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Title: The Totall Discourse of The Rare Adventures & Painefull Peregrinations
       of long Nineteene Yeares Travayles from Scotland to the
              most famous Kingdomes in Europe, Asia and Affrica

Author: William Lithgow

Release Date: March 1, 2020 [EBook #61545]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Jeroen Hellingman and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at for Project
Gutenberg (This file was produced from images generously
made available by The Internet Archive/Canadian Libraries)


Original Front Cover.


The Rare Adventures
William Lithgow






One thousand copies of this book have been printed for sale in Great Britain and Ireland, of which one hundred copies are on hand-made paper


Loe here’s mine Effigie, and Turkiſh ſuite;

My Staffe, my Shaſſe, as I did Aſia foote:

Plac’d in old Ilium; Priams Scepter thralles:

The Grecian Campe deſign’d; lost Dardan falles

Gird’d with ſmall Simois: Idaes tops, a Gate;

Two fatall Tombes, an Eagle, ſackt Troyes State.


Original Title Page.

The Totall Discourse
The Rare Adventures
Painefull Peregrinations
of long Nineteene Yeares Travayles from
Scotland to the most famous Kingdomes in
Europe, Asia and Affrica
James MacLehose and Sons
Publishers to the University




William Lithgow was born in Lanark about 1582. The actual date of his birth is uncertain, but he states (page 377) that he was thirty-three in 1615, and in ‘The present Surveigh of London’ ‘past threescore years’ in April, 1643. He was the eldest son of James Lithgow, Burgess of Lanark, and Alison Grahame, his wife. He was educated at Lanark Grammar School, and, according to Sir Walter Scott,1 was ‘bred a tailor.’ Scott does not, however, give his authority for this statement. Lithgow seems to have started his travels at a very early age, having ‘a large infusion of the wandering spirit common to his country-men.’2 He says himself that ‘neither ambition, too much curiosity, nor any reputation I ever sought did expose me to such long peregrinations and dangerous adventures past’—but ‘that undeserved Dalida wrong.’ What this mysterious ‘Dalida wrong’ was is unknown, but family tradition has it that the four brothers, ‘foure blood-shedding wolves,’ of a certain Miss Lockhart, finding their sister with Lithgow, set upon him and cut off his ears, and from this arose his local nickname of ‘ “Cutlugged” or “Lugless” Will.’ Be this as it may, by 1609, Lithgow had made ‘two voyages to the Orcadian and Zetlandian Isles, in the stripling age of mine adolescency, and there [x]after surveighing all Germany, Bohemia, Helvetia, and the Low-Countreys from end to end; I visited Paris, where I remained ten moneths.’

From Paris, on March 7th, 1609, Lithgow set out on the first of the three journeys of which he gives an account in his ‘Totall Discourse,’ where he claims that his ‘paynefull feet traced over (beside my passages of Seas and Rivers) thirty-six thousand and odde miles, which draweth neare to twice the circumference of the whole Earth.’

It was on the third of these journeys, when passing through Spain with the intention of seeing ‘Great Prester Jehan and his Empire,’ that he was thrown into prison in Malaga as a spy and severely tortured. He was released by the intervention of the English Consul there and the English Ambassador at Madrid, backed by a division of King James’ Navy which, under the command of Sir Robert Maunsell, happened opportunely to be lying in Malaga Roads, on its return from the expedition against Algiers.

On his arrival at Dartford, fifty days after leaving Malaga, Lithgow was carried to the Court at Theobalds, and exhibited his ‘martyrd anatomy’ to the whole Court, ‘even from the King to the Kitchin.’ At the King’s expense he was sent twice to Bath, where he recovered his health, although his left arm and crushed bones were incurable. Early in 1622 he was sent to the Marshalsea prison for a long period3 for assaulting, [xi]in the presence chamber, the Spanish Ambassador Gondomar, whose empty promises of redress for his sufferings at Malaga had exasperated Lithgow beyond endurance.

In 1624 Lithgow preferred a Bill of Grievance to the House of Lords, which he daily followed for seventeen weeks, but ‘the house breaking up abruptly their order for my suite could take none effect as then, nor yet since, in regard it was no Session Parliament.’ In the spring of 1627 he left the Court for Scotland; he traversed the Western Isles, and was ‘kindly intertayned’ in Brodick Castle by James, Marquess of Hamilton.

In 1632 Lithgow published the first collected edition4 of his Travels, under the title of ‘The Totall Discourse Of the Rare Aduentures and painefull Peregrinations of long nineteene Yeares Trauayles, from Scotland, to the most Famous Kingdomes in Europe, Asia, and Affrica.… Imprinted at London by Nicholas Okes.’ The publication seems to have got him immediately into trouble, probably owing to the Spanish influence at Court, as there is a petition extant5 from him in which he states that he ‘had no satisfaction for his grievous torments sustained in Malaga, and having in the description of his foreign travels succinctly avouched the woeful memory of such disastrous accidents, had been this long time committed close prisoner to the Gatehouse, when he had contracted great sickness to the danger [xii]of his life. The printer in whom only the reprehension was, is long ago “decarcerat,” but he is retained in severe punishment.’ He protests that he will never ‘meddle any more with the Spaniard however his lamentable wrongs remain unrepaired.’

On the 16th May, 1637, Lithgow, mounted on a ‘Gallowegian nagge,’ left Scotland, where he had been the guest of the Earl of Galloway, intending to embark at London for Russia, but shipping failing, and summer being over, he resolved to go instead to Breda, and on his return published ‘A True and Experimentall Discourse, upon the beginning, proceeding and Victorious event of this last Siege of Breda … London: Printed by J. Okes for J. Rothwel … 1637.’

On 24th August, 1643, Lithgow again left Scotland, embarking at Prestonpans for London, ‘In all which deserted way, betweene Forth and Gravesend, wee found onely three ships, two Scotsmen and a Noruegian, and one of the royall whelps lying at anker in Aermouth road, which made the sea resemble a wildernesse.’ As the result of this visit, he published ‘The present Surveigh of London and England’s State … London, Printed by J. O. 1643.’ In this book Lithgow gives an interesting account of the fortifications raised by the citizens for defence against the Royalist army. The last work known to have been published by him is ‘An Experimental and Exact Relation upon that famous and renowned Siege of Newcastle … Edinburgh, printed by Robert Bryson 1645.’ From this date all trace of him is lost; the date of his death and the place of his burial are unknown, though there is a tradition that he died in Lanark, and lies buried in the churchyard of St. Kentigern there. [xiii]

Editions of ‘The Totall Discourse’ were published in London in 1640 and 1682, and in Edinburgh in 1770 and 1814, while a volume of the ‘Poetical Remains of William Lithgow,’ containing valuable ‘Prefatory Remarks,’ was collected and published by Dr. James Maidment in Edinburgh in 1863.

The text of ‘The Totall Discourse’ now published is a reprint of the editio princeps of 1632. References to the pages of the original edition are given in the margin. The letters i, j, u, and v have been altered to conform to modern usage, and obvious printers’ errors both of spelling and punctuation have been corrected. The index of the original text has been replaced by a fuller one in this edition.

1 Somers Tracts, Vol. IV. p. 535, Ed. 1810. 

2 Ibid. 

3 Lithgow himself says nine weeks, but in the ‘Supplication of Aquila Wykes,’ Keeper of the Marshalsea (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, Vol. CLIII, No. 26), dated October 9th, 1623, Lithgow is mentioned as ‘committed close prisoner 2 Febr. 1622’ and still remaining in custody. 

4 He had already published in 1614 a short account of his travels, and of this a second impression was printed in 1616. Both these editions are extremely rare. 

5 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, Vol. CCXXIX. No. 42. 


The Totall Diſcourſe,
Of the Rare Aduentures, and painefull
Peregrinations of long nineteene Yeares Trauayles,
from Scotland, to the moſt Famous
Kingdomes in Europe, Aſia, and

Perfited by three deare bought Voyages,
in Surueighing of Forty eight Kingdomes ancient
and Moderne; twenty one Rei-publickes, ten
abſolute Principalities, with two
hundred Ilands

The particular Names whereof, are Deſcribed
in each Argument of the ten Diuiſions of this
History: And it alſo diuided in
Three Bookes; two whereof, neuer
heretofore Publiſhed.

Wherein is Contayned, an exact Relation, of the
Lawes, Religion, Policies, and Gouernment of all
their Princes, Potentates, and People.

Together with the grieuous Tortures he ſuffered, by the
Inquiſition of Malaga in Spaine, his
miraculous Diſcouery and Deliuery
thence: And of his laſt and late
Returne from the Northerne Iles

Cælum non Animum.

BY William Lithgovv.

Imprinted at London by Nicholas Okes, and are to be ſold by
Nicholas Fuſſell and Humphery Moſley at their ſhops in
Pauls Church yard, at the Ball, and the white
Lyon. 1632.



of the
Rare Adventures and Painefull Peregrinations
of long Nineteene Yeares Travayles
from Scotland to the most famous
Kingdomes in Europe, Asia
and Affrica [xvii]


To the High and mighty Monarch,
By the Grace of GOD, King of Great Britaine,
France, and Ireland, &c.


If Loyall Duty may bee counted presumption? then doubtlesse the best of my meanest worth must beg pardon, for clayming so Royall a Patronage: Yet to whom should I prostrate my Pen and Pilgrimage? if not unto your Sacred Majesty: Nay, none so able to Receive it, none so powerfull to Protect it; and none so justly to claime it, as your Soveraigne Selfe. The Subject treateth of my tedious and curious Travailes, in the best and worst parts of the world; which being begunne in Your hopefull Infancy, are now finally accomplished in the fulnesse of Your thrice blessed Majority.

The generall Discourse it selfe, is most fixed upon the Lawes, Religion, Manners, Policies, and Government of Kings, Kingdomes, People, Principalities and Powers; and therefore so much the more fit for your Majesty. The defect resting onely in me, the worthlesse Author, in handling a rare and plentifull Subject, with a homely [xviii]and familiar Stile; no wayes fit for Soveraignity to peruse.

Yet (Royall Sir) vouchsafe to remember how thankefully Alexander, received a small Cup of Water; and what a high Value was set upon the Widdowes Mite. If I have made use of my poore Talent, the profit redoundeth unto my Country; which being shaddowed under your auspicuous Favour, shall leave a greater stampe to the Worke, and a deeper impression, of future knowledge, to the curious Understanders. And how often wont your ever blessed Father, graciously to peruse Lines of mine, of far lesser note then these be: Yea, and (viva voce) the punctuall Discourse of all my three Voyages, which are now layd open to the Vulgar World; and therefore I dare humbly expect a greater favour for a larger and more serious Taske.

So likewise your owne Princely adventures beyond Seas, in measuring large Kingdomes, & the glassie face of the great Ocean: have invited me to lay prostrate my painefull peregrinations, at your Sacred feete. Humbly beseeching your Regall goodnesse, to remarke the matter and manner of this Worke; howsoever the Gift, & the Giver bee deficient. And questionlesse as the Bee, gathereth sweetest Hony out of sowrest Flowers, your Royall understanding may finde something, to underprope the Defects of my nothing; and my soule to exult in the smallest sparke of your Gracious Clemency. And lastly, the grievous Sufferings, tortures, and torments, I sustayned in Malaga, being taken as a Spye for your Late Fathers Fleete, exposed agaynst Algier: and condemned to death by their bloody Inquisition for the Gospells sake. These (I prostrate say) doe command me to present the perfect passage thereof, unto your Royall & Religious consideration. Sufficient Certificates, and infallible approbations are annexed to the Tragicall discourse it selfe; and it also humbly bequeathing all, unto your Princely piety and pitty, to Commiserate both my case and cause. Wherefore (and as duty bindeth) I shall [xix]ever beseech God to preserve your Royall Raigne from wicked Achitophells, to guard your Sacred person with Heavenly Angels, and to guide your Monarchicke State, with faithful and Religious Counsellours.


Your Majesties most humble,
and most obedient Subject,
and Servant:
William Lithgow. [xxi]



Judicious Lector; if good Bookes may be tearmed wise guides, then certainely true Histories, may be tearmed perfite Oracles, secret Counsellours, private Schoolemasters, familiar friends to cherish knowledge, and the best Intelligencers, for all intendements; being duely pondered, and rightly used. This laborious worke then of mine, depending on this preamble, is onely composed of mine owne eye sight, and occular experience; (pluris est occulatus testis unus, quam auriti decem) being the perfit mirrour, and lively Portraicture of true understanding, excelling far all inventions whatsoever, Poeticque, or Theoricque. And now to shun Ingratitude, which I disdaine as Hell, I thought it best to exhibit the profit of my paynefull travailes to the desirous world; for two respects, the one a naturall obligation, the other a generall request: for as my dangerous adventures, have bene wrought out from the infinit variety of variable sights, innumerable toyles, pleasures, and inevitable sorrowes; so doth it also best simpathize with reason, and most fitting, that I should generally dispose of the same, to the temperate judgements of the better sort, the sound and absolute opinions of the Judicious; and to the variable censures of calumnious Critticks, who run at random, in the fields of other mens labours, but can not find the home-bred way in their owne close grounds: And therefore the different disposition of the good and [xxii]bad, doe best concurre with the interchangeable occurrences of the matter.

Neverthelesse, for thy more easier understanding I have divided this History, in ten severall parts, and they also in three Bookes; which being seriously perused, doubtlesse thy labour shall receave both profit and pleasure: Accept them therefore with the same love, that I offer them to thee, since they cost thee nothing but the reading, how deare soever they are to mee: But understand me better, I scorne to draw my pen to the ignorant foole, neither shall it stoop to the proud Knave, for I contemne both: To the wise I know it will be welcome, to the profound Historian, yeeld knowledge, contemplation, and direction, and to the understanding Gentleman, insight, instruction, and recreation; and to the true-bred Poet fraternall love, both in meane and manner. Now as touching the hissing of snakish Papists; a tush for that snarling Crew; for as this worke, being fensed with experience, and garnished with trueth, is more than able to batter downe the stinging venome of their despightfull waspishnes: so also they may clearely see therein, as in a Mirrour, their owne blindnes, and the damnable errours of their blind Guiders, Deceavers, and Idolaters: And above all the cruell infliction imposed upon me, by the mercilesse Inquisition of their profession in Malaga: which for Christs sake I constantly suffered, in tortures, tormentes, and hunger: And lastly they may perceave Gods miraculous mercy, in discovering and delivering me from such a concealed and inhumane murder. And now referring the well set Reader to the History it selfe, where satisfaction lyeth ready to receave him, and expectation desirous of deserved thanks; I come to talke with the scelerate Companion: If thou beest a Villane, a Ruffian, a Momus, a Knave, a Carper, a Crittick, a Bubo, a Buffon, a stupid Asse, and a gnawing worme with envious lips; I bequeath thee to a Carnificiall reward: where a flaxing rope will soone dispatch thy snarling slander, and free my toylsome travells, and now paynefull labours, [xxiii]from the deadly poyson of thy sharpe edged calumnies: and so go hang thy selfe, for I neither will respect thy love, nor regard thy malice: And shall ever and alwayes remayne;

To the Courteous still observant, and to
the Critticall Knave as he deserveth,
William Lithgow. [xxv]



To his singular Friend Maister Lithgow.

The double travell (Lithgow) thou hast tane,

One of thy Feete, the other of thy Brane,

Thee, with thy selfe; doe make for to contend,

Whether the earth, thou’st better pac’d or pend.

Would Malagaes sweet liquor had thee crownd,

And not its trechery made thy joynts unsound,

For Christ, King, Countrey, what thou there indur’d

Not them alone, but therein all injur’d:

Their tort’ring Rack, arresting of thy pace

Hath barr’d our hope, of the worlds other face:

Who is it sees this side so well exprest,

That with desire, doth not long for the rest.

Thy travell’d Countreyes so described be,

As Readers thinke, they doe each Region see,

Thy well compacted matter, ornat stile,

Doth them oft, in quicke sliding Time beguile,

Like as a Mayde, wandring in Floraes Boures

Confind to small time, of few flitting houres,

Rapt with delight, of her eye-pleasing treasure,

Now culling this, now that Flower, takes such pleasure;

That the strict time, whereto she was confin’d

Is all expir’d: whiles she thought halfe behind,

Or more remayn’d: So each attracting line

Makes them forget the time, they doe not tyne:

But since sweet future travell, is cut short,

Yet loose no time, now with the Muses sport;

That reading of thee, after times may tell,

In Travell, Prose, and Verse, thou didst excell.

Patrick Hannay. [xxvi]

To his dearely respected friend William Lithgow.

Shall Homer sing of stray’d Ulysses toyle?

From Greece to Memphis, in parch’d Ægypts soyle:

Flank’d with old Piramides, and melting Nyle,

Which was the furthest, he attayn’d the while:

A length of no such course, by ten to one,

Which thou thy selfe pedestrially hast gone:

Then may thy latter dayes out-strip old times,

That now hast seene, Earths circulary Climes:

And far beyond Ulysses, reach’d without him,

Both East and West, yea, North and South about him:

Which here exactly, thou hast sweetly sung

In ornat style, in our quick-flowing tongue;

Of Lawes, Religion, customes, manners, rites

Of Kings and people: life-sublimest sprits

In policies and government: Earths spaces

From soyle to soyle, in thy long wandring traces.

But what my soule applaudes! and must admire

Which ev’ry zealous Christian, should desire

To learne and know; is this, Spaines tortring Racke

And torments sharpe, which for the Gospells sake

Thou constantly didst beare: O joyfull payne!

Whilst Grace in those sad pangs, did thee sustaine,

With love and patience: O blest lively faith!

That for Christs cause, condemned was to death.

Live then (O living Martyr!) still renown’d

Mongst Gods elect; whose constancy hath crown’d

Reformd Religion: And let Heavens thy mind

Blesse with moe joyes, than thou didst torments find.

Walter Lyndesay. [xxvii]

To my deare Friend, Countreyman and Condisciple, William Lithgow.

Rest Noble Spirits in your Native Soyles,

Whose high bred thoughts on deare bought sights are bent

Renowned Lithgow by his brave attempt

Hath eas’d your bodies of a world of toyles.

Not like to some who wrongfully retayne

Gods rarest gifts, within themselves ingrost,

But what thou hast attain’d with care and cost.

Thou yeelds it gratis, to the world againe.

Upon the bankes of wonder-breeding Clide,

To these designes thy heart did first assent

One way, indeed, to give thy selfe content,

But more to satisfie a world beside.

Thy first attempt in excellence of worth,

Beyond the reach of my conceit’s confinde,

But this thy second Pilgrimage of minde,

Where all thy paynes are to the world set forth;

In Subject, Frame, in Methode, Phrase, and Stile,

May match the most unmatched in this Ile:

But this renownes thee most, t’have still possest,

A constant Heart, within a wandring Brest.

Robert Allen. [xxviii]

To his kind friend and Countreyman W. Lithgow.

Thy well adventur’d Pilgrimage I prayse,

Although perform’d with perrill and with paine,

Which thou hast pen’d, in more than vulgar phrase

So curiously, so sweetly, smooth, and plaine,

Yet whilst I wondring call to minde againe.

That thou durst goe, like no man else that lives;

By Sea and land, alone, in cold and raine,

Through Bandits, Pirats, and Arabian Theeves,

I doe admire thee; yet a good event

Absolves a rash designe: So hardest things,

(When humane reason cannot give consent

T’ attempt) attain’d; the greater glory brings.

Then Friend, though praise & paines rest both with thee,

The use redounds unto the world, and mee.

John Murray. [xxix]

In commendation of the Author William Lithgow.

Come curious eyes, that pierce the highest scopes

Of sublime stiles: come satisfie your hopes

And best desires; in this prompe Pilgrimes paines

Whose deepe experience, all this worke sustaines

With solid substance, of a Subject deare

And pregnant Method; laid before you heare

In open bonds: Come take your hearts delight

In all the colours, of the worlds great sight.

Come thanke his travells; praise his painfull Pen

That sends this light, to live, mongst living men;

To teach your children, when he, and you are laid

As low as dust; how scepterd Crownes are swaid;

Most Kingdomes government: How ruld with Lawes

The South world is: their rites, Religious sawes:

Townes Topographick view, and Rivers courses,

Fonts, Forts, and Cittadales: scorch’d Asiaes sources:

All you may see, and much more, than I name

Seal’d in the Authors, never-dying fame.

Eleazar Robertson. [xxx]

In Commendation of this History.

Thou art not hatch’d, forth from anothers braine,

Nor yet Collect’d, from others toiles thy sight,

The selfe-same Man, that bred Thee beares the paine

Of thy long birth: O weary wandring Wight!

It’s carefull he, by Knowledge gives thee light,

And deepe experience to adorne thy name;

Both Pilgrime, Pen-man, so thy Maister right;

Who best can judge, in what concernes the same:

Then free-borne toile, flee forth with winged Fame

Thy Countries Virgin, thou the first penn’d Booke

That in his Soile, did ever Pilgrime frame

Of curious Travailes; whereon the Learned looke:

Then Knit thy Maiden brow, with Garlands greene,

The first of times, the last this Age hath Seene.

Alexander Boyde. [xxxi]



Go painefull Booke, go plead thy owne Defence,

Walke with undaunted Courage, stop the Breath

Of carping tongues; who count it small offence

To bulge Thee up, within the jawes of Death:

Go lively charg’d, with stout Historian Faith,

And trample downe, base Crittickes in the Dust:

Make Trueth thy sword, to batter down their wrath

So shall thy Grave discourse, triumph as just:

Who yeeld Thee Credite, and deserving trust,

There prostrate fal, give them their hearts content:

Point forth the Wise, and Court them as thou must,

Give them insight, as I give Argument:

Instruct the Curious, inlarge the Servile Mind,

Illuminate misunderstandings blinde:

Sound Knowledge in their eares, deigne to approove me,

Since Friends and Foes, the World and I, must love thee.



The Rare Adventures[I. 1.]
Painefull Peregrinations
William Lithgow


See Rome discover’d, Italy made playne,

The Roman Library, a golden gaine:

Hunns old Parthenope, with Venice met,

And strong Brundusium, in Ottranto set:

Times rich antiquities displayd abroad

On circling Cume, Avernus lying odde:

And Lorets Chappell, foure times beene transported

On Angells backes, from Nazareth detorted;

Where for discourse, on this false forged Lady,

To tend you with inveiglings, shall be ready:

Thus piece and piece, from soile to soile, I’le goe,

And now begin, the end will deeper growe.

It was a wise saying amongst the Auncients, that thrice happy and blest was that Kingdome, when old men bore sway and ruled the State, and young men travelled abroad: The first by long experience prudently to execute judgement; and the latter by sight and knowledge of forraine soyles and [2][I. 2.]lawes, growing more judicious; might when come to age and preferment, the more facily, and dexteriously exhibit Justice at home. But what shall I say to these moderne and dissolute times? when by the contrary meanes, travell is sleighted, government abused, and insinuating Homelings, thrust in high offices, incapeable of them, being pratling Parrots, and sounding Cymbals: who convert sound Judgement and Justice, to their owne greedy respects, and selfe mercinary ends; turning their chiefest felicity to avaritious ambition and vaine glory, and their sweetest fortunes, to their belly and their backe. O miserable and effeminate age! when vertue by most men is despised, and neglected, and sensuall vice every where exalted: Nay; ruffian Pandors, by hopefull youth and prodigall gallants, are now clothed, Coatched, and richly rewarded; whilst best merits and highest deserts, of rarest spirits, are neither looked to, set by, nor regarded. And for approbation, and examples sake, of their valerous designes, let them thinke upon latter passages, nor worthy to be thought upon, and they will finde this future caveat to stand needfull, Hæc olim meminisse juvabit. So likewise now every Capri-cullion from Cæsar, to the Pascorell, can crowd and chawe from his warbling waspishnes, this stinging censure of absurd untrueth, that Travellers and Poets may lye & lye by authority, which they themselves performe at home without leave.

Concerning sinistrous censures.By which traditional concession, I being absolute in the first, and borne to the Muses, as to the World, a mungrell to both; may have a lawfull (unlawfull) liberty assigned. Any marvell? if men in this kind be so injuriously censured, when the very Gospell it selfe, by perfidious Atheists, Formalists, Sophisters, Romish-rabines, Nullifidians, and Schismaticall Sectaries, is quartered, mangled, and rejected; such be the Satanicall [I. 3.]opinions of this hell-borne age: Whose confused conceits, blasphemies, incredulities, and imaginary devisions, have shamefully stained the better part of this now best World. [3]Nay, good and godly Kings, so pricked at, and wounded by the viperous murmurings of miscreant villaines, as though their royall and just lives were the meere inordinate paternes of all impiety, and lewdnesse. Sith therefore the Sacred Scriptures, the gods of the earth, Ecclesiasticke columes; yea the name and fame of the most righteous alive, be thus diversly taxed, and vituperiously calumniated; can prevention in me, escape the lawlesse horrour of this impoysoned fury? No, I have had already the assault, and newly prepared, patience proofe to receive more, wrought by the piercinghammer, of nineteene winters, as many Summers deare bought toyle. Let venome-thundring Crittickes, contumeliously carpe, infernall firebrand Cerberans barke, and the hell prepared off scourings of true religion gnashing grudge I have aheart can smile, at their backbiting malice, a judgement to discerne such wormish waspes, and if present, the weight of understanding truth, to confound their blind absurdities with reason. As for chamber complementers, whose vast insides, like to the vaults of wasting Strombolo, are become threed-bare, having their outsides onely adorned with rich ornaments.

Such serving Cyphers, cypher childish censures,

And shallow scal-patch’d pates, have forebald tonsures.

Yet touch a C. flat in his face he’le start

As though a Dame, had grac’d him with a ———

Whose wringes, winks, whose curious smiles & words,

And scraping feete, lost blandement affoords:

Whence pride and lust, become two servile Mineons

To top his thoughts, with false and fond opinions:

[I. 4.]Then happy they, who least frequent a Court,

Nor in the fields of flattery love to sport.

To such bellowing caves winded with the borrowed rags of patch’d-up Commedies, clouted complements, stolne Phrases, and lip-licked labours, of lamp-living spirits, to such hollow Tombes, I say a tush for their kindnesse, and I justly hold it a manifest idolatry to honour, or do [4]homage to any of them: And this much for the misconstruous lack-judgment of emulating cloudes, No Courtiers. And as concerning the impostrat quagmires of this abortive age, wherein so many Simonaicall Matchevilians, mercenary parasits, and arch-betraying Sicophants live, vindicating themselves excessively, upon the advantage of time, I insufficient I, to dive in such bottomlesse businesses, bequeath them onely to their owne repining consciences, just tryalls, and ignominious rewards. To satisfie the World in my behalfe, as touching my travells, I sincerely protest, that neither ambition, too much curiosity, nor any reputation I ever sought, from the bubling breath of breathlesse man (whose The reason why the Author begun his Travels.defective censure, inclineth, as instigation, or partiality, moveth his weake and variable opinion) did expose me to such long peregrinations and dangerous adventures past. But the proceeding whereof, thousands conjecture the cause, as many the manner; ten thousand thousands the effect: The condition reserved, I partly forbeare to penetrate in that undeserved Dalida wrong; and reconciled times pleading desistance, moderate discretion inserteth silent patience.

The mansuet cup, the gods consuetly drunke,

In me involv’d, straight hony-gald it sunke:

That sweete Ambrosian Nectar, soundly wrapt

In my lock’d closet, suspitious Envy trapt;

[I. 5.]And fierce-eyd Jealousie, wingd with wind

Pierc’d staring Argos, turned his hundred blind:

Mycene-fancy fraught, Lusts fond alarmes,

Cros’d eye-stard’d Sparta, rapt with Phrigian charmes:

And teare-rent Sophyre, Synon-like betrayd

What votall oathes, loves sterne fort, ne’er bewrayd

But high-bred drifts, the stormy fates, grim night

And gloomy Hellespont, rob’d Heroes right:

As Illions destiny, forc’d Numidias Queene

To gore a Scepter, a Diadem in teene:

So haplesse I belov’d, O passion strange! [5]

May as amaz’d, admire, that time, this change.

I chang’d a Wolfe, once for a tusked Boare,

And changing Beast for Beast, triumph’d the more:

Strained to assume, in countercambiat breath,

A dying life, revert in living death:

Translate it so, my Metaphore is such,

That Time, nor I, nor Fortune can avouch:

Thus Passion whirling in a cloudy Vale,

I trancing flye, I fall, I hovering scale:

And whilst from Phleg’ran fields, the weirds me call,

I in Elisean plaines, am forc’d to fall;

Wherein some flowry faire enamild ground

I’le place my Tombe, mine Epitaph shall sound,

Of traine-shut sluces, of the Thespian spring,

Where chatring birds, Dodonean trees do sing:

And mild Hydaspes streames do gently flow,

There shall my Lesbian layes, sad Liricks shew.

And where the Borean Roses strow the Hall,

Where flot-glass’d Nymphs, the Circe-fled Greeks enstal;

There shall shrill Triton sound, Armilla’s staind,

Whom foule affection preyd, and Lucre gaind;

Load with the filth of dallying Lust and Sin,

[I. 6.]Where bloody murther, like a Theefe creept in;

Yet shall the spotles Heart, triumph in trueth,

When worth reapes fame and vertue conquers youth:

And crowne Dorasmos, faith-plight Delphian Bayes,

With more then Lawrell praise, immortall rayes.

Than brass-brou’d Fiends, accurst by Minos doome,

Flee Fairy flight, to Pluto whence you come;

And tast Phlageton, Lethe, court Proserpine,

Sterne Radamanth attends, such stinking vermine;

There Hippolitus, slaine Pirothous stay

Neere t’Acheron, (all faithles lovers way)

To welcome Fiendly, fright Eremiall guests [6]

With flame-flash’d firebrands, sulphur scorching tasts:

Chaynd fury-brangling, in remorseles paine,

Where Belzebub, and Lucifer remaine.

In this umbragious Cell, there lurks a hound

To beare Sarpedons Scepter; helpe to sound

Your Cleopatran clamours; and I thinke

The Ferrier Charon, makes such wretches drinke

Upon the Stigian bankes. Then gnashing Spirits

That howling waile, Hells inexpugnat merits:

Where’s all your gentry? for I dare conclude,

That vertue’s better borne, then noble blood:

This Epitomizd Epilogue, I send

To them who best can censure’t, there’s an end.

But by your leave, let me enter into consideration of the intractable passage of my malecontents past, and these importunate designes thereupon ensuing: And thus, have I, in the late dayes of my younger yeeres beene grievously afflicted? Ah; yea; and with more then desastrous injuries overclowded, O heavy under-prop’d wrongs. But hath not the like accident befallen to man before? [I. 7.]yea; but never the like condition of murther: Nay, but then preponderate seriously this consequent? may not the scelerate hands of foure blood-shedding wolves? facily devoure, and shake a peeces, one silly stragling lambe? yea, and most certaine, that unawares, the harmelesse innocent; unexpecting evill, may suddenly bee surprised by the ambushment of life-betraying foes. All this I acknowledge; but whereupon grew this thy voluntary wandring, and unconstrayned exyle? I answere, that being young, and within minority, in that occurrent time, I was not onely inveigled, but by seducements inforced, even by the greatest powers, then living in my countrey, A Dialogue betweene the Author and submit my selfe to arbitrement, satisfaction and reconciliation. But afterward growing in yeeres, and understanding better the nature or such unallowable redresses, and the hainousnesse of the offence; I choosed rather [7](voti causa) to seclude my selfe from my soyle, and exclude my relenting sorrowes, to be entertained with strangers; then to have a quotidian occular inspection, in any obvious object of disastrous misfortune: or perhaps any vindicable action, might from an unsetled ranckour be conceived. O! a plaine demonstrate cause, and good resolution; for true it is, that the flying from evill, is a flying to grace, and a godly patience is a victorious freedome, and an undaunted conquerour over all wrongs; Vengeance is mine (saith the Lord) and I will repay it. To this I answer; mine eyes have seene the revenging hand of God upon mine adversaries, and these night-gaping foes, are trampled under foote, whiles I from strength to strength, doe safely goe, through the firy triall of calamities. My consolation arising from his eternall dictum, quos amo castigo, whom I love I correct: And to say my part in my soules experience,

[I. 8.]I never find affliction fall on me

Without desert, for God is true and just:

Nor shall it come, and without profit be,

For God is good, as mercifull I trust.

Then welcome all afflictions sent from God,

He whom he loves, he chastneth with his rod

And as one of the Auncients speaketh well, Adversa corporis, animæ remedio sunt, ægritudo, carnem vulnerat, sed mentem curat: The affliction of the body is wholesome phisicke for the soule, it woundeth the flesh, but cureth the spirit. Certaine it is, that the Lord in chastising his owne, doth often move the wicked reprobates of his wrath, to be the instruments of his correcting hand. I could involume, as large a discourse, upon this heart-grieving project, as upon the late intollerable tortures I sustained by the treacherous Governour, and bloody Inquisition of Malaga in Spaine; being in quality, though not in quantitie alike. But constantly containing my selfe, within the precinct of patience, referring such eminences to the Creator, which in a part belongeth not [8]to the creature; I may sigh to this world, as sorrowfull Æneas to his Dido.

Infandum Regina, jubes renovare dolorem.

Thou wouldst, I should renew my former griefe

To speake of sorrow, helplesse of reliefe:

He melts in woes, who uttereth griefe with words,

Whilst deepest streames, the greatest calme affords.

But now to proceed in my punctuall purpose, the nature of man, by an inward inclination, is alwaies inquisitive [I. 9.]of forraine newes; yea, and much more affecteth the sight and knowledge of strange, and unfrequented kingdomes, such is the instinct of his naturall affection. Navigation hath often united the bodies of Realmes together, but travell hath done much more; for first to the Actor it giveth the impression of understanding, experience, patience, and an infinite treasure, of unexprimable vertues: secondly, it unfoldeth to the world, the government of States, the authority and disposition of Kings and Princes; the secrets, manners, customes, and Religions of all Nations and People. And lastly, bringeth satisfaction to the home-dwelling man, of these things, he would have seene, and could not attempt. Travell hath beene in more request amongst the Ancients, then it is now with us in the latter Age. Philosophers, Poets, Historiographers, and learned Divines, how they have perigrinated to know the life of States, and the fashions of farre Countries, would be an endles taske for me briefly to relate. Many (I confesse) long to see the remotest Regions of the earth, but dare not undertake the dangers of sight, the chargeable expences of a tributary journey, the hard indurance of flint stones, for a soft feather bed, the extremities of thirst, nor the parching heat of the Sun, hunger in the belly, nor the moist distilling dew to be a humide coverlet to their tender skinne, with innumerable other insuing miseries. But Ixion-like, mistaking Juno, would by a meere imagination, runne out the [9]sleeping course of an endlesse peregrination. For my part, what I have reaped, is by a deare-bought knowledge, as it were, a small contentment, in a never contenting subject, a bitter pleasant tast, of a sweete-seasoned sowre, and all in all, what I found was more then ordinary rejoycing, in an extraordinary sorrow of delights.

But now to leave the contemplation of attempts, I [I. 10.]come to the reall adventure; After two voyages I made to the Orcadian, and Zetlandian Isles; in the stripling age of mine adolescency, and there after surveighing all Germany, Bohemia, Helvetia, and the Low-Countreys from end to end; I visited Paris, where I remained ten moneths. Divers contestions have I had, about the equality of London, and Paris, in quantity and quality: But having a more serious subject in hand than this A comparison betweene London and Paris.paralell, I conclude thus, the infinite shipping, and commodious navigation of London (besides their universall commerce)is more of value, then the better halfe of Paris: compare you the quantity, for there is the quality of the argument. Paris I confesse is populous, a masse of poore people, for lacques and pages, a nest of rogues, a tumultuous place, a noctuall den of theeves, and a confused multitude: Where contrariwise London is adorned with many grave, prudent and provident Senators, civill, well taught, and courteous people, and absolutely, the best governed City on the whole face of the earth, as well by night, as by day, and nothing inferiour in quantity to it.

From Paris in the yeere of God 1609. March 7. I set forward, being brought three leagues on my way, with a number of my Countrey gallants, young Aiton, young Hutonhall, and specially Monsieur Hay of Smithfield, now Esquire of his Majesties body, with diverse other Gentlemen: where when my kindest thankes had over-clouded their courtesies, and farewell bid on both sides, I bequeathed my proceedings to God, my body to turmoyling paines, my hands to the burdon, and my feete to the hard brusing way. And as unwilling to make [10]relation of my passing through France, the Savoyean, & Ligurian Alpes, sith it is manifested unto many in this Iland, both by sight and report, I would shunne, so farre [I. 11.]as possible I can, all prolixity of knowne, and therefore unnecessary discourse. Although I have a large reason, having cros’d the Alpes at sixe severall parts, onely, in the owne place, I meane to comment upon Italy in generall. Upon the 40. day after my departure from Paris, I arrived at Rome, of the which I will memorize, some rarest things, and so proceed. This City of Rome now extant, is not that old Rome, which Romulus founded that tempered the morter with the blood of his brother Rhemus, who disdainefully leaped over the new wals; and was once the mistresse of the universe, for her triumphs and antiquities, but is now only the carkas of the other, of which she retaineth nothing but her ruines, and the cause of them, her sinnes.

The Antiquity of Rome.Rome which Romulus first founded, contayned these two mountaines, Capitolino, and Palatino, with the valley lying betweene both hills: having three ports; the first was called Trigonio, because of the triangle it made neere to the foote of mount Palatin: The second Pandonio, because it was alwayes open, and for the commodity of the passage, it was called the free port: The third was called Carmentale of Carmenta, the mother of Evander who dwelt there: It was also named scelorata, or wicked gate in regard of 300. Sabines put cruelly to death issuing thereat.

Now after the Monarchy of the Romanes had attained to the full height; the Gothes, a base and unknowne people, displaying their banner, against this glorious and imperiall City, in the end razed, and subverted their pallaces, equalizing the walles with the ground. After the which detriment, the overthrow, the late subdued Romans, recovering their ruinous habitation, were inforced to withdraw the situation of the Towne, a little more downe-ward, in Campus Martius, close by the [I. 12.]bankes of Tibris; and transported the stones of these [11]ransacked buildings, to reedifie their new dwelling places;

Hic ubi nunc Roma est, olim fuit ardua silva,

Tantaque res paucis, pascua bobus erat.

Where Rome now stands, was sometimes desart woods

And soyle to feed some few-found bestiall goods.

And yet Rome was once the famous City of Europe, the mother and nurse of worthy Senators, the miracle of Nations, the Epitome of the world, the Kingdome of Mars, and the seven headed soveraigne of many Provinces. Romes seven Hils.The seven hills whereon she stood, and now partly somewhere stands: for they are all contained within the vast bounds of the old walls, which as yet environeth the towne, are these, Palatino, Capitolina, Viminale, Aventina, Esquiline, Cælio, and Quiraneno. Which certainely do demonstrate the whoore of Babylon, sitting on the beast with seaven heads, and cannot be understood but of Rome, being builded on these seven hils: having a correspondence to seaven Kings who reigned there; and also acknowledging seven severall Rulers, Kings, Consuls, Decemviri, Tribunes, Dictators, Emperours, and now Popes. During the felicity of the Romaines, this Citty was never taken, but by the Gauls, which being recovered they made a Law that Priests (being otherwise exempted) should goe to warre, if ever the Gauls came againe, with whom they fought not for dominion, but for their owne preservation: But since it became pontificiall, it hath bene made a prey to all barbarous Nations, and never was besieged by any that tooke it not.

The River Tyber which runneth through her bosome, is not unlike to Jordan and Tagus; yet not so big as either of them, being all three of a troubled and muddy colour: But it is exceeding outragious, and often Manasseth to [I. 13.]drowne the whole Mansions, as greeving to grace the wals of such a wicked and imperious place: Who having lost her former preheminent glory, and domination over the world, would now alledge and ascribe a second prerogative [12]over the soules of men, the heavens, the hels, the silver-coyned Purgatory, the deposing and imposing of Kings: The former was done by the undaunted courage of the invincible sword, the latter by presumption, Avarice, insinuation, and absurd lyes.

Saint Catherines observation.I remember of a pretty observation of Saint Catherine of Siena, who being stricken in devotion, went to venerate Rome, accompanied with a goodly traine; and having visited all the Monuments, supposed Holy places, and Religious relickes there, for the space of five dayes; At last she came to take a view of the Popes Palace, where having spent a whole day, strictly remarkeing the gesture and carriage of the Popes servants: She sawe nothing but abhomination, prophanation, and irreligious living, and worser then in Rome it selfe: Whereuppon suddenly the next day shee departed for Siena, being an hundreth Miles distant; pittifully bewayling her journey, and the miserable livers she sawe in Rome. Protesting alwayes after for sixteene yeares time till her death, that the Winde Meaning of Sodomy.never came from the East blowing Westward to Siena, but she thought the filthinesse of the Popes Palace, and the beastlinesse of Rome, ever stunke in her nose.

This River of Tyber especially made muster of his extravagant disgorgements, at that time when Pope Clement 8. was crowned Duke of Ferrara, anno 1589. and that same night he returned to Rome, Tyber waxed so proud of his arrivall, that impetuously inunding his bankes to make him welcome, he over-whelmed the [I. 14.]better halfe of the Towne: And if it had not bene for the infinite charges of the Pope, and desperate toile of the people, the violent force of his rage swelling courtesie, had absolutely subverted and carried away the rest of the City. The like inundation was never seene of Tyber, as after this Coronation, portending, that as the first Gomorah was destroyed by fire, so this second Sodome should be sommerssed by water. The beginning of this River springeth from the Ombrian and Aquilean hills joyning with the Alpes Appenine: whose course is fourescore [13]and sixteene miles; disburdening it selfe in the sea Mediterren at Ostia twelve miles from Rome. The mouth and haven whereof have beene long dammed up, to stoppe the passage of hostile and Moorish incursions, least the City should be surprised on a sudden. By which slavish Ecclesiasticke feare, Rome is shamefully defrauded of shipping and forraine trafficke; and if it were not for the Clergy, which are the two parts of the inhabitants, (besides the Jewes and Curtezans, which are the greatest implements of the other third part) it would become the most miserable towne in Italy.

And notwithstanding that for the space of 12. miles round about Rome, there are neither Cornes, nor Wines, nor Village, Plantage, or Cultivage, save onely playne and pastoragious fields; intermingled at all quarters with auncient watch-Towers being an old policy of the Romans, to prevent any sudden surprise of their enimies; insomuch that at my first view of Rome, I imagined the people were all famished, or in danger of famishing.

But by your leave, being once enterd the City, I found abundance of all things necessary for life, at so easie and gentle a rate, that never towne in Europe hitherto could shew me the like. The common wine that is drunke in [I. 15.]Rome, is Vin Romanisco, the better sort Albano, Muscatello, Sheranino, but as for Lachrime Christi, the teares of Christ, I drew so hard at that same weeping wine, till I found my purse begun to weepe also; and if time had not prevented the sweetnes of such teares, I had beene left for all the last miserable mourner. As for the place The Pilgrimes dinner at the Popes table.where the Pilgrimes find one dinner, called the Popes table, it is thus: there is a certaine low roome at St. Peters Pallace, and without the gate, where every day at our nine of the clocke, there meete 21. pilgrimes; 14. from the Trinity, one having a bullet for all, and seven from St Peters Penitentialls: where being received, the seven Jesuit Pilgrims get the upper place, and sit alone, yet all of them alike served, each of them having foure dishes of meat, besides bread & abundance of wine. The [14]dinner done, their fragments are wrapt up in cleane paper, which they carry with them, and so departing, they, or like company come no more there. They are dayly served with a very venerable Prelat, and a few other serviceable Preists, but for the Popes presence with them, there is no such matter. That liberty being spoyld by a drunken Dutch-man about 60. yeeres agoe, who in presence of the Pope gave up againe his good cheare and strong wines, with a freer good will then perhaps they were allowed him, whereat the Pope grewe angry, notwithstanding the drunken fellowe cryed through his belching throate, Thankes Holy Father, Deere Holy Father, God blesse your Holinesse.

Many have wrote of the singularities of old Rome, and I will also recite some decayed monuments thereof, which I have seene: The speciall object of Antiquity I saw, being never a whit decayed to this day, is the Templum omnium Deorum, but now, omnium sanctorum, [I. 16.]builded in a rotundo, and open at the top with a large round, like to the quire of the holy grave. And a pretty way from this, are the remainants of that Auncient Amphitheatre beautified with great Columnes, of a wonderfull bignesse and height, and a mile in compasse; the reason why it was first devised, the ghosts of the slaughtered Romes Antiquities.Sabines may testifie. To be briefe, I saw the decayed house of worthy Cicero, the high Capitoll, the Pallace of cruell Nero, the Statues of Marcus Aurelius, Alexander, and his horse Bucephalus. The greene hill like unto mount Cavallo, that was made of the Potters sheards at one time, which brought the tributary gold to this imperiall seate: the seven Piramides, some whereof during her former glory, were transported from Ægypt: The high and small statues of Peter and Paul, the Castell St. Angelo, which Adrian first founded, standing now in a moderate circumferent height, with incircling battlements, and their doubtfull transported Reliques from Jerusalem, with many other things I diligently remarked, some whereof were frivolous, some ambiguous and some famous. [15]

Neere to mount Palatin, and the decayed temple of Romulus, I saw the Temple of Venus, converted now to the Church of Sancta Maria, Liberatrice Dalla piene de Inferno, The deliverer from infernall paynes, as Venus was the Consolatrix of amorous paynes.

Besides all these I saw one most sight-worthy spectacle, which was the Library of the auncient Romans, being licentiated to enter with two Gentlemen, Sir William Carre, Mr. James Aughmuty my Countrey men, where when I was come, I beheld a world of old Bookes, the first whereof, was an infinite number of Greeke Bibles subscribed with the hands of these holy Fathers, who (as [I. 17.]they say) translated them out of the Hebrew tongue.

I saw also the Academies of Aristotle, wherein he treateth of the soule, health, life, nature and qualities of men, with the Medicaments of Galen, for the diseases and Famous Authors.infirmities of man: The familiar Epistles of Cicero, the Æneidot of Virgil, the Saphicke Verses of that Lesbian Sapho, the workes of Ovid, Pliny, Plutarke, Titus Livius, Horatius, Strabo, Seneca, Plato, Homer, Tirentius, Cato, Hippocrates, Josepus, Pythagoras, Diodorus Siculus, Eusebius, S. Austine, S. Ambrose, S. Cyprian, S. Gregory, and likewise the workes of other excellent Phylosophers, Divines and Poets: all wrote with their owne hands, and sealed with their names, and manuall subscriptions. I saw also the forme of the first auncient writing which was upon leaves of trees, cakes of lead, with their fingers on ashes, barkes of trees, with strange figures, and unknowne Letters, that was brought from Ægypt: for the Ægyptians first devised the use thereof, and the sight of infinite Obligatory writings of Emperors, Kings and Princes, which I omit to relate, referring the same to be Registred by the next beholder.

Still left untold, something there must be seene

For them, who trace our feete, with Argos eyne:

Yet let them stay, and take this verball note,

They who would better write, must larger quote.


Bidding adew to my company, and this Library, I longed to view the gorgeous Mosaicall worke of S. Peters Church: The matter was no sooner conceived, but I went to the doore, yet afraid to enter, because I was not accustomed with the carriage, and ceremonies of such a Sanctum Sanctorum: but at the last, abandoning all scrupulosities, I came in boldly, and on my right hand, as I entred within the doore, I espied the portrayed image of S. Peter [I. 18.]The brasen Image of Saint Peter.erected of pure Brasse, and sitting on a brasen Chaire. The fashion of the people is this, entring the Church, they go straight to this Idoll, and saluting with many crosses his senslesse body, kisse his feete, and every one of his severall toes: insomuch that those his comfortlesse feete are growne firy red, while his body, save his breasts, remaineth brazen blew: and yet forsooth some of their learned Rabines will not have this superstition, but an humble commemoration of their adored Saints, or the like, for procuring favour of intercession, whilst the erected Idoll (interum) receiveth all their superfluous abhominations of diurnall worship. Next, they lay their heads under the sole of his right foote, and arising, rub their Beades on his hard costed belly: thus adoring that breathlesse masse of mettall, more then though it were a living creature.

O wonderfull and strange spectacle? that these onely titular Christians, should become worse of knowledge then Ethnicke Pagans, to worship and reverence the workemanship of mens hands. Woe and shame be unto you all blind Hereticall Papists; Why should you make to your selves Idols and Images of gold, silver, brasse, yron, stone, earth and tree; And notwithstanding would excuse the matter with a superstitious reason, alledging, you do it onely in remembrance, where otherwise it is a damnable signe of wilfull obdurate ignorance: May not the prohibition of the 2. Commandement of Gods Law, which absolutely you abrogate, dividing the last Commandement in two; confound the errour of this Idolatry, ingrafted in your hardned hearts. [17]

What vertue can be in a lumpe of brasse? or what comfort in the devices of handy-crafts-men? Alas, nothing but eternall sorrow & condemnation. This was [I. 19.]one of the lamentable errors I saw in the Roman Sea, amongst many other thousands: When the foolish Listranes or Licaonians would have sacrificed Buls to the honour of Paul and Barnabas, they rent their cloaths, and ranne in among the people, crying, and saying; O men, why doe you those things, we are even men subject to the like passions that you be: How is it then, That the Apostles being alive, would have no acknowledging by any homage of man; yet when they are dead, the Superstition of Papists.Romanists will worship their counterfeit similitude, in stone or tree. What unworthy-fained traditions and superstitious Idolatry? What strange new devising trickes they use, to plant idle monasteriall Loyterers? How many manner of wayes these belly-minded slaves Epicure-like leade their lives? And what a Sea of abhominable villany they swimme into, practising even unnatural vices, I meane of their wrongfuly called Religious Bishops, Priests, Friers, Curates, and all the hypocriticall crew, of these pervers’d Jebusites, no heart can expresse; nor the most eloquent tongue can sufficiently unfold. Whose luxurious lives are vulgarly promulgat in this Hispanicall proverbe:

Unnas tienen de gatto, y el habito de beato,

El cruz en los Pechos, ye el diabolo en los hechos.

They have a Cats clawes, and a blest Saints weed,

The crosse on their breasts, the divels in their deed.

But for feare of Excommunication from that Anti-christian Curtezan. I dare not persevere longer herein: Although I can; yea, and so truely bewray their all-corrupted estate, that I need no information of any Romane Novice Traveller. Of whose sight and experience, would God all the Papists in Britaine had the like eie-witnessing approbation as I have had, I am certainly [18]perswaded, with tears & sighes, they would heavily bemone [I. 20.]the terrible fal of that Babylonian whoore, which in a prophane estimation) is their holy mother Church. For I sincerely sweare to thee, O faithfull Christian (as the Italian usually doth in his humours) by the golden tripled Crowne of my ghostly Father, Paulo Papa quinto, whatsoever sacriledge, incest, or villany a Papist committeth; let him come here, and fill the bribing hands of the Simonaicall Minions, of the thrice crowned Priest, (for Roma non captat ovem sine lana.)

Pardons for pennies.And he shall have Indulgences, Dispensations, adjoyned Penances, or absolved Offences, for hundreds, thousands, lesse, or more yeeres. The period of Time, after eight and twenty dayes abode, wishing my departure, I hardly escaped from the hunting of these blood-sucking Inquisitors, of which the most part were mine owne Country-men, the chiefest of whom was Robert Mophet a Jesuit borne in St. Andrewes, David Chambers, and of our Colledge there, one Gordon, and one Cuningham, borne in the Cannon-gate of Edenborough: And to speake trueth, if it had not beene for Robert Meggat, borne neere to Newbattle, then resident in Burgo di Roma with the old My escape from Rome.Earle of Tirone, who hid me secretly for three dayes in the top of his Lords Pallace, when all the streets and ports of Rome were layd for me, who conveighing me away at the fourth mid-night, and leapt the walles of Rome with me, I had doubtlesse dyed as hot a death as a Lady Prioresse of Naples did afterward in my second Travells: And for better record Patricke Baxstter, now dwelling in Dundy, and then followed the Earle of Tyron can justifie the same, my custody and mine escape being both within his knowledge. Yet I may justly affirme it in these parts a man can finde no worser enimie then his nationall supposed friend, Religion being the cause of [I. 21.]it, and at home none more false nor deceitfull then a bosome friend.

Mens mindes, their praises, best loves, and kind conceits, They hurling come and goe, like fish at baits. [19]

And the Italian saith in his Proverbe; God keepe me from the hurt of my friends, for I know well how to keepe me from mine enemies. From thence bound Eastward, I visited Naples, the commendation of which, I revolve in this verse;

Inclyta Parthenope gignit Comitesque Ducesque

Most noble Naples, breeds but Dukes and Earles,

And gallant Knights, with Ladies load with Pearles.

Among many other things neare to this City, (which in the conclusion of this Historicall discourse be more particularly expressed) were Lacus Avernus, Sibillaes Cave, Puteoli, the Sulphurean mountaine Capua and Cuma, where banished Æneas from Troy and Carthage arrived. I saw the Monument of Virgills buriall standing in the fore face of his owne Grotto, that is cut through the mountaine of Cataia, being passable for Coatches, and a halfe mile long; and affixed these lines thereupon;

In Mantua from Mothers wombe,

I first conceived breath;

Parthenope reserves the Tombe,

My Sepulcher of Death.

Italy was called so of Italus, a King in Sicily, which first taught the people agriculture: The more impropriated names were Hesperia, because it is situate under the evening starre Hesperus: Latium, because Saturne driven from Creet by his sonne Jupiter, hic latebat abditus; and Ænotria in regard of the abundance of wines it produceth. This Countrey was first sayd to be inhabited [I. 22.]by Janus, Anno Mundi 1925. From whom sprung the The first plantation of Italy.tribes of the Samnites, Sabines, Laurentani, and Tarentines: The second Plantation was by Evander, and certaine other Arcadians, who being banished from their native dwellings, seated themselves here: Thirdly, by the Trojanes, under conduct of Æneas, who forsaking the delicious lives of the effeminate Affricans arrived here, and were kindly entertained by King Latinus, whose [20]daughter Lavinia, Æneas married: So thus from the Trojans the Italians bragge of their discent; and so likewise boast divers other nations to have discended from that Dardan stocke, as glorying in such a famous pedegree. The length of Italy is nine hundreth Italian miles, though some allot a thousand, it is false, for I have trod foure severall times from end to end of it on the soles of my feete, even from Vallese, the first Towne in Piemont, discending mount Synais from La Croix Southward, which secludeth Savoy; and to Capo Bianco in Calabria, hemb’d in with the gulfe Tarento on the one side, and the Faro of Messina on the other, it being the furthest promontore of Italy.

So in a false description, some blind Geographers, through base ignorance, make England longer then Scotland in their Mappes, when Scotland, by the best judgements, and mine owne better experience, is a hundred and twenty miles longer then England: It is a deocular errour, which I could wish to be reformed, as in the conclusion of this worke I shall more credibly make cleare.

The breadth of Italy at the roote and beginning thereof, bending along the Alpes from the Adriaticke coast, to the riviera di Genoa, or Ligurian shore, is but 240. Italian miles, growing narrower, and narrower, till it shut out it selfe in two hornes, Calabria, and Terra di Ottranto. The breadth of which, or either, extendeth not above [I. 23.]foureteene English miles from sea to sea, the gulfe Tarento (which is unnavigable in respect of infinite craggy shelfes) deviding the two homes. On the North side of Terra di Ottranto, lieth Apulia, bordering with Mare superum, a very fruitfull soile for cornes; & West-ward thence boundeth, terra di lavoro, or proprium regnum Napolitanum. These foure territories make up the intire The Kingdome of Naples.Kingdome of Naples: The chiefe Cities of which, are Naples, Capua and Salerno, in terra di Lavoro: In Calabria, are Cousenza, the chiefe seate of the President, or Subvicegerent, Rhegio, Allauria, and Montecilione: In terra di Ottranto, are Otranto the which towne being [21]taken by Mahomet the great, Anno 1481. involved all Italy in such a feare, that for a whole yeare, and till the expulsion of the Turks, Rome was quite forsaken, the next are Lucia, and Brundusium beautified with a famous haven.

And in Apulia, are Manfredo, Arpino where Tully was borne, Venusio, whence Horace had his birth, and Canno famous for the victory of Hanniball, against the Romans. The Church-land beginnes beyond Rome eighty miles at Terracina, being just opposit to Gayetta, the West-most confine by the Marine of the Neapolitan Kingdome, neare to Mount Circello, and the utmost Marine limit Eastward of Campagna di Roma, or the Churches patrimony, imbracing both seas, till it runne to Ponto Centino in Tuscana: which divideth the precincts of Re di Coffine, & Aquacupadente, the last frontiers of the great Duke and Popes lands. All which bounds to Terracina, and in the way of Venice from Rome to Spaleto is denominated Campagna di Roma, or Latium; and thence it reacheth along Northwest, by the Venetian gulfe, to the uttermost bounds of the Dutchy of Ferara, being thirty miles from Venice: Extending in length to three hundred & fifty [I. 24.]miles, whose breadth is narrow, and where it joyneth with both seas, it is but sixty miles. The Church-land is The foure Papall Territories.divided in foure territories, Campagna di Roma, or old Latium; Rome, Viterbo, Narni, Tarni, Viletri, Montefiascone, and Civitavecchia, being the chiefe Cities: Next, the Countrey of Ombria, or Ombrosa, lying betweene Rome and Loretta, the chiefe Cities are Spaleto, from whence it is reckoned a Dutchy, Perugia, a Sacerdotall University, Fulino, and Asisi, where great St. Frances with his invisible Stigmata was borne. At the which Asisi, I saw the place (as they say) where the Angell appeard to his mother, telling her, that she should conceave and beare a sonne, should be the Champion of Jesus, and hard by they shew me the Crub or Stall where he was borne, with many other foolish lyes both sinfull and abhominable: every way representing his imaginary [22]life, like to the heavenly tract and resemblance of our blessed Saviour. The third is Marca di Ancona by the sea side, Ancona being principall, the other Cities are Asculi, Marcerata, Tolentino, Riginati, Aguby, and Parasiticall Loretta. The fourth is Romania, lying along toward Ferrara, betweene the sea, and the hills Appenine.

This Ecclesiasticke dowry of Romania, is disjoyned from Marca di Ancona, by the Duke of Urbins lands, which division by the sea side is thirty miles in length, containing Pesaro, Fanno, and Sinigalia all sea port Townes, the other of this Dutchy are Urbino, and Casteldurante. The chiefe Towne in Romania, is Ravenna, which for antiquity will not bow her top to none in Italy: Here the Popes Legate remaineth, the other be Rimini, Fereola, Bullogna and Ferrara, and this much for the Popes foure Ecclesiasticke territories.

Tuscana or Ætruria lying South from the middle of [I. 25.]this Church-land is 100. miles in length, and as much The Duke of Florence his breadth, I meane of that belonging to the great Duke: Which hereditary boundes was but lately enlarged by Ferdinando, Father to late Cosmus, and brother to Mary of Medicis, the French Queene Mother now living: Who annexed thereunto the Reipublicks of Pisa and Siena: The other sequestrate Tuscan jurisdiction, is the little comonwealth of Luca: The chiefe Citty is Florence, whose streetes are divided by the River Arno; the other of this principality, are Pisa, Siena, Pistoia, Empoli, Ligorne, and Arretzo.

From Tuscany to the West, and North-west, lieth Lumbardy, intituled the garden of the World, which is now divided (besides the Venetian territory, of which I will speake in the owne place) in foure principalities, Milaine, Mantua, Parma and Modena: The other Cities be Cremona, Pavia, Lodi, Pleasance, Rhegio Brisiles, Palestra, Navarro and Allessandria di Paglia. This Province is mainely watered through the middle with stately Po, in which Phaeton was drenched, when he came tumbling downe from Heaven. The Rivers Ladishe, [23]Montanello, Delia Guarda, and other forcible streames supporting the shoulders of it.

Piemont and Genuaes Jurisdictions.West from Lumbardy lieth Piemont, betweene it and Savoy: The City whereof, and wherein the Savoyan Duke hath his Residence is Torino, situate on Po. The other, Aste Verseilles and Cowie. South from Piemont and Lumbardy, lieth the Riviera of Genoa, along the Mediterrean sea: the territory of which is narrow, but above one hundreth miles in length: All which is exceeding rocky and mountainous, yet producing good store of Orenges, Lemmons, Figges and Ches-nuts, whereon the Mountaineri [I. 26.]onely live, being either rosted, or baked in bread: The chiefe Cities of this Genewesen Liguria, are Genoa, Italy lyeth as the right arme, reaching forth from the maine body of Europe.and Savona. Italy lying in forme of a legge, is on both sides environed with the Sea, save onely the North-west part, and roote thereof, which is devided from France and Germany, by the Ligurian, Savoyean, Grisonean, Zingalian, and Tirolian alpes, which bend North-east, and South-west, inclosing it from the body of Europe, from sea to sea. Italy of all other Regions under the Sunne, hath beene most subject to the vicissitude of Fortune, yet not a little glorying in these famous Captaines, Fabius Maximus the buckler, and Camillus the sword of Rome, Scipio, Pompey, and Cæsar; for venerable Poets Virgil, Ovid, and renowned Horace, famous also for the Orator Cicero, and the Historians Tacitus, and Livius: The soyle is generally abundant in all things necessary for humane life, and the people for the most part are both grave and ingenious, but wondrous deceitfull in their actions, so unappeasable in anger, that they cowardly murther their enemies rather then seeke an honourable revenge, and so inclind to unnaturall vices, that for bestiality they surpasse the Infidells: the women of the better sort are slavishly infringed from honest and lawfull liberty: They of the middle ranke somewhat modest in carriage, witty in speech, and bountifull in affection: They of the vulgar kind are both ignorant, sluttish and greedy, and lastly the worser dregs, their impudent Curtezans, the most lascivious [24]harlots in the world. This much in generall for the briefe description of this Region, and so I revert to mine itinerary relation.

In the meane while, having alwayes a regard of my hasty dispatching from Christendome, I returned through Terra di Lavoro, by the sea side, Campagna di Roma, aunciently Latium, and Ombria, now the Dutchy of [I. 27.]Spaleto, even to Loretta, standing in the Marca of Ancona, addressing my selfe to Venice for transportation. But by your leave, let me lay downe before your eyes some notable illusions of Modonna di Loretta, which I found in my way-faring journey, to amplifie my former discourse, concerning the errours of the Roman Church, and as yet was never Englished in our language.

Before I came neare to Loretta by tenne miles, I overtooke a Caroch, wherein were two Gentlemen of Rome, and their two Concubines; who when they espied me, saluted me kindly, enquiring of what Nation I was? whither I was bound? and what pleasure I had to travell alone? After I had to these demands given satisfaction, they intreated me to come up in the Caroch, but I thankfully refused, and would not, replying the way was faire, the weather seasonable, and my body unwearied. At last they perceiving my absolute refusall, presently dismounted on the ground, to recreate themselves in my company: and incontinently, the two young unmarried Dames came forth also, and would by no perswasion of me, nor their familiars mount againe; saying, they were all Pilgrimes, and bound to Loretta (for devotion sake) in pilgrimage, and for the pennance enjoyned to them by their Father Confessour. Truely so farre as I could judge, their pennance was small, being carried with horses, and the appearance of their devotion much lesse: for lodging at Riginati, after supper, each youth led captive his dearest Darling to an unsanctified bed, and left me to my accustomed repose.

When the morning Starre appeared, we imbraced the way marching towards Loretta, and these vermillion [25]Nymphs, to let me understand they travelled with a chearefull stomacke, would oft runne races, skipping like [I. 28.]wanton Lambes on grassie Mountaines, and quenching their follies in a Sea of unquenchable fantasies. Approaching neare the gate of the Village, they pulled off their shooes and stockings, walking bare-footed through the streets, to this tenne thousand times polluted Chappell, mumbling Paternosters, and Ave Mariaes on their beads. When they entred the Church, wherein the Chappell Ignorant devotion.standeth, I stood at the entry beholding many hundreds of bare-footed blinded bodies, creeping on their knees and hands: Thinking themselves not worthy to goe on foote to this idely supposed Nazaretan House, like to this saying;

Lauretum nudis pedibus, plebs crebra frequentat,

Quam movet interius religionis amor.

To Lorett people haunt with naked feete,

Whome Religion moves with loves fervent sprit.

Unto this falsely patronized Chappell, they offer yearely many rich gifts, amounting to an unspeakable value, as Chaines, & Rings of Gold and Silver, Rubies, Diamonds, silken Tapestries, Goblets, imbroudries and such like. Romes avarice.The Jesuiticall and Pœnitentiall Fathers receive all, but who so enjoy all, let Camera reverenda Romana, graunt certification to this Loretan avariciousnesse, who fill their coffers twice in the yeare therewith. My foure Pilgrimes having performed their ceremoniall customes, came backe laughing, and asked why I did not enter? But I as unwilling to shew them any further reason, demaunded what the matter was? O (said the Italians) Jurando per il Cieloe Iddio Sacratissimo; This is the House wherein the Virgin Marie dwelt in Galile: and to the confirmation of these words shewed me a Booke, out of which I extracted these Annotations.

This Chappell they hold it to be the house, in which [I. 29.]Mary was annunced by Gabriel, and wherein she conceived [26]Damnable illusions of Loretta.Jesus, by operation of the holy Ghost, & in the meane time, that devotion waxed scant amongst the Christians of the Primitive Church in the Holy Land: strangers tirannizing over the territories of Canaan, as Heraclius, Costroes King of Persia, Sarazens, and Harancone King of Ægypt; it came to passe in the yeare of our Lord, 1291. and in the time of Pope Nicholas the fourth, that it being shaken off the foundation, was transported miraculously by Angels in the night, from Nazareth in Gallilee, to Torsalto in Slavonia: the distance being by sea and land 17. hundred Italian miles, O! a long lift for so scurvie a Cell. And in the morning, Shepheards comming to the place of pastorage, found this house, wherewith being astonished, they returned in hast, and told Saint George Alessandro, the Prior of Torsalto, who in that meane while was lying sick. He being stricken in admiration with these newes, caused himselfe to be borne thither, and laid before the Altar, and falling in a marvellous trance, A Simonaicall vision.the Virgin Mary by a heavenly Vision appeared to him, saying after this manner.

A Papisticall Dreamd of Oration.Behold, thou hast often pierced the heavens, with invocations for thy reliefe, and now I am come, not onely to restore thee to thy health, but also to certifie thee, that thou doubt nothing of this House; for it is holy in respect of mee, the chast immaculate Virgin, ordained before all eternity, to be the Mother of the most High. It was in this Chamber my Mother Anna conceived me, nourished me, and brought me up, in singing Psalmes, Hymnes, and Praises to the glory of God; and also I kept in this roome the blessed Infant Jesus very God, and very Man, without any grievance or paine brought him up with all dilgent observation: And when [I. 30.]cruell Herod sought the Babes life, by the advertisement of the Angell, I, and my husband Joseph, who never knew my body, fled with him downe to Ægypt. And after his passion, death, and ascension to Heaven, to make a reconciliation of humane nature, with the Court [27]Cœlestiall: I stayed in this house with John, and the other Disciples: Who considering after my death, what high mysteries had beene done into it, consecrated and converted the same to a Temple, for a commemoration of Christs sufferings, the chiefe of Martyrs. Also that resplending Image thou seest, was made by Saint Luke (my familiar) for eternizing the memory of my portraiture, as I was alive, by the commandement of him, who doth all things, and shall reserve this sacred Image to the worlds end: That Crosse of Ceder, which standeth at the side of the little Westerne window, was made by the Apostles: These Cinders in the Chimney touch not, because they are the fragments of the last fire I made on earth: And that Shelfe whereon my linnen clothes, and prayer Bookes lay, Let no person come neere it: For all these places are sanctified and holy. Wherefore my Sonne, I tell thee, awake, and goe recite the same which I have told thee unto others; and to confirme thy beleefe therein, the Queene of Heaven giveth thee freely thy health.

The shamefull opinions of the Papists concerning Loretta.Frier Alexander being ravished (say they) with the Vision, went and reported it to Nicholas Frangipano, Lord of that Countrey. And incontinently he sent this Prior and other foure Friers to Nazareth, whereby he might know the trueth thereof, but in that journey they dyed. The Virgin Mary perceiving their incredulity, caused Angels the second time to transport the house over the gulfe of Venice, to a great wood neere by the sea side, in the territory of Riginati in Italy, being 300. miles distant. Which, when the country-men had found, and [I. 31.]remarking the splendor of the illuminating Image, dispersed these newes abroad. And the Citizens of Riginati, having seene what great miracles was daily done, by the vertue of this Chappell, imposed then to it this name, Our Lady of Miracles. A little while after the people resorting to it with rich gifts, there haunted in the wood many theeves and cut-throates, who robd and murthered the Pilgrims. Which innocent spilt bloud, pricking their pitifull Lady to the heart, she made the Angels transport [28]it the third time, and set it on the top of a little Mountaine, belonging to two brethren in heritage, being forty foure miles distant from the former place. But they upon a day quarrelling, and discording about the utility of the Foure times transported.Offerings to this House, the Angels did remoove it the fourth time, and placed it in a high broad way, where it standeth unremooved to this day, which place is now called the Village of Loretta; and from the last Station nine miles distant. A confirmation by the Popes.This was confirmed by the Papall authority to be of an undoubted trueth, after a hundreth and fifty three yeares deliberation. Loe, as briefly as I could, have I layd open to thy judicious eyes, the transportations, Originall, and Papisticall Opinions of Loretta; protesting I have added nothing to the Authours description, but onely collected these speciall Warrants; omitting other infinite foolish toyes, conceived for their blind-folded credulity.

This Chappell, or rather dwelling house, as they would have it, stood alwayes alone, till of late, that Pope Clement 8. caused build a glorious Church over it: And here by accident I encountred with a very courteous and discreet Gentleman, James Arthur, whose company was to me most acceptable: Our acquaintance being first made at the [I. 32.]beginning of the same voiage upon the mountaines of Ferrara in Paese du Burbon, and bound to visite Venice, in his returning home for Scotland, as well as he had done Rome and other Cities of Italy.

Now I remember here of a pretty jest, for he and I going in to see the inravled image with sparrets of iron, and musing on the blacknesse of her face, and the richnesse of her gowne, all set with precious Stones and Diamonds; and because she is sightlesse, foure lampes of oyle they keepe alwayes burning before her face, that the people may see her, because she cannot see them. There was, I say, a young lusty woman hard by my elbow, busie at A fleshly false-sprung miracle.her Beades, who with the heate of the throng, and for lacke of ayre, fell straight in a sound: the women about her gave a shoute, and cryd that our blessed Lady had [29]appeared to her; whereupon she was carried forth and layd upon the steppes, that discend from the Chappell to the Church-floore, five hundreth more come to visite her with salutations of Saint, Saint, O ever blessed Saint; Now it was Friday in the fore-noone, and the woman having travelled all night, and to save charges of fish, had eaten a cold bit of her owne meat privately in the Taverne, with halfe a Buckale of red Wine: The people more admiring this imaginary heavenly trance, than the reliefe of the woman; at last sayd I, brother Arthur, I will goe open yonder womans breast, and I did so: and holding up her head before all the people, there sprung a flood of vin garbo downe the Alabaster stayres, intermingled with lumpes of ill-chewd flesh: Whereat the people being amazed, from a Saint swore she was a Divell: And if my friend and I, had not made hast to carry the sicke woman from the Church to a Taverne, doubtlesse, they had stoned her to death; and here was one of their miracles.

[I. 33.]Another time, comming backe from my second Travels in Affricke, it was my lucke to stumble in here againe, where I saw an old Capuschin Frier conjuring the Divell out of a possessed woman, who had stayed there, and two men keeping her above eighteene moneths, being twise a day brought before the Chappell. The Frier stood up before her, the two men holding both her armes; A Capuschin Frier conjuring the Divell.and sayd, laying his formost finger on her brow; In nomine Patris, &c. Io vi cargo a dirmi, per quale cagione, havete posseduto l’anima di questæ poveretta; & vati ne via io ti adjuro, alia quei luogi, dionde tu sei venuto: I charge thee to shew me for what cause thou hast possessed the soule of this poore wretch, and I adjure thee to goe backe unto these places from whence thou camest. Meane while the woman stood dumbe and silent for the space of a quarter of an howre, not being usuall before: the people gave a shoute, and cry’d, the Divell had left her, whereat he that held her right arme did let it fall downe by her side: But by your leave, in the twinckling of an eye, the [30]Divell in the woman gave the Frier such a rattle in the face, that he was stroke downe upon his backe among the people: And if it had not bene that she was borne downe with strength of hands, she had torne the silly old conjurer in peeces: crying, O false and dissembling knave, pretendest thou to have power to cast out evill Spirits, when thou thy selfe is in a worser case than I, and all thy profession too; Hell, hell, is your reward.

This is another of our Lady of Lorettaes Miracles, though many moe I could recite: As for any more vertue of this Cymberian image, I have knowne sicke folkes loaden with all kinde of diseases, criples, lame, maimed, deafe, dumbe, and numbers possessed with evill spirits lie here before this Lady, till I returned againe from Asia & Affrick, that same way: imploring, fasting and [I. 34.]penitentially weeping for health; But alas poore soules, they lost their labour. When they had both spent all their meanes, and perhaps the poorest of them three yeares attendance, and forced to my knowledge to returne againe to their severall stations with sorrowfull and comfortlesse hearts.

O strange and wonderfull frailty of men! what damnable imperfections domineere over their brain-sicke knowledge: Sathan, thou Prince of darkenesse, hast so over-sylled the dimmed eies of their wretched soules, that notwithstanding of Gods eternall word, ordained to call them through the spotlesse bloud of Christ Jesus; to be the heires and adopted sonnes of Salvation: yet thou all abhominable enemie of mankind, overthrowest both their spirituall and naturall understanding in a bottome­lesse Ocean of darke ignorance; promising to thy obdurate souldiers, to build Castles in the Ayre; and contrarywise is busie, digging downe dungeons, to welcome thy hellish eternized guests, with horrible torments, and never-ceasing flames of everlasting fire. What wilfull-hearted man can be so apt to believe, that our blessed Lady, had such estimation of morter and stones, as to have (although she had, had power) caused Angells to [31]transport a rotten house so often? No, I say, beleeve it who so will; questionlesse, the Judgements of God in the trueth of his all-seeing Justice, shall reward their too credulous mindes accordingly; Then shall they know their foolish and superstitious errours.

But now to leave them with their Idolatry to stones, mettall, and Images, I come to their blasphemies against the sacred Deity: Looke to the workes of Bernardini de Busti, Bonaventure, and Fereolus Lucrius, how shamefully they derogate the glory from God, and attribute all grace, mercy and omnipotency, to the Virgin Mary. So [I. 35.]Ludolphus and Chrysostome affirme, that Velocior est non unquam salus invocato nomine Mariæ, quam invocato nomine Domini, vinci filii ejus: Men may oftentimes be sooner saved by calling on the Virgin Mary, than on Christ. Omnia quæ Dei sunt, Mariæ sunt, quia mater & sponsa Dei illa est, all things which are Gods, are the Virgin Maries, because she is both the Spouse, and the mother of God, saith a Rabbin of theirs: and as many creatures honour the Virgin Mary, as honour the Trinity, saith another: So, Imperio Virginis, omnia famulantur & Deus, all creatures & God himselfe, are subject to the Virgin Maries command. And in their Bonaventure Ladies Psalter, Monstrate esse matrem, & coge illum peccatoribus misereri, Shew thy selfe a Mother, and compell him (viz. Christ) to have mercy upon sinners. Infinit citations could I produce, of such like intollerable The Virgin Mary divided in a thousand Ladies.attributs, besides the dividing of her in a 1000 stiles, viz. The Lady of the wines, Lady of the oyles, Lady of the cornes, Lady of the woods, Lady of the mountains, Lady of the meeds, Lady of the sheepe and goats, Lady of the springs, Lady of the fire, Lady of the shepheards; from earthquakes, thunder and fire-flashes, Lady of the Angels which is at Asisi in Ombria, Lady of miracles in divers places, Florence, &c. Lady of life in Bullogna newly found, Lady of all noble Ladies, and Nunnes, Lady of the galley-slaves, Lady of shipwracking seas, Lady of rivers and waters, Lady of young children, and [32]orphanes, Lady of all consolation, Lady of pure Virgins, Lady of distressed widdows, Lady of the sicke, and women with child, &c. Besides the powerfull Lady of Mountserrata in Catalogna, the aforesayd miraculous Lady of Loretta, and the clementious Ile-ruling Lady of Trapundy in Sicilia, &c. Thus they make it manifest, [I. 36.]that Shee, that is Ladye of the one, is not Ladye of the other; each of them having divers gifts, divers graces, divers powers, as they alledge, divers Chappells, divers offerings, and divers pilgrimages, according to the severall seasons, eminent or past-perills, peculiar invocations, and the particular neede of each family, man woman and living creature.

Whereby it plainely appeareth, by their dividuall acknowledgements, she is neither superior in power, universall in power, nor equall in power to God: For if she were, one Chappell, one name, one place, one pilgrimage, one offering would suffice for all. They chatter over on their beads ten Ave Maries to our Lady, and but one Pater noster to Christ: They make their orations thrice a day in the streets to the Virgin, and none to God: they say God divided the Kingdome with the Virgin, reserving to himselfe Justice, graunted to his mother mercy, wherefore if any man be aggrieved with Gods Justice, he may appeale to the court of her mercy.

But to conclude their blasphemies, & horrible lies, blessed is the blessed Virgin Mary (the Mother of Christ according to the flesh) above all women for ever and ever.

Leaving both this and Loretta, and returning to my Ancona.purpose, James Arthur and I imbarked at Ancona, (15. miles from thence) in a Frigato; This City of Ancona, in the time of Trajanus the Emperour, flourished mightily in fame, and reputation, and yet a gallant place to this day;

Contemnunt omnes Ancona mœnia Turcas.

This sea-strong Towne, set on a Promontore,

Defieth the Turkes with its defensive shoare:


It glories not a little in giving name to the whole province lying betweene Ombria and Romania, and is situate on a hill that shooteth into the sea like a promontore, having a faire haven built by Trajanus. It hath but one [I. 37.]gate, whence arose the proverbe, Un porto nel Ancona, un Petro nel Roma, e un Torre nel Cremona, One gate in Ancona, one Peter in Rome, and one Steeple in Cremona being exceeding high.

Along this Adriaticke Coast, I saw no remarkeable thing, save the two Cities Rimini and Ravenna: which were famous in the dayes of Octavius Cæsar, but now somewhat impoverished, in regard of divers incursions sustained, and shoaring along with them, the Duke of Urbines three sea-port Townes Sinigalia, Fanno and Pesaro, we sayled by the mouth of Rubicon, called now Pissatello (which Julius Cæsar passed over, against the ordinance of the Senate, and afterwards seazed upon Rome, putting Pompey to flight) I saw the place, where the bloudy battell was fought betweene the French and Spaniards, Anno Domini 1512. but the victory fell to the Gaules, with the losse of nineteene thousand men on every side, and they have erected singular Monuments there, in a perpetuall memory thereof. After three dayes sayling (having passed by Malamucko, which is the Haven of the great Venetian shippes) we arrived at St. Marks place in Venice.

Mine associate and I, were no sooner landed, and perceiving a great throng of people, and in the midst of them a great smoake; but we begun to demaund a Venetian what the matter was? who replied, there was A Gray Frier burned for villanous Lechering.a gray Frier burning quicke at S. Markes pillar, of the reformed order of S. Francis, for begetting fifteene young Noble Nunnes with child, and all within one yeare; he being also their Father confessor. Whereat, I sprung forward through the throng, and my friend followed me, and came just to the pillar as the halfe of his body and right arme fell flatlings in the fire; The Frier was forty [I. 38.]sixe yeares old, and had bene Confessor of that Nunnery [34]of Sancta Lucia five yeares: Most of these young Nunnes were Senators daughters; and two of them were onely come in to learne vertue, and yet fell in the midst of vice.

These fifteene with child, were all re-cald home to their fathers Pallaces; the Lady Prioresse, and the rest of her voluptuous crew, were banished for ever from the precincts of Venice. The Monastery was razed to the ground, their rents were allowed to be bestowed upon poore families, and distressed age, and their Church to be converted to an Hospitall. Most part of all which M. Arthur and I saw, before ever we either eate, drunke, or tooke our lodging in Venice: And I cannot forget, how after all this, we being inhungred, and also over-joyed tumbled in by chance, Alla capello Ruosso, the greatest ordinary in all Venice, neare to which the Friars bones were yet a burning: And calling for a Chamber, we were nobly & richly served: After dinner they layd up our budgets and our burdons, and abroad went we to see the Citie: Night come, we supd, and supd alone: The chiefe Venetian Ordinery.The next morne, I begun to remarke the grandeur of the Inne, and saw it was time that we were gone: I demanded our dependant, what was to pay? he answered, Un scudo all huomo par ciascun ripasto, A Crowne the dyet for each of us, being ten Julets or five shillings starling: Mr. Arthur lookd upon me, and I laughd upon him: In a word our dinner and supper cost us 40. Juletts twenty shillings English; being foure Crownes, whereat my companion being discontented, bad the divell be in the Friars ballocks, for we had payd soundly for his Leachery: many like deaths, for like causes, and worser, have I seene in all my three voyages, if time could permit me to particularize them; But from this thou mayst play the [I. 39.]learned Geometrician till thou findest more.

Cingitur urbs Venetum pelago, ditissima nummis.

This Towne most rich, to dare the Maine is shut,

In Neptunes bosome, and sea-streeted cut.


Venice is a Garden of riches, and worldly pleasures the chiefe flowre of Common-weales, and the perfect, mirrour of civill and politicke Governement. This sequestrat Citty, is situate in the bosome of Neptune, and divided from the world, with a part of his maine body, which invironeth the Iland.

The territories of Venice.The Common-wealth of Venice, containeth Marcha del Trevisa, which lieth in Lombardy, containing these Cities, Trevisa, Padua, Vincenza, Verona, Briscia, the second City for bignesse and beauty in all Lombardy, Bergamo, Chiozza, and Rovigno. Friuli, formerly called Forum Julii, lieth in the straite betweene the East end of the Alpes, and the sea Adriaticke, in length fifty, & in bredth forty miles. It hath bene often subject to the vicissitude of fortune: The chiefe towne is Treista in the bottome of the gulfe, and Palma lately built by the Venetians 1583. being the most impregnable, and best fortified towne in Italy: Friuli was a Dukedome, founded by the Lombards at the beginning of the Venetian Common-wealth: Afterward Luitprandus one of the Dukes, envying the increase of the dominion of Venice, made war against them, which ended in the losse of his owne countrey. The rest be Istria, a part of Dalmatia, the Ilands Candy, Corfu, Zante, Cephalonia, Serigo, Tino, Val di Campare, Lesina, and others of lesser note.

The Venetians howsoever of old, they have bene great warriours; they are now more desirous to keepe, then inlarge their Dominions, and that by presents and money, [I. 40.]rather than by the sword or true valour; so that whatsoever they loose by battell, it is observed, they recover againe by treatise. The Venetians are sayd to have discended of the Hennets in Asia lesser, who assisting

the Trojans, and Troy being lost, their King Pterilimene slaine, they fled away with Antenor; and arriving in this part of Italy seated themselves, till the report of the Hunnes designe against Italy, made them, (avoyding the storme before it fell) to draw into these Ilands and [36]The first plantation of Venice.Marishes, where now it standeth. It was first founded, and begun, Anno. 421. March 25. being distant from the maine land five miles, and defended against the fury of the sea, by a banke extending to fifty miles in length: Through which in eight places, there is passage broken for small boates, but no way for vessels of any burthen, save at Malamucco, and the castle of Lio: Yea, and so dangerous, that there is neither out-going nor in-comming, without a Pylot, which maketh the Citty unconquerable.

This Citty is seven miles in compasse, and from so base an abject beginning, it is growne (as it were) to be the chiefe bulwarke of Europe: The Duke of this Adriatick Queene, espouseth the sea, every Ascension day, by casting a golden ring into it. Which Stultitious ceremony by Pope Alexander the third was graunted, when he fled to Venice for succour, being persecuted by Fredericke Barbarossa: And the Venetians vanquishing Otho the Emperours sonne, restored the Pope, and for a reward, was honoured with this espousall.

The length of the Territory of Venice in Lombardy, lying along the foote and South side of the Alpes, amounteth to sixe score five miles: The breadth whereof in the planure is narrow, but stripeth larger among the hills and lakes, and very populous.

[I. 41.]The applauding Italian sayth, that Europe is the head of the World, Italy the face of Europe, and Venice the eye of Italy; and indeed, it is the strongest, and most active part of that powerfull body: Whereby it would appeare, that in the last subversion of the latter The Venetians are sprung of the Romans.Monarchy, the Romane Genius made a Pythagoricall transmigration into Venice; whose peace hath procured the plenty, and whose warres the peace of all Christendome. The lawes of this City permit not the younger sonnes of the best Gentry to marrie, least the number increasing should deminish the dignity: Yet neverthelesse they permit them unlawfull pleasures, and for their sakes allow publicke stewes. The Jewes here, and in Rome, weare red, and yellow hats for notice sake, to distinguish [37]them from others: which necessary custome (would to God) were enjoyned to all the Papists here in England, so should we easily discerne them from the true Christians. And finally, to discourse upon the provision of their magnificent Arsenall, Artillery, Munition and Armor, the division of streetes with channels, the innumerable bridges of stone and timber, their accustomable kind of living, apparell, curtesies, and conventions; and finally, the glory of Gallants, Galleries, Gallies, Galleasses and Gallouns, were a thing impossible for me briefly to relate. Wherefore since the situation thereof, and the decorements of their beautifull Palaces, are so well knowne, and their generall customes by the better sort, I desist, concluding thus; this incomparable mansion is the onely Paragon of all Cities in the World.

Mine aforesaid Consort and I having spent ten dayes in viewing and reviewing this City and circumjacent Isles, and my purpose reaching for Greece and Asia, as his was to recrosse the snowy Alpes, my muse remembreth our sad departure.

[I. 42.]Mr. Arthur his farewell from Venice.Now freindly Arthur left me, courts the Maine

Of pleasant Lombardy: By Trent againe

Beares through the Alpes, in his Tirolian wayes,

And past Bavaria, where Danubio strayes

He fell on Rhyne, and downe these curlings came:

Then shipd for Albion, neare to Ratterdame:

And coasting Isis, viewd that royall court,

Where once Appollo did in glory sport;

Fraught with Ambrosian nectar; crownd his daies

On Pindus tops, to have Mecenas praise

This light ohumbrat, Arthur courts the North

The Earle of Glencairne.And servd a noble Earle of auncient worth

Full eighteene yeares: till death that darts our woe

First smote his Lord and then his Countesse so:

Now they are fled, and he is left alone

Till heavens provide his hopes some happy one [38]

Which if to his desert, such fortune came,

A Princely service, might his merit clayme.

Where wishing both his fate, and worth to be

I’le Venice leave, and visit Lombardie.

In the time of my staying here, I went forth to Lombardy, and visited the famous Cities of Padua, Verona, and Ferrara. The commendation of which is celebrated in these verses:

Extollit Paduam, juris studium, & medicinæ.

Verona, humanæ dat singula commoda vitæ.

Exhaurit loculos ferrarea ferrea plenos.

In Padua I stayed three moneths learning the Italian tongue, and found there a Countrey Gentleman of mine, Doctor John Wedderburne a learned Mathametician, but now dwelling in Moravia, who taught me well in the language, and in all other respects exceeding friendly [I. 43.]to me. Padua is the most melancholy City of Europe, the cause onely arising of the narrow passage of the open streets, and of the long galleries and dark-ranges of pillars, that goe alwhere on every hand of you, through the whole streets of the Towne: The Schollers here in the night commit many murthers against their privat adversaries, and too often executed upon the stranger and innocent, and all with gun-shot or else stilettoes: for beastly Sodomy, it is as rife here as in Rome, Naples, Florence, Bullogna, Venice, Ferrara, Genoa, Parma not being exempted, nor yet the smallest Village of Italy: A monstrous filthinesse, and yet to them a pleasant pastime, making songs, and singing Sonets of the beauty and pleasure of their Bardassi, or buggerd boyes.

I commend the devotion of Venice and Genua, beyond all the other Cities of Italy; for the Venetians have banished the Jesuites out of their Territories and Ilands: A comparison of Jewes and Jesuits.And the Genueses have abandoned the society of Jewes, and exposed them from their jurisdiction. The Jewes and the Jesuites are brethren in blasphemies; for the [39]Jewes are naturally subtill, hatefull, avaritious, and above all the greatest calumniators of Christs name: and the ambitious Jesuites, are flatterers, bloudy-gospellers, treasonable tale-tellers, and the onely railers upon the sincere life of good Christians. Wherefore I end with this verdict, the Jew and the Jesuite, is a Pultrone and a Parasite. [40]



Now step I o’re the gulfe, to th’ Istrian shoare,

Dalmatia, Slavonia, Ilyria, more,

[II. 44.]Valona, Albana, Epyre in Greice,

And Morea fat, where Jason hurt his fleece:

The Adriatick, and Ionean Iles,

And Lesinaes great monster; Athens styles;

With Lacedemon sackt, and Sparta rent

From auncient worth: Arcadia poore and shent:

Our gulfe Lepanto, the Ætolian hight,

And all these coasts, till Candy come in sight.

After my returne from Padua to Venice & 24. days attendance devasted there for passage, I imbarked in a Carmoesalo, being bound to Zara Novo in Dalmatia: Scarcely had we lost the sight of Venice, but we incountred with a deadly storme at Seroco e Lenante. The Master had no compasse to direct his course, neither was he expert in Navigation; because they use commonly, either on the South or North sides of the Gulfe, to hoise up sayles at night, and againe breake of day they have full sight of land; taking their directions from the topped hills of the maine continent. The tempest increasing, and the winds contrary, we were constrained to seeke up for the Port of Parenzo in Istria.

Istria was called Giapidia, according to Pliny; Cato affirmeth it was called Istria of one Isiro, but by the moderne writers, l’ultima Regione di Italia. By Ptolomeus it is sayd to be of length 100. miles, and [41]forty large, but by mine experience onely 80. long and 20. large.

Istria hath on the South Friuli and the sea: on the West Stria: on the North Carniola: on the East the gulfe The antiquity of the Istrians.Carnaro or Quevero. It is thought the Istrians were first a people of Colchis in Natolia, who by King Ætas being sent to pursue Jason and the Argonauts (who had stolne the golden fleece and his daughter Medea) either because of the long journey, or feare of the Kings anger [II. 45.]durst not returne, and so remained in this Country, where they enjoyed a long freedom, til by many incursions of piracy, still molesting the Venetians they lost many of their Townes Anno 938. & afterward the whole Country made tributary by Duke Henry Gondolo about the yeare 1200.

That part which bordereth with the sea, belongeth to the Venetians, but the rest within land holds of the Emperour, and the Archduke of Austria. The Country it selfe aboundeth in cornes, wines and all kinds of fruites necessary for humane life. Neare to this haven wherein we lay, expecting roome windes, I saw the ruines Justinopoli decayed.of old Justinopoli, so called of Justinian the Emperour, who builded it upon an Iland of a miles length, and three acres broad: And to passe betwixt the City and the firme land, there was seven bridges made. It was aunciently strong, but now altogether decayed: The principall Cities in Istria at this day, are these, Parenzo, Humago, Pola, Rovigo.

The windes favouring us, we weighed Ankors, and sayled by the Iles Brioni, so much esteemed, for the fine stones they produce, called Istriennes: which serve to beautifie the Venetian Palaces. About midday I saw Mount di Caldaro, on the foote of which, the auncient City of Pola is situated, having a harbour wherein small shippes may lie. True it is, this Port is not much frequented, in respect of a contageous Lake neare to it, which infecteth the ayre with a filthy exhalation. I saw hard by this place, the ruines of the Castell di Oriando, [42]the Arke Triumphant, and the reliques of a great Amphitheatre. This Pola was called by Pliny, Julia pietas; and it standeth in the South-east part of Istria. Continuing our course, we passed the perillous gulfe of Carnaro.

This gulfe or bay of Carnaro, runneth in North, and by East 50. miles within land, at the narrow entry [II. 46.]whereof, it hath a part of Istria on the West, and the Dalmatia on the East: The Venetians use to keepe alwayes certaine Gallies at the mouth of this bay, on the Dalmatian side, to intercept the cursary of the Scoks: In the bottome of this Carnarian gulfe are placed Senna, Gradisca, and Novagard, the chiefe Cities of Croatia: the people which inhabit these Townes, and the adjoyning Countrey are called Scoks, a kind of Dalmatians, being of a robust nature, courageous and desperate: Their weapons are broad two handed swords, long Skenes, carrying targets at their girdles, and long Gunnes in their hands: They are marveilous swift on foote, and dayly annoy by land their neighbouring Turkes with inrodes, fetching away great spoyles and booties, of The Scoks live under the house of Austria.cornes, cattell and horses: And by Sea with Frigots and Brigantines did ever and often vexe the Venetian commerce, in their owne domesticke waters: The great losses which from these incursive people the Venetians had from time to time received, and the other dammages they inflicted upon the Turkes in their trafficking with Venice, for whom the Venetians are bound by former articles of peace, to keepe harmelesse within their owne gulfe from all Christian invasions, was the onely and urgent cause that moved the Venetians to wage warre with Ferdinando then Duke of Grasse, and now Emperour, Anno Domini, 1616. And besieged Gradisca to their no small disadvantage, both of charges and losse of men: For the towne being strongly fortified with walles and munition, and 2000. Scoks within to defend it, would often at the neare approaching of the enemy make a salley forth on horse and foote, giving many [43]miserable overthrowes to the Assailants: To the which detriments, for twenty dayes space I was a testator, being after my returne from Affricke in my second travels, as [II. 47.]I was going for Hungary, Moldavia, Valecchia and Transilvania, taking this countrey in my way: And one morning at the breake of day, I saw 800. Scoks issuing out of towne, make bloudy havocke of 3000. of the Venetian army: Croatia.This part of Croatia is exceeding fertile, abounding in cornes, wines, bestiall and pastorage, though then by lawlesse, and turbulent souldiers, it was miserable defaced.

The whole number of these Scoks that are able to carry armes, be not above sixe thousand men: They are wonderfull kinde to strangers, which to me in no small measure was extended, and that by the better sort their Captaines and Commanders, and onely for the affinity of Scoki and Scoti, although I dare sweare, there is little or none at all betwixt the two Nations.

Having passed Carnaro, we sayled close by the Ile Sangego, called formerly Illrides: This Isle is of circuit foure score, and of length thirty miles. Our fresh water waxing scant, and the winds falling out contrary to our expectation, we sought into Valdogosto in the Isle of Osero, which is a safe haven for ships and Gallies. This Osero was first named Asphorus, and then Absirtides, of a Captaine Absertus, who came from Colchis, accompanied with many people, to bring backe Medea to her carefull father. Whose purpose being frustrated, stayed still, and inhabited this land. A fit oportunity obtained upon the Zara nova.eighth day, we arrived in the roade of Zara in Dalmatia; for there the Carmoesalo stayed, and I was exposed to seeke passage for Ragusa.

