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Title: New-England's rarities discovered

In birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, and plants of that country

Authors: John Josselyn

Edward Tuckerman

Release Date: February 23, 2023 [eBook #70111]

Language: English

Produced by: Steve Mattern, John Campbell and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive)



The character ſ (long-form s) has been replaced by the normal s.

Footnote anchors are denoted by a number in [ ], and the footnotes have been placed at the end of the book.

These footnotes make numerous references to pages in Josselyn’s “An Account of Two Voyages to New-England”. This book can be accessed at:

This edition of 1865 is a faithful reproduction of the original Josselyn edition of 1672, and the original spelling and punctuation have been carefully preserved without change, in both the printed 1865 book and in this etext.

The page numbering of the 1672 book has been preserved and inserted at the appropriate points of the text. These page numbers were in [ ] in the 1865 edition, but have been changed to { } in this etext to avoid confusion with the footnote numbering notation.

The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.

Some minor changes to the text are noted at the end of the book. These are indicated by a dashed blue underline.

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With an Introduction and Notes,






Two Hundred and Fifty Copies printed, Small Quarto.



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Publisher’s Advertisement.

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IN the reproduction of this quaint and curious treatise, which is one of the earliest, on the Natural History of New England, it has been the intention of the Publisher to enhance its value as a literary curiosity, by making it as nearly as possible an exact Fac-simile of the original edition, in accordance with the projected plan of a series of reprints, in which the present work is comprised.

In the furtherance of this intention, the precise orthography, punctuation, and also the arrangement,—with the exception of the commencement and termination of pages,—have been preserved.

The valuable Introduction and Notes of Prof. Tuckerman, incorporated in this edition, have been previously[viii] issued in vol. iv. of “The Transactions of the American Antiquarian Society,” which contains a reprint of “The Rarities” in a more modern style. The notes have, however, undergone a thorough revision by the author; and some few additions have been made by him, during the progress of the present edition through the press.

Some additional matter concerning the Genealogy of the Josselyn Family may be found contained in the Preface of the “Two Voyages to New England in 1638 and 1663, by John Josselyn,” published in uniform style with the present work.

BOSTON, May 15, 1865.

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MR. John Josselyn, the writer of this book, was only brother, as he says, to Henry Josselyn, Esq., many years of Black Point in Scarborough, Me.; and both were sons to Sir Thomas Josselyn, Knt., of Kent, whose name is at the head of the new charter obtained by Sir Ferdinando Gorges for his Province in 1639, but who did not come to this country. Mr. Henry Josselyn was at Piscataqua, in the interest of Capt. John Mason, at least as early as 1634; but, in 1636, he is one of the Council of Gorges’s Province in Maine, and continued in that part of the country the rest of his life. He succeeded in 1643, by the will of Capt. Thomas Cammock, to his patent at Black Point, and soon after married his widow. He is afterwards Deputy-Governor of the Province; and until 1676, when the Indians attacked and compelled him to surrender his fort, he was, says Mr. Willis,—whose valuable papers are cited below,—“one of the most active[2] and influential men in it;” holding, “during all the changes of proprietorship and government, the most important offices.” He is then a magistrate of the Duke of York’s Province of Cornwall, and, as late as 1680, a resident of Pemaquid; when he is spoken of, in a letter of Gov. Andros to the commander of the fort at Pemaquid, as one “whom I would have you use with all fitting respect, considering what he hath been and his age.” He is living in 1682; but had died before the 10th of May, 1683,[1] leaving no descendants.[2]

Notwithstanding the evidence, above afforded, of the social position of the family of which Henry and John Josselyn were members, the present writer failed in tracing it, doubtless from not knowing in which county it had its principal seat. In this uncertainty, it occurred to him to make application to the eminent English antiquary,—the Rev. Joseph Hunter, Vice-President of the Society of Antiquaries of London,—to whom he was indebted for former kind attentions; and was favored by this gentleman with such directions as left nothing to be desired. “The Josslines,” writes Mr. Hunter “(the name is written in some variety of orthographies,[3] and now more usually Joceline), are quite one of the old aristocratic families of England, having several knights in the early generations; being admitted into the order of baronets, and subsequently into the peerage.... Their main settlement was in Hertfordshire, at or near the town of Sabridgeworth; and accounts of them may be read in the histories—of which Chauncy’s, Salmon’s, and Clutterbuck’s are the chief—of that county. But a fuller and better account is to be found in the ‘Peerage of Ireland,’ by Mr. Lodge, keeper of the records in the Birmingham Tower, Dublin: 4 vols. 8vo, 1754.”[3]

According to Lodge, the family begins with a Sir Egidius, who passed into England in the time of Edward the Confessor, and was descended from “Carolus Magnus, King of France, with more certainty than the houses of Lorraine and Guise.” Of this Sir Egidius was Sir Gilbert de Jocelyn, who accompanied the Conqueror, and had Gilbert—called St. Gilbert, being canonized by Pope Innocent III. in 1202—and Geoffry. To this Geoffry is traced back John Jocelyn, living in 1226; who married Catherine, second daughter and co-heir to Sir Thomas Battell, and had Thomas, who married Maud, daughter and co-heiress of Sir John Hide, of Hide Hall in Sabridgeworth, county of Hertford, Knt., by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of John Sudeley; Baron Sudeley, in the county of Gloucester. He had Thomas Jocelyn, Esq., who[4] married Joan, daughter of John Blunt, and had Ralph, who married Maud, daughter of Sir John Sutton alias Dudley, and had Geoffry of Hide Hall, 1312. Geoffry married Margaret, daughter of Robert Rokell or Rochill, and had Ralph, who married Margaret, daughter and heir to John Patmer, Esq., and had Geoffry (died 1425), who married Catherine, daughter and heir to Sir Thomas Bray, and had four sons and two daughters. Of these, the eldest was Thomas Jocelyn, Esq., living in the reign of Edward IV., who married Alice, daughter of Lewis Duke of Dukes in Essex, Esq., by his wife Anne, daughter of John Cotton, Esq., and had issue George, his heir, called Jocelyn the Courtier, who married Maud, daughter and heir to Edmond Bardolph,—Lord Bardolph,—and had one daughter and three sons. John Jocelyn, Esq.,—“auditor of the augmentations, upon the dissolution of the abbeys by King Henry VIII.,”—was son and heir to the last-mentioned George, and married Philippa, daughter of William Bradbury, of Littlebury in Essex; by whom he had Sir Thomas, of Hide Hall,—created a Knight of the Bath at the coronation of King Edward VI.,—who married Dorothy, daughter of Sir Geoffry Gales or Gates, Knt., and had issue;[4] one daughter marrying Roger Harlakenden, of Carnarthen in Kent, Esq.; and the fifth son being Henry Jocelyn, Esq., who married Anne, daughter[5] and heir to Humphrey Torrell, otherwise Tyrrell, of Torrell’s Hall in Essex,—became seated there, and had six sons and six daughters. The second son of this family was Sir Thomas Jocelyn (father to our author), who was twice married. His first wife was Dorothy, daughter of John Frank, Esq.; by whom he had six sons and five daughters,—Torrell, born 28th May, 1690; Henry, and Henry, both died infants; Thomas, who died without issue, in 1635, at Bergen op Zoom; Edward, who, by a lady of Georgia, had a daughter Dorothy, and died at Smyrna in 1648; Benjamin, born 19th May, 1602; Anne, married to William Mildmay, Esq., by whom she had Robert, John, Anne, and Elizabeth; Dorothy, married to John Brewster, Esq., and left no issue; Elizabeth, married to Francis Neile, Esq., and had Francis, John, and Mary; Frances, born 26th March, 1600, and married Rev. Clement Vincent; and Mary, died unmarried. The second wife of Sir Thomas Jocelyn was Theodora, daughter to Edmond Cooke, of Mount Maschall in Kent, Esq.; and by her he had Henry, John, Theodora, and Thomazine. Torrell, the eldest son, married, first, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Richard Brooke of Cheshire,—heir to her grandfather (by the mother), Dr. Chaderton, Bishop of Lincoln,—by whom he had a daughter, Theodora, married to Samuel Fortrie, Esq.,[5] to whom our author dedicates the present volume, with acknowledgment of the “bounty” of his “honored friend and kinsman.”


The principal line of the family was continued by Richard, heir to Sir Thomas of Hide Hall; the said Richard being brother to our author, John Josselyn’s grandfather. In 1665, Sir Robert Jocelyn of Hide Hall was advanced to the dignity of baronet. The fifth son of this Sir Robert was Thomas; whose son, Robert Jocelyn, Esq., was bred to the law; was Solicitor-General and Attorney-General and Lord High Chancellor of Ireland; and created, in 1743, Baron Newport of Newport, and Viscount Jocelyn in 1755. Robert, son and successor of this nobleman, was created, in 1771, Earl of Roden, of High Roding, County of Tipperary; and was ancestor to the present Lord Roden.[6]

Our author, John Josselyn, made his first voyage to New England in 1638; arriving in Boston Harbor the 3d of July, and remaining with his brother at Black Point till the 10th of October of the following year. While at Boston, he paid his respects to the Governor and to Mr. Cotton, being the bearer to the latter of some poetical pieces from the poet Quarles; and, as he says, “being civilly treated by all I had occasion to converse with.” In the account of his first voyage, there is no appearance of that dislike to the Massachusetts government and people which is observable in the narrative of the second, and may there not unfairly be connected with his brother’s political and religious differences with Massachusetts.[7] His second voyage[7] was made in 1663. He arrived at Nantasket the 27th of July, and soon proceeded to his brother’s plantation, where he tells us he staid eight years, and got together the matter of the book before us. This was first printed in 1672, but occurs also with later dates. It was followed, in 1674, by “An Account of Two Voyages to New England; wherein you have the Setting-out of a ship, with the Charges; the[8] Prices of all Necessaries for furnishing a Planter and his Family at his first Coming; a Description of the Country, Natives, and Creatures; the Government of the Countrey as it is now possessed by the English, &c. A large Chronological Table of the most Remarkable Passages, from the first Discovering of the Continent of America to the Year 1673.” 12mo, pp. 279. Reprinted in the third volume of the Third Series of the Collections of the Historical Society; which edition is quoted here. A large part of the “Voyages” is taken up with observations relating to natural history; and it is quite likely that the author tried in this second work to supply some of the defects of his “Rarities.” Compare especially the accounts of beasts of the earth, of birds, and of fishes; each of which is better done in the “Voyages.”

Josselyn was, it appears, a man of polite reading. He quotes Lucan, Pliny, and Du Bartas; he has Latin and Italian proverbs; he is acquainted with the writings of Mr. Perkins, that famous divine; with Van Helmont; with Sandys’s “Travels,” and Capt. John Smith’s. His curiosity in picking up “excellent medecines” points to an acquaintance with physic; of his practising which, there occur, indeed (pp. 48, 58, 63), several instances.[8] Nor is[9] he, by any means, uninterested in prescriptions for the kitchen; as see his elaborate recipe for cooking eels (Voyages, p. 111), and also that (ibid., p. 190) for a compound liquor “that exceeds passada, the Nectar of the country;” which is made, he tells us, of “Syder, Maligo-Raisons, Milk, and Syrup of Clove-Gilliflowers.” But his curiosity in natural history, and especially in botany, is his chief merit; and this now gives almost all the value that is left to his books.[9] William Wood, the author of “New-England’s Prospect” (London, 1634[10]), was a better observer, generally, than Josselyn; but the latter makes up for his other short-comings by the particularity of his botanical information.

The “Voyages” was Josselyn’s last appearance in print. He was already advanced in years, and alludes to this at page 69 of the present book, where he says he shall refer the further investigation of a curious plant—of which a neighbor, “wandering in the woods to find out his strayed cattle,” had brought him a fragment—“to those that are younger, and better able to undergo the pains and trouble of finding it out.” “Henceforth,” he declares in his “Voyages,” p. 151, “you are to expect no more Relations[10] from me. I am now return’d into my Native Countrey; and, by the providence of the Almighty and the bounty of my Royal Soveraigness, am disposed to a holy quiet of study and meditation for the good of my soul; and being blessed with a transmentitation or change of mind, and weaned from the world, may take up for my word, non est mortale quod opto.”

We may suppose that a rude acquaintance with the more common or important animals of a new country will commence with the discovery of it. Thus the beginning of European knowledge of the marine animals of America goes back, doubtless, to the earliest fisheries of Newfoundland; and these began almost immediately after the discovery of the continent. Game and peltry were also likely to come to the knowledge of the earliest adventurers; and scattered among these, from the first, were doubtless men capable of regarding the world of new objects around them with an intelligent, if not a literate eye. Descriptions in this way, and specimens, at length reached Europe, and became known to the learned there—to Gesner, Clusius, and Aldrovandus—from as early as the middle of the sixteenth century. Without being naturalists, such observers as Heriot in Virginia (1585-6) and Wood in Massachusetts (1634) could give valuable accounts of what they saw; and more, it may well be, was due to the Christian missionaries, who accompanied or followed the adventurers, for the conversion of the heathen. Gabriel Sagard was one of these missionaries, a recollet or reformed Franciscan monk, who went from Paris to[11] Canada in 1624, and spent two years in the country of the Hurons; publishing his “Grand Voyage du Pays des Hurons” in 1632, and enlarging it in 1636 to “Histoire du Canada et Voyages que les Freres Mineurs recollets y ont faits pour la Conversion des Infidelles,” &c., in four books; of which the third treats of natural history,[11] and is cited by Messrs. Audubon and Bachmann (Vivip. Quadrupeds of N.A., passim) for a good part of our more common and noticeable Mammalia. Something considerable thus got to be known of marine animals of all sorts, and of quadrupeds. But it was much longer before our birds—if we except a very few, as the blue-jay and the turkey—came to the scientific knowledge of Europeans; and this remark is, as might be expected, at least equally true of our reptiles.

Quite as accidental, doubtless, was the beginning of European acquaintance with our plants. There are, indeed, traces of the knowledge of a few at a very early period. Dalechamp, Clusius, Lobel, and Alpinus—all authors of the sixteenth century—must be cited occasionally in any complete synonymy of our Flora. The Indian-corn, the side-saddle flower (Sarracenia purpurea and S. flava), the columbine, the common milk-weed (Asclepias Cornuti), the everlasting (Antennaria margaritacea), and the Arbor vitæ, were known to the just-mentioned botanists before 1600. Sarracenia flava was sent either from Virginia, or possibly from some Spanish monk[12] in Florida. Clusius’s figure of our well-known northern S. purpurea—of which he gives, however, only the leaves and base of the stem (Clus. Hist. Pl., cit. Gerard a Johnson)—was derived from a specimen furnished to him by one Mr. Claude Gonier, apothecary at Paris, who himself had it from Lisbon; whither we may suppose it was carried by some fisherman from the Newfoundland coast. The evening primrose (Œnothera biennis) was known in Europe, according to Linnæus, as early as 1614. Polygonum sagittatum and arifolium (tear-thumb) were figured by De Laet, probably from New-York specimens, in his “Novus Orbis,” 1633. Johnson’s edition of Gerard’s “Herbal” (1636)—which was possibly our author’s manual in the study of New-England plants—contains some dozen North-American species, furnished often from the garden of Mr. John Tradescant, who had other plants from “Virginia” beside the elegant one which bears his name; and John Parkinson—whose “Theatrum Botanicum” (1640) is declared by Tournefort to embrace a larger number of species than any work which had gone before it—describes, especially from Cornuti, a still larger number. But the first treatise especially concerned with North-American plants was that of the French author just mentioned; which, on several accounts, deserves particular attention.

John Robin—“second to none,” says Tournefort, “in the knowledge and cultivation of plants”—was placed in charge of the Royal Botanical Garden at Paris, about the year 1570; and Vespasian Robin, “a most diligent[13] botanist,” followed, in similar connection[12] with the larger garden founded by Lewis the Thirteenth. Both are said to have assisted the writer whose book we are to notice; but especially the latter,[13] who, there is little doubt, deserves credit for all the American species described in it.

The history of Canadian and other new plants—“Canadensium Plantarum, aliarumque nondum editarum Historia” of Jacobus Cornuti, Doctor of Medicine, of Paris—was printed in that city (pp. 238) in 1635, under the patronage just mentioned; and contains accounts, accompanied, in every case but one, with figures on copper, of thirty-seven of our plants; of which the meadow-rue is known to botanists as Thalictrum Cornuti; and the common milkweed, as Asclepias Cornuti. Though himself not eminent as a botanist,[14] the work of Cornuti was valuable[14] for its elegant presentation of much that was new; and it will always deserve honorable remembrance in the history of our Flora. There are several passages of it—as at pp. 5 and 7, and in the account of the two baneberries at p. 76, where we read, “Opacis et sylvestribus locis in eadem Americæ parte frequentissimum est geminum genus”—which look a little like a proper botanical collector’s notes on his specimens; and these specimens, and the others from the same region, may well have been results of the herborizing of that worthy Franciscan missionary, whose early observations on the natural history of Canada have been mentioned already above. Nor were the North-American plants possessed by Cornuti entirely confined to this region; for he speaks at the end (p. 214) of his having received a root, ex notha Anglia, as he strangely calls it, known, it appears, by the name of Serpentaria, or, in the vernacular, Snaqroel,—a sure remedy for the bite of a huge and most pernicious serpent in notha Anglia,—which was no doubt the snake-root so famous once as a cure for the bite of a rattlesnake, and one of the numerous varieties of Nabalus albus (L.) Hook., if not, as Pursh supposed, what is now the var. Serpentaria, Gray. But some view of the scantiness of scientific knowledge of our Flora, near forty years after Cornuti, may be had by reckoning the number of species for which Bauhin’s “Pinax”[15] and “Prodromus” (1671) are cited by Linnæus in the “Species Plantarum.” Most of them are Southern plants; and the few decidedly Northern ones which meet us—as Cornus canadensis, Uvularia perfoliata, Trillium erectum, Arum triphyllum, and Adiantum pedatum—are all indicated, by Bauhin’s phrase, as from Brazil!

We have nothing illustrating the Flora of New England from Cornuti till Josselyn. In Virginia, Mr. John Banister, a correspondent of Ray’s, began to botanize probably not long after the middle of the seventeenth century. He was succeeded by several eminent names; as Mark Catesby, F.R.S. (born 1679), John Clayton, Esq. (born 1685), and John Mitchell, M.D., F.R.S.,—a contemporary of the other two,—who together gave to the botany of Virginia a distinguished lustre; as did Cadwalader Colden, Esq. (born 1688),—a selection from whose correspondence has been lately edited by Dr. Gray,—to that of New York; John Bartram (born 1701), “American botanist to his Britannic Majesty,” to that of Pennsylvania; and, somewhat later, Alexander Garden, M.D., F.R.S. (born 1728), to that of South Carolina. Josselyn himself is, indeed, little more than a herbalist; but it is enough that he gets beyond that entirely unscientific character. He certainly botanized, and made botanical use of Gerard and his other authorities. The credit belongs to him of indicating several genera as new which were so, and peculiar to the American Flora. It may at least be said, that, at the time he wrote, there is no reason to suppose that any other person knew as much as he did of the botany of New[16] England. “The plants in New England,” he says in his “Voyages,” p. 59, “for the variety, number, beauty, and virtues, may stand in competition with the plants of any countrey in Europe. Johnson hath added to Gerard’s ‘Herbal’ three hundred, and Parkinson mentioneth many more. Had they been in New England, they might have found a thousand, at least, never heard of nor seen by any Englishman before.”[15] Nor did our author fail to adorn his “Rarities” with recognizable figures, as well as descriptions, of some of these new American plants; and[17] his arrangement is also creditable to his botanical knowledge. By this arrangement, his collections are distinguished into—

1. “Such plants as are common with us in England.”
2. “Such plants as are proper to the country.”
3. “Such plants as are proper to the country, and have no name.”
4. “Such plants as have sprung up since the English planted and kept cattle in New England.”

The last of these divisions is the most valuable part of Josselyn’s account, as it affords the only testimony that there is to the first notice among us of a number of now naturalized weeds, which it is an interesting question to separate from the more important class of plants truly indigenous in, and common to, both hemispheres; and the author’s treatment of the latter—as indeed of the other two lists mentioned above—shows that he was competent, in a measure, to reckon the former. This furnishes a date, and an early one; and there is no other till 1785, when Dr. Manasseh Cutler’s Memoir, to be spoken of, enables us to limit the appearance of some other species not mentioned by Josselyn.

There is no work of any size or importance on New-England plants, after Josselyn, for the whole century which followed. We were not, indeed, without men in distinguished connection with the European scientific world. The most eminent New-England family gained honors in science, as well as in the conduct of affairs. John Winthrop the younger, eldest son of the first Governor of Massachusetts,—and the “heir,” says Savage, “of all his[18] father’s talents, prudence, and virtues, with a superior share of human learning,”[16]—was himself the first Governor of Connecticut, and had, in this connection, a certain scientific position and reputation. “The great Mr. Boyle, Bishop Wilkins, with several other learned men,” says Dr. Eliot, “had proposed to leave England, and establish a society for promoting natural knowledge in the new colony of which Mr. Winthrop, their intimate friend and associate, was appointed Governor. Such men were too valuable to lose from Great Britain; and, Charles II. having taken them under his protection, the society was there established, and obtained the title of the Royal Society of London.... Mr. Winthrop sent over many specimens of the productions of this country, with his remarks upon them: ‘and, by an order of the Royal Society, he was in a particular manner invited to take upon himself the charge of being the chief correspondent in the West, as Sir Philiberto Vernatti was in the East Indies.’ ‘His name,’ says the same writer, Dr. Cromwell Mortimer, Secretary of the Royal Society, in his flattering dedication of the fortieth volume of the Philosophical Transactions to the Governor’s grandson, ‘had he put it to his writings, would have been as universally known as the Boyles’s, the Wilkins’s, and Oldenburghs’, and been handed down to us with similar applause.’”[17] There is, in the volume of Philosophical Transactions for 1670, “An Extract of a[19] Letter written by John Winthrop, Esq., Governor of Connecticut in New England, to the Publisher, concerning some Natural Curiosities of those Parts; especially a very strange and curiously-contrived Fish, sent for the Repository of the Royal Society” (pp. 3); in which are mentioned, as sent, specimens of scrub-oak; “bark of tree with fir-balsam, which grows in Nova Scotia, and, as I hear, in the more easterly part of New England;” pods of milk-weed, “used to stuff pillows and cushions;” and “a branch of the tree called the cotton-tree, bearing a kind of down, which also is not fit to spin.”

Fitz John Winthrop, Esq., F.R.S. (died 1707), son of the last, and also Governor of Connecticut, is said to have been “famous for his philosophical” (that is, scientific) “knowledge.”[18] And the second Governor’s nephew, John Winthrop, Esq., F.R.S. (died 1747), who left this country and passed the latter part of his life in England, is declared by the author of the dedication already above cited, to have “increased the riches of their” (the Royal Society’s) “repository with more than six hundred curious specimens, chiefly in the mineral kingdom; accompanied with an accurate account of each particular.” “Since Mr. Colwell,” it is added, “the founder of the Museum of the Royal Society, you have been the benefactor who has given the most numerous collection.” Dr. John Winthrop, F.R.S. (died 1779), Hollisian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, N.E., whose important papers on astronomical[20] and other related phenomena are to be found in the Philosophical Transactions, was of another line of the same family.

Paul Dudley, Esq., F.R.S. (born 1675), son of Gov. Joseph Dudley, and himself Chief Justice of Massachusetts, was author of several papers in the Philosophical Transactions; one of which is an “Account of the Poison-wood Tree in New-England” (vol. xxxi. p. 135); and another, “Observations on some Plants in New-England, with Remarkable Instances of the Nature and Power of Vegetation” (vol. xxxiii. p. 129). This last is of only seven pages, and of little scientific account: though we learn from it, that, in 1726, when Mr. Dudley wrote, the Pearmain, Kentish Pippin, and Golden Russetin, were esteemed apples here, and the Orange and Bergamot cultivated pears;[19] that, in one town in 1721, they made three thousand, and in another near ten thousand barrels of cider; and that, to speak of “trees of the wood,” he knew of a[21] button-wood tree which measured nine yards in girth, and made twenty-two cords of wood; and of an ash, which, at a yard from the ground, was fourteen feet eight inches in girth. He also expresses an intention to treat separately the evergreens of New England; and this treatise, which was possibly more valuable than the one just noticed, was in the possession of Peter Collinson, the eminent patron of horticulture, and was given by him to J. F. Gronovius; but has not, that I am aware of, appeared in print.[20]

It is likely that the early physicians of New England gave special attention to those simples of the country, the virtues of which were known to the savages; and perhaps it was partly in this way that the Rev. Jared Eliot (born 1685), minister of Killingworth in Connecticut,—who is called by Dr. Allen “the first physician of his day,”—is also designated, both by him and by Eliot, a botanist; and by the latter, “the first in New England.” There is no doubt he was a friend of Dr. Franklin’s, and a scientific agriculturist according to the knowledge of his day; and he is said to have introduced the white mulberry into Connecticut.[21] His Agricultural Essays went through more than one edition, but is now rare. Mr. Eliot died while our next character, the first native New-England botanist who deserves the name, was a student of Yale College.


Manasseh Cutler, LL.D. (born 1743), was minister of the Hamlet in Ipswich—afterwards incorporated as the town of Hamilton—fifty-one years, and was also a member of the Medical Society of Massachusetts. He is author of “An Account of some of the Vegetable Productions naturally growing in this part of America, botanically arranged,” which makes nearly a hundred pages of the first volume of the Memoirs of the American Academy, 1785. In the introduction to this paper, the author speaks of Canada and the Southern States having had attention given to their productions, both by some of their own inhabitants and by European naturalists; while “that extensive tract of country which lies between them, including several degrees of latitude, and exceedingly diversified in its surface and soil, seems still to remain unexplored.” He attributes the neglect, in part, to this,—“that botany has never been taught in any of our colleges,” but principally to the prevalent opinion of its unprofitableness in common life. The latter error he combats with the then important observation, that, “though all the medicinal properties and economical uses of plants are not discoverable from those characters by which they are systematically arranged, yet the celebrated Linnæus has found that the virtues of plants may be, in a considerable degree, and most safely, determined by their natural characters: for plants of the same natural class are in some measure similar; those of the same natural order have a still nearer affinity; and those of the fame genus have very seldom been found to differ in their medical virtues” (p. 397).[23] This shows, perhaps, that Dr. Cutler appreciated (for the Italics in the just-quoted passage are his own) that adumbration of a natural system which was afforded or suggested by the artificial; and his instances—the Gramineæ, the Borraginaceæ, the Umbelliferæ, the Labiatæ, the Cruciferæ, the Malvaceæ, the Compositæ, &c.; though these are cited under the divisions, not of the natural, but of the sexual system—are still more to the point. There are other observations of interest; and the suggestion is made, that persons should collect the plants of their districts, and send them from time to time to the Academy.

Dr. Cutler was thus, possibly, the first to suggest a botanical chair in our colleges, and a general herbarium to illustrate the Flora of New England; and perhaps it was this last which led him to propose a still more important undertaking. “It has long been my intention,” he says in a letter to Prof. Swartz, of Upsal, dated 15th October, 1802, “to publish a botanical work, comprising the plants of the northern and eastern States; and [I] have been collecting materials for that purpose. But numerous avocations, and a variety of other engagements, has occasioned delay. It is, however, still my intention, if my health permits, to do it. But, at this time, far less than in years past, there is very little encouragement given here to publications of this kind.”[22]

About three hundred and seventy plants are indicated in the published “Account” of Dr. Cutler. It was not to be[24] expected, that, in this beginning, numerous mistakes should not be made. It could not possibly have been otherwise. There is still evidence enough of the author’s genius, which perhaps needed only opportunity and encouragement to anticipate a part of what botany now owes to a Nuttall, a Torrey, and a Gray. The “Account” was favorably received by other botanists of the time, both in this country and abroad. In a letter of Muhlenberg to Cutler, dated 9th February, 1791, the former says, “Not till a few months ago, I was favored with the first volume of the Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, printed at Boston, 1785. Amongst other valuable pieces, I found your ‘Account of Indigenous Vegetables, botanically arranged;’ with which I was infinitely pleased, as this was the first work that gives a systematical account of New-England plants. Being a great friend to botany, and having studied it in my leisure-hours upwards of fourteen years in Pennsylvania, I know the difficulty of arranging the American plants according to the Linnæan system; and I was always eager to hear of some gentleman engaged in similar researches, that, by joining hands, we might do something towards enlarging American Botany.... This is the reason why I intrude upon your leisure-hours, and crave for your acquaintance and friendship.”[23] Drs. Withering and Stokes, of England, were other correspondents of Cutler, and furnished him with important observations upon his printed Memoir, besides specimens;[25] as did also Swartz, and, it appears, Payshull of Sweden. Dr. Stokes followed up his various suggestions for the improvement of the Memoir, by proposing to dedicate a plant, which he took to be new, to its author. “A plant,” he says, “like a woolly heath, and which I wished to call Cutleria ericoides, turns out to be Hudsonia ericoides. I hope, however, your herborizations may furnish a new genus for you, not likely to be disturbed.”—Letters of Stokes to Cutler, from “Feb. 14 ’91, to Aug. 17, ’93.”[24]

But Dr. Cutler’s printed memoir on the plants of New England is much surpassed in interest by his manuscript volumes of descriptions, still extant. These manuscript volumes commence with “Book I., 1783,” and continue, so far as I have seen them, to 1804. The late Mr. Oakes possessed six of these books; and two were given to me by my valued friend, the late Dr. T. W. Harris. They are generally entitled, “Descriptions and Notes on American Indigenous Plants,” and contain a vast number of observations and analyses, sometimes accompanied by pen-and-ink sketches. This was evidently the material accumulated for the author’s Flora above mentioned; and the following extracts will serve to show that he was in many respects qualified to undertake such a work. Thus, in describing the several hickories, he points out those differences from Juglans, upon which Nuttall afterwards constituted his[26] genus Carya. Again, in the same volume,—that for 1789,—there is a N. Gen. Anonymos, minutely described in several pages, which is no other than Thesium umbellatum, L., afterwards distinguished by Nuttall as his genus Comandra. Again, under Anonymos, Yellow-Sandbind, there is a full description of what Nuttall after named Hudsonia tomentosa. The same volume shows that the author had anticipated Prof. Gray in referring Orchis fimbriata, as it was called by Pursh and other botanists, to O. psychodes, L.; and the remark is also made that O. lacera Michx.,—which Muhlenberg and our other writers had mistakenly referred to O. psychodes, till Dr. Gray corrected the error,—“must be a new species,” which it then certainly was. Again, there is another Anomolos described at length, which is the same afterwards constituted by Nuttall his genus Microstylis. So Campanula humida (Cutler mss.) is what Pursh designated, long after, C. aparinoides. Again, in another volume (for 1800), he anticipates Pursh by proposing for our water-shield the name Brasenia ovalifolia; and, in yet another, he is before Bigelow in describing as a new species what the latter, many years later, published as Prunus obovata. This may suffice to indicate the merits of the botanist of Ipswich Hamlet. A little shrub-willow, with clean, shining leaves, and modest catkins,—inhabiting, almost everywhere, the alpine regions of the White Mountains, and gathered by him there, before any other botanist had penetrated those solitudes,—still reminds us of his name, which deserves to be remembered by his countrymen.


