Project Gutenberg's Stories Pictures Tell, Book 3, by Flora L. Carpenter

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Title: Stories Pictures Tell, Book 3

Author: Flora L. Carpenter

Release Date: July 9, 2020 [EBook #62593]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Produced by David Garcia, Larry B. Harrison, Barry
Abrahamsen, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team


Instructor in drawing in Waite High School, Toledo, Ohio
Formerly supervisor of drawing, Bloomington, Illinois
Illustrated with Half Tones from
Original Photographs

Copyright, 1918, by
Rand McNally & Company
All rights reserved
Edition of 1926

Made in U.S.A.


September and October

“A Member of the Royal Humane Society” Landseer 1
“Primary School in Brittany” Geoffroy 12

November, December, and January

“Woman Churning” Millet 20
“The Broken Pitcher” Greuze 30

February and March

“Madame Lebrun and Her Daughter” Mme Lebrun 36
“An Old Monarch” Rosa Bonheur 44

April, May, and June

“Penelope Boothby” or “The Mob Cap” Reynolds 56
Review of Pictures and Artists Studied    
The Suggestions to Teachers 66



Art supervisors in the public schools assign picture-study work in each grade, recommending the study of certain pictures by well-known masters. As Supervisor of Drawing I found that the children enjoyed this work but that the teachers felt incompetent to conduct the lessons as they lacked time to look up the subject and to gather adequate material. Recourse to a great many books was necessary and often while much information would usually be found about the artist, very little was available about his pictures.

Hence I began collecting information about the pictures and preparing the lessons for the teachers just as I would give them myself to pupils of their grade.

My plan does not include many pictures during the year, as this is to be only a part of the art work and is not intended to take the place of drawing.

The lessons in this grade may be used for the usual drawing period of from twenty to thirty minutes, and have been successfully given in that time. However, the most satisfactory way of using the books is as supplementary readers, thus permitting each child to study the pictures and read the stories himself.

Flora L. Carpenter


(Click on illustration for larger view.)


Questions to arouse interest. Where is this dog? Why do you think so? Does he seem to be looking across the water, or toward the land? What kind of dog is he? How do you know he is lying in the sunshine? What 2does the length of the shadows tell us about the time of day? What could this dog do if there should be a severe storm on the water? Can you see anything in the picture that makes you think there may be a storm coming? Where do the sea gulls go before a storm? Why would you not be afraid of this dog? What do you suppose the iron ring is used for? Do you like this picture? why?

Original Picture: National Gallery of British Art, London, England.
Artist: Sir Edwin Landseer (lănd´sēr).
Birthplace: London, England.
Dates: Born, 1802; died, 1873.

The story of the picture. One day when the artist, Sir Edwin Landseer, was visiting in the fine home of his friend, Mr. Newman Smith, a great Newfoundland dog came into the room carrying a basket of flowers in his mouth. Sir Edwin Landseer thought he had never seen so large and fine a dog, and when the dog came up to him and offered him the basket of flowers, as his owner told him to do, he was delighted. Being very fond of animals, Landseer always thought of painting them, so he suggested that he paint a picture of this dog. Mr. Newman Smith must have been surprised, for every one knew Sir Edwin Landseer had so many animals to paint that he kept a long waiting list, and it was usually many weeks before he could 3commence a picture. But the artist could not forget the kind, intelligent eyes of this handsome, trusty, powerful dog, and in a few days he sent for him. So Paul Pry—for that was the dog’s name,—was taken to Sir Edwin Landseer’s studio.

The way to the artist’s house led through a beautiful park, called Regent’s Park, and then along the road called “St. John’s Wood Road.” The house was small but behind it was the garden, and at the end of the garden was what had once been an old barn. This barn had been made over until, with its many windows and fine view of the country all round, it had become an ideal place for a studio.

Paul Pry remembered Landseer at once, as anyone could see by the way he went up to him, wagging his tail and offering his paw. He did exactly as he was told, and seemed to understand perfectly everything that was said. He was a beautiful animal, and Landseer could not help thinking how strong such dogs are and what wonderful things they can be trained to do. Perhaps the first thing he thought of was how they save people from drowning, for they are very strong swimmers and can save lives when men are unable to do anything.

Sir Edwin Landseer painted a picture of another dog that looked enough like this one 4to be Paul Pry himself. He called the picture “Saved,” because the dog has just saved a little child from drowning.

In that picture the dog is seen lying on the shore, too exhausted to do anything more than wait for help. He has strained every nerve and risked his own life to bring the child to land.

Sir Edwin called Paul Pry and told him to jump up on a big table where he could see him better. Then as he painted, he seemed to see the dog lying on the edge of a pier or wharf, waiting to go to the rescue if some one should need him.

So in this picture we see Paul Pry lying on the stone wharf while the water comes lapping gently against the iron mooring ring to which boats are fastened. It must be at the highest point of the tide, for we are sure the water never rises high enough to cover that iron ring entirely.

Just now the sun is shining brightly. We can tell this by the shadow of the dog’s great dark head on the white coat of his body. The length and direction of the shadows tell us that the sun must be high in the sky. If it were low in the horizon the shadows would be longer. We can be sure of this by watching our own shadows as we go home from school. The few sea gulls circling near the shore call 5our attention to the sky, where the clouds are just beginning to gather, as if a storm might be approaching. Perhaps the good dog has already scented the storm, and is quietly waiting to see if there is any work for him to do. His ears, slightly lifted, show us that he is attentive and watching.

It must be a quiet, warm day or Paul Pry would not look so comfortable lying on such an exposed end of the pier. Perhaps the air is sultry, as it often is before a storm, for the dog’s tongue hangs out and you can almost hear him pant.

This brave old dog, so ready and willing to risk his life to save other lives, might have been called “A Distinguished Member of the Life-Saving Crew,” but Sir Edwin Landseer knew his dog would be as brave on land as on the sea, so he used the name “Royal Humane Society,” which may include both.

When the painting was finished it was placed on exhibition and hundreds of people came to see it. The owner of the dog, Mr. Newman Smith, was very proud indeed.

Questions to help the pupil understand the picture. Where did Sir Edwin Landseer first see this dog? What did the dog do that pleased the artist very much? Who suggested that he paint this picture? why? Why was Mr. Smith 6surprised? What was the dog’s name? Where did Paul Pry go to have his picture painted? Tell about Sir Edwin Landseer’s studio. How did Paul Pry behave? Where was he lying when the artist painted his picture? Where did Sir Edwin Landseer imagine the dog to be? What do you suppose made him think of that? How do these dogs save people from drowning? What makes you think there will be a storm? What makes you think the air is sultry? What time of day is it? Why did the artist call the picture “A Member of the Royal Humane Society”?

To the Teacher: Encourage the children to talk about their own pet dogs, and to draw pictures of them, using charcoal and manila paper. The drawings will probably not be worth much in themselves, but the practice will make the children more observant, and will tend to make their later drawings better.

The story of the artist. Sir Edwin Landseer learned how to draw from his father, and when he was but five years old he could draw remarkably well. Edwin had three sisters and two brothers who liked to draw, too. The family lived out in the country and nearly every day at breakfast the father would ask his boys, “What shall we draw to-day?” They would take turns in choosing, and sometimes they would vote on it. Then out across the fields the father and his boys would tramp until 7they came to where the donkeys, sheep, goats, and cows were grazing. Each would choose the subject he wished to draw, and the four would sit down on the grass and begin to sketch. Edwin’s first choice was a cow and his father helped him draw it. After this Edwin came to these fields every day and his father called them “Edwin’s studio.”

