, where he commenced the practice of his profession, in the year 1839 In Aurora he remained rive years, when he removed to Louisville, Kentucky, spent a year in the medical college there, and returned to Portage county, resuming his practice in Ravenna.

In 1850, Dr. Streator removed from Ravenna to Cleveland, and after remaining two years in the practice of medicine, turned his attention to railroad building. In conjunction with Mr. Henry Doolittle, he undertook the contract for building the Greenville and Medina Railroad, and completed it successfully. In 1853, the same parties contracted for the construction of the Atlantic and Great Western Railway in Ohio, a work of 244 miles. Operations were at once commenced, and were pushed forward with varying success, funds of the company coming in fitfully. In 1860, the same firm took contracts for the construction of the Pennsylvania portion of the line, ninety-one miles, and next for the New York portion. Work on both these contracts was commenced in February, 1860, and the road was completed from Salamanca, in New York, to Corry, in Pennsylvania, sixty-one miles, in the Spring of 1861.

During the prosecution of the work Mr. Doolittle died, and, in 1861, Dr. Streator sold the unfinished contracts to Mr. James McHenry, of London, England, by whom they were completed, Dr. Streator acting as superintendent of construction for about a year after the transfer of contract.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, W. S. Streator]

In 1862, he projected the Oil Creek Railroad, from Corry to Petroleum Center, the heart of the Pennsylvania oil regions, a line thirty-seven miles long. The line was built with extraordinary rapidity, and achieved a success unparalleled in railway history. No sooner had the rails reached a point within striking distance of Oil Creek than its cars were crowded with passengers flocking to the "oildorado," and for many months, during the height of the oil fever, the excited crowds struggled at the stations for the privilege of a standing place on the car platforms after the seats and aisles were filled. The resources of the road were inadequate to meet the great demand on it for the transportation of passengers and oil, and although Dr. Streator worked energetically to keep pace with the demand upon the road, the development of the oil regions, consequent upon the construction of the line, for some time outstripped him. The profits of the line were enormous in proportion to the outlay, but the amount of wealth it created in the oil regions was still more extraordinary. Dr. Streator managed the road until 1866, when he sold out his interest to Dean Richmond and others interested in the New York Central Railroad. In order to connect the Oil Creek Railroad with the line of its purchasers an extension northward, styled the Cross-Cut Railroad, was built from Corry to Brocton, on the Buffalo and Erie Railroad, a distance of forty-two miles, by Dr. Streator, for the New York Central Railroad Company. This was the last of Dr. Streator's railroad building undertakings.

Since the close of his railroad business Dr. Streator has organized a company, mainly composed of citizens of Cleveland, for the working of coal lands purchased in La Salle, on the Vermillion river, Illinois. The purchase contains three thousand acres on which is a five and one-half feet splint-vein of coal resembling in general characteristics the Massillon coal of Ohio. Thirteen miles of railroad have been built to connect the mines with the Illinois Central Railroad, and during the year that the road has been opened the average product of the mines has been two hundred and fifty tons per day, with demands for more, that cannot be met owing to a deficiency of rolling stock. By the close of 1869, it is expected the product will reach a thousand tons daily. Another railroad is to be built to connect with the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad.

Aside from his interest in this coal company, Dr. Streator has now no active business engagements, and devotes his time to the care of his real estate and a fine stock farm in East Cleveland, containing over three hundred acres, on which he is raising some of the finest stock to be found in the county.

Dr. Streator has had the good sense to retire from the pressing cares of business whilst able to enjoy the fruits of his labors. At fifty-three years old he is healthy and vigorous, and fully able to appreciate the advantages of wealth in procuring social and domestic enjoyments. His residence on Euclid avenue is a model of comfort and elegance, and the surrounding grounds are laid out with artistic taste.

He was married in 1839, to Sarah W. Sterling, of Lyman, N. Y. His only daughter is the wife of E. B. Thomas, Esq., of Cleveland; his oldest son devotes his attention to the care of the stock farm; the other sons are yet at home, being young.

Although Mr. Streator has been regarded, for years, as one of our most active and energetic business men, he has found time to devote to his religious duties. He has for a long time been a useful member of the Disciple Church.

The Coal Interest

By the commencement of the season of 1828, the Ohio canal had been opened from Cleveland to Akron. Henry Newberry, father of Professer Newberry, who among his other possessions on the Western Reserve, owned some valuable coal lands, saw, or fancied he saw, an opening for an important trade in coal, and sent a shipment of a few tons to Cleveland by way of experiment. On its arrival a portion of it was loaded in a wagon and hawked around the city, the attention of leading citizens being called to its excellent quality and its great value as fuel. But the people were deaf to the voice of the charmer. They looked askance at the coal and urged against it all the objections which careful housewives, accustomed to wood fires, even now offer against its use for culinary purposes. It was dirty, nasty, inconvenient to handle, made an offensive smoke, and not a few shook their heads incredulously at the idea of making the "stone" burn at all. Wood was plentiful and cheap, and as long as that was the case they did not see the use of going long distances to procure a doubtful article of fuel, neither as clean, convenient, nor cheap as hickory or maple. By nightfall the wagon had unsuccessfully traversed the streets and found not a single purchaser for its contents. Here and there a citizen had accepted a little as a gift, with a doubtful promise to test its combustible qualities. Eventually, Philo Scovill was persuaded into the purchase of a moderate quantity at two dollars per ton, and promised to put in grates at the Franklin House to properly test its qualities.

That was the beginning of a trade which has since grown to mammoth proportions, and which has become the foundation of the prosperity of Cleveland, for it is to the proximity and practically inexhaustibleness of its coal supply that Cleveland owes its manufacturing character, which is the secret of its rapid development within a few years, its present prosperity, and the assured greatness of its future.

As a domestic fuel coal made slow progress in the city for many years, but other uses were found for it, and the receipts of coal by canal rapidly increased. Steamboats multiplied on the lakes, and these found the coal of Cleveland a valuable fuel. By degrees manufacturing was ventured on, in a small way, and there being no water-power of consequence, recourse was had to steam, which created a moderate demand for coal. For ten years the receipts increased steadily, until in 1838, it reached 2,496 tons. In 1848, it had grown to 66,551 tons, and in 1858--the canal transportation being supplemented by two lines of railroad crossing the coal fields on the way to Cleveland--to 222,267 tons. In 1868, it had swollen to 759,104 tons, and the demand continues to increase in a rate more than proportionate to the enlarged sources of supply and increased facilities for transportation.

The opening of the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad gave a strong stimulus to the coal trade of northern Ohio, and was one of the most important events in the history of Cleveland. By this time the beds of the valuable Briar Hill, or block coal, were tapped, which has proved the best fuel for manufacturing iron from the raw ore, and has no superior, if it has a rival, in the West. With the discovery of this bed of coal, blast furnaces and rolling mills were established in the Mahoning Valley, and as the uses of the coal became known in Cleveland and in other ports, a large demand, for consumption in the city and exports to other points, sprang up. Over one-half the amount of Ohio coal raised is of the Briar Hill grade, and of the whole amount of Ohio coal raised, about one-half finds its market in Cleveland.

The bituminous coal is of several grades, each suitable for a particular purpose. The most important is the Briar Hill grade, mined in the southern half of Trumbull county and finding its outlet by the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad. This is a good grate coal, but its great use is in the manufacture of iron, and the numerous furnaces of the Mahoning Valley, the iron manufactories of Cleveland, and the demand along the line of the lakes, keep the numerous mines in full operation. The Mineral Ridge grade is a comparatively new quality to Cleveland, and has yet but comparatively few mines. It is used both for domestic and manufacturing purposes. The Massillon grade is brought both by canal and railroad, and is highly esteemed as a grate coal. The rapidly growing demand for grate fuel has given a great stimulus to the mining of this coal within a few years. The Hammondsville and Salineville grades are used chiefly for stoves in domestic use, for steam purposes, and for the manufacture of gas. These grades come to market on the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad. The Blossburgh grade is used almost entirely for blacksmithing.

Besides the Ohio bituminous coals there is a steadily increasing demand for the anthracite and semi-anthracite coals of eastern Pennsylvania, which is brought by lake from Buffalo.

The growth of the coal trade during the past four years can be seen by the following table, showing the receipts from all sources and shipments, chiefly by lake, coastwise and to Canadian ports:

  Date.      Receipts.       Shipments.

  1865.......439,483 tons....235,784 tons.
  1866.......583,107  "  ....397,840  "
  1867.......669,026  "  ....334,027  "
  1868.......759,104  "  ....392,928  "

The amount brought over each route of supply during 1868, is thus shown:

  By Lake, Anthracite...................................... 13,665 tons.
  " Canal, Bituminous...................................... 197,475 "
  " Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad...................... 274,159 "
  " Atlantic and Great Western Railroad
       (Cleveland and Mahoning)............................ 254,000 "
  " Cleveland and Erie Railroad............................ 17,600  "
  " Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad............ 2,205   "
                                                            759,104 "

This shows an increase of nearly 100,000 tons on the receipts of 1867, notwithstanding a most obstinate and continued strike among the miners, which diminished the receipts by the Atlantic and Great Western, from 20,000 to 30,000 tons. Of the shipments of each during the year, 382,928 tons went by lake, and about 10,000 tons by rail, mostly by Cleveland and Toledo Railroad to Toledo and intermediate points.

William Philpot.

Although never a resident of Cleveland, the enterprise of William Philpot so directly contributed to the prosperity of the city, the labors of his life were so connected with it, and the interests he founded have since become such an integral part of the business of Cleveland, that his memoir appropriately finds a place in this work. It is proper, too, that it should stand foremost in the department relating to the coal trade of the city, for he may justly be considered one of the leading founders of that trade.

William Philpot was born in Shropshire, England. At an early age he removed to Wales and went to work in the mines at three pence per day. Soon after he was able to earn full wages, he became an overseer, and continued in that capacity until he took contracts on his own account. His success was varied, on some he made handsomely, on others he failed. By the year 1835, he accumulated about eight thousand dollars, and concluded to go to the United States as affording greater facilities for small capitalists. He proceeded to Pittsburgh, where he immediately interested himself in the mining of coal. He commenced by leasing from one party a portion of the coal and the right of way on a large tract of coal land, for a term of twenty-one years, and leased coal from others, at a quarter cent per bushel. Of another person he purchased a farm, bearing coal, at seventy-five dollars an acre. In the Summer of 1837, he took into partnership Mr. Snowden, and the firm set to work vigorously, mining coal at Saw Mill Run and shipping on the Ohio river, to which Mr. Philpot had built a railway a mile in length. The two partners were not well matched. Mr. Philpot was full of energy, fertile in resources, and never slackened in his endeavors to push his affairs. No difficulties daunted him; the greater the obstacles the more pleasure he took in surmounting them. He built his railroad tracks where most other men would have shrunk from placing a rail and whilst those who commenced preparations for a mine at the same time with himself were still in the preparatory stages of work, his cars would be rattling down to the river loaded with coal. One great secret of his ability to hasten matters was his influence with the men under him. He was familiar and affable with them, worked energetically among them whenever a sharp effort was needed, and in this way got more work out of the men, without their feeling that they had been imposed upon, than most employers could have done. Mr. Snowden was a man of an entirely different stamp, and it soon became evident that the firm must dissolve. After some negotiations Mr. Philpot disposed of his interests to Messrs. Snowden and Lewis, and in 1838, removed to Paris, Portage county, Ohio, where he had purchased a farm. His family at that time consisted of his wife and two daughters; Mary Ann, now the wife of R. J. Price, Esq., Dorothy, now widow of the late David Morris, Esq. With them also was his father, Samuel Philpot, now dead. Soon after his removal to Portage county he became interested with Mr. Philip Price, in the excavation of the Pennsylvania and Ohio canal, and during the progress of the work they purchased land on either side of the canal, including Lock fourteen, where they built a saw and flouring mill, using the canal water as motive power. Towards the latter part of 1839, Mr. Philpot purchased the interest of Mr. Price in the mills and land, and ran the mills successfully, until 1841, when he sold both mills and land to Colonel Elisha Garrett, of Garrettsville. In the Spring of 1841, Mr. Philpot rented his home farm and removed with his family to Middlebury, Summit county, where he had purchased a coal bank, and engaged once more in the coal trade.

The importance of his operations in coal, both to the business of the coal regions and of Cleveland, which formed his principal market, can scarcely be overestimated. Before removing to Springfield he discovered there, in 1840, a valuable coal mine, which he afterwards developed and worked successfully, building a railroad of about three miles from the mines to the canal at Middlebury, whence the coal was shipped to Cleveland. This road he stocked with about forty coal cars, and for several years his mine supplied the principal demand for the Cleveland market. In 1843, he developed and improved the celebrated Chippewa mines, Wayne county, near the village of Clinton, and built a railroad to the Ohio canal. From these mines he supplied the Cleveland market with large quantities of coal until the year 1845, when he sold out half his interests in them to Mr. Lemuel Crawford, and some time afterward he sold one-quarter interest to Mr. David Camp.

His next remove was to Youngstown, where, in 1846, he leased the Manning and Wertz bank, and while sinking for coal, discovered iron ore. He then went to Pittsburgh and endeavored to get up a furnace company, but not being successful, he returned, and associated himself with Jonathan Warner and a few others in organizing the Ohio Iron and Mining Company, now known as the Eagle Furnace Company, Messrs. Philpot and Warner owning two-thirds of the entire stock. Mr. Philpot at that time opened and developed the Wertz and Manning Briar Hill coal mines, the furnace having been built with the purpose of smelting iron ore with raw stone coal, being the second constructed for this purpose in the Mahoning Valley, the first being that of Wilkenson, Wilks & Co., at Lowellville. The experiment was hazardous, and was carried forward under many difficulties, financial and otherwise, but the energy and enterprise of Mr. Philpot triumphed over them all.

Mr. Philpot was a man of rare energy, industry and practical good sense. He was always successful for he seemed to have an intuitive knowledge of what was the right course to take, and when once entered on an enterprise never allowed himself to be defeated or discouraged. His integrity was unquestioned. His word was as good as a bond, and was entirely relied on. He was a kind husband and father, a true friend, and his heart and hand were always open to the poor and distressed, many of whom were not only relieved from their pressing emergencies, but were assisted to start in business or to procure homesteads. Besides his many excellent social qualities and business talents, he was possessed of a most extraordinary memory, and it is related of him by one who knew him intimately, that after hearing a speech or sermon that enlisted his whole attention, he would sometimes rehearse it to others almost verbatim.

Mr. Philpot died in Liberty township, Trumbull county, June 2d, 1851.

In all the great enterprises of his business career, Mr. Philpot was ably supported by his beloved partner in life, who was a woman of more than ordinary ability. She was also most remarkably benevolent, bestowing much care on the sick and indigent in her immediate neighborhood. She survived her husband a number of years, and died at Cleveland, in August, 1865, deeply lamented.

[Illustration: Lemuel Crawford]

Lemuel Crawford.

The subject of this sketch belonged to the business classes, as distinguished from the professional, but which are none the less fruitful in characters of prominence and public interest.

Indeed it has come to pass in later years that what are commonly known as the learned professions, law, medicine and theology, though still high in rank, have lost something of the ruling pre-eminence they occupied in our earlier history. Other departments in the world's industry have asserted themselves, and railway systems, telegraphs, commerce, journalism, manufactures, banking, and other branches, have come forward and absorbed their fair proportion of the best talent and ambition of the country.

Lemuel Crawford was born in Florida, Schoharie county, New York, December 15, 1805.

Left without means, at the age of fourteen he chose the trade of moulder in the iron or furnace business.

At twenty-one he came to Painesville, Ohio, where he was made foreman of the Geauga Furnace. Here he remained about six years, having especial superintendence of the pattern and moulding department, and filling his position with great skill and credit. At this place, July 29, 1832, he married Louisa Murray, of Willoughby, in the same county, who still survives him, and to whose long and faithful companionship, judgment and energy, in all the vicissitudes of his fortune, he was largely indebted for his success.

In 1833, Mr. Crawford moved with his family to Detroit, whence, after remaining six years, he removed to Presque Isle on Lake Huron, where he was the first to start the wood trade, for fuel for our then rapidly growing steamboat commerce. Here he remained seven years, superintending large bodies of wood cutters and suppliers, the saw mills, now so common in the lumber region, being then unknown.

In 1846, perceiving, with his usual forecast, that coal was likely to supplant wood for the uses of our steam marine, he removed to Cleveland, and at once invested about forty thousand dollars in the Chippewa mines, so called, in the Mahoning Valley, which had been opened a year or two before, and promised, as the event proved, to afford an almost inexhaustible supply of the richest coal. These mines, adding tracts of adjoining coal land to them as occasion demanded, he continued to work with a large annual yield for more then twenty years.

Shortly after commencing with the Chippewa, he was found, in 1848, to be among the pioneers in opening up the beds of Briar Hill coal in the Mahoning Valley, so well known to steamboat men and manufacturers ever since, as being a kind of coal peculiarly fitted for their uses. Here he continued to mine largely at several different localities selected by him with rare judgment. He also opened and carried on mining extensively at other points, such as on the Ohio, below Steubenville, also in Orange county, Pennsylvania, and elsewhere.

His chief business office and coal depots were at Cleveland, but he had branch establishments at Detroit and Chicago, and at one time was largely interested in vessel property on the Lakes, and although the business of mining and selling coal, mainly for supplying steam craft and for exportation, was his leading pursuit, he was one of the earliest in 1851, to engage in the manufacture of pig iron from our native ores in the Mahoning Valley, having an interest in the second furnace started there, and being the builder of the fourth. From time to time he invested judiciously in real estate.

From all these sources in spite of some business adventures which proved disastrous, through unexpected financial revulsions, or the fault of others, he succeeded in amassing a splendid fortune to be inherited by his family. He was never a speculator, nor a rash operator, but his business views were liberal and comprehensive, and carried out with energy and wisdom. Personally he was a man of fine presence and manners, always pleasant to meet with on the street, cordial and unassuming. He was intensely loyal and liberal throughout the war, and always kind and charitable to the poor. He was not a church member, but was a regular church attendant and a respecter of religions institutions. In his later years he was frequently an invalid, and being in New York in the Fall of 1867, by the advice of physicians, and in company with friends from Cleveland, he sailed for Europe, where, in Paris, during the Exposition, he spent some months, returning with health improved, but which again declined until June 30, 1868, when at the age of sixty-two years, six months and fifteen days, he died at his beautiful home in Cleveland, surrounded by his family and friends, peacefully and calmly, as a good man dies.

We feel that we can not do better than to conclude this brief and imperfect sketch with the notice which appeared in the Cleveland Herald on the evening of the day of his decease. Speaking of the event it says:

We regret to announce the decease of this prominent business man and respected citizen, who died at his residence on Euclid avenue this (Tuesday) morning at about 9 o'clock.

Mr. Crawford had for years been more or less an invalid, but had not been alarmingly ill until last Thursday, when by a sudden and severe attack he was completely prostrated, and recovery became hopeless.

Mr. Crawford had nearly reached the age of sixty-three. A native of New York, beginning life with few, if any, adventitous aids, he had attained to affluence and position by a long and enterprising business career. For the last twenty-four years he has lived in Cleveland. He was among the pioneers in the coal mining business of Northern Ohio, contributing largely ever since by his sagacity and experience, to the development of that important element of commerce and public wealth.

Through all the vicissitudes of a long business life he maintained a character of the most perfect integrity. As a citizen he was liberal and public spirited; as a neighbor and friend he was kind and generous; in his social and domestic relations he was simple and unostentatious, affectionate and beloved. Very many in the various ranks and conditions of life, both here and elsewhere, will mourn his loss, and remember him with sincere respect.

D. P. Rhodes.

The name of D. P. Rhodes is distinguished among those who have contributed to the prosperity of Cleveland by the development of its coal and iron interests. For many years he has labored to build up the coal and iron trade of the city, on which its future mainly depends, and has met with a success which has benefitted the public in a far greater degree than it has enriched himself, although he has had nothing to complain of in that respect.

Mr. Rhodes was born in Sudbury, Rutland county, Vermont. His father dying when the boy was but five years old, he was compelled to work for his own living, riding horse for his neighbors whilst they plowed corn, digging potatoes and picking apples for every tenth bushel, and doing other odd jobs. When he was fifteen years old his mother married again and he lived with his stepfather till twenty-one. His stepfather, being rich, offered him a farm if he would stay with him, but he was bent on seeing the West before accepting the farm, and so set out westward. Whilst in the West he became engaged to be married, and before marriage he visited his home, when his stepfather offered him half his property if he would return there and live. The papers were made out but were not to be executed till he had consulted his affianced. To do this he returned to the West. As he traveled by canal he had abundant time to consider the matter, and the more he thought of it the more he became sick of the idea. Things were too circumscribed down east to suit his taste. He said nothing of the matter to his affianced, but wrote home that he was not coming; and to this day he has never seen occasion to regret his decision, but has been confirmed in its wisdom. To use his own expression: "By Jupiter, I would rather live west, if I did'nt live half as long."

Mr. Rhodes became early interested in the coal business, his first enterprise being in company with Messrs. Tod and Ford, in 1845, at the old Briar Hill mines, from which they raised and shipped by canal about fifty tons per week. This was considered a good business. In two or three years business increased to a hundred tons daily. In 1846, another mine was opened in Girard. This was followed by the Clover Hill mine in the Tuscarawas Valley, previous to the opening of which the firm was changed by the death of Mr. Ford. The next opened was the Clinton mines in the Tuscarawas Valley. Then a mine in Fairview, Wayne county, which was the last large transaction with Gov. Tod as partner. In about 1855, Tod and Rhodes dissolved partnership, Mr. Rhodes taking Clover Hill, and Gov. Tod all the rest of the interests.

Whilst developing his coal interests, Mr. Rhodes made important discoveries of iron ore, the first being veins of black band ore, very similar to the English and Scotch, though richer. The veins of this ore in Tuscarawas are from five to fifteen feet thick. He also discovered and worked a vein of mountain ore that will also run from five to fifteen feet thick, and is easily mined, one miner being able to mine twenty tons per day after the earth has been removed. Mr. Rhodes spent several months in the ore fields of Scotland and England in 1868, and found the veins there not over two feet in thickness.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, D. P. Rhodes]

In the Tuscarawas Valley property, Mr. Rhodes has found seven veins of coal, five of which are very good, and he has worked the whole of them. There is also as good fire-clay as any yet discovered, the finest grade being pure sandstone, which stands fire as hearthstones in furnaces better than any other. Shell ore, block ore, and limestone also exist in abundance. The iron enterprises in which Mr. Rhodes is interested are the Tuscarawas Iron Company, formed about 1864, of which Mr. Rhodes is president. This company have three or four thousand acres of mineral land in the Tuscarawas Valley, and the works have a capacity of a hundred and fifty tons per week; also the Dover Rolling Mill Company, of which Mr. Baker is president. It makes all sizes of merchant and small T rail iron, having a capacity of about fifteen tons per day.

He is largely interested in a mining company near Massillon, having three engines and three openings there, and can mine a thousand tons of coal per day as soon as the road from Massillon to Clinton is completed. This will be the shortest coal bearing road,--for blast furnace coal--to Cleveland, by fifteen miles, for it connects with the Cleveland, Zanesville and Cincinnati Railroad at Clinton, thence to Cleveland by Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad at Hudson. A company was formed and sunk some eight hundred or nine hundred feet, within three miles of Canal Dover, on the line of this company, and found salt water of the very best quality, the water itself being almost strong enough to preserve meat. There is coal within twenty rods of the wells at ninety cents per ton, whereas in Syracuse and Saginaw they have to use wood, at a cost (at the former place) of seven dollars per cord. Mr. Cass, President of the Fort Wayne Railroad, and J. N. McCullough, of the same and of the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad, are heavily interested in the road connections adverted to above.

At Fulton, three miles below Clinton, is another coal company in which Mr. Rhodes is interested. This mine yields about three hundred tons per day, and could double that amount if there were sufficient transportation. There are two engines and two openings at this bank.

Mr. Rhodes is also interested in three mines at Marseilles, Willmington and Braceville, Illinois. He has taken a hearty interest in all improvements, and especially in the matter of railroads. He was interested in building the Northern Division of the Cleveland and Toledo Railroad, and was on the executive committee.

D. P. Rhodes and H. S. Stevens built the West Side street railroad, and equipped it. He was also largely interested in building and equipping the Rocky River railroad. He is also interested in the Cleveland and Zanesville railroad project.

Dr. Upson, of Talmadge, and Messrs. Philpot and Camp were in the coal business when Mr. Rhodes commenced, and they have all disappeared. They only then received about one boat load of fifty tons per week by canal, whereas, the firm of Rhodes & Co. now handle from ninety thousand to one hundred thousand tons per year.

Mr. Rhodes has built his docks in this city, two of them are the largest on the line of the river. About seven hundred men are employed on works in which he is heavily interested, but nothing troubles him. He says: "If the men don't dig the coal or iron, they don't get paid for it, so I take it easy, and am giving my attention to farming. I have a stock farm of five hundred and forty-four and a half acres at Ravenna that I run myself, and I have another of eighty acres adjacent to the city, rented for gardening, and still another of twenty-six and a half acres, out on the Detroit road where I intend to build me a home to live and die in, if I do not die away from home." He is now only fifty-three years old, hale and hearty, and seemingly good for another score or two of years.