After Cutler, there appeared nothing of importance[25] on our botany, till the present elder school of New-England botanists—a school characterized by the names of an Oakes, a Boott, and an Emerson—was founded, now more than forty years ago, by the classical Florula of Bigelow.

(decorative icon)






Birds, Beasts, Fishes, Serpents, and Plants
of that Country.

Together with

The Physical and Chyrurgical Remedies wherewith
the Natives constantly use to Cure their
Distempers, Wounds, and Sores.


A perfect Description of an Indian SQUA, in all
her Bravery; with a POEM not improperly
conferr’d upon her.


of the most remarkable Passages in that Country
amongst the English.

Illustrated with CUTS.


London, Printed for G. Widdowes at the
Green Dragon in St. Pauls Church yard, 1672.


(decorative banner)

To the highly obliging,

His Honoured Friend and Kinsman,

Samuel Fortrey Esq;


IT was by your assistance (enabling me) that I commenc’d a Voyage into those remote-parts of the World (known to us by the painful Discovery of that memorable Gentleman Sir Fran. Drake.) Your bounty then and formerly hath engaged a retribution of my Gratitude, and not knowing how to testifie the same unto you otherwayes, I have (although with some reluctancy) adventured to obtrude upon you these rude and indigested Eight Years Observations, wherein whether I shall more shame my self or injure your accurate Judgment and better Employment in the perusal, is a question.


We read of Kings and Gods that kindly took
A Pitcher fill’d with Water from the Brook.

The Contemplation whereof (well knowing your noble and generous Disposition) hath confirm’d in me the hope that you will pardon my presumption, and accept the tender of the fruits of my Travel after this homely manner, and my self as,

Your highly obliged,
most humble Servant,
John Josselyn.


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Drop cap I

IN the year of our Lord 1663. May 28. upon an Invitation from my only Brother, I departed from London, and arrived at Boston, the chief Town in the Massachusetts, a Colony of Englishmen in New-England, the 28th of July following.

Boston (whose longitude is 315 deg. and 42 deg. 30 min. of North Latitude) is built on the South-west side of a Bay large enough for the Anchorage of 500 Sail of Ships, the Buildings are handsome, joyning one to the other as in London, with many large streets, most of them paved with pebble stone, in the high street towards the Common, there are fair buildings, some of stone, and at the East End of the {2} Town one amongst the rest, built by the Shore by Mr. Gibs, a Merchant, being a stately Edifice, which it is thought will stand him in little less[34] than 3000 l. before it be fully finished.[26] The Town is not divided into Parishes, yet they have three fair Meeting-houses or Churches, which hardly suffice to receive the Inhabitants and Strangers that come in from all parts.[27]

Having refreshed my self here for some time, and opportunely lighting upon a passage in a Bark belonging to a Friend of my Brothers, and bound to the Eastward, I put to sea again, and on the Fifteenth of August, I arrived at Black-point, otherwise called Scarborow, the habitation of my beloved Brother,[28] being about an hundred leagues to the[35] Eastward of Boston; here I resided eight years, and made it my business to discover all along the Natural, Physical, and Chyrurgical Rarities of this New-found World.

New-England is said to begin at 40 and to end at 46 of Northerly Latitude, that is from de la Ware Bay to New-found-Land.

The Sea Coasts are accounted wholsomest, the East and South Winds coming {3} from Sea produceth warm weather, the Northwest coming over land causeth extremity of Cold, and many times strikes the Inhabitants both English and Indian with that sad Disease called there the Plague of the back, but with us Empiema.[29]

The Country generally is Rocky and Mountanous, and extremely overgrown with wood, yet here and there beautified with large rich Valleys, wherein are Lakes ten, twenty, yea sixty miles in compass, out of which our great Rivers have their Beginnings.[30]

Fourscore miles (upon a direct line) to the Northwest of Scarborow, a Ridge of Mountains run Northwest and[36] Northeast an hundred Leagues, known by the name of the White Mountains, upon which lieth Snow all the year, and is a Land-mark twenty miles off at Sea. It is rising ground from the Sea shore to these Hills, and they are inaccessible but by the Gullies which the dissolved Snow hath made; in these Gullies grow Saven Bushes, which being taken hold of are a good help to the climbing Discoverer; upon the top of the highest of these Mountains is a large Level {4} or Plain of a days journey over, whereon nothing grows but Moss: at the farther end of this Plain is another Hill called the Sugar-Loaf, to outward appearance a rude heap of massie stones piled one upon another, and you may as you ascend step from one stone to another, as if you were going up a pair of stairs, but winding still about the Hill till you come to the top, which will require half a days time, and yet it is not above a Mile, where there is also a Level of about an Acre of ground, with a pond of clear water in the midst of it; which you may hear run down, but how it ascends is a mystery. From this rocky Hill you may see the whole Country round about; it is far above the lower Clouds, and from hence we beheld a Vapour (like a great Pillar) drawn up by the Sun Beams out of a great Lake or Pond into the Air, where it was formed into a Cloud. The Country beyond these Hills Northward is daunting terrible, being full of rocky Hills, as thick as Mole-hills in a Meadow, and cloathed with infinite thick Woods.[31]


New-England is by some affirmed to be an Island, bounded on the North with the {5} River Canada, (so[38] called from Monsieur Cane) on the South with the River Mohegan, or Hudsons River, so called because he was the first that discovered it.[32] Some will have America to be an Island, which out of question must needs be, if there be a Northeast passage found out into the South Sea; it contains 1152400000 Acres. The discovery of the Northwest passage (which lies within the River of Canada) was undertaken with the help of some Protestant Frenchmen, which left Canada and retired to Boston about the year 1669. The Northeast people of America i.e. New England, &c. are judged to be Tartars called Samoades, being alike in complexion, shape, habit and manners, (see the Globe:) Their Language is very significant, using but few words, every word having a diverse signification, which is exprest by their gesture; as when they hold their head of one side the word signifieth one thing, holding their hand up when they pronounce it signifieth another thing. Their Speeches in their Assemblies are very gravely delivered, commonly in perfect Hexamiter Verse, with great silence and attention, and answered again ex tempore after the same manner.[33]

{6} Having given you some short Notes concerning the Country in general, I shall now enter upon the proposed Discovery of the Natural, Physical, and Chyrurgical Rarities; and that I may methodically deliver them unto you,[39] I shall cast them into this form: 1. Birds. 2. Beasts. 3. Fishes. 4. Serpents and Insects. 5. Plants, of these, 1. such Plants as are common with us, 2. of such Plants as are proper to the country, 3. of such Plants as are proper to the Country and have no name known to us, 4. of such Plants as have sprung up since the English Planted and kept Cattle there, 5. of such Garden Herbs (amongst us) as do thrive there and of such as do not. 6. Of Stones, Minerals, Metals, and Earths.

First, Of Birds.[34]

The Humming Bird.

The Humming Bird, the least of all Birds, little bigger than a Dor, of variable glittering Colours, they feed upon Honey, which they suck out of Blossoms {7} and Flowers with their long Needle-like Bills; they sleep all Winter, and are not to be seen till the Spring, at which time they breed in little Nests, made up like a bottom of soft, Silk-like matter, their Eggs no bigger than a white Pease, they hatch three or four at a time, and are proper to this Country.


The Troculus.[35]

The Troculus, a small Bird, black and white, no bigger than a Swallow, the points of whose Feathers are sharp, which they stick into the sides of the Chymney (to rest themselves, their Legs being exceeding short) where they breed in Nests made like a Swallows Nest, but of a glewy substance, and which is not fastened to the Chymney as a Swallows Nest, but hangs down the Chymney by a clew-like string a yard long. They commonly have four or five young ones, and when they go away, which is much about the time that Swallows use to depart, they never fail to throw down one of their young Birds into the room by way of Gratitude. I have more than once observed, that against the ruin of the Family these Birds will suddenly forsake the house and come no more.

{8} The Pilhannaw.[36]

The Pilhannaw or Mechquan, much like the description of the Indian Ruck, a monstrous great Bird, a kind[41] of Hawk, some say an Eagle, four times as big as a Goshawk, white Mail’d, having two or three purple Feathers in her head as long as Geeses Feathers they make Pens of the Quills of these Feathers are purple, as big as Swans Quills and transparent; her Head is as big as a Childs of a year old, a very Princely Bird; when she soars abroad, all sort of feathered Creatures hide themselves, yet she never preys upon any of them, but upon Fawns and Jaccals: She Ayries in the Woods upon the high Hills of Ossapy, and is very rarely or seldome seen.

The Turkie.[37]

The Turkie, who is blacker than ours; I have heard several credible persons affirm, they have seen Turkie[42] Cocks that have weighed forty, yea sixty pound; but out of my personal experimental knowledge I can assure you, that I have eaten my share of a Turkie Cock, that when he was pull’d and garbidg’d, weighed thirty {9} pound; and I have also seen threescore broods of young Turkies on the side of a marsh, sunning of themselves in a morning betimes, but this was thirty years since, the English and the Indians having now destroyed the breed, so that ’tis very rare to meet with a wild Turkie in the Woods; But some of the English bring up great store of the wild kind, which remain about their Houses as tame as ours in England.

The Goose.[38]

The Goose, of which there are three kinds; the Gray Goose, the White Goose, and the Brant: The Goose will[43] live a long time; I once found in a White Goose three Hearts, she was a very old one, and so tuff, that we gladly gave her over although exceeding well roasted.

The Bloody-Flux Cured.

A Friend of mine of good Quality living sometime in Virginia was sore troubled for a long time with the Bloody-Flux, having tryed several Remedies by the advice of his Friends without any good effect, at last was induced with a longing desire to drink the Fat Dripping {10} of a Goose newly taken from the Fire, which absolutely cured him, who was in despair of ever recovering his health again.

The Gripe and Vulture.

The Gripe, which is of two kinds, the one with a White Head, the other with a black Head, this we take for the Vulture. They are both cowardly Kites,[39] preying upon[44] Fish cast up on the shore. In the year 1668 there was a great mortality of Eels in Casco Bay, thither resorted at the same time an infinite number of Gripes, insomuch that being shot by the Inhabitants, they fed their Hogs with them for some weeks; at other times you shall seldom see above two or three in a dozen miles travelling. The Quill Feathers in their Wings make excellent Text Pens, and the Feathers of their Tail are highly esteemed by the Indians for their Arrows, they will not sing in flying; a Gripes Tail is worth a Beavers Skin, up in the Country.


A Remedy for the Coldness and pain of the Stomach.

The Skin of a Gripe drest with the doun on, is good to wear upon the Stomach for the Pain and Coldness of it.

{11} The Osprey.

The Osprey, which in this Country is white mail’d.

A Remedy for the Tooth-ach.

Their Beaks excell for the Tooth-ach, picking the Gums therewith till they bleed.

The Wobble.[40]

The Wobble, an ill shaped Fowl, having no long Feathers in their Pinions, which is the reason they cannot fly, not much unlike the Pengwin; they are in the Spring very fat, or rather oyly, but pull’d and garbidg’d, and laid to the Fire to roast, they yield not one drop.

For Aches.

Our way (for they are very soveraign for Aches) is to make Mummy of them, that is, to salt them well, and dry them in an earthern pot well glazed in an Oven; or else (which is the better way) to burn them under ground for a day or two, then quarter them and stew them in a Tin Stewpan with a very little water.


{12} The Loone.

The Loone is a Water Fowl, alike in shape to the Wobble, and as virtual for Aches, which we order after the same manner.[41]

The Owl.

The Owl, Avis devia, which are of three kinds; the great Gray Owl with Ears, the little Gray Owl, and the White Owl which is no bigger than a Thrush.[42]

The Turkie Buzzard.

The Turkie Buzzard, a kind of Kite, but as big as a Turkie, brown of colour, and very good meat.[43]

What Birds are not to be found in New-England.

Now, by what the country hath not, you may ghess at what it hath; it hath no Nightingals, nor Larks, nor Bulfinches, nor Sparrows, nor Blackbirds, nor Mag{13}pies,[47] nor Jackdawes, nor Popinjays, nor Rooks, nor Pheasants, nor Woodcocks, nor Quails, nor Robins, nor Cuckoes, &c.[44]


Secondly, Of Beasts.[45]

The Bear, which are generally Black.[46]

The Bear, they live four months in Caves, that is all Winter; in the Spring they bring forth their young ones, they seldome have above three Cubbs in a litter, are very fat in the Fall of the Leaf with feeding upon Acorns, at which time they are excellent Venison; their Brains are venomous; They feed much upon water Plantane in the Spring and Summer, and Berries, and also upon a shell-fish called a Horse-foot; and are never mankind, i.e. fierce, but in rutting time, and then they walk the Country twenty, thirty, forty in a company, making a hideous noise with roaring, which you may hear a mile or two before they come so near to endanger the Traveller. About four years since, Acorns being very scarce up in the Country, some numbers of them came down {14} amongst the English Plantations, which generally are by the Sea side;[49] at one Town called Gorgiana in the Province of Meyn (called also New-Sommerset-shire) they kill’d fourscore.

For Aches and Cold Swellings.

Their Grease is very good for Aches and Cold Swellings, the Indians anoint themselves therewith from top to toe, which hardens them against the cold weather. A black Bears Skin heretofore was worth forty shillings, now you may have one for ten, much used by the English for Beds and Coverlets, and by the Indians for Coats.

For Pain and Lameness upon Cold.

One Edw. Andrews being foxt,[47] and falling backward cross a Thought[48] in a Shallop or Fisher-boat, and taking cold upon it, grew crooked, lame, and full of pain, was cured, lying one Winter upon Bears Skins newly flead off, with some upon him, so that he sweat every night.

The Wolf.[49]

The Wolf, of which there are two kinds; one with a round-ball’d Foot, and {15} are in shape like mungrel[50] Mastiffs; the other with a flat Foot, these are liker Greyhounds, and are called Deer Wolfs, because they are accustomed to prey upon Deer. A Wolf will eat a Wolf new dead, and so do Bears as I suppose, for their dead Carkases are never found, neither by the Indian nor English. They go a clicketing twelve days, and have as many Whelps at a Litter as a Bitch. The Indian Dog[50] is a Creature begotten ’twixt a Wolf and a Fox, which the Indians lighting upon, bring up to hunt the Deer with. The Wolf is very numerous, and go in companies, sometimes ten, twenty, more or fewer, and so cunning, that seldome any are kill’d with Guns or Traps; but of late they have invented a way to destroy them, by binding four Maycril Hooks a cross with a brown thread, and then wrapping some Wool about them, they dip them in melted Tallow till it be as round and as big as an Egg; these (when any Beast hath been kill’d by the Wolves) they scatter by the dead Carkase, after they have beaten off the Wolves; about Midnight the Wolves are sure to return again to the place where they left the slaughtered Beast, and the {16} first thing they venture upon will be these balls of fat.


For old Aches.

A black Wolfs Skin is worth a Beaver Skin among the Indians, being highly esteemed for helping old Aches in old people, worn as a Coat; they are not mankind, as in Ireland and other Countries, but do much harm by destroying of our English Cattle.

The Ounce.[51]

The Ounce or Wild Cat, is about the bigness of two lusty Ram Cats, preys upon Deer and our English Poultrey: I once found six whole Ducks in the belly of one I killed by a Pond side: Their flesh roasted is as good as Lamb, and as white.

For Aches and shrunk Sinews.

Their Grease is soveraign for all manner of Aches and shrunk Sinews: Their Skins are accounted good Fur, but somewhat course.


{17} The Raccoon.[52]

The Raccoon liveth in hollow trees, and is about the size of a Gib Cat; they feed upon Mass, and do infest our Indian Corn very much; they will be exceeding fat in Autumn; their flesh is somewhat dark, but good food roasted.

For Bruises and Aches.

Their Fat is excellent for bruises and Aches. Their Skins are esteemed a good deep Fur; but yet as the Wild Cats somewhat coarse.

The Porcupine.

The Porcupine, in some parts of the Countrey Eastward towards the French, are as big as an ordinary Mungrel Cur; a very angry Creature, and dangerous, shooting a whole shower of Quills with a rowse at their enemies, which are of that nature, that wherever they stick in the flesh, they will work through in a short time, if not prevented by pulling of them out. The Indians make use of their Quills, which are hardly a handful long, to adorn {18} the edges of their birchen dishes, and weave (dying[53] some of them red, others yellow and blew) curious bags or pouches, in works like Turkie-work.[53]

The Beaver, Canis Ponticus, Amphybious.[54]

The Beaver, whose old ones are as big as an Otter, or rather bigger, a Creature of a rare instinct, as may apparently be seen in their artificial Dam-heads to raise the water in the Ponds where they keep, and their houses having three stories, which would be too large to discourse.[54] They have all of them four Cods hanging outwardly between their hinder legs, two of them are soft or oyly, and two solid or hard; the Indians say they are Hermaphrodites.

For Wind in the Stomach.

Their solid Cods are much used in Physick: Our Englishwomen in this Country use the powder grated, as much as will lye upon a shilling in a draught of Fiol Wine, for Wind in the Stomach and Belly, and venture many times in such cases to give it to Women with Child: Their Tails are flat, and covered with Scales without hair, {19} which being flead off, and the Tail boiled, proves exceeding good meat, being all Fat, and as sweet as Marrow.


The Moose-Deer.[55]

The Moose Deer, which is a very goodly Creature, some of them twelve foot high, with exceeding fair Horns with broad Palms, some of them two fathom from the tip of one Horn to the other; they commonly have three Fawns at a time, their flesh is not dry like Deers flesh, but moist and lushious somewhat like Horse flesh (as they judge that have tasted of both) but very wholsome. The flesh of their Fawns is an incomparable dish, beyond the flesh of an Asses Foal so highly esteemed by the Romans, or that of young Spaniel Puppies so much cried up in our days in France and England.

Moose Horns better for Physick Use than Harts Horns.

Their Horns are far better (in my opinion) for Physick than the Horns of other Deer, as being of a stronger nature: As for their Claws, which both Englishmen and French make use of for Elk, I cannot {20} approve so to be from the Effects, having had some trial of it; besides,[55] all that write of the Elk describe him with a tuft of hair on the left Leg behind, a little above the pastern joynt on the outside of the Leg, not unlike the tuft (as I conceive) that groweth upon the breast of a Turkie Cock, which I could never yet see upon the Leg of a Moose, and I have seen some number of them.

For Children breeding Teeth.

The Indian Webbes make use of the broad Teeth of the Fawns to hang about their Childrens Neck when they are breeding of their Teeth. The Tongue of a grown Moose, dried in the smoak after the Indian manner, is a dish for a Sagamor.

The Maccarib.[56]

The Maccarib, Caribo, or Pohano, a kind of Deer, as big as a Stag, round hooved, smooth hair’d and soft as silk;[56] their Horns grow backwards a long their backs to their rumps, and turn again a handful beyond their Nose, having another Horn in the middle of their Forehead, about half a yard long, very straight, but {21} wreathed like an Unicorns Horn, of a brown jettie colour, and very smooth: The Creature is no where to be found, but upon Cape Sable in the French Quarters, and there too very rarely, they being not numerous; some few of their Skins and their streight Horns are (but very sparingly) brought to the English.

The Fox.[57]

The Fox, which differeth not much from ours, but are somewhat less; a black Fox Skin heretofore was wont to[57] be valued at fifty and sixty pound, but now you may have them for twenty shillings; indeed there is not any in New-England that are perfectly black, but silver hair’d, that is sprinkled with grey hairs.

The Jaccal.[58]

The Jaccal, is a Creature that hunts the Lions prey, a shrew’d sign that there are Lions upon the Continent; there are those that are yet living in the Countrey, that do constantly affirm, that about six or seven and thirty years since an Indian {22} shot a young Lion,[59] sleeping upon the body[58] of an Oak blown up by the roots, with an Arrow, not far from Cape Anne, and sold the Skin to the English. But to say something of the Jaccal, they are ordinarily less than Foxes, of the colour of a gray Rabbet, and do not scent nothing near so strong as a Fox; some of the Indians will eat of them: Their Grease is good for all that Fox Grease is good for, but weaker; they are very numerous.

The Hare.[60]

The Hare in New-England is no bigger than our English Rabbets, of the same colour, but withall having yellow and black strokes down the ribs; in Winter they are milk white, and as the Spring approacheth they come to their colour; when the Snow lies upon the ground they are very bitter with feeding upon the bark of Spruce, and the like.[61]


{23} Thirdly, Of Fishes.[62]

Pliny and Isadore write there are not above 144 Kinds of Fishes, but to my knowledge there are nearer 300: I suppose America was not known to Pliny and Isadore.


A Catalogue of Fish, that is, of those that are to be seen between the English Coast and America, and those proper to the Countrey.


Alize, Alewife, because great-bellied; Olafle, Oldwife, Allow.[63]

Anchova or Sea Minnow.





Barracoutha, a fish peculiar to the West-Indies.[65]




Sea Bishop, proper to the Norway Seas.

{24} River Bleak or Bley, a River Swallow.

Sea Bleak or Bley, or Sea Camelion.

Blew Fish or Hound Fish, two kinds, speckled Hound Fish, and Blew Hound Fish called Horse Fish.[67]

Bonito or Dozado, or Spanish Dolphin.[68]

River Bream.

Sea Bream.[69]

Cud Bream.

Bullhead or Indian Muscle.

River Bulls.



Cackarel or Laxe.

Calemarie or Sea Clerk.



Chare, a Fish proper to the River Wimander in Lancashire.

Sea Chough.

Chub or Chevin.

Cony Fish.


Clam or Clamp.[71]

Sea Cob.

Cockes, or Coccles, or Coquil.[72]

Cook Fish.

Rock Cod.

Sea Cod or Sea Whiting.[73]

{25} Crab, divers kinds, as the Sea Crab, Boatfish, River Crab, Sea Lion, &c.


Sea Cucumber.

Cunger or Sea Eel.

Cunner or Sea Roach.


Currier, Post, or Lacquey of the Sea.

Crampfish or Torpedo.

Cuttle, or Sleeves, or Sea Angler.

Clupea, the Tunnies enemy.

Sea Cornet.

Cornuta or Horned Fish.

Dace, Dare, or Dart.

Sea Dart, Javelins.

Dog-fish or Tubarone.



Dorrie, Goldfish.

Golden-eye, Gilt-pole, or Godline, Yellow-heads.

Sea Dragon or Sea Spider, Quaviner.

Drum, a Fish frequent in the West Indies.

Sea Emperour or Sword Fish.

Eel, of which divers kinds.[74]

Sea Elephant, the Leather of this Fish will never rot, excellent for Thongs.

Ears of the Sea.



{26} Flownder or Flook, the young ones are called Dabs.

Sea Flownder or Flowre.

Sea Fox.



Frutola, a broad plain Fish with a Tail like a half Moon.

Sea Flea.


Grandpiss[76] or Herring Hog, this, as all Fish of extraordinary size, are accounted Regal Fishes.






Sea Grape.




Haccle or Sticklebacks.


Horse Foot or Asses Hoof.



Hallibut or Sea Pheasant. Some will have the Turbut all one, others distinguish {27} them, calling the young Fish of the first Buttis, and of the other Birt. There is no question to be made of it but that they are distinct kinds of Fish.[77]

Sea Hare.[78]

Sea Hawk.


Sea Hermit.


Sea Hind.

Hornbeak, Sea Ruff and Reeves.

Sea Horseman.

Hog or Flying Fish.

Sea Kite or Flying Swallow.

Lampret or Lamprel.

Lampreys or Lamprones.[79]


Ling, Sea Beef; the smaller sort is called Cusk.

Sea Lanthorn.

Sea Liver.



Sea Lizard.

Sea Locusts.

Lump, Poddle, or Sea Owl.


Lux, peculiar to the river Rhyne.

Sea Lights.

{28} Luna, a very small Fish, but exceeding beautiful, broad-bodied and blewish of colour; when it swims, the Fins make a Circle like the Moon.




Mola, a Fish like a lump of Flesh, taken in the Venetian Sea.

Millers Thumb, Mulcet or Pollard.


Minnow, called likewise a Pink; the same name is given to young Salmon; it is called also a Witlin.



Morse, River or Sea Horse,[82] fresh water Mullet.

Sea Mullet, Botargo or Petargo is made of their Spawn.

Muscle, divers kinds.[83]




Sea Nettle.



Perch or River Partridge.


{29} Piper or Gavefish.


Periwincle or Sea Snail or Whelk.

Pike, or Fresh-water Wolf, or River Wolf, Luce and Lucerne, which is an overgrown Pike.

Pilchard, when they are dried as Red Herrings they are called Fumadoes.

Pilot Fish.

Plaice or Sea Sparrow.

Polipe or Pour-Contrel.


Porpuise or Porpiss, Molebut, Sea Hog, Sus Marinus, Tursion.

Priest Fish or Sea Priest.

Prawn or Crangone.



Powt, the Feathered Fish, or Fork Fish.

River Powt.

Pursefish, or Indian Reversus, like an Eel; having a Skin on the hinder part of her Head, like a Purse, with strings, which will open and shut.




Remora, or Suck Stone, or Stop Ship.

Sea Raven.

{30} Roch or Roach.

Rochet or Rouget.

Ruff or Pope.

Sea Ram.




Scallope or Venus Coccle.

Scate, or Ray, or Gristlefish; of which divers kinds; as sharp snowted Ray, Rock Ray, &c.







Soles, or Tonguefish, or Sea Capon, or Sea Partridge.

Seal, or Soil, or Zeal.[88]

Sea Calf, and (as some will have it) Molebut.


Sea Scales.

Sturgeon; of the Roe of this Fish they make Caviare, or Cavialtie.[90]


Shark or Bunch, several kinds.[91]



{31} Shrimp.











Thornback or Neptunes Beard.

Thunnie, they cut the Fish in pieces like shingles and powder it, and this they call Melandria.

Sea Toad.

Tortoise, Torteise, Tortuga, Tortisse, Turcle or Turtle, of divers kinds.[94]




Sea Tun.

Sea Tree.


Ulatise or Sawfish, having a Saw in his Forehead three foot long, and very sharp.


Sea Urchin.

{32} Sea Unicorn or Sea Mononeros.

Whale, many kinds.[97]

Whiting or Merling, the young ones are called Weerlings and Mops.


Yardfish, Asses Prick or Shamefish.

The Sturgeon.

The Sturgeon, of whose Sounds is made Isinglass, a kind of Glew much used in Physick: This Fish is here in great plenty, and in some Rivers so numerous, that it is hazardous for Canoes and the like small Vessels to pass to and again, as in Pechipscut River to the Eastward.

The Cod.

The Cod, which is a staple Commodity in the Country.


To stop Fluxes of Blood.

In the Head of this Fish is found a Stone, or rather a Bone, which being pulveriz’d and drank in any convenient liquor, will stop Womens overflowing Courses notably: Likewise,

{33} For the Stone.

There is a Stone found in their Bellies, in a Bladder against their Navel, which being pulveriz’d and drank in White-wine Posset or Ale, is present Remedy for the Stone.

To heal a green Cut.

About their Fins you may find a kind of Lowse, which healeth a green Cut in short time.

To restore them that have melted their Grease.

Their Livers and Sounds eaten, is a good Medicine for to restore them that have melted their Grease.

The Dogfish.

The Dogfish, a ravenous Fish.

For the Toothach.

Upon whose Back grows a Thorn two or three Inches long, that helps the Toothach, scarifying the Gums therewith.

Their Skins are good to cover Boxes and Instrument Cases.


{34} The Stingray.

The Stingray, a large Fish, of a rough Skin, good to cover Boxes and Hafts of Knives, and Rapier sticks.

The Tortous.

The Turtle or Tortous, of which there are three kinds:
1. The land Turtle; they are found in dry sandy Banks, under old Houses, and never go into the water.

For the Ptisick, Consumption, and Morbus Gallicus.

They are good for the Ptisick and Consumptions, and some say the Morbus Gallicus.

2. The River Turtle, which are venomous and stink.

3. The Turtle that lives in Lakes and is called in Virginia a Terrapine.

The Soile.

The Soile or Sea Calf, a Creature that brings forth her young ones upon dry land, but at other times keeps in the Sea preying upon Fish.

{35} For Scalds and Burns, and for the Mother.

The Oyl of it is much used by the Indians, who eat of it with their Fish, and anoint their limbs therewith, and their Wounds and Sores: It is very good for Scalds and Burns; and the fume of it, being cast upon Coals, will bring Women out of the Mother Fits. The Hair upon[74] the young ones is white, and as soft as silk; their Skins, with the Hair on, are good to make Gloves for the Winter.

The Sperma Ceti Whale.

The Sperma Ceti Whale differeth from the Whales that yield us Whale-bones, for the first hath great and long Teeth, the other is nothing but Bones with Tassels hanging from their Jaws, with which they suck in their prey.

What Sperma Ceti is.

It is not long since a Sperma Ceti Whale or two were cast upon the shore, not far from Boston in the Massachusetts Bay, which being cut into small pieces and boiled in Cauldrons, yielded plenty of Oyl; the Oyl put up into Hogsheads, and flow’d into Cellars for some time, Candies at the {36} bottom, it may be one quarter; then the Oyl is drawn off, and the Candied Stuff put up into convenient Vessels is sold for Sperma Ceti, and is right Sperma Ceti.

For Bruises and Aches.

The Oyl that was drawn off Candies again and again, if well ordered; and is admirable for Bruises and Aches.

What Ambergreece is.

Now you must understand this Whale feeds upon Ambergreece, as is apparent, finding it in the Whales Maw in great quantity, but altered and excrementitious: I conceive that Ambergreece is no other than a kind of Mushroom growing at the bottom of some Seas; I was once[75] shewed (by a Mariner) a piece of Ambergreece having a root to it like that of the land Mushroom, which the Whale breaking up, some scape his devouring Paunch, and is afterwards cast upon shore.

The Coccle.[99]

A kind of Coccle, of whose Shell the Indians make their Beads called Wompampeag and Mohaicks, the first are white, the other blew, both Orient, and beau{37}tified with a purple Vein. The white Beads are very good to stanch Blood.

The Scarlet Muscle.

The Scarlet Muscle, at Paschatawey a Plantation about fifty leagues by Sea Eastward from Boston, in a small Cove called Bakers Cove there is found this kind of Muscle which hath a purple Vein, which being prickt with a Needle yieldeth a perfect purple or scarlet juice, dying Linnen so that no washing will wear it out, but keeps its lustre many years: We mark our Handkerchiefs and Shirts with it.[100]

Fish of greatest Esteem in the West Indies.

The Indians of Peru esteem of three Fishes more than any other, viz. the Sea Torteise, the Tubaron, and the[76] Manate,[101] or Sea Cow; but in New-England the Indians have in greatest request, the Bass, the Sturgeon, the Salmon, the Lamprey, the Eel, the Frost-fish, the Lobster and the Clam.

{38} Fourthly, Of Serpents, and Insects.[102]

The Pond Frog.[103]

The Pond Frog, which chirp in the Spring like Sparows, and croke like Toads in Autumn: Some of these when they set upon their breech are a Foot high;[77] the Indians will tell you, that up in the Country there are Pond Frogs as big as a Child of a year old.