At this time Edwin had three dogs of his own which he called Brutus, Vixen, and Boxer. They were always with him and were so intelligent that they seemed almost able to speak. In the back yard the children had several pens for pet rabbits and they kept pigeons in the attic of their house. Once Mr. Landseer decided to move. He selected a house, and thought all was settled, when he discovered that the landlord would not rent the house to him because he kept so many dogs and other pets.

When Edwin was only thirteen years old two of his pictures were exhibited at the Royal Academy. One was a painting of a mule and the other was of a dog and puppies.

Edwin painted always from real life, not caring to make copies from the work of others. All the sketches he made when he was a little boy were kept very carefully by the father, and now if you go to England you may see them in South Kensington Museum in London.

8We read of how the father and his sons made many visits to the Zoölogical Gardens, where they could watch and make sketches of lions, bears, and other wild animals. One day they saw a strange sight in one of the store windows in London—it was a Newfoundland dog caring for a lion. The lion had been caught in Africa when it was very little, and had been cared for by this great Newfoundland dog. They had never been separated, and now, although the lion was much larger than the dog, they were still the best of friends. Sometimes the dog would punish the lion if it did not behave, and the great beast would whimper just as though it could not help itself. All three boys made many sketches of this strange pair, and could hardly be persuaded to leave the window.

Edwin, we are told, was a bright, gentle little boy with blue eyes and light curly hair. When he was fourteen years old he became a pupil at the Royal Academy. The keeper there was an old man. He grew very fond of Edwin. He would look all around and if he could not find him, would say, “Where is my curly-headed dog boy?”

He was only sixteen years old when he exhibited his wonderful picture called “Fighting Dogs Getting Wind.” A very rich man whose 9praise meant a great deal at that time bought this picture, and Edwin’s success was assured.

It was about this time, too, that he painted an old white horse in the stable of another wealthy man. After the picture was finished and ready to be delivered, it suddenly disappeared. Search was made for it everywhere but it was not found until twenty-four years afterwards. A servant had stolen it and hidden it in a hayloft. He was afraid to sell it, or even to keep it in his home, for every one would have recognized the great artist’s work.

It was Sir Edwin Landseer’s opinion that animals understand, feel, and reason just like people, and so he painted them as happy, sad, gay, dignified, frivolous, rich, poor, and in all ways just like human beings. This appealed to the people very much and he became very popular indeed. Every one knew of Landseer and each wanted a certain one of his pictures of dogs because the dog in it looked so much like a dog they knew.

For many years Sir Edwin Landseer lived and painted in his father’s house in a poor little room without even a carpet. The only furniture, we are told, consisted of three cheap chairs and an easel. But as his fame grew he had more orders than he could fill, and before long he was able to move into a fine studio near 10Regent’s Park. It was here that he painted the famous picture of Paul Pry. He was not a very good business man and he left all his affairs to his father, who sold his pictures for him and kept his accounts.

This story is told of Sir Edwin Landseer. At an evening party, at which Landseer was present, some one made the remark that no one had ever been found who could draw two things at the same time. Landseer quickly replied, “Oh, I can do that; lend me two pencils and I will show you.” In a very few minutes he drew with one hand the head of a horse, at the same time drawing a deer’s head with the other. Both were so good that they might well have been drawn one at a time and with much more effort.

Although Landseer painted so many wild animals, birds, and hunting scenes, he did not care to hunt or shoot. His pencil was his weapon. Sometimes he would hire a guide to take him into the wildest places in search of game. To the great surprise of his guide, instead of shooting when a great deer came bounding toward him, he would quickly make a drawing of it in his sketch book. A beautiful live deer was much more interesting to him than a dead one. He said, “To shoot a bird is to lose it.”

Edwin’s brother Thomas made engravings of nearly all of Edwin’s paintings, and so although 11we cannot afford to buy one of the paintings, we can easily have one of the prints from the engravings.

No English painter has ever been more appreciated and loved in his own country than Sir Edwin Landseer.

Questions about the artist. Who painted this picture? When did he first begin to draw? How many brothers and sisters did he have? How many of them liked to draw? Where did they live? What question did the father ask at the breakfast table? How did they decide? Where did they go? What animal did Edwin choose first? Who helped him? Where was “Edwin’s studio”? Tell about the pets these children had. Where did they keep them? Why did the owner refuse to rent Mr. Landseer a house? When Edwin was thirteen years old, which of his pictures were exhibited? What became of the sketches he made when he was a boy? Tell about the Newfoundland dog and the lion. What did the keeper at the Royal Academy call Edwin? What did Sir Edwin Landseer think animals could do that made them seem like people? Tell about the picture of the old white horse. Tell how Sir Edwin Landseer went hunting. Why did he not shoot? Tell about the drawings he made with both hands. How did people like Sir Edwin Landseer and his paintings?


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Questions to arouse interest. Where are these children? Why do you think so? What are they doing? How do their clothes and shoes differ from ours? How many classes are there? What is the teacher doing? How is she dressed? Why do you think the little girl leaning against the teacher is just learning to read? What makes you think she has come to a word she does not know? Which child looks as if she knew? Which little girl is looking out of the window? What are the two little children sitting next to the teacher doing?

13Why are they not in class? How are they dressed? Why do they not wear bonnets like the older girls? What are the children at the desks doing? Which one in class is not listening? How many windows can you see? What makes you think there must be other windows? What can you see on the walls?

Artist: Jean Geoffroy (zh[o˔]´frwā´).
Birthplace: Marennes, France.
Dates: Born, 1853; still living, 1918.

The story of the picture. In a little village in Brittany, France, there is just such a school as the one we see in this picture. We know this is true because the artist, Mr. Jean Geoffroy, lives near it and has told us all about it with his brush and paints. We are told, too, that he visits this school very often and has made friends with all the boys and girls. He is a very rich, generous man and besides painting their pictures as large as life, he gives them flowers, cakes, and candy. Although he is naturally a very shy, quiet man, the children never find him so when he is entertaining them.

If we could open the door very quietly and go into this schoolhouse to-day, we should see a scene just like that in our picture. In that part of Brittany the children still wear those queer bonnets, wide collars, and wooden shoes. 14Many of the children have come a long way to school, for the houses are scattered. In some parts of Brittany we should see built on the low hills many an old castle, with its towers and walls in ruin. Narrow little bridges cross the streams which dash over the rocks on their way to the ocean. Then there are the great forests of oak trees where, long ago, the Druid priests used to live and hold their mysterious meetings, and about whose magic all kinds of weird tales are told.

But this was all so long ago that no doubt the children think now only of the beautiful fairies who live in the oak trees and go about doing good. They may even steal quietly in among the great trees, listening, and hoping to hear the low knock of some fairy who will tell them where to find the key which will unlock the door and let her out—for that is the only way one could hope to see a fairy in the daytime.

When the school bell rings in the morning the children come carrying their books and their lunches—a gay little procession from far and near, each wearing a quaint bonnet, dress, and shoes like those you see in the picture.