He has four children, the oldest and youngest being daughters. The oldest is the wife of M. A. Hanna, of the firm of Rhodes & Co. The oldest son, Robert, is a member of the same firm; the other son, James, has just returned from a long visit to the mineral fields of Europe and attending lectures on metallurgy and mining. By his observation and studies he has acquired an extensive knowledge of the old world and the modes of working mines. The youngest daughter, Fanny, is at school at Batavia, New York.

In 1867, Mr. D. P. Rhodes and J. F. Card being tired of the sale department of their coal business, and having immense interest in mines that required close attention, gave up their sale business in Cleveland to Rhodes & Co., a firm consisting of G. H. Warmington, M. A. Hanna, and Robert R. Rhodes, who are receiving and selling both coal and iron, the same as the old firm.

The sales of coal by the firm for the past two years amounted to one hundred thousand tons per year; together with a large trade in pig iron and ore. The Willson Bank and Massillon and also Briar Hill grades of coal are principally handled by this firm, who are also operators largely in the Pennsylvania anthracites.

The ores passing through Cleveland to supply the manufactories of the Mahoning Valley are from Lake Superior and Canada; the Canada ores forming quite an extensive item. The firm keep for sale many varieties of pig iron, the most considerable being that of the Tuscarawas iron, but including also the Lake Superior and Salisbury irons.

The business of the firm averages one million dollars per year, and extends through the entire chain of lakes, having agencies at Chicago and Milwaukee, and also on Lake Superior ports. The Chicago trade is steadily increasing, for which there are two or three good reasons, to wit: The city is growing very rapidly; the Illinois coals are very inferior to those of Ohio, and the local demand for the product of the Illinois coal fields is very large, owing to the scarcity of wood.

David Morris.

The importance of biography as a branch of historical literature is indisputable, and long before reaching this portion of our work the reader must have realized the truth, that in the life of the individual can be seen mirrored not only his individual struggles, "but all mankind's epitome." The trouble, trials and labors of the one are but specimens of the struggles of the many who have to fight the battle of life, and who go down to their graves unchronicled. From the story of those whose experience is recorded, may be gleaned lessons of hope under the most discouraging circumstances, of perseverance amid difficulties, and assurances that labor and faith will eventually conquer. These lessons are forcibly taught in the history of the subject of the present sketch.

David Morris was born of respectable parents, in Sirhowy, Monmouth county, on the border of Wales, July 9th, 1819. His opportunities for acquiring an education were limited, but such as they were he made the most of, and obtained sufficient knowledge of the ordinary branches to enable him to successfully carry on business in after life. When about twenty years of age he emigrated to the United States, landing in New York. October 4th, 1839, in company with his mother and the remainder of the children, his father having arrived earlier, for the purpose of seeking a location. The first stop was made in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, thence they removed for a short time to Llewellyn, and afterwards to Primrose, Schuylkill county.

In 1841, he left his parents and went to Middlebury, Summit county, Ohio. He at once commenced digging coal for Mr. Philpot, with whom he had been acquainted in Wales. After a few months he commenced driving team on the railroad, and continued in that capacity for about two years. The zeal and ability shown by the young man attracted the attention of his employer, and proved of signal assistance in pushing forward the work. So marked was the interest exhibited by Mr. Philpot in his assistant, that he favored a closer connection, and in 1843, his daughter, Dorothy Philpot, was married to David Morris. The young wife was a lady of more than ordinary good qualities, and the union proved a source of unfailing happiness, Mrs. Morris being not only an exemplary wife and mother in her home, but by her counsel and assistance materially advancing the business interests of her husband.

In 1847, Mr. Morris, in connection with W. H. Harris, contracted with Lemuel Crawford for mining the Chippewa bank by the ton. After two years, he took the management of the work for Crawford & Price, the latter having purchased an interest. He then went to Girard to work his own mines at that point. The coal being of an excellent quality, and the demand constantly increasing, these mines became a source of great wealth, engrossing large capital, and giving employment to a host of workmen. Instead of the one mine which he found, his original enterprise, his estate now comprises the Mineral Ridge mines, which have been worked about eighteen years, and have yielded about a hundred and fifty tons per day; the Girard mines, worked about the same period, and yielding two hundred tons daily; and mines at Youngstown, which have been worked eight years. The pay roll of these mines now bears about $12,000 per month, and the freight bills on the railroad average $3,000 per week. The coal is mostly brought to Cleveland, whence it is shipped to Chicago, Milwaukee, Hamilton, and Toronto, a large amount going to the latter place.

In 1856, Mr. Morris moved to Cleveland, the amount of business transacted with this city making this step prudent. Here the firm of Crawford, Price & Morris was formed, which subsequently became Price, Crawford & Morris, and finally Morris & Price. On the 15th of February, 1862, he died in the forty-third year of his age.

[Illustration: Truly Yours, David Morris]

Mr. Morris was active, industrious, and unfailing in his watchfulness over the interests in his charge, both when an employee and when an employer. His industry set a good example, which those under him were induced to follow, and in this way labors which would have wearied and discouraged men with a less energetic and industrious manager, were performed with cheerfulness. He was a man of few words but his manner and acts spoke more forcibly than words, and his men learned to obey and respect an employer, who, instead of ordering and lecturing them, quietly showed them how he wished a thing by setting about it with them. He was careful to restrain his passions, and to act from judgment instead of from impulse. In this way he was not only successful in business, and respected by his business associates, but possessed the esteem and confidence of his workmen, who, when he lay in his last illness, gathered anxiously to learn every item of intelligence that could be learned in regard to his condition.

Mr. Morris was simple and unpretending in his habits, and of a religious turn of mind. He felt his obligations to God, and during his later years, especially, was diligent in his attention on Divine worship. In the closing days of his illness, he was constantly engaged in prayer, and departed this life in the assured hope of a peaceful and joyous hereafter.

The disease that carried him off was typhoid fever, with which he was at first seized in Cleveland, where he lay at his residence for some weeks. On his partial recovery he visited Girard, where he suffered a relapse, and after a lingering illness, died at the residence of his parents. He was buried in Youngstown cemetery, the funeral exercises being attended by one of the largest assemblages of friends ever congregated at that place on a similar occasion.

It was feared that with his death the operation of his works would cease and a large number of people be thus thrown out of employment. But a short time before his death he had expressed the desire that the works should be carried on after his departure the same as before it; "because," said he, "to stop the work would do much harm to others and no good to us." Mr. Morris appointed his wife, Mrs. Dorothy Morris, and Mr. Robert McLauchlan, executors of his will, and trustees of the estate. Mr. McLauchlan, who had been for a number of years engaged with the firm previous to the death of Mr. Morris, and therefore familiar with all its business detail, had the additional qualification of being an able financier, and possessing a practical knowledge of all branches of the coal interest, and above all, a character for unimpeachable integrity. His administration has been eminently successful.

Mr. Morris left a wife and six children to mourn his loss, the eldest of whom, Mary, is now the widow of the late A. V. Cannon, and the second, William, is a member of the firm of Ward, Morris & Co., coal dealers. The third, John, is engaged at one of the estate mines, at Niles, Ohio, the rest being quite young.

W. I. Price.

W. I. Price was born in Nantiglo, South Wales, May 21st, 1823, and came to the United States with his father when about twelve years of age. His father settled at Paris, Ohio, where the subject of this sketch remained until he grew up to man's estate, when he removed to Cleveland, and was engaged as book-keeper with Messrs. Camp & Stockly. The confidence of his employers in his business ability and integrity was soon manifested by their sending him to Chicago as their agent in the coal business. His stay in that city was marked by several severe fits of sickness, and he was eventually compelled to leave that post and return to Cleveland.

Soon after his return he became interested with Lemuel Crawford, in the business of mining coal, in the early development of which branch of trade he filled a conspicuous and important part. He often related, after the coal interest had assumed large proportions, the difficulties to be surmounted in introducing coal as an article of fuel, especially on the steamboats. Frequently he has sat up all night watching for the steamers to come in, and then almost gave away coal in order to induce their officers to use it.

The firm of Crawford & Price was formed in 1850. With persistent energy it continued to push its coal business until it assumed considerable proportions, when, in 1856, Mr. David Morris became a partner, and the firm name was changed to Crawford, Price & Co., and again in 1858, to Price, Crawford & Morris. In 1857, the firm of Price, Morris & Co. was established in Chicago, and Mr. Price was, during much of his time, actively engaged in the extensive coal transactions of that firm.

[Illustration: Very Resp. Yours, W. I. Price]

Mr. Price was married to Miss Harriet Murray, who died in 1850, after two years of married life, leaving one child, which only survived her three months. He was married again August 27, 1856, to Miss Caroline Anderson, of Manchester, Vermont, daughter of Rev. James Anderson, of the Congregational church.

Being in ill health at the time of his second marriage, Mr. Price, with his wife, took a trip to Europe, visiting his old home in Wales, and returned with his health so much improved that he was scarcely recognized by his friends.

The year 1857 was a most trying time for business men. Mr. Price's labors were arduous in the extreme; his energy was unbounded, and the labors he was compelled to perform doubtless so over-taxed his strength that he had not sufficient vitality to recover.

In the Fall of 1858, he had the first serious apprehensions for his health. A bronchial difficulty from which he suffered, was aggravated by traveling and exposure, and in the Spring of 1859, he went to New York for advice. He was told to make another trip to Europe. This advice was followed, but he returned very little benefited. After a few weeks he started with his wife on a tour south, intending to remain there during the Winter. Reaching Charleston, S. C., about the middle of November, he remained but a short time, and then set out for the Sulphur Springs, at Aiken. Here he improved rapidly, but as the cold came on, and the accommodations were poor, it was thought advisable to go further south. At Savannah he remained a short time, and after wandering from point to point, arrived early in February at New Smyrna, where a large company of English hunters made their headquarters. Here they found better food and accommodations. After wandering through the South until about the middle of May, they returned to New York, where they were met by the partner of Mr. Price, Mr. Morris, and Mr. Price's brother Philip. The latter accompanied them to Manchester, Vermont. The mountain air of that region stopped the cough of the invalid, and from Thursday, May 17th, to Monday 21st, he was able to sit up, and was attending to business with his brother all the morning of the last named day. A friend from Brooklyn called, and with him he conversed for half an hour. On rising to bid him good bye, he was seized with hemorrhage, and asked to be assisted to bed. He never spoke more, and died in fifteen minutes. His remains were brought to Cleveland and interred in Erie street cemetery, but were afterwards removed to Woodland. The last illness of Mr. Price was borne without a murmur.

Mr. Price was modest and retiring in manner, affable in disposition, and benevolent to a fault. He was most beloved where best known. In business circles his integrity was proverbial, and his financial ability everywhere acknowledged. Few men have died so sincerely regretted by those who knew him.

James Anderson Price, the only child of the subject of this sketch, was born April 22d, 1858, and though yet very young, presents in personal appearance and disposition an exact counterpart of his father.

D. W. Cross.

In the Spring of 1855, when the coal trade of Cleveland was, comparatively, in its infancy, and before the Mahoning Railroad was built, the late Oliver H. Perry and David W. Cross set about investigating the coal deposits in the Mahoning Valley, which resulted in their making some leases of coal lands, and in purchasing a coal tract of about one hundred and fifty acres, known then as the old Heaton coal bank, of Mineral Ridge coal. In January, 1856, Perry, Cross & Co. commenced operations in earnest, opened an office and coal yard on Johnson & Tisdale's dock and mined and brought to Cleveland the first cargo of Mineral Ridge coal. It came by the way of the Pennsylvania and Ohio canal from Niles, Trumbull county, Ohio.

At that time, when a gold dollar was only worth a dollar, the coal was mined at forty cents per ton, the canal freight about one dollar and seventy-five cents per ton, "dead work," handling, dockage, &c., about seventy-five cents, making the total cost of that coal on the docks in Cleveland ready for delivery, about two dollars and ninety cents per ton.

This mine produced about a hundred tons per day. The company that year also received about eight thousand tons of Briar Hill or "block coal" from Powers' bank, about two miles below Youngstown. This coal was also brought in by canal boats.

In the year 1859, Hon. Henry B. Payne, who had an interest in the original purchase of coal lands, with a view of establishing his son, Nathan P. Payne, in business, bought the entire interest of Mr. Perry in the concern and the business was continued in the name of D. W. Cross & Co. Mr. N. P. Payne, then an active young man just from his collegiate studies, took charge of the retail trade, and Isaac Newton had charge of the books. In 1860, arrangements were made with the late Lemuel Crawford to run his Chippewa and Briar Hill mines in connection with the Mineral Ridge mines, and it resulted in forming the company known as Crawford, Cross & Co., for one year, at the expiration of which time the firm of Cross, Payne & Co., composed of D. W. Cross, Nathan P. Payne and Isaac Newton, carried on the business. This firm made extensive explorations for coal. They discovered and opened the Summit bank coal mines, near Akron, built a locomotive railroad three miles long to the canal at Middlebury, and to the Cleveland & Zanesville and Atlantic & Great Western railroads; repaired the feeder canal from Middlebury to Akron, built a basin capable of holding eight canal boats, extensive shutes, docks, &c., capable of handling four thousand five hundred tons per day. This coal tract includes between three and four hundred acres. The coal is a superior quality of the Massillon grade, about four and a half feet thick, and for steam, manufacturing and domestic uses is claimed to have no superior. The company employed at this mine from seventy-five to a hundred and fifty men; built extensive shaft works for elevating coal to the surface; erected about forty comfortable tenements for the workmen and miners, and, in short, used all their past experience to make this a model mine. It is the nearest coal bank to Cleveland now open.

They also, in connection with the late W. A. Otis, Charles A. Otis and James Lewis, leased and purchased several hundred acres of coal lands in Brookfield, Trumbull county, Ohio, and opened the extensive works known as the Otis Coal Company's bank.

A shaft on this tract was sunk to the coal eight by sixteen feet and a hundred and fifty-five feet deep, in sixty-one days by Isaac Halford, superintendent, through solid rock, said to be the quickest work ever known in the valley. This tract produces an excellent quality of the Briar Hill grade of coal; a locomotive railroad connects it with a branch of the Mahoning Railroad, and the works are capable of mining and raising three hundred tons of coal per day.

In February, 1867, Mr. Cross retired from the business, and the present firm of Payne, Newton & Co., composed of N. P. Payne, Isaac Newton and Charles J. Sheffield, now carry on the extensive business of the entire concern. They have ample facilities for mining and handling five or six hundred tons of coal per day.

After the completion of the Cleveland & Mahoning Railroad the Pennsylvania and Ohio canal was abandoned, the Railroad Company having obtained control of the stock, and fixed so high a tariff as to cut off all competition with themselves. This effectually killed the canal, except that portion between Akron and Kent. The active trade on this part of the Pennsylvania and Ohio canal will insure its preservation, and as it is an important feeder (supplying water and trade) to the Ohio canal, the State will undoubtedly take possession of it. The capital invested by this concern in the coal trade is about $250,000.

Since his retirement from the coal trade, Mr. Cross has been actively interested in the Winslow Car Roofing Company and the Cleveland Steam Gauge Company, both carrying on their manufactories in Cleveland.


Although originally settled by people from Connecticut, Cleveland was not in its early days distinguished for its religious characteristics. Old inhabitants narrate how in the infancy of the settlement the whisky shop was more frequented than the preaching meeting, whenever that was held, and how, on one occasion, a party of scoffing unbelievers bore in mock triumph an effigy of the Saviour through the streets. A regular meeting of infidels was held, and burlesque celebrations of the Lord's Supper performed. Still later, when the business of slaughtering hogs became an important branch of industry, it was carried on regularly, on Sundays as well as on week-days, and as this was a leading feature in the year's doings the religious observance of the day was seriously interfered with during slaughtering season. Trade on the river, in the busy season, went on with but little regard for the Sundays, except that Mr. John Walworth invariably refused, although not a church member, to conform to the usage of his neighbors in doing business on that day. Unlike the modern emigrants from New England, the Cleveland pioneers did not carry the church with them.

The first regularly organized religious society in Cleveland was the Episcopal, which gathered together for religious worship in 1817, under the ministration of the Rev. Roger Searles. The meetings were held wherever a room could be obtained, the court-house, old academy building, and other public rooms being frequently used for the purpose. In 1828, Trinity Church was regularly incorporated, and the frame building which stood on the corner of Seneca and St. Clair streets until its destruction by fire in 1853, is remembered with affection by many Clevelanders as "Old Trinity."

The next religions organization was Presbyterian. In 1820, a few residents of Cleveland engaged, the Rev. Randolph Stone, pastor of a church at Morgan, Ashtabula county, to devote a third of his ministrations to Cleveland. In June of that year the first Sunday school was established with Elisha Taylor as superintendent, but it was only by the most persistent effort that it was enabled to combat the prejudices and overcome the indifference of the people. In September, 1820, the First Presbyterian church was formally organized, with fourteen members, in the old log court-house. In 1827, the society was regularly incorporated, and in 1834, the old stone church on the Public Square was opened for worship. During the whole of this time the congregation had no settled pastor, but was dependent on occasional visits of ministers from other places.

The first attempt at Methodist organization was somewhere between 1824 and 1827. Methodism was not in favor among the early settlers in Cleveland. The historian of the Erie Conference relates that a Methodist friend in New England, who owned land in Cleveland, sent on a deed for the lot on the northeast corner of Ontario and Rockwell street, where Mr. Crittenden afterwards built a large stone house, which lot would have been most suitable for a church, and that no person could be found willing to pay the trifling expense of recording, or take charge of the deed, and it was returned to the donor. In 1830, Cleveland became a station, with Rev. Mr. Plimpton, pastor.

The first Baptist meeting was held in the old academy, in 1832, the Rev. Richmond Taggart preaching to a handful of believers. In 1833, the First Baptist society was formally organized with twenty-seven members, Moses White and Benjamin Rouse, who still live in the city, being of the original deacons. In 1836, their first church, on the corner of Seneca and Champlain streets, was dedicated with a sermon by the Rev. Elisha Tucker, of Buffalo, who was afterwards called to the pastorate.

About the year 1835, the first Roman Catholic church was built on Columbus street on the flats, and was intended to supply the religious needs of the Roman Catholics of Cleveland and Ohio City, being situated almost midway between the settled portions of the two places. The first pastor was the Rev. Mr. Dillon.

In 1835, the first Bethel church, for the use of sailors, was built at the back of the site of Gorton, McMillan & Co.'s warehouse. It was a plain wooden structure, which remained there until the erection of the brick church on Water Street, when the wooden building was removed to make way for the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad.

In 1839, the first Hebrew synagogue was organized and a brick church was afterwards built on Eagle street.

From these feeble beginnings have grown up the present religious organizations of Cleveland, numbering about seventy churches, many of them of great beauty and costliness, with flourishing Sunday schools and wealthy congregations. The leading denominations have each several churches graded, from stately buildings for the older and wealthier congregations to the modest mission chapels. Nearly all the religious beliefs of the day are represented by organizations in the city, and all are in a flourishing, or at least a growing condition.

Samuel C. Aiken.

The ancestors of Mr. Aiken were from the North of Ireland, particularly from Londonderry, Antrim and Belfast. At an early day one or two colonies came over to this country and settled on a tract of land on the Merrimac River, in New Hampshire, calling it Londonderry, after the name of the city from which most of them had emigrated. Fragments of these colonies were soon scattered over New England, and a few families moved to Vermont and purchased a tract of land midway between the Green Mountains and Connecticut River. The township was at first called Derry, and afterwards divided, one portion retaining the original name, and the other taking the name of Windham. In the latter town Dr. Aiken was born, September 21, 1791. His parents were both natives of Londonderry, New Hampshire. Before their marriage, his mother, whose maiden name was Clark, resided a considerable portion of her time in Boston, with a brother and three sisters, and was there when the Revolutionary war broke out. When the city fell into the hands of the British, they refused to let any one leave. By some means however Miss Clark escaped and crossed over to Cambridge, where the American army was stationed under General Washington. After questioning her as to her escape and the situation of affairs in the city, Washington told her, that, in the present condition of the country it was unsafe for her to travel unprotected, and accordingly gave her an escort, proving that the great General was also mindful of the courtesies of a gentleman.

When about twelve or thirteen years of age, Dr. Aiken, after a preparatory course, entered Middlebury college, in 1813. In his junior year a long fit of sickness placed him under the care of a physician from Georgia, who bled him forty times and gave him calomel and julep, (such was the way of curing fever,) sufficient to destroy the best constitution. The consequence was, his health was so impaired that he was obliged to leave college for a year. Afterwards returning he entered the class of 1814. In both classes were quite a number of young men who became distinguished in Church and State. Among them was Sylvester Larned, the eloquent preacher of New Orleans, Levi Parsons and Pliney Fisk, first missionaries to Palestine, Carlos Wilcox, the poet, Silas Wright, afterwards Governor of New York State, and Samuel Nelson, now on the Bench of the Supreme Court of the United States.

[Illustration: ]

Dr. Aiken's first religious impressions were occasioned by reading Doddridge's Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul. Faithful parental instruction in the Bible and Shorter Catechism had laid the foundation for belief in the truth of religion. A revival of religion soon after entering college awakened a new and solemn purpose to devote his life to the work of the Gospel ministry. The usual course of three years at Andover Theological Seminary was passed without any special occurrence. He was then called by the "Young Men's Missionary Society" in New York, to labor in their service in that city. He had but just entered the field when an urgent request from the First Presbyterian society in Utica, New York, took him to that place, then only a small village, where he was ordained and installed, the third of February, 1818. Some events of deep interest occurred while he was in Utica. The building and completion of the Erie canal was one. The cholera in 1832, was another. It was there and then this fatal epidemic first appeared in the United States. In Utica also during his ministry were several revivals of religion of great power and interest. Moreover, about that time the subject of anti-slavery began to be agitated; opposition and mobs began to gather, which, under the control of the Almighty, have resulted in the emancipation of millions of slaves.

Impaired health, after about nineteen years of labor, with very little relaxation or relief by traveling, such as is common now, determined him to accept a call from the First Presbyterian church and society in Cleveland, over which he was installed pastor in November, 1835. Although the church had been organized fifteen years, Rev. Mr. Aiken was the first regular pastor. The ministerial duties were performed by supplies.

Soon after Mr. Aiken was installed pastor, a great financial revulsion took place; and for a period of about ten years he voluntarily relinquished three hundred dollars out of his salary of fifteen hundred, lest it should prove burthensome to the church. This low tide in financial matters was characterized by remarkable religious developments; slavery, temperance and Millerism became church questions; and it was regarded as the peculiar mission of Mr. Aiken to distinguish between truth and error. His moderation, judicious advice, and devoted character were just calculated to conduct his charge safely through the distractions of that period. The society increased at such a rate that the building became crowded, and another church was organized for the West Side. On the East Side a Congregational church was formed about the year 1840, to which some of the more radical members of the First Presbyterian church went over. In process of time the nucleus of the Second Presbyterian church on Superior street, and the Third, on Euclid street, were formed out of the First church, not because of any dissatisfaction, however, but for want of room. But, notwithstanding these offshoots, a new and larger edifice became necessary, and in 1853, the present enlarged, elegant and substantial building was put up on the site of that of 1834. In March, 1857, the wood work of this spacious stone structure was destroyed by fire.

In his physical constitution, with which the mental is closely allied, Mr. Aiken is deliberate, to a degree which some have greatly mistaken for indolence. But with a commanding person, and strong will this habitual absence of excitement was never tame, but rather impressive. He seldom rose above the even tenor of his discourse, but never fell to commonplace, was generally interesting and occasionally eloquent. His sermons were not hasty compositions, without a purpose, but well studied, rich with original and important thought, artistically arranged and glowing with genuine piety and embellished with scholastic treasures. Dr. Aiken possessed the accomplishment, and understood the value of good reading, so rare in the pulpit, and which is scarcely inferior to eloquence. We remember but few occasions when he became thoroughly aroused. The destruction of so fine a church edifice so soon after it was completed seemed to him a personal calamity. On the following Sunday the congregation met in Chapin's Hall. His heart was evidently full of grief; but also of submission. His fine enunciation, correct emphasis, and strong yet suppressed feelings, secured the earnest attention of every hearer. He touched graphically upon the power of fire; how it fractures the rock, softens obdurate metals, envelopes the prairies in flame, and how it seized upon the seats, ceiling and roof in his darling house of worship, thence fiercely ascending the spire to strive to rise still higher, and invade the clouds. From this he turned to the doctrine of submission, in a manner so earnest and pathetic that a perceptible agitation pervaded the audience, in which many could not suppress their tears. There was no laboring after effect. It was the natural result of a lofty sentiment, expressed with unction, beauty and vigor.