For Burns, Scalds, and Inflammations.

They are of a glistering brass colour, and very fat, which is excellent for Burns and Scaldings, to take out the Fire, and heal them, leaving no Scar; and is also very good to take away any Inflammation.

The Rattle Snake.[104]

The Rattle Snake, who poysons with a Vapour that comes thorough two crooked Fangs in their Mouth; the hollow of these Fangs are as black as Ink: The Indians, when weary with travelling, will {39} take them up with their bare hands, laying hold with one hand behind their Head, with the other taking hold of their Tail, and, with their teeth tear off the Skin of their backs, and feed upon them alive; which they say refresheth them.

For frozen Limbs, Aches, and Bruises.

They have Leafs of Fat in their Bellies, which is excellent to annoint frozen Limbs, and for Aches and[78] Bruises wondrous soveraign. Their Hearts swallowed fresh, is a good Antidote against their Venome, and their Liver (the Gall taken out) bruised and applied to their Bitings is a present Remedy.


Of Insects.[105]

A Bug.

There is a certain kind of Bug like a Beetle, but of a glittering brass colour, with four strong Tinsel Wings; their Bodies are full of Corruption or white Matter like a Maggot; being dead, and kept awhile, they will stench odiously; they beat the Humming Birds from the Flowers.

{40} The Wasp.

The Wasps in this Countrey are pied, black and white, breed in Hives made like a great Pine Apple, their entrance is at the lower end, the whole Hive is of an Ash Colour, but of what matter its made no man knows; wax it is not, neither will it melt nor fry, but will take fire suddenly like Tinder: this they fasten to a Bow, or build it round about a low Bush, a Foot from the ground.

The flying Gloworm.

The flying Gloworm, flying in dark Summer Nights like sparks of Fire in great number; they are common likewise, in Palestina.


{41} Fifthly, Of Plants.


1. Of such Plants as are common with us in ENGLAND.





Stichwort, commonly taken here by ignorant People for Eyebright; it blows in June.[109]

Blew Flower-de-luce; the roots are not knobby, but long and streight, and very white, with a multitude of strings.[110]

To provoke Vomit and for Bruises.

It is excellent for to provoke Vomiting, and for Bruises on the Feet or Face. They Flower in June, and grow upon dry sandy Hills as well as in low wet Grounds.

Yellow bastard Daffodill; it flowereth in May, the green leaves are spotted with black spots.[111]

Dogstones, a kind of Satyrion, whereof there are several kinds groweth in our Salt Marshes.[112]

{42} To procure Love.

I once took notice of a wanton Womans compounding the solid Roots of this Plant with Wine, for an Amorous Cup; which wrought the desired effect.



Red Lillies grow all over the Country innumerably amongst the small Bushes, and flower in June.[114]

Wild Sorrel.[115]

Adders Tongue comes not up till June; I have found it upon dry hilly grounds, in places where the water hath stood all Winter, in August, and did then make Oyntment of the Herb new gathered; the fairest Leaves grow amongst short Hawthorn Bushes, that are plentifully growing in such hollow places.[116]

One Blade.[117]

Lilly Convallie, with the yellow Flowers grows upon rocky banks by the Sea.[118]


Water Plantane, here called Water suck-leaves.[119]

For Burns and Scalds, and to draw Water out of swell’d Legs.

It is much used for Burns and Scalds, and to draw water out of swell’d Legs. Bears feed much upon this Plant, so do the Moose Deer.

{43} Sea Plantane, three kinds.[120]

Small-water Archer.[121]

Autumn Bell Flower.[122]

White Hellibore, which is the first Plant that springs up in this Country, and the first that withers; it grows in deep black Mould and Wet, in such abundance, that you may in a small compass gather whole Cart-loads of it.[123]


Wounds and Aches Cured by the Indians. For the Tooth-ach. For Herpes milliares.

The Indians Cure their Wounds with it, annointing the Wound first with Raccoons greese, or Wild-Cats greese, and strewing upon it the powder of the Roots; and for Aches they scarifie the grieved part, and annoint it with one of the foresaid Oyls, then strew upon it the powder: The powder of the Root put into a hollow Tooth, is good for the Tooth-ach: The Root sliced thin and boyled in Vineager, is very good against Herpes Milliaris.

Arsmart, both kinds.[124]

Spurge Time, it grows upon dry sandy Sea Banks, and is very like to Rupter-wort, it is full of Milk.[125]

Rupter-wort, with the white flower.[126]


Jagged Rose-penny-wort.[127]

{44} Soda bariglia, or massacote, the Ashes of Soda, of which they make Glasses.

Glass-wort, here called Berrelia, it grows abundantly in Salt Marshes.[128]

St. John’s-Wort.[129]

St. Peter’s-Wort.[130]


Speed-well Chick-weed.[131]

Male fluellin, or Speed-well.[132]

Upright Peniroyal.[133]




The lesser Clot-Bur.[137]

Water Lilly, with yellow Flowers, the Indians Eat the Roots, which are long a boiling, they tast like the Liver of a Sheep, the Moose Deer feed much upon them, at which time the Indians kill them, when their heads are under water.[138]

Dragons, their leaves differ from all the kinds with us, they come up in June.[139]


Violets of three kinds, the White Violet which is sweet, but not so strong as our Blew Violets; Blew Violets without sent, and a Reddish Violet without sent; they do not blow till June.[140]

{45} For swell’d Legs.

Wood-bine, good for hot swellings of the Legs, fomenting with the decoction, and applying the Feces in the form of a Cataplasme.[141]

Salomons-Seal, of which there is three kinds; the first common in England, the second, Virginia Salomons-Seal, and the third, differing from both, is called Treacle Berries, having the perfect tast of Treacle when they are ripe; and will keep good along while; certainly a very wholsome Berry, and medicinable.[142]



Herb Robert.[143]

Knobby Cranes Bill.[143]

For Agues.

Ravens-Claw, which flowers in May, and is admirable for Agues.[143]



Avens, with the leaf of Mountane-Avens, the flower and root of English Avens.[145]



Wild Angelica, majoris and minoris.[147]

Alexanders, which grow upon Rocks by the Sea shore.[148]

{46} Yarrow, with the white Flower.[149]

Columbines, of a flesh colour, growing upon Rocks.[150]

Oak of Hierusalem.[151]


Achariston is an excellent Medicine for stopping of the Lungs upon Cold, Ptisick, &c.

Oak of Cappadocia, both much of a nature, but Oak of Hierusalem is stronger in operation; excellent for stuffing of the Lungs upon Colds, shortness of Wind, and the Ptisick; maladies that the Natives are often troubled with: I helped several of the Indians with a Drink made of two Gallons of Molosses wort, (for in that part of the Country where I abode, we made our Beer of Molosses, Water, Bran, chips of Sassafras Root, and a little Wormwood, well boiled,) into which I put of Oak of Hierusalem, Cat-mint, Sowthistle, of each one handful, of Enula Campana Root one Ounce, Liquorice scrap’d brused and cut in pieces, one Ounce, Sassafras Root cut into thin chips, one Ounce, Anny-seed and sweet Fennel-seed, of each one Spoonful bruised; boil these in a close Pot, upon a soft Fire to the consumption of one Gallon, then take it off, and strein it gently; you may if you will {47} boil the streined liquor with Sugar to a Syrup, then when it is Cold, put it up into Glass Bottles, and take thereof three or four spoonfuls at a time, letting it run down your throat as leasurely as possibly you can; do thus in the morning, in the Afternoon, and at Night going to Bed.

Goose-Grass, or Clivers.[152]




Wood sorrel, with the yellow flower.[154]


Line Tree, both kinds.[156]

A way to draw out Oyl of Akrons, or the like, &c.

Maple; of the Ashes of this Tree the Indians make a lye, with which they force out Oyl from Oak Akorns that is highly esteemed by the Indians.[157]


Earth-Nut, which are of divers kinds, one bearing very beautiful Flowers.[159]


Fuss-Balls, very large.[160]

Mushrooms, some long and no bigger than ones finger, others jagged flat, round, none like our great Mushrooms in England, of these some are of a Scarlet colour, others a deep Yellow, &c.[160]

{48} Blew flowered Pimpernel.[161]

Noble Liver-wort, one sort with white flowers, the other with blew.[162]




Rasp-Berry, here called Mul-berry.

Goose-Berries, of a deep red Colour.[164]

Haw-thorn, the Haws being as big as Services, and very good to eat, and not so astringent as the Haws in England.[165]

Toad flax.[166]


Pellamount, or Mountain time.[167]

Mouse-ear Minor.[168]

The making of Oyl of Akrons. To strengthen weak Members. For Scall’d-heads.

There is Oak of three kinds, white, red and black, the white is excellent to make Canoes of, Shallopes, Ships, and other Vessels for the Sea, and for Claw-board, and Pipe-staves, the black is good to make Waynscot of; and out of the white Oak Acorns, (which is the Acorn Bears delight to feed upon): The Natives draw an Oyl, taking the rottenest Maple Wood, which being burnt to ashes, they make a strong Lye therewith, wherein they boyl their white Oak-Acorns until the Oyl swim on the top in great quantity; this {49} they fleet off, and put into bladders to annoint their naked Limbs, which corrobarates them exceedingly; they eat it likewise with their Meat, it is an excellent clear and sweet Oyl: Of the Moss that grows at the roots of the white Oak the Indesses make a strong decoction, with which they help their Papouses or young Childrens scall’d Heads.[169]


Juniper, which Cardanus saith is Cedar in hot Countries, and Juniper in cold Countries; it is hear very dwarfish and shrubby, growing for the most part by the Sea side.[170]


Spurge Lawrel, called here Poyson berry, it kills the English Cattle if they chance to feed upon it, especially Calves.[172]

Gaul, or noble Mirtle.[173]


Dwarf Elder.[175]


For a Cut with a Bruse.

Alder; An Indian Bruising and Cutting of his Knee with a fall, used no other remedy, than Alder Bark, chewed fasting, and laid to it, which did soon heal it.[176]

To take Fire out of a Burn.

The decoction is also excellent to take {50} the Fire out of a Burn or Scalld.

For Wounds and Cuts.

For Wounds and Cuts make a strong decoction of Bark of Alder, pour of it into the Wound, and drink thereof.


For sore Mouths, falling of the Pallat.

Filberd, both with hairy husks upon the Nuts, and setting hollow from the Nut, and fill’d with a kind of water of an astringent taste; it is very good for sore Mouths, and falling of the Pallat, as is the whole green Nut before it comes to Kernel, burnt and pulverized. The Kernels are seldom without maggots in them.[177]


The Figure of the Walnut.

Walnut; the Nuts differ much from ours in Europe, they being smooth, much like a Nutmeg in shape, and not much bigger; some three cornered, all of them but thinly replenished with Kernels.[178]

{51} Chestnuts; very sweet in taste, and may be (as[98] they usually are) eaten raw; the Indians sell them to the English for twelve pence the bushel.[179]



Quick-beam, or Wild-Ash.[182]

Coals of Birch pulverized and wrought with the white of an Egg to a Salve, is a gallant Remedy for dry scurfy Sores upon the Shins; and for Bruised Wounds and Cuts.

Birch, white and black; the bark of Birch is used by the Indians for bruised Wounds and Cuts, boyled very tender, and stampt betwixt two stones to a Plaister, and the decoction thereof poured into the Wound; And also to fetch the Fire out of Burns and Scalds.[183]


Poplar, but differing in leaf.[184]

Plumb Tree, several kinds, bearing some long, round, white, yellow, red, and black Plums; all differing in their Fruit from those in England.[185]

Wild Purcelane.[186]

Wood-wax, wherewith they dye many pretty Colours.[187]


Red and black Currans.[188]

{52} For the Gout, or any Ach.

Spunck, an excrescence growing out of black Birch, the Indians use it for Touchwood; and therewith they help the Sciatica, or Gout of the Hip, or any great Ach, burning the Patient with it in two or three places upon the Thigh, and upon certain Veins.[189]


2. Of such Plants as are proper to the Country.

To ripen any Impostume or Swelling. For sore Mouths. The New-Englands standing Dish.

Indian Wheat, of which there is three sorts, yellow, red, and blew; the blew is commonly Ripe before the other a Month: Five or Six Grains of Indian Wheat hath produced in one year 600. It is hotter than our Wheat and clammy; excellent in Cataplasms to ripen any Swelling or impostume. The decoction of the blew Corn, is good to wash sore Mouths with: It is light of digestion, and the English make a kind of Loblolly of it {53} to eat with Milk, which they call Sampe; they beat it in a Morter, and sift the flower out of it: the remainder they call Homminey, which they put into a Pot of two or three Gallons, with Water, and boyl it upon a gentle Fire till it be like a Hasty Pudden; they put of this into Milk, and so eat it. Their Bread also they make of the Homminey so boiled, and mix their Flower with it, cast it into a deep Bason in which they form the Loaf, and then turn it out upon the Peel, and presently put it into the Oven before it spreads abroad; the Flower makes excellent Puddens.[190]


Bastard Calamus Aromaticus, agrees with the description, but is not barren; they flower in July, and grow in wet places, as about the brinks of Ponds.[191]

To keep the Feet warm.

The English make use of the Leaves to keep their Feet warm. There is a little Beast called a Muskquash, that liveth in small Houses in the Ponds, like Mole Hills, that feed upon these Plants. Their Cods sent as sweet and as strong as Musk, and will last along time handsomly wrap’d up in Cotton wool; they are very good to lay amongst Cloaths. May is the best {54} time to kill them, for then their Cods sent strongest.


Wild-Leekes, which the Indians use much to eat with their fish.[192]

A Plant like Knavers-Mustard, called New-England Mustard.[193]

Mountain-Lillies, bearing many yellow Flowers, turning up their Leaves like the Martigon, or Turks Cap, spotted with small spots as deep as Safforn, they Flower in July.[194]

One Berry, or Herb True Love. See the Figure.[195]

Tobacco, there is not much of it Planted in New-England. The Indians make use of a small kind with short round leaves called Pooke.[196]


For Burns and Scalds.

With a strong decoction of Tobacco they Cure Burns and Scalds, boiling it in Water from a Quart to a Pint, then wash the Sore therewith, and strew on the powder of dryed Tobacco.

Hollow Leaved Lavender.

Hollow Leaved Lavender, is a Plant that grows in salt Marshes overgrown with Moss, with one straight stalk about the bigness of an Oat straw, better than a Cubit high; upon the top standeth one {55} fantastical Flower, the Leaves grow close from the root, in shape like a Tankard, hollow, tough, and alwayes full of Water, the[105] Root is made up of many small strings, growing only in the Moss, and not in the Earth, the whole Plant comes to its perfection in August, and then it has Leaves, Stalks, and Flowers as red as blood, excepting the Flower which hath some yellow admixt. I wonder where the[106] knowledge of this Plant hath slept all this while, i.e. above Forty Years.[197]

For all manner of Fluxes.

It is excellent for all manner of Fluxes.

Live for ever, a kind of Cud-weed.[198]

Tree Primerose, taken by the Ignorant for Scabious.[199]

A Solar Plant, as some will have it.


Maiden Hair, or Cappellus veneris verus, which ordinarily is half a Yard in height. The Apothecaries for shame now will substitute Wall-Rue no more for Maiden Hair, since it grows in abundance in New-England, from whence they may have good store.[200]

Pirola, Two kinds. See the Figures, both of them excellent Wound Herbs.[201]

Homer’s Molley.[202]

{56} Lysimachus or Loose Strife, it grows in dry grounds in the open Sun four foot high, Flowers from the middle of the Plant to the top, the Flowers purple, standing upon a small sheath or cod, which when it is ripe breaks and puts forth a white silken doun, the stalk is red, and as big as ones Finger.[203]

Marygold of Peru, of which there are two kinds, one bearing black seeds, the other black and white streak’d, this beareth the fairest flowers, commonly but one upon the very top of the stalk.[204]


Treacle-Berries. See before Salomons Seal.

Oak of Hierusalem. See before.

Oak of Cappadocea. See before.

Earth-Nuts, differing much from those in England, one sort of them bears a most beautiful Flower.[205]

For the Scurvy and Dropsie.

Sea-Tears, they grow upon the Sea banks in abundance, they are good for the Scurvy and Dropsie, boiled and eaten as a Sallade, and the broth drunk with it.[206]

Indian Beans, better for Physick use than other Beans.

Indian Beans, falsly called French beans, are better for Physick and Chyrurgery {57} than our Garden Beans. Probatum est.[207]


Squashes, but more truly Squontersquashes, a kind of Mellon, or rather Gourd, for they oftentimes degenerate into Gourds; some of these are green, some yellow, some longish like a Gourd, others round like an Apple, all of them pleasant food boyled and buttered, and season’d with Spice; but the yellow Squash called an Apple Squash, because like an Apple, and about the bigness of a Pome-water is the best kind;[208] they are much eaten by the Indians and the English, yet they breed the small white Worms (which Physitians call Ascarides,) in the long Gut that vex the Fundament with a perpetual itching, and a desire to go to stool.

Water-Mellon, it is a large Fruit, but nothing near so big as a Pompion, colour, smoother, and of a sad Grass green rounder or more rightly Sap-green; with some yellowness admixt when ripe; the seeds are black, the flesh or pulpe exceeding juicy.[209]


For heat and thirst in Feavers.

It is often given to those sick of Feavers, and other hot Diseases with good success.

{58} New-England Daysie, or Primrose, is the second kind of Navel Wort in Johnson upon Gerard; it flowers in May, and grows amongst Moss upon hilly Grounds and Rocks that are shady.[210]


For Burns and Scalds.

It is very good for Burns and Scalds.

An Achariston, or Medicine deserving thanks.

An Indian whose Thumb was swell’d, and very much inflamed, and full of pain, increasing and creeping along to the wrist, with little black spots under the Thumb against the Nail; I Cured it with this Umbellicus veneris Root and all, the Yolk of an Egg, and Wheat flower, f. Cataplasme.

Briony of Peru, (we call it though it grown hear) or rather Scammony; some take it for Mechoacan: The green Juice is absolutely Poyson; yet the Root when dry may safely be given to strong Bodies.[211]

Red and Black Currence. See before.

Wild Damask Roses, single, but very large and sweet, but stiptick.[212]

Sweet Fern,[213] the Roots run one within another like a[112] Net, being very long and spreading abroad under the upper crust of {59} the Earth, sweet in taste, but withal astringent, much hunted after by our Swine: The Scotchmen that are in New-England have told me that it grows in Scotland.

For Fluxes.

The People boyl the tender tops in Molosses Beer, and in Possets for Fluxes, for which it is excellent.

Sarsaparilia, a Plant not yet sufficiently known by the English: Some say it is a kind of Bind Weed; we have, in New-England two Plants, that go under the name of Sarsaparilia: the one not above a foot in height without Thorns, the other having the same Leaf, but is a shrub as high as a Goose Berry Bush, and full of sharp Thorns; this I esteem as the right, by the shape and savour of the Roots, but rather by the effects answerable to that we have from other parts of the World; It groweth upon dry Sandy banks by the Sea side, and upon the banks of Rivers, so far as the Salt water flowes; and within Land up in the Country, as some have reported.[214]


Bill Berries, two kinds, Black and Sky Coloured, which is more frequent.[215]

{60} To cool the heat of Feavers, and quench Thirst.

They are very good to allay the burning heat of Feavers, and hot Agues, either in Syrup or Conserve.

A most excellent Summer Dish.

They usually eat of them put into a Bason, with Milk, and sweetned a little more with Sugar and Spice, or for cold Stomachs, in Sack. The Indians dry them in the Sun, and sell them to the English by the Bushell, who make use of them instead of Currence, putting of them into Puddens, both boyled and baked, and into Water Gruel.

Knot Berry, or Clowde Berry, seldom ripe.[216]


Sumach, differing from all that I did ever see in the Herbalists; our English Cattle devour it most abominably, leaving neither Leaf nor Branch, yet it sprouts again next Spring.[217]

For Colds.

The English use to boyl it in Beer, and drink it for Colds; and so do the Indians, from whom the English had the Medicine.

Wild Cherry, they grow in clusters like {61} Grapes, of the same bigness, blackish, red when ripe, and of a harsh taste.[218]

For Fluxes.

They are also good for Fluxes.

Transplanted and manured, they grow exceeding fair.


Board Pine, is a very large Tree two or three Fathom about.[219]

For Wounds.

It yields a very soveraign Turpentine for the Curing of desperate Wounds.

For Stabbs.

The Indians make use of the Moss boiled in Spring Water, for Stabbs, pouring in the Liquor, and applying the boiled Moss well stamp’d or beaten betwixt two stones.

For Burning and Scalding.

And for Burning and Scalding, they first take out the fire with a strong decoction of Alder Bark, then they lay upon it a Playster of the bark of Board Pine first boyled tender, and beat to a Playster betwixt two stones.

To take Fire out of a Burn.

One Christopher Luxe, a Fisher-man, having burnt his Knee Pan, was healed {62} again by an Indian Webb, or Wife, (for so they call those Women that have Husbands;) She first made a strong decoction of Alder bark, with which she took out the Fire by Imbrocation, or letting of[116] it drop upon the Sore, which would smoak notably with it; then she Playstered it with the Bark of Board Pine, or Hemlock Tree, boyled soft and stampt betwixt two stones, till it was as thin as brown Paper, and of the same Colour, she annointed the Playster with Soyles Oyl, and the Sore likewise, then she laid it on warm, and sometimes she made use of the bark of the Larch Tree.

To eat out proud Flesh in a Sore.

And to eat out the proud Flesh, they take a kind of Earth Nut boyled and stamped, and last of all, they apply to the Sore the Roots of Water Lillies boiled and stamped betwixt two stones, to a Playster.

For Stitches.

The Firr Tree, or Pitch Tree,[220] the Tar that is made of all sorts of Pitch Wood is an excellent thing to take away those desperate Stitches of the Sides, which perpetually afflicteth those poor People that are {63} stricken with the Plague of the Back.


Note, You must make a large Toast, or Cake slit and dip it in the Tar, and bind it warm to the Side.

The most common Diseases in New England.

The Black Pox, the Spotted Feaver, the Griping of the Guts, the Dropsie, and the Sciatica, are the killing Diseases in New-England.

The Larch Tree, which is the only Tree of all the Pines, that sheds his Leaves before Winter; The other remaining Green all the Year: This is the Tree from which we gather that useful purging excrense, Agarick.[221]

For Wounds and Cuts.

The Leaves and Gum are both very good to heal Wounds and Cuts.

For Wounds with Bruises.

I cured once a desperate Bruise with a Cut upon the Knee Pan, with an Ungent made with the Leaves of the Larch Tree, and Hogs Grease, but the Gum is best.

Spruce is a goodly Tree, of which they make Masts for Ships, and Sail Yards: It is generally conceived by those[118] that have {64} skill in Building of Ships, that here is absolutely the best Trees in the World, many of them being three Fathom about, and of great length.[222]

An Achariston for the Scurvy.

The tops of Green Spruce Boughs boiled in Bear, and drunk, is assuredly one of the best Remedies for the Scurvy, restoring the Infected party in a short time; they also make a Lotion of some of the decoction, adding Hony and Allum.

Hemlock Tree, a kind of Spruce, the bark of this Tree serves to dye Tawny; the Fishers Tan their Sails and Nets with it.[223]


To break Sore or Swelling.

The Indians break and heal their Swellings and Sores with it, boyling the inner Bark of young Hemlock very well, then knocking of it betwixt two stones to a Playster, and annointing or soaking it in Soyls Oyl, they apply it to the Sore: It will break a Sore Swelling speedily.

One Berry, Herba Paris, or True Love.[224]

Sassafras, or Ague Tree.[225]

{65} For heat in Feavers.

The Chips of the Root boyled in Beer is excellent to allay the hot rage of Feavers, being drunk.

For Bruises and dry Blowes.

The Leaves of the same Tree are very good made into an Oyntment, for Bruises and dry Blows. The Bark of the Root we use instead of Cinamon; and it is Sold at the Barbadoes for two Shillings the Pound.

And why may not this be the Bark the Jesuits Powder was made of, that was so Famous not long since in England, for Agues?

Cran Berry, or Bear Berry, because Bears use much to[120] feed upon them, is a small trayling Plant that grows in Salt Marshes that are over-grown with Moss; the tender Branches (which are reddish) run out in great length, lying flat on the ground, where at distances, they take Root, over-spreading sometimes half a score Acres, sometimes in small patches of about a Rood or the like; the Leaves are like Box, but greener, thick and glittering; the Blossoms are very like the Flowers of {66} our English Night Shade, after which succeed the Berries, hanging by long small foot stalks, no bigger than a hair; at first they are of a pale yellow Colour, afterwards red, and as big as a Cherry; some perfectly round, others Oval, all of them hollow, of a sower astringent taste; they are ripe in August and September.[226]

For the Scurvy.

They are excellent against the Scurvy.


For the heat in Feavers.

They are also good to allay the fervour of hot Diseases.

The Indians and English use them much, boyling them with Sugar for Sauce to eat with their Meat; and it is a delicate Sauce, especially for roasted Mutton: Some make Tarts with them as with Goose Berries.

Vine, much differing in the Fruit, all of them very fleshy, some reasonably pleasant; others have a taste of Gun Powder, and these grow in Swamps, and low wet Grounds.[227]

{67} 3. Of such Plants as are proper to the Country, and have no Name.


Pirola, or Winter Green, that kind which grows with us in England is common in New-England,[228] but[122] there is another plant which I judge to be a kind of Pirola, and proper to this Country, a very beautiful Plant; The shape of the Leaf and the just bigness of it you may see in the Figure.

The Leaf of the Plant judged to be a kind of Pirola.

The Ground whereof is a Sap Green, embroydered (as it were) with many pale yellow Ribs, the whole Plant in shape is {68} like Semper vivum, but far less, being not above a handful high, with one slender stalk, adorned with small pale yellow Flowers like the other Pirola. It groweth not every where, but in some certain small spots overgrown with Moss, close by swamps and shady; they are green both Summer and Winter.[229]

For Wounds.

They are excellent Wound Herbs, but this I judge to be the better by far. Probatum est.




This Plant was brought to me by a neighbour, who (wandering in the Woods to find out his strayed Cattle,) lost himself {69} for two Dayes, being as he ghessed eight or ten Miles from the Sea-side. The Root was pretty thick and black, having a number of small black strings growing from it, the stalks of the Leaves about a handful long, the Leaves were round and as big as a Silver five Shilling piece, of a sap or dark green Colour, with a line or ribb as black as Jeat round the Circumference, from whence came black lines or ribs at equal distance, all of them meeting in a black spot in the Center.[230][124] If I had staid longer in the Country, I should have purposely made a Journey into those Parts where it was gathered, to discover if possible, the Stalk and Flower; but now I shall refer it to those that are younger, and better able to undergo the pains and trouble of finding it out; for I understood by the Natives, that it is not common, that is, every where to be found, no more then the embroydered Pirola, which also is a most elegant Plant, and which I did endeavour to bring over, but it perished at Sea.

For Wounds.

Clownes all heal, of New-England, is another Wound Herb not Inferiour to {70} ours, but rather beyond it: Some of our English practitioners take it for Vervene, and use it for the same, wherein they are grosly mistaken.

The Leaf is like a Nettle Leaf, but narrower and longer; the stalk about the bigness of a Nettle stalk, Champhered and hollow, and of a dusky red Colour; the Flowers are blew, small, and many, growing in spoky tufts at the top, and are not hooded, but having only four round Leaves, after which followeth an infinite of small longish light brown Seed; the Roots are knotty and matted together with an infinite number of small white strings; the whole Plant is commonly two Cubits high, bitter in taste, with a Rosenie favour.[231]





This Plant is one of the first that springs up after White[126] Hellibore, in the like wet and black grounds, commonly by Hellibore, with a sheath or Hood like Dragons, but the pestle is of another shape, that is, having a round Purple Ball on the top of it, beset (as it were) with Burs; the hood shoots forth immediately from the Root, before any Leaf appears, having a Green {72} sprig growing fast by it, like the smaller Horse Tayl, about the latter end of April the Hood and Sprig wither away, and there comes forth in the room a Bud, like the Bud of the Walnut Tree, but bigger; the top of it is of a pale Green Colour, covered with brown skins like an Onion, white underneath the Leaves, which spread in time out of the Bud, grow from the root with a stalk a Foot long, and are as big as the great Bur Dock Leaves, and of the colour; the Roots are many, and of the bigness of the steel of a Tobacco Pipe, and very white; the whole Plant sents as strong as a Fox; it continues till August.[232]



A Branch of the Humming Bird Tree.
Humming Bird plant

{74} (4.)

This Plant the Humming Bird feedeth upon, it groweth likewise in wet grounds, and is not at its full growth till July, and then it is two Cubits high and better, the Leaves are thin, and of a pale green Colour, some of them as big as a Nettle Leaf, it spreads into many Branches, knotty at the setting on, and of a purple Colour, and garnished on the top with many hollow dangling Flowers of a bright yellow Colour, speckled with a deeper yellow as[128] it were shadowed, the Stalkes are as hollow as a Kix, and so are the Roots, which are transparent, very tender, and full of a yellowish juice.[233]

For Bruises and Aches upon stroaks.

The Indians make use of it for Aches, being bruised between two stones, and laid to cold, but made (after the English manner) into an unguent with Hogs Grease, there is not a more soveraign remedy for bruises of what kind soever; and for Aches upon Stroaks.

In August, 1670. in a Swamp amongst Alders, I found a fort of Tree Sow Thistle, the Stalks of some two or three Inches, {75} about, as hollow as a Kix and very brittle, the Leaves were smooth, and in shape like Sonchus lævis, i.e. Hares Lettice, but longer, some about a Foot, these grow at a distance one from another, almost to the top, where it begins to put forth Flowers between the Leaves[129] and the Stalk, the top of the stalk runs out into a spike, beset about with Flowers like Sow Thistle, of a blew or azure colour: I brought home one of the Plants which was between twelve and thirteen Foot in length, I wondered at it the more for that so large and tall a Plant should grow from so small a Root, consisting of slender white strings little bigger than Bents, and not many of them, and none above a Finger long, spreading under the upper crust of the Earth; the whole Plant is full of Milk, and of a strong favour.[234]


The Plant when it springs up first.


The Figure of the Plant when it is at full growth.


This Plant I found in a gloomy dry Wood under an Oak, 1670. the 18th of August, afterwards I found it in[130] open Champain grounds, but yet somewhat scarce: The Root is about the bigness of a French Walnut, the Bark thereof is brown, and rugged, within of a yellowish Colour, from whence ariseth a slender stalk, no bigger than an Oat straw, about two Cubits in height, somewhat better than a handful above the Root shooteth out one Leaf of a Grass Green colour, and an Inch or two above that, another Leaf, and so four or five at a greater distance one from another, till they come within a handful of the top, where upon slender foot stalks grow the Flowers[131] four or five, more or fewer, clustering together in pale long green husks milk white, consisting of ten small Leaves, snipt a little on the edges with purple hair threads in the midst; the whole Plant is of a brakish tast: When it is at its full growth the stalks are as red as Blood.[235]




{79} (6.)