By the way, I recall the great kindnesse of that Dalmatian Maister, for offering my condition, I found him more then courteous, and would have no more but the halfe of that, which was his bargaine at Venice. Besides [II. 48.]this, he also entertained me three dayes, with a most bountifull, and kind acceptance: My solitary travelling [44]he oft bewailed, wishing me to desist, and never attempt such a voyage; but I giving him absolute, and constant answers, appeased his imagined sorrow.

Ignorance and Sloth.True it is, that ignorance and sloth, make every thing terrible unto us, and we will not, because we dare not, and dare not, because we will not: This makes us submit our selves to any thing, that doth either flatter or threaten us: And like some sottish weakelings, that give the reines of their governement into the hands of their Wives or Servants, thinking then they buy their peace when they sell it; thus doe they grow upon us, I meane ignorance and sloth, and by composition, not force, become masters of the place, being just so strong, as we are weake. And as contrary newes delivered at one time, maketh one to heare with joy, and remember with sorrow; even so an unresolved man, in high and heroyicke designes, though seeming forward is distracted here, set on feare there, and rent asunder every where with the flashing frights of desperation: But a constant resolution can couragiously support all things; Ubicunque homo est, ibi beneficio locus est. And congratulating this Skippers courtesie, I bad farewell to his councell.

Zara is the capitall city of Dalmatia, called of old, Jadara. The inhabitants are governed by a Camarlingo, or Chamberlaine, in the behalfe of Venice. The walles whereof are strongly rampired with earth; surpassing the tops of the stone-worke: and fortified also with high Bulwarkes, and planted Canons on elevated Rampires of earth: which are above forty cubites higher then the Walles and Bulwarkes; standing in the foure severall corners of the city.

[II. 49.]There lye continually in it; a great Garrison of Souldiers to defend the towne and Citizens, who are maintained by the Duke of Venice: for he is Signior thereof. They have indured many invasions of the Turkes, especially in the yeare one thousand five hundreth and seventy, when for the space of fourteene moneths, they were dayly molested and besieged, but the victory fell ever to the [45]Christians: If the Turkes could win this place, they might easily commaund the Adriaticall Seas, in regard of that faire Haven which is there, to receive Ships and Gallies; which maketh the Venetians not a little fearefull because of their safeguard.

Yet they licentiate the neighbouring Infidels to traffick with them, but when they enter the gates, they must deliver their weapons to the Corporall of the Squadron company: Neither may they stay within all night under the paine of imprisonment. Dalmatia.Dalmatia was called so of Mauritius the Emperour. The foure principall Provinces whereof are these, Atheos, Senebico, Spalleto and Tragurio. A part of which belongeth to Venice, another part to the arch Duke of Austria, and a third unto the Turkes. Zara is distance from Venice two hundreth miles.

When the wandring night was chased from the inferiour Ilands, by the recoursing day, and the Sunne had imparted his brightnesse to our under neighbours, and our dreames ready to possesse the Theater of the fancy, the wearisome creatures of the world declining to their rest; and under shaddow of the pale Lady of the night; even then, from Zara I imbarked in a small Frigot, bound for Lesina, with five Slavonian Marriners: who sometimes sailed, & somtimes rowed with Oares: in our way we past by the Ile of Brazza, which is of no great quantity, but fertile enough [II. 50.]for the Inhabitants, and kept by a Gentleman of Venice. It lieth in the mouth of the gulfe Narento, that divideth Dalmatia from Slavonia: Many fondly conceive that these two kingdomes are all one, but I hold the contrary opinion, both by experience, and by auncient Authors: having passed Capo di Costa, which is the beginning of Slavonia, I saw upon my right hand, a round Rocke of a great height, in forme of a Piramide; being cognominated by Easterne Mariners, Pomo, aunciently Salyro, for the good Faulcons that are bred therein. It standeth in the middest of the Gulfe betweene Slavonia and Italy, and not habitable. [46]

A little beyond that Rocke, I saw the three Iles Tremiti: The chiefest whereof is called Teucria, but they are vulgarly called the Iles of Diomedes, who was King of Etolia. They are right opposite to Mount Gargano, now called Mount S. Angelo.Saint Angelo, and distant from the maine land of Apulia in Italy about nine miles.

This Mount Saint Angelo standeth in Apulia, bending in the Sea with a large promontore, it is in compasse ninety miles? Neare to this Mountaine, was that great battell fought, betweene Hanniball and the Romanes: the overthrow fell to the Romanes, under the conduct of Paulus Æmilius, and other Consuls, of whom were slaine fourty two thousand and seven hundred; And if Hanniball had followed this victory, he had easily that day subdued the common-wealth of Rome: which made Maharball Captaine of his horse-men rebuke him thus, Vincere scis Hanniball victoria uti nescis.

Thou canst o’recome thy foes in bloody fight,

But can not use the victory aright.

The like said Cæsar of Pompey, when he lost the first battell they fought at Pharsalia in Greece; O Pompey, Pompey, If thou hadst knowne how to have used the [II. 51.]victory, as thou hadst it, thou mightest have beene this day Lord of the whole World.

A woful battell.So to our lamentable memory, may that last battell be recorded fought in Hungary, betweene the Turkes and Christians, of whom Maxamilian Duke of Isbrugh this present Emperours Uncle was Generall: who having had a nocturnall victory, and the Infidels put to the flight, they remaining in the Campe more busie about the spoyles then their owne safety; the Turkes returned againe before day, the Christians being disordered with booties and the ravening of their whores, they put them all to the edge of the sword: O miserable confusion! Little better might I speake of the battell of Lepanto being abusd even in the using of it, and that glorious victory no waies followed, as good fortune had given them an awfull opportunity: [47]For Don John of Austria their Generall had a greater mind to seaze upon the Ile of Corfu, and to robbe Venice of her liberty, then to prosecute with vengeance the brave beginning of so notable a victory; and yet his treachery was discoverd, and by the Venetian Generall speedily disappointed, to his eternall shame both wayes.

The poore Slavonians being fatigated in their hunger-starving Boat, with extraordinary paines (for we had three daies calme, which is not usually seene in these Seas) were enforced to repose all night at the barren Ile of St. Andrew: This Ile is of circuite foure miles, but not inhabited: The excessive raine that fell in the evening, made us goe on shoare, to seeke the coverture of some rocke; which found, we lay all night on hard stones, and with hungry bellies: for our provision was spent. The breach of day giving comfort to our distressed bodies, with favourable windes at the Garbo e ponente, we set forward, and about midday we arrived in the Port of Lesina, of [II. 52.]which the Ile taketh the name.

This Ile of Lesina is of circuite, a hundred and fifty miles, and is the biggest Iland in the Adriaticke Sea: It is exceeding fertile, and yeeldeth all things plentifully, that is requisite for the sustenance of man. The City is unwalled, and of no great quantity, but they have a strong fortresse, which defendeth the Towne, the Haven, and the vessels in the Roade. The Governour, who was a Venetian, after he had enquired of my intended voyage, most courteously invited me three times to his Table, in the time of my five dayes staying there: And at the last meeting, he reported the story of a marvellous mis-shapen creature borne in the Iland, asking if I would goe thither to see it: wherewith (when I perfectly understood the matter) I was contented: The Gentleman honoured me also with his company, and a horse to ride on, where when we came, the Captaine called for the father of A Monster borne in Lesina.that Monster, to bring him foorth before us. Which unnaturall Childe being brought, I was amazed in that sight, to behold the deformity of Nature; for below the [48]middle part, there was but one body, and above the middle there was two living soules, each one separated from another with severall members. Their heads were both of one bignesse but different in Phisnomy: The belly of the one joyned with the posterior part of the other, and their faces looked both one way, as if the one had carried the other on his backe, and often before our eyes, he that was behind, would lay his hands about the necke of the formost. Their eyes were exceeding bigge, and their hands greater then an Infant of three times their age. The excrements of both creatures issued foorth at one place, and their thighes and legges of a great growth, not semblable to their age, being but sixe and thirty dayes [II. 53.]old; and their feete were proportionably made like to the foot of a Cammell, round and cloven in the middest. They received their food with an insatiable desire, and continually mourned with a pitifull noyse; that sorrowfull man told us, that when the one slept, the other awaked, which was a strange disagreement in Nature. The Mother of them bought dearely that birth, with the losse of her owne life; as her Husband reported, unspeakeable was that torment she indured, in that woefull wrestling paine. I was also informed afterwards, that this one, or rather twofold wretch lived but a short while after we saw them.

Leaving this monstrous shapen Monster to the owne strange, and almost incredulous Nativity, we returned to Lesiva. But by the way of our backe comming, I remember that worthy Gentleman who shewed me the ruines of an old house, where the noble Demetrius.King Demetrius was borne; and after I had yeelded by bounden and dutifull thankes unto his generous minde, I hired a Fisher-boate to goe over to Clissa, being twelve miles distant. This Ile of Clissa is of length twenty, and of circuit threescore miles: It is beautified with two profitable Sea-ports, and under the Signiory of Venice. There are indifferent good commodities therein; upon the South side of this Iland lieth the Ile Pelagusa, a rocky and barren place.

Departing from thence in a Carmoesalo bound to [49]Ragusa, we sailed by the three Iles, Brisca, Placa, Igezi; And when we entred in the Gulfe of Cataro, we fetched up the sight of the Ile Melida, called of old Meligna: Before we could attaine unto the Haven, wherein our purpose was to stay all night, we were assailed on a sudden with a deadly storme: Insomuch, that every swallowing wave threatned our death, and bred in our breasts, an intermingled sorrowe of feare and hope. And yet hard [II. 54.]by us, and within a mile to the ley-ward, a Barbarian man of war of Tunneis, carrying two tyre of Ordonance, and 200. men, seaz’d upon a Carmosale of Venice, at the first shot, she being loaden with Malvasie and Muscadine and come from Candy, and had us also in chase till night divided our contrary designes. The winds becomming favourable, and our double desired safety enjoyed, both because of the sea storme, and of the stormy Pyrat, we set forward in the Gulfe of Cataro, and sayled by the Cursola.Ile Cursola: in this island I saw a walled towne called Curzola, which hath two strong Fortresses to guard it. It is both commodious for the trafficke of Merchandize they have, and also for the fine wood that groweth there, whereof the Venetian Ships and Gallies are made: An Iland no lesse pleasant then profitable; and the two Governours thereof are changed every eighteene moneths, by the State of Venice.

It was of old called Curcura, Melana, and of some Corcira Nigra, but by the Modernes, Curzola. Continuing our course, we passed by the iles Sabionzello, Torquolla, and Catza Augusta, appertaining to the Republike of Ragusa. They are all three well inhabited and fruitfull, yeelding cornes, wines, and certaine rare kinds of excellent fruites. It is dangerous for great vessels to come neere their coasts, because of the hidden shelfs that lie off in the sea, called Augustini, where divers ships have beene cast away in fowle weather; upon the second day after our loosing from Clissa, we arrived at Ragusa.

Ragusa.Ragusa is a Common-weale, governed by Senators, and [50]a Senate Counsell; it is wonderfull strong, and also well guarded, being situate by the sea side, it hath a fine Haven, and many goodly ships thereunto belonging: The greatest trafficke they have, is with the Genueses: Their [II. 55.]territory in the firme land is not much in respect of the neighbouring Turkes, but they have certaine commodious ilands, which to them are profitable: And notwithstanding, of the great strength and riches they possesse, yet for their better safeguard and liberty, they pay a yearly tributary pension unto the great Turke, amounting to fourteene thousand Chickens of Gold: yea, and also they pay yearely a tributary pension unto the Venetians, for the Iles reserved by them in the Adriaticall Gulfe, so that both by sea and land they are made tributary citizens. The most part of the civill Magistrates, have but the halfe of their heads bare, but the vulger sort are all shaven like to the Turkes.

This Citty is the Metropolitan of the Kingdome of Slavonia.Slavonia: Slavonia was first called Liburnia, next, Illiria, of Ilirio the sonne of Cadmus: But lastly, named Slavonia, of certaine slaves that came from Sarmatia passing the river Danubio, in the time of the Emperour Justinian: Croatia lying North-west from hence, is the third Province of this auntient Ilyria, and was formerly called Valeria, or Corvatia: It hath on the West Istria and Carniola: on the East and South, Dalmatia: on the North North-west a part of Carindia quasi Carinthia, and northerly Savus: So much as is called Slavonia, extendeth from the River Arsa in the West, the river Drino in the East, on the South bordereth with the Gulfe of Venice, and on the North with the Mountaines of Croatia: These Mountaines divide also Ragusa from Bosna. Bosna is bounded on the West with Croatia, and on the South with Illiricum, or Slavonia, on the East with Servia: and on the North with the River Savus.

The next two speciall Citties in that Kingdome, are Sabenica and Salona. The Slavonians are of a robust [II. 56.]nature, martiall, and marvellous valiant fellowes, and a great helpe to maintaine the right and liberty of the [51]Venetian State, serving them both by sea and land, and specially upon their Galleyes and men of Warre. From Ragusa I imbarked in a Tartareta, loaden with corne, and bound to Corfu, being three hundred miles distant.

In all this way we found no Iland, but sayled along the maine land of the Illirian shoare: having passed the Gulfe of Cataro, and Capo di Fortuna, I saw Castello novo: which is a strong Fortresse, situate on the top of a Rocke: wherein one Barbarisso, the Captaine of Solyman, 4000. Spaniards starvd to death.starved to death foure thousand Spaniards. Having left Illiria Albania, and Valona behind us, we sayled by Capo di Palone, the large promontore of which, extendeth to eight miles in length, being the face of a square and maine Rocke. This high land is the furthest part of the Gulfe of Venice, and opposite against Capo di Sancta Maria in Apulia, each one in sight of another, and fourteene leagues distant. Continuing our Navigation, we entred into the Sea Ionium, and sayled along the coast of Epire, which was the famous Kingdome of the Epirotes, and the first beginning of Greece. Epirus is environed on the South with the sea Ionian: on the East with Macedon; On the West North west, with Albania; and on the North, with a part of Rascia, and the huge Hill Hæmus: Of which Mountaine Stratonicus was wont to say, that for eight moneths in the yeare, it was exceeding cold, and for the other foure, it was Winter: This long Mountaine devideth also Greece from Mysia, called vulgarly Bulgaria, lying on the North of Hæmus, and to the South of Danubio, even Eastward to the Euxine sea: Which River parteth also Dacia, from Mysia the superiour, the which Dacia being an auncient and famous countrey, [II. 57.]containeth these Provinces, Transilvania, Moldavia, Vallachia, Servia, and Bosna: Here in this Kingdome of Epyre, was the noble and valiant Pirhus King, who made so great warres upon the Romanes, and at last by a woman of Argos was killed with a stone: The most valerous Captaine George Castriot surnamed Scanderberg.Scanderberg, the great terrour and scourge unto the Turkes was borne here; of [52]whom it is recorded, he slew at diverse battels with his owne hands, above three thousand Turkes; obtaining also many fortunate victories against Amurath and Mahomet: After whose death and buriall, his body was digged up by the Turkes, and joyfull was that man could get the least bit of his bones to preserve, and carry about with him, thinking thereby so long as he kept it, he should alwayes be invincible, which the Turkes observe to this day, and likely to do it to their last day. And more,

Renoun’d Epire, that gave Olimpias life,

Great Alexanders Mother, Phillips Wife.

In this countrey are these two Rivers, Acheron and Cocytus; who for their minerall colours, and bitter tasts, were surnamed the Rivers of Hell; and the sacred Mount Pindus, celebrate to Apollo and the Muses so well memorized by Poets, is here. It is now called Mezzona, at the foote of which springeth the River of Peneia, called Modernely Salepiros, but more properly Azababa, and keeping his extreamest course through the fields of pleasure, named by the auncients Tempi, being five miles long, and as much large, lying betweene the two Hils Osso and Olympus, and watering that beautiful plaine, the faire Peneian spring, or Azababan River, disburdeneth it selfe in the gulfe Thessalonick. This is the first kingdom of Greece, and of a great length consisting betweene [II. 58.]the West, most part of Albania, as a perpendicular Province annexed to it, and the Arcadian Alpes, which divide Ætolia and Acarnania, the East-most regions of it, from Sparta, Thessaly, and the old Mirmidons Countrey of Macedon, amounteth to foure hundred and eight miles, lying along by the Sea side, whose breadth extendeth all the way along Northward to the hill Hæmus, above 68. miles. The chiefe Towne of Epyre, where the Kings had their residence, was called Ambracia, modernely Laerto named of a river running by it: And upon the sixt day after our departure from Ragusa, we arrived at Corfu.

The Ile Corfu.Corfu is an Iland, no lesse beautifull, then invincible: [53]It lieth in the Sea Ionean, the Inhabitants are Greekes, and the Governours Venetians: This Ile was much honoured by Homer, for the pleasant Gardens of Alcino, which were in his time. This Alcino was that Corcyrian Poet, who so benignely received Ulysses after his shipwracke, and of whom Ovid said.

Quid bifera Alcinoi referam pomaria? vosque,

Qui nunquam vacui prodistis in æthere rami,

Why blaze I forth, Alcinoes fertile soyle,

And trees, from whence, all times they fruit recoyle.

This Ile was given to the Venetians by the Corsicans, Anno. 1382. because they were exposed to all the injuries of the world: It lieth like to a halfe moone, or halfe a circle East and North: The Easterne Cape is called Leuchino, the other Northward, St. Katerina; the second Towne whereof is called Pagleopoli: It is of circuite one hundred and twenty, in length fifty two, and thirty seaven in breadth, and foureteene miles distant from Epyre. The City Corfu, from which the Ile hath the name, is situate at the foote of a Mountaine, whereupon are builded two [II. 59.]strong Fortresses, and invironed with a naturall Rocke: The one is called Fortezza Nova and the other Fortezza vecchia: They are well governed, and circumspectly kept, least by the instigation of the one Captaine, the other should commit any treasonable effect: And for the same purpose, the Governours of both Castles, at their election before the Senatours of Venice are sworne; neither privately, nor openly to have mutuall conference; nor to write one to another, for the space of two yeares, which is the time of their government. These Castles are inaccessable, and unconquerable, if that the Keepers be loyall, and provided with naturall and martiall furniture. They are vulgarly called, Two strong Castles.The Forts of Christendome, by the Greekes; but more justly, The strength of Venice: for if these Castles were taken by the Turkes, or by the Spanyard who would as gladly have them, the trade of [54]the Venetian Merchants would be of none account; yea the very meane to overthrow Venice it selfe.

Corfu formerly Corcyra. was by some called Phæacia, so denominate from a Virgin of that name, who was here supposed to have beene deflowred by Neptune. This Ile produceth good store of Wines, Oyle, Wax, Honey, and delicate fruits.

From thence after certaine daies abode, I imbarked in a Greekish Carmesalo, with a great number of passengers, Greekes, Slavonians, Italians, Armenians, and Jewes, that were all mindefull to Zante, and I also of the like intent; being in all fourty eight persons: having roome windes, and a fresh gale, in 24. houres we discovered the Ile Cephalonia the greater; and sayled close along Cephalonia minor, or the lesser Ithaca, called now Val di Compare, being in length twenty, and in circuite fifty sixe miles, renowned for the birth of Laertes sonne, Ulysses;

[II. 60.]Ithaca where Ulysses was borne.From th’Ithac rockes we fled Laertes shoare,

And curs’d the land, that dire Ulysses bore.

For Ilions sake, with Dardan blood attird,

Whose wooden horse, the Trojan Temples fird.

On our left hand toward the maine, we saw an Iland, called Saint Maure, formerly Leucas, or Leucada; which is onely inhabited by Jewes, to whome Bajazet the second gave it in possession, after their expulsion from Spaine: The chiefe City is Saint Maure, which not long agoe was subject to Venice. This Ile Saint Maure was aunciently contiguate with the continent, but now rent asunder, and invironed with the sea: In this meane while of our navigable passage, the Captaine of the vessell espied a Saile comming from Sea, he presently being moved therewith, sent a Mariner to the toppe, who certified him she was a Turkish Galley of Biserta, prosecuting a straight course to invade our Barke. Which sudden affrighting newes overwhelmed us almost in despare. Resolution being by the amazed Maister demaunded, of every man what was best to doe, some replyed one way, and some [55]another: Insomuch, that the most part of the passengers gave counsell, rather to render, then fight; being confident, their friends would pay their ransome, and so relieve them. But I the wandring Pilgrime, pondering in my pensive breast, my solitary estate, the distance of my Country and friends, could conceive no hope of deliverance. Upon the which troublesome and fearefull appearance of slavery, A counsell to fight.I absolutely arose, and spoke to the Maister, saying: The halfe of the Carmosalo is your owne, and the most part also of the loading (all which he had told me before:) wherefore my counsell is, that you prepare your selfe to fight, and goe encourage your passengers, promise to your Mariners double wages, make ready your two peeces of [II. 61.]Ordonance, your Muskets, Powder, Lead and halfe-Pikes: for who knoweth, but the Lord may deliver us from the thraldome of these Infidels, My exhortation ended, he was greatly animated therewith, and gave me thankes; whereupon, assembling the passengers and Mariners, he gave good comfort, and large promises to them all: So that their affrighted hopes were converted to a couragious resolution; seeming rather to give the first assault, then to receive the second wrong.

To performe the plots of our defence, every man was busie in the worke, some below in the Gunner-roome, others cleansing the Muskets, some preparing the powder and balles, some their Swords, and short weapons, some dressing the halfe-pikes, & others making fast the doores above: for so the Maister resolved to make combate below, both to save us from small shot, and besides for boording us on a sudden. The dexterous courage of all men was so forward to defend their lives and liberty, that truely in mine opinion we seemed thrice as many as we were. All things below and above being cunningly perfected, and every one ranked in order with his Harquebuse and pike, to stand on the Centinell of his owne defence, we recommended our selves in the hands of the Almighty: and in the meane while attended their fiery salutations. [56]

In a furious spleene, the first Hola of their courtesies, was the progresse of a martiall conflict, thundring forth a terrible noise of Galley-roaring peeces. And we in a sad reply, sent out a backe-sounding eccho of fiery flying shots: which made an æquivox to the clouds, rebounding backward in our perturbed breasts, the ambiguous sounds of feare and hope. After a long and doubtfull fight, both with great and small shot (night parting us) the Turkes [II. 62.]retired till morning, and then were mindfull to give us the new rancounter of a second alarum. But as it pleased him, who never faileth his, to send downe an unresistable tempest; about the breake of day we escaped their furious designes; and were enforced to seeke into the bay of Largostolo in Cephalonia; both because of the violent weather, and also for that a great lake was stricken into our Ship. In this fight there were of us killed three Italians, two Greekes, and two Jewes, with eleven others deadly wounded, and I also hurt in the right arme with A notable deliverance.a small shot. But what harme was done by us amongst the Infidels, we were not assured thereof, save onely this, we shot away their middle mast, and the hinder part of the puppe; for the Greekes are not expert Gunners, neither could our Harquebusadoes much annoy them, in respect they never boorded. But howsoever it was, being all disbarked on shoare, we gave thanks to the Lord for our unexpected safety, and buried the dead Christians in a Greekish Church-yard, and the Jewes were interred by the sea side.

This bay of Largastolo is two miles in length, being invironed with two little Mountaines; upon the one of these two, standeth a strong Fortresse, which defendeth the passage of the narrow Gulfe. It was here that the Christian Gallies assembled, in the yeare 1571. when they came to abate the rage of the great Turks Armado; which at that time lay in Peterasso, in the firme land of Greece, and right opposite to them; and had made conquest the yeare before, of noble Cyprus from the Venetians.

The Ile of Cephalonia was formerly called Ithaca, and [57]greatly renowned, because it was the heretable Kingdome of the worthy Ulysses, who excelled all other Greekes in Eloquence and subtility of wit. Secondly, by Strabo it was named Dulichi: And thirdly, by auncient Authors [II. 63.]Cephalonia of old Ithaca.Cephalonia, of Cephalo, who was Captaine of the Army of Cleobas Anfrittion. The which Anfrittion, a Theban Captaine having conquered the Iland, and slaine in battell Pterelaus King of Teleboas, for so then was the Iland called, gave it in a gift of government to Cephalo. This Cephalo was a Noble man of Athens, who being one day at hunting killed his owne wife Procris, with an arrow in steed of his prey, whereupon he flying to Amphitrion, and the other pittying his case, resigned this Islle to him, of whom it taketh the denomination: Cephalonia lyeth in the mouth of the Gulfe Lepanto, opposite to a part of Ætolia and Acarnania in the firme land: It is in circuit 156. and in length 48. miles.

The land it selfe is full of Mountaines, yet exceeding fertile, yeelding Malvasia, Muskadine, vino Leatico, Raysins, Olives, Figges, Honey, Sweet-water, Pine, Mol-berry, Date, and Cypre-trees, and all other sorts of fruites in abundance. The commodity of which redounds yearely to the Venetians, for they are Signiors thereof.

Leaving this weather-beaten Carmoesalo, layd up to a full sea, I tooke purpose to travell through the Iland; in the first dayes journey, I past by many fine Villages and pleasant fields, especially the vaile Alessandro; where the Greekes told me, their Ancestors were vanquished in battell by the Macedonian Conquerour. They also shewed me on the top of Mount Gargasso, the ruines of that Temple, which had beene of old dedicate to Jupiter: and upon the second day I hired two Fisher-men in a little Boat, to carry me over to Zante, being twenty five miles distant.

Here in Zante a Greekish Chyrurgion undertooke the curing of my arme, & performed condition within time.

[II. 64.]Zante.The Ile of Zante was called Zacinthus, because so was called the sonne of Dardanus, who reigned there. And [58]by some Hyria. It hath a Citty of a great length, bordering along the sea side, the chiefe seate of the Ile, & named Zante, over the doore of whose Prætorium or Judgement Hall, are inscribed these verses,

Hic locus, odit, amat, punit, conservat, honorat,

Nequitiam, pacem, crimina, jura, probos.

This place, hates, loves, chastens, conserves, rewards,

Vice, peace, fellony, lawes, vertuous regards.

And on the top of a Hill, above the towne, standeth a large, and strong Fortresse (not unlike the Castle of Milaine) wherein the Providitore dwelleth, who governeth the Iland. This Citty is subject yearely to fearefull Earthquakes, especially in the moneths of October and November, which oftentimes subvert their houses, and themselves, bringing deadly destruction on all. This Ile produceth good store of Rasini di Corintho, commonly called Currants, Olives, Pomgranates, Cytrones, Orenges, Lemmons, Grenadiers, and Mellones, and is in compasse 68. miles, being distant from the fore Promontore of Morea some 16. miles.

The Ilanders are Greekes, a kind of subtile people, and great dissemblers; but the Signiory thereof belongeth to Venice. And if it were not for that great provision of corne, which are dayly transported from the firme land of Peleponesus to them, the Inhabitants in short time would famish.

It was credibly told me here by the better sort, that this little Ile maketh yearely (besides Oyle and Wine) onely of Currants 160000. Chickins, paying yearely over and above for custome 22000. Piasters, every Chicken [II. 65.]of Gold being nine shillings English, and every Piaster being white money sixe shillings. A rent or summe of mony which these silly Ilanders could never affoord, (they being not above 60. yeares agoe, but a base beggarly people, and an obscure place) if it were not here in England of late for some Liquorous lips, who forsooth can hardly [59]digest Bread, Pasties, Broth; and (verbi gratia) bag-puddings without these curraunts: And as these Rascall Greekes becomming proud of late with this levish expence, contemne justly this sensuall prodigality; I have heard them often demaund the English in a filthy derision, what they did with such Leprous stuffe, and if they carried them home to feed their Swine and Hogges withall: A question indeed worthy of such a female Traffike, the inference of which I suspend: There is no other Nation save this, thus addicted to that miserable Ile.

Bidding farewell to Zante, I imbarked in a Frigato, going to Peterasso in Morea, which of old was called Peloponesus: And by the way in the Gulfe Lepanto (which divideth Etolia and Morea. The chiefest Citty in Etolia is called Lepanto: from thence West-ward by the sea side, is Delphos, famous for the Oracle of Apollo) we sayled by the Iles Echinidi, but by Moderne Writers, Curzolari: where the Christians obtained the victory against the Turkes, for there did they fight, after this manner.

Christian Generalls.In the yeare 1571. and the sixth of October, Don John of Austria, Generall for the Spanish Gallies, Marco Antonio Colonna, for Pope Pio Quinto; and Sebastiano Venieco for the Venetian Army, convened altogether in Largostolo at Cephalonia: having of all 208. Gallies, sixe Galleasses, and 25. Frigotes.

After a most resolute deliberation, these three Generals went with a valiant courage to incounter with the Turkish [II. 66.]Armado, on the Sunday morning, the seventh of October: who in the end, through the helpe of Christ, obtained a The battell of Lepanto.glorious victory. In that fight there was taken and drowned 180. of Turkish Gallies; and there escaped about the number of sixe hundred and fifty shippes, Gallies, Galeotes, and other vessels: There was fifteene thousand Turkes killed and foure thousand taken prisoners, besides 4000. peeces of Ordonance, and twelve thousand Christians delivered from their slavish bondage. In all, the Christians loosed but eleven Gallies, and five thousand [60]slaine. At their returne to Largostolo, after this victorious battell, the three Generals divided innumerable spoyles, to their well-deserving Captaines, and worthy Souldiers.

And notwithstanding Don John led that Armado, yet ambition led him, who in the midst of that famous victory, conceaved a treacherous designe, to seaze upon the castles of Corfu, under shew of the Venetian colors, which being discoverd, and he disappointed, died for displeasure in his returne to Messina in Sicilia; where there his Statue standeth to this day.

After my arrivall in Peterasso, the Metropolitan of Peloponesus, I left the turmoyling dangers of the intricated Iles, of the Ionean and Adriaticall seas, and advised to travell in the firme land of Greece, with a Caravan of Greekes that was bound for Athens.

Peterasso is a large and spacious City, full of Merchandize, and greatly beautified with all kind of Commercers, Their chiefe commodities, are raw Silkes, Cloth of gold and silver, Silken-growgranes, Rich-damas, Velvets of all kinds, with Sattins and Taffeties, and especially a Girnell for grayne: The Venetians, Ragusans, and Marseillians have great handling with them: Here I remember there was an English Factor lying, whom the Subbassa [II. 67.]or Governour of the Towne a Turke, caused privately afterward upon malice to be poysoned, even when I was wintering at Constantinople, for whose death the worthy and generous Ambassadour, Sir Thomas Glover my Patrone and Protector, was so highly incensed, that he went hither himselfe to Peterasso, with two Jannizaries, and a warrant sent with him from the Emperour, who in the midst of the market-place of Peterasso, caused one of these two Janizaries, strike off the head from the shoulders of that Sanzack; and put to death divers others also that had beene accessary to the poysoning of the English Consul; and the Ambassadour returning againe to Constantinople, was held in singular reputation even with the Turkes, for prosecuting so powerfully the course [61]of Justice, and would not shrinke for no respect, I being domestick with him the selfe same time.

Morea in Greece.Peloponnesus now called Morea, a Peninsula, is all invironed with the sea, save onely at a narrow strait, where it is tied to the continent by an Istmus of five miles in breadth: which the Venetians then Lord of it, fortified with five Castles, and a strong wall from creeke to creeke, which easily were subverted by the Turkish batteries, the defect onely remaining in the defendants weaknesse, and want of men: Corinth and its gulfe, lyeth at the East end of this Istmus, and the gulfe Lepanto on the West, dividing Ætolia and Epyre: The wall which traversed this strait of Morea, was called Hexamite, five miles long: Truely it is one of the most famous distroit du terre en Europe. Morea it selfe is in length 168. and in compasse 546. miles, and is at this day, the most fertile, and best inhabited Province of all the Empyre of Greece: The chiefe Rivers here, are Arbona and Ropheos: Argos here also is watered with the River Planizza, neare which [II. 68.]standeth the Towne of Epidaure, wherein the Temple of Esculapius was so renowned for restoring of health to diseased persons. It was anciently cognominate Agalia from Agalius the first King, Anno Mundi 1574. and also intituled from two Kings Sicionia, and Apia, then Peloponesus from Pelops, and now Moreah. It is divided in five territories or petty Provinces, Laconia, Arcadia, Argolis, Misenia, and Eliso, the proper territory of Corinth. Of which City it was sayd,

Hor. Let men take heed of Lais, Corinths whoore,

Who earn’d ten thousand Drachmas in an houre.

It is sayd by Æneas Silvius in his Cosmographicall treatise of Europe that divers Kings went about to digge The strait of Morea.through this Istmus to make it an Iland, namely King Demetrius, Julius Cæsar, Caius Caligula, and Domitius Nero: Of all whome he doth note that they not onely failed of their purpose, but that they came to violent and unnaturall deaths. [62]

But before the aforesayd Caravan at Peterasso admitted me into his company, he was wonderfull inquisitive, to know for what cause I travelled alone? & of what Nation I was? To whom I soberly excused, and discovered my selfe with modest answers. Which pacified his curiosity; but not his avaritious minde: for under a pretended protection he had of me, he extorted the most part of my money from my purse, without any regard of conscience.

In the first, second, and third dayes journeying, we had faire way, hard lodging, but good cheere, and kind entertainement for our money, which was the Countrey Laconia. But on the fourth day, when we entred in the hilly and barren Countrey of Arcadia; where, for a dayes journey we had no Village, but saw abundance of Cattell [II. 69.]without keepers; and in that place it is thought the great battell of Pharsalia was fought betweene Julius Cæsar, and Pompey the great.

Arcadia.Arcadia is bounded on the East with Eliso, on the West with Misenia, on the North with Achaia inferiour, and on the South with a part of Laconia and the sea: It was formerly termed Pelasgia, and lastly it tooke the name from Arcas the sonne of Jupiter and Calisto, the people whereof, did long imagine they were more auncient then the Moone;

This soyle of whom Arcas great patrone was,

In age the Moone excell’d, in wit the Asse.

But because it is a tradition of more antiquity then credit, I doe rather note it, then affirme it: And as men should dread the thunder-bolt, when they see the lightning, so ignorance and idolatry placed amongst us, and round about us, may be a warning to the professours of the trueth, to take heed of the venome, least by their Arcadian antiquitie surpassing the Moone, they become novices to some new intended massacre, for as powder faild them, but alas, not poison! so now with policy they prevaile in all things: how long the holy one of Israell knoweth, but [63]certainely, our sinnes are the causes of their domineering and of our carelesse drouping.

In this Desart way, I beheld many singular Monuments, and ruinous Castles, whose names I knew not, because I had an ignorant guide: But this I remember, amongst these rockes my belly was pinched, and wearied was my body, with the climbing of fastidious mountaines, which bred no small griefe to my breast. Yet notwithstanding of my distresse, the rememberance of these sweet seasoned Songs of Arcadian Sheepheards which pregnant Poets have so well penned, did recreate my fatigated corps with [II. 70.]many sugred suppositions. These sterile bounds being past, we entred in the Easterne plaine of Morea, called aunciently Sparta, where that sometimes famous Citty of Lacedemon flourished, but now sacked, and the lumpes of ruines and memory onely remaines. Marching thus, we left Modena and Napoli on our right hand, toward the sea side, and on the sixt day at night, we pitched our tents in the disinhabited villages of Argo and Micene, from the which unhappy Helen was ravished.

The rapt of Helen.This cursed custome of base prostitution, is become so frequent, that the greater sort of her mercenary sexe, following her footsteps, have out-gone her in their loathsom journeies of Libidinous wayes: she being of such an infinite and voluptuous crew, the arch mistresse and ring-leader to destruction, did invite my Muse to inveigh against her lascivious immodesty, as the inordinate patterne of all willing and licentious rapts:

I would thy beauty (fairest of all Dames)

Had never caus’d the jealous Greekes to move

Thy eyes from Greece, to Ilion cast flames,

And burnt that Trojan, with adulterate love:

He captive like, thy mercy came to prove

And thou divorc’d, was ravish’d with a toy:

He swore faire Helen was his dearest dove

And thou a Paris swore for to enjoy:

Mourne may the ghosts, of sometimes stately Troy. [64]

And curse that day, thou saw the Phirigian coast:

Thy lecherous lust, did Priams pride destroy,

And many thousands, for thy sake were lost.

Was’t nature, fortune, fancy, beauty, birth,

That cros’d thee so, to be a crosse on earth.

Some of thy sexe, baptiz’d with thy curst name,

Crown’d with thy fate, are partners in thy shame.

[II. 71.]Helens are snakes, which breeds their lovers paine,

The maps of malice, murther and disdaine:

Helens are gulfes, whence streames of blood do flow

Rapine, deceit, treason, and overthrow:

Helens are whoores, whiles in a Virgin Maske,

They sucke from Pluto sterne Proserpines taske:

Curst be thou Hell, for hellish Helens sakes,

Still crost and curst, be they, that trust such snakes.

Here in Argos I had the ground to be a pillow, and the world-wide-fields to be a chamber, the whirling windy-skies, to be a roofe to my Winter-blasted lodging, and the humide vapours of cold Nocturna, to accompany the unwished-for-bed of my repose. What shall I say then, the solid, and sad man, is not troubled with the floods and ebbes of Fortune, the ill imployed power of greatnesse, nor the fluctuary motions of the humerous multitude; or at least, if he be sensible of his owne, or their irregularities, or confusions, yet his thoughts are not written in his face, his countenance is not significant, nor his miseries further seene than in his owne private suffering; whereas the face and disposition of the feeble one, ever resembleth his last thoughts, and upon every touch, or taste of that which is displeasant and followes not the streames of his appetite, his countenance deformeth it selfe, and like the Moone, is in as many changes as his fortune, but the noble resolution must follow Æneas advice in all his adventures;

Per varios casus, per tot discrimina rerum,

Tendimus in latium, &c.


By diverse wayes, and dangers great we mind,

To visit Latium, and Latinus kind.

In all this countrey of Greece I could finde nothing, [II. 72.]to answer the famous relations, given by auncient Authors, of the excellency of that land, but the name onely; the barbarousnesse of Turkes and Time, having defaced all the Monuments of Antiquity: No shew or honour, no habitation of men in an honest fashion, nor possessours of the Countrey in a Principality. But rather prisoners shut up in prisons, or addicted slaves to cruell and tyrannicall Maisters: So deformed is the state of that once worthy Realme, and so miserable is the burthen of that afflicted people: which, and the apparance of that permanency, grieved my heart to behold the sinister working of blind Fortune, which alwayes plungeth the most renowned Champions, and their memory, in the profoundest pit of all extremities and oblivion.

Greeke Champions.Let the Ghosts of that Theban Epaminondas, that Mirmidonian Phillip, & these Epirean worthies, Pyrhus and Scanderberg, be witnesses hereto; but especially, that Macedonian Alexander, whose fortunes ever followed him, rather than fled him til his last dissolution; wherein I may say his greatnesse rose; Like to a mighty and huge Oke, being cled with the exuvials, and Trophees of enemies fenced with an army of boughes garnished with a coat of barke as hard as Steele; despising the force and power of the Winds, as being onely able to dally with the leaves, and not to weaken the roote: But the Northerne wind, that strong Champion of the airy Region, secretly lurking in the vault of some hollow cloude, doth first murmure at this aspiring Oke, and then striketh his Crest with some greater strength; and lastly, with the deepest breath of his Lungs, doth blow up the roote: Even so was it with Alexander, who from a stripling came to be a Cedar, and from the sorrow of no more worlds, was soone cut off from the world he was into: For destiny [II. 73.]is no mans drudge, and death is every mans conquerour, [66]matching the Scepter, with the Spade, and the crowned Prince with the praislesse Peasant: And in a word, there was never any to whom fortune did sooner approach, nor never any from whom she did more suddenly flee, then from Alexander, leaving him a cleare mirrour of the worlds inconstancy.

Now as concerning the government of Greece, tearmd by the Turkes, Rum Ili, that is, the Romane Country: The Beglerbeg of Greece.It is ruled by a Beglerbeg, or Bassa, this word Beglerbeg imports, Lord of Lords, in regard of the Sanzacks, or Subbassaes under them, who also are tearmed Lords; which is a barbarous pride in an ambitious style: This Beglerbeg of Greece, retaineth his residence at Sophia the Metropole of Bulgaria, formerly Dacia, and is the greatest Commaunder of all other Bassaes in the Turkish Provinces of Europe.

All other Beglerbegs are changed every third yeare, or continued according to the Imperiall pleasure, neither may they returne from their station during this time. But this Bassa of Greece, keepeth his government for his life-time, and remaineth most at Court: He reserveth under his commaund, fourty thousand Timariots or Horsemen; led under the conduct of twenty two Sanzacks, or Judges deputies of Jurisdictions; to wit, two in Albania, at the Townes Iscodera, and Ancolina: two in Achaia, at Delvina, and Albassan: three in Thessalia, at Priasim, Salonica, and Trichola: two in Sparta, at Misietra and Paleopatra: three in Macedonia, at Carmona, Selistria, and Giastandila: one in Moldavia, at Acheranma: in Bulgaria, one at Sophia: in Thracia, one at Viazza: in [II. 74.]Epyre, one at Ducagina: in Ætolia, one at Joanina: in Peleponesus, one at Peterasso: the rest are Usopia, Nycopolis, Corinth, and Bandera towards the black-sea, and to the Northward of Danubio, at his kissing the Euxine waves: This much for the Beglerbeg ship of Greece, and the Provinces thereunto adjoyning.

Departing from Argos, upon the seventh day we arrived at Athens.Athens: Athens is still inhabited, standing in the East [67]part of Peloponnesus, neere to the frontiers of Macedon, or Thessaly by the Sea side. It was first called Cecropia: Of one Cecrops the first King thereof, who first founded it, Anno Mundi, 2409. it was after mightily inlarged by Theseus, and well provided with good lawes by Solon, and lastly Athens of Minerva: In whose honour for a long time were celebrate solemne playes, called Panathanaia: Athens is now termed Salenos, and was once the shrill sounding Trumpet of Mars, yeelding more valiant Captaines and Commanders then any City in the World, Rome excepted: It was a custome here, that when any man was growne too wealthy or potent, he was banished thence for ten yeares: This exile was intituled Ostracisme, because his name who was abandoned was written in an Oyster-shell: Great combustions and mutinies have happened betweene Lacedemon, and Athens; at last it was sacked by Lysander, and her Virgin body prostituted to the lust of 30. insulting Tyrants; not long after whose expulsion, it was utterly subdued by the Macedonians.

And in a word Athens being stayned with intestine blood-sheds, and grievously discontented with the death of her children; her babes were brought forth, for the sword to glut upon, the bodies of her auncients were made as Pavements to walke upon, her matrones became a prey and prise to every Ravisher, and her Priests and [II. 75.]Sacrificers were slaine before the gates of their Temples.

This City was the Mother & Well-spring of all liberall Arts and Sciences; and the great Cisterne of Europe, whence flowed so many Conduit pipes of learning all where, but now altogether decayed: The circuit of old Athens hath beene according to the fundamentall walles yet extant about sixe Italian miles, but now of no great quantity, nor many dwelling houses therein; being within two hundreth fire houses, having a Castle which formerly was the Temple of Minerva. They have abundance of all things, requisite for the sustenance of humane life, of which I had no small proofe: For these Athenians or Greekes, exceeding kindly banqueted me foure dayes, and [68]furnish’t me with necessary provision for my voyage to Creta. And also transported me by sea in a Brigandine freely, and on their owne charges to Serigo, being 44. miles distant.

After my redounded thankes, they having returned, the contemplation on their courtesies, brought me in rememberance, how curious the old Athenians were to heare of forraine newes, & with what great regard & estimation they honoured travellers, of which as yet, they are no wayes defective.

Serigo.Serigo is an Iland in the sea Cretico: It was aunciently called Cytherea, of Cithero the sonne of Phænise: And of Aristotle Porphyris, or Schotera, in respect of the fine Marble that is got there: It is of circuit threescore miles having but one Castle called Capsallo, which is kept by a Venetian Captaine: here it is sayd that Venus did first inhabit, and I saw the ruines of her demolished Temple, on the side of a mountaine yet extant.

A little more downeward below this old adored Temple [II. 76.]of Venus, are the relickes of that Palace, wherein Menalaus did dwell, who was King of Sparta, and Lord of this Ile. The Greekes of the Ile told me there were wild Asses there, who had a stone in their heads, which was a soveraigne remedy for the Falling sicknesse, and good to make a woman be quickly delivered of her birth. I made afterward deeper enquiry for it, to have either seene or bought it, but for my life I could never attaine to any perfect knowledge thereof.

In the time of my abode, at the Village of Capsalo (being a haven for small barkes, and situate below the Castle) the Captaine of that same Fortresse A Priest slaine in a Bordell.kild a Seminary Priest, whom he had found in the night with his whoore in a Brothel-house: for the which sacrilegious murther, the Governour of the Ile deposed the Captaine, and banished him, causing a boate to be prepared to send him to Creta. O! if all the Priests which doe commit incest, adultery, and fornication (yea, and worse, Il peccato carnale contra natura) were thus handled and severely rewarded; [69]what a sea of Sodomiticall irreligious blood would overflow the halfe of Europe, to staine the spotted colour of that Romane Beast. Truely, and yet more, these lascivious Friars are the very Epicures, or off-scourings of the earth; for how oft have I heard them say one to another? Allegre, allegre, mio caro fratello, chi ben mangia, ben beve, &c. That is, Be cheerefull, be cheerefull, deare brother, he that eateth well, drinketh well, he that drinketh well, sleepeth well, he that sleepeth well, sinneth not, and he that sinneth not, goeth straight through Purgatory to Paradize. This is all the care of their living, making their tongues to utter what their hearts do thus prophanely thinke, Ede, bibe, dormi, post mortem nulla voluptas, and as it is well observed of this monachall and licentious life:

[II. 77.]Non male sunt Monachis, grato indita nomina patrum,

Cum numerent natos, hic & ubique suos.

Injustly, no! Monkes be cal’d Fathers, Why?

Their bastards swarme, as thicke, as Starres in Sky.

In the aforesayd boat I also imbarked with the Captaine, and sailed by the little Isoletta of Serigota: Leaving Capo di Spada on our left hand, we arrived at Carabusa with extreme fortune, being fiercely persued by three Turkish Galleots. Betweene Serigo and Carabusa we had seven score and twelve miles of dangerous and combustious seas. [70]



Now Creta comes, the Mediterren Queene,

To my sought view, where golden Ida’s seene:

Cut with the Labrinth of th’ old Minatoure,

Thence tracd I all, the Syclads fifty foure:

With Nigropont and Thessaly amaine,

Macedon, Pernassus, the Achaian plaine;

Tenedos and Troy, long Phrigia sixt,

Sestos, Abidos, Adrianopole vext;

Colchis, falne Thebes, Hellespont, and more,

Constantinople, earths best soveraigne glore:

The Euxine sea, and Pompeys pillar prest,

In Peru then, Ile take my Winters rest.

The Ile of Candy formerly called Creta, hath to the North the Ægean sea, to the West the sea Ionian; to the South the Libique sea, and to the East, the Carpathian sea: It lieth midway twixt Achaia [III. 78.]in Greece and Cyrene in Affrick, not being distant from the one, nor from the other, above two dayes sayling: It is a most famous and auncient Kingdome: By moderne Writers, it is called Queene of The antiquity of Candy.the Iles Mediterrene: It had of olde an hundreth Citties, whereof it had the name Hecatompolis, but now onely foure, Candia, Canea, Rethimos, and Scythia, the rest are but Villages and Bourges. It is of length, to wit, from Capo Ermico in the West, called by Pliny, Frons arietis, and Capo Salomone in the East, two hundreth and forty [71]Miles, large threescore, and of circuit sixe hundreth and fifty miles.

This is the chiefe Dominion, belonging to the Venetian Reipublique: In every one of these foure Citties, there is a Governour, and two Counsellors, sent from Venice every two yeares. The Countrey is divided into foure parts, under the jurisdiction of the foure Citties, for the better administration of Justice: and they have a Generall, who commonly remaineth in the Citty of Candy (like to a Viceroy) who deposeth, or imposeth Magistrates, Captaines, Souldiers, Officers, and others whatsoever, in the behalfe of Saint Marke or Duke of Venice. The Venetians detaine continually a strong guard, divided in Companies, Squadrons, and Garrisons, in the Citties and Fortresses of the Iland: which do extend to the number of 12000. Souldiers, kept, not onely for the incursion of Turks, but also for feare of the Creets or Inhabitants, who would rather (if they could) render to the Turke, then to live under the subjection of Venice, thinking thereby to have more liberty, & lesse taxed under the Infidell, then now they are under the Christian.

This Ile produceth the best Malvasy, Muscadine and Leaticke wines, that are in the whole Universe. It yeeldeth Orenges, Lemmons, Mellons, Cytrons, Grenadiers, [III. 79.]Adams Apples, Raisins, Olives, Dates, Hony, Sugar, Vua di tre volte, and all other kindes of fruite in abundance. But the most part of the Cornes are brought yearely from Archipelago and Greece. The Rivers of Candy.The chiefe Rivers are Cataracho, Melipotomos, Escasino; being all of them shallow and discommodious for shipping, in respect of their short courses, and rocky passages: And the principall Citties of olde, were Gnassus, where Minos kept his Court, 2. Cortina, 3. Aphra and Cydonia. This Countrey was by Marcellus made subject to the Romanes: It was afterward given by Baldwin Earle of Flanders, the first Latin Emperor of Constantinople to Boniface of Montserrat, who sold it, Anno 1194. to the Venetians.

This much of the Ile in generall; and now in respect [72]of my travelling two times through the bounds of the whole Kingdome, which was never before atchieved by any Traveller in Christendome; I will as briefly as I can in particular, relate a few of these miseries indured by me in this Land, with the nature & quality of the people.

This aforesaid Carabusa, is the principall Fortresse of Creta, being of it selfe invincible, and is not unlike to the Castle of Dunbertan, which standeth at the mouth of Clyd; upon which River The old and famous City of Lanerke.the auncient City of Lanerke is situated: For this Fort is environed with a Rocke higher then the wals, and joyneth close with Capo Ermico: having learned of the theevish way I had to Canea, I advised to put my mony in exchange, which the Captaine of that strength very curteously performed; and would also have diswaded me from my purpose, but I by no perswasion of him would stay. From thence departing, all alone, scarcely was I advanced twelve miles in my way, when I was beset on the skirt of a Rocky Mountaine; with three Greeke murdering Renegadoes, and an Italian [III. 80.]Bandido: who laying hands on me, beate me most cruelly, robbed me of all my clothes, and stripped me naked, threatning me with many grievous speeches.

At last the respective Italian, perceiving I was a stranger, and could not speake the Cretan tongue, began to aske me in his owne language, where was my money? to whom I soberly answered, I had no more then he saw, which was fourescore Bagantines: which scarcely amounted to two groats English: But he not giving credit to these words, searched all my clothes and Budgeto, yet found nothing except my linnen, and Letters of recommendations I had from divers Princes of Christendome, especially the Duke of Venice, whose subjects they were, if they had beene lawfull subjects: Which when he saw, did move him to compassion, and earnestly entreated the other three theeves to grant me mercy, and to save my life: A happy deliverance.A long deliberation being ended, they restored backe againe my Pilgrimes clothes, and Letters, but my blew gowne and Bagantines they kept: Such also was their [73]theevish courtesie toward me, that for my better safegard in the way, they gave me a stamped piece of clay, as a token to shew any of their companions, if I encountred with any of them; for they were about twenty Rascalles of a confederate band, that lay in this desart passage.

Leaving them with many counterfeit thankes, I travelled that day seaven and thirty miles, and at night attained to the unhappy Village of Pickehorno: where I could have neither meate, drinke, lodging, nor any refreshment to my wearied body. These desperate Candiots thronged about me, gazing (as though astonished) to see me both want company, and their Language, and by their cruell [III. 81.]lookes, they seemed to be a barbarous and uncivill people: Cruell Candiots.For all these High-landers of Candy, are tyrannicall, blood-thirsty, and deceitfull. The consideration of which and the appearance of my death, signed to me secretly by a pittifull woman, made me to shun their villany in stealing forth from them in the darke night, and privately sought for a secure place of repose in a umbragious Cave by the Sea side, where I lay till morning with a fearefull heart, a crased body, a thirstie stomacke, and a hungry belly.

Upon the appearing of the next Aurora, and when the welkin, had put aside the vizard of the night, the Starres being coverd, and the earth discoverd by the Sunne; I imbraced my unknowne way, and about midday came to Canea: Invinceable Canea.Canea is the second Citie of Creete, called aunciently Cydon, being exceeding populous, well walled, and fortified with Bulwarkes: It hath a large Castle, containing ninety seaven Pallaces, in which the Rector and other Venetian Gentlemen dwell. There lye continually in it seaven Companies of Souldiers who keepe Centinell on the walles, guarde the gates and Market places of the Citie: Neither in this Towne nor Candia, may any Countrey Peasant enter with weapons (especially Harquebuzes) for that conceived feare they have of Treason. Truely this City may equall in strength, either Zara in Dalmatia, or Luka, or Ligorne, both in Tuscana, or matchlesse Palma in Friuly: for these five Cities are so [74]strong, that in all my Travells I never saw them matched. They are all well provided with abundance of Artilery, and all necessary things for their defence, especially Luka, which continually reserves in store provision of victuals for twelve yeares siege.

In my first abode in Canea, being a fortnight, there came 6. Gallies from Venice, upon one of which there [III. 82.]was a young French Gentleman, a Protestant, borne neare Monpeillier in Langadocke; who being by chance in company with other foure of his Countrey-men in Venice, one of them killed a young Noble Venetian, about the quarrell of a Courtezan: Whereupon they flying to the French Ambassadours house, the rest escaped, and he onely apprehended by a fall in his flight, was afterward condemned by the Senatours to the Galleys induring life. Now the Galleys lying here sixe dayes, he got leave of the Captaine to come a shoare with a Keeper, when he would, carrying an yron bolt on his legge: In which time we falling in acquaintance, he complained heavily of his hard fortune, and how because he was a Protestant, (besides his slavery) he was severely abused in the Galley; A Religious comfort.sighing forth these words with teares, Lord have mercy upon me, and graunt me patience, for neither friends, nor money can redeeme me: At which expression I was both glad and sorrowfull, the one moving my soule to exult in joy for his Religion: the other, for his misfortunes, working a Christian condolement for intolerable affliction: For I was in Venice, at that same time when this accident fell out, yet would not tell him so much: But pondering seriously his lamentable distresse, I secretly advised him the manner how he might escape, and how farre I would hazard the liberty of my life for his deliverance, desiring him to come a shoare earely the next morning. Meane while I went to an old Greekish woman, with whom I was friendly inward, for she was my Landresse; and reciting to her the whole businesse, she willingly condiscended to lend me an old gowne, and a blacke vaile for his disguisement. The time come, and [75]we met, the matter was difficult to shake off the Keeper; but such was my plot, I did invite him to the Wine, where [III. 83.]after tractall discourses, and deepe draughts of Leatick, reason failing, sleepe overcame his sences. Whereupon conducting my friend to the appointed place, I disburdened him of his Irons, clothed him in a female habite, and sent him out before me, conducted by the Greekish woman: And when securely past both Guards and Gate, I followed, carrying with me his clothes: where, when accoasting him by a field of Olives, and the other returned backe, we speedily crossed the vale of Suda, and interchanging his apparrell, I directed him the way over A place of refuge.the Mountaines to a Greekish convent on the South side of the land, a place of safeguard, called commonly the Monastery of refuge; where he would kindly be entertained, till either the Galleys, or men of Warre of Malta arrived: It being a custome at their going, or comming from the Levante to touch here, to relieve and carry away distressed men: This is a place whereunto Bandits, men slayers, and robbers repaire for reliefe.

And now many joyfull thanks from him redounded, I returned keeping the high way, where incontinent I encountred two English Souldiers, John Smith, and Thomas Hargrave, comming of purpose to informe me of an eminent danger, shewing me that all the Officers of the Galleys, with a number of Souldiers were in searching the City, and hunting all over the fields for me: After which relation, consulting with them, what way I could come to the Italian Monastery Saint Salvator, for there I lay; (the vulgar Towne affording neither lodging nor beds). They answered me, they would venture their lives for my liberty, and I should enter at the Easterne (the least frequented) gate of the City, where three other English men were that day on guard, for so there were five of them here in Garison: Where, when we came, [III. 84.]the other English accompanied with eight French souldiers their familiars, came along with us also: And having past the Market place, and neere my lodging, foure [76]Officers and sixe Galley souldiers, runne to lay hands on me: whereat the English and French unsheathing their Swords, valiantly resisted their fury, and deadly wounded two of the Officers: Meane while fresh supply comming from the Galleys, John Smith runne along with me to the Monastery, leaving the rest at pell mell, to intercept their following: At last the Captaines of the Garrison approaching the tumult, relieved their owne Souldiers, and drove backe the other to the Galleys. A little thereafter the Generall of the Galleys come to the Monastery, and examined me concerning the fugitive, but I cleering my selfe so, and quenching the least suspition he might conceive (notwithstanding of mine accusers) hee could lay nothing to my charge: howsoever it was, he seemed somewhat favourable; partly, because I had the Duke of Venice his Pasport, partly, because of mine intended voyage to Jerusalem; partly, because he was a great favourer of the French Nation: and partly because he could not mend himselfe, in regard of my shelter, and the Governours favour: yet neverthelesse, I detained my selfe under Cloysters are safeguards.safeguard of the Cloyster, untill the Galleys were gone.

Being here disappointed of transportation to Archipelago, I advised to visit Candy: and in my way I past by the large Haven of Suda, which hath no Towne or Village, save onely a Castle, situated on a Rocke in the Sea, at the entry of the Bay: the bounds of that Harbour may receive at one time above two thousand Shippes and Galleys, and is the onely Key of the Iland: for the which place, the King of Spaine hath oft offered an infinite deale of money to the Venetians, whereby his Navy [III. 85.]which sometimes resort in the Levante, might have accesse and reliefe; but they would never graunt him his request; which policy of his was onely to have surprized the Kingdome.

South-west from this famous harbour, lieth a pleasant plaine surnamed The pleasant valley of Suda.the Valley of Suda: It is twenty Italian Miles long, and two of breadth: And I remember, or [77]I discended to crosse the Valley, and passe the haven, me thought the whole planure resembled to me a greene sea; and that was onely by reason of infinite Olive trees grew there, whose boughes and leaves over-toppe all other fructiferous trees in that plaine: The Villages for losse of ground are all built on the skirts of Rockes, upon the South side of the Valley; yea, and so difficile to climbe them, and so dangerous to dwell in them, that me thought their lives were in like perill, as he who was adjoyned to sit under the poynt of a two handed sword, and it hanging by the haire of a horse tayle.

Trust me, I told along these Rockes at one time, and within my sight, some 67. Villages; but when I entred the valley, I could not find a foote of ground unmanured, save a narrow passing way wherein I was: The Olives, Pomgranets, Dates, Figges, Orenges, Lemmons, and Pomi del Adamo growing all through other: And at the rootes of which trees grew Wheate, Malvasie, Muscadine, Leaticke Wines, Grenadiers, Carnobiers, Mellones, and all other sorts of fruites and hearbes, the earth can yeeld to man; that for beauty, pleasure, and profit it may easily be surnamed, the garden of the whole Universe: being the goodliest plot, the Diamond sparke, and the Honny spot of all Candy: There is no land more temperate for ayre, for it hath a double spring-tyde; no soyle more [III. 86.]fertile, and therefore it is called the Combat of Bachus and Ceres; nor region or valley more hospitable, in regard of the sea, having such a noble haven cut through its bosome, being as it were the very resting place of Neptune.

Upon the third dayes journey from Canea, I came to Rethimos; This City is somewhat ruinous, and unwalled, but the Citizens have newly builded a strong Fortresse, but rather done by the State of Venice, which defendeth them from the invasion of Pyrats: It standeth by the sea side, and in the yeare 1597. It was miserably sacked, and burned with Turkes. Continuing my voyage, I passed along the skirt of Mount Ida.Mount Ida, accompanied with [78]Greekes, who could speake the Italian tongue, on which, first they shewed me the cave of King Minos, but some hold it to be the Sepulcher of Jupiter. That Groto was of length eighty paces, and eight large: This Minos was sayd to be the brother of Radamanthus, and Sarpedon; who, after their succession to the Kingdome, established such æquitable lawes, that by Poets they are feigned with Æacus to be the Judges of Hell. I saw also there, the place where Jupiter (as they say) was nourished by Amalthes, which by Greekes is recited, as well as Latine Poets.

Thirdly, they shewed me the Temple of Saturne, which is a worke to be admired, of such Antiquity, and as yet undecayed; who (say they) was the first King that inhabited there, and Father to Jupiter. And neare to it is the demolished Temple of Matelia, having this superscription above the doore, yet to be seene: Make cleane your feete, wash your hands and enter. Fourthly, I saw the entry into the Dedalus Laborinth.Laborinth of Dedalus, which I would gladly have better viewed, but because we had no Candle-light, we durst not enter: for there are many hollow places within it: so that if a man stumble, or fall, [III. 87.]he can hardly be rescued: It is cut forth with many intricating wayes, on the face of a little hill, joyning with Mount Ida, having many doores and pillars. Here it was where Theseus by the helpe of Ariadne the daughter of King Minos, taking a bottome of threed, and tying the one end at the first doore, did enter and slay the Minotaurus, who was included there by Dedalus: This Minotaure is sayd to have bene begot by the lewd and luxurious Pasiphae, who doted on a white Bull.

Mount Ida is the highest Mountaine in Creta, and by the computation of Shepheards feete, amounteth to sixe miles of height: It is over-clad even to the toppe with Cypre trees, and good store of medicinable hearbes: insomuch that the beasts which feede thereupon, have their teeth gilded, like to the colour of Gold: Mount Ida, of old was called Phelorita, by some Cadussa, but [79]modernely Madura: It is sayd by some Historians, that no venemous animall can live in this Ile; but I saw the contrary: Historian errours.For I kild on a Sunday morning hard by the Sea-side, and within two miles of Rethimos, two Serpents and a Viper: One of which Serpents, was above a yard and halfe in length, for they being all three rolling within the coverture of the dry sands, my right legge was almost in their reverence before I remarked the danger: Wherefore many build upon false reports, but experience teacheth men the trueth.

Some others also Historize, that if a Woman here, bite a man any thing hard, he will never recover: and that there is an hearbe called Allimos in this Iland, which if one chaw in his mouth, he shall not feele hunger for foure and twenty howres: all which are meere fabulous, such is the darkenesse of cloudy inventions.

Descending from this Mountaine, I entred in a faire [III. 88.]plaine, beautified with many Villages; in one of which, I found a Grecian Bishop, who kindly presented me with grapes of Malvasie, and other things, for it was in the time of their vintage. To carry these things he had given me, he caused to make ready an Asse, and a Servant, who went with me to Candy, which was more then fifteene miles from his house. True it is, that the best sort of Greekes, in visiting other, doe not use to come empty handed, neither will they suffer a stranger to depart without both gifts and convoy.

I remember along this sassinous and marine passage, I found three fountaines gushing forth of a Rocke, each one within a yard of other, having three sundry tasts: the first water was exceeding light, and sweet; the middle or second, marvelous sowre and heavy: the third was bitter and extraordinary salt: so that in so short bounds so great difference, I never found before, nor afterward.

The City of Candy.Candy is distant from Canea a hundreth miles, Rethimos being halfe way betwixt both: so is Candy halfe way in the same measure, twixt Rethimos and Scythia, and [80]Canea the like twixt Rethimos and Carabusa, being in all 200. miles.

Candy is a large and famous City, formerly called Matium, situated on a plaine by the sea side, having a goodly Haven for shippes, and a faire Arsenall wherein are 36. Gallies: It is exceeding strong, and dayly guarded with 2000. Souldiers, and the walles in compasse are about three leagues.

In this time there was no Viceroy, the former being newly dead, and the place vacant, the Souldiers kept a bloody quarter among themselves, or against any whomsoever their malignity was intended, for in all the time I stayed there being ten dayes, it was nothing to see every [III. 89.]day foure or five men killed in the streetes: neither could the Rector, nor the Captaines helpe it, so tumultuous were the disordered Souldiers, and the occasions of revenge and quarrellings so influent. This commonly they practise in every such like vacation, which otherwise, they durst never attempt without death, and severe punishment; and truely me thought it was as barbarous a governed place for the time, as ever I saw in the world: For hardly could I save my owne life free from their dangers, in the which I was twice miserably involved.

Distances from Candy.Candy is distant from Venice 1300. miles, from Constantinople 700. from Famagusta in Cyprus, 600. from Alexandria in Ægypt, 500. from Tripoli in Siria 700. from Naples 900. from Malta 500. from Smyrna, in Carmania of Natolia 400. and from the Citty of Jerusalem, 900. miles. The Candeots through all the Iland, make muster every eight day, before the Serjant-majors, or Officers of the Generall, and are well provided with all sorts of Armour; yea, and the most valerous people that hight the name of Greekes. It was told me by the Rector of Candy, that they may raise in Armes of the Inhabitants (not reckoning the Garrisons) above sixty thousand men, all able for warres, with 54. Gallies, and 24. Galleots for the sea.

In all my travels through this Realme, I never could [81]see a Greeke come forth of his house unarmed: and after such a martiall manner, that on his head he weareth a bare steele cap, a bow in his hand, a long sword by his side, a broad Ponard overthwart his belly, and a round Target hanging at his girdle. They are not costly in apparell, for they weare but linnen cloathes, and use no shooes but bootes of white leather, to keepe their legges in the fields from the prickes of a kind of Thistle, wherewith [III. 90.]the Countrey is overcharged like unto little bushes or short shrubs which are marvelous sharpe, and offensive unto the inhabitants, whereof, often a day to my great harme, I found their bloody smart: The women generally weare linnen breaches as men do, and bootes after the same manner, and their linnen coates no longer then the middle of their thighes, and are insatiably inclined to Venery, such is the nature of the soyle and climate. The Creets turnd Critticks.auncient Cretans were such notable lears, that the heathen Poet Epimenides, yea, and the Apostle Paul in his Epistle to Titus, did tearme them to have beene ever liers, evill beasts, and slow bellies: whence sprung these proverbs, as Cretense mendacium, & cretisandum est cum cretensibus.

The Candiots are excellent good Archers, surpassing all the Orientall people therein, couragious and valiant upon the Sea, as in former times they were; and they are naturally inclined to singing: so that commonly after meat, Man, Wife, and Child of each family, will for the space of an houre, sing with such a harmony, as is wonderfull melodious to the hearer; yea, and they cannot forgoe the custome of it.

Their Harvest is our Spring: for they manure the ground, and sow the seed in October, which is reaped in March, and Aprill. Being frustrate of my intention at Candy, I was forced to returne to Canea the same way I went: when come, I was exceeding merry with my old friends the English-men: Meane-while there arrived from Tunnis in Barbary, An English English Runagate named Wolson, bound for the Rhodes: where after short acquaintance [82]with his natives, and understanding what I was, he imparted these words, I have had my elder brother, sayd he, the Maister (or Captaine) of a ship, slaine at Burnt-Iland [III. 91.]in Scotland by one called Keere; and notwithstanding he was beheaded, I have long since sworne to be revenged of my brothers death, on the first Scotsman I ever saw or met, and my designe is, to stob him with a knife this night, as he goeth late home to his lodging desiring their assistance: But Smith, Hargrave, and Horsfeild refused, yet Cooke and Rollands yeelded. Meane-while Smith knowing where I used sometimes to diet, found me at supper in a Sutlers, a souldiers house, where acquainting me with this plot, the hoste, he, and three Italian souldiers conveighed me to my bed, passing by the arch-villaine, and his confederats, where he was prepared for the mischiefe: which when he saw his treachery was discovered, he fled away, & was seene no more here.

Remarking the fidelity and kindnesse that Smith had twice shewen me, first in freeing me from the danger of galley-slavery, and now in saving my life, I advised to doe him a good deed in some part of acquittance, and thus it was: Smith relieved from long bondage.At his first comming to Venice, he was taken up as a souldier for Candy: where, when transported, within a small time he found the Captaines promise and performance different, which enforced him at the beginning to borrow a little money of his Lieutenant: the five yeares of their abode expired, and fresh Companies come from Venice to exhibit the charge, Smith not being able to discharge his debt, was turned over to the new Captaine for five yeares more, who payed the old Captaine his mony; and his time also worne out, the third Captaine came, where likewise he was put in his hands serving him five yeares longer.

Thus having served three Captaines fifteene yeares, and never likely able (for a small trifle) to attaine his liberty, [III. 92.]I went to the Captaine and payed his debt, obtaining also of the Rector his licence to depart; and the allowance [83]of the State for his passage, which was Wine and Biscot-bread: Thereafter: I imbarked him for Venice in a Flemish ship, the Maister being a Scotsman, John Allen borne in Glasgow, and dwelt at Middleborough in Zeland, his debt was onely forty eight shillings starling.

Here I stayed in Canea twenty five dayes before I could get passage for the Arch Ilands, being purposed for Constantinople; but gladly would not have left the Monastary of these foure Friars, with whom I was lodged, if it had not beene for my designes; in regard of their great cheere and deepe draughts of Malvasey I received hourely, and oftentimes against my will: Every night after supper, the Friars forced me to dance with them, either one gagliard or other: Drunken Fryers.Their Musicke in the end was sound drunkennesse, and their Syncopa turnd to spew up all, and their bed converted to a boord, or else the hard floore, for these beastly swine, were nightly so full, that they had never power to goe to their owne chambers, but where they fell, there they lay till the morne: the cloyster it selfe had two faire Courts, the least of which might have lodged any King of Europe: The Church was little, and among the foure Friars, there was but one Masse-Priest, being a Greeke borne and turn’d to the Roman faction: his new name was Pattarras Matecarras, Pater Libenter, or Father of free will, indeed a right name for so sottish a fellow, for he was so free of his stomacke to receive in strong liquor, that for the space of twenty dayes of my being there, I never saw him, nor any one of the other three truely sober. Many odde merriments and jests have I observed of these Friars of Candie, but time will not suffer me to relate them, onely remitting the rest to my privat discourse, a figge for their folly.

[III. 93.]I travelled on foot in this Ile more then foure hundred miles, and upon the fifty eight day after my first comming to Carabusa, I imbarked in a Fisher-boat that belonged to Milo, being a hundred miles distant, which had beene violently driven thither with stormy weather.

And in our passing thither, we were in danger to be [84]over-runne two severall times, with two huge broken Seas, which twice covered the body of the closse boat: yet with extreame fortune we arrived at Milo in a bay of the East corner of the Ile, being about St. Andrewes day, where the poore Greeks tooke me up to their Village, two miles distant from this Creeke, and I abode with them foure dayes.

Milo.Milo was called by Aristotle, Melada, and by others, Mimalida, Melos: And lastly Milo; because of the fine mil-stones that are got there, which are transported to Constantinople, Greece, and Natolia. This Ile is one of the Iles Cyclades, or Sporades, but more commonly Archipelago, or the Arch-Ilands, and standeth in the beginning of the Ægean sea: The Inhabitants are Greekes, but slaves to the Turke, and so are all the fifty foure Iles of the Cyclades, save onely Tino, which holdeth of the Venetians.

From Milo I came to Zephano in a small boat, an Iland of circuit about twenty miles, and ten miles distant from Milo: The Inhabitants are poore, yet kind people: There are an infinite number of Partridges within this Ile, of a reddish colour, and bigger then ours in Brittaine: They are wilde, and onely killed by small shot; but I have seene in other Ilands flockes of them feeding in the fields, and usually kept by children: Some others I have seene [III. 94.]in the streetes of Villages, without any keeper, even as our Hennes doe with us. I saw fountaines here, that naturally yeeld fine Oyle, which is the greatest advantage the Ilanders have.

Zephano.Zephano did once produce the Calamita, and was renowned for the fine Mines of Gold and Silver, of which now it is altogether desolate: There is also fine Sulphur here, and exceeding good Marble: from whence Lucullus was the first that transported it to Rome: There is a certaine ground in this Ile, where it is sayd, that if any take it away, or digge deepe holes, the earth of it selfe in a small time will surcrease without any ayde of man. East from Milo and Zephano, lye the Iles Policandro, [85]and Christiana, formerly Laguso, Sicandro; and Sasurnino, anciently Calistha, famous for the birth of the Poet Calimachus.

From thence I imbarked, and arrived at Angusa in Parir.Parir: This Ile is forty miles long, and sixe miles broad: being plentifull enough in all necessary things for the use of man: It was aunciently called Demetriado, whose length lieth South-west, and North-East: And hard by the high Mountaine of Camphasia, neere to Angusa, on a faire Valley standeth the auncient Temple of Venus, never a whit decayed to this day: This Ile was given to the Venetians by Henry the Constantinopolitan Emperour, and brother to Baldwin Earle of Flanders: and it was seazed upon by Mahomet, when Nigropont, and diverse other Iles were surprised from the Venetians.

In Angusa I stayed sixteene dayes, storme-sted with Northernely winds; and in all that time, I never came in bed: for my lodging was in a little Chappell a mile without the Village, on hard stones; where I also had a fire, and dressed my meate. The Greekes visited me oftentimes, & intreated me above all things I should not [III. 95.]enter within the bounds of their Sanctuary; because I was not of their Religion. But I in regard of the longsome and cold nights, was enforced every night to creepe in, in the midst or the Sanctuary to keepe my selfe warme, which Sanctuary was nothing but an Aultar hembd in with a partition wall about my height, dividing the little roome from the body of the Chappell.

These miserable Ilanders, are a kind of silly poore people; which in their behaviour, shewed the necessity they had to live, rather then any pleasure in their living. From thence I imbarked on a small barke of ten Tunnes come from Scithia in Candy, and loaden with Oyle, and about midday we arrived in the Ile of Mecano, where we but only dined, and so set forward to Zea.

This Mecano was formely called Delos, famous for the Temple of Apollo, being the chiefe Ile of the Cyclades, the rest of the 54. incircling it: Delos signifieth apparant, [86]because at the request of Juno, when all the earth had Latona receaved in Delos.abjured the receipt of Latona: This Iland then under the water, was by Jupiter erected aloft, and fixt to receive her, wherein she was delivered of Apollo, and Diana:

—— erratica Delos, &c.

Ovid. Unsetled Delos, floating on the maine,

Did wandring Laton kindly entertaine;

In spight of Juno, fatned with Joves balme,

Was brought to bed, under Minerva’s palme.

In this Ile they retaine a custome, neither permitting men to dye, or children to be borne in it: but alwayes when men fall sicke, and women grow great bellied, they send them to Rhena a small Isoletta, and two miles distant.

[III. 96.]Zea to which we arrived from Mecano, was so called of Zeo, the sonne of Phebo; and of some, Tetrapoli; because of the foure Citties that were there of old. Symonides the Poet, and Eristato the excellent Physition, were borne in it. The next Ile of any note we touched at, was Tino: This Iland is under the Signory of Venice, and was sometime beautified with the Temple of Neptune. By Aristotle it was called Idrusa; of Demostenes, and Eschines, Erusea: It hath an impregnable Castle, builded on the top of a high Rocke, towards the East-end or Promontore of the Ile, and ever provided with three yeares provision, and a Garison of two hundreth Souldiers: So that the Turkes by no meanes can conquer it. The Iland it selfe is twenty miles in length, and a great refuge for all Christian Shippes and Galleys that haunt in the Levante.

The Ile of Pathmos.From this Ile I came to Palmosa, sometime Pathmos, which is a mountainous and barren Iland: It was here that Saint John wrote the Revelation after he was banished by Domitianus the Emperour. Thence I imbarked to Nicaria, and sayled by the Ile Scyro; which of old was the Signory of Licomedes, and in the habit of a woman, [87]was Achilles brought up here, because his mother being by an Oracle premonished, that he should be killed in the Trojan Warre, sent him to this Iland; where he was maiden-like brought up amongst the Kings daughters: who in that time, begot Pyrhus upon Deidamia, the daughter of Licomedes, and where the crafty Ulysses afterward did discover this fatall Prince to Troy. As we fetched up the sight of Nicaria, we espied two Turkish Galleots, who gave us the Chace, and pursued us, straight to a bay, betwixt two Mountaines, where we left the loaden boate, and fled to the Rockes, from whence we mightily annoyed with huge tumbling stones, the persuing [III. 97.]Turkes: But in our flying, the Maister was taken, and other two old men; whom they made captives and slaves: and also seized upon the Boate, and all their goods: The number of us that escaped were nine persons.

This Ile Nicaria, was aunciently called Doliche, and Ithiosa, and is somewhat barren: having no Sea-port at all: It was here, the Poets feigned, that Icarus the sonne of Dedalus fell, when as he tooke flight from Creta, with his borrowed wings, of whom it hath the name; and Ovid de Trist.not following directly his father Dedalus, was here drowned.

Dum petit infirmis nimium sublimiæ pennis

Icarus, Icariis, nomina fecit aquis.

Whiles Icarus weake wings, too high did flye,

He fell, and baptiz’d the Icarian sea.

So many moe, experience may account,

That both above their minds, and meanes would mount.

Expecting certaine dayes here, in a Village called Laphantos, for passage to Sio, at last I found a Brigandino bound thither, that was come from the fruitfull Ile of Stalimene, of old Lemnos. This Ile of Stalimene is in circuit 90. miles, where in Hephestia it’s Metropolis, Vulcans birth.Vulcan was mightily adored; who being but a homely brat, was cast downe hither by Juno, whereby it was no [88]marvaile if he became crooked, and went a halting: The soveraigne minerall against infections, called Teera Lemnia, or Sigillata is digged here: The former name proceedeth from the Iland: The latter is in force, because the earth being made up in little pellets, is sealed with a Turkish Signet, and so sold, and dispersed over Christendome. Having imbarked in the aforesaid Brigandine, we sayled by the Ile Samos, which is opposite to Caria, in Asia minor, where the Tyrant Policrates lived [III. 98.]so fortunate, as he had never any mischance all this time, till at last Orientes a Persian brought him to a miserable death: Leaving us an example, that fortune is certaine in nothing but in incertainties, who like a Bee with a sharpe sting, hath alwaies some misery following a long concatenation of felicities: It is of circuit 160. and of length 40. miles: It was of old named Driusa, and Melanphilo, in which Pythagoras the Philosopher, and Lycaon the excellent Musitioner were borne.

Upon our left hand, and opposit to Samos lyeth the Nixia.Ile of Nixia, formerly Naxos; in circuit 68. miles: It was also called the Ile of Venus, and Dionisia, and was taken from the Venetians by Selim, the father of Soliman: East from Nixia, lieth the Ile Amurgospolo, in circuit twenty leagues, it hath three commodious ports, named St. Anna, Calores, and Cataplino: A little from hence, and in sight of Natolia, lieth the Ile Calamo, formerly Claros, in circuit thirty miles: and Eastward thence the little Ile of Lerno, five leagues in circuit, all inhabited with Greeks, and they, the silly ignorants of nature: South-east from this lieth the The Ile of Lango.Ile of Coos now Lango: by the Turkes called Stanccow, the Capitall Towne is Arango, where Hypocrates and Apelles the Painter were borne: In this Ile, there is a wine named by the Greekes, Hyppocon, that excelleth in sweetnesse all other wines except the Malvasie, and it aboundeth in Cypre and Turpentine trees: There is here a part of the Ile disinhabited, in regard of a contagious Lake, that infecteth the ayre, both Summer, and Winter. There is abundance of Alloes [89]found here, so much esteemed by our Pothecaries; the rest of this Ile shall be touched in the owne place. And neere to Lango, lyeth the Ile Giara, now Stopodia, it is begirded with Rocks and desartuous, unto which the [III. 99.]Romans were wont to send in banishment such as deserved death: In generall of these Iles Cyclads, because they are so neere one to another, and each one in sight of another, there are many Cursares and Turkish Galleots, that still afflict these Ilanders: Insomuch that the Inhabitants are constrained to keepe watch day and night, upon the tops of the most commodious Mountaines, to discover these Pirats; which they easily discerne from other vessells, The danger of Turkish Pirats.both because of their Sayles and Oares: And whensoever discovered, according to the number of cursary Boates, they make as many fires, which giveth warning to all the Ports to be on guard: And if the Sea voyagers in passing see no signe on these Iles, of fire or smoake, then they perfectly know, these Laborinthing Seas, are free from pestilent Raveners.

As we left the Ile Venico on our left hand, and entred in the gulfe betweene Sio, and Eolida, the firme land is called Æolida, there fell downe a deadly storme, at the Grecoe Levante, or at the North-east, which split our Mast, carrying sayles and all over-boord: Whereupon every man looked (as it were) with the stampe of death in his pale visage. The tempest continuing (our Boate not being able to keepe the Seas) we were constrained to seeke into a creeke, betwixt two Rocks, for safety of our lives; where, when we entred, there was no likely-hood of reliefe: for we had a shelfie shoare, and giving ground to the Ankors, they came both home.

A fearfull shipwracke.The sorrowfull Maister seeing nothing but shipwrack, tooke the Helme in hand, directing his course to rush upon the face of a low Rocke, whereupon the sea most fearefully broke. As we touched the Mariners contending who should first leape out, some fell over-boord, and those that got land, were pulled backe by the reciprocating [III. 100.]waves: Neither in all this time durst I once move; for [90]they had formerly sworne, if I pressed to escape, before the rest were first forth, they would throw me headlong into the sea: So being two wayes in danger of death, I patiently offered up my prayers to God.

At our first encounter with the Rocks, (our fore-decks, and Boates gallery being broke, and a great Lake made) the recoiling waves brought us backe from the Shelfes a great way; which the poore Master perceiving, and that there were seven men drowned, and eleven persons alive, cryed with a loud voyce: Be of good courage, take up oares, and row hastily; it may be, before the Barke sinke, we shall attaine to yonder Cave, which then appeared to our sight: Every man working for his owne deliverance (as it pleased God) we got the same with good fortune: for no sooner were we disbarked, and I also left the last man, but the Boat immediately sunke. There was nothing saved but my Coffino, which I kept alwaies in my armes: partly, that it might have brought my dead body to some creeke, where being found, might have beene by the Greekes buryed; and partly I held it fast also, A happy deliverance from shipwracke.that saving my life, I might save it too; it was made of Reeds and would not easily sinke, notwithstanding of my papers and linnen I carried into it: for the which safety of my things, the Greekes were in admiration. In this Cave, which was 30. paces long, within the mountaine, we abode three daies without either meate or drinke: upon the fourth day at morne, the tempest ceasing, there came Fisher-boates to relieve us, who found the ten Greekes almost famished for lacke of foode; but I in that hunger-starving feare, fed upon the expectation of my doubtfull reliefe.

True it is, a miserable thing it is for man, to grow an example to others in matters of affliction, yet it is necessary that some men should be so: For it pleased [III. 101.]God, having showne a sensible disposition of favour upon me, in humbling me to the very pit of extremities, taught me also by such an unexpected deliverance, both to put my confidence in his eternall goodnesse, and to know the [91]frailty of my owne selfe, and my ambition, which drave me often to such disasters.

The dead men being found on shoare, we buried them; and I learned at that instant time, there were seventeene boats cast away on the Coast of this Iland, and never a man saved: in this place the Greekes set up a stone crosse in the memoriall of such a woefull mischance, and mourned heavily, fasting and praying. I rejoycing and thanking God for my safety (leaving them sorrowing for their friends and goods) tooke journey through the Iland to Sio, for so is the City called, being thirty miles distant: In my way I past by an old Castle standing on a little hill, named Garbos, now Helias; where (as I was informed by two Greekes in my company) the Sepulcher of Homer was yet extant: for this Sio is one of the seven Iles and Townes, that contended for his birth:

Septem urbes certant de stirpe insignis Homeri.

These Cities seven (I undername) did strive,

Who first brought Homer to the world alive.

Smyrna, Rhodos, Colophon, Salamis, Chios, Argos, Athenæ:

The which I willing to see, I entreated my associats to accompany me thither; where, when we came, we descended by 16. degrees into a darke Cell; and passing that, we entred in another foure squared roome, in which Homers Sepulcher.I saw an auncient Tombe, whereon were ingraven Greeke letters, which we could not understand for their antiquity; but whether it was this Tombe or not, I doe not know, but this they related, and yet very likely to have beene his Sepulcher.

[III. 102.]Sio.This Ile of Sio is divided into two parts, to wit, Appanomera, signifying the higher, or upper parts of it: The other Catomerea, that is, the levell, or lower parts of the Ile: It was first called Ethalia: It aboundeth so in Oranges and Lemmons, that they fill Barrels and Pipes with the juyce thereof, and carry them to Constantinople, which the Turkes use at their meate, as we doe the Verges. [92]And also called Pythiosa; next Cios, Acts 20. 15. And by Methrodorus, Chio, or Chione: but at this day Sio. Not long agoe it was under the Genueses, but now governed by the Turkes: It is of circuite an hundreth miles, and famous for the medicinable Masticke that groweth there on Trees: I saw many pleasant Gardens in it, which yeeld in great plenty, Orenges, Lemmons, Apples, Peares, Prunes, Figges, Olives, Apricockes, Dates, Adams Apples, excellent hearbes, faire flowers, sweete Hony, with store of Cypre and Mulbery-trees, and exceeding good silke is made here.

At last I arrived at the Citty of Sio, where I was lodged, and kindly used with an old man, of the Genuesen race, for the space of eight dayes: I found here three Monasteries of the order of Rome, one of the Jesuits, another of Saint Francis, and the third of the Dominican Friers, being all come from Genoa; and because the greatest part of the Citty is of that stocke, and of the Papall Sea, these Cloysters have a braver life for good cheare, fat Wines, and delicate Leachery, than any sort of Friers can elsewhere find in the world.

The faire Dames of Sio.The Women of the Citty Sio, are the most beautifull Dames, (or rather Angelicall creatures) of all the Greekes, upon the face of the earth, and greatly given to Venery.

If Venus foe-saw Sio’s faire-fac’d Dames,

His stomacke cold, would burne, in lust-spred flames.

[III. 103.]They are for the most part exceeding proude, and sumptuous in apparell, and commonly go (even Artificers wives) in gownes of Sattin and Taffety; yea, in Cloth of Silver and Gold, and are adorned with precious Stones, and Gemmes, and Jewels about their neckes, and hands, with Rings, Chaines, & Bracelets. Their Husbands are their Pandors, and when they see any stranger arrive, they will presently demaund of him; if he would have a Mistresse: and so they make Whoores of their owne Wives, and are contented for a little gaine, to weare hornes: such are the base minds of ignominious Cuckolds. [93]If a Straunger be desirous to stay all night with any of them, their price is a Chicken of Gold, nine Shillings English, out of which this companion receiveth his supper, and for his paines, a belly full of sinfull content. This The Fortresse of Sio.Citty of Sio hath a large and strong Fortresse, which was built by the Genueses, and now detained by a Garison of Turkes, containing a thousand fire-houses within it, some whereof are Greekes, some Genoueses, some Turkes, and Moores: The Citty it selfe is unwalled, yet a populous and spacious place, spred along by the Sea-side, having a goodly harbour for Galleyes and Ships, the chiefe Inhabitants there, are descended of the Genoueses, and professe the superstition of Rome: The people whereof were once Lords of the Ægean Sea, maintaining a Navy of eighty Ships: In the ende they became successively subject to the Romane and Greeke Princes; till Andronico Paleologus, gave them and their Ile to the Justinianes, a Noble Family of the Genoueses: from whom it was taken by Solyman the Magnificent on Easter day 1566. being the same yeare that our late gracious, and once Soveraigne Lord, King James of blessed memory was borne. This Cittadale or Fortresse of Sio, standeth full betweene the [III. 104.]Sea, and the Harbour, was invaded by 800. Florentines, sent hither by the great Duke Ferdinando, brother to Queene Mother of Fraunce, and our owne Queene Maries Unkle, Anno 1600. August 7. The manner was thus, The Genouesen seede, had sold the Fort unto the Duke of Florence, whereupon he sent his Galleys and these Gallants thither: Where, when arrived in the night, they scaled the walles, slue the watches, and unhappily ram-forced all the Canon; and then entring the Fort put all the Turkes to the sword, and among them, too many Christians: The Galleys all this time, being doubtfull how it went, durst not enter the harbour, but a storme falling downe, they bore up to an Isolet for ancorage in the Æolid gulfe, and three miles distant: The next morning, the Turkish Bashaw, the Citty, and all the Ilanders were in armes: The Florentines being dismissed of their [94]Galleys, grew discouraged, and trying the Canon, which they had spoyled at their first scallet, it would not be: Meane while, the Bashaw entred in parley with them, and promised faithfully, to send them safe to the Galleys if they would render. Upon the third day they yeeld, and as they issued forth, along the draw bridge, and the Bashaw set in a Tent to receive them as they came in, one by one, The heads of 800. Florentines cut off.he caused strike off all their heads: And done, there was a Pinacle reared upon the Walles of the Fort with their bare sculs which stand to this day.

But by your leave, Ferdinando in person, the yeare following, was more than revenged of such a cruell and faithlesse proceeding: He over-maisterd a Turkish towne and castle, put two thousand Turkes to the sword, sparing neither old nor young, and recoyling infinit richesse and spoyles of the towne, he brought home their heads with him to Ligorne, and set them up there for a mercilesse [III. 105.]monument.

After some certaine dayes attendance, I imbarked in a Carmoesal, bound for Nigropont, which was forth of my way to Constantinople; but because I would gladly have seene Macedonia, and Thessaly, I followed that determination: In our way we touched at The Ile of Mytelene.Mytelene, an Iland of old called Isa: next Lesbos: And lastly Mytelene, of Milet the sonne of Phœbus. Pythacus, one of the seaven Sages of Greece, the most valiant Antimenides, and his brother Alceus the Lyricall Poet, Theophrastus the peripatetike Philosopher, Arion the learned Harper, and the she Poet Sapho, were borne in it.

This Ile of Lesbos or Mytelene, containeth in compasse, one hundreth forty sixe miles: the East parts are levell and fruitfull, the West and South parts mountainous and barren: The chiefe Citties are Mytelene and Methimnos: It was long under subjection of the Romane and Greeke Emperours, till Calo Joannes, Anno 1355. gave it in dowry with his sister, to Catalusio a Nobleman of Genoua; whose posterity enjoyed it till Mahomet (surnamed the Greeke) did seaze on it, 1462. [95]

A comparison of Iles.These Iles Sporades, are scattered in the Ægean Sea, like as the Iles Orcades are in the North Seas of Scotland; but different in clymate and fertility: for these South-easterne Iles in Summer are extreame hot, producing generally (Nigroponti excepted) but a few wines, fruites, and cornes, scarce sufficient to sustaine the Ilanders. But these North-westerne Ilands in Sommer, are neither hot nor cold; having a most wholesome and temperate ayre: and do yeeld abundance of corne, even more then to suffice the Inhabitants; which is yearely transported to the firme land, and sold: They have also good store of Cattell, [III. 106.]and good cheape, and the best fishing that the whole Ocean yeeldeth, is upon the coasts of Orknay and Zetland.

In all these seperated parts of the Earth (which of themselves of old, made up a little Kingdome) you shall alwaies The plentifulnesse of Orkney & Zetland.finde strong March-Ale, surpassing fine Aqua-vitæ, abundance of Geese, Hennes, Pigeons, Partridges, Moore-Fowle, Mutton, Beefe and Termigants, with an infinite number of Connies, which you may kill with a Crosse-bow, or Harquebuse, every morning forth of your Chamber window, according to your pleasure in that pastime, which I have both practised my selfe, and seene practised by others; for they multiply so exceedingly, that they digge even under the foundations of dwelling houses. Such is the will of God to bestow upon severall places, particular blessings; whereby he demonstrateth to man, the plentifull store-house of his gracious providence, so many manner of wayes upon earth distributed; all glory be to his incomprehensible goodnes therefore. I have seldome seene in all my travells, more toward, and tractable people (I meane their Gentlemen) and better house-keepers, then be these Orcadians, and Zetlanders: whereof in the prime of my adolescency (by two voyages amongst these Northerne Iles) I had the full proofe and experience.

And now certainely, as it is a signe of little wisedome, and greater folly, for a man to answere suddenly to every light question; so it is as great a shame and stupiditie in man to keepe silence, when he should, and may [96]deservingly speake; Wherefore damnifying the one, and vilifying the other, I come forth betweene both (Pugno pro Patria) to have a single bout with the ignorant malice of an imperious and abortive Geographer, brought up in the Schooles neere Thames, & Westward Ho at Oxford; [III. 107.]who blindlings in an absurd description of the world, hath produced many errors, & manifest untrueths to the world.

And these amongst thousands moe, which I justly can censure to be false; namely, he reporteth the Orcadians to be a cruell and barbarous peeple, and that the most part of Scotland regarded neither King nor Law: tearming us also to have monstrous backes, against the execution of Justice: and because (saith he) they resemble us somewhat in visage and speech, the Scots are descended of the Saxons; where when the blacke wings of the Eagle spred in the South, they fled thither, thinking rather to enjoy penurious liberty, then rich fetters of gold: Moreover, False aspersion upon Scotland.that the scurvy Ile of Manne, is so abundant in Oates, Barley, and Wheate, that it supplieth the defects of Scotland; so venemous also is the Wormewood of his braine, that he impugneth Hector Boetius, to have mentioned a rabble of Scottish Kings before Kenneth, the first Monarch of all Scotland; but were he fast rabled in a rope, I thinke his presumptuous and impertinent phrase were well recompensed: Yea, further he dare to write, that if the Mountaines, and unaccessable Woods, had not beene more true to the Scots, then their owne valour, that Kingdome had long since beene subdued.

Many other introductions flow from his shallow base-branded apprehension which I purposely omit: To this his perverst malignitie (without partiall or particular construction) I generally answere; that for courteous penetrating lenity; industrious tractability; prompt and exquisite ingeniosity; nobly taught, vivacious, & vertuous Gentility; humane, and illustrious generosity; inviolate, and uncommixed nationall pedegree; Learned, Academicall, and Ecclesiasticke Clergy; for sincere Religion, and devoute Piety; affable and benevolent Hospitality; civill [97][III. 108.]& zealous orders in spirituality; so docible a people to supreame regality; and for true valour, courage, and magnanimity; there is no Kingdome or Nation within the compasse of the whole universe, can excell, or compare with it.

Now what a selfe Losungeous fellow hath this fustian companion proved, when the flat contrary of his abjured impositions, is infallibly knowne to be of undoubted trueth. And how often hath Europe, the seat of Christendome, and Mistresse of the world, had the full experience in all her distressed corners, of the valiant, faithfull service, and unresistable valour of the people, of that never conquered Nation: the testimonies are evident, for my part I desist, and will not medle to peramble through peremptory inferences, on particular Kingdomes, although I acquitingly can; Howsoever a pertinacious Buffon dare, and falsely will doe it:

Certaine replyes.Each base fantasticke braine, dare forge new stiles,

And alter Regions, customes, Townes, and Iles:

Strip’d in a bravad, he can joyne (disjoyne

Contiguat Kingdomes) distant lands in one;

First Broaker-like, he scrap’s rags, snips and bits,

Then playes the Ruffian, shifting with his wits:

Last Serpent-like, he casts a winter skin,

And like a strumpet boldly enters in;

This charling Ape, with counterfeits and lies,

And blandements; would feede the worlds wide eyes:

Thus like a stupid Asse, this blocke-head Foole,

Must turne a Coxcombe, studying in the Schoole:

Would he be wise and exercise his braines

Goe travell first, experience knowledge gaines:

Dare he to write of Kingdomes, that ne’er saw

His fathers Oxe, perhaps the plough to draw;

And scarce can tell even of the bread he eates

[III. 109.]How many frames it suffers, toyle, and sweats;

Nor ne’er ten miles, was travell’d from his cradle

Yet faine would sit, the steerd Pegasian sadle:


Whiles loytring in a Colledge, thus he dare

Sow lyes, reape shame, build Lottries in the ayre;

Goe doting Gull? Goe? blot away thy name?