During the same year the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church was held at Cleveland. The slavery question was there presented for the last time. The Southern members, represented by Rev. Mr. Ross, of Alabama, had counted upon what they called a conservative course, on the part of Mr. Aiken. They wished, simply, to be let alone. From the Middle States there were many clergyman of moderate views, who expected him to take their ground, or, at least, to be silent. He had advised non-resistence to the execution of the fugitive slave law, even on the part of the blacks, in cases where governmental officials were implicated. As usual, the negro question came up, and a large portion of a day was given to it.

Until near the close of the debate the representatives of the Middle and Southern States were quite hopeful of a moderate policy, or of no policy. Mr. Aiken sat near the marble pulpit in the Second church without any apparent interest in the discussion. He rose and spoke with difficulty and in a weak voice, and few words. In a temperate but firm and patriarchal manner he recounted the various phases of the question, during his public ministry. He then touched upon the moral and religions aspect of the case, but with no asseveration, and concluded by denouncing slavery as an evil, so monstrous that the church could neither sustain nor ignore it. The silence was so complete that no word was lost. When he sat down, the Southern members remarked that their fate within the church was settled.

On a previous public occasion in 1851, when the Columbus Railway was just completed, and an excursion of State dignitaries made a trial trip to Cleveland, Mr. Aiken was requested to preach in their presence. As this discourse is one of a very few that have been printed, we can give a few literal extracts:

It was my privilege on the Lord's day to address De Witt Clinton and the Canal Commissioners of New York in recognition of the beneficient hand of Providence, who had carried them on to the completion of the Erie Canal. In a moral and religions, as well as in a social and commercial point of view, there is something both solemn and sublime in the completion of a great thoroughfare. It indicates not only the march of mind and a higher type of society, but the evolution of a divine purpose.

In his quarter century sermon, June 3d, 1850, he says of revivals:

They are as their Divine Author says, like the breath of wind through fragrant trees and flowers, scattering grateful odors, pervading the universal church with the treasured sweetness of divine grace. If my success has not been as great as I would wish, it is as great as I had reason to expect. I confess I have much to deplore, and much for which to be thankful. There have been adverse influences here to counteract those usually falling to the lot of other ministers. So far as the subject of slavery is concerned I have endeavored without the fear or favor of man to preserve a course best calculated to promote freedom and save the church from dismemberment.

With such a style, perspicuous, easy and impressive, it is easy to see how he might thoroughly absorb the attention of an audience, without affecting the orator. If he had been more ambitions and more enterprising, he might have risen higher as a popular preacher, but would have held a lower place in the affections of his people. The position of a pastor in an active and growing city is beset with difficulty on all sides. To retain place and influence in one congregation during a period of thirty-five years is an evidence of prudence, character and stability of purpose more to be desired than outside fame in the church.

Though not yet arrived at extreme old age, he is too feeble to perform much service. It is ten years since he has retired from active duty, but his congregation continue his annual salary by an unanimous vote. Few clergyman are permitted to witness, like him, the fruits of their early labors. He has contributed largely to shape the religions institutions of a city, while it was increasing in population from three thousand to ninety thousand. We remember but one instance where he was drawn into a newspaper discussion. This was in the year 1815, in which he reviewed the decrees of the Council of Trent in relation to the prohibition of the Scriptures to the common people. The letters of "Clericus" and "Veritas" on that subject covered the whole ground on both sides, and are worthy of publication in a more permanent form.

The Rev. Doctor sustained the relation of pastor to the First Presbyterian church until 1858, when he resigned, leaving the Rev. Dr. Goodrich sole pastor. The whole extent of his ministry from the time of his license by the Londonderry Presbytery, 1817, to the present time, March, 1869, has been about fifty-three years. During forty-three years of this period he has been a pastor in only two congregations. The other portion of this time he has preached and labored in vacant churches and where there was no church, as health and opportunity permitted.

The Doctor still resides in Cleveland, beloved by the church over which for so many years he watched and prayed, and honored in a community in which he has so long been recognized as an unswerving advocate of right.

Retired from active duty, and nearing, as he is, the sunset of life, his quiet hours may bring to him remembrances of vigorous effort and unmeasured usefulness, while his gentle nature may be cheered by the consciousness that he still holds the love of this people.

Seymour W. Adams.

The subject of this sketch, Rev. Seymour Webster Adams, D. D., was born at Vernon, Oneida county, New York, August 1, 1815. His father's name was Isaac Adams and his mother's maiden name was Eunice Webster--she was a niece of Noah Webster, the great American lexicographer. His mother is still living. His father died in 1861. Dr. Adams was possessed of remarkable equanimity of temperament, a healthful constitution and great powers of application and endurance. These traits, the home influences under which he was nurtured, developed in a high degree. His early years were passed upon his father's farm at Vernon and in the home circle. Having before him constantly not only the example of right living, as generally esteemed, but of holy living, he could not do otherwise than profit greatly by the example set before him. But he did not only profit by this example--he went much further. It is said of him, "As a son he was docile, loving, tenderly attached to his kindred, profoundly obedient and reverent towards his parents, whose wish was the law of his heart, and whom he loved to call blessed."

At the age of seventeen he became a member of the Baptist church at Vernon, and soon after this entered upon a course of preparation for a liberal education and in due time he entered Hamilton College, Clinton, New York, from which he graduated after a full course, taking a very high position in his class.

That the leading traits of his character while young may be appreciated, some of his early writings are here referred to.

Soon after entering upon his collegiate course he wrote upon "Integrity of Character," and among other things remarked that the man who suffers his principles to be violated "sacrifices his honor, barters all that is noble and admirable, and abandons those principles to which he should cling with an unyielding grasp."

On another occasion a little further on he is found maintaining the necessity of the exercise of the physical and intellectual powers of man "as a wise provision of the Sovereign Ruler of the world" for man's happiness, and he maintains that not only in this should there be activity but energy.

Afterwards, in 1841, when he had become a senior and was about to bid adieu to college life, he chose as the subject of his oration, "Development of Character," maintaining that no one can become "deservedly great" who does not encounter and overcome the impediments and difficulties constantly presenting themselves. He says: "Difficulties may long have met the aspirant at every step and been for years his constant companions, yet so far from proving detrimental, they have been among the most efficient means for preparing him for vigorous effort to surmount still greater barriers."

These references are deemed sufficient to indicate the principles and leading traits of the youthful Seymour W. Adams, and as we shall see, were his unvarying guides through life. To him it was the same to resolve as to perform, for whether in earlier or later life he never put his hand to the plow and looked back. Therefore, having resolved to become a Christian minister, he never swerved from that resolution for a single moment, but went forward with his mind fixed upon his purpose and object as the mariner's upon his guiding star. In pursuance of his previous determination, in the Fall of 1841 he entered the Hamilton Theological Seminary at Hamilton, Madison county, New York, from which in regular course he graduated, and after acting as ministerial supply in one or two places, he was called to and accepted the pastorate of the Baptist church at Vernon, his native place, having previously received ordination. Here he was greatly beloved by his people and continued there quietly pursuing his duties, until sought out at his village home and invited to accept the vacant pastorate of the First Baptist church of Cleveland, Ohio.

When first invited to the Cleveland pastorate he refused to listen, and declined to entertain the call; but upon the matter being further pressed upon him, upon the second call he consented to visit Cleveland for the purpose of becoming acquainted with the people and learning their situation, but was careful to give them no encouragement that he would accept their invitation.

Mr. Adams came to Cleveland in pursuance of this call October 19th, 1846, and after remaining three weeks returned home to Vernon, leaving it in great doubt whether he would return here. In about a month afterwards, the church at Cleveland calling him was relieved of suspense by his acceptance of the pastorate. He entered upon it November 22d, 1846. The subject of his discourse on this occasion was:

"For they watch for your souls as they that must give account."--Heb. xiii, 17.

A few words as to this discourse is deemed not out of place here, as it has become historic in the church to which it was delivered. The doctrine of the discourse was the reciprocal duty of pastor and people. Reference will only be made to what appertains to the pastor. He laid down most rigid rules for him--"that he should be a holy man,"--that he should be one that "hath clean hands and a pure heart; who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity." That the injunction was laid upon him, "Keep thyself pure;" that as the conduct of the minister is observed by many it should be fitting as an example to others "in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity." That in preparation for preaching the Word "time, thought and prayer must be given--that the burden of all his preaching should be 'Christ and him crucified.'"

How well he observed these will appear hereafter in the language of those who made addresses at his funeral, or soon afterwards. The reader is also referred to the Memoir of Dr. Adams, edited by Judge Bishop.

In this pastorate Dr. Adams continued till his decease. No extended reference can be made to his labors in so brief a sketch as this. A mere summary only can be given of his life work. The number of sermons preached by him, including addresses at funerals, is three thousand four hundred and ninety-three; number of marriages solemnized, three hundred and fifty-two; number of funerals attended, five hundred and four; number received into the church, including those received both by letter and baptism, about seven hundred. In addition to his other labors, in 1858-9, he wrote the life of Rev. Dr. Nathaniel Kendrick, so long and honorably known as the founder of the Hamilton Theological School, and which has since grown to be Madison University and Hamilton Theological Seminary. While in this work all display and all mere ornament is avoided, it is a work of decided merit, requiring severe application and patient industry to accomplish it. His surviving wife has said that "his pastoral labors were prosecuted regardless of self."

He was three times married. First to Miss Caroline E. Griggs, who died April, 1847. Second, January, 1849, to Mrs. Cordelia C. Peck, widow of Rev. Linus M. Peck, and daughter of Rev. Dr. Nathaniel Kendrick; she died October, 1852. Third, to Miss Augusta Hoyt, August, 1855, who is the mother of his four surviving children.

He was not only a Christian minister, but he was a true Christian patriot, and never, during all the terrible struggle for the life of the nation, when he offered prayer, did he fail to remember his country. Nearly the last work of his life was to accept an appointment in the Christian Commission to render service in Washington and at the front, relieving and comforting the sick and wounded of our army.

On the sixth of July, 1864, he returned home from this service, quite unwell, but he thought he could find no space for repose, and labored on more intensely than ever, all which time a crisis was approaching which he did not anticipate. He at last began to perceive symptoms of severe illness, and Sabbath, September 11th, he preached his last sermon to his people from Heb. iii: 7, 8. "To-day if ye will hear his voice harden not your hearts," &c. All that can be said here of this discourse is, that if he had known it was his last he could not have spoken more appropriately or warned more earnestly. From the preaching of this discourse he went to the sick-room, and on the 27th of September, 1864, Dr. Adams bade adieu to earth and passed away.

His funeral was attended September 30th, by a great multitude of mourners and friends, at the First Baptist church, and a large number of the clergymen of Cleveland participated in the solemnities.

This sketch can not be better concluded than by referring briefly to some of the remarks made on that occasion, as a fitting testimonial to the character and worth of Dr. Adams.

Remarks, 1st, by Rev. Dr. Aiken:

I have known him intimately, and I have thought, as I have seen him on the street, of that passage of Scripture, "Behold an Israelite indeed in whom there is no guile," for there was no guile in him. You might read his profession in his daily life. He commended daily the Gospel that he preached, and gave living witness of its power and showed that he loved the truth. He was eminently successful as a pastor and useful in the cause of the Redeemer.

2d, by Rev. Dr. Goodrich:

There was manifest a diligence in his study and a thoroughness of thought which commanded increased respect the longer we listened to him. His life and character made him felt in this community even more than his words. He preached one day in the week to his own flock, but he lived forth the Gospel of Christ every day before the world. There was in him a sincerity and consistency which could not be hid. He was transparent as crystal and honest as a little child. No man ever doubted him. He was always himself, true, manly, faithful. Men, as they passed him in the street, said to themselves, "There is a man who believes all the Gospel he preaches." He is gone, but his works follow him. "Being dead he yet speaketh."

3d, by Rev. Dr. Hawks:

Possessed naturally of a strong intellect, he disciplined it by the severe process of thought and study. His scholarship was accurate and thorough, his reading extensive and profitable, by means of these he intended to serve, as he did, Christ and the church. Dr. Adams was a pastor as well as preacher. He taught not only publicly but from house to house.

J. A. Thome.

James Armstrong Thome was born in Augusta, Kentucky, January 20, 1813. He is of Scotch descent on his father's side, and of North Irish by his mother, a native Armstrong of the border land. His father was a Presbyterian of the Scotch type, and a ruling elder in the church. His mother was a Methodist of the original Wesleyan order and period, having been converted under the labors of the Wesleys at the age of nine. This difference of the parents in religious beliefs and church affinities remained unchanged till the death of the mother, each attending their respective meetings; yet, wide as the distinction then was, and warm as the prevalent feeling was, between Presbyterians and Methodists, particularly in Kentucky, there was neither sectarian width nor warmth between the godly pair, the twain were one flesh and one spirit in Christ Jesus.

The son usually followed his father to church, though he sometimes accompanied his mother; and during week-day evenings he had the double advantage of going to prayer-meeting with the one, and to class-meeting with the other. To this two-fold, yet harmonious, religious training in childhood the son is indebted for a breath of religious sentiment and sympathy which made him early a Presbyteria-Methodist in heart, and led him subsequently to the mid-way ground of Congregationalism, where many a Presbyterian and many a Methodist have met in Christian unity,

He owes his early conversion to the faithful teachings and pious example of his parents, to their religious instruction, to family worship, to Sabbath observance, to sanctuary means, in prosecution of the covenant his parents entered into with God when they consecrated him in infancy.

The son's first great sorrow came when he was in his ninth year, in the death of his mother. The loss was irreparable, but it led him to Christ, From the sad moment when the dying mother laid her hand upon his head and spoke in words never to be forgotten, her last benediction, sorrow for the sainted dead was blended with penepenitentialrow towards God, and prayers and tears cried to heaven for mercy. It was not, however, until the age of seventeen that the blind seeker found the Saviour, and conscious peace in Him. This happy event was immediately followed by union with the Presbyterian church, and this by personal consecration to the ministry. Just before his conversion, his college course, early begun, had been completed. Three years were spent in farther study, and in travel, and general observation bearing on the chosen calling of life.

At the opening of Lane Seminary, under the Theological headship of Dr. Lyman Beecher, the young divinity student chose that school of the prophets, and joined its first class in 1833. It was a class destined to be made famous by a discussion, in its first year, of the slavery question, then beginning to be agitated by the formation of an anti-slavery society on the basis of immediate emancipation, and by the active agitation of the subject in the neighboring city, Cincinnati, whereby the mobocratic spirit was aroused, whence threats of sacking the seminary buildings, and thereupon alarm and hasty action of the trustees, disallowing further agitation, and enjoining the disbanding of the society. The students, too much in earnest to yield, after unavailing attempts at reconciliation with the authorities, the professors mediating, and Doctor Beecher conjuring his beloved pupils to stay with him, seceded in a body, in December, 1834. The young Kentuckian, son of a slave-holder, became a thorough convert to the doctrine of emancipation, joined the anti-slavery society, agitated with his brethren, delivered an address at the first anniversary of the American Anti-Slavery Society, in New York, May, 1834, and seceded with the class. "A Statement of the Reasons which induced the Students of Lane Seminary to Dissolve their Connection with that Institution"--a pamphlet of twenty-eight pages, signed by fifty-one names, and bearing date December 15, 1834, was published and went over the land, and the city, intensifying the agitation at home, and raising it throughout the country. Among the signatures to this document are those of Theodore D. Weld, H. B. Stanton, George Whipple, J. W. Alvord, George Clark, John J. Miter, Amos Dresser, (afterwards scourged in the Public Square of Nashville,) William T. Allen, son of a slaveholding Presbyterian minister in Alabama, and James A. Thome.

Exiled from the Seminary halls, these rebel reformers took refuge in a building hard by the city, and extemporized a Theological school, themselves being both lecturers and students. The following Spring, negotiations being matured for adding a Theological department to the Oberlin Institute by the accession of Professors Finney and Morgan the seceders went in a body to Oberlin, where they prosecuted their preparations for the ministry, which were completed in 1836. Among these first graduates of Oberlin Theological Seminary was J. A. Thome. The Winter of 1835-6, he had spent in lecturing on anti-slavery in Ohio, under commission of the American Anti-Slavery Society. The Winter of 1836-7, he, with Jos. Horace Kimball, of New Hampshire, visited the British West India Islands to investigate the results of the abolition of slavery, two years prior, by act of Parliament. A volume entitled "Emancipation in the West Indies," prepared by Mr. Thome, and published, in 1837, by the American Anti-Slavery Society at New York, embodied these observations. The book was timely and told efficiently on the reform in this country. The Winter of 1837, was passed in Kentucky, the abolitionist living among slaveholders, and officiating as the minister in the church of his father. The next Spring he accepted a call to the chair of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres in Oberlin college, and in September following was married to Miss Ann T. Allen, daughter of John Gould Allen, Esq., of Fairfield, Connecticut. After ten years of professorial labors, in association with men of great worth, most of whom still retain their connection with the college, Mr. Thome entered upon the pastoral work, December, 1848, in connection with the church of which he is still the pastor.

He has enjoyed a pastorate of twenty years, uninterrupted by serious ill-health, and cheered by successive revivals and consequent accessions to the church, which, having a membership at the beginning of his pastorate of little over one hundred, now numbers over three hundred, after many losses by dismission and death.

Mr. Thome, early converted to anti-slavery, and consistently devoted to that cause, has lived to see slavery abolished in America. In addition to the volume on West India Emancipation, he wrote, in 1850, a book on Slavery in America, which was published by the British Anti-Slavery Society. Since, a Prize Tract on Prayer for the Oppressed, also a tract during the war on "What are we Fighting for?" and a treatise on "The Future of the Freed People."

At the earnest solicitation of the Secretaries of the American Missionary Association, and with the generous consent of his church, Mr. Thome, accompanied by his wife and daughter, went abroad early in 1867, to secure pecuniary assistance from the friends of the freedmen in England and Scotland for their education and evangelization. He was absent on this mission one year. The result of his efforts have not yet ceased to be realized.

After thirty years of unbroken domestic felicity, three beloved daughters having been reared to womanhood in the enjoyment of the Christian's hope, and two of them happily wedded, Mr. Thome and his wife were overwhelmed with sorrow by the sudden death, on the last day of April, 1869, of their second daughter, Mrs. Maria E. Murphy, wife of Mr. Thos. Murphy, of Detroit. A lady of singular amiability, purity, and Christian excellence, she was endeared by her sweet graces to rich and poor, to young and old, throughout the circle of her acquaintances.

William H. Goodrich.

Rev. William H. Goodrich, D. D., pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Cleveland, is a native of New Haven, Conn. His ancestry is among the most honorable known in American society. His father was the late Rev. Chauncey A. Goodrich, D. D., a greatly distinguished professor in Yale College; and his grandfather, Hon. Elizur Goodrich, for some years a representative in Congress, and for twenty years Mayor of New Haven; and his great-grandfather, Rev. Elizur Goodrich, D. D., distinguished both as a clergyman and an astronomer. His mother was the daughter of Noah Webster, LL.D., the lexicographer.

He graduated at Yale college, and was subsequently a tutor in that institution. He studied theology at the New Haven Theological Seminary. While tutor, it was his duty to preserve order about the college grounds, and he received, (though not from a student,) during a night disturbance, a severe injury upon the head, which put his life in peril and interrupted mental labor for a long period. A part of this time was spent abroad in 1848; and it was not till 1850 that he entered steadily upon the duties of his profession. He was first settled as pastor of the Congregational Church of Bristol, Connecticut, where he remained four years. He was then called to the pastorate of the Presbyterian Church in Binghamton, N. Y., where he remained till 1858, when he removed to this city, where, for eleven years, his ministry has been marked by very great success. The prosperous condition of the church under his care, together with almost unparalleled attachment between pastor and people, afford evidence of the ability and faithfulness with which he has discharged his ministerial duties. To remarkable mental vigor, he adds great delicacy of character and the warmest sympathies; and those who know most of him, regard it as no partial judgment which awards him a front rank among preachers and pastors.

[Illustration: Yours truly, W. H. Goodrich]

Mr. Goodrich has enjoyed the best of opportunities, and is a writer of rare taste and rhetorical force, and an eloquent and impressive speaker. As a preacher he is never speculative and theoretical, never dogmatic nor sectarian, but eminently spiritual and practical. But the strongest point in his character is his downright, never-failing common sense. He never blunders, and never has to apologize for important mistakes committed. He is remarkable for insight to the character of all with whom he has to do. This trait gives him influence with many who care little for the gospel which he preaches. Though not conspicuously demonstrative in his outward life, and though free from all approach to obtrusiveness, so earnest and direct are his ways, that he becomes known to thousands with whom he has no personal acquaintance.

In this country it is generally regarded as a misfortune to have had a grandfather. Most Americans who have reached distinction for abilities and usefulness, have been the sons of parents unknown to fame. As a general rule, self-made men are the only well made men. By the force of their own energies they have surmounted the difficulties that stood in their pathway, and achieved distinction by their own efforts. There are very few prominent men in our country whose fathers and grandfathers have left names which will live for a score of years in the memory of society. But to this general truth the history of our country affords honorable exceptions. The sons of certain families distinguished for wealth, for talent and for the highest position in society, have been so wisely and prayerfully trained that they have escaped the dangers which have proved fatal to most of those who have inherited honored names, and to this class Mr. Goodrich belongs. Though not ignorant of the truth that his ancestry is held in the highest honor by all good men, it seems never to have occurred to him that anything less than his own personal labors and merits would avail to give him a good name with those whose good opinion is desirable. "The poet is born, not made." Character is made, not born.

In 1867, Mr. Goodrich was prostrated by severe illness, which for a season filled the hearts of his friends with most painful apprehension, but the prayers of a loving people were answered, and after an interim of six months he again resumed the duties of his pastorate. It soon became apparent, however, that while the "the spirit" was "willing," "the flesh" was "weak," and that a longer respite was necessary before he could again enter upon his work with his wonted zeal. Hoping to renew his impaired energies by a temporary release from care, and in the pleasures of travel, Mr. Goodrich, with his wife, sailed for Europe in 1868, where he remained for eight months, re-visiting the scenes with which he had become acquainted twenty years before. The ultimate object of his tour was secured, and at the close of the year he returned to his people in excellent health, and with an enriched experience from which he seemed to draw new inspiration for his work.

Soon after his return from abroad, the rapidly failing health of his mother, residing in New Haven, became to him a constant source of solicitude, more especially so from the fact of his being the sole surviving child of that once happy and affectionate household. His departure for Europe had been saddened by the sudden death of his only brother, Rev. Chauncey Goodrich. In the month of August, 1869, that mother passed from a life which seemed rounded to completeness, into the "day-break of heaven," leaving this son, Rev. William H. Goodrich, to rear the tablet to her memory, and to go out from a vacant, voiceless home, the last of his household.

But a quarter of a century has laid grandparents, parents, brother and sisters in the grave. At the present writing, Mr. Goodrich is once more united to his people, and we but give utterance to the general voice in the desire, that in the love and confidence of this church and community, he may find solace for his bereavements; and that henceforth Cleveland may be the home of his adoption, and the field of his labors.

Isaac Errett.

Among the preachers and writers of the nineteenth century who have pleaded for a return to primitive Christianity, the subject of this notice stands pre-eminently among the most distinguished. For more than thirty-five years he has been connected with the Disciples, and, during the greater portion of that time, has been an earnest, able and successful advocate for their plea for reformation.

Isaac Errett was born in the city of New York, January 2, 1820. His father was a native of Arklow, county of Wicklow, Ireland, and his mother was a native of Portsmouth, England. His paternal grandfather was shot down in sight of his own house during the Irish rebellion of 1798. His immediate parents were both of Protestant families, and became identified with the Disciples in New York city, as early as 1811--the father being an elder in the original church in that place. Hence, the son was trained from infancy in the principles which he now cherishes, and, in the Spring of 1832, at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania--where his mother had moved soon after the death of his father, in 1825--when only a little over twelve years of age, at a time when the church was without preaching, under the instruction of his mother, he, in company with an elder brother, went forward and asked the privilege of baptism. He was baptized by Robert McLaren, one of the elders of the church.

He now became a diligent student of the Word of God, and, under many embarrassing circumstances, made constant and encouraging progress.

From the time he was ten years old he has been dependent upon his own personal exertions for a living; hence his respectable education has been gathered in the midst of toil and care, by dint of untiring, industrious application.

While laboring as farmer, miller, lumberman, bookseller, printer, schoolteacher, and editor, he never ceased to augment his stock of useful knowledge, and to use whatever opportunities he had for the discipline of his mental powers.

He commenced preaching in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the Spring of 1840, and soon gave promise of the distinguished position which he has since held as a preacher of the Gospel.

He enjoyed the advantages of frequent and intimate association with Walter Scott, Thomas Campbell, Alexander Campbell, and most of the early advocates of primitive Christianity in the West; and his association with these men was of incalculable advantage to him, for they not only gave him valuable instruction in the principles of the Reformation, but he was enabled, by coming in frequent contact with them, to draw inspiration from their lives and characters for the great work upon which he had entered.