In our picture, school has begun, the opening exercises are over, and the first class of beginners is reciting. The little girl leaning against the teacher is just learning to read, and points to 15each word as she pronounces it. She seems to have come to a word she does not know. How do you think she will learn it? Will she sound it, or spell it and let some one in the class tell her, or will the teacher tell her? The little girl at this end holding her apron so tightly wants to tell her—at least she looks as if she knew, and so does the little girl looking at the book over the child’s shoulder. But the girl looking out of the window does not seem to be thinking of her school work and we fear she will not know her lesson.

The tallest girl is probably reading in another book and is farther advanced, for in country schools they do not try to keep together, but each one goes ahead as fast as he or she is able. Perhaps that is one reason why the older girls seated at the desks are studying so hard. No doubt their lessons are much longer than ours, for the school year is shorter. They must work very hard if they would keep up with the rest of the class.

The two little children sitting beside the teacher are too young to wear the queer bonnets the others wear, or to sit on the high benches, but they are content to be close to the teacher and to listen to the older children with wonder and admiration. They certainly do not look as if they were six years old.

16What a pleasant face the teacher has! Look at any part of the picture you wish and your eyes will soon be drawn back to her face as she sits in the bright light with the group of children about her. This is what the artist must have intended. It also explains why he left so indistinct the faces and figures of the pupils at their seats, and made the maps and charts on the wall so vague. If we were to stand in the doorway and look at the teacher and her class, we should see the pupils in their seats only as a blurred mass until we turned to look directly at them.

Suppose the bell for recess should ring. Then all would be commotion; but not confusion we are sure, for it is easy to see that the pupils in this school have been taught to be orderly. We wonder if the two little ones will be too shy to run and play with the other children. Probably there is some older sister to look after them.

And what will the children play? They probably do not have toboggan slides, seesaws, swings, or basket-balls on their playgrounds, but no doubt they play games like our “Follow the Leader,” “London Bridge,” “Crack the Whip,” and other games we like to play. It does not seem as if they could run very fast in such clumsy wooden shoes. If you have ever tried 17to wear a pair of Dutch wooden shoes you will wonder how they could be worn in school, for they are very likely to make a great deal of noise on the wooden floor. But you can tell by looking at this picture that all is very quiet in the schoolroom.

It will soon be time for the older girls to recite, and then this beginners’ class can study. Probably there are some smaller benches for them on the other side of the room. We hope the little girl who is looking out of the window will work and not bother her neighbor, as that big girl at the right-hand side of the picture is doing. However, her neighbor keeps her eyes on her book and pays no attention to her.

We should like to visit this school, and, best of all, we should like to go with these children on their homeward journey across the narrow little bridge, up the hill, past the great oak forest, and across the fields.

Questions to help the pupil understand the picture. How many have ever visited a country school? a city school? In what ways do they differ? How are they alike? Which does this picture represent? Why do you think so? Where is this school? Who lives near it? What does he like to do? What does he do for the children? How do the children dress in Brittany? Why do most of them come a long distance to school? Tell about the old 18castles; the forests and the Druids. Which class is reciting now? Tell what each one of the pupils is doing. Tell about the children at the desks. Why must they study so hard? What do you think they will all do at recess? What makes you think this is a quiet, orderly schoolroom? Look at the picture, then close your eyes, and then open them slowly. Whom do you see first? Whom do you think the artist intended us to see first? Why did he paint the children in the background so indistinct?

To the Teacher:
Subjects for Compositions
What I See in This Picture.
A Visit to the Schoolroom.
Why I Should Like to Go to This School.
Why I Like Our Own School Best.
An Imaginary Painting of Our School.

The story of the artist. Mr. Jean Geoffroy is still living in this little village called Marennes, near the school of which he has painted so many pictures. He is very fond of children, and counts them among his best friends. A large number of the pictures Geoffroy has painted are of children. He does not often paint the children of wealth and fashion, preferring instead to paint the little sons and daughters of the poorer, hard-working people.

His pictures always tell a story, and tell it 19so plainly that they do not need titles. They have brought him great praise and many honors, but he is a modest man and we know very little about his life.

He signs his paintings “Geo.”

Questions about the artist. Who painted this picture? Where does he live? What other pictures has he painted? Why do his pictures not need titles?


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Questions to arouse interest. What is this woman doing? How many know how butter is made? How many have ever tried to churn it? What else can you see in the picture? What does the cat want? What is she doing? What can you see in the back of the room? What do you see on the bench? Of what is the floor made? Why do you think this room is cool? How is the woman dressed? What can you see in the doorway? What is the hen doing? What do you like best about this picture?

Original Picture: Luxembourg Gallery, Paris, France.
Artist: Jean François Millet (mē´lĕ´)
Birthplace: Gruchy, France.
Dates: Born, 1814; died, 1875.

The story of the picture. When the artist, Jean François Millet, was a little boy he lived in the country where nearly all the people knew how to churn and make their own butter. No doubt he often watched his grandmother churn and helped her, too. He must have liked to see her pour the milk into the big pans, which she then set away in a cool place until all the cream had come to the top. Then she would skim the cream from the milk, put it 22into the big wooden churn, and begin to work the churning rod up and down, up and down, until her arms grew so tired that she was glad to rest them a while and let him churn.

At the end of the rod inside the churn are two boards fastened crosswise which work the cream into butter as the rod is moved up and down. The churn in the picture has a cover with a hole in the center for the handle, and as soon as the cream begins to thicken some of it works up with the rod to the top of the churn. We can see it in the picture. This cream must be what the cat smells and wants. If you have ever watched a cat sniffing at something it likes, you will know right away what the cat in the picture is doing. She rubs against the woman’s dress as a gentle reminder that she is there, and would very much like to have some cream. If the woman is called away for a few moments she had better take the cat with her or I fear Puss will not wait to be served.

A hen looks in at the open door, curious to know what is going on. The woman continues her churning. She must churn until the butter comes, which may be in twenty minutes or an hour, depending upon the condition of the cream. Then the butter will be salted and prepared for the table.

23Many farmers now send their milk to the creameries, where it is made into butter. In these days of cream separators and machinery of all kinds, buttermaking has ceased to be the difficult task that it once was.

Butter has not always been used for the table as we use it now. We read that, long ago, the Romans used it only as an ointment and in medicine. The people of India used it to anoint the wounds of their elephants. The Greeks knew very little about it, and considered its odor very disagreeable. One writer (Plutarch) tells us of a visit which a great Spartan lady paid to the wife of an important official, when the one smelled so strongly of sweet ointment and the other of butter that they could not endure each other. People in those days used olive oil in place of butter and this must have satisfied their tastes as well as butter does ours.

This picture is often called “The Buttermaker.” Like all of Millet’s pictures, it is a picture of work. The woman looks strong and capable, and willing to do each task as it comes to her. Farther back in the room we can see a bench upon which are placed the great jars of milk. The stone floor and the half-darkened room suggest a cool, comfortable place in which to work on a hot summer day. The woman is 24dressed like all the French peasants, a handkerchief wound around her head, and wearing those wooden shoes which everybody wore, even the little children. The broom resting against the bench suggests another task when this one is finished.

The strong light in the left-hand side of the picture must come from some window near by, for that side of the woman’s face and dress, and of the churn and handle, is brightly lighted. Most of the woman’s face, however, is indistinct, for Millet did not consider the features important and usually painted his faces in shadow. It is in what the men and women are doing and how they do it that he wished to interest us.