And let thy labours perish with thy fame.

This Ile of Mytelena, is by the Turkes called Sarcam lying without the mouth of the gulfe of Smyrna, and opposite to the Westerne coast of Phrigia minor; where besides excellent Wine and Cornes, there are two sorts of dregs made there, which the Turkes use to put in their pottage: In Turkish the one is called Trachana, the other Bouhort, which the Romanes aunciently named Crimnon and Mazza. Whence Loosing from Mitylene in the aforesaid Carmosal, we touched at Dalamede, in the The Ile Androsia.Ile Androsia, the Northmost Ile of the Syclades toward Thessalia: It is indifferent copious of all things necessary for humane life, and round sixty miles: The Athenians of old (as Plutarch mentioneth) sent hither Themistocles to demaund tribute; Themistocles told them, he came to inflict some great imposition upon them, being accompanied with two Goddesses; the one was (Eloquence) to perswade them, and the other was (Violence) to enforce them. Whereunto the Androsians replyed, that on their side, they had two Goddesses as strong; the one whereof was (Necessity) whereby they had it not; and the other (Impossibility) whereby they could not part with that they never enjoyed.

This Ægean Sea, or mare Ægeum, had its denomination from Ægeus the father of Theseus, who misdoubting his sonnes returne from the Minotaure of Creet, here leaped [III. 110.]in, and drowned himselfe: The greatest part of these sixty nine Kings, that Agamemnon tooke with him to the siege of Troy, were onely Kings of these little Ilands: By some they are divided into two parts, Cyclades, and Sporades; the former containing fifty foure, and the latter twelve Iles; modernely they are all cognominat Archipylago, or the Arch Ilands.

Hoysing saile from Dalamede, we set over to Nigroponti, [99]being sixty miles distant, and bearing up Eastward to double the South Cape, we straight discovered Two Turkish Galleots.two Turkish Galleots pursuing us: Whereupon with both sailes and oares, we sought in to the bottome of a long creeke, on the West side of the Cape, called Bajo di piscatori; whither also fled nine Fisher-boates for refuge: The Galleots fearing to follow us in, went to Ankor, at a rocky Isolet in the mouth of the bay, and then within night were resolved to assaile us. But night come, and every night of sixe (for there sixe dayes they expected us) we made such Bonfires, that so affrighted them (being two miles from any Village) they durst never adventure it: Yet I being a stranger was exposed by the untoward Greekes to stand Centinell every night, on the top of a high Promontore, it being the dead time of a snowy and frosty winter; which did invite my Muse to bewaile the tossing of my toylesome life, my solitary wandring, and the long distance of my native soyle:

Carmina secessum scribentis, & otia quærunt

Me Mare, me venti, me fera jactat Hyems.

I Wander in exile,

As though my Pilgrimage:

Were sweete Comedian scænes of love

Upon a golden Stage.

Ah I, poore I, distres’d,

[III. 111.]Oft changing to and fro,

Am forc’d to sing sad Obsequies

Or this my Swan-like wo.

A vagabonding Guest,

Transported here and there,

Led with the mercy-wanting winds

Of feare, griefe, and dispaire.

Thus ever-moving I,

To restlesse journeys thrald,

Obtaines by Times triumphing frownes

A calling, unrecal’d: [100]

Was I præordain’d so

Like Tholos Ghost to stand.

Three times foure houres, in twenty foure

With Musket in my hand.

Ore-blasted with the stormes

Of Winter-beating Snow,

And frosty pointed haile-stones hard

On me poore wretch to blow.

No Architecture Lo

But whirling-windy Skyes.

Or’e-syld with thundring claps of Clouds,

Earths center to surprise.

I, I, it is my fate,

Allots this fatall crosse,

And reckons up in Characters,

The time of my Times losse.

My destiny is such,

Which doth predestine me,

To be a mirrour of mishaps,

A Mappe of misery.

Extreamely doe I live,

Extreames are all my joy,

[III. 112.]I find in deepe extreamities,

Extreames, extreame annoy.

Now all alone I watch,

With Argoes eyes and wit.

A Cypher twixt the Greekes and Turkes

Upon this Rocke I sit.

A constrain’d Captive I,

Mongst incompassionate Greekes,

Bare-headed, downeward bowes my head,

And liberty still seekes.

But all my sutes are vaine,

Heaven sees my wofull state:

Which makes me say, my worlds eye-sight

Is bought at too high rate.

Would God I might but live,

To see my native Soyle: [101]

Thrice happy in my happy wish,

To end this endlesse toyle:

Yet still when I record,

The pleasant bankes of Clide:

Where Orchards, Castles, Townes, and Woods,

Are planted by his side:

And chiefly Lanerke thou,

Thy Countries Laureat Lampe:

In which this bruised body now

Did first receive the stampe.

Then doe I sigh and sweare,

Till death or my returne,

Still for to weare the Willow wreath,

In sable weed to mourne.

Since in this dying life,

A life in death I take,

Ile sacrifice in spight of wrath,

[III. 113.]These solemne vowes I make,

To thee sweete Scotland first,

My birth and breath I leave:

To Heaven my soule, my heart King James,

My Corpes to lye in grave.

My staffe to Pilgrimes I,

And Pen to Poets send;

My haire-cloth roabe, and halfe-spent goods,

To wandring wights I lend.

Let them dispose as though

My treasure were of Gold,

Which values more in purest prise,

Then drosse ten thousand fold.

These Trophees I erect,

Whiles memory remaines:

An epitomiz’d Epitaph,

On Lithgows restlesse paines:

My will’s inclos’d with love,

My love with earthly blis:

My blisse in substance doth consist,

To crave no more but this. [102]

Thou first, is, was, and last,

Eternall, of thy grace,

Protect, prolong, great Britaines King,

His Sonne, and Royall Race.


Upon the seaventh day, there came downe to visit us, two Gentlemen of Venice, clothed after the Turkish manner; who under exile, were banished their Native Territories ten yeares for slaughter; each of them having two servants, and all of them carrying Shables, and two [III. 114.]Gunnes a peece: which when I understood, they were Italians, I addressed my selfe to them, with a heavy complaint against the Greekes, in detaining my Budgeto, and compelling me to endanger my life for their goods: whereupon they accusing the Patrone, and finding him guilty of this oppression, belaboured him soundly with handy blowes, and caused him to deliver my things, carrying me with them five miles to a Towne where they remained, called Rethenos, formerly Carastia, where I was exceeding kindly entertained ten dayes: And most nobly (as indeed they were noble) they bestowed on me forty Chickens of Gold at my departure, for the better advancement of my voyage, which was the first gift that ever I received in all my travells. For if the darts of death had not beene more advantagious to me, then Asiaticke gifts, I had never beene able to have undergone this tributary, tedious, and sumptuous peregrination: The confluence of the divine providence allotting me meanes, from the losse of my dearest consorts gave me in the deepnesse of sorrow, a thankefull rejoycing.

The Ile Nigroponti.Nigroponti was formerly called Euboea, next, Albantes: and is now surnamed the Queene of Archipelago: The Turkes cognominate this Ile Egribos: The Towne of Nigropont, from which the Ile taketh the name, was taken in by Mahomet the second; Anno. 1451. and in this Ile is found the Amianten stone, which is said to be drawne in threeds, as out of Flaxe, whereof they make napkins, [103]and other like stuffes; and to make it white, they use to throw it in the fire, being salted: The stone also is found here, called by the Greekes Ophites, and by us Serpentine. The circuit of this Ile is three hundred fourty sixe miles. It is seperated from the firme land of Thessalia, from the [III. 115.]which it was once rent by an Earthquake, with a narrow channell, over the which in one place there is a bridge, that passeth betweene the Ile, and the maine continent, and under it runneth a marvellous swift current, or Euripus, which ebbeth and floweth sixe times night and day. Within halfe a mile of the bridge, I saw a Marble columne, standing on the toppe of a little Rocke, whence (as the Ilanders told me) Aristotles death.Aristotle leaped in, and drowned himselfe, after that he could not conceive the reason, why this Channell so ebbed & flowed: using these words, Quia ego non capio te, tu capias me. This Ile bringeth forth in abundance, all things requisite for humane life, and decored with many goodly Villages.

The chiefe Cities are Nigropont, and Calchos: The principall rivers Cyro, and Nelos, of whom it is sayd, if a sheepe drinke of the former, his wooll becommeth white, if of the latter coale blacke. From thence and after 22. dayes abode in this Ile, I arrived at a Towne in Macedonia, called Salonica, but of old Thessalonica, where I stayed five dayes, and was much made of by the Inhabitants, being Jewes.

Salonica.Salonica is situate by the sea side, betweene the two Rivers Chabris and Ehedora: It is a pleasant, large and magnificke City, full of all sorts of merchandize; and it is nothing inferiour in all things (except nobility) unto Naples in Italy: It was sometimes for a while under the Signiory of Venice, till Amurath the sonne of Mahomet, tooke it from this Reipublicke. And is the principall place of Thessaly which is a Province of Macedon, together with Achaia, and Myrmedon, which are the other two Provinces of the same.

This City of Salonica is now converted in an university for the Jewes; and they are absolute Signiors thereof [104][III. 116.]under the great Turke, with a large Territory of land, lying without and about them: It hath beene ever in their hands since Soliman tooke in Buda in Hungary, Anno. 1516. August. 20. to whome they lent two millions of money, and for warrandice whereof, they have this Towne and Province made fast to them: They speake vulgarly and Maternally here the Hebrew tongue, man, woman and child, and not else where in all the world. All their Sinagogian or Leviticall Priests are bred here, and from hence dispersed to their severall stations.

Thessaly.Thessaly a long the sea side, lieth betweene Peloponnesus, and Achaia: Wherein standeth the hill Olympus, on which Hercules did institute the Olympian games, which institution was of long time the Grecian Epoche, from whence they reckoned their time.

Macedon is now called by the Turkes Calethiros, signifying a mighty & warlike Nation: Macedonia, containing Thessaly, Achaia, and Mirmidon, lieth as a center to them; having Achaia to the East: Thessalia to the South: Mirmidonia, bordering with Ætolia to the West: And a part of Hoemus, whence it was called Hæmonia, and some of Misia superior to the North: It was also called Amathia, from Amathus once King thereof, and then Macedonia from the King Macedo: The chiefe Cities are Andorista, Andesso, Sydra, Sederaspen, where the mines of gold and silver be, which enrich the Turke so monethly, receiving thence somtimes 18000. 24000. & 30000. Ducats. And Pellia, where Alexander the great was borne. Bajazet the first, wonne this Countrey, from the Constantinopolitans. About this City of Salonica is the most fertile and populous Countrey in all Greece.

The vicissitude of Greece.Greece of all Kingdomes in Europe, hath bene most famous, and highly renowned for many noble respects: [III. 117.]yet most subject to the vicissitude of Fortune than any other: who changing Gold for Brasse, and loathing their owne Princes, suffered many tyrants to rule over them, scourging their folly with their fall, and curing a festered soare with a poysoned playster: whence succeded a dismall [105]discord, which beginning when the State of Greece was at the highest, did not expire till it fell to the lowest ebbe; sticking fast in the hands of a grievous desolation: which former times, if a man would retrospectively measure, he might easily find, and not without admiration, how the mighty power of the divine Majestie doth swey the moments of things, and sorteth them in peremptory manner to strange and unlooked for effects: making reason blind, policy astonished, strength feeble, valour dastardly, turning love into hatred, feare into fury, boldnesse into trembling, and in the circuit of one minute, making the Conquerour, a conquered person.

Greece now tearmed by the Turkes Rum-Ili, the Romane Countrey, was first called Helles, next Grecia of Grecus, who was once King thereof: The Greekes, of all other Gentiles, were the first converted Christians, and are wonderfull devout in their professed Religion: The Priests weare the haire of their heads hanging over their shoulders: These that be the most sincere religious men; abstaine alwayes from eating of flesh or fish, contenting themselves with water, hearbes, and bread: They differ much in ceremonies, and principles of Religion from the Papists, and the computation of their Kalender is as ours.

Foure Patriarchs in the Greekish Church.They have foure Patriarkes, who governe the affaires of their Church, and also any civill dissentions, which happen amongst them, viz. one in Constantinople, another in Antiochia, the third in Alexandria, & the fourth in Jerusalem. It is not needfull for me to penetrate further [III. 118.]in the condition of their estate, because it is no part of my intent in this Treatise. In a word, they are wholly degenerate from their Auncestors in valour, vertue, and learning: Universities they have none, and civill behaviour is quite lost: formerly in derision they tearmed all other Nations Barbarians: A name now most fit for themselves, being the greatest dissembling lyers, inconstant, and uncivill people of all other Christians in the World. [106]

False testimonie of vagabonding Greekes.By the way, I must give the Kings Kingdomes a caveat here, concerning vagabonding Greekes, and their counterfeit Testimonials: True it is, there is no such matter, as these lying Rascals report unto you, concerning their Fathers, their Wives, and Children taken Captives by the Turke: O damnable invention! How can the Turke prey upon his owne Subjects, under whom, they have as great Liberty, save onely the use of Bels, as we have under our Princes: The tyth of their Male children, being absolutely abrogated by Achmet, this Amuraths Father; and the halfe also of their Female Dowry at Marriages: And farre lesse for Religion, can they be banished, or deprived of their Benefices, as some false and dissembling fellowes, under the Title of Bishops make you beleeve; There being a free Liberty of Conscience, for all kinds of Religion, through all his Dominions, as well for us free borne Frankes as for them, and much more them, the Greekes, Armenians, Syriacks, Amoronits, Coptics, Georgians, or any other Orientall sort of Christians: And therefore looke to it, that you be no more gulled, golding them so fast as you have done, least for your paines, you prove greater Asses, than they do Knaves.

In Salonica I found a Germo, bound for Tenedos, in which I imbarked: As we sayled along the Thessalonian shoare, I saw the two topped hill Pernassus, [III. 119.]which is of a wondrous height, whose tops even kisse the Clouds.

Pernassus.Mons hic cervicibus petit arduus astra duobus,

Nomine Pernassus, superatque cacumine montes.

Through thickest cloudes, Pernassus bends his height,

Whose double tops, do kisse the Starres so bright.

Here it was sayd the nine Muses haunted: but as for the Fountaine Helicon, I leave that to be searched, and seene by the imagination of Poets; for if it had bene objected to my sight, like an insatiable drunkard, I should [107]have drunke up the streames of Poesie, to have enlarged my dry poeticall Sun scoarch’d veine.

The Mountaine it selfe is somewhat steepe, and sterile, especially the two toppes, the one whereof is dry, and sandy, signifying that Poets are alwayes poore, and needy: The other top is barren, and rocky, resembling the ingratitude of wretched, and niggardly Patrons: the vale betweene the tops is pleasant, and profitable, denoting the fruitfull, and delightfull soyle, which painefull Poets, the Muses Plow-men, so industriously manure. A little more East-ward, as we fetcht up the coast of Achaia, the maister of the vessell shewed me a ruinous village, and castle, where he sayd the admired Thebes.Citty of Thebes had bene. Whose former glory, who can truely write of; for as the earth, when she is disroabed of her budding and fructifying trees, and of her amiable verdure, which is her onely grace and garment royall, is like a naked table wherein nothing is painted: even so is Thebes and her past tryumphs defac’d, and bereft of her lusty and young Gentlemen, as if the spring-tide had bene taken from the yeare: But what shall I say to know the cause of such like things, they are so secret and mysticall; being the most remote objects, to which our understanding may aspire, that we may easily be deceived, by disguised and [III. 120.]pretended reasons; whilst we seeke for the true and essentiall causes: for to report things that are done is easie, because the eye and the tongue may dispatch it, but to discover and unfold the causes of things, requireth braine, soule, and the best progresse of nature. And as there is no evill without excuse, nor no pretence without some colour of reason, nor wiles wanting to malicious and wrangling wits; Even so, was there occasion sought for, what from Athens, and what from Greece, whereby the peace and happinesse of Thebes might be dissolved, and discord raised to the last ruines of her desolation.

Geographicall errours.This Achaia is by some ignorant Geographers placed in the middle betweene Epire, Thessaly, and Peloponesus: [108]where contrariwise it is the Eastmost Province of Greece except Thrace, lying along twixt it and Thessaly by the sea side, which part of the Countrey, some late Authors have falsly named Migdonia, which is a Province, that lieth North from Thracia, East from Macedon, and South from Misia, having no affinity with the Sea: The chiefe Citties in Achaia, are Neapolis, Appollonia, and Nicalide where the famous Philosophers Aristotle was borne: Here is a huge and high Hill Athos, containing in circuit 70. miles, and as some affirme three dayes journey long, whose shaddow was absurdly sayd to have extended to Lemnos, an Iland lying neere the Carpathian Sea.

Achaia was formerly called Aylaide, but now by the Turkes Levienda: Athos in Greeke is called Agios æros, to wit, a holy Mountaine; the top of it is halfe a dayes journey broad, and 14. Italian miles high. There are twenty Monasteries upon it of Greekish Coleires, a laborious kind of silly Friers, and kind to Strangers: The chiefest of which Cloisters, are called Victopodos, and Agios laura, being all of them strongly walled and fensible.

[III. 121.]Upon the third day from Salonica, we arrived in the Roade of Tenedos, which is an Iland in the Sea Pontus, or Propontis: It hath a City called Tenedos, built by Tenes, which is a gallant place, having a Castle, and a faire Haven for all sorts of vessells: It produceth good store of wines, and the best supposed to be in all the South east parts of Europe, or yet in Asia. The Iland is not bigge, but exceeding fertile, lying three miles from the place where Troy stood, as Virgil reported, Æneid. 2.

Tenedos.Est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fama insula,

In sight of Troy, a stately Ile I fand

Shut up with Pontus, from the Trojane land;

Whose beauteous bounds, made me wish there to stay,

Or that I might transport the same away;

Else like Tritonean rude Proponticke charmes,

T’ imbrace sweet Tenes, alwaies in mine armes.


And againe:

Insula dives opum, Priami dum regna manebant.

An Ile most rich, in Silkes, delicious Wine,

When Priams Kingdome did in glory shine.

Where Ceres now, and Bachus love to dwell

And Flora too, in Berecinthiaes Cell.

In Tenedos I met by accident, two French Merchants of Marseills, intending for Constantinople, who had lost their ship at Sio, when they were busie at venereall tilting, with their new elected Mistresses, and for a second remedy, were glad to come thither in a Turkish Carmoesalo. The like of this I have seene fall out with Seafaring men, Merchants, and Passengers, who buy sometimes their too much folly, with too deare a repentance. They and I resolving to view Troy, did hire a Jenisarie to be our conductor and protector, and a Greeke to be our Interpreter. [III. 122.]Where when we landed, we saw here and there many relicts of old walles, as we travelled through these famous bounds. And as we were advanced toward the East part of Troy, our Greeke brought us to many The Tombes of Trojanes.Tombes, which were mighty ruinous, and pointed us particularly to the Tombes of Hector, Ajax, Achilles, Troylus, and many other valiant Champions, with the Tombes also of Hecuba, Cresseid, and other Trojane Dames: Well I wot, I saw infinite old Sepulchers, but for their particular names, and nomination of them, I suspend, neither could I beleeve my Interpreter, sith it is more then three thousand and odde yeares agoe, that Troy was destroyed.

Here Tombes I viewd, old monuments of Times,

And fiery Trophees, fixd for bloody crimes:

For which Achilles ghost did sigh and say,

Curst be the hands, that sakelesse Trojanes slay;

But more fierce Ajax, more Ulysses Horse,

That wrought griefes ruine; Priams last divorce:

And here inclosd, within these clods of dust,

All Asiaes honour, and cros’d Paris lust.


Priamus pallace.He shewed us also the ruines of King Priams Palace, and where Anchises the father of Æneas dwelt. At the North-east corner of Troy, which is in sight of the Castles of Hellesponte, there is a gate yet standing, and a peece of a reasonable high wall; upon which I found three peeces of rusted money, which afterward I gave two of them to the younger brethren of the Duke of Florence, then studying in Pretolino: The other being the fairest with a large Picture on the one side, I bestowed it at Aise in Provance upon a learned Scholler, Master Strachon, my Countrey man, then Mathematician to the Duke of Guise, who presently did propine his Lord and Prince with it.

[III. 123.]A description of Troy.Where the pride of Phrygia stood, it is a most delectable plaine, abounding now in Cornes, Fruites, and delicate Wines, and may be called the garden of Natolia: yet not populous, for there are but onely five scattered Villages, in all that bounds: The length of Troy hath been, as may be discerned, by the fundamentall walls yet extant, about twenty Italian miles, which I reckon to be ten Scottish or fifteene English miles; lying along the sea side betweene the three Papes of Ida, and the furthest end Eastward of the River Simois: whose breadth all the way hath not outstripd the fields above two miles: The Inhabitants of these five scatterd Bourges therein, are for the most part Greekes, the rest are Jewes, and Turkes.

The Author’s Portracture

The Author’s Portracture

The Authors portracture.And loe here is mine Effigie affixed with my Turkish habit, my walking staffe, & my Turban upon my head, even as I travelled in the bounds of Troy, and so through all Turkey: Before my face on the right hand standeth the Easterne and sole gate of that sometimes noble City, with a piece of a high wall, as yet undecayed: And without this Port runneth the River Simois (inclosing the old Grecian Campe) downe to the Marine, where it imbraceth the Sea Propontis: A little below, are bunches of grapes, denoting the vineyards of this fructiferous place; adjoyning neare to the fragments and ruynes of Priams Pallace, surnamed Ilium: And next to it a ravenous Eagle, for so this part of Phrigia is full of them: So beneath my [111]feet ly the two Tombes of Priamus & Hecuba his Queene: And under them the incircling hills of Ida, at the West South west end of this once Regall Towne; & at my left hand, the delicious and pleasant fields of Olives and Figge-trees, wherewith the bowells of this famous soyle are interlarded: And here this piece or portracture decyphered; the continuing discourse, inlarging both meane & manner.

[III. 124.]Troy was first built by Dardanus sonne to Corinthus King of Corinth, who having slaine his brother Jasius, fled to this Countrey, and first erected it, intituling it Dardania: Next it was called Troy of Tros, from whom the Countrey was also named Troas: It was also termed [III. 125.]Ilion of Ilus, who built the Regall pallace surnamed Ilium: This City was taken and defaced by Hercules, and the Greecians, in the time of Laomedon, himselfe being killed the latter time: Lastly, Troy was reedified by Priamus, who giving leave to his sonne Paris to ravish Helena, Menalaus wife, enforced the Greekes to renew the auncient quarrell: Where after 10. yeares siege the Towne was utterly subverted, Anno Mundi 1783.

Homer and Virgil upon Troy.Whence Princely Homer, and that Mantuan borne,

Sad Tragicke tunes, erect’d for Troy forlorne;

And sad Æneas, fled to the Affricke Coast,

Where Carthage groand, to heare how Troy was lost:

But more kind Dido, when this wandring Prince,

(Had left Numidia, stole away from thence)

Did worser groane; who with his shearing sword,

Her selfe she gor’d, with many weeping word.

O deare Æneas! deare Trojane, art thou gone?

And then she fell, death swallowed up her mone:

They land at Cuma, where Latinus King

Did give Æneas, Lavinia, with a Ring.

Where now in Latium, that old Daidan stocke

Is extant yet, though in the discent broke.

Rash Judgement.On the South-west side of Troy, standeth the Hill Ida, having three heads. On which Paris out of a sensuall [112]delight, rejecting Juno, and Pallas, judged the golden ball to Venus, fatall in the end to the whole Countrey. The ruines of which are come to that Poeticall Proverbe:

Nunc seges est ubi Troja fuit.

Now Corne doth grow, where once faire Troy stood,

And soyle made fat, with streames of Phrygian blood.

Leaving the fields of noble Ilium, we crossed the River of Simois, & dined at a Village named Extetash: I remember, in discharging our covenant with the Janisary, who [III. 126.]was not contented with the former condition, the French men making obstacle to pay that which I had given, the wrathfull Janisary belaboured them both with a cudgell, till the bloud sprung from their heads, and compelled them to double his wages. This is one true note to a Traveller (whereof I had the full experience afterward) that if he cannot make his owne part good, he must alwayes at the first motion content these Rascals; otherwise he will be constrained, doubtlesse, with stroakes, to pay twice as much: for they make no account of conscience, nor ruled by the Law of compassion, neither regard they a Christian more than a dogge: but whatsoever extortion or injury they use against him, he must be French-like contented, bowing his head, and making a counterfeit shew of thankes, and happy too oftentimes, if so he escape.

Sestos and Abydos.Hence we arrived at the Castles, called of olde Sestos, and Abydos, in a small Frigot, which are two Fortresses opposite to other: Sestos in Europe where Thracia beginneth; and Abidos in Asia where Bithinia likewise commenceth, being a short mile distant, and both of them foure leagues from Troy. They stand at the beginning of Hellespont, and were also cognominate the Castles of Hiero and Leander, which were erected in a commemoration of their admirable fidelity in love.

Which curling tops, Leander cut in two,

And through proud billowes, made his passage goe;

To court his Mistresse: O Hiero the faire! [113]

Whom Hellespont to stop, was forc’d to dare:

Sweet was their sight to other, short their stay,

For still Leander, was recald by day.

At last sterne Æole, puft on Neptunes pride,

And gloomy Hellespont, their loves divide:

[III. 127.]He swimmes, and sinkes, and in that glutting downe,

The angry Fates, did kind Leander drowne:

Of which when Hiero heard, judge you her part,

She smote her selfe, and rent in two her heart.

But now they are commonly called the Castles of Gallipoly; yea, or rather the strength of Constantinople, betweene which no Shippes may enter, without knowledge of the Captaines, and are by them strictly and warily searched, least the Christians should carry in Men, Munition, or furniture of Armes, for they stand in feare of surprising the Towne: And at their returne they must stay three dayes, before they are permitted to go through, because of transporting away any Christian slaves, or if they have committed any offence in the Citty, the knowledge thereof may come in that time.

At that same instant of my abode at Abidos, there were fourescore Christian slaves, who having cut their Captaines throat, with the rest of the Turkes, Christian slaves fled from Constantinople.runne away from Constantinople with the Galley. And passing here the second day thereafter at midnight, were discovered by the watch of both Castles, where the Cannon never left thundring for two houres; yet they escaped with small hurt, and at last arrived in the Road of Zante; desiring landing, & succour, for their victuals were done: victuals they sent them, but the Governour would not suffer them to come on Land. In end, the Sea growing somewhat boysterous, the slaves for an excuse cut their Cables, and runne the Galley a shoare: Upon this they were entertained in service, but the Providitor caused to burne the Galley, fearing least the Turkes should thereby forge some quarrell. The yeare following, an other Galley attempted the same, but the poore slaves having past the Castles, [114][III. 128.]had bene so wounded and killed with the great shot, and the Galley ready to sinke, they were enforced to runne a shoare, where the next morning being apprehended, they were miserably put to death. Betwixt the Castles and Constantinople, is about fourty leagues. Over this straite Xerxes did make a bridge of boates to passe into Greece, which when a sudden tempest had shrewdly battered, he caused the sea to be beaten with 300. stripes.

The sorrow of Xerxes.And at that same time Xerxes passing over the Hellespont, and seeing all the sea cled with his Army, his Horses, Chariots, and Ships, the teares burst from his eyes: and being demanded the cause of his griefe? answered, O, sayd he, I weepe because within a hundreth yeares, all this great and glorious sight, shall be dissolved to nothing; and neither man, nor beast shall be alive, nor Chariot, nor Engine of Warre, but shall be turn’d to dust; and so I sorrow to see the short mortality of Nature. Indeed it was a worthy saying, from such a Heathnish Monarch, who saw no further, than the present misery of this life.

Here I left the two French men with a Greeke Barbour, and imbarked for Constantinople, in a Turkish Frigato. The first place of any note I saw, within these narrow Seas, was the auncient Citty of Gallipolis, the second seate of Thracia, which was first builded by Caius Caligula, and sometimes had beene inhabited by the Gaules: It was the first Towne in Europe, that the Turkes conquered; and was taken by Solyman sonne to Orchanes, Anno 1438.

North from Thracia lyeth the Province of Bulgaria commonly Volgaria, and was called so of certaine people, that came from a countrey, neere to the River Volgo in Russia, about the yeare 666. It lieth betweene Servia, Thracia, and Danubio, and by the Auncients, it was [III. 129.]thought to be the lower Mysia (but more justly the Region of Dacia.) The chiefe Towne is Sophia, which some hold to be that Towne, which Ptolomeus named Tibisca.

Here in Thracia lived the Tyrant Polymnestor, who [115]treacherously murthered Polidorus a yonger sonne of Priamus: For which fact Hecuba, the young Princes mother scratched him to death. Here also reigned the worthy King Cotis, whom I propose as a paterne of rare temper, in maistering and preventing passion: To whom when a neighbour Prince had sent him an exquisite present, of accurately wrought glasses; he (having dispatched the messenger with all due complements and gratitude of Majestie) broke them all to peeces: Least by mishappe, any of his Servants doing the like, might stirre or move him to an intemperate choller.

Mount Athos.The Greekes here, and generally through all Greece, beare as much reverence and respect to Mount Athos, as the Papists beare to Rome: All of which Religious Coliers or Friers, must toyle and labour for their living, some in the Vines, some in the Corne-fields, and others at home in their Monasteries, or else where abroad, are alwayes occupied for the mainteining of their Families: They are but poorely cled, yet wonderfull kinde to all Viadants; so that who so have occasion to passe that Mountaine, are there lodged, and furnished of all necessary provision of food, by these sequestrat or solitary livers, whose simple and harmelesse lives, may be tearmed to be the very Emblemes of Piety and Devotion; knowing nothing but to serve God, and to live soberly in their carriage.

The chiefest Cities of Thrace, are Constantinople, Abdera, where Democritus was borne, who spent his life [III. 130.]in laughing, Sestos, Gallipoli, Trajanople, Galata, and Adrianopolis, which was taken by Bajazet, Anno. 1362.

As we sayled betweene Thracia and Bithinia, a learned Grecian brought up in Padua that was in my company, shewed me Colchis, whence Jason, with the assistance of the Argonautes, and the aide of Medeas skill, did fetch the golden fleece. The Sea Hellespont.This Sea Hellespont tooke the name of Helle daughter to Athamas King of Thebes, who was here drowned; and of the Countrey Pontus, joyning to the same Sea, wherein are these three Countries, Armenia [116]minor, Colchis, and Cappadocia. After we had fetcht up the famous City of Calcedon in Bithinia on our right hand; I beheld on our left hand, the Prospect of that little World, the great City of Constantinople; which indeed yeeldeth such an outward splendor to the amazed beholder, of goodly Churches, stately Towers, gallant Steeples, and other such things, whereof now the World make so great accompt, that the whole earth cannot equall it. Beholding these delectable objects, we entred in the channell of Bosphorus, which divideth Perah from Constantinople. And arriving at Tapanau, where all the munition of the great Turke lyeth, I adressed my selfe to a Greeke lodging, to refresh my selfe till morning.

But (by your leave) I had a hard welcome in my landing, for bidding farewell to the Turkes, who had kindly used me three dayes, in our passage from the Castles, the Maister of the boate saying, adio Christiano: There were foure French Runnagats standing on the Kaye; A harsh arrivall.who hearing these words, fell desperatly upon me, blaspheming the name of Jesus, and throwing me to the ground, beate me most cruelly: And if it had not beene for my friendly Turkes, who leaped out of their boate and relieved me, I had doubtlesse there [III. 131.]perished. The other Infidells standing by, said to me, behold what a Saviour thou hast, when these that were Christians, now turned Mahometans, cannot abide, nor regard the name of thy God; having left them, with many a shrewd blow, they had left me, I entred a Greeke lodging, where I was kindly received; and much eased of my blowes, because they caused to oynt them with divers Oyles, and refreshed me also with their best entertainement, gratis, because I had suffered so much for Christs sake, and would receive no recompense againe. The day following, I went to salute, and doe my duety to the right Worshipfull Sir Thomas Glover, then Lord Ambassadour for our late Gratious Soveraigne King James, of blessed memory, who most generously & courteously entertained me three moneths in his house, to whose [117]kindnesses I was infinitely obliged: as hereafter in my following discourse of the fourth part of this History, shall be more particularly avouched: for certainely I never met with a more compleat Gentleman in all my travells; nor one in whom true worth did more illustrat vertue. [118]



Now sing I of Bizantium: Bosphors tydes,

Twixt Europe, and the lesser Asia glydes:

Their Hyppodrome, adorn’d with triumphes past,

And blackish Sea; the Jadilecke more fast:

The Galata, where Christian merchants stay,

And five Ambassadours for commerce aye:

The Turkish customes, and their manners rude,

And of their discent, from the Scythian blood:

[IV. 132.]Their harsh Religion, and their sense of Hell:

And Paradice: their lawes I shall you tell:

Then last of Mahomet, their God on earth

His end, his life, his parentage and birth.

Constantinople is the Metropolitan of Thracia, so called of Constantine the Emperour, who first enlarged the same: It was called of old Bizantium, but now by the Turkes Stambolda, which signifieth in their language, a large City: It was also called Ethuse, and by the Greekes Stymbolis. This City (according to auncient Authors) was first founded by the Lacedemonians, who were conducted from Lacedemon, by one Pausanias, about the yeare of the World 3294. which after their consultation with Apollo, where they should settle their abode and dwelling place, they came to Bithinia, and builded a City which was called Calcedon. But the commodity of fishing, falling out contrary to their expectation, in [119]respect that the fishes were affraide of the white bankes of the City; the Captaine Pausanias left that place, and builded Bizantium in Thracia, which first was by him intituled Ligos. By Pliny, Justine, and Strabo, it was surnamed Urbs Illustrissima, because it is repleate with all the blessings, earth can give to man; yea and in the most fertile soyle of Europe.

Zonoras reporteth that the Athenians, in an ambitious and insatiable desire of Soveraignty, wonne it from the Lacedemonians: They thus being vanquished, suborned Severus the Romane Emperour, to besiege the same: But the City Bizantium being strongly fortified with walles, the Romanes could not take it in, untill extreame famine constrained them to yeeld, after three yeares siege: and Severus to satisfie his cruelty, put all to the sword, that were within, and razed the walles, giving it in possession to the neighbouring Perinthians. This Citie thus [IV. 133.]remained in calamitie, Bizantium reedified by Constantine.till Constantine (resigning the City of Rome, and a great part of Italy to the Popish inheritance or the Romane Bishops) reedified the same, and translated his Imperiall seate in the East, and reduced all the Empire of Greece, to a unite tranquilitie, with immortall reputation, which the Parthians and Persians had so miserably disquieted.

But these disorders at length reformed by the severe administration of Justice, for the which, and other worthy respects, the said Constantine sonne of Saint Helen, and Emperour of Rome (which afterward the Pope usurped) was surnamed the Great. He first in his plantation called this Citie new Rome; but when he beheld the flourishing, and multiplying of all things in it, and because of the commodious situation thereof, he called it Constantinoplis, after his owne name. This Emperour lived there many prosperous yeares, in most happy estate: likewise many of his successors did, untill such time, that Mahomet the second of that name, and Emperour of the Turkes; living in a discontented humour to behold the great and glorious dominions of Christians; especially this famous Citie, that [120]so flourished in his eyes, by momentall circumstances, collected his cruell intentions, to the full height of ambition; whereby he might abolish the very name of Christianity, and also puft up with a presumptuous desire, to inlarge his Empire, went with a marvellous power, both by Sea and Land, unto this magnificent Mansion.

The issue whereof was such, that after divers batteries and assaults, the irreligious Infidels broke downe the walles, and entred the City, which breach was about forty [IV. 134.]paces long, as by the new colour being built up againe, is easily knowne from the old walles: where when they entered, they made a wonderfull massacre of poore afflicted Christians, without sparing any of the Romane kinde, either male or female. In the mercilesse fury of these Infernall Impes, the Emperour Constantine was killed, whose head being cut off, was carried upon the point of a Launce through all the City, and Campe of the Turkes, to the great disgrace and ignominy of Christianity. His Empresse, Daughters, and other Ladies after they were abused in their bodyes, were put to death in a most cruell and terrible manner.

By this overthrow of Constantinople, this Mahomet tooke twelve Kingdomes, and two hundred Cities from the Christians, which is a lamentable losse, of such an illustrious Empire. Thus was that imperiall Citie lost, in the yeare 1453. May 29. when it had remained under the government of Christians, 1198. yeares. It is now the chiefe abode of the great Turke Sultan Achmet, the fifteene Grand Cham, or the line of Ottoman, who was then about twenty three yeares of age; whose sonne Foure Emperours one after another distressed.Osman since, and after his death, was murdered by the Janizaries, being 14. yeares of age, after his returne to Constantinople from Podolia in Polland: And in his place, his Unkle Mustaffa made Emperour, whose weaknesse and unworthinesse being eft soones discoverd, he was displaced, and Amurath Osmans brother made Grand Signior, who presently raigneth, and not without great feare of his Janizaries and Timariots, who twice in three [121]yeares have lately made insurrection against him. This Emperour Achmet, who was alive when I was there, was more given to venery, then martialitie, which gave a greater advantage to the Persians in their defensive Warres.

[IV. 135.]Concerning the Empire, we may observe some fatall contrarieties in one and the same name: For Phillip the Father of Alexander, layd the first foundation of the Macedonian Monarchy, and Phillip the Father of Perseus ruined it. Contrarieties of fortune.So was this Towne built by a Constantine, the Sonne of Helena, a Gregory being Patriarch; and was lost by a Constantine, the sonne of a Helena, a Gregory being also Patriarch. The Turkes have a Prophecy, that as it was wonne by a Mahomet, so it shall be lost by a Mahomet.

The forme, or situation of this Citty, is like unto a Triangle, the South part whereof, and the East part, are invironed with Hellespontus, and Bosphorus Thraicus; and the North part adjoyning to the firme land. It is in compasse about the walles, esteemed to be eighteene miles: in one of these triangled points, being the South-east part, and at the joyning of Bosphore and Hellespont, standeth the Pallace of the Great Turke, called Seralia, and the Forrest wherein he hunteth; which is two miles in length.

The speciall object of Antiquity, I saw within this Citty, was the incomparable Church of Saint Sophia, whose ornaments and hallowed vessels, were innumerable in the time of Justinian the Emperour, who first builded it; but now converted to a Moskuee, and consecrate to Mahomet, after a diabolicall manner.

Hyppodrome.I saw also the famous Hyppodrome, and the Theater whereon the people stood, when the Emperours used to runne their Horses, and make their Princely shewes on solemne dayes, which is now altogether decayd: There is a great Columne in that same place, in the which all these things memorable, that have bene done in this Hyppodrome, are superficially carved. [122]

Upon the West corner of the Citty, there is a strong Fortresse, fortified with seaven great Towers, and well [IV. 136.]furnished with Munition, called by Turkes, Jadileke: In this Prison, are Bassawes, and Subbassawes imprisoned, and also great men of Christians, if any offence be committed. Their place of Exchange is called Bezastan, wherein all sorts of commodities are to be sold; as Sattins, Silkes, Velvets, Cloth of Silver and Gold, and the most exquisitely wrought Hand-kerchiefes, that can be found in the world; with infinite other commodities, the relation of which would be tedious.

I have seene men and women as usually sold here in Markets, as Horses and other beasts are with us: The most part of which are Hungarians, Transilvanians, Carindians, Istrians, and Dalmatian Captives, and of other places besides, which they can overcome. Whom, if no compassionable Christian will buy, or relieve; then must they either turne Turke, or be addicted to perpetuall slavery. Here I remember of a charitable deede, done for a sinfull end, and thus it was; A Ship of Marseilles, called the great Dolphin, lying here forty dayes at the Galata, A French palliard.the Maister Gunner, named Monsieur Nerack, and I falling in familiar acquaintance, upon a time he told me secretly that he would gladly for Conscience and Merits sake, redeeme some poore Christian slave from Turkish Captivity. To the which, I applauded his advice, and told him the next Friday following I would assist him to so worthy an action: Friday comes, and he and I went for Constantinople, where the Market of the slaves being ready, we spent two houres in viewing, and reviewing five hundreth Males and Females. At last I pointed him to have bought an old man or woman, but his minde was contrary set, shewing me that he would buy some virgin, or young widdow, to save their bodies undefloured with Infidels. The price of a virgin was too deare for [IV. 137.]him, being a hundred Duckets, and widdows were farre under, and at an easier rate: When we did visite and search them that we were mindfull to buy, they were [123]strip’d starke naked before our eyes, where the sweetest face, the youngest age, and whitest skin was in greatest value and request: The Jewes sold them, for they had bought them from the Turkes: At last we fell upon a Dalmatian widdow, whose pittifull lookes, and sprinkling teares, stroke my soule almost to the death for compassion: whereupon I grew earnest for her reliefe, and he yeelding to my advice, she is bought and delivered unto him, the man being 60. yeares of age, and her price 36. Duckets. We leave the market and came over againe to Galata, where he and I tooke a Chamber for her, and leaving them there, the next morning I returned earely, suspecting greatly the dissembling devotion of the Gunner to be nought but luxurious lust, and so it proved: I knocked at the Chamber doore, that he had newly locked, and taken the key with him to the ship, for he had tarried with her all that night; and she answering me with teares, told me all the manner of his usage, wishing her selfe to be againe in her former captivity: whereupon I went a shipboord to him, & in my griefe I swore, that if he abused her any more after that manner, and not returned to her distresse, her Christian liberty; I would first make it knowne to his Maister the Captaine of the ship, and then to the French Ambassadour: for he was mindfull also, his lust being satisfied to have sold her over againe to some other: At which threatning the old Pallyard became so fearefull, that he entred in a reasonable condition with me, and the ship departing thence sixe dayes thereafter, he freely resigned to me her life, her liberty and freedome: which being done, and he gone, under [IV. 138.]my hand before divers Greekes, I The Dalmatian Widdow relieved.subscribed her libertie, and hyr’d her in the same Taverne for a yeare, taking nothing from her, for as little had she to give me, except many blessings and thankefull prayers: This French Gunner was a Papist, and heare you may behold the dregs of his devotion, and what seven nights leachery cost him, you may cast up the reckoning of 36. Duckets.

In Constantinople there have happened many fearefull [124]fires, which often hath consumed to ashes the most part of the rarest Monuments there, and the beauty of infinite Pallaces; as Zonoras the Constantinopolitan Historiographer in his Histories mentioneth. And now lately in the yeare 1607. October 14. there were burned above 3000. houses, of which I saw a number of ruines (as yet) Pestilence and Earth quakes.unrepaired. It is subject also to divers Earth quakes, which have often subverted the Towers, Houses, Churches, and Walles of the City to the ground. Especially in the yeare 1509. in the raigne of Bajazeth, the ninth Emperour of the Turkes, in which time, more then 13000. persons were all smothered and dead, and laid up in heapes unburied. And commonly every third yeare, the pestilence is exceeding great in that City, and after such an odious manner; that those who are infected (before they die) have the halfe of their one side rot, and fall away: so that you may easily discerne the whole intrailes of their bowels. It is not licentiated here, nor else where in all Turkey, that any Christian should enter in their Moskies, or Churches, without the conduct of a Janisary; the tryall whereof I had when I viewed that glorious and great Church of Sancta Sophia, once the beauty and ornament of all Europe; and is now the chiefe place, to which the Great Turke or Emperour goeth every Friday, their Sabboth day to doe his devotion, being accompanied with 3000. Janisaries, besides Bashawes, [IV. 139.]Chowses and Hagars. Truely I may say of Constantinople, as I said once of the world, in the Lamentado of my second Pilgrimage;

A painted Whoore, the maske of deadly sin,

Sweet faire without, and stinking foule within.

For indeed outwardly it hath the fairest show, and inwardly in the streets being narrow, and most part covered, the filthiest & deformed buildings in the world; the reason of its beauty, is, because being situate on moderate prospective heights, the universall tectures, a farre off, yeeld a delectable show, the covertures being [125]erected like the backe of a Coach after the Italian fashion with gutterd tyle. But being entred within, there is nothing but a stinking deformity, and a loathsome contrived place; without either internall domesticke furniture, or externall decorements of fabricks palatiatly extended. Notwithstanding that for its situation, the delicious wines, & fruits, the temperate climat, the fertile circumjacent fields, and for the Sea Hellespont, and pleasant Asia on the other side: it may truely be called the Paradice of the earth.

Perah is over against Constantinople, called of old, Cornubizantii; but by the Turkes, Galata, being both a quarter of a mile distant, and the Thraick Bosphore dividing the two. It is the place at which Christian Ships touch, and where The Christian Ambassadours at Perah.the Ambassadours of Christendome lie. The number of the Christian Ambassadours that then lay there, and now doe, were these, first the Romane Emperours, then the French, thirdly the English, fourthly the Venetian, and lastly the Holland Ambassadours, with whom often for discourses I was familiar, although with Noble Sir Thomas Glover I was still domestick for 12. weekes, whose Secretary for that time was my Countrey man, Maister James Rollocke, who now, as I take it, is resident in Striveling; he was the last Scotsman I saw till my returne to Malta after my departure from Constantinople.

[IV. 140.]From thence I went to the blacke Sea: but commonly Mare Euxinum, where I saw Pompeyes Pillar.Pompeyes Pillar of Marble, standing neere the shoare, upon a rocky Iland: and not far from thence, is a Lanthorne higher then any Steeple, whereon there is a panne full of liquor, that burneth every night to give warning unto ships how neare they come the shore; It is not much unlike these Lanthornes of Ligorne and Genua. The water of this Sea is never a whit blacker then other Seas: but it is called blacke, in respect of the dangerous events in darke and tempestuous nights, which happen there; and because of the Rockes and Sands which lye a great way from the maine [126]shore: upon which many vessels many times are cast away. The blacke Sea is not farre from Galata, for I both went and returned in one day, being forty miles out, and in: For I went by boate, and not by land, through the pleasant Euripus, that runneth betweene the Euxine Sea and Hellespont: And by the way, I cannot but regrate, the great losse Sir Thomas Glover received by the Duke of Moldavia, who chargeably entertained him two yeares in his house, and furnished him with great moneys, and other necessaries fit for his eminency: This Duke or Prince of Bugdonia was depraved of his Principalities by Achmet, and fled hither to the Christian Ambassadours for reliefe: To whom when all the rest had refus’d acceptance, onely Noble Sir Thomas received him, maintained him, and seriously wrought with the Grand Signior and his Counsell, to have had him restored againe to his Lands, but could not prevaile.

In the end, Sir Thomas Glovers five yeares time of Ambassodry being expired, and the Duke hearing privately that Sir Paul Pinder was to come in his place, as indeede he came too soone: this Moldavian Prince stole earely [IV. 141.]away in the morning over to Constantinople; and The Duke of Moldavia turnd Turke.long or midday turnd Turke, and was circumcised, contenting himselfe onely for all his great Dukedome, with a Palace, and a yearely pension of twelve thousand Chickens of Gold during his life. Which, when we heard, the Ambassadour, and we were all amazed and discontented: He was indebted to the Ambassadour above 15. thousand Chickens of Gold, yet or my leaving Galata, I went twice over with Sir Thomas, and saw him, and found him attended with a number of Turkes, who when he saw me, tooke me kindly by the hand, for we had bene two moneths familiar in the Ambassadors house before.

The English Ambassador within halfe a yeare, recovered the halfe of his moneys, the other halfe he was forced to forgoe for diverse importunate respects. Nay, I must say one thing more of this Knight, he releeved more slaves from the Galleys, payd their ransomes, and sent [127]them home freely to their Christian stations, and kept a better house, than any Ambassadour did, that ever lay at Constantinople, or ever shall to the worlds end.

His mother was a Pollonian, who comming from Dansicke to London, was delivered of him upon the Sea: Afterward he was brought up at Constantinople from a boy, and spoke, and wrot the Slavonian Tongue perfectly: And thence returning for London, he was the first Ambassador King James, of blessed Memory, sent to Constantinople, after his comming to the Crowne of England: And this much for this worthy and ever renowned Knight, whose prayse and fame I cannot too much celebrate.

The Turkes have no Bels in their Churches, neither the use of a clocke, nor numbring of houres, but they have high round Steeples, for they contrafact, and contradict all the formes of Christians: when they goe to pray, [IV. 142.]they are called together by the voyce of crying men, who goe upon the bartizings of their Steeples, shouting and crying with a shrill voyce: La illa, Eillalla, Mahomet Rezul allah, that is: God is a great God, and Mahomet is his Prophet, or otherwise there is but one God.

In Constantinople, and all other places of Turky, I ever saw three Sabboths together, in one weeke: The Friday for the Turkes, the Saturday for Jewes, and the Sunday for Christians: but the Turkes Sabboth is worst kept of all: for they will not spare to do any labour on their Holy Day. They have meetings at their publicke Prayers, Times of Turkish prayers.every day five severall times: the first is, before the rising of the Sunne: The second is, a little before midday: The third is, at three of the clocke in the afternoone: The fourth is, at the Sunne-setting, Sommer and Winter: Fifthly, the last howre of Prayer, is alwayes two or three howres within night. Many of them will watch till that time, and not sleepe; and others sleeping, will awake at the voyce of the Cryer, and go to Church.

In signe of reverence, and in a superstitious devotion, before they go into their Mosquees, they wash themselves in a Lavotoio, beginning at the privy members, next their [128]mouthes faces, feete and hands: And entring, they incline their heads downeward to the earth; and falling on their knees, do kisse the ground three times. Then the Talasumany, which is the chiefe Priest, mounteth upon a high stone, where he maketh many Orations to Mahomet: and the rest to assist him, continue a long time shaking their heads, as though they were out of all their naturall understanding, repeating oft this word Haylamo, Haylamo; and after that will sigh grievously, saying, Houpek. And sometimes will abruptly sing the Psalmes of David in the Arabick tongue, but to no sense, nor verity of [IV. 143.]the Scriptures. And at their devotion, they will not tollerate any women in their company, lest they should withdraw their minds and affections from their present zeale: But the men observe their turnes and times, and the women theirs, going alwayes when they goe, either of them alone to their devotion: The like custome, but not after the same manner have I seene observed among the Protestants in Transilvania, Hungaria, Moravia, Bohemia, and Silesia, who when they come to Church on the Sabboth day, there is a Taffaty Curtaine drawne from the Pulpit to the Church wall over against it: The men sitting on the right hand of the Preacher, the women on the left; whose eyes and faces cannot see other during divine Service, save only the Minister that over-toppeth both sides; and truly me thought it was a very modest, and necessary observation. The Turkes are circumcised.The Turks are generally circumcised after the manner of the Jewes, but not after 8. dayes, but after 8. yeares. The Church men are called Hadach Casseis, or Darvises, who weare on their heads greene Shashes, to make distinction betweene them and others: for they are accounted to be of Mahomets kindred.

They hold all mad men in great reverence, as Prophets or Saints, & if they intend any far journey, privat purposes, or otherwise, before they go to battell, they come to crave counsell of these Santones, to know if they shall prosper, or not, in their attempts. And whatsoever answer these Bedleem Prophets give, it is holden to be so credible, as if [129]an Oracle had spoken it. The Turkish Priests are for the most part Moores, whom they account to be a base people in respect of themselves, calling them Totseks: Their principall Church governour is called Mufti, Whose definitive sentence in Lawe or Religion is penetrable, and [IV. 144.]absolutely valiant: Neither abaseth he himselfe to sit in the Divano, nor affordeth more reverence to the Emperour, than he to him. The Turkish Church-men.The other sort of Church-men are the Naipi or young Doctors, the Caddi, whereof there is two or three in every Citty to judge the offences; the Calsi or Readers, and the Mudressi which use to oversee the Cadeis in their Office: They were all formerly Idolatrous Pagans, and were fast initiated in Mahometanisme, when they got the Soveraignty of the Persian Scepter; by the great Battell, and fortunate conduct of Tangrolipix in overthrowing Mahomet a Saracenicall Sultan of Persia; who inthronized himselfe, in the Persian Chayre of Estate, Anno 1030. This prerogative Title of Mufti, was first intituled Caliph, whose residence was in Babylon, and wholly supreme over the Mahometans: But the Ægyptians after the death of Mot adi Bila, withdrew themselves from this Babylonian obedience, and choosed one of their owne, to whom the Moores of Barbary submitted themselves.

Babylon recovered by the Persians.But now since Bagdat, or Babylon hath beene recovered by the Persians, about foure yeares agoe, their Mahometanicall Mufti or Caliph, that then was Resident there, is now retired to Constantinople, where he sitteth in a more securer place, thinking rather to follow the Grandeur of the Turke, than the broken Estate of the Persian, whence I may truly say, he is Fortunes Page, that favoureth them most, who have most favourers.

This unwealdy body having two heads, began to decline; for Allan a Tartarian Captaine, starved Mustatzem the last divided Babylonian Caliph to death and rooted out all his posterity: And then Sarancon the first Turkish King in Ægypt, brained the last Ægyptian Caliph with his Mace, leaving none of the issue, or Kindred [130]surviving. The Office of the Caliph is now executed in [IV. 145.]Turkey, under the name Muphti, or high Priest. All Turkes do detest the colour of blacke, and thinke those that weare it, shall never enter into Paradise: But the colour of greatest request among them is greene; wherewith if any Christian be apparrelled, he shall be sure of Bastinadoes, and other punishments: Neither may he use the name of their Prophet Mahomet in his mouth, (under the paine of a cruell censure to be inflicted upon him) whom they so much adore, and honour.

Mahomets birth.This Mahomet was borne, Anno Dom. 591. in Itraripia, a beggarly Village in Arabia, whose father was Abdillas, an Ismaelite; and his mother Cadiges, a Jew; both different in Religion, and also of diverse Countries: In his youth he was partly taught the Judaicall Law, and partly the superstition of the Gentiles. Many alleadge his parentage was never knowne (being so base) untill his riper yeares bewrayed the same, I also learned that his Parents dyed whiles he was a young child, and was turned over to his Unckle, who afterward sold him to one Abdeminoples, a Merchant in Palestina: And he, after a little time, having remarked his ready and prompt wit, sent him downe to Ægypt, to be a Factor in his Merchandise; where, by his dissimulate behaviour, he crept in favour with Christians, Jewes, and Gentiles. He was in proportion of a meane stature, lively faced, big-headed, eloquent in language, of a sanguinicall complexion, and a couragious stomacke, in all attempts exceeding desperate: he was also deceitfull, variant, and fradulent, as may appeare in his Satanicall Fables, expressed in his Alcoran, where oft one saying contradicteth another, both in words, and effect.

About this time there was one Sergius, an Italian borne, banished from Constantinople, because he allowed of the [IV. 146.]Arrian sect; who afterward came to Palestina, and frequenting the house of Abdeminoples, fell in acquaintance with the young man Mahomet; and this Frier perceiving the aspiring quicknes of his braine, bore a great affection [131]

to his naturall perfections. Shortly after this, his Maister dying without heires, and his Mistresse enjoying many rich possessions; she, for these his extraordinary qualities, from the degree of a Servant, advanced him to be her owne Husband.

That unhappy match was no sooner done but she repented it with teares: Mahomet possessed with the falling sicknes.for he being subject to the falling sicknesse, would often fall flat on the ground before her, staring, gaping, and foaming at the mouth; so that his company became loathsome and detestable. The which begun contempt in his bed-fellow; being to him manifested, he strove (under the shaddow of invented lies) to mitigate the fury of her hatefull disdaine; faining, and attesting, that when he fell to the ground, it was the great God spoke with him, before whose face (sayth he) I am not able to stand; such is the soliciting of me, with words of terrour and Majesty, to reforme the wayes of the degenerate people with fire, and sword; sith Moses and Christ (notwithstanding of their miracles) have beene rejected by the world. The old Trot, believing all these flattering speeches, was not onely appeased of her former conceit, but also loving him more then a husband, reverenced him for a divine Prophet; imparting the same unto her neighbours and gossips. After they had lived two yeares together, the bewitched Matron dying, left all her possessions to Mahomet; both because she accounted him to be a Prophet, and next for that loving regard she had of his tender body, being but 30. yeares of age. He being thus left with great riches, was puft [IV. 147.]up in pride, and hauty desires, striving by all inordinary meanes, to bring his new devised plots to perfection. For the better performance whereof, he consulted with this Sergius a Nestorian Monk, and Atodala another Thalmudist, a diverted Jew; hereupon these two helhounds, and the other perverst Runagate, patched up a most monstrous, and divellish Religion to themselves, and to their miscreant beleevers; partly composed of the Judaicall law, partly of Arrianisme, partly intermixed with some [132]points of Christianity; and partly of other fantasticall fopperies, which his owne invention suggested unto him.

The Booke of this Religion is named the Alcoran, the whole body of which, is but an exposition, and glosse on the eight commandements he affixed; whereupon dependeth The Law of Mahomet.the whole Mahometanicall Law: First, every one ought to beleeve that God is a great God, and onely God, and Mahomet is his Prophet. Secondly, every man must marry to encrease the Sectaries of Mahomet: Thirdly, every one must give of his wealth to the poore: Fourthly, every one must make his prayers seaven times a day: Fiftly, every one must keepe a Lent, one moneth in the yeare, this Lent is called Birham, or Ramazan: Sixtly, Be obedient to thy Parents; which Law is so neglected, that never any children were, or are more unnaturall then the Turkish be: Seaventhly, thou shalt not kill, which they inviolable keepe amongst themselves; but the poore Christians feele the smart thereof. Last and eightly, Doe unto others, as thou wouldst be done unto thy selfe, the performers of which have large Sophisticall promises ascribed them.

This new coyned doctrine, was no sooner wrapt up in his execrable Alcoran, but he began to spit forth his abhominable and blasphemous heresies: Affirming, that Christ was not the sonne of the most high, nor that [IV. 148.]Messias looked for; denying also the Trinity, with many other prophane blasphemies. The worke concluded, for the better advancement of his purpose, he married the daughter of the chiefe Prince of his owne tribe: By which new affinity, he not onely seduced his Father in law, but also the whole linage of that family; by whose acceptance, and conversion, he also confederated with other associates, and waxed dayly stronger. Contending continually to divulgate his name, aye more and more, he assembled his new Alcoranists: exhorting them to assist him in the besieging of Mecha, which Citizens had in derision rebuked his law, and absolutely disdained his Mahometanicall illusions: and promised to them, in such a well [133]deserving attempt, both eternall felicity, and the spoiles of these his contradictors; perswasively assuring them, that God would deliver all the gaine-sayers of his Alcoran into his hands. By which allurements they being moved, rose to the number of 3000. in Armes, and menaced Mecha, but the Citizens put him to flight, and so was he thrice served; till in the end he wonne their City: wherein after his death Mahomets Tombe.he was intombed in an Iron Coffin: Which betweene two Adamants hangeth to this day (as I have been informed of sundry Turkes, who saw it) which confirmed in them a solid beliefe of his erronious doctrine.

But now of late the Turkes growing more circumspect then they were, and understanding the derision of Christianes concerning their hanging Tombe, and because the Turkish Pilgrimes were often suffocate to death, with a fabulous desart in going to Mecha; they have transported Mahomets Tombe now to Medina; which is a great deale nearer to Damascus, and at the entry of Arabia fœlix; in a glorious Mosquee, where the Tombe being close ground set, and richly covered with a golden [IV. 149.]Cannopy; they have inhibited that any Christian shall come neare to it by two courses, to wit. twenty foure miles, under the payne of death: which indeed they keepe more strictly in execution, then Princely Proclamations are obeyed, observed, or regarded with us; either for regall statutes, or generall benefits of Common-wealth: their continuance being but like the miracle of nine daies wonder; returne againe from whence they came frustrat of power, and robbed of obedience. From this time that he vanquished Mecha, casting out the Greeke Officers, (for then all Arabia was under the Constantinopolitan Empire) the Saracens began their computation of yeares (as we from Christs Nativity) which they call Hegira, and begunne about the yeare of our Redemption, 617. Concerning which time, that Mahomet compiled his divellish Alcoran, beginning his Empire; nigh about the same time it is observed that Boniface the third begun his Empire, and Antechristian title, for Phocas having [134]killed the Emperour Mauritius, his Wife and children: To secure himselfe of Italy, ready to revolt from such a Tyrant, made Boniface universall Bishop and head of the Church.

This Boniface was the threescore and fourth Bishop, & The first title of Popes.first Pope of Rome: Which was immediatly thereafter confirmed by Puppin the French King, who also had murdered his Master and Prince; and lastly was ratified by Paleologus, whose sonne Constantine about 14. yeares thereafter, had his head stroake off, his wife and daughters put to cruell death, his Empire quite subverted, in the losse of 12. Kingdomes, and 200. Cities, being the just judgements of God upon the sonne, for the fathers sake, who assigned such an ambitious charge unto that perverse Papality: After which predominant titles and falsified [IV. 150.]power, what long controversies and disputes were betweene the Pope, and the Councels of Carthage, Calcedon, Ephesus, Allexandria, and Nyce. This Papall prerogative begun with bloud, and murther, continueth in bloud, and massacres, and (doubtlesse) in the ende shall perish, and be confounded with bloud, and abhominable destruction.

And what great debate was of old by the Romane Emperours, in abolishing out of their Churches, the Images and Idols of Stone, Iron, & Timber, &c. that for many hundreth yeares they were not suffered to be seene: And at the beginning of the Papality, and a long time after, the Emperours prohibite them, and diverse Popes have confirmed, and approved the same: Yet succeeding Popes, and the Empire being divided in East and West, introducted againe, the dregs of their olde Hethnish and Romish Idolatry.Romane Idolatry: and yet they will not be content with the bare name of Images, but they impose a surname or epithite of sanctity, tearming them holy Images. Truely I may say, if it were not for these Images, and superstitious Idolatries, they assigne to them, the Turkes had long agoe bene converted to the Christian Faith.

I have seene sometimes two thousand Turkes travelling [135]Turkish Mecha, in Pilgrimage; which is in Arabia felix: where many in a superstitious devotion, having seene the Tombe of Mahomet, are never desirous to see the vanities of the World againe: For in a franticke piety they cause a Smith to pull forth their eyes: And these men are called afterward Hoggeis, that is, Holy men, whom the Turkes much honour, and regard: and are alwayes led about from towne to towne by mens hands, and fed, and regarded like unto Princes; or like the Capushines that scourge themselves on good Friday, met, and homaged at every passing Streete, with prayers, gifts, and adorations.

[IV. 151.]Some write, that Mahomet in his youth was a Souldier, under the conduct of Heraclius, who imploying certaine Arabians in an expedition to Persia, not onely denied them their wages, but told them, that, that was not to be given for dogges, which was provided for the Romane Souldiers. Hence some mutinies arrising in the Army, he, with certaine Arabians, his Country-men, by faction, separated themselves, and revolted: Whereupon Mahomet, encouraging them in their defection, was chosen their Captaine; and so for a certaine time they continued rebellious Runnagates, Theeves, and Robbers of all people. The subtilty of this dissembler was admirable; who knowing that he was destitute of heavenly gifts, to worke miracles, feignd, that God sent him with the sword: He also promised, at the end of a thousand yeares to returne, and bring them to Paradice; Mahomet hath broke his promise.but he hath falsified his promise, for the time is expired forty yeares ago. And they imagining, that he is either diseased, or become lame in his journey, have ascribed to him another thousand yeares to come. But long may their wicked and faithlesse generation gape, before he come, untill such time, that in a generall convocation, they be partakers of his endlesse damnation in Hell; unlesse it please the Lord in his mercy to convert them before that time.

Mahomet, chiefly prohibiteth in his Alcoran, the eating of Swines flesh, and drinking of Wine, which indeed the best sort do, but the baser kind are dayly drunkards: [136]Their common drinke is Sherpet, composed of Water, Honey, and Sugar, which is exceeding delectable in the taste: And the usuall courtesie, they bestow on their friends, who visite them, is a Cup of Coffa, made of a kind of seed called Coava, and of a blackish colour; which they drinke so hote as possible they can, and is good to [IV. 152.]expell the crudity of raw meates, and hearbes, so much by them frequented. And those that cannot attaine to this liquor, must be contented with the cooling streames of water.

Oppression of Turkes.It is incident to Turkes, which have not the generosity of mind to temper felicity, to be glutted with the superfluous fruites of doubtfull prosperity. Neither have they a patient resolution to withstand adversity, nor hope to expect the better alteration of time. But by an infused malice in their wicked spirits, when they are any way calamited, will with importunate compulsion, cause the poore slavish subjected Christians, surrender all they have, the halfe, or so forth, sometimes with strokes, menacings, and sometimes death it selfe; which plainely doth demonstrate their excessive cruelty, and the poore Christians inevitable misery. And yet being complained upon, they are severely punished, or else put to death, for committing of such unallowable Ryots, being expresly against the Imperiall Law of the Turke, concerning the quietnesse and liberty of the Christians.

I have often heard Turkes brawle one with another most vilely, but I never saw, or heard, that they either in private or publicke quarrels, durst strike one another, neither dare they for feare of severe punishment, imposed to such quarrellors: But they will injure and strike Christians, who dare not say it is amisse, or strike againe. It is a common thing with them, to kill their servants for a very small offence, and when they have done, throw them like dogges in a ditch. And oftentimes (if not so) will lay them downe on their backes, hoysing up their heeles, bind their feete together, and fasten them to a post, and with a cudgell give them three or foure hundreth [137]blowes on the soles of their feete: Whereupon peradventure, some ever go lame after. Their servants are [IV. 153.]bought and sold, like bruite beasts in Markets; neither can these miserable drudges ever recover liberty, except they buy themselves free, either by one meane or other. Their wives are not farre from the like servitude, for the men by the Alcoran, are admitted to marry as many women as they will, or their ability can keepe. And if it shall happen, that any one of these women (I meane either wife or Concubine) prostituteth her selfe to an other man besides her husband; then may he, by authority, bind her hands and feete, hang a stone about her necke, and cast her into a River, which by them is usually done in the night.

But when these Infidels please to abuse poore Christian women against their husbands will, they little regard the transgression of the Christian Law; who as well defloure their daughters, as their wives; yet the devout Mahometans never meddle with them, accompting themselves damned to copulate (as they thinke) with the offspring of dogges. The Turkes generally, when they commit any copulation with Christians, or their owne sexe, they wash themselves in a South running fountaine, before the Sun rising, thinking thereby to wash away their sinnes.

The Turkes Justice.If a Turke should happen to kill another Turke, his punishment is thus; after he is adjudged to death, he is brought forth to the market place, and a blocke being brought hither of foure foote high; the malefactor is stripd naked; and then layd thereupon with his belly downeward, they drawe in his middle together so small with running cords, that they strike his body a two with one blow: his hinder parts they cast to be eaten by hungry dogges kept for the same purpose; and the forequarters and head they throw into a grievous fire, made there for the same end: and this is the punishment for man-slaughter.

[IV. 154.]But for murder or treason he is more cruelly used, for being convicted & condemned, he is brought forth before the people, where in the street there is an exceeding high [138]Stripad erected, much like to a May-pole: which tree from the roote, till it almost come to the top, is all set about full of long sharpe iron pikes, and their poynts upward: The Villaine being strip’d naked, and his hands bound backward, they bind a strong rope about his shoulders and cleavings: And then hoysing him up to the pillow or top of the tree, they let the rope flee loose, whence downe he falles, with a rattle, among the iron pykes, hanging either by the buttocks, by the breasts, by the sides, or shoulders; and there sticking fast in the ayre, he hangeth till his very bones rot and fall downe, and his body be devoured being quicke, with ravenous Eagles, kept to prey upon his carkas for the same purpose.

Turkish marriages.But now I come to their nuptiall rites, their custome and manner of marriage is thus: If a man affecteth a yong mayd, he buyeth her of her parents, and giveth a good summe of money for her, and after she is bought, he enrolles her name in the Cadies Booke, witnessing she is his bound wife, bought of her father. Loe, this is all the forme of their marriage: This being done, the father of the woman sendeth houshold-stuffe home with the Bride; which is carried through the streets on Mulets or Camells backes, the two new married folkes marching before, are conveyed with musicke, their owne acquaintance, and friends unto his house.

The Turkes in generall, whensoever they loath or dislike their wives, use to sell them in markets, or otherwise bestow them on their men-slaves: And although their affection were never so great towards them, yet they never eate together, for commonly the women stand, and [IV. 155.]serve their husbands at meate, and after that, they eate a part by themselves, secretly; without admission of any mankind in their company, if they be above foureteene yeares of age. They goe seldome abroad, unlesse it be each Thursday at night, when they goe to the Graves to mourne for the dead, alwayes covering their faces, very modestly with white or blacke masks, which are never [139]uncovered, till they returne to their houses. Many other ceremonies they have, which would be too prolixe for me to recite. And notwithstanding of all this externall gravity, amongst these hirelings, yet there are in Constantinople above 40000. brothel-houses, Turqueski as Libertines; in any of which, if a Christian (especially Francks) be apprehended, he must either turne Turke, or Slave all his life: But the women by policy apply a counter-poyson to this severity, for they accustomably come to the Chambers of their Benefactors and well-willers, or other places appointed secretly, whereso they learne either a French Syncopa, or an Italian Bergamasko.

The Emperors Concubines.As for the great Turkes Concubines, they are of number eight hundred, being the most part Emeeres, Bashawes, and Timariots daughters: The third and inmost part of the Seraglia is allotted for their residence, being well attended at all times with numbers of Enuches, and other gelded officers: Every morning they are ranked in a great Hall, and set on high and open seats: where when he commeth, and selecting the youngest and fairest, he toucheth her with a rod; and immediately she followeth him into his cabine of leachery, where if any action be done, shee receiveth from the Head-Clarke her approbation thereupon, which ever afterwards serveth her for a conditionall dowry to her marriage, with much honour and [IV. 156.]reputation besides: And if any of them conceave, and the child borne, it is suddenly dispatched from this life: A hundred Concubines changed every moneth.The oldest hundreth, every first Friday of the moneth are turned out, and another new hundred come in to make good the number: Their entrie and issue is alwayes at one of the posterne gates of the Parke, toward the sea side, and joyning nigh to their Pallace: Whence crossing Bosphore, in an appointed barge, they both goe and come in one day, from and to the Galata, which I my selfe did see three several times: The oldest and last hundred that are every moneth dismissed, they depart from the Galata, home to their Parents and severall Countreys, rejoycing that they were counted worthy to be chosen and entertained [140]to be their Emperours Concubines. The custome of the great Turke is, every Friday being their Sabboth day after divine service and dinner, to run at the Glove in a open place before all the people, with some Hagars, or yong striplings that accompany him; who have the Glove hanging as high on a sticke, as we have the ring with us: And truely of all the Turkish Emperours that ever were, this Achmet was the most gentle & favourable to Christians; who rather for his bounty and tendernesse might have beene intitulated the Christian Emperour, then the Pagane King: for he dissanulled all the exactions that had beene inflicted by his predecessors upon his tributarie Christian subjects; and cancelled the custome or tythe of their Male children, abrogating also that imposition on their Female dowries.

The Lent of the Turkes is called Byrham, which continueth the space of a moneth once in the yeare: In all which time, from the Sunne rising to his setting, they neither eate nor drinke: And at their prayers (especially in this fasting) they use often to reiterate these words [IV. 157.]Hue, hue, hue, that is; He, he, he, alone is God; or, There is but one onely supreme Power; which they doe in derision of Christians, who (as they say) adore three Gods. They have also this sinister opinion, that at the day of Judgement, when Mahomet shall appeare, there shall be three displayed Banners, under the which all good The Turkes Paradise.people shall be conducted to Paradise: The one of Moses, under the which the children of Israel shall be: The second of Jesus, under which Christians shall be: The third of Mahomet, under the which shall be the Arabs, Turkes, and Musilmans: All which, they thinke, shall be elevated to severall honours; and they in promotion shall be discerned from the rest, by Chambers made of resplendant light, which God will give them; wherein they shall have banquetings, feastings, dancing, and the best melody can be devised; and that they shall spend their times with amorous Virgins, (whose mansion shall be neare by) the men never exceeding the age of thirty yeares, and the [141]Virgines fifteene, and both shall have their Virginities renewed, as fast, as lost.

They hold also this, as a confident article of their Beliefe, there are seven Paradises in heaven, the pavements whereof are laid with gold, silver, pearles, pretious stones, and garnished with stately buildings, and pleasant gardens, wherein are all sorts of fruit, and Princely Pallaces; through the which runne Rivers of milke, honey, and wine.

The first Paradise, they call it Genete Alcholde, the second Alfirduzy, the third Anthinak, the fourth Reduasch, the fift Azelem, the sixt Alcodush, that is holy, and the seventh Almega, that is, the greatest. And that in the midst of this last Paradise, there is a stately tree, called Tubah, the leafe of which is partly of gold, [IV. 158.]and partly of silver: whose boughes extend round about the wals of this seventh Paradice, whereon the name of Mahomet is written, neare to the name of God, in these words, Alla, illa, he, allah, Mahomet Rezul allah. The which words are in such reverence amongst the Turkes, that if a Christian should happen, unadvisedly to repeate them, he is adjudged to a most cruell death, or compulsed to renounce his Christian Religion.

The Turkes Lent.Their Lent lasteth thirty dayes, called Byrham, some name it also Ramadan; induring which time, they eate nor drinke nothing from Sunne rising to its setting downe: but when night commeth they Cormandize at their selfe pleasures: Their moneth of Lent is our January, where every day after their severall devotions, they goe to solemne playes; and all kind of prophane pastimes: counting that best devotion, which is most sutable to their dispositions; allotting fancy to follow their folly, and blindnesse, to overtop the ignorance of nature, drawing all their drifts within the circle of destruction: But indeed, as they are blind, in the true way of sacred worship; yet are they masked with a wonderfull zeale to their devoted blindnesse; surpassing farre in shew, and observations, the generall Professours of Christianity, and all the Ceremonies [142]can bee annexed thereunto: Theirs running on with the flouds of ignorant affection, and ours distracted with the inutile novelties of superfluous Schoole questions: which indeed do more distemper the truth, than render God to be rightly glorified.

The Turkes opinion of hell.As concerning their opinion of Hell, they hold it to be a deepe Gulfe, betwixt two Mountaines: from the mouth whereof are Dragons, that continually throw fire, being large eight leagues, and hath a darke entry, where the horrible Fiends meete the perplexed sinners, conveying [IV. 159.]them till they come to a bridge, that is so narrow as the edge of a Razor: whereupon these who have not committed haynous offences, may passe over to Hell, but those who have done Buggery (as the most part of them do) and homicide, shall fall headlong from it, to the profoundest pit in Hell, where they shall sometimes burne in fire, & sometimes be cast into hot boyling waters to be refreshed. And for the greater punishment of the wicked (say they) God hath planted a tree in Hell named Sajaratash, or Roozo Saytanah, that is, the head of the Divell, upon the fruit of which, the damned continually feed: Mahomet in one of the Chapters of his Alcoran calleth this tree, the Tree of Malediction.

They also thinke the tormented soules may one day be saved, providing they do indure the scorching flames of Hell patiently. Thus, as briefly as I could, have I layd open the opinions of the Turkes, concerning their Heaven and Hell, before the eyes of these, who peradventure have never bene acquainted with such a ghostly Discourse.

The number of all the Emperours in East and West.And now I thinke it not amisse to reckon you up in generall all the Romane and Greeke Emperours, that have bene from the beginning to this present time, both in the East, and in the West, with the number of the Turkish Emperours also: Beginning now at Julius Cæsar, the first Dictatour of Romane Emperour, to Constantine the Great, who transported the seate of the Empire from Rome to Constantinople, he was the three score and fourth [143]Emperour: And from Constantine the Great in the East, to the first made Emperour in the West, there were thirty nine Emperours: of whom Constantine the sixth, sonne to Leo the third, with Irena his wife was the last sole Emperour, and she Empresse of East and West: After whose death and overthrow, Charlemaine was called in to [IV. 160.]Italy to danton the Lombards, who had oppressed that region, and the peace of the Church for two hundreth yeares: He chased them from Rome, Apulia, and from all Italy, and was therefore declared by Pope Leo, the Romane Emperour of the West: from Charlemaine to this present Ferdinando that now raigneth, Charlemaine being the hundreth and fourth, there were forty and one Emperors: So in all, with this Emperour Ferdinando, lately Duke of Grasse, the number amounts to of these Emperours, counting from Julius Cæsar to Constantine the sixt, the last sole Emperour of the East, and after him, from Charlemaine the first Emperour of the West, to this time, their number have bene a hundreth and forty sixe Emperours.

Some whereof were Greekes, which cannot perfectly be set downe, in regard some were Empresses, and others suddenly elected, were as suddenly murthered or poysoned.

Now to reckon the Turkish Emperors, I will first begin from the time that the Turkes tooke a Monarchick name, under the name of Ottoman, even to Mahomet the second, the first Grecian Emperour, beginning, I say at Ottoman, the sonne of Orthogule the first Emperour of the Turkes, and the first that erected the glory of his Nation; there were nine Emperours to Mahomet the second: And from him to this present Amurath, that now raigneth, there have bene eleven Emperours: The number of which are onely twenty, and or they come to thirty, they and theirs, I hope, shall be rooted from the earth.

The beginning of the Turkes.The Originall of the Turkes, is sayd to have bene in Scythia, from whence they came to Arabia Petrea, and giving battell oft to the Sarazens, in the ende subdued [144]them, and so they multiplied, and mightily increased: the apparence of their further increasing, is very evident, [IV. 161.]except God of his mercy towards us prevent their blood sucking threatnings, with the vengeance of his just judgements.

The Sarazens are descended of Esau, who after he had lost the blessing, went and inhabited in Arabia Petrea; and his Posterity, striving to make a cleere distinction betweene them, the Ismaelites, and Jewes, called themselves (as come of Sara) Sarazens; and not of Hagar, the handmaide of Abraham, of whom came the Ismaelites, neither of the race of Jacob, of whom came the Jewes. But now the Sarazens being joyned with the Turkes, their Conquerours, have both lost their name, and the right of their discent.

The Turkes which are borne and bred in the lesser Asia, and East parts of Europe, The Turkes complexion.are generally well complexioned, proportionably compacted, no idle nor superfluous talkers, servile to their grand Signior, excessively inclined to Venery, and zealous in Religion: Their heads are alwayes shaven, reserving onely one tuft in the top above, by which they thinke one day to be caught to Heaven by Mahomet, and covered on all sides, counting it an opprobious thing to see any uncover his head, they weare their Beards long, as a signe of gravity, for they esteeme them to be wise men, who have long beards: The women are of a low stature, thicke and round of growth, going seldome abroad (unlesse it be each Thursday at night, when they go to mourne upon the graves of their dead friends) and then they are modestly masked: they are fearefull and shame-fast abroad, but lascivious within doores, and pleasing in matters of incontinency; and they are accounted most beautifull, who have the blackest browes, the widest mouthes, and the greatest eyes.

[IV. 162.]The other Turkes which are borne in Asia major, and Ægypt, (I speake not of the Moores of Barbary) are of a greater stature, tanny, cruell, a barbarous and uncivill [145]people. The better sort use the Slavonian tongue, the vulgar speake the Turkish language, which being originally the Tartarian speech, they borrow from the Persian their words of state, from the Arabicke, their words of Religion, from the Grecians, their termes of warre, and from the Italian their words and titles of navigation.

The puissance of the great Turke is admirable, yet the most part of his Kingdomes in Asia, are not well inhabited, neither populous, but these parts which border with Christians, are strongly fortified with Castles, people, and munition: If Christian Princes could concord, and consult together, it were an easie thing in one yeare, to subdue the Turkes, and roote out their very names from the earth; yea, moreover I am certified, that there are moe Christians, even slaves and subjects to the great Turke, which do inhabite his dominions, then might overthrow and conquer these Infidells, if they had worthy Captaines, Governours and furniture of Armes, without the helpe of any Christian of Christendome.

And yet againe, I thinke it not amisse to discourse more particularly of the Turkish manners, of their riches, and of their forces of warres, and the manner of their conducements.

The Turkes are Tartarians.The Turkes being naturally discended of the Scythians or Tartars, are of the second stature of man, and robust of nature, circumspect and couragious in all their attempts, and no way given to industry or labour, but are wonderfull avaritious and covetuous of money above all the nations of the world. They never observe their promises, unlesse it be with advantage, and are naturally prone to deceive [IV. 163.]strangers; changing their conditionall bargaines, as time giveth occasion to their liking: They are humble one to another, but especially to their superiours, before whom they doe not onely great homage, but also keepe great silence, and are wonderfull coy during the time of their presence: They are extreamely inclined to all sorts of Libidinous Turkes.lascivious luxury; and generally adicted, besides all their sensuall and incestuous lusts, unto Sodomy, which they [146]account as a daynty to digest all their other libidinous pleasures. They hold that every one hath the houre of his death wrot on his fore-brow, and that none can escape, the good or evill houre predestinated for them: This rediculous errour makes them so bold and desperate, yea, and often, to runne headlong in the most inevitable dangers: They are not much given to domesticke pastimes, as Chesse, Cards, Dice, and Tables, but abroad and in travell, they are exceeding kind disposers of their meate and drinke to any stranger without exception: The better sort of their women, are sumptuously attyred, and adorned with pearles and precious stones, and some of them are accustomed to turne their hands and haire into a red colour, but especially the nayles of their hands and feete; and are wont to go to bathe themselves in Stoves twice a weeke, as well as men.

The true Turkes weare on their heads white Turbanes, save a few that are esteem’d to be of Mahomets kinred, and they weare greene Shashes, being most part of them Priests: the better part of the Turkes in Asia, care not for fish, but these Turkes which remaine in Europe love fish better then flesh, especially at Constantinople or Stambolda, where the best fishes and most abundance of them are taken, that be in the world, and that in the blacke Sea: They are ever desirous to seeke advantage [IV. 164.]on their neighbours, which if they cannot by force, they will under colour of truce, accomplish it with perfidiousnesse. And if their interprises, finde no happy event, they are never a whit ashamed to take the flight, yet are they generally good souldiers, and well taught in martiall discipline: Their Armies in marching, or camping (notwithstanding infinite multitudes) keepe modestie and silence, and are extreamely obedient unto their Captaines and Commanders: When the great Signior is abroad with his armie at warres, the Turkes at home within Townes, use great prayers, and fasting for him and them: They ingeniously describe the victories of their Ancestours, and joyfully sing them in rimes and songs; thinking thereby [147]that fashion in recalling the valiant deeds of their predecessours, to be the onely meane to encourage their souldiers to be hardy, resolute and desperate in all their interprises: Turkes are noe Schollers.They are not given to contemplation, nor studdy of Letters or Arts; yet they have divers faire Schooles, where the publicke lecture of their legall Lawes are professed, and Mahometanisme; to the intent that Children, being elected to be brought up there for a nones, may be instructed, to be profitable expounders of their Alcoran, and judicious Judges for the government of the Common-wealth: It is seldome, and rarely seene, that a Turke will speake with a woman in the streets; nay, not so much as in their Mosquees one to be in sight of another; and yet they are Lords and Masters of their Wives and Concubines, from whom they receive as great respect, service and honour, as from their bond and bought slaves.

Now as concerning his riches, the chiefest three parts of Commerce of all kind of merchandise, and abounding in silver and gold in all the Turkes dominions, as well [IV. 165.]in Asia, and Affricke, as Europe, are these, Constantinople in Thracia of Europe: Aleppo in Syria of Asia major; and grand Cayro in Ægypt of Affricke: for these are the three Maggezzines of the whole Empire, that draw the whole riches, money, and trafficke to them of all the Imperiall Provinces: It is thought that ordinarily and The great Turkes yearely rent.annually the rent of the great Turke amounteth to sixteene millions of gold, notwithstanding that some doe make it lesser: But because it is so hard to judge of any Monarchs rents; being like the infinite concavities of the earth, sending, and receiving so innumerable wayes their streames of riches, I’le desist from any other instances: And yet the great Turkes revenewes, are no way answerable to his great & large dominions: The causes arising hereupon are many, of whom I will select three or foure of the chiefest reasons: First the Turkes being more given to armes, to conquer, to destroy and ruine, and to consume the wealth of the people they overcome, leaving them destitute, of nuriture; rather then any way to give course [148]for their encreasing and stablishing of traffique, out of which should flow the royall advantages. Certaine reasons.And the reason why they keepe their subjects poore, and frustrate themselves of great profits; is onely to weaken, and enfeeble them, whereby they should not have wherewith to move insurrection or rebellion against them. And on the other part, the Greekes are as unwilling to be industrious in Arts, traficke or cultivage; seeing what they possesse is not their owne, but is taken from them at all occasions, with tyranny & oppression. For what gaines the sower, if another reape the profit; So in the Ottomans estate, there be great Forrests, and desartuous Countries; proceeding of the scarcity of people to inhabit there, the multitudes being drawne from Asia, to strengthen the frontiers of his dominions in Europe.

[IV. 166.]And besides there is another reason of the dispopulosity of these parts; to wit, when the great Turkes Army, is to march to a farre Countrey to make warres, then must their vulgar subdued peasants, perhaps twenty or thirty thousands go along with them, to carry their victuals, and all manner of provision, being taken from the plough, and constrained to this servitude, and notwithstanding the halfe of them never returne againe: Partly, because of the change of food, and aire, and partly because of their long travell and insupportable service, both in heate and cold: And to these of the first reason, there is another perpendicular cause; to wit, that the whole commerce of all commodities in Turkey, is in the hands of Jewes, and Christians, to wit, Ragusans, Venetians, English, French, and Flemings, who so warily menage their businesse, that they enjoy the most profits of any trading there, dissappointing the Turkes owne subjects of their due, and ordinary trafficke.

Parsells of ground for Tymariots.The last and most principall reason is, which is a great deale of more importance than his Revenues; to wit, the great number of his Timars: for the Turkish Emperours; being immediate Maisters of the lands they overcome, they divide the same in Timars or commandements: [149]leaving little or nothing at all to the auncient Inhabitants; they dispose upon these proportions, to valerous Souldiers, that have done good service: And with this condition, that they mainetaine, and have alwayes in readinesse Horses for the warres: which is an excellent good order for the preservation of his Empire; for if these Timariots were not rewarded, with such absolute possessions of parcell grounds, the state of his power would suddenly runne to ruine: for the profit of which lands, maintaining themselves, their horses, and their families, maketh them [IV. 167.]the more willing to concurre in the infallible service of their Emperour: These Timars or grounds, entertaine through all his Dominions, about two hundreth and fifty thousand horses, that are ever in readinesse to march at the first advertisement, without any charges to the great Signior, being bound to maintaine themselves in during the warres: And yet these Timariots, and their horses, cannot yearely be maintained under the value of ten Millions of Gold: The consideration whereof, makes me astonished, when I recall, the relations of some ragged Authors, who dare compare the Great Turkes Revenues unto our petty Princes of Christendome.

This establishment of Timars, and the by-past election of Azamglians, or young children to be made Jannisaries have bene the two strong Foundations, that supported so inviolably the Turkish Empire. The Romane Emperours for a long time used the selfe same manner for the assuring of their persons, and estate, in election of yong males to be their guard. They were called the Pretorian Army, and this taxation of children was the first thing that moved the Flemings, to revolt against the Romanes.

Policies of Turkes.As for the Turkish Cavalrie, they sustaine two important effects, first they keepe under awe and subjection, the great Turks subjects, who otherwise perhaps wold revolt: And next they are ordained for any dependant interprise for field Garrisons, yea, and the principall sinewes of the warres: and yet the election of the grand Signior, lieth most in the hands of the Janizaries, who [150]can not perfectly say he is Emperour before they confirme him in his Throne.

The Turkes have three things in their Armies which are very fearefull, to wit, the infinite number of men, great discipline, and force of Munition: As for discipline, [IV. 168.]they are not onely governed with great silence, and obedience, but they are ruled also with signes of the eye, and being tractable, they are tied to maine conducements: And although their multitudes have often bred confusion to them, so that little Armies have broke and overcome them; yet in their flight they are so cautulous, that a small number can do them no absolute violence nor finall overthrow: for as they assaile, so they flye without feare.

The first Residence of the Turkish Emperour after his comming from Ægypt, was at Priusa in Bithinia: thence it was transported to Andreanople, and then to Constantinople, where it abideth to this day: Besides, all his great Beglerbegs or Bashaes.Bassaws in Europe, which are eight, one in Buda in Hungary, another in Moldavia, the third in Dacia, the fourth at Bagaviliezza in Bosna, &c. He hath also in Affrick a Bassaw, in Algeir, another in Tunneis, the third in Tripolis, and the fourth in Ægypt, &c. And in Asia major and minor, to wit, one in Aleppo, of Syria, one in Damascus, another at Balsera, the fourth at Meccha in Arabia fælix, the fift in Carmania, the sixt in Cyprus, the seventh in the Rhodes, the eighth at Arzeron in Armenia major, the ninth and tenth at Testis and Upan, on the Frontiers of Gurgestan and Persia, &c. For Arsenals he hath foure for sea, to wit, one at Perah or Galata, containing a hundred thirty and three Galleys: The second at Gallipoli of twenty Galleys: The third Arsenall is at Savezza upon the Red Sea, consisting of twenty five Galleys: And the fourth is at Belsara in Arabia fælix, towards the Persian Gulfe, depending of fifteene Galleys, which are kept there to afflict the Portugals, remaining in the Ile of Ormus; and other parts adjacent there.

The Turkes have a custome, when they are maisters [151]of any Province, to extermine all the native Nobility, [IV. 169.]chiefely these of the blood-royall of the Countrey: And neverthelesse they permit to all and every one of theirs to live and follow his owne Religion as he pleaseth without violence or constraint.

Amongst the Turkes there is noe Gentility, nor Nobility, but are all as ignoble and inferiour members, to one maine body the great Turke, lineally descending of the house of Ottoman: whose magnificence, puissance, and power is such, that the most eloquent tongue cannot sufficiently declare: His thousands or Janisaries, Shouses, and others dayly attending him: which are the nerves and sinewes of the Warlike body of his whole Monarchy and imperiall estate: His hundreds (besides his Queene) of Concubines, hourely maintained by his meanes, and monethly renewed: His Armies, Bashawes, Emeeres, Vizier-bashawes, Sanzacks, Garrisons, and Forces here and there dispersed amongst his dominions, would be impossible for me briefly to relate. The inhumane policy of the Turkes, to avoid civill dissention is such, that the seede of Ottoman (all except one of them) are strangled to death: Wherefore, as Augustus Cæsar said of Herod in the like case, it is better to be the great Turkes dogge, then his Sonne. His Daughters or Sisters are not so used, but are given in marriage to any Bassa, whom so they affect; yet with this condition; the King saith to his Daughter, or Sister, I give thee this man to be thy slave; and if he offend thee in any case, or be disobedient to thy will, here I give thee a Dagger to cut off his head; which alwaies they weare by their sides for the same purpose.

Noble Persians.The Persians differ much from the Turkes, in nobility, humanity, and activity, and especially in points of Religion: who by contention thinke each other accursed; [IV. 170.]and notwithstanding both factions are under the Mahometanicall Lawe. Neither are the Sonnes of the Persian Kings, so barbarously handled, as theirs; for all the brethren (one excepted) are onely made blind, wanting [152]their eyes, and are alwayes afterward gallantly maintained, like Princes. And it hath oftentimes fallen out, that some of these Kings, dying without procreate Heires; there have of these blind sonnes succeeded to the Empire, who have restored againe the seed of that Royall family.

And now the great advantage, that the Turkes have dayly upon the Persians, is onely because of their Infantery, which the Persians no wayes are accustomed with, fighting alwayes on Horse-backe; neither are the Persians adicted or given to build Forts, or Fortifications, neither have they any great use of Munition, but exposing themselves ever to the field in the extreame hazard of battell, become ever doubtfull in their victories: whose Babylon regained by the Persians.courage and valour cannot be paraleld among all the people of the Easterne world, as Babylon in their late and last fortunes may give sufficient testimony thereof. [153]



Close bounded Hellespont, Earths Mother sport

I leave: longst the Æolid lists, I Smirna court:

Thence Samothrace, and Rhodos, I accoast,

Which Lilidamus Viliers, manly lost:

The Lycian bounds, and steepe Pamphilian shoares

I strictly view: The sea Carpathian roares,

I land at Cyprus: Seline is the place,

Whence I that Kingdome, to Nicosia trace:

[V. 171.]From Famagust, faire Asia, then I courted

And Libanon; whence Cedars were transported

For Sions temple: And my toyles to crowne

I sight great Aleppe, Syriaes Lady Towne:

Then passing Mesopotame; Chelfanes land,

I stay at Beershack, on Euphrates strand:

Thence backe by Damas, Arabie Petrea,

Galilee, Samaria, mountainous Judea

I toyling came: And at Jerusalem,

I lodg’d neere Moriah, in a Cloystred frame.

The Winter expired, & the Spring gone, time summoned me after three moneths repose, to imbrace the violence of a firy fac’d season: where having dutifully taken my Counge of many worthy friends, who both kindly, and respectively had used me; especially, the aforesayd English Ambassadour, Sir Thomas Glover: And the new Ambassadour, Sir Paul Pinder, who had lately arrived there [154]before my departure, and had bene formerly Consull in Aleppo five yeares.

I left Constantinople, and imbarked in a Ship belonging to London, named the Allathya, whereof one Maister Wylds in Ratcliffe was Maister; where indeed both he and his Company kindly and respectively used me, for the space of twelve daies; being bound for Smyrna, and so we sayled along the coast of Bithinia in Asia minor.

Bithinia hath on the North Hellespont: On the West Phrigia; on the East Pontus: and on the South Capadocia or Leuco Syria: The chiefe Citties are Calcedon, where, by comaund of the Emperour Martianus, the fourth Generall Counsell was assembled, to repell the Heresie of Nestorius. Nigh unto the side of Hellespont is Mount [V. 172.]Stella, famous for that victory which Pompey had over Mithridates: And where Tamberlane with 800000. Tartarians incountred Bajazet, whose Army consisted of 500000. men; of which 200000. lost their lives that day: And Bajazet taken by Tamberlane.Bajazet being taken, was carried about in an Iron Cage on whose necke Tamberlane used to set his foote, when he mounted on horse-backe; and at last beate out his owne braines against the barres of the Iron Cage: the next Cities are Nicomedia; and Nyce, where the first Generall Councell was kept, Anno 314. to which there assembled 318. Bishops to beate downe the Arian Heresie. The other Townes are Prusa and Labissa; the former was built by Prusias King of Bithinia, who betrayed Hanniball when he fled to him for succour; in the latter Hanniball lyeth buried. Prusa was a long time the seate of the Ottoman Kings, till Mahomet the first began to keepe his Residence at Andrianople: The chiefe Rivers are Ascanius, Sangaro, and Granico, nigh unto which Alexander obtained the first victory against the Persians.