This Plant Flowers in August, and grows in wet Ground; it is about three or four foot in height, having a square slender stalk, chamfered, hollow and tuff, the Leaves grow at certain distances one against another, of the colour of Egrimony Leaves sharpe pointed, broadest in the midst about an Inch and half, and three or four Inches in length, snipt about the edges like a Nettle Leaf, at the top of the Stalk for four or five Inches thick, set with pale green husks, out of which the Flowers grow, consisting of one Leaf, shaped like the head of a Serpent, opening at the top like a mouth, and hollow throughout, containing four crooked pointels, and on the top of every pointel a small, glistering, green button, covered with a little white woolly matter, by which they are with the pointels fastened close together and shore up the tip of the upper chap, the crooked pointels are very stiff and hard, from the bottom of the husks, wherein the Flower stands, from the top of the Seed Vessel shoots out a white thread which runs in at the bottom of the Flower, and so {80} out at the mouth; the whole Flower is milk white, the inside of the chaps reddish, the Root I did not observe.[236]



{81} (7.)

This Plant I take for a varigated Herb Paris, True Love or One Berry, or rather One Flower, which is milk white, and made up with four Leaves, with many black threads in the middle, upon every thread grows a Berry (when the Leaves of the Flower are fallen) as big as a white pease, of a light red colour when they are ripe, and clustering together in a round form as big as a Pullets Egg, which at distance shews but as one Berry, very pleasant in taste, and not unwholsome; the Root, Leaf, and[134] Flower differ not from our English kind, and their time of blooming and ripening agree, and therefore doubtless a kind of Herba Paris.[237]


The small Sun Flower, or Marygold of America.
Sun Flower plant




{84} (8.)

This Plant is taken by our Simplists to be a kind of[136] Golden Rod, by others for Sarazens Consound. I judge it to be a kind of small Sun Flower, or Marygold of the West Indies; the Root is brown and slender, a foot and half in length, running a slope under the upper face of the Earth, with some strings here and there, the stalk as big as the steal of a Tobacco pipe, full of pith, commonly brownish, sometimes purple, three or four foot high, the Leaves grow at a distance one against another, rough, hard, green above, and gray underneath, slightly snipt and the ribs appear most on the back side of the Leaf, the Flower is of a bright yellow, with little yellow cups in the midst, as in the Marygold of Peru, with black threads in them with yellow pointels, the Flower spreads it self abroad out of a cup made up of many green beards, not unlike a Thistle; Within a handful of the top of the stalk (when the Flower is fallen), growes an excrense or knob as big as a Walnut, which being broken yieldeth a kind of Turpentine or rather Rosen.[238]

What Cutchenele is.

The stalk beneath and above the knob, covered with a multitude of small Bugs, about the bigness of a great flea, which I presume will make good Cutchenele, ordered as they should be before they come to have Wings: They make a perfect Scarlet Colour to Paint with, and durable.


{85} 4. Of such Plants as have sprung up since the English Planted and kept Cattle in New-England.[239]

Couch Grass.[240]

Shepherds Purse.[241]



Sow Thistle.[244]


Wild Arrach.[245]

Night Shade, with the white Flower.[246]

Nettlestinging, which was the first Plant taken notice of.[247]


{86} Plaintain, which the Indians call English-Mans Foot, as though produced by their treading.[249]


Black Henbane.[250]


Sharp pointed Dock.[252]




And I suspect Adders Tongue.[255]

Knot Grass.[256]

Cheek weed.[257]

Compherie, with the white Flower.[258]

May weed, excellent for the Mother; some of our English Houswives call it Iron Wort, and make a good Unguent for old Sores.[259]


The great Clot Bur.[260]

Mullin, with the white Flower.[261]

Q. What became of the influence of those Planets that produce and govern these Plants before this time!

I have now done with such Plants as grow wild in the Country in great plenty, (although I have not mentioned all) I shall now in the Fifth place give you to under{87}stand what English Herbs we have growing in our Gardens that prosper there as well as in their proper Soil, and of such as do not, and also of such as will not grow there at all.

5. Of such Garden Herbs (amongst us) as do thrive there, and of such as do not.[262]

Cabbidge growes there exceeding well.







French Mallowes.



Winter Savory.

Summer Savory.




Parsnips of a prodigious size.

Red Beetes.

{88} Radishes.





Barley, which commonly degenerates into Oats.


Pease of all sorts, and the best in the World; I never heard of, nor did see in eight Years time, one Worm eaten Pea.

Garden Beans.[265]


Naked Oats,[266] there called Silpee, an excellent grain used insteed of Oat Meal, they dry it in an Oven, or in a Pan upon the fire, then beat it small in a Morter.

Another standing Dish in New-England.

And when the Milk is ready to boil, they put into a pottle of Milk about ten or twelve spoonfuls of this Meal, so boil it leasurely, stirring of it every foot, least it burn too; when it is almost boiled enough, they hang the Kettle up higher, and let it stew only, in short time it will thicken like a Custard; they season it {89} with a little Sugar and Spice, and so serve it to the Table in deep Basons, and it is altogether as good as a White-pot.

For People weakned with long Sickness.

It exceedingly nourisheth and strengthens people weakned with long Sickness.

Sometimes they make Water Gruel with it, and sometimes[145] thicken their Flesh Broth either with this or Homminey, if it be for Servants.

Spear Mint.[267]

Rew, will hardly grow.

Fetherfew prospereth exceedingly.

Southern Wood, is no Plant for this Country. Nor,

Rosemary. Nor


White Satten groweth pretty well, so doth

Lavender Cotton.[269] But

Lavender is not for the climate.

Penny Royal.


Ground Ivy, or Ale Hoof.[270]

Gilly Flowers will continue two Years.[271]

{90} Fennel must be taken up, and kept in a warm Cellar all Winter.


Housleek prospereth notably.

Holly hocks.

Enula Campana, in two Years time the Roots rot.[272]

Comferie, with white Flowers.

Coriander, and

Dill, and

Annis thrive exceedingly, but Annis Seed, as also the Seed of Fennel seldom come to maturity; the Seed of Annis is commonly eaten with a fly.

Clary never lasts but one Summer, the Roots rot with the Frost.

Sparagus thrives exceedingly, so does

Garden Sorrel, and

Sweet Bryer, or Eglantine.[273]

Bloodwort but sorrily, but

Patience,[274] and

English Roses, very pleasantly.[275]


Celandine, by the West Country men called Kenning Wort, grows but slowly.[276]

Muschata, as well as in England.

Dittander, or Pepper Wort, flourisheth notably, and so doth


Musk Mellons are better than our English, and

{91} Cucumbers.

Pompions, there be of several kinds, some proper to the Country,[278] they are dryer then our English Pompions, and better tasted; you may eat them green.


The ancient New-England standing Dish.

But the Houswives manner is to slice them when ripe, and cut them into dice, and so fill a pot with them of two or three Gallons, and stew them upon a gentle fire a whole day, and as they sink, they fill again with fresh Pompions, not putting any liquor to them; and when it is stew’d enough, it will look like bak’d Apples; this they Dish, putting Butter to it, and a little Vinegar, (with some Spice, as Ginger, &c.) which makes it tart like an Apple, and so serve it up to be eaten with Fish or Flesh: It provokes Urin extreamly and is very windy.

{92} Sixthly and lastly,

Of Stones, Minerals, Metals and Earths.[279]

As first, the Emrald which grows in flat Rocks, and is very good.

Rubies, which here are very watry.


I have heard a story of an Indian, that found a stone, up in the Country, by a great Pond as big as an Egg, that in a dark Night would give a light to read by; but I take it to be but a story.

Diamond, which are very brittle, and therefore of little worth.

Crystal, called by our West Country Men the Kenning Stone; by Sebegug Pond is found in considerable quantity, not far from thence is a Rock of Crystal called the Moose Rock, because in shape like a Moose, and

Muscovy Glass, both white and purple of reasonable content.


Black Lead.[280]

Bole Armoniack.

{93} Red and Yellow Oker.

Terra Sigilla.



Arsnick, too much.



Tin Glass.


Iron, in abundance, and as good bog Iron as any in the World.

Copper. It is reported that the French have a Copper Mine at Port Royal, that yieldeth them twelve Ounces of pure Copper out of a Pound of Oar.


I shall conclude this Section with a strange Cure effected upon a Drummers Wife, much afflicted with a Wolf in her Breast; the poor Woman lived with her Husband at a Town called by the Indians, Casco, but by the English, Famouth; where for some time she swaged the Pain of her Sore, by bathing it with strong Malt Beer, which it would {94} suck in greedily, as if some living Creature: When she could come by no more Beer, (for it was brought from Boston, along the Coasts by Merchants,) she made use of Rhum, a strong Water drawn from Sugar Canes, with which it was lull’d a sleep; at last, (to be rid of it altogether) she put a quantity of Arsnick to the Rhum, and bathing of it as formerly, she utterly destroyed it, and Cured her self; but her kind Husband, who sucked out the Poyson as the Sore was healing, lost all his Teeth, but without further danger or inconvenience.

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{95} An Addition of some RARITIES overslipt.

The Star Fish,[282] having fine points like a Star, the whole Fish no bigger than the Palm of a Mans hand, of a tough substance like leather, and about an Inch in thickness, whitish underneath, and of the Colour of a Cucumber above, and somewhat ruff: When it is warm in ones hand, you may perceive a stiff motion, turning down one point, and thrusting up another: It is taken to be poysonous; they are very common, and found thrown up on the Rocks by the Sea side.

Sea Bream, which are plentifully taken upon the Sea Coasts, their Eyes are accounted rare Meat, whereupon the proverbial comparison, It is worth a Sea Breams Eye.[283]


{96} Blew Fish, or Horse, I did never see any of them in England; they are as big usually as the Salmon, and better Meat by far: It is common in New-England and esteemed the best sort of Fish next to Rock Cod.

Cat Fish, having a round Head, and great glaring Eyes like a Cat: They lye for the most part in holes of Rocks, and are discovered by their Eyes: It is an excelling Fish.

Munk Fish, a flat Fish like scate, having a hood like a Fryers Cowl.

Clam, or Clamp, a kind of Shell Fish, a white Muscle.

An Achariston, For Pin and Web.

Sheath Fish, which are there very plentiful, a delicate Fish, as good as a Prawn, covered with a thin Shell like the sheath of a Knife, and of the colour of a Muscle.

Which shell Calcin’d and Pulveriz’d, is excellent to take off a Pin and Web, or {97} any kind of Filme growing over the Eye.

Morse, or Sea Horse, having a great Head, wide Jaws, armed with Tushes as white as Ivory, of body as big as a Cow, proportioned like a Hog, of brownish bay, smooth skin’d and impenetrable; they are frequent at the Isle of[154] Sables, their Teeth are worth eight Groats the Pound; the best Ivory being Sold but for half the Money.[284]

For Poyson.

It is very good against Poyson.

For the Cramp.

As also for the Cramp, made into Rings.

For the Piles.

And a secret for the Piles, if a wise Man have the ordering of it.

The Manaty, a Fish as big as a Wine pipe, most excellent Meat; bred in the Rivers of Hispaniola in the West Indies; it hath Teats, and nourisheth its young ones with Milk; it is of a green Colour, and tasteth like Veal.

{98} For the Stone Collick.

There is a Stone taken out of the Head that is rare for the Stone and Collect.


To provoke Urine.

Their Bones beat to a Powder and drank with convenient Liquors, is a gallant Urin provoking Medicine.

For Wound and Bruise.

An Indian, whose Knee was bruised with a fall, and the Skin and Flesh strip’d down to the middle of the Calf of his Leg; Cured himself with Water Lilly Roots boyled and stamped.[285]

For Swellings of the Foot.

An Indian Webb, her Foot being very much swell’d and inflamed, asswaged the swelling, and took away the inflamation with our Garden or English Patience, the Roots roasted. f. Cataplas. Anno 1670. June 28.

To dissolve a Scirrhous Tumour.

An Indian dissolv’d a Scirrhous Tumour in the Arm and Hip, with a fomentation of Tobacco, applying afterwards the Herb stamp’d betwixt two stones.



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Now (gentle Reader) having trespassed upon your patience a long while in the perusing of these rude Observations, I shall, to make you amends, present you by way of Divertisement, or Recreation, with a Coppy of Verses made sometime since upon the Picture of a young[157] and handsome Gypsie, not improperly transferred upon the Indian SQUA, or Female Indian, trick’d up in all her bravery.

The Men are somewhat Horse Fac’d, and generally Faucious, i.e. without Beards; but the Women many of them {100} have very good Features; seldome without a Come to me, or Cos Amoris, in their Countenance; all of them black Eyed, having even short Teeth, and very white; their Hair black, thick and long, broad Breasted; handsome streight Bodies, and slender, considering their constant loose habit: Their limbs cleanly, straight, and of a convenient stature, generally, as plump as Partridges, and saving here and there one, of a modest deportment.

Their Garments are a pair of Sleeves of Deer, or Moose skin drest, and drawn with lines of several Colours into Asiatick Works, with Buskins of the same, a short Mantle of Trading Cloath, either Blew or Red, fastened with a knot under the Chin, and girt about the middle with a Zone, wrought with white and blew Beads into pretty Works; of these Beads they have Bracelets for their Neck and Arms, and Links to hang in their Ears, and a fair Table curiously made up with Beads likewise, to wear before their Breast; their Hair they Combe backward, and tye it up short with a Border, about two handfulls broad, {101} wrought in Works as the other with their Beads: But enough of this.


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Whether White or Black be best
Call your Senses to the quest;
And your touch shall quickly tell
The Black in softness doth excel,
And in smoothness; but the Ear,
What, can that a Colour hear?
No, but ’tis your Black ones Wit
That doth catch, and captive it.
And if Slut and Fair be one,
Sweet and Fair, there can be none:
Nor can ought so please the tast
As what’s brown and lovely drest:
And who’ll say, that that is best
To please ones Sense, displease the rest?
{102} Maugre then all that can be sed
In flattery of White and Red:
Those flatterers themselves must say
That darkness was before the Day:
And such perfection here appears
It neither Wind nor Sun-shine fears.


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{103} Chronological Table

Of the most remarkable passages in that part of America, known to us by the name of NEW-ENGLAND.[287]

Anno Dom. 1492. Christ. Columbus discovered America.

1516. The Voyage of Sir Thomas Pert, Vice Admiral of England, and Sir Sebastian Cabota to Brazile, &c.

1527. New-found-Land, discovered by the English.

1577. Sir Francis Drake began his Voyage about the World.

{104} 1585. Nova Albion discovered by Sir Francis[160] Drake, and by him so Named.

1585. April 9. Sir Richard Greenevile was sent by Sir Walter Rawleigh with a Fleet of Seven Sail to Virginia, and was stiled the General of Virginia.

1586. Captain Thomas Candish, a Suffolk Gentleman, began his Voyage round about the World, with three Ships past the Streights of Magellan, burn’d and ransack’d in the entry of Chile, Peru, and New-Spain, near the great Island Callifornia in the South Sea; and returned to Plymouth with a precious Booty Anno Dom. 1588. September the 8th; being the third since Magellan that circuited the Earth.

1588. Sir Walter Rawleigh first discovered Virginia, by him so Named, in honour of our Virgin Queen.

1595. Sir Walter Rawleigh discovered Guiana.

{105} 1606. A Collony sent to Virginia.

1614. Bermudas Planted.

1618. The blazing Star; then Plymouth Plantation began in New-England.[288]

1628. The Massachusets Colony Planted, and Salem the[161] first Town therein Built.[289]

1629. The first Church gathered in this Colony was at Salem; from which Year to this present Year, is 43 Years.

In the compass of these Years, in this Colony, there hath been gathered Fourty Churches, and 120 Towns built in all the Colonies of New-England.

The Church of Christ at Plymouth, was Planted in New-England[162] Eight Years before others.

1630. The Governour and Assistants {106} arrived with their Pattent for the Massachusets.

1630. The Lady Arabella in New-England.

1630. When the Government was established, they Planted on Noddles Island.[290]

1631. Captain John Smith Governour of Virginia, and Admiral of New-England, Dyed.

1631. Mr. Mavericke Minister at Dorchester in New-England.[291]

1631. John Winthorpe Esq; chosen the first time Governour, he was eleven times Governour; some say Nineteen times; eleven Years together; the other Years by intermission.

1631. John Wilson Pastor of Charles Town.[291]

{107} 1631. Sir R. Saltingstall at Water Town came into New-England.[291]

1631. Mr. Rog. Harlackinden was a Majestrate, and a[163] Leader of their Military Forces.[292]

Dr. Wilson gave 1000 l. to New-England, with which they stored themselves with great Guns.[293]

1633. Mr. Thomas Hooker, Mr. Haynes, and Mr. John Cotton, came over together in one Ship.

1634. The Country was really placed in a posture of War, to be in readiness at all times.

1635. Hugh Peters went over for New-England.

1636. Connecticut Colony Planted.

{108} 1637. The Pequites Wars, in which were Slain Five or Six Hundred Indians.

Ministers that have come from England, chiefly in the Ten first Years, Ninety Four: Of which returned Twenty Seven: Dyed in the Country Thirty Six: Yet alive in the Country Thirty One.[164] The Number of Ships that transported Passengers to New-England in these times, was 298, supposed: Men, Women, and Children, as near as can be ghessed 21200.

1637. The first Synod at Cambridge in New-England, where the Antinomian and Famalistical Errors were confuted; 80 Errors now amongst the Massachusets.

1638. New-Haven Colony began.

Mrs. Hutchinson and her erronious companions banished the Massachusets Colony.

{109} A terrible Earth quake throughout the Country.[294]

Mr. John Harvard, the Founder of Harvard College (at Cambridge in New-England) Deceased, gave 700 l. to the erecting of it.

1639. First Printing at Cambridge in New-England.

1639. A very sharp Winter in New-England.

1642. Harvard College Founded with a publick Library.

Ministers bred in New-England, and (excepting about[165] 10,) in Harvard College 132; of which dyed in the Country 10; now living 81; removed to England 41.

1643. The first combination of the Four United Colonies, viz. Plymouth, Massachusets, Connecticut, and New-Haven.

{110} 1646. The second Synod at Cambridge, touching the duty and power of Majestrates in matters of Religion: Secondly, the nature and power of Synods.

Mr. Eliot first Preached to the Indians in their Native Language.

1647. Mr. Thomas Hooker Died.

1648. The third Synod at Cambridge, publishing the Platform of Discipline.

1649. Mr. John Winthorpe Governour, now Died.

This Year a strange multitude of Caterpillers in New-England.[295]

Thrice seven Years after the Planting of the English in New-England, the Indians of Massachusets being 30000 able Men were brought to 300.

1651. Hugh Peters, and Mr. Wells came for England.[166]

{111} 1652. Mr. John Cotton Dyed.

1653. The great Fire in Boston in New-England.

Mr. Thomas Dudley, Governour of the Massachusets, Dyed this Year.

1654. Major Gibbons Died in New-England.

1655. Jamaica Taken by the English.

1657. The Quakers arrived in New-England, at Plymouth.

1659. Mr. Henry Dunster the first President of Harvard College now Dyed.

1661. Major Atherton Dyed in New-England.

1663. Mr. John Norton Pastor of Boston in New-England, Dyed suddenly.

{112} Mr. Samuel Stone, Teacher of Hartford Church, Dyed this Year.

1664. The whole Bible Printed in the Indian Language finished.

The Manadaes, called New Amsterdam, now called[167] New York; surrendred up to His Majesties Commissioners (for the settling of the respective Colonies in New-England, viz. Sir Robert Carr, Collonel Nicols, Collonel Cartwright, and Mr. Samuel Mavericke,) in September, after thirteen Dayes the Fort of Arania, now Albania; twelve Dayes after that, the Fort Awsapha; then de la Ware Castle Man’d with Dutch and Sweeds; the Three first Forts and Towns being Built upon the great River Mohegan, otherwise called Hudsons River.

In September appeared a great Comet for the space of three Months.[296]

1665. Mr. John Indicot, Governour of the Massachusets Dyed.

{113} A thousand Foot sent this Year by the French King to Canada.

Captain Davenport killed with Lightning at the Castle by Boston in New-England, and several Wounded.

1666. The Small Pox at Boston. Seven slain by Lightning,[168] and divers Burnt: This Year also New-England had cast away, and taken 31 Vessels, and some in 1667.

1667. Mr. John Wilson Pastor of Boston Dyed, aged 79 Years.

1670. At a place called Kenibunck, which is in the Province of Meyne, a Colony belonging to the Heir of that Honourable Knight Sir Ferdinando Gorges; not far from the River side, a piece of Clay Ground was thrown up by a Mineral vapour (as we supposed) over the tops of high Oaks that grew between it and the River, into the River, stopping the course thereof, and leaving a hole two Yards square, wherein were thousands of {114} Clay Bullets as big as Musquet Bullets, and pieces of Clay in shape like the Barrel of a Musquet.[297]

1671. Elder Penn dyed at Boston.[169]

1672. Mr. Richard Bellingham, Governour of the Massachusets in New-England.


The book is reprinted literally, except in the following items:—

Page 86, line 21, “Planets” is corrected to Plants.

Page 104, line 4, “Richards” is printed Richard; and, line 5, “Water” is corrected to Walter.

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[1] Willis, in N. E. Geneal. Register, vol. ii. p. 204; and New Series of the same, vol. i. p. 31. Williamson, Hist. of Maine, vol. i. p. 682.

[2] Dr. T. W. Harris, in N. E. Geneal. Register, vol. ii. p. 306, has corrected the mistake of Williamson and other writers as to Henry Josselyn of Scituate’s being of kin to Mr. Josselyn of Black Point; and Mr. Willis, who had adopted the same error in his first paper, already cited, now admits, in his second, that there is not “any evidence that” the proprietor of Black Point “left any children, or ever had any.”

[3] Letter of Rev. J. Hunter, 12th April, 1859.

[4] See also a Pedigree of Joselyne from the Visitation of Hertfordshire in 1614, furnished by Mr. S. G. Drake to the New-England Genealogical Register, vol. xiv. p. 16. This is probably one of the sources from which Lodge’s account was derived.

[5] Lodge, Peerage of Ireland, vol. iii. p. 65, and ante.

[6] Lodge, ubi supra. Annual Register, 1771, p. 174.

[7] But there is no doubt that the author was himself as far from sharing in the serious English thought of the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay as he was from joining in their evangelical faith. Yet there is hardly more than one place in either of his books (Voyages, pp. 180-2) where this is offensively brought forward. It is worthy of remark, however, that Josselyn’s family, in England, was attached rather to the Puritan side. “His family connections,” says Mr. Hunter, in the letter already referred to, “appear to have been adherents to the cause of the Parliament; particularly the Harlakendens, in whose regiment a Jocelyn, named Ralph, was a chaplain.” Nor is this all. “In the year 1663,” continues the learned authority just cited, “there was a slight insurrectionary movement in the North; which was easily put down by the government, and the leaders executed. In a manuscript list of persons who were either openly engaged, or who were vehemently suspected of being favorers of the design, I find in the latter class the name of Capt. John Jossline.” This plot was not discovered till January, 1664; and our John Josselyn “departed from London,” as he says at page one of this volume, “upon an invitation of my only brother,” the 28th of May of the year previous. But, if it be possible that our author was the person intended in the manuscript list as one strongly suspected of being engaged in a design against the Royal Government, the evident uncertainty of this is too great to permit us to discredit his own exposure of his political leanings,—as in the Voyages, p. 197, where, speaking of Sir F. Gorges, he says, “And, when he was between three and fourscore years of age, did personally engage in our royal martyr’s service, and particularly in the siege of Bristow; and was plundered and imprisoned several times, by reason whereof he was discountenanced by the pretended Commissioners for Forraign Plantations,” and so forth,—or in the face of another passage to be quoted further on, in which he acknowledges “the bounty of his royal sovereigness,” to question the sincerity—which there is nothing in either of his books to throw doubt upon—of his general adhesion to the Royalist side. “The family in Hertfordshire,” says Mr. Hunter, “were nonconformists; but the spirit of nonconformity seems to have spent itself at the death of Sir Strange Jocelyn, the second baronet, who died in 1734. But we may trace the Puritan influence in the present Earl of Roden, who is a conspicuous member of the religious body in England called the Evangelical.”—Ms. ut sup.

[8] And see the Voyages, p. 187, for an account of a “Barbarie-Moor under cure” of the author, when he “perceived that the Moor had one skin more than Englishmen. The skin that is basted to the flesh is bloudy, and of the same Azure colour with the veins, but deeper than the colour of our Europeans’ veins. Over this is an other skin, of a tawny colour, and upon that [the] Epidermis, or Cuticula,—the flower of the skin, which is that Snake’s cast; and this is tawny also. The colour of the blew skin mingling with the tawny, makes them appear black.” Dr. Mitchell, the botanist of Virginia, has a paper upon the same topic,—the cause of the negro’s color,—in the Philosophical Transactions; but this appears less in accordance with more recent researches (Prichard, Nat. Hist. of Man, p. 81) than Josselyn’s observations.

[9] “His book is a curiosity, sometimes worth examining, but seldom to be implicitly relied on.”—Savage, in Winthrop, N. E., vol. i. p. 267, note.

[10] Reprinted, the third edition, with an introductory essay and some notes; Boston, 1764,—the edition made use of in these notes.

[11] Biographie Universelle, in loco.

[12] He is called Botanicus Regius by Cornuti, p. 22; and the same title is given to both the Robins, in the printed catalogue of plants cultivated by them. Tournefort indicates the office of Vespasian Robin, at the new Botanic Garden, as follows: “Brossæus ... primus Horti præfectus, studiosis plantas indigitandi numeri præposuit Vespasianum Robinum diligentissimum Botanicum.”—Inst. Rei Herb., vol. i. p. 48. And the recent writer in the Biographic Universelle, says, more expressly, that the royal ordonnance establishing the garden names Vespasian Robin “sub-demonstrator” of botany, with a stipend of two hundred francs yearly. According to this writer, the two Robins were not, as has been said, father and son, but brothers; and Vespasian the elder. This one must have reached a great age, as the celebrated Morrison, who visited France in 1640, and remained there twelve years, calls himself his disciple.—Biog. Universelle, in loco.

[13] Tournefort, ubi supra.

[14] Cornuti autem parum fuit in plantarum cognitione versatus, ut manifestum est ex ineptis appellationibus quibus utitur in Enchiridio Botanico Parisiensi, et descriptionibus speciosis ab Herbariorum stylo tamen alienis.Tournef. Inst., vol. i. p. 43. Compare, as to the botanical merits of Cornuti, the writer in Biographic Universelle, who says that Cornuti’s terminology, to which Tournefort took exception, was that of Lobel; and farther, that the catalogue—Enchiridium Botanicum Parisiense—which is annexed to Cornuti’s larger work, is in several respects creditable to him.—Biog. Univ., in loco.

[15] Mention of New-England plants may be found in earlier writers than Cornuti or Josselyn; but what is said is now rarely available. Gosnold’s expedition was in 1602; and the writer of the account of it tells us that the island upon which his party proposed to settle (Cuttyhunk, one of the Elizabeth Islands) was covered with “oaks, ashes, beech, walnut, witch-hazel, sassafrage, and cedars, with divers others of unknown names;” beside “wild pease, young sassafrage, cherry-trees, vines, eglantine, gooseberry-bushes, hawthorn, honeysuckles, with others of the like quality;” as also “strawberries, rasps, ground-nuts, alexander, surrin, tansy, &c., without count.”—Mass. Hist. Coll., vol. xxviii. p. 76. And so the writer of Mourt’s Relation, in 1620, speaks of “sorrel, yarrow, carvel, brook-lime, liverwort, watercresses, &c.”, as noticed, “in winter,” however, at Plymouth.—Hist. Coll. vol. viii. p. 221. There is much here which is true enough, though the “eglantine” of the first writer is an evident mistake, as doubtless also the “carvel” of the other; but we have no reason to suppose that either of these passages ever had any scientific value. Josselyn, so far as his Botany goes, does not belong to this class of writers. There are important parts of his account of our plants, in which we know with certainty what he intended to tell us; and, farther, that this was worth the telling. And the credit which fairly belongs to the new genera of American plants, in some sort indicated by him, shall illustrate as well those other portions of his work where what he meant is a matter rather of deduction from his particulars, such as they are, in the light of his only here-and-there-cited authorities, than of plain fact. His English names—common, and perhaps often indefinite, as they strike us—had more of scientific value, in botanical hands at least, when he wrote, than now; and, there is good reason to suppose, were meant to indicate that the plants intended, or in some cases the genera to which they belonged, were the same with those published, under the same names, by Gerard, Johnson, and Parkinson.

[16] Winthrop’s Journal, by Savage, edit. 1, vol. i. p. 64, note. See also Bancroft’s character of the younger Winthrop, in History of the United States, vol. ii. p. 52.

[17] Eliot, Biog. Dict., in loco.

[18] Eliot, Biog. Dict., in loco.

[19] Interleaved Almanacs of 1646-48, cited by Savage (Winthrop, N. E., vol. ii. p. 332), mention “Tankard” and “Kreton” (perhaps Kirton) apples, as well as Russetins, Pearmains, and Long-Red apples; beside “the great pears,” and apricots, as grown here. In the Records of the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay (Records of Mass., vol. i. p. 24), there is an undated memorandum, “To provide to send for Newe England ... stones of all sorts of fruites; as peaches, plums, filberts, cherries, pear, aple, quince kernells,” &c., which the “First General Letter of the Governor,” &c., of the 17th April, 1629, again makes mention of (ibid., p. 392); and Josselyn (Voyages, p. 189) remarks on the “good fruit” reared from such kernels. But, if this were the only source of our ancestors’ English fruit, the names which they gave to the seedlings must have been vague.—For other early notices of cultivated fruit-trees, see Savage Gen. Dict. 4, p. 258, and the same, 4, p. 621. Saml. Sewall, jun. Esq., of Brookline, had trees grafted with ‘Drew’s Russet,’ and ‘Golden Russet’ apples, in 1724. (Gen. Reg. 16, p. 65.)

[20] Gronov. Fl. Virg., edit. 2. In Mr. Dillwyn’s (unpublished) “Account of the Plants cultivated by the late Peter Collinson,” from his own catalogue and other manuscripts, I find Collinson quoting Mr. Dudley’s paper on Plants of New England, above mentioned; but not that on the Evergreens.—Hortus Collins., p. 41.

[21] Eliot, Biog. Dict., and Allen, Amer. Biog. Dict., in locis.

[22] Mss. Cutler, penes me.

[23] Mss. Cutler, penes me.

[24] Mss. Cutler, penes me.

[25] The late Dr. Waterhouse, Professor of Medicine at Cambridge, read lectures on Natural History to his classes as early as 1788, and published the botanical part of these lectures in the Monthly Anthology, 1804-8; reprinting this in 1811, with the title of the Botanist (Boston, 8vo, pp. 228). In the preface to this volume, the author’s are claimed to have been the first public lectures on Natural History given in the United States. The Massachusetts Professorship of Botany and Entomology was founded in 1805, and the Botanical Garden in 1807; but the eminent naturalist who first filled the chair left little behind him to bear witness to his acknowledged “learning and genius.”—Quincy, Hist. Harv. Univ., vol. ii. p. 330. The studies of Peck were not, however, confined to the Fauna and Flora of New England; and his distinguished successors in the lecture-room and the botanical garden—Mr. Nuttall, the late Dr. Harris, and Professor Gray—may be said to have maintained a like general, rather than local character, in the entomological and botanical investigations pursued at the University.