Questions to help the pupil understand the picture. How did Millet know so much about churning butter? How did his grandmother make butter? Describe the churn. What is at the end of the rod inside the churn? What can you see on the top of this churn? What does the cat want? How does she ask for it? How long must the woman churn? How is the butter prepared for the table? Where is most of our butter made to-day? How is it churned? How did the Romans use butter? the people of India? the Greeks? Tell about the visit of the Spartan lady. What did people use instead of butter? What is this picture sometimes called? What are the figures in most of Millet’s pictures 25doing? How is this woman dressed? Why did Millet paint most of her face indistinctly? What did he consider important? Where does the light come from?

To the Teacher: Have a child pose as if churning. An ordinary pail or the waste-paper basket with a broom or mop handle will do very well for the churn. If possible, have the child stand on a platform or table. The teacher’s apron may be worn, but the idea is to represent the action,—the bent head, curve of shoulders, position of arms, and general feeling of the figure. Use brush and ink for silhouette picture, or charcoal and manila paper.

Subjects for Short Compositions
What I See in This Picture.
How Butter Is Made.
The Cat and the Hen.
What I Like about This Picture.
The Man Who Painted This Picture.

The story of the artist. It was not a very long walk to the little village schoolhouse at Gruchy where Jean François Millet studied. His good old grandmother had taught him his letters at home, and he could read and spell very well before he ever went to school at all. He was past six years old, and large for his age, before he started. When he arrived at the school yard the first thing he did was to fight. There was a boy in the school who had fought every 26boy in the class, and proved that he was the strongest. So when he saw Millet coming down the street with the older children in whose care he had been sent, this boy hurried toward him and dared him to fight. Millet himself tells how he came out victorious, and how proud the older children were. “Millet is only six and a half,” they said, “and he has beaten a boy more than seven years old.”

But Millet was not a fighter, and fought only when he was forced to. He loved to study, and soon stood at the head of his class. When the village priest offered to teach him Latin he was only too glad to study evenings or at any other time. At home he found little to read except the Bible, which belonged to his grandmother; even when he was very little she had told him many wonderful stories from this book. This Bible contained many pictures, and one day he surprised her by making a drawing from one of them. He drew his picture on the wall of the house, with white chalk. She was delighted, and so were his mother and father when they saw the picture. After that he drew many pictures of things in and about the house, and of his grandmother, his brothers and sisters, and his parents.

As a boy Millet had to work in the fields with his father and he had little time to spend 27on his drawings or his studies. In France it is the custom among the peasants to spend an hour every day in rest. But Millet, instead of sleeping during that hour, spent it in drawing the homely scenes around him.

It was not until he was eighteen years old, however, that he drew a picture which made his parents decide he should become an artist. This picture was of an old man bent over a cane, whom Millet met as he was coming home from church. He drew this with charcoal on a stone wall, and people recognized it at once and were very much pleased. His father said he would take him to see an artist in the next village to whom he would show some of Millet’s drawings and find out whether he thought the boy could become an artist. Millet took two drawings with him. The first represented two shepherds with their sheep, one shepherd playing a flute, the other listening as he watched the sheep nibbling the grass near by. The second drawing was of a man giving bread to a beggar at his door. When the artist (Mouchel) saw these drawings he was amazed, and at first would not believe Millet had drawn them himself. He said that Millet would surely be a great painter. This decided the matter, and Millet became Mouchel’s pupil.

Millet studied with the artist not quite two 28months when his father died, and he was obliged to return home to take his father’s place on the farm as best he could. But the people of the village thought it was too bad for him to give up his painting, and they determined to help him. So they raised a sum of money for him and sent him back to the artist to study, and finally to the great city of Paris, France.

At Paris he became the pupil of a fashionable painter of that day. When he entered the class, a green peasant boy, the other pupils laughed at him, but when they saw his work they admired it very much. However, they did not care for the people he painted, for he always pictured the poor French peasants whom he knew and loved best. The very paintings we prize so highly now were not appreciated then, and it was not easy for Millet to sell them. He was very poor until the last ten years of his life. Then people began to give him the honor and praise that he so much deserved.

Then too with his increasing fame came better financial conditions. In 1867 he received a medal and the blue ribbon of the Legion of Honor. Soon afterward the death of a dear artist friend made Millet fall ill. He never recovered his health and died a few years later.

Questions about the artist. Who painted this picture? How old was he when he started 29to school? Tell about his first day at school. How did he get along at school? What did he study with the priest? What did he read at home? How did he surprise his grandmother? Where did he draw his picture? What else did he draw? Of whom did he draw a picture as he was coming home from church? Why must it have looked like the man? Where did Millet’s father take him? What two drawings did they take with them? What did the artist think about these drawings? What did he say about Millet? Why did Millet return home? What did his neighbors do for him? Who laughed at him in the city? How did they feel when they saw what he could do? Why could he not sell all his pictures? When were they appreciated? Why are they so valuable now?


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Questions to arouse interest. Where is this young girl? Why do you think so? What do you see in the background that tells you so? What has happened? Why does she look so serious? Does she look frightened, or just sorry? What is she carrying on her arm? What is she carrying in her apron? How is she dressed? How is her hair combed? What do you see in her hair? What is pinned on her dress? How old do you think she is? Why do you think you would like her?

Original Picture: Louvre (lōō´vr’) Gallery, Paris, France.
Artist: Jean Baptiste Greuze (grûz).
Birthplace: Tournus (Tōōr´nüs´), France.
Dates: Born, 1725; died, 1805.

The story of the picture. One glance at this picture tells us what has happened, and why the little girl looks so serious. On her arm she carries a quaint old pitcher which she has just broken. It looks as though she were dressed for a party, for there are flowers in her hair, a bouquet on her dress, and flowers in her apron. Perhaps she had picked the flowers and was getting the water so that she could place the pitcher full of blossoms on the table. 32She may have gathered up all the broken pieces in her apron, hoping that the pitcher can be mended. We are sure that it must have been a pitcher that she prized very highly and hopes to save, for she still holds it. But surely it is not customary to take such a good pitcher to the fountain; a tin pail or a jug would be so much safer. It must be that there is company at her home. She must have caught up the pitcher from the table and hurried away, impatient to be back with her friends. In her haste she may have slipped and fallen. Now she must go home, and they will all know what has happened.

She stands still a moment, trying to think how to tell them; she does not know just how it did happen, or whether she was really to blame or not. Had the board she stepped on not been slippery, or the pitcher not quite so heavy, and if she had not been in a hurry, all would have been well. Of one thing she is certain—she did not do it purposely. She wishes she had brought an old pitcher or a pail; but it is of no use to think about that now—the mischief is done. And somehow we feel sure she will not be punished or even scolded very much.

What a very pretty girl she is, with just such a sweet face as the artist Greuze always 33loved to paint. In the original painting she has blue eyes, light hair, pink cheeks, very red lips, and her dress is white. In the background we see the old stone fountain, the cool water flowing in a steady stream from the mouth of the rudely carved head. What interesting tales that fountain could tell of the rich and the poor who pass that way each day; of the many little acts of courtesy and kindness it has seen; of the thirsty, the wasteful and careless, the happy and the sad people it has known and served.