Having passed Bithinia, and the Phrigian coast, we fetched up Cenchrea, where Saint Paul cut his haire, after his vow was performed, Acts 18. 18. Being a Towne now inhabited by Greekes, with a Turkish Governour, and of small importance, in regard of other neighbouring [155]places, that bereave them of their trafficke; and because the Jewes do not much frequent here: the Inhabitants are rather turned spectators to Vertue, than any way inherent to necessary goodnesse: Want of Strangers being one let, and vitious otiosity the other stop: This City standeth by the sea side in the North part of Ionia, but more truely on the West frontiers of Lydia. Lydia hath on the West Phrigia minor: on the South Ionia: on the East Paphlagonia, on the North-west Æolus, & a part of [V. 173.]Phrygia major. The chiefe Metropole is Sardis, once the Royall seat of Crœsus the richest King in his time, who in his full prosperity, was told by Solon, that no man could reckon upon felicity so long as he lived, because there might be great mutability of Fortune, which afterward he found true: The recitall of which advertisement, when he was taken prisoner by Cyrus saved his life: The next City is Pergamus, where Parchment was first invented, and therefore called Pergamenum: here was Galen borne, who lived so healthfully one hundreth and forty yeares: the reason whereof, he thus affixeth; he never eate or drunke his full, & ever carried some sweete perfumes with him. The other Townes are Thyatira, Laodicea, and Philadelphia.

Upon the twelfth day after our departure from Constantinople, we arrived at Smirna, being foure hundreth miles distant.

The City of Smyrna.This City was one of the seven Churches mentioned Revelation 2. 8. And standeth in Ionia: of this place was the famous Martyr Polycarpus Bishop, who sometimes had bene Schollar to John the Evangelist: and living till he was of great age, was at last put to death for Christs sake. It is a goodly place, having a faire Haven for Ships: They have great trafficke with all Nations; especially for fine Silke, Cotten wooll, and Dimmety, brought to it by the Countrey Peasants, which straungers buy from them.

Truely, neare unto this City, I saw a long continuing plaine, abounding in Cornes, Wines, all sorts of fruitfull [156]herbage, and so infinitely peopled, that methought Nature seemed, with the peoples industry to contend, the one by propagating creatures, the other by admirable agriculture.

That for Commodities and pleasure, it is little inferiour unto the valley of Suda in Candy, which maketh the [V. 174.]inhabitants wondrous insolent: for as mirth is made of Wealth is the brother of vice.pleasure, and with pleasures all vices are baited; even so there is not a more incorrigible creature then man in prosperity, nor so modest nor reformed an one, as he, to whom fortune hath lent but a sparing and crooked favour, which indeed I hold best of all: for it is the forming of the mind, not the tongue, nor hand, that can preferre us to true felicitie: And would to God that these, upon whome none but faire windes have ever blowne, in the carreire of their supposed happinesse, could but see for all their high and overtopping places, their end, and resting place: since they are nought but the arrowes of the omnipotent arme, that are yet flying not at theirs but his marke; and no more owners of their owne proposed ends, then they are guilty of their owne beginnings: surely they would cover their faces with another kind of maske then they do: and make their actions seeme more cleare, then the force of policie can obumbrate their wicked devices.

Thiatyra now called Tiria, one also of the seven Churches is not from Smirna above eighteene miles.

From this Citie (having left my kind English men and their stately ship that carryed 24. pieces of Ordonance,) I imbarked in a Turkish Carmoesalo, that carried nothing but her loading, being bound for Rhodes. In our sayling along the coast of Ionia, the first place of any note I saw, was Ephesus decayed.the ruinous Citie of Ephesus; yet somewhat inhabited with Greekes, Jewes, and a few Turkes; but no waies answerable to its former glory and magnificence, being rather a monument for memory, then a continuing Towne of any excellency: neverthelesse it is pleasantly adorned with Gardens, faire fields, and greene woods of Olive [157]trees, which on the Sea doe yeeld a delectable prospect: It was one of the seaven Churches, Revel. 2. 1. This [V. 175.]was one of the most renowned Cities in Asia the lesser but the same thereof arose from the Temple of Diana: which for the spaciousnesse, furniture, and magnificent workmanship was accounted one of the seven worlds wonders: It was two hundred yeares in building, being foure hundred twenty five foote long, and two hundred broad: It was seven severall times burnt, whereof the most part was with lightning, and lastly the finall destruction of it, came by a base fellow Erostratus, who to purchase himselfe a name, Dianaes Temple burnt.did set it on fire. Timothy was Bishop of Ephesus, to the people whereof, Saint Paul directed one of his Epistles, and finally it is famous for the buriall of Saint John the Evangelist: It was said of this place, in the Acts of the Apostles, that all Asia, and the whole world did worship here Diana: Tully reporteth, De natura Deorum, that Timæus being demanded the reason why the Temple of Diana was set on fire that night, when Alexander the great was borne: gave this jest thereof, that the Mistresse of it was from home; because she being the Goddesse of Midwives, did that night wait upon Olimpias the mother of Alexander the great, who was brought to bed in Macedonia.

The Ile Lango or Cuos.Over against this Citie is the Ile Lango, aunciently called Coos, wherein the great Hippocrates was borne, and Appelles, the Painter most excellent. It is both fertile, and populous, and of circuite above fourescore miles. There is a kind of Serpent said to be in it, so friendly unto the Inhabitants, that when the men are sleeping under the shadow of trees, they come cralling, and will lincke or claspe themselves about their neckes and bodies, without doing any harme, neither when they awake are the beasts affraid.

And neare to Lango, is the Ile Nixa, of old Strangoli; [V. 176.]and by some called Dronisa and Naxus, an Iland both fruitfull and delightfull. As we sailed by the West part of the Ile, a Greekish passenger shewed me the place, [158]where (as he sayd) Ariadne was deceived of Theseus, which is not farre from the irriguate plaine of Darmille.

Continuing our Navigation, I saw the little Ile Ephdosh, where the Turkes told me, that all the Ilanders were Excellent swimmers.naturally good swimmers, paying no more tribute to their great Lord the Turke, save onely once in the yeare there are certaine men, and women chosen by a Turkish Captaine, who must swimme a whole league right out in the Sea, and goe downe to the bottome of the waters, to fetch thence some token they have got ground: And if they shall happen to faile in this, the Iland will be reduced againe to pay him yearely rent. This I saw with mine eyes, whiles we being calmed, there came a man and two women swimming to us, more then a mile of way, carrying with them (drie above the water) baskets of fruite to sell, the which made me not a little to wonder. For when they came to the ships side, they would neither boord, nor boat with us, but lay leaning, or as it were resting them selves on the sea, upon their one side, and sold so their fruits: keeping complements and discourses with us above an houre. Contenting them for their ware, and a fresh gale arising, we set forward, accoasting the little Ile of Samothracia.

Samothracia.This Ile of Samothracia, was called of old Dardania, and now by the Turkes Samandracho; a place of small note considering the quantity of the Ile, and the few number of Inhabitants: their lives being answerable to their meannes; ignorance and servitude; two strong commanders of infirme weaklings, and no lesse powerfull, then [V. 177.]they are debile in the debt of worthinesse; which the younglings of understanding, & sucklings of far look’d-to knowledge, can never be able to escape, although a true profession covereth many naturall imperfections; and in it a hope for blessednes, which indeed moe wish for, then rightly understand it. And upon the ninth day after our departure from Smyrna, we arrived at the City of Rhodes, so called of the Iland wherein it standeth.

Rhodes lieth in the Carpathian Sea. It was of old called [159]The Ile of Rhodes.Ithrea, Telchino, and Phiula: Plinie saith it was called Rhodes, because there were certaine fields of Roses in it; for Rhodos in the Greeke tongue signifieth a Flower: Not farre from the City, and at the entery of the Haven, The Idoll Collossus.I saw the relicts of that huge, and admiredly erected Idoll, named Colossus Rhodius, or the mighty image of the Sunne; which was made in honour thereof: from the which Saint Paul termed the Inhabitants Collossians. It was builded by the worthy Canete Lindo in the space of twelve yeares: others have said, of Callasses the Disciple of Lisippus, taking the name Collossus of him, and it was thought worthy to be one of the seven earthly wonders, and so it might justly have beene: The quantity whereof (as yet) may amaze the minde of the beholder: It was erected in the Image of a man, being eighty cubits high, and so bigge, that the little finger of it was as bigge as an ordinary man: between whose legs, (it standing in the harbours mouth, with a legge on each side of the entery) Shippes were wont to passe under with taunt sayles: When Mnavi Generall of Caliph Osmen first united this Ile to the Mahometan Empire, and broke downe the greatest part of this statue; the brasse whereof was said to be so much that it loaded nine hundred Camells.

This Ile belonged once to the Knights of Malta, and [V. 178.]were then surnamed Knights of the Rhodes, but they came first out of Acre in the Holy Land; who were called Knights of St. John; who viriliously expulsed the Saracens from thence, Anno 1308. who had formerly taken it from the devided Grecians: These Knights sorely invested the Turkes for the space of two hundred yeares, till Solyman the magnificent, at last invaded and subdued it: The Rhodians were ever great friends to the Romanes, insomuch that when all the other Mediterranean Ilands revolted to Mithridates of Pontus, this onely adhered to the Romanes.

This Ile of Rhodes within the space of 25. yeares was three times mightily indangered by violent and extreame [160]Inundation of waters.impetuosities of raine: in such sort that the last flood did drowne the greatest part of the Inhabitants: which beginning in the Spring-time, did continue to Summer, and in all this time, it broke violently downe their houses, and in the night killed the people lying in their beds; and in the day time such as were sheltered under safegard of their dwellings: which was a miserable destruction, and the like of it scarcely heard of since the universall deludge.

But true it is, as these ominous judgements falling upon particular parts & parcells of people, are justly executed; yet they serve for Caveats for all others in generall, (sinne being the originall of all) to take heed of offending the Creator, in abusing the best use of the Creature.

The Citie of Rhodes hath two strong Fortresses, in one of which these Knights (Lilladamus Villiers being great Master, who were about five hundred onely, and five thousand Rhodians who asisted them) were besieged by an Armie of two hundred thousand Turkes, and three hundred Galleys, for the space of sixe months. The chiefe [V. 179.]obstacle, and impeaching of so great an Army from taking it, was onely the resolute valour of the defendants. But in end multitude overmastring valour, and the Cavalieri di Rhodo, wanting furniture to their munition, and being penurious of victuals, were constrayned to render, upon the conditionall safety of their lives, goods, and transportation; and remained a long time without any habitation, till the King of Spaine gave them the barren Ile of Malta to inhabite: This Ile of Rhodes was lost by the Maltezes, Anno Dom. 1522. Rhodes taken by Solyman.And on Christmas day Solyman entred the Towne as conquerour, though he might justly have said (as Pyrhus once said of his victory over the Romanes) that such another victory would utterly have undone him; he lost so many of his bravest Commanders, and best Souldiers. It is ever since in the fruition of Turkes: The Fortresse of Rhodes, and that Fortresse Famogusta, in Cyprus, are the two strongest holds, in all the Empire of the great Turke.

And by the way here I must record, that if the great [161]Turke, and his great Counsell, were not good pay-masters to their Janizaries, and speedy rewarders of their common Souldiers; it were impossible for him the Emperour, or them the Bassawes to menage so great a state, and to keepe under obedience so head-strong a multitude, & such turbulent forces: for by your leave, Souldiers should be regarded & rewarded.if a Souldiers industry be not quickned and animated with bountifull rewards; he hath lesse will to performe any part of Martiall service; then a dead coarse hath power to arise out of the grave: for what can be more precious to man, then his blood, being the fountaine & nurse of his vitall spirits, & the ground of his bodily substance; which no free or ingenious nature wil hazard to lose for nothing.

[V. 180.]And whosoever shall argument or discourse upon sound reason, and infallible experience, may easily prove and perceive, that these Commanders have ever best prospered, which have most liberally maintayned, and had in singular regard, Military Arts and Souldiers; otherwise the honourable mind, would account it a great deale better to have death without life, then life without reward: yea, and the noble Commander, desiring rather to want, then to suffer worth unrecompensed.

Rhodes joyneth neare to the continent, over against Caria, now called Carmania, under which name the Turkes comprehend Pamphilia, Ionia, and Lycia: Caria by the Sea side, hath Lycia to the South, and Caria to the North: The chiefe Cities are Manissa, and Mindum, which having great gates, being but a small Towne, made Diogenes the Cynick crie out. Yee Citizens of Mindum, take heed, that your City run not out of your gates: The third is Hallicarnasso, where Dionisius was borne, who writ the History of Rome for the first three hundred yeares: Of which Towne also the Province tooke the name; for Artemisia, who ayded Xerxes against the Grecians, was by some Authors named Queene of Hallicarnasso. This was she, Mausolaos Tombe.who in honour of her husband Mausolao, built that curious Sepulcher, accounted for one of the worlds [162]wonders; it being twenty five cubits high, and supported with thirty sixe admirable wrought pillars.

After I had contented the Master for my fraught, and victuals (who as he was an Infidell, used me with great exaction) I found a Barke of the Arches purposed to Cyprus, with the which I imbarked, being foure hundred miles distant.

This Tartareta, or Demi galleyeot, belonged to the Ile of Stagiro, aunciently Thasia, wherein there were [V. 181.]mines of gold, in these times that afforded yearely to Philip King of Macedon, about fourescore talents of gold, but now mightily impoverished and of no consequence: The chiefe Towne whereof is Palmapreto, where diverse Greekes hold the opinion, Homer was interred, having a famous Sea-port, which is a common resting place for all the Orientall Pirats or Cursaroes; which maketh the Ile halfe desolate of people; and these few scarce worthy of their dwellings.

Pamphilia & Lycia.Having past the gulfe of Sattelia, and the Ile Carpathia, whence that part of the Sea taketh his name: we boorded close along the coast of Lycia, and the firme land of fruitfull Pamphilia; the chiefe Citie of Lycia is Patras, watred with the river Zanthus, whence the people were called Zanthi, afterward Lycians of Lycus sonne to Pandion: It lieth twixt Caria and Pamphilia, as Pamphilia lyeth betweene it and Cilicia: The chiefe Towne in Pamphilia is Seleucia, built by Seleucus, one of Alexanders successours: on the East of Lycia within land bordreth Lycaonia, &c. Having left Pamphilia behind us, we fetched up the coast of Cylicia, sustaining many great dangers, both of tempestuous stormes, and invasions of damnable Pirats, who gave us divers assaults to their owne disadvantages; our saylage being swifter, then either their swallowing desires could follow, or our weake and inresolute defence could resist.

Here in this Countrey of Cilicia, was Saint Paul borne in the now decayed Towne of Tharsus, who for antiquity will not succumbe to any City of Natolia, being as yet [163]the Mistresse of that Province, though neither for worth, nor wealth.

All auncient things by Time revolve in nought

As if their Founders, had no founding wrought.

[V. 182.]But thou torne Tharsus, brookes a glorious name,

For that great Saint, who in Thee had his frame:

So may Cilicians joy, the Christian sort,

That from their bounds, rose such a mighty Fort.

Twelve dayes was I betweene Rhodes and Limisse in The description of Cyprus.Cyprus; where arrived, I received more gracious demonstrations from the Ilanders, then I could hope for, or wish, being farre beyond my merit or expectation; onely contenting my curiosity with a quiet mind, I redounded thankes for my imbraced courtesies.

The people are generally strong and nimble, of great civility, hospitality to their neighbours, and exceedingly affectionated to strangers. The second day after my arrival, I tooke with me an Interpreter, and went to see Nicosia, which is placed in the midst of the Kingdome. But in my journey thither, extreame was the heate and thirst I endured; both in respect of the season, and also want of water: And although I had with me sufficiency of Wine, yet durst I drinke none thereof, being so strong, and withall had a tast of pitch; and that is, because they have no barrels, but great Jarres made of earth, wherein their Wine is put. And these Jarres are all inclosed within the ground save onely their mouthes, which stand alwayes open like to a Source or Cisterne; whose insides are all interlarded with pitch to preserve the earthen vessells unbroke a sunder, in regard of the forcible Wine; yet making the taste thereof unpleasant to liquorous lips; and turneth the Wine, too headdy for the braine in digestion, which for health groweth difficult to strangers; and to themselves a swallowing up of diseases.

To cherish life and blood, the health of Man,

Give me a Tost, plung’d in a double Cann, [164]

[V. 183.]And spic’d with Ginger: for the wrestling Grape

Makes Man, become from Man, a sottish Ape.

Nicosia is the principall Citie of Cyprus, and is invironed with mountaines, like unto Florence in Ætruria; The sixe Cities of Cyprus.wherein the Beglerbeg remaineth: The second is Famegusta, the chiefe strength and Sea-port in it: Selina, Lemisso, Paphos, and Fontana Morosa, are the other foure speciall Townes in the Iland.

This Ile of Cyprus was of old called Achametide, Amatusa, and by some Marchara, that is happy: It is of length extending from East to West, 210. large 60. and of circuit 600. miles. It yeeldeth infinite canes of Sugar, Cotten-wooll, Oyle, Honney, Cornes, Turpentine, Allum, Verdegreece, Grogranes, store of Mettals and Salt; besides all other sorts of fruit and commodities in abundance. It was also named Cerastis, because it butted toward the East with one horne: and lastly Cyprus, from the abundance of Cypresse trees there growing. This Iland was consecrated to Venus, where in Paphos she was greatly honoured, termed hence, Dea Cypri,

Festa Dies Veneris tota celeberrima Cypro,

Venerat, ipsa suis aderat Venus aurea festis.

Venus feast day, through Cyprus hollowed came,

Whose feasts, her presence, dignified the same.

Cyprus lyeth in the gulfe betweene Cilicia and Syria, having Ægypt to the West: Syria to the South: Cilicia to the East: and the Pamphilian Sea to the North: It hath foure chiefe Capes or headlands: first, Westward the Promontore of Acanias, modernely Capo di Santo Epifanio: to the South the Promontore Phæuria, now Capo Bianco: to the East Pedasia, modernely Capo di [V. 184.]Greco: to the North, the high foreland of Cramineon, now Capo di Cormathita: these foure are the chiefest Promontores of the Iland, and Cape di S. Andrea is the furthest poynt Eastward toward Cilicia: Diodore and Pliny say that anciently it contained nine Kingdomes, [165]and fifteene good Townes: Cerania, now Selina, was built by Cyrus, who subdued the nine petty Kings of this Ile: Nicosia is situate in the bottome or plaine of Massara, and thirty foure miles from Famagusta; and the Towne of Famagusta was formerly named Salamus: I was informed by some of sound experience here, that this Kingdome containeth about eight hundreth and forty Villages, besides the sixe capitall Townes, two whereof are nothing inferiour for greatnesse and populosity to the best Townes in Candy, Sicily, or Greece.

Trohodos a huge hill in Cyprus.The chiefest and highest mountaine in this Ile, is by the Cypriots called Trohodos, it is of height eight, and of compasse forty eight miles, whereon there are a number of Religious Monasteries, the people whereof are called Colieros, and live under the order of Saint Basile. There is abundance here of Coriander seede, with medicinable Reubarbe, and Turpentine. Here are also mines of gold in it, of Chrysocole, of Calthante, of Allome, Iron, and exceeding good Copper. And besides these mines, there are diverse precious stones found in this Ile, as Emeraulds, Diamonds, Chrystall, Corall, red and white, and the admirable stone Amiante, whereof they make Linnen cloth, that will not burne being cast into the fire, but serveth to make it neate and white.

The greatest imperfection of this Ile, is scarcity of water, and too much plenty of scorching heate, and fabulous grounds. The Inhabitants are very civill, courteous, and affable; and notwithstanding of their [V. 185.]delicious and delicate fare, they are much subject to Melancholy, of a Robust nature, and good Warriours, if they might carry Armes: It is recorded, that in the time of Constantine the Great, this Ile was all uterly abandoned of the Inhabitants, and that because it did not raine for the space of sixe and thirty yeares. After which time, and to Cyprus replanted.replant this Region againe, the chiefest Colonies came from Ægypt, Judea, Syria, Cilicia, Pamphilia, Thracia, and certaine Territories of Greece: And it is thought, in the yeares 1163. after that Guy of [166]Lusingham, the last Christian King of Jerusalem had lost the Holy Land, a number of French men, stayed and inhabited here; of whom sprung the greatest race of the Cyprian Gentility; and so from them are discended the greatest Families of the Phenician Sydonians, modernely Drusians: though ill divided, and worse declined; yet they are sprung both from one Originall: the distraction arising from Conscience of Religion, the one a Christian, the other a Turke.

The three Iles of Cyprus, Candy, and Sicily, are the onely Monarchicke Queenes of the Mediterranean Seas: Comparisons of Iles.and semblable to other in fertility, length, breadth, and circuit: save onely Candy that is somewhat more narrow then the other two, and also more Hilly and sassinous: yet for Oyles and Wines, she is the Mother of both the other: Sicily being for Graine and Silkes the Empresse of all: and Cyprus for Sugar and Cotton-wooll, a darling sister to both; onely Sicily being the most civill Ile, and nobly gentilitat, the Cypriots indifferently good, and the Candiots the most ruvid of all.

The chiefe Rivers are Teno, and Pedesco: Cyprus was first by Teucer made a Kingdome, who after the Trojane Warre came and dwelt here: and afterward being divided [V. 186.]betweene nine petty Princes, it was subdued by Cyrus, the first Monarch of the Meedes and Persians. After the subversion of which Empire, this Ile was given to the Potolomies of Ægypt: from whom Cato conquered it to the benefit of the Romans. The Dukes of Savoy were Kings of Cyprus.The Dukes of Savoy were once Kings of Cyprus; but the Inhabitants usurping their authority, elected Kings to themselves, of their owne generation: and so it continued, till the last King of Cyprus, James the Bastard (marrying with the daughter of a noble Venetian, Catherina Cornaro) died without children, leaving her his absolute heire. And she perceiving the factious Nobility, too headstrong to be bridled by a female authority, like a good child, resigned her Crowne and Scepter to the Venetian Senate, Anno 1473. Whereupon the Venetians imbracing the opportunitie of [167]time, brought her home, and sent Governours thither to beare sway in their behalfe; paying onely as tribute to the Ægyptian Sultans 40000. Crownes, which had been due ever since Melecksala, had made John of Cyprus his tributary.

It was under their Jurisdiction 120. yeares and more; till that the Turkes, who ever oppose themselves against Christians (finding a fit occasion in time of peace, and without suspition in the Venetians) tooke it in with a great Armado. Anno 1570. and so till this day by them is detayned. Oh great pitty! that the usurpers of Gods word, and the worlds great enemy, should maintaine (without feare) that famous Kingdome, being but one thousand & fifty Turkes in all, who are the keepers of it: unspeakable is the calamitie of that poore afflicted Christian people under the terrour of these Infidels; who would, if they had Armes, or asistance of any Christian Potentate, easily subvert and abolish the Turkes, without [V. 187.]any disturbance; yea, and would render the whole Signiory thereof to such a noble Actor. I doe not see in that small judgement, which by experience I have got, but the redemption of that Countrey were most facile; if that the generous heart of any Christian Prince, would be moved with condigne compassion to relieve the miserable aflicted Inhabitants. In which worke, he should reape (questionlesse) not onely an infinite treasure of Worldly commodities, that followeth upon so great a conquest, but also a heavenly and eternall reward of immortall glory. The Florentines attempted to conquer Cyprus.The which deliverance Ferdinando Duke of Florence, thought to have accomplished (having purchased the good will of the Ilanders) with five Gallounes, and 5000. Souldiers: Who being mindfull to take first in the Fortresse of Famogusta, directed so their course, that in the night, they should have entred the Haven, disbarke their men, and scale the walles.

But in this plot they were farre disappointed by an unhappy Pilot of the Vice-admirall, who mistaking the Port, went into a wrong bay: which the Florentines considering, [168]resolved to returne, and keepe the sea, till the second night; but by a dead calme, they were frustrated of their aymes, and on the morrow discovered by the Castle: Whereupon the Turkes went presently to armes, & charged the Inhabitants to come to defend that place: But about foure hundred Greekes in the West part, at Paphos, rebelled; thinking that time had altered their hard fortunes, by a new change: but alas, they were prevented, & every one cut off by the bloody hands of the Turkes. This massacre was committed in the yeare 1607. Such alwaies are the torturing flames of Fortunes smiles, that he who most affecteth her, she most, and altogether deceiveth: But they who trust in the Lord, shall be as [V. 188.]stable as Mount Syon, which cannot be removed; and questionlesse, one day God, in his all-eternall mercie, will relieve their miseries, and in his just judgements, recompence these bloody oppressors with the heavy vengeance of his all-seeing Justice.

In my returne from Nicosia, to Famogusta, with my Trench-man, we encountered by the way with foure Turkes, who needs would have my Mule to ride upon; which my Interpreter refused: But they in a revenge, pulled me by thee heeles from the Mules backe, beating me most pittifully, and left me almost for dead. In this meanewhile my companion fled, and escaped the sceleratnesse of their hands; and if it had not beene for some compassionable Greekes, who by accident came by, and relieved me, I had doubtlesse immediately perished.

Here I remember betweene this Ile and Sydon that same Summer, there were five galleouns of the Duke of A sea cumbat.Florence, who encountred by chance the Turkes great Armado consisting of 100. gallies, 14. galleots, and two galleasses: The Admirall of which ships did single out her selfe from the rest, and offered to fight with the whole Armado alone; but the Turkes durst not, and in their flying backe, the Admirall sunke two of their gallies; and had almost seazed upon one of their galleasses, if it [169]had not beene for 20. gallies, who desperatly adventured to row her away against the wind and so escaped.

For true it is, the naturall Turkes were never skilfull in menaging of Sea battells, neither are they expert Mariners, nor experimented Gunners, if it were not for our Christian Runnagates, French, English, and Flemings, and they too sublime, accurate, and desperate fellowes; who have taught the Turkes the airt of navigation, and especially the use of munition; which they both cast to [V. 189.]them, & then become their chiefe Cannoniers; the Turkes would be as weake and ignorant at sea, as the silly Æthiopian, is unexpert in handling of armes on the Land. Christiane Runagates.For the private humour of discontented castawayes is alwaies an enemy to publicke good, who from the society of true beleevers, are driven to the servitude of Infidells, and refusing the bridle of Christian correction, they receive the double yoake of dispaire and condemnation. Whose terrour of a guilty conscience, or rather blazing brand of their vexed soules, in forsaking their Faith, and denying Christ to be their Saviour, ramverts most of them, either over in a torment of melancholy, otherwise in the extasie of madnesse: which indeed is a torturing horrour, that is sooner felt then knowne; and cannot be avoided by the rudenesse of nature, but by the saving grace of true felicity.

The City of Tripoly.From the Fort and City Famogusta, I imbarked in a Germo, and arrived at Tripoly being 88. miles distant, where I met with an English ship called the Royall Exchange of London, lying there at Anker in the dangerous Road of Tripoly, whose loves I cannot easily forget, for at my last good night, being after great cheare, and greater carrousing, they gave me the thundring farewell of three pieces of Ordonance. Tripoly is a City in Syria, standing a mile from the marine side, neere to the foot of Mount Libanus: since it hath beene first founded, it hath three times beene situated, and removed in three sundry places: First it was overwhelmed with water: Secondly, it was sacked [170]with Cursares, and Pirates: Thirdly, it is like now to be overthrowne with new made mountaines of sand: There is no haven by many miles neere unto it, but a dangerous roade, where often when Northerly winds blow, ships are cast away.

[V. 190.]Scanderona.The great Traffique which now is at this place, was formerly at Scanderona or Alexandretta, a little more Eastward; but by reason of the infectious ayre, that corrupted the bloud of strangers, proceeding of two high Mountaines; who are supposed to be a part of Mount Caucasus, which withhold the prospect of the Sunne from the In-dwellers, more then three howers in the morning. So that in my knowledge, I have knowne dye in one ship, and a moneths time, twenty Marriners: for this cause the Christian ships were glad to have their commodities brought to Tripoly, which is a more wholesome and convenient place.

The dayly interrogation I had here, for a Carravans departure to Aleppo, was not to me a little fastidious, being mindfull to visite Babylon: In this my expectation I tooke purpose, with three Venetian Merchants, to go see the Cedars of Libanon, which was but a dayes journey thither. As we ascended upon the mountaine, our ignorant guide mistaking the way, brought us in a Laborinth of dangers; Insomuch that wrestling amongst intricate paths of Rockes: two of our Asses fell over a banke, and broke their neckes: And if it had not bene for a Christian Amaronite, who accidently encountred with us, in our wilesome wandring, we had bene miserably lost: both in regard of Rockes, and heapes of snow we passed; and also of great Torrents, which fell downe with force, from the steepy tops: wherein one of these Merchants was twice almost drowned. When we arrived The Cedars of the place where the Cedars grew, we saw but twenty foure of all, growing after the manner of Oke-trees, but a great deale taler, straighter, and greater, and the braunches grow so straight, and interlocking as though they were kept by Arte. And yet from the Roote to the [171][V. 191.]toppe they beare no boughes, but grow straight upward, like to a Palme-tree; who as may-poles invelope the ayre, so their circle spred tops, do kisse or enhance the lower cloudes; making their grandure over-looke the highest bodies of all other aspiring trees: and like Monarchick Lyons to wild beasts, they become the chiefe Champions of Forrests and Woods.

Although that in the dayes of Salomon, this mountaine was over-clad with Forrests of Cedars, yet now there are but onely these, and nine miles Westward thence, seventeene more. The nature of that tree is alwayes greene, yeelding an odoriferous smell, and an excellent kind of fruite like unto Apples, but of a sweeter taste, and more wholesome in digestion. The Rootes of some of these Cedars are almost destroyed by Sheepheards, who have made fires thereat, and holes wherein they sleepe; yet neverthelesse they flourish greene above in the tops, and branches. The length of this mountaine is about forty miles, reaching from the West, to the East: and continually, Summer and Winter, reserveth Snow on the tops. It is also beautified with all the ornaments of nature, as Herbage, Tillage, Pastorage, Fructiferous Trees, fine Fountaines, good Cornes, and absolutely the best Wine that is bred on the earth. The Prince of Libanus.The Signior thereof is a Freeholder, by birth a Turke, and will not acknowledge any superiour, being the youngest sonne of the Emeere or Prince of Sidon, who when his Father revolted against Achmet, and not being able to make his owne part good, fled into Italy, to the Duke of Florence: And notwithstanding that the elder brother yeelded up Sidon, and became a pardond subject to the great Turke: yet this the other brother would never yeeld nor surrender, himselfe, the Fort, nor the Signiory of Libanus: The olde [V. 192.]Prince his father after two yeares exile, was restored againe to his Emperours favour; with whom in my second Travels, both at Lygorne and Messina in Sicilee, I rancountred: whence the Duke of Sona that Kingdomes Viceroy, caused transport him on a stately ship for the [172]Levant to Sidon: The Sidonians or Drusians, were first of all French men, who after their expulsion from Jerusalem, fled hither to the borders of Zebulon and Nephtalim, now called Phenicia, as I shall make more cleere afterwards.

The most part of the inhabited villages are Christians, Nestorians.called Amaronites, or Nostranes, quasi Nazaritans, and are governed by their owne Patriarke. There are none at this day, do speake the Syriack tongue, save onely these people of mount Libanus; and in that language the Alcoran of Mahomet is written. The kinde Amaronite whom we met, and tooke with us for our best guide, in descending from the Cedars shewed us many caves and Holes in Rockes, where Coliers, religious Siriens and Amaronites abide: Amongst these austere Cottages, I saw Joshuas Tombe.a faire Tombe all of one stone, being 17. foote of length; which (as he said) was the Sepulcher of the valiant Joshua, who conducted the people of Israel to the land of promise.

The Mahometans esteeme this to be a holy place, and many resort to it in Pilgrimage, to offer up their Satanicall Prayers to Mahomet. I saw upon this Mountaine, a sort of fruite, called Amazza Franchi: that is, The death of Christians; because when Italians, and others of Europe, eate any quantity thereof, they presently fall into the bloudy fluxe, or else ingender some other pestilentious fever, whereof they dye.

The Patriarke did most kindly entertaine us at his [V. 193.]house; so did also all the Amaronites of the other Villages, who met us in our way before we came to their Townes, and brought presents with them of Bread, Wine, Figges, Olives, Sallets, Capons, Egges, and such like, as they could on a sudden provide.

The Bishop of Eden on Libanus.This Bishop or Patriarkes house, is joyned with and hembd in, within the face of an high Rocke, that serveth for three sides thereof, the fore and fourth part being onely of Mason-worke: Neare unto which falleth precipitatly a great Torrent over the sassinous banke, that maketh a greivous noyse night and day: which as I told [173]him, me thought it should turne the Bishop Surdo or starke deafe: But the homely and simple man (not puft with ambition greed, and glorious apparrell, like to our proud Prelats of Christendome) told me, that continuall custome brought him to despose upon the day, and sleepe better in the night, because of the sounding waters. Where reposing with him one night, my Muse the next morning saluted Libanus with these lines.

Long and large Mount, whose rich-spred mantle, see!

Affords three colours, to my wandring eye;

The first are Cornes, in their expectant view,

Faire Barley, Rye, and Wheate; O hopefull hew!

That quickneth the prest plough: and for to eat,

It makes new toyle, begin againe to sweat:

The second sight are Wines, the best on earth,

And most delicious in their pleasant birth;

They’re Phisicall, and good t’expell all sorts

Of burning Feavers, in their violent torts:

Which Senators of Venice, drinke for health,

There’s nought so rare, but is attaind by wealth.

The third is amiable, O verdure greene!

For pastorage, the best that can be seene;

[V. 194.]Drawne nigh the tops, where fire-worne Cedars grow,

And here, or there, some cooling spots of snow:

Whence Rills doe spring and speedy Torrents fall

To loose scorchd floures, that burning heat would thrall:

Here heards frequent, whose pleasant toyles doe rest

Of mountaines all, on Liban, onely best:

Where piping Pan, and Silvan doe accord,

To lurke with Ceres, and make Bacchus Lord;

Pitch’d under silent shades; whence Eden Towne

These bounds for Paradice, dare firmely crowne:

And last, to count these colours; here’s delite,

The fields are greene, wines yellow, cornes as white.

The Nestorian paradice.About the Village of Eden, is the most fruitfull part of all Libanus, abounding in all sorts of delicious fruits. [174]True it is, the variety of these things, maketh the silly people thinke, the Garden of Eden was there: By which allegeance, they approve the apprehension of such a sinistrous opinion with these arguments, that Mount Libanus is sequestrate from the circum-jacent Regions, and is invincible for the height, and strengths they have in Rocks; and that Eden was still reedified by the fugitive Inhabitants, when their enemies had ransacked it: Also they affirme before the deluge it was so nominate, and after the flood it was repaired againe by Japhet, the sonne of Noah, who builded Joppa, or Japhta in Palestina. Loe there are the reasons they shew strangers for such like informations.

The Georgians Paradice.

There are with this one, other two supposed places of the earthly Paradice: The one is by the Turkes, and some ignorant Georgians, holden to be at Damascus, for the beauty of faire fields, gardens, and excellent fruits there; [V. 195.]especially for the tree called The Tree Mouslee.Mouslee, which they beleeve hath growne there since the beginning of the world. Indeed it is a rare and singular tree, for I saw it at Damascus, and others also of the same kind, upon Nylus in Ægypt: The growth whereof is strange: for every yeare in September it is cut downe hard by the roote, and in five moneths the tree buddeth up a pace againe, bringing forth leaves, flowers, and fruite. The leafe thereof is of such a breadth, that three men may easily stand under the shadow of it, and the Apple is bigger then a foot-ball, which is yearely transported for Constantinople to the great Turke; and there is reserved for a relict of the fruit of the forbidden tree; whence he surstyles himselfe keeper of the earthly Paradice.

But if he were not surer a greater commander and reserver of a large part of the best bosome of the earth, than he is keeper of that Adamian Garden; his styles of the earth, and mine of the world, were both alike, and that were just nothing, save onely this, two naked creatures living amongst naked people: or otherwise, if [175]it were to be kept or seene, certainely I would wish to be a Postillion, to the great Porter, the Turke, but not his Pedagog, farre lesse his Pilgrime.

The Chelfane Paradice.The third place by the Chelfaines, is thought to be in the East part of Mesopotamia, neere to the joyning of Tygris, and Euphrates; where, so they inhabite: I have oft required of these Chelfaines, what reason they had for this conceived opinion: who answered me, they received it from time to time, by the tradition of their Ancestors: And because of the river Euphrates, and other rivers mentioned in the Scriptures, which to this day, detayne their names in that Countrey. Some hold, that Garden of Eden extended over all the earth. But contrariwise, [V. 196.]it manifestly appeareth by the second Chapter of Genesis, 2. 20. that this garden, that we call Paradice, wherein Adam was put to dresse it, was a certaine place on earth, containing a particular portion of a Countrey, called Eden, which boundeth on the river Euphrates. To this, and all the rest, I answer, no certainty can be had of the place where Eden was, either by reading or travelling, because this river hath beene oft divided in sundry streames: And it is said, that Cyrus, when he wonne Babylon, did turne the maine channell of Euphrates to another course. But howsoever, or wheresoever it be, I resolve my selfe, no man can demonstrate the place, which God for the sinnes and fall of man, did not onely accurse; but also the whole face of the earth.

Many ancient Authors have agreed with the opinion of Plato and Aristotle, constantly affirming, that mountaines, Ilands, and Countries, have received great alteration by Violence of Seas & waters.the inundation of Rivers, and violence of raging Seas. Thracia, hath beene divided from Bithinia: Nigroponti, from Thessalia: Corfu, from Epire: Sicilia, from Italy: The Iles Orcades, from Scotland, and many other Ilands, and Countries cut through so in divisions after the same forme. Wherefore the more a man contemplate to search the knowledge of Eden, and such high misteries (appertaining onely to the Creator) the more he shall faile in [176]his purpose, offend God, become foolish, and fantasticall for his paines.

But to turne backe to mine itinerary relation, after my returne to Tripoly, I departed thence Eastward, with a Caravan of Turkes to Aleppo, being ten dayes journey distant. In all this way (leaving Scanderon on our left hand) I saw nothing worthy remarking; save onely a few scattered Villages, and poore miserable people called Turcomani, living in Tents, and following their flockes [V. 197.]to whom I payed sundry Caffars who remove their women, children, and cattell where so they finde fountaines, and good pastorage: like unto the custome of the ancient Israelites: Which in their vagabonding fashion, did plainely demonstrate the necessity they had to live, rather then any pleasure they had, or could have in their living.

They differ also in Religion from all the other Mahometans in two damnable points: The Turcomans opinion of God & the Divell.The one is, they acknowledge, that there is a God, and that he of him selfe is so gracious, that he neither can, being essentially good doe harme, nor yet will authorize any ill to be done, and therefore more to be loved than feared: The other is, they confesse there is a Divell, and that he is a tormentor of all evill doers: and of himselfe so terrible and wicked, that they are contented even for acquisting his favour and kindnesse, to sacrifice in fire their first borne child to him: soliciting his divellishnes, not to torment them too sore when they shall come into his hands: And yet for all this, they thinke afterwards by the mercy of Mahomet, they shall goe from hell to Paradice.

In this immediate or aforesayd passage, we coasted neare and within sixe miles of the limits of Antiochia, Antiochians the first of the ancient Patriarch seas; so called of Antiochus her first founder, and not a little glorying to this day, that the Disciples of Jesus and Antiochians were first here named Christians. Who (nothwithstanding) of their grievous afflictions flourished so that in 40. yeares they grew a terrour to their enemies; who suggested by the Divell cruelly afflicted them with ten generall persecutions, [177]under the Emperours, Nero anno 67. Domitianus, anno 96, Trajanus, 100. Maximinius, 137. Marcus Antonius, [V. 198.]167. Severus, 195. Decius, 250. Valerianus, 259. Aurelianus, 278. and Dioclesian anno 293. yeares. Notwithstanding all which massacres and martyrdome, yet this little graine of Mustard seed, planted by Gods owne hand, and watered with the blood of so many holy Saints, (Nam sanguis Martirum, semen Ecclesiæ est) grew so great a tree, that the branches thereof were dispersed through every City, and Province of the whole world.

Before my arrivall in Aleppo, the Caravan of Babylon was from thence departed, which bred no small griefe in my breast: The Venetian Consull, to whom I was highly recommended, by the aforesaid Merchants, (having had some insight of my intended voyage) informed me, that the Caravan stayed at Beershake on Euphrates, for some conceived report they had of Arabs, that lay for them in the desarts, and willed me to hire a Janisary, and three Souldiers to overhye them; whose counsell I received, Frustrate of Babylon.But was meerely frustrated of my designes. True it was, they staied, but were gone three dayes before my comming to that unhappy place.

The distance from whence over land to Babylon, or Bagdat, being but sixe small or short dayes journey, the losse whereof and the damnable deceit of my Janizary made my Muse to expresse, what my sorrowfull Prose can not performe.

The doubts and drifts of the voluble mind

That here and there doe flee, turne judgement blind:

Did overwhelme my heart, in grim despare

Whilst hope and reason fled, stayd timrous care:

And yet the grounds were just; my treacherous guide

Did nought but crosse me; greed led him aside:

Still this, still that I would! all I surmise

Is screwaly stopt: At last my scopes devise

[V. 199.]To make a Boat, to beare me downe alone

With drudges two, to ground-chang’d Babylon: [178]

That could not be, the charges was too great,

And eke the streame, did nought but dangers threat:

My conduct still deceavd me, made it square

Another Caravan, O! would come there

From Aleppe, or Damascus: till in end

Most of my moneyes did his knavery spend:

Thus was I tost long five weekes, and foure dayes

With strugling doubts: O strange were these delayes!

At last a Chelfane came, a Christian kind

Who by my griefe soone understood my mind;

And told me flat, the Janizaries drift

Was to extort me with a lingring shift.

Come, come, sayd he, the Sanzacke here is just,

Let us complaine, for now complayne you must:

He with me went, and for a Trenchman serv’d

And told the Ruler, how my Conduct swervd:

He’s calld, and soone convinc’d, and with command

Forc’d to transport me backe to Syriaes land:

I’me there arrived, and eftsoones made me bound

For the Venetian Consul: there to sound

My great abuses, by this Villane done.

Which soone were heard, and eke repayrd as soone:

The Bassaw was upright, and for times sake

He did me more, then conscience will’d me take.

My plaint preferd, he was in Prison layd

And all my gold, to give me backe was mayd

Which he had falsely tane: where for his paines

He had the losse, and I receivd the gaines:

For doubling his wrongs, done, to crosse him more,

I got my vantage, from his craft before:

And for his ten weekes fees, no more he had

[V. 200.]Than he, thats owner of a ditch-falne jade:

Thus leaving him, I with the Consull bode,

Full forty dayes, or I went thence abroad.

In the eleven dayes journey I had betweene Aleppo, and Beershack, through a part of Syria, the breadth of Mesopotamia, and Chelfania, a Province of the same, [179]joyning with Tigris and Euphrates, and returning the same way againe; I found nothing worthy of remarkinge save the fertility of the soyle: Mesopotamia.which indeed in Mesopotamia, yeeldeth two crops of wheate in the yeare, and for a Bushell sowing, in diverse places, they recoyle a hundreth againe.

The countrey it selfe is overcled with infinit Villages, having no eminent Towne of any note or consequence, except the City of Carahemen the seat of a Beglerbeg, who commandeth under him fourteene Sanzacks, and twenty sixe thousand Timariots. The people here are for the most part beleevers in Christ, but alas too silly, untoward, and ignorant Christians: And yet though without learning, or great understanding therein, they are wonderfull zealous in their profession, and great sufferers for it also.

Beershack.This barbarous Towne of Beershacke, being situate on Euphrates standeth in the Chelfaines Countrey, and is supposed to have beene Padan-aram, where Laban dwelt, and where Jacob kept Labans sheepe, though some interpret all Mesopotamia, then to have beene called Padanaram: from whence North-east, and not farre hence are the demolished fragments of Ninivie on Tigris, whose very ruines are now come to ruine: The decayes whereof being much semblable to that sacked Lacedemon in Sparta, or to the stony heapes of Jerico, the detriments of Thebes, [V. 201.]the relicts of Tyrus, or to the finall overthrow of desolate Troy. This Countrey of Chelfaine, is the place most agreeable with Scripture, where the earthly Paradice was once set, though now impossible to be found out.

Mesopotamia.Mesopotamia is seldome watered with raine, but by the nature of the soile is marvellous fruitfull: It is bordred with Caldea, on the East: Euphrates on the South: Syria on the North: and Arabia Petrea on the West. This Aleppo is a City in Syria; the name of which hath beene so oft changed by Turkes, that the true Antiquity of it, can hardly be knowne: It is both large and populous, and furnished with all sorts of merchandize, especially of [180]Indigo, and Spices, that are brought over land from Goa, & other places in India, which draweth a concurrance of all nations to it.

A notable obedience.Here I remember of a notable obedience done to the great Turke, by the great Bassaw of Aleppo, who was also an Emeere, or hereditary Prince: to wit, the yeare before my comming hither, he had revolted against his Emperour, and fighting the Bassawes of Damascus, and Carahemen, overcame them: The yeare following, and in my being there, the Grand Signior sent from Constantinople a Showse, and two Janisaries in Ambassage to him: where, when they came to Aleppo, the Bassaw was in his owne Countrey at Mesopotamia: The messengers make hast after him, but in their journey they met him comming backe to Aleppo, accompanied with his two sonnes, and sixe hundred Horse-men. Upon the high way they delivered their message, where he stood still, and heard them: The proffer of Achmet was, that if he would acknowledge his rebellion, and for that treason committed send him his head, his eldest Sonne should both inherit [V. 202.]his possessions, and Bassawship of Aleppo, otherwise he would come with great forces in all expedition, and in his proper person he would utterly raze him and all his, from the face of the earth.

At which expression, the Bassaw knowing that he was not able to resist the invincible Armie of his Master, and his owne presence, he dismounted from his horse, and went to counsell with his sonnes, and nearest friends: where he, and they concluded, it was best for him to dye, being an old man, to save his race undestroyed, and to keepe his sonne in his authority and inheritance: This done, the Bassaw went to prayer, and taking his leave of them all, sate downe upon his knees, where the Showse The Bassa of Aleppo beheaded.stroke off his head, putting it in a Boxe, to carry it with him for Constantinople. The dead corps were carried to Aleppo and honourably buried, for I was an eye witnesse to that funerall feast: And immediatly thereafter, the Showse by Proclamation and power from the Emperour, [181]fully possessed the sonne in his Fathers lands, offices, Bassawship, and the authority of all the Easterne Syria, part of Mesopotamia, and the Assyrian Countrey; for this Bassaw of Aleppo is the greatest in commandement and power of all the other Bassawes in the Turkes dominions; except the Bassa, or Beglerbeg of Damascus; and yet the former in hereditary power, farre exceedeth the other; being a free Emeer, and thereupon a Prince borne: The force of his commandement reacheth to eighteene Sanzacks, and thirty thousand Timariots, besides Janisaries, and other inferiour souldiers, which would make up as many more.

This City is called in the Scriptures Aram-Sobab, 2. Sam. 8. 3. and Aleppo of Alep, which signifieth milke, whereof there is a great plenty here: There are Pigeons brought up here as after an incredible manner, who will [V. 203.]flie betweene Aleppo, and Babylon, being thirty dayes Flying Pigeons with letters.journey distant in forty eight houres: carrying letters and newes, which are tied about their neckes, to Merchants of both Townes, and from one to another; who onely are imployed in the time of hasty and needfull intendements; their education to this tractable expedition is admirable, the flights and arrivals of which I have often seene in the time of my wintering in Aleppo, which was the second Winter after my departure from Christendome.

Syria.Syria hath on the East Armenia major: On the South Mesopotamia: On the North Cilicia and the sea: On the West Gallilee and Phœnicia: In the Bible the Syrians are called Aramites, who were an obscure people subject to the Persians, and subdued by Alexander: after whose death this Countrey, with Persia, and other adjacent Provinces fell to the share of Seleucus Nicanor; who also wrested from the successors of Antigonus, the lesser Asia. This Kingdome hath suffered many alterations, especially by the Persians, Grecians, Armenians, Romanes, Ægyptians, lastly, by the Turkes, and dayly molested by the incursive Arabs. [182]

In my expectation here, and the Spring come, (being disappointed of my desired aimes) I pretended to visite Jerusalem in my backe-comming; and for the furtherance of my determination, I joyned with a Caravan of Armenians, and Turkes, that were well guarded with Janisaries, and Souldiers; of whom some were to stay at Damascus by the way, and some mindfull to the furthest marke. And for my better safegard (being alwaies alone which by all, was ever much admired) the Venetian Consull tooke surety of the Captaine, that he should protect me safely from theeves, cut-throates, and the exactions of [V. 204.]tributes by the way, delivering me freely into the hands of the Padre Guardiano at Jerusalem: Which being done, I hired a Mule from a Turke, to carry my victuals; and so set forward with them. The number of our company A Caravan of Armenians.were about 900. Armenians, Christian Pilgrimes, men and women: 600. Turkes trafficking for their owne businesse, and 100. souldiers, three Showsses, and sixe Janizaries, to keepe them from invasions.

Betweene Aleppo and Damascus, we had nine dayes journey, in five of which, we had pleasant travelling, and good Canes to lodge in, that had beene builded for the support of Travellers, and are well maintained: But when we passed Hamsek, which is a little more then midway, we had dangerous travelling, being oft assailed with Arabs, fatigated with rocky mountaines, and sometimes in point of choaking for lacke of water. The confusion of this multitude, was not onely grievous in regard of the extreame heate, providing of victuals at poore Villages, and scarcity of water, to fill our bottles, made of Boare-skinnes; but also amongst narrow and stony passages, thronging, we oft fell one over another, in great heapes; in danger to be smothered: yea; and oftentimes we that were Christians, had our bodies well beaten, by our conducting Turkes. In this journeying I remember the Turke who ought my Mule, was for three dayes exceeding favourable unto me, in so much, that I began to doubt of his carriage, fearefully suspecting the Italian Proverbe. [183]

Chi mi famiglior, che non ci suole,

Ingannato mi ha, o ingannar mi Vuole.

He that doth better now, to me than he was wont,

He hath deceiv’d, or wil deceive, me with some sad affront.

[V. 205.]But when I perceived, his extraordinary service and Pagan flattery.flattery, was onely to have a share of the Tobacco I carried with me, I freely bestowed a pound thereof upon him: Which he and his fellowes tooke as kindly, as though it had beene a pound of gold, for they are excessively adictted to smoake, as Dutch men are to the Pot: which ever made me to carry Tobacco with me, to acquist their favour, over and above their fials, more then ever I did for my owne use: for in these dayes I tooke none at all, though now as time altereth every thing, I am (Honoris Gratia) become a courtly Tobacconist; more for fashion then for liking: The Turkish Tobacco pipes are more than a yard long and commonly of Wood or Canes, beeing joynd in three parts, with Lead or white Iron; their severall mouths receaving at once, a whole ounce of Tobacco; which lasteth a long space, and because of the long pipes, the smoake is exceeding cold in their swallowing throates.

At our accustomed dismounting to recreate our selves, and refresh the beasts, I would often fetch a walke, to stretch my legs, that were stifled with a stumbling beast; wherewith the Turkes were mightily discontented, and in derision would laugh, and mocke me: For they cannot abide a man to walke in turnes, or stand to eate; their usage being such, that when they come from the horse backe, presently sit downe on the ground, folding their feete under them, when they repose, dine, and suppe. So doe also their Artizans and all the Turkes in the World sit allwayes crosse legged, wrongfully abusing the commendable consuetude of the industrious Tailors. In their houses they have no bed to lye on, nor chaire to sit on, nor table to eate on, but a bench made of boords along the house side, of a foot high from the floore, spred [184][V. 206.]over with a Carpet; whereon they usually sit eating, drinking, sleeping, resting, and doing of manuall exercises, all in one place. Neither will the best sort of Mahometans be named Turkes, because it signifieth banished in the Hebrew tongue, and therefore they call Turkes are called Musilmans.themselves Musilmans, to wit, good beleevers: where in deed for good, it is a false Epithite, but certainely for firme beleevers they are wonderfull constant; and so are all ignorants of whatsoever profession: even like to the Spaniard, who in the midst of all his evills, yet he remaineth alwaies fidele to all the usurpations, the Hispanicall Crowne can compasse.

They never unclothe themselves when they goe to rest, neither have they any bed-clothes, save onely a coverlet above them: I have seene hundreds of them after this manner, lie ranked like durty swine, in a beastly stie, or loathsome Jades in a filthy stable.

Upon the ninth day (leaving Cotafa behind us on the mountaines) we entred in a pleasant Plaine of three leagues of length, adorned with many Villages, Gardens, and Rivers; and arriving at Damascus, we were all lodged (some in Chambers wanting beds, and others without, on hard stones) in a great Cane called Heramnen, where we stayed three dayes. Having all which time given us twice a day provision for our selves and provender for our beasts gratis; being allowed by the Grand Signior to all kind of strangers whatsoever; that come to Damascus with any Caravan; being a singular comfort and advantage to weary and extorted Travellers.

Damascus is called Shamma.Damascus is the Capitall Citie of Syria, called by Turkes, Shamma, and is situated on a faire Plaine, and beautified with many Rivers on each side, (especially Paraphar and Abdenah) excellent Orchards, and all other [V. 207.]naturall objects of elegancy: That for situation, Artizens, all manner of commodities, and varietie of fruits, in all the Asiaticall Provinces it is not paralelled. By Turkes it is called, the Garden of Turkie, or rather their earthly Paradice, because of a fenced Garden there, where a [185]Garison of Turkes lie continually keeping that tree Mouslee, whereon as they alledge the forbidden Aple grew, wherewith the Serpent deceived Eve, and shee Adam, and from whence the great Turke is also styled, keeper of the terrestriall Paradice.

The antiquitie of Damascus.Some hold this Citie was built by Eleazer the servant of Abraham; and other say it is the place where Caine slew Abel, where indeed it is most likely to be so: for hard by Damascus I saw a pillar of Brasse erected there for a commemoration of that unnaturall murther of Cain executed upon his innocent brother. But howsoever I perswade thee, it is a pleasant and gallant Citie, well walled, and fortified with a strong Castle, wherein the Bassaw remaineth: the most part of the streets are covered, so that the Citizens are preserved in Summer from the heat, and in Winter from the raine.

The like commoditie (but not after that forme) hath Padua in Lombardy: Their Bazar, or Market place is also covered, so are commonly all the Bazars or Bezestans in Turky: The best Carobiers, Adams Apples, and Grenadiers that grow on the earth is here: neare unto the Bazar there is a Moskie called Gemmah, wherein my Guide shewed me the Sepulcher of Ananias, and the Fountaine where he baptized Paul: In another street, I saw the house of Ananias, which is but a hollow Celler under the ground, and where the Disciples let Paul downe through the wall in a basket: In the street where they fell their Viæno, my Interpreter shewed me a great gate of fine [V. 208.]mettall, which he sayd was one of the doores of the Temple of Salomon, and was transported thence, by the Tartarians, who conquered Jerusalem about three hundred and eighty yeares agoe, who for the heavy weight thereof, were enforced to leave it here, being indeede a relicke of wonderfull bignesse: And I saw also such aboundance of Rose-water here in barrels, to be sold, as beere or wine is rife with us.

This Paradisiat Shamma, is the mother City, and most beautiful place of all Asia, resembling every way (the [186]tectures of her Houses excepted being platforme) that matchlesse patterne and mirrour of beauty, the City of Antwerp. The onely best Shables, or short crooked swords, that be in the world are made here; and so are all other their weapons, as halfe Pikes, Bowes, and Arrowes, and Baluckoes of steele, that Horse-men carry in their hands: their shafts being three foot long, their heads great and round, and sharply guttered; wherewith they use to braine or knocke downe their enemies in the field. The forces of the Bassa of Damascus.The Beglerbeg or Bassa of Damascus, is the greatest of commandement of all other Bassaes in Asia: Having under his authority (as he is under his Emperour) twenty two Sanzacks, and they conducting under all the aforesayd three, forty thousand Timariots or Horse-men, besides two thousand Janizaries, which are the guard of the Bassa, and Garrison of the Citty. His Beglerbership extendeth over the greater halfe of Syria, a part of the two Arabiaes Fœlix and Petrea, Phenicia, Galilee, Samaria, Palestina, Judea, Jerusalem, Idumea, and al the Northerne parts of Arabia Desartuous, even to the frontiers of Egipt.

The meanes of the preservation of so great a state, is only by an induced confidence upon the power, and force [V. 209.]of those Timariots who as well have their pay and locall grounds of compensation in time of tranquillitie, as warres, to defend these Countries, from the incursions of the wilde Arabs, which evermore annoy the Turkes, and also Strangers: and cannot possibly be brought to a quiet, and well formed manner of living; but are continuall spoilers of these parts of the Turkes Dominions. That mischiefe daily increaseth, rather then any way diminisheth. They taking example from the beastly Turkes, adde by these patterns more wickednesse, to the badnesse of their owne dispositions: Savage Arabian Robbers.So that every one of these Savages, according to his power, dealeth with all men uncivilly & cruelly, even like a wildernesse full of wilde beasts, living all upon rapine and robbery, wanting all sense of humanity, more then a shew of appearance: Whereby being combind [187]together, doe tyrannize over all, even from the red Sea to Babylon.

Thus they in that violent humour, invading also these of Affricke, hath caused Grand Cayro to be furnished with thirty thousand Timariots, which defend the frontiers of Ægypt and Gozan: Leaving all the Turkes at Damascus (save onely our Janizaries and Souldiers) within the space of two houres after our departure from thence travelling in the way to Jerusalem; the whole Armenians fell downe on the ground, kissing it, and making many sincere demonstrations of unwonted devotion. At the which I being amazed, stood gazing, asking my Trench man, what newes? who replied, saying, it was the place where S. Paul was converted, which they had (and all Christianes should have) in great regard. The place was covered with an old Chappell, and,

More like some relict, of exstirpd decay,

Than for a monument, reard for the way.

[V. 210.]To blaze on Pauls conversion: yet it’s true

The worke was done, even by the Christiane Jew,

Or Jacobine: a circumcised kind,

Who beare to franks, a most respective mind:

Three dayes were we betwixt Damascus, and the East part of Galilie, which is the beginning of Canaan: in two of which three, we encountred with marishes and quagmires, being a great hinderance to us: This barren, and marish Countrey, is a part of Arabia Petrea, comming in with a point betweene Galilee, and Syria, running along even to the South-west skirt of Libanus, which indeed in that place, farre more than Jordan divideth the true Syria from Canaan; this Petrean Countrey it selfe, devalling even downe to the limits of Jacobs bridge, cutteth away the denomination of Syria, from this parcell of ground, till you come Eastward to the more laborious Plaines.

A dangerous way.Through this passage, it is most undoubtedly a very theevish way; for as we travelled in the night, there were [188]many of us forced to carry burning lights in our hands, and our souldiers had their Harquebuzes ready to discharge: all to affray the blood-thirsty Arabians, who in holes, caves, and bushes, lie obscured, waiting for the advantage upon Travellers: not unlike unto the Lawlesse Wood Carnes in Ireland. This part of Arabia is called Petrosa, because it is so rockie, and some thinke of Petra the chiefe Towne: It was aunciently divided in two regions Nabathia, and Agara, possessed first by the Hagarens, discended of Abraham and Hagar: It is also thought to be the land of the Midianites whether Moses fled to, and kept sheepe; and Mount Horeb is here, whereon the Lord did shew him the land of Promise.

[V. 211.]Divers of these Petrean Arabs, converse, and dwell amongst the Turkes; whom we tearme in respect of the other, civill Arabs. South from hence, lieth Arabia Fælix bordering with the Indian Sea; which is the most fruitfull and pleasant soyle in all Asia; abounding with Balsamo, Myrrhe, and Frankincense, Gold and Pearles, especially about Medina, the second Citie to Meccha: The other Townes of note are Horan, the chiefe Port of the South Ocean, And Alteroch, the only Towne where Christians are in greatest number in that Countrey.

Truely with much difficulty, and greater danger passed we these Arabia Petrea.Petrean journeys. Here I remarked a singular qualitie, and rare perfection, in the carefull conduction of our Captaine; who would, when we came to any dangerous place, give the watch-word of St. Johanne, meaning as much thereby, that none should speake or whisper after that warning under the paine of a Harquebusado. And no more we durst, unlesse he had stretcht out his hand, making us a signe (when occasion served) of liberty, least by our tumultuous noyse in the night, our enemies should have the fore-knowledge of our comming; and knowing also that the nature of a multitude, bred all times confused effects, without some severe punishment. Him selfe rod stil in the Vangard, upon a lusty Gelding, with two Janizaries, and forty Souldiers, [189]and the other foure Janizaries and sixty Souldiers, were appointed to be the backe-gard, for feare of sudden assaults. Thus, most dexteriously discharged he the function of his calling, not with insolencie, but with prudent and magnanimous virilitie: for my part, I must needs say, the diligent care of that benigne Caravan extended over me, was such, that whensoever I remember it, I am not able to sacrifice congratulations sufficiently [V. 212.]to his well-deserving mind: yet in the meane while, my Purse bountifully rewarded his earnest endevours; and notwithstanding, of this high conceived regard, yet in some frivolous things, and for a small trifle, he privately wronged me, which I misknew, as unwilling (knowing his disposition, and that my life hung in his hands) to be too forward to seeke a redresse. For oftentimes an A corrupted Caravan.inconvenience is most convenient; and as the great corrupter of youth is pleasure, and the violent enemy of age is griefe; even so are the inordinate desires of inconscionable strangers toward Travellers, who preferring avarice above honesty, care onely for that part of a man which is his fortune, whose friendship beginning onely in an outward show, must end in the midst of a mans money; as who would say, such like were rather imployed, as their imployments rewarded, and therefore in unlawfull things they must sucke the honey of their owne preposterous ends: And thus it fared with him, at the paying of my tributes, by the way for my head, he caused me oft to pay, more then reason, to the Moores, Turkes, and civill Arabs, receiving secretly backe from them the over-plus; which my Turkish Servant perceiving, made my Trenchman tell me, that I might be fore-seene therein.

But such is the covetous nature of man, that with his covenant he cannot be contented, unlesse he seeke otherwise, by all unlawfull meanes to purchase himselfe an unjust gaine: But the high respect I had of his other perfections, made me oversee and winke at that imperfection of avaritiousnesse in him; and especially remembring my selfe to be under his protection, I alwayes endeavoured [190]my aimes so, that in his sight, I wonne extraordinary [V. 213.]favour: insomuch, that in danger, or securitie, he would ever have me neere by him, which I also craved, and strove to observe the points of his will, and my owne safety.

The obligation of my bounden duety, taught me to no other end, then ever to respect the benevolence of his affection, and to suppresse my owne weake judgement, which could never mount to the true acquittance of his condigne merit.

But to proceed in my Pilgrimage, on the aforesaid third day, in the after-noone, we entred in Galilee, passing along a faire Bridge, that is over the River Jordan, which divideth a part of this stony Arabia from Galilee. Jacobs Bridge.This Bridge by the Armenians, is called Jacobs Bridge; and not farre hence, they shewed me the place, where Jacob wrestled with the Angell, and where Esau met his brother Jacob, to have killed him being upon the East side of the River: Jordan is scarcely knowne by the name in this place: but afterward I saw his greater growth, ending in Sodome, whereof in the owne place, I shall more amply discourse: Betweene Jacobs Bridge and Jerusalem, we had sixe dayes journey, five whereof were more pleasant than profitable, in regard of the great tributs I payd by the way for my head, that at sundry places and into one day, I have payd for my freedome in passage twelve Chickens of gold, amounting to five pounds eight shillings of English money: A journall tribute more fit for a Prince to pay, than a Pilgrime; the admiration onely resting upon this, how I was furnished with these great moneyes I dayly disbursed.

Aprill the eighteene day, according to the computation of the Romane Calender, and by ours, March the eight and twenty, I entred in Galilee, a Province of Canaan; This [V. 214.]Countrey was first called Canaan from Canan the sonne of Cham: secondly the Land of Promise, because it was promised By the Lord to Abraham and his seed to possesse: Thirdly, the land of Israel, of the Israelites, so called from [191]Jacob, who was surnamed Israel: Fourthly, Judea, from the Jewes, or the people of the tribe of Judah: Fifthly, Palestine quasi Philistim, the land of the Philistins. And now sixtly, terra sancta, the holy land, because herein was wrought many wonderfull miracles, but especially the worke of our salvation. It is in length 180. and in breadth 60. miles: yet of that salubrity of aire and fertility of soyle, flowing with milke and hony, that before the comming of the Israelites it maintayned thirty Kings, with their people, and afterward the two potent Kingdomes of Israel and Judah; in which David numbred one million and 300000. fighting men, besides them of the tribe of Benjamin and Levi: It is most certayne, that by the goodnesse of the Climate and soile, especially by the Canaan greatly changed.blessing of God, it was the most fruitfull Land in the World: but by experience, I find now the contrary, and the fruitfulnes thereof to be changed, God cursing the Land together with the Jewes, then the (but now dispersed) inhabitants thereof. Neither are the greatest part of these Easterne countries so fertile, as they have beene in former ages, the earth as it were growing olde, seemeth weary to beare the burthen of any more encrease; and surely the two eyes of Day and Night, with the Planets, and Starres, are become neyther so forcible, so bright, nor warme as they have beene: Time from olde antiquity, running all things to devasted desolation, making the strong things weake, and weake things feeble, at last it returneth all things to just nothing: and there is the end of all beginnings, and an infallible Argument of the dissolution to come by the day of judgement.[V. 215.]

As things that are, still vanish from our eye,

So things that were, againe shall never be:

The Whirlwind of Time, still so speedy posts,

That like it selfe, all things therein, it tosts.

The Jewes are also tearmed Hebrai, or Hebrewes from Heber one of Abrahams Progenitors, or Hebræ quasi [192]Abrahæi: who at their discent into Egypt, were but seventy soules being the issue of Jacob, and his twelve Sonnes. The posterity of which Patriarchy, continued in bondage two hundred and fifteene yeares, till in the yeare of the world, two thousand foure hundred fifty three: At which time, the Lord commiserating their heavy oppressions under the Egyptians, delivered them with a strong hand, and placed them here: which then was inhabited by the Hittites, Amorites, Perisits, and Jebusits. The Holy Land.Canaan is divided into five Provinces, viz. Judea, Galilee, Palestina, Samaria, and Phenicia: Some divide it only in three, Palestina, Judea, and Galilee: It hath beene by others also nominated in generall, Syria, by which Calculation, they gathered all the Countries from Cilicia to Egypt under that name. But howsoever they differ in Descriptions, it is most certayne, that at this day, it is onely, and usually divided into these five particular Provinces: Galilee, and Palestina, for the present, are the most fertile and largest Provinces thereof, especially Galilee, which in some parts, yeeldeth graine twice a yeare, and for abundance of Silke, Cotton-woole, delicate Wines, Hony, Oyle, and fruites of all kindes; I hold it never a whit more decayed now, than at any time when the glory of Israel was at the highest: This province of Galilee is forty eight miles long, and twenty five broad, having Phenicia to the North: Samaria to the west: [V. 216.]Jordan to the South: and to the East and North-East, a part or poynt of Arabia-Petrosa, and the South-west end of Libanus.

After we had travailed a great way, along the Lake of Genasareth, which is of length eight leagues, and large foure: where I saw the decayed Townes of Bethsaida, and Tyberias, lying on the North-side of the same Sea, we left the Marine, and came to Cana, to stay all night: in which wee had no Canes to save us from the Arabs, nor coverture above our heads, but the hard ground to lye on, which was alwayes my Bed, in the most parts of Asia: In the night, when we slept, the Souldiers kept [193]Centinell, and in the day, when we Reposed, they slept, and we watched.

Cana in Galilee.This Cana was the towne wherein our Saviour wrought the first Miracle, converting at the Marriage, Water into Wine: And is now called by the Turkes Callieros or Calinos, being a towne composed of two hundred fire Houses: The inhabitants beeing partly Arabs, partly Jewes, and partly some Christian Georgians: the circumjacent fieldes, beeing both Fertile, Delectable, and plaine.

The day following, imbracing our way, wee passed over a little pleasant Mountayne, where the Armenian Patriarke (for so was there one with them) went into an old Chappell, and all the rest of the Pilgrimes thronged about him, using many strange Ceremonies, for it was in that place (as they sayd) Where Christ fed five thousand people, with five Barley loaves, and two fishes. And indeede was very likely to have beene the place: the auncient Chappell, showing as yet some beautiful decorements, do dignifie both the Monument, and the Memory of the Founder thereof.

Continuing our journey, wee saw Mount Tabor on our [V. 217.]left hand, which is a pretty round Mountaine, beset about with comely trees: I would gladly have seene the Monument of that place, where the Transfiguration of Christ was: But the Caravan, mindfull to visite Nazareth, left the great way of Jerusalem, and would by no perswasion go thither.

That night we lodged in a poore Village, called Heerschek, where we could get neither meate for our selves, nor provender for the Beasts, but some of our Company for their supper, had a hundred stroakes from the Moores and Arabs in that place, because the Christian Pilgrimes had troden upon the graves of their dead friends, which by no meanes they can tollerate: They made no small uproare amongst us, desperately throwing stones and darts, till we were all glad to remove halfe a mile from that place; and the next morning we passed by Cæsarea Philippi.Cæsarea Philippi which is now so miserably decayed, that the ruined [194]Towne affordeth not above twenty foure dwelling houses, being for ruines, a second Towne, to sacked Samaria, or another spectacle of time like to the now ragged Towne of the Moorish Bethulia: It was built by Philip one of the Tetrarchs in honour of Tiberius Cæsar, and now called by the Moores Hedarasco. Here was Herod smitten by the Angels, and eaten of wormes, after the Sycophanticall people called his Rethoricall oration, the voyce of God, and not of man: Here our Saviour healed the woman of the bloody fluxe, and raised from death to life the daughter of Jairus: Here S. Peter baptized Cornelius, and S. Paul disputed against Tertullius in the presence of Felix.

Aprill the 20. day, about ten of the clocke, (passing the River Kyson) we arrived at Nazareth, and there reposed till the evening, providing our selves of victuals [V. 218.]and water: In this Towne dwelt Joseph, and the Virgin Mary; and in which also our Saviour was brought up under the vigilant care of Joseph and Mary. After wee had dined, the Armenians arose, and went to a heape of stones, the ruines of an old house, before the which they fell downe upon their knees; praysing God: And that ruinous lumpe (say they) was the house where Mary dwelt, when Gabriel saluted her, bringing the Annunciation of Salvation to the World: I am fully perswaded, they carried away above five thousand pounds weight, to keepe in a A counter buffet for Loretta.memoriall thereof: then did I remember of the Chappell of Loretta, and told the Caravan, that I saw that house standing in Italy, which (as the Romanists say) was transported by the Angels: O, said he, we Armenians cannot beleeve that, neither many other assertions of the Roman Church; for we certainely know by Christians, that have from time to time dwelt here ever since, that this is both the place, and stones of the house: Let Papists coyne a new Law to themselves, we care not, for as they erre in this, so doe they erre in all, following meerely the traditions of men, they runne galloping post to Hell. The Patriarke being informed by the laughing Caravan of these newes, asked me in disdaine (thinking it had beene an Article [195]of my beliefe) if I saw that house, or beleeved that the Chappell of Loretta was such a thing: to whom I constantly answered, I did not beleeve it, affirming it was onely but a divellish invention, to deceive the blind-folded people, and to fill the Coffers of the Romane Priests: Now thou bottomlesse Gulfe of Papistry, here I forsake thee, no Winter-blasting Furies of Satans subtile stormes, can make ship-wracke of my Faith, on the stony shelfes of thy deceitfull deepes.

Thus, and after this manner too: are all the illusions [V. 219.]of their imaginary and false miracles, first invented partly by monasteriall poverty, then confirmed by provincial bribery, and lastly they are faith-sold for consistoricall lucre. In the time of our staying here, the Emeere or Lord of the Towne sent sixe women, conducted by 12. of his servants, to an Armenian Prince, that was a Pilgrime in our company; to be used by him and others, Libidinous leachery.whom so he would elect to be his fellow labourers: Which indeed he did kindly accept, & invited me to that feast: but I gave him the refusall, little regarding such a frivolous commodity. He, and some of the chiefest Pilgrimes entertained them for the space of 3. houres, and sent them backe, giving to their conductors fifteene Piasters, in a reward. Truely if I would rehearse the impudency of these Whoores, and the bruitishnesse of the Armenians, as it is most ignominious to the actors; so no doubt, it would be very loathsome to the Reader.

Such is the villanie of these Orientall slaves under the Turkes; that not onely by conversing with them, learne some of their damnable Hethnicke customes, but also going beyond them in beastly sensualnesse, become worse then bruite beasts: This maketh me remember a worthy saying of that Heathnish Romane Emperour Marcus Aurelius, who in consideration of fleshly lusts, said; that although he were sure, that the Gods would not punish him for the offence; yet he would forbeare it, in regard of the filthinesse of the fact it selfe: Indeed of a Pagane a noble and vertuous resolution, when such base and [196]beastly Christianes, these wretched Armenians, committed with these Infidelish harlots a twofold kind of voluptuous abhomination, which my conscience commands me to conceale: least I frequent this Northern world, with that which their nature never knew, nor their knowledge have [V. 220.]heard hearing of the like: but God in his just judgements, that same night, threatned both to have punished the doers, and the whole company for their sakes: For we having resolved to travell all that night, and because the way was rocky, and hard to be knowne, and perillous for Arabs; we hired a Christian guide, named Joab, and agreed with him to take us to Lidda, which was two dayes journey. But before we advanced to our passage, Joab had sent a privie messenger before us, to warne about three hundred Arabs (who had their abode on the South side A villanous plot.of Mount Carmell) to meete him at such a place as he had appointed; giving them to know, wee were rich and well provided with Chickens and Sultans of gold, and Piasters of silver; and that he should render us into their hands for such a recompense and consideration, as their savage judgements should thinke fit; according to the spoyles and booties they should obtaine, together with the miserable murder and losse of our lives. This being done, and unknowne to us, we marched along, travelling faster then our ordinary pace, some on horse, and some on foote, for my pilgrimage was ever pedestriall: which our guide suspecting, that by our celerity wee should goe beyond the place appointed for his treacherous plot, began to crosse us grievously; leading us up and downe amongst pooles and holes, whither he listed; where many of our Camels & Asses were lost, and could not be recovered, because we all began to suspect and feare; which was the cause that the owners durst not stay to relieve their perishing beasts.

In the end, the Captaine and Janisaries, intreated him earnestly to bring us in the right way; but the more they requested, the more obdurat was his heart, replying, he was mistaken, and could not finde it, till day light: upon [197][V. 221.]the which words, the company was stayed, and in the meanewhile there came a Turke, one of our Souldiers unto the Captaine, saying; he saw the guide, before our A treacherous guide.departure from Nazareth, send a Moore before him, for what respect he knew not, being long at privat conference. Whereupon, they straight bound him with ropes, on a horse backe, threatning him with death, to cause him confesse the trueth.

In the midst of this tumult, I having got sight of the North-starre, (which seemd exceeding low to me) considered thereby, that the villaine had led us more to the Southward, then to the Westward, which was our way to Jerusalem: Whereupon I intreated the Caravan to turne our faces Northward, otherwise we should be cut off, and that suddenly: for although (said I) it may peradventure be, that we are three or foure miles short of the place intended for our massacre, yet they missing us, will like ravening Wolves hunt here and there; wherefore, if we incline to the North, (God willing) we shall prevent their bloody designes. To the which advice (being duely pondered) they yeelded; and so I became their guide, in that darke night, till morning: for none of them knew that Starre, neither the nature of it. At last this desperate wretch considering that either by our vanquishing, or the enemies victory, he could not escape, sith his treason was revealed; began to beg pardon of the Caravan, saying that if he could have any surety of his life, he would sufficiently informe us, how to eschew these eminent dangers, for we were all in extreame perill of our lives; and not so much courage nor comfort left us, as the very smallest hope of any reliefe.

The Captaine being distracted with feare, replied he would, and thereupon swore a solemne oath, so did the [V. 222.]Janisaries sweare by the head of Mahomet, for the like effect: Which being done, he was untied, and confessed, that if we had continued in our way, he led us, wee had beene all put to the edge of the Sword: and falling down on his knees, cried oft with teares, mercy, mercy, mercy. [198]

All that night we went with the Starre, and against morning wee were in the Westerne confines of Phœnicia, and at the beginning of Palestine, close by the marine, and within halfe a mile of Tyrus. This sometimes renowned Tyrus is called Sur.Citty of Tyrus, called now by the Moores Sur, was famous for her Purples, and Collonies dispersed over all the World by her Citizens; and once a kingdome of great antiquity and long continuance. The most worthiest of her Kings, were Hiram in strict bond of Confederacy, with Salomon, and Pigmalion the brother of Dido, who built Carthage: This seat, giving way to the Persian Monarchy, was about the overthrow of Darius, beleagured by Alexander: who had so much adoe with extraordinary expence of men, money, and great labour to conquer it, being then separated from the maine Continent, by the Sea, but now joyned to the firme Land: and before you come to the Citty, there lyeth a great banke of sand, where it is likely the Sea hath beene in Alexanders time: Though now, as time altereth every thing, the Sea be fled from that place, which maketh that ruinous Towne seeme more desolate. At the breach of day, I, and certaine Armenians went to visite this decayed Towne, and found the most famous ruines here, that the World for memory can affoord, and a Delicious incircling Harbour, inclos’d within the middle of the Towne, fit to receive smal Barkes, Frigots, and Galleots: the compassing fore-face whereof, beeing all of foure squard Marble and Alabaster stones: the most part of all which [V. 223.]Houses have stood on pillars of the same stones: the The ruines of Tyrus.infinite number whereof, may as yet bee, (above and below the Sands) perspectively beheld. There be onely some nineteene fire houses heere, which are Moores: and is now under the Emeere of the Drusians, who remayneth in Sydon. The East part of this Countrey aboundeth in Balme, Honny, and Oyle, and was the Seate of Asher of whom Moses prophecied, Deut. 33. 24. that hee should dippe his feete in Oyle.

Here these Egyptian Moores, for so they were first [199]bred there: brought us to a pillar lying upon the ground, of nine severall colours of Marble, being one intire stone, and the length of it was twenty two foot of my measure, and eight in compasse: Which sayd they, was one of the Sampsons Pillar.pillars that Sampson pulled downe upon the Philistines at the houre of his Death. To whom I answered, that Sampson dyed at Azath, the furthest South-west part of Palestine, where hee bore downe the House of Dagon, upon the Philistines: And I thinke the auncient Tyrians, sayd I, could not transport that Pillar so far hither: But they the more constantly affirmed it, and so did these Armenians that were with mee confirme it also, some of whom, had beene twice there before: yet howsoever it was, I brought home a pound weight of it, and presented the halfe thereof, to King James of blessed Memory.

Here by accident, in returning backe to the Caravan, I met with an English Factor, named Maister Brockesse, who then remayned at Sydon, eighteene miles from this place, and had been downe at Acre, about some negotiations: Who indeede eftsoones, and kindly tooke mee into a Moorish House by the Sea side, and one of his acquaintance: where instantly we swallowed downe such joviall and deep carrouses of Leaticke wine, that both hee and I, were almost fastned in the last plunge of [V. 224.]understanding: Yet neverthelesse, he conveyed me backe to my company, and put me safe into the hands of the Caravan, with whom afterwards I diverse times met with here at London; to whose kindnesse I celebrate the memory of these lines.

But now the Sunne discovering the earth, and the night banished to the inferiour world, we were all encouraged, for the light of day lends comfort: The Captaine (sending backe that false Judas, for so was he sworne to do) sent a post to Tyrus for a new guide, who came forthwith, and brought us in our way to Mount Carmell, for by it we The Towne of Sarepta.behoved to go; and in our way we met with the desolate Towne of Sarepta nigh thereunto adjoyning, where Elias [200]was sustained in a great famine by a Widdow, whose sonne he raised from death.

Great are the mercies of God, for as he hath made man an excellent creature, so hath he also indued him with two great powers in his mind: The one a wise power of understanding, by which he penetrateth into the knowledge of things: the other a strong power of dexterous resolving; whereby he executeth things well understood, for we having judged the worst, resolved the best: and by his Almighty providence were freed from that apparent danger, although the former dayes whoredome, and unnaturall vices, deserved a just punishment.

This I intimate to all Travellers in generall, that if they would that God should further them in their attempts, blesse their voyages, and graunt them a safe returne to their native Countries (without the which, what contentment have they for all their paines) that they would constantly refraine from whoredome, drunkennesse, and too much familiarity with Strangers: For a Traveller [V. 225.]that is not temperate, and circumspect in all his actions, although he were headed like that Herculean Serpent Hydra, yet it is impossible he can returne in safety from danger of Turkes, Arabs, Moores, wild beasts, & the deadly operative extremities of heat, hunger, thirst, and cold.

Approaching to Mount Carmell, and leaving it upon our right hand betweene us and the marine coast, I beheld a farre off upon the top of the hill, the place where Elias ascended to heaven, when he left his Cloake behind him to Elizeus his disciple. This mountaine is foure miles of length, lying South and North, the North end bordering with the Sea, neare to Acre, called anciently Ptolomæis, and the South end joyning with the borders of Samaria, through the which confine we past.

Samaria.Leaving Samaria on our left hand, we entred into a faire Plaine, adorned with fruitfull trees, and all other ornaments that pleasant fields affoord, but no Village wee saw. Marching thus about the declining of the Sunne [201]from the Meridian, we came in sight of two hundred pavillions, all pitched in rankes; yeelding the prospect of a little Citie, by a brooke side of water: which being perceived, the Captaine began to censure what they might be; and immediately there came riding towards us, sixe naked fellowes, well mounted on Arabian Geldings, who demanded what wee were? and whither we were bound with such a multitude; and if there were any Franks of Christendome in our company. To whom the Janisaries replied, we were purposed to Jerusalem, and that there was but one Franke with them: Upon the which they presently sought me, demanding Caffar, Caffar; that was tribute for my head, & caused me perforce notwithstanding of the resisting Caravan, and Janizaries, to pay them presently for my life seven Chickens of gold, seven times [V. 226.]nine shillings starling: And this is, because sayd they our King is resident in these Tents, and therefore we have tripled his tribute: And yet were they discontented, because there were no moe franks in our company, for from the Armenians, they could not, nor would not seeke any tribute, because they were tributary slaves and subjects to the great Turke: neither also of any other Christiane borne in his dominions, when they shall happen to fall into their hands.

They returning backe to their Prince, with the malediction of my heart, and the sorrow of a Pilgrimes purse, we marching on in our way, that day wee travelled above thirty foure miles, and pitched at a Village called Adoash, being composed of threescore Moorish and Arabian houses, standing in a fruitfull and delicate Plaine; and garnished with Olive, Date, and Figge-trees, which were both pleasant and profitable: where we found also good hearbes to eate, and abundance of water to drinke, and also to fill our emptied bottles: As wee lay downe to sleepe after a hungry supper, on the hard ground, and our guard watching us; The savage Arabian King.that same King of the Arabians came a little before mid-night, with twenty foure well horsed Runagats, and naked Courtiers, being armed with bowes [202]and arrowes, and halfe-pikes, pointed at both ends with hard Steele; and asked for the Caravan, who presently awoke, and went to salute him, laying his hand on his breast, bowed his head very low; which is the usuall courtesie amongst the Infidels and Christians in these parts: For they never uncover their heads to any man; and after some short parley, they sate all downe on the grasse. The Caravan presented his rude like majesty with water, bread, hearbes, figs, garlike, and such things as he had.

As they were thus merry, at this poore banquet, the [V. 227.]awfull King tooke the Oath of our Conductor, if there were any mo Frankes there then I; and he having sworne the trueth, The King by a malignant informer, incontinently caused me to be brought before him; and staring me in the face, asked my Interpreter where were my companions? Who replied I had none: then sayd he; tell that dogge, or Elishole, he must acknowledge me with five peeces of gold more, otherwise (making a signe to his owne throate) I shall cut off his head, because (sayd he) I will not loose this nights travell for nothing: The which I being informed, and knowing that by no condition, there was resistance against such a scelerate Prince, Exaction of tribute.gave it him forth of mine owne hand, having consulted with my Captaine before, and that presently with a halfe smiling countenance; which he remarking, told the rest, it seemed I gave it with a good heart & a chearefull gesture, and to recompence my outward behaviour, he drunke a great draught of water to me: thinking thereby, he had done me more honour then all the Chickens of gold I gave him now, and in the morning; would doe him profit or pleasure: pleasure they could doe him none, for they were unlawfully and dishonestly got, and too delivered from the inward sorrow of my sighing soule; and no wonder, having spent two yeares great charges in Turky, before this time, but that I should have beene exceeding penurious of money, and thereupon desolate of reliefe and comfort. [203]

Truely this was one of the greatest tributes I payed for one dayes journey, that I had in all my voyage, in Asia. Two Arabian Kings.There are two Kings in Arabia, the one who liveth on Euphrates, the desarts of Mesopotamia, sometimes [V. 228.]in Arabia Felix, and in some parts of Syria: And the other was hee to whom I payd this money wandereth with his Tribes, Tents, and Bestiall, one while in Arabia Petrea, and Deserta, and sometimes in the Holy Land, as hee findeth good pastorage, and fresh Fountaynes. These two Kings are mortall enemies: and if by accident they meete, they fight most cruelly, bringing dammage, rapine, and destruction to themselves, and their followers: For it is a difficult thing in them to dominate their inordinate passions, beeing untamed Savages, and mis-regarders of civility, who continually contend to corroborate the malignity of their dispositions, with bloody and inhumane interprises. And yet all the rest of that night, after his returne from us, wee still expected some treacherous surprise, which made our souldiers stand stoutly on their guard, and wee Pilgrimes to our vigilant and naked defence: For the Turkes will not suffer Christians to carry weapons in al these Dominions, neither any where, where they command. And for all this great tribute, and nights danger of my life, heere was my present resolution:

The more I am beset, with dreadfull snares

Begirded round, in shelfie gulfes of wracke;

And shipbroke left, on rockes of deep despaires,

Where helples care, with tortring thoughts me racke:

Then stoutly stand I, hoping for the end,

That time will change, and God will better send.

And now by the way I recall the aforesayd Turke, the maister of the Mule that carried my provision, and on whom in the journey I had bestowed the most part of my Tobacco: When I had no more to give him, and he suspecting the contrary, was councelled by his associats to beate me soundly, and dismount my Victuals and Water [V. 229.]from the Mules backe, till I propined him with the rest, [204]which intention being by me understood; I forthwith run to the Caravan and complained: whereupon my friend was bravely belaboured with a cudgell, and my better safety procured: Thus was his former shew of love quickly expelled, and an inward grudge suddenly conceived, for it was the smoake, and not my selfe he respected.

Loves whirling fancies, mortals fondly feed

As marish rootes dissolve, even as they breed:

An humane creature, inhumanely taught,

Is worser given to ill, than evill fraught:

Things in themselves, be not so bad as ill,

The cause exeemd, corruption hath free will:

Mans fraile affection, is a cloudy mist,

Whose vapours fall, and fogge, as passions list:

Bad counsell’s worse, than nature ill applies,

Weake judgment dulls, when feare in reason flies:

Thus sad ecclips’d, the darke ecclipsed Moone

Did change, ere mine ecclipsed light was wonne.

At last the Sun-shine, of my silver day,

Came crawling on, as snailes advance the way.

The next morning, when the hopefull Aurore, had fore-showne the burning birth of glassie Thetis, and that Orient majesty arising to overcirculate the earth, then marcht we along in our way, and before mid-day pitched our haire-cloth Tents round about Jacobs Well.Jacobs Well, neare the decayed City of Sychar in Samaria: This Province of Samaria, is now for the most part quite destroyed and overwhelmed with mountaines of sand: we found this auncient Well so wondrous deepe, that scarcely all our ropes could sinke our bucket in the water: The taste whereof was wondrous cold & sweet, & for Jacobs sake the whole number of us, drunke more of it, then neede [V. 230.]required: The fiery face of Phœbus declining to the West, we marched through a part of the fields of Basan, of which Og was last King, a man of such a large proportion, that his bed being made of iron, was nine Cubits long, and foure broad: and all that afternoone, wee had exceeding [205]pleasant travailing; and at night we incamped by Lydda on the fields: Lydda is not above ten miles from the ruinous Towne of Cæsarea by the sea side, and is now called by the Turkes and Moores Alferron, being a Village only of sixteene Moorish Houses. Heere Peter healed the man sicke of the palsie.

The Sea-port Townes of the Holy Land.The Townes scituated by the Sea side in Phœnicia, Palestine, and Judea, are these: Sydon, which standeth in the Borders of Zebulon, and Nephtalim, or Phœnicia, beeing a goodly City, and well peopled; and is governed by the Emeere or Prince of the Drusians: who beeing the off spring of the Christians, which under the Conduct of Godfrey Duke of Bulloine, discended into these parts, do still maintayne their liberty against the Turkes: The Signior whereof being threatned by the Great Turke, fled to Cosmus Duke of Florence, Anno 1612. leaving his two Sonnes behind him, the eldest to keepe Sydon, and the younger to remaine in a strong Fortresse, on the west end of mount Libanus: The elder brother foorthwith yeelded to the great Turke, the signory of his Lands, but the younger would never do it, and so retayneth absolutely the Countrey of Libanus to this day, making himselfe thereupon, a mountainous Monarchicke Prince. Tyrus, which is miserably brought to ruine: Acre or Acon, that hath yet some indifferent trade of Merchandize, called formerly Ptolomeis: Caipha, called commonly Castello Pellegrino, which hath nothing but the remnants of an auncient Abbay: Cesarea, who reserveth but onely the [V. 231.]memory of ruines, for there is no Hospitality in it, except it be to savage Moores: Joppa or Japhta, is a Sea-port of small Barkes, but the decaied Towne, contayneth not one dwelling House, save onely a high Tower, which defendeth the Port from Cursares: Here Jonah tooke ship to flye from God: Here Peter raised Tabitha or Dorcas, from Death to life: and where he lodging at the House of Simon the Tanner, was in a vision taught the conversion of the Gentiles. And Baruti famous for so many Christian armies that have besieged it, is now composed of eight [206]hundred fire houses: Lying North-east of Sydon under mount Libanus, formerly called Julia Fœlix, nigh unto which (as fabulous stories report) S. George delivered the Kings Daughter, by killing the Dragon. It is also thought to be within Canaan, standing in the Frontier of Phœnicia, and is the best inhabited place of all the holy Land, Sydon and Jerusalem excepted.

Saturday morning before the breach of day, setting forward from Lydda, through the curling playnes of fat-fac’d Palestine, scarcely were wee well advanced in A dreadfull conflict.our way, till wee were beset with more then three hundred Arabs, who sent us from shrubby heights an unexpected shoure of Arrowes, to the great annoyance of all our Company: For if it had not beene, that our Souldiers shot off their Gunnes on a sudden, and stood manly also to it, with their Bowes and Arrowes for our defence, we had then miserably, in the midst of their ravenous fury perished. But the nature of the Arabs is not unlike to the Jackals: For when any of them heare the shot of a Harquebuse, they presently turne backe with such speed, as if the fiendes of the infernall Court were broken loose at their heeles.

In that momentary conflict, on our side there were [V. 232.]killed nine Women, five men, and about thirty persons deadly wounded, which to our worthy Armenian Captayne, and to the rest of our Heathnish Conductors bred no small griefe: the mourning noyse among the multitude, beeing also wondrous pittifull. Till bright day came, we stayed still in that same place, (expecting the dangerous mutability of our austiere fortune: and at our departure thence, wee buried the slayne people in deep graves, whereby Jackals should not open up their graves, to eate their Corpes: For such is the nature of these cruel beasts, that they onely love to live on mans flesh: these ravenous beasts (as is thought) are ingendred of a Foxe and a Wolfe.

Proceeding in our journey, we entred about two of the clocke in the afternoone, in the hilly Countrey of [207]Judea, having two of their courses to Jerusalem, which is about twenty English miles: The Towne of Rhama.leaving Rhama on our right hand, which contayneth some two hundred dwelling houses of one story high, and ten miles distant from Joppa, from which it lyeth in the way to Jerusalem: Here remayneth the Dragoman, a Christian, who receiveth and conveyeth the Pilgrimes to Jerusalem, which land at Joppa, each Pilgrime paying seaven Chickens of gold, is furnished with an Asse to ride on, all the way tributes, at going, and comming being discharged by their Conductor, to whom they resigne this tributary money.

Rhama is a Towne inhabited by Christians, Arabs, and Moores: not blacke Moores, as the Affricans be, but they are called Mori, which are a kinde of Egyptians, and not naturally blacke, but Sunne-burnt, with the parching heate. The whole Territory of Canaan, is inhabited with these Moores, some Turkes, civill Arabs, and a few [V. 233.]Christians and scattered Jewes. The Arabians are for the most part Theeves and Robbers, the Moores cruell, and uncivill, hating Christians to the Death: the Turkes are the ill best of all the three, yet all sworne enemies to Christ. But when they know how to make any gayne by strangers: O what a dissimulate ostentation shall appeare in these detestable Villaines, whose outsides onely they seeme to affect: but intirely the insides of their purses: & that is their ayme, and forcible end: wherefore they both toyle with all, and Conduct strangers through many perils, as eminent to themselves, as accessary unto our inevitable destinies: Time discussing all, and mony over-mastering time; for Coyne is the thing they must have, though necessity sometimes may not spare it.

About foure of the clocke before night, wee arrived at Beersheba.Berah, called of olde Beersheba, being eleaven miles distant from Jerusalem. Having a little reposed there, giving our Camels, Mules, and Asses some provender, but could get nothing for our selves, from these despightfull Moores, (for what wee carried with us, was all spent) except a little Water: wee imbraced our Mountaynous [208]way, as cheerefully as wee could, for wee were exceeding faint, and travailed that day above forty three miles; whereby wee might arrive at Jerusalem before the Gates were shut, sustaining great drouth, burning heate, pinching hunger, and not a few other the like inconveniences.

And now about halfe way betweene Berah and Jerusalem, I, and two Armenians, advancing our way a flight shot before the Company. Wee I say, unhappily rancountred with foure Moorish fellowes, driving before them sixe Asses loaden with Rootes, and shrubs of Wood to burne: who seeing us, as they thought alone, layd [V. 234.]hands upon us, robbed us of our pocket monies: whereat A grievous danger.I resisting, one of them pulled foorth a broad knife, and holding me by the Beard, thought to have cut my throate, if it had not beene for one of his fellowes, who swiftly stayed him.

Well, they leave us, and following their Beasts, our Souldiers instantly appeared unto us; whereupon wee shouting, the Moores fled to the Rocks, and our foot Souldiers following, apprehended two of the chiefest, and brought them to the Captaine: One of which had my money, which I presently received backe againe, but mine associates money, was with them that escaped: the Captaine and Janisaries, meane while carried the two Moores along with them, thinking to execute them at Jerusalem. But their friends and neighbours following fast on Horse-backe, and on foote, relieved them from the Caravan, restoring backe againe the two Armenians money. Whereat all the Moores were exceeding glad, and wee nowayes discontented: for if they had not bin redeemed, certainly their friends and followers, who were thicke flocking together, would have cut us all off, before wee could have attain’d to Jerusalem.