[26] This house was one Mr. Robert Gibbs’s “of an ancient family in Devonshire,” says Farmer (Geneal. Reg., p. 120); and it stood on Fort Hill, the way leading to it becoming afterwards known as Gibbs’s Lane, and a wharf at the waterside, belonging to the property, as Gibbs’s Wharf. Mr. W. B. Trask, who obligingly examined for me the early deeds concerning this estate in Suffolk Registry, furnishes a memorandum, that on the 6th June, 1671, Robert Gibbs of Boston, merchant, conveys to Edward and Elisha Hutchinson, in trust, for Elizabeth, wife of said Robert, during her life, and after her decease to such child or children as he shall have by her, his land and house on Fort Hill, with warehouse on wharf, ‘which land was formerly my grandfather, Henry Webb’s.’ The wife of said Robert Gibbs was daughter to Jacob Sheafe by Margaret, daughter to Henry Webb, mercer. Sampson Sheafe, a Provincial councillor of New Hampshire, and the ancestor of a family of long standing there, married another daughter of Jacob Sheafe. Mr. Gibbs was father to the Rev. Henry Gibbs, minister of Watertown, and had other children; and the family continues to this day.

[27] Compare the author’s Voyages, pp. 19, 161, 173, for other notices of Boston, and as to the first of these, which represents the town (in 1638) as “rather a village, ... there being not above twenty or thirty houses,” see the note in Savage’s Winthrop, edit. 1, vol. i. p. 267.

[28] Mr. Henry Josselyn was probably living at Black Point in 1638, when his brother first visited it (Voyages, p. 20). It was then the estate (by grant from the council at Plymouth) and residence of Captain Thomas Cammock; but he, dying in 1643, bequeathed it, except five hundred acres which were reserved to his wife, to Josselyn, who, marrying the widow, succeeded to the whole property, which was described as containing fifteen hundred acres (Willis infra), but is called by Sullivan five thousand (History of Maine, p. 128). In 1658, this and other adjoining tracts were erected into a town by Massachusetts, under the name of Scarborough, which is thus further noticed by our author in his Voyages, p. 201, as “the town of Black Point, consisting of about fifty dwelling-houses, and a Magazine, or Doganne, scatteringly built. They have store of neat and horses, of sheep near upon seven or eight hundred, much arable and marsh, salt and fresh, and a corn-mill.”—Comp. Williamson’s Hist. of Maine, vol. i. pp. 392, 666; Willis in Geneal. Register, vol. i. p. 202.

[29] Empyema is a result of disease of the lungs. See Voyages, p. 121.

[30] Compare the accounts of the first appearance of the country by the Rev. Francis Higginson and Mr. Thomas Graves, both well-qualified observers, in New-England’s Plantation, London, 1630; reprinted in Mass. Hist. Coll., vol. i. p. 117. And see Wood’s New England’s Prospect, a book which our author was probably acquainted with; as compare p. 4 of Wood (edit. 1764) with the beginning of p. 3 of the Rarities, and some other places in both.

[31] The earliest ascents of the White Mountains were those made by Field and others in 1642, of which we have some account in Winthrop’s Journal (by Savage, edit. 1, vol. ii. pp. 67, 89). Darby Field, “an Irishman living about Pascataquack,” has the honor of being the first European who set foot upon the summit of Mount Washington. He appears at Exeter in 1639, and was at Dover in 1645, and died there in 1649, leaving a widow, and, it is said, children (A. H. Quint, N. E. Geneal. Reg., vol. vi. p. 38). It seems likely, from his account, that Field, on reaching the Indian town in the Saco Valley, “at the foot of the hill” where the “two branches of Saco river met,” pursued his way up the valley either of Rocky Branch or of Ellis River, till he gradually attained to the region of dwarf firs, on what is known as Boott’s Spur, which is between the “valley” called Oakes’s Gulf, in which the “Mount Washington” branch of the Saco has its head, and the valley in which the Rocky Branch rises (see G. P. Bond’s Map of the White Mountains). There is no other way that shall fulfil the conditions of the narrative except that over Boott’s Spur; but of the three streams, that is, “the two branches of Saco River,” which come together at or near the probable site of the Indian town, the Rocky Branch is the shortest, and its valley the most ascending. Field repeated his visit, with some others, “about a month after;” and later, in the same year, the mountains were visited by the worshipful Thomas Gorges, Esq., Deputy-Governor, and Richard Vines, Esq., Councillor of the Province of Maine, of which Winthrop takes notice at p. 89. Whether Josselyn went up himself, or had his account from others, does not appear. But his calling the mountains “inaccessible but by the gullies,” leaves it at least supposable, that he, or the party from which he got his information (perhaps Gorges’s), instead of gradually ascending the long ridges, or spurs, penetrated into one of the gulfs (as they are there called), or ravines, of the eastern side; the walls of which are exceedingly steep, and literally inaccessible in many parts, except by the gullies. The “large level or plain of a day’s journey over, whereon grows nothing but moss,” is noticed in Winthrop’s account of Gorges’s ascent, but not in that of Field’s; and this plain—which doubtless includes what has since been called “Bigelow’s Lawn” (lying immediately under the south-eastern side of the summit of Mount Washington), but understood also, in Gorges’s account, to extend northward as far as the “Lake of the Clouds”—furnishes another ground for supposing that the last-mentioned explorer, or, at least, Josselyn, may have penetrated the mountain by one of its eastern ravines; several of which head in the great plain mentioned, while that is rather remote from what we have taken for Field’s “ridge.” Our author is the only authority for the “pond of clear water in the midst of” the top of Mount Washington; though a somewhat capacious spring, which was well known there before the putting-up of the house on the summit, may have been larger once; or he may rather have mistaken, or misremembered, the position of the Lake of the Clouds.

[32] Compare, as to the insulation of the tract understood by Josselyn as New England, Palfrey, Hist. N. E., vol. i. pp. 1, 2, and note, and the accompanying map.

[33] See the author’s larger account of the natives in his Voyages, pp. 123-150.

[34] There is a much fuller account—to be noticed again—of our birds, in the Voyages, pp. 95-103. Wood’s (N. E. Prospect, chap, viii.) is also curious. In the notes which immediately follow, on the birds, beasts, fishes, and reptiles, the oldest writers on our natural history will be found often to explain or illustrate each other.

[35] Chimney-swallow.

[36] “The pilhannaw is the king of birds of prey in New England. Some take him to be a kind of eagle; others for the Indian ruck,—the biggest bird that is, except the ostrich. One Mr. Hilton, living at Pascataway, had the hap to kill one of them. Being by the sea-side, he perceived a great shadow over his head, the sun shining out clear. Casting up his eyes, he saw a monstrous bird soaring aloft in the air; and, of a sudden, all the ducks and geese (there being then a great many) dived under water, nothing of them appearing but their heads. Mr. Hilton, having made readie his piece, shot and brought her down to the ground. How he disposed of her, I know not; but had he taken her alive, and sent her over into England, neither Bartholomew nor Sturbridge Fair could have produced such another sight.”—Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 95. These notices have been taken to be sufficient by some writers to show the probable existence of “a bird of prey, very large and bold, on the back of some of our American plantations.” But our author’s account indicates clearly a crested eagle, which we cannot explain by any thing nearer home than the yzquautli, or crested vulture of Mexico and the countries south of it (Falco Harpyja, Gmel.); two notices of which (cited by Linnæus) had been published some twenty years before Josselyn wrote, and may have been supposed by him to be applicable to a large bird which he had heard of as inhabiting mountains about Ossipee. The great heron—an inhabitant of the coast, and so uncommon inland that “one ... shot in the upper parts of New Hampshire was described to” Wilson “as a great curiosity” (Amer. Ornith., by Brewer, p. 555)—has the size and the crest of Josselyn’s bird; and, if this last was only (as is possible) the name of a confused conception made up from several accounts of large birds, the heron may well be thought to have had a share in it.

[37] “Of these, sometimes there will be forty, threescore and a hundred, of a flock; sometimes more, and sometimes less. Their feeding is acorns, hawes, and berries: some of them get a haunt to frequent English corn. In winter, when the snow covers the ground, they resort to the seashore to look for shrimps, and such small fishes, at low tides. Such as love turkey-hunting must follow it in winter, after a new-fallen snow, when he may follow them by their tracks. Some have killed ten or a dozen in half a day. If they can be found towards an evening, and watched where they perch,—if one come about ten or eleven of the clock,—he may shoot as often as he will: they will sit, unless they be slenderly wounded. These turkies remain all the year long. The price of a good turkey-cock is four shillings; and he is well worth it, for he may be in weight forty pounds; a hen, two shillings.”—Wood, N. Eng. Prospect, chap. viii. See also Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 99.

[38] “The geese of the country be of three sorts. First, a brant goose; which is a goose almost like the wild goose in England. The price of one of these is sixpence. The second kind is a white goose, almost as big as an English tame goose. These come in great flocks about Michaelmas: sometimes there will be two or three thousand in a flock. Those continue six weeks, and so fly to the southward; returning in March, and staying six weeks more, returning to the northward. The price of one of these is eightpence. The third kind of geese is a great grey goose, with a black neck, and a black and white head; strong of flight: and these be a great deal bigger than the ordinary geese of England; some very fat, and, in the spring, full of feathers, that the shot can scarce pierce them. Most of these geese remain with us from Michaelmas to April. They feed in the sea upon grass in the bays at low water, and gravel, and in the woods of acorns; having, as other fowl have, their pass and repass to the northward and southward. The accurate marksmen kill of these both flying and sitting. The price of a grey goose is eighteen-pence.”—Wood, N. E. Prospect, l. c. The white goose here mentioned is probably the snow-goose; upon which compare Nuttall, Mass. Ornith., Water-Birds, p. 344. Josselyn (Voyages, p. 100) says the brant and the gray goose “are best meat; the white are lean and tough, and live a long time; whereupon the proverb, ‘Older than a white goose:’” which is not supported by Wood or later writers. The snow-goose has become much less frequent with us since the settlement of the country. The great grey goose of Wood is our well-known Canada goose.

[39] This was the best that our author could say of the eagles of New England. Wood assists us once more here: “The eagles of the country be of two sorts,—one like the eagles that be in England; the other is something bigger, with a great white head and white tail. These be commonly called gripes.”—New-Eng. Prospect, l. c. The first spoken of by Wood—and perhaps, also, what Josselyn names last—may be the common or ring-tailed eagle, now known to be the young of the golden eagle. The second of Wood, and first of our author, is without doubt, the bald eagle; the (so to say) tyrannical habits of which bird are sufficiently well known, at least in the vivid pages of Wilson. See the Voyages, p. 96; where we learn also that “hawkes there are of several kinds; as goshawks, falcons, laniers, sparrow-hawkes, and a little black hawke highly prized by the Indians, who wear them on their heads, and is accounted of worth sufficient to ransom a sagamour. They are so strangely couragious and hardie that nothing flyeth in the air that they will not bind with. I have seen them tower so high, that they have been so small that scarcely could they be taken by the eye” (p. 95-6). Wood makes like mention of this little black hawk (New-Eng. Prospect, l. c.); and R. Williams (Key into the Language of the Indians of N. E., in Hist. Coll., vol. iii. p. 220) calls it “sachim, a little bird about the bigness of a swallow, or less; to which the Indians give that name, because of its sachem or prince-like courage and command over greater birds: that a man shall often see this small bird pursue and vanquish and put to flight the crow and other birds far bigger than itself.” This was our well-known king-bird; and Josselyn, on the same page, tells us of “a small ash-colour bird that is shaped like a hawke, with talons and beak, that falleth upon crowes; mounting up into the air after them, and will beat them till they make them cry:” which was, perhaps, the king-bird’s half-cousin, as Wilson calls him,—the purple-martin.

[40] Nuttall (Manual, Water-Birds, p. 520) says that the young of the red-throated diver is called cobble in England. Our author elsewhere (Voyages, p. 101) makes mention of the “wobble” and the “wilmote” (that is, guillemot) as distinct; but his wilmot was “a kind of teal.”

[41] “He maketh a noise sometimes like a sow-gelder’s horn.”—N. Eng. Prospect, l. c.

[42] The first is the great-horned or cat-owl; the second, probably, the mottled or little screech-owl, which Wood notices more fully as “small, speckled like a partridge, with ears” (l. c.); and the third, the Acadian or little owl. There are but two owls reckoned in New-England’s Prospect; the second of which—“a great owl, almost as big as an eagle; his body being as good meat as a partridge” (l. c.)—is, perhaps, the snowy owl, which, according to Audubon, is good eating.—Peabody Report on Birds of Mass., p. 275.

[43] It is not clear what is meant here. The author merely mentions the bird again, in Voyages, p. 96.

[44] So Wood: “There are no magpies, jackdaws, cuckoos, jays, &c.”—New-England’s Prospect, l. c. Our author, in his Voyages, adds to the above list of New-England birds the following: “The partridge is larger than ours; white-flesht, but very dry: they are indeed a sort of partridges called grooses. The pidgeon, of which there are millions of millions.... The snow-bird, like a chaffinch, go in flocks, and are good meat.... Thrushes, with red breasts, which will be very fat, and are good meat.... Thressels, ... filladies, ... small singing-birds; ninmurders, little yellow birds; New-England nightingales, painted with orient colours,—black, white, blew, yellow, green, and scarlet,—and sing sweetly; wood-larks, wrens, swallows, who will sit upon trees; and starlings, black as ravens, with scarlet pinions. Other sorts of birds there are; as the troculus, wagtail or dish-water, which is here of a brown colour; titmouse,—two or three sorts; the dunneck or hedge-sparrow, who is starke naked in his winter nest; the golden or yellow hammer,—a bird about the bigness of a thrush, that is all over as red as bloud; woodpeckers of two or three sorts, gloriously set out with variety of glittering colours; the colibry, viemalin, or rising or walking-bird, an emblem of the resurrection, and the wonder of little birds. The water-fowl are these that follow: Hookers, or wild swans; cranes; ... four sorts of ducks,—a black duck, a brown duck like our wild ducks, a grey duck, and a great black and white duck. These frequent rivers and ponds. But, of ducks, there be many more sorts; as hounds, old wives, murres, doies, shell-drakes, shoulers or shoflers, widgeons, simps, teal, blew-wing’d and green-wing’d didapers or dipchicks, fenduck, duckers or moorhens, coots, pochards (a water-fowl like a duck), plungeons (a kind of water-fowl, with a long, reddish bill), puets, plovers, smethes, wilmotes (a kind of teal), godwits, humilities, knotes, red-shankes, ... gulls, white gulls or sea-cobbs, caudemandies, herons, grey bitterns, ox-eyes, birds called oxen and keen, petterels, king’s fishers, ... little birds that frequent the sea-shore in flocks, called sanderlins. They are about the bigness of a sparrow, and, in the fall of the leaf, will be all fat. When I was first in the countrie” (that is, in 1638; in which connection, what follows is not without its interest to us), “the English cut them into small pieces to put into their puddings, instead of suet. I have known twelve-score and above killed at two shots.... The cormorant, shape or sharke” (pp. 99-103).

[45] Compare the account given in the Voyages, pp. 82-95, which is much fuller; as also New-England’s Prospect, chap. vi.

[46] “Most fierce in strawberry-time; at which time they have young ones; at which time, likewise, they will go upright, like a man, and climb trees, and swim to the islands: which if the Indians see, there will be more sportful bear-baiting than Paris garden can afford; for, seeing the bears take water, an Indian will leap after him; where they go to water-cuffs for bloody noses and scratched sides. In the end, the man gets the victory; riding the bear over the watery plain, till he can bear him no longer.... There would be more of them, if it were not for the wolves which devour them. A kennel of those ravening runagadoes, setting upon a poor, single bear, will tear him as a dog will tear a kid.”—New-Eng. Prospect, l. c., which see farther; and also Josselyn’s Voyages, pp. 91-2.

[47] Stupefied with drink.—Webster, Eng. Dict.

[48] Thwart.

[49] “The woolves be in some respect different from them in other countries. It was never known yet that a wolf ever set upon a man or woman: neither do they trouble horses or cows; but swine, goats, and red calves, which they take for deer, be often destroyed by them; so that a red calf is cheaper than a black one, in that regard, in some places.... They be made much like a mungrel; being big-boned, lank-paunched, deep-breasted; having a thick neck and head, prick ears and long snout, with dangerous teeth; long, staring hair, and a great bush-tail. It is thought by many that our English mastiff might be too hard for them: but it is no such matter; for they care no more for an ordinary mastiff than an ordinary mastiff cares for a cur. Many good dogs have been spoiled by them.... There is little hope of their utter destruction; the country being so spacious, and they so numerous, travelling in the swamps by kennels: sometimes ten or twelve are of a company.... In a word, they be the greatest inconveniency the country hath.”—New-England’s Prospect, l. c.

[50] Spoken of again in the Voyages, pp. 94 and 193; and in Hubbard, Hist. N. England, p. 25. Josselyn’s may be compared with Lewis and Clark’s notice of the Indian dog (Travels, vol. ii. p. 165).

[51] Called also “lusern, or luceret,” in the Voyages, p. 85; the loup-cervier of Sagard (Hist. Can., 1636, cit. Aud. and Bachm. Vivip. Quad. N. A., p. 136); of Dobbs’s Hudson’s Bay, &c.; but more commonly called gray cat, or lynx, in New England. Wood calls it “more dangerous to be met withal than any other creature; not fearing either dog or man. He useth to kill deer.... He hath likewise a device to get geese: for, being much of the colour of a goose, he will place himself close by the water; holding up his bob-tail, which is like a goose-neck. The geese, seeing this counterfeit goose, approach nigh to visit him; who, with a sudden jerk, apprehends his mistrustless prey. The English kill many of these, accounting them very good meat.”—New-Eng. Prospect, l. c. Audubon and Bachman (l. c., p. 14) give a similar good account of the flesh of the bay-lynx, or common wild-cat.

[52] The raccoon is, or has been, an inhabitant of all North America (Godman, Nat. Hist., vol. i. p. 117), and was one of the first of our animals with which European naturalists became acquainted. Linnæus (Syst. Nat.) cites Conrad Gesner among those who have illustrated or mentioned it. Wood says they are “as good meat as a lamb;” and further, that, “in the moonshine night, they go to feed on clams at a low tide, by the seaside, where the English hunt them with their dogs.”—New-Eng. Prospect, l. c.

[53] The author’s account of the Indian works in birch-bark and porcupine-quills is much fuller in his Voyages, p. 143.

[54] Wood’s account is far better.—New-Eng. Prospect, chap. vii. See page 53 of the Rarities for mention of the musk quash.

[55] See Voyages, pp. 88-91. Called moos-soog (rendered “great-ox; or, rather, red deer”) in R. Williams’s Key (Hist. Coll., vol. iii. p. 223): but this is rather the plural form of moos; as see the same, l. c. p. 222, and note, and Rasles’ Dict. Abnaki, in loco. It is called mongsöa by the Cree Indians; and, it should seem, mongsoos by the Indians of the neighborhood of Carlton House; as see Richardson, in Sabine’s Appendix to Franklin’s Narrative of a Journey to the Polar Sea, pp. 665-6. “The English,” says Wood, “have some thoughts of keeping him tame, and to accustome him to the yoke; which will be a great commodity.... There be not many of these in the Massachusetts Bay; but, forty miles to the north-east, there be great store of them.”—New-Eng. Prospect, l. c. On hunting the moose, as practised by the Indians, see Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 136.

[56] Wood (N. E. Prospect, l. c.) has but two kinds of deer: of which the first is the moose; and the second, called “ordinary deer,” and, in the vocabulary of Indian words, ottuck (compare attuck or noonatch, deer,—R. Williams, l. c.; but atteyk, in the Cree dialect, signifies a small sort of rein-deer,—Richardson, in Appendix to Franklin’s Journey, p. 665; and it is observable that Rasles’ word for chevreuil is norke), is our American fallow-deer. R. Williams also appears to distinguish with clearness but two; which are, perhaps, the same as Wood’s. Josselyn, in this book, passes quite over the common, or fallow-deer: but, making up in the Voyages for the fallings-short of the Rarities, he goes, in the former, quite the other way; reckoning the roe, buck, red deer, rein-deer, elk, maurouse, and maccarib. What is further said of these animals, where he speaks more at large, makes it appear likely that the second, third, and fourth names, so far as they have any value, belong to a single kind,—the “ordinary deer” of Wood (whose description possibly helped Josselyn’s), or our fallow-deer; to which the “roe” is also to be referred: and the “elk” he himself explains as the moose. But, beside these two kinds, Josselyn has the merit of indicating, with some distinctness, one, or possibly two, others,—the maurouse and the maccarib. The maurouse—of which only the Voyages make mention—“is somewhat like a moose; but his horns are but small, and himself about the size of a stag. These are the deer that the flat-footed wolves hunt after.”—Voyages, p. 91. This is to be compared with the mauroos, rendered “cerf,” of Rasles’ Dict., l. c., p. 382; and, in such connection, is hardly referable to other than the caribou, or rein-deer,—a well-known inhabitant of the north-eastern parts of New England, and likely, therefore, to have come to the knowledge of our author; while there seems to be no testimony to its ever having occurred in Massachusetts and southward, where Wood and Williams made their observations. The last, or the maccarib, caribo, or pohano, of Josselyn, is described above; and, in the Voyages (p. 91), he only repeats that it “is not found, that ever I heard yet, but upon Cape Sable, near to the French plantations.” The “round” hoofs of the maccarib might lead us to take this for the caribou of Maine; the round track of which differs much from that of the fallow-deer. But the former is more likely to have been the American elk; so rare, it should seem, where it occurred, when our author wrote, and so little known in the New-England settlements, that his fancy, fed by darkling hearsay, could deck it with the honors of the “unicorn.”

[57] “There are two or three kinds of them,—one a great yellow fox; another grey, who will climb up into trees. The black fox is of much esteem.”—Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 82; where is also an account of the way of hunting foxes in New England. Wood has nothing special, but that some of the foxes “be black. Their furrs is of much esteem” (l. c.) Williams (l. c.) has “mishquashim, a red fox; pequawus, a gray fox. The Indians say they have black foxes, which they have often seen, but never could take any of them. They say they are manittooes.” Beside the common red fox, or mishquashim, we have in all these accounts—and also in Morell’s Nova Anglia, l. c., p. 129—mention of a black fox; which may have been the true black or silver fox, or, in part at least, the more common cross-fox (Aud. and Bachm., Viv. Quadr. N. A., p. 45); the pelt of which is also in high esteem. For Williams’s gray fox, see the next note. Josselyn’s climbing gray fox is perhaps the fisher (Mustela Canadensis, Schreb.), notwithstanding the color. According to Audubon (l. c., pp. 51, 310, 315), this is called the black fox in New England and the northern counties of New York. I have heard it more often called black cat in New Hampshire. But the true gray fox (Vulpes Virginianus) “has, to a certain degree, the power of climbing trees.” Newberry Zoology, Expl. for Pacific Railroad, vi, part 4, p. 40.

[58] “A creature much like a fox, but smaller.”—Voyages, p. 83. Probably the gray fox, called pequawus by R. Williams (Vulpes Virginianus, Schreb.); which has not the rank smell of the red fox.—Aud. and Bachm., l. c., p. 168.

[59] “They told me of a young lyon (not long before) kill’d at Piscataway by an Indian.”—Voyages, p. 23. Higginson says that lions “have been seen at Cape Anne.”—New-Eng. Plantation, l. c., p. 119. “Some affirm,” says Wood, “that they have seen a lion at Cape Anne.... Besides, Plimouth men” (that is, men of old Plymouth, it is likely) “have traded for lion-skins in former times. But sure it is that there be lions on that continent; for the Virginians saw an old lion in their plantation,” &c.—New-Eng. Prospect, l. c. The animal here spoken of may well have been the puma or cougar, or American lion.

[60] “The rabbits be much like ours in England. The hares be some of them white, and a yard long. These two harmless creatures are glad to shelter themselves from the harmful foxes in hollow trees; having a hole at the entrance no bigger than they can creep in at.”—Wood, New-Eng. Prospect, l. c. Wood’s rabbit and Josselyn’s hare, so far as the summer coloring goes, appear to be the gray rabbit (Lepus sylvaticus, Aud. and Bachm., l. c. p. 173); and the white hare of Wood—as also, probably, the hare, “milk-white in winter,” of Josselyn—is doubtless the northern hare (Lepus Americanus, Erxl., Aud. and Bachm., l. c., p. 93).

[61] The Voyages mention, beside the quadrupeds above named, also the skunk (ségankoo of Rasles’ Dict., l. c.); the musquash (mooskooéssoo of Rasles, l. c.), for which see also p. 53 of this; otter; marten, “as ours are in England, but blacker;” sable, “much of the size of a mattrise, perfect black, but ... I never saw but two of them in eight years’ space;” the squirrel, “three sorts,—the mouse-squirril, the gray squirril, and the flying-squirril (called by the Indian assapanick).” Our author’s mouse-squirrel, which he describes, is the ground or striped squirrel: probably the “anequus, a little coloured squirrel” of R. Williams, l. c.; and the anikoosess (rendered suisse) of Rasles, l. c. The mattrise of our author is, according to him, “a creature whose head and fore-parts is shaped somewhat like a lyon’s; not altogether so big as a house-cat. They are innumerable up in the countrey, and are esteemed good furr.”—Voyages, p. 87. The sable is compared with the mattrise, at least in size; and the name is perhaps comparable with mattegooéssoo of Rasles, l. c.; but this is rendered lièvre. Wood adds to this list of our quadrupeds, mistakenly, the ferret; and R. Williams, the “ockquutchaunnug,—a wild beast of a reddish hair, about the bigness of a pig, and rooting like a pig;” which seems to answer, in name as well as habits, to our woodchuck, or ground-hog.

[62] The author’s attempt here at a general catalogue of the fishes, mollusks, &c., of the North-Atlantic Ocean, affords but a poor make-shift for such a list as we might fairly have expected from him of the species known to the early fishermen in the waters and seas of New England; and the account in his Voyages (pp. 104-15) is again an improvement on the present, and is confined to the inhabitants of our waters. The present editor has little to offer in elucidation of the list; which indeed, in good part, appears sufficiently intelligible. Compare Wood, New-Eng. Prospect, chap. x.

[63] “Like a herrin, but has a bigger bellie; therefore called an alewife.”—Voyages, p. 107. The other names, alize and allow, are doubtless corruptions of the French alose, also in use among London fishmongers to designate shad from certain waters.—Rees’s Cyc., in loco. The old Latin word alosa, supposed to have been always applied to the fish just mentioned, is adopted by Cuvier for the genus which includes our shad, alewife, and menhaden.

[64] The tunny is so called on the coast of New England.—Storer’s Report on the Fishes of Mass., p. 48.

[65] It is, notwithstanding, set down in the author’s list of fishes “that are to be seen and catch’d in the sea and fresh waters in New England.”—Voyages, p. 113. And compare Storer, Synops. (Mem. Am. Acad., N. S., vol. ii.), p. 300.

[66] See Voyages, p. 108. The first settlers esteemed the bass above most other fish. See Higginson’s New-England’s Plantation (Hist. Coll., vol. i. p. 120). Wood calls it (New-Eng. Prospect, chap. ix.) “one of the best fish in the country; and though men are soon wearied with other fish, yet are they never with bass. The Indians,” he says, eat lobsters, “when they can get no bass.” The head was especially prized; as see Wood, and also Roger Williams’s Key (Hist. Coll., vol. iii. p. 224). The fish is our striped bass (Labrax lineatus, Cuv.; Storer’s Report on Fishes of Mass., p. 7). Our author, at p. 37, again mentions it as one of the eight fishes which “the Indians have in greatest request.”

[67] See p. 96 as to the blue-fish, or horse-mackerel; and Storer, l. c., p. 57.

[68] The bonito of our fishermen is the skipjack.—Storer, l. c., p. 49.

[69] See p. 95.

[70] See p. 96. Josselyn’s character of the fish as food is confirmed by Dr. Storer, l. c., p. 69.

[71] The clam is one of the eight fishes mentioned at p. 37 as most prized by the Indians. “Sickishuog (clams). This is a sweet kind of shell-fish, which all Indians generally over the country, winter and summer, delight in; and, at low water, the women dig for them. This fish, and the natural liquor of it, they boil; and it makes their broth and their nasaump (which is a kind of thickened broth) and their bread seasonable and savoury, instead of salt.”—Williams’s Key, &c., l. c. p. 224. “These fishes be in great plenty in most parts of the country: which is a great commodity for the feeding of swine, both in winter and summer; for, being once used to those places, they will repair to them as duly, every ebb, as if they were driven to them by keepers.”—Wood, N. Eng. Prospect, l. c. The mollusk thus approved is the common clam (Mya arenaria, L.); but the poquauhock, or quahog (Venus mercenaria, L.), “which the Indians wade deep and dive for” (R. Williams, l. c., p. 224), was also eaten by them, and the black part of the shell used for making their suckauhock, or black money. Wood speaks also of “clams as big as a penny white loaf, which are great dainties amongst the natives” (N. E. Prospect, l. c.); doubtless the giant clam (Mactra solidissima, Chemn.) of Gould (Report on Invertebr. of Mass., p. 51), which is still esteemed as food.

[72] See p. 36; by which it appears that the author has in view the meteauhock of the Indians; “the periwinkle, of which they make their wompam, or white money, of half the value of their suckauhock, or black money” (R. Williams, l. c.): supposed to be Buccinum undatum, L. (Gould, l. c., p. 305); and possibly, also, one or two other allied shell-fish.

[73] “Cod-fish in these seas” (that is, Massachusetts Bay) “are larger than in Newfoundland,—six or seven making a quintal; whereas they have fifteen to the same weight.”—New-Eng. Prospect, l. c. Compare Storer, l. c., p. 121. Josselyn has an entertaining account of the sea-fishery, in his Voyages, pp. 210-13.

[74] See further of eels, and the author’s several ways of cooking them, in his Voyages, p. 111. At p. 37 of the Rarities, eels are mentioned among the fishes most prized by the Indians. “These eels be not of so luscious a taste as they be in England, neither are they so aguish; but are both wholesome for the body, and delightful for the taste.”—Wood, New-Eng. Prospect, chap. ix.

[75] See p. 37, where it is said to be one of the fishes which “the Indians have in greatest request.”—“Poponaumsuog” of R. Williams, l. c., p. 225. He says, “Some call them frost-fish, from their coming up from the sea into fresh brooks in times of frost and snow.”

[76] “Grampoise; Fr. grandpoisson;” corrupted grampus.—Webster, Dict.

[77] “These hollibut be little set by while bass is in season.”—Wood, l. c., chap. ix.

[78] “The sea-hare is as big as grampus, or herrin-hog; and as white as a sheet. There hath been of them in Black-Point Harbour, and some way up the river; but we could never take any of them. Several have shot sluggs at them, but lost their labour.”—Voyages, p. 105. The Lepus marinus of the old writers is a naked mollusk of the Mediterranean; Laplysia depilans, L.: but Josselyn’s was a very different animal.