His ministerial labors have been divided between the work of an evangelist and pastor. He was pastor of a church in Pittsburgh three years; New Lisbon, Ohio, five years; North Bloomfield, Ohio, two years; Warren, Ohio, five years; Muir and Ionia, Michigan, eight years; and Detroit, Michigan, two years. At all these points he was eminently successful, and, besides his regular pastoral labors, did considerable work in the general field.

He removed to Warren, Ohio, in 1851, and while there, was corresponding secretary of the Ohio Missionary Society three years; and it was he who first put that society into systematic and active operation.

In 1856, he removed his family to Ionia county, Michigan, and while laboring to build up a congregation at that point, he was prevailed upon to take the corresponding secretaryship of the American Christian Missionary Society, which position he held three years, and succeeded in bringing the society to a degree of prosperity which it had never before reached. When heresigned the Secretaryship he was appointed first vice-president, and afterwards presided at the annual meetings of the society until 1866, when he was elected president. This, however, he at once declined. In the Spring of 1856, he removed to Cleveland, Ohio.

In April, 1866, he established the Christian Standard in Cleveland, which has become a leading and influential religions journal. In August, 1868, having been elected first president of Alliance College, he removed to Alliance, Ohio, and at once gave to the new college a successful position among our literary institutions. In May, 1869, he was elected president of the Ohio Christian Missionary Society. In August, 1869, he was elected, by a unanimous vote of the Board of Curators of Kentucky University, to the presidency of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of that University. Also, about the same time, Bethany College tendered him the Biblical Department of that institution. We have not learned whether he has yet accepted either of these positions.

Mr. Errett's personal appearance is striking and prepossessing. He is about six feet one inch high, has dark auburn hair, light grey eyes, and a well developed muscular organization. As a public speaker he has few, if any, superiors. His language is chaste and copious, containing an unusually large per cent, of Saxon words; his gesticulation is easy and natural, but his voice, though well under control, has not volume enough to give full force to his beautiful and stirring thoughts. His writings, like his sermons, are full of strong and rugged points, and are frequently interspersed with brilliant passages of exquisite beauty that will compare favorably with many of the finest word-paintings in the English language.

In the social circle he is companionable, but not a very good conversationalist. He needs the inspiration of an audience, or the quiet solitude of the study, to bring out his full strength; hence, while he is pleasant in company--full of wit and humor--he does not appear there to the best advantage.

Benjamin Rouse

Benjamin Rouse was born in Boston, March 23d, 1795, and was brought up as a builder, working at the trade at first in Massachusetts, and subsequently removing to New York, where he carried on his business extensively for about six years. From an early age he had taken great interest in religions matters, and especially in the establishment of Sunday schools. In 1830, he accepted the appointment of agent of the American Sunday School Union for the purpose of going to the West and establishing Sunday schools and book depositories. For this purpose he gave up his business and turned his face westward, prepared to endure hardships and encounter difficulties for the cause in which he was so deeply interested.

Coming directly to Cleveland, he opened his Sunday school book depository, near the corner of the Public Square and Superior street. The prospect was not a hopeful one, but Mr. Rouse had faith, and persevered. There was but one church building in the place, old Trinity, built by the Episcopalians with the aid of those of other denominations, and but little religious sentiment among the people. A Sunday school had for some time struggled hard to maintain its existence, and had but just become established on a tolerably firm basis. The depository, aided by the active labors of Mr. Rouse in the schools, gave a powerful impetus to the cause.

Three months after the opening of the depository Mr. Rouse purchased the lot on which it stood, for six hundred dollars. In making the purchase he had little thought of its speculative value, the sole object being a permanent home for his agency. Time has, however, so enhanced the value of property that the lot on which stood the little book-room, has now, with the pile of buildings standing on it, reached a value of eighty thousand dollars, thus amply repaying Mr. Rouse for his labors in the cause of religion and morality in the earlier days of the place.

For about three years the depository was continued, and then Mr. Rouse turned his attention for a while to general store-keeping, abandoning it finally for the purpose of removing to Richfield, where he went to benefit the health of his wife. In that place hie remained six years.

Mr. Rouse was a member of the Baptist denomination, and was largely instrumental in the organization of a Baptist society in Cleveland. When, in 1835, it was decided to erect a church building on the corner of Seneca and Champlain streets, the experience of Mr. Rouse, then a deacon of the church, was called into requisition. In due time the church was built and a steeple placed on it, which became the wonder and admiration of the country round about, and Trinity, built by the Episcopalians with the aid of those of other denominations, and but little religious sentiment among the people. A Sunday school had for some time struggled hard to maintain its existence, and had but just become established on a tolerably firm basis. The depository, aided by the active labors of Mr. Rouse in the schools, gave a powerful impetus to the cause.

Three months after the opening of the depository Mr. Rouse purchased the lot on which it stood, for six hundred dollars. In making the purchase he had little thought of its speculative value, the sole object being a permanent home for his agency. Time has, however, so enhanced the value of property that the lot on which stood the little book-room, has now, with the pile of buildings standing on it, reached a value of eighty thousand dollars, thus amply repaying Mr. Rouse for his labors in the cause of religion and morality in the earlier days of the place.

For about three years the depository was continued, and then Mr. Rouse turned his attention for a while to general store-keeping, abandoning it finally for the purpose of removing to Richfield, where he went to benefit the health of his wife. In that place he remained six years.

Mr. Rouse was a member of the Baptist denomination, and was largely instrumental in the organization of a Baptist society in Cleveland. When, in 1835, it was decided to erect a church building on the corner of Seneca and Champlain streets, the experience of Mr. Rouse, then a deacon of the church, was called into requisition. In due time the church was built and a steeple placed on it, which became the wonder and admiration of the country round about, and the especial pride of Deacon Rouse.

On his return from Richfield, Mr. Rouse engaged in the coal business in connection with Mr. Freeman Butts. About the year 1862, he retired from active business and thenceforth devoted his time to the cause of patriotism, religion, and charity. From the breaking out of the war Mr. and Mrs. Rouse entered vigorously on the work of aiding the nation's cause by caring for the nation's defenders. Their zeal and activity were irrepressible, visiting the camps and hospitals, ascertaining the needs of the soldiers, and then with unresting assiduity collecting money and materials to supply those needs. Mrs. Rouse became president of the Soldiers' Aid Society of northern Ohio, and was directly instrumental in the formation of hundreds of auxiliary societies that made every city, village, and nearly every home in northern Ohio busy in the work of preparing and sending forward comforts and luxuries for the soldiers of the Union. Mrs. Rouse visited camps and hospitals in the South, and her visits and reports were productive of great good. Her name was known and respected by thousands of soldiers, was repeated with grateful praise in a multitude of homes from which brave boys had gone forth to the war, and has passed into history. In all her labors she was cordially seconded and efficiently aided by her husband.

Three sons and one daughter have been born to this worthy couple.


In the early records of Cleveland, as in those of most western towns, the story of sickness and death fills a large part. Fever and ague, brought on by exposure, privations, and by the miasma from swamp, river and uncleared lands, disabled a large number of the early settlers, and hurried some to untimely graves. There were no physicians, and save a few drugs and the simples gathered from the river banks and forest, there were no remedies.

In course of time appeared the pioneer doctor with his saddle-bags, and he was soon followed by a number of his brethren to practice their skill upon the settlers. When the first Cleveland Directory was issued, in 1837, there were already established a round two dozen of physicians and surgeons, and three "surgeon-dentists." It may be interesting to quote the names of these brethren of the lancet and saddlebags who purged and bled the good people of thirty-two years ago. They were, J. L. Ackley, F. I. Bradley, C. D. Brayton, W. A. Clark, Horace Congar, E. Cushing, Jonathan Foote, S. B. Gay, Robert Hicks, M. L. Hewitt, Smith Inglehart, Robert Johnston, Burr Kellogg, David Long, P. Mathivet, George Mendenhall, Joshua Mills, T. M. Moore, W. F. Otis, A. D. Smith, J. Swain, Charles Terry, Samuel Underhill, Joseph Walrath. The surgeon-dentists were B. Strickland, and Coredon & Sargeant.

This list has now swollen to proportions that make the two dozen and three exceedingly insignificant by comparison, and every school of medicine is represented. There are two Allopathic medical colleges--the Cleveland and Charity Hospital colleges--and two Homeopathic--the Western Homeopathic college and the Homeopathic College for Women. There are also three hospitals, the Charity Hospital (Allopathic), the Homeopathic Hospital on University Heights, and the Woman's Hospital on Wilson street.

David Long.

Dr. Long was born at Hebron, Washington county, New York, September 29, 1787. In early life he qualified himself for the practice of medicine and surgery, studying in Massachusetts and graduating in New York city. In June, 1810, he arrived at Cleveland and commenced his professional career. At this early day there was no physician nearer than Painesville on the east, Hudson on the south-east, Wooster on the south, River Raisin (now Monroe) on the west. The arrival of a physician was, therefore, a matter of no small gratification to the settlers here and the neighboring settlements.

In this wild region, without roads, streams without bridges, cabins in many places eight to ten miles apart, did the young and ardent Long hopefully commence the practice of medicine. Nor were the hopes of the early settlers disappointed. In rain and snow, in Winter's cold and Summer's heat, by darkest midnight or mid-day sun the doctor ever cheerfully responded to all the calls for his services with alacrity and zeal, forgetful of self, desirous only to administer timely relief to the suffering and afflicted. In this he was eminently successful, as many of those who knew him for more than a third of a century can testify.

In proof of the untiring perseverance of Dr. Long in the early part of his professional life, it has been stated that on one occasion, in the Fall of the year, about midnight, he rode nine miles in fifty-one minutes. In another instance of extreme urgency, he rode, in the day time, fourteen miles in fifty minutes by changing horses twice on the route. He was a surgeon in the army during the war of 1812, and brought the news of Hull's surrender at Detroit to this city, from the mouth of Black River, a distance of twenty-eight miles, in two hours and fourteen minutes. Such was his character for promptitude to all the calls that were made upon him, and they were far from being few.

For kindness to his patients and friends he had no superior. In his zeal in their behalf, in a few years, he sacrificed in a measure one of the finest constitutions.

After following his profession thirty years or more, Dr. Long retired from general medical practice, and engaged in other pursuits more favorable to his health and congenial to his tastes.

In all public measures for the benefit of our city, in the way of improvements, schools, churches, every effort in behalf of humanity, religion or science, Dr. Long was ready to place his shoulder to the work with all the ardor and enthusiasm of youth.

Dr. Long never had any aspirations for political distinctions, but such was his popularity and so great the confidence of the people in his judgment and integrity that he could have obtained it had he so desired. At one time, however, he was elected to fill a vacancy which had occurred by the death of one of the three County Commissioners. Unimportant as this may seem now, it then occasioned intense excitement. The location of a new county court house, presumptively fixing the county seat for all time, devolved upon these Commissioners. Newburg and Cleveland were the contestants, both being villages of about an equal number of inhabitants--the claims of each supported by a single Commissioner, yet Newburg having the more central location. Though hotly contested, Dr. Long was elected, and the result was the erection of the Court house in the south-west corner of the square, which was demolished about ten years since.

In the year 1834, Dr. Long united with the Presbyterian church in this city, and by his daily walk and conduct in the community, by his deeds of love and charity to the poor, his kindness to the sick and afflicted gave the most striking evidence of a heart renewed by grace and made meet for the kingdom of heaven. During his last painful illness his calmness and resignation showed that he had placed his trust firmly upon the sure foundation.

He filled all the relations of life in a most exemplary manner and thus embalmed his memory in the hearts of all who knew and survive him. He died on the first day of September, 1851, at the age of sixty-four years, lacking a single month.

John Delamater.

Just before the massacre of St. Bartholomew, the ancestors of Dr. Delamater fled from France to Holland. The family name was then De La Maitre. Being whole-souled protestants, they migrated with other Dutch families to the Province of New York, and settled on the banks of the Hudson, near Kingston. Their names are still visible on the ancient grave stones of that neighborhood. Like the Huguenots, of South Carolina, they were Calvinist, or puritans of the French school. They became allied by marriage to the Rogardus family of New York, and others partook of the blood of Anneke Jans, whose name has become famous in the New York courts. The investigation of this connexion and heirship, occupied the last years of Prof. Delamater's life. It was closed only about a month before his death. His coadjutor in this work, was the late Chancellor Walworth, of Saratoga, whose ancestors were also in the line of Anneke Jans.

Dr. Delamater was born in Columbia county, New York, near Chatham, on the State line of Massachusetts, April 18th, 1787. He died at East Cleveland, in March, 1867, having almost reached the extreme age of four score years.

The Huguenots like English Puritans, and the Scotch Irish, have made their mark in North America. John Delamater, while a boy, was destined to be a farmer, on the soil where he was born. He was transferred to the medical profession on account of an accident, which injured his ability for manual labor. His father removed to Schenectady, New York, where his son was put under the tuition of one of the self-denying clergymen of those times, whose salary did not meet the expenses of living. At the age of nineteen his medical education was finished and he commenced practice in his native town. From thence he moved to Florence, Montgomery county, N. Y. Then stopped a short time in Albany, N.Y., and in 1816, established himself at Sheffield, Massachusetts. There was a settlement of negroes in this ancient borough. Dr. Delamater was then, as ever since, an active philanthropist. He attended the negroes as physician, Sunday teacher, and preacher. They also drew money from his purse, which was never very well filled, and paid back very little, either of his fees or of their debts. After some years of assiduous labor on his colored charge, his views of the race underwent a radical change. Among the last utterances of his life he expressed the opinion, based upon his experience at Sheffield, that the negro is by nature unfit for citizenship. In the days of the Jeffersonian Republicans and Adams Federalists, Dr. Delamater was in full accord with the new and rising Democratic party. He left it during the administration of General Jackson, and since then was a thorough Whig and Republican. No one hated slavery more. He saw the remnants of it in his early practice over the line in Connecticut, but never recovered faith in the capacity of the colored man for self-government.

Returning to his medical career, in which for sixty years he led in the profession, it is briefly as follows: While practising in the valley of the Housatonic, he rode almost constantly on a racking horse, about sixteen hands high, and almost with the speed of the wind, and occasionally in a two wheeled vehicle, common in those days, called a chaise, or more often a "one horse shay." At such times one of his medical students rode beside him, and drove the horse.

Between calls along the road the Doctor read his works, especially those relating to cases in hand. This custom of keeping up with the new works and periodicals of the profession he never relaxed, even after old age and the most distressing physical infirmities prevented his practice. Neither was the old shay ever abandoned; our citizens remember it well, moving carefully along these streets, with its huge calash top and faithful horse. No storm of rain or snow prevented him from keeping an appointment while he was able to get in and out of his vehicle.

In 1823, Dr. Delamater was made Professer in the Medical Institute of Pittsfield, Berkshire county, Mass.; in 1827, at the Fairfield Medical School, Herkimer county, New York. He was at the same time giving lessons at Bowdoin College, Mass. While at Fairfield, he was invited to lecture in the Medical College of Ohio, where Kirtland, Drake and Mussey have occupied chairs. This resulted in an appointment as Professor in the Willoughby University, Lake county, Ohio, at that time a flourishing institution. In 1842, he became one of the Faculty of the Western Reserve Medical College, at Cleveland.

Almost every man has some prominent talent, though with many it is never developed. With Professor Delamater it was the ability to give prolonged, profound and perspicuous lectures. This was his special gift and as usual in such cases he was not a facile writer. It is said he delivered seventy courses of medical lectures. His memory was perfect and his reading embraced everything relating to his profession. A good lecturer requires not only a clear perception of his subject, but a lucid and fluent presentation of it. Dr. Delamater never wrote lectures. His memoranda were of the most meagre kind. They were frequently nothing more than a few hieroglyphics made on the margin of a newspaper drawn from his vest pocket as he mounted the desk. Every case he had ever treated and all its details appeared to be thoroughly fixed in his recollection. He sometimes wrote medical essays for publication, but with evident reluctance. In cases of malpractice Dr. Delamater was the especial dread of the attorney whose side he did not favor. His full, clear and logical statements made a deep and generally an irresistible impression upon the court and jury.

After he became unable to visit patients he was consulted with never ceasing confidence by physicians and by patients, especially those afflicted with chronic complaints.

His moral and religious qualities were as conspicuous as his mental ones. He carried the faculty of conscientiousness to a length which the most conscientious would regard as extreme. Against the poor his charges for professional service were merely nominal and were never pressed, and with the rich he was so moderate and easy that with a large practice he was barely able to maintain his family, which, like himself, were afflicted with prolonged constitutional diseases. His rare Christian virtues are described with fidelity and beauty in the farewell discourse of Rev. W. H. Goodrich, of the First Presbyterian Church, which, being in print, may be read and preserved by the numerous friends of the good old man.

Jared Potter Kirtland.

Prof. Kirtland belongs to the class of self-made naturalists who attain to greater eminence than others of equal talents and better advantages. Success in this branch of science requires not only a native genius, but enthusiasm and never tiring perseverance; to the rich and the educated these last qualifications are frequently wanting, or, if they are not, instead of growing with the progress of life, they become more and more weak instead of more and more strong. Industry and ambition are more than a match for education in minds of the same order.

[Illustration: Your Fellow Citizen, J. P. Kirtland]

Dr. Kirtland originated at Wallingford, Connecticut. His father, Turhand Kirtland, in 1799, was appointed general agent of the Connecticut Land Company, on the Reserve. He removed to Poland, in Mahoning county, the next year, where he became a prominent citizen of the new county then known as New Connecticut. So long as the Company existed he was continued in the agency, and survived until 1833 to witness the developments of the region.

Jared appears to have been left in Connecticut, probably to secure the advantages of those common schools which were wanting in this western wilderness. The young man made his appearance in Ohio on horseback, July 4th, 1810, at the age of fifteen years. He was destined to be a physician, and in 1817 he was sent to the celebrated medical school of Dr. Rush, in Philadelphia. After leaving that institution he set forth on the way of life with horse and saddle bags, dispensing advice and prescriptions, according to the custom of the times, to the people of the townships around Poland. Every old settler knows what a time the pioneer doctors had. Their patients were scattered far and wide in log cabins which stood in small clearings in the forest surrounded by gigantic trees. A messenger rushed in at any hour of the day or night from a distressed, perhaps a distant family, requiring immediate attention. It was the duty of the frontier physician to saddle his horse at the moment and return with the messenger. The route more often lay along a narrow trail through the woods, over roots and logs, with mud and water on all sides. In dark nights, or in storms of rain and sleet, the overhanging boughs of the trees dripping with water, these visits were not of the most cheerful character. In those early days bridges were behind roads in regard to condition and repairs, and it was frequently necessary, in order to reach a suffering patient, to do as Cassius did--plunge in and trust to a faithful horse--in order to cross swollen creeks and rivers.

While engaged in this rude professional practice, acquiring a good reputation as a physician, he was closely observing the fishes, reptiles, shells and animals of a region teeming with animal and vegetable life. Scientific works were scarce in that new region, but living subjects were abundant. This exuberance of life was of more value to a scrutinizing mind than a surplus of books and a deficiency of specimens. An unusually rich field for the naturalist lay open to his daily observation for twenty years.

During his residence at Poland, Dr. Kirtland was twice elected to the House of Representatives for Ohio. In that body he directed his efforts especially to a change in the Penitentiary system. It was mainly through his zeal and activity that the old style of treating State prisoners was abandoned, and they have been made a source of revenue and not of expense. Convict labor has thus proven by experience to be valuable to the public and to the convict a relaxation of the rigor of his situation.

It was while studying the habits of the fresh water shells of the Mahoning and its branches that Dr. Kirtland made a discovery which attracted attention throughout the scientific world. The classification of species had been made upon mere difference of form. Dr. Kirtland perceived that in the same species a difference of form was due to sex in testacea the same as in all other animals, and that too many species had been adopted. This bold announcement, coming from the back woods of Ohio, created quite a commotion among naturalists. It was, however, found, on investigation, to be true, though it rendered obsolete a large number of terrible Latin phrases.

In the publication of his views, and afterwards for his descriptions of the fishes of Ohio, he found a liberal patron in the Boston Society of Natural History. When the State of Ohio organized a geological survey, in 1838, the department of Natural History was of course given to him. There was barely time to make a catalogue of the fauna and flora of the State before the survey was suspended, but many of his figures and descriptions of the fishes have since been published in the transactions of the Boston Society. This appointment broke up his large medical practice in Trumbull and adjacent counties. He now accepted the appointment of Professer in the Ohio Medical College at Cincinnati. About 1838, Prof. Kirtland removed from Poland to Cleveland, to perform the same duties in the Cleveland Medical College. With a restless energy he went beyond natural history and medicine in his investigations, into the field of horticulture, floriculture and agriculture.

Purchasing a rugged farm on the ridge road five miles out of Cleveland, he entered with zeal into the business of scientific farming. Here he demonstrated that a stiff clay soil derived from the underlying Devonian Shales may be made highly productive in fruit. His success stimulated others along the ridge road, until the old pastures and meadows on that side of the city have been changed into the most profitable orchards and gardens in the vicinity. This required twenty years more of time and industry, during much of which he came daily to the college and delivered one or more lectures. In the lecture his style is entirely conversational, but rapid, fluent, and always intelligible. Here all the varieties of his studies come into play, as it were, spontaneously. He is equally at home among the birds, the insects and the reptiles, the fishes or the mammalia. Their habits are as familiar as those of his children and grandchildren. He writes but seldom, and thus the teachings of so many years on so many subjects are confided principally to the memory of the many hundreds of students to whom they have been delivered.

For several years Dr. Kirtland has declined to lecture on any subject. He is verging upon four score, a period which with most men, is necessarily one of rest if not of weariness, but he has never known what it is to rest. No farmer in Rockport is up earlier or attends more closely to his grounds. All the valuable varieties of peaches, pears, cherries and grapes, have been tested by their actual product, or are in the process of being tested. He is enthusiastically fond of the culture of bees and of every variety of flowers which will thrive in this climate. A number of new varieties of cherries have been originated on the Kirtland farm, and after trial those which are valuable have been scattered over the country. There are very few men who are enabled to make so many applications of science to practical subjects, and still fewer who are permitted to live long enough to witness the fruits of their labors.

Theodatus Garlick.

We are almost at a loss in what class to place Dr. Garlick. By natural taste and genius he belongs to the artists. His devotion to the healing art arose principally from the necessities of our race for something to eat and wear. He had the fortune, probably good fortune, to be born in Vermont, at Middlebury, March 30th, 1805, in view of the Green Mountains, among rocks and mountains. This region is principally famous for marble, slate, iron ore, and hardy young men, generally known as Green Mountain boys.

An older brother, Abel B. Garlick, having been apprenticed to a marble cutter, came out West, sometime after the war of 1812, and located at Cleveland. In 1816, Theodatus, at the age of eleven years, had drifted as far as Erie, Pennsylvania; in 1819, to Cleveland. The Winter of 1819-20, he spent at Black River, which was then the leading ship yard of the lakes.

Abel B. had artist's ability also. In this region no marble was to be found, but a tolerable substitute existed in the fine grained blue sandstone at Newburg. A mill was erected at the quarry on Mill creek, below the falls, where these stones were sawed, as they are now, into handsome slabs.

Like other New Englanders, the Vermont boys are early impressed with the idea of self-support. Although Theodatus much preferred fun and frolic to hard labor, he entered cheerfully upon the business of a stone cutter at the age of sixteen. Their marble yard (without marble) was on Bank street, where Morgan & Root's block now stands. Abel marked the outlines of the letters upon incipient grave stones in pencil, and Theodatus carved them with his chisel. Most of the renowned sculptors of Ohio, such as Powell, Clevenger and Jones, took their first lessons in the same way. All of them have left samples of their untutored skill in various angels and cherubs, now mouldering in old churchyards. The blue sandstone monuments, on which Dr. Garlick cut inscriptions fifty years since, are still to be seen in the early cemeteries of the Western Reserve; some are touching enough, but not a few are more ridiculous than mournful. When Nathan Perry became so prosperous that he proposed to remove the old wooden store on the corner of Water and Superior streets and replace it with a brick one, he concluded to expend something upon ornament. He ordered two oval stone signs to be made and to be built into the walls over the two doors, one on each street. These were among the earliest efforts of Dr. Garlick. Both of these stones were in existence until the ground was cleared for the present Bank building, when they were broken up and put into the cellar wall. In those days it was one of the duties of an apprentice to sharpen the tools at a blacksmith's forge. The young man concluded to carve flying cherubims with their stone trumpets to ring in the ears of coming generations no longer.

Having a robust physical constitution, he became passionately fond of hunting and fishing. In 1822, he lived with a brother in Newbury, Geauga county, which was then a forest full of game. In a letter referring to the sporting days of his youth, he wrote as follows:

My brother and myself started out very early one morning for a deer that we knew had been feeding around the cabin that night; within a quarter of a mile from the cabin my brother shot him, and as he fired, up jumped eleven elk; one of our neighbors shot five of them within an acre of ground; they were near together, at bay, fighting with the dogs. I helped to get them in; they were a part of a larger herd, we counted their beds in the snow where they had lain at night, and there were over one hundred in the drove.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, T. Garlick]

Ten or fifteen years previous to that time, one of those tornadoes, which occasionally visit this region, had prostrated the timber along a tract a mile wide and several miles in length, through the township of Newbury. A thicket of bushes had sprung up among the fallen trees, which furnished excellent browsing ground and shelter for game, of which there was an abundance of bear, wolves, elk, deer, turkeys, &c., constituting quite a paradise for a young Nimrod.