Through the earth a tiny streamlet
Pushed its way so clear and cool,
Shot right up where all could see it
And at length it formed a pool.
People, passing stopped to taste it
And it quenched their thirst so soon
That they said, “Let’s build a fountain,”
And to all it proved a boon.
Rich and poor came there to seek it,
Came with pails and pitchers too.
But the streamlet still flowed strongly
Whether many came or few.
Years passed on and still the fountain
Gave to all its nectar sweet;
Gave it freely to all comers,
And it always proved a treat.
34So it gleamed with those in gladness
As it moaned for those too sad.
Did its very best to help them,
Soothed them with the strength it had.
Come, then, tarry by this fountain,
Learn its lesson ere you go.
Can we do as much for others?
Can we help them, friend or foe?

Questions to help the pupil understand the picture. What color is this young girl’s dress? her eyes? her hair? her cheeks? How do you think she would look if she smiled? Why does she look so serious? How do you suppose she happened to come to the fountain? Why did she hurry? What makes you think she wanted to keep this pitcher? Why do you think they will not scold her? What kind of a fountain is it? From what does the water flow? How many have watched the people who come to a fountain for water? Why do you think the fountain could tell us some interesting stories if it could talk?

To the Teacher: Have the pupils illustrate the story of the little girl going for water. Use charcoal and manila paper.

The story of the artist. Jean Baptiste Greuze was born at Tournus, France, in 1725. When, as a small boy, he began to show decided talent for drawing, his father was very much disappointed. He wanted his boy to pursue 35some more profitable profession, for, as he said, it was only the few who won fame and wealth as artists; the rest starved.

However, the boy persevered and finally was permitted to study with an artist friend of the family. This artist became much interested in him, and when, some months later, he moved to Paris, he persuaded the father to allow Greuze to go with him. Here the study was continued, Greuze receiving special instruction in the painting of heads. His greatest delight was in painting heads of children and of old men, and “Greuze heads” soon became famous.

Then, too, he painted many pictures from the Bible, and at one time he was ambitious to become a historical painter. It was then he went to Rome to study the paintings of the famous masters there. His first painting to bring him fame was “A Father Explaining the Scriptures to His Family.” Our picture, “The Broken Pitcher” is one of the best known and most popular of his paintings.

Questions about the artist. Who painted this picture? Of what nationality was he? Why did his father not want him to become an artist? What did the boy persist in doing? Who helped him? Where did he go to continue his study? What did he paint most? what other subjects?


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Questions to arouse interest. What do you see in this picture? What relation are these two to each other? Why do you think so? How are they dressed? Why do you suppose they look so happy? How could Madame Lebrun paint this picture of herself? From what direction does the light come? Why do you like the picture?

Original Picture: The Louvre, Paris, France.
Artist: Madame Vigée-Lebrun (lē brŭN´).
Birthplace: Paris, France.
Dates: Born, 1755; died, 1842.

The story of the picture. Probably we think we know just how we look and yet I wonder how many of us could tell it to an artist so plainly that he would be able to paint our portrait. Perhaps at best all we could tell him would be that his picture did not look like us, though without knowing why. But it is true that many great artists have painted their own portraits, and very good likenesses they are, too. In some ways it ought to be easy, for as they are their own models they can sit for their pictures as often and as long as they wish.

38Madame Lebrun had been planning for some time perhaps to paint a portrait of herself. Then, just as she was all ready and seated in front of a long mirror, the door had opened suddenly and in had come her little daughter. With a hop and a jump she had thrown herself into her mother’s arms. Then with her arms still about her mother’s neck, she had happened to think of the mirror, and half turning there she had seen herself held close in her mother’s embrace. Madame Lebrun realized at once what a lovely picture it would make, and so she began to paint it.

How much they resemble each other! The little girl’s name was Jeanne Julie Louise Lebrun, and she must have been very lovely indeed. Her mother tells us, “She was charming in every respect. Her large blue eyes sparkling with spirit, her slightly tip-tilted nose, her pretty mouth, magnificent teeth, a dazzling fresh complexion, all went to make up one of the sweetest faces to be seen.”

She did not care to draw and paint as her mother did, but she loved to write stories.

How proud of her lovely mother she seems to be! And indeed she ought to look proud, and happy too, for perhaps there never was a little girl more petted and loved. Imagine how proud she must have felt that her mother 39was such a great artist, and painted beautiful pictures which every one admired and which, with her pleasant ways, made her one of the most beloved women in France.

The light in the picture seems to come from a window at the left-hand side and to fall directly upon the faces of the mother and child. So interested are we in them we do not realize that there is no landscape background, only a suggestion of a curtain or screen against which the two faces stand out clearly. The mother is dressed in white, the daughter in a blue which matches her merry blue eyes.

To us these two can never grow sad or old, and we are glad Madame Lebrun looked in her mirror and gave us this beautiful picture.

Once a mirror, tall and stately,
Caught an image, held it safely,
Gleamed and glistened,
Dreamed and listened,
While the artist, glancing in it,
Glanced again, and smiled within it,
Thought and pondered,
Sought and wondered.
As she sat thus at her mirror,
Came a vision of one dearer,
Danced and shouted,
Pranced and pouted.
40Quickly threw her arms about her,
Clasped her closely—’twas her daughter,
Light and airy,
Sprite and fairy.
Both into the mirror glancing,
Saw at once the sight entrancing,
Glanced and smiling,
’Tranced, beguiling.
Then the artist seized her brushes,
For her paints the daughter rushes:
Sought, and bringing,
Brought them, singing.
And the artist, painting quickly,
Paints until the light grows sickly.
Starts and lingers,
Parts tired fingers.
When at last the work was ended,
All the critics called it “splendid.”
Fame and honors
Came as donors.

Questions to help the pupil understand the picture. How did Madame Lebrun paint this picture of herself? Who came running into the room? Why do you think the mother was glad she came? What made her think of painting her daughter, too? What is the color of her daughter’s hair? her eyes? What is the daughter’s name? What did she like to do? What is the color of her dress? of her mother’s? Why should she be so proud of her mother?

41The story of the artist. Madame Lebrun began to draw and paint when she was not as old as the little daughter we see in the picture. Her father was her teacher. One day when she was only seven years old she surprised him by drawing a picture of a man with a long beard, which was so good that he said, “You will be a great painter, my child, if ever there has been one.” She always remembered this, and when she was sent away to the convent to school she drew just as much and as often as she could. Her notebooks were full of drawings which were so well done they were kept in the convent to show to visitors.

After she returned home she began to paint in earnest. Her father had many artist friends, and when they came to the house she loved to sit quietly in a corner and listen to their talk about great pictures and artists. It was not very long before she was painting pictures which brought her great praise and honor. About this time her father died, and later on her mother married again. The stepfather was a rich man, but he was very stingy, and insisted upon her giving him all the money she earned. By this time her fame had spread over the country, and people came from far and near to have her paint their portraits.

She married a man who was a picture 42dealer and who, although she had not known it, was a reckless gambler. She was obliged to give him most of the money she earned to pay his debts. After a time she left him, taking her lovely little daughter with her. She had a studio of her own where she could work, and entertain her friends, and there she lived and worked very happily with her little daughter.