[79] One of the fishes most valued by the Indians (p. 37); but “not much set by” by the English, according to Wood, l. c.

[80] “I have seene some myselfe that have weighed 16 pound; but others have had, divers times, so great lobsters as have weighed 25 pound, as they assure me.”—Higginson’s New-Eng. Plantation, l. c., p. 120; with which compare Gould’s Report, &c., p. 360. “Their plenty makes them little esteemed, and seldom eaten.”—Wood, New-Eng. Prospect, chap. ix. At p. 37, Josselyn counts them among the fishes, &c., most esteemed by the Indians; but Wood (l. c.) qualifies this in a passage already cited. The Indians, it seems, sometimes dried them, “as they do lampres and oysters; which are delicate breakfast-meat so ordered.”—Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 110. See the Indian way of catching lobsters, in Voyages, p. 140.

[81] “Munk-fish, a flat-fish like scate; having a hood like a fryer’s cowl” (p. 96). Lophius Americanus, Cuv., the sea-devil of Storer (Synops. of Amer. Fishes, in Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 381), is called monk-fish in Maine.—Williamson, Hist., vol. i. p. 157.

[82] See p. 97.

[83] “The muscle is of two sorts,—sea-muscles (in which they find pearl) and river-muscles.”—Voyages, p. 110. See p. 37, of the present volume, for an account of “the scarlet muscle,” which ... “yieldeth a perfect purple or scarlet juice; dyeing linnen so that no washing will wear it out,” &c. This could scarcely have been a Purpura or Buccinum.

[84] See Voyages, p. 110. “The oysters be great ones,” says Wood; “in form of a shoe-horn: some be a foot long. These breed on certain banks that are bare every spring-tide.”—New-Eng. Prospect, chap. ix. This was in the waters of Massachusetts Bay, where Higginson (New-Eng. Plantation, l. c., p. 120) also speaks of their being found. The question whether the oyster is an indigenous inhabitant of our bay, or only an introduced stranger, is considered by Dr. Gould (Report on Invert. Animals of Mass., pp. 135, 365).

[85] One of the fishes “in greatest request” among the Indians (p. 37). Wood says it “is as good as it is in England, and in great plenty in some places.”—New-Eng. Prospect, chap. ix.

[86] “The shads be bigger than the English shads, and fatter.”—Wood, l. c.

[87]Taut-auog (sheep’s-heads).” So Roger Williams’s Key, l. c., p. 224. It is probable, therefore, that our author had the fish that we call tautog in his mind here. What is now called sheep’s-head is not known in Massachusetts Bay and northward.—Storer, l. c., p. 36.

[88] See p. 34; and Wood, l. c., chap. ix.

[89] See p. 96. It appears to be the mollusk, the shell of which is well known as the razor-shell (Solen ensis, L.).—Gould, Report, p. 28.

[90] See p. 32. “The sturgeons be all over the country; but the best catching of them is upon the shoals of Cape Cod and in the river of Merrimack, where much is taken, pickled, and brought to England. Some of these be 12, 14, and 18 feet long.”—Wood, New-Eng. Prospect, chap. ix. R. Williams says that “the natives, for the goodness and greatness of it, much prize it; and will neither furnish the English with so many, nor so cheap, that any great trade is like to be made of it, until the English themselves are fit to follow the fishing.”—Key, l. c., p. 224. It is one of Josselyn’s eight fish which are in “greatest request” with the Indians (p. 37). He calls “Pechipscut” River, in Maine, “famous for multitudes of mighty large sturgeon.”—Voyages, p. 204.

[91] See Voyages, pp. 105-6.

[92] “This fish is much used for bait to catch a cod, hacke, polluck, and the like sea-fish.”—Voyages, p. 107. It is still so used.

[93] Described at p. 95.

[94] See p. 34 of this, and p. 109 of the Voyages, where the author says, “Of sea-turtles, there are five sorts; of land-turtles, three sorts,—one of which is a right land-turtle, that seldom or never goes into the water; the other two being the river-turtle and the pond-turtle.”—See also the author’s observations on sea-turtles, at p. 39 of the Voyages.

[95] “Trouts there be good store in every brook; ordinarily two and twenty inches long. Their grease is good for the piles and clifts.”—Voyages, p. 110.

[96] See Storer’s Report, p. 146.

[97] See p. 35; and Voyages, p. 104. “The natives cut them in several parcel, and give and send them far and near for an acceptable present or dish.”—R. Williams, Key, l. c., p. 224.

[98] See Voyages, p. 110. This is the common sea-egg; Echinus granulatus, Say.—Gould’s Rep., p. 344.

[99] See p. 24 and note.

[100] Our author’s account of the fishes of New England may take this of old Wood (N. E. Prospect, l. c.) for a tail-piece. “The chief fish for trade,” says he, “is a cod; but, for the use of the country, there is all manner of fish, as followeth:—

“The king of waters,—the sea-shouldering Whale;
The snuffing Grampus, with the oily seal;
The storm-presaging Porpus, Herring-hog;
Line-shearing Shark, the Cat-fish, and Sea-dog;
The scale-fenced Sturgeon; wry-mouthed Hollibut;
The flouncing Salmon, Codfish, Greedigut;
Cole, Haddick, Hake, the Thornback, and the Scate,
(Whose slimy outside makes him seld’ in date;)
The stately Bass, old Neptune’s fleeting post,
That tides it out and in from sea to coast;
Consorting Herrings, and the bony Shad;
Big-bellied Alewives; Mackrels richly clad
With rainbow-colour, the Frost-fish and the Smelt,
As good as ever Lady Gustus felt;
The spotted Lamprons; Eels; the Lamperies,
That seek fresh-water brooks with Argus-eyes:
These watery villagers, with thousands more,
Do pass and repass near the verdant shore.”

[101] See p. 97.

[102] The account in the Voyages (pp. 114-23) is better; and Wood’s, in New-England’s Prospect, chap. xi. (to which last, Josselyn was possibly indebted), far better.

[103] See “the generating of these creatures,” in Voyages, p. 119. “Here, likewise,” says Wood, “be great store of frogs, which, in the spring, do chirp and whistle like a bird; and, at the latter end of summer, croak like our English frogs.”—N. Eng. Prospect, l. c. In his Voyages, Josselyn speaks (as Wood had done) of the tree-toad, and also of another kind of toad; and of “the eft, or swift, ... a most beautiful creature to look upon; being larger than ours, and painted with glorious colours: but I lik’d him never the better for it” (p. 119).

[104] Wood’s account (New-Eng. Prospect, l. c.) is worth comparing with Higginson’s (New-England’s Plantation, l. c.) and with Josselyn’s, both here and at pp. 23 and 114 of the Voyages. Wood justly says of this “most poisonous and dangerous creature,” that it is “nothing so bad as the report goes of him.... He is naturally,” he continues, “the most sleepy and unnimble creature that lives; never offering to leap or bite any man, if he be not trodden on first: and it is their desire, in hot weather, to lie in paths where the sun may shine on them; where they will sleep so soundly, that I have known four men to stride over them, and never awake her.... Five or six men,” he adds, “have been bitten by them; which, by using of snake-weed” (compare the preface to this, p. 119), “were all cured; never any yet losing his life by them. Cows have been bitten; but, being cut in divers places, and this weed thrust into their flesh, were cured. I never heard of any beast that was yet lost by any of them, saving one mare” (l. c.). Of other serpents, Wood mentions the black snake; and Josselyn, in his Voyages (l. c.), speaks of “infinite numbers, of various colours;” and especially of “one sort that exceeds all the rest; and that is the checkquered snake, having as many colours within the checkquers shadowing one another as there are in a rainbow.” He says again, “The water-snake will be as big about the belly as the calf of a man’s leg” which is, perhaps, the water-adder. Josselyn adds, “I never heard of any mischief that snakes did” (l. c.); and so Wood: “Neither doth any other kind of snakes” (the rattle-snake always excepted, as no doubt dangerous when trodden on) “molest either man or beast.” There are perhaps no worse prejudices in common life, than those which breed cruelty. In the Voyages (p. 23), our author makes mention “of a sea-serpent, or snake, that lay quoiled up like a cable upon a rock at Cape Ann. A boat passing by with English aboard, and two Indians, they would have shot the serpent: but the Indians disswaded them; saying, that, if he were not kill’d outright, they would be all in danger of their lives.” This was from “some neighbouring gentlemen in our house, who came to welcome me into the countrey;” and it seems, that, “amongst variety of discourse, they told me also of a young lyon (not long before) killed at Piscataway by an Indian;” which, indeed, was possibly not without foundation. And as to the serpent, compare a Report of a Committee of the Linnæan Society of New England relative to a large marine animal, supposed to be a serpent, seen near Cape Ann, Mass., in August, 1817 (Boston, 1817); which contains also a full account of a smaller animal—supposed not to differ, even in species, from the large—which was taken on the rocks of Cape Ann.—See also Storer, Report on the Reptiles of Mass.; Supplement, p. 410.

[105] The author continues his entomological observations, in his Voyages, p. 115; and the account is fuller than Wood’s; New-England’s Prospect, chap. xi.

[106] Gerard by Johnson, p. 17,—Carex flava, L.; the first species of this genus indicated in North America, and common also to Europe. There is no doubt of the reference, taking Josselyn’s name to be meant for specific, and to refer to Gerard’s first figure with the same name. But it is certainly possible that our author had in view only a general reference to Gerard’s fourteenth chapter, “Of Hedgehog Grasse,” which brings together plants of very different genera; and, in this case, his name is of little account. Cutler (Account of Indig. Veg., l. c., 1785) mentions three genera of Cyperaceæ, but not Carex; nor did he ever publish that description of our true Gramineæ “and other native grasses,” which, he says (l. c., p. 407), “may be the subject of another paper.” The first edition of Bigelow’s Florula Bostoniensis (1814) has seven species of Carex, which are increased to seventeen in the second edition (1824); the list embracing the most common and conspicuous forms. The genus has since been made an object of special study, and the number of our species, in consequence, greatly increased. A list of Carices of the neighborhood of Boston, published by the present writer in 1841 (Hovey’s Mag. Hort.), gives forty-seven species; and Professor Dewey’s Report on the Herbaceous Plants of Massachusetts, in 1840, reckons ninety-one species within the limits of his work.

[107] Johnson’s Gerard, p. 42,—English matweed, or helme (the other species being excluded, as not English, by our author’s caption); which I take to be Calamagrostis arenaria (L.) Roth, of Gray, Man., p. 548; called sea-matweed in England, and common to Europe and America. But if the author only intended to refer to Gerard’s “Chapter 34, of Mat-weed,”—which is perhaps, on the whole, unlikely,—his name is of no value.

[108] Gerard, p. 46,—Typha latifolia, L.,—common to America and Europe.

[109] Gerard, p. 47,—Stellaria graminea, L.; for which our author mistook, as did Cutler a century after, the nearly akin S. longifolia, Muhl.

[110] Appears not to be meant for a specific reference to any of Gerard’s species; but only an indication of the genus, with the single distinguishing character of color, which was enough to separate the New-England plants from the only British one referred by Gerard to Iris. Both of our blue-flags are peculiar to the country.

[111] Not one of Gerard’s bastard daffodils, but his dog’s-tooth, p. 204 (Erythronium, L.). Our common dog’s-tooth was at first taken for a variety of the European, but is now reckoned distinct.

[112] Gerard, p. 205,—Orchis, L., etc. It is here clear that the name is used only in a general way. The second name (Satyrion), perhaps, however, makes our author’s notion a little more definite, and permits us to refer the plants he had probably in view to species of Platanthera, Rich. (Gray, Man., p. 444), of which only one is certainly known to be common to us and Europe.

[113] Gerard, em. p. 257,—Nasturtium officinale, L. Reckoned also by Cutler, and indeed naturalized in some parts of the country (Gray, Man., p. 30); but our author had probably N. palustre, DC. (marsh-cress), if any thing of this genus, and not rather Cardamine hirsuta, L. (hairy lady’s smock), in his mind. Both the last are common to us and Europe.—Gray, l. c.

[114] Gerard, p. 192. Lilium bulbiferum (the garden red lily) is meant; for which our author mistook our own red lily (L. Philadelphicum, L.).

[115] Of the two plants,—either of which may possibly have been in view of the author here,—the sorrell du bois, or white wood-sorrel of Gerard, p. 1101 (Oxalis acetosella, L.) which is truly common to Europe and America, and the sheep’s sorrel (Gerard, p. 397,—Rumex acetosella, L.), which inhabits, indeed, the whole northern hemisphere, but is taken by Dr. Gray to be a naturalized weed here, I incline to think the latter less likely to have escaped Josselyn’s attention than the former, and to be what he means to say appeared to him as native, in 1671. For the yellow wood-sorrel, see farther on.

[116] Gerard, em., p. 404,—Ophioglossum vulgatum, L.; common to us and Europe.

[117] Gerard, em., p. 409,—Smilacina bifolia (L.), Ker; common to us and Europe.

[118] Gerard, em., p. 410. A mistake of our author’s, which can hardly be set right. The station is against the plant’s having been Smilacina trifolia (L.), Desf. But it may be that Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf., was intended.

[119] Alisma plantago, L., common to Europe and America; “called, in New England, water suck-leaves and scurvie-leaves. You must lay them whole to the leggs to draw out water between the skin and the flesh.”—Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 80. As to its medicinal properties, see Gerard, p. 419; and Wood and Bache, Dispens., p. 1293.

[120] Plantago maritima, L. (Gerard, p. 423), a native of Europe and America, is our only sea-plantain. One of the others was probably Triglochin.

[121] Sagittaria sagittifolia, L. (now called arrowhead), common to Europe and America; though here passing into some varieties which are unknown in the European Floras.

[122] Gentiana saponaria, L., peculiar to America, but nearly akin to the European G. pneumonanthe, L., which our author intended.—Johnson’s Gerard, edit. cit., p. 438.

[123] The plant is green hellebore (Veratrum viride, Ait.); so near, indeed, to the white hellebore (V. album, L.) of Europe, that it was taken for it by Michaux. In his Voyages, the author, after speaking of the use of opium by the Turks, says, “The English in New England take white hellebore, which operates as fairly with them as with the Indians,” &c. (p. 60); and see p. 76, further.

[124] Polygonum lapathifolium, L. (Hydropiper of Gerard, p. 445),—for which, perhaps, P. hydropiper, L., was mistaken,—and P. Persicaria, L. (Persicaria maculosa of Gerard, l. c.), are what the author means; being the two sorts figured by Gerard himself. The third, added by Johnson, is unknown in this country; and the fourth belongs to a very different genus. P. Persicaria is marked as introduced in the late Mr. Oakes’s catalogue of the plants of Vermont; and both this and P. hydropiper are considered to be naturalized weeds by Dr. Gray (Man., p. 373). Josselyn’s testimony as to the former, as appearing to him to be native in 1671, is therefore not without interest; and possibly it is not quite worthless as to the latter.

[125] Chamæsyce, or spurge-time, of Gerard (edit. cit., p. 504), is Euphorbia chamæsyce, L., a species belonging to the Eastern continent; for which Sloane (cit. L. Sp. Pl. in loco) appears to have mistaken our Euphorbia maculata, L.; while Plukenet (Alm. 372, cit. L.) recognizes the affinity of the same plants, calling the latter Chamæsyce altera Virginiana. Josselyn’s spurge-time may be E. maculata; but quite possibly, taking the station which he gives into the account, E. polygonifolia, L.

[126] There are “several sorts of spurge,” according to the Voyages (p. 78); of which this, which I cannot specifically refer, is possibly one.

[127] To this species of Saxifraga, L., unknown to our Flora (Gerard, p. 528), our author, with little doubt, referred the pretty S. Virginiensis, Michx.—See p. 58 of this, note.

[128] Gerard, em., p. 535,—Salicornia herbacea, L. But Linnæus referred one of Clayton’s Virginia specimens (the rest he did not distinguish from S. herbacea) to a variety, β. Virginica (which he took to be also European; Sp. Pl.), and afterwards raised this to a species, as S. Virginica, Syst. Nat., vol. ii. p. 52, Willd. Sp. Pl., vol. i. p. 25. To this the more common glasswort of our salt marshes is to be referred; and we possess, beside, a still better representative of the European plant in S. mucronata, Bigel. (Fl. Bost., edit. 2, p. 2), which may perhaps best be taken for a peculiar variety (S. herbacea, β. mucronata, articulorum dentibus squamisque mucronatis, Enum. Pl. Cantab., Ms.; and S. Virginica may well be another) of a species common to us and Europe. It is certain that we have plants strictly common to American and European Floras, in which the differences referable to difference of atmospheric and other like conditions are either not apparent or of no account; and it is possible that there are yet other species, now considered peculiar to America, which only differ from older European species in those characters—whether of exuberance mostly, or also of impoverishment—in which an American variety of a plant, common to America and Europe, might beforehand be expected to differ from an European state of the same. “Linnæus ut Tournefortii errores corrigeret, varietates nimis contraxit.”—Link, Phil. Bot., p. 222.

[129] Hypericum perforatum, L. (“Hypericum, S. John’s-wort; in shops, Perforata.”—Gerard, edit. cit., p. 539). The species is considered to have been introduced, by most American authors; and it is possible that Josselyn had H. corymbosum, Muhl., in his mind.

[130] Hypericum quadrangulum, L. (Gerard, p. 542); for which our author doubtless mistook H. mutilum, L. (H. parviflorum, Willd.), a species peculiar to America; to which Cutler’s H. quadrangulum (Account of Indig. Veg., l. c., p. 474) is probably also to be referred.

[131] Veronica arvensis, L. (Gerard, p. 613),—a native, at present, of Europe, Asia, Northern Africa, and North America (Benth., in DC. Prodr., vol. x. p. 482); but considered to have been introduced here.

[132] Veronica, L. The species is perhaps V. officinalis, L.; which, together with V. serpyllifolia, L., is considered by Prof. Gray to be both indigenous and introduced here.—Man. Bot., pp. 200-1.

[133] Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers. (American pennyroyal), is doubtless meant. The specific name indicates its resemblance—in smell and taste particularly—to Mentha pulegium, L.; for which our author and Cutler (l. c., p. 461) mistook it. But the former is peculiar to America.

[134] Mentha aquatica, L. Sp. Pl. (Gerard, p. 684); for which it is likely our author (and also Cutler, l. c., p. 460) mistook M. Canadensis, L., Gray.

[135] Nepeta cataria, L. (Gerard, em., p. 682); considered by American botanists to have been introduced from Europe.

[136] Agrimonia Eupatoria, L. (Gerard, em., p. 712); common to America and Europe.

[137] Xanthium strumarium, L., Gray (Gerard, p. 809); common, as a species, to both continents; but in part, also, introduced.—Gray, Man., p. 212.

[138] Nuphar advena, Ait.,—the common American species,—is meant; and this, though resembling N. lutea, Sm., of Europe, is distinct from it.

[139] Arum, L. (Gerard, p. 381). The New-England species “differ,” as our author says, “from all the kinds” in the Old World.

[140] None of the species, presumably here meant, are common to America and Europe. Our author’s white violet is Viola blanda, Willd.

[141] All our true honeysuckles (“woodbinde, or honisuckles,”—Gerard, p. 891; Caprifolium, Juss.) are distinct from those of Europe; but what the author meant here is uncertain.

[142] Convallaria, L.; Polygonatum, Tourn.; Smilacina, Desf. Many botanists have referred our smaller Solomon’s seal to the nearly akin C. multiflora of Europe; but Dr. Gray (Manual, p. 466) pronounces the former a distinct American species. The second of Josselyn’s species is the “Polygonatum Virginianum, or Virginian’s Salomon’s seale” of Johnson’s Gerard (p. 905), and also of Morison (Hist., cit. L.), and earliest described and figured by Cornuti as P. Canadense, &c., which is Smilacina stellata, (L.) Desf.; peculiar to America. The third is set down by our author, at p. 56, among the “plants proper to the country;” and Wood (New-Eng. Prospect, chap. v.) mentions it among eatable wild fruits, by the same name. It is probably Smilacina racemosa, (L.) Desf.,—a suggestion which I owe to my friend Rev. J. L. Russell’s notes upon Josselyn’s plants, in Hovey’s Magazine (March, April, and May, 1858); papers which were published after the manuscript of this edition had passed from the hands of the editor,—and is also confined to this continent.

[143] Geranium, L. The first is G. Carolinianum, L., which nearly resembles Gerard’s dove’s-foot (p. 938); the second is G. Robertianum, L., common to us and Europe; and the third (Gerard, p. 940)—which cannot be G. dissectum—was meant, it is likely to be taken for synonymous with the fourth, or raven’s-claw,—doubtless our lovely G. maculatum, L., which belongs to that group of species which the old botanists distinguished by the common name Geranium batrachioides, or crow-foot geranium, which flowers in May, and is of well-known value in medicine; and the “knobby” root, attributed to Josselyn’s third kind, favors this opinion.

[144] The genus Potentilla, L., in general, is perhaps intended by cinque-foil; and although our author probably confounded the common and variable Potentilla Canadensis, L., with the nearly akin P. reptans and P. verna, L., of Europe, yet the larger part of our New-England species are, with little doubt, common to both continents. What Josselyn referred to Tormentilla, L.,—a genus not now separated from Potentilla,—was probably a state of P. Canadensis, which resembles P. reptans, L., as remarked above (and was, indeed, mistaken for it by Cutler,—l. c., p. 453), as this does Tormentilla reptans, L.

[145] Geum strictum, Ait.,—not found in England, but European (Gray, Man., p. 116),—is indicated by the author’s phrase; and see the Voyages, p. 78, for his opinion of its medicinal virtue.

[146] Fragaria vesca, L. (the common wood-strawberry of Europe), is native here, according to Oakes (Catal. Verm., p. 12), “especially on mountains;” and I have even gathered it, but possibly naturalized, on the woody banks of Fresh Pond in Cambridge. Our more common strawberry was not separated from the European by Linnæus, but is now reckoned a distinct species. “There is likewise strawberries in abundance,” says Wood (New-England’s Prospect, l. c.),—“very large ones; some being two inches about. One may gather half a bushel in a forenoon.”—“This berry,” says Roger Williams (Key, in Hist. Coll., vol. iii. p. 221), “is the wonder of all the fruits growing naturally in those parts. It is of itself excellent; so that one of the chiefest doctors of England was wont to say, that God could have made, but God never did make, a better berry. In some parts, where the natives have planted, I have many times seen as many as would fill a good ship, within few miles’ compass. The Indians bruise them in a mortar, and mix them with meal, and make strawberry-bread.” Gookin also speaks of Indian-bread.—Mass. Hist. Coll., vol. i. p. 150.

[147] The two plants here intended, and supposed by the author to correspond with the “wild angelica” and “great wilde angelica” of Gerard (pp. 999-1000), may perhaps be taken for the same which Cornuti (Canad. Pl. Hist., pp. 196-200), thirty years before, had designated as new,—Josselyn’s Angelica sylvestris minor being Angelica lucida Canadensis of Cornuti, which is A. lucida, L. (and probably, as the French botanist describes the fruit as “minus foliacea vulgaribus,” also Archangelica peregrina, Nutt.); and his Angelica sylvestris major being A. atropurpurea Canadensis of Cornuti, or A. atropurpurea, L.

[148] Smyrnium aureum, L. (golden Alexanders), now separated from that genus, was mistaken, it is quite likely, for S. olusatrum, L. (true Alexanders), to which it bears a considerable resemblance.—Gerard, p. 1019.

[149] Achillea millefolium, L. Oakes has marked this as introduced (Catal. Vermont, p. 17): but it appeared to our author, in 1672, to be indigenous; and Dr. Gray reckons it among plants common to both hemispheres.—Statistics of Amer. Flora, in Am. Jour. Sci., vol. xxiii. p. 70. The author’s reference is to common yarrow.—Gerard, p. 1072.

[150] Aquilegia Canadensis, L. As elsewhere, the author probably means here only that the genus is common to both continents.

[151] At p. 56, both of these are set down among the “plants proper to the country.” The first, to follow Gerard (p. 1108), is Chenopodium botrys, L.,—a native of the south of Europe, and considered as an introduced species here. It has reputation in diseases of the chest.—Wood & Bache, Dispens., p. 213. Josselyn’s oak of Cappadocia (Gerard, p. 1108) is an American species,—Ambrosia elatior, L. Cutler says of it (l. c., p. 489), “It has somewhat the smell of camphire. It is used in antiseptick fomentations.”

[152] Galium aparine, L. (Gerard, edit. cit., p. 1122), common to America and Europe.—Compare Gray, Man., p. 170.

[153] The “Filix mas, or male ferne,” of Gerard, edit. cit., p. 1128 (for, says he, of the “divers sorts of ferne ... there be two sorts, according to the old writers,—the male and the female; and these be properly called ferne: the others have their proper names”), is the collective designation of four species of Aspidium; of which all, according to Pursh, and certainly three, are natives of both continents,—AA. cristatum, Filix mas, Filix fæmina, and aculeatum, Willd. “Filix fæmina (female ferne, or brakes,)” of Gerard, l. c. is Pteris aquilina, L.; also common to us and Europe. The other Filices mentioned by our author are Ophioglossum vulgatum, L. (p. 42); and Adiantum pedatum, L. (p. 55).

[154] Oxalis corniculata, L. (Gerard, em., p. 1202), common to Europe and America.

[155] Ulmus, L. There are no species common to America and Europe.

[156] See the Voyages, p. 69, where the author has it “the line-tree, with long nuts: the other kind I could never find.” The former was Tilia Americana, L.,—a species peculiar to America.

[157] See p. 48; and Voyages, p. 69. None of our species are found in Europe.

[158] The plant intended is doubtless the same with that spoken of in the Voyages, p. 80.—“Rosa solis, sundew, moor-grass. This plant I have seen more of than ever I saw in my whole life before in England,” &c. Both our common New-England species of Drosera are also natives of Europe.

[159] “Differing much from those in England. One sort of them bears a most beautiful flower” (p. 56, where it is rightly placed among plants “proper to the country”). The author refers here, doubtless, to Apios tuberosa, Moench. (ground-nut of New England), which was raised at Paris, from American seeds, by Vespasian Robin, and figured from his specimens by Cornuti (Canad., p. 200) in 1635; but it was celebrated, ten years earlier, in “Nova Anglia,”—a curious poem by the Rev. William Morrell, who came over with Capt. Robert Gorges in 1623, and spent about a year at Weymouth and Plymouth, publishing his book in 1625 (repr. Hist. Coll., vol. i. p. 125, &c.),—as follows:—

“Vimine gramineo nux subterranea suavis
Serpit humi, tenui flavo sub cortice, pingui
Et placido nucleo nivei candoris ab intra,
Melliflua parcos hilarans dulcedine gustus,
Donec in æstivum Phœbus conscenderit axem.
His nucleis laute versutus vescitur Indus:
His exempta fames segnis nostratibus omnis
Dulcibus his vires revocantur victibus almæ.”

[160] See p. 52 and Voyages (pp. 70, 81) for other notices of Fungi; and Voyages, p. 81, for the only mention of Algæ.

[161] Female pimpernell (Gerard, em., p. 617),—Anagallis arvensis, γ, Sm.; A. cærulea, Schreb.,—but scarcely differing, except in color, from the scarlet pimpernel, which has long (“in clayey ground,”—Cutler, l. c., 1785) been an inhabitant of the coasts of Massachusetts Bay, though doubtless introduced.

[162] Hepatica triloba, Chaix. (Anemone hepatica, L.), common to Europe and America; occurring occasionally with white flowers.—Gerard, em., p. 1203.

[163] Rubus, L. The red raspberry of this country is hardly other than an American variety of the European (R. Idæus, var. strigosus, caule petiolis pedunculis calyceque aculeato-hispidissimis, Enum. Pl. Agri Cantab, 1843, Ms.); upon which see Gray (Man., p. 121; and Statistics, &c., l. c., p. 81). R. triflorus, Richards., is also very near to, and was once considered the same as, the European R. saxatilis, L. The rest of our New-England raspberries and blackberries appear to be specifically distinct from those of Europe. The cloud-berry, mentioned at p. 60, is there set down among plants proper to the country; and may therefore not be the true cloud-berry (Gerard, p. 1273), or Rubus chamæmorus, L., which is common to both continents.

[164] The New-England gooseberries are peculiar to this country. The author no doubt intends Ribes hirtellum, Michx. (Gray, Man., p. 137); as see further his Voyages, p. 72.

[165] Cratægus, L. But the species are peculiar to this country, as Josselyn implies with respect to the haws which he notices. These, no doubt, included C. tomentosa, L., Gray; and perhaps, also, C. coccinea, L. Wood says, “The white thorn affords hawes as big as an English cherry; which is esteemed above a cherry for his goodness and pleasantness to the taste.”—New-England’s Prospect, chap. v. At page 72 of his Voyages, the author mentions “a small shrub, which is very common; growing sometimes to the height of elder; bearing a berry like in shape to the fruit of the white thorn; of a pale, yellow colour at first, then red (when it is ripe, of a deep purple); of a delicate, aromatical tast, but somewhat stiptick,”—which may be Pyrus arbutifolia, L. Higginson (New-England’s Plantation, l. c., p. 119) speaks of our haws almost as highly as Wood.

[166] Great toad-flax (Gerard, em., p. 550); Linaria vulgaris, Moench. Compare De Candolle (Geog. Bot., vol. ii. p. 716) for a sketch of the American history of this now familiar plant, which the learned author cannot trace before Bigelow’s date (Fl. Bost., edit. 1) of 1814. But it is certainly Cutler’s “snapdragon; ... blossoms yellow, with a mixture of scarlet; common by roadsides in Lynn and Cambridge” (l. c., 1785): though he strangely prefixes the Linnæan phrase for Antirrhinum Canadense, L.; and there seems no reason to doubt that Josselyn may very well have seen it in 1671.

[167] Gerard, p. 653 (Teucrium, L.). The author may have intended to reckon the genus only. Our species is peculiar to this continent.

[168] The designation is uncertain. The old botanists gave the name Auricula muris, or mouse-ear, to species of Myosotis, Draba, Hieracium, and Gnaphalium. Josselyn’s plant may most probably be Antennaria plantaginifolia, Hook. (mouse-ear of New England), which is very near to A. dioica of Europe.—Gray, Statistics, &c., l. c., p. 81.

[169] Quercus alba, L.; Q. rubra, L.; and Q. tinctoria, Bartr. Wood’s account of the oaks (New-England’s Prospect, chap. v.) is similar. In his Voyages, p. 61, Josselyn gives us “the ordering of red oake for wainscot. When they have cut it down and clear’d it from the branches, they pitch the body of the tree in a muddy place in a river, with the head downward, for some time. Afterwards they draw it out; and, when it is seasoned sufficiently, they saw it into boards for wainscot; and it will branch out into curious works.”

[170] Juniperus communis, L.; common to both continents. But the author did not probably distinguish from it J. Virginiana, L.; which is frequent, and often dwarfish, near the sea.

[171] Salix, L.; the genus only meant here, it is likely.

[172] Daphne Laureola, L. (Gerard, p. 1404), with which Josselyn may have considered Kalmia angustifolia, L., in some sort allied. The latter has long been known in New England as dwarf or low laurel.