At last wee beheld the prospect of Jerusalem, which was not onely a contentment to my weary body, but also beeing ravished with a kinde of unwonted rejoycing, the A joyfull harmony.teares gushed from my eyes for too much joy. In this time the Armenians began to sing in their owne fashion, [209]Psalmes to praise the Lord: and I also sung the 103 Psalme all the way, till we arrived neere the wals of the Citty, where wee ceased from our singing, for feare of the Turkes.

The Sunne being passed to his nightly Repose, before our arrivall, wee found the Gates locked, and the Keyes carried up to the Bashaw in the Castle; which bred a [V. 235.]common sorrow in the Company, being all both hungry, and weary: yet the Caravan intreated earnestly the Turkes within, to give us over the Wals, some victuals for our money, shewing heavily the necessity wee had thereof, but they would not, neyther durst attempt such a thing. In this time the Guardian of the Monastery of Cordeleirs, who remayneth there to receive Travailers of Christendome, who having got newes of our late arrivall, came and demanded of the Caravan, if any Frankes of Europe were in his Society, and he sayd, onely one. Then the Guardian called mee, and asked of what Nation I was of, and when I told him, hee seemed to be exceeding glad: yet very sorrowfull for our misfortune.

A deare nights Supper.Hee having knowne my distresse, returned, and sent two Friers to me with Bread, Wine, and Fishes, which they let over the Wall (as they thought in a secret place) but they were espied, and on the morrow the Guardiano payed to the Subbashaw or Sanzacke a great fine, being a hundred Piasters, thirty pounds sterling: otherwise both hee and I had beene beheaded: which I confesse, was a deare bought supper to the Gray Frier; and no lesse almost to me, being both in danger of my Life for starving, and then for receiving of food, therefore suspected for a Traytor: For the Turkes alleadged, he had taken in munition from me, and the other Christians, to betray the Citty: this they doe oft, for a lesser faulte then that was, onely to get Bribes and mony from the Grey Friers, which daily stand in feare of their lives.

Anno 1612. upon Palme-Sunday in the morning, wee entred into Jerusalem, and at the Gate wee were particularly searched, to the effect wee carried in no Furniture [210][V. 236.]of Armes, nor Powder with us, and the poore Armenians (notwithstanding they are slaves to Turkes,) behoved to render their weapons to the Keepers, such is the feare they have of Christians. And my name was written up in the Clarkes Booke at the Port, that my tribute for the Gate, and my seeing of the Sepulcher, might bee payed at one time together, before my finall departure thence.

The Gates of the City are of iron outwardly, and above each Gate are brazen Ordonance planted, for their defence.

A foolish ceremony.Having taken my leave of the Caravan, and the Company, who went to lodge with their owne Patriarke, I was met and received with the Guardian, and twelve Friers upon the streetes, each of them carrying in their hands a burning waxe Candle, and one for mee also: who received mee joyfully, and singing all the way to their Monastery Te Deum Laudamus, they mightily rejoyced, that a Christian had come from such a far Countrey as Scotia, to visite Jerusalem.

Where being arrived, they forthwith brought me to a Roome, and there the Guardian washed my right foote with water, and his Viccar my left: and done, they kissed my feete, so did also all the twelve Friers that stood by: But when they knew afterward that I was no Popish Catholicke, it sore repented them of their Labour. I found here ten Frankes newly come the neerest way from Venice hither, sixe of them were Germanes, noble Gentlemen, and they also good Protestants, who were wonderfull glad to heare me tell the Guardian flatly in his face, I was no Romane Catholicke, nor never thought to be: The other foure Frankes were Frenchmen, two of them Parisians old men, the other two of Provance, all foure [V. 237.]being Papists: with nine other Commercing Frankes, also that dwelt in Syria and Cyprus, most of them beeing Venetians, who were all glad of me, shewing themselves so kinde, so carefull, so loving, and so honourable in all respects, that they were as kind Gentle-men, as ever I met withall, especially the Germaines: Such is the love of strangers, when they meete in Forraine and remote [211]places. They had also in high respect the adventures of my halfe yeares travaile, East, and beyond Jerusalem: troubling me all the while wee were together, to show them the rare Discourses of my long two yeares survey of Turkey, but especially of my furthest sights in the East of Asia: And were alwayes in admiration that I had no fellow Pilgrime, in my long Peregrination. [212]



Now come my swift pac’d feete, to Syons seate,

And faire Jerusalem: heere to relate

Her sacred Monuments, and these sweet places,

Were fil’d with Prophets, and Apostles faces:

Christs Crub at Bethleem, and Maries Cave,

Calvar, and Golgotha, the Holy Grave:

Deepe Adraes valley, Hebrons Patriarch’d Tombe,

Sunke Lazars pit, whence hee rose from earths wombe:

Judeas bounds, and Desarts; that smoaking Lake

Which orient folkes do still for Sodome take.

Thence view’d I Jordan, and his mooddy streames,

Whence I a Rod, did bring to Royall James.

[VI. 238.]The lumpe falne Jerico, and th’ Olive Mount,

With Gethesamaine, where Christ to pray was wont:

The Arabian desarts, then Egypt land

I toyling saw, with Nylus swelling strand:

Where for discourse, the seaventh part shall thee show

What thou mayst learne, and what by sight I know,

Of matchlesse Egypt; and her unmatch’d bounds,

That twice a yeare, in growth of graine abounds.

Jerusalem, is now called by the Turkes, Kuddish, which is in their Language, a Holy Citie: It was first called Moriah, of Moria, one of the seaven heads of Syon, where Abraham would have sacrificed Isaac, Gen. 22. 2. and upon his offering Jerusalems was called Jerusalem, Gen. 14. 18. It was also named Salem, where Sem, or Melchisedech [213]dwelt: and Jerusalem was also called Jebus, 2. Sam. 24. 16. And it is the place where Salomon was commanded to build the Temple, 2. Chron: 3. 1. which afterward was termed Hieron Salomonis, whence came by corruption, that word Hierosolyma. David, also in his Psalmes gave it divers names. And Jerusalem in the Arabick tongue is also called Beyt almo kadas: Beyt signifieth the house, almo kadas, viz. of Saints.

Jerusalem standeth in the same place where old Jerusalem stood, but not so populous, neither in each respect of breadth, or length so spacious: for on the South side of Jerusalem, a great part of Mount Syon is left without, which was aunciently the heart of the old City; and they have taken on the North side, now both Mount Calvary, and the holy grave within the walles, which were built by Sultan Selim: So that thereby the [VI. 239.]difference of the situation is not so great, though a part thereof be removed; but a man may boldly affirme, that the most part of this City is builded on that place, where the first Jerusalem was: as may truely appeare, and is made manifest by these mountaines, mentioned in the Scriptures, whereupon Jerusalem is both situate, and environed about, who reserve their names to this day, and are still seene, and knowne by the same; The foure hills of Mount Syon, Mount Calvary, Mount Moriah, and Mount Olivet. The forme of the situation of Jerusalem, is now like to a Hart, or Triangle, the one point whereof looketh East, extending downeward, almost to the valley of Jehosaphat, which divideth Jerusalem, and Mount Olivet: The second head or point, bendeth out South-west upon Sion, bordering neare to the valley of Gehinnon: The third corner lieth on Mount Moriah, toward the North, and by-West, having its prospect to the buriall place of the Kings of Israel.

The walles are high and strongly builded with Saxo quadrato, which adorne Jerusalem more then any thing within it, the Holy Grave excepted. It is of circuite about three miles, and a halfe of our measure. As touching the [214]former glory of this City, I will not meddle withall, nor yet describe, sith the Scriptures so amply manifest the same; concerning the lamentable destruction of it; I refer that to the famous Historiographer Josephus, who largely discourseth of many hundred thousands famished, and put to the sword within this multipotent City, by The triumph of Titus.Vespasian, and Titus his sonne; being the messengers of Gods just judgements; which by his computation did amount beyond the number of eleven hundred thousands. But it is to be understood, they were not all at one time in Jerusalem; but came up by turnes and times, from the circumjacent Countries about by thousands, and as they [VI. 240.]were cut off so their numbers were aye renewed againe as necessity required.

The overthrow of Jerusalem.This City hath beene oft conquered by enemies: First, by Nabuchodanezzar, the Assirian King: Secondly, by the Greekes, and Alexander the Great, and also marvellously afflicted by Antiochus: Thirdly, it was taken in by Pompeius: Fourthly, destroyed of Vespasian and Titus: Fifthly, it was reedified by Adrian the Emperour, and wonne againe by Gosdroes, the Persian King: Sixtly, it was overcome by Homer Califf the successour of Mahomet: Seaventhly, by the great Souldan of Egypt, and by Godfrey du Bulloine, a Christiane Prince: Eightly, by Saladine the Caliph of Egypt, and Damascus: Anno 1187. who reserved successively the Signiory thereof for a long time: And lastly, it was surprised by Sultan Selim, or Solyman the Emperour of the Turkes, Anno 1517. joyning the holy Land together with Ægypt to his Empire, who fortified the same, being by Infidels detayned to this day: and by likelihood shall keepe it to the consummation of the world, unlesse God of his mercy deale otherwise, then the hopes of mans weake judgement can expect. Whence truely I may say, that when fortune would change friendship, she disleagueth conditionall amity, with the senselesse litargy of foule ingratitude. This City is now governed by a Sanzack or Subbassaw, being placed there by the Bassaw of [215]Damascus, whose Deputie he is; the other being chiefe Ruler under the Grand Signior over all the holy Land and the halfe of Siria. The Garrison of Jerusalem.There is a strong Garrison kept alwayes in Jerusalem, to withstand the Arabish invasions, consisting of eight hundred Souldiers, Turkes, and Moores, who are vigilant in the night and circumspect in the day time, so that none can enter the Towne [VI. 241.]without their knowledge; nor yet goe forth without their triall. This is a memorable note, and worthy of observation, that at that time, when the Cities of Jerusalem and Antiochia were recoverd from the Pagans by the meanes of Godfrey of Boulloin; the Pope of Rome that then was, was called Urbanus; the Patriarke of Jerusalem Heraclius, and the Romane Emperour Fredericke: A notable observation.And at the same time, and long thereafter, when Jerusalem was reinthralled and seazed upon by Saladine; the Popes name was Urbanus; the Patriarke of Jerusalem Heraclius; and the Romane Emperour Fredericke: After Herod the Idumean, soone to Anti-pater, in whose time Christ was borne: Archelaus, Agrippa Herod, who imprisoned Peter and James, and was eaten of vermine, in whose time Christ suffered; and Agrippa minor (before whom Paul pleaded) the last King of the Jews had raigned, (being strange Kings) in the last Kings time Jerusalem was overthrowne, and the Kingdome made a Province of the Romane Empire, Anno 37. After which desolation, the Jewes were over all the world dispersed; but afterward in a zealous consideration, were banished from the most part of the Christian Kingdomes: Out of France they were rejected by Philip the faire, Anno 1307. out of Spaine by Ferdinand the Catholicke, 1492. out of Portugale by Emanuell, 1497. out of England by Edward the fifth, 1290. out of Naples and Sicilia by Charles the fifth, 1539. Yet they are found in great numbers in divers parts of Germany, Poland, and in some Cities of Italy, as Venice and her territories, Florence and the jurisdiction thereof, the principalities of Parma, Mantua, Modena, Urbino, and their extending [216]limits; and finally Rome, (besides her Ecclesiasticall papacy) wherein there are no lesse than twenty thousand [VI. 242.]of them: They are also innumerable over all the Turkish dominions, who so misregard and hate them, for the crucifying of Christ, that they use to say in detestation of any thing, I would I might dye a Jew; neither will they permit a Jew to turne Turke, unlesse he first be baptized: And yet live, where they wil, the most part of them are the welthiest people in the world, having subtile, and sublime spirits. Now for the severall Kings and Rulers of Judah and Israel, beginning at Moyses, the Judges of the Jewes were 16. of whom Samuel was the last, at which time, the people desired to have a King like unto other Nations.

The Jewish Kings.The Kings of the Jewes were three; Saul, David, and Salomon; And the Kings of Judah were twenty, Zedechias being last, in whose time Nabuchodanezzar destroyed Jerusalem. Of the Kings of Israel there were seaventeene, of whom Oseas was the last, in whose time the Israelites were carried captives into Assyria, by King Salmanassor.

Dukes of Jewry.The Dukes or Governours of Jewry were fifteene, of which Joannes Hircanius, was the last Governour of Judea, which discended from the stocke of David. During the government of which Captaines, after the Babylonian captivity, the Jewish Kingdome was plagued on both sides, by the Kings of Egypt and Syria: who slaughtered their people, ransacked their Cities, made havocke of their goods, and compelled them to eate forbidden flesh, and sacrifice to Idols.

To reforme which enormities Matathias and his five sonnes valiantly resisted, and overcame the impetuous fury of Antiochus Epiphanes and his Syrians: Whereupon the Jewes chose Judas surnamed Machabeus for their Captaine, one of the worlds nine Worthies; who though not of the line of David, was yet of the tribe of Judah.

[VI. 243.]The Machabean Princes of Jury were onely foure: Joannes Hircanus the last, who was slaine by the [217]Parthianes. The Machabean Princes.Of the Machabean Kings of Judah were other foure, of whom Hircanus sonne to Alexander the tyrant was the last, who being disturbed in his raigne by Aristobulus his yonger brother, with his sonnes Alexander and Antiochus, he was firmely established in his throne by Pompey; & the other carried captives to Rome. But afterward Alexander and Antiochus escaping, the one by pollicy, the other by favour of Julius Cæsar, villanously abused Hircanus: The former was slaine by Scipio, and the latter for his villany was slaine by Marcus Antonius, and the Kingdome given to a stranger, Herod borne in Ascolon of Idumea, as I formerly recited, of which strange Kings there were foure.

Christian Kings of Jerusalem.The Christian Kings of Palestine, beginning at Godfrey of Bulloine were nine. Guy of Lysingham being the last King of Jerusalem, and was surprised by Saladine of Egypt, 1187.

And lastly, or at this present time, the Emperours of the line and race of Ottoman, are Lords and Kings over Jerusalem, and the crost, or rather now curst land of Canaan: In whose hands it is faster kept, then the seventeene Belgian Provinces, remaine totally subject to the Spanish power.

But to the intent the Reader may the better conceive, and plainely understand the Monuments I saw within Jerusalem, and the circumjacent places of Judea; I thought best to prefixe the description thereof, by the severall dayes as I saw them, not much condemning, neither absolutely qualifying them, but shall (as it were) neutrally nominate, and recapitulate these places, as I was informed [VI. 244.]by the Padre Guardiano, Gaudentius, Saybantus, a Veronesen borne; whence he, and every one of them every third yeare are changed and recalled backe to Christendome, and other new Friers sent in their places: And especially the information of John Baptista, the Trenchman, who dwelt and had stayed twenty five yeares in Jerusalem, and from whom the Friers themselves have their informations: for a stranger that understandeth not [218]promptly the Italian tongue, which they usually speake, when they demonstrate these places unto us, hee shall The ignorance of Travellers.conceive ignorantly, dispose his judgement blind-foldedly, and knowes not how to distinguish the circumstances, and qualities of the things delivered. As I have knowne some of these Francks, in my company, simply mistaken, even when the exposition of every object was largely manifested unto them; and precisely declared such a thing to have beene there, although perhaps the matter it selfe, be evanished and transported.

About two of the clock on Palme-sunday after dinner, for all of us eate, drunke, and lay in the Monastery, each of us paying a Piaster a day for our dyet, sixe shillings starling, besides all other costs and charges: The Guardian I say, departed from Jerusalem to Bethphage: accompanied with twelve Friers, and many other Orientall Christians, which were come thither to that Festivall time, but I by no meanes would go, neither would the six Germans, but reposing our selves on the top or platforme of the Cloyster, we stayed till their returne: And yet from this place, we saw their back-comming from Bethphage as they crossed the lower and South side of Olivet; devalling downeward, toward the valley of Jehosophat to ascend Mount Sion, for the greater performance of their foolery.

[VI. 245.]A superstitious Ceremony.The rediculous Ceremony which that day they use, is thus: In an Apish imitation of Christ, at the foresayd Bethphage, there was an Asse brought to the Guardiano, whereupon hee mounted (being as it were, the greater Asse, riding upon the lesser) and came riding to Jerusalem, the people cutting downe Boughs of trees, and also dispoyling themselves almost to the skin, bestrewed the way as hee Rode along, crying, Hosanna, Hosanna, the Sonne of David, blessed is hee that commeth in the name of the Lord: untill they came to the South gate of Syon, where the Guardian thought to have entred, Riding through Jerusalem to his monastery, with this shouting convoy of sixe thousand Orientall Christians, because their Patriarkes have not that liberty to do so, as this Italian [219]Guardian: Notwithstanding, the clamour of the people incensed so the Turkish Garrison lying at this Gate, that they not onely abused the poore Christians in their ignorant devotion, but they pulled the Guardian also from the Asses backe, beating him most cruelly, and all the rest of the Friers and Francke Pilgrimes that were with him: Where at last entring the Convent, most of them came in groaning, and loaden with blacke and bloody blowes; whereat I, and the other Protestants, did laugh in our sleeves to behold their foolish Procession, so substantially rewarded. At night after Supper, the Guardiano knowing that I was a Protestant, and also these other Germanes, made an Oration, saying: You Pilgrims, who refuse to be participant with us in the Sacraments, nor wil not adhere to our Masses, processions and Ceremonies [VI. 246.]which we follow of the Roman Church: I would therfore intreat you (your liberty being here as much as mine, whereby you may do as you please) onely to abstaine from scandalling and mocking our Rites and ordinary Customes, which at this great feast we must performe: To which we condescended, and promised to give no occasion of offence, seeing our outward carriage in going along with them to see their customes, tended no way to hurt the inward disposition of our soules.

In the conclusion of his long Exhortation, hee disclosed this admonition, saying: All of you Travailers must in A flattering beggary.general be indued with these three worthy gifts, Faith, Patience, & Mony: Faith, to beleeve these things you shall see here at, and about Jerusalem: Patience, to indure the apparent injuries of Infidels; and Money, to discharge all tributes, and costs, which here (meaning in his owne Monastery) and about this City must be defrayed. His Sermon he concluded like a Grey Frier, as indeede hee was: for I am fully perswaded hee little cared for our Faith, and Patience, providing, that our purses could answere his expectation, as truly we found the condigne trial thereof afterward: making our Patience to startle, our Faith to over-top his lyes, and our monies to bee a [220]slave to his greed; and wee left the last tributary spoyles of two extortionable flatterers, Avarice, and Ignorance; with the which our Reverend Guardian was fully invested.

Monday earely, we Pilgrimes went foorth to view the monuments within the Citty, being accompanied with the Padre Viccario, and a French Predicatore: the places of any note wee saw were these: first they shewed us the place where Christ appeared to Mary Magdalen, who sayd: Touch me not, for I am not yet ascended to my Father, John 20. 15. and this place by them is supposed to be the Center or middle part of the World. Next, where Saint James the first Bishop of the Primitive Church was beheaded: then the House of Saint Thomas, but that [VI. 247.]is doubtful (say they) because it is not yet confirmed by the Papall Authority: From thence they brought us to the place where Annas one of the High Priests dwelt, and also the Tree to the which our Saviour was bound, whiles Annas was making himselfe ready to leade him to Caiphas; but that I wil not beleeve, for that Tree groweth yet, being an Olive Tree. They shewed us also the house where Saint Peter was imprisoned, when his fetters were shaken off his legges, and the Prison doores cast open, and hee relieved: And where Zebedeus the Father of James and John dwelt, which are nothing but a lumpe of Ruines.

Caiphas Lodging.Thence wee came to the decayed lodging of Caiphas, without the Citty, uppon the mount Syon, whereupon there is a Chappell builded, and at the entry of that little Domo, we saw the stone, on which the Cocke crew, when Peter denied Christ. Within the same place is the stone that was rolled to the Sepulcher doore of our Saviour, being now made an Altar to the Abasines. These Abasines, are naturally borne blacke, and of them silly Religious men, who stay at Jerusalem, in two places, to wit, heere at Caiphas House, on mount Syon, and the other Convent on mount Moriah, where Abraham would have sacrificed Isaac: They weare on their heads flat round Caps of a blackish colour, and on their bodies long gownes of white [221]Dimmety, or linnen cloath, representing Ephods: the condition of themselves being more devoute, than understanding the true grounds or their devotion, blind zeale and ignorance overswaying their best light of knowledge. They being a kinde of people, which came from Prester Jehans dominions.

And within that Chappel they shewed us a narrow pit, [VI. 248.]wherein (say they) Christ was incarcerat, the night before he was brought to the Judgement Hall. Upon the same side of Syon, we saw the place, where Christ did institute the Sacraments: and not far hence, a decayed House, where (say they) the Holy-Ghost discended upon the Apostles, and also the Sepultures of David, and his sonne Salomon: Over the which, there is a Moskie, wherein no Christian may enter, to see these monuments. For the Turkes doe great Reverence, to most of all the ancient Prophets of the old Testament.

From thence we returned, and entred in via dolorosa, the dolorous way, by which our Lord and Savior passed, when he went to be crucified, carrying the Crosse upon his Backe: And at the end of the same streete (say they) the Souldiers met Simon of Cyrene, and compelled him to helpe Christ, to beare his Crosse when hee fainted. Pilats judgement Hall.Pilats Judgment Hall, is altogether ruinated, having but onely betweene the two sides of the Lane, an olde Arch of stone, under the which I passed, standing ful in the high Way: Here they shewed us the place, where Christ first tooke up his Crosse, and on the top of that Arche, wee saw that place called Gabbatha, where Jesus stood, when Pilat sayd to the Jewes, Ecce homo.

A little below this, they brought us to the Church of Saint Anna, where (say they) the Virgin Mary was borne. And going downe another narrow Lane, they poynted in to a House, and sayd, heere Dives the rich Glutton dwelt, who would not give to Lazarus the Crummes of Bread that fel from his Table: this I suspend, amongst many other things, for all hold it to bee a Parable, and not a History: And although it were a History, who can demonstrate [222]the particular place, Jerusalem having beene so often transformed by alterations.

[VI. 249.]This I must needes say, with such leying wonders, these flattering Friers, bring Strangers into a wonderful admiration, and although I rehearse all I saw there, yet I will not beleeve all, onely publishing them as things indifferent, some whereof are frivolous, and others somewhat more credible: But as I sayd before, I will make no (or very small) distinction in the Relation.

From thence we came without the Easterne gate, (standing on a low Banke, called the daughter of Syon, that over-toppeth the valley of Jehosophat,) unto an immoveable stone, upon the which they sayd St. Stephen was stoned to death, the first Martyr of the Christian faith; and the faithfull fore-runner of many noble followers. As we returned to our owne Convent, they brought us to mount Moriah, and shewed us the place where Abrahams faith.Abraham offered up Isaac, which is in the custody of Nigroes or Æthiopians: to whom each of us payed ten Madins of Brasse, the common coine of Jerusalem, for our in going to that place. And the other monastery that these Abasines detaine, is on mount Sinay in the Desarts, where the body of S. Katherine lyeth buried, which is richly maintained, and strongly kept by the Æthiopian Emperor: There are 200. Religious Abasines in it, and 100. souldiers to guard them from the incursions of Arabs, who continually molest them, because Mount Sinay.mount Sinay standeth in midst of that desolate Arabian wildernesse, and far from any civill or inhabited place; being distant from Jerusalem about 70. English miles. Next they shewed us the place where Jesus sayd, Daughters of Jerusalem, mourne not for me, &c. And neere unto this, where the virgin Mary fell into an agony, when Jesus passed by carrying his Crosse: Also, not farre hence, we beheld the place, where (as they say) Jesus said to his mother, woman, behold thy Sonne, and to S. John behold thy mother.

[VI. 250.]Ascending more upward, they shewed us the house of [223]Veronica Sancta, and said, that our Saviour going by her doore, all in a sweat to Mount Calvary, she brought him a napkin to wipe his face; which he received, and gave it to her againe: in which (say they) the print of his face remaineth to this day, and is to be seene at Rome. It is also sayd to be in a Towne in Spaine, and another of them at Palermo in Sicilia: wherefore I beleeve the one, as well as the rest.

So out of one, if Papists can make three

By it, they would denote heavens Deitie:

But O! not so, these three revolv’d in one,

Points forth the Pope, from him his tripled Crowne

He weav’d these Napkins, leying reard his seat,

For which this number, makes his number great.

The Temple of Solomon thrice builded & destroyed.As concerning the Temple of the most high, built by Salomon (the description of which edifice yee may read in the 3. of Kings) it was destroyed by Nabuchodanezzar, at the taking of Jerusalem, Anno Mundi, 4450. Secondly, it was rebuilded againe by the commandement of Cyrus King of Persia, after the Jewes returned from the Captivity of Babylon; but not answerable to the state and magnificence of the former: For besides the poverty & smalnesse of it, there wanted five things which were in the other: First, the Arke of the Covenant: Secondly, the pot of Manna: thirdly, the rod of Aaron: Fourthly, the two tables of the Law, written by the finger of God: And fifthly, the fire of the Sacrifice, which came downe from Heaven, which were the Symboles and badges of Gods favour and mercy showne to them and their fore-fathers in his covenant of Love.

This Temple afterward growing in decay, Herod the [VI. 251.]great, (that killed the young Infants for Christs sake, who suffered for him, before he suffered for them) built another much inferiour to the first, and superiour to the second. And although some Authors would have him but to repaire the second Temple, yet it is most certaine, he did even from the foundation raise its greatest beauty and [224]glory. For this Herod the Ascolonite, was an Edomit stranger, or Idumean, who having gotten the Kingdome contrary to the Law of Moses; and created King of Jewry by Octavius Augustus; and knowing these people to be offended therewithall, to procure their favour did Herod the Idumeans to them a third Temple: This was it, in which our Saviour, and his Apostles did daily Preach; and was set on fire by Titus the tenth day of August, on which day likewise the first Temple, was burnt by Nabuchodanezzar. And lastly there is another great Temple builded in the Selim Solimans Temple.same place, by Sultan, Selim Soliman, reserved by Turkes, and highly regarded, for that respect they carry to Salomon; neare the which, or within whose courts no Christian may enter under the paine of loosing his head.

This present Temple hath two incircling Courts invironed with high wals, having two enteries: In the inner Court standeth the Temple, that is composed of five circling and large Rotundoes, rising high and incorporate from the ground with round tops: The outward fabrick whereof we cannot see, save on Mount Olivet, which is over against the Citie, and twice as high as Mount Sion.

These are all the monuments which in one day, I saw within Jerusalem; but as for Mount Calvary, and the Holy Grave, I saw them afterward, which in their owne place shall be orderly touched. As we were spending that [VI. 252.]day in these sights, the Guardian had prepared one hundred souldiers, sixty horse-men, and forty foot-men, to take with him the day following, for his conduction to Jordan, and the mountaine in the Wildernesse where Christ fasted; which is his usuall custome once every yeare betweene Palme-sunday and Easter, returning againe before Good-friday. These places cannot be viewed, save onely at that time; neither may a Pilgrime goe along with the souldiers, unlesse he give the value of seven Crownes or Piasters (as a propyne) unto the Lieutenant, being forty two shillings starling: and if the Traveller will not goe to that charge, he may stay there till their returne, which I would not wish him to doe, if possibly he may spare [225]the money, for the sight of Sodome, and Jordans sake. That same night after supper, the Guardian demanded of us Travellers, if we would goe with him to see these memorable, & singular things, upon the former condition: To whom we answered, in a generall consent, we would, and so payed our moneyes.

A voyage to Jordan.Earely upon Tuesday morning all the Friers and Pilgrimes being mounted on Mules save onely pedestriall I, and two Mules loaden with our provision of victuals; we departed from the City, about our nine of the clocke in the forenoone, keeping our faces South-east, and leaving Bethphage and Bithania on our left hand, wee had pleasant travelling for seaven miles; but in the afternoone wee entred in a barren and desart Countrey till Sun-setting: where at last wee arrived at a standing Well, and there refreshing our selves and the beasts, wee reposed till two houres within night. After that the Captaine had cried Catethlanga, that is, march away: we set forward, being well guarded round about with our keepers, because we entred into a dangerous way, and a most desolate and fabulous soile.

[VI. 253.]In all this deformed Countrey, wee saw neyther house, nor Village, for it is altogether desartuous, and inhabited onely by wilde Beasts, and naked Arabians. Before wee came neere to Sodom and Gomorrah, by seaven miles: (for so wee behooved to passe by the East end of it, before wee could arrive at that place of Jordan which wee intended) we I say incountred with such deep sandy ground, that the Mulets were not able to carry our Company through: Whereupon they all dismounted, wrestling, and wading above the middle part of their bodies, and sometimes falling in over their heads, they were in great danger of perishing, although the robustnesse of my body carried mee through on my feete, relieving also divers times some of these Friers and Pilgrimes, that were almost choaked and over-whelmed with Sand, but not for lacke of Wine. Even in the middest of this turmoyling paine, (the night being darke) the unwelcomed Arabs, environed, [226]A fearefull danger.and invaded us with a storme of Arrowes, which they sent from the tops of little hard hils, whereupon they stood, for knowing the advantage of the ground: they tooke opportunity to give the more feareful assaults: yet they prevailed nothing (although they wounded some of our Souldiers) such was the resolute Courage of our valourous Defendants. True it is, that in all my travailes I was never so sore fatigated, nor more fearefully indangered, as I was that night.

A little after midnight, these Savages leaving us, and wee leaving our troublesome way, we accoasted the Lake of Sodome, and marched along the marine shoare above nine miles before we came to Jordan. This Lake is called Lacus Asphaltites, it yeeldeth a kinde of slime, named Bitumen Asphaltum; the which bituminous savour no [VI. 254.]living thing can indure. And now Mare mortuum, a sea because it is salt, and mortuum or dead, for that no living thing breedes therein: and more properly for this cause called the dead Sea, because of it selfe it is unmoveable, such is the Leprosie and stability of the water. It is also called so, because if a Bird flye over it, shee presently falleth downe therein dead: And as Salomon reporteth of it, Wisdom. 10. 7. it smoaketh continually: from whence proceedeth filthy Vapours, which deforme the fields, lying about for certaine miles, as it were blasted, scorched, and made utterly barren: this smoake I take onely to be but the exhalation of Jordan: For this River falling into it, and there ending his course, the two contrary natures cannot agree; the one being a filthy puddle, and the other a pure water, as I shall more approbably Record.

The length of Sodoms Lake.This Lake is foure score miles in length, and according to its intervalling Circuite, sometimes two, three, foure, or five miles in breadth: yet the body thereof, bending directly South-west; keepeth a glassie course, till it salute the austiere conspicuosity of the sabulous and stony Desarts: beeing compassed with the Rockes of Arabia Petrea on the South: On the North, with the sandy hils [227]of the Wildernesse of Judea: on the West, with the steepy mountaines of Arabia deserta: and on the East, with the plaine of Jericho. How commeth it to passe therefore, that the fresh running flood of Jordan, falling evermore into this bounded Sea, that the Lake it selfe, never diminisheth, nor increaseth, but alwayes standeth at one fulnesse: neyther hath it any issuing forth, nor reboundeth backewards on the plaine of Jericho, which is one of the greatest wonders in the World. Wherefore, as I have [VI. 255.]sayd, it must needes eyther exhale to the Clouds, or otherwise runne downe to Hell: for if it ranne under the Rockes, and so burst in the Desarts, it would soone bee knowne; but in all the bounds of Arabia Deserta, which betwixt this Lake and the Red Sea, extend to 300. miles; there is no such matter, as Brooke, or strand, much lesse a River, neyther hath it any intercourse with the Ocean, unlesse it runne through some secret passage of the earth under the Wildernesse, unto the Red sea. And that is doubtfull, although it may appeare probable; in regard of Nilus, that runneth a hundred miles under the ground in the exterior Æthiopia: and divers other Rivers also after the same manner, obscuring themselves under Rockes, mountaynes, and planures, for many miles: which particulars, by my owne experience, I could denote.

The doubtfulnes of Jordans ending.But as for this River, the question may arise, whether ran it during the time of these five Citties of the plaine, now overwhelmed with Water; or where was the issue thereof. To this I answere, was not the hand of the Almighty, that rained downe from the Heavens fire and Brimstone to consume them, able also, to drowne their situations and intervalling plaines with water: Yes and doubtlesse yes, and the course of the River keeping still its former condition: And for moderne examples, how many Citties, Mansions, and Stations, have beene sommerssed with water: nay innumerable, and so remayning to this day, place, beauty, and being, all defaced: As now in Scotland neere to Falkirk, rests the last and latest [228]memory of such woefull accidents, and superabounding disgorgings.

It breedeth nor reserveth no kinde of fishes; and if by the swelling of Jordan, any fishes be carried to it, they immediatly dye. Although Josephus witnesseth, that in [VI. 256.]his time, there was an Apple grew uppon the Bankes thereof, like to the colour or gold, and within was rotten, and would consume to powder; yet I affirme now the contrary: For there is not such a thing (whatsoever hath beene in his dayes) as eyther Trees, or Bushes, grow neere to Sodome by three miles: such is the consumation of that pestiferous Gulfe.

Wrong informations made false.Divers Authors have reported, that nothing will sinke into it, of any reasonable weight, as dead men, or Carkasses of Beasts: but by experience I approve the contrary: For it beareth nothing at all; yea, not the weight of a Feather, nor the pile of withered Grasse, but it will sinke therein, with the which my hands made sundry trials; and dare approove it to be of trueth, in spight of the leying world, and all doting varieties of auncient Relations.

The water it selfe, is of a blackish colour, and at sometimes in the yeare, there are terrible shapes, and showes of terrour in it, as I was informed at Jericho, by the Arabian inhabitants there, which is the neerest Towne that bordereth thereupon.

This contagious and pestilentious Lake of Sodome, resembleth much (as may be supposed) that infernall gulfe of Hell: but in my opinion, I hold it to be the Purgatory of Papists: for they say Limbus Patrum, is neere, or in the second roome to Hell, which I thinke must needs be Sodome: for although it be not Hell it selfe, yet I am perswaded, it is a second Hell, having (as some report) no bottome. Wherefore I conclude thus, that since Papists will have a Purgatory, I absolutely affirme, it must be such a Purgatory, as the purging of Sodome and Gomorra, which was with fire and Brimstone, to their destruction. [229]

[VI. 257.]About the breach of day on Wednesday morning, we past by the ruines of an old house; where (as they say) S. John the Baptist remained, when he baptized those that came from Jerusalem, and other Regions about, which is but the flight of an arrow from Jordan.

Approaching to the banke-side, we dismounted, and The River Jordan.uncloathed our selves, going in naked to the River, we washed us to refresh our bodies; our Souldiers lying a little off from us, as pledges of our lives, and their owne safegards, stayed as Bulwarks for our protection, & a connivall obligation for two repugnant defences: Time presenting the awfull opportunity of both occasions. In this place, as the Guardian said, was Christ baptized of S. John, when the Holy Ghost came downe in a bodily shape, like a Dove upon him, and there was a voyce from Heaven, saying: Thou art my beloved Sonne, in Thee I am well pleased. I saw also an apparant like testimony, of a quadrangled stone, lying on the banke side; whereupon are ingraven letters, of Hebrew, Greeke, Latine, testifying the same thing: and may be also conjectured, in regard of the auncient Habitacle, of that precursor, which is not far from thence.

This river Jordan beginneth in Mount Libanus, of two fountaines, Jore, and Dan, which runne separated, till they come to the lake Maronah; & hence it maketh one body, keeping his course through the lake Genasereth, endeth in Sodome. The river Tibris at Rome, & Jordan are not much different in quantity and colour; and not unlike other in their courses: For Jordan falleth in the old Gomorah, and Tibris runneth through the new Sodome; A history of such evidence, as travell taught me by experience: For it is the Priests confluence, which breeds in the Italians insolence: If I erre, I will beg indulgence, of the Popes aureat magnificence.

[VI. 258.]The rivers themselves are both of a muddy colour, and their quantity not far different from other, which Jordan for greatnesse retaineth, and the length of their courses are much semblable to other. The water of Jordan hath [230]beene transported to Venice in barrels, for that purity it hath; which will reserve unspoiled, both moneths and yeares, and the longer it is kept, it is the more fresher; and to drinke it, is an excellent remedy for the fever quartan or quotidian, being neare in vertue to the Wine of Libanon.

Considering the auncient reputation of this famous river, and the rare sight of such an unfrequented place, A Turpentine rod brought from Jordan and given to King James.I climbed up to the top of a Turpentine tree, which grew within the limited flood, a little above where I left my company even naked, as I came from swimming, and cut downe a faire hunting rod of the heavy and sad Turpentine tree, being three yards long, wondrous straight, full of small knots, and of a yellowish colour; which afterward, with great paines, I brought to England, and did present it (as the rarest gemme of a Pilgrimes treasure) to his Majesty. But I remember in the choosing thereof an unexpected accident fell out: For I being sequestrat from the sight of the company, upon this solitary tree, with broad obscuring leaves, the Friers and Souldiers removed; keeping their course towards Jericho: but within two furlongs from Jordan, they were beset with the former Nocturnall enemies, who assailed them with a hard conflict: For I hearing the Harquebuse go off, was straight in admiration, and looking downe to the place where I left my associates, they were gone; so bending my eyes a little further in the Plaine, I saw them at a martiall combate: which sight gave me suddenly, the threatning of despaire: not knowing whether to stay intrenched, [VI. 259.]within the circundating leaves, to approve the events of my auspicuous fortunes: Or in prosecuting a reliefe, to be participant of their doubtfull deliverance. In the end pondering, I could hardly, or never escape their hands, either there, or by the way going up to Jerusalem, leapt downe from the tree, leaving my Turkish cloathes lying upon the ground, tooke onely in my hand the rod & Shasse which I wore on my head; and ranne starke naked above a quarter of a mile amongst thistles, and sharpe [231]pointed grasse, which pittifully be pricked the soles of my feete, but the feare of death for the present, expel’d the griefe of that unlooked for paine. Approaching on the safe side of my company, one of our Souldiers broke forth on horsebacke, being determined to kill mee for my staying behinde: Yea, and three times stroke at me with his halfe-pike; but his horse being at his speed, I prevented his cruelty, first by falling downe, next by running in amongst the thickest of the Pilgrimes, recovering the Guardians face, which when the Guardian espied, and saw my naked body, hee presently pulled off his gray gowne, and threw it to me, whereby I might hide the secrets of nature: By which meanes, (in the space of an The Pilgrimes three severall habits in halfe a houre.houre) I was cloathed three manner of wayes: First, like a Turke: Secondly, like a wild Arabian: And thirdly, like a grey Frier, which was a barbarous, a savage, and a religious habit.

The Captaine at last entering in parley with the Arabs, by some contributing promises did mitigate their fury, for their compounded acknowledgement was to be sent them from Jerusalem: Whereupon, wee marching toward Jericho, reposed our selves under a cooling shade, and dined there on the Wine and provision carryed with us.

[VI. 260.]After Dinner wee arose, and went to the House of Zacheus: (this was hee who sate uppon a Tree to see our Saviour as he passed by,) the Wals whereof stand to this day, the tecture being onely demolished. This new Jericho is now a poore Village onely of nine dwelling houses, inhabited by a kinde of Arabs (which are in subjection under the Governour of Jerusalem,) but I saw many ruinous lumpes of the Wals, and demolishings of the old Towne, which is a little from this distant, about a short quarter of a mile. Two sorts of rare fruit.Here I saw two most dainty kinde of fruites, the one was a little lesser then an Apple, but more round: whose colour was like gold without, and within it was White as Snow, and sweete like Suger. I would gladly have eaten of them; but the Friers forbade me, saying; they were the onely pest of [232]Death unto a stranger. The other Apple was like to a greene Lemmon, long, and full of knots, of a reddish colour, like to a Mellone; being both delicate and wholesome, of which wee did eate to satisfie the naturall appetite, and so did all our Souldiers eate of them excessively: their Trees growing high and greene by a Brooke side of delicate Water that runneth from the fountaine of Elizeus. From Jericho we set forward, in the way of the Wildernesse; our determination being such, as to view the mountaine whereon Christ fasted forty dayes: Where arrived, being late, we durst not go up til morning. Elizeus Fountaine.Wherefore we pitched that night by the fountayne of Elizeus; the Water of which, was of old, naturally bitter, but by the prayers of that divine Prophet, was restored to a sweet tast: It is good in digestion, and harmelesse for health: and it is the lightest water the earth yeelds: having on the morrow filled a Boares skin of it, to carry with me to the mountaine; I found it so light, that I [VI. 261.]had no weight nor paine in the bearing of it on my shoulders: notwithstanding, the way of it selfe was fastidious. This mountain is called Quarantanam, or Quaranto, being of height, by the computation of my painefull experience, above sixe miles, and groweth from the bottome still smaller and smaller, till that the top is covered with a little Chappell, not unlike to the proportion of a Pyramede.

There is no way to ascend upon this Hill, save one, which hath beene hewen out of the Rocke, by the industry of men, experimented in Masonry; (which was done at the cost of Queene Helen) going up by the Degrees of forty five turnes. In all our Company there were onely one Frier, foure Germanes, and I, that durst attempt to climbe the mountaine.

Thursday earely at the breach of day, we sixe made us for the mountaine, leaving our Souldiers to guard the passage below, least some stragling Arabs should have stolne after us for our Destruction. Where after diverse turnings, traversings, and narrow foot passages having [233]come with great difficulty to the top, we entred first into a umbragious Cave, joyning to, and under the Chappell, Where Christ fasted forty dayes.where the Frier told us, that in this place Christ did fast forty dayes: and here it was, where he rebuked Sathan. The Chappel which covereth the top of this high and steepy Rocke is covered, and also beautified, with an old Altar: betweene the outward sides whereof, and the craggy face of this mountaine, two men may only go side to side: Here we dined and refresht our selves with water that I carried on my backe hither: From which place we saw the most part of all the Holy Land, except the North parts of Judea, Palestine, and Phenicia, and a great way in the two Arabiaes, Petrea, and Deserta, and all the length of Jordan, even from Sodome to Maronah.

[VI. 262.]At last in our Returne and fearefull discending, there would none of us goe downe formost: For although the Frier led us freely upwards, yet first downeward for his life hee durst not goe: and that because at the narrow end of every turning, there was aye betweene the upper and the lower passage, about my height, and some where twice my height, of the flat face of the Rocke, whereon there was nothing but dimples and holes to receive our feete, which in discending was perillous. Dreadfull danger in descending the Quarantatam.Now the greatest danger, at every turne, was in the downe going of the formost, who was to receive, them all, one by one, and foote their feet in the shallow dimples: of which if any of them had missed, his sliding downe had miscarried them both over the Rocke.

Now for the noble Germanes sake, two of whom were great Barens, Signior Strowse, and Signior Crushen, and borne Vassals to the Marquesse of Hanspauch, I resolved to imbrace the danger: Where downe I went, receiving every one of them, at every turne, first leading their feete by my hands, and then by inveloping them with mine armes: Well, having past halfe way downewards, wee came to the most scurrile and timorous Discent of the whole passage, where with much difficulty, I set safe the foure Germanes in our narrow Rode hewen out of [234]the craggy Hill; and then was to receive the Frier: Whence hee comming downe from above, with his Belly and face to the Rocke, holding his hands grumbling above, the fellow fell on trembling; and as I was placing his feete in the holes, distempred feare brought him downe upon me with a rushling hurle: Whereuppon straight I mainly closed with my left arme his body fast to the Rocke, keeping strongly my Right shoulder to the same [VI. 263.]place: For I could not have saved my selfe, and letting him fall, but hee would have caught mee headlong with him, over the Rocke: And yet the Germanes cryed still to me, Lascia ti quel furfanto cascar alla fondo con il Diavolo, e salva caro fratello la vita vostra, viz. Let that Villaine fall to the ground with the Divell, and save, O deare brother, your owne life: But I neyther would nor durst: at last his feare, by my incouragement having left him, I suffered him to slide softly downe betweene my arme and the Rocke, to the solid path: Where by and by, hee fell downe uppon his knees, and gave mee a thousand Blessings, vowing for this, he would doe me a great good deede before I left Jerusalem.

At last towards the afternoone, wee safely arrived at the foote of the Mountayne, and having saluted the Guardian, and all the Rest, who then were ready to take journey, the Frier told his Reverence how I had saved his life: Whereupon the Guardian, and the other Friers, did imbrace me kindly in their Armes, giving me many earnest and loving thankes.

And now the Souldiers and wee being advanced in our Way, as wee returned to Jerusalem, wee marched by an S. Jeromes Abbey.olde Ruinous Abbey, where (say they) Saint Jerome dwelt, and was fed there by wilde Lyons: Having travailed sore and hard that afternoone, wee arrived at Jerusalem an houre within night, for the Gate was kept open a purpose for us and our Guard: and entring our Monastery, wee supped, and rested our selves till midnight; having marched that halfe Day, more as 34. miles. A little before midnight, the Guardian and the Friers, were [235]making themselves ready to goe with us to the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, called Sancto Salvatore; where wee were to stay Good-friday and Satturday, and Easter-Sunday [VI. 264.]till mid-night: They tooke their Cooke with them also to dresse our Dyet, carrying Wine, Bread, Fishes, and Fruites hither in abundance. Meane while, a Jew, the Trench-man of the Turkies Sanzacke, came to the Monastery, and received from every one of us Pilgrimes, first two Chickens of Gold, for our severall heads, and entrey at Jerusalem: and then nine Chickens a peece for our in going to the Holy Grave; and a Chicken of golde a man, to himselfe the Jew, as beeing due to his place.

Our tributs for the Holy Grave.Thus was there twelve Chickens from each of us dispatched for the Turke: And last one, and all of us, behoved to give to the Guardian two Chickens also for the Waxe Candles and fooleries hee was to spend, in their idle and superstitious Ceremonies, these three aforesayd nights, which amounted in all to every one of us, to foureteene Chickens of gold, sixe pounds sixe shillings starling. So that in the whole from the sixe Germanes, foure French men, and nine Commercing Franks in Cyprus and Syria, Venetians, and Ragusans, and from my selfe, the summe arose for this nights labour to a hundred and twenty sixe pounds starling.

This done, and at full mid-night wee came to the Church where wee found twelve Venerable like Turkes, ready to receive us, sitting in the Porch without the Doore; who foorthwith opened at randone the two great Brazen halfes of the Doore, and received us very respectively: We being within the doore made fast, and the Turkes returned to the Castle, the first place of any note we saw, was the place of Unction, which is a foure squared stone; inclosed about with an yron Reuele, on which (say they) the dead body of our Saviour lay, and was imbalmed; after hee was taken from the Crosse, whiles [VI. 265.]Joseph of Arimathea, was preparing that new Sepulcher for him wherein never man lay: from thence we came to the holy Grave. Leaving Mount Calvary on our right [236]hand toward the East end of the Church; for they are both contained within this glorious edifice.

The Holy Grave.The Holy Grave is covered with a little Chappell, standing within a round Quiere, in the west ende of the Church: It hath two low and narrow entries: As we entred the first doore, three after three, and our shoes cast off, for these two roomes are wondrous little, the Guardiano fell downe, ingenochiato, and kissed a stone, whereupon (he sayd) the Angell stood, when Mary Magdalen came to the Sepulchre, to know if Christ was risen, on the third day as he promised: And within the entry of the second doore, we saw the place where Christ our Messias was buried, and prostrating our selves in great humility, every man according to his Religion, offered up his prayers to God.

The Sepulchre it selfe, is eight foote and a halfe in length, and advanced about three foote in height from the ground, and three foote five inches broad, being covered with a faire Marble stone of white colour.

In this Chappell, and about it, I meane without the utter sides of it, and the inward incirclings of the compassing Quiere, there are alwayes burning above fifty Lampes of oyle, maintained by Christian Princes, who stand most of them within incircling bandes of pure Gold, which is exceeding sumptuous, having the names of those, who sent or gave them, ingraven upon the upper edges of the round circles: each of them having three degrees, and each degree depending upon another, with supporters of pure Gold, rich and glorious. The fairest whereof was sent thither by King John of England, whereon I saw his [VI. 266.]Name, his Title, and crowne curiously indented, I demanded of the Guardiano if any part of the Tombe was here yet extant, who replied, there was; but because (said he) Christians resorting thither, being devoutly moved with affection to the place, carried away a good part thereof, which caused S. Helen inclose it under this stone; whereby some relicts of it should alwaies remaine. I make no doubt but that same place is Golgotha, where [237]the holy Grave was, as may appeare by the distance, betweene Mount Calvary and this sacred Monument; which extendeth to forty of my pases: The glorious Chappell of the Holy Grave.This Chappell is outwardly decored, with 15. couple of Marble Pillars, and of 22. foote high; and above the upper coverture of the same Chappell, there is a little sixe-angled Turret made of Cedar wood, covered with Lead, and beautified with sixe small Columnes of the same tree. The Chappell it selfe standeth in a demicircle or halfe Moone, having the little doore or entry looking East: to the great body of the Church, and to Mount Calvary, being opposite to many other venerable monuments of memorable majesties.

The forme of the Quiere wherein it standeth, is like unto that auncient Rotundo in Rome, but a great deale higher and larger, having two gorgeous Galleries; one above another, and adorned with magnificent Columnes being open at the top, with a large round; which yeeldeth to the heavens the prospect of that most sacred place.

In which second Gallery we strangers reposed all these three nights we remained there: whence we had the full prospect of all the spacious Church, and all the Orientall people were there at this great feast of Easter day, being about 6000. persons: from this curious carved Chappell [VI. 267.]we returned through the Church to Mount Calvary; To which we ascended by twenty one steps, eighteene of them were of Marble, and three of Cedar-wood: where, The beauty of Mount Calvary.when we came I saw a most glorious & magnifick roome, whose covert was supported all about with rich columnes of the Porphyre stone, and the oversilings loaden with Mosaick worke, & overgilded with gold, the floore being curiously indented with intermingled Alabaster and black shining Parangone: On my left hand I saw a platformd rocke, all covered with thicke and ingraven boords of silver; and in it a hole of a cubits deepe, in which (say they) the Crosse stood whereon our Saviour was crucified: And on every side thereof a hole for the good & bad theeves, were then put to death with him. Discending [238]from Mount Calvarie, we came to the Tombe of Godfrey du Bulloine, who was the first proclaimed Christian King of Jerusalem, and refused to be crowned there, saying; It was not decent, the Servants head should be crowned with gold, where the Maisters head had beene crowned with thornes; having this Inscription ingraven on the one side:

Two famous Sepulchers.Hic jacet inclytus Godfridus de Bullion, quitotam hanc terram acquisivit cultui divino, cujus anima requiescat in pace.

And over against it, is the Tombe of King Baldwine his brother, which hath these Verses in golden Letters curiously indented.

Rex Baldevinus, Judas alter Machabeus

Spes patriæ, Vigor Ecclesiæ, Virtus, utriusque;

Quem formidabant, cui dona, tributa ferebant.

Cæsar, Ægypti Dan, ac homicida Damascus;

Proh dolor! in modico clauditur hoc Tumulo.

The other things within the Church they shewed us, were these, a Marble Pillar, whereunto (say they) our [VI. 268.]Saviour was bound, when he was whipped, and scourged for our sakes: the place in a low Celler, about fourteene stone degrees under the ground, where the Crosse was hid Where Christ was nailed to the the Jewes, and found againe by S. Helen: the place where Christ was crowned with thornes, which is reserved by the Abasines, and where the Souldiers cast lots for his Garment; the place where he was imprisoned, whiles they were making of his Crosse, and where the Crosse, being laid along upon the ground, our Saviour was nailed fast to it; the Rocke, which (as they say) rent at his crucifying, which is more likely to be done with hammers, and set one peece a foote from another, for the slit lookes, as if it had beene cleft with wedges and beetles. And yet the sacred Scriptures say that it was not a Rocke, but the Temple that did rent in two from the bottome to the top, wherein these silly soule-sunke Friers are meerely [239]blinded, understanding no more than leying traditions; perfiting this their nationall Proverb;

Con arte, et con inganno, ci vivono medzo l’ anno

Con inganno et con arte, ci vivona l’ altera parte.

With guile and craft, they live the one halfe yeare

With craft and guile, the other halfe as cleare.

And lastly, they take upon them below Calvary to shew us where the head of Adam was buried. These and many other things, are so doubtfull, that I doe not register them for trueth (I meane in demonstrating the particular places) but onely relates them as I was informed.

There are seven sorts of Nations, different in Religion, and language, who continually (induring life) remaine within this Church, having incloystered lodgings joyning to the walls thereof: their victuals are brought dayly to them by their familiars, receiving the same at a great hole [VI. 269.]in the Church-doore; for the Turkes seldome open the entry unlesse it be when Pilgrimes come, save one houres space onely every Saturday in the afternoone, and at some extraordinary Festivall daies: and yet it doth not stand open then, but onely opened to let strangers in and shut againe: Seven religious Families.For this purpose each family have a Bell fastened at their lodging, with a string reaching from thence to the Church doore, the end whereof hangeth outwardly, By the which commodity, each furnisher ringing the Bell, giveth warning to his friends, to come receive their necessars, for through the body of the Church they must come to the porch-doore, and returne from it, to the cloyster.

The number of those, who are tied to this austere life, are about three hundred and fifty persons, being Italians, Greekes, Armenians, Æthiopians, Jacobines, a sort of circumcised Christians, Nestorians, and Chelfaines of Mesopotamia.

The day before the Resurrection, about the houre of mid-night, the whole Sects and sorts of Christians [240]Orientall (that were come thither in Pilgrimage, and dwelt at Jerusalem) convened together, which were about the number of sixe thousand men, women, and children: for being separated by the Patriarkes in two companies, they compassed the Chappell of the Holy Grave nine times; holding in their hands burning Candles, made in the beginning pittifull, and lamentable regreetings, but in the ending, there were touking of kettle-drummes, sounding of horne-trumpets, and other instruments, dauncing, leaping, and running about the Sepulcher, with an intollerable tumult, as if they had beene all mad, or distracted of their wits.

Thus is the prograce of their procession performed in meere simplicitie, wanting civilitie, and government. [VI. 270.]But the Turkes have a care of that; for in the middest of all this hurley burley, they runne amongst them with long Rods, correcting their misbehaviour with cruell stroakes: and so these slavish people, even at the height of their Ceremonious devotion are strangely abused.

But our Procession begun before theirs, and with a greater regard, because of our tributes: The Turkes meane while guarding us, not suffering the other Christians to be participant in the singular dottage of the An abhominable Idolatry.Romish folly, being after this manner: First the Guardian, and his Friers brought forth of a Sacrastia, allotted for the same purpose, the wodden Portracture of a dead Corpes, representing our Saviour, having the resemblance of five bloody Wounds, the whole body of which Image, was covered with a Cambricke vale: Where having therewith thrice compassed the Chappell of the Holy Grave, it was carried to mount Calvary, and there they imbalmed the five Timber holes; with Salt, Oyle, Balme, and Odoriferous perfumes.

Then the Guardian, and the other twelve Friers kneeled downe, and kissed each one of the five Suppositive Wounds: the Turkes meanewhile laughing them to scorne in their faces, with miserable derision. Thence [241]they returned, and layd the senselesse blocke uppon the Holy Grave, whence being dismissed, the Papall Ceremony ended.

Truely hereupon, may I say, if the Romane Jesuites, Dominicans and Franciscans, there Resident in certayne speciall parts of the Turkes Dominions, had onely behaved themselves as their polliticke charge required, and dismissed from the Paganisme eyes, onely their idolatrous images, veneration of Pictures, Crosses, and the like externall superstitious Rites: These Infidels I say, had [VI. 271.]long agoe (without any insight of Religion) bene converted to the Christian Faith. For besides all this blindnesse, what infinite abhominable Idolatries commit they in Italy and Spaine; in clothing the Pictures of dead Abbots, Monkes, Priors, Guardians, and the better kind of officiall Friers and Priests, with robes of Sattin, Velvet, Damnable and intolerable superstition.Damas, Taffaty, long gownes and coules of cloth, shirts, stockings, and shoes: And what a number of livelesse portrayed Prioresses, motherlesse Nunnes, yet infinite mothers, be erected (like the Maskerata of Morice-dancers) in silver, gold, gilded brasse, yron, stone, tynne, lead, copper, clay, and timber shapes, adorned with double and triple ornaments: over-wrought with silke, silver, and gold-laces, rich bracelets, silke grograine, and cambricke vales, chaines, smockes, ruffes, cuffes, gloves, collers, stockings, garters, pumpes, nose-gayes, beeds, and costly head-geire; setting them on their Altars, O spectaculous Images! adoring them for gods, in kneeling, praying, & saying Masses before them: Yet they are none of their avowed, allowed, and canonized pontificall Saints: for although they be bastards & wooden blocks, yet are they better clad, then their lupish legitimate ones, no, I may say, as the best Kings daughter alive. Which is a sinfull, odious, and damnable idolatry; and I freely confesse at some times, and in some parts I have torne a peeces those rich garments from their senselesse images and blockes, thinking it a greater sinne not to do it than to stand staring on such prodigall prophannesse, with any superstitious [242]respect, or with indifferent forbearance to winke at the wickednesse of Idolaters.

[VI. 272.]Here the Guardiano offered for ten peeces of gold (although my due be thirty Chickens sayd he) to make me Knight of the holy Grave, or of the order of Jerusalem, which I refused, knowing the condition of that detestable oath I behooved to have sworne; but I saw two of these other Pilgrimes receive that Order of Knighthood.

The Knights of the Holy Grave.The manner whereof is thus: First they bind themselves with a solemne vow, to pray (during life) for the Pope, King of Spaine, and the Duke of Venice, from whom the Friers receive their maintenance; and also in speciall, for the French King, by whose meanes they obtaine their liberty of the great Turke, to frequent these monumentall places. Secondly, they are sworne enemies to Protestants, and others, who will not acknowledge the superiority of the Romane Church. Thirdly, they must pay yearely some stipend unto the Order of the Franciscans. These attestations ended, the Frier putteth a gilded spurre on his right heele, causing the yong made Knight stoope downe on his knees, and lay his hands on the holy Grave: after this he taketh a broad sword from under his gray gowne (being privately carried for feare of the Turkes) which is (as he sayd) the Sword, wherewith victorious Godfrey conquered Jerusalem, and giveth this new upstart Cavaliero, nine blowes upon the right shoulder. Loe here the fashion of this Papisticall Knighthood, which I forsooke.

Indeed upon the Knight-hood they have certaine priviledges among the Papists, of which these are two: If a malefactor being condemned and brought to the Gallows, any of these Knights may straight cut the rope and releeve him: The other is, they may carry and buy silkes through all Spaine and Italy, or elsewhere, and pay no Custome, neither in comming nor going, nor for any silke ware, where the Romish Church hath any commandement.

[VI. 273.]After our Guardiano had ended his superstitious Rites and Ceremonies, upon Easter day, before midnight, we [243]returned to the Monastery, having stayed three dayes within that Church: And the next day thereafter, the nine Ragusan and Venetian Factors left us, returning backe to their severall Stations.

About sixe of the clocke, on monday morning, the Padre Viccario, and the aforesayd John Baptista accompanying us, we travailed abroad in the hilly Countrey of Judea. In this dayes journey, the places of any note we saw were these: Certaine relicts of Monuments.First, where the Daughters of Jerusalem came foorth to meete Saul, crying, Saul hath slaine his thousand, and David his ten thousand: And for memory of this standeth a certayne olde pillar of Marble. Next, the valley of Trebin, where David slew the great Goliath. And for remembrance of that, there are a great heape of stones layd together in the bottome of the valley, like to the Relickes of an old monument. Thirdly, Bezura, where Absalom killed his brother Ammon for Thamars sake, whereof nothing but the name is onely reserved.

Emaus.Fourthly, the Castle of Emaus, now altogether ruinated, except only three fire houses of Moores; in which our Saviour was knowne after his Resurrection, by the two Disciples in breaking of bread; where now the remanents of that house being vaulted, is turned over for a shelterage to sheepe; and a soft paved lodging for quivering Goates.

Fifthly, the Valley of Gibeon, where the ray-beaming Sunne stood still, at the voice of Joshua, from his naturall course. Joshua 10. 12.

Sixtly, the Toombe or buriall place of Samuel, that [VI. 274.]divine Prophet of the Lord: over the which the Moores have a Moskque erected, wherein we could not enter, but hard by and without it, we found one of the finest Fountaines in all Judea, and yet not a dwelling house neere unto it by three miles, in regard of the sassinous and infertile ground about it, the water whereof was exceeding light, sweete, and pleasant in digestion. Seventhly, the Tombes of the valiant Captaine Judas Macchabeus, and his Children, whereupon are now onely the ruines of an old Chappell, which is converted in a [244]The buriall place of the Kings and Queenes of Israel.hould for Sheepe and Goates: And last of all, the buriall place of the noble Family of the Kings and Queenes of Israel, or Jerusalem, being neere unto the Citty, and within a short halfe mile. The entry whereto was so straite, that on our backes we behoved to slide downe, above ten paces under the ground, with light candles in our hands.

In that spacious place we saw twenty foure Chambers hewen out of a Marble Rocke. Each roome hath a hanging stone doore of a great thicknesse, so artificially done by the skilfull Art of Masons, that the rarest spirit of tenne thousand cannot know how these doores have bene made, so to move as they do, being a firme Rocke both below and above; and the doores have neither iron nor timber-worke about them: but by cunning are made so to turne, and in that same place where they grew they are squared; yea, and so exquisitely done, that the most curious Carpenter cannot joyne a peece of boord so neatly, as these stone doores joyne with the Rocke. In each of these roomes are two Sepulchers, wherein I saw the bones of some of these dead Princes.

Thursday, the tenth day of my being at Jerusalem, not reckoning the two dayes we spent in going to Jordan, the weeke before: We I say, ishued forth of the Citty [VI. 275.]earely, with our aforesayd guides, riding Westward: The first remarkeable thing we saw, was the place (as they say) where the Crosse grew, whereon Christ suffered: being reserved by Greekes, who have a Convent builded over it: That Crosse is sayd to have bene of foure sundry kinds of wood, and not of one Tree, for they shewed us but one hole where it grew, and so they hold it to have bene of one peece of Olive Tree, but this I suspend, leaving it to be searched, by the pregnancy of riper judgements then mine, howsoever opinious.

The leying vilany of a Rogish Greeke.And here I cannot forget a dissembling knavish Greeke, who came here to London some eight yeares ago, to beg support for the reparation of this decayed Monastery of the holy Crosse. Well, Gundamore the Spanish Ambassadour [245]intertained him; and recommended his cause to our politicque power: A contribution is granted, over all England for the same purpose, and also recoiled, besides the severall acknowledgements of our Noble Courtiers: Oportunity come, I rancountred with this counterfeit Rascall in White hall: Whereupon diverse Gentlemen his Majesties servants, desired me to try him, if he had bene at Jerusalem, or dwelt at the Cloister of the holy Crosse: presently I demanded him, where the Convent stood, he replied within Jerusalem, and upon Mount Moriah: which was false, for the Convent is remote from the Citty, about three English miles: I posed him further about the situation of Jerusalem, &c. The quantity of this Cloyster, of its Church, of the number of Friers, who lived in it, with many more questions, whose circumstances would be tedious: To any one of which, he could not reply, but stood shivering for feare and shame; neither had he never bene in Asia nor these parts: whereupon stealing out of the Court, he was no more seene abroad: [VI. 276.]for he had got at Court, and in the Kingdome, above twelve hundreth pounds starling, besides the advancement of the Papists, and Recusants: and here was a tricke, that then the Spanish faction put upon us and themselves also being deceaved by a deceiver, deceived us with a double deceit, policy, and lyes.

About five miles further, we arrived at a Village, on the Mountaine of Judea, where we saw a disinhabited house, in which Elizabeth the mother of Saint John Baptist dwelt, when Mary came up from Galilee to salute her; and neare to this, we beheld (as they say) the Sanctuary, wherein Zacharias was stricken dumbe till Elizabeth was delivered: Two miles further, on a Rocky Mountaine, Saint John the Baptists Cave.we arrived at a Cave, wherein (say they) S. John did his pennance till he was nineteene yeare of age, after which time, he went downe and dwelt at Jordan: It is a pretty fine place hewen out of a Rocke, to the which we mounted by twelve steppes, having a window cut through a great thicknesse of firme stone, whence we had the faire prospect [246]of a fruitfull valley: and from the mouth of this delectable Grotto, gusheth forth a most delicious Fountaine.

Returning thence, we passed over an exceeding high Mountaine, from whence we saw the most part of Judea; and to the Westward, in the way of Egypt, the Castle of the Prophet Elisha, and Idumea the Edomits land, lying also betweene Egypt and Jerusalem: This cloudy height, is called the mountaine of Judea, because it over-toppeth all the rest of the mountaines, that circumviron Jerusalem, Palestine, Galilee, Phenicia, or Samaria. Descending on the South side of the same Hill, we arrived at Phillips Fountaine, in which he baptized the Eunuch of Æthiopia, standing full in the way of Gaza. Here [VI. 277.]we paid some certaine Madins unto the Moores of the Village, for accoasting the place, and drinking of the water: So did we also for the sight of every speciall Monument in Judea.

At night, we lodged in Bethleem, in a Monasterie of the same Fransciscans of Jerusalem, being onely sixe Friers: After Supper we went all of us (having Candles) to the place, where our Saviour was borne; over the which, there is a magnificent Church builded: yea, the most large and royall workmanship that for a Church is in all Asia, or Affricke, being decored with a hundred and fifty Pillars. But before we came where the Crub had beene, we passed certaine difficile wayes; where, being arrived, wee entered in a gorgeous roome, adorned with Marble, Saphyre, and Alabaster stones; and there they shewed us Christs Crub at Bethleem.both the place and the resemblance of the Crub: over which were hanging lampes of pure Gold, and within their circles oyle continually burning. Not farre from that place, and within the body of the admirable Church, they shewed us the part, over the which the Starre stayed, that conducted the three Wise-men from the East, who came out of Chaldea, to worship Christ, and presented gifts unto him. From thence they brought us to a Cave without the Towne, wherein (say they) the Virgin Mary was hid, when Herod persecuted the Babes life, (from [247]which also being warned by the Angell) She and Joseph fled downe into Ægypt with the Child.

In this time of her feare, say they, the milke left her blessed breasts, so that the Babe was almost starved, but Shee praying to the Almighty, there came forthwith abundance, which overflowing her breasts, and falling to [VI. 278.]the ground, left ever since, as they alledge, this consequent vertue to this Cave.

Admirable dust.The earth of the Cave is white as Snow, and hath this miraculous operation, that a little of it drunke in any Liquor, to a Woman, that after her Child-birth is barren of Milke, shall forthwith give abundance: which is not onely availeable to Christians, but likewise to Turkish, Moorish, and Arabianish Women, who will come from farre Countries, to fetch of this Earth. I have seene the nature of this dust practised, wherefore I may boldly affirme it, to have the force of a strange vertue: Of the which earth I brought with me a pound weight, and presented the halfe of it to our sometimes Gracious Queene Anne of blessed memory, with divers other rare relicts also, as a Girdle, and a paire of Garters of the Holy Grave, all richly wrought in silke and gold, having this inscription at every end of them in golden letters, Sancto Sepulchro, and the word Jerusalem, &c.

Wednesday following, wee hired foure and twenty Moores to conduct us unto Salomons Fish-ponds.Salomons Fish-ponds, which are onely three, being never a whit decayed; and to Fons Segnatus, whence commeth the water in a stone-Conduit, along the Mountaines, that serveth Jerusalem, which worke was done by Salomon. The Ponds being hewne out, and made square from the devalling face of a precipitating mountaine; through which the streame of Fons Signatus runneth, filling the Ponds till it come to its owne aquadotte.

Returning thence, and keeping our way Southward, we passed through the valley of Hebron, where Jacob dwelt, and entered into the fields of Sychem, where Jacobs Sonnes kept their fathers Sheepe; and not far hence, they [248][VI. 279.]shewed us a dry Pit, which they called Josephs Pit, that was at Dothan; wherein he was put by his Brethren, before they sold him to the Ismaelites.

In our backe comming to Bethleem, we saw a Cave in the Desart of Ziph, wherein David hid himselfe, when he was persecuted by King Saul; and the field Adra, where the Angels brought the glad tidings of salvation unto the Sheepheards. Unto all which parts our Moorish guard and John Baptista, brought us and conducted us backe againe to Bethleem, where we stayed the second night.

The Towne of Bethleem.Bethleem is the pleasantest Village in all Judea, situated on a pretty Hill, and five English miles from Jerusalem: It produceth commodiously, an infinite number of Olive and Figge-trees, some Cornes, and a kinde of white Wine, wherewith we were furnished all the time of our abode there; also in, and about Jerusalem. In our way, as we came backe to the City, the next day following, the Viccario shewed us a little Moskee, kept by Turkes, in which (sayd hee) was the Tombe of Rachel, Jacobs wife, who died in that place; as shee was travelling from Padan Aram, with her husband Jacob.

The ruines also of a house, where Habacuk the Prophet dwelt; a Turpentine tree growing yet by the way side, under the which (say they) the Virgin Mary was wont to repose her selfe in travelling. We saw also a naturall rocke in the high way; whereon (say they) Elias oft slept, and is not ashamed to say, that the hollow dimples of the stone, was onely made by the impression of his body; as though the tender flesh of man could leave the print of his portraiture on a hard stone. And not farre from this, they shewed us the place, where the Starre appeared to the wise men, after they had left Herod to seeke for the Saviour of mankind.

Approaching Mount Sion, we saw a quadrangled dry [VI. 280.]pond; wherein (say they) Beersheba the Wife of Urias, was Washing, when David looked forth from the toppe of his Pallace, gazing on the aspect of his lust, gave the Bridle of reason, fast tyed in the hands of temptation; [249]and becomming subject to the subtilty of sinne, was bewitched by her beauty; wherewith corruption triumphed in Nature, and godlinesse decreased in voluntary consent; and from a royall Prophet fell in the bloody lists of Murther and Adultery.

Over against this place, on the North side of Gehinnon, King Davids pallace.we saw the ruines of a Palace wherein David dwelt, which hath beene one of the Angles of the ancient Citty; and standeth at the division of the valley Ennon, which compassed (as a Ditch) the North part of mount Syon, even to the valley Jehosophat, and so Eastward, being now filled up with fragments of old walles; and the valley of Gehinnon lying West, and East; bordering along the South side of Sion, till it joyne also with the narrow valley of Jehosophat, which invironeth the East, and devalling parts of Jerusalem. Neere to this demolished Tower, we saw the habitation of Simeon, who having seene the blessed Messias, sayd: Now Lord let thy Servant depart in peace, for mine eyes have seene thy Salvation.

And now lastly uppon the twelfth day of my abode there, early on Thursday morning, the Guardiano, twelve Friers, and John Baptista (because that was the last day of seeing any more Monuments, or was to be seene there) accompanied us: as wee issued at the South-gate of the City, we came to a place, on the skirt of Syon, where (say they) Peter after his deniall of Christ his maister, wept bitterly.

[VI. 281.]Descending by the side of that same Hill, we crossed the valley Gehinnon, Acaldema.and came to Acaldema, the Potters field, or field of blood; which is a little foure-squared Roome, oppositive to the devalling side of the South-falling Syon: three parts whereof are invironed with a natural rocke, and the fourth square bordering with the valley, is made up of stone worke: The top is covered, and hath three holes, where through they let the dead Christians fall downe; for it is a buriall place of Pilgrimes to this day. As I looked downe, I beheld a great number of dead corpes; some whereof had white winding sheets, [250]and newly dead, lying one above another in a lumpe; yeelded a pestilent smell, by reason they were not covered with earth, save onely the architecture of a high vault, which maketh that in a long time the corpes cannot putrifie and rot.

Neare unto this Campo, we entred into a darke Cave, where (say they) the Apostles hid themselves, when Christ was taken. At the foote of the same valley, we came to Ponto Nehemia.Ponto Nehemia, in which place the Jewes did hide the Holy Fire, when they were taken captives to Babylon; walking more downeward, toward the valley of Jehosophat, we saw a darke Celler under the ground without windowes; wherein (said the Guardian) the Idolatrous Jewes made a sacrifice of their children unto a brazen Image called Moloch, which being made hot, they inclosed them in the hollownesse thereof, and so slew them: and least their crying should have moved any compassion towards them, they made a thundring noise with drums, and other instruments, whereupon the place was called Tophet, mentioned in Jer. 7. 31. Hence we came to the Poole of Siloam, in which wee washed our selves, the water whereof falleth downe through a Rocke, from [VI. 282.]the City above, running straight to the valley of Jehosophat; and there we saw also the remnant of that sacked Towre of Siloam. Neare to this we saw a fountaine, where (say they) the Virgin Mary used oft to wash the Babes clothes and linnen clouts. From thence we crossed the Brook Cedron.Brooke Cedron (which guttereth through the valley of Jehosophat) and is alwaies dry, unlesse it be in December, when the raine falleth there impetuously for a month together, which is all the winter they have in these parts: during which time none may labour, nor travell, but forced to keepe themselves within houses: Having past I say this Brooke wee came to the Tombes of Absolon and Zacharias, and the Cave wherein S. James was wont to hide himselfe from the persecuting Jewes. Ascending more upward on the hill, in the way of Bithania, wee saw these places, where Judas hanged himselfe, over [251]which there is a vault erected, like a halfe Moone, in memory of his selfe murther, and hard by they shewed us where the withered Figge tree grew, the place being inclosed within a high stone dyke; and halfe a mile thence we came to the ruined house of Simon the Lepar.

Lazarus Tomb in Bethania.Arriving at Bithania, we saw the Castle and Tombe of Lazarus, on whom Christ shewed a miracle, in raising him from the grave, after hee had beene 4. dayes dead. It is a singular and rare Alabaster Tombe, and so exquisitely done, that it excelleth (Jerusalem excepted) all the monuments in Judea, erected for the like purpose, being inclosed within a delicate Chappell under the ground. Not farre thence in the same Village, wee saw the decayed house where Martha, and Mary Magdalen inhabited, and the stone whereon Christ sate (say they) when he sayd to Martha, Mary hath chosen the best part.

[VI. 283.]Leaving this moorish Bithania, being now a Village of no qualitie, we returned by beggerly Bethphage, and finding it farre worser, about mid-day wee arrived on the top of Mount Olivet, where wee dined on our owne provision carried with us, and then proceeded in our sights.

From this place wee had the full prospect of Jerusalem: For the City standing upon the edge of a hill, can not be seene all at one sight; save on this Mountaine, which is two times higher then Mount Sion. These are the Monuments shewne us upon the Mount Olivet and the Places of note thereof.Mount of Olives: First, the print of the left foote of our Saviour, in an immoveable stone, which he made when he ascended to Heaven; the Guardiano told us further, that the right footes print was taken away by the Turkes; and detained by them in the Temple of Salomon: But who can thinke our Saviour trode so hard at his ascention, as to have left the impression of his feete behind him.

Next the place where hee foretold the judgement to come, and the signes, and the wonders, that should be seene in the Heavens before that dreadfull day. Thirdly, the place where the Symbolum Apostolorum was made, [252]which is a fine chamber under the ground, like a Church, having twelve pillars to support it. Fourthly, where Christ taught his Disciples the Pater noster, and where he fell in an agony, when hee sweat blood and water. Fifthly, where Peter, James, and John slept, whiles our Saviour prayed, and returned so oft to awake them; and also below that, where the other Disciples were left. Sixtly, the Garden of Gethsemane, where Christ used commonly to pray; in the which place he was apprehended by the officers of the high Priests, and it was also where Judas kissed him, and the Sergeants fell backward on the [VI. 284.]ground. Seventhly, they shewed us a stone marked with the Head, Feete, and Elbowes of Jesus, in their throwing of him downe, when as they bound him, after hee was taken, and ever since (say they) have these prints remained there.

And lastly, at the foote of mount Olivet, in the valley of Jehosophat, we descended by a paire of staires of forty three steppes, and sixe paces large, in a faire Church builded under the ground: Where (say they) the Monument of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary is, and did show it unto us, whom (they thinke) was borne in Jerusalem, dwelt at Bethleem, and Nazareth, and dyed uppon mount Syon. Sacred and singular Tombes.I saw also there, the Sepulchers of Joseph her husband, Joachim her Father, and of Anna her mother. And for which sights paying sixteene Madins a man, to certaine Moores: we returned to our Monastery againe night to repose us, having seene all the Antiquities and places of note, were to be seene, in, and about all Judea.

The Armes of Jerusalem

The Armes of Jerusalem

King James his foure Crownes

King James his foure Crownes

Loe, I have plainely described all these Monuments, by the order of these twelve severall dayes: The like heretofore, was never by a Travailer so punctually, so truly, and so curiously set downe, and made manifest to the intellective Reader. But as I sayd in the beginning of my Description, so say I now also at the Conclusion, some of these things are Rediculous, some of manifest untruths, some also doubtfull, and others, somewhat more credible, [253]and of apparent truth. The recapitulation whereof, is only by me used, as I was informed, by Gaudentius Saybantus the father Guardian, Laurenzo Antonio il Viccario, and the Trenchman John Baptista.

Now in Jerusalem, wee eleaven Frankes stayed three [VI. 285.]dayes longer, preparing our selves for a new Voyage to go downe to Egypt with a Caravan of Grand Cayro: In which time the aforesaid Frier Laurenzo, whose life I had saved on the Quarantanam, propined me privatly with twelve Crosses made of the Olive Wood of mount Olivet: Each Crosse having 24. Relickes indented in them, with fourty paire of Chaplets made of that same Wood, two Turkish Handkerchiefes, and three paire of Garters and Girdles of the Holy Grave: All wrought in silke and Gold, with diverse other things, &c. Which were not so thankfully received, as they were thankfully given, by a gratefull and unforgetfull Frier. Meanewhile, the last day of our staying there, we went all of us Friers and Pilgrimes in againe to the Holy Grave, where we remained al night. Earely on the morrow there came a fellow to us, one Elias Areacheros, a Christian inhabitour at Bethleem, and purveier for the Friers; who did ingrave on The Armes of Jerusalem.our severall Armes upon Christs Sepulcher the name of Jesus, and the Holy Crosse; beeing our owne option, and desire: and heere is the Modell thereof. But I, decyphered, and subjoyned below mine, the four incorporate King James his foure Crownes.Crowns of King James, with this Inscription, in the lower circle of the Crowne, Vivat Jacobus Rex: [VI. 286.]returning to the fellow two Piasters for his reward: I fixt these lines for King James.

Long may he live, and long may God above

Confirme, Reward, Encrease his Christian love:

That He (blest King of men) may never cease

To keep this Badge, the sacred Prince of Peace;

And there’s the Motto, of His Maiden Crowne,

Hæc nobis invicta miserunt, ne’re wonne.

Which when the Guardian understood, what I had done [254]in memory of my Prince upon that Sacred Tombe, hee was greatly offended with me, that I should have polluted that Holy place, with the name of such an Arch-enemy to the Romane Church. But not knowing how to mend himselfe, and hearing me to recite of the Heroick Vertues of our matchlesse Monarch: who for Bounty, Wisedome, and Learning, was not paragonized among all the Princes of the earth: His fury fell; and begun to intreate me, to make it knowne to his Majesty, that hee never allowed any support to their afflicted lives, neyther any gratuity for maintayning of those Sacred Monuments at Jerusalem, his subjects being as free here as they. Which indeed I performed, for after my arrivall in England, and having propined his Majesty with diverse rare things, and a Turpentine rod from Jordan; in the midst of my Discourses, I told his Highnesse, in the Privy Garden of Greenewich, the Guardians request. Who indeed gave me a most gracious answere, saying, They never sought any helpe of him, and if they had, he would have supported their necessity. Bidding farewell to the Church of St. Salvatore, and being re incloystred againe, after breakfast, the reckoning of Stridor Dentium came to us, Of English money.for 17. dayes diet, being to each man six shillings a day, amounting for my part to 5 pounds two shillings. Then the Guardians Secretary, presented me my Patent under [VI. 287.]their Great Seale; & that cost me 3. Chickens of Gold. The beginning whereof I recall, although the principall, The Discourse of the Seale is in the page lost in the Inquisition of Malaga, was thus: Frater Gaudentius Saybantus ordinis minorum regularis observantiæ Sancti Antonii Dei & Apostolicæ sedis gratia, Sacri montis Sion Guardianus, Terræ sanctæ gubernator & custos; ac in partibus orientis Apostolicus Commissarius, [VI. 288.]salutem in Domino sempiternam. Notum vobis facimus, &c. The Contents whereof, reciting all the memorable things I saw within the Holy Land, there was thereunto annexed their Great Seale, sticking fast, or locked in upon the lower face of the Parchment, the impression whereof, had the Effigies of the twelve Apostles, and Christ in [255]the midst: having this Circumscription about: Magnum sigillum Sacri montis Sion Guardianus. The model whereof is affixed in the former page.

The Model of the Great Seale of the Guardians of the Holy Grave

The Model of the Great Seale of the Guardians of the Holy Grave

Then had we avaricious Baptista our Guide and Interpreter to reward, every one of us propining him with two Chickens of gold: And lastly wee gratified the gaping Steward, the Cerberian Porter, the Cymerian Cooke, and his Ætnean face, with a Chicken of gold the man, from each of us: amounting in all among the foure Catzocullioni, to twenty foure pounds fifteene shillings sterling.

Nay this was not all; for even when the Ægyptian Caravan, was staying for us without the City, the Guardian Greedy and flattering Friers.made a begging Sermon to us, imploring our bounties to commiserate and support their great calamities, losses, and oppressions inflicted upon them by the Infidels, with many other base & flattering speeches: which indeed nine of us refused, because of the great Extortion he had imposed uppon us before; but the two Germane Barons gave him the value of sixe English pounds, or there abouts.

And now finally, or I leave mount Syon, I thinke it not amisse, to give the itching Travailer a frozen stomacke, who perhaps soweth Words in the Wind, conceptions in the Ayre, and catcheth Salmond swimming on Atlas: I will now (I say) justly cast up to him the charges I defrayed [VI. 289.]within the Wals of Jerusalem, not reckoning my journall expences and tributs else where abroad; arising to eighteene pounds sixteene shillings starling: And there a cooling card for his Caprizziat, and imaginary inventions: And it may serve also, to damnifie the blind conceit of many who thinke that Travellers are at no charges, goe where they will, but are freely maintained every where; and that is as false, as an hereticall errour. May the twelfth, and the eighteene day of my staying there, about mid-day, the other ten and I joyned with the Caravan, who formerly had conditioned with us to carry us to Ægypt, and to furnish the rest Camels or Dromidories to ride upon, (for I would never ride any) for nineteene [256]Piasters the man, discharging us also all tributes and Caffars were to be imposed upon us by the way; and so we marched through the South-west part of Judea towards Idumea, or the Edomits land; and meane-while I gave The Authors good night to Jerusalem.Jerusalem this goodnight, &c.

Thrice sacred Sion, sometimes blazd abrode,

To be the Mansion, of the living God;

For Prophets, Oracles, Apostles deare

And godly Kings, who raisd great glory here:

Where Aarons rod, the Arke, and Tables two,

And Mannaes Pot, fire of sacrifice so

From Heaven that fell: were all inclos’d in Thee

Containing neare, what not contaynd could be:

To thee sweet Sion, and thine eldest daughter,

Which Titus fiercely sackt with Jewish slaughter:

And to thy second birth, raisd to my sight

I prostrate bid, thy blessed bounds goodnight:

Next for the Holy land, which I have trac’d,

From end to end; and all its beauty fac’d;

Where Kings were stall’d, disthron’d, defac’d, renown’d,

Cast downe, erect’d, unscepterd, slayne, and crown’d:

[VI. 290.]The land of promise, once a Sea of Oyle

Whence milke and honey flowd; yea, too a soyle

Where men, and might, like miracles were raisd

Sprung from a Garden plot: A wonder praisd

Above conceit: whose strength did farre excell

All other lands; take thou my kind farewell.

And last Franciscan Friers, O painted Tombes!

Where vice and lust lurke low, beneath your wombes;

Whose hearts, like Hell, doe gape for greed of gold,

That have Religion, with your conscience sold,

To you I say a poxe, O flattering Friers!

And damn’d deceivers, borne & bred for Leyers,

Whose end my purse implores; O faithlesse fellowes!

And leaves you for your paines, curst Hamans gallowes.

Having bid farewell to Syon, we marched that afternoone in the way of Gaza; and arrived at night in a [257]Kind Jewes to us Franks.goodly Village, more full of Jewes than Moores, called Hembaluda, situate on the face of a fruitfull hill, and the last limit of Judea: Here the Germanes and I were well intertained gratis, by certaine Jewes that spoke Italian, and much rejoyced to see such strangers in these bounds, for two of them had beene borne in Venice: The Captaine, and our company were all Ægyptians, all of them being Christians, called Copties, viz. beleevers: Their number was about eight hundred persons, who had come up from Ægypt, to dignify for devotions sake this Easter time, being the great feast of Jerusalem; Of whom by the way we received great affability & kind respect without any offence.

That night the whole Caravan lay in the fields, and we stayed within the Towne making merry with our Hebraick friends, earely the next morning wee imbraced our Idumean way, finding this Edomitish land sorely [VI. 291.]distressed by the Arabs, and yet the Inhabitants were subject to the Turke: In this long dayes journey we found abundance of water, and all other necessaries for our reliefe, and yet the people were both rude & extreame barbarous, having no more show of humanity then the foure footed Leopards of Berdoa.

The Dutch Gentlemen grew affrayed at these savages, as being unacquainted before with such an awful sight; and to dispell their feare, tush sayd I, courage Gentlemen, no scope, no hope, and flashd over these lines in Italian to them;

To gallant mindes, all kind of soyles they be,

Their native land; as fish imbrace the Sea:

For they who would traverse earths variant face,

Must take their hazard, as they finde the place;

And that’s my soyle, best meanes can me defray,

But Sirs be glad, wee came not here to stay.

The auncient City of Gaza.Againe night we declined towards Gaza, and there stayed in a fine Cane prepared for Travellers; where the whole Caravan, Souldiers, Camels, Dromodores, Mules, [258]and Asses were all well satisfied and refreshed: The next morning we went to the Bezestan or market place, and there furnished our selves with provision of Bread, Hens, Egges, Garlicke, and Onions, sufficient enough to carry us through the desarts being ten dayes journey. Gaza now is called Habalello, and is composed of twelve hundred fire-houses, and sensible against the incursions of Arabs: The ruvid Cittizens, being Turkes, Moores, Jews, domeseticke Arabians, with a few Georgians, & Nostranes.

There is a Garrison here of Souldiers, and a Turkish Captaine, that commandeth the Towne and Castle: In [VI. 292.]the afternoone, we set our faces forward to that fearefull Wildernesse, and travailed or night twelve miles, pitching our Tents beside a source or standing Well. Here our Guard, kept a strict Watch about us all night; and I kept as well the Germanes from langour, cherishing them with joviall merriments, for they were my inward friends, yet of a faint and fearefull nature. At the breach of day we set forward, passing through diverse Rockey and shrubby heights, till afternoone, and then wee declined to a sandy valley: Where when come, what with the deepnesse Burning Sands.of the Way, and the great heate reflexing upon the sand, and from the Sand to our faces, we were miserably turmoiled, especially I, who went alwayes on foote.

Having past this wearisome bottome, and before night marching along the skirt of a craggy Hill, two hundred Arabs broake out upon us from holes and bushes, and shrewdly annoyed our Company with Arrowes, till a contribution of sixteene Piasters was sent to them. The halfe of that night we pitched our Tents, in a pastorable Wild Arabs selling water.plaine, where some scattering Arabs, sold us Water in Wooden Cups, carrying it in Wilde Boare skins upon their naked backes. Two of which Savages our Captayne hyred, to guide us the next day to the first Castle of the three, that were built by the Turkes, and a dayes journey distant one from another; beeing each of them strongly guarded with Souldiers, and that for the reliefe of Caravans, [259]being the most dangerous, and most desolate place in the Desarts.

Our Guides the day following, brought us through the best and safest places of the Country, where we found certayne profitable parts, planted with haire-cloath tents, and over-cled heere and there with spots of Sheepe and Goates: and yet were we not there without the invasion of stragling Arabs, and paying of tributes, which the [VI. 293.]Captaine defrayed for us, our condition being formerly made so at Jerusalem. Before night with great heat, and greater drouth, we approached to the first Castle, where the Captayne thereof received us kindly, causing our Tents to be pitched round about the Quadrangled Tower. Here we had abundance of Water (though I would rather have had Wine) to suffice the whole Company, drawne out of a Cisterne, and reposing safely uppon the hard ground, the Castle Garrison watched us, and our guard watched them.

Grievous and desertuous travelling.Thence with a new Guide the sequell morne, we marched through a fiery faced plaine, scorch’d with burning heate, and deepe rolling Sand, where diverse of our smallest Beasts perished, with sixe men and Women also in relieving their overwhelmed Asses. Long or midday, having got to a hard height, we pitched our Tents, reposing under their shaddowes till the evening, for wee were not able to indure the intollerable heate of the Sun; and so did wee likewise over-umbrate our selves every mid-day. The vigour of the day gone, and the cooling night come, we advanced forward to the middle Castle, being led by our Guide, and the pale Lady of the night leading him: Where when come, wee found neyther that Fort answerable to the former in strength, nor the Captaine so humane as the other was: Here wee were all offended with the scarcity of Water, the Captayne playing the Villaine, crossed us, because the Caravanship were Christians; at last about mid-night some 30. Arabs, came to us loaden with Water, carried on their backes. To whom we payed for every Caraff, beeing an English [260]quart, three Aspers of silver, ten Aspers going to a shilling: Whereof my kinde Dutch-men drunke too [VI. 294.]much, the Water being thicke and of a brounish colour; and hot like pisse, offended their over-wained stomackes; which as I supposed, was the chiefest cause the next day of some of their Deaths.

After mid-night, the Turkish Captaine, and our Caravan fell at variance, about Water to our Beasts, who were ready to choake, and if they had not bin prevented with Souldiers on both sides, it had drawne us and them, to a finall mischiefe. The discord unpacified, before the following day, and within night, we imbraced our wilsome and fastidious Way, journying through many dens, and umbragious Caves, over-shaded with mouldring heights; Savage women having their Child-bed in some whereof we found Savage Women lying in their Barbarous child-bed: having their bodies naked (the fore-face of their Wombe excepted) their beds were made of soft Sand, and over-spread with leaves a foote thicke; whose new borne Babes lying in their armes, were swadled with the same Leaves. And for all their sicknesse, which was very small, they had none of our Wives sugred sops, burnt Wines, Venison pasties, Delicate fare, and great Feasting, nor a moneths lying in, and then Churched, putting their husbands to incompatible charges. No, no, their food is onely Bread, Garlicke, Hearbes, and Water, and on the third or fourth day, in stead of their Churching, they goe with Bowes and Arrowes to the fieldes againe, hunting for spoiles and booties from passing Caravans.

Advancing in our course, we fell downe from the hils in a long bottome of Sand, above sixe miles in length: Wherein with sore Wrestling agaynst the parching Sun, and could get no ground to pitch our Tents to over shade us; three of our Germans, the two Barons, Signior Strouse, and Signior Crushen, with one Signior Thomasio, [VI. 295.]tumbled downe from their beasts backes starke dead, being The death of three Germane Gentlemen.suffocated with the vigorous Sunne, for it was in May, choaked also with extreame drouth, and the reflection of the burning sand; and besides their faire was growne miserable, [261]and their Water worse, for they had never beene acquainted with the like distresse before, though it was alwayes my vade Mecum. Whereupon the Caravan staied and caused cast on their Corpes againe, on their owne beasts backes, and carrying them to the side of a hard Hill, we digged a hollow pit, and disspoyling them of their Turkish cloathes, I did with my owne hands cast them all three one above another, in that same hole, and covering the Corpes with mouldring earth, the Souldiers helped me to role heavy stones above their grave, to the end, that the bloody Jackals should not devoure their corpes; and to conclude this woefull and sorrowfull accident, the other Germanes alive bestowed on me their dead friends Turkish garments, because of my love and diligent care I ever did show them; which one of their empty Mules carried for me to Grand Cairo.

Whence with diverse assaults, and greater paines, accoasting The third Castle of the desarts.the third Castle, with as great bewailing the losse of our friends, as we had contentment in our owne safety, we found this third Captayne both humane and hospitable: Who indeede himselfe in person with his Garrison, watched us all night, and had a speciall care in providing Water for us all, propining our Captayne and us eight Frankes before supper, with three roasted Hens, and two Capons: This Turkish Captayne told us there were three inhabited Townes in these Desarts, the chiefest whereof was Sehan, situate on the Red Sea, having a harbor and shipping, that Trade both to Ægypt and Æthiopia, whose commodities are silken stuffes and Spices [VI. 296.]which they transport from Meccha, and carrie to Melinda, and the afore-sayd places in Affricke: But now least I sinke in Prolixity, discoursing of sinking Sands, and make good the Italian Proverbe, Chi troppo abbracio, nulla stringe, viz. That he who would imbrace too much, can hold nothing fast. I decist from this Journall proceeding, and punctuall Discourse of my laborious Pen, wherein, notwithstanding the Reader (I having layd open more than halfe of the Wildernesse) may (like that learned Geometrician, [262]who finding the length of Hercules foote on the Hill Olympus, drew forth the portraicture of his whole body thereby) easily conjecture by the former Relation, the sequell sight of these Desartuous places; and therefore the rest, I will onely Epitomize in generall till mine arrivall at Saleack on the Confines of Ægypt.

The bounds of the three Arabias.Arabia is bounded on the West, with the Red Sea, and the Ægyptian Istmus: On the North with Canaan, Mesopotamia, and a part of Syria: On the East with the Persian gulfe, Caldea, and Assiria: On the South with the great Ocean, and Indian Sea: This Countrey lyeth from the East to the West, in length about 900. and some 3500. miles in compasse. The people generally are addicted to Theft, Rapine, and Robberies: hating all Sciences Mechanicall or Civill, they are commonly all of the second Stature, swift on foote, scelerate, and seditious, boysterous in speech, of colour Tauny, boasting much of their triball Antiquity, and noble Gentry: Notwithstanding their garments be borne with them from the bare Belly, their food also semblable, to their ruvid condition, and as savagiously tame (I protest) as the foure footed Citizens of Lybia: They are not valourous, nor desperate in [VI. 297.]assaults without great advantage, for a 100. Turkes is truely esteemed to be sufficient enough to incounter 300. Arabs. Their language extendeth it selfe farre both in Asia, and Affricke, in the former, through Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, even to the Mount Caucasus: In the latter, through Ægypt, Libia, and all the Kingdomes of Barbary even to Morocco.

This Arabia deserta, is the place where the people of Israel wandred forty yeares long, being fed with Manna from Heaven, and with water out of the driest rocks: In which is Mount Sinai, where the Law of the two The scurrile Arabian Desarts.Tables was promulgated. The most part of these Desarts is neither fit for herbage nor tillage, being covered over with a dry, and a thicke Sand, which the wind transporteth whither it listeth, in heapes and mountaines, that often intercept and indanger fatigated Travellers. The Inhabitants [263]here are few, so are their Cities, their dwellings being in sequestrate dennes and haire-cloath Tents: The most of their wealth consisteth in Camels Dromidories, and Goats.