One evening Madame Lebrun went to the theater and when the curtain went up, there on a large easel on the stage was one of her paintings. When the people saw it they all stood up and waved and cheered while they looked toward the artist, who was seated in a box. Madame Lebrun was so surprised she almost forgot to smile and bow to them.

The king and queen sent for her to come and paint their portraits. Day after day the royal carriage would come to take her to the palace to paint the queen, Marie Antoinette, and her children. Those were happy days for her.

A very short time after this picture was painted the dreadful French Revolution broke out. The poor people of France, who had been treated very badly by the rich, rebelled and tried to kill or drive away all the rich people. Madame Lebrun had always been 43friends with the rich people, so it was not safe for her to stay in Paris, either.

One evening she dressed her little daughter in a ragged dress and bonnet to make her look like a poor peasant child. She herself wore an old dress, with a handkerchief over her head to hide her face like a veil. They slipped quietly out of the house and into an omnibus that was waiting for them and drove as quickly as possible through the crowded streets, out of the city. No one recognized them, and they went to Italy, where they traveled about the country for many years. Mother and daughter were very popular and were entertained royally wherever they went. But Madame Lebrun never laid aside her painting. Even when she was eighty years old she painted a beautiful portrait of her little niece, who must have reminded her of the little daughter in this picture.

Questions about the artist. What did Madame Lebrun do when she was a little girl? Who was her teacher? Of whom did she draw a picture to surprise her father? What did he say of it? What did this make her do? Why were her notebooks treasured at the convent? Tell about her stepfather. Tell what happened at the theater. What king and queen sent for her to paint their portraits? Why did she and her daughter leave Paris? How did they escape?


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Questions to arouse interest. Of what is this a picture? Where do you suppose he is? In what countries do lions live wild? How many have seen a lion at the park or circus? Why do they have such strong cages? On what are they fed? On what do lions live in their own country? How many of you have watched trained lions? Why does this lion look so gentle, do you suppose? Notice the size of his eyes and ears.

Original Picture: Private Collection, W. H. Vanderbilt, New York.
Artist: Rosa Bonheur (b[o˔]´nûr´)
Birthplace: Bordeaux, France.
Dates: Born, 1822; died, 1899.

The story of the picture. After Rosa Bonheur had painted horses, cows, and other tame animals a great many times, she began to want to paint wild animals, such as tigers and bears. She could not go to the far-away countries where they live, so she bought a lion and lioness from a man who had been there. These she kept in a very strong cage of heavy iron bars. Here she came to watch them every day.

This is one of the pictures she painted of the lion. She called him “Nero,” and was so 46kind to him that after a while he became quite tame. The lioness was always wild, but good old Nero soon became so gentle that Rosa Bonheur could pet him and even go into his cage.

How wise he looks! He seems to know the great artist is painting his picture. No doubt he could tell us wonderful stories of the country he came from. He could tell us of the big cave in the great rock where he lived, and of that pool of water where he drank. Then he could tell us of the tall, sweet-smelling grasses and rushes in the jungles where he could hide from his enemies and surprise them, and how he walked about the marshes on dark nights; for he can see at night as well as in the daytime.

One day Rosa Bonheur had to go away on a long journey. She did not know just what to do with the lions, but finally sent them to the park, where a man took good care of them. Nero did nothing but walk back and forth in his cage all day long while his mistress was away. He refused to eat anything the man gave him, and by the time Rosa Bonheur returned home the lion was very sick. As soon as he saw her he showed how pleased he was. She spent many days taking care of him, and finally Nero was well again. He 47never wanted any one else to come near him.

A few months later, Rosa Bonheur had to go away again. She was very much worried about leaving Nero, but finally she found a man with whom she was not afraid to trust him. As soon as she was gone, however, gentle old Nero became very cross and ugly. He growled at the keeper, and tried to hurt him.

One day the keeper had to go into the cage to fix something. With a fierce growl Nero sprang at him and tried to kill him. In the struggle the lion was badly hurt. When Rosa Bonheur came home she found Nero very sick and going blind. No one dared to go near his cage, but as soon as he heard her voice he was the old faithful Nero again. When Rosa went into his cage he put his great head in her lap and seemed happy to have her pet him. Every one was surprised to see how much he loved her. Rosa Bonheur did everything for him she could, hoping her pet would get well again, but a few days later he died, his head in her lap.

Rosa missed her pet very much, and after that she never cared to own another lion. She gave the lioness to the city to keep in the park. She was very glad she had painted so many good pictures of Nero, for it made her feel as if she still had her pet with her.

48Questions to help the pupil understand the picture. Whose lion was this? How did she get him? Why did she want a lion? How many did she have? How did the lioness behave? What was this lion’s name? How tame was he? Whom did he like best? What happened when Rosa Bonheur went away on a journey? Who took care of the lions? What did Nero do? How did he act when Rosa Bonheur came back? What did she do? What happened the second time she went away? upon her return? Why did Rosa Bonheur not care to have another lion? Why was she glad she had painted this picture?

To the Teacher: The children may draw a picture of a lion. Use manila paper and charcoal. Call attention to the large, bushy head, cat-like body, and long, waving tail.

The story of the artist. Rosa Bonheur’s father was an artist, and when any one asked her who taught her to draw, she always said, “My father taught me.” Her mother could play the piano very well indeed, but Rosa did not care so much for that study. When Rosa was sent to school she had to walk some distance through the woods to the schoolhouse. Sometimes she would stop and smooth the dust in the road with her hand, and then draw pictures in it. She used a stick to draw with. Even then she liked to draw pictures of animals best of all. Often she had such good times 49drawing that she even forgot to go to school.

Her father thought he could make a better living in Paris, so the family moved to that great city. The first place they lived was up several flights of stairs and across the street from a butcher’s shop. This shop had for a sign a wild boar rudely carved out of wood. Rosa missed her old pets so much, and this wild boar looked so much like her little pet pig in the country, that she used to stop to pat the wooden boar every time she passed that way.

A man who lived in the same house with the Bonheur family kept a small school for boys. Rosa’s two brothers went to this school, and after a while the teacher said Rosa might go too. She was the only girl in the school, but she did not mind that at all. The boys were glad to have her with them, for she knew more games than they and played just like one of them.

Her father did not do so well with his painting as he had hoped, so they moved into a cheaper house. It was here that Rosa’s mother died. The little sister, Juliette, was then sent to her grandmother, and Rosa went to live with an aunt. The aunt sent her to school, and it was at this time that she used to stop on the way to the schoolhouse to draw pictures in the dust on the road. So she did not get along very well with her aunt and the teacher 50and was delighted when her father told her she might come home.

All the children loved animals, and there are a great many stories told about those that were kept in their house. Rosa’s brother Isidore had a little lamb which he would carry down six nights of stairs every morning, so that it might nibble the green grass and be out in the fresh air. It became a great pet, and all the children drew its picture in ever so many different positions. Besides the lamb, they had a parrot, a monkey, two dogs, rabbits, and birds. Their father let the children keep these pets in a room fitted up especially for them.

Rosa’s father was teaching in a private school at this time, and was away from home all day; but when he came home at night Rosa would show him what she had been doing while he was gone. Once she had been painting cherries, and her father came in while she was working on them. He praised her very much, and helped her finish the painting.

In the evening Rosa and her two brothers and her father used to put their easels in different parts of the big room and draw and paint until it was quite late. They would all much rather do this than anything else in the world, and it was the only time their father had in which to help them.