He finally determined to become a physician, and after some years of the usual experience of medical students, practicing some, and assisting at operations, he entered the medical department of the University of Maryland, in the city of Baltimore, where he graduated in 1834.

No sooner was his diploma secured than the artist again broke forth. He suddenly produced bas-reliefs in wax of five favorite professors without sittings, which were pronounced perfect likenesses. General Jackson and Henry Clay gave him a short sitting, and the next day their statuetts were on exhibition. Mr. Clay expressed his satisfaction for his own in an autograph letter. Another miniature in relief, full length, of Chief Justice Marshall, from a portrait by Waugh, was pronounced by Mr. Bullock, an English virtuoso, as equal to anything produced by Thorwaldsen. But being surrounded by medical men, who, like men of all professions, regard their own as more important than any other, Dr. Garlick was induced to turn his artistic skill upon anatomical models.

He located at Youngstown, Ohio, the same year that he graduated, at which place, and at the Medical College of Cleveland, he devoted nearly two years in getting up models of all parts of the human body, taken from subjects in the dissecting room. They may yet be seen in the Medical Colleges at Cleveland, Buffalo, Toronto, Charleston, South Carolina, Cincinnati, and other places. These were such close imitations of nature that the late Professer Mussey, of Cincinnati, pronounced them superior to the French models at Paris by Auzoux. At Youngstown he made a life size bust of Judge George Tod, copies of which are now in the family. In 1853, after a successful practice at Youngstown, he came to Cleveland, and formed a partnership in surgery with the late Professer H. A. Ackley, and for a number of years was a member of the Board of Medical Censors of the Cleveland Medical College, and vice president of the Cleveland Academy of Natural Science. As he was a naturalist, he applied the principles of the anatomical models to animals and parts of animals, especially fishes. He entered with great zeal upon the artificial propagation of brook trout and other fish in connection with Dr. Ackley. In 1857, he published a small book, which is the standard work of the United States on this subject.

He was a skillful physician and surgeon, a diligent student of natural history, a keen sportsman, and a great lover of the fine arts. A good physical constitution is at least one-half of the capital of any man, however gifted in mind. In this respect he was like Christopher North, with few equals. In the rude contests of strength among the young men of a new country, the races, wrestling matches, and occasional fights, he never felt like backing down; but of late years this powerful frame has been partially stricken with paralysis.

The doctor still resides in this city, devoted to natural science, especially botany, but the days of his personal activity are past.

J. L. Cassels.

John Lang Cassels, M.D., LL.D., was born in Stirlingshire, Scotland, and in 1827, while quite a young man, came to this country. Soon after, he studied medicine with Prof. John Delamater, in Fairfield, New York, and graduated in 1834, in the College of Physicians and Surgeons located at Fairfield, N. Y. He was Demonstrator of Anatomy in that school three years, two years during his pupilage and one after his graduation. He opened an office for the practice of medicine in Earlville, New York, in the spring of 1835, and in the fall of the same year received and accepted the appointment of Professor of Chemistry in Willoughby University, Ohio, which connection he retained until the fall of 1843, when he and his associates opened and established the Cleveland Medical College, in which he still occupies the chair of Chemistry.

In 1837, he received the appointment of First Assistant Geologist of the New York State Geological Survey, which he occupied for several seasons, performing field labor in the summer and lecturing on chemistry in Willoughby Medical College during the winter. His connection with the New York survey gave him an excellent opportunity to become an expert practical geologist; his location being on the Hudson river district, offered him a fine field of action, as it is really the key to the geology and mineralogy of the State.

In the winter of 1839, he gave a course of demonstrated lectures on chemistry before the Young Men's Library Association in Cleveland, the first public lectures on science ever given in the city. The following winter the citizens of Cleveland invited him to lecture again on the same subject, and he complied. The city at that time contained mostly young people--only two gray-headed men attended the Stone Church.

In 1815, he spent most of the season in visiting and collecting specimens of mineral in the lead region of Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri, thus becoming familiar with the geology of their rich mineral region.

In 1846, he spent the whole season in exploring the Lake Superior country, coasting the south shore in a bark canoe, having for his traveling companions two Indians and a half-breed voyager. At this date there were no steamers on Lake Superior, and but a very few small sailing craft. It was during this time that he took squatter possession of a mile square of the iron region of that country, for the benefit of the Cleveland Iron Company. He was the first white man that had visited this region, now so famous for its ferruginous wealth. Near the close of the season he spent a short time geologizing Isle Royale, and returned to Saut St. Marie on the steamer Julia Palmer, which had, during the summer, been hauled over the passage of Saut St. Marie. During the winter following, at the request of a number of Clevelanders, he gave a public lecture on the Lake Superior region; at the close of which he said he would venture a prophecy: "Such was the character of the climate, scenery, etc., of Lake Superior that the time was not far distant when it would become as great a resort for invalids and pleasure-seekers as Saratoga and Newport now are." Also, that there is iron enough in the iron district sufficient to furnish a double track of the much talked of Whitney's railroad. These statements were then received with a stormy manifestation of incredulity.

In 1859, the Jefferson College of Mississippi conferred the Degree of LL.D. on Dr. Cassels.

In 1861, he was elected a corresponding member of the Imperial Geological Institution of Berlin, Prussia.

For the last ten years, in addition to the duties of his chair in the Cleveland Medical College, he has regularly filled the chair of chemistry and natural history in the Western Reserve College at Hudson. During the past twenty years he has given several courses of popular experimental lectures in his favorite branches of chemistry and geology in a number of our neighboring towns, Akron, Canton, &c. He is also the regular lecturer in these branches in the Female Seminary in Painesville.

Perhaps few men have been as extensively engaged in texicological examinations during the past twenty years as Dr. Cassels. Many of these have been of great interest, both in a social and moral point of view. In all such cases he is regarded with great confidence, both on account of his scientific skill and his high sense of moral integrity.

As an analytical chemist he has few superiors, and is much of his spare time engaged in the analysis of waters, ores, coal, limestone, &c. In 1866, he analyzed the water of Cleveland which is brought from Lake Erie and distributed through the city. He analyzed this water taken from different parts of the city and from the point where it entered the pipes to be forced into the reservoir; also from a point in the lake three thousand four hundred and fifty feet from the shore, where he advised that the inlet pipe ought to be located. All these analyses are embraced in his report to the Trustees of the city water works; in which also are many valuable suggestions respecting supply pipes and the character of the water for steam purposes.

J. S. Newberry.

J. S. Newberry, M.D., LL.D., was born at Windsor, Connecticut, of old Puritan stock, his ancestry having formed part of the colony which in 1635, emigrated from Dorchester, colony of Massachusetts Bay, and founded the town of Windsor, the first settlement made in Connecticut.

[Illustration: Yours Very Truly, J. S. Newberry]

The family continued to reside at Windsor for two hundred years, during which time it held an honorable place in that community and contributed several representatives, who took an important part in the affairs of the State government, or in the defense of the colony against the Indians, and in the French and Indian and Revolutionary wars. Dr. Newberry's grandfather, Hon. Roger Newberry, a distinguished lawyer, and for many years a member of the Governor's council, was one of the directors of the Connecticut Land Company, which purchased a large part of the Connecticut Western Reserve. The town of Newberry received its name from him. His son, Henry Newberry, inherited his interest in the land of the company, by which he became possessed of large tracts in Summit, Ashtabula, Medina, Lorain and Cuyahoga counties, including one hundred acres now within the city of Cleveland. Looking after these interests he made three journeys on horseback (the first in 1814,) from Connecticut to Ohio, and, in 1824, removed his family to Summit county, where he founded the town of Cuyahoga Falls, remaining there till his death, in 1854.

Dr. Newberry graduated at Western Reserve College, in 1846, and from the Cleveland Medical College in 1848. The years 1849 and 1850, he spent in study and travel abroad. Returning at the close of the latter year he established himself, early in 1851, in the practice of medicine in Cleveland. Here he remained till 1855, when his professional business became so engrossing as to leave him no time for the scientific study to which he had been devoted from his boyhood. To escape from too great professional occupation, and impelled by an unconquerable passion for a scientific career, in May, 1855, he accepted an appointment from the War Department, and became connected with the army as acting assistant surgeon and geologist to the party which, under Lieutenant R. S. Williamson, U.S.A., made an exploration of the country lying between San Francisco and the Columbia river. The results of this expedition are embodied in Vol. 6 P. R. R. Reports. The reports of Dr. Newberry on the "Geology, Botany and Zoology of North California and Oregon," are republished in a volume of 300 pp., 4to., with 48 plates. In 1857-8, he accompanied Lieutenant J. O. Ives, U.S.A., in the exploration and navigation of the Colorado river, one of the most interesting explorations made by any party in any country. The object of the expedition was to open a navigable route of communication with our army in Utah. To this end an iron steamer was constructed in Philadelphia, taken in sections to the head of the Gulf of California, where it was put together and launched. With this steamer the river, before almost entirely unknown, was navigated for five hundred miles, opening a route of travel which has since been extensively used. Beyond the point reached by the steamer the course of the river is for several hundreds of miles through the "Great Cañon," as it is called, a chasm worn by the stream in the table lands of the "Colorado Plateau." This cañon has nearly vertical banks, and is nowhere less than three thousand feet deep; in some places six thousand feet, or more than a mile in depth.

The party with which Dr. Newberry was connected, spent nearly a year in exploring the country bordering the Colorado, adding much to our knowledge of our western possessions, and giving, in their report, an interesting and graphic description of, perhaps, the most remarkable portion of the earth's surface. Half of the report of the Colorado Expedition was prepared by Dr. Newberry, and so much importance was attached to his observations by his commanding officer, that in the preface he speaks of them as constituting "the most interesting material gathered by the expedition."

In 1859, having finished his portion of the Colorado Report, Dr. Newberry took charge of another party sent out by the War Department, to report to Captain J. N. Macomb, topographical engineer, U.S.A., for the exploration of the San Juan and upper Colorado rivers. The Summer of 1859 was spent in the accomplishment of the object had in view by this expedition, during which time the party traveled over a large part of Southern Colorado and Utah and Northern Arizona and New Mexico, filling up a wide blank space in our maps and opening a great area before unknown, much of which proved rich and beautiful, abounding in mineral wealth, and full of natural objects of great interest. Among the results of this expedition were the determination of the point of junction of Grand and Green rivers, which unite to form the Colorado, and the exploration of the valley of the San Juan, the largest tributary of the Colorado; a stream as large as the Connecticut, before almost unknown, but which, though now without an inhabitant upon its banks, is for several hundred miles lined with ruined towns or detached edifices built of stone, and once occupied by many thousands of a semi-civilized people. The report of this expedition made by Dr. Newberry, containing much new and interesting scientific matter, was finished just before the war, but yet remains unpublished.

Immediately after the commencement of the war, the United States Sanitary Commission was organized. Dr. Newberry was one of the first elected members, and it is, perhaps, not too much to say that no other one individual contributed more to the great success that attended the labors of that organization. In September, 1861, he accepted the position of Secretary of the Western Department of the Sanitary Commission, and from that time had the general supervision of the affairs of the Commission in the valley of the Mississippi; his head-quarters being first at Cleveland, and subsequently, as the frontier was carried southward, at Louisville, Kentucky.

Through his efforts branches of the Sanitary Commission were established in the principal cities of the West, and agencies for the performance of its work at all important military points, and with each considerable sub-division of the army. Before the close of the war the entire West was embraced in one great System of agencies for the production and distribution of supplies, and the care of sick and wounded on the battle-field, in hospital or in transitu. The magnitude of the work of the Sanitary Commission at the West may be inferred from the fact that there were at one time over five thousand societies tributary to it in the loyal States of the Northwest--that hospital stores of the value of over $5,000,000 were distributed by it in the valley of the Mississippi--that over 850,000 names were on the records of its Hospital Directory at Louisville, and 1,000,000 soldiers, for whom no other adequate provision was made, were fed and sheltered in its "homes."

Of this great work Dr. Newberry was the responsible head, and by the wisdom and energy displayed by himself very much of the harmony and efficiency which characterized this organization are to be ascribed.

As his labors in connection with the Sanitary Commission were drawing to a close, Dr. Newberry was appointed Professor of Geology in the School of Mines of Columbia College, New York city. He entered on the duties of the position in 1866. In 1869, he was appointed by Governor Hayes to the office of State Geologist, created by the Ohio General Assembly of that year.

The scientific acquirements of Professor Newberry have given him a world-wide fame. As a Geologist his reputation ranks among the foremost. He has been honored with the membership of the most of the learned societies of this country, and of many in Europe; was one of the original corporators of the National Academy of Sciences; was recently elected president of the American Association for the advancement of Science, and is now president of the New York Lyceum of Natural History.

D. H. Beckwith.

The first Homeopathist in Cleveland was W. K. Adams, who succeeded in converting Dr. Hoyt, with whom he formed a partnership. Very soon after, in 1845, Drs. Wheeler and Williams were added to the list. There were but six families in the city having firm faith in the principles of homeopathy, and these were silent followers of Dr. John Wheeler, not willing to be known as such, so strong was public opinion against them. Dr. Wheeler continued unshaken by the strong opposition he met with, and heeded neither sneers nor denunciations. His course was onward and his practice successful, every month adding to his list of converts, and the profits of each year doubling the preceding one. Dr. Wheeler was the first member of the profession to propose that a homeopathic medical college should be located in Cleveland, and he earnestly pressed his theory that Cleveland should be the centre of homeopathy in the West. His name was the first signature to procure a charter, and when the college was organized he was selected as the President, and held the office for the first eleven years of its existence, contributing materially to its success, and resigning only when increasing age rendered its duties too onerous, when added to a large practice.

From the little beginnings in the early days of Dr. Wheeler's practice, homeopathy has grown in Cleveland, until it now reckons a flourishing college, a woman's medical college, two hospitals, an insurance company, twenty-six practicing physicians, and a host of believers in homeopathic principles and modes of treatment.

Prominent among the number of practicing physicians is D. H. Beckwith, M.D., who was born in Huron county, Ohio, in 1826. His father was one of the pioneers of the northern part of the State; emigrating from the State of New York in 1815, and making the journey the most of the way on foot, occupying more than six weeks. He remained a few days in Cleveland, and not admiring the soil for agricultural purposes (little thinking it was the site for a city of its present beauty and magnitude), he journeyed on until he reached more fertile soil in Huron county, where, by economy and industry, in a short time he accumulated sufficient to purchase a small farm, on which he lived until his death, having seen his family of six sons and one daughter arrive at mature age.

[Illustration: Truly Yours, D. H. Beckwith]

The subject of this memoir remained at home during his boyhood, attending school during the winter and working on the farm in the summer season. At the age of sixteen he entered the Norwalk Seminary, pursuing his studies with vigor for a few years, when it became necessary for him to earn his own living. He taught several schools and was among the first in the State to inaugurate the normal school system to elevate the standard of teaching and improve public schools.

Early in life he decided that the medical profession would be his choice, and all his leisure hours were spent in studying medical books. After securing a sufficiency from teaching (as he supposed,) to meet the expenses of a medical education, he studiously applied himself, under the tuition of John Tiff, M.D., one of the most scientific practitioners of the State. During the third year of his studies his money was expended, and not wishing to call on friends for assistance he concluded to commence the practice of medicine. A partnership was offered him in an adjacent town, and arrangements were made for him to commence his professional career. He unfolded his plan to his preceptor, who listened attentively to his future plans, and then rising from his chair, exclaimed with much emphasis: "If there is anything, sir, that I despise, it is half a doctor," and immediately left the office. The brilliant prospect was clouded. With but eight months more study the young student could commence the practice of medicine and be an honor to his preceptor and to himself, but the lack of money was a seemingly impassable barrier. It was a dark day to the student, but he had learned "never to let his energies stagnate." One resource was left him. He determined to open a select school for advanced scholars. In four days from that time he entered the school room with one hundred scholars, many of them his former pupils. Morning and evening he clerked in a drug store, for which he received his board and washing. On Wednesday and Saturday evenings he was examined in his medical studies with two other students who devoted their entire time to their studies. Thus for thirteen weeks he was daily performing the duties of a teacher, so arduous that many would have complained, though they had no other occupation. In addition to this he was several hours each day compounding and dispensing medicine, and at the same time keeping pace with his class in the study of materia medica and botany.

Having already attended one course of lectures in an allopathic college, and not being satisfied with that mode of prescriptions for the sick, he attended the Eclectic College of Cincinnati, where he listened to the first course of lectures ever delivered in any chartered college in the country on homeopathic medicine, by the lamented Prof. Rosa who had no superior in his profession. After receiving his degree he commenced the practice of medicine with his preceptor. The prompt and curative effect produced by homeopathic remedies soon convinced him of its superiority over other systems of medicine and decided him to adopt it as his system of practice for life. The success that has attended his labors ever since has well proved the correctness of his choice.

The first few years of his practice were spent among the acquaintances of his childhood, in the beautiful village of Norwalk. In 1852, he left a large practice and many warm friends to seek a larger field for future work, and located in Zanesville, Ohio, where he continued his profession until the year 1863. The climate not being adapted to the health of his family he moved to Cleveland and soon obtained what he had left in Zanesville--a large and lucrative practice. By close attention to his patients, being always ready to give his services to the poor as cheerfully as to the rich, and his unusual kindness to all persons placed under his professional care, he has won the affection and esteem of his patients to a degree rarely equaled.

He has always taken a lively interest in the advancement of medical science, firmly believing in the immutable principles that govern the administration of homeopathic medicine as well as the curative effect. He has always been anxious to induce young men that proposed to study the science of medicine to follow the example of the illustrious Hahnemann. His lectures in the Cleveland Homeopathic College have always been characterized by practicability. He has not only published a medical journal, but has largely contributed to the pages of many others in this country. He has always been a leading member of county and State medical societies, as well as of the Northwestern and American Institute of Homeopathy, holding the office of Vice President of all the above named societies. In 1866, he was chosen by the American Institute as one of the committee to prepare an essay on Cholera, its nature and treatment.

He was among the first to establish the Hahnemann Life Insurance Company of Cleveland, being one of its incorporators and procuring a large amount of capital stock for its support, besides giving his time in organizing it. He was chosen their chief medical examiner, and the great success of the Company is largely due to his skill in selecting good and healthy risks for insurance.

[Illustration: T. T. Seelye]

Thomas T. Seelye.

Thomas T. Seelye, M.D., was born in Danbury, Connecticut, August 23, 1818. His parents were Seth and Abigail Seelye, of English descent. After preparing for a collegiate course, it became necessary for him to take charge of his father's store. At twenty-one years of age he commenced the study of medicine as a private pupil of William Parker, professor of surgery in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, from which college he graduated in the Spring of 1842. He was then appointed assistant physician in Bellevue Hospital, where he remained one year, when he commenced the practice of his profession in Woodbury, Connecticut. There he remained until the Spring of 1848, when he sold out his business and removed to Cleveland, having previously leased a tract of land just within the suburbs of the city, covered with native forest and such a profusion of real natural beauty in glen, woodland, and beautiful springs of soft water, that it seemed apparent that art only needed to blend with nature to make this one of the most desirable of localities for a great health institution.

His system of practice, though called water cure, in fact drew assistance from all the experience of the past in relieving physical suffering and curing disease. It was not orthodox, it belonged to no pathy, and in consequence had the opposition of all branches of the profession. His means were quite limited, as were also his accommodations--not so limited, however, but that the expense of construction and furnishing greatly exceeded the length of his purse. Business waited for success, to establish itself, but the sheriff did not. Debts became due, and nothing with which to pay, but hope in the future, which is rather unsatisfactory nutriment for hungry creditors.

But, by and by, patient labor and persistent effort in the right direction began to bring forth fruit. Business increased, the visits of the sheriff were less frequent, and after about five years he could lie down to rest at night without fear of a dun in the morning.

In ten years he purchased the Forest City Cure, which was started in opposition, the capacity of the old Cure having become altogether inadequate for his increased business. After ten years he sold it to the Hebrews for an orphan asylum, preferring to unite the two institutions under one roof. He then proceeded to complete the plan he had been perfecting for the past five years, for erecting buildings of an extent that would amply accommodate his ever increasing patronage, and supplied with those conveniences and appliances which an experience of twenty-one years had deemed most desirable for the invalid. The architect has furnished us a sketch of this institution, of which, when completed, every lover of our beautiful city will be proud.

In addition to his professional labors he is largely engaged, in connection with W. J. Gordon and others, in the manufacture of the non-explosive lamp, which bids fair to be one of the most successful and extensive manufacturing enterprises ever started in this city.

Within the past three years, Dr. Seelye has purchased the twenty-six acres he originally leased, and twenty-two acres adjoining, making a very valuable tract of real estate, taken in connection with the present and prospective growth of the city.

Although Dr. Seelye is not engaged conspicuously in public charities, few hands are so frequently open as his to the wants of the poor. Great comprehensiveness of intellect, an indomitable energy, a rare penetration and control over other minds, combined with an unblemished integrity of character, have given him a high reputation among physicians in the West.

[Illustration: Water Corm.]


With neither water power nor steam power very little can be done in the way of manufacturing. Cleveland, until the construction of the Ohio canal, was without either of those two requisites for a manufacturing point. The Cuyahoga river, though giving abundant water power along a considerable portion of its course, enters Cleveland as a slow moving stream, winding its sluggish way in so tortuous a course that it seems reluctant to lose its identity in the waters of the lake. Water power, under such circumstances, is out of the question, and, as with no coal, and a rapidly decreasing supply of wood, steam cannot be economically used for manufacturing purposes, the people of Cleveland turned their attention wholly to buying and selling instead of producing.

The construction of the Ohio canal to the coal fields of Summit county opened the eyes of the more enterprising citizens to the possibilities of a great future for Cleveland as a manufacturing city. No sooner had the canal reached Akron, and an experimental shipment of coal been made to the future city--with but poor success, as already narrated--than attention was called to the importance of the new field thus opened to Cleveland enterprise. On the 7th of March, 1828; a letter appeared in the Cleveland Herald, from which the following is an extract:

"We possess, beyond a doubt, decided advantages over Buffalo, or any other town on Lake Erie, in our contiguity to inexhaustible beds of pit-coal and iron ore, very justly considered the basis of all manufacturing. On the one hand, at the distance of about thirty miles, we can obtain any quantity of crude iron of an excellent quality, while, on the other, at about the same distance, we have access by canal to exhaustless mines of coal of good quality. This last most invaluable, and all important article in manufacturing, can not be obtained anywhere else on the Lakes without the extra expense of shifting from canal-boats to other craft.

"When these mines shall have become extensively worked, coal will be delivered in this place very little, if any, above that paid in Pittsburgh, say from four to six cents; and good pig-iron can and is now delivered at a less price here than in Pittsburgh. Doctor Cooper further says: 'The very basis of all profitable manufacturing is, plenty of fuel, easily, cheaply and permanently procurable;--the next desirable object is plenty of iron ore; iron being the article upon which every other manufacture depends. It is to the plentiful distribution of these two commodities that Great Britain is chiefly indebted for the pre-eminence of her manufactures and her commerce.' Surely it need not be thought strange that Cleveland must one day become a great manufacturing place, if we consider,

"First, That the canal will give us access to one of the finest portions of country in the United States, sufficient for vending, to almost any extent, articles such as might be manufactured here;--and, Secondly, That power and materials in great abundance are 'easily, cheaply and permanently procurable.' There is probably not a town in the Western country, Pittsburgh only excepted, that unites these two objects so happily as this place does.

"Every steam-engine wanted for boats on the Lake, for mills and factories near the Lake, and on and near the canal should be made at this point.

"Not a pound of nails, a wagon-tire, an anchor, a cable, a cast-iron stove, pot, kettle, ploughshare, or any article made of cast-iron--a yard of coarse cotton, a gallon of beer, an ax, a shovel, nor a spade, should be sent east for. There ought to be in full operation before the completion of our canal, at least one steam engine manufactory, one establishment for puddling iron, one rolling and slitting mill, and nail factory, two or three iron foundries, in addition to the one now going into operation under very favorable auspices, a cotton factory, a woolen factory, a steam grist and saw mill, a brewery, &c."

On the succeeding week appeared some editorial comments in support of the suggestions in the letter, and for some time frequent references, by correspondents and editorially, were made to the matter. On the 25th of April, 1828, appeared in the Herald a notice of a new iron foundry; the first that had been built, and reference to which had been made in the letter quoted. This was built by John Ballard & Co., and an editorial announcing its opening says it "supplies this place and the surrounding country on short notice and on reasonable terms, with the various articles of cast iron work, for which, before this foundry was established, our citizens were forced to send to a distance, and at the cost of much trouble and expense."