Before our arrivall in Saleak, we passed the little Istmus of ground which parteth Asia, and Affrica, disjoyning the Mediterranean and the red Seas: Divers have attempted to digge through this strait to make both Seas meete for a nearer passage to India, of whom Sesostris King of Ægypt was the first: Secondly, Darius the great Persian Monarch: Thirdly, another Ægyptian King, who drew a ditch 100. foote broad, and 30. and odde miles long. But when he intended to finish it, he was forced to cease, for feare of overflowing all the lower land, the red Sea being found to be higher by three cubits than the ordinary plaine of Ægypt: Yet howsoever it was, the ditch is hollow in divers parts, and fastidious, because of sands to passe over.

[VI. 298.]At Saleack we overtooke a great Caravan of two thousand people, and twelve hundred Camels and Dromidores, which were loaden with the ware of Aleppo, and come from Damascus, intending their voyage for Cayro, whose company we subtilly left, & marchd before them, for receiving of water by the way for our selves, and beasts out of Cisternes, which we left dry behind us.

The nature of Camels and Dromidores.A Dromidore, and Camel differ much in quality, but not in quantity, being of one height, bredth, and length; save only their heads and feete, which are proportionated alike; and the difference is such, that the Dromidory hath a quicke and hard-reaching trot, and will ride above 80. miles in the day, if that his rider can indure the paine. But the Camell is of a contrary disposition: For he hath a most slow and lazy pace, removing the one foote from the other, as though he were weighing his feete in a ballance; neither can he goe faster although he would: But he is a great deale more tractable then the other: For when his maister loadeth him, he falleth downe on his knees to the ground, and then riseth againe with his [264]burthen, which will be marvailous great, sometimes 600. or 800. weight.

The red Sea, which we left to the Westward of us, and our left hand is not red, as many suppose, but is the very colour of other Seas: The reason for which it hath beene called Mare rubrum, is only because of the bankes, rushes, sands & bushes that grow by the shore side, which are naturally red. Some others have called it so, in respect of the Brookes, which Moses turned to red blood, who misconstruing the true sense, tooke Seas, for Rivers.

It is vulgarly tearmed Sinus Arabicus, whose length is 1600. miles. This Sea is famous for the miraculous passage of the Israelites through it, and the drowning of [VI. 299.]Pharaoh and his people: and because of Spices that were brought from India and Arabia to Alexandria, from whence the Venetians dispersed the same through all Europe and the Mediterren coasts of Asia and Affrick: But this Navigation is now discontinued by the Portugals, English, and Dutch; which bring such Wares to their severall homes by the backe side of Affricke: So that the Trafficke Indian Spices much weakned.of Alexandria is almost decayed, and the Riches of the Venetians much diminished; so is the vertue of the Spices much impayred by too much moisture contracted, with the long and tedious carriage thereof.

This afore-sayd Saleack, is thought to be seated on the lower and Eastmost end of Gozan, consisting of eight hundred dwelling Houses, being Walled and fensible against the Arabs, and defended also with a Castle, and ten troupes of Horse-men being Janizaries. Here we rested and refreshed our selves two nights, providing us fresh victuals for Grand-Cairo, being foure dayes journey distant; and at our leaving of Saleack, I saluted this new seene Countrey, with a greedy conceit of more curiosities. [265]



Now well met Egypt, so our fate allots,

For we have appetite, for thy Flesh pots;

But (ah!) the Season, is too hot to eate

Of any viande, Kid, Mutton, or such meate:

Yet for thy Coffa made of Coave seede,

We’le kindly drinke it, feed upon thy bred

[VII. 300.]And fat our selves, with thy best hearbes and fruits

For like, to our faint stomackes, best besuites:

Then mighty Kingdome, once the Royall Land,

Where Kings were first erect’d, did longest stand;

And letters, Hyeroglophicks, Magicke Arte,

Astrology, had first inventions part.

For wonders, the Piramedes: Balme more good!

The weeping Crocadile, Nyles swelling flood;

Deaths funerall Mommeis; the Sea-horse bred

At Damieta: the Sphynx with grandure cled:

And where base Fortune, play’d the errand whoore,

In making meane men great, and great men poore:

In thee, I’le dive, though deep is thine old ground,

And further far, then I can search or sound:

Yet when men shoot, O all the marke doe eye;

But seldome touch’t; enough, if they come nye:

Even so must I, for neerer I’le not claime,

The best director, may mistake his ayme.

But as the Land is now, I hope I shall

Cleare hardest doubts, and give content to all. [266]

Thence sought I Malta, Ætnaes burning flame,

And stately Sicile, Gibels greatest fame.

Whence passing Italy, the Alpes I crost,

And courting France, told Time, how I was tost.

Departing from Saleack, and having past one of their courses, which is our twelve miles, wee reincountred with infinite Villages on both hands, and in our high Way; all builded upon artificiall Channels [VII. 301.]drawne from Nylus; and these Fabrickes, onely made up of Wood or Bricke, being one or two Stories high. The Captaine, in diverse parts at our mid-dayes reposing, was constrayned to buy water from the Egyptians, to satisfie the Company: yea, and that same night, the first of foure, or we came to Cayre, at the Village of Bianstare, he payed five Sultans of gold for Watering all us and the Beasts, amounting to thirty five shillings sterling.

The next day journying towards a goodly Towne, named Saliabsteck, we travailed through a fruitful planure, fraught full of fruite Trees, and abounding in Wheate, Two seasons of riping graine in Egypt.Rye, and Barley, being new cut downe, May 14. For this was their first Harvest, the Land yeelding twice a yeare Cornes; and the latter, is in our December recoiled. This Land hath as it were a continuall Summer, and notwithstanding of the burning heate, it produceth alwayes abundance of Fruites and Hearbes for all the Seasons of the yeare: So that the whole Kingdome is but a Garden, having ever one Fruite ready to be plucked downe, and another comming forwards; or like to the best sort of Lemmon Trees, that as some Reape, some are growing greene, others budding forth, and some still in the floorish: Even so is the beauty and fertility of all the lower Ægypt; which although the Country be not often troubled with Raine, yet the rank serene or dew of the night, in the Summer, refresheth all kindes of growing things: betweene Saliabsteck, and Cayre, being two dayes journey: We Francks, bad farwell to water, and drunke daily of Coffa, made of a seed Coave, which being taken hot, and [267]is ever kept boyling within Fornaces in earthen pots, it expelleth the crudity of fruites and hearbes so much there frequented.

Arriving at last in this little World, the great Cairo, [VII. 302.]and bidding farewell to our Caravan, the three Germanes and I, lodged with one Signior Marco Antonio, a Consul, there for Venice; the other foure French men, going to their owne Consul, a Marseilian borne and there stayed. Here with this Venetian for three dayes, the Dutch men and I had great cheare, but they far greater a dayly swallowing downe of strong Cyprus Wine, without mixture of water; which still I intreated them to forbeare, but they would not be requested. The season being cruell hot, and their stomacks surfeited with burning wine, upon the fourth day long or noone, The last three Germanes death in Cayre.the three Dutch men were all dead; and yet me thought they had no sicknesse, the red of their faces staying pleasant, their eyes staring alwayes on mine, and their tongues were perfit even to the last of their breath.

He who dyed last, and lived longest, was William Dierganck, who left me all his owne gold, and what the former five had left him: delivering me the keyes of their three Clogbags before the Consul, declared by his mouth that he left me absolute heire to intromet with all, and whatsoever they had there: But eftsoones the treacherous Consul, knowing that I was a stranger to them, and by accident met together at Jerusalem, and that they were Gentlemen, and well provided with gold, forgd a reason to himselfe and for his owne benefit, that he would meddle with all they left behind them, under this excuse, that he would be answerable to their friends for it, at his returne to Venice: Well, I am left to bury them, and with great difficulty bought one grave for them all three in a Copties Chappell, where I interred them: paying to the Ægyptian Christians for that eight foote of ground, ten Sultans of gold, besides sixe Piasters for carrying their corps hither, [VII. 303.]being two miles in the City distant from the Consuls house. Whence, ere I had returned, the Venetian Factor [268]seased upon all, and shuting his gate upon my face, sent me out my owne budget: Whereupon I addressed my selfe to the French Consul, Monsieur Beauclair, who kindly received me, and having told him all the manner, how I was greatly wronged & oppressed by the other Consul; he straight sent for a Jewish Phisitian, his familiar Oracle: Where having consulted together, the next day earely we went all three, and their followers to the Beglerbeg, or governour of the City: we soone complained, and were as soone heard: the Venetian Consul is sent for, and he commeth: where facing the Judge and A favourable Turkish judgement.pleading both our best, (for there are no Lawyers in Turky every man speaking for him selfe) the Bassaw with his Counsell upon sight of the keyes of their Clogbags in my hands, and my narration thereupon (and notwithstanding favouring the Factor) immediatly determined that I should have the two part of their moneyes, with all their Jerusalem relicts, and Turkish cloathes, and the Venetian to have the former third part. It is done, and irrevocable, upon which the Jewish Doctor, and I, with two Janizaries came to mine adversaries house; where I giving the Jew the keyes, the Clogbags were opened, and the money being told, it came just to 1424. Chickens of gold, besides certaine rings & tablets: The Jew delivered me my part, which came to 942. Chickens, the rest went to the inconscionable Consul, with the halfe of the rings & tablets: And packing up all the relicts, moneyes, clothes, and Clogbags, I hired a Mule, and brought them along with me to the French Factors house. Where, when come, Monsieur Beauclair, and my fellow Pilgrimes, were very glad that I had sped so well, none of us all knowing what was in the Clogbags till they were sighted; & giving hearty thanks to the Consul, and ten peeces of gold to the [VII. 304.]Jew and Janizaries, I sup’d, and reposed till the morrow, thanking God of my good fortune: Yet was I exceeding sorrowfull for the losse of these gallant Gentle-men, Religiously disposed, and so affable, that for familiarity and kindnesse, they were the mirrours of noble mindes, [269]and vertuous spectacles of humanity; whose Deaths were to mee a Hell, and whose lives had beene my Paradice on earth. To whose memory and prayse, I am not able to Congratulate the least Commendation, their Heroicke dispositions, deserved at my hands.

But what shall I say, their time was come, which mortality might sorrow, but sorrow might not prevent Death, whose power is deafe to all humane lamentations. Neyther will I relye so much upon my owne worthinesse, as to thinke that benefite of the procrastination of my Gods provident mercies.Life, was by any merite of mine deserved, but that God so much the more, might show his incomprehensible goodnesse in delivering me, from the violence of such unexpected accidents, and to tye my soule to be thankfull for his mercies. For all the beginnings of man are derived from God, whose ends are eyther perfited, or disanulled by his Determination: and nothing we possesse is properly our owne, or gotten by our owne power, but given us onely through his goodnesse and munificence.

And all the spaces of earth which our feet tread over, the Light we enjoy, and the excellent faculties wee are indued withall; or what we can do, say, or thinke, is onely raised, guided, and distributed, by Gods impenetrable Counsell, Will, and Providence: Which although the pride of our wicked nature doth not yeeld the true attribution thereunto; yet the powerfull working of the counsell [VII. 305.]of God is such, that in it selfe, it proveth an eternall wisdome, and confoundeth the foolishnesse of the world.

The great City of Grand Cayre.This incorporate World of Grand Cairo, is the most admirable and greatest City, seene upon the earth, being thrice as large of bounds as Constantinople, and likewise so populous, but not so well builded, being situate in a pleasant Plaine, and in the heart of Ægypt, kissing Nylus at some parts.

The City is divided in five Townes, first and formost, Cairo novo, the new Caire, which is the principall & chiefest place of all the other, lying in midst of the rest, having walles and Ports, the circuit whereof is 22. miles, [270]contayning al the chiefe merchandise and market places within it.

The second is Cairo Vecchio, the old Caire, called formerly Cairo de Babylonia or Babylon Ægyptiorum: for there were two Babylons, one in Assiria called now by the Turkes Bagdat, and the other is this that joyneth with the new Caire: It was also aunciently called Memphis, and was the furthest place that Ulysses in his travels visited, so well memorized by Homer: yet a voyage of no such estimation, as that princely Poet accounted it; for his travels were not answerable, to the fifteene part of mine.

The third Towne is Medin, joyning to the backe side of the old Caire, toward the Piramides: The fourth is Boulak, running a great length downe along and neare the River side, having three market places of no small account: The fift and last, is the great Towne of Caraffar, bending Southward, in the way of the red Sea for many miles: All which are but as Suburbs to the new Caire, that of many smalles make up a Countrey, rather then a [VII. 306.]City: And yet all of them are contiguat one with another, either to the left or right hand, or to them both, with innumerable streets: The length of great Cayre and the bounds thereof.The length whereof in all, from the lowest end of Boulak, to the South-most part of Caraffar is by my deepe experience twenty eight English miles, and fourteene in breadth; for tryall whereof I troad it one day on foote from Sun to Sunne, being guided and guarded with a riding Janizarie, which for my bruised feete on the streets, was one of the sorest dayes journey that ever I had in my life.

The principall gates of new Caire are Babell Mamstek looking toward the Wildernesse and the Red Sea: Bebzavillah toward Nylus, and Babell Eutuch toward the fields: The streets are narrow, being all of them almost covered to save them from the parching heate with open vents for light; and their buildings commonly are two stories high, composed either of mudde or bricke, and platforme on the tops; whereon usually in the night they [271]use to sleepe to imbrace the fresh & cooling ayre. Their Bazar or exchange, beginneth at the gate of Mamsteck, and endeth at a place called Babeso.

At the corners of chiefe streets or market places, there are divers horses standing ready sadled and bridled, that for a small matter, or according to the way, a man may hire and ride so where he will, either to negotiat, or to view this spacious spred City, and change as many horses as he listeth, having the Maisters which owe them to convoy them for lesse or longer way, which is a great ease to weary passengers.

There is a great commerce here with exceeding many nations, for by their concurring hither, it is wonderfully peopled with infinite numbers: for the Countrey [VII. 307.]aboundeth in Silkes, Cornes, Fruits, Waxe, Honey, and the soveraigne Balsamo good for all sores, besides many other commodities of Cotten-wooll, rich Stuffes of cloth of gold and silver, and the best Sattins, Damas, Taffaties, and Grograines that are made in the world are here.

The infinite populositie of which place, and the extreame heate, is the cause why the pest is evermore in the City: insomuch, that at some certaine times, ten thousand persons have dyed in one day: Nay, the City is reputed to be in good health, if there dye but one, or two thousand in a day, or three hundred thousand in a whole yeare, I meane, when the soare encroaching pestilence, which every third yeare useth to visite them, is rife here.

Divers nations residing in Cayre.In this Towne a Traveller may ever happily finde all these sorts of Christianes, Italians, French, Greekes, Chelfaines, Georgians, Æthiopians, Jacobines, Syrians, Armenians, Nicolaitans, Abassines, Cypriots, Slavonians, captivat Maltezes, Sicilians, Albaneses, and high Hungarians, Ragusans, and their owne Ægyptian Copties; the number of which is thought to be beyond two hundred thousand people: besides the infinite number of Infidels, whose sorts are these, Turkes, tawny Moores, white Moores, blacke Moores, or Nigroes, Musilmans, Tartars, Persians, Indians, Sabuncks, Berdoanes, Jewes, Arabians, [272]Barbares, and Tingitanian Sarazens. All which are Mahometans, and Idolatrous Pagans.

From the great Palatiat Mansion, where the Begler-Beg, or Vicegerent hath his residence, being builded on a moderate height; a man may have the full prospect of the better part of the Towne, the gardens and Villages [VII. 308.]bordering on Nylus, and a great part of the lower plaines of Ægypt. Their Lawes heere and Heathnish Religion, are Turkish and Mahometanicall, and the Customes and Manners of the people, are like unto their birth and breeding, beastly and Barbarous; being great Sodomites, and Diabolically given to all sorts of abhominations.

The better sort of Women here, and all the Kingdom The Egyptian decorements.over, weare Rings of gold or silver, through the hollow of their noses, both endes of their mouthes, and in their under lips; hanging rich pearles, and precious stones to them; wearing also about their armes faire Bracelets, and about their ancles below, broad bonds of gold or silver. To which if the baser sort can not attayne unto, then they counterfeit their Betters, with Rings, Bracelets, and bonds of Brasse, Copper, Lead, and white Iron, and thinke themselves not worthy to live, unlesse they weare these badges.

They also use here, as commonly they do through all Turkey, the Women to pisse standing, and the men to coure low on their knees, doing the like. They weare here linnen breeches and Leather bootes as the men do, and if it were not for their covered faces, and longer gownes, wee would hardly know the one from the other. The Egyptian Christians.As for the Religion of the Copties or Ægyptian Christians, they are Circumcised, after the Judaicall manner, but not after the eight day, but the eight yeare. And it is thought, they follow the Religion of Eutyches, holding but one nature in Christ: which was defended by Dioscorus and the Counsell of Ephesus, in regard of Eutyches. But the Copties them selves say, they have their Religion from Prester Jehan, and so it is most manifest, being no difference betweene the one and the other.

[VII. 309.]They make frequently at all meetings the signe of the [273]Crosse to other, thwarting their two foremost fingers, lay them on their brow, and then on their breasts, and kissing them, the salutation is done.

The Copties Religion.They will not suffer no Images, nor Pictures to be in their Churches, and yet they have an Altar, and a kinde of Masse, sayd in their owne Language, sacrificing the Ostia, for the reall Body and Blood of Christ: Yet they deny Purgatory, the invocation of Saints, and Prayers for the Dead, &c. Neverthelesse auricular Confession is commonly used among them: so do the Greekes in all these poynts the like, and all the people Orientall.

The Inhabitants here, were the first Inventors of the Mathematicall Sciences, of Letters, and of the use of Writing: Great Magicians and Astrologians, and are yet The nature of the Egyptian Moores.indued with a speciall dexterity of Wit; but somewhat sloathfull, and given to Ryot and Luxury: Merry also, great Singers, and sociable Companions; and no wonder, the Land being so plentifull, and their nature libidinous, it increaseth both their insolence, and inordinate affections. Neyther doe they live long, in regard of the great heate they indure. Ægypt being placed betweene the two Tropickes, under the Torrid Zone, bringeth to passe, that seldome will any there attayne to threescore yeares of age.

In all this Land of Ægypt, which is a great Kingdome, there is no running Well or Fountayne, save onely the River Nylus: Neyther do the Inhabitants scarcely know what Raine is, because they seldome see any, and if by rare accident, a Cloud happen to dissolve upon them, it bringeth to their bodies innumerable soares and diseases. And yet for abundance of Cornes, and all kind of fruites the Earth yeeldeth, there is no Country can brag with [VII. 310.]Ægypt; whereupon it was called in the time of the Romanes, as well as Sicilia, Horreum populi Romani. And notwithstanding this Kingdome produceth no Wines, neyther is garnished with Vineyards, but that which strangers make use of are brought from Candy, Cyprus, and Greece. The defect being thus, these Mahometanicall Moores observing strictly the Law of their Alcoran, wil [274]neyther plant wines, nor suffer any to be planted, accounting it a deadly sin to drinke Wine, but for Coffa, and Sherpet, composed Liquors, they drinke enough of.

The Garden of Balsamo.As for their Balsamo, the Garden wherein it groweth, lyeth neere to the South-side of Cayre, and inclosed with a high Wall, being sixe miles in compasse, and daily guarded by Turkes. To which when I came, being Conducted with a Janizary, they would not suffer me to enter, neyther any Christian, & far lesse the Jewes: For not long ago, they were the cause, that almost this Balme was brought to confusion; they having the custody of it for certayne yeares.

The Tree it selfe is but of three foote height, which keepeth evermore the colour greene, having a broad three poynted leafe, which being thrice in the yeare incised in the body and branches; it yeeldeth a red Water that droppeth downe in earthen Vessels, which is the naturall Balsamo.

And not far from this Garden, in a sandy Desart, is the place called Mommeis, which are innumerable Caves cut foorth of a Rocke, whereunto the Corpes of the most men in Cayro, are carried and interred. Which dead bodies remayne alwayes unputrified, neyther yeeld they a stinking smell: Whereof experiments are plentiful at this day, by the whole Bodies, Hands, or other parts, which by Merchants are now brought from thence, and [VII. 311.]doth make the Mummia which Apothecaries use: The colour being very blacke, and the flesh clung unto the bones.

Now having viewed, and review’d this Microcosmus of the greater World, the foure French Pilgrimes and I, did The pyramides of Egypt.hire a Janizary to conduct us to the great Pyramides, surnamed the Worlds wonders; which are distant from Cayre about foure Leagues, standing beside or neare to the bankes of Nylus: Where, when come, I beheld their proportion to bee Quadrangled, growing smaller and smaller to the toppe, and builded with huge and large stones, the most part whereof, are five foote broade, or [275]there abouts, and nine in length, beeing of pure Marble.

All the Historians that ever wrot of these Wonders, have not so amply Recited their admirable greatnesse, as the experience of the Beholder, may testifie their excessive greatnesse and height. The first and East-most we approached unto, is highest, and by our Dragomans skilfull Report, amounted to eleven hundred and twenty sixe foote. The Basis, or bottome whereof, being twelve hundred paces in Circuite, allowing every square of the foure faces three hundred paces, and every pace two foote and a halfe. Every Pyramide, having outwardly to ascend upon (though now for the most part demolished) three hundred foure score and nine steps or degrees; each degree being three foote high, and two foote and a halfe broad. By which computation, they amount in height to the afore-sayde Relation, allowing to every foote, twelve inches. At last having ascended upon the South side of this greatest Pyramide to the top, and that with great difficulty, because of the broken degrees here and there: [VII. 312.]I was much ravished, to see such a large foure squared plat-forme, all of one intyre stone, which covered the head; each square extending to seaventeene foote of my measure.

It is yet a great marvaile to me, by what Engine, they could bring it up so safe to such a hight: But as I conceive it, they behoved certaynely still to rayse it, and take it with them, as they advanced the Worke, otherwise the Wit nor power of man, could never have done it. Truely the more I beheld this strange Worke, the more I was stricken in admiration: For before wee ascended, or came neare to this Pyramide, the toppe of it seemed as sharpe as a poynted Dyamond; but when we were mounted thereon, we found it so large, that in my opinion, it would have contayned a hundred men.

The greatest piramide of the three.In the bottome whereof we found a great Cell, and within that through a straight and narrow passage, a foure angled Roome; wherein there was standing the Relickes [276]of a huge and auncient Toombe, where belike hee that was the first Founder of this Pyramide was inclosed. From the top of this Pyramide, our Jannizary did shoote an Arrow in the ayre with all his force, thinking thereby it should have fallen to the ground; but as we discended downe-wards, we found the Arrow lying uppon the steps, scarse halfe way to the ground: From this, wee came to the middle Pyramide, which a far off looked somewhat higher then the other two, but when we came to the roote thereof, wee found it not so, for the stone-worke is a great deale lower, but the advancement of the height, is onely because of a high ground whereon it standeth.

It is of the same fashion of the first, but hath no degrees to ascend upon, neyther hath the third Pyramide any at [VII. 313.]all; being by antiquity of time, all worne and demolished, yet an admirable worke, to behold such Masses, and (as it were) erected Mountaines all of fine Marble. The reason why they were first founded, is by many ancient Authors so diversly conjectured, that I will not meddle therewith. They were first called Pharaones.

Yet the first and greatest is said to have beene builded by Cheops, who in this worke imployed 100000. men, The charges of the greatest pyramide.the space of twenty yeares: In which time, the charges of Garlick, Rootes, and Onions onely, came to 1600. talents of silver; the Basis whereof in circuit, was sixty Acres of ground. It is recorded by Josephus, and conjectured by many good witnesses, that the Bricks which the Children of Israel were inforced to make, were partly imployed about the insides of these Piramides, whose outsides were adorned with Marble; neither can I forget the drift of that effeminate Cheops, who in end wanting money did prostitute his daughter to all commers, by which detestable meanes he finished his building, and shee besides the money due unto her unnaturall Father, desired for her selfe of every man that had the use of her body one stone, of whom she got so many, that with them she builded the second Piramide, almost equall to the first. Besides these three huge ones, there are a number of [277]smaller, whereof some were transported to Rome in the time of her supreame domination.

Betweene the biggest Pyramide, and Nylus, I saw a Colosse, or head of an Idoll, of a wonderfull greatnesse; being all of one Marble stone, erected on a round Rock: It is of height (not reckoning the Columne) above 815. foote, and of circuite, 68. Pliny gave it the name Sphingo, and reported much more of the bignesse, largenesse, and length of it: but howsoever he erred in his description, yet I resolve my selfe, it is of so great a [VII. 314.]quantity, that the like thereof (being one intire peece) the world affoordeth not, and may be reckoned amongst the rarest wonders: Some say, that aunciently it was an Oracle, the which so soone as the Sunne set, would give an answere to the Egyptians, of any thing by them demanded.

In our way as we returned, our Dragoman shewed us (on the banke of Nylus) where a Crocodile was killed the yeare before, by the ingenious policy of a Venetian Merchant, being licentiated by the Bassaw. The match whereof for bignesse and length, was never seene in that River, whose body was twenty two foote long, and in compasse of the shoulders, eight foote, who thus was slaine: This beast for foure yeares together kept alwaies about one place of the River, being seven miles above Cayre; where for a mile of ground, there was no tillage nor pastorage, being for feare of him layd wast: and neverthelesse he had devoured above forty sixe persons: his custome was to come forth of the River every morning, about our eight houres; where here and there he would lurke waiting for his prey till ten, for longer from water he could not stay.

A resolute Venetian Merchant.This Venetian leaving his ship at Alexandria, and comming to Cayre, was informed by the Consul my adversary of the great spoyle done by this beast: and herewith generously he undertooke to kill it, the Vicegerent licentiating him: Whereupon going to his ship, fetched thence his Gunner, and a peece of Ordonance to Cayre. [278]

The next day in the afternoone, hee being well horsed, and accompanied with twenty Janizaries, the peece is carried to the Crocodiles accustomary place, of forthcomming: where straight there was an Asse slaine, and [VII. 315.]hung up on two standing and a thwarting tree, with his open belly to the flood, and some twelve scorepaces therefrom: Behinde this carkasse, about other twelve score, the piece was planted, and levelld at the Carrion, being charged with cut iron; and a traine of powder about the touch-hole, and above it a night-house to keepe the trayne dry from the nights serene: having a cock fastned thereto, and in it a burning match, to which a string was tyed: Then forty paces behinde the piece, was there a pit digged to hide the Gunner; wherein he was put, holding the strings end in his hand, and his head vayled with a wooden covert.

After this, and about mid-night, the Horse-men retired themselves two miles off: The morning come, and the convenient time: the Crocodile courts the land: where when he saw the carkasse, came grumbling to it, and setting his two foremost feet on the Carrions middle, begun to make good cheare of the intrales: whereat the squink-eyed Gunner perceiving his time, drew the string, The killing of a great Crocodile.and giving fire, off went the piece, and shot the Crocodile in three parts: well, he is deadly wounded, and making a horrible noyse, the Gunner lay denned, and durst not stirre: meanewhile the beast striving to recover the water, tyred, and lying close on his belly there he dyed.

After the shot, the Horse-men drew neare, and finding the beast slaine, relieved the Gunner, and brought with them this monstruous creature to Cayre; where now his skinne hangeth in the Consuls Hall, which I saw during my stay in his house. For this piece of service, the Merchant was greatly applauded, & scorned to take from the City 500. Sultans of gold as a reward for his paines, which they freely offered him, and he as freely refused.

[VII. 316.]Now to discourse of Nylus, this flood irriguateth all the low playnes of the Land, once in the yeare, which [279]inundation, beginneth usually in the latter end of July; and continueth to the end of August: Which furnisheth with Water all the Inhabitants; being the onely drinke of the vulgar Ægyptians; and of such vertue, that when Pescennius Niger saw his Souldiers grumble for Wine, What (sayth hee) doe you grumble for Wine, having the Water of Nylus to drinke. And now because many schollers, and learned men, are meerely mistaken about The true knowledge of the flowing of Nylus.the flowing of Nylus, I will both show the manner and quality or cause of its inundation, and thus. There is a drye pond called Machash digged neare unto the brinke of the River, in midst whereof standeth a pillar of eighteene Cubites height, being equall with the profundity of the Ditch, whereby they know his increasing: and in the yeare following if they shal have plenty or scarcity of things.

Now betweene the River and this pond, there are sixe passages or spouts digged through the Banke; where when the River beginneth to swell, it immediately fals downe through the lowest passage into the pond, and being discovered there comes forth of Cayre, certayne of the Priests called Darvishes, accompanied with a hundred Janizaries, and pitch their Tents round about this Quadrangled pit. In all which time of the Inundation, they make great Feastings, rare Solemnities, with Dancing, Singing, toucking of kettle Drummes, sounding of Trumpets, and other ostentations of joy.

Now as the Water groweth in the River, and so from it debording, so it groweth also upon the Pillar standing in this pond, which pillar is marked from the roote to [VII. 317.]the top, with Brasses, handfuls, a foote, a span, and an inch: And so if it shall happen that the water rise but to ten Brasses, it presageth the yeare following there shal be great Dearth, Pestilence, and famine. And if it amounteth to twelve Cubites, then the sequell yeare shal be indifferent. And if it swell to fifteene Brasses, then the next yeare shal be copious and abundant in all things: And if it shall happen to flow to the top, eighteen Brasses, [280]then all the Country of Ægypt, is in danger to be drowned and destroyed.

Many Schollers mistaken about Nylus.Now from the body of Nylus, there are above three thousand Channels drawne through the playne, on which passing Ditches, are all the Bourges and Townes builded; and through which Channels the River spreads it selfe through all the Kingdome: Which when scoured, of filth and Wormes, and the water become cleare, then every House openeth their Cisterne window, and receiveth as much water, as is able to suffice them till the next Inundation: Neyther doth ever the River flow any where above the Bankes, for if it should, it would overwhelme the whole Kingdome.

All which Channels here or there, do make intercourse for their streames agayne, to the body and branches of Nylus. Now Stoicall fooles hold the opinion, that it overfloweth the whole face of the Land, then I pray you, what would become of their Houses, their Bestiall, their Cornes and fruites? for the nature of violent streames, do ever deface, transplant, and destroy all that they debord upon, leaving slime, mood, and Sand behind their breaches, and therefore such inunding can not be called cherishings.

There are infinite venemous Creatures bred in this river, as Crocadiles, Scorpions, Water-Snakes, grievous mis-shapen [VII. 318.]Wormes, and other Monstrous things, which oft annoy the Inhabitants, and these who Trafficke on the Water. This famous flood is in length almost three thousand miles, and hath his beginning under the Æquinoctiall Line, from montes Lunæ, but more truly from the Zembrian Lake in Æthyopia interior, whence it bringeth the full growth downe into Ægypt, and in a place of the exterior Æthiopian Alpes called Catadupa: The fall and roaring of Nyle, maketh the people deafe that dwell neere to it.

The reason of the flowing of Nylus.The infallible reason, why Nylus increaseth so every yeare, at such a time and continuance, is onely this; that when the Sunne declining Northward to Cancer, and warming with his vigorous face, the Septentrion sides [281]of these Cynthian mountaynes, the abundant Snow melteth: from whence dissolving in streames, to the Lake Zembria, it ingorgeth Nylus so long as the matter delabiates: For benefit of which River, the great Turke is inforced, to pay yearely the tribute of fifty thousand Sultans of gold to Prester Jehan, least he impede and withdraw the course of Nylus to the Red Sea, and so bring Ægypt to desolation: The ground and policy whereof, begunne upon a desperate Warre inflicted upon the Æthiopians by Amurath, which hee was constrayned to give over, under this pact, and for Nylus sake.

The River Nyle had many names, for Diodore named it Actos, to wit, Eagle, because of its swift passing over the Catadupian heights: It was called too, Ægyptus, of a King so named, that communicated the same to it, and to the Countrey.

Festus, sayth it was called Melos, and Plutarch tearmed it Mela: Epiphanio called it Chrysoroas, that is, running, or coulant in gold. The Holy Scripture tearmeth it Seor [VII. 319.]or Sihor, to wit, Trouble, because of the great noyse it bringeth with it to Ægypt; and the same Holy Letters call it Gehou, and Physon. The Ægyptians wont to name it Nospra; and now presently the Abassines, and Inhabitants of Ægypt, name it Abanhu, to wit, the River of a long course.

The Ile of Delta.This River maketh the Ile of Delta in Ægypt; so likewise in Æthiopia, that Ile of Meroa so renowned. The ancient Authors, could not agree, touching the mouthes of Nylus; for Melo, Strabo, Diodore, and Heredotus place seaven; Ptolomy, and others nine; and Pliny eleaven. And some moderne Authors affirme it hath onely foure, as Tyrre and Behou alleadge, dividing it selfe two leagues below Cayre in foure branches, the chiefest two whereof, are these of Damiota and Roseta, but that is false, and so are the opinions of all the rest, for it hath now eight severall mouthes, and as many branches drawne from its mayne body.

The Water of Nyle is marvailous sweete, above all [282]others in the World, and that proceedeth of the extreame vigour of the Sunne, beating continually upon, it maketh it become more Lighter, Purer, and Simple; as likewise arrousing of so many Soyles, and his long Course.

And truely it is admirable, to see this River to grow great, when all others grow small; and to see it diminish, when others grow great. So alwayes it is no wonder, that the nature of this River should so increase, when even here, and at home, the river of Rhone, hath the like intercourse: and at the same time, through the Towne of Geneve, and so to the Mediterranean Sea: Their beginnings being both alike; from the impetuosity of raynes, and dissolvings of Snow.

[VII. 320.]Ægypt was first inhabited by Misraim, the Sonne of Chus from whom the Arabians name the land Misre, in the Hebrew tongue Misroiæ. It was also named Oceana, from Oceanus the second King hereof. Thirdly, Osiriana from Osiris; and now Ægyptus from Ægyptus the surname of Rameses, once a King of great puissance. The confines of Egypt.It bordereth with Æthiopia, and the Confines of Nubia: on the South. On the North with the sea Mediterrene: The chiefest ports whereof, are Damieta, and Alexandria, towards the occident, it joyneth with the great Lake Bouchiarah, and a daungerous Wildernesse confining therewith, supposed to be a part of Cyrene; so full of wilde and venemous beasts, which maketh the West part unaccessable: And on the East, with the Istmus, and Confine of Desartuous Arabia, and a part of the Red Sea, through which the people of Israel passed.

This Country was governed by Kings first, and longest of all other Nations: From Osiris (not reckoning his Regall Ancestors) in whose time Abraham went downe to Ægypt, he and his Successours, were all called Pharaoes; of whom Amasis, is onely worthy mention, who instituted such politicke Lawes to the auncient Egyptians, that he deserveth to be Catalogized, as founder or this Kingdome.

This Race continued till Cambises the second Persian [283]Monarch, made Ægypt a member of his Empire: and so remayned till Darius Nothus the sixt Persian King: from whom they Revolted, choosing Kings of themselves. But in the eighteene yeare of Nectanebos the seventh King thereafter, Ægypt was recovered by Ochus, the eight Emperour of Persia.

In end Darius being vanquished, and Alexander King hereof, after his Death it fell to the share of Ptolomeus, the sonne of Lagi, from whom the Kings of Ægypt were [VII. 321.]for a long time called Ptolomeis: of whom Queene Cleopatra was the last, after whose selfe murther, it was annexed for many yeares to the Romane Empire, and next to the Constantinopolitan: from whose insupportable burden they revolted, and became tributaries for a small time to Haumar the third Caliph of Babylon.

Afterward being oppressed by Almericus King of Jerusalem; Noradin a Turkish King of Damascus sent Saracon a valiant Warriour to aide them, who made him The alterations of Egypt.selfe absolute King of the whole Countrey; whose ofspring succeeded (of whom Saladine was one, the glorious conquerour of the East) till Melechsala, who was slaine by his owne souldiers the Mamaluks; who were the guard of the Suldans, as the Jannizaries are to the great Turke, who lately, Anno 1622. have almost made the like mutation in the Turkish Empire, as the Mamaluks did in the Ægyptian.

They made of themselves Sultans, whereby the Mamaluke race continued from the yeare 1250. till the yeare 1517. wherein Tonembius, together with his predecessour Campson Gaurus, was overcome by Selimus the first; by whom Ægypt was made a Province of the Turkish Empire, and so continueth as yet.

The length of this Kingdome, is foure hundred and fifty English miles, and two hundred broad: the principal seat whereof is the great Caire, being distant from Jerusalem sixteene dayes journey, or Caravans journalls, amounting to 240. of our miles. Some hold that the space of earth, that lyeth betweene the two branches of Damieta, and [284]Roseta was called the lower Ægypt; now called Delta under the figure of a Greeke letter triangular.

The head of this great Delta, where Nylus divideth it selfe was called Heptapolis, or Hoptanomia; and Delta [VII. 322.]it selfe was called by the Romanes Augustamia: Ægypt besides the aforesayd names, it had divers Epithites of divers Authors; for Appollodorus tearmed it the Religion of Melampodes, because of the fertility of it: And Plutarch gave it the name Chimia, because of the holy ceremonies of the Ægyptians in worshipping their Gods: The Etymology whereof Ortelius condignely remarked, deriving it from Cham, the sonne of Noah, so that some hold the opinion, that the Ægyptians had their originall from Misraim (for so was Ægypt called) the sonne of Chus, that proceeded from Cham Noahs sonne: The circuit of Delta or the lower Ægypt is thought to be 3000. of their stades, which maketh a hundred Spanish leagues.

The revenews of Egypt.In the time of the Ptolomeis the revenewes of this Kingdome were 12000. talents; so also in the time of the Mamaluks; but now through tyranical government, and discontinuance of trafficke through the red sea, the Turke receiveth no more than three millions yearely; one of the which is free to him selfe, the other two are distributed to support the charge of his Vicegerent Bassaw, and presidiary souldiers, being 12000. Jannizaries, besides their thousands of Timariots, which keepe Ægypt from the incursions and tyranny of Arabs: In Cayro I stayed twelve dayes, and having bid farewell to Monsieur Beauclair the Consul who courteously intertained me, the other foure French Pilgrimes and I imbarked at Boulacque in a boate: And as we went downe the River, the chiefe Townes of note we saw were these, Salmona, Pharsone, Fova, & Abdan. I remember our boate was double hooked with forked pikes of iron round about the sides, for feare of the Crocodiles, who usually leape up on boates, and will carry the passenger away headlong in the streame: And yet these beasts themselves are devoured by a water-Rat, of [VII. 323.]whom they taking great pleasure, and play, and gaping [285]widely, the Rat running into his mouth, the other out of joy swalloweth it down, where the Rat for disdaine commeth forth at the broad side of his belly leaving the Crocodile dead. In these parts there is a stone called Aquiline, which hath the vertue to deliver a woman from her paine in child-birth. In all this way the greatest pleasure I had, was to behold the rare beauty of certaine Birds, called by the Turkes, Ellock; whose feathers being beautified with the diversity of rarest colours, yeeld a farre off to the beholder a delectable shew: having also this propriety, the nearer a man approacheth them, the more they loose the beauty of their feathers by reason of the feare they conceive when they see a man. Upon the third day we landed at Rosetta, and came over land with a company of Turkes to Alexandria, being 50. miles distant.

The Towne of Alexandria.Alexandria is the second Port in all Turky: It was of old a most renowned City, and was built by Alexander the great, but now is greatly decayed, as may appeare by the huge ruines therein: It hath two havens, the one whereof is strongly fortified with two Castles, which defend both it selfe and also Porto vecchio: The fields about the Towne are sandy, which ingender an infectious ayre, especially in the moneth of August, and is the reason why strangers fall into bloody fluxes and other heavy sicknesses. In my staying here, I was advised by a Ragusan Consul, to keepe my stomacke hot, to abstaine from eating of fruit, and to live soberly, with a temperate diet: The rule of which government, I strove diligently to observe, so did I also in all my travells prosecute the like course of a small diet, and was often too small against my will, by the meanes whereof (praised be God) I fell never sicke till my returne to France.

[VII. 324.]This Citty is mightily impoverished since the Trading of Spices that were brought through the red Sea, to Ægypt, and so over Land to Alexandria & its Sea-port: Whence the Venetian dispersed them over all Christendome; but are now brought home by the backe-side of Affricke, by the Portugals, English, and Flemings, which maketh both [286]Venice, and Alexandria fare the worse, for want of their former Trafficke, and commerce in these Southerne parts: whence Venice grew the mother nurse to all Europe for these Commodities, but now altogether spoyled thereof, and decayed by our Westerne Adventures, in a longer course for these Indian soyles.

This Citty was a place of great Merchandize, and in the Nycen Councell was ordayned to be one of The foure Patriarchall Seas.the foure Patriarchall seas; the other three are Antiochia, Jerusalem, and Constantinople. Heere in Alexandria was that famous Library which Ptolomeus Philadelphus filled with 700000. volumes: It was he that also caused the 72. Interpreters, to translate the Bible: Over against Alexandria, is the little Ile Pharos, in the which for the commodity of Saylers the aforesaid King builded a watch-towre of white Marble; being of so marvellous a height, that it was accounted one of the seven wonders of the world: the other six, being the Pyramides, the Tombe Mausolaea, which Helicarnassus Queene of Caria caused build in honour of her Husband: the Temple of Ephesus, the Wals of Babylon, the Colossus of Rhodes, and the Statue of Jupiter Olympicus at Elis in Greece, which was made by Phidias, an excellent worke-master in Gold and Ivory, being in height 60. Cubites.

Expecting fifteene dayes heere in Alexandria for passage, [VII. 325.]great was the heate the French men and I indured, in so much that in the day time, we did nought but in a low roome, besprinckle the water upon our selves, and all the night lye on the top or platforme of the house, to have the ayre; where at last bidding good-night to our Greekish Host, we imbarked in a Slavonian shippe, belonging to Ragusa; and so set our faces North for Christendome; in which ship I was kindly used, and Christian-like intertayned both for victuals and passage. The Windes somewhat at the beginning favouring us, wee weighed Anckers, and set forward to Sea: leaving the Coast of Cyrene Westward from us, which lyeth betweene Ægypt by the Sea side, and Numidia, or Kingdome of Tunnis. [287]

The fabulous Countrey of Syrene.The chiefe Cities therein are Cyrene, Arsinoa, and Barca whence the whole Cyrenean Country taketh the modern name Barca Marmorica, anciently Penta Politana. The Soyle is barren of Waters and Fruites, the people rude and theftuous: yet it hath bred the most ingenious spirits of Calimachus the Poet; Aristippus the Phylosopher; Eratosthenes the Mathematician, and Symon of Cyrene, whom the Jewes compelled to carry our Saviours Crosse.

In this Province, which is now reckoned as a part of Ægypt, stood the Oracle of Jupiter Hammon, in the great Wildernesse confining with Lybia: Whither when Alexander travailed, he saw for foure dayes space, neither man, Beast, Bird, Tree, nor River: Where, when arrived, the flattering Priests, professed him to be the sonne of Jupiter: which afterward (being hurt with an Arrow) hee found false, saying; Omnes me vocant filium Jovis, sed hæc sagitta me probat esse mortalem. West from Cyrene all the Kingdomes of Tunnis, Tremisen, Algier, Fesse, and a part of Morocco even to Gibilterre, or fretum [VII. 326.]Herculeum, under a generall name now called Barbary; and hardly can be distinguished by the barbarous Moores.

In the time of this our Navigation for Christendome, there dyed seaventeene of our Mariners, and all our foure French Pilgrimes, two of them being gray hayred, and 60. yeares of age, which bred no small griefe, and feare to us all, thinking that they had dyed of the plague, for it was exceeding rife in Alexandria from whence wee came.

The French men had onely left unspent among them all, threescore and nine Chickens of gold, which the Master of the Ship medled with, and because they were Papists, and they and I alwayes adverse to other, I could not clayme it. Foure French Pilgrimes dead.Their dead Corpes were cast over Board, in a boundlesse Grave to feed the fishes, and wee then expecting too the like mutation of Life; So likewise in our passage, we were five sundry times assayled by the Cursares and Pyrats of Tunnis and Biserta; yet unprevailing, for we were well provided with good Munition, and skilfull, Martiall, and resolute Ragusans, and a Gallant ship. [288]

Our Ships burthen being sixe hundred Tunnes, did carry twenty eight peeces of Ordonance, two of them brazen; and foure score strong and strenuous Saylers, besides nine Merchants and Passengers. The greatnesse of our ship did more terrifie the roguish Runagats, then any violent defence we made: for they durst never set on us, unlesse they had beene three together; and yet we little regarded them, in respect of our long reaching Ordonance, and expert Gunners: In these Circumstances of time, I remember, almost every day, wee would see Flying fish.flockes of flying Fishes, scudding upon the curling waves, [VII. 327.]so long as their finnes be wet, which grow from their backe, as feathred wings doe from Fowles: But when they grow drye, they are forced to fall downe and wet them agayne, and then flye along. Their flight will bee the length of a Cables Rope, untouching Water; and in this their scudding, it is thought the Dolphin, is in persuing them, who is their onely enemy in devouring and feeding upon them; whose bignesse and length are like to Mackrels, but greater headed and shouldered. Meanewhile in these our Courses were we seven weekes crossed with Northerly Windes, ever Tackling and boarding from the Affricke Coast, to the Carminian shoare, in all which time wee saw no Land, except the boysterous billowes of glassie Neptune: And as Ovid sayde, in the like case crossing the Ionian seas, Nil nisi pontus et aer, viz.

Nothing but Waves I view, where ships do floate

And dangers lye: huge Whales do tumbling play;

Above my head, Heavens star-imbroadred coate,

Whose vault containes, two eyes for night and day,

Far from the Maine, or any Marine Coast,

Twixt Borean blasts, and billowes we are tost.

If Ovid, in that strait Ionean deepe

Was tost so hard; much more am I on Seas

Of larger bounds; where staffe and Compasse Keepe

Their strict observance; yet in this unease

Of tackling Boards, we so the way make short,

That still our course, drawes neerer to the Port.


Betweene the streame, and silver spangled skye,

We rolling climbe, then hurling fall beneath;

Our way is Serpent like, in Meeds which lye,

That bowes the Grasse, but never makes no path:

But fitter like yong maides, and youths together,

Run here and there, alwhere, and none Know whether.

[VII. 328.]Our way we Know, and yet unknowne to other,

And whiles misknowne to us, before we dive;

The hand, and compasse, that governe the Ruther

Doe often erre: although the Pilots strive

With Cart and plot; their reckonings sometimes fall,

Too narrow, short, too high, too wide, too small.

To dascon this, remarke, when they set land,

Some this, some that, doe gesse, this Hill, that Cape;

For many houres, their skill in suspence stand

Tearming, this fore, that headland, points the Mape:

Which when mistooke, this forgd excuse goes cleare,

O such! and such a land, it first did peere.

In all which strife, stress’d Saylers have the paine

By drudging, pulling, hayling, standing to it

In cold and raine, both dry and wet, they straine

Themselves to toile, none else but they must doe it:

We passengers behold, with belching throats

Onely their taske atchievd in quivering boates.

Then since but ayre and water I perceive,

One’s hot and moyst, the other moyst and cold;

It’s earth that’s cold and dry, I longing crave

And fire that’s dry and hot, I wishing would;

Then thundring Æole, from thy seven rigged Towres,

Soone waft us o’re, forth from these glassy Bowres.

My wish is come, I see each bulging sayle

For pride begins to swell, betweene two sheetes;

She ticklish grows, as wanton of her tayle,

And layes her side, close where the weather beats;

Both prone and puppe, do answere so the Helme,

The Steirsman sings, no griefe his joy can whelm.


By night our watch we set, by day our sight,

And thirle our Sailes, if Pirats but appeare;

We rest resolv’d, it’s force, makes Cowards fight,

[VII. 329.]Though none more dare, then they that have most feare,

It’s courage makes us rash, and wisdome cold,

Yet wise men, stout, and stung, grow Lyon bold.

Now we looke out for Land, now we see Malt!

That little famous Ile, though sterrile soile;

Where we’le some Bay, or Creeke seeke to assault

Whence Ancorage, and safety ships recoile:

Now, now, let Anchor fall we’re in the Road

Savely arriv’d, by providence of God.

This done, as time avouc’hd, I kindly bad

My Consorts all adew, then came a shoare,

Where I such plenty of great favours had,

That scarse the like, I ever found before.

These white cross’d Knights, with their eight pointed crosses,

Imbrac’d my sight, with it, my toiles, and tosses:

So ends my Verse, and so I’le straight disclose

The Ile, the Folkes, their Manners, in plaine Prose.

The greatest cause of our Arrivall here, was in regard of our fresh Water that was spent; and therefore constrayned to beare in to this Ile: Which was my sole desire, wishing rather to Land heere, to see the Order of our Knights of Christendome, then to arrive at Ragusa in the Adriaticke Gulfe, where I had beene before. Our A joyfull arrival in Malta.Anchors being grounded, and our Boate ready to court the shoare, I bad farwell to all the Company, and in a singular respect to my generous Captayne, who would have nothing for my victuales and transportation from Ægypt; except a few relicts of Jerusalem: The boat being launched, and we landed in the haven, I accoasted a vulgar Taverne, and there lodged.

This City is divided in two, the old and new Malta, [VII. 330.]from which the Ile taketh the name; it is a large and [291]populous place, and strongly fortified with invincible walles, and two impregnable Castles St. Hermes, and St. Angelo; St. Michael being distant from both: Here the great Master or Prince for that yeare being a Spaniard made much of me for Jerusalems sake; so did also a number of these gallant Knights, to whom I was greatly obliged. And withall to my great contentment, I rancountred here with a countrey Gentleman of mine, being a souldier there, named William Douglas, who afterward for his long and good service at sea was solemnely Knighted, and made one of their order. Whose fidele and manly services have beene since as plausibly regarded by the Maltezes, as Monsieur Creichton his worth, in learning and excellent memory, rests admired in Italy, but especially by the noble Gonzagaes, and dependant friends of the house of Mantua; for whose losse, and accidentall death, they still heavily bemone: acknowledging that the race of that Princely stock, by Gods judgements was cut off, because of his untimely death.

The Ile of Malta.Malta was called Melita, mentioned Acts 28. 1. 2. where the Viper leaped on Paules hand; I saw also the Creeke wherein he was shipwracked: This Iland may properly be termed the Fort of Christendome, yet a barren place, and of no great bounds, for their Cornes, and Wines come daily by Barkes from Sycilia: but it yeeldeth good store of Pomegranates, Cittrons, Cottons, Orenges, Lemmons, Figges, Mellons, and other excellent fruits. The Knights of Malta had their beginning at Acre in Palestina; from thence to the Rhodes, & now exposed to this rocky Ile. They are pertinacious foes to Infidels, for such is the oath of their order, continually making war and [VII. 331.]incursions against them, to their power: being strengthned also with many souldiers, and their Captaines are surnamed Knights of Malta, and so through a great part of Christendome; it is a most honourable Order: They are not permitted to marry, the most part of whom being younger brothers: the reason was, because not being intangled to wife and children, they might be the more resolute to [292]adventure their lives in the Christian service; but therein they are mightily decayed, and their valour no way answerable to that it hath been when their auncestors lived in the Rhodes and holy Land; having had these eighteene yeares past little or no good fortune at all.

This Ile was given in possession to these Knights of St. John, by the Emperour Charles the fifth, and King of Spaine; being newly expelled from the Rhodes by Solyman the magnificent, Anno 1522. And afterward the Turke not contented therewith, and mindfull all-utterly to extermine their power, came with a huge Armado, and assayled Malta, Anno 1565. when Valetta was great An invincible victory.maister, who so couragiously withstood their fury, that the Turkes were defeated, and forced to returne.

This Iland is ten leagues in length, and three broad: the earth whereof being three foote deepe, is the cause, why it is not so fertile, as the clymat might afford: It containeth besides the City, forty seven Villages and nine Cassales; the peasants or naturall Inhabitants whereof, are of the Affrican complexion, tanny, and Sun-burnt; and their language semblable to the Barbarian speech, without any great difference, both tongues being a corrupt Arabick: And not unlike therein to the Italians from the Latine, or the vulgar Greeke from the auncient; yet the moderne Greeke is nearer the auncient, then the Italian [VII. 332.]is the Latine: These rurall Maltezes are extreamely bent, in all their actions, either to good or evill wanting fortitude of minde, and civill discretion, they can not temper the violent humours of their passions, but as the headstrong-tide, so their dispositions runne, in the superfluous excesse of affections.

They follow the Romane Church, though ignorant of the way, and their woemen be lovely faire, going head-covered with blacke vayles, and much inclined to The nature of the Maltezes.licentiousnesse; their beauties being burrowed from helpe more then nature: for now it is a common practice amongst decayed beauties, banquerouted by time or accidents, to hide it from others eyes with Art, and from their owne [293]with false glasses. But (alasse) the graces and beauties of the soule ought more to be cared for, and to have the first place and honour, above these counterfeit or outward showes of the body; and the beauty and lovely proportion of the body, should be preferred before the effeminate deckings, that the body doth rather carry then enjoy: since it often hapneth; that a foule and deformed carkasse hath a faire and rich wardrope. In this Towne of Malta, there are many Turkish and Moorish slaves, very rudely treat, yet not answerable to that cruelty the slavish Christianes indure upon their Gallies in Barbary or Turky: The discription of Malta, I postpone to the succeeding relations of my second Travells; and after twelve daies staying here, I imbarked in a Frigat with other passengers, and arrived at Cicly in the South-east corner of Sicilia, being three score miles distant.

From thence coasting the shoare fifty miles to Siracusa, I rancounterd by the way, in a clifty Creeke close by the sea side, a Moorish Brigantine, with twelve oares on each side, charged with Moores, who had secretly stayed there [VII. 333.]a night and a day stealing the people away labouring on the fields: At which sudden sight, and being hard by them, I stopped my pace. Whereupon, about twenty Moores broke out upon me, with shables & slings: But my life and liberty being deare to me, my long traced feete became more nimble in twelve score paces, than they could follow in eighteene; for I behoved to fly backe the same way I came: where, when freed, I hastned to the next Watch-tower, marine set, and there told the Centinell, how a A Moorish Brigantine.Moorish Brigantine was lying within two miles at an obscure clift: and how hardly I escaped their hands: whereupon he making a fire on the top of the Tower, and from him all the Watch-towers along, gave presently warning to the contrey; so that in a moment, them of the Villages came downe on horse and foote, and well armed, and demanding me seriously of the trueth, I brought them with all possible celerity to the very place: where forthwith the Horse-men broke upon them, wounding [294]divers, before they were all taken, for some fled to the Rocks, and some were in the coverd fields hunting their prey: At last they were all seazed upon, and fast tyed two, and two in iron chaines, and sixe Sicilians relieved whom they had stolne and thralled: Whence they were carried to Syracusa, I went also along with them, where, by the way the people blessed me, and thanked God for mine escape, and me for discovering them: from Syracusa (being condemned to the galleyes) upon the third day they were sent to Palermo, being 36. in number.

They gone, and I reposing here, the governour of that place, for this piece of service, and my travels sake did feast me three dayes, and at my departure would have rewarded me with gold, so also the friends of them that [VII. 334.]were relieved, which if I tooke or not judge you, that best can judge on discretion. This Citty is situate on a Promontore, that butteth in the Sea, having but one entery, and was once the Capitall seat of the Kingdom, though now by old tyranies, and late alterations of time, it is onely become a private place: Yet girded about with the most fragrant fields, for dainty fruites, and delicate Muscatello that all Europe can produce.

From this place, over-tracing other fifty miles to Catagna, situate at Ætnaes foote; I measured the third fifty miles to Messina. Where now I cease to discourse any further of this Iland, till my returne for Affricke, being my second Voyage: For true it is, double experience, deeper Knowledge; where then punctually in my following order, the Reader I hope shall finde his desired satisfaction.

An happy arrivall.From Messina, I imbarked in a Neapolitan Boat loaden with Passingers; whence shoaring along for foure hundred miles, the higher and lower Calabrian Coast, with a part of the Lavorean lists, uppon the twelfth day, we landed at Naples. Where being disbarked, I gave God thankes upon my flexed knees, for my safe arrivall in Christendome: And meeting there with the Earle of Bothwell, and Captayne George Hepburne, I imbraced the way to [295]Rome, being sixe score and ten miles distant: where I stole one nights lodging privately, and on the morrow earely departing thence, and crossing Tyber, I visited these Townes in Italy before I courted the Alpes, Siena, Florence, Luca, Pisa, Genoa, Bullogna, Parma, Pavia, Piacenza, Mantua, Milane, and Torine: the commendation of which Cities rest revolv’d in these following verses.

Illustrat Sænas, patriæ facundia Lingua,

Splendida solertes, nutrit Florentia Cives;

[VII. 335.]Libera luca tremit, ducibus vicina duobus:

Flent Pisa amissum, dum contemplantur honorem:

Genua habet portum, mercesque domosque superbas:

Excellit studiis, facunda Bononia cunctis,

Commendant Parmam, lac, caseus, atque Butirum,

Italicos versus, prefert Papia Latinis;

Non caret Hospitiis, per pulchra Placentia caris:

Mantua gaudet aquis, ortu decorata Maronis,

Est Mediolanum jucundum nobile magnum,

Taurinum exornant virtus, pietasque, fidesque.

Having passed Torine, and its Princely Court, whose present Duke might have beene the mirrour of Nobility, I kept my way through Piemont or Pedemontano, the sister of Lombardy, and second Garden of Europe; and crossing the steepe and Snowy Mountayne of Mont Cola The Ligurian Alpes.di Tenda, the highest Hill of all the Alpes: I found on its top, that it reserveth alwayes a Gradinian mist, for a mile of way long stakes, set in the Snow, each one a Speares length from another, to guide the Passinger his dangerous way; of the which stoopes if hee fayle, hee is lost for ever.

After I had traversed this difficult passage, I had two dayes journey in climbing and thwarting the Rockey and intricated hils of Liguria, over which Hannibal had so much adoe, to conduct his Army to Italy; making a way through the Snow, with Fire, Vineger, and Wine: Whence it was sayd of him, Viam aut inveniet Anniball, aut faciet: Leaving these Mountaynes behind me, I [296]arrived at Niece in Provance, situate on the Mediterren Sea; and passing the Townes of Antibo and Cana, to night at Furges; there were three French murderers set uppon me in a theevish Wood twelve miles long; one of [VII. 336.]which had dogged me hither from Niece: Where having extreamely given me a fearefull chase, for a long League, and not mending themselves, they gave me over. Well, in the midst of the Wood I found an Hostery, and in it, two Women, and three young Children, with whom I stayed and lodged all night.

A happy escape from murder.After I had sup’d and going to bed, in came these aforesayd Villaines, accompanied with my Host; where, when seene, they straight accused me for my flight, and threatning me with stroakes, consulted my Death. Then I cryed to my Host for helpe, but hee stood dumbe, for he was their Companion, and to second their intention his wife made fast the lower doore. Whereat being mooved with deadly feare, I pulled my Turkish gowne from my backe, and opening my Sacket; sayd, Now Christian Gentlemen, I know you are distressed, and so am I, come search my cloathes and Budget, and if you find what you looke for, let me dye: Alas, I am a poore stranger, newly come from Jerusalem, and the Sepulcher of Jesus Christ, and after long travailes, and loe there is my Patent: And concerning my flight, I sweare, I onely fled for the safety of my life, but not for the preservation of my money, for come see I have none: my griefe is that I have it not for you: Good gentlemen consider the dangers that I have past amongst Infidels, and let not your Christian hands rob me of my turmoyled life; having nought, wherefore you should, were a lamentable thing to do.

This spoken, and much more, they never searched me, nor touched my Wallet, but went to Counsell, where they concluded uppon my forwardnesse in opening my body and other things to them, that I had no money, and therefore [VII. 337.]confirmed my life, which for the former respect, and the Holy Graves sake was granted. Whereupon packing [297]up my Relickes agayne, they called for Wine, and drunke diverse times to me; and after a long spent conference, there supper making ready, they dismissed me for my bed: Whether, when led by my Hostesse, I privily made the doore fast, suspecting still a suddaine death: Well they sup’d, and were joviall, and at the first Cocke, went foorth to the woode, and the high way for their owne ends.

All which time I stood Centinell, and the morning come, my Host confessed, that onely he had saved my life; forswearing himselfe of their former sight; but sayd hee certainly they are Murderers. Leaving him with dissembling thankes, I arrived at Furges: where I learned A guard of Horsemen for a dangerous wood.that my Host was suspected to bee a Consort with these and many moe Murderers: well afterwards I heard, hee was arraigned, hanged, and quartered, the house razed, and his wife put to death; and ever since the French King, keepeth a guard of Horse-men there to keepe that filthy and dangerous woode free from Murderers. For now may I say, like to a ship that after a long Voyage, is eyther in greatest danger, or else cast away, entring the Roade and Haven from whence shee came; even so was I cast in the most eminent perill, that I had in all my Travayles, being on the Frontiers of France, and as it were, (in regard of remoter places) entering the Towne wherein I was borne.

Having given humble thankes, and lofty prayses to the Almighty for my deliverance, I traversed Provance, and Langadocke, where neare to Montpeillier, I met with the French gentlemans Father, whom I relieved from the Gallies in Canea of Candy; who being over-joyed with [VII. 338.]my sight, kindly intreated me for eight dayes, and highly rewarded mee with Spanish Pistols, lamenting for my sake that his sonne was at Paris: whence continuing my Voyage to Barselona in Catelogna of Spaine, I gave over my purpose in going to Madrile, because of deare bedding and scarcity of Victuals: and footing the nearest way through Arragon and Navarre, I crossed at the passage [298]of Sancto Johanne, the Pyrhenei mountaines: And falling downe by Pau, and the River Ortes, I visited Gascony and Bearne; and from them, the Cities of Burdeaux and Rochel: and arriving at Paris, whence I first beganne my Voyage; I also there ended my first, my painefull, and Pedestriall Pilgrimage. Whence shortly thereafter visiting Englands Court, I humbly presented to King James, and Queene Anne of ever blessed memories; and to his present Majesty King Charles, certayne rare Gifts and notable Relickes, brought from Jordan and Jerusalem: Where afterward within a yeare, upon some distaste, I was exposed to my second Peregrination as followeth.





Contayning the second Booke of my second Travailes.

Patriam meam transire non possum, omnium una est, extra hanc nemo projici potest. Non patria mihi interdicitur sed locus, in quamcunque terram venio, in meam venio, nulla exilium est sed altera patria est. Patria est ubicunque bene est. Si enim sapiens est Peregrinatur, si stultus exulat. Senec. de re, for.

Let not surmisers thinke, ambition led

My second toyles, more flash flowne praise to wed;

Nay; there was reason, and the cause is Knowne

For Courtly crosses, seldome stay unshowne:

Well, I am sped; through Belgia then I trace;

And footing Rhyne, to Geneve kept my pace,

[VIII. 340.]Thence cross’d I Sinais, Po, and Lombard bounds,

The hils Appenine, the Ætrurian rounds:

And nighting Rome, Parthenope I past,

Even to Rhegio, of Townes Calabriaes last:

Whence Sicily I view’d, and Ætna Mount;

And Malta too, as I before was wont:

Then sight I Tunneis, where old Carthage stood,

And Scipio shed streames of Numidian blood.

Hence Tremizen I trac’d, the Barbars shoare

To Algeir, great Fez, the Atlanticke glore; [300]

The Berdoans Country, and the Lybian sands,

The Garolines parch’d bounds, the Sabunck lands;

And diverse soiles, of Savage Heathnick bounds,

Whose names and stiles, this Affricke story sounds.

Last in the Lybian lists, I’me forc’d to stay,

Whence I return’d, for Tunneis the next way;

And resting there, till Æoles seaven rig’d Towres,

Prest Tritons backe; (crost Neptunes Paramours)

And wish’d me saile; O then with speedy flight

I boord the Ship, and bad the Moores good-night.

True it is, that these who make Distinction clearely, and the certayne knowledge of things, divide all Sciences in Speculative and Practicke. And agayne, Speculative in Physicke, or Phylosophy naturall, in Mathematickes and Metaphysicke; placing Medicine under the first: Arithmeticke, Musicke, Geometry, and Astrology under the second: Uniting thirdly, Theology, to the which they give also to be adjoyned the right Canon.

[VIII. 341.]As for the science Practique, it doth first imbrace the Morall that some divide in three, to wit, Ethique, that doth forme the manners of one man, Secondly in Ecoenomick, that doth dispose the actions domesticke: The third in Politicque, that comprehend the actions Civill; concerning the government of Common-wealths, which containeth under it the whole science of right civilitie. And with Practique, is also placed Dialectique, the Art of memory, the Grammar, the Rhetorique, to which also may be joyned the Art Poetique, and of Histories. But for their particular divisions I am not prolixious, as inutile to my designe in hand; divers dedicate themselves to the knowledge of these sciences, not knowing that they forget the most necessary, to wit, the science of the world.

The necessary use and honour of Travels.This is it above all things that preferreth men to honors, and the charges that make great houses and Reipublicks [301]to flourish; and render the actions and words of them who possesse it, agreeable both to great and small. This science is onely acquisted by conversation, and haunting the company of the most experimented: by divers discourses, reports, by writs, or by a lively voyce, in communicating with strangers; and in the judicious consideration of the fashion of the living one with another. And above all, and principally by Travellers, and Voyagers in divers Regions, and remote places, whose experience confirmeth the true Science thereof; and can best draw the anatomy of humane condition. For which, and other respects, it holdeth true that the heart of man is insatiable being set upon whatsoever object, his predominant affection listeth; neither may reason find place in the violent rapt of such passions, for as judgement is seldome compatible [VIII. 342.]with youth, but reserved to old age; so to a unconstant disposition, every accident is a constellation, by which best thoughts are diversified, & driven from the center of deepest resolution: whiles contrariwise the sound set man, though by opportunity altereth his pace, yet still keepeth his way, serveth time for advantage, not for feare; but as the Sun setteth to rise againe, so he changeth his course, to continue his purpose. Wherein touching my particular, whether discontent or curiosity drove me to this second perambulation, it is best reserved The Authors my owne knowledge: As for the opinion of others, I little care either for their sweetest temper, or their sowrest censure; for they that hunt after other mens fancies, goe rather to the market to sell than to buy, and love better to paint the bare fashion and out-sides of themselves, then to rectify or repaire their owne defects and errours; wherewith I leave them. Then it is well, if it please me, it is enough; my paines are mine owne, and not others; and therefore best worthy to judge of my owne labours, being best knowne to my selfe who dearest bought them: And so to make short this preamble, or conducing complement I come to the matter it selfe.

Now as I began my first voyage from Paris, so from [302]London must I beginne this my second peregrination: whence leaving the Court, the Countrey and Dover, I courted Caleis, and so to Graveling, Dunkirke, and fatall Ostend, whose devasted sight gave my Muse this subject.

To view the ruines of thy wasted walles,

Loe! I am come, bewayling thy disgrace,

Art thou this Bourge, Bellona so enstalles

To be the mirrour for a Martiall face:

[VIII. 343.]I, sure its thou, whose bloody bathing bounds,

Gave death to thousands, and to thousands wounds.

What Hostile force, besieg’d thee poore Ostend?

With all Engine, that ever Warre devised:

What Martiall troupes, did valiantly defend

Thine earthen strengths, and Sconces unsurpris’d

By cruell assaults, and desperate defence,

Thine undeserved name, wonne honour thence.

Some deepe interr’d, within thy bosome lye,

Some rot, some rent, some torne in peeces small:

Some warlike maim’d, some lame, some halting crye:

Some blowne through Clouds, some brought to deadly thral,

Whose dire defects, renew’d with ghostly mones,

May match the Thebane, or the Trojan groanes:

Base fisher towne, that fang’d thy nets before,

And drencht into the deepe thy food to win:

Art thou become a Tragicke stage, and more

Whence bravest wits, brave Stories may begin

To show the world, more then the world would crave,

How all thine intrench’d ground, became one grave.

Thy digged ditches, turn’d a gulfe of blood,

Thy wals defeat, were rear’d with fatall bones:

Thine houses equall with the streetes they stood;

Thy limits come, a Sepulcher of groanes:

Whence Cannons ror’d, from fiery cracking smoake

Twixt two extreames thy desolation broake.


Thou God of War, whose thundring sounds do feare

This circled space, plac’d here below the rounds,

Thou in oblivion hast Sepulchrized here,

Earths dearest life, for now what else redounds

But sighes and sobs, when treason, sword, and fire,

Have throwne al down, when al thought to aspire.

[VIII. 344.]Forth from thy marches, and frontiers about

In sanguine hew, thou dy’d the fragrant fields;

The camped trenches of thy foes without

Were turn’d to blood, for valour never yeelds

So bred ambition, honour, courage, hate,

Long three yeares siege, to overthrow thy state.

At last from threatning terrour of despaire,

Thine hembd defendants, with divided walles

Were forcd to rander, then came mourning care

Of mutuall foes, for friends untimely falles:

Thus lost, and got, by wrong, and lawlesse right

My judgement thinkes thee scarcely worth the sight:

But there’s the question, when my Muse hath done,

Whether the victor, or the vanquisht wonne.

To flee hence in a word, I measured all the Netherlands with my feete in two moneths space; the description whereof is so amply set downe by moderne Authors, that it requireth no more: onely this, for policies, industries, strong Townes, and fortifications, it is the mirrour of vertue, and the garden of Mars; yea, and the light of all Europe, that he who hath exactly trade it, may say Weisle taken by Spineola.he hath seene the mappe of the whole Universe: And now ascending to Cleve, I came just to Grave Maurice Campe at Rhiese, as Spineola had taken Weisle; betweene which Armies for five weekes I had free intercourse, being kindly respected by both the Generalls: for Spineola set me at his owne table, and I lay in his second Tent nine nights; the Duke of Newenberg, and Don Pietro di Toledo being there both for the time: So with the Prince of Orange, with whom I discoursed divers times, was the [304]Marques of Brandeburg, certaine Nobles, and forraine Ambassadours. All which time, O how it grieved me [VIII. 345.]to see the tyranny of the Spaniards dayly executed upon the distressed Protestants of Weisle, over whom they domineered like Divells: for these afflicted Cittizens, being heavily oppressed, by their unsupportable usage, were beleagured with their friends, when they were held captive by their enemies; and obeying necessity, stayed their bodies within the walles, though their mindes were without, and intirely with the assailants.

Bidding adew to these Armies, and accompanied with a young Gentleman David Bruce, the L. of Clekmanan his Sonne, whom I conducted to Italy: scarcely had we out-stripd Rhyneberg (where Collonell Edmond was slaine) a Dutch mile, till we were both robbed of our cloaks and pocket-moneys, with five souldiers French and Vallones; and that within a Village, women and children beholding us, but no man to relieve us, they being with Carts serving Spineolaes Campe.

The fabulous miracles of Culloine.Whence the next day approaching Culloine, and bills of change answered, wee visited the falsly supposed Tombes of the three Kings that came to Bethleem, who as the Romanists say, lye interred there. O filthy and base absurdnesse for their holy Mother Church to confirme hellish and erronious leyes; for these Kings came from the East, and from Chaldea, and not from the North: Or if they wil have them to die there and so buried, surely this is even such another damnable errour, surpassing tradition, as their wandring Jew, the Shoomaker of Jerusalem is, of whom in Rome, they have wrot ten thousand fables and fopperies: from this we visited the 11000. Virgins heads, Martyres, indeed we saw the Church-walles all indented about with bare sculles, but whose heads they were, the Lord knoweth; from thence a Gentleman brought us to a Chappell, within a Vineyard, [VIII. 346.]called the Chappell of miracles; the originall whereof was thus. Upon a festivall day, being Vintage time, there came a Peasant to the Towne, and passing by the Vines [305](as there is a number within the wals) did eate his belly full of the grapes; and thereafter hearing a Masse, was confessed, and received the Sacrament: And returning the same way he came, and just where he had eaten the Grapes, A forged and false miracle.hee fell a vomiting, and casting up with what hee had eaten the Holy Sacrament, it straight turned in the likenesse of a new borne Babe, being bright and glorious. Well, the amazed fellow, run backe and told his Confessour, what was done, and his offence who had eaten grapes before the Reception of the Eucharist. The Confessour told the Bishop, where he, and other Prelates comming to the place, and beholding as it were an Angell, grew astonished.

In end they wrapped up their little dead god, in a Cambricke vayle, and there buried it; building this Chappel above the place: where ever since there is a world of leying miracles done: Loe these are the novelties of Culloine.

Thence ascending the Rhyne, and coasting Heidleberg, I saluted the Princesse Palatine, with certayne rare Relickes of the Holy Land. And leaving Mounsieur Bruce there till my returne, I went for Noorenberg to discover the sixe Germanes death, whom I had buried in the Desarts, and Grand-Cayre of Ægypt, for the two Barons were subject to the Marquesse of Hanspauch: Where having met with some of their Brethren, Sisters, and Kinsmen, and delated to them their deathes, I was presently carryed to their Prince the Marquesse, to whom I related the whole Circumstances. Whereupon a brother of the one Baron, and a sister of the other, were instantly invested [VIII. 347.]in their Lands; and I likewise, by them all great regarded and rewarded. And after ten dayes feasting, reviewing Heidleberg, mine associate and I set forward for Helvetia, or Switzerland.

This Countrey is divided in thirteene Cantons, sixe whereof are Protestants, and sixe Papists; the odde Canton being likewise halfe and halfe. The most puissant whereof is Bierne, whose Territory lying along [306]the lake reacheth within a League of Geneve. The people, and their service to most Christian Princes, are well knowne, being Manly, Martiall and trusty faithfull.

Here in the Canton of Bierne neere to Urbs, wee went and saw a young Woman, who then had neyther eate, A woman fasting fourteene yeares.nor drunke, nor yet excremented for thirteene yeares, being truely qualified by her Parents, Friends, Physitians, and other Visitors. She was alwayes Bed-fast, and so extenuated, that her Anatomised body carryed nought but Sinew, skin, and bones, yet was she alwayes mindefull of God. And the yeare after this time, her body returned agayne to the naturall vigour, in appetite and all things: and married a husband, bearing two children, dyed in the fifth yeare thereafter.

The day following, we entred Geneve, where sighting the Towne, the chiefe Burgo-masters, the seven Ministers, and the foure Captaines were all familiarly acquainted with me, with whom in diverse places, I daily feasted and discoursed. The Ministers one night propining me with a Bible, newly Translated in the Italian tongue, by one of them selves borne in Milane, told me there was a Masse-Priest sixe Leagues off, a Curate, of a Village in Madame du longeviles Countrey, who had gotten in his owne Parish, three Widdowes, and their three severall Daughters with childe, and all about one time: and for [VIII. 348.]this his Luxurious Cullions was brought to Dijon to be Executed: Desiring me to go see the manner, the next day (leaving Master Bruce with them) I went hither, and upon the sequell day, I saw him hanged upon a new Gallowes, as high as a stripad: The three mothers and their three Daughters were set before him, being Gravidato, whose sorrowfull hearts, and eye-gushing teares for their sinne and shame, were lamentable to behold: the incestuous Bugerono, begging still mercy and pardon for dividing their legges, and opening their wretched Wombes. Lo there is the chastity of the Romish Priests, who forsooth may not marry, and yet may mis carry themselves in all abhominations, especially [307]in Sodomy, which is their continuall pleasure and practise. Returning to Geneve, and acquainting the Magistrates with his Confession, for they are great Intelligencers, I wrot this literal Distich:

Glance, Glorious Geneve, Gospell-Guiding Gem;

Great God Governe Good Geneves Ghostly Game.

The Lake of Geneva, and the River Rhone.The Lake of Geneve is sixteene Leagues in length, and two broad, at the South-west end whereof standeth the Towne, through whose middle runneth the River of Rhone, whose Head and body beginneth from the Lake among the very houses. The nature of which River is not unlike to Nylus, for when all other Rivers decrease (being in Summer) this increaseth. Two reasons proceeding from the excessive Snow that lye upon the Sangalian and Grisonean Alpes, which cannot melt, till about our longest day, that the force and face of the Sunne dissolve it. And so ingorging the Lake, it giveth Rhone such a body, that it is the swiftest River in Europe. The Towne on both sides the flood, is strongly fortified with rampierd walles, and counter-banding Bulwarkes; the [VIII. 349.]Ditch without and about being dry, is mainly pallasaded with wooden stakes, for preventing of suddain Scallets. Many assaults have this handfull of people suffered by Land and Water from the Savoyean Duke; the recitall whereof would plunge me in prolixity; and therefore committing that Light shining Syon, and her Religious Israelites, to the tuition of the Almighty, I step over the Alpes to Torine.

The first beginning of the Duke of Savoy.Here is the residence of the Dukes of Savoy, whose beginning sprung first from the house of Saxon: For Berold or Berauld, being a neere Cousen to the Emperour Otton the third, and brother to the Saxon Duke; the Emperour gratified him with these Lands of Savoy, and parts of Piemont; where he and his Successors continued foure hundred yeares under the title of Earles: untill the Emperour Sigismond, at the Counsell of Constance, did Create Amee, the eight Earle of his name Duke. And so [308]beginning with him to this present Duke now living, named Charles Emanuel, there have been only eight Dukes, and some of them of short lives. And yet of all the Christian Dukes, the most Princely Court is kept heere, for Gallants, Gentry, and Knights.

At the same time, of my being there, this present Duke had wars with his owne brother in Law Philip the third, about the Marquesade of Montferrat, and Dutchy of Mantua, the issue whereof, but retorted to the Duke a redoubling disadvantage; though now it be gone from the Gonsagaes to the French Duke of Naviers. This Country of Piemont is a marvailous fruitfull and playne Countrey, and wonderfull populous, like to the River sides of Arno round about Florence: Insomuch that a Venetian damaunding a Piemont Cavalier, what Piemont was? Replyed, it was a Towne of three hundred miles [VIII. 350.]in circuite, meaning of the Habitations and populosity of the Soyle.

The rest of the surnames of the Italian Dukes are these, viz. that of Parma is Fernese, signifying Partridges; that of Modena is Astie, that of Florence de Medicis; that of Urbine, Francesco Maria, and the last Duke of Mantua, Gonsaga; the Dutchy of Ferrara, being dissolved, is converted to the Popes patrimony.

Leaving Piemont, and coasting the sassinous shoare of Genoaes revieroe, I ported Ligorne, the great Dukes Sea-haven; where I left Mr. Bruce with a Galley Captaine a voluntary Souldier; and inclining alone to Florence by the A comfortable crosse.way at Pestoia, I found a comfortable crosse; for I sighting the market place after supper, and carrying a French Ponyard in my pocket, the head of it was espied by a Badgello, Captaine of the Sergeants, who straight gripped me, bore me to prison, and clapd me in a Dungeon robbing me of all my moneyes and Poneyard; and posting that night to Florence on the morrow shew the Justice there a Stilleto of his owne: upon which I was condemned to row in the Gallies for a yeare, else to pay a hundred Duckats: He stayed there three dayes, in this time was I [309]discovered to the governour of Pistoia, a noble Gentleman, and being brought before him, and acquainting him with the undeserved cruelty of the Badgello: nor that I never wore a Stilleto, but under pretext of that had robbed mee of three-score and twelve pieces of gold: Whereupon the Governour perceiving the knavery of the Villaine, and that he had not acquainted him with my apprehending, to whose place it belonged, he grew immatulent and forthwith sent post to his Highnesse, shewing him the trueth of the businesse: Whereupon the Badgello was sent backe [VIII. 351.]to the Governour with whom I was domestickly reserved; and being accused before my face of his roguery, could not deny it: well, my gold and my Poneyard is restored againe, the Badgello banished the territorie of Pistoia for ever, with his Wife and Children, and I received in compensation of my abuses, from his Highnesse Chamber or Treasury there, fifty Florentine Crownes of gold, being modified by the Duke him selfe; whereat I extolled the knave, that wrought his own wracke in seeking my overthrow, and brought me such a noble reward.

Thanking God for this joyfull crosse and approaching Florence, I found one John Browne there, whose company I imbraced to Sicilia: Whence having privatly past Rome, and publickly Naples, we footed along the marine by Cousenza in Calabria.Salerno, and courting Cousenza, the capitall seate of Calabria where a Vicegerent remaineth, we reposed there certaine dayes.

The Towne is of no quantity nor quality, in regard of the obscurenesse and solitarinesse of the Countrey, the better sort of their Gentry living at Naples: Having left the lower, and entred the higher Calabria, we arrived at the Bourge of Allavria; and the next morning traversing close and covert mountaines, twelve miles along, in the midst of our passage we were beset with foure Bandits and foure Gunnes: To whom holding up my hand, and imploring for our lives, shewing them mine adventures and former travells, they unbend their fire-locks, and reading my patent of Jerusalem, uncovered their heads, [310]and did me homage, notwithstanding they were absolute murderers: Our lives and liberty is granted, and for a greater assurance, they tooke us both in to a great thicket of wood, where their timberd Cabine stood, and there made merry with us in good Wine and the best cheare [VIII. 352.]their sequestrate cottage could afford.

And now because there were forty more Bandits their companions among these mountaines, one of themselves for our safeguard, came along with us, and as neare Castellucia as he durst; making me sweare that I should not shew the Baron of that place of their privat residence, neither that I met with them at all; which I freely did, and so gave him many hearty and deserved thanks.

The liberty of Bandits in Calabria.These Bandits or men-slayers, will come into any free Towne in the night when they please, and recovering either a Church or Hospitall, they stay there as they list, conducing with their friends, their wives, and their affaires; being as safe in these places as though they had not committed any criminall fact, neither may the power of Justice reach to them, so long as they keepe themselves within doores.

This is an auncient liberty which Calabria hath ever retained, and so is through the most part of all the Spanish Dominions: Having arrived at Castellucia, the Baron thereof made much of me, and wondred that I had safely past the mountaines, for said he when I go for Naples, I am forced to go by sea, notwithstanding I have forty in traine.

The next day in passing Montecilione, the fairest and fruitfullest bounded Bourg in all Calabria superior; I saw a distectured house; which the people told me had beene the Schoole, where Dionisius the third and last Tyrant of Sicilia (after his flight from the Kingdome and Crowne) taught Children privatly nine yeares, ere hee was knowne to be a King, but a poore Schoolemaster.

This higher Calabria though mountainous, aboundeth in delicious Wines, fine pastorage, and exceeding good Silke: The Peasants alwayes commonly here are addicted [311][VIII. 353.]to eate Onions, whence rose this Proverbe, I Calabrese magniano di Cepoli, the Calabrians feed upon Onions. Their women weare uncomely habits, being hooded from their browes to their backes behind, with sixe or seven sundry colours of cloth or stuffe; whose upper gownes come no further downe than their middle thighes: And their breaches and stockings being all one, and their legges halfe booted, they looke like the ghostly Armenian Gargosons.

I remember in passing this higher Countrey, I found divers Cassales or Terraes, (small Villages) of certaine Greeke Albaneses fled to Calabria.Greekes called Albaneses, whose predecessors had fled from Albania, when the Turke seased upon Epyre, and this their Province; and was priviledged here to stay by the Spaniard Philip the first: And though exiled from their naturall Patrimonies, (Omne solum forti patria est) yet are they exceeding kind to strangers, measuring largely their owne infranchized fortune, with the voluntary exposement of many unnecessary Viadants: Declining thence to the marine Bourge of Molino, being by land which we footed distant from Naples 400. miles; we crossed the narrow Faro, or Sycilian Euripus, to Messina being two miles broad. Where, when landed, and meeting with a young Scots Edenburgensen William Wylie, come from Palermo, and bound for Venice, I fastned John Browne with him to accompany his returne; and on the following day imbarked them both backe for Calabria.

And now having followed the Italian saying Si meglior a star solo come mala accompaniato; It is better for a man to be alone, then in ill company; I traversed the Kingdome to Trapundie seeking transportation for Affricke, but could get none: And returning thence overthwart the Iland, I [VIII. 354.]call to memory being lodged in the Bourge of Saramutza, belonging to a young Baron, and being bound the way of Castello Francko eight miles distant and appertaining to another young Noble youth, I rose and marched by the breach of day; where it was my lucke halfe way from [312]Two young Barons killed at combat.either Towne, to finde both these beardlesse Barons, lying dead, and new killed in the fields, and their horses standing tyed to a bush beside them; whereat being greatly moved, I approached them, and perceiving the bodies to be richly cled with silken Stuffes facily conjectured what they might be: My host having told me the former night, that these two Barones were at great discord, about the love of a young Noble woman; and so it was, for they had fought the combat for her sake, and for their owne pride lay slaine here. For as fire is to Gun powder, so is ambition to the heart of man, which if it be but touched with selfe-love, mounteth aloft, and never bendeth downeward, till it be turned into ashes.

And here it proved for that Ladies sake, that troppo amore turnd to Presto dolore: Upon which sight, to speake the trueth, I searched both their pockets, and found their two silken purses full loaden with Spanish Pistolls, whereat my heart sprung for joy, and taking five rings off their foure hands, I hid them and the two purses in the ground, halfe a mile beyond this place: And returning againe, leapt to one of their horses, and came galloping backe to Saramutza; where calling up my host, I told him the accident; who when he saw the horse gave a shout for sorrow, and running to the Castle told the Lady the Barons Mother: where in a moment, shee, her children, and the whole Towne runne all with me to the place, some cled, some naked, some on foote, and some on horse: where, [VIII. 355.]when come grievous was it to behold their woefull and sad lamentations. I thus seeing them all madde and distracted of their wits with sorrow, left them without good-night: And comming to my Treasure, made speedy way to Castello Franco, where bearing them the like newes, brought them all to the like distraction and flight of feet.

Well, in the mutability of time there is aye some fortune falleth by accident, whether lawfull or not, I will not question, it was now mine that was last theirs, and to save the thing that was not lost, I travailed that day thirty miles further to Terra nova. Whence the next morning [313]beeing earely imbarked for Malta, and there safely Landed; A London ship called the Matthew.I met with a ship of London called the Mathew, bound for Constantinople lying in the Roade where indeede with the Company I made merry a shoare for three dayes, and especially with one George Clarke their Burser, who striving to plant in my braines a Maltezan Vineyard, had almost perished his owne life.

Upon the fourth day, they hoysing sayle, and I staying a shoare, it was my good lucke within eight dayes to find a French ship of Tolon come from the Levante, and bound for Tunneis by the way in going home. With whom desirously consorted, within three dayes we touched at our intended Port. And now to reckon the gold that I found in the aforesayd purses, it amounted to three hundred and odde double Pistols; and their Rings being set with Dyamonds, were valued to a hundred Chickens of Malta, eight shillings the peece, which I dispatched for lesser: But the gold was my best second, which like Homers Iliades under Alexanders pillow, was my continuall vade Mecum.

Tunneis is the Capitall seate of its owne Territory, and [VIII. 356.]of all the East and lower Barbary, containing ten thousand fire-houses: And it is the place where old Carthage stood, that was builded by the Tyrians and Phenicians of the Holy Land, some three score twelve yeares before Rome, and had twenty miles in circuit: Which City in these times, was the soveraigne Queene of Affrick, and the onely envy, and predominant malice of the Romanes, being more then Romes rivall mate, in greatnesse, glory, and dominion: Neverthelesse in end, it was taken, sackt, and burnt by Scipio the Affrican Romane, some sixe hundred and two yeares after Rome was first founded, and her ruines and large Territories without, made subject to the ambition of Rome.

The divers plantations of Carthage.After which detriment, desolate Carthage was rebuilded by Cæsar, and a Collony of Italians transported there, flourished for a time, till it was destroyed and overrunne by the Gothes and Vandales: And lastly subdued by the [314]Sarazens and Moores, it was by them transmitted to the Turkish power, who now is Maister of it, being no way answerable to the sixe part of the greatnes it had before. This Towne is situate in the bottome of a Creeke, where the Sea for a mile having cut the bosome of the Land, maketh a large and safe resting place for ships and galleyes. Which Haven and Towne is secured from Sea invasions, by the great and strong Fortresse of Galetto, builded on a high Promontore, that imbraceth the Sea, and commandeth the mouth of the Bay; wherein a Turkish Bassaw, and a strong Garrison of Souldiers remaine: the Fort it selfe being well provided with armes, men, Artillery and munition.

The Kingdome of Tunneis comprehended once the whole Countrey that the auncients called properly Affrick [VIII. 357.]or little Affrick, being the old Numidia, and was divided then in these five Provinces, Bugia, Constantino, that of Tunneis, Tripoly, and Ezzebba. In the Towne of Bugia, lying halfe way twixt Tunneis and Algeir, and 40. leagues from either being now called Arradetz, there was auncient beautifull Temples, Colledges, magnifick buildings, Hospitals, and Convents after their fashion: but the Towne being taken, and razed Anno 1508. by Peter King of Navarre, it hath remained ever since without beauty or ornament, save a few rusticke Inhabitants.

The marine provinces twixt Tunneis and Algier.The province of Constantine, lyeth twixt Tunneis and Bugia; the Towne Constantine, now Abirouh, being Capitall, and was surnamed Cortes and Julia: It is begirded with Rockes, and auncient walles contayning eight hundred fire-houses, wherein are the relicts of an Arke triumphant, formerly built by the Romanes; and in this Province sixteene leagues within land, was the Towne of Hippo, now Bosen, whereof St. Augustine was Bishop.

The Territory of Tunneis, lyeth betweene the borders of Abirouh Westward, and the limits of Tripoly Eastward, being of length foure score miles: and on this Sea-coast lyeth the Towne Biserta, adorned with a commodious [315]Haven, and sixe Gallies, the most scelerate of condition, and celerious in flying or following of all the cursares in Turky: Tripoly in Barbary, (commonly called so) was once drowned by the Sea, but now its situation was transported safely a little more Southward; which sometimes was beautified with Merchants of Genoa, Ragusa, and Venice, but now become a den of theeves, and Sea-Pirats, and so are all the marine Townes, twixt Ægypt and Morocco.

The last Province of the kingdom of Numidia, is [VIII. 358.]Ezzebba lying East from Tripoly, and confining with Cyreno a pendicle of Ægipt: The chiefest part whereof is Messaicke being twenty foure Leagues from Tripoly, contayning many Villages, and Townes on the playnes and Mountaynes, abounding in Silkes, Cornes, and diverse Fruites.

All these five Maritine Provinces, have but narrow Inlands, not advancing South-ward from the Sea coast above forty miles. Here in Tunneis I met with our An English Pyrat Captaine Waird.English Captayne, generall Waird, once a great Pyrat, and Commaunder at Sea; who in despight of his denied acceptance in England, had turned Turke, and built there a faire Palace, beautified with rich Marble and Alabaster stones: With whom I found Domesticke, some fifteene circumcised English Runagates, whose lives and Countenances were both alike, even as desperate as disdainfull. Yet old Waird their maister was placable, and joyned me safely with a passing Land conduct to Algiere; yea, and diverse times in my ten dayes staying there, I dyned and supped with him, but lay aboord in the French shippe.

At last having obtayned my pasport from the Bassaw there, and surety taken for my life and moneyes, I imbraced the Land way with this Conduct, consisting of forty Moores, and a hundred Camels loaden with Silkes, Dimmeteis, and other Commodities, traversing the aforesayd Regions of Abirouh, and Arradetz. In all which way (lying nightly in a Tent) I found a pleasant and fruitfull Country, abounding in Wines, Rye, Barly, [316]Wheate, and all kinde of fruites, with innumerable villages, and so infinitely peopled, that it made me wish there had beene none at all; otherwise that they had beene Christians, and so more civill.

[VIII. 359.]The greatest enemy this journey designed mee, was the Sunne, whose exceeding heate was intollerable to indure, being in September Anno 1615. But for provision of Water, Wine, and Victuals wee had abundance. Upon the seaventh day of our course, wee entred in the Tremizen in Barbary.Countrey of Tremizen, formerly Mauritanea Cæsarea: This Kingdome hath to the West Mauritanea Tingitana, contayning the Empire of Morocco and Fez. On the South Gotulia or Desartuous Numidia. On the East with the Rivers of Muluia and Amphlaga, the Marches of Arradetz. And on the North the Sea Mediterren, opposite to Sardinia. The Countrey is in length from the East to the West, some twenty five of their courses, and of our miles about three hundred; and of breadth betweene the Sea and Gotulia, no more than thirty English miles.

This copious Kingdome in all things, hath beene oft and ever molested with the Numidian Sarazens, or bastard Arabs, who falling downe from the Mountaines, do runne their carriere at random upon the ground-toyled Moores, to satisfie their needy and greedy desires. Tremizen or Telensim, had of old foure Provinces, but now onely two The Towne of Tremizen decayed with Warres.its owne Territory, and that of Algier: Whose capitall Towne being too cognominated Tremizen, contayned once eighteene thousand fire houses. But in regard of Josephus King or Fez, who besieged it seaven yeares, over-mastering it and then subdued by Charles the fifth, and likewise the Turkes investion of it, and finally because of the long warres, twixt the Seriff or King there, and the Turke; it is become a great deale lesser and almost disinhabited, and the most part of that Countrey subject to the authority of the Bassaw of Algier.

[VIII. 360.]At last upon the twelfth day of our leaving Tunneis, having arrived at Algier, and abandoning my Conduct [317]with a good respect, I stayed in a Spaniards house, turned Runagate, who kept a roguish Taverne, and a ground planked Hospitality. In all this way of twelve score miles, I payed no Tribute, neyther had I any eminent perrill, the Country being peaceable, though the people uncivill.

The theevish Towne of Algier.This Towne of Algier, was formerly under subjection to the Kingdome of Tremizen, but because of insupportable charges it revolted, and rendered to the King of Arradetz or Bugia: Afterwards it was under the King of Spaine, from whom Barbarossa did take it Anno 1515. being now under the Turke, and is situate upon the pendicles of a flat devalling height, and standeth triangular. The Marine side whereof is strongly fortified, with earth-back’d walles, Bulwarkes, and Artillery, but the semi-squared land-walles, are of small importance, and easily to be surprised; and three miles in circuite, contayning some thirty thousand persons.

There is a Turkish Bashaw here, and a strong Garrison of sixe thousand Janizaries, with two hundred Cursary ships or Pyrats who ever preying upon Christian Commercers, by their continuall spoyles and prises, have made the divelish Towne wonderfull rich; and become the inveterate enemy of Christendome; being now a Kingdome of it selfe, and in length from East to West betweene the Townes Terracot and Guargola, some sixe score miles. It hath a long reaching mould in the Sea, that maketh a safe harbor for their ships agaynst Northerly windes, which on that Coast are deadly dangerous. At this time, the greatest part of the Towne were fled to the mountaynes to [VIII. 361.]shun the parching heate that beateth violently on the Plaines, and Sea-shore; so doe all the maritine Townes of Barbary the like every Sommer, for the moneths July, August, and September: which then being left halfe naked of defence, it were the onely time for Christianes to invade or surprise their Townes.