51The father belonged to a religious order called the “Saint Simonians.” The members wore queer gowns and bonnets with long tassels. Rosa wore such a bonnet with a big tassel, and sometimes the boys would shout and laugh at her, but she paid no attention to that.

Later the father got a position in another private school, earning enough to send his three children there as pupils and to give them everything they needed at home.

Rosa did not behave very well in school. She liked to cut queer figures out of paper, figures that looked like some of the teachers or pupils. Then she would fasten them to a string, put some moist bread on the other end, and throw it up to the ceiling of the schoolroom. The bread would stick to the ceiling and there those dreadful figures must dangle until some one came with a ladder and took them down. She was punished very often, and sometimes to make her behave she was given nothing to eat but bread and water.

Although she did such things every one liked her, for she was good-hearted and kind and full of fun. But finally she did something that could not be overlooked. This is what she did. The lady who kept the school was very fond of flowers, and above all she loved the stately hollyhock. She had a 52beautiful bed of hollyhocks in the front yard of the school that was very much admired by all who passed.

One day when Rosa had been reading in her school history about a war, she thought it would be fine fun to arrange a great battle in the yard between the girls. They used wooden sticks for swords. Very soon Rosa’s side drove their enemies toward the hollyhock bed, where they turned and fled. Seeing the hollyhocks standing guard like soldiers, Rosa thought it would be fun to charge upon them, which she did, cutting off all their heads. Is it any wonder she was sent home in disgrace?

Her father then sent her to a dressmaker to see if she could learn that trade, but Rosa did not like dressmaking, and finally went home without having learned very much. Then some friends gave her some photographs to color, and this she liked to do.

Next Rosa was asked to teach drawing to a girl who was some years younger than herself. This girl lived in a beautiful home which had a large gallery full of fine pictures. The floor of this gallery was waxed, and after Rosa had looked at the pictures the two amused themselves by sliding on the waxed floor until it was time for Rosa to go home. So her father had to give up all idea of making her a 53teacher. He knew that the only thing to do was to let her paint, for that she loved to do and could do well.

Rosa was willing to walk miles in all kinds of weather, to sit hours in all kinds of uncomfortable positions, and to go without food, in order to draw a good picture of some animal. Now she began her study of animals in earnest. She went to all the country horse fairs, to the slaughter houses, and everywhere she could to study them.

Rosa never had very pretty clothes. She tells us herself that one day a parrot called after her, “Ha, ha! That hat!” Now that she was grown up she found she could not get about very easily in her long skirts. There were so many rough men in the packing houses and other places she must go to study that she got a permit to wear men’s clothing. Her hair was short anyway, and so with her blue working blouse and dark trousers she looked just like a man. Then no one noticed her as she went about, for they thought her only one of the workmen.

Her pictures became famous the world over. The first she exhibited was one of some little rabbits nibbling carrots. From all over the country she received gifts of fine horses and other animals for her to paint. Buffalo Bill 54once sent her two fine horses from Texas. She bought a farm, and had a large barn built where she could keep her animals. How proud her father was of her!

One day as she was working hard in her studio a servant came to tell her that the Empress Eugénie had come to see her. It was a great event when this royal lady came to the artist’s studio, and there was Rosa dressed in her old blue blouse covered with paint! She did not have time to slip it off, even, before the empress came in. They had a most delightful visit, however, and as the Empress Eugénie bent over and kissed Rosa Bonheur, she pinned the Cross of the Legion of Honor on the artist’s blue blouse. Rosa did not notice it until after the empress was gone. How pleased she must have been, for she was the first woman to receive that high honor.

Questions about the artist. Who painted this picture? In what country did she live? Who taught her to paint? What did her father do for a living? What could her mother do? Why was Rosa sometimes late to school? Where did they move? What kind of a house did they live in? Tell about the wild boar; the school for boys. Why did they move again? What happened here? Where were the children sent? Why did Rosa want to come back? Tell about Isidore and the lamb. What other 55pets did the children have? Where did they keep them? What did Rosa do while her father was away? What did they all like to do in the evening? Tell about the Saint Simon cap Rosa sometimes wore. How did she behave in school? What did she do that made them send her away? What trade did her father want her to learn? How did she succeed at this? What did she like to do? What kind of a teacher was Rosa? Where did she go to study animals? When she was older, why did she wear men’s clothes? What were some of the presents she received? Tell about the visit of Empress Eugénie. What did the empress give Rosa? Why was this such a great honor?


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Questions to arouse interest. Where do you think this little girl is sitting? Does she look as if she were sitting still or moving? Do you think she is happy, sad, full of fun, or mischievous? What has she on her head? How is her hair combed? How is she dressed? What has she on her hands? In what way is she different from the little girls we know? What can you see behind her? How many like this picture? why?

Original Picture: Mrs. Thwaite’s Private Collection.
Artist: Sir Joshua Reynolds (rĕn´ŭldz).
Birthplace: Plympton, England.
Dates: Born, 1723; died, 1792.

The story of the picture. This quaint little Penelope Boothby, sitting so prim with her queer cap and black silk mitts, looks as if she knows a secret that pleases her very much. Perhaps that dress she is wearing is long, and she is pretending she is some great lady who has just come to call upon the artist, Sir Joshua Reynolds. It must have been fun to walk about his great yard, with her long dress sweeping over the soft green grass. It looks as if 58the artist had lifted her into the window of his studio, and painted her as she sat there. The half mischievous look on her face makes us think she will jump down and run out among the trees at any moment. We wonder what makes her look so pleased.

Perhaps Sir Joshua Reynolds is telling her a story—maybe the one about his father. He lived in the country and one day decided to go to town on horseback. It had rained very hard, and the roads were muddy, so he wore high-topped boots. These boots were a little large for him, and as he rode along, swinging his feet, for he was riding bareback, one of his boots fell off. He was thinking of other things, and did not miss his boot until he rode into town and wanted to go into the store. Imagine how he must have felt when he discovered his loss.

“One boot on and one boot off,
How the neighbors laugh and scoff;
Such an absent-minded man
Ne’er was seen since the world began.”

Or perhaps Sir Joshua was telling her about his friend, the sea captain named Admiral Keppel, with whom he took that wonderful trip across the sea.

But best of all she would like to hear the story of that strange little Italian boy he met 59in Rome. One day a little fellow had offered to be Sir Joshua Reynolds’s guide about the great city. He was so small, ragged, and dirty that Sir Joshua gave him some money and told him to run away. But the little fellow smiled happily, showing all his white teeth; his dark eyes fairly danced, he was so eager to show the artist what a good guide he could be. All that day he followed Sir Joshua, and as he had lived in Rome all his life, he knew all about the city and could tell the great painter many interesting things.

The next morning Sir Joshua found the boy sitting on his doorstep waiting for him. He let the little fellow carry his paints and brushes, and off they started. And so it happened every day, until finally one day Sir Joshua gave the boy an easel, and some paints and brushes, and taught him how to paint. And oh, how pleased the little boy was then! He had a very strange name. It was Giuseppe Marchi. After he had been with Sir Joshua Reynolds a week you would hardly have recognized the boy, dressed in a fine new suit of clothes the artist had bought for him, and painting pictures which were very good indeed.