But with all this urging of newspapers, and talking of far-sighted citizens, the cause of manufacturing progressed slowly. To establish manufactories was a costly experiment, requiring capital, patience, and a faith, which, though some might profess, few actually possessed. As is frequently the case in regard to public improvements, those who pressed them most had no funds to invest in them, and those who had the funds were little inclined to heed the suggestions of moneyless advisers.

MacCabe's Directory of Cleveland and Ohio City for 1837-8, says that at that time there were on the east side of the river, in the corporation of Cleveland, "four very extensive iron foundries and steam engine manufactories; also, three soap and candle manufactories, two breweries, one sash factory, two rope walks, one stoneware pottery, two carriage manufactories, and two French run millstone manufactories, all of which are in full operation." A flouring mill was in course of erection by Mr. Ford which, it was predicted, would be, when finished, "the largest and most complete establishment of the kind in the State of Ohio." At the same time Ohio City was described as possessing "among the principal manufactories of the place, the Cuyahoga Steam Furnace, the Saleratus manufactory, and the Glue manufactory." The Cuyahoga Steam Furnace had turned off in the previous year five hundred tons of castings, besides a great quantity of wrought iron work, and gave employment to seventy men. In noticing the description of the iron furnaces and steam engine manufactories on the East side of the river as "very extensive", it must be borne in mind that the standard of size and importance for such establishments in Cleveland was much smaller then than now.

In spite of all the attempts made to stir up an interest in manufactories, slow progress was made until a comparatively late period. One great obstacle in the way was the opposition or indifference of the land-holders, who directly rebuffed the proposals of intending manufacturers, or placed a value on their land so high as to require an amount of capital sunk in the soil that rendered the chances of profit very hazardous. There was also a strong prejudice against factories on the part of very many persons because they were "so dirty," and would tend to make the neat and trim residences and door-yards of Cleveland as smutty as those of Pittsburgh.

It was not until the breaking out of the war for the Union called into existence manufactories all over the land to supply the needs born of the war, that manufactories found a home and cordial welcome in Cleveland. The exigencies of the time, and the intense feeling excited, scattered to the wind all the prejudices against the dirt and smoke of iron manufactories, and establishments of this kind sprang up on all sides, calling into existence a host of other manufactories dependent on and contributing to the successful conduct of iron foundries and iron mills. The war found Cleveland a commercial city, whose trade, if not languishing, threatened to soon reach its turning point; it left Cleveland a busy, bustling manufacturing city, over a great part of which hung a perpetual cloud of dense smoke, and with a population nearly doubled in numbers and greatly changed in character owing to its change from a commercial to a manufacturing city. The petroleum discovery in North Western Pennsylvania and the coincident opening of direct railroad communication between Cleveland and the oil regions, contributed greatly to the rapid increase of the population and wealth of the city. Oil refineries grew up rapidly like mushrooms in the valleys and ravines around, and lined the railroad tracks, but, unlike mushrooms, did not disappear with equal rapidity. A great number of people found employment in this new industry, and wealth poured in with greater volume from this source than had ever been known to flow from any species of trade or manufacture hitherto established. From this time the future of Cleveland was assured. Year by year it has grown with astonishing increase and new manufactories of every description are springing up on every side. The flats that had lain deserted and of but little value were brought into requisition for iron furnaces and iron mills, and wherever lands could be had at reasonable rates in convenient neighborhood to transportation lines, factories of some kind were established.

The four or five small iron manufactories in and about Cleveland in 1837, have grown to fourteen rolling mills, having two hundred puddling furnaces and a daily capacity of four hundred tons of finished iron, not including the nails spikes, nuts, bolts, horseshoes, &c. Several of these mills own their own blast furnaces, and nearly all have coal mines of their own. There are also five stove foundries; one malleable iron works; one axe and tool company; half a dozen boiler plate and sheet iron works of large capacity; nearly as many factories of steam engines of all descriptions, and other machinery; three foundries for making car wheels and castings for buildings; one large manufactory of cross cut, circular and other saws, and several saw and file works of smaller dimensions.

Although the operations of domestic iron works were seriously affected by the large increase of importations from Europe, the following amount of iron was produced from the mills of Cleveland in 1868:

  Pig Iron                                 11,037 Tons.
  Rail Road Iron                           22,344  "
  Merchant Iron                            11,396  "
  Boiler, Tank and Sheet Iron               2,676  "
  Forgings                                  4,125  "
  Nuts, Washers, Rests, Nails and Spikes    5,607  "
  Machinery Castings                       18,250  "
  Wire                                        865  "

Making a total of 76,300 tons. To produce this it is estimated that 225,000 tons of coal and coke were consumed. The stove foundries produced nearly 35,000 stoves, with the attendant hardware and stove furniture; requiring nearly 10,000 tons of metal, and 4,000 tons of coal and coke, and giving employment to about five hundred persons.

The planing mills and wooden ware manufactures give direct employment to six hundred and fifty persons, and the year's business exceeded a million dollars.

The growth and magnitude of the petroleum business of Cleveland can be seen by the reports of receipts and shipments during the past four years:

  Date.               Crude Received    Refined Forwarded
  1865                 220,000 bbls.    145,000 bbls.
  1866                    613,247 "     402,430 "
  1867                    693,100 "     496,600 "
  1868                    956,479 "     776,356 "

Between three and four millions of dollars of capital are invested in this business in Cleveland, and the annual product will not fall short of ten or twelve millions of dollars. The rapid increase of the business created an urgent demand for barrels. The receipts of staves in 1868, mainly to supply this demand, were nearly three times in excess of the previous year. Some 3,000 tons of hoop iron were required for barrels.

It is impossible to give, in the absence of any recent exact census, full and correct statistics of the number and classification of the manufactories of Cleveland, the capital invested, and the value of the product. It has, however, been estimated from the best data that could be procured, that the grand total value of all the manufactories of the city in 1868, was not less than sixty millions of dollars, and it is daily increasing.

William B. Castle.

William B. Castle was born in Essex, Crittenden county, Vermont, November 30, 1814. Immediately on the conclusion of the war, his father removed to Toronto, where he had been engaged, as an architect, to superintend the construction of the first Parliament buildings there. In 1827, he removed with his family to Cleveland, William B. Castle being then thirteen years old. His father had taken a farm about thirteen miles from the city, and there the lad spent most of his time until 1832, when, in company with his father and Mr. Charles M. Giddings, he established the first lumber-yard in Cleveland. The business was carried on for a couple of years, when Mr. Castle, Sen., died, and the son removed to Canada, engaging in merchandizing and in manufacturing lumber for the yard in Cleveland. In 1839, he abandoned the Canada branch of the business, and in the following year the partnership with Mr. Giddings was dissolved.

A new partnership was formed with a brother-in-law, under the name of Castle & Field, for carrying on the hardware, in connection with jewelry and watch making, business, on the west side of the river, then known as Ohio City. In 1843, he left the business and entered the Cuyahoga Steam Furnace Company, with which he has ever since been connected. So thoroughly identified has Mr. Castle been with the history of that establishment during the past quarter of a century, that this is a fitting place for a brief sketch of the nature and history of the pioneer iron company of Cleveland.

In 1830, Mr. Charles Hoyt projected the works which were erected and put in operation under the firm name of Hoyt, Railey & Co. In 1834, the firm was changed to an incorporated company under the name of the Cuyahoga Steam Furnace Company, with a capital of one hundred thousand dollars, of which three-fourths were paid in. The principal stockholders at the time of the incorporation were Josiah Barber, Richard Lord, John W. Allen, and Charles Hoyt. The managing officer was Charles Hoyt. Soon after the incorporation the works were burned to the ground, but the company were energetic, and soon a substantial brick structure, two hundred and thirty-five feet front, with a wing of ninety feet deep, was erected on the site of the destroyed building. The pig metal for the use of the works was obtained at the company's blast furnace at Dover, twelve miles west, and was considered equal in quality to the best Scotch pig. In 1840, Mr. Hoyt was succeeded in the management by D. Cushing, who had been secretary of the company. In 1843, Mr. Cushing gave place to Elisha T. Sterling, who remained the head of the concern until his untimely death, in 1859.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, W. B. Castle]

From the advent of Mr. Sterling and the consequent re-organization of the staff of officers of the works, dates the connection of Mr. Castle with the establishment. Mr. Castle took the position of secretary, and held that post until the death of Mr. Sterling, when he was appointed to fill the position of manager. At the time when the sole charge of the works devolved upon him the company was in a deplorable financial condition. The prospect was sufficient to daunt a less resolute and hopeful spirit, but Mr. Castle at once set about the Herculean task of bringing the concern through its difficulties and establishing it on a firm financial basis. The struggle was long continued, and more than once the advance gained seemed suddenly to be again lost, but eventually it was pulled through without having compromised a single debt, and without having but a single case of litigation under his management. This case was not properly chargable to the administration of the works, as it arose from the supplying of a defective beam strap, which, there being then no forges in Cleveland, had been ordered from Pittsburgh. This unusual exemption from litigation was, doubtless, owing to the invariable rule adopted by Mr. Castle, to reduce all contracts to careful writing and to live strictly up to the letter as well as spirit of the contract.

The heavy work of the establishment in its early years was the supplying of most of the mills in Ohio and the new States of the West with mill gearing, and the manufacture of agricultural implements. In 1840, was commenced the manufacture of stationary and land steam engines. In 1843, the manufacture of marine engines was commenced by building the engine for the first propeller on Lake Erie, the "Emigrant." About the same time work was commenced on engines for the large side-wheel steamers, the largest of their day being fitted out with machinery from these works. Among the steamers thus equipped, and which were in their successive days the wonders of the lakes, was the Europe, Saratoga, Hendrick Hudson, Pacific, Avon, and Ohio. Among the propellers receiving their engines from the Cuyahoga Works were the Winslow, Idaho, Dean Richmond, Ironsides, S. D. Caldwell, Meteor, and a very large number of others, besides a great many first-class steam tugs plying on Detroit river.

In 1853, the introduction of the manufacture of locomotives added a new feature to the manufacturing industry of Cleveland. The Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad was supplied from these works, and locomotives were also made for the Cleveland and Pittsburgh, Lake Shore, Cleveland and Toledo, and Bellefontaine and Indianapolis Railroads, besides several other railroads in the west. In 1857, this branch of the business was sold out to the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad Company, who now use the locomotive works for the manufacture and repair of their own engines.

In addition to the marine engines, for which the establishment has become famous, the company have lately entered upon the manufacture of first class engines and blowing machines for blast furnaces. These have been supplied to the furnaces in the Mahoning Valley and Wisconsin, and to furnaces elsewhere, even supplying Pittsburgh, the home of the iron manufacture. A very large engine has been constructed for the Atlantic Docks, in Brooklyn, New York. Rolling mill engines and machinery have been made for mills at Alliance, in the Tuscarawas Valley, at Harmony, Indiana, and at Escanaba, in the Lake Superior iron district. Various engines have been supplied to the Newburgh works, including the blowing engines and hydraulic cranes for the Bessemer steel works, among the most perfect of their kind in America. Railway tools manufactured by the company's works have been ordered from so far east as New Jersey.

The Cuyahoga Steam Furnace Company have employed at times two hundred and fifty men, and will probably average one hundred and fifty. Year after year the company have been compelled to enlarge their facilities, until now their property occupies the two corners of Detroit and Centre streets, and one corner of Centre and West River streets. The buildings extend three hundred and fifty feet on the river, and to a greater length on Detroit street. The capital employed amounts to about a quarter of a million dollars. The importance of these works in attracting attention and capital to Cleveland, in giving employment to the people, and in assisting to build up the business of the city, can hardly be overestimated. Taking its nature, extent and history together it may probably be said with safety that nothing in the city has had a more important influence in shaping the future of Cleveland and contributing to its present prosperity, and much of this influence is due to the labor and wisdom of Mr. Castle. At present the works are organized under the presidency of Mr. Castle, with Josephus Holloway as superintendant and designing engineer; S. J. Lewis, secretary; W. W. Castle, book-keeper. From 1843 to 1857, the superintendent and designing engineer, was Mr. Ethan Rogers, who by his knowledge and skill added very much to the celebrity of the works.

In 1853, Mr. Castle was elected mayor of Ohio City, and during his term of office the consolidation of the two cities was effected. To bring about this desirable end he labored diligently, and was one of the commissioners for settling the terms of annexation. In 1855, he was elected mayor of the Consolidated city, and his rule was marked by vigor, justice, and a strict regard for the rights and interests of the citizens. For six years subsequent to his mayoralty he held the office of commissioner of water works.

Mr. Castle was married in December, 1836, to Miss Mary Derby, who died in Canada in the following year. In 1840, he was married to Miss Mary H. Newell, of Vermont, by whom he has had one son and three daughters. The son, W. W. Castle, now twenty-six, is book-keeper of the Cuyahoga Steam Furnace Company. The oldest daughter is wife of Mr. Robert R. Rhodes, of Cleveland. The youngest daughters are still at school.

The success of Mr. Castle has been achieved by a persistent struggle against adverse circumstances and with but little to aid him but a resolute will and good constitution. At an early age he was left with the care of his father's family on his hands, and has had to fight, not only his own battles, but to struggle with the difficulties into which circumstances had thrown the company with which he became connected. Out of the struggle he has come with a spotless reputation, the esteem of his friends and the respect of his fellow-citizens, financial prosperity, and the blessing of good health and undiminished vigor.

Charles Jarvis Woolson.

On the sixth of August, 1869, the citizens of Cleveland were surprised and pained at the announcement of the death, on the morning of that day, of Charles Jarvis Woolson, one of the most active and respected business men of the city. Few were aware of his illness, and even by those acquainted with the facts his death, up to within a very short time of the event, was wholly unexpected.

Mr. Woolson was born in Chester, Vermont, and received careful educational training, the family being in good circumstances. His father was engaged in various manufacturing enterprises, including cotton and wool fabrics, and the making of machine and hand cards. He was one of the very earliest manufacturers of cooking stoves in the country.

At the age of nineteen, Mr. Woolson went into business on his own account, choosing the newspaper profession instead of manufactures for his debut. His first venture was as editor and publisher of a newspaper in Grafton county, New Hampshire. Two years later, he sold out and removed to Virginia, where he assumed charge of the Charlotteville Advocate. But the political and social atmosphere of the South was uncongenial to one born and bred in the free air of Vermont. He could neither feel nor affect to feel anything but abhorrence of the "institution," and so he soon terminated his connection with the press of Virginia, and returned to the land of churches, free schools and free speech. In 1830, he married Miss Pomeroy, of Cooperstown, New York, and removing to Keene, New Hampshire, engaged in mercantile business; but he who has once dabbled in journalism imbibes a taste which it is difficult afterwards to eradicate. Mr. Woolson was not at home in a mercantile store, and before long he purchased the New England Palladium, a Boston daily newspaper, and conducted it for two years, when he bade a final adieu to journalism as a profession, disposing of his property in the Palladium and removing to Claremont, New Hampshire, where he engaged with his father in the manufacture of stoves. Here he remained until 1840, when he removed to Cleveland, taking with him the patterns and materials connected with the stove business, and commenced on his own account in a small way, his capital having been seriously crippled by the financial convulsion of 1837.

Mr. Woolson had, in 1845, succeeded in getting his business into a flourishing condition, when, through the defalcation of a trusted partner, he was very nearly ruined. But he did not stop his works one day on account of this disaster. Collecting together his scattered resources, he set to work all the harder, and as the Fall of the year approached, had succeeded in accumulating a fine stock of wares for the Fall trade, which he had stored in a warehouse at the rear of his factory, but which he neglected to insure. A fire broke out, and the building, with its contents, was completely destroyed, resolving the valuable stoves into a heap of old iron. Even this did not stop the works. With his characteristic energy, Mr. Woolson had the ground cleared and set to work with redoubled zeal, making new stoves out of the old iron, and succeeded in doing a tolerable business that winter, in spite of his accumulation of disasters.

When Mr. Woolson commenced business in Cleveland, it was but a lively village. His stove foundry, the first of importance in northern Ohio, when running to its full capacity, employed but ten hands, and its trade was limited to the immediate vicinity, and a few towns on the canal. But few of the farmers then used cooking stoves, the fire on the hearth serving for all purposes of cooking and warming. The works now employ about one hundred hands when running full, and the customers are found in Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota and Iowa. The firm was changed several years since to Woolson & Hitchcock, and subsequently to Woolson, Hitchcock & Carter. Death removed the senior and junior partners of the firm within a few months of each other.

Mr. Woolson's death was caused by erysipelas, brought on by debility; after an illness of two weeks the disease yielded to medical treatment, and he seemed to gain strength rapidly. On Saturday, the 31st of July, he joined a party of friends and drove in his buggy twenty miles into the country, believing that the fresh air would invigorate him as it had done many times before when his health gave way. But the old remedy failed, and, leaving his horse behind, Mr. Woolson took the cars and reached home in the evening very much exhausted. After lingering five days, typhoid symptoms appeared, and at eight o'clock Friday morning he died, unconscious, and without suffering, after a life of 63 years and one month.

Mr. Woolson possessed a very genial and sociable disposition, was highly intelligent and well informed, and in spite of an infirmity of deafness was a charming companion. His business qualifications are proven by the success of the establishment he founded, in spite of the succession of unforeseen and unavoidable disasters with which it had to contend. He was a man of very domestic habits, and these habits were mellowed and refined by many family losses that might have crushed one less hopeful, and less patient and uncomplaining. To his family he was entirely devoted, and all the affection of a loving household clustered around him with an intensity that made the blow of his sudden loss one peculiarly hard to be borne.

Mr. Woolson had long been connected with Grace Church (Episcopal), of which he was senior warden, and very tender domestic ties, sundered by death some years since, made that church peculiarly dear to him.

William Hart.

William Hart, son of Judah Hart, of English descent, was born in Norwich, Connecticut, in the year 1811. About the year 1821, Judah Hart removed to the West with his family, settling in Brownhelm, Lorain county, where he died two years after, and one year from this time, William changed his residence to Cleveland. Soon after the arrival of the Harts in Cleveland, Governor Clinton, of New York, came to Ohio to formally commence the work of constructing the Ohio Canal, which was begun on the fourth of July, 1825. Governor Clinton landed in Cleveland in June, and one of the principal incidents of Mr. Hart's recollection of his early days in Cleveland, was the general turning out of the people to receive and welcome the father of internal improvements. Cleveland was then but an insignificant village, a place "six miles from Newburg, where steamboats stopped to wood and water," but great, and well-founded hopes were entertained of the benefits to flow from the opening of the canal, and the people were therefore much elated at the arrival of Governor Clinton, who was to commence the important work, and whose influence had done so much to aid the enterprise.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, Wm. Hart]

About this time young Hart went to live with Asabel Abel, to whom he was apprenticed for the purpose of learning the business of cabinet making. When the term of his apprenticeship had expired, he set up in business on his own account, at first opening his modest store and workshop on the site of the present Birch House, and subsequently, after five or six years of business, removing his location to the opposite side of the street, on the spot now occupied by his present warehouse.

In 1852, a fire swept away his entire establishment, destroying ware-rooms, factory, and all the appurtenances, and throwing out of employment the twenty hands of which his force of workmen then consisted. In the succeeding year, he rebuilt the warehouse and factory on a greatly enlarged scale, and has since still further enlarged and improved the buildings, until, in size and commodiousness, they are not excelled in the city. At present, seventy-five hands are employed in the establishment, aided by the most improved descriptions of labor-saving machinery adapted to the business, and the annual sales reach nearly two hundred thousand dollars.

Mr. Hart believed in always putting his shoulder to the wheel, though on one occasion a too literal adherence to this principle came near costing him his life. In attempting to give some aid in the factory, he came in contact with a circular saw, and his right arm was nearly severed from the shoulder. This was in the year 1850. On his partial recovery, the citizens, to show their sympathy with him in his misfortune, elected him City Treasurer, an office then of but little value, requiring only a small portion of his time and paying him two hundred dollars a year. For nineteen years he held this office uninterruptedly, being elected by both parties term after term, and witnessing the growth of the city, under his financial administration, from an annual revenue of forty-eight thousand dollars to nearly two millions. The emoluments of the office have risen from a salary of two hundred dollars to a salary of fifteen hundred dollars, and a percentage on special taxes collected. During his nineteen years of service, Mr. Hart has negotiated all the loans, sold the school bonds, and collected the special taxes, occupying nearly the whole of his time, and employing the services of a clerk in transacting the business of his office.

When William Hart became City Treasurer, the credit of the city stood rather low, city warrants being hawked about at seventy-five cents on the dollar. This unsatisfactory state of things was put an end to, mainly through the exertions of the Hon. H. B. Payne, then in the City Council, who procured the funding of the outstanding debt, and brought the credit of the city up to the high standard at which it now stands.

When Judah Hart reached Cleveland, the then far West, a part of the family slept in the Mansion House, occupying the site on which now stands Cooper's hardware store, but young William and some other members of the family slept in the covered traveling wagon, under a shed standing on the site of the present Atwater Block. With the revolution of years the then poor boy has now become part owner of the splendid block standing where a part of the Harts slept, homeless wayfarers, forty-five years ago.

In 1834, Mr. Hart was married in Cleveland, to Miss Elizabeth Kirk, daughter of John Kirk, who had left England about a dozen years previously. No children were born of this marriage, but the pair have adopted four, giving them all the advantages and rights of children born to themselves, and three of these are now married.

Still in vigorous life, Mr. Hart has, to a great extent, retired from active business, his establishment being carried on mainly by his sons through adoption or marriage. This partial rest he has earned by a life of labor and enterprise, in which he has watched narrowly his opportunities, and availed himself of every chance of improving his facilities for manufacture, and enlarging his field of business, has faithfully performed his official duties, and has secured the respect alike of his business acquaintances, his political constituents, and the public at large.

John Bousfield.

The wooden ware manufacture of Cleveland is an important part of its industry, the manufacturing establishments being the largest within the United States and doing a business that covers the entire west. Large as the industry now is, it is of but very recent growth, and Cleveland is chiefly indebted for its permanent establishment, in spite of a series of discouraging disasters, to the enterprise and determination of John Bousfield.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, John Bousfield]

Mr. Bousfield was born at Stockport, in the county of Cheshire, England, July 22, 1819. After serving an apprenticeship to the saddle and harness business for seven years, he engaged in that business on his own account, adding to it the manufacture of whips. Four years were thus spent, when he decided on removing to America, leaving his native land in December, 1843. Having brought two of his workmen with him, he established himself in the same business in a small way in the city of New York, but his health failing after a few months, he determined on leaving for the west, hoping that a change of atmosphere, and possibly of business, would be of benefit.

His first stay was at Kirtland, Lake county, Ohio, where he purchased a farm and at the same time carried on the harness business. At this he continued until about the year 1850, when he purchased a factory and water power, put in a pail-making machine, and commenced, in a small way, the manufacture of pails. In 1854, he removed to Fairport, in the same county, where he purchased a larger building and carried on pail manufacturing upon a larger scale. In March, 1855, he sold out the establishment, taking in pay for it a note which he still holds.

In May of that year he came to Cleveland and organized the Cleveland Wooden Ware Manufacturing Company, built a factory on the ground now occupied by the present firm of Bousfield & Poole, and commenced manufacturing in the following September. The first operations of the company were on a small scale, making tubs, pails, washboards, and similar articles in a limited way, but gradually increasing the business until it reached what was then considered respectable proportions. In July, 1857, the company sold out to Greenman & Co., of Massachusetts, and Mr. Bousfield was retained by the new owners as superintendent of the works, until January 12, 1859, when the factory was destroyed by fire.

In March of that year, Mr. Bousfield rented a building on the West Side and commenced manufacturing again on his own account. Five months afterwards he was burned out. Nothing daunted, he immediately purchased the ruins of the Greenman & Co. factory, rebuilt it, and in January, 1860, associated with him Mr. J. B. Hervey, of Cleveland, and in the following month resumed work.

The new partnership was very successful. The business increased rapidly, the area of their trade enlarged until it comprised all the principal cities and towns in Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois and Wisconsin. A planing mill was added to the factory, and this, too, was highly profitable. In 1864, the works were greatly enlarged to meet the rapidly increasing demand for their wares. In 1865, Mr. John Poole, of Harmer, Ohio, was admitted to the partnership, thus bringing in additional capital and experience gained in the management of a similar factory at Harmer. Mr. Poole has devoted himself principally to the financial and sales departments of the business, and has proved himself a man of more than ordinary business ability.

Thus far everything had been going on prosperously, but the old enemy, fire, was as relentless as ever. On the 23d of March, 1866, the whole of the extensive establishment was reduced to ashes, and the unfortunate proprietors sorrowfully contemplated the ruins of years of labor and enterprise, whilst a host of workmen stood still more sorrowfully by, and saw their daily bread swept from them by the pitiless flames. Seventy-five thousand dollars of capital were converted into valueless ashes in a few hours.