I found here abundance of slaves, most of them Spaniards, whom they dayly constraine within Towne to [318]beare all manner of burdens here and there, and without Towne to drudge in the fields, amongst their Vines and Cornes, and other toyling labours, abusing them still with buffets and bastinadoes as their perverstnesse listeth: Neither durst I leave my lodging, unlesse I had three or foure Christian slaves to guide me, and guard me too from scelerate vulgars: who beare no respect to any stranger nor free Franck. A naturall sublime policy.Here I remarked a wonderfull policy in the Turkish state, concerning these thiftuous and rapinous Townes of Barbary; who as they are ordained ever to plague and prey upon the Spaniard, yet under that colour they licentiat them to make havock and seaze upon all other Christiane ships, goods, and persons as they please, the French Nation excepted: And so they doe notwithstanding of our several Ambassadours lying at Constantinople, who rather stay there as Mungrells than absolute Ambassadours: for why should Christian Princes meditate for peace and commerce with the Turke, when theirs, with his subjects the Barbarian Moores have no safety; they being obedient to his lawes, and over-ruled by Bassawes, as well as these are of Asia and Easterne Europe: from which I gather, as from all other like examples, that there is a more sublime over-mastering policy, subtility, and provident foresight, in meere naturall men as Turkes be, then in our best Grandeurs, for all their Sciences, & schoole studies can either perceive or [VIII. 362.]perform farre less prosecute. To which avowed dangers if any small ship, ruled by rash fellowes, should adventure within the straites, as too many English doe, beeing unable and unprovided for defence; and so are taken & Captivated, and afterward redeemed by Contributions over the Land: I justly affirme it, they deserve rather to be punished, and remayne there in punishment, then any reliefe or redemption to be wrought for them, who will nakedly hazard themselves in knowne perrils, without Ordonance, munition, and a burdenable ship.

But reverting to my purpose, the marine Provinces which lye betweene Ægypt and Sewty, over agaynst [319]The Barbarian Provinces twixt Egypt and Gibelterre.Gibelterre being the Straits, are these; Cyrene, Barca Marmorica, Ezzeba, the Trypolian Jurisdiction, the Kingdomes of Tunneis, Abirouh, Arradetz, Tremizen, Algier, and a part of Fez; extending to two thousand and three hundred Maritine miles: All which, by ignorant Sea-men, and ruvide Moores is tearmed Barbary, who can not distinguish parts nor provinces, but even as the Orientall Turkes doe, that denominate all Asia minor, under the name Carmania, and know no further of their ancient nor particular titles.

Now as concerning their Customes, it is the fashion of all these Barbarian Moores, in marrying of their wives, that after the Bridegroome and the Bride are inrolled by their Totsecks or Priests in the Mosque before the Parents of each party, and the Bride presently brought home to the house of her Husband, accompanied with al their Friends, Musicke, and Revelling: He immediatly withdraweth her to a private Chamber, having onely one old woman standing by them in a corner of the Roome: where hee lying with the Bride, and shee being found a Mayde, [VIII. 363.]by a certayne cloath layd under her privy place, which being by the old Hagge drawne out, and found sprinkled with spots of blood shee presenteth it first to him, as a token of virginity; and then forthwith runneth through the house, among all the friends of the new married couple, crying with a loud voyce, and carrying the bloody napkin in her hand, the Virgine-bride is broken up; whereat they all rejoyce, giving rewards and good cheare to the Cryer: The tryall of Moorish Brides.But if the bride be not found a Mayd, then he returneth her backe unto her Parents which they accompt as an immortall shame, and the nuptiall feast, and all the assistants thereunto, are suddenly dismissed: But if a Virgine, the banquet continueth all the first day, with great cheare, dancings, revellings, with Musicall Instruments of divers sorts.

The second night is onely the feast of women for both parties; and the third banquet is made on the seventh day after the nuptiall, the provision of which the father of the [320]Bride sendeth to the house of his new sonne in law: where after this banquet, and the seventh day, in the next morning the Bridegroome goeth then abroad from his house (which hee doth not till the aforesayd time) unto the market place, where he buyeth a number of fish to carry with him to his dwelling, as a signe of good lucke, it being an auncient custome through the most part of all the Notherne Affrick.

The men and women at such meetings dance a part, each of them having their own Musicke and orders of merriment.

They have also a custome that when Infants beginne to breed teeth, their Parents will make a solemne feast to all the Children of the Towne, with divers ceremonies; which custome they reserve yet, in divers parts of Italy.

[VIII. 364.]The women through all Barbary, weare abundance of Bracelets on their armes, and Rings in their eares, but not through the nose and lips as the Ægyptians doe; and turne also the nayles of their hands and feete to red, accounting it a base thing to see a white naile: The men here for the most part, are the best Archers, and Horse-men that are in Affrick, and take great pleasure in breeding of their Barbes: So are they both active and couragious, and very desperate in all their attempts, being all of the Mahometanicall Religion, though more ignorant thereof than the Turkes: some whereof are subject to the Turke, some to the Emperour of Morocco, and some to their owne barbarous Princes.

And now it was my fortune here in Algier, after 12. Monsieur Chatteline a French Lapidator.dayes abode, to meete with a French Lapidator, Monsieur Chatteline borne in Aise du Provance, who intending to visit Fez, joyned company with me, and we with certaine Merchants of Algier that were going hither: being in all 30. passengers, with two Jannizaries and a Dragoman.

Whence advancing our way, some on Mules, and some on foote, with Asses carrying our baggage and provision; we left the marine Townes of Saly and Tituana, far to the West on our right hand, and facing the in-land wee [321]marched for three dayes through a fruitfull and populous soyle: And although the peoples barbarous and disdainefull countenances were awfull, yet we two went still free of tributs, as not being a thing with them accustomary, to execute exaction on Francks as the Turkes and Moores do in Asia, neither understood they what wee were, being cled with company, and after their fashion: save onely that nature had set a fairer stamp on my face, than theirs, which oft I wished had beene as blacke as their uglines. [VIII. 365.]In this misculat journeying of paine & pleasure we found every where strong Wines, abundance of excellent bread, and the best, and greatest Hens bred on the earth, with plenty of Figges, Fruits, Olives, and delicious oyle, yea, and innumerable Villages, the houses whereof are all builded with mudde, and platformed on their tops; and so are they in Asia, and all Affrick over.

Upon the fourth day having past the Plaines, we entered in a hilly Countrey, yet pastorable; where I beheld here and there clouds of Tents, filled with maritine people, that were fled hither from the Sea coast for the fresh and cooling ayre.

And upon these pleasant and umbragious heights, I saw the fields overcled with flocks of Sheepe and Goats: which Sheepe are wondrous great, having from their rumpes and hips, broad and thicke tayles growing, and hanging to the ground, some whereof when sold, will weigh 16. 18. or 20. pounds weight, and upwards. Here among the mountaines, our company knowing well the Countrey, tooke a great advantage of the way, and on the seventh day in the morning, Mine arrival at Fez.wee arrived at the great Towne of Fez: where the French man and I were conducted by some of our company to a great Moorish Inne or Taverne: & there received, we were as kindly & respectively used, as ever I was in any part of the Turks Dominions, being now out of them, & in the Empire of Morocco.

This City of Fez is situate upon the bodies and twice double devalling faces of two hills, like to Grenada in Andelosia in Spaine; the intervale, or low valley betweene [322]both (through which the torride River of Marraheba runneth Southward) being the Center and chiefest place, is the most beautifull and populous part of the City; the situation of which, and of the whole, is just set under the Tropick of Cancer.

[VIII. 366.]Over which River, and in this bottome, there are three score and seaven Bridges of stone and Timber, each of them being a passage for open streetes on both sides. The intervayle consisteth of two miles in length, and halfe a mile broad; wherein, besides five Chereaffs or Market places, there are great Palaces, magnificke Mosquees, Great Colledges and Hospitalls.Colledges, Hospitals, and a hundred Palatiat Tavernes, the worst whereof, may lodge a Monarchicke trayne: Most part of all which buildings, are three and foure stories high, adorned with large and open Windowes, long Galleries, spacious Chambers, and flat tectures or square platformes.

The streetes being covered above, twixt these plaine-set Fabrickes, have large Lights cut through the tectur’d tops every where; in whose lower shoppes or Roomes are infinite Merchandize, and Ware of all sorts to bee sold.

The people of both kindes are cloathed in long breeches and bare Ancles, with red or yellow shooes shod with Iron on the Heeles, and on the Toes with white Horne; and weare on their bodies long Robes of Linning or Dimmety, and silken Wast-coates of diverse Colours: The behaviour of the Vulgars being far more civill toward Strangers then at Constantinople; or else where in all Turkey.

The Women here go unmasked abroad, wearing on their heads, broad, and round Capes, made of Straw or small Reedes, to shade their faces from the Sunne; and damnable Libidinous, beeing prepared both wayes to satisfie the lust of their Luxurious Villaines; neyther are they so strictly kept as the Turkish Women, marching where they please.

The Modell of the Great City of Fez

The Modell of the Great City of Fez

There are some twelve thousand allowed Brothell-houses [VIII. 367.]in this Towne, the Courtezans being neatly kept, [323]and weekely well looked to by Physitians; but worst of all, in the Summer time, they openly Lycentiat three thousand common Stewes of Sodomiticall boyes: Nay I have seene at mid-day, in the very Market places, the Moores buggering these filthy Carrions, and without shame or punishment go freely away.

There are severall Seates of Justice heere (though none to vindicate beastlinesse) occupied by Cadeis and Sanzackes, which twice a Weeke heare all differences and complaints: their chiefe Seriff, or Vicegerent, being sent from Morocco, is returned hither agayne every third yeare.

The beauty and greatnes of Fez.The two Hills on both sides the planur’d Citty, East, and West, are over-cled with streetes and Houses of two stories high, beeing beautified also with delicate Gardens, and on their extreame devalling parts, with numbers of Mosquees and Watch-towers: On which heights, and round about the Towne, there stand some three hundred Wind-mils; most part whereof pertayne to the Mosques, and the two magnifick Colledges erected for education of Children, in the Mahometanicall Law.

One of which Accademies, cost the King Habahennor in building of it, foure hundred and three score thousand Duckets. Jacob sonne to Abdulach the first King of the Families of Meennons, divided Fez in three parts, and with three severall Walles, though now invironed with onely one, and that broken downe in sundry parts.

The chiefest Mosque in it, is called Mammo-Currarad, signifying the glory of Mahomet, being an Italian mile in Compasse, and beautified with seventeene high ground Steeples, besides Turrets and Towers: having thirty foure [VIII. 368.]entring Doores; beeing supported within, and by the The modell of the great City of Fez.length, with forty eight pillars, and some twenty three Ranges of pillars in breadth, besides many Iles, Quires, and circulary Rotundoes: Every Pillar having a Lampe of Oyle burning thereat; where there, and through the [VIII. 369.]whole Mosque, there are every night nine hundred Lamps lighted; and to maintaine them, and a hundred Totsecks and preaching Talsumans, the rent of it extendeth to two [324]hundred Duccats a day: Neverthelesse there are in the City besides it, more then foure hundred and threescore The magnifick Mosque of Fez.Mosquees; fifty whereof are well benefited and superbiously decored within and without, with glorious and extraordinary workmanship, whose rooffes within are all Mosaick worke, and curiously indented with Gold, and the walles and pillars being of grey Marble, interlarded with white Alabaster, and so is the chiefe Mosque too in which Monsieur Chatteline and I had three sundry recourses accompanied with our Moorish hoste, who from their Priests had procured that licence for us. This City aboundeth in all manner of provision fit for man or beast, & is the goodliest place of all North Affrick, contayning a hundred and twenty thousand fire-houses, and in them a million of soules: Truely this is a world for a City, and may rather second Grand Caire, than subjoyne it selfe to Constantinople, being farre superior in greatnesse with Aleppo: For these are the foure greatest Cities, that ever I saw in the world, either at home or abroad.

The Cittizens here are very modest and zealous at their divine services, but great dauncers and revellers on their solemne festivall dayes, wherein they have Bull-beating, Maskerats, singing of rimes, and processions of Priests. The Moores in times past of Fez and Morocco, had divers excellent personages, well learned, and very civill; for amongst the Kings Mahometan one can not praise too much the Kings Almansor, Maunon, and Hucceph, being most excellent men in their superstition.

[VIII. 370.]In whose times flourished the most famous medicines, and Philosophers that were among the Pagans, as A Vicenne, Rasis, Albumazar, Averroes, &c. with other great numbers maintained by the Kings of Morocco, that then were Masters of all Barbary and Spaine: As in Spaine may be seene yet, (though now fallen in decay) a great number of their Colledges, shewing they were great lovers of their Religion and Doctrine, and are so to this day, save onely in their drinking of Wine forbidden by their Alcoran. They were great devisers too of gallant sportings, [325]exercises, turnaments, and Bull-beating, which Spayne retaineth to this time; yea, and the Romanes did learne, and follow many of them.

Here in Fez there be a great number of Poets, that make Songs on divers subjects, especially of Love, and Lovers, whom they openly name in their rimes, without Poets among Barbarians in great request.rebuke or shame: All which Poets once every yeare, agane Mahomets birth-day, make rimes to his praise; meanewhile in the after noone of that festivall day, the whole Poets assembling in the market place, there is a Dasked chayre prepared for them, whereon they mount one after another to recite their verses in audience of all the people; and who by them is judged to be best, is esteemed all that yeare above the rest, having this Epithite the Prince of Poets, and is by the Vicegerent and Towne rewarded; But in the time of the Maennon Kings, the Prince on that day in his owne Pallace did conveine the whole Cittizens, in whose presence he made a solemne feast to all the best Poets; causing every one of them to recite the praise of Mahomet before his face, standing on a high scaffold: And to him that was thought to excell the rest, the King gave him 100. Sultans of gold, an horse, a woman slave, [VIII. 371.]& the long Robe that was about him for the time: And to each one of the rest he caused give fifty Sultans, so that every one should have some recompense for their paines: Indeed a worthy observance; and would to God it were now the custome of our Europian Princes to doe the like, and especially of this Ile, then would bravest wits, and quickest braines, studdy and strive to show the exquisit ingeniosity of their best styles, and pregnant invention, which now is ecclipsed, and smotherd downe, because now a dayes, there is neither regard nor reward for such excellent Pen-men. Fez was aunciently named Sylda, whose Kingdome hath Atlas to the South, the River of Burdraga to the East, and Tremizen: Morocco to the West: And the confynes of Guargula, and a part of the Sea to the North: Having spent in Fez 17. dayes, in all which time, we daily conversed with some Christian Abasines, [326]Heragens or Ethiopian Negroes.Heragenes, or Æthiopian Nigroes, some whereof were Merchands, and some religious; and Monsieur Chattelines businesse not effected, seeking Diamonds and precious stones to buy; was seriously advised by them, to goe for Arracon, a great Towne on the Frontiers of the Northerne Æthiopia: where he would finde abundance of such at an easie rate, giving him a perfit direction for his passage hither being 30. daies journey: he concluded with their counsell his resolution, and perswading me to the same intention, I yeeld, being over-mastred with the greedy desire of more sights.

Meanewhile for our conduct, we hire a Dragoman Moore that spoke Italiens to be our Interpreter, and with him a Tent, and two Moorish drudges to guide, guard, & serve us by the way of fifty eight Sultans for gold, eighteene pounds foure shillings English: having sixe of their Kinsmen fast bound to a Sanzak or Justice, for our lives, liberties, and moneyes.

[VIII. 372.]Hereupon having provided our selves, with all necessary things, and a Mule to carry our Victuals, Water and Baggage, we discharged our conscionable Hostage, at twenty Aspers a day the man, being thirty foure shillings to each of us; and were brought on our way, by the aforesayd Christian Heragenes some foure Leagues. Where having left them with dutifull thankes, wee set forward in our journey, and for seaven dayes together wee were not violently molested by any thing, save intollerable heate, finding tented people and scattered Villages all the way.

The eight day, the way being fastidious and Rockey, Chatteline the French Lapidator taken sicke.and Chatteline on foot, he succumb’d, and could not subsist, not beeing used to pedestriall travayle; and for our better speed and his reliefe, wee mounted him aloft on the top of our baggage. At last arriving at Ahetzo (where we reposed) being the furthest and South-most Towne of the Kingdome of Fez, composed of a thousand fire-houses, well fortified with Walles, and a Garrison of Moores in it, subject to the Emperour of Morocco: the French-man [327]long or day, fell sicke of a burning Feaver: Whereuppon wee stayed five dayes expecting his health, which growing worse and worse, and hee mindfull to returne, which I would not: I left him in safe custody, and one of our Drudges to attend him till Fez. And bearing the charges of the other two, according to the former condition: I set forward for my purpose, which ere long turned to sad Repentance.

Leaving Ahetzo behind us, and entring the Countrey of the Agaroes, we found the best inhabitants halfe cled, the Vulgars naked, the Countrey voyd of Villages, Rivers, or Cultivage: but the soyle rich in Bestiall, abounding in [VIII. 373.]Sheep, Goates, Camels, Dromidores, and passing good horses: Having an Emeere of their owne, being subject to none, but to his owne passions, and them to the disposition of his scelerate nature; yet hee, and they had a bastard show of Mahometanicall Religion: Their Bestiall are watered with sources, and the pastorable fields, with the nightly Serene, and themselves with the Watrish concavity of the earth. In our sixe dayes toyle, traversing this Countrey, we had many troubles and snarlings from these Savages, who sometimes over-laboured us with Bastinadoes, and were still inquirous what I was, and whether I went; yea, and enough for the Dragoman to save my life and liberty.

Having past the perverstnesse of this calamity, upon the seaventh day, wee rancountred with another soyle, The Tribe of the Hagans or Jamnites.and worser tribe of the Hagans or Jamnites, most part whereof were white Moores, a people more uglye then the Nigroes, yet some of the better sort had their members covered, but of condition farre more wicked then the former.

They are ruled by a Seriff, whose Guard is composed of women, and young Balars, pages; seeming rather to live without Religion, then acknowledging any kinde of Deity. Here my Dragoman, doubting of his passage, and the difficilnesse of the Countrey, which arose from his ignorantnesse thereof, was inforced to hyre a Hagan [328]guide, to bring us to the province of Abadud, bordering with Æthiopia. But by your leave, our guide having led us for five dayes together South-eastward, and almost contrary to our purpose: in the sixt night of our Repose, he stole away, eyther for feare or falshood, mistaking our journey, or deceiving us for despight, the halfe of his Wages being payed him before. Well, the Villaine gone, [VIII. 374.]and my Dragoman the next day continuing our faces, in the same Arte, wee were long or night involved in a dis-inhabited Country, being Desartuous and dangerous for Wilde beasts, and full of Mountaynes. Pitching our Tent neare to a Rocke, we burnt all that night shrubs of Tara, to affright the Beasts of all kinds, and so did we every night of that wofull wandring, which flaming light [VIII. 375.]their nature cannot abide. Day come, and our comfort yet fresh, we sought further in, thinking to finde people and Tents to relieve us with Victuales, and informe us of the Countrey, but we found none, neither seven daies thereafter. The matter growing hard, and our victuals and water done, we were forced to relye upon Tobacco, and to drinke our owne wayning pisse, for the time aforesayd.

The Soyle we daily traced, was covered with hard and soft Sands, and them full of Serpents, being interlarded with Rockey heights, faced with Caves and Dens: the very habitacle of Wilde beasts, whose hollow cryes, as we heard in the night, so we too often sighted their bodies in the The Wilde Beasts of the Libian, especially Jackals, Beares, and Boares, and sometimes Cymbers, Tygers, and Leopards, agaynst whom in the day time if they approached us, we eyther shot off a Harquebuse, or else flashed some powder in the Ayre; the smell whereof, no ravenous beast can abide.

This vast Wildernesse is a part of the Berdoans Countrey, one of the foure tribes of the olde Lybians, the Sabuncks, the Carmines, and the Southerne Garolines, being the other three. And now to helpe the expression of my grievous distresse and miseries, my Muse must lament the rest.

The Author in the Libyan Desart

The Author in the Libyan Desart


Ah! sightlesse desarts! fil’d with barren Sands!

And parched plaines; where huge and hilly lands

Have stone-fac’d scurrile bounds: O monstrous feare!

What destiny, drove my cross’d Fortune here?

By day I’me scoarch’d with heate, by night the grounds

Are cled with beasts; whose rage sends horrid sounds

Of dreadfull death: whence we to shunne their ire,

[VIII. 376.]Are forc’d to fright them, with bright Tara fire:

For if it were not, that they scarr’d at Light,

No man could walke, or rest, safe in the night.

Then next and nigh, the crawling Serpents lurke

Still under foote, some stung-swolne smart to worke;

Which moove the Sands like Seas, in seeking shade,

Where ’mongst their linking roles, I’me forc’d to wade:

Whose neckes like legs are round, their bodies strong,

With blacke-spred backes, their length full two yards long:

Yet whilst I cut, and crush their warbling wombe,

I point their death, their skin, I make their tombe.

But worst I’me hungerbit, and starving slaine

With pinching want, a sore-sunke gnawing paine:

O helplesse torture! second’d with great drouth

And fiery thirst, that scabbe my lips and mouth:

Where for fine lyquor, as my heart would wish,

Stress’d wandring I, am forc’d to drinke my pisse:

So turnes my food to smoake, the smoake to ashes

Which twice a night, we three do spend in flashes:

Last casts my face the skin, my skin the colour,

And spewing forth fled joyes, I drinke in dolour.

Thus with the Torrid Zone, am I opprest,

And lock’d twixt Tropickes two, which me invest.

Where for reliefe, I pierc’d the Heavens with cryes,

And cut the Clouds, to grieve the azure skies

With sighs and grones; yet carefull to regard

My curious drifts, had got their just reward.

But to shorten my Discourse, of barren Wildernesses, supposed to be a part of the Lybian Desarts, my Dragoman [330]upon the fourth day of our seaven being there, falling in despaire, and wondring to see me indure such heate, [VIII. 377.]such hunger, and such toyle, did threaten mee with death, to make me seeke backe for our nearest refuge: Whereupon holding our course North-east, my compasse-Dyall being our guide, we rancountred earely on the eight day, with nine hundred Savages, naked Lybian Sabunks: five hundred whereof, were women armed with Bowes and Arrowes; who with their complices, the former night had put to the sword, three hundred Berdoanes, their neighbour tribe: carrying away above sixe thousand Sheepe and Goats besides other bestiall: from whom after our sight of their Emeere or Prince, we had first liberty of life, and then reliefe of food; for he came up in the Reare, with a hundred Horse-men charged with halfe Pikes, headed at The prince of the Sabuncks apparrell.both ends with sharpe Steele: The person of their Prince was onely clothed from his breasts downe to his middle thigh with a Crimson vayle of Silke, hanging on his naked shoulders with coloured Ribans, and on his head a party coloured Shash set like a Garland: Both his knees were bare, so were his ancles, the calves of his legges being girded with Crimson Silke, and on his feet yellow shooes; his beard was like his face, burnt with the Sun, and his age like to my owne, of 33. yeares, his Religion is damnable, so is his life, for hee and all the foure tribes of Lybia worship onely for their God, Garlick, having Altars, Priests, and superstitious rites annexed to it: Thinking Garlicke, being strong of it selfe, and the most part of their food, to have a soveraigne vertue in a herball Deity. All his Courtiers were starke naked saving his Page, who was even covered like to the King his Master.

And now having dismissed his Army for the way, and falling in a houres parley with us at his departure, he propyned me with his Bowe, & a Quiver of Arrowes, which afterward, I presented to his Majesty, then Prince.

[VIII. 378.]There is a merry secret heere concerning the women, which often I recited to King James of Blessed memory, showing him also three Certificates of this my Desartuous [331]wandring: one of which was confirmed by English Waird at Tunneis upon the Dragomans Report; though now they with all my other Patents are lost, in the Inquisition of Malaga. This former savage Prince sent a Guide with us for foure dayes journey, the condition of his mans Wages being made by himselfe, and franckly advised us that Tunneis was our best and nearest Recourse. Which being forcibly considered, I was constrayned to renew my bargaine agayne with the Dragoman, at the rate of forty five Sultans of gold, to bring me safely hither.

This Sabunck Guide, to whom I gave five Sultans, thirty five shillings, brought us through the most Habitable vallies, and best cled passages of the Countrey with Tents: where every day once we found Water, Bread, Garlicke and Onions, and sometimes Hennes at twenty Aspers the peece, two shillings; which we would Rost, or scorch dry (if trueth may have credite) at the very face of the Sunne, and so eate them. Upon the fift day, our Guide leaving us in the after-noone, well setled among foure hundred Tents of Numidian Moores, or bastard Arabians, pitched in a pleasant Valley, betweene two sources of Water, wee stayed still there Reposing our selves, and Refreshing our bodies with Victuals, some nine dayes.

Moorish Smiths forging horse-shooes out of cold Iron without fire, but the heat of the Sun.Heere among these Tents, I saw Smiths Worke out of cold Iron, Horse-shooes, and Nayles, which is onely molified by the vigorous heate and Raies of the Sunne, and the hard hammering of hands upon the Anvile: So have I seene it also in Asia. I could bee more particular here, but Time, Paper, Printing, and charges will not [VIII. 379.]suffer me. And now from hence, renewing our Guides from place to place, and discending from Savage Moores to Civill Moores, we arrived (though with great difficulty and danger) safely at Tunneis.

The Beglerbegship of Barbary.And to conclude this Eight Part, there are three Beglerbergships in the higher and lower Barbary: The first is at Trypolis, which was taken in by Sinan Bassa from the Knights of Malta 1551. and commaundeth under him [332]eight thousand Tymariots, besides sixe thousand Jannizaries. The second is at Tunneis, the Beglerbeg whereof, being of great Authority, commaundeth under him twelve Sanzackes, and thirty five thousand Tymariots. The third is, that of Algier, whose Bassa hath under him fourteene Sanzacks, and the commaundment of forty thousand Tymariots. These are all the Beglerbegs, the Great Turke retayneth in Affricke, except the great Vizier-Bassa of Ægipt: although in Asia major and Minor, he commandeth in severall Provinces and Kingdomes, thirty Bassaes or Beglerbegs. [333]



Tunneis beene sightlesse left, I sought the Ile

Of little Malta: famous for the stile

Of honour’d Knight-hood, drawne from great Saint John,

Whose Order and the Manner, I’le expone:

Whence Coasting Sicilie, a tripled view

I tooke of Ætna: Time discussing you

A miracle of Mettall; for its Kind

[IX. 380.]Is nurs’d by Raine, and suffled up with wind:

And thwarting Italy, the Venice Gulfe,

Carindia, Carneola, the stiffe stream’d Dolf;

Head-strong Danubio, Vienne, Austriaes Queene,

And Kinde Moravia, set before mine eyne.

To Hungary I came, and Vallechie,

The Transilvanian Soile, and Moldavie.

Whence sighting Polle, and many Scotsmans face,

I Kiss’d Sigismonds hands, at Warsow place:

Whence Swethland I, and Denmarke last bewray,

Noruegia too, in my sought London way;

Where bin arriv’d, safe on the brow of Thames,

To Court I came, and homag’d Royall James.

And now my Wish, and my arrivall, being both desirous for a while setled in Tunneis, I dispatched my Dragoman, and the other Barbarian hireling, with a greater consideration, then my two former conditions allowed me: Yet being urged to it by Captaine Wairds decernitour, I freely performed his Direction. My Conduct gone, and [334]I staying heere, Captayne Waird sent twice one of his servants with me to see two sundry Ovens drawne, beeing The hatching of Chicken without their mothers.full of young Chickens, which are not hatched by their mothers, but in the Fornace, being thus. The Oven is first spred over with warme Camels dung, and upon it the Egges, closing the Oven.

Then behind the Oven, there is a daily conveyance of heate, venting through a passage beneath the dung, just answerable to the naturall warmnesse of the Hens belly; upon which moderation, within twenty dayes they come to [IX. 381.]naturall perfection. The Oven producing at one time, three or foure hundred living Chickens, and where defection is, every sharer beareth a part of the losse; for the Hatcher or Curator, is onely Recompensed according to the living numbers be delivered. Surely this is an usuall thing, almost through all Affricke, which maketh that the Hennes with them are so innumerable every where.

And now it was my good fortune, after five Weekes attendance for Transportation, being about the 14. of February 1616. to meete here with a Holland ship called the Marmaide of Amsterdam, beeing come from Tituana, and bound for Venice and Malta, touched here by the Captaine Dansers imployment.way. In this time of their staying, came one Captayne Danser a Fleming, who had beene a great Pyrate and Commaunder at Seas, and the onely inveterate enemy of the Moores; beeing imployed by the French King in Ambassage, to relieve two and twenty French Barkes that were there Captivated, done by the policy of the Bashaw, to draw Danser hither; notwithstanding that hee was then Retired, and marryed in Marseilles.

Well, he is come, and Anchored in the Roade, accompanied with two French Gentlemen: Two of which came a shoare, and saluted the Bashaw in Dansers behalfe: they are made welcome, and the next day the Bashaw went franckly a boord of Danser, seconded with twelve followers: Danser tooke the presence of the Bashaw for a great favour, and mainely feasted him with good cheare, [335]great quaffing, sounding Trumpets, and Roaring shots, and none more familiar then the dissembling Bashaw, and over-joyed Danser, that had relieved the Barkes, for they were all sent to him that morning, not wanting any thing.

[IX. 382.]After deepe cups, the Bassaw invites him to come a shoare, the day following, and to dine with him in the Fortresse: To the which unhappy Danser graunted, and the time come, he landed with twelve Gentlemen, and nearing the Castle, was met with two Turkes to receive him: where having past the draw-bridge, & the gate shut behind him, his company was denied entrance: where forthwith Danser being brought before the Bassaw, was strictly accused of many ships, spoyles, and great riches he had taken from the Moores, and the mercilesse murther of their lives, for he never spared any: The untimely death of Captayne Danser a Fleming born.Whereupon he was straight beheaded, and his body throwne over the walles in a ditch; which done, off went the whole Ordonance of the Fort, to have sunke Dansers two ships; but they cutting their cables, with much adoe escaped, but for the other Gentlemen a shoare, the Bassaw sent them very courteously and safely aboord of the redeemed Barks, whence they hoised Sayles for Marseilles.

Loe there was a Turkish policy more sublime and crafty, than the best Europian alive could have performed. A little while thereafter, the afore-said Hollander being ready to goe for Sea, I bad goodnight to Generous Waird, and his froward Runagates, where being imbarked, with prosperous windes upon the third day, wee landed at Malta, and there leaving my kind Flemings and their negotiation, I courted the shoare, saluting againe my former hoste.

The fift day of my staying here, I saw a Spanish Souldier and a Maltezen boy burnt in ashes, for the publick profession of Sodomy, and long or night, there were above a hundred Bardassoes, whoorish boyes that fled away to Sicilie in a Galleyot, for feare of fire but never [IX. 383.]one Bugeron stirred, being few or none there free of it: [336]The Knights that remaine here, as they are of divers howsoever, they of the better sort, are resolute in their atchievements.

The Maltezes aunciently did adore the Goddesse Juno, whose Temple was superbiously adorned with rich decorements, and to which for homage and devotion, came all the Inhabitants of the circumjacent Iles; bringing rich presents and gifts; and they were also honored with the Temple of Hercules, the ruines of which appeare to this day.

Now as for their order of Knighthood, the oath which is made at their receiving, in the order of St. John, or of the The formall oath of the Knights of Malta.Religion of the holy Hospitall of Jerusalem, is thus: I vow, and promise to God, to the most blessed Virgin Mary, the Mother of God, and to our glorious Patrone St. John the Baptist, that by the grace and helpe of Heaven, I shall ever be obedient to the superiour, that God and this Religion have appointed; and from henceforth that I shal live chast, forsaking Marriage, and all other lusts, and to be without the proper possession of any thing that may be mine.

After this, the Chappell clarke, a Priest of the order, receiving him with divers ceremonies, taketh a blacke Cloak in his hand, and shewing him the white crosse that is fixed thereon; demandeth if he doth not beleeve that to be the signe of the Crosse, whereon Jesus Christ was crucified for our sinnes, he confesseth it, kissing the Crosse: After which, his receiver putteth the crosse of the Cloake upon the heart and left side of the new made Knight, saying: Receive this signe in the name of the trinity, the blessed Mother of God, the Virgin Mary, and of St. John the Baptist, for the augmentation of the [IX. 384.]Catholick faith, the defence of the Christian name and service of the poore: Also we put this crosse on thy left side, to the end, that thou mayst love it with all thy heart, and with thy right hand for to defend it: And in fighting against the enemies of Jesus Christ, thou shalst happen to flee, and leave this holy Signe behind thee, thou shalst of [337]good right be depraved of this holy religious order, and of our company: This done, he knitteth the Cordon of the Cloake about him saying; Receive the yoake of our Lord that is sweet, and light, and thou shalst find rest for thy soule: This spoke, he kisseth the Cordon, and so doe all the circumstanding Knights, and there are made unto him divers Orations and precepts, contained in the Booke of their Ordinances: They have a Priest-hood too of this same order, being Masse-Priests that weare this badge of the white Crosse.

Now bidding farewell to Malta, and to mine aforesayd Countrey Gentleman William Dowglas, I landed the next morning at Sicly in Sicilia, being twenty leagues distant. And now this being the third time of my traversing this Kingdome, (triple experience, deeper knowledge) I begin to give you a perfit description thereof.

The first denominations of Sicilia.Sicilia was first named Trinacria (whose figure is Triquetria) for that being triangular, it butteth into the Sea with three Promontories: Capo di coro, South, Cap di passaro West: and Cap di saro East: The length of each triangle from point to point, being 200. miles.

Terra tribus scopulis, vastum procurrit in æquor,

Trinacris a positu, nomen adepta loci.

An Ile with corners three, out-braves the Mayne

From whence the name Trinacry it doth gaine.

It is now called Sicilia from the Siculi or Sicani who possessed it, and hath beene famous in all former ages:

[IX. 385.]By Diodorus Siculus, it was cognominated the Paragon of Iles: By Titus Livius, the Garden of Italy: It was also aunciently called the Grange of the Romanes, and is never a whit decayed to this day.

The length of the Iland lyeth East and West, in circuit sixe hundred, large fifty, and in length two hundred fourty Italian miles: The fertility of Sicilia.The soyle is incredible fruitfull, excelling in all sorts of graine, as cornes, Wheat, Wine, Sugar, Ryce, Oyle, Salt, Allom, all kinds of fruit, wholesome Hearbs, [338]exceeding good Silke, exquisite mines of mettall, and the best Corall in the world is found here, beside Trapundy; growing under the water greene and tender, but when arising above, it becommeth red and hard: The like whereof is sayd to be found in the red-Sea, and gulfe of Persia.

The most of the Townes and Villages within land, are Townes set on heights reserve good ayre.builded on the highest hills and greatest heights in the Countrie; the reason is two-fold; first it serveth them for strength, and a great defence in time of cursarary invasions, of which divers bee so strait in ascending, that one man may easily resist and beat downe five hundred. The second is, because their dwellings being farre above the parching Plaines, these situations are good preservatives for their health, whereon they have a sweet and cooling ayre, which in such a hot climat, is the soveraigne salve to prevent sicknesse.

Their Villages be farre distant, some sixe, ten, fifteene, twenty miles one from another; in all which grounds there is no sequestrate house, unlesse (being a high way) it be a Fundaco or Inne. About the sides of the hills, whereon their Townes stand, grow all their Wines, and on the Plaines nothing but red Wheat, which for goodnesse [IX. 386.]is unparalelled, and the best bread and abundance of it in the world is here. Sicilia was formerly devided in The auncient divisions of Sicilia.three Regions, to wit, the valley of Demonia, containing Ætna, Catagna, Messina, and that angle of Cap di faro, of old Pelora: The other the valley of Neitia, containing Syracusa, Terra nova, and the angle of Cap di Cora of old, of Lilibea; and the third was the valley of Matzzara contayning Palermo, Trapundy, Malzara, and the angle of Cap di passero old Pachinum: Many thinke that Sicilia was rent from Italy by the violence of waters, at the generall Deluge, some by infinit earthquakes, and some simply conjecture the cause to have proceeded from combustious Ætna, which is meere ridiculous.

There are divers grounds and valleyes in this Ile, that abound so in Wheat, that the Inhabitants recoyle a [339]hundred measures for one, and commonly are called the fields of a hundred measures.

Sicilians are brave Orators.The Sycilians for the most part are bred Orators, which made the Apulians tearme them, men of three tongues: Besides they are full of witty sentences, and pleasant in their rancounters, yet among themselves, they are full of envy (meaning their former kindnesses was unto strangers) suspicious and dangerous in conversation, being lightly given to anger and offences, and ready to take revenge of any injury comitted: But indeed I must confesse, more generously than the Italians, who murder their enemies in the night; for they appeale other to single combat, and that manfully without fraudulent practices.

They are curious, and great lovers of novelties, and full of quicknesse and rare inventions in all kind of Sciences, great intelligencers, and lovers of histories: As I found [IX. 387.]in divers of them, who knew the passages formerly of my Countrey so exquisitly that I was astonished at their relations, so agreeable with the trueth and times past. The Parliament of Sicily hath a wonderfull great authority; insomuch that the Viceroy can not have the free gift (as they call it) which is every third yeare, nor no extraordinary thing, nor the renewing of any matter concerning the Common-wealth, without the generall consent of the whole Kingdome: The great Counsell of Sicilia.The generall counsell whereof is composed of three branches, called by them, the armes of the Kingdome: viz. first the Prelats, and inferiour Clergy men, named the arme Ecclesiastick: secondly of Barons called the arme Military: and the third, the Commissioners of Cities and Townes, intitulated the arme Signioriall: The Crowne-rent of this Kingdome amounteth to a million and a halfe of Duccats yearely: which being disbursed ever for intertaining of Captaines, Garrisons and of Gallies, and cursary ships, the Badgelloes and servants for the fields, the maintaining of Towers, and watches about the coasts, the reparations of Colledges, high-wayes, Lords pensions, and other defrayings, there rests little, or nothing at all to the King. [340]

I remember in my twice being in this Kingdome, (especially the second time, wherein I compassed the whole Iland, and thrice traversed the middle parts thereof from Sea to Sea) I never saw any of that selfe Nation, to begge bread, or seeke almes; so great is the beatitude of their plenty. And I dare avow it (experience taught mee) that the porest creature in Sicily eateth as good bread, as the best Prince in Christendome doth. The people are very humane, ingenious, eloquent and pleasant, their language in many words is nearer the Latine, then the Italian, which they promiscuously pronounce: somewhat [IX. 388.]talkative they are, and effeminate, but generally wonderfull kind to strangers. In the moneths of July and August, all the Marine Townes every yeare, are strictly and strongly guarded with them of the inland Villages and Bourges, both on foot and horse-backe: who are compelled to lie there at their owne charges, so long as this season lasteth; in which they feare the incursions of the Turkes; but the rest of the yeare, these Sea-coast Townes are left to the vigilant custody of the Indwellers.

This Countrey was ever sore oppressed with Rebells and Bandits, The Duke of Sona Viceroy of Sicilia.untill such time that the military Duke of Sona, came to rule there as Viceroy, Anno 1611. where in the first yeare he brought in five hundred; some whereof were hanged, some pardoned, and some committed to the Gallies: So that within two yeares of his foure yeares government, there was not a Bandit left at randon in all Sicilia; the like before was never seene in this Region, nor one in whom Astreas worth was more honoured, in fortitude of mind, and execution of true Justice than this Duke, before whose face, the silly ones did shine, and the proud stiffe-necked oppressours did tremble.

And in a word, he was no suppressour of the subjects (as many now be) to satisfie either licentious humors, or to inrich light-headed flatterers, but serving Justice, he made Justice serve him: for the equitie of Justice of itselfe, can offend none, neither of any will it be offended; [341]unlesse the corrupt tongue and hand of the mercenary Judge, suffer sound judgement to perish for temporary respects; which this noble Governour could never doe, neither suffer any inferiour Magistrate to doe the like under him: As it well appeared by his just proceedings [IX. 389.]against the Jesuites of Palermo, and his authority upon them imposed in spight of their ambition. The circumstances whereof were very plausible, if time did not slaughter my goodwill; and yet my patience could performe my paines with pleasure.

And likewise against a Seminary Gallant, a Parochial An equitable Justice for injustice sake.Priest of that same City, who had killed a Knights servant in a Brothell-house, the brother of a Shoomaker, which fellow, the Viceroy caused to Pistoll the Priest in spight of the Cardinall, and thereupon absolved him for the dead.

The Cardinall having onely for the Priests fact, discharged him to say Masse for a yeare without satisfaction for the mans life: so the Duke inhibited the Shoomaker to make shooes for a yeare, and neverthelesse allowed him two shillings a day to mainetayne him for that time.

Many singular observations have I of his government, the which to recite would prove prolixious, though worthy of note to the intellective man; hee was afterward Viceroy of Naples, and now lately deceased in Spaine. It is dangerous to travell by the Marine of the Sea-coast Creekes in the West parts, especially in the mornings, least he finde a Moorish Frigot lodged all night, under colour of a Fisher-boat, to give him a slavish breakfast: for so they steale labouring people off the fields, carrying them away captives to Barbary; notwithstanding of the strong Watch towers, which are every one in sight of another round about the whole Iland.

Their arrivalls are usually in the night, and if in day time, they are soone discovered; the Towers giving notice to the Villages, the Sea coast is quickly clad with numbers of men on foot and horse-backe: And oftentimes [342][IX. 390.]they advantagiously seaze on the Moores lying in obscure clifts and bayes. All the Christian Iles in the Mediteeranean Sea, and the Coast of Italy and Spaine, inclining to Barbary, are thus chargeably guarded with watch Towres.

The chiefe remarkeable thing in this Ile from all Antiquity is the burning Hill of Ætna, called now Monte Bello, or Gibello, signifying a faire Mountayne, so it is, being of height toward Catagna from the Sea side, fifteene Sicilian miles, and in Circuite sixty. The North side toward Rindatza at the Roote beeing unpassable steepe; yet gathering on all parts so narrow to the top, as if it had beene industriously squared, having a large prospect in the Sea; about the lower parts whereof, grow exceeding good Wines, Cornes, and Olives.

My second view of Ætna.And now in my second Travailes, and returne from Affricke, I not being satisfied with the former sight, the kinde Bishop of Rindatza courteously sent a Guide with me on his owne charges, to view the Mountayne more strictly. Ascending on the East and passable part, with tedious toyle, and curious climbing, wee approached neare to the second fire being twelve miles high; which is the greatest of the three now burning in Ætna: whose vast mouth, or gulfe is twice twelve-score long and wide, lying in a straight valley betweene a perpendicular height and the mayne Mountayne; whose terrible flames, and cracking smoake is monstrous fearefull to behold.

Having viewed and reviewed this, as neare as my Guide durst adventure (the ground meane while whereon wee stood warming our feete, and is dangerous for holes, without a perfect Guide) wee ascended three miles higher to the maine top or Cima, from which the other two fires had their beginning. Where when come, wee found it [IX. 391.]no way answerable to the greatnesse of the middle fire; the other two drawing from it the substance, wherewith it hath beene aunciently furnished; yet betweene them two upper fires, I found aboundance of Snow (beeing in July) lying on the septentrion sides of the Hill. It was [343]heere in this upmost Fornace, that Empedocles the Phylosopher cast himselfe in, to bee reputed for a god.

——Deus immortalis haberi

Dum cupit Empedocles, ardentem fervidus Ætnam


To be a god, this curious Wretch desires

And casts himselfe, in the fierce Ætnean fires.

As we discended on the North-east side, we came to the third and lowest fire, which is within a short mile of the Mountaynes foote, over against Rindatza; and if it were not for a sulphureat River, which divideth the Towne and the Hill, it would bee in danger to be burned. The lowest and third fire of Ætna.This last and least fire, runne downe in a combustible flood, from the middle above, Anno 1614. June 25. Where the Sulphure streames, before it congealed, falling in a bituminous soyle, where Wine and Olives grew there seased, and daily augmenteth more and more; having quite spoiled the Lands of two Barons in Rindatza: But the King of Spaine, in recompence of their miserable mishapes, did gratifie them with some of his Crowne lands for their maintenance.

I speake it credibly, I have found the Relickes of these Sulphure streames, which have burst forth from the upmost tops of Ætna Westward, above twenty miles in the playne. The reason of such ardent disgorgements, is thus; that when the abundance of Sulphure, being put [IX. 392.]on edge with excessive Raine, and the bituminous substance still increasing; which by the chaps, slits, and hollow chinkes of the ground (rent partly by the Sunne, and by the forcing flames) is blowne by the Wind, as by a payre of Bellowes; the vault or vast bosome, of which ugly Cell not being able to contayne such a compositure of combustible matter, it impetuously vomiteth out, in The combustious devalling of Ætnaes outragious Torrent; which precipitately devalleth, so long as the heate remayneth: and growing cold, it congealeth in huge and blacke stones, resembling Minerall mettall, and full of small holes, like to the composed [344]Cinders of a Smithes Forge, wherewith the Houses of nine Townes Circumjacent thereunto, are builded.

This is that place, which the Poets did report to bee the shop of Vulcan, where Cyclops did frame the thunder-bolts for Jupiter: Whereof Virgill doeth make his Tract, called Ætna. Under this hill the Poets faine the Gyant Enceladus to be buried, whose hote breath fireth the Mountayne, lying on his face; and to conclude of Ætna, the grosse Papists hold it to be their Purgatory.

Palermo.The chiefe Cities therein are Palermo, the Seate of the Viceroy, situate in the North-west part over agaynst Sardinia: It is a spacious City, and well Watered with delicate Fountaynes, having goodly buildings, and large streetes, whereof Strado reale is principall, beeing a mile long. In which I have seene in an evening march along for Recreation above 60. Coaches; a paire of Mulets, being tyed to every Coach: The Gallies of Sicilia, which are ten, lye here.

The second is Messina, toward the East, over against Regio, in Calabria, being impregnable, and graced with a famous haven: having three invincible Castles, the [IX. 393.]chiefe whereof, is Saint Salvator by the Sea side; there be divers other Bulwarkes of the Towne wals, that serve for offensive and defensive Forts, which is the cause (in derision of the Turkes) they never shut their Gates.

The famous City of Syracusa.The third is Syracusa, standing on the Southeast Coast fifty miles beyond Ætna, and halfe way twixt Messina and Malta, a renowned Citty, and sometimes the Metropolitane Seate: It is famous for the Arathusean springs, and Archimedes that most ingenious Mathematician: He was the first Author of the Spheere, of which instruments he made one of that bignesse, and Arte, that one standing within, might easily perceive, the severall motions, of every Cælestiall Orbe: And when the Romanes besiedged Siracusa, he made such burning glasses, that set on fire all their Shippes lying in the Road: At last he was slayne by a common Souldier in his studdy, at the sacke of the Towne, to the great griefe of Marcellus the Roman [345]Generall; when he was making plots, and drawing figures on the ground, how to prevent the assaults of the Romanes.

Trapundy.The fourth is Trapundy in the West, over agaynst Biserta in Barbary, which yeeldeth surpassing fine Salt, that is transported to Italy, Venice, Dalmatia, and Greece; made onely in some certayne Artificiall Salt pooles, by the vigorous beating of the scorching Sunne, which monthly they empty and fill. The Marine here excelleth in Ruby Corall, which setteth the halfe of the Towne at work, and when refined, is dispersed over al Christendom.

This City is in great request amongst the Papists because of the miraculous Lady heere, reputed the Ilands Protector, and sole Governour of these narrow Seas, for Shippes, Gallies, and Slaves: which indeede if an image [IX. 394.]cut out in white Marble were so powerfull, it might be credible; but besides this Idolatrous title, they superstitiously thereunto annexe a rable of absurd lies.

The fift is Catagna, placed at the Marine foot of Ætna, that was so vexed by Dionisius the Tyrant. The sixt is Matzara South-west, over against the Barbarian Promontore of Lystra, the rest be Rindatza, Terra nova, Emma, whence Pluto is sayd to have stolne Proserpina, Malzara, Francavilla, Bronzo, Terramigna, and Argenti once Agrigentum, where the Tyrant Phalaris lived, who tortured Perillus in the Brazen Bull, which he made for the destruction of others.

The Sicilian Tyrants.The tyrannies which were used in Sicilia were in times past so famous, that they grew unto this Proverbe, Invidia Siculi non invenire tyranni, tormentum majus. The elder and younger Dionisius, were such odious tyrants, and the third Dionisius worst of all, that when the people powred out continuall execrations on the last, wishing his death; onely one old woman prayed for his life: This reason she gave, since from the grandfather, his father, and he, each succeeding worser and worser, and least (said she) he dying, the divell should come in his [346]place, (for a worser never lived) I wish him to continue still.

This Kingdome after it was rent from the Romanes, remained in subjection under the French till the yeare, 1281. in which Peter of Arragon, contrived his purpose so close, that at the sound of a Bell, to the evening vespers, all the French men in Sicilia were cruelly massacred; since which time it hath ever belonged to the house of Arragon, and now of Spaine, which exploit masketh under the name of Vesperi Siculi. For nobility this Iland may compare with Naples, their styles (like unto Italy) are great, but their revenewes wondrous small.

[IX. 395.]The Sicilians have a Proverb, as having experience of both, A true comparison betweene the French and the Spaniards.that the French are wiser than they seeme, and the Spaniards seeme wiser then they are: And even as the Spaniard is extremely proud in the lowest ebbe of Fortune: So is the French man exceeding impatient, cowardly desperate, and quite discouraged in the pinch of sterne calamity. The Spaniard and the French man have an absolute opposition, and conditionall disagreement in all fashions; and in their riding both different, and defective: For the Spaniard rideth like a Monkey mounted on a Camell, with his knees and heeles alike aside, sitting on the sadle, like to a halfe ballast ship, tottering on top-tempestuous waves: And the French man, hangeth in the stirrop, at the full reach of his great toe, with such a long-legged ostentation, pricking his horse with neck-stropiat spurres, and beating the wind with his long waving limbes, even as the Turkes usually do, when they are tossed at their Byrham, hanging betweene two high trees, reciprocally waving in the ayre, from the force of two long bending ropes.

The Sicilian customes.The women ride here stridling in the sadle, and if double, the man sitteth behind the woman: The women also after the death of their friends keepe a ceremonious mourning twice a day, for a moneths space, with such yelping, howling, shouting, and clapping of hands, as if all Sicilia were surprised by the Moores: Yet neither [347]shedding teares, nor sorrowfull in heart, for they will both hollow and laugh at one time: The same custome for the dead, the Turkes observe, and all the Orientall people of Asia.

This Iland finally is famous, for the worthy Schollers shee once produced: Archimedes the great Mathematician; Empidocles, the first inventer of Rhetoricke; [IX. 396.]Euclide the textuary Geomettrician; Diodorus Siculus that renowned Historian, and Æshilus the first Tragedian of fame, who being walking in the fields, and bald through age, by chance, an Eagle taking his bald pate for a white rocke, let a shell-fish fall on it, of that bignesse, that it beat out his braines.

But to proceed in my itinerary relation, having twice imbarked at Messina for Italy, from Asia, and Affricke, I have choosed the last time (double experience, deeper knowledge) for the discourse of my departure thence: After a generall surveigh of this Iland and Monte Bello Mine arrivall at Messina.arriving at Messina, Anno 1616. August 20. I encountered with a Worshipfull English Gentleman Mr. Stydolffe Esquier of his Majesties body, accompanied with my Countrey man Mr. Wood now servant to James Earle of Carelill, who instantly were both come from Malta, the generous affabilitie of which former Gentleman to mee in no small measure was extended; meeting also afterward at Naples, as in the owne place shall be succinctly touched.

Here I found some 60. Christian Gallies, assembled to the Faire of Messina, which holdeth every yeare the 17. of August: Wherein all sorts of Merchandize are to be sold, especially raw Silke in abundance: 30 of which Gallies went to scoure the coasts of Greece. Messina is foure miles distant from Rhegio in Calabria, and two miles from the opposit Maine. This Rhegium was that Towne where Saint Paul arrived after his ship-wracke at Malta in his voyage to Rome: It was miserably sacked by the Turkish Gallies of Constantinople, Anno, 1609. but now by the Spaniards it is repaired with stronger walles, and [348]new fortifications, sufficiently able to gaine-stand any such like accidentall invasions.

[IX. 397.]In this time of mine abode here, there happily arrived from Italy my singular good friend Mr. Mathew Dowglas his Majesties Chirurgion extraordinary, being bound also for the Levant in the same voyage of the Christian incursions against the Infidels, whose presence to me after so long a sight of Hethnike strangers was exceeding comfortable, and did there propine him with this Sonnet (which I made on Ætna) as the peculiar badge of my innated love.

High stands thy top, but higher lookes mine eye,

High soares thy smoake, but higher my desire,

High are thy rounds, steepe, circled, as I see,

But higher farre this breast, whilst I aspire:

High mounts the fury of thy burning fire,

But higher far mine aimes, transcend above:

High bends thy force, through midst of Vulcans ire,

But higher flies my spirit, with wings of love,

High presse thy flames, the Christall aire to move,

But higher moves the scope of my engine,

High lieth the snow, on thy proud tops I prove,

But higher up ascends, my brave designe.

Thy height cannot surpasse this cloudy frame

But my poore soule, the highest Heavens doth claime,

Meane while with paine, I climb to view thy tops,

Thy height makes fall from me ten thousand drops.

Here in Messina I found the (sometimes) great English The death of Sir Frances Verney.Gallant Sr. Frances Verny lying sick in a Hospitall, whom sixe weekes before I had met in Palermo: Who after many misfortunes in exhausting his large patrimony, abandoning his Countrey, and turning Turk in Tunneis; he was taken at Sea by the Sicilian Gallies: In one of which he [IX. 398.]was two yeares a slave, whence hee was redeemed by an English Jesuite, upon a promise of his Conversion to the Christian faith: When set at liberty, hee turned common Souldier, and here in the extreamest calamity of extreame miseries, contracted Death: Whose dead Corpes I charitably [349]interred in the best manner, time could affoord me strength, bewailing sorrowfully the miserable mutability of Fortune, who from so great a Birth, had given him so meane a Buriall; and truly so may I say, Sic transit gloria mundi.

After sixteene dayes attendance for passage, their fortunately accoasted heere twelve Napolitan Gallies come from Apulia, and bound for Naples: In one of which, by favour of Marquesse Dell Sancta Cruce the Generall, I imbarked, and so set forward through the narrow Seas, which divide Italy and Sicilia: The strait whereof, is 24. miles in length, in breadth 6. 4. and 2. miles. This Sea, is called the faro of Messina, and fretum Siculum; at the West end whereof, wee met with two contrary chopping tides, which somewhat rusling like unto broken Seas, did choake the Gallies with a strugling force:

Incidunt in Scyllam, cupiens vitare Charibdim.

Who strive to shunne, the hard Calabrian coast,

On sandy Scilla, wrestling they are lost.

A comparison of irrepugnable streames.Yet of no such eminent perill, or repugnable Currents, as be in the firths of Stronza and Westra: especially Pentland firth, which divideth Katnes from Pemonia, the mayne Land of Orknay; wherein who unskilfully looseth from eyther sides, may quickly loose sight both of Life and Land for ever. As we entred in the Gulfe of Saint Eufemia, we fetched up the little Ile of Strombolo: This Isolet is a round Rocke, and a mile in Compasse, [IX. 399.]growing to the top like to a Pomo, or Pyramide, and not much unlike the Isolets of Basse and Elsey, through the toppe whereof, as through a Chimney arriseth a continuall fire, and that so terrible, and furiously casting foorth great stones and flames, that neyther Galley nor Boate, dare Coast or boord it.

South from hence, and in sight thereof, on the North Coast of Sicily lye the two Ilands, Vulcan Major, and Minor; whereof the lesser perpetually burneth, and the greater is long since consumed. On the fourth day we [350]touched at Ischa, the greatest Ile belonging to Naples, and 20. miles in Circuite, being strongly begirded with Rockey heights. The chiefe Towne is Ischa, whether Ferdinando of Naples fled, being thrust out of his Kingdome by Charles the eight.

A boyling Fountaine in the Ile of Ischa.There is a Fountayne here of that incredible heate, that in short time will boyle any fish or flesh put in it, and the taste agreeable to digestion. Departing from thence, and coasting the mayne shoare, we had a Moorish Frigot in Chase, where seazing on her, we found 16. Moores therein, and sixe Christians, three men, two Women, and a Boy, whom they had taken up, in going betweene two Townes by the Sea side. The Peasants were set at liberty, and the Moores immediately preferred to chaynes of Iron, bloody lashes, tugging of Gally oares, and perpetuall slavery.

Neere the Marine, and in sight of Naples, wee boorded close by the foote of the Hill Vesuvio, which in time past did burne, but now extinguished: It was here that the elder Pliny who had spent all his time in discovering the secrets of Nature; pressing neere to behold it, was stifled with the flame, so that he dyed in the same place, which [IX. 400.]is most excellently described in the Booke of his Epistles, by his Nephew the younger.

Arriving at Naples, I gave joyfull thankes to God for my safe returne to Christendome, and the day following, I went to review the auncient Monuments of Putzola or Puteoli: Which when I had dilligently remarked in my returne halfe way to Naples, I met the aforesayd English Gentleman and M. Woode, who needes would have me turne backe to accompany them hither. When come, we tooke a Guide, and so proceeded in our sights; the first The antiquities of Putzolo.thing of any note wee saw, was the stupendious Bridge, which Caius Caligula builded betweene Putzolo and Baia, over an arme of the Sea, two miles broad: Some huge Arches, Pillars, and fragments whereof remayne unruined to this day: The next, was the new made Mountayne of Sand, which hath dryed up Lago Lucrino, being by an [351]Earth-quake transported hither; at the foote of this fabolous Hill, we saw the remnants of Ciceroes Village.

Thence we came to the Temple of Apollo, standing on the East side of Lacus Avernus, the Walles whereof, and pendicles (the Tecture excepted) are as yet undemolished.

This Lake Averno is round, and hemb’d in about with comely heights, being as our Guide reported infinitely deepe, and in circuite a short mile. The West end whereof, is invironed with the Mountayne of Cuma, whether Æneas arrived when hee fled from Dido Queene of Carthage, and sister to Pigmalion King of Tyrus.

Advancing our way, along the brinke of the Lake, we Sybilaes Cave.came to Sybillaes Cave, the entery being darke, because of the obscure passage, hewen out and cut through the mayne Rocke, our Guide strooke fire, and so with a Flambo [IX. 401.]marched before us. The first passage was exceeding high Cime, and the further end stopped with mouldring earth. Inclining to our right hand, we passed through a very straite and low passage, and so arrived in Sybillaes Chamber, which is a delicate Roome, and Artificially decored with Mosaical Worke: Here it is sayd, the Divell frequented her Company, and where shee wrot her Prophecies. From thence hee conducted us through a most intricate and narrow way, (wherein we were forced to walke sidling in) to a large and vast Rome: The Rockey vault whereof, was hanging full of loose and long stones, many of which were fallen to the bottome.

This great Cell or Hall, is a yard deepe of blackish Water, The old dining roome of Sybilla.and was the dining Roome of Sybilla: In which hearing toward the further end, a scriking noyse, as if it had beene the chirking of Frogs, the hissing of Serpents, the bussing of Bees, or snarling of Wolves; we demanded our Guide from whence such a sound proceeded? Who answered, they were Dragons and flying Serpents, praying us to Returne, for the fellow was mightily affrayde: Whereat I laughing, Replyed, there was no such matter; and M. Stydolffe desirous to know it, hee onely and I, leaving the other two behind us, adventured the tryall: [352]Having more then halfe way entered in this Sale, stepping on huge stones because of the Water, and I carrying the Flambo, for lacke of ayre, being so far under ground, the light perished. Whereupon wee hollowed to our Guide, but the Reverberating Eccho avoyded the sense of our words, neyther would he, nor durst he hazard to support us.

Meanewhile it being Hell-darke, and impossible to find such a difficult way backe, and tendering (as by duty) the [IX. 402.]worthy Gentleman, I stepped downe to my middle thigh in the water, wrestling so along to keepe him on the dry stones. Where indeed I must confesse, I grew affrighted for my legs, fearing to be interlaced with water Serpents, and Snakes, for indeed the distracting noyse drew aye nearer and nearer us. At last, falling neare the voyce of our guide, who never left shouting, wee returned the same way wee came in, and so through the other passages, till wee were in open fields.

Here indeed for my too much curiosity, I was condignely requited, being all bemired and wet to the middle, yet forthwith the vigorous Sunne disburdned me quickly thereof: From thence (to be briefe) we came to The ancient varieties of the antiquities of Putzolo.the Bagni, the relicts of Pompeis Village, to the Fort of Baia, and the Laborinth of Ciento Camarello, into the admirable fish ponds of Lucullus, (the coverture of which, is supported by 48. naturall pillars of stony earth) to the detriments of Messina, Mercato sabbato, and the Elisian fields: Thence we returned by the Sepulcher of Agricula, the mother of cruell Nero, who slit up her belly to see the matrix wherein he was conceived; and by the two decayed Temples of Venus, and Mercury: Crossing over in a boat to the Towne of Putzolo, the chiefe monument we saw, was the auncient Temple of Jupiter, who serveth now for their Domo, or Parochiall Church: The latter Idolatry of which, is nothing inferiour to the former.

Meanewhile here arrived the French Gallies, fetching home Chevalier du Vandum, the Prior of France from Malta: Who scouring the coast of the lower Barbary, their [353]fortune was to fall upon a misfortunate English ship belonging to Captaine Pennington, which they as a Cursaro or man of Warre confiscated. Their Anchors [IX. 403.]fallen, I boorded the Queenes Galley, where to my great griefe I found a Countrey-man of speciall acquaintance, The Mr. of a Scots ship distressed by evill misfortune.George Gib of Burrowtownenes (who was Pylot to the English) fast chained to an oare, with shaven head and face: Who had his owne shippe twice seazed on by the Turkes, and Mamora, which ship he lastly recovered at the Ile Sardinia, and sold her at Naples being miserably worme-eaten. To whose undeserved miseries, in my charitable love, I made a Christian oath, that at my arrivall in England, I should procure by the helpe of his friends, his Majesties letters to the Duke of Guyse Admirall, for his deliverance. But soone thereafter, being of a great spirit, his heart broke, and so died in Marseils.

Tempora labuntur, tacitisque senescimus annis,

Et fugiunt fræno, non remorante Dies.

Times slide away, gray haires come posting on,

No reyne can hold, our dayes so swiftly gon.

Departing from Putzolo, we came to the Sulphatara, where the fine Brimstone is made, which is a pretty incircling Plaine, standing upon a moderate hight; having three vents, through two of which, the smoaking flame ariseth, and the other produceth no fire; but after an excessive raine surgeth sixe foote high with blacke boyling water, which continueth so long as the rayne lasteth.

From thence (our Guide leaving us) we came to Grotto di cane; wherein if a Dogge be cast he will suddenly die, and taken thence, and cast in the Lake, he will forthwith revive: This Grotto or Cave, standeth on the side and root of a sulphure hill, the brinke of Lago di Avagno: We desirous to make tryall of a Dog; and finding the [IX. 404.]fellow that purposely stayeth there somewhat extortionable, I adventured in stead of a Dog to make tryall of my selfe; Whereupon Maister Stydolffe holding up the quartered doore, I entered to the further end thereof, [354]bringing back a warme stone in each hand from thence: whereat the Italians swore, I was a Divell and not a man: for behold (say they) there was a French Gentleman the former yeare, who in a Bravado, would needes goe in: whereupon hee was presently stifled to death, and here lyeth buried at the mouth of the Grotto to serve for a caveat, to all rash and unadvised strangers to doe the like.

The dangerous Dogs Cave neare unto Putzolo.The relation indeed was true, but I counting nothing of it, would needes (sore against the Gentleman and Master Woods will) goe in againe, where entred to the bottome being ten paces long, the moysty and choaking heat did so suffocate and benumbe my senses, that with much adoe I returned backe; where receiving the fresh ayre, and a little Wine, I presently forgot my former trance: which when the Dog-keeper saw, he for an easie composition made triall of his Dog; and having tyed a string to his hinder leg, he cast the Dog scarce halfe way in the Cave, where immediately his tongue hanging out, he fell downe dead: And forthwith his Master repulling him backe, cast him in the Lake, powring in water in his eares, but hee could never recover his life. Whereupon the poore man cried out, alas I am undone, what shall I doe, the Dog that wonne my dayly food is dead; in compassion whereof the worthy Gentleman doubled his wages.

In our way and returne to Naples, we passed through Virgils Grot, being halfe a mile long, and cut through the maine body of a Rocke, whereby the Mountaine of Cataia [IX. 405.]by the Sea-side is made passable; at the East end whereof neare the Cyme of the vault is Virgils Tombe: and arrived at Naples, Mr. William Stydolffe reporting to divers of his Countrey Gentlemen and mine, of my adventure in Grotto di Cane, they could hardly be perswaded to beleeve it: But when avouched, they all avowed I had done that (so did divers Neapolitans) which never man had done before me reserving life.

Bidding farewell to my generous friends, I marched through Terra di lavoro, and in the way of Saint Germane, and Mount Cassino to Rome; within ten miles of Capua, [355]Great poverty under great titles.I found the poorest Bishop (Nomen sine re) the world affoordeth: having no more (nor never had he, nor any before him) than dui Carolini or Juletti twelve pence a day to spend. So is there many a Marquesse, Earle, Baron, and Knight in Italy, who is unable at one time, to keepe a foote-man at his heeles, a Dog at his foote, a Horse betweene his legs, a good sute of clothes on his backe, and his belly well fed; so glorious be their stiles, and so miserable their revenewes.

Touching at Rome, I secretly borrowed one nights lodging there, and at the breach of day another houres sight and conference, with my Cousing Simeon Grahame; who ere the Sunne arose, crossing Ponto flamingo, brought me on in my journey, till a high way Taverne like a Jayle held us both fast, where leaving our reciprocall loves behind us, wee divided our bodies East and West.

And now ere I leave Rome, I thinke it best, to let our Papists here at home, see the shamefull lives & cruell deaths, of most of their Popes beyond Seas: which their owne best Authors in France, Italy, and Spaine, have justly & condignely avouched & recorded; & authorized also to light by their prime powers civil and spirituall. [IX. 406.]The papists generally hold, that in their Popes, is all power; Super omnes Potestates, tam Cæli quam Terræ; above all powers both in Heaven and Earth: They tearme him Alter Deus in terris; a second God upon the Earth: Deus mortalis in terris, et immortalis homo in Cælis; a mortall god upon the Earth, and an Immortall man in the Heavens: Some of them have allotted, that he is, Non deus, non homo, sed utrunque; neyther God nor man but both: The Popes former title was Servus servorum Dei; and they call him Rex Regum, Dominus Dominantium, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords.

The false and arrogant titles of the Pope.Paul the third, entering Tolentino in the vale of Ombria joyning with Tuscany, had this salutation: Paulo tertio, Maximo, in terris Deo; to Paule the third, the best, and greatest God on earth. Then since they will have them gods, above the God of Gods; tell me I pray [356]you, what a May pole Dauncer, was John 12. alias 13. of 18. yeares old, who made the Lateran their great Church in Rome, a playne Stewes or Brothel house.

What a Pope-boy of twelve yeares old, was Benedict the ninth? and after wrought by inchantments. Another Pope they had, whom they called Unum pecus, in co quod de mane faciebat gratiam, et de sero revocabat: A very Asse, for in the morning hee would grant many great kindnesses, and at night revoake them all agayne. What a thiefe was Pope Boniface the seventh? who robbed St. Peters Church? What a sodomiticall Pope was Sixtus the fourth; who builded Stewes of both kindes, granting his Cardinals the use of Sodomy, for three hote moneths. What an Atheisticall Pope, was Leo the tenth? who called the Gospell a Fable. What a Hereticall Pope was Honorius the first? who by sixe general Counsels, was [IX. 407.]condemned for a Monothelit: What a perjured Pope was Gregory the twelfth? and openly forsworne: What a Negromancer was Silvester the second? who gave himselfe both soule and body to the divell, to attaine the Popedome: What was Pope John the eleventh, but a bastardly brat to Pope Sergius? What a sorcerer, Charmer, and Conjurer, was Hildebrand, called Gregory the seventh? given to all beastlinesse, and diabolicall practices; this was he that threw the Sacrament in the fire: What was A tract of beastly Popes and cruell Villaines.Innocent the third? who was branded with this black marke, non est innocentius, imo nocens vere, he is not innocent; but very nocent: What a wicked and cruell murtherer was John the twelfth a Romane borne, who caused to cut off the nose of one Cardinall, and the thumbe of another Cardinall; onely because they had wrot the whole tract of his abhominable vices to the Emperour Otho.

What an inhumane and homicidious Pope was Stephanus the seventh? who after he had cancelled the decrees of his predecessour Formosus, caused to deterre his dead body, cut off his fingers, and lay him in the fields to be devoured with the fowles of the aire: What a beastly [357]Pope was Sergius the third? that after he had imprisoned Christopholus his predecessor, he caused to draw out the corps of Pope Formosus his old compeditor from the grave, and cut off his head, as though hee had beene alive.

What a cruelty was shown upon John the 17. who after he was depraved his Papacy, had his eyes pulled out, his nose cut off and his members, and was hanged: What a poysonable Pope was Damasus? who poysoned his predecessour Clemens the second, to attaine the Papality, and yet dyed within a moneth there after being Pope: What [IX. 408.]a mercilesse Pope was Boniface the seventh, that after he had Rob’d Saint Peters Church and fled to Constantinople, hearing that Pope John the 14. was replaced, he returned, and pulling out his eyes, did cast him in prison, where he dyed of extreame hunger. What a persecution had Gelase borne in Gaetta neare Naples, who first by the Romanes was imprisoned, then stoned through the Citty, miserably dyed. Gregory the 8. succeeding him, was Deposed by Caliste brother to the Duke of Burgondy, who imprisoned the other, and starving him to Death, made him selfe Pope.

What devotion fell out from the braines of Rome, to stone Pope Lucius the second to Death: What a shamefull division was in your Papality; for fifty yeares, when Urbanus lived Pope at Rome and his Successours; and Clemens 7. and his Successors at Avigneon. Nay, you have had three Popes at one time; even when Sigismond King of Hungary and Boheme was elected Emperour, to wit. Three severall Popes living at one time.Benedict 3. at Avigneon; John 23. at Bullogna; and Gregory the twelfth at Rimini: I pray you, could every one of them open and shut the Gates of Heaven and Hell. What an Infidell, was Pope John 22. who denied the immortality of the Soule.

What was Clement the 5. but an open Whore munger and a drunken sot. What was Boniface the 8. he was called a Theefe, a Robber, and rooted in all unspeakable sinnes, the eight Nero of Rome. What a furious and [358]wicked Pope, was Julius the second? who given more to Warre then to Christ, cast Saint Peters keyes (as they call them) into Tiber. What a prophaine skoffer of Christ, was Paule the third? who lying in bed with his owne Cousin Laura Farnesia, was sore wounded by her Husband; he lay with his owne Daughter, and poysoned her Husband; and then lay with his owne sister, and [IX. 409.]after poysoned both her and his owne mother. What was Julius the third? an open Sodomite, and horrible blasphemer. What was Pope Eugenius? a damnable scandalizer of the Church, and condemned by the Counsel of Basil, for an incorrigible and wilfull Hereticke. Pope John 23. was deposed by the Counsell of Constance, for Heresie, Symony, Murther, Enchantment, Adultery, and The Papists may looke here upon divellish Popes.worst of all for Sodomy. What was Pope John 13. a vilde monster in his life, committing incest with both his sisters, and fathers Concubine Stephana: Hee was a gamster, and playing at Dice, did call for helpe to the Divel, and would drinke to the Divels health; hee was repleate with all abhominable vices; at last being taken in the acte of Adultery, was wounded to Death.

Boniface the 8. afore named, came to bee Pope, by cousning his predecessour Celestine, in speaking through the Wall in a Reed (as if it had beene a voyce from Heaven) admonished him to surrender his Papacy; whose Epithit was thus: Intravit ut Vulpes, Regnavit ut Lupus, Mortuus est ut Canis: He came in like a Fox, he ruled like a Wolfe, he dyed like a Dogge.

At the sixt Counsell of Carthage, was not the treachery and falshood of Pope Zosimus, condignely sifted out, in corrupting for ambitious government the Counsell of Nyce. Bernard about 500. yeares agoe, complayned much of the Tyranny of popes in his time, calling them Defrauders, Raveners, Traytors, darknesse of the world, Pilats, Wolves, and Divels.

Albertus Magnus affirmeth, that they who now governe their Church, are for the most part Theeves and Murtherers. And Platina, calleth some of their popes [359]vile Monsters, uncleane beasts, and strange creatures. And I remember it was noted by a Historian: Episcopos [IX. 410.]Romanos ne peccata quidem sine laude committere: The Popes could do nothing, were it never so mischievous, but it was commendable.

And even likewise are their prime Pardons, for Noxas preteritas, aut futuras: and their future potestatem, tam quo ad commissa, quam quo ad committenda crimina absolvenda; That his Holinesse hath all manner of power, as well to absolve them from crimes to commit, as from crimes committed. And I remember about twenty yeares A false cannonized Saint.ago Paulo Papa quinto, Cannonized Carolo Borrameo, the late Bishop of Milane for a notable Saint, being knowne to bee a notorious and scelerate liver: done sooner by fifteene yeares then their ordinary time, and that for the touch of forty thousand Duckats; allotting Prayers, Miracles, Pardons, and Pilgrimages to him, and erecting a new Order of Friers, and Monasteries unto him. And yet the poore Bishop of Lodi, a good and charitable liver by all reports, could never, nor cannot attayne to the dignity of a Saint, his meanes was so small when dead, and his friends so poore being alive.

And how wonderfull absurd is the Popes Bulla di Santa Cruzada, pro defunctis in Purgatory; that for one Pater noster, at a Masse saying, or a Masse sayd for them: Sicavano fuora dalla Purgatorio, tre anime qualche ci vogliano, viz. You shall relieve any three soules out of Purgatory whom you please. Nay, I have seene the Popes Edict so gracious, that induring one Masse, as many Paters as you can recite, as many soules you free from thence.

And thus me thinketh in one halfe yeare, he might soone empty that purging pit: Yet unlesse the Suppliant touch with his finger, during his Prayers, a gaudy beede [IX. 411.]inraveled betweene five small fast made irons, placed before the Altar; their Bulla, their payment for it; their Paters, their Devotion for their friends soules, are all lost. Then say, if peradventure, the friends of the defunct be oblivious [360]in this officiousnesse, and neglect both the Ceremony, and Pater noster, might not the Pope justly be reputed a cruell Monster, that for want of pattering an abridged Pater, his Cerberian Office in Hell, should detayne any poore soule in such torments, as they say are in Purgatory.

Infinite passages of the like kind could I Recite, if I had longer time and larger leisure; and especially of their miraculous leyes, or leying Miracles; in erecting of falshood, and maintayning of perjury; but till a fitter occasion, I will revert to my Itinerary Discourse, and so proceede. Having left my afore-sayde friend Maister Grahame, at a Taverne at Bilbo neere to Rome, I set forward through the vaile of Ombria and the Countrey Romania, Ravenna the chiefe City of Romania.whereof Ravenna is Lady, and the Pope Lord, I arrived (the way of Ferrara and Padua) at Venice. Who then was levying an Army against the Croatian Scokes of Gradisca, and the Duke of Grasso now Emperour. Of which Army Count Mansfield was Generall, and with whom I crossed the Gulfe to Pola in Istria, and from thence to the siege of Gradisca: The discourse whereof, I have here formerly avouched in the second Part of my first Travailes. Now to speake of a Souldier, certainely hee is more then prayse-worthy and fortunate, that hath faced the Low-Countries, reviewed Briscia in Lombardy, and footed and sighted the Arsenal of Venice, then his eyes have first seene, the sonnes, the force, the policies and Kingdome of Mars: Secondly, the fiery shoppe of Vulcan, where rarest Armes and Weapons are hammer’d out upon the Anvill, for the honour of [IX. 412.]Mars; and lastly the incomparable Armory or store-house for Sea and Land, the Meggazin and treasury of Mars.

Now leaving both the Armies barking at other like to Hircanian wolves, I traced the fertile soyles of Carindia, Carneola, Vienne in Austria no way answerable to common fame.and Stria even to Vienna: all which were subject to the Emperour, save a part of Carneola, that groanes under the Turke. Being arrived at Vienne, I found the Towne, and the flying fame of it far different, either for [361]greatnesse, strength, or wealth: for the Towne rising upon a moderat height circular, is but of small compasse without, not passing two English miles.

The suburbs round about, being twice as great as the Towne; and the strength of it is no way comparable to a hundred Cities that I have seene, neither is it for wealth so much to be admired, being depraved of Seas, shipping, and navigation, having onely the needfull prosperity of dry land Townes.

Here I found a Turkish Ambassadour, going downe the Champion Danubio of Europe, for Constantinople; and with him one Gratianus, a Greeke his Interpreter, to whose familiar love I was much obliged; and with whom I imbarked downe the River to Presburge a place where the Hungarian Crowne is kept, and from thence discending the River to Comorre, the downemost Towne the Emperour retayneth on Danubio, I left my noble Interpreter, and traversed the Champaine Countrey.

The chiefe Townes whereof I wil briefly touch, and so proceed: Buda is the capitall Citie of Hungary, wherein the Turkish Bassaw hath his residence, and was taken in by Solyman the Emperour, the twenty of August 1526. the other is the aforesaid Presburge, aunciently Bosonia; [IX. 413.]the rest are Belgrad or Albegrek, aunciently Taurinum, in Dutch Griechs: Weissenberge, that was taken by Soliman, 1520. Valpa, and Singidum, upon the Danubio, both under the Turke, and that of the seven Churches upon the River Drana taken in, in the yeare one thousand five hundred and forty three, and Zigeth taken also in the yeare one thousand five hundred sixty sixe.

The special Townes of Hungary.Moreover upon the Danubio, the Towne Strigonium commonly Grana, and Alberoyall otherwise Stulvesenburg, a place destined for the Sepultures and Coronations of the Kings of Hungary, and was taken by the Turkes, Anno 1543.

Neare the same place is Stridon, where they say St. Jerome was borne: And now above all other the strong Towne of Gamorra, standing in an Ile of the Danuby of [362]that same name, which the Turkes have so oft besieged, yet never could surprise it.

There is also Tockay, and Januarin or Rab seated too upon Danuby, a Towne as it were impregnable, yet it was overtaken by the Turkes, and lastly recovered by the Christians.

The forces of the Bassa of Buda.The Beglerbeg of Buda, hath under his command, eight thousand Timariots, and twelve thousand common Souldiers which lye in Garrison, in continuall pay on the confines of Hungary, Croatia, and Dacia, and these confines belonging to the house of Austria: The Bassa hath under his authority 13. Sanzacks, lying at these thirteene Townes here undernamed, to wit, Novaguard, Semendria, Simontorno, Zetshen, Ecclesiæ, Sirnium, Capan, Zornock, Alba Regalis, Sigedin, Mucchatz, Zegedin, and Sexard.

The other Beglerbegship of Hungary is at Temesara, who retaineth under his command eight Sanzacks and as [IX. 414.]many jurisdictions, spreading his authoritie over sixe thousand Timariots, and eight thousand foote souldiers; and these Sanzacks lying at Temesara, Lippa, Itishinad, Mudania, &c. The great Turke hath eight Beglerbegs or Bassawes under him in Europe; that of Bosna being one of them, who commandeth ten Sanzacks and eight thousand Timariots; the residence of which Bassa is at Bagivialezza, a commodious place lying in the midst of circulating Provinces; over which he spreads the Ballucco of his power.

Hungary is a most fertile and fruitfull soyle.The soyle of Hungary aboundeth infinitly in all things the earth can produce for the well of man; and produceth admirable good Wines, the best whereof grow neare and about the Towne of Sirmia, and so sweet, that they may compare with the Wines of Candy, yea, and aboundeth in all kind of bestiall, that it is thought this Kingdome may furnish all Europe with Beefe and Mutton.

The Hungarians are descended of the Hunnes, a people of Scythia or Tartary. The auncient Inhabitants divided their habitations in nine circles, which the Germanes named Hagyes, and impaled them with high walles, made [363]The first plantation of Hungary.of earth and wood, being twenty foote high, and as much in breadth, being rampierd with divers Bulwarks and Towers of earth, whereon grew all sorts of hearbes, and fructiferous trees.

The space from side to side of each one of these circles, amounted to twenty Dutch miles; the Townes, Villages and houses being within, and so contrived, that each one was within cry of another: this was the first admirable plantation of the Hunnes in this Kingdome.

The Hungarians have ever beene thiftuous, treacherous and false, so that there one brother will hardly trust another, which infidelity among themselves and distracted deceitfull governours, was the chiefest cause of their overthrow [IX. 415.]and subjection under Infidels: And so have corrupt Counsellors, and insolent Princes beene the ruine of their owne Kingdomes; for if we would have a Prince fit to governe others, and to direct him selfe with the square rules of wisdome and judgement, to know how to become all places, and to use all fortunes; let him bind his tender youth with a disposition temperd with sadnesse: for such a man can neither seduce his minority with ill examples, nor marre his waxen age with a false impression, too common a condition of these dissolute times.

The infinite riches of Hungary.Now as for the Hungar soyle, and Kingdome it selfe, and for the goodnes of it, it may be tearmed the girnell of Ceres, the Garden of Bachus, the Pastorage of Pan, and the richest beauty of Silvan: for I found the Wheat here growing higher then my head, the Vines over looking the trees, the Grasse jusling with my knees, and the high-sprung Woods, threatning the clouds: surely if I should enter on particulars here, I have more subject to worke upon, than any Kingdome that ever I saw: The Kingdome is divided in two parts, the higher and the lower, the lowest, largest, and best is under the Turke, and the other narrow proportion under the Emperour.

The Hungarian miles are the longest upon earth, for every one of theirs, is sixe of our Scots miles, nine English: so that the most that ever I could travell there [364]in one day, was but sixe miles: Their language hath no affinity with any other kind of speech, and yet the greatest part of the Countrey both under the Turke and Emperour are Protestants, and are the best of all the rest, the other being Arians and Papists.

There is a great Gentry in this Kingdome, but untravelled abroad, farre lesse mannerly at home, being [IX. 416.]luxurious and ill taught, and damnably given to that Masculine misery, the whole Southerne World is defiled with. Having now traversed all the Countrey to Grana, and so to Gatterad in Valechia, I found the Country so covered with Woods, and them full of Murtherers (for I was robbed on these confines, and hardly saved my life) I was constrayned I say, to returne to Tockai in the higher Hungary, and from thence in one day I stepped into Transilvania.

A description of Transilvania.This Countrey is so environed with high and unpassable mountaines about, that there is but only five entries to come into it, which make it so strong and impregnable: Within there is a rich bottome or plaine of thirty miles long, and sixe broad, being beautified with six faire Townes; the chiefest whereof, are Cromestate, Juliastrad, and Hermestat. The sides of the mountaynes within rise all upward halfe levell way even to the tops, which maketh a pleasant and prospective Countrey, and the best mixt soyle of Europe: For on the incircled plaine, there groweth nothing but Wheat, Rye, Barley, Pease, and Beanes: And on the halfe, or lower parts of the Hills about, nothing but Wines, and infinite Villages; and toward the extreame circulary heights, only Pastorage for Kine, Sheepe, Goates, and Horses, and thickets of woods: So fram’d that every one supplieth another, for they of the Valley furnish the other two parts with Victuall, and they againe them with Wines, Bestiall, Butter, and Cheese; each interchanging all necessary things with one another as they need. Here I found every where kind and familiar people; yea, and the very Vulgars speaking frequent Latine, and so commonly doe all the Hungarians. [365]The Inhabitants here are all Protestants, but for their Vayvod or Prince Bethlem Gabor, I saw him not, for hee [IX. 417.]was lying sicke of a Feaver at Juliastrad: This Province is a free Principality, and notwithstanding adherent in some respect to the authority of the Turke. But now having left this Religious Country, and crossing the North passage of the Hils, called the Borean Berger, or North mountaine, I entred in Moldovia; where for my welcome in the midst of a border-Wood, I was beset with six [IX. 418.]murderers, Hungarians and Moldavians: where having with many prayers saved my life, they robbed mee of threescore Hungar Duccats of gold, and all my Turkish clothes, leaving me stark naked; save onely they returned to me my Patents, Papers, and Seales.

The Author beset with six murderers in Moldavia

The Author beset with six murderers in Moldavia

This done, and for their better security, they caryed mee a little out of the way, and bound my naked body fast about the middle to an Oaken tree, with wooden ropes, and my armes backward so likewise: swearing to me, that if I cryed for helpe, or marred them of their designes before the Sun set, they would turne backe and kill me; promising then to set me free.

A joyfull deliverance from a desperate thraldome.But night come, and I forgotten, was left here in a trembling feare, for Wolves and wild Boares till the morrow; where at last by Gods providence I was relieved in the morning by a company of Heards: who clothing me with an old long coat of theirs, and refreshing me with meat; one of them caryed me five leagues unto the Lord of the ground, the Baron of Starhulds a Moldavian Protestant, with whom I stayed fifteene dayes: And was more than repaired of all my losses, by his owne bounty, and Noble Kinsmen, his neighbouring friends, and would not suffer mee to goe any further in the Countrey, because of the Turkes jealousie over strangers, in regard it was but lately wrested from a Christian Prince, with whom I was conversant at Constantinople in Sir Thomas Glover, the Ambassadours house.

Well, I yeeld to the Noble mans counsell, and giving him all dutifull thankes for his kind regards, he sent a [366]guide with mee for two dayes journey through a part of Podolia, the upmost Countrey of Polland, bordering with Tartary.

The halfe of which Countrey I found left disinhabited [IX. 419.]and desolat by incursions of Tartarians. Here I determined to have entered in Tartary, but finding no conduct nor assurance of my safety, I continued my course to Crocavia, situat on the upper Frontiers of Polland bordering with Hungary.

Tartary is thought to be sixe hundred leagues in length, confining Eastward with China, to the South with the Caspian Sea, to the North with Russia, and to the West with Podolia, and Moldavia.

The Tartars are mighty oppressours of Podolia in Poland.The Tartars are not expert in Warre, neither are they so valerous as the Turkes, nor so manly as the Polonians, who counter-blow them at rancounters; neverthelesse by stealth of inroades, they mightily suppresse the extreamest parts of Polland. The Turkes tearme the Cham or Emperour of Tartary, Vlakim, that is a great Prince, and the Moscovites call him Catzar Cataiski, to wit, the Cæsar of Cataia: And hee is so obeyed and reverenced among the Tartars, that they intitulate him the sonne of God, the man of God, and the soule of God: yea, and the greatest Oath that they thinke can be sworne, which they usually doe in matters of fidelitie and importance, is by his Throne Royall.

This custome of idolatrous obeysance, came first by one Rangavistah, who being chosen to be their Emperour, would try their promptnesse and goodwill of obedience towards him, commanding seven of his chiefest Princes, and head Governours under him of the people, to kill their Infants, with their owne hands.

And notwithstanding the Commandement seemed very rude and intollerable, yet they fearing the common people, who esteeme their Emperours to be the divine Kinsmen [IX. 420.](as it were) of God; they did cut the throats every one of them, of their owne Children, before his owne eyes, and the sight of the people. [367]

Insomuch that ever since, the life and death of the Tartars, depend upon the good-will and word of the King, which no way they dare contradict, such is the ignorant A love not worthy thinks.reverence they carry toward him. As for the idolatrous Rites they use at his Death, in inclosing or interring quicke in a Vault neere to his Tombe, one of every Office that he loved best, being alive, to goe serve him in Paradice; I will not meddle with it, neither with the Vulgars Superstition, who Religiously feast upon the Corpes of their aged Parents, and then doe burne their bones into ashes, giving them such a buriall, as we give our Witches; for indeede the Wormes come short among the dead Tartars of their foode.

Being arrived in Crocko or Crocavia, the capitall City of Polland (though but of small importance) I met with diverse Scotish Merchants, who were wonderfull glade of mine arrival there, especially the two brothers Dicksones, men of singular note for honesty and Wealth. It was my lucke heere, to bee acquainted with Count du Torne, the first Noble-man of Boheme, who had newly broake out The Counte of Torne fled from Prage to Poland.of Prison in Prage, and fled hither from Bohemia for safety. Mathias then being Emperour, against whom hee had highly offended in boasting him in his Bed-Chamber with hard and intollerable speeches: Saying to Mathias in his face, and before his Wife the Empresse: Loe there is the right hand that helped to put the Imperial Crowne on thy head, and behold now there is my foote shall strike it off againe.

This Fugitive Earle stayed me with him ten dayes to discourse, and beare him Company, for then hee had but [IX. 421.]onely one follower that came post with him: I found him Princely disposed in all things, and very familiar in his cariage: This Sigismond King of Polland did marry two sisters of Ferdinando now Emperour.At last his trayne and treasure comming with many other Bohemian Barons and Gentlemen his friends, I humbly left him, and touching at Lubilina where the Judges of Polland sit for halfe the yeare, I arrived at Warsow, the resident place for the King Sigismond who had newly married the other Sister of his former Wife [368]being both Sisters to this Ferdinando now Emperour: A match I dare say more fit for the savage Sabuncks of Lybia, than for a Christian Prince or shepheard.

But it is no matter Pope Paulus Quintus gave him licence, and in that liberty, a wide passage to Purgatory: who, when dead that incestuous guilt will bee royally purged; loe there his pontificall absolution.

Betweene Crocavia, and Warsow Lubilina; lying halfe way it is a hundred Pollonian miles or French leagues: Here I found abundance of gallant rich Merchants my Countrey-men, who were all very kind to me, and so were they by the way in every place where I came, the conclusion being ever sealed with deepe draughts, and God be with you.

Polland is a large and mighty Kingdome, puissant in Horse-men, and populous of strangers; being charged with a proud Nobility, a familiar and manly Gentry, and a ruvidous vulgarity: They are all for the most part, of square and thicke bodies, having Bull-necks, great thighes and legs, grim and broad faces, and commonly their shaven heads are finely covered with overthwarting strokes of crooked shables: for they, and the Armenians of Asia are of stature and thicknesse the biggest, and grossest people the world affoordeth.

The soyle is wonderfull fruitfull of Cornes, so that this [IX. 422.]Countrey is become the Girnell of Westerne Europe for all sorts of graine, besides Honey, Waxe, Flaxe, Iron, and other commodities: And for auspicuousnesse, I may rather Polland is the Nurse of Scotlands common younglings.tearme it to be a Mother and Nurse, for the youth and younglings of Scotland, who are yearely sent hither in great numbers, than a proper Dame for her owne birth; in cloathing, feeding, and inriching them with the fatnesse of her best things; besides thirty thousand Scots families, that live incorporate in her bowells. And certainely Polland may be tearmed in this kind, to be the mother of our Commons, and the first commencement of all our best Merchants wealth, or at the least most part of them.

And now ceasing to peramble through any moe particulars [369]of this familiar Nation to us, I was kindly transported from Warsow upon a Waggon to Dansick, being fifty leagues distant, with a Generous young Merchant William Bailey my cliddisdale Countrey man, to whose courtesies I still rest thankfull.

Here in Dansick I fell deadly sicke for three weekes space, insomuch that my Grave and Tombe was prepared by my Countrey-men there.

Neverthelesse in end (it pleased almighty God) I recovered my health, and then imbarked for Alseynure in Denmarke, where being better convalessed, I recoursed backe in a Flemish Pink to Stockhollem: where after five or sixe dayes being there, and finding my sicknesse like to returne againe, and fearing the worst, I made hast for England.

At last finding the commodity of an English shippe belonging to Ratcliffe, wee hoysed sayle, and set forward through the sound, or Belticke Sea for Alseynure agayne: Whence after three dayes abode, bidding farwell to that [IX. 423.]tributary Towne and Castle, wee Coasted the scurrile and Rockey face of Norway, at two severall parts, but not without great stormes, and contrary Windes, yea and once finally indangered with a threatening shipwracke, which with good lucke we happily escaped.

These tempestuous dangers past, upon the seaventh day the winds refavouring us, wee safely arrived at London, from whence I first began this Voyage, and there ended my second Peregination.

Magnum virtutis principium est, ut dixit paulatim exercitatus animus visibilia & transitoria primum Commutare, ut post-modum possit derelinquere. Delicatus ille est adhuc, cui patria dulcis est, fortis autem jam cui omne solum patria est: perfectus vero, cui mundus exilium est.





Contayning the third Booke, of my third Travailes.

Now swolne ambition, bred from curious toile

Invites my feet, to tread parch’d Æthiops Soile,

To sight great Prester Jehan, and his Empire;

That mighty King, their Prince, their Priest, their Sire;

Their Lawes, Religion, Manners, Life and frame,

And Amais, mount-rais’d, Library of Fame.

Well, I am sped, bids Englands Court adiew,

And by the way the Hiberne bounds I view;

In whose defects, the truth like Razor sharpe

Shall sadly tune, my new-string’d Irish Harpe:

Then scud I France, and crossed the Pyrheneise

At the Columbian heights, which threat the skies;

And coasting Pampelon, I trac’d all Spaine,

From Behobia, to Jubile Taure againe.

Then rest’d at Malaga, where I was shent

And taken for a Spie, crush’d, rackt, and rent.

Where ah! (when Treason tride) by fals position;

They wrest’d on me their lawlesse Inquisition:

Which after Tortures, Hunger, Vermine gnashes,

[X. 425.]Condemn’d me quick, stake-bound, to burn in ashes:

Gods Providence comes in, and I’me discovered

By Merchants meanes, by Aston last delivered:

Where noble Maunsell, Generall of that Fleete,

That I was rack’t for; did kind Halkins greete [371]

With strict command, to send me home for Court,

To show King James, my torments, pangs, and tort:

Loe I am come, to Bath I’me sent, and more

Mine hoplesse life, made Worlds my sight deplore;

Which here I’le sing, in Tragicke tune to all

That love the Truth, and looke for Babels fall.

But now having finished the two Descriptions, of my first and second adventures; it rests now most necessary, to relate the meritorious designe, and miserable effect of my third Voyage. After I had (I say) by the great Providence of God, escaped infinite dangers, by Seas suffering thrice shipwracke, by Land, in Woods and on Mountaynes often invaded; by ravenous Beasts, crawling and venemous Wormes daily incombred; by home-bred Robbers, and remote Savages; five times stripd to the skin; excessive fastidiousnesse, unspeakable adversities, parching heates, scorching drouth, intollerable distresses of hunger, imprisonments, and cold; yet all these almost incredible sufferings past, could never abate the flame of mine austiere affection conceived; but ambitious curiosity, exposing me to a third Voyage, I may say as Æneas did in his penetentiall mood:

O socii neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum,

O passi graviora, dabit Deus his quoque finem.

[X. 426.]O Socials! we’re not ignorant of losses;

O suffrings sad, God too, will end these crosses.

But to observe a methodicall order, I thinke it best to show the unacquainted Reader, a reasonable satisfaction for undertaking this third, and almost invincible attempt.

First, the most speciall and urgent cause, proceeded from a necessary good (the necessity of knowledge) in the requisite perfection, of Europes full and spacious sight, the ancient Tierce, and now most Christian world; wanting formerly no part thereof unseene, as well under [372]the Turke as Christian, except Ireland and the halfe of Spaine.

Certaine approved reasons.The second cause was mooved, from a more insatiate content, that when I had, and having compassed all Europe, my Resolution, was to borrow a larger dimmense of ground in Affricke then formerly I had done in twice before, even to Æthiopia, Prester Jehans Dominions. For the same effect, and a greater impression to my Resolution, I set Pen to Paper, drawing from the distaffe of the Retractable Muses, a Poeticall Pamphelet; Dedicated to themselves, to their profound Apollo, his then hopefull Heire, and diverse Noble Peeres of both Kingdomes.