Then the time came for Sir Joshua to start for home; but Giuseppe Marchi was not to be 60left behind. At that time Sir Joshua was not a very wealthy man, and when they were still three hundred miles from Paris he counted his money and found he had only enough to pay his own fare; so he had to say good-by to poor Giuseppe Marchi. In Paris, Sir Joshua had a good friend with whom he could stay. Imagine his surprise one morning to find Giuseppe Marchi sitting on the doorstep of this friend’s house! The boy had walked all those miles, and had at last found his dear master. So then of course Sir Joshua brought him on home with him.

Perhaps, just when Sir Joshua was telling Penelope this part of the story, Giuseppe Marchi himself came into the room, for he lived with the artist all the rest of his life, and helped him paint part of his pictures, too. Sir Joshua Reynolds spoke of him as “an angel sent from God to help me do my work.”

When the artist painted this picture little girls must have worn caps like this, for we see them in some of his other pictures, too. They were called “mob caps.”

Nearly a hundred years after this picture was painted a great party was given in London for the children. All were to wear fancy dresses to represent some person of whom the rest should guess the identity. One little girl 61dressed as “Penelope Boothby.” She had a cap just like this one, a handkerchief worn like this, and a pair of black silk mitts. Every one knew at once whom she represented, and she was so much admired that the next day she was taken to another great artist, Millais. He painted a beautiful picture of the little girl holding some cherries in her hands, and called his picture “Cherry Ripe.”

Questions to help the pupil understand the picture. What is this little girl’s name? What do you suppose she has been playing? Where is she sitting? why? What stories could Sir Joshua Reynolds tell her? Tell the story of his father and the high-topped boots; of the little Italian boy. Why did Sir Joshua send the boy away at first? What did the boy do for Sir Joshua? What happened the next morning? What did they do every day after that? What did Sir Joshua teach the boy to do? What made the boy look so different after a week? When Sir Joshua started home, what did the boy do? Why could he not go all the way? How did he manage to follow the artist? What did Sir Joshua do for the boy then? Where was the boy when Sir Joshua Reynolds was telling this story? How did the artist often speak of this Italian boy? Why do you think Penelope Boothby would like to hear this story? Does she look as if she were listening, or talking? Why do you think you would like to know her?

62To the Teacher: Ask a little girl to pose as Penelope Boothby. She may be seated upon a table and drawn side view. Other pictures may be drawn illustrating the story of a little girl dressed in a long dress and walking proudly among the trees; or of the artist and his little Italian guide. Use manila paper and charcoal. Work for action.

The story of the artist. When Sir Joshua Reynolds was a little boy it was decided that he should become a doctor. His father and mother set their hearts upon it, and resolved to help him in every way. Though he loved to draw, it did not seem then as if he would ever become an artist, for his five brothers and sisters could all draw better than he. The children used so much paper and so many pencils that finally the father told them they might draw upon the whitewashed walls in the hall of their house. They used burnt sticks for pencils. It must have been quite as much fun as to draw with white chalk on the blackboard.

Little Joshua’s drawings were so funny that the older children always laughed when they saw them and called him the clown. But he did not care; he just kept on drawing until one day he drew a picture which was really very good. It was of their schoolhouse and he drew it with a pencil on paper. It was so well drawn that every one praised it, and he 63was very proud indeed. He was only seven years old, and this praise pleased him so much that he kept thinking of it all the time. That day at school he covered his number paper with drawings of things about the room. His father taught the school, and you can imagine how he felt when his son handed in a paper which he could not read because of the drawings all over it. He began to fear Joshua would never make a good doctor or business man, so he wrote at the top of the paper, “Done by Joshua out of pure idleness.”

One day a man came to their town who could draw any person’s picture while he waited. Then, too, he could cut a silhouette picture or side view of the face out of black paper. Joshua followed him about all day, and the two became great friends. The artist gave Joshua lessons and the boy soon learned to draw as well as his teacher. We are told that it was through the friendship of this strolling artist that a rich man’s attention was called to Joshua’s wish to be an artist, and this rich man finally persuaded the father to let Joshua go to London to study.

It was about this time, too, that while at church he drew a picture of the minister on his thumb nail. From this tiny sketch he painted a large portrait on a piece of sail which he found 64on the river bank near an old boathouse. His paints were some the sailors used to paint their boats. When his father saw this portrait, which was so very like the minister, he knew that his son would surely be a great artist, and he gave up all thought of trying to make a doctor of him.

In London, Reynolds studied painting in earnest, and wrote home, “While I am doing this, I am the happiest creature alive.” He painted the portraits of several well-known men, and soon became very popular.

Then came Admiral Keppel and the wonderful voyage on the ship which he commanded. Upon Sir Joshua’s return home he painted a fine portrait of his friend, the Admiral, which every one wanted to see many times.

It was not long before Sir Joshua Reynolds became a rich man, and bought a beautiful home with a large yard full of beautiful trees. His sister came to keep house for him, and later his little niece Offy came to live with him. He loved children dearly, and always kept pets and playthings for them. He entertained them so happily that they always wanted to come to see him.

Questions about the artist. What did Sir Joshua Reynolds’s father and mother want him to be when he grew up? How many 65brothers and sisters did he have? How did his drawings compare with theirs? Why did they not draw with paper and pencils? Where were they allowed to draw? What did they call Joshua? Of what did he make his first good picture? What did people say about it? How old was he then? How did he spoil his number paper? What did his father write at the top of his paper? Tell about the strolling artist and what he did for Joshua. Tell about Joshua’s portrait of the minister. What did his father decide after seeing this portrait? What else did Sir Joshua Reynolds do? Tell about his house and yard. What kind of pictures did he paint? Why do you think he was considered a great artist?



Studying the picture. Several days before the lesson is to be taken up, the picture to be studied should be placed where every pupil can see it.

First of all, the children should find out for themselves what is in the picture. The questions accompanying the story of each picture are intended to help them to do this.

Language work. The pupils should be encouraged in class to talk freely and naturally. In this way the lesson becomes a language exercise in which the pupils will gain in freedom of expression and in the ability to form clear mental images.

If a lesson does not occupy the entire drawing period, the children should be asked to retell the story of the picture.

Dramatization and drawing. Most of the stories told by the pictures lend themselves readily to dramatization and, whenever practicable, such stories should be acted out. The stories also offer numerous interesting situations that may be used as subjects for drawing lessons.

The review lesson. The review lesson should cover all pictures and artists studied throughout the year. At this time other pictures available by the same artists should be on exhibition.

The review work may be conducted as a contest in which the pictures are held up, one at a time, while the class writes the name of the picture and the artist on slips of paper which have been prepared and numbered for that purpose. One teacher who used this device surprised her class by presenting those whose lists were correct with their choice of any of the large-sized Perry pictures studied.

Many teachers, however, will prefer to use this time for composition work, although the description of pictures is often given as an English lesson. Pupils may write a description of 67their favorite picture. In fact, the lessons can be made to correlate with history, geography, English, spelling, reading, or nature study.

In any event the real purpose of the work is that the pupils shall become so familiar with the pictures that they will recognize them as old friends whenever and wherever they may see them.

It is hoped that acquaintance with the picture and the interest awakened by its story will grow into a fuller appreciation and understanding of the artist’s work. Thus the children will have many happy hours and will learn to love the good, the true, and the beautiful in everything about them.



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