[173] Myrica Gale, L. (Gerard, p. 1414); common to Europe and America.

[174] Sambucus, L. Our S. Canadensis, L. differs very little from the common elder of Europe, except, as our author in his Voyages says (p. 71), in being “shrubbie,” and in not having “a smell so strong.”—Cf. DC. Prodr., vol. ii. p. 322; Gerard, p. 1421. The other North-American elder (S. pubens, Michx.) is at least equally near to the European S. racemosa, L., according to Prof. Gray.

[175] “There is a sort of dwarf-elder, that grows by the sea-side, that hath a red pith. The berries of both”—that is, of this and of the true elder mentioned above—“are smaller than English elder; not round, but corner’d.”—Voyages, p. 71. Gerard’s dwarf-elder (p. 1425) is Sambucus ebulus, L. Josselyn’s may have been a Viburnum; for this genus was confused with Sambucus by the elder botanists. Wood (New-England Prospect, chap. v.) speaks of—

“Small eldern, by the Indian fletchers sought;”—

which was perhaps arrow-wood, or Viburnum dentatum, L.

[176] Alnus, Tourn. One of the three New-England species (A. incana, Willd.) is common to Europe and America. Another (A. serrulata, Willd.) “bears so great a resemblance,” says F. A. Michaux, to the common European alder (A. glutinosa, Willd.) “in its flowers, its seeds, its leaves, its wood, and its bark, as to render a separate figure unnecessary; the only difference observable between them” being “that the European species is larger, and has smaller leaves.”—Sylva, vol. ii. p. 114. Compare Gray, Statistics, &c., l. c., p. 83. A. viridis, our third species, is common to Europe and this country.

[177] Corylus, L. Our species, which are peculiar to America, are both indicated: the “filberd, ... with hairy husks upon the nuts,” being C. rostrata, Ait. (beaked hazel); and that “setting hollow from the nut,”—that is, larger than the nut.—C. Americana, Wangenh. (common hazel).

[178] Carya, Nutt. In the Voyages, p. 69, the author speaks of the “walnut, which is divers: some bearing square nuts; others like ours, but smaller. There is likewise black walnut, of precious use for tables, cabinets, and the like” (Juglans nigra, L.). “The walnut-tree,” continues Josselyn, “is the toughest wood in the countrie, and therefore made use of for hoops and bowes; there being no yews there growing. In England, they made their bowes usually of witch-hasel” (that is, witch-elm,—Ulmus montana, Bauh., Lindl.; as see Gerard, p. 1481: but Carpinus, “in Essex, is called witch-hasell,”—ib.), “ash, yew, the best of outlandish elm; but the Indians make theirs of walnut.” This was hickory, and what Wood says belongs doubtless to the same. He calls it “something different from the English walnut; being a great deal more tough and more serviceable, and altogether heavy. And whereas our guns, that are stocked with English walnut, are soon broken and cracked in frost,—being a brittle wood,—we are driven to stock them new with the country walnut, which will endure all blows and weather; lasting time out of mind.” After speaking favorably of the fruit, he adds (New-Eng. Prospect, chap. vi.), “There is likewise a tree, in some parts of the country, that bears a nut as big as a pear,”—the butternut, doubtless (Juglans cinerea, L.). Josselyn has told us (p. 48) of the oil which the Indians managed to get from the acorns of the white oak. Roger Williams (Key, l. c., p. 220) says our native Americans made “of these walnuts ... an excellent oil, good for many uses, but especially for the anointing of their heads.” Michaux (Sylva, vol. i. p. 163) says the Indians used the oil of the butternut, and also (p. 185) of the shag-bark, “to season their aliments.” Williams adds (l. c.), “Of the chips of the walnut-tree—the bark taken off—some English in the country make excellent beer, both for taste, strength, colour, and inoffensive opening operation.”

[179] Castanea vesca, Gaertn.; common to Europe and America. Our chestnut is considered to differ from the European only as an American variety of a species common to both continents might be expected to. “The Indians have an art of drying their chestnuts, and so to preserve them in their barns for a dainty all the year.”—R. Williams, l. c.

[180] Neither Wood nor R. Williams makes mention of it. The younger Michaux considered our beech distinct from the European; but Mr. Nuttall makes it only a variety of it; while Prof. Gray puts both trees in his list of “very close representative species.”—Statistics, &c., l. c., p. 81.

[181] Fraxinus, L. Our species are peculiar to this continent. I cannot account for Wood’s saying, “It is different from the ash of England; being brittle and good for little, so that walnut is used for it.”—New-Eng. Prospect, chap. vi.

[182] Sorbus, L. (Gerard, p. 1473). Our mountain-ash (S. Americana, Willd.) is quite near to the quicken, or mountain-ash of the north of Europe (S. aucuparia, L.); but hardly, perhaps, to be reduced to an American variety of it, as the elder Michaux (Fl. Amer., vol. i. p. 290) proposed. Compare Gray, Statistics, &c., l. c., p. 82.

[183] Except the small white birch (B. populifolia, Ait.), which Mr. Spach reduces to a variety of the European B. alba, L.,—in which he is sustained by Prof. Gray (Man., p. 411),—and the dwarf-birch (B. nana, L.) of our alpine regions, all our species are peculiar to this continent.—See the author’s Voyages, p. 69, for another mention of the birches.

[184] Populus, L. Our species are peculiar to the country, as the author’s remark suggests. Wood (l. c.) notices “the ever-trembling asps.”

[185] “The plumbs of the country be better for plumbs than the cherries be for cherries. They be black and yellow; about the bigness of damsons; of a reasonable good taste.”—New-Eng. Prospect, chap. v. Prunus maritima, Wangenh. (beech-plum), and P. Americana, Marsh. (wild yellow plum), are no doubt here intended; as also, it is likely, by Josselyn, who, it is evident, in this place had only the genus in mind as “common with us in England.”—See p. 61 for the author’s mention of the “wild cherry.”

[186] Portulaca oleracea, L. (Gerard, p. 521). “In cornfields. It is eaten as a pot-herb, and esteemed by some as little inferior to asparagus.”—Cutler; Account of Indigenous Vegetables (1785), l. c., p. 447. Considered to have been introduced here; but our author enables us to carry back the date of its introduction, without reasonable doubt, to the first settlement of the country. “Purslain, Mr. Glover says, is also very common in Virginia, and troublesome too, to the tobacco-planters.” Sir Philip Skippon to Ray, Feb. 11, 1675-6, in Ray Society’s Corresp. of John Ray, p. 121. Mr. Nuttall regarded the species as indigenous on the plains of the Missouri; but this plant, “too closely resembling the common purslane,” according to Prof. Gray (Man., p. 64), has been separated as specifically distinct by Dr. Engelmann.

[187] Genista tinctoria, L. (Genistella tinctoria,—greenweed, or dyers’ weed; Gerard, p. 1316). “We shall not need to speake of the use that diers make thereof,” says the latter. Our author could hardly have been mistaken about so well-known a plant as this; which he probably met with in one of his visits to the neighborhood of Boston,—long the only American station for it. There is a tradition that it was introduced here by Gov. Endicott; which may have been some forty years before Josselyn finished his herborizing,—enough to account for its naturalization then. It was long confined to Salem (“pastures between New Mills and Salem,”—Cutler, l. c., 1785); but occurred to me sparingly, in 1841, on the shores of Cambridge Bay, and also on roadsides in Old Cambridge. “Woad-seed” is set down, in a memorandum of the Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay, before February, 1628, to be sent to New England (Mass. Col. Rec., vol. i. p. 24); and though Isatis tinctoria, L., is true woad, Reseda luteola, L. (wold, or weld), and our Genista (woadwaxen), have, it is said (Rees’s Cycl., in loco), been known “in English herbals under that name.”

[188] “Current-bushes are of two kinds,—red and black. The black currents, which are larger than the red, ... are reasonable pleasant in eating.”—Voyages, p. 72. Our black currant is Ribes floridum, Herit.,—considered by Linnæus (Sp. Pl., p. 291) only a variety of R. nigrum, L., the true black currant of the gardens; and our red currant, which I have gathered in the White Mountains,—far below the region of R. rigens, Michx., the more common red currant there,—appears to be undistinguishable from R. rubrum, L. (the red currant of gardens); unless, possibly, as an American variety of it. This is probably R. albinervium, Michx. (Fl., vol. i. p. 110; Pursh, Fl., vol. i. p. 163).

[189] Polyporus, Mich., sp.—In his Voyages, p. 70, the author speaks of “a stately tree growing here and there in valleys, not like to any trees in Europe; having a smooth bark, of a dark-brown colour, the leaves like great maple in England called sycamor; but larger,”—which may be Platanus occidentalis, L. (button-wood). And Wood enables us to add one more to this early account of the genera of plants, which we possess, common to the Old World. He tells us (New-England’s Prospect, chap. v.) “the hornbound tree is a tough kind of wood, that requires so much pains in riving as is almost incredible; being the best to make bowls and dishes, not being subject to crack or leak. This tree growing with broad-spread arms, the vines twist their curling branches about them; which vines afford great store of grapes,” &c. This was our American hornbeam (Carpinus Americana, L.). And the same author again alludes to it, in verse, as—

“The horn-bound tree, that to be cloven scorns;
Which from the tender vine oft takes his spouse,
Who twines embracing arms about his boughs.”

A pleasant enough illustration of what taught classical husbandry,—“ulmis adjungere vites.”—Georg., i. 2.

[190] See also the Voyages, p. 73. “It is almost incredible,” says Higginson (New-England’s Plantation, l. c., p. 118), “what great gaine some of our English planters have had by our Indian corne. Credible persons have assured me,—and the partie himselfe avouched the truth of it to me,—that, of the setting of thirteen gallons of corne, hee hath had encrease of it 52 hogsheads; every hogshead holding seven bushels, of London measure: and every bushell was by him sold and trusted to the Indians for so much beaver as was worth 18 shillings. And so, of this 13 gallons of corne, which was worth 6 shillings 8 pence, he made about 327 pounds of it the yeere following, as by reckoning will appeare; where you may see how God blessed husbandry in this land. There is not such greate and plentifull eares of corne, I suppose, any where else to bee found but in this countrey; because, also of varietie of colours,—as red, blew, and yellow, &c.: and of one corne there springeth four or five hundred.” Roger Williams (Key, l. c., pp. 208, 221) has some interesting particulars of the Indian use of their corn. According to him, the Indian msickquatash (that is succotash, as we call it now) was “boiled corn whole,” and nawsaump, a kind of meal pottage unparched. From this the English call their samp; which is the Indian corn beaten and boiled, and eaten, hot or cold; with milk or butter,—which are mercies beyond the natives’ plain water, and which is a dish exceeding wholesome for the English bodies.

[191] Acorus Calamus, L.; common to Europe and America. In his Voyages, p. 77, the author drops properly, in mentioning this, the injurious prefix. It seems that our New-England forefathers used the leaves to cover their cold floors, as they had used rushes at home; and, according to Sir W. J. Hooker (Br. Fl., vol. i. p. 159), the pleasant smell of the plant has recommended it, in like manner, “for strewing on the floor of the cathedral at Norwich, on festival days.”

[192] Allium Canadense, L., probably.—See also p. 55, note 4.

[193] “Knaves’-mustard (for that it is too bad for honest men).”—Gerard, p. 262. The “New-England mustard,” which was like it, may be Lepidium Virginicum, L.; which, having “a taste like common garden-cress, or peppergrass” (Bigel., Fl. Bost., in loco), perhaps attracted the first settlers.

[194] The “many flowers,” with reflexed sepals, perhaps refer this to our noble American Turk’s-cap (Lilium superbum, L.), rather than to the yellow lily (L. Canadense, L.).

[195] See p. 81.

[196] “They take their wuttammauog,—that is, a weak tobacco,—which the men plant themselves, very frequently. Yet I never see any take so excessively as I have seen men in Europe; and yet excess were more tolerable in them, because they want the refreshing of beer and wine, which God had vouchsafed Europe.”—R. Williams, Key, l. c., p. 213. And, in another place, the same writer says that tobacco is “commonly the only plant which men labour in” (he is speaking of the Indians); “the women managing all the rest” (p. 208). Wood, in his list of Indian words (New-Eng. Prospect, ad ult.), spells the Indian word, above given, ottommaocke,—(perhaps both are comparable with “wuttahimneash, strawberries” Williams, l. c., p. 220), and “weetimoquat, it smells sweet” (Vocab. of Narraganset Lang., in Hist. Coll., vol. v. p. 82); og, ock, and ash, being all plural terminations; between which and “the noun in the singular one or more consonants or vowels are frequently interspersed” (ibid., vol. iii. p. 222, note); and oquat, from the context, the verbal; and the root appearing possibly the same,—and also defines it as tobacco. There is much other testimony that the New-England savages were found using “tobacco” (as Mourt’s Relation, l. c., p. 230; and Winslow’s Relation, l. c., p. 253); but our author’s text, above, appears to distinguish the true herb, “not much planted,” from “a small kind called pooke,” which “the Indians make use of.” And again, more clearly, in his Voyages, we have to the same effect: “the Indians in New England use a small, round-leafed tobacco, called by them or the fishermen poke. It is odious to the English.... Of marchantable ... tobacco, ... there is little of it planted in New England; neither have they” (both clauses appear to refer to the English) “learned the right way of curing of it.” This “marchantable tobacco” was no doubt mainly Nicotiana tabacum, L.; but the other kind, the weak tobacco,—cultivated, as Williams tells us, by the Indians, and recognized as tobacco by the English,—was not, as Wood says (N. E. Prospect, l. c.), colt’s-foot, but Nicotiana rustica, L. (the yellow henbane of Gerard’s Herbal, p. 356), well known to have been long in cultivation among the American savages, and now a naturalized relic of that cultivation in various parts of the United States. The name, poke, or pooke,—if it be, as is supposable, the same with “puck, smoke,” of the Narraganset vocabulary of R. Williams (Hist. Coll., vol. v. p. 84),—was perhaps always indefinite, and, since Cutler’s day, has been applied in New England to the green hellebore (Veratrum viride, Ait.); but this was not, it is evident, the poke of the first settlers. The name is also given to Phytolacca decandra, L. (the skoke of Cutler), and the hellebore apparently distinguished from this as Indian poke; but the application of the name to the former, at least, probably had its origin among the whites.

[197] The figure sufficiently exhibits Sarracenia purpurea, L.

[198] “Live-for-ever. It is a kind of cud-weed.... It growes now plentifully in our English gardens.... The fishermen, when they want” (that is, lack) “tobacco, take this herb; being cut and dryed.”—Voyages, p. 78; where the author adds the peculiar medicinal virtues of the plant, which are the same as those assigned by Gerard (p. 644) to the genus. Compare, as to this, Wood and Bache, Dispens., p. 1334. The species intended by Josselyn is our everlasting (Antennaria margaritacea (L.) Br.), described by Gerard, and figured by Johnson in his edition of the former (p. 641), and first published by Clusius (Gnaphalium Americanum, Rar. Pl. Hist., vol. i. p. 327) in 1601. Clusius had it from England, says Johnson. The dried herb, used by the fishermen instead of tobacco, and no doubt called by them poke, may have been mistaken by Wood for colt’s-foot, the leaves of which were “smoked by the ancients in pulmonary complaints; ... and, in some parts of Germany, are at the present time said to be substituted for tobacco.”—Wood and Bache, Dispens., p. 1401. Cornus sericea, L.,—“called by the natives squaw-bush” (Williamson’s Hist. Maine, vol. i. p. 125), and by the western Indians kinnikinnik (Gray, Man., p. 161); furnished, in its inner bark (on the medicinal properties of which, see especially Rees’s Cycl., Amer. ed., in loco), a substitute for Nicotiana,—very widely approved among the native Americans. The name, Indian tobacco, given to Lobelia inflata, L. (the emetic-weed of Cutler, l. c., p. 484; who “first attracted to it the attention of the profession”), by the whites, is in some connections confusing, and might well be displaced by wild tobacco, which is also in popular use.

[199] Œnothera biennis, L. (Johnson’s Gerard, p. 475),—known to Europeans, according to Linnæus (Sp. Pl., p. 493), as early as 1614; but first described and figured by Prosper Alpinus, in his posthumous De Pl. Exoticis, p. 325, t. 324, cit. L. Johnson says that Parkinson gave it the English name of tree-primrose, which it still keeps. It is “vulgarly known by the name of scabish (a corruption, probably of scabious)” in the country.—Bigel. Fl. Bost., in loco. Josselyn describes the plant in his Voyages, p. 78.

[200] Adiantum pedatum, L.—The European A. Camillus veneris, L., long used as a pectoral (the sirop de capillaire of French shops being made of it), is, according to Messrs. Wood and Bache (Dispens., p. 1290), “feebler” than our species, which Josselyn recommends.

[201] See pp. 67, 68.

[202] Johnson’s Gerard, p. 183: which is perhaps Allium magicum, L.; for which our A. tricoccum, Ait., may have been mistaken.—See also p. 54 of this; note.

[203] Epilobium angustifolium, L. (rosebay willow-herbe of Gerard by Johnson); which last figures it at p. 477: common to Europe and America; but some botanists have, like Josselyn, reckoned the American plant “proper to the country.”

[204] Helianthus, L. (Gerard, p. 751), a genus peculiar to America; called “American marygold” in the Voyages (p. 59), where it is set down among the more striking of our New-England flowers. At p. 82 of this book, the author gives a cut of the “marygold of America,” which he describes. It is probably the second one above mentioned, and perhaps H. strumosus, L., Gray. The other kind, with “black seeds,” was probably H. divaricatus, L.

[205] See p. 47. The earth-nuts of Gerard (p. 1064) are species of Bulbocastanum of authors.

[206] Not clear to me. But, taking the alleged virtues and the station into account, our author may mean here the rather striking American sea-rocket (Cakile Americana, Nutt.); which, it is likely, occurred to him. Spurge-time (p. 43) also grows on “sea-banks.”

[207] “French beans; or, rather, American beans. The herbalists call them kidney-beans, from their shape and effects; for they strengthen the kidneys. They are variegated much,—some being bigger, a great deal, than others; some white, black, red, yellow, blue, spotted: besides your Bonivis, and Calavances, and the kidney-bean that is proper to Ronoake. But these are brought into the country: the other are natural to the climate.”—Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 73-4. R. Williams (Key, l. c., p. 208) gives manusquussedash as the Indian word for beans. Cornuti (whose book, indeed, is not confined to Canadian plants; though, on the other hand, he was sometimes ill informed of the true locality of his specimens; as in the case of Asclepias Cornuti, Decsne, which he published as A. Syriaca) figures and describes, at pp. 184-5, Phaseolus multiflorus, L.; and this may possibly have been raised from seeds procured by French missionaries from the Canadian savages: but P. vulgaris, L., our well-known bush-bean, is doubtless what Josselyn has mainly in view, as cultivated by the native Americans.

[208]Askutasquash,—their vine-apples,—which the English, from them, call squashes: about the bigness of apples of several colours.”—R. Williams, Key, &c., l. c., p. 222. “In summer, when their corn is spent, isquotersquashes is their best bread; a fruit much like a pumpion.”—Wood, New-Eng. Prospect, part 2, chap. vi. The late Dr. T. W. Harris made the ill-understood edible gourds a special object of study, and devoted particular attention to the ascertaining of the kinds cultivated by the American savages; but his papers have not as yet seen the light. The warted squash (Cucurbita verrucosa, L.) and the orange-gourd (C. aurantium, Willd.)—the fruit of which last is of the size and color of an orange, and “more tender than the common pompion” (Loudon, Encycl. Pl.)—are perhaps, in part, intended by our author.

[209] “Pompions and water-mellons, too, they have good store,” says our author (Voyages, p. 130); and again, at p. 74 of the same, “The water-melon is proper to the countrie. The flesh of it is of a flesh-colour; a rare cooler of feavers, and excellent against the stone.” The water-melon (Cucurbita citrullus, L.) is “the only medicine the common people use in ardent fevers,” in Egypt (Loudon, l. c.). Cucurbita pepo, L. (Gr. πέπων; Low Dutch, pepoen, pompoen; Fr., pompone), is our English pompion, or pumpkin. At p. 91, Josselyn speaks of pompions “proper to the country.” Compare Gerard’s chapter “of melons, or pompions” (Johnson’s Gerard, p. 918), where are two Virginian sorts; and see “the ancient New-England standing dish,” at p. 91 of this book. The evidence appears to be sufficient, that our savages had in cultivation, together with their corn and tobacco,—and, like these, derived originally from tropical regions,—several sorts of what we call squashes, some kinds of pompion, and also water-melons; and, Graves’s letter (New-England Plantation, l. c., p. 124) adds, musk-melons. See further, especially, Champlain (Voy. de la Nouv. France, passim) and L’Escarbot (Hist. de la Nouv. France, vol. ii. p. 836). Mr. A. De Candolle (Geogr. Bot., vol. ii. pp. 899, 904) disputes the American origin of the edible gourds, but does not appear to have examined all the early authorities for their cultivation by the savages before the settlement of this country. Such cultivation appears to be made out, and to indicate that these vegetables have probably been known, from very remote antiquity, in the warmer parts of America. But this does not touch the difficult question of origin; and it may still appear that the gourds are equally ancient in Europe, and derived, both here and there, from Asia (De Cand., l. c.); such derivation being explainable, in the case of America, by old migrations from Asia through Polynesia.—Pickering, Races of Man, chap. 17.

[210] Johnson’s Gerard, p. 528; where the same plant is also called “jagged or rose penniwoort,” and is probably what our author intends at p. 43 of this. It was no doubt our pretty Saxifraga Virginiensis, Michx., which Josselyn had in view. In his Voyages, p. 80, he assigns to it the medicinal virtues which Gerard attributes to the great navel-wort, or wall-pennywort (Cotyledon umbilicus, Huds.).

[211] Convolvulus sepium, L. (great bind-weed) is exceedingly like to C. Scammonia, L., the inspissated juice of which is the officinal scammony; and is common to Europe and North America. Gerard’s bryony of Peru (p. 872-3), to which Josselyn refers, is, whatever it be, not found here. Compare Cutler’s remarks on C. sepium (Account of Veg., &c., l. c., p. 416). Mechoacan, “called ... Indian briony, or briony, or scammony of America,” from the Caribbee Islands, &c., is described in Hughes, Amer. Physitian (1672), p. 94; and see Wood and Bache, Dispens., p. 424, note.

[212] Rosa Carolina, L. (Carolina rose), probably.—See Cutler’s observations, l. c., p. 451. Higginson also notices “single damaske roses, verie sweete.”—New-Eng. Plantation, l. c., p. 119. Our Carolina rose is said to be common in English shrubberies.

[213] See also Voyages, p. 72. Our author is the earliest authority that I have met with for this name; and his plant, which is placed among those “proper to the country,” may very well be what has long been called sweet-fern in New England,—Comptonia asplenifolia (L.) Ait.; still used in “molasses beer,” and medicinal in the way mentioned.—Emerson, Trees and Shrubs of Mass., p. 226.

[214] See Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 77. The first of the two plants which the author mentions here is probably Aralia nudicaulis, L. (wild sarsaparilla); and the other, A. hispida, Michx. The last, which is what is spoken of in the Voyages, has been recommended for medicinal properties by Prof. Peck.—Wood and Bache, Dispens., p. 116.

[215]Attitaash (whortleberries), of which there are divers sorts; sweet, like currants; some opening, some of a binding nature. Sautaash are these currants dried by the natives, and so preserved all the year; which they beat to powder, and mingle it with their parched meal, and make a delicate dish which they call sautauthig, which is as sweet to them as plum or spice cake to the English.”—R. Williams, Key, &c., l. c., p. 221. The fruitful and wholesome American whortleberries, or bilberries, were, it is likely, a very pleasant discovery to our forefathers. It was, no doubt, those species that we call blueberries which they made most of, and particularly the low blueberry (Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum, Lam.) and the swamp-blueberry (V. corymbosum, L.). From these the common black whortleberry (Gaylussacia resinosa, Torr. and Gray) differs no less in quality than in structure. Sa’té (compare sautaash, above), in Rasles Dict. of the Abnaki Language, l. c., p. 450, is rendered “frais, sans etre secs; lorsq’ils s’t secs, sikisa’tar.”

[216] The cloud-berry—Rubus chamæmorus, L. (Gerard, p. 1420)—is found in some parts of the subalpine region of the White Mountains; and Mr. Oakes detected it at Lubec, on the coast of Maine. It is common to both continents; and perhaps, therefore, as our author gives his cloud-berry a place in this division of his book, he may have meant something else.

[217] Rhus, L.; the species differing, as our author repeats in his Voyages (p. 71), “from all the kinds set down in our English herbals.” Wood (N. Eng. Prospect, chap, v.) calls it “the dear shumach.” Josselyn’s account of the virtues of our species, here, and especially in the Voyages (l. c.), agrees so well with what Gerard says of the properties of the European tanner’s sumach (R. coriaria, L.), that the latter may very likely have, in part, suggested the former. But see Cutler, l. c., p. 427.

[218] “The cherry-trees yield great store of cherries, which grow on clusters like grapes. They be much smaller than our English cherry; nothing near so good, if they be not fully ripe. They so furr the mouth, that the tongue will cleave to the roof, and the throat wax hoarse with swallowing those red bullies (as I may call them); being little better in taste” (that is, than bullaces). “English ordering may bring them to an English cherry; but they are as wild as the Indians.”—New-England’s Prospect, chap. v. The choke-cherry (Cerasus Virginiana (L.) DC.) and the wild cherry (C. serotina (Ehrh.) DC.) are meant.

[219] Pinus Strobus, L. (white pine). “Of the body the English make large canows of 20 foot long, and two foot and a half over; hollowing of them with an adds, and shaping of the outside like a boat.”—Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 64; where is more concerning the use of this tree in medicine. “I have seen,” says Wood, “of these stately, high-grown trees, ten miles together, close by the river-side; from whence, by shipping, they might be conveyed to any desired port.”—New-Eng. Prospect, chap. v.

[220] Abies balsamea (L.) Marsh, (balsam-fir). “The firr-tree is a large tree, too; but seldom so big as the pine. The bark is smooth, with knobs, or blisters, in which lyeth clear liquid turpentine,—very good to be put into salves and oyntments. The leaves, or cones, boiled in beer, are good for the scurvie. The young buds are excellent to put into epithemes for warts and corns. The rosen is altogether as good as frankincense.... The knots of this tree and fat-pine are used by the English instead of candles; and it will burn a long time: but it makes the people pale” (Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 66); besides being, as Wood says (l. c., speaking of the pine), “something sluttish.” But Higginson says they “are very usefull in a house, and ... burne as cleere as a torch.”—New-Eng. Plantation, l. c., p. 122.

[221] Larix Americana, Michx. (Larch; “taccamahac,” Cutler; tamarack; hackmatack.) “Groundsels, made of larch-tree, will never rot; and the longer it lyes, the harder it growes, that you may almost drive a nail into a bar of iron as easily as into that.”—Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 68. “The turpentine that issueth from the cones of the larch-tree (which comes nearest of any to the right turpentine) is singularly good to heal wounds, and to draw out the malice (or thorn, as Helmont phrases it) of any ach; rubbing the place therewith, and throwing upon it the powder of sage-leaves.”—Ibid., p. 66.

[222] Abies nigra, Poir. (black or double spruce), and probably also A. alba, Michx. (white or single spruce). “At Pascataway there is now a spruce-tree, brought down to the water-side by our mass-men, of an incredible bigness, and so long that no skipper durst ever yet adventure to ship it; but there it lyes and rots.”—Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 67.

[223] Abies Canadensis (L.), Michx. (hemlock spruce). Beside the coniferous trees here set down, our author mentions in his Voyages (p. 67) “the white cedar, ... a stately tree, and is taken by some to be tamarisk.” This, which is probably our white cedar (Cupressus thyoides, L.), he says “the English saw into boards to floor their rooms; for which purpose it is excellent, long-lasting, and wears very smooth and white. Likewise they make shingles to cover their houses with, instead of tyle. It will never warp.” Wood (New-Eng. Prospect, chap. v.) makes mention of a “cedar-tree, ... a tree of no great growth; not bearing above a foot and a half, at the most; neither is it very high.... This wood is more desired for ornament than substance; being of colour red and white, like eugh; smelling as sweet as juniper. It is commonly used for ceiling of houses, and making of chests, boxes, and staves.” This seems likely to have been the American Arbor vitæ (Thya occidentalis, L.); also called white-cedar.—Compare Emerson, Trees and Shrubs of Mass., pp. 96, 100. For mention of the juniper, see ante, p. 49.

[224] See p. 81; and ante, p. 54.

[225] Sassafras officinale, Nees. “This tree growes not beyond Black Point, eastward.”—Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 68. Michaux (Sylva, vol. ii. p. 144) says, “The neighbourhood of Portsmouth ... may be assumed as one of the extreme points at which it is found towards the north-east;” but, according to Mr. Emerson (Trees and Shrubs of Mass., p. 322), it is “found as far north as Canada,” though ... “there a small tree.”

[226] Vaccinium macrocarpum, Ait. Our author seems not to have known the European cranberry (V. oxycoccus, L., the marish-wortes, or fenne-berries, of Gerard, p. 1419); which is also found in our cold bogs, especially upon mountains. This is called by Sir W. J. Hooker (Br. Fl., vol. i. p. 178), “far superior to the foreign V. macrocarpon;” but, from Gerard’s account, it should appear that it was formerly much less thought of in England than was ours (according to Josselyn) here, by both Indians and English. Linnæus speaks of the European fruit in much the same way, in 1737, in his Flora of Lapland, where he says, “Baccæ hæ a Lapponibus in usum cibarium non vocantur, nec facile ab aliis nationibus, cum nimis acidæ sint” (Fl. Lapp., p. 145): but corrects this in a paper on the esculent plants of Sweden, in 1752; asking, not without animation, “Harum vero cum saccharo præparata gelatina, quid in mensis nostris jucundius?” (Amæn. Acad., t. iii. p. 86.) Our American cranberry was probably the “sasemineash—another sharp, cooling fruit, growing in fresh waters all the winter; excellent in conserve against fevers”—of R. Williams, Key, l. c., p. 221.—Compare Masimin, rendered [fruits] “rouges petits.”—Rasles’ Dict., Abnaki, l. c., p. 460.

[227] Wood says the “vines afford great store of grapes, which are very big, both for the grape and cluster; sweet and good. These be of two sorts,—red and white. There is likewise a smaller kind of grape which groweth in the islands” (that is, of Massachusetts Bay), “which is sooner ripe, and more delectable; so that there is no known reason why as good wine may not be made in those parts, as well as Bordeaux in France; being under the same degree.”—New-Eng. Prospect, chap. v. “Vines,” says Mr. Graves (in New-Eng. Plantation, Hist. Coll., vol. i. p. 124) “doe grow here, plentifully laden with the biggest grapes that ever I saw. Some I have seene foure inches about.”—“Our Governour,” adds Higginson, “hath already planted a vineyard, with great hope of encrease.”—New-England’s Plantation, l. c., p. 119. Vitis Labrusca, L. (fox-grape),—for some principal varieties of which, see Emerson, l. c., p. 468,—furnished, probably, most of the sorts known favorably to the first settlers; but V. æstivalis, Michx. (summer grape), also occurs on our seaboard.