The owners of the factory wasted no time in fruitless sorrow. An old wooden building had partially escaped the flames. This was hastily patched up, and within thirty days they were making pails and tubs as earnestly as if they had never known a fire. Mr. Hervey sold out his interest to the other partners, Messrs. Bousfield & Poole, who went to work with almost unparalleled enterprise and energy, built one of the largest and most substantial factories in the country, and entered upon the work of manufacturing wooden ware upon a larger scale than had ever before been attempted. The factory has two hundred feet front on Leonard and Voltaire streets, with a depth of sixty feet, and five stories high; attached to the main building are the engine and boiler rooms. The cost of the building was forty-five thousand dollars. The present capacity of the works is twenty-five hundred pails per day, six hundred tubs, a hundred and twenty-five churns and other small ware, and a hundred dozen zinc washboards.

In May, 1867, the firm commenced the erection of a match factory which was ready for operation in September of that year. A superintendent was engaged who, unfortunately, was unqualified for his position and did much harm to the enterprise, but on his removal, Mr. Bousfield took personal charge of the match factory, and has succeeded in building up an extensive trade. The daily capacity of the factory is two hundred and ninety gross, which, if run to the full capacity throughout the year, would yield to the United States government a revenue of over a hundred and twenty thousand dollars.

The trade of Messrs. Bousfield & Poole extends from Buffalo through the principal cities of the central, southern and western States, to New Orleans on the south, and Salt Lake City on the west, two bills having been sold to the son-in-law of Brigham Young in that city. A branch warehouse has been established in Chicago as an entrepot for the supply of the vast territory of which Chicago is the source of supply.

The manufactory of Messrs. Bousfield & Poole is the largest in the country, and for the past three years has turned out about fifty per cent. more work than any other in the United States. It consumes ten millions of feet of lumber and logs annually, besides other material, and gives employment to from three hundred to three hundred and fifty persons, men women and children. Its influence on the population and prosperity of the city can therefore be judged. The money for the support of these people, and for the purchase of the materials employed, is almost wholly brought from abroad, the amount of the wares used in Cleveland being, of course, a very small fraction of the amount produced and sold. The same is true to a greater or less extent, of all the manufactories of Cleveland, and serves to account for the rapid growth of the city in population and wealth within the few years past, in which Cleveland has entered in good earnest on its career as a manufacturing centre.

Mr. Bousfield was married January 1, 1855, to Miss Sarah Featherstone, of Kirtland, by whom he has had ten children, six of whom are yet living. The oldest son, Edward Franklin Bousfield, is engaged with his father in the factory.

The secret of Mr. Bousfield's successful career can be found in his indomitable perseverance. He has been wholly burned out three times, and had, in all, about twenty fires, more or less disastrous, to contend with, but each time he seemed to have gained new strength and vigor in business as his works rose phoenix like from the ashes. Coupled with his perseverance is a remarkable mechanical ingenuity which has served him to good purpose in the construction and management of his factories. Whilst in England, he invented a machine for braiding whips that would do the work of fifteen women working by hand, as was the usual practice.

J. G. Hussey.

Among the elements that have contributed to the prosperity of Cleveland, copper and oil hold no inconsiderable place. Not only has the cupriferous wealth of Lake Superior directly enriched many Cleveland citizens who interested themselves in its production, but it has led to the establishment of a large and steadily increasing commerce between Cleveland and Lake Superior. In the other direction, the enterprise of Clevelanders in the petroleum region of Western Pennsylvania has built up large fortunes for themselves and has established in Cleveland one of the most extensive and remunerative of its industries. One of the earliest to be identified, first with the copper and afterwards with the oil interest, was J. G. Hussey.

Christopher Hussey, the father of the subject of the present sketch, emigrated from Baltimore and settled in Cincinnati, in 1804, subsequently removing to Jefferson county, Ohio, where J. G. Hussey was born in 1819. Young Hussey received such an education as the facilities of a rural neighborhood at that early day afforded, and added to his school knowledge the practical details of business by becoming clerk in a village store. Here he acquired those correct business habits that stood him in good service in after life. In 1840, he opened a store on his own account in Hanover, Ohio, and was very successful. From Hanover he removed to Pittsburgh, where he operated in provisions until 1845. In that year there was much excitement over the mineral discoveries on the south shore of Lake Superior. The Indian titles to the mineral lands on that lake had been but a short time before completely extinguished, and the surveys of Dr. Houghton were bringing the cupriferous riches of the region into notice. Mining permits were issued under the authority of Congress, those permits giving the applicant a lease for three years, with a conditional re-issue for three years more. The lessees were to work the mines with due diligence and skill, and to pay a royalty to the United States of six per cent, of all the ores raised. Early in the Spring of 1845, Mr. Hussey formed a company of miners and explorers, with whom he went to Lake Superior and opened several copper veins, some of which proved highly productive and are still successfully worked. In some of these he has retained an interest to the present time.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, J. G. Hussey]

In the Spring of 1847, he became a member of the private banking firm of Hussey, Hanna & Co., in Pittsburgh, which did a successful business for several years. At the same time he became interested in a banking establishment in Milwaukee under the firm name of Marshall, Hussey & Ilsley. In 1850, he removed to Milwaukee, to attend to the interest of that firm, but the climate proving injurions to his health, he sold out and removed to Cleveland, where he took up his residence in 1851. From that time he became thoroughly identified with the business interests of the city.

His first act was to establish the Forest City Bank, under the regulations of the Free Banking Law of Ohio, and during his connection with the institution it was eminently successful. During the same summer, he built and put in operation a copper smelting and refining works, under the firm name of J. G. Hussey & Co., engaging at the same time in the produce commission business, under the firm name of Hussey & Sinclair, which afterwards changed to Hussey & McBride. It is a matter of fact, on which Mr. Hussey justly prides himself, and to which in great measure he attributes his success, that he confined himself strictly to the legitimate conduct of his business as a commission dealer, never speculating in produce when selling it for others.

In 1859, Mr. Hussey became interested in the discoveries of petroleum in the creeks and valleys of Venango county, Pennsylvania. With his characteristic energy he went to the scene of the excitement just breaking out over the discoveries, and becoming satisfied of their importance, he immediately commenced the work of exploration, in company with others, who purchased the McElhenny Farm, on which was struck the noted Empire well, one of the most famous wells on Oil Creek, that by its extraordinary yield first added to the petroleum excitement, and then broke down the market by a supply far in excess of the then demand. The tools were no sooner extracted than the oil rushed up in a torrent, equal to three thousand barrels daily. The good fortune of the adventurers was disastrous. It was more than they had bargained for, and was altogether too much of a good thing. The demand at that time was very limited, the uses to which petroleum had been applied being few, and science had not yet enabled it to be converted into the cheap and useful illuminator it has now become. One day's flow of the Empire would supply all the demands of the United States for a week. Barrels, too, were scarce, and when those at hand were filled tanks were hastily improvised, but were speedily overflowed. Pits were dug and rapidly filled, until at length the well owners, cursed with too much good luck, were compelled to turn the oil into the river. Then it rapidly fell in price, owing to the superabundant supply. It fell, in the autumn of 1861, to ten cents a barrel, and the oil interest was, for the time, ruined.

At this juncture Mr. Hussey was induced to erect works for refining the oil and preparing it as an illuminator. The first establishment was a small one, but as the demand increased and the oil interest revived, the capacity was increased until it reached its present limit of from three hundred and fifty to four hundred barrels per day.

When the second oil excitement broke out in 1864, Mr. Hussey was again one of the leading explorers and adventurers in the oil regions of Pennsylvania. Successful wells were put down in Oil Creek and on the Allegheny river, and a large proportion of the product was brought to Cleveland to be refined. His interest in this department of industry became so great and important, that after fifteen years of active connection with the produce and copper smelting business of Cleveland, he sold out his interest in both the commission house and smelting works and devoted his entire attention to oil.

Mr. Hussey is a good example of the success attending faithful, intelligent and conscientious attention to business. A self-made man, he never lost sight of the fact that the same scrupulous honesty which gave him success was necessary to retain it. Debt he looked upon as the road to ruin, and he scrupulously shunned it. He never bought an article for himself or his family on credit. His business paper was always good and never was protested. His engagements were ever punctually kept. His two cardinal principles were "Time is money," and "Honesty is the best policy," and these rules of action he carefully impressed on the young men whom he brought up in business life. The value of his teachings and example is shown in the fact that those brought up under his business care during the past twenty years have come to hold a place in the front rank of business men, and have, by their energy and integrity, accumulated competence, and even affluence.

[Illustration: Yours Truly, A. B. Stone]

A. B. Stone

Andros B. Stone was born in the town of Charlton, Worcester county, Massachusetts, June 18, 1824. He is the youngest son of Mr. Amasa Stone, (now a hale, old man, ninety years of age, in possession of all his faculties,) and brother of A. Stone, Jr., whose biography has been sketched in an earlier portion of this work. Mr. Stone's boyhood was spent in the various occupations of country farm life, where he received in common with other boys the advantages of a public school education. In his sixteenth year he left home to try the world for himself, and for a year and a half worked industriously at the carpenter's trade with his elder brother, to whom he was apprenticed for four years, to receive thirty-five dollars the first year, forty the second, forty-five the third, and fifty the fourth. An unconquerable desire for a better education forced him to leave this occupation for a time, and enter an academy, the expenses of which he met in part by teaching a public school in the winter season, and which left him only five dollars with which to make another start in the world.

In the meantime, Mr. Stone's brother, to whom he was apprenticed, had been employed by Mr. Howe, the patentee of the "Howe Bridge," and to Andros was assigned the keeping of the time of the workmen, and other similar duties, instead of the more direct labors of the shop. In the autumn of 1842, Mr. Howe purchased Mr. Stone's unexpired time from his brother, advanced his pay, and kept him in the same employment as time-keeper, and adding to this duty that of making estimates, drawing bridge plans, etc., allowing him in the winter an opportunity of increasing his finances by teaching school. Subsequently, Mr. A. Boody and Mr. A. Stone, Jr., purchased the Howe Patent for building bridges in New England, and A. B. Stone, then about nineteen years of age, made an engagement with the new firm. At first he was given the charge of a few men in framing and raising small bridges, but an opportunity soon occurred which enabled him to exhibit his capabilities in a most advantageous light. Messrs. Boody and Stone were constructing a bridge over the rapids of the Connecticut river at Windsor Locks, about fifteen hundred feet in length, in spans of one hundred and eighty feet. One day the superintendent, who had the immediate charge of the work, went to Mr. Stone and complained of being so ill that he was obliged to go home, and desired him to take temporary charge of the men. Mr. Stone alleged his unfitness for the duty of taking charge of so many men at the commencement of so important a work, but as the superintendent said he could not stay longer, Mr. Stone was compelled to assume the responsibility, against his wishes.

On examining the condition of the work the cause of the superintendent's severe illness was made manifest. The lower chords or stringers, of about two hundred and sixty feet in length, had been packed without being placed opposite each other, one being placed several feet too far in one direction, and the other about the same distance in the opposite direction. Here was a dilemma and a difficulty, and an ability in the mind of the young mechanic to meet it, so that, in a very short time, the chords were properly adjusted. He then proceeded with the work, and in three days had nearly completed the first span, when his brother paid a visit of inspection to the bridge. Not finding the regular superintendent in charge, he naturally inquired the cause, and when the circumstances were explained, examined the work very minutely. Without any comments upon what had been done, Mr. Stone left the place, leaving his younger brother in charge, a tacit expression of confidence which was most gratifying, and gave him a self-confidence he had not previously possessed. About this time Mr. Stone was advanced to the general superintendence of construction, which position he retained between two and three years, when his brother admitted him as his partner in the construction of the bridges on the Atlantic & St. Lawrence railroad. A year was successfully spent in the prosecution of this work, when a partnership was formed with Mr. A. Boody for constructing the bridges on the Rutland & Burlington railroad in Vermont, which, although accompanied with grave difficulties, resulted in success.

In 1850, Mr. Stone extended the field of his operations by forming a new partnership with Mr. Maxwell, and purchasing the Howe Patent for building bridges in the three northern New England States. For two years this field was profitably and creditably filled, when, dazzled by the ample resources of the West, New England was abandoned for Illinois. Here another partnership was formed, with his brother-in-law, Mr. Boomer, and under the stimulating effect of an undeveloped country, the new firm of Stone & Boomer soon took a high and honorable rank throughout the entire Western States. The total amount of bridging built by this firm from 1852 to 1858 was not less than thirty thousand feet. They constructed the first bridge across the Mississippi river, the longest span of a wooden truss that had up to that time ever been built. This was done under the most trying circumstances, the thermometer at times marking 30 degrees below zero. The longest draw-bridge of its period was also erected by this firm across the Illinois river, it having a length of two hundred and ninety-two feet, the whole structure revolving on its centre, and capable of being opened by one man in one and one-half minutes. During this time they built the roof of the Union Passenger House, in Chicago, which was of longer span than had hitherto been built. The organization for the carrying on of their work was so complete, that it was a common remark among the engineers of western railroads, "If we want any bridges put up on short notice, we can get them of Stone & Boomer; they have them laid up on shelves, ready for erection!" In connection with their bridge business the firm carried on the manufacture of railroad cars.

In the Spring of 1858, Mr. Stone gave up his home and business in Chicago for his present residence in Cleveland and his present business as an iron manufacturer. After carefully investigating the advantages which Cleveland afforded for such a purpose, and realizing the present and prospective demands for an increased development for the manufacture of iron, Mr. Stone availed himself of the opportunity of identifying his interests with that of the firm of Chisholm & Jones, who at that time had just put in operation a small mill in Newburg. Here at once opened a new and delightful opportunity for Mr. Stone to develope his natural love for the mechanical arts. To manufacture iron required knowledge--was a science, and to be master of his business was both his duty and his pride, and claimed all his unflagging energy, his undaunted courage and determination. Thus the small mill at Newburg grew from the capacity of turning out thirty tons of re-rolled rails to its present capacity of sixty tons, beside the addition of a puddling mill, a merchant bar mill, a wire rod mill, two blast furnaces, spike, nut and bolt works. In the meantime the small beginning had grown into such large proportions, and so many railroad corporations had centered here, that it was thought best to form the same into a stock company, embracing another rolling mill on the lake shore, within the city limits. This was done, Mr. Stone filling the office of President of the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company. In 1868, the Company put into successful operation extensive steel works which they had been engaged in erecting with great care and expense for nearly two years. During that time Mr. Stone had made two visits to Europe for more thorough investigation into the process of making Bessemer steel, and the success of this undertaking so far has been admitted by all who have visited the works to be without parallel in the American manufacture of steel. In addition to this heavy and extended business, Mr. Stone is president of another rolling mill company in Chicago, in which he is largely interested, also of a large coal mining company in Indiana, and vice President of a large iron manufacturing company at Harmony, Indiana, also president of the American Sheet and Boiler Plate Company.

Mr. Stone is eminently known, and justly so, as a mechanic, and is widely known as a man who crowns his thoughts with his acts. Still in the prime of manhood, he stands connected with manufacturing interests, furnishing employment to thousands of men, all of which has been the outgrowth of scarcely more than ten years. This eminent success has not been the result of speculation, or of luck, but the legitimate end of his own hands and brain. Neither can it be said he has had no reverses. At one time the failure of railroad companies left him, not only penniless, but fifty thousand dollars in debt. With an indomitable will he determined to liquidate that debt, and how well he succeeded need not be told. Mr. Stone at present stands at the head of iron manufacturing companies, second to none in the country, possessing almost unlimited credit. This extraordinary success has by no means affected Mr. Stone's modest nature for which he is so noted. Gentlemanly and affable in his intercourse with all ranks and conditions of men, he has won universal respect, and an enviable position in the business interests of our country.

Mr. Stone was married in 1846 to Miss M. Amelia Boomer, daughter of Rev. J. B. Boomer, of Worcester, Massachusetts.

[Illustration: Yours truly, Henry Chisholm]

Henry Chisholm

Henry Chisholm is of Scotch origin, having been born in Lochgelly in Fifeshire, April 27, 1822. There, as in New England, children, if they are heirs to nothing else, inherit the privilege of some early education. When he was at the age of ten his father died. At the age of twelve, Henry's education was finished and he was apprenticed to a carpenter, serving in an adjoining city five years, at the expiration of which time he went to Glasgow, as a journeyman. Whilst in Glasgow, he married Miss Jane Allen, of Dunfermline.

In 1842, he resolved to quit his native land and seek his fortune in the West. Landing in Montreal, in April, he found employment as a journeyman carpenter, working at his trade for two years. He then undertook contracts on his own account, relying wholly on his own resources for their execution, and all his undertakings proved successful. In 1850, he entered into partnership with a friend to build the breakwater for the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad, at Cleveland, the work occupying three years. This, and other similar contracts, such as building piers and depots at Cleveland, employed his time and energies until his commencement of the iron business at Newburg, as one of the firm of Chisholm, Jones & Co. This company, and its business, have developed into the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company of Cleveland, with two rail mills, making a hundred tons of rails and twenty-five tons of merchant iron per day; two blast furnaces, turning out forty tons of pig iron daily, and a Bessemer steel works, manufacturing thirty tons of steel per day. Besides these, have been established the Union Rolling Mills of Chicago, making seventy tons of rails per day; of this extensive establishment Mr. Chisholm's son, William, is manager. There are also two blast furnaces and a rolling mill in Indiana, making forty tons of iron per day. Fifteen hundred acres of coal land are owned in connection with these works. Of all these enterprises Mr. Chisholm has been one of the leading managers, and remains largely interested, his perseverence and energy aiding materially to crown the undertakings, up to the present time, with the greatest success.

In the midst of a business so large, the social and religions duties of Mr. Chisholm have not been neglected. He is a zealous and liberal member of the Second Baptist church. For more than twenty-three years himself and wife have been professors of religion, and their five surviving children, the oldest of whom is now twenty-six years old, have become members of the same church.

The history of the Scotch boy and his success in America should be read by the youth of England and Scotland, as an example for them to follow. In these and other European countries such a career would be almost, if not quite, impossible. Mr. Chisholm has not been made proud by success, but retains the affability and simplicity of his early days. He has still a hearty physical constitution, with the prospect of a long life in which to enjoy, in the retired and quiet manner most agreeable to his tastes, the good fortune of this world, and the respect of his employees, and neighbors and friends, which he values more highly than money.

R. P. Myers.

R. P. Myers was born in Schodack, Rensselaer county, New York, January 1, 1820. When between two and three years of age, his parents moved to Sand Lake, in the same county. His father died May 14, 1823, leaving but very limited means for the support of the widowed mother and three young children; and it is to the prayers, counsels and Christian influence of his mother Mr. Myers is largely indebted for the direction of his life. At the age of fifteen he left school and became clerk in a village store, but after one year, being dissatisfied with the business prospects of the village, he obtained a situation in a dry goods store in Albany.

In 1842, he commenced business in Albany in the same line, with but two hundred and twenty-five dollars and a good character, for his capital, under the firm name of Allen & Myers, continuing thus about two years. At the end of that time, believing the West offered greater inducements to young men of small means, he removed to Ohio. His partner had previously made a tour of observation through the West and become favorably impressed with the business prospects of Akron, Ohio, which was at that time attracting considerable attention. Mr. Myers, in company with his wife, passed through Cleveland May 3d, 1844, (being the first anniversary of their wedding,) on their way to Akron. There he conducted his old business under the same name as at Albany, for about one year, and then formed a company for the manufacture of stoves, under the style of Myers, Cobb & Co., his former partner being the "Co." To this business he gave his personal attention. The dry goods business was discontinued about a year after engaging in the manufacture of stoves. In addition to this Mr. Myers became interested in the manufacture of woolen and cotton machinery, machine cards, &c., the name of the firm being Allen, Hale & Co. This was developed into a flourishing business.

[Illustration: Respectfully yours, R. P. Myers]

In 1849, he was instrumental in the formation of the Akron Stove Company, into which the firm of Myers, Cobb & Co. merged. At the first meeting of the stockholders Mr. Myers was chosen general agent, in which position he remained with signal profit to the stockholders, until February 1st, 1859. This, though a small company, was one of the most successful stock companies ever formed in this part of the country. Business continued to expand, causing the company to enlarge its facilities for manufacturing from time to time, and their products were sold through Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and other Western States. The fact that the stock at the time he retired from the company sold for from four hundred to five hundred per cent, above par value, after declaring liberal dividends from time to time, speaks more plainly of its unparalleled success than anything we can say, and is the best compliment that could be paid to the energy, enterprise and business capacity of its retiring manager.

After a time, the stove business required his whole attention, and the machine branch was sold out to one of the other partners; he then bent all his energies to the invention and perfection of the stoves, and the vigorous prosecution of the business of the company. After conducting the business of the company ten years, he felt the want of a larger field for enterprise, cast around for the most eligible situation, and finally concluded that Cleveland was destined to be a great stove centre. Resigning the management of the company February 1st, 1859, but retaining most of his interest, he came to Cleveland and started an individual manufactory, at the same time connecting with the stove business the wholesaling of tin plate, sheet iron, &c., which was conducted with such energy that a large trade was attracted to Cleveland that had previously been given to other markets.

The rapid development of business, the demand upon his time in the manufacturing department, and the need of extended facilities induced Mr. Myers to associate with him Messrs. B. F. Rouse and James M. Osborn, who now form the firm of Myers, Rouse & Co. Since the present firm has existed they have built a new foundry, of large capacity, with all the modern improvements, on West River street, which is now taxed to its full capacity to meet the wants of their trade.

The increase of the stove manufacturing of the city is estimated to have been full four hundred per cent. in ten years, and has fully justified Mr. Myers' estimate of the natural advantages of Cleveland as a manufacturing point.

This firm has patented a variety of new stoves that have become very popular, and hence remunerative, among which are the Eclipse, in 1850, soon followed by the Golden Rule and Benefactor, the last named having obtained a most remarkable sale, and the name itself become a household word throughout the country, and, in 1868, the celebrated Princess stove.

Of course, close attention to the wants of the country in this direction for about one quarter of a century, has given Mr. Myers a very valuable experience, which he is continually turning to account to the benefit of the public and his own enrichment. The shipments of this firm are to nearly all the markets in the northwest, reaching Council Bluffs and Omaha.

Mr. Myers is now numbered among the most successful business men of the city, and his success has been achieved in a department that has added very materially to the progress of the city. The large number of men employed, and the still larger number put into requisition in the production of the material required for the uses of the manufactory, and to supply the needs of the men, have added to the population and wealth of Cleveland.

Although so much engrossed in business since coming to Cleveland, Mr. Myers has found time to be active in many benevolent movements. For thirty years he has been a useful member of the Baptist church. His Christian labors have been generously given to the Sunday schools and mission work, and he is at this time superintendent of the First Baptist church Sunday school of this city.

Mr. Myers is now forty-nine years old, with a vigorous physical constitution and strong mind, that give promise of very many years of usefulness still to come.

M. C. Younglove

From 1837 to 1842, when specie payments were resumed, Cleveland saw her greatest financial embarrassments; but from the latter year, a new and more promising era dawned upon her. The land speculator gave place to the business man, and for many years immediately following, her progress, though slow, was sure and steady. During these years of depression many young and enterprising men settled here, who were, of course, untrammeled by old speculating debts, and their business habits were untainted by the loose recklessness of the land speculator. Many of these young men are now to be found among our most substantial, successful and enterprising citizens, and the gentleman whose name stands at the head of this article is one of that number.

Mr. Younglove was born in Cambridge, Washington county, New York. His immediate ancestors on both sides having been officers in the Revolutionary army, gives him a good title to native citizenship. His father died before his birth, leaving him sufficient property for all educational purposes, but none to commence business with. He first essayed a professional life, and with that view began the study of law, but soon discovered that a sedentary occupation was uncongenial to him, and abandoned the profession.

His first business connection, which was formed before his majority, was with an uncle in his native county. But finding the country village of his nativity too slow for a sanguine and active temperament, he determined to try his fortune in the then comparatively unknown West, and in August, 1836, came to Cleveland. After a clerkship of eight months in a dry goods store, he bought an interest in a book store, and in a few months thereafter bought out his partner and added job and news printing, and book publishing, to his other business. At this time he introduced the first power press into Cleveland--and it is believed the second that was run west of the Alleghenies--on which he printed for a long time the daily papers of the city.

In 1848, in connection with Mr. John Hoyt, he built the Cleveland Paper Mill; the first having steam power west of the mountains, and the first of any importance in the United States. This innovation on the old mode of obtaining power for such machinery, called out many prophecies of failure. But these gentlemen not only made their business a success, but demonstrated to Cleveland, that she had, in her proximity to the coal fields, and in the steam engine, facilities for manufacturing unsurpassed by the best water power in the country--a hint which she has not been slow to improve upon.

Messrs. Younglove & Hoyt finally united their business with that of the Lake Erie Paper Company, under the name of the Cleveland Paper Company, of which latter company Mr. Younglove was elected president, and continued in the chief management of its business until the Spring of 1867, when he sold his entire interest, leaving the company with a capital of three hundred thousand dollars, and one of the most prosperous paper manufacturing companies in the country.