[228] Pyrola, L., emend. (Gerard, p. 408). All but one of our species are common also to Europe.

[229] Goodyera pubescens (Willd.), R. Br., is plainly meant by the author; and the common name of the plant—rattlesnake plantain—still preserves the memory of its supposed virtues as a wound-herb. It seems, by the next page, that Josselyn tried to carry living specimens to England; but they “perished at sea.” The putting this among the Pyrolæ (as if by some confusion of Goodyera with Chimophila maculata) was a bad mistake.

[230] See p. 55; where the author refers to his figures of two kinds of “Pyrola” of which this must be one. The Voyages (p. 202) also make mention of an adventure of a neighbor of Josselyn’s, who, “rashly wandering out after some stray’d cattle, lost his way; and coming, as we conceived by his Relation, near to the head-spring of some of the branches of Black-Point River or Saco River, light into a tract of land, for God knows how many miles, full of delfes and dingles and dangerous precipices, rocks, and inextricable difficulties, which did justly daunt, yea, quite deter him from endeavouring to pass any further.” And this account may quite possibly relate to the same occasion of our author’s getting acquainted with his “elegant plant.” Plukenet (Amalth., p. 94; Phytogr., tab. 287, f. 5) mistakenly refers Josselyn’s “sufficiently unhappy figure” to his Filix Hemionitis dicta Maderensis; which is Adiantum reniforme, L.

[231] “There is a plant, likewise,—called, for want of a name, clowne’s wound-wort, by the English; though it be not the same,—that will heal a green wound in 24 hours, if a wise man have the ordering of it.”—Voyages, p. 60. Verbena hastata, L. (blue vervain), is perhaps, notwithstanding the author’s disclaimer, what he had in view. This is certainly different from the common, once officinal, vervain of Europe (V. officinalis, L.),—on the virtues of which, as a wound-herb, see Gerard, p. 718; but yet more so from true clown’s all-heal (Gerard, p. 1005), which is Stachys palustris, L. As to other medicinal properties of our vervains, compare Cutler, l. c., p. 405,—where they are said to have been used by the surgeons of our army in the Revolutionary War,—and Wood and Bache, Dispens., p. 1403.

[232] Symplocarpus fœtidus (L.) Salisb. (skunk-cabbage). Our author’s appears to be the first figure and account of this curious plant, which he rightly places among such “as are proper to the country, and have no name.” Cutler’s description, in 1785 (Account of Indig. Veg., l. c., pp. 407-9),—which is followed by the remark, that “the fructification so essentially differs from all the genera of this order, it must undoubtedly be considered as a new genus,”—was the next contribution of importance, and so continued till Dr. Bigelow’s elaborate history;—Amer. Med. Bot., vol. ii. p. 41, pl. xxiv. Josselyn’s “sprig” of a horse-tail might perhaps be added to his Filices, at p. 47, note 2, 3.

[233] Impatiens fulva, Nutt, (touch-me-not; balsam). Wilson says this plant “is the greatest favorite with the humming-bird of all our other flowers. In some places where these plants abound, you may see at one time ten or twelve humming-birds darting about, and fighting with and pursuing each other.”—Amer. Ornithol., by Brewer, p. 120. As to Josselyn’s note on its use in medicine by the Indians, compare Wood and Bache, Disp., p. 1345. A kix, or kex, or kexy,—used in the expression, “hollow as a kix,”—is a provincialism, in various parts of England, for hemlock; “the dry, hollow stocks of hemlock” (whence Webster’s query,—Fr., cique; Lat. cicuta); and also of cow-parsley, according to Holloway (Dict. of Provincialisms): that is to say, secondarily, any hollow-stemmed plant like hemlock. Gerard’s figure of Impatiens noli tangere, L., the European balsam,—of which the earlier botanists considered our species to be varieties,—is so poor, and the plant so rare in Britain, that it is perhaps little wonder that our author took the showy American balsam to be quite new.

[234] Mulgedium leucophœum, DC. (Gray, Manual, p. 241). This fine plant is peculiar to America.

[235] Nabalus albus (L.) Hook. (Snake-weed): the genus peculiar to America.

[236] Chelone glabra, L. (snake-head). Plukenet quotes this figure under Digitalis Verbesinæ foliis, &c. (Amalth., p. 71; Mant., p. 64); which is referred by Linnæus to Gerardia pedicularis, L. Plukenet has himself figured our plant, and but little better than Josselyn, in Phytogr., t. 348, fig. 3. The genus is peculiar to America.

[237] Upon this figure, Plukenet founds his Solanum quadrifolium Nov’ Anglicanum, flore lacteo polycoccum (Amalth., p. 195); clearly taking the plant, as Josselyn did, for “a kind of Herba Paris” (Paris quadrifolia, L.), which is Solanum quadrifolium bacciferum of Bauhin (Pin., p. 167, cit. L.). The plant is doubtless Cornus Canadensis, L. (dwarf-cornel; bunch-berry); and it certainly resembles the figure of Herb Paris, given by Gerard (p. 405), much more than that of Cornus suecica, L. (European dwarf-cornel, p. 1296),—a shrub ill understood by the old botanists.

[238] Helianthus, L., sp. (sun-flower); a genus peculiar to America. The species is perhaps H. strumosus, L. (Gray, Man., p. 218).—See p. {56} of this book; note.

[239] The importance of this list has been already spoken of. Its value depends on its having been drawn up by a person of familiarity with some of the botanical writers of his day, as part of a botanical treatise; and the (in this case) not unfair presumption that the names cited are meant to be accurate. Mr. A. De Candolle (Geogr. Botanique, vol. ii. p. 746) appears to be unacquainted with any authority for the naturalized plants of the Northern States earlier than the first edition of the Florula of Dr. Bigelow, in 1814. The treatise of Cutler extends this limit to 1785; and that of Josselyn, so far as it goes, to 1672.

[240] Doubtful. Gerard’s couch-grass, p. 23, appears to be Holcus mollis, L.,—“the true couch-grass of sandy soils” in England; and English agricultural writers reckon yet other grasses of this name, beside the well-known Triticum repens, L.

[241] Gerard, p. 276,—Capsella Bursa Pastoris (L.), Moench. “Cornfields, and about barns,”—Cutler (1785), l. c. Naturalized.

[242] Gerard, p. 290,—Taraxacum Dens Leonis, Desf.; looked, to our author, like a new-comer. Dr. Gray (Man., p. 239; and comp. Torr, and Gray, Fl., vol. ii. p. 494) regards it as “probably indigenous in the north,” but only naturalized in other regions. “Grass land,”—Cutler (1785), l. c.

[243] Gerard, p. 278,—Senecio vulgaris, L.; one of the adventive naturalized plants, as defined by Mr. De Candolle (l. c., vol. ii. p. 688; and Gray, Man. Bot., pref., p. viii.), according to the evidence of Dr. Darlington (Fl. Cestr., p. 152), and Gray, l. c. It has long been a common weed in eastern New England.

[244] Sonchus, L. S. oleraceus, L., as understood by Linnæus, was no doubt intended: but this is now taken to include two species, both recognized in this country (Gray, l. c., p. 241); between which there is no evidence to authorize a decision.

[245] The genera Chenopodium, L., and Atriplex, L., were much confused in Josselyn’s day; and his wild orach may belong to either. Gerard’s wild orach is in part Atriplex patula, L. (p. 326); but the first species to which he gives this name (p. 325) is Chenopodium polyspermum, L. The latter is a rare, adventive member of our Flora (Gray, l. c., p. 363); and the former is, according to Bigelow (Fl. Bost., ed. 3, p. 401), the well-known orach of our salt-marshes: but Dr. Gray now refers this (Man., p. 365) to the nearly allied A. hastata, L. This plant, in either case, is reckoned truly common to both continents. It is possible that Josselyn intended it.

[246] Garden nightshade (Gerard, p. 339); Solanum nigrum, L. “Common among rubbish,”—Cutler (1785), l. c. Naturalized.

[247] Common stinging-nettle, or great nettle (Gerard, p. 706),—Urtica dioica, L.

[248] Field-mallow (Gerard, p. 930), Malva sylvestris, L., and wild dwarf-mallow (ibid.), M. rotundifolia, L., are the only sorts likely to have been in view. The latter was, I doubt not, intended; and the former, adventive only with us, may also have occurred at any period after the settlement.

[249] “It is but one sort, and that is broad-leaved plantain” (Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 188). Broad-leaved plantain (Gerard, p. 419),—Plantago major, L.; one of the most anciently and widely known of plants, and inhabiting, at present, all the great divisions of the earth. An account, similar to our author’s, of the name given to it by the American savages, is found in Kalm’s Travels. “Mr. Bartram had found this plant in many places on his travels; but he did not know whether it was an original American plant, or whether the Europeans had brought it over. This doubt had its rise from the savages (who always had an extensive knowledge of the plants of the country) pretending that this plant never grew here before the arrival of the Europeans. They therefore gave it a name which signifies the Englishman’s foot; for they say, that, where a European had walked, there this plant grew in his footsteps.”—Kalm’s Travels into North America, by Forster, vol. i. p. 92. But Dr. Pickering considers it possible, that, in North-west America at least, the plantain was introduced by the aborigines (Races of Man, pp. 317, 320): and, uncertain as this is admitted to be, the old vulgar names of the plant in Northern languages—as Wegerich and Wegetritt of the German, Weegblad and Weegbree of the Dutch, Veibred of the Danish, and Weybred of old English, all pointing to the plantain’s growing on ways trodden by man—suggest, perhaps, a far older supposed relation between this plant and the human foot than that mentioned above; and thus favor the derivation of the original Latin name (as old as Pliny, H. N., vol. xxv. 8, in § 39) from planta, the sole of the foot,—whether because the plantain is always trodden on, or, taking the termination go in plantago, as some philologists take it, to signify likeness (as doubtless in lappago, mollugo, asperugo; but this signification does not appear so clear in some other words with the like ending), because its leaves resemble the sole of the foot in flatness, breadth, marking, and so on. The possible derivation from planta, a plant, “per excellentiam, quasi plantam præstantissimam” (Tournef., Inst., vol. i. p. 128), though less open to question than that of Linnæus (“planta tangenda,” Phil. Bot., § 234), is certainly less significant than the other; which, with the statements (independent, so far as appears, of each other) of Josselyn and Kalm, if these may be relied on, seems to point to a very ancient co-incidence of thought, not unworthy of attention. Something else of the same sort is to be found in R. Williams, where he says (Key, l. c., p. 218) that the Massachusetts Indians called the constellation of the Great Bear mosk, or pawkunnawaw; that is, the bear.

[250] Gerard, p. 353,—Hyoscyamus niger, L. Adventive only: having “escaped from gardens to roadsides,” according to Dr. Gray (Man., p. 340); but “common amongst rubbish and by roadsides,” in 1785 (Cutler, l. c.), and perhaps long known on the coasts of Massachusetts Bay.

[251] Broad-leaved wormwood, “our common and best-knowne wormwood” (Gerard, p. 1096),—Artemisia absynthium, L. “Roadsides and amongst rubbish,” 1785,—Cutler, l. c. Omitted by Bigelow, and not very frequent.

[252] Gerard, p. 388. If this is to be taken for Rumex acutus, Sm. (Fl. Brit.), which seems not to be certain, it is now referable to R. conglomeratus, Murr., which is “sparingly introduced” with us, according to Gray (Man., p. 377). But it is more likely that Josselyn had R. crispus, L. (curled dock), in view: which is, I suppose, the “varietie” of sharp-pointed dock, “with crisped or curled leaves,” of Johnson’s Gerard, p. 387; and is the only mention of the species by those authors.

[253] Gerard, p. 389,—Rumex Patientia, L. This and the next were garden pot-herbs of repute: and, at p. 90, our author brings them in again as such; telling us that bloodwort grows “but sorrily,” but patience “very pleasantly.” This may very likely have crept out of some garden: but the great water-dock (R. Hydrolapathum, Huds.) is, says Gerard, “not unlike to the garden patience” (p. 390); and Dr. Gray says the same of the American variety of the former.—Man., p. 377.

[254] Gerard, p. 390,—Rumex sanguineus, L., “sown for a pot-herb in most gardens” (Gerard); and so our author, p. 90. Linnæus took it to be originally American: but it is common in Europe; and Dr. Gray marks the American plant as naturalized. Dr. Torrey indicated the species as occurring about New York in 1819 (Catal. Pl., N.Y.); but New-England botanists do not appear to have recognized it. Josselyn’s plant was perhaps the offcast of some garden.

[255] Gerard, p. 404.—Compare p. 42 of this; where our author more correctly reckons it among plants truly common to Europe and America.

[256] “Common knot-grasse” (Gerard, p. 565),—Polygonum aviculare, L. Common to all the great divisions of the earth, and reckoned indigenous in America.—De Cand. Geogr. Bot., vol. i. p. 577; Gray, Man., p. 373.

[257] There are many chickweeds in Gerard; but that most likely to have been in the author’s view here is the universally known common chickweed,—the middle or small chickweed of Gerard, p. 611. This was “common in gardens and rich cultivated ground” in 1785.—Cutler, l. c. Few plants have spread so widely over the earth as Stellaria media.

[258] Great comfrey (Gerard, p. 806),—Symphytum officinale, L.: also in the list of garden herbs at p. 90. “Sometimes found growing wild,”—Cutler (1785), l. c. Not admitted by Dr. Bigelow (Fl. Bost.), but included by Dr. Gray as an adventive.—Man., p. 320.

[259] Gerard, p. 757,—Maruta cotula (L.), DC.; a naturalized member of our Flora, now become a very common ornament of roadsides; where Cutler notices it, also, in 1785.

[260] “Great burre-docke, or clott-burre” (Gerard, p. 809),—Lappa major, Gaertn. “About barns,”—Cutler (1785), l. c.

[261] “White-floured mullein” (Gerard, p. 773),—perhaps Verbascum Lychnitis, L.; which is adventive in some parts of the United States (Gray, Man., p. 283), but is not otherwise known to have made its appearance in New England. Great mullein (V. Thapsus, L.) was “common” in Cutler’s time. The moth-mullein (V. Blattaria, L.) he only knew “by roadsides in Lynn” (l. c., p. 419). Other plants referable to this list of naturalized weeds are “wild sorrel,” p. 42; Polygonum Persicaria, p. 43; St. John’s wort, speedwell, chickweed, male fluellin, cat-mint, and clot-bur, p. 44; yarrow, and oak of Jerusalem, p. 46; pimpernel, and toadflax, p. 48; and wild purslain, and woad-waxen, p. 51. See also spearmint, and ground-ivy, p. 89; and elecampane, celandine, and tansy, p. 90.

[262] The earliest, almost the only account that we have of the gardens of our fathers, after they had settled themselves in their New England, and had tamed its rugged coasts to obedience to English husbandry. What with their garden beans, and Indian beans, and pease (“as good as ever I eat in England,” says Higginson in 1629); their beets, parsnips, turnips, and carrots (“our turnips, parsnips, and carrots are both bigger and sweeter than is ordinary to be found in England,” says the same reverend writer); their cabbages and asparagus,—both thriving, we are told, exceedingly; their radishes and lettuce; their sorrel, parsley, chervil, and marigold, for pot-herbs; and their sage, thyme, savory of both kinds, clary, anise, fennel, coriander, spearmint, and pennyroyal, for sweet herbs,—not to mention the Indian pompions and melons and squanter-squashes, “and other odde fruits of the country,”—the first-named of which had got to be so well approved among the settlers, when Josselyn wrote in 1672, that what he calls “the ancient New-England standing dish” (we may well call it so now!) was made of them; and, finally, their pleasant, familiar flowers, lavender-cotton and hollyhocks and satin (“we call this herbe, in Norfolke, sattin,” says Gerard; “and, among our women, it is called honestie”) and gillyflowers, which meant pinks as well, and dear English roses, and eglantine,—yes, possibly, hedges of eglantine (p. 90 note),—surely the gardens of New England, fifty years after the settlement of the country, were as well stocked as they were a hundred and fifty years after. Nor were the first planters long behindhand in fruit. Even at his first visit, in 1639, our author was treated with “half a score very fair pippins,” from the Governor’s Island in Boston Harbor; though there was then, he says (Voyages, p. 29), “not one apple tree nor pear planted yet in no part of the countrey but upon that island.” But he has a much better account to give in 1671: “The quinces, cherries, damsons, set the dames a work. Marmalad and preserved damsons is to be met with in every house. Our fruit-trees prosper abundantly,—apple-trees, pear-trees, quince-trees, cherry-trees, plum-trees, barberry-trees. I have observed, with admiration, that the kernels sown, or the succors planted, produce as fair and good fruit, without graffing, as the tree from whence they were taken. The countrey is replenished with fair and large orchards. It was affirmed by one Mr. Woolcut (a magistrate in Connecticut Colony), at the Captain’s messe (of which I was), aboard the ship I came home in, that he made five hundred hogsheads of syder out of his own orchard in one year.”—Voyages, p. 189-90. Our barberry-bushes, now so familiar inhabitants of the hedgerows of Eastern New England, should seem from this to have come, with the eglantines, from the gardens of the first settlers. Barberries “are planted in most of our English gardens,” says Gerard.

[263] Portulaca oleracea,; L. β. sativa, L. (garden purslain). The wild variety is also reckoned by our author, in his list of plants, common to us and the Old World (p. 51).

[264] See Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 188.

[265] Vicia Faba, Willd., of which the Windsor bean is a variety. The author compares it, at p. 56, with kidney-beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.), called Indian beans by the first settlers, who had them from the savages, to the advantage of the last-mentioned sort; which probably soon drove the other out of our gardens.—Compare Cobbett’s American Gardener, p. 105.

[266] Gerard, p. 75,—Avena nuda, L.; derived from common oats (A. sativa, L.) according to Link; and also (in Gerard’s time, and even later) in cultivation. It was called pillcorn, or peelcorn, because the grains, when ripe, drop naked from the husks. But is it not possible that our author’s Silpee (comparable with apee, a leaf; toopee, a root; ahpee, a bow, in the Micmac language,— Mass. Hist. Coll., vol. vi., pp. 20, 24) was really the American name of the well-known water-oats, or Canada rice,—Zizania aquatica, L.; the deciduous grains of which are said to afford “a very good meal” (Loudon, Encycl., p. 788), with the qualities of rice?—See Bigel., Fl. Bost., edit. 3, p. 369. This has long been used by our savages; but I have not met with any mention of it in the early writers. The “standing dish in New England” has its interest, if it were really made of Canada rice.

[267] Gerard, p. 680,—Mentha viridis, L. It perhaps soon became naturalized. “In moist ground” (1785).—Cutler, l. c.

[268] Perhaps only an inference of the author’s, from the southern origin of these three shrubs. Lavender also belongs naturally to a warmer climate.

[269] Gerard, p. 1109,—Santolina Chamæ Cyparissus, L.

[270] Gerard, p. 856,—Glechoma hederacea, L.; once of great medicinal repute: which accounts for our author’s finding it, as it should seem, among garden-herbs. It has become naturalized and very familiar in New England. Cutler finds it wild in 1785. Mr. Bentham refers it to Nepeta, but substitutes a new specific name for that given by Linnæus, which is based on the ancient names, and has at least the right of priority.

[271] “Gilliflowers thrive exceedingly there, and are very large. The collibuy, or humming-bird, is much pleased with them.”—Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 188.

[272] Elecampane (Gerard, p. 793),—Inula Helenium, L. “Roadsides” (1785),—Cutler, l. c.; and now extensively naturalized in New England.

[273] Gerard, p. 1272,—Rosa rubiginosa, L.; and R. micrantha, Sm. Since naturalized, especially in Eastern New England, and not uncommon on roadsides and in pastures. First indicated as a member of our Flora by Bigelow in 1824.—Fl. Bost., in loc. “Eglantine, or sweet-bryer, is best sowen with juniper-berries,—two or three to one eglantine-berry, put into a hole made with a stick. The next year, separate and remove them to your banks. In three years’ time, they will make a hedge as high as a man; which you may keep thick and handsome with cutting.”—Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 188. And what next goes before seems to show that the author picked up this information here; which is not uninteresting.

[274] See p. 86.

[275] Brier-rose, or hep-tree (Gerard, p. 1270); “also called Rosa canina, which is a plant so common and well knowne, that it were to small purpose to use many words in the description thereof: for even children with great delight eat the berries thereof, when they be ripe,—make chaines and other prettie gewgawes of the fruit; cookes and gentlewomen make tarts, and such like dishes, for pleasure thereof,” &c. (Gerard, l. c.). Rosa canina, L., was once the collective name of what are now understood as many distinct species; but that which still retains the name of dog-rose is reckoned the finest of native English roses. This familiar plant may well have been reared with tender interest in some New-England gardens of Josselyn’s day; but it did not make a new home here, like the eglantine. Cutler gives the name of dog-rose to the Carolina rose,—R. Carolina, L.,—which it has not kept; and he also makes it equivalent to the officinal R. canina. Our Flora will possibly one day include one or two other garden-roses. A damask rose is well established and spreading rapidly in mowing-land of the writer’s, and elsewhere on roadsides of this country; and that general favorite, the cinnamon-rose, which is now naturalized in England, may yet become wild with us.

[276] Great celandine (Gerard, p. 1069), as the west-country name of kenning-wort—that is, sight-wort—makes manifest; the juice being once thought to be “good to sharpen the sight,”—Chelidonium majus, L. Small celandine (Ranunculus Ficaria, L.) was quite another thing. The former had got to be “common by fences and amongst rubbish” in 1785 (Cutler, l. c.), and is now naturalized in Eastern New England.

[277] Gerard, p. 650,—Tanacetum vulgare, L. In “pastures” (1785).—Cutler, l. c. Now widely naturalized in New England.

[278] See p. 57, note. “The ancient New-England standing dish” was doubtless far better than Gerard’s fried pompions (p. 921), and has more than held its own.

[279] “For such commodities as lie under ground, I cannot, out of mine own experience or knowledge, say much; having taken no great notice of such things: but it is certainly reported that there is iron-stone; and the Indians informed us that they can lead us to the mountains of black-lead; and have shown us lead-ore, if our small judgment in such things does not deceive us; and though nobody dare confidently conclude, yet dare they not utterly deny, but that the Spaniard’s-bliss may lie hid in the barren mountains. Such as have coasted the country affirm that they know where to fetch sea-coal, if wood were scarce. There is plenty of stone, both rough and smooth, useful for many things; with quarries of slate, out of which they get coverings for houses; with good clay, whereof they make tiles and bricks and pavements for their necessary uses. For the country it is well watered as any land under the sun; every family, or every two families, having a spring of sweet water betwixt them; which is far different from the waters of England, being not so sharp, but of a fatter substance, and of a more jetty colour.... Those that drink it be as healthful, fresh, and lusty as they that drink beer.”—Wood, New-Eng. Prospect, chap. v. “The humour and justness of” this writer’s “account recommend him,” says the editor of 1764, “to every candid mind.” There is certainly no view of New England, as it was at its settlement, that surpasses Wood’s in understanding, and homeborn English truth, not always without beauty. What he says in this place of “quarries of slate” points to a very early discovery. Higginson says, in 1629 (New-Eng. Plantation, l. c., p. 118), “Here is plenty of slates at the Isle of Slate in Masathulets Bay:” and there is a court order of July 2, 1633, granting “to Tho: Lambe, of slate in Slate Ileand, 10 poole towards the water-side, and 5 poole into the land, for three yeares; payeing the yearely rent of ijs. vjd.”—Mass. Col. Rec., vol. i. p. 106. There are other later grants of the same island, which “lies between Bumkin Island and Weymouth River.”—Pemberton, Desc. Bost., Mass. Hist. Coll., vol. iii. p. 297. Josselyn, in his Voyages, p. 46, says that tables of slate could be got out (he does not tell us where), “long enough for a dozen men to sit at.” Argillaceous slate is, according to Dr. Hitchcock, “the predominating rock on the outermost of these islands;” and he adds, that “there can be but little doubt that the peninsula of Boston has a foundation” of this rock.—Report on Geol. of Mass., p. 270.

[280] “Mr. John Winthrope, jun., is granted ye hill at Tantousq, about 60 miles westward, in which the black-leade is; and liberty to purchase some land there of the Indians” (13th November, 1644).—Mass. Col. Rec., vol. ii. p. 82; and Savage, in Winthrop, N. E., vol. ii. p. 213, note. The place mentioned is what is now Sturbridge; which is called “the most important locality” of black-lead in Massachusetts, by Dr. Hitchcock.—Geol., pp. 47, 395.

[281] “The mountains and rocky hills are richly furnished with mines of lead, silver, copper, tin, and divers sorts of minerals, branching out even to their summits; where, in small crannies, you may meet with threds of perfect silver: yet have the English no maw to open any of them;” and so forth.—Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 44.

[282] Asterias rubens, L.—Gould, Report on Invert., p. 345.

[283] See the chapter on Fishes, p. 23, for this and the others here spoken of.

[284] “Numerous about the Isle of Sables; i.e., the Sandy Isle.”—Voyages, p. 106. “Mr. Graves” (year 1635) “in the ‘James,’ and Mr. Hodges in the ‘Rebecka,’ set sail for the Isle of Sable for sea-horse, which are there in great number,” &c.—Winthrop’s N. E., by Savage, vol. i. p. 162. And I cite one other mention of this pursuit: “Eastward is the Isle of Sables; whither one John Webb, alias Evered (an active man), with his company, are gone, with commission from the Bay to get sea-horse teeth and oyle.”—Lechford’s Newes from New England (1642), Mass. Hist. Coll., vol. iii. 3d series, p. 100. The Magdalen Islands, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, are the most southern habitat of the animal spoken of by Godman.—Amer. Nat. Hist., vol. i. p. 249.

[285] Compare Cutler (Account of Indig. Veg., l. c., p. 456) and Wood and Bache (Dispens., p. 1369).

[286] The author has something to the same effect in his Voyages, p. 124; but Wood’s account of the Indian women (New-England’s Prospect, part ii. chap. xx.) is far better worth reading. Both appreciated, in one way or another, their savage neighbors. Wood has a pleasant touch at the last. “These women,” he says, “resort often to the English houses, where pares cum paribus congregatæ,—in sex, I mean,—they do somewhat ease their misery by complaining, and seldom part without a relief. If her husband come to seek for his squaw, and begin to bluster, the English woman betakes her to her arms, which are the war-like ladle and the scalding liquors, threatning blistering to the naked runaway, who is soon expelled by such liquid comminations. In a word, to conclude this woman’s history, their love to the English hath deserved no small esteem; ever presenting them something that is either rare or desired,—as strawberries, hurtleberries, rasberries, gooseberries, cherries, plumbs, fish, and other such gifts as their poor treasury yields them” (l. c.). And, if Lechford’s Newes from New England (l. supra c., p. 103) can be trusted, the savages became “much the kinder to their wives by the example of the English.”

[287] In the author’s Voyages, this chronological table is greatly extended; beginning with “Anno Mundi, 3720,” and ending with A.D. 1674.

[288] Set right by the author in Voyages, p. 248.

[289] The author, in the “chronological observations” appended to his Voyages, enlarges this, but confounds Conant’s Plantation at Cape Ann, and Endicott’s, as follows: “1628. Mr. John Endicot arrived in New England with some number of people, and set down first by Cape Ann, at a place called afterwards Gloster; but their abiding-place was at Salem, where they built the first town in the Massachusets Patent.... 1629. Three ships arrived at Salem, bringing a great number of passengers from England.... Mr. Endicot chosen Governour.” The next year, Josselyn continues as follows: “1630. The 10th of July, John Winthrop, Esq., and the Assistants, arrived in New England with the patent for the Massachusetts.... John Winthrop, Esq., chosen Governour for the remainder of the year; Mr. Thomas Dudley, Deputy-Governour; Mr. Simon Broadstreet, Secretary.”—Voyages, p. 252. The title of Governor was used anciently, as it still is elsewhere, in a looser sense than has been usual in New England; and derived all the dignity that it had from the character and considerableness of the government. Conant and Endicott were directors or governors of settlements in the Massachusetts Bay before Winthrop’s arrival; but when the Massachusetts Company in London proceeded, on the 20th October, 1629, to carry into effect their resolution to transfer their government to this country,—and chose accordingly Winthrop to be their Governor; Humphrey, their Deputy-Governor; and Endicot and others, Assistants (Young, Chron. of Mass., p. 102),—the record appears sufficient evidence that they had in view something quite different from the fishing plantation which Conant had had charge of at Cape Ann, or the little society (“in all, not much above fifty or sixty persons,” says White’s Relation in Young, Chron., p. 13; which the editor, from Higginson’s narrative, raises to “about a hundred”) “of which Master Endecott was sent out Governour” (White, l. c.) at Naumkeak.

[290] That is, Noddle’s Island was already planted on (by Mr. Maverick) when the government was established.—Compare Johnson, cited by Prince, N. E. Chronol., edit. 2, p. 308, note.

[291] The date set right in Prince, N. E. Chronol., p. 367.

[292] The date corrected in Prince, N. E. Chronol., edit. 2, p. 367.

[293] Compare Prince, p. 367, and Mass. Col. Rec., vol. i. p. 128. “The will,” says Dr. Mather, “because it bequeathed a thousand pounds to New England, gave satisfaction unto our Mr. Wilson; though it was otherwise injurious to himself.”—Magnalia, vol. iii. p. 45, cit. Davis, in Morton’s Memorial, p. 334, note.

[294] Compare Winthrop, N.E., vol. i. p. 265; Johnson’s Wonder-working Prov. lib. ii. c. 12, cit. Savage; and Morton’s Memorial, by Davis, p. 209, and note, p. 289.

[295] Morton’s Memorial, by Davis, p. 244.

[296] 1664, “December, a great and dreadful comet, or blazing star, appeared in the south-east in New England for the space of three moneths; which was accompanied with many sad effects,—great mildews blasting in the countrey the next summer.”—Josselyn’s Voyages, Chronol. Obs., p. 273; and see p. 245 of the same for a fuller account.—Compare Morton’s Memorial, by Davis, p. 304. As to the blasting and mildew of 1665, see the same, p. 317; and that of 1664, p. 309.

[297] See Josselyn’s Voyages, p. 204 and p. 277, where the “hole” is said to have been, not “two,” but “forty, yards square:” and we are farther told that “the like accident fell out at Casco, one and twenty miles from it to the eastward, much about the same time; and fish, in some ponds in the countrey, thrown up dead upon the banks,—supposed likewise to be kill’d with mineral vapours.” Hubbard (Hist. N.E., chap. 75) tells this, partly in the same words with the account in the Voyages, and adds, “All the whole town of Wells are witnesses of the truth of this relation; and many others have seen sundry of these clay pellets, which the inhabitants have shown to their neighbours of other towns.” And compare also the following, at p. 189 of the Voyages: “In 1669, the pond that lyeth between Watertown and Cambridge cast its fish dead upon the shore; forc’t by a mineral vapour, as was conjectured.”


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A few minor typographical errors and punctuation errors have been corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within the text and consultation of external sources.

Hyphenation is inconsistent in this book but has not been changed.

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Errors likely introduced in this 1865 printing:
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