Mr. Younglove was one of the first of our citizens to perceive the importance and necessity of a gas company for Cleveland. Learning that a charter had been obtained by some of our wealthy men, and was laying dormant in their hands, he, with some associates, bought it up and proceeded to the erection of the works--himself being one of the directors. Few, however, know the struggles and discouragements which these directors encountered in their efforts to furnish the citizens of Cleveland with one of the greatest conveniences and luxuries of civilized life. The stock could not be sold here. Aside from that taken by Mr. Younglove, only five hundred dollars were subscribed by the citizens, and distributed as follows: James Kellogg, four hundred dollars, and J. W. Allen, one hundred dollars; and this was subsequently all taken off the hands of the subscribers by Mr. Younglove before it was paid up. But the directors, well persuaded of the value and importance of the work they had in hand, were in no way discouraged, but pushed on the work till all present funds were exhausted and not a dollar was left in the treasury to meet the demands of the next Saturday's pay roll. At this juncture, the Board had a consultation, which may be fitly termed an "anxious meeting." The question arose, "What is to be done?" and in answer, each member determined to take such an amount of stock as he could either pay for or sell. Mr. Younglove took five thousand dollars, and determined to make another attempt to sell to the wealthy men of the city, but after four days of industrious effort he had not one dollar of subscription to reward his labor. Mr. P. M. Weddell was the only one who gave any encouragement--"He might take a few hundred dollars at seventy-five per cent."

After this failure, Mr. Younglove mortgaged his lot on Euclid avenue, where he now lives, and paid up his subscription, thus fulfilling his promise to his associates, and placing himself on record as the only citizen who would help to supply the city with gas.

In 1850, Mr. Younglove, associated with Mr. Dudley Baldwin, bought of Howell & Dewitt their machinery for manufacturing agricultural implements. This establishment was immediately enlarged to do an extensive business. Mr. Baldwin subsequently sold his interest to his partner, who still retains his interest in the business, it being at present one of the largest and most reputable manufactories in the city.

The writer of this has authority for saying, that Mr. Younglove looks upon his connection with the Society for Savings in this city, from its organization, as one of the most honorable and reputable of his business life. It is an association purely benevolent in its objects and action, managed by men who have no hope or desire of pecuniary benefit, with matured judgment and an abnegation of self that may well secure for it the utmost confidence--as it most happily has--of the laboring poor and the helpless, for whose benefit it is maintained.

Mr. Younglove is one of the most enterprising and intelligent business men. Having a natural talent for mechanics, he has done much to inaugurate and encourage the manufactures of our city.

John D. Rockefeller.

Although yet quite a young man, John D. Rockefeller occupies in our business circles a position second to but few. He began life with few advantages, save that of honesty of purpose and unflinching morality, and a determination to succeed, if unremitting effort would secure that end. He, in connection with M. B. Clark, commenced the produce and commission business on the dock, with a small capital saved from earnings. For a time their profits were exceedingly small, but the firm soon gained the confidence of our citizens and bankers, and at the end of the first year they had done business to the amount of $450,000. Each successive year added to their business, and in the fourth, it amounted to something like $1,200,000, the average being, perhaps, about $700,000.

In the Spring of 1863, Mr. Rockefeller engaged in the oil refining business, commencing with a capacity of forty-five barrels of crude oil per day, and gradually increased it until 1865, when the capacity of his works was a hundred and fifty barrels per day. At this time he sold his interest in the commission business, and devoted his whole attention to the oil refining. Every year witnessed an enlargement of his works, and for the last three years it is believed that his has been the largest of its kind in the world, the present capacity being twenty-five hundred barrels of crude oil per day. The growth of the business, dating back to 1865, was such that it became necessary to establish a house in New York for the disposition of their oil, where they now have warehouses of their own, and sell and take care of their property.

The effect of such works as those of Mr. Rockefeller in the city may be imagined when we say that there are about one hundred men regularly employed in them, besides a force of some fifteen or twenty teams and teamsters. To these must be added from seven hundred to eight hundred men around the city employed in making barrels for the oil, and from $20,000 to $25,000 per year expended among plumbers and various other mechanics for repairs. The enlargements of their works this year will cost near $40,000.

Mr. Rockefeller never retrogrades; he has always advanced from the commencement. Close application to one kind of business, an avoidance of all positions of an honorary character that cost time, and strict business habits, have resulted in the success, the fruits of which he now enjoys. He has worked himself, and kept everything pertaining to his business in so methodical a manner that he knows every night how he stands with the world. He was drilled to strict economy as an accountant during hard times, before his own business history, and he has rigidly adhered to the principles then learnt.

He has frequently been so situated as to choose between his own judgment and that of older heads, and where he has followed his own opinions in opposition to others of more experience he has seen no reason to regret his choice. The result of his course has been, that, though still young, he stands at the head of one of the most extensive business establishments in the city, and is possessed of wealth sufficient to secure a comfortable maintainance, and a provision against the ordinary mishaps of business.

Mr. Rockefeller is a valued member of the Second Baptist church having long been a sincere believer in the faith and practice of the Baptist church.

[Illustration: Fraternally Yours, Peter Thatcher]

Peter Thatcher.

Peter Thatcher derives his descent in a direct line from the Reverend Thomas Thatcher, the first minister of the Old South Church, in Boston, who at the age of twelve years left England with his uncle Anthony, and arrived in New England in 1635.

Peter Thatcher was born in Attleboro, Massachusetts, July 20, 1812. At the age of nineteen, not liking his father's business of farming, he announced his intention of seeking other means of livelihood, and, sorely against his father's wish, he set out in search of fortune. Two days after leaving his father's roof, he found employment with a house-carpenter, in Taunton, Massachusetts, to whom he engaged himself to work one year for forty dollars and board. After two years service in this employ he, in November, 1834, commenced work on the Boston and Providence Railroad, laying track, in the employ of Messrs. Otis & Co. His industry and ability attracted the attention of his employers, and he was retained and promoted by them, remaining in the employ of the firm and their successors, railroad building, until 1850, with the exception of three years spent on Fort Warren and Fort Independence, in Boston Harbor, where he superintended the work of construction under the supervision of Colonel Sylvanus Thayer. During his career as a railroad builder he was engaged on the principal railroads on the sea-coast from Maine to Georgia.

In 1850, the firm of Thatcher, Stone & Co. was formed, for the purpose of building bridges, both in the eastern and western States, an office being opened in Springfield for the former, and another in Cleveland for the latter. In 1851, this firm was dissolved and that of Thatcher, Burt & Co. formed. The patent for building the Howe Truss Bridge in the States of Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky and Michigan was purchased, and nearly all the original railroad bridges in Ohio, with the depots and engine houses, together with many in other States, were built by this firm.

After having for thirteen years carried on the bridge building business, and added to it a trade in lumber, the firm built the Union Elevator, in Cleveland, and the new firm of Thatcher, Gardner, Burt & Co., commission merchants and produce dealers, was formed. This firm was dissolved in 1865, by the withdrawal of Mr. Thatcher.

About this time a company was formed for the purchase of a patent obtained for the manufacture of a durable paint and fire-proof mastic from prepared iron ore. Mr. Thatcher was chosen president of the company which at once entered on a vigorous prosecution of its business and has succeeded beyond the anticipation of its projectors. The paint is made of Lake Superior iron ore, ground fine and mixed with linseed oil, with which it forms a perfect union. It is then used in a thin state as a paint for surfaces, whether of wood stone or metal, exposed to the weather, and in a thicker state for a fire-proof mastic. The ore is crushed with machinery of great strength, and about three tons of the paint are produced daily, besides the mastic, and find ready market.

In connection with the above Mr. Thatcher has recently purchased a patent, obtained by Mr. Ward, for the manufacture of "Metallic Shingle Roofing," which is now being perfected and introduced to the public, and which, its inventor claims, will supercede all methods of roofing now in use for cheapness, durability, weight and effectiveness.

Mr. Thatcher has long been identified with the Masonic order, and has filled high positions in that body. He is Past M. of Iris Lodge of Cleveland, Past H. P. of Webb Chapter, has been Treasurer of Iris Lodge for ten years, Past D. G. H. P. of the Grand Chapter of Ohio, and is now Grand Treasurer of the Grand Commandery of Knights Templar of Ohio, which position he has held six years.

Mr. Thatcher is a genial, whole-souled man, having a host of warm friends, and has enjoyed the respect and confidence of all with whom he has been connected.

W. C. Scofield,

W. C. Scofield was born near Wakefield, England, October 25, 1821, and spent the earlier years of his life in Leeds, where he was employed on machine work until his twenty-first year, when he determined to emigrate to the Western continent to seek his fortune. On reaching America he found his way westward until he arrived at Chagrin river in Cuyahoga county, where he found employment with a Mr. Waite, at eight dollars a month, working one year at this rate. The next two years were spent in the brick yard of A. W. Duty. Following this, he was for two years turnkey under sheriff Beebe, and then established himself in a brick yard of his own on the west side of the river. One Summer's work in this experiment gave him a start in business life, and laid the foundation, small though it was, of his after prosperity.

[Illustration: Yours Respectfully, W. C. Scofield]

After his experiment in the brick making business, he undertook the charge of the lard oil and saleratus works owned by Mr. C. A. Dean. After three years, Messrs. Stanley, Wick & Camp bought the establishment; and shortly after this change, Mr. Scofield purchased the interest of Mr. Wick, and after a few months Mr. Camp sold his interest to the remaining partners, who carried on the business until 1857. At that time Mr. Scofield purchased the interest of his partners and became sole owner of the whole concern and carried on business in this way for the next five years.

In 1861, he added to his lard oil and saleratus business that of refining oil, associating himself in this enterprise with Messrs. Halle and Fawcett. Their refinery was built on the site of the City Forge works, and the capacity of the works was limited to two eight barrel stills. Subsequently this land was sold for other purposes and the refinery was closed, after a very successful career. Previous to that event the firm built an oil refinery on Oil Creek, with a capacity of about forty barrels. This is still in operation under the firm name of Lowry, Fawcett & Co., turning out about sixty barrels of refined oil daily, and proving from its start a continual success. In 1865, Mr. Scofield became interested in the oil refining firm of Critchley, Fawcett & Co., in which he still retains his interest, and which is in successful operation, with a yield of about one hundred barrels per day. About the same time he became a partner in an oil commission business in New York, established under the name of Hewitt & Scofield, which has also proved a success. He is also interested in the Cleveland Chemical Works, being vice president of the company, which is doing a heavy business. The extent and importance of the works may be inferred from the fact, that the buildings necessitated an outlay of a hundred and sixty thousand dollars.

In 1863, the firm of Alexander, Scofield & Co., was formed, and commenced operation on the site of the present works, at the junction of the Atlantic & Great Western Railway with Liberty street. The works were commenced with a capacity of fifty barrels daily, and gradually enlarged, until the capacity now reaches six hundred barrels daily.

During the whole of Mr. Scofield's business career, with the extensive operations of the firms in which he is interested, there has been but one case of litigation. This is noteworthy, and speaks well for the integrity and strict business habits of Mr. Scofield. He is not given to jumping hastily at conclusions or embarking wildly in business schemes. Before entering on an undertaking, he carefully, though rapidly, studies the natural effect of the step and having satisfied himself of its probable success, he prosecutes it with unflagging energy. The course of events within the past few years offered unusual opportunities for a clear headed and active business man to advance himself, and Mr. Scofield had the forethought and energy to take advantage of those opportunities. From first to last he had to depend on his own energies, having been left an orphan at sixteen years of age, and from the time of his reaching his majority, being compelled to push his way unaided, a stranger in a strange land. The efforts of just such men have made Cleveland what it is to-day.

Levi Haldeman.

Levi Haldeman is a representative of another class of our citizens than refiners, who have taken advantage of the petroleum enterprise, and are spending their money in building up the prosperity of the city, turning its energies into channels that cannot fail to give an impetus to all branches of trade, and aid in establishing our financial institutions on a basis of unrivalled strength, and who, at the same time, reap their reward by putting money into their own pockets.

[Illustration: Respectfully + Truly, L. Haldeman]

The subject of this sketch was born in Chester county, Pennsylvania, Dec. 14, 1809, received a good common school education, and removed with his father to Columbiana county, Ohio, in 1819. Until he was about twenty-five years of age he spent his time with his father on his farm, and in teaching school. He then commenced reading medicine with Drs. Robertson and Cary of that place; after which he attended lectures at Cincinnati, and was a private student of Drs. Gross and Parker--the former being now Professer in Jefferson College, Philadelphia, and the latter Professor in the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Mr. Haldeman commenced practice alone in 1839, at Minerva, Ohio, although he had practiced from 1837 with his old preceptor. He soon obtained an excellent practice in medicine, and was noted for his skill in surgery, performing nearly all the operations in that part of the country, among them tractreotomy, or opening the windpipe and extracting foreign matter from it, and difficult cases of lithotomy.

In 1860, Mr. Haldeman, in connection with Messrs. Hussey and McBride, of Cleveland, bought the McElhenny Farm, in the Pennsylvania oil regions, which proved to be very valuable. For the whole farm of two hundred acres the sum of twenty thousand dollars was paid, subject to some leases, which were renewed to the lessees. Mr. Funk leased a hundred and thirty acres of the farm, subdivided it in into acre lots, and sub-lot them to a number of oil companies, representing an aggregate capital of millions of dollars. Messrs. Bennet and Hatch, the sub-lessees of one sub-lot, struck the largest producing well yet found in the oil region the Empire, a three thousand barrel well, which is estimated to have produced no less than six hundred thousand barrels of oil and the whole farm is estimated to have produced two millions of barrels. At the present time the sub-leases have nearly all been forfeited, through breach of covenant, and the farm has reverted to the owners, Messrs. Hussey and Haldeman. It is not now worked, the wells having been flooded by the unexpected influx of water, against which there had been no provision made by the owners of the wells. It is expected to remedy this misfortune by plugging the wells below the water veins, and pumping, with the hope of thus restoring the value of the farm.

The next enterprise was the purchase of the A. Buchanan farm, of three hundred acres, in connection with others, subject, also, to a lease, but giving the owners of the farm a royalty of one sixth of the oil produced, free of cost, and retaining the use of the land for other purposes. On this farm the town of Rouseville has been built since the purchase. This has proved a very lucrative investment. The first well struck on it in 1860 is still producing. In company with others, Mr. Haldeman also bought the royalty of the John McClintock farm for ten thousand dollars in gold, the Irishman owning it thinking nothing but gold worth having. Mr. Haldeman sold his thirty-second part of the same for a hundred thousand dollars; another partner sold his for forty-thousand dollars, the purchaser subsequently re-selling it for one hundred thousand dollars. Besides this, Mr. Haldeman became half owner of two hundred acres not yet developed, and he and his sons own about four hundred acres, supposed to be excellent oil land. He has also invested about forty thousand dollars in iron tanking, in the oil region, and has now tankage for four hundred thousand barrels, in connection with others.

Mr. Haldeman was married in 1840 to Miss Mary Ann Gaves, of Columbiana county. The oldest and second sons, L. P. and W. P. Haldeman, are engaged in business with their father, and by their energy, foresight, and close attention to business, have aided materially in the later successes of the firm. Mr. Haldeman has, as is evident from the record here given, won for himself considerable wealth, but it has been secured only by the exercise of sound judgment and intelligent enterprise, which deserves, though it does not always achieve, success.

G. Westlake.

The firm of Westlake, Hutchins & Co., composed of G. Westlake, H. A. Hutchins, C. H. Andrews and W. C. Andrews, stands high among the oil refining establishments of Cleveland, not only for the extent of their operations but for their fair dealing in business matters. The firm commenced the erection of their works in October, 1866, and in June of the succeeding year began operations with a capacity of two hundred barrels of crude oil per day. The business improved, and the works had to be enlarged to keep pace with it, until the present capacity of the works is seven hundred and fifty barrels per day. In the enlargements, the latest improvements in the appliances for the refining of oil have been put in. One still now employed has a capacity of eleven hundred barrels, which is charged twice a week, and was the first of the kind in the State. Besides this are ten stills of thirty barrels each, one of two hundred and fifty barrels, and one, recently completed, forty feet in diameter, of the same pattern as the monster still just mentioned, and which is calculated for two thousand barrels. The total capacity of the works, including this still, is fourteen hundred and sixteen barrels of crude per day, which will yield, if running to full capacity, two hundred and eighty-eight thousand barrels of refined oil in a year, or between three and four millions of dollars in value at the stills. Connected with the works are a twenty thousand barrel tank, a fifteen thousand barrel tank, two of ten thousand barrels each, one of six thousand barrels, and several from two thousand barrels down. When all its improvements in progress are completed it will be one of the largest refineries in Cleveland and in the United States, and with enterprise corresponding to the size and importance of its works. A large number of men are employed, either at the works or in direct connection with it by providing cooperage and other necessaries for the business.

Mr. Westlake, the senior member of the firm, was born in Chemung county, New York, January 11, 1822, received a good education and when a young man was employed as a clerk in a lumber business for a couple of years. In 1847, he went into the lumber trade on his own account, remaining in that business until 1866, when he removed to Cleveland, and finding that the oil refining business held out reasonable prospects of profit, he embarked in it, and by his energy of character and enterprise has achieved flattering success, although the time in which he has been engaged in the business is short. He is still in the prime of life.

Mr. Westlake was married in 1848 to Miss Hatch, of Elmira, Chemung county, and has three children.

Stephen Buhrer.

Stephen Buhrer, the subject of this sketch, is of immediate German descent. His father, a native of Baden, and his mother of Wirtemburg, emigrated to this country in the year 1817. Their acquaintance was first formed on board of the emigrant ship on their passage hither, and they were married soon after their arrival in this country. After remaining in the State of Pennsylvania about two years, they came to make their home in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, where, on the 26th day of December, 1825, their son, Stephen Buhrer, was born. That region at that time (fifty years ago) was remarkably wild and rough, and inhospitable, but since, by the thrifty German population, by whom it was mainly inhabited, it has become scarcely inferior to any other part of the State in agricultural wealth. But the father of Stephen Buhrer was not destined to live to see this prosperity. He died in the year 1829, leaving his widow and two young children, Stephen and Catharine, dependent on themselves to make their way in the world.

From the severe discipline to which Mr. Buhrer was subjected in early life, and from the difficulties which he had to overcome, he acquired that energy and force of character which have given him success and by which he has attained to a high rank as a self-made man.

Mr. Buhrer does not remember that he was privileged to attend any school after he was ten years of age. All the education which he subsequently acquired he obtained on Sundays and in evenings, after his day's labor was over. He has been a citizen of Cleveland since the year 1844. His first business in this city was at his trade, as cooper, and afterwards he became extensively engaged, and with success, in the business of purifying and refining spirits.

In the Spring of the year 1853, he was elected a member of the City Council, and was twice thereafter re-elected to the same office, the last time almost without opposition.

By the manner in which he discharged his duty as a member of the City Council, public attention was directed toward him as a suitable person for the responsible office of Mayor of the city, to which he was elected, at the April election, in the year 1867, by a very large majority, although he did not belong to the dominant political party. It is conceded by all that he has discharged the duties of Mayor, with a zeal and a devotion to the interests of the city which have had few examples. Turning aside, on his election, from the business in which he was engaged, he has allowed the affairs of the city to monopolize his attention. Placed by his office at the head of the Board of City Improvements, and having in charge public works of great magnitude, involving the expenditure of vast sums of money, invested with the sole control and management of the large police force of the city, and therefore made responsible for its fidelity and efficiency, and exercising a supervision over all the departments of the city government, to promote economy and to lessen taxation, Mayor Buhrer has found his office to be no sinecure. Among the distinguishing traits of his official conduct has been his impartiality, his exemption from favoritism and partizanship, when in conflict with the public interests, and especially his well-known hostility to "cliques" and "rings," such as resort to a city government as a rich placer, where they may work to enrich themselves at the expense of the people. The rigid discharge of duty which he has required of the police under his charge, and the avoidance, at the same time, of everything like oppression, or the exercise of undue severity in office, have received the public approbation.

[Illustration: Yours Respectfully, Stephen Buhrer]

One of the most prominent institutions of Cleveland will be the House of Correction, now in progress of construction, and which is humanely intended to reform and reclaim, as well as to punish, the vicious and the criminal. To Mr. Buhrer much credit will be awarded for the active and leading part he has taken in the establishment of such an institution.

At the expiration of his term of office, it was his wish to be relieved from public care and to devote all of his time to his private pursuits, and which, the more he expected to do, as no one of his predecessors had ever been re-elected, or had entered again upon a second term. But yielding to the solicitations of friends, he again became a candidate, and at the April election, in 1869, was again elected Mayor of the city of Cleveland, by nearly three thousand majority. Such a demonstration by the people is a sufficient commentary upon his character as a citizen, and upon the public estimation of his official services.

M. B. Clark.

M. B. Clark was born in Malmsbury, England, September 6, 1827. From early boyhood until he was nearly of age he was employed in all the various occupations of an agricultural district. About this time the United States, as a promising country for the working man, was attracting considerable notice in his native village, and young Clark, being favorably impressed with reports from America, secretly resolved to husband his means and follow the example of those who had recently gone.

In the Spring of 1847, he left home with but barely sufficient means for the expenses of the journey. On the 17th of June in that year he landed at Boston, amidst martial music and parade of military, celebrating the battle of Bunker's Hill. This, however, was but poor consolation to the English lad, who found himself penniless and friendless. He used every effort to find employment without success, and in the meantime was obliged to sleep wherever night overtook him. At last he obtained work on a farm, in the little town of Dover, Massachusetts, at ten dollars per month. He remained in this situation until October, when, with the regrets of his employer, he left for the West.

On arriving in Ohio, he first obtained employment at chopping wood and teaming, in Lorain county. In the following Spring he returned to Cleveland and obtained a situation as helper in a hardware store. Here it became apparent to him that he was sadly deficient in an educational point of view, and that it offered an almost insuperable barrier to his advancement in life. To remedy this, so far as possible, he devoted all his leisure hours to study, and on the establishment of the evening schools the following winter, he availed himself of them, and the advantage soon became apparent.

With a view to the improvement of his circumstances, in 1851, he engaged himself to Hussey & Sinclair, with whom he remained six years, when he returned to his former employers, Otis & Co., and remained with them three years longer.

In 1859, he established himself in the commission business, associating with him John D. Rockefeller, the firm name being Clark & Rockefeller; both young men of limited means. By strict attention and honorable conduct they soon built up a lucrative business. In 1860, G. W. Gardner became a member of the firm, and continued as such for two years, when he retired.

In 1863, Mr. Clark's attention was attracted to the manufacture of petroleum oils, a business then in its infancy. In connection with his partners, he erected a factory on the Newburg road, the capacity of which was about fifty-six barrels of crude oil per day. They soon discovered that there was money in the enterprise, and before the end of the year they had increased the capacity of their works four-fold; and the enterprise of this firm has aided materially in making Cleveland what it is to-day, the successful rival of Pittsburgh in the manufacture of petroleum oils. In 1865, the manufacturing branch was purchased by his partner, and the general commission business was continued by Mr. Clark until 1866, when he sold out his interest, remaining nominally out of the business until June of that year, when he wearied of idleness and sought active business once more. Purchasing the controlling interest in another refinery, he set to work, vigorously, enlarging the capacity of the works and bringing capital and energy to bear with such effect upon the business of the firm, that it now ranks among the leading oil refining establishments of the country.

[Illustration: Yours Respectfully, M. B. Clark]

Mr. Clark has been no niggard with the wealth that has accrued to him from his business. During the war he contributed liberally and was active in aiding the cause of the government by giving every practical measure his cordial and generous support. In other matters he has manifested a like liberal spirit. In politics he has acted with the Republicans, and has been active in furthering the success of that party. In 1866, he was elected member of the city council from the fourth ward, and was re-elected in 1868. In religions matters he has always connected himself with the Wesleyan Methodists, and has been a leading supporter of that congregation in Cleveland.

Still in the vigor of life, Mr. Clark has the opportunity of doing much more for the prosperity of the city by increasing the manufacturing business, and this his practical nature leads him to do.

It will be seen that Mr. Clark has been the architect of his own fortune. His sympathies are with the industrial classes, from which he sprang, and in return he has the confidence and good will of a large portion of that class.

Mr. Clark was married in 1853, and has a family of five children.

Jacob Lowman.

Jacob Lowman was born in Washington county, Maryland, Sept. 22, 1810. He worked with his father on the farm until he was eighteen, at which time he became an apprentice to the smithing department of the carriage building trade. At the expiration of his apprenticeship, in 1832, he came to Ohio. He stopped in Stark county for a few months, and then came to Cleveland, in search of work, which he readily obtained, with Elisha Peet, on Seneca street, where Frankfort street now intersects it. He worked about a year and a half, for which he received nine dollars per month and board. Being of steady habits, he saved in that time about seventy-five dollars. Mr. Lowman then bought out his employer, and commenced at once on his own account, at the same place. After two years, he built a shop where the Theatre Comique now stands, and remained there eight years. At first he labored alone, after awhile he had one journeyman, soon adding still another, and another, till, at the end of the eight years, he employed about fifteen men. He then removed to Vineyard street, having built shops there to accommodate his increasing business. This was about the year 1842--3. After moving to the new buildings, his business constantly grew