And having from a Royall favour obtayned his Majesties Letters and Seales of safe Conduct, and Regall recommendation, to all Kings, Princes and Dukes, &c. I in all obsequious humility, bad farewell, to this sequestrate and most auspicuous Monarchy; and arriving at Dublin in Ireland, August the two and twenty, one thousand sixe hundred and nineteene, I saluted the Right Honorable [X. 427.]Sir Oliver St Johns late Lord Grandison, and then Lord Deputy there, from whom for regard and singular courtesies, I was greatly obliged: So was I also to many of the English Nobility and Knight hood there: who through the whole Countrey where ever I came intertayned mee kindly, sending Guides with mee from place to place; yea, and sometimes safe-guards also; beside in their houses great good-cheere and welcome: But in speciall a dutifull remembrance I owe, to the memory of that sometimes The matchlesse Lord Cichester for vertue, wisdome, & valour.judicious and Religious Lord Arthur, late Lord Cichester, Baron of Belfast, &c. Who in his time for Vertue, Wisedome, and Valour, wore the Dyademe of Love, and Garland of true Noblenesse: Of whom, and for whose losse, if I should more praise, and longer lament, my Inke would turne to brinish teares, and I to helpelesse sorrow: But leaving him who lived in goodnesse here, and now in glory for ever, I celebrate these Lines, to his eternall Fame. [373]

If ever Bounty shin’d in loyall Brest?

If ever Judgment, flow’d from generous mouth?

If ever Vice-Roy, rul’d this Kingdome best?

If ever Valour, honour’d hopefull youth?

If ever Wisdome, Astreas worth possest?

If ever Vertue, was inclin’d to rueth?

If ever Justice, enormities redrest?

If ever Patron, paterne was of truth?

Then noble Cichester, the Heavens assigne,

These gifts (thy honour’d parts) were truely thine.

And now after a generall surveigh of the whole Kingdome, (the North-west part of Canoch excepted) accomplished: from the 1. of September til the last of [X. 428.]February; I found the goodnesse of the Soyle, more then answerable to mine expectation, the defect only remayning (not speaking of our Collonies) in the people, and from them, in the bosome of two gracelesse sisters, Ignorance and Sluggishnesse.

The foure Provinces of Ireland.This Kingdome is divided in foure Provinces, although some allude five, that is, Easterne and Westerne Maith, but they are understood to be annexed to Leinster: Their names are these, Leinster, Munster, Ulster, and Canoch: The South-most whereof, is Munster a soile (and so is Leinster in most parts) nothing inferiour, if seasonably manured, to the best grounds in England. The Iland lyeth almost in a Rotundo, being every way spacious; the greatest River whereof is Shannon, whose course, amounteth to eight score miles, inclosing within it many little Iles.

And this I dare avow, there are moe Rivers, Lakes, Brookes, Strands, Quagmires, Bogs, and Marishes, in this Countrey, then in all Christendome besides; for Travalling there in the Winter, all my dayly solace, was sincke down comfort; whiles Boggy-plunging deepes kissing my horse belly; whiles over-mired Saddle, Body, and all; and often or ever set a swimming, in great danger, both I, and my Guides of our Lives: That for cloudy and fountayne-bred [374]perils, I was never before reducted to such a floting Laborinth. Considering that in five moneths space, I quite spoyled sixe horses, and my selfe as tyred as the worst of them.

And now I call to memory (not without derision) though I conceale the particular place and Prelate; it was my Fortune in the County of Dunagale, to bee joviall with a Bishop at his Table, where after diverse Discourses, my [X. 429.]ghostly Father grew offended with mee, for tearming of his Wife Mistresse: which, when understood, I both called her Madame, and Lady Bishop: Whereupon he grew more incensed; and leaving him unsatisfied; resolve me Lector? if it be the Custome heere or not? and if, amends shall repay over-sight, a ghostly Wife, shall be still Madam Lady with me; if not, mine observed manner shall be Mistresse.

But now to come to my punctuall Discourse of Ireland; true it is, to make a fit comparison, the Barbarian Moore, the Moorish Spaniard, the Turke, and the Irish-man, are The ignorant and sluggish life of the common Irish.the least industrious, and most sluggish livers under the Sunne, for the vulgar Irish I protest, live more miserably in their brutish fashion, then the undaunted, or untamed Arabian, the Divelish-idolatrous Turcoman, or the Moone-worshipping Caramines: showing thereby a greater necessity they have to live, then any pleasure they have, or can have in their living.

There Fabrickes are advanced three or foure yardes high, Pavillion-like incircling, erected in a singular Frame, of smoake-torne straw, greene long prick’d truff, and Raine-dropping watles. Their several Roomes of Palatiat divisions, as Chambers, Halls, Parlors, Kitchins, Barnes, and Stables, are all inclosed in one, and that one (perhaps) in the midst of a Mire; where, when in foule weather, scarcely can they finde a drye part, whereupon to Repose, their cloud-baptized heads. Their shirts be woven, of the wooll or Linnen of their owne nature, and their penurious foode semblable, to their ruvid condition.

And lastly, these onely titular Christians, are so ignorant [375]in their superstitious profession of Popery, that neither they, nor the greatest part of their Priests know, or [X. 430.]understand, what the mistery of the Masse is, which they dayly see, and the other celebrat, nor what the name of Jesus is, either in his divine, or humane nature: Aske him of his Religion? he replyeth, what his father, his great grand-father were, that will he be also: And hundreds of better then the common sort, have demanded mee, if Jerusalem, and Christs sepulcher were in Ireland, and if the Holy Land was contiguat with Saint Patrickes purgatory.

A foolish and superstitious errour.They also at the sight of each new Moone, (I speake it credibly) bequeath their Cattell to her protection, obnixiously imploring the pale Lady of the night, that shee will leave their Bestiall in as good plight, as shee found them: And if sicke, scabbed, or sore, they solicitat her mayden-fac’d Majesty to restore them to their health, in which absurdity, they far surmount the silly Sabuncks, and Garolinean Moores of Lybia: Indeed of all things (besides their ignorance) I onely lamented their heavie bondage under three kind of Masters; the Land-lord for his Rent, the Minister for his Tythes, and the Romish Priest for his Fees: And remarke when their owne Irish Rent masters have any voyage for Dublin, or peradventure superspended at home in feasting of strangers, then must these poore ones be taxed and afflicted with the supply of the devasted provision of their prodigall houses; otherwise in supporting their superfluous charges for Dublin.

O? what a slavish servitude doe these silly wretches indure, the most part of whom in all their lives, have never third part food, Natures clothing, nor a secure shelter for the Winter cold.

The miserable sight whereof, and their sad sounding groanes, have often drawne a sorrowful remorse from my humane compassion.

[X. 431.]As for their Gentry such as are brought up here at London, learne to become a great deale more civill, than these who are brought up at home, after their owne rude [376]and accustomable manner: And this I observed, in my traversing the whole Kingdome, I never saw one, or other, neither could move any of that selfe Nation, to pledge or present his Majesties health; but as many other healths as you list; they will both fasten, and receive from you, till they fall in the muddy hotch potch of their dead Grandfathers understanding: Indeed for entertainment of strangers they are freely disposed, and there Gentlemen of any good sort, reserve ever in their houses, Spanish Sack, and Irish Uscova, and will be as tipsy with their wives, their Priests, and their friends, as though they were naturaly infeft, in the eleven royall Tavernes of Naples.

Two intollerable abuses in Ireland.And now amongst many, there are two intollerable abuses of protections in that Kingdome: The one of Theeves and Woodcarnes, the other of Priests and Papists: I discourse of these corruptions now, as I found them then.

The first is prejudiciall to all Christian civillnesse tranquill government, and a great discouragment for our collonizd plantators there, belonging to both soyles of this Iland, being dayly molested, and nightly incombered with these blood-sucking Rebells.

And notwithstanding of their barbarous crueltie, ever executed at all advantages, with slaughter and murder upon the Scots and English dwellers there; yet they have and find at their owne wills Symonaicall protections, for lesser or longer times; ever as the confused disposers, have their law-sold hands, filled with the bloody bribes of [X. 432.]slaughtered lives, high-way, and house-robbed people: And then thereafter their ill got meanes being spent, like unto dogs, they returne backe to their former vomit; so jugling with their in, and outgoings, like to the restlesse Ocean, that they cannot, nor never did, become true The filthy corruption of Irish Priests and Wood-Carnes, theevish Rebells.subjects to our King, nor faithfull friends to their Countrey: Unlesse by extremity of Justice, the one still hanged before the other, the remanent by the gallowes may examplifie amendment, contrarywise that Land shall never be quiet: for these villanous Woodcarnes are but the Hounds of their hunting Priests, against what faction [377]soever, their malicious malignity is intended: Partly for intertaynement, partly for particular splenes, and lastly, for a general disturbance of the Countrey, for the Priests greater security and stay.

The other abuse is, their Libertinous Masses, the redresse whereof, I first to the Heavens, and then to my Prince bequeath: whose Sabboth recusant mony, whereof they bragge (as they say) in derision of our luke-warme dispensation, tendeth to none other purpose, but to obumbrat the true light of the Gospell, and to feed their absurd, and almost irrevocable ignorance.

And neverthelesse at their dayly meetings (experience taught mee) there was never a more repining people against our Prince and Church as they be: for in this presumption a twofold cause arriseth, want of zeale, and Church discipline in our part, and the officious nine penny Masse on their part: yea, all, and each of them, so exacted and compounded with at higher or lower rates, as the officers in this nature please.

The distribution whereof I nowaies paralell to the sleight concaviating veynes of the earth, nor the sole supply of high-rising Atlas, neither to invelope the Perpendiculars of long-reaching Caucasus: howsoever tect-demolished [X. 433.]Churches, unpassable Bridges, indigent Schollers, and distressed Families be supported there-with, I am as cleare of it as they, although I smart by the contrary confusion.

But leaving this and observing my Method, I remember I saw in Irelands North-parts, two remarkable sights: A bad and uncivill Husbandry in Ireland.The one was their manner of Tillage, Ploughes drawne by Horse-tayles, wanting garnishing, they are only fastned, with straw, or wooden Ropes to their bare Rumps, marching all side for side, three or foure in a Ranke, and as many men hanging by the ends of that untoward Labour. It is as bad a Husbandry I say, as ever I found among the wildest Savages alive; for the Caramins, who understand not the civill forme of Agriculture; yet they delve, hollow, and turne over the ground, with [378]manuall and Wooden instruments: but they the Irish have thousands of both Kingdomes daily labouring beside them; yet they can not learne, because they wil not learne, to use garnishing, so obstinate they are in their barbarous consuetude, unlesse punishment and penalties were inflicted; and yet most of them are content to pay twenty shillings a yeare, before they wil change their Custome.

Northerne Irish women giving sucke to their Babes behind their shoulders.The other as goodly sight I saw, was women travayling the way, or toyling at home, carry their Infants about their neckes, and laying the dugges over their shoulders, would give sucke to the Babes behinde their backes, without taking them in their armes: Such kind of breasts, me thinketh were very fit, to be made money bags for East or West-Indian Merchants, being more then halfe a yard long, and as wel wrought, as any Tanner, in the like charge, could ever mollifie such Leather.

[X. 434.]As for any other customes they have, to avoyd prolixitie I spare; onely, before my pen flee over Seas, I would gladly shake hands with some of our Churchmen there, for better are the wounds of a friend, than the sweet smiles of a flatterer, for love and trueth can not dissemble.

Many dissembling impudents intrude themselves in this high calling of God, who are not truely, neither worthily thereunto called; the ground here arrising either from a carnall or carelesse presumption, otherwise from needy greed, and lacke of bodily maintenance.

An Ecclesiasticke corruption in unlawfull Preachers.Such is now the corruption of time, that I know here even Mechanick men admitted in the place of Pastors: yea, and rude bred Souldiers whose education was at the Musket mouth, are become there, both Lybian grave, and unlearned Church-men: Nay; besides them professed; indeed professed Schollers: whose warbling mouthes ingorged with spoonefuls of bruised Latine, seldome or never expressed, unlesse the force of quaffing, spew it forth from their empty sculles: Such I say, interclude their doctrine, betweene the thatch and the Church-wall tops; and yet [379]their smallest stipends shall amount to one, two, three, or foure hundred pounds a yeare.

Whereupon you may demand mee, how spend they, or how deserve they this? I answer, their deserts are nought, and the fruite thereof as naughtily spent: for Sermons and Prayers they never have any, neither never preached any, nor can preach.

And although some could, as perhaps they seeming would, they shall have no Auditour (as they say) but [X. 435.]bare walles, the plants of their Parishes, being the rootes of mere Irish. As concerning their cariage, in spending such sacrilegious fees, the course is thus.

The Alehouse is their Church, the Irish Priests their Consorts, their Auditors be fill and fetch more, their Text Spanish Sacke, their Prayers carrousing, their singing of Psalmes the whiffing of Tobacco, their last blessing Aqua vitæ, and all their doctrine, sound drunkenesse.

A flattering covenant twixt Ministers and Masse Priests.And whensoever these parties meete, their parting is Dane-like from a Dutch Pot, and the Minister stil purse bearer defrayeth all charges for the Priest: Arguments of Religion, like Podolian Polonians they succumbe; their conference onely pleading mutuall forbearance; the Minister affrayed of the Priests Wood-Carnes, and the Priests as fearefull of the Ministers apprehending, or denoting them; contracting thereby a Gibeonized covenant, yea, and for more submissions sake, hee will give way to the Priest to mumble Masse in his Church, where hee in all his life made never Prayer nor Sermon.

Loe there are some of the abuses of our late weake, and stragling Ecclesiasticks there, and the soule-sunke sorrow of godlesse Epicures and Hypocrites.

To all which, and much more have I beene an occular Testator, and sometimes a constrayned consociat to their companeonry; yet not so much inforced, as desirous to know the behaviour and conversation of such mercenary Jebusites.

Great God amend it, for it is great pitty to behold it, and if it continue so still, as when I saw them last; O [380]farre better it were! that these ill bestowed Tythes, and [X. 436.]Church-wall Rents, were distributed to the poore, and needy, than to suffocate the swine-fed bellies of such idle and prophane Parasits.

And here another generall abuse, I observed that whensoever any Irish dye, the friend of the defunct (besides other fees) paying twenty shillings to the English Curat, shall get the corpes of the disceased to be buryed within the Church, yea often, even under the Pulpit foote: And for lucre interred in Gods Sanctuary when dead, who when alive would never approach, nor enter the gates of Sion; to worshipe the Lord, nor conforme themselves to true Religion.

Truely such and the like abuses, and evill examples of lewd lives, have beene the greatest hinderance of that Lands conversion; for such like wolves have beene from time to time, but stumbling blocks before them; regarding more their owne sensuall and licentious ends, than the glory of God, in converting of one soule unto his Church.

Ministeriall offices strangely abused.Now as concerning the conscionable carriage of the Hybernian Clergy, aske mee, and there my reply: As many of them (for the most part) as are Protestant Ministers, have their Wives, children, and servants invested Papists; and many of these Church-men at the houre of their death (like dogges) returne backe to their former vomit: Witnesse the late Viccar of Calin (belonging to the late and last, Richard, Earle of Desmond,) who being on death bed, and having two hundred pounds a yeare; finding him selfe to forsake both life and stipend, send straight for a Romish Priest, and received the Papall Sacrament: Confessing freely in my audience, that hee had beene a Romane Catholick all his life, dissembling [X. 437.]onely with his Religion, for the better maintaining of his wife and children. And being brought to his buriall place, hee was interred in the Church, with the which hee had played the Ruffian all his life; being openly carryed at mid-day with Jesuits, Priests, and Friers of his owne [381]Nation, and after a contemptible manner in derision of our profession, and Lawes of the Kingdome.

Infinite moe examples of this kind could I recite, and the like resemblances of some being alive; but I respectively suspend (wishing a reformation of such deformation) and so concludeth this Clergicall corruption there. Yet I would not have the Reader to thinke that I condemne all our Clergie there, no God forbid, for I know there are many sound and Religious Preachers of both Kingdomes among them, who make conscience of their calling, and live as Lanthorns to uncapable ignorants, and to those stragling Stoicks I complayne of, condemnatory Judges; for it is a grievous thing to see incapable men, to jugle with the high mysteries of mans salvation.

My departure from Ireland to France.And now after the fastidious ending of a tempestuous raine-sacking toyle, I imbarked at Yoghall in Munster, February 27. 1620. in a little French Pinke bound for St. Mallo in Bretagne. Where, when transported, I set face to Paris, where I found the workes of two scelerat and perverst Authors: the one of which had disdainefully wrot against the life and raigne of Queene Elizabeth of sempiternall renowne: the other ignominiously, upon the death of our late Queene Anne of ever blessed memory. The circumstances whereof, I will not avouch, since Malaga detaineth the notes of their abjured names, and perfidiat paines.

[X. 438.]A just reward (may I say) refounded, upon these fond conceites, you have of the fantasticke French: Especially these superstitious straglers heere; who, when they have sucked the milke of their selfe ends, and your lavish Liberalities without desert; returne a kicke with their heeles (like to the Colt of an Asse) in your teeth agayne. And there your meritorious thankes, and their shamefull slaunders, in acquittance of your vayne Expence.

The fantastick foolery of the French.Tell me, if you be tyed like Apes to imitate their ever-changing humours? and can you draw from them (in any Art or cariage) a greater draught, then they draw from the Italian, for first they be Imitators; next, Mutators; [382]thirdly, Temptators; and lastly, your Plantators, in all the varieties of vanity. Have you a desire to learne modestly to Daunce, skilfully to Fence, dexteriously to manage Great Horses, view Forraine sights, learne Languages, Humane policies, and the like conducements:

Then rather reach, the Fountaine, whence they flow,

Whence Science, Arts, and Practise lively grow;

Than sucke the streames, of separate distasts,

He well derives, his labour never wasts;

Fond Fooles affect, what foolery Fooles effect,

The sequell sight, than sense, doth more infect.

Besides these two infamous Authors, what hath Edee, the Idea of a Knave, (and Gentle man of the French Privy Chamber) done; who like a Wood weather cocke, and giddy headed Foole, (full of deficient Vapours) hath shamefully stayned with his shamelesse Pen, the light of this Kingdome, which now I omit to avouch till a fitter time.

Thus, they fondly Write, thus they pratle, thus they [X. 439.]sing, thus they Daunce, thus they brangle, thus they dally in capritziat humours, and thus they vary, in the fleering conceite of sa, sa, sa, sa, sa, far beyond the inconstancy of all female inconstancies.

But to conclude this Epitome of France, three things Certaine caveats for strangers, that goe to France.I wish the way-faring man to prevent there: First, the eating of Victuals, and drinking of Wine without price making; least (when he hath done) for the stridor of his teeth his charges be redoubled. Next to choose his lodging (if it fall out in any way-standing Taverne) far from palludiat Ditches, least the vehemency of chirking frogs, vexe the wish’d-for Repose of his fatigated body, and cast him in a vigilant perplexity.

And lastly, unlesse earely hee would arise, I never wish him to lye neere the fore-streetes of a Towne; because of the disturbant clamours of the Peasant samboies or nayle-woodden shoes: whose noyse like an æquivox, resembleth [383]the clashing armour of Armies; or the clangour of the Ulyssen-tumbling Horse to fatall Troy.

But now to my purpose, leaving Paris behind me, I arrived at Pau in Bearne. This Province is a principality of it selfe, anciently annexed to the Kingdom of Navarre: lying betweene the higher Gascony of Guyan, and the Pyrhenei Mountaynes of Baske, bordering with the North parts of Navarre: Both of which, belongeth to the French King, except a little of Baske toward the Columbian Alpes, and that the Spaniard commandeth.

Pau is the Justice seate of Bearne, having a goodly Castle, situate on an artificiall Rocke; and in this place was that Martial Henry du Burbone la Quatriesme borne, than King of Navarre.

Here be the finest Gardens in Christendome, the Gardens of Pretolino (5. miles from Florence) only excepted. [X. 440.]Yet for faire Arbors, spacious over-siling walkes, and incorporate Trees of interchanging growths, it surpasseth Pretolino: but the other for the variety of fructiferous Trees, rare and admirable ponds, artificial fountaynes; Diana, and her Allabaster Nymphly-portrayed trayne, the counter-banding force of Agvadotti, and the exquisite banqueting Roome, contrived among sounding unseene waters, in forme of Gargantus body, it much excelleth Pau.

Biscai in Spayne is a scurrile Countrey.Hence, I discended the River of Orthes to Baion, and crossing the River Behobia, which divideth France and Spaine, I entered in Biscai June 19. 1620. This is a Mountaynous and invincible Countrey, (of which Victoria is the chiefe City) being a barren and almost unprofitable Soyle. The speciall commodities whereof, are Sheep, Woole as soft as silke, Goates, and excellent good Iron: Cornes they have none, or little at all, neither wine, but what is brought from Navarre in Pelagoes or Swineskins, carried on Mulets backes.

Leaving Biscai, I entred Navarre, and came to Pampelona its Metropolitane Citty: Here I found the poorest Viceroy (nomen sine re) with the least meanes to maintaine [384]him, that ever the World affoorded such a stile. Navarre is but a little Kingdome, amounting in length (with the South Pendicles of the high Pirhenese) to twenty three leagues: That is, betweene Porto di St. Joanne in Baske, and Grono upon the River Hebro, dividing the old Castilia and Navarre. In breadth it extendeth to seaventeene Leagues, that is betweene Varen in Biscai, and Terrafranca in Arragon: The soyle is indifferent fertile of Cornes and Wines. From thence I set East-ward to Syragusa, the Capitall Seate of Arragon.

[X. 441.]Arragon, hath Navarre to the West, South Valentia Kingdome, East, and South-east Catalogna; and on the North the Alpes Pyrhenese. It is an auncient and famous Kingdome, under whose Jurisdiction, were both the petty Kingdomes of Valentia, & Barselona: And not long ago traduced to the Castilian King by marriage. For although Castilia hath the language, they have the lineall dissent of the Romans; the Inhabitants whereof being instinctively endued with all humane affabilities. From thence returning through the old Castilia, or Kingdome of Burgos, in the way to St. Iago of Compostella in Galitia: It was my fortune, at St. Domingo to enter the Towne-Church: accompanied with two French Puppies, mindfull to shew me a miraculous matter.

Where, when come, I espied over my head opposit to the great Altar, two milke white Hennes, enraveled in A leying iron Cage, on the inner side of the Porches Promontore. And demanding why they were kept? Or what they signified? Certaine Spaniards replyed come along with us, and you shall see the Storie, and being brought to the (Choro) it was drawne thereon as followeth. The father and the sonne, two Burboneons of France; going in Pilgrimage to St. James, it was their lot to lodge here in an Inne: Where supper ended, and reckoning payed, the Host perceiving their denariat charge, he entered their Chamber, when they were a sleepe, and in bed, conveying his owne purse in the young mans Budget.

To morrow earely; the two innocent Pilgrimes, footing [385]the hard bruising way, were quickly over-hied by the Justice; where the Host making search for his purse, found it in the sonnes bagge. Whereupon instantly, and in the same place hee was hanged, and left hanging there, seazing on their money be a sententiall forfeiture.

[X. 442.]The sorrowfull Father (notwithstanding) continued his Pilgrimage to Compostella. Where, when come, and devotion made, our Lady of Mount Serata appeared to him saying: Thy prayers are heard, and thy groanes have pierced my heart, arise, and returne to Saint Domingo for thy sonne liveth. And hee accordingly returned, found it so, and the sonne-hanged Monster, after 30. dayes absence, spoke thus from the Gallowes, Father, goe to our Host, and shew him I live, then speedily returne. By which direction the old man entred the Towne, and finding the Host at Table, in breaking up of two roasted Pullets, A damnable delusion of a divellish miracle.told him, and sayd: My sonne liveth, come and see. To which the smiling Host replyed, he is as surely alive on the Gallowes, as these two Pullets be alive in the dish. At which protestation, the two fire-scorched fowles leapt out suddainly alive, with heads, wings, feathers, and feet, and kekling, tooke flight thrice about the Table. The which amazing sight, made the astonished Host to confesse his guiltines; and the other relieved from the rope, he was hung up in his place, allotting his house for an Hospitality to Pilgrimes for ever.

There are still two Hennes reserved here, in memory of this miracle, and aye changed, as they grow fat for the Priests chops, being freely given to the place. And I dare swearing say, these Priests eate fatter Hennes, than Don Phillipo him selfe, they being fed by the peoples devotion, at their enterance to the morning and evening sacrifices, and are tearmed holy Hennes. Infinite paper could I blot, with relating the like absurdities, and miraculous lies of the Romane Church, but leaving them till a fitter occasion, I proceed. From thence traversing a great part of the higher Asturia, I entred in Galitia, and found the Countrey [X. 443.]so barren, the people so poore, and victuals so scarce, that [386]this importunate inforcement, withdrew me from S. Jacques, to Portugale: Where I found little better, or lesser reliefe, their soyles being absolute sterile, desartuous, and mountainous.

The Kingdome of Portugale.Portugale was formerly called Lusitania, and Hispania, ulteriora: It is in length 320. miles, large 68. and sometimes under: In the Moorish domination it was divided in two Kingdomes, the one reserveth the name of all; the other was called Agarbas: A word Arabick that signifieth the part Occidentall: And were divided with the River Guadion, and the two Castles Odebera, and Aleotino: Agarbas was toward the South, & Portugale Northward.

Portugale is now confined on the South, and South-East with Andolusia: West and South-West, the maine Ocean. Galitia to the North: And Eastward the old and new Castilia. After twenty dayes fastidious climbing in this Kingdome, I returned to Salamancha in Castilia Vecchia; the Sacerdotall University of Spaine, whence springeth these Flockes of Studientes, that over-swarme the whole land with rogueries, robberies, and begging. From thence traversing the Alpes of Siera de Caderama, (which divide the two Castilias) I discended the South side of the mountaines, and arrived at the Escurial; where then late King Phillip the third, had his residence.

The palace of Escuriall.This Pallace standeth alone, and founded upon the skirt of a perpendicular hill of Caderama, squared out from a devalling steepnesse, having a large prospect Southwardly towards the Evenise mountaines beyond Toledo. This palatiat cloyster is quadrangled foure stories high, the uppermost whereof, is window-set in the blew tecture: The stone worke below, having three rankes of larger windowes, incircling the whole quadrangles, and French-like [X. 444.]high rigged. At every spacious squadrat corner, there is an high Turret erected, above the coverture, whose tops beare each of them a golden Globe. In the middle court standeth a round incorporate Church, arising outward in a rotundo, with a wide leaden top, and on each [387]side thereof a squadrat Steeple, higher then the round, making a goodly shew. It hath neither outward walles nor gates, but the two selfe doores of the eleven incloystered petty Courts, save onely some office houses without, and they stand alone by the hill broken side. Escurial is rather a Monastery than Palace.I may rather tearme it a Monastery, then a Kingly Pallace, having a hundred and fifty Monkes, Chartuzians, of St. Hieronimoes order living within it; the King onely remaining in a private corner, at his comming thither. Nay at that instant, he was so private that before I saw his face, I could not beleeve, that the Patrone of so great a Monarchy, could be so quiet; yea, as quiet as a Countrey Baron is with us, and had lived so nine weekes before. The house it selfe I confesse, excelleth in beauty, that Constantinopolitan Seralia, of the great Turke: though not in divisions, and ground distances, yet for a maine incorporate house, and was builded by King Philip the second, standing seven leagues from Madrile, to which I arrived.

Here is the residence of the Court though formerly at Valladoli: Madrid or Madrile, is the Center or middle part of Spaine, situate in the Kingdome of Toledo, the new Castilia. And distant from Lisbone in Portugale Westward one hundred leagues: From Sevilia in Andoluzia ninety leagues: From Grenada Southward, sixty eight leagues: Barselona in Catalogna, East, South-eastward one hundred leagues: From Valentia fifty leagues: From Siragusa in Arragon Eastward fifty three leagues: From Saint Sebastian in Biscai North-westward seventy [X. 445.]leagues: And from Pampelona in Navarre, North-eastward, forty nine leagues. Spaine generally, is a masse of mountaines, a barren ill manured soyle: Neither well inhabited nor populous: Yea, so desartuous that in the very heart of Spaine, I have gone eighteene leagues, (two dayes journey) unseeing house or Village, except two Ventas, Tavernes. And commonly eight leagues without any house: Villages be so farre distant, the Rockie Seraes or Alpes so innumerable. [388]

It is miserable travelling in Spaine.It is miserable travelling, lesse profitable, in these ten Provinces, or petty Kingdomes, hard lodging and poore, great scarcity of beds and deare: And no ready drest diet, unlesse you buy it raw; and cause dresse, or dresse it your selfe, buying first in one place your fire, your meate from the Butcher, your bread from the Baker, your Wine from the Taverne, your Fruites, Oyle, and Hearbes from the Botega, carying all to the last place, your bed-lodging: Thus must the weary Stranger toile, or else fast: And in infinite places for Gold nor money can have no victuals; but restrained to a relenting jejunation. The high-minded Spaniard and their high topped mountaines, have an infused contention together. The one through arrogant ambition, would invade the whole earth to inlarge his dominions: The other by a steepe swolne hight, seeme to threaten the Heavens to pull down Jupiter from his throne. And as I take it, the Spaniard being of a low stature, borroweth his high-minded breast from the high topped mountaines, for the one in quality, and the other in quantity, be extraordinarily infounded.

Certaine it is, as the Spaniard in all things standeth mainely upon his reputation (but never to avouch it with single combat) so he vaunteth not a little of his antiquity, [X. 446.]deriving his pedegree from Tubal, the Nephew of Noe. But (especially as they draw it) how often hath the Line of Tubal, beene bastarded, degenerated, and quite expelled, by invasions of Phænicians, oppressions of the Greekes, incursiones of the Carthaginians, the Conquest and planting of Provinces, and Colonies of the Romanes, the general deluge of the Gothes, Hunnes, and Vandales: and lastly, The long captivity of the Spaniards under the the long and intolerable Tyranny of the Moores, whose slavish yoake and bondage in 800. yeares, hee could scarcely shake off; his owne Histories beare sufficient testimony and Record. Then it is manifest, that this mixture of Nations, must of necessity make a compounded Nature, such as having affinity with many, have no perfection in any one.

Their Manners are conformable to their discent, and [389]their conditionall Vertues semblable to their last and longest Conquerors, of whom they retayne the truest stampe.

The most penurious Peasants in the World be heere, whose Quotidian moanes, might draw teares from stones. Their Villages stand as wast like as the Sabunck, Garamont, or Arabian Pavilleons, wanting Gardens, Hedges, Closses, Barnes, or Backe-sides: This sluggish and idle husbandry, being a natural instinct of their neighbour or paternal Moores.

As for industrious Artes, Inventions, and Vertues, they are as dull thereof, as their late Predecessours: and truely I confesse for the Spanish Nunne, she is more holy then the Italian; the former are onely Reserved to the Friers, and Priests: The latter being more Noble, have most affinity with Gentle-men. The Spaniard is of a spare dyet and temperate, if at his owne cost he spend; but if given Gratis, he hath the longest Tuskes that ever stroke at Table.

[X. 447.]After a doubtfull and dangerous departure from Madrid (as Sir Walter Aston his Majesties Ambassador can testifie with his Followers, as some of his people have already here done the same,) being the drift of my owne Country-men, I came to Toledo twelve Leagues distant from thence: This Citty is situate on a ragged Rocke upon the River Tagus, being an Arch-bishops seate, the Primat and Metropolitan Sea of all Spaine: Yet a miserably impoverished and deformed place.

Naked ambition conferred upon poore Toledo.And although the Spaniard, of all Townes in Spaine, braggeth most of Toledo, it is neyther (doubtlesse I know) for beauty, bounds, nor Wealth, if not for the Intrado belongeth to it, amounting yearely (as they affirme) to 200000 Duckats; for there is no other Episcopal Seate, in all Castilia, or Kingdome of Toledo. Giving backe to Toledo, I crossed the crossing Siera de Morada, (which divideth the Kingdome of Grenada, from the Mansha of the new Castilia) and arrived at Grenada, the Capital of Andolusia.

Here had the Moores their last residence in Spaine, and was magnanimously recovered, Anno 1499. yeares, by [390]Ferdinando the Castilian King, and his wife Isabella. It standeth at the foote of Siera de Nevada (the Snowy Alpes,) who reserve continually Snow on their tops, and partly inclosed betweene two Snow-melting Rivers. In this Citty is the principall Seate, and Colledge of Justice, of all South Spaine: As Valladoli is for the North of Spaine, the high Court of Madrid having Prerogative over both.

It hath a spacious and strong Castle, which was builded by the Moores, and indeede a Kingly mansion: Where I saw the Hals and Bed-Chambers of the Moorish Kings, [X. 448.]most exquisitly, over-siled, and indented with Mosaicall worke; excelling farre any moderne industry whatsoever.

The Emperour Charles the fift, and King of Spaine; after his returne from that misfortunate voyage of Algier, left a monument here, never likely to have beene accomplished, that is, the foundation of an admirable worke advanced two stories high: without it is quadrangled, and within round; having two degrees of incircling promontores, supported by Marble pillars, and Allabaster arches.

Being dismissed here, it was my fortune at Antecara to Mr. Woodson a London Merchant.encounter with a Merchant, (M. Woodson a Londoner,) newly come from Venice, and bound to Malaga. With whom desirously accompanied, the day following being Sunday, with sore travayle wee came within night to Malaga, and thereafter parting to our severall Lodgings, the next morning I addressed my selfe to the shoare side; where I had notice given me, of a French ship belonging to Tolon in Provance, that was lying in the Mould, and shortly bound for Alexandria: And finding that Transportation most convenient for my designe (my safest course lying through Ægypt and the Red Sea, for Prester Jehans Dominions and Court) I presently made bargaine with the Ships-master, for my passage and Victuals.

And now attending my departure thence, uppon the fift day after my comming hither Anno 1620. October 27. the English Fleete that went agaynst the Pyrats of Algier, [391]gave Anchor at mid-night in the Roade: Whose suddaine comming, yeelded no small feare to the affrighted Towne, mistaking them for Turkes; for the two Castle-bells Ringing backe-ward, the thundring Drums resounding, [X. 449.]and the Towne all the latter night in Armes, bred such Malaga affrighted with the English Fleet.disturbant despaire to their families, and distraction to themselves, that their wives and children fled to the higher Castle without the Towne; and I a stayd Consort with the Defendants till day light. But morning come, and the English Colours discovered, Don Jaspar Ruiz de Peredas the Governour, went aboord of the English Generall Sir Robert Maunsell; where after congratulating complements, he being returned a shoare, dismissed the Burgers and their Armes. In that afternoone, and the day following beeing Satturday, there came hundreds a shoare of my speciall friends, and olde familiars, Londoners, and Courtiers, with whom desirously met, we were joviall together, till Sunday morning: where then I went aboord of the Lyon, his Majesties ship, and saluted the Generall, who kindly intertained mee to the next day, that the Fleete was divided in three Squaders, and he under Sayle, and then unhappily came I a shoare in a Fisher boate, to my deare bought destruction, beeing sore agaynst the Generals will, but that I should have gone with him to Algier: Save onely that my Linnen, Letters, and Sacket was lying in my hostery, and so could not go: but what shal I say?

Quod fortuna dedit, nemo tollere potest.

And so now followeth the sorrowfull Relations of my Tragicall sufferings, which as briefly as I may, I shall succinctly avouch, although the larger, the better to be understood.

Sad soule mixe truth, with grave and prompe discourse

Let passiones be, this Tragicke stile must rest

On Faith and Patience, Columnes of secourse,

Which underprop’d my sufferings here exprest:

Lord weigh my words, with wisdome, give me grace

In all this Worke, to give thy glory place.


[X. 450.]I was no sooner entred the Towne, and drawing up a private way to my lodging, to shunne company and acquaintance, for that night was I to have imbarked for Alexandria, but I was suddenly surprised in that narrow depopulated street, with nine Alguozilos, Sergeants, who inclosing mee on both sides layd violent hands on mee, wrapping me up in a blacke frizado cloake, and gripping my throat to stop my crying, they carryed me on their armes to the governours house, and inclosed me in a low Parlour.

A sad request to a mercilesse Governour.To which when the Governour came, for I was acquainted with him before I sadly spoke, saying, My most noble Governour, and worthy Lord, I humbly beseech your goodnes to shew me, for what offence or cause, I am thus violently brought before you, knowing that in me, and from my carriage, there is no injury committed. Whereat, without answer, and shaking his head, he caused inclose mee in a little Cabinet within the Parlour, till he went for Masse, commanding them with all possible dilligence to fetch hither, the Captaine of the Towne Don Francesco, di Cordova, the Alcade major, and the States Scrivan, enjoyning them to conceale my apprehending till further tryal under the paine of death.

At last he from the Masse, and they come hither, the Sergeants were dismissed, the doores made fast, and I was brought forth before these foure Cavalliers, all placed in chayres, and the Scrivan-table set, with pen and paper to write my confession. Where after long silence, the Governour asked mee of my Nation, and how long, and how often I had beene out of my Country: and whether I was bound? and how long I had beene in Spaine.

To whom I punctually returned my dividuat answers:

[X. 451.]Whereupon being inclosed in my former Cabinet, within a while Don Francesco entred my roome, demanding mee if I had beene in Civilia, or was come from it; and clapping my cheeks with a Judas-smile made this entreaty. My deare brother, and gallant Companion, confesse freely that you have beene in Civilia, for your [393]countenance bewrayeth, there are some hidden purposes in the closet of your breast; and Para fuyr mas malo, you had best in time relate to mee the trueth.

Whereat I saying no, as truth acquired, he went back, resolving them of my stiffe denyall, and they therewith incensed, I was invited to their former presence, and maine accusations ensuing. A tyrannical constrayned Oath.First the Governour made me sweare and hold up my hand, that I should tell the particular trueth of every thing hee was to demand of mee; which indeed I did according to my knowledge.

Then he inquired if the English Generall, was a Duke, or great Signior, and what could be the reason, that he refused to come a shoare there; for that was the first impression of their false conceived jealousie. Next; he asked mee, if I knew his name, and the other Captaines and what their names were? and what their intention was? or if I had knowne of their comming abroad, or preparation for it, before my departure from England.

The Scrivan writing downe meanewhile every word he spoke and what I answered: well; to all the former particulars giving condigne satisfaction, and to the last, denying that I knew of the forth comming of the fleet, they all foure gave a shout in the contrary. Whereupon the Governour swearing, cursed and said, thou leyest like a Villane, thou art a spy and a traytor, and camest directly from England of purpose to Spaine; and hath beene lying [X. 452.]nine moneths in Sivilia, getting sure intelligence, when the Spanish Navy was looked for from the Indies; and that thou expressely heere, came to meete with the English Armado, (knowing of their dyet) to give them credible knowledge thereof: And that by thy information, they might the more readily compasse their endes, and thus thy treachery and subtilty, hath beene imployed.

Whereat I being astonished, and seriously answering for the intention of the English Fleete, and my owne The English acquaintaynce, my greatest hinderance.innocency concerning them: He threatning sayd, I was seene familiar a Boord and a shoare, with the whole Captaines, and knowne to be of their speciall acquaintance: [394]besides three hundred other Gentle-men, and Mariners with whom, and they with thee, were so inward, that it far exceeded the kindnes of accidentall meeting.

All this we saw, and hourely remarked (sayd hee) and thou art newly come from the Generall, when thou wast taken, where consulting with their Counsell of Warre this morning, (concerning what they assigned thee to accomplish) thou hast delivered thy opinion, and the expectation of Sivilia, touching the returne of his Majesties Armado di Plato; and therefore thou art a Spiono, a Traytor, and a scelerate Velacco: for wee are not ignorant (sayd he) of the burning of St. Thome in the West Indies; for there and then, wee had a certaine evidence of the English infidelity, and treacherous exploytes in time of Peace: Wherefore these Lutheranes and Sonnes of the Divell, ought not from us good Catholickes to receive no credit.

Whereupon I besought him, to send for some sufficient English Factors, there sojourning, who would testifie the [X. 453.]contrary in my behalfe, their Countrey, and their Fleete, but that he would not, for my being discovered. At last seeing his damnable opinion, and to cleare my selfe of such false imputations: I requested him to send a Sergeant to my Posado or Lodging for my Clogbag, where hee should see a more evident Testimony of my carriage and honest purpose, and thereupon the approbation of my Prince.

This demaund liked him well, thinking thereby to finde out all the secrets and practises of my Negotiation with the English Fleete: Whereupon forthwith, and with close Circumspection he had it brought unto him, my hostage His Majesties Letters and Seales misregarded.House not knowing where I was. The Clogbag I opened my selfe, and showing him his Majesties Letters in parchment, and under his Hand and Seale, dated at Theobals 1619. July 17. and compiled and wrot by M. Thomas Red, then Secretary for the Latine Tongue, done in my behalfe, and my intended Resolution for Æthiopia, the Kings safe Conduct he mis-regarded, giving it neyther Respect nor trust. [395]

After which, I show’d him divers Patents, Seales, and the great Seale of Jerusalem, Pasports, and my Booke of Armes, called Liber amicorum, wherein, I had the hand-writs, and Armes of sundry Kings, Dukes, Princes, Vice-Royes, Marquesses, Earles, Lords, and Governors, &c. done in Prose and Verse, in Greeke, Latine, or their maternall tongues, being as propitious pledges of their favour, in commendation of me, and of my Travailes.

But all these would not satisfie him, nay, rather confirming a greater jealousie of his former suspition: whereupon misconstruing all, they seased absolutely upon my Clog-bag, viewing, and detayning all I had at their [X. 454.]pleasure; including me the third time. This done, and within night, beeing Represented againe, the Governour commaunded me to subscribe my Confession, which I voluntarily obeyed; though they still urged me further and further to confesse. Meanewhile these foure Complices consulting about my Imprisonment, the Alcalde or chiefe Justice would have had me along with him to the Town Jayle, but the Corrigidor refused saying, Para non star visto con sus Pesanos: That hee may not bee seene by his Country-men, it behoveth me to have a care of his concealement: and I warrant you (sayd he) I shal lodge him well enough.

An injust robbery by unjust Judges.Upon the knowledge of this, that I was secretly to be incarcerate in the Governours Palace, entred the M. Sergeant, and begged my mony, and Lycence to search it: and liberty granted hee found in my pockets eleaven Philippoes or Ducatons; and then uncloathing me before their eyes, even to my shirt, and searching my breeches, he found in my Doublet necke, fast shut betweene two Canvesses, 137. double peeces of gold. Whereat the Corrigidor arose and counting my gold, being 548. duccats, he sayd to the Sergeant, cloath him againe, and inclose him there in the Cabinet till after Supper. Meanewhile the Sergeant got the 11. duccatons of Silver; and my gold, which was to take me for Æthiopia, the Governour seased upon; giving afterwards 200. Crownes of it to [396]supply the new layd Foundation of a Capuschine Monastery there, reserving the rest (being 348. duccats) for his owne avaricious ends.

This done, and mid-night come, the Sergeant and two Turkish slaves releasing mee from the inferiour Roome, brought mee through certayne ascending passages, to a chamber, in a sequestrate side of the Palace, toward the [X. 455.]Garden, and right above his Summer Kitchen: Where there, and then, the Sergeants, and the two slaves, thrust And here is the embleme of my misery.on every ancle an heavy bolt, my legs being put to the full stride, by a mayne gad of iron far above a yard long, upon the endes of which the two bolts depended, that were [X. 456.]fastned about my legs. Insomuch, that I could never sit up, nor walke, nor stand, nor turne me; but lay continually on my backe, the irons being thrice heavier then my body.

A miserable & helplesse Lamentation.Whereupon beholding my inevitable misery, and such monster-made irons my sighing soule deplored thus: Alas Sergeant, and you two Slaves, remarke in me the just Judgements of God; and loe how the Heavens have reducted me to this meritorious reward, and truely deserved; for I have dearely and truly bought it; that I whose legges and feete the whole Universe could scarcely contayne, now these bolts and irons keepe them fast, in a body length, of a stone-paved Floore. O foolish pride, O suppressing ambition! and vaporous curiosity! woe worth the fury of your aspiring vanities; you have taken mee over the face of the earth, and now left me in a Dungeon hole: My soule, O my soule is leager unto this Proverbe, Man proposeth, and God disposeth: O happy had I beene, thrice happy in a Shepheards life.

The Author in irons in the Governour’s Palace at Malaga

The Author in irons in the Governour’s Palace at Malaga

Thus, and more lamenting the destiny of nature, they left mee with solacious words, and straight returned againe with Victuals; being a pound of boyl’d Mutton, a wheat bread, and a small Pint of Wine: which was the first, the best, and the last of this kinde, that ever I got in that woefull Mansion. The Sergeant leaving me (never seeing him more, till a more unwelcomed sight) [397]hee directed the Slaves, that after I had contented my discontented appetite, they should locke the doore, and carry the keyes to Areta, a Spaniard and keeper of the silver plate.

A little while after he was gone, the other Drudge left me also, who was newly turned Christian: where being alone with Hazier the naturall Turke, who was to attend [X. 457.]me, feede me, and keepe me, lying nightly a constrayned Centinell, without the doore of my imprisonment; hee demanded me for what cause I was committed, and what malefact I was guilty of? to whom I answered, onely for a naked suspition, mistaking the honorable intention of the English Armado, I am as a spy apprehended, and falsely accused.

The mourning of Hazier a Turkish slave.Whereupon the silly Slave falling downe on his knees, held up his hands, crying, Hermano, Hermano, es muy grand menester, par a tomar pacenza, &c. Brother, Brother, it is much needfull for you to take all in patience, for it is impossible now you can escape, some fearefull tryall, and thereupon a horrible punishment even unto death; and alasse to relieve you, if I durst, (as I dare not under death) to discover you to your Countrey-men, I would doe it upon my knees, and leaving me with a weeping good night, he made fast the doore, and transported the keyes, as he was directed.

The day following the Governour entered my Prison alone, intreating me to confesse that I was a spy, and he would be my friend, and procure my pardon, neither should I lacke (interim) any needfull thing: But I still attesting my innocency, hee wrathfully swore I should see his face no more, till grievous torments should make me doe it; and leaving mee in a rage, he observed too well his condition.

But withall in my audience, he commanded Areta, that none should come neare mee except the slave, nor no food should be given mee but three ounces of moosted browne bread, every second day, and a Fuleto or English Pint of water, neither any bed, pillow, or coverlet to be allowed [398]mee: And close up sayd he, this window in his roome, with lyme and stone, stop the holes of the doore with double [X. 458.]Matts, hanging another locking to it; and to withdraw all visible and sensible comfort from him, let no tongue, nor feet be heard neare him, till I have my designes accomplished: And thou Hazier I charge thee, at thy incommings to have no conference with him, nor at thy out-goings abroad to discover him to the English Factors, as thou wilt answer upon thy life, and the highest torments can be devised.

These directions delivered, and alas too accessary to me in the performance: my roome was made a darke-drawne Dungeon, my belly the anatomy of mercilesse hunger, my comfortlesse hearing, the receptacle of sounding Bells, my eye wanting light, a loathsome languishing in despaire, and my ground lying body, the woefull mirrour of misfortunes: every houre wishing anothers comming, every day the night, and every night the morning.

A speedy expedition for a mercilesse mischeife.And now being every second or third day attended with the twinckling of an eye, and my sustenance agreeable to my attendance, my body grew exceeding debile and infirme; insomuch that the Governour (after his answers receaved from Madrile) made haste to put in execution, his bloody and mercilesse purpose before Christmas Holy-dayes: least ere the expiring of the twelfth day, I should be utterly famished, and unable to undergoe my tryall, without present perishing, yet unknowne to me, save onely in this knowledge, that I was confident to dye a fearefull and unacquainted death: for it is a current custome with the Spaniard, that if a stranger be apprehended upon any suspicion, he is never brought to open tryall, and common Jayle, but clapd up in a Dungeon, and there tortured, impoysoned, or starved to death: Such meritorious deeds, accompany these onely titular Christians: for the Spaniard [X. 459.]accounteth it more to be called a Christian, than either to beleeve what hee professeth, or to conforme him selfe to the life of Christianity: yea, I sparingly avouch it, hee is the [399]worst and baddest creature of the Christian name; having no more Religion (and lesse respective to devotion) than an externall presumptuous show; which perfiteth this ancient Proverbe, The Spaniard; est bonus Catholicus, sed malus Christianus.

In end, by Gods permission, the scourge of my fiery tryall approaching; upon the forty seventh day after my first imprisonment, and five dayes before Christmas; about two a clocke in the morning, I heard the noyse of a Coach in the fore-street, marvelling much what it might meane.

My transportation from prison to the fields to be racked.Within a pretty while I heard the locks of my Prison-doore in opening; whereupon bequeathing my soule to God, I humbly implored his gracious mercie and pardon for my sinnes: for neither in the former night nor this, could I get any sleepe, such was the force of gnawing hunger, and the portending heavinesse of my presaging soule.

Meanewhile the former nine Sergeants, accompanied with the Scrivan, entered the roome without word speaking, and carrying mee thence, with irons and all, on their armes through the house, to the street, they layd mee on my backe in the Coach: where two of them sat up beside mee, (the rest using great silence) went softly along by the Coach side.

Then Baptista the Coach-man, an Indian Negro droving out at the Sea-gate, the way of the shoare-side, I was brought Westward almost a league from the Towne, to a Vine-presse house, standing alone amongst Vineyards, [X. 460.]where they inclosed mee in a roome till day light, for hither was the Racke brought the night before, and privately placed in the ende of a Trance.

And all this secresie was used, that neyther English, French, or Flemings, should see or get any knowledge of my Tryall, my grievous Tortures, and dreadfull dispatch, because of their treacherous and cruel proceedings.

At the breach of day the Governour, Don Francesco, and the Alcalde, came foorth in another Coach: where when arrived, and I invited to their presence, I pleaded [400]A stranger ought not to be accused with strangers without an Interpreter.for a Trench man, being against their Law, to accuse or condemne a Stranger, without a sufficient Interpreter. The which they absolutely refused, neyther would they suffer or grant mee an Appellation to Madrid.

And now after long and new Examinations, from morning to darke night, they finding my first and second Confession so runne in one, that the Governour swore, I had learned the Arte of Memory: Saying further, is it possible hee can in such distresse, and so long a time, observe so strictly in every manner the poynts of his first Confession, and I so often shifting him too and fro.

Well, the Governours interrogation and my Confession being mutually subscribed: He and Don Francesco besought me earnestly to acknowledge and confesse my guiltinesse in time: if not, he would deliver me in the Alcaldes hands there present: Saying moreover, thou art as yet in my power, and I may spare or pardon thee; providing thou wilt confesse thy selfe a Spie, and a Traytour against our Nation.

But finding mee stand fast to the marke of my spotlesse innocency, he, invective, and malicious hee, after many [X. 461.]tremenduous threatnings, commanded the Scrivan to draw up a Warrant for the chiefe Justice: And done, he set his hand to it, and taking me by the hand, delivered me and the Warrant in the Alcalde Majors hands, to cause mee bee Tortured, broken, and cruelly Tormented.

Whence being carried along on the Sergeants armes, to the end of a Trance or stone Gallery, where the Pottaro or Racke was placed: The Encarnador or Tormentor, begunne to disburden me of my irons, which beeing very hard inbolted he could not Ram-verse the Wedges for a long time: Whereat the Chiefe Justice being offended, the malicious Villaine with the Hammer which he had in his hand, stroake away above an inch of my left heele with A mercilesse hurt, before they begun to Racke mee.the Bolt. Whereupon I grievously groaning, beeing exceeding faint, and without my three ounces of bread, and a little Water for three dayes together: The Alcalde [401]sayd, O Traytor all this is nothing, but the earnest of a greater bargaine you have in hand.

Now the irons being dissolved, and my Torments approaching, I fell prostrate on my knees, crying to the Heavens:

O Great and Gracious GOD, it is truely knowne to thy all-seeing Eye, that I am innocent of these false and fearefull accusations, and since therefore it is thy Good will and pleasure, that I must suffer now by the scelerate hands of mercilesse men: Lord furnish mee, with Courage, Strength, and Patience least by an impatient Minde, and feebling Spirit, I become my owne Murtherer, in Confessing my selfe guilty of Death, to shunne present punishment. And according to the Multitude of thy Mercies, O Lord, bee mercifull to my sinfull soule, and that for Jesus thy Sonne and my Redeemer his sake.

[x. 462.]After this, the Alcalde, and Scrivan, being both chaire-set, the one to examine, the other to write downe my Confession and Tortures: I was by the Executioner stripped to the skin, brought to the Racke, and then mounted by him on the top of it: Where eftsoones I was hung by the bare shoulders, with two small Cords, which went under both mine armes, running on two Rings of iron that were fixed in the Wall above my head.

Thus being hoysed, to the appoynted height, the Tormentor discended below, and drawing downe my Legs, through the two sides of the three-planked Racke, hee tyed a Cord about each of my ancles: And then ascending upon the Racke, hee drew the Cords upward, and bending The hammes and lids of my knees were both broken.forward with maine force, my two knees, against the two plankes; the sinewes of my hammes burst a sunder, and the lids of my knees beeing crushed, and the Cords made fast, I hung so demayned, for a large houre.

At last the Encarnador, informing the Governor, that I had the marke of Jerusalem on my right arme, joyned with the name and Crowne of King James, and done upon the Holy Grave. The Corrigidor came out of his adjoyning stance, and gave direction, to teare a sunder, [402]the name, and Crowne (as hee sayd) of that Hereticke King, and arch-enemy to the Holy Catholicke Church: Then the Tormentor, laying the right arme above the left, and the Crowne upmost, did cast a Cord over both armes, seaven distant times: And then lying downe upon his backe, and setting both his feete on my hollow-pinched belly, he charged; and drew violently with his hands, making my Wombe support the force of his feete, till the seaven severall Cords combind in one place of my arme, (and cutting the Crowne, sinewes, and flesh to the bare [X. 453.]bones) did pull in my fingers close to the palme of my hands: the left hand of which is Lame so still, and will be for ever.

Now mine eyes begun to startle, my mouth to foame and froath, and my teeth to chatter like to the doubling of O cruell and inhumane murder.Drummers stickes. O strange inhumanity of Men-monster Manglers! surpassing the limits of their nationall Law; three score Tortures beeing the tryall of Treason, which I had, and was to indure: yet thus to inflict a seaven-fold surplussage of more intolerable cruelties: And notwithstanding of my shivering lippes, in this fiery passion, my vehement groaning, and blood-springing fonts, from armes, broake sinewes, hammes, and knees; yea, and my depending weight on flesh-cutting Cords; yet they stroke mee on the face with Cudgels, to abate and cease the thundring noyse of my wrestling voyce.

At last being loosed from these Pinnacles of paine, I was hand-fast set on the floore, with this their incessant imploration: Confesse, confesse, confesse in time, for thine inevitable torments ensue: where finding nothing from me, but still innocent, O I am innocent, O Jesus! the Lambe of God have mercy upon mee, and strengthen mee with patience, to undergoe this barbarous murder.

The Author in the Racke at Malaga

The Author in the Racke at Malaga

Here begun my mayne tortures.Then by command of the Justice, was my trembling body layd above, and along upon the face of the Racke, with my head downe-ward, inclosed within a circled hole, my belly upmost, and my heeles upward toward the top of the Racke: my legs and armes being drawne a sunder, [403]were fastned with pinnes and Cords, to both sides of the outward plankes; for now was I to receive my maine torments.

Now what a Pottaro or Racke is (for it stood by the [X. 464.]wall declining downe-ward) it is made of three plankes of Timber, the upmost end whereof is larger then a ful Loe here is the manner how I was mainly Racked.stride; the lower end being narrow, and the three planks joyning together, are made conformable to a Mans shoulders: in the downe-most end of the middle planke there was a hole, wherein my head was layd: in length it [X. 465.]is longer than a man, being interlaced with small cords from planke to planke, which divided my supported thighes from the middle plank: Through the sides of which exteriour planks there were three distant holes in every one of them; the use wherefore you shall presently heare.

The manner how my body was first fastned to the Racke before my tortures were inflicted.Now the Alcalde giving commission, the executioner layd first a cord over the calfe of my leg, then another on the middle of my thigh, and the third cord over the great of my arme; which was severally done, on both sides of my body receaving the ends of the cords, from these sixe severall places through the holes made in the outward planks, which were fastned to pinnes, and the pinnes made fast with a device: for he was to charge on the out side of the planks, with as many pinnes, as there were holes and cords; the cords being first laid meet to my skin: And on every one of these sixe parts of my body, I was to receave seven severall tortures: each torture consisting of three winding throwes, of every pinne; which amounted to twenty one throwes, in every one of these sixe parts.

Then the Tormentor having charged the first passage about my body (making fast by a device each torture as they were multiplied) he went to an earthen Jarre standing full of water, a little beneath my head: from whence carrying a pot full of water; in the bottome whereof, there was an incised hole, which being stopd by his thumb, till it came to my mouth, hee did powre it in my bellie; the measure being a Spanish Sombre, which is an English [404]Potle: The first and second services I gladly receaved, such was the scorching drouth of my tormenting payne, and likewise I had drunke none for three dayes before.

But afterward, at the third charge, perceiving these [X. 466.]measures of water to be inflicted upon me as tortures, O strangling tortures! I closed my lips, gaine-standing that eager crudelity.

A cruelty beyond cruelties.Whereat the Alcalde inraging, set my teeth asunder with a payre of iron cadges, detayning them there, at every severall turne, both mainely and manually; whereupon my hunger-clungd bellie waxing great, grew Drum-like imbolstered: for it being a suffocating payne, in regard of my head hanging downeward, and the water reingorging it selfe in my throat with a strugling force; it strangled and swallowed up my breath from youling and groaning.

And now to prevent my renewing griefe (for presently my heart fayleth and forsaketh me) I will onely briefly avouch, that betweene each one of these seven circular charges, I was aye reexamined, each examination continuing halfe an houre; each halfe houre a hell of infernall paine, and betweene each torment, a long distance of life quelling time.

A hellish and insupportable payne.Thus lay I sixe houres upon the Racke, betweene foure a clocke afternoone, and ten a clocke at night, having had inflicted upon me three score seven torments: Neverthelesse they continued me a large halfe houre (after all my tortures) at the full bending; where my body being all begored with blood, and cut through in every part, to the crushed and bruised bones, I pittifully remayned, stil roaring, howling, foaming, bellowing, and gnashing my teeth, with insupportable cryes, before the pinnes were undone, and my body loosed.

True it is, it passeth the capacity of man, either sensibly to conceave, or I patiently to expresse the intollerable anxiety of mind, and affliction of body in that dreadfull time I sustayned.

[X. 467.]At last my head being by their armes advanced, and [405]my body taken from the Rack, the water regushed abundantly from my mouth; then they recloathing my broken, bloody, and cold trembling body, being all this time starke naked, I fell twice in a sounding trance: which they againe refreshed with a little Wine, and two warme Egges, not for charity done, but that I should be reserved to further punishment; and if it were not too truely knowne these sufferings to be of trueth, it would almost seeme incredible to many, that a man being brought so low, with starving hunger, and extreame cruelties, could have subsisted any longer reserving life.

And now at last they charged my broken legs, with my former eye-frighting irons, and done, I was lamentably carryed on their armes to the Coach, being after mid-night, and secretly transported to my former Dungeon without any knowledge of the Towne, save onely these my A lamentable remembrance of inhumane cruelty.lawlesse, and mercilesse Tormentors: where, when come, I was layd with my head and my heeles alike high, on my former stones.

The latter end of this woefull night poore mourning Hazier the Turke, was set to keepe me, and on the morrow, the Governour entred my roome threatning me still with moe tortures to confesse, and so caused he every morning long before day, his Coach to be rumbled at his gate, and about me where I lay, a great noyse of tongues, A dreadfull affrighting for more tortures.and opening of doores: and all this they did of purpose to affright and distract me, and to make me beleeve I was going to be rackt againe, to make me confesse an untrueth; still thus they continued every day of five dayes till Christmas.

Upon Christmas day Mariana the Ladies Gentlewoman got permission to visit me, and with her licence, she [X. 468.]brought abundance of teares presenting me also with a dish of Honey and Sugar, some confections, and Rasins in a great plenty to my no small comfort, besides using many sweet speeches for consolations sake.

Shee gone, and the next morning of Saint Johns day come, long ere day the Towne was in Armes, the Bells [406]ringing backward, the people shouting, and Drummes beating; whereat my soule was over-joyed, thinking that the Moores had seazed upon all: And in the after noone the Turke comming to me with bread and water, being by chance the second day, I asked him what the fray was? Alas too good newes not to have been true.who replyed, be of good courage, I hope in God and Mahomet, that you and I ere long shall be set at liberty; for your Countrey-men, the English Armado, and mine the Moores, are joyned together, and comming to sacke Malaga: And this morning Post came from Allagant to premonish the Governour thereof; whereupon he and the Towne have instantly pulled downe, all the Cowper shops, and dwelling houses that were builded without by the shoare side, adjoyning to the Townes Wall: But yet sayd he it is no matter, the Towne may easily be surprised, and I hope we shall be merry in Algier, for there is above a hundred sayle seene comming hither; and therewith kissing my cheeke, hee kindly left mee.

Indeed, as for such newes from Allagant; the detriment of twenty eight houses, the shoare-planted Cannon, the suspicion they had of the English, and the Towne foure dayes in Armes were all true, save onely the confederacy of the English with the Moores, that was false.

Witnesse Sir Richard Halkins, and the Captaines of his Squader, who a little after Christmas, comming to the Road, went to the Governour to cleere himselfe, and the [X. 469.]Fleete of that absurd imputation layde to their charge. The twelfth day of Christmasse expired, they beganne to threaten me on still with moe Tortures, even till Candlemasse: In all which comfortlesse time, I was miserably afflicted with the beastly plague of gnawing Vermin, which lay crawling in lumps, within, without, and about my body: yea, hanging in clusters about my beard, my lips, my nostriles, and my eye-browes, almost inclosing my sight.

And for a greater satisfaction to their mercilesse mindes, the Governour caused Areta, his silver plate keeper, to gather and swipe the Vermine upon me twice in eight [407]dayes, which tormented me to the death, beeing a perpetuall punishment; for mine armes being broake, my hands lucken and sticking fast to the palmes of both hands, No payne so grievous, as a lame man to be still tormented with gnawing reason of the shrunke sinewes; I was unable to lift mine armes, or stir my fingers, much-lesse to avoyde the filthy Vermine: neyther could my legges and feete performe it beeing impotent in all. Yet I acknowledge the poore Infidell, some few times, and when opportunity served, would steale the keyes from Areta, and about mid-night would enter my Roome, with stickes and burning oyle, and sweeping them together in heapes, would burne the greatest part, to my great Releafe; or doubtlesse I had beene miserably eaten up, and devoured by them.

And now some eight dayes before Candlemasse, the slave informed me that an English Seminary Priest, borne in London, and belonging to the Bishops Colledge of Malaga; and a Scottish Cowper, named Alexander Ley, borne in Dunbar, and there married; were in Translating all my Bookes and Observations out of English, in the [X. 470.]Spanish tongue, bringing every other day numbers of wrot Papers to the Governour, and for their paines had thirty duccats allowed, and that they were saying, I was an Arch-Hereticke to the Pope and the Virgin Mary.

Having redounded him concealed thankes, I was assured of their bloody Inquisition, preparing my selfe in God, with Faith, and Patience to Receive and gane-stand it: for my spirituall Resolution, was surely founded, being sightlesse of company, and humane faces, I had intirely the light of my Soule celebrate to God Almighty.

A politick enquiry of a damnable inquisition.And hereupon the second day after Candlemas, the Governour, the Inquisitor a Canonicall Priest, entered my Dungeon, accompanied with two Jesuites, one of which was Predicator, and Superiour of the Tiatinean Colledge of Malaga: Where being Chaire set, Candle-lighted, and doore locked; the Inquisitor after diverse frivolous questions, demaunded me if I was a Romane Catholicke, and acknowledged the Popes Supremacy. To whom I answered, I was neyther the one, nor did the other. And [408]what power (sayd I,) have you to challenge me of my Religion, since it is a chiefe Article, of the former concluded peace, that none of our Kings subjects should be troubled by your Inquisition; but as you have murdered me for alledged Treason; so you meane to Martyre me for Religion.

And you Governour, as you have Tortured and hunger-starved this helplesse body, consumed with cold and vermine to the last of my life; the Almighty God who revealeth the secrets of all things (although I bee never relieved) will certainely discover it, to my Countrey and to the World. And is this the best of your good deeds? you repay to our mercifull King, who then being onely [X. 471.]King of Scotland, in the time of your just over-throw of Eighty Eight, gave secourse to thousands of your Shipwracked people for many moneths; and in the end, caused transport them safely to their desired Ports. Leaving to the Worlds memory an eternall stampe of Christian Bounty, Mercy, and royall Charity, and your acquittance to him, is an imputation of Treachery to his Fleete, detayning and mis-regarding his Letters and Seales, and now imposing to a tormented Innocent, your lawlesse Inquisition.

To which the Governour answered, all that was true, but it was done more through feare then love, and therefore deserved the lesser thankes; but (interim) wee will follow the utter-most of our ends. And the Jesuite Predicator to confirme his words, sayd, there was no faith to be kept with Heretickes, which directly or indirectly is the sublime policy of Conquerours, which our mighty and invincible Nation evermore taketh notice of and observeth.

A damnable Inquisitor applying false attributs to our blessed Lady.Then the Inquisitor arrising, expressed himselfe thus: Behold the powerfull majesty of Gods mother, Commaunder of her Sonne, equall to the Father, Wife to the Holy Ghost, Queene of Heaven, Protector of Angels, and sole Gubernatrix of the earth, &c. How thou being first taken as a Spye, accused for Treachery, and innocently Tortured (as we acknowledge we were better informed [409]lately from Madrile of the English intention) yet it was her power, her Divine power, which brought these judgements upon thee; in that thou hast wrot calumniously against her blessed miracles of Loretta: and against his Holinesse, the great Agent, and Christs Viccar on earth: Therefore thou hast justly fallen into our hands, by her speciall appointment; thy Bookes and papers, are miraculously [X. 472.]Translated by her speciall providence with thy owne Countrey-men: wherefore thou maist clearely see, the impenetrable Misteries of our glorious Lady in punishing her offenders: and for a humble satisfaction, Repent thee of thy wickednesse, and be converted to the Holy mother Church. And after many such like exhortations of all the foure, the Inquisitor assigned me eight dayes for my Conversion: Saying, that hee, and the Tiatines would twice a day visite mee in that time, intreating me to be advised againe the next morning, of these doubts and difficulties that withstood my Conscience.

A Sicophaniticall Oration from a jugling Jebusite.Then in leaving mee, the Jesuite Predicator making a a Crosse upon my crossed breast, sayd, My sonne, beholde you deserve to be burnt quicke, but by the grace of our Lady of Loretta, whom you have blasphemed, wee will both save your Soule and Body: Spewing forth also this Fæminine Latine; Nam mansueta et misericordiosa est Ecclesia, O Ecclesia Romana! extra quem non est salus: They gone and I alone, all this night, was I instant with my God, imploring his Grace, to Rectifie my thoughts, illuminate my understanding, confirme my confidence, beatifie my memory, to sanctifie my knowledge, to expell the servile feare of Death, and to save my soule, from the intangling corruption of any private ends, illusions, or mundane Respects whatsoever.

The next morning, the three Ecclesiastickes returned, and being placed with Chaires and Candles, the Inquisitor made interrogation, of what difficulties, errors, or mis-beliefe I had. To whom ingenuously I answered I had none, neyther any difficulty, errour, nor mis-beliefe; but was confident in the promises of Jesus Christ, and [410]assuredly believed his Revealed will in the Gospell, professed [X. 473.]in the Reformed Catholicke Church; which being confirmed by Grace, I had the infallible assurance in my Soule, of the true Christian Faith.

To these words, he answered, thou art no Christian, but an absurd Hereticke, and without Conversion, a member of perdition. Whereupon I replied, Reverend Sir, the nature of Charity and Religion, doe not consist in opprobious speeches; wherefore if you would convert me (as you say) convince mee by Argument: if not, all your threatenings of fire, Death, nor Torments, shall make me shrinke from the truth of Gods Word in Sacred Scriptures. The fury of a mad inquisitor to have almost slain me.Whereupon the mad Inquisitor clapd mee on the face with his foote, abusing me with many Raylings, and if the jesuites had not intercepted him, he had stobbed me with a knife; where, when dismissed, I never saw him more.

The third day insuing (and having broake their promise) the two Jesuites returned, and after a frowning silence, the Superiour asked me of my Resolution: I told him I was Resolved already, unlesse hee could show me good Reasons in the contrary. Whereupon having past with me some few superficial Arguments of their seaven Sacraments, Intercession, Transubstantiation, Images, Purgatory, Miracles, Merit, &c. he begun to brag of their Church her Antiquity, Universality, and Uniformity. Auncient no (sayd I) for the Profession of my Faith, hath beene ever since the first time of the Apostles; And Christ had ever his owne Church (howsoever obscure) in the greatest time of your darknesse.

So Rome foure hundred yeares and upward, was the true Church; but afterward falling in apostacy by meanes of her corrupt leaders, wee have left her in nothing, but what shee hath left her former selfe. Universall no; although shee assumeth a Catholicke name, was not the [X. 474.]Church in the East, a greater Church than yours in the West for hundreds of yeares, and I pray you what are now the Orientall Churches in Asia, (besides the Greeks) [411]and the Æthiopian Affricans that doe not so much as know, or heare of your Pope, far lesse his profession.

With no small adoe, Boniface the third, obtained of Phocas the Emperour to be called universall Bishop: which was asisted afterward by Puppin the French King, and ratified by Paleologus, the father of Constantine who lost Constantinople: The Romish Church falls short of true antiquity, universality, and uniformity.And what long contraversies about this new power, was betweene your Popes, and the counsells of Carthage, Calcedon, Ephesus, Alexandria, and Nice. Uniformable no; some of your Priests give the Sacrament onely in Bread, for reall flesh and blood, some in Wine without Bread, and some in both.

The Bavarians in their owne language sing the Psalmes in prose at their Masses, and not else where done: The second Commandement goeth current amongst some of your Catholicks in France, yet not in Bretagne, nor Provance; so doth it in Austria and Bavaria, but not in Italy and Spaine.

It is most evident, what your former Popes have confirmed, the succeeding Popes have disanulled, and dayly doe, as their present lives, and your auncient Histories beare a true record.

And was there not at one time, three Popes in three severall places? and oftentimes two at once: One professing one Heresie, and another Atheisme: What mutinies and malice, are dayly among your Monasteries, each envying anothers priviledge, anothers preferment, anothers wealth: And your order (father) by all the other Monasticks, is hated and vilipended to death; besides diversities of Doctrine, betweene your professors and the Dominicans: [X. 475.]and hundreds of like disunities you have both in ceremony and order which now I suspend: So I pray you (father) where your uniformity, much lesse your universality, and worst of all your antiquity.

Having thus concluded, the fiery fac’d Jesuits, with boisterous menacings left mee; and the eight day thereafter, being the last day of their Inquisition, they returned againe, in a more milder disposition: where after divers [412]arguments on both sides, the two Jesuits with teares distilling from their eyes, solidly protested, they were sorry from their heart, for that terrible death I was to undergo, and above all the loosing of my soule: The Jesuits last allurements for my conversion to their sect.And falling downe on their knees, cryed, convert, convert, O deare brother! for our blessed Ladies sake convert: To whom I replyed, that neither death nor fire I feared; for I was resolved for both, yet thinking my selfe unworthy to suffer for Christ and the Gospells sake, considering my vildnesse and my owne unworthinesse: yet the Spirit of God assureth my faith, it is his divine pleasure it should be so that I must suffer. Wherefore if I should divert, trust mee not, for I would but dissemble with you (through feare, flattery, or force) to shunne present death.

Whereupon they called the Governour, and after their privy consulting, hee thus spoke; Deare brother, my greatest desire is, to have thee a good Christian, a Romane Catholick, to which if thy conscience will yeeld, I will shew thee as great courtesie, as thou hast receaved cruelty: for pitty it were, that such an invincible spirit, and endued with so many good parts, should perish in both worlds for ever. Plucke up thy heart, and let the love of our blessed Lady enter in thy soule: Let not thy former sufferings dismay thee, (for thy sores being yet greene and curable) I shall transport thee to a fine Chamber, and there thou shalst have all needfull things for the recovery of [X. 476.]thy health and strength. Thy money and Patents shall be refounded, but thy hereticall Bookes are already burned: And lastly sayd he, I will send thee with my owne Servant to Court, Counsel, and King, with letters from the holy Inquisition, and from mee, faithfully promising thou shalt enjoy a Pension of three hundred Duccats a yeare.

But having satisfied his bewitching policy with a Christian constancy; they all three left mee in a thundering rage; vowing, I should that night have the first seale of my long sorrowes: And directing their course to the [413]Bishop and Inquisitor (for the Governour had wrested the Inquisition upon mee, to free him of his former aspersion layd upon the English Fleet, and my tryall therefore, converting it all to matters of Religion) the Inquisition (I say) sat forthwith, A condemnatory sentence to death by the Inquisition.where first I was condemned to receave that night eleven strangling torments in my Dungeon: and then after Easter Holy dayes, I should be transported privatly to Grenada, and there about mid-night to be burnt body and bones into ashes, and my ashes to be flung into the ayre: Well, that same night the Scrivan, Sergeants, and the young English Priest entered my melancholly staunce: where the Priest in the English tongue urging mee all that he could (though little it was hee could doe) and unprevailing, I was disburdened of mine irones, unclothed to my skin, set on my knees and held up fast with their hands: where instantly setting my teeth asunder with iron Cadges, they filled my belly full of water, even gorgeing to my throat: Then with a garter they bound fast my throat, till the white of mine eye turned upward; and being laid on my side, I was by two Sergeants tumbled to and fro seven times through the roome; even till I was almost strangled: This done, they [X. 477.]fastned a small cord about each one of my great toes, and hoysing me therewith to the roofe of a high loft (for the cords runne on two rings of iron fastned above) they cut the garter, and there I hung, with my head downward, in my tormented weight, till all the gushing water dissolved: This done, I was let downe from the loft, quite senslesse, lying a long time cold dead among their hands: whereof the Governour being informed, came running up stayres, crying, Is he dead, O fie villanes goe fetch me Wine, which they powred in my mouth, regayning thereby a slender sparke of breath.

A Turkish slaves charity in the bowels of compassion.These strangling torments ended, and I reclothed, and fast bolted againe they left mee lying on the cold floore praysing my God, and singing of a Psalme. The next morning the pittifull Turke visiting mee with bread and water, brought me also secretly in his shirt sleeve, two [414]handfull of Rasins and figges, laying them on the floore amongst the crawling vermine, for having no use of armes nor hands, I was constrayned by hunger and impotency of time, to licke one up with another with my tongue: This charity of figs the slave did once every weeke or fortnight, or else I had long or then famished.

After which sorrowfull distresse, and inhumane usage, the eye-melting Turke taking displeasure, fell five dayes sicke, and bedfast: but the house Spaniards understanding his disease made him beleeve I was a Divell, a Sorcerer, a Nigromancer, and a blasphemous miscreant, against their Pope, their Lady, and their Church; giving him such a distast, that for thirty dayes, he never durst looke me in the face, being affraid of witchcraft.

All this time of his absence, one Ellinor the Cooke, an Indian Negro woman, attended mee, for she being a [X. 478.]Christian drudge, had more liberty to visit mee, than the slavish Infidell: who certainly (under God) prolonged then my languishing life, conveighing me for foure weekes space, once a day some lesse or more nourishment, and in The deceitfulness of female inconstancies.her pocket a bottle glasse of Wine. Being no wayes semblable to the soule betraying teares of her Crocodilean sex which the Spanish Proverbe prettily avoucheth: las mugeres, engannan a los hombres, dellas lastimandoles, con sus lagrimas fingidas; dellas hallagandoles, con Palabras lesongeras: to wit, Women deceave men, some of them, grieving them with their fayned teares, and other fawning on them with flattering words. But;

Kind Ellenor though blacke by nature borne,

Made bounty (not her beauty) to adorne

Her new chang’d Pagan life (though vail’d by night

Of Romish shades) to shine on mee more bright,

Then Sun scorched Æthiope beames; Art-glancing spangles:

Or that Ægyptian Bird, mans sight intangles

With rarest colours: for her loving sight

Though black as pitch, gave me transparent light: [415]

Food, and stolne-food, though little, yet enough;

(The finer soile, the ebber tilles the Plough,)

Second with Wine, a mutchkin, thrice a weeke

Pack’d in her pocket, for it might not speeke:

Thus Females have extreames, and two we see,

Eyther too wicked, or too good they be;

For being good no Creature can excell them,

And being bad, no ill can paralell them:

But sure this gift, from course of nature came,

Rais’d up by Heaven to be my nursing Dame;

For she a Savage bred, yet shew more Love

And humane pitty, then desert could moove:

Wherein shee stain’d the Spaniards; they did nought

[X. 479.]But what revenge, on slaughter’d sorrow wrought:

Thus, they who turn’d her, went themselves astray,

And shee though ignorant, trac’d the Christian way:

For which great God reward her make her Soule

As white within, as she without is foule;

And if I might, as reason knowes I would

Her love, and praise, my deeds should crowne with gold.

Now about the middle of Lent, Hazier, my former Friend, was appoynted to attend me agayne, suspecting Ellenors compassion; but as my miseries were multiplied, my Patience in God was redoubled: For men are rather killed with the impatience they have in adversity, then adversity it selfe: And of all men, that man is most An impatient man in trouble is a triple torture.unhappy, to whom God in his troubles hath not given Patience; for as the violent enemy of age is griefe, so is the mindes impatiency, the arch-corruptor of all our troubles: But indeede in the weakenesse of judgement, when men seeme lost by long affliction to themselves, then they are often and ever neerest to God: for who would have thought, that I who had seene so many sects and varieties of Religion, dispersed over the face of the earth, could have stucke fast to any religion at all; Travailers being reputed to be Ubique et omnibus parati. But I will tell thee Christian, it was the grace of God in [416]me, and not mine: For as fire lying hid under ashes, and touch’d will flame; so I seeming to my selfe carelesse of Christianity, then God pricking my Conscience made tryall of my Faith: For Christ forbid, that every Shippe which coasteth the rockey shoare, should leave her ruines there.

This I speake not for any selfe-prayse, but to glorifie God, and to condemne the rash censures of opinion, and [X. 480.]with Phocion, I mistrust my selfe, because of popular applause: Erubuit quasi peccasset quod placuerit: But now to abbreviate a thousand Circumstances of my Lamentable sufferings, which this Volume may not suffer to containe: By Gods great providence, about a fortnight before Easter, Anno 1621. there came a Spanish Cavaliere of Grenada to Malaga, whom the Governour one night invited to Supper, being of old acquaintance: where after Supper to intertayne Discourse, the Governour related and Gods great mercy in my first discovery by a stranger.disclosed to the stranger (God working thereby my discovery and deliverance) all the proceedings and causes of my first apprehending, my Confessions, Torments, starvings, their mistaking of the English Fleete, and finally the wresting of the Inquisition upon me, and their Condemnatory Sentence seeming also much to Lament my mis-fortunes, and praysing my Travailes and Deserts.

Now all this while, the Gentlemans servant, a Flandrish Fleming, standing at his Maisters backe, and adhering to all the Governours Relations, was astonished, to heare of a sakelesse Stranger, to have indured, and to indure such damnable Murther and Cruelty. Whereupon, the Discourse ending and mid-night past, the stranger returned to his Lodging; where the Fleming having bedded his Maister, and himselfe also in another Roome, he could not sleepe all that night, and if hee slumbered, still hee thought hee saw a man Torturing, and burning in the fire: which hee confessed to M. Wilds when morning came.

Well, he longed for day, and it being come, and hee cloathed, hee quietly left his Lodging, inquiring for an [417]English Factor, and comming to the House of M. Richard Wilds, the chiefe English Consull: Hee told him [X. 481.]all what hee heard the Governour tell his Master, but could not tell my name: only Maister Wilds conjectur’d it was I, because of the others report of a Traveller, and of his first and former acquaintance with me there.

These are the English Factors which first wrought my reliefe.Whereupon the Fleming being dismissed, he straight sent for the other English Factors, Mr. Richard Busbitche, Mr. John Corney, Mr. Hanger, Mr. Stanton, Mr. Cooke, Mr. Rowley, and Mr. Woodson: where advising with them, what was best to be done for my reliefe; they sent letters away immediatly with all post dilligence, to Sir Walter Aston, his Majesties Ambassadour lying at Madrile: Upon which hee mediating with the King and Counsell of Spaine, obtained a strait warrant to command the Governour of Malaga, to deliver mee over in the English hands: which being come, to their great disliking, I was released on Easter-satturday before midnight, and carryed uppon Hazier the slaves backe to Master Busbitches house, where I was carefully attended till day light.

Meanewhile (by great fortune) there being a Squader of his Majesties Ships lying in the Road, Sir Richard Halkins came earely a shoare, accompanied with a strong trayne, and receaved mee from the Merchants: Whence I was carryed on mens armes in a payre of blanquets, to I durst not stay a shoare for feare of the Inquisition.the Vangard his Majesties ship. And three dayes thereafter, I was transported to a ship bound for England, the Fleets victualler, named the goodwill of Harwich; by direction of the Generall Sir Robert Maunsell: where being well placed, and charge given by Sir Richard Halkins to the ships master William Westerdale, for his carefulnes toward the preservation of my life, which then was brought so low & miserable. The foresaid Merchants [X. 482.]sent mee from shoare (besides the ships victuals) a sute of Spanish apparrell, twelve Hennes, a barrell of Wine, a basket full of Egges, two Roves of Figges and Rasins, two hundred Orenges and Lemmons, eight pounds of Sugar, a number of excellent good Bread, and two [418]hundred Realls in Silver and Gold; besides two double Pistolls Sir Richard Halkins sent mee as a token of his love.

The kindnesses of whom to bury in oblivion, were in me the very shame of ingratitude, I being then a lost man and hopelesse of life, which argued in them a greater singularitie of kindnesse and compassion. Yet I remember Religious Sir Richard Halkins my speciall friend.for all my lamenes and distraction, I intreated Sir Richard Halkins to goe a shoare to the Governour, and demand him for my gold, my eight Patents, my Booke of Armes, and his Majesties Letters and Seales; the which he willingly obeyed, (being accompanied with Captaine Cave, and Captaine Raymond) but could obtaine nothing at all, save blandements and leying excuses.

And now on the twelfth day of our lying in the Road, our ship weighing her Anchors, and hoysing her Sailes, wee passed through the straits of Gibelterre, or fretum Herculeum; for this was the furthest Land that Hercules could attayne unto; which made him erect a Pillar, and indent thereon, nil ultra; but when Charles the fift, returned from that untoward voyage of Algier, hee caused to set up in the same place, Plus ultra.

Here in this Channell, I remarked a perpetuall current; flowing from the Ocean to the Mediterrene Sea without any regresse: which indeed is admirable the Mediterranean [X. 483.]Seas being hembd in, and environed with the mayne Continent of South Europe; the North and North west coasts of Asia, and the Northerne parts of Affricke; save onely the narrow passage of Hellespont, which from Mare Propontis bendeth his course to Mare Euxinum: And yet the Euxine, or blacke Sea, hath no affinity with any other moving waters, being likewise incompassed with the mayne continent: And from it also runneth a continuall current, through Bosphorus Thraicus, to the Mediterraneum.

The strait of Gibelterre five leagues broad.This narrow Sea on Affricke, or side of Fez, consisteth betweene Cap di Sprat, and the Promontore of Sewty, and upon the coast of Spayne, betweene Cap de Trafolger, and the butting forehead-land of Gibelterre, or Jubile [419]Tauro; the passage being five leagues broad, and nine in length.

And to be briefe, upon the fifty day after my departure from Malaga, I arrived at Datford upon Thames; whence the next morning I was carried to Theoballs on a feather-bed, and brought to the privy Gallery, for the Kings comming from Parke. Witnesse all the Court of England, even from the King to the Kitchin, what a martyrd anatomy I was, at then of me their first sight; and what small hope was either expected of my life or recovery.

Where, when immediatly having made my most humble and grievous complaints unto his sacred Majesty, his gracious consideration (in the meane time) was such, for the recovery of my health, that I was twice sent to the Bath at the charges of his Royall love, during the space of twenty seven weekes, where by the Divine providence, and his Princely clemency, I have recovered for the time in a [X. 484.]large measure, the health and strength of my body, although my left Arme, and crushed bones be incurable.

Meane while, in the first Weeke of my Arrivall in England, I was conveyed from Theobalds (by his Majesties direction) to Don Diego Surmento de Gundamore, the Spanish Ambassadour, then Resident in Holborne. A false promise unperformed.Where he votally undertooke, before then the two Lord Marquesses, Hammilton and Buckingham, (confirming it the day following to his Majesty at Greenewich) that after a condigne tryall had from Spaine, concerning my grievances: I should have all my money, Cloathes, Observations, Testimoniall Patents, and his Majesties Seales restored me agayne, with a thousand pound sterling also, (beeing modified by his Royall pleasure) of the Governour of Malagaes meanes, for the maintayning of my Lame and Racked body.

These promises were made the sixt of June 1621. and were to be performed againe Michaelmasse day insuing: But this day come, hee continued his drifts to the Prima vera; and it also arrived, he deferred time, with new protestations, onely to Easter or Pascua: And that Season [420]come, he turned my Pascua to Prison: For a little before his departure (seeing his policy too strong for mine oppressed patience) I told him flatly in his face, from the griefe of my soule, what he was, and what he went about; which afterward proved true: Whereupon in the Chamber of Presence, before the Emperours Ambassadour, and diverse Knights and Gentle-men, his Majesties servants: A single combat betweene a Spanish Earle and a Scottish Traveller.he rashly adventured the credite of Leager honour, in a single Combat against me a retorted Plaintive: Where indeed his Fistula was contra-banded with a fist, and for Victory, favour lent him authority; because of my Commitment, [X. 485.]for I lay nine Weekes incarcerate in the Marshall-Sea at Southwarke: Whence I returned with more credite, then hee left England with honesty; beeing both Vanquish’d and Victor. And my Muse left to mourne for my Liberty, deplored thus.

Low levell’d lie, my lofty staring aymes,

Low droupes the flight, of my swift wing’d designe;

Low bowes that top, whose hight true merit claimes:

Low head-long fals the scope of my Engine:

Low turnes my round, harsh grow the sacred nine;

Low sinke my joyes, pale griefe, converts in care:

Low lurkes Ambition, in this breast of mine:

Low stoupe these smiles, that Fortune wont to share;

Low rest my drifts, my curious Travailes rare:

Low scude the limits, of my high-bred thought:

Low plunge my hopes, in darke deepes of despaire;

Low I o’erthrowne, with crosses low am brought:

Low live I here, in sad restraint and strife:

Low then the lower of the lowest life:

Low as I am, I’le lowly Sacrifice:

Low deep fetch’d sighes, to heaven on my low Knees.

But I remember in the aforesayd time of this my A false aspersion laid on me by Papists.imprisonment, there were two Papists my Countrey-men, who wrot to me a Letter; not like to a familiar Epistle of Cicero: No, but they would have fastned an untruth upon me; affirming that I was a Romane Catholicke in my [421]heart; and that they would justifie it, that I received the Sacrament at Rome, in the first yeare that Paulus (Burgesius) Papa Quintus, came to his triple Crowne: to whom in a true and Christian defence, my serious and approbable reply was thus:

[X. 486.]This is your Papall marke,

that as you runne astray,

You eyther would, or needes will have,

Christs Flocke to loose their way:

Can you avouch this point,

and dare you blaze your shame,

Thus Painter-like to portray’d so,

a figure for a name:

Shall Symbolizing I,

by Paragraphs defind,

In Paradoxicke passages,

Equivocate my minde.

No tincture shall ingrosse,

my Senses so delude,

To maculate my Splendant path,

with positives intrude:

In this Aversion I,

I more then Victor live,

Let Crittickes sterne aspersions spew,

this project I’le Atchieve:

My words shall Seale the truth,

my heart reserves the stamp,

Wherein my Characters of Faith,

as zealous shall incampe:

That desuetude of Soule,

I never did imbrace,

Nor shall; nor did, God is my Judge,

Such was his Heavenly grace:

No secondary meane,

shall aggrevate my hope,

The auncient Rule of Primacy,

shall be my moderne scope: [422]

[X. 487.]Can such occurrents stand,

as ominous in me,

When you detract and falsly wrest,

the truth in perjury:

It is your lineall straine,

Collusions to induct,

With Misticke Contradictories,

your implies you Construct:

No inference can prye,

nor strange illation proove,

In your exorbitanting braines,

my period I did moove:

This microcosmos mine,

such imputation scornes;

And turnes this grim demoniat spight,

on your Hell-forked hornes.

My name you presse to staine,

by base abortive leyes,

To circumcise my recent fame,

with sharpe edg’d Calumnies:

And labour to depresse,

that Confluence I have

From Heaven ascrib’d, confirmed by Grace,

the pledge my Spirit doth crave:

That strife can not avayle,

I so assume the right;

Your doubled darkned eies perceive,

I triumph in the light:

It’s not your bloody Priests,

nor Tortures can prevaile,

I past your Purgatory ones,

the rest must you impale.

For what by dread or straine,

you can not worke nor do,

[X. 488.]You wrest, you leye, you paint, you faine,

and add illusions too:

These Latent Forgeries,

annexed to your Faith, [423]

As pendicles precipitate,

inhaunce your Soules to death:

With shrew’d Acerbious speech,

you Anathematize

My will Reciprocall to yours,

such guile you Moralize:

But this reflexing heart,

in a transparent flame,

Can by experience conster well,

your Churches Sire and Dame:

No Tort I introduct,

to damnifie your Sexe,

Whose empty Sculles (illuding feare)

your selves perverstly vexe:

I Organize the Truth,

you Allegate the Sense,

Disbending cominous defects,

in your absurd pretence:

Your immateriall proofes,

I wish you would detect,

My Processe craves Sedulity,

for what you Gulles Suspect.

After this, their sequell answere being mortified, and I set at liberty by a just favour of the Privy Councell, my formalists durst never attempt any further dispute with me, neither any passing countenance in our rancounters: But what shall I say concerning my grievances, Sed qui Patitur vincit: Since there is no helpe or Redresse to bee [X. 489.]had for wrongs past, no, neither (alasse) for any present in either meane, or mighty falls: for when the Starres of great states, decline under the selfe-same constellation of my sorrowes, and made the deplored for spectacles, of the inconstancy of fortune; what shall I then in a privat life, and publicke pilgrimage expect, but the common calamity of this age, and the irrevocable redresse of my miseries sustayned, for this Crowne and Kingdome of England, which shall be presently cleared: yet would to God, I might doe, as Xerxes the Persian King did, that when the [424]Greekes had taken Sardis, the Metropole of Lydia, he commanded one of his servants to stand before him everyday at dinner, and cry aloud, saying; the Grecians have taken Sardis: whereby he was never at quiet, till it was recovered.

Incompatible griefe without deserved reliefe.So would I, oppressed I, by mighty powers; (though not a King, yet the faythfull subject of a King) cry dayly from the heart-broken sorrow of my incompatible injuries; O barbarous, and inhumane Malaga! when shall my soule be revenged on thy cruell murther, and when shall mine eyes see thy mercilesse destruction? But tush, what dreame I? now a dayes griefe can find no reliefe, far lesse compassion, and meaner revenge, and so farewell satisfaction, when flattering feare dare challenge obsequiousnesse, to the alteration of any thing.

But afterward when death, Heavens fatall messenger, and enemy to nature, had darted King James of matchlesse memory; who sometimes (besides my soveraigne) in some respects, and for the former cause, was a father to me; then was I forcibly (I say) constrayned to preferre a bill of grievance to the upper house of Parliament Anno 1626. which I dayly followed 17. weekes: Well; my grievances [X. 490.]were heard and considered, and thereupon an order graunted me (bearing the Lords reference and pleasure concerning my suite) unto Sir Thomas Coventrey, Lord keeper of Englands great Seale; and through whose office my businesse should have passed: which order was delivered unto him, by Mr. James Maxwell Knight of the blacke Rode, and one of his Majesties Bed-chamber, in behalfe of the Lords of the upper house: The order thus being reserved then with the Lord-keeper for a moneth, hee appointed me to fetch him (because of a Warrant to his A direction for Certificats by the Lord Keeper.State office) the Certificats of Sir Walter Aston, Sir Robert Maunsell, and Sir Thomas Button, to cleare my sufferings, and the causes wherefore: which I gladly obeyed, and brought all their three Certificates unto him: yea, and Sir Walter Aston, (besides his hand-writ) spoke seriously face to face with him thereanent. [425]

Meane-while the house breaking up abruptly (because of soveraigne disliking) their order for my suite could take none effect as then, nor yet since, in regard it was no Session Parliament; and so my order and reliefe lyeth suspended till some hapy time.

But now to confound the calumnious and vituperious Papists, the miscreant and miserable Atheists, the peevish and selfe-opiniating Puritanes, the faithles misbeleeving Mungrells of true Religion, and of this trueth: And the very objections have beene sayd sometimes in my face, by irreligious and disdainefull Nullifidians: who have sayd and thought that I could neither be so constant, nor they so cruell: I thinke it not amisse, to set downe verbally one of their Certificats here, being all of one style, and to one purpose; and thus it followeth.

[X. 491.]To the Right Honorable, Sir Thomas Coventry Knight, Lord Keeper of the great Seale of England, &c.

May it please your Honour: I have taken boldnesse to certifie your good Lordship, of the trueth concerning the grievous sufferings of this heavily injured man, William Lithgow: true it is, that this bearer, being bound for Alexandria in Egypt, having with him Letters of safe Conduct, under the Hand and Seale of his late Majesty King James of blessed memory; ran-countred with us, and our Fleete at Malaga: Whereof I was imployed as Vice-Admirall against the Pyrats of Algier; where he repayring a Boord of us, and frequenting our Company a shoare, was presently (after we had set Sayle) apprehended by Command of the Governour and Magistrates there as a Spie; whom they suspected, had of purpose beene left behind by our Generall, and us of the Counsell of Warre, for the Discovery of that place, and other adjacent parts: Whereupon beeing secretly imprisoned in the Governours Palace; and after serious examination of our intention; hee was without any cause done, or offered by him, most [426][X. 492.]unjustly put to the cruell Racke and tortures; besides all other his unspeakable miseries, which for a long time he sustained thereafter: whereof I was credibly and infallibly informed by M. Richard Wilds, to whom he was first discovered, and by other English Factors of good note then resident there: in my repayring diverse times to the Roade of that towne with my Squadron of shippes, during the time of his long imprisonment, and after his deliverance. And afterward the Governour there beeing better informed of our loyall proceedings in those parts, and to colour their former cruelties, and suspition had of us, hee did wrest the Inquisition upon him, where being condemned to Death, he had doubtlesse undergone (as I was likewise truely informed by the afore-said Merchants) the finall Sentence of their Inquisition: if it had not beene, for the Religious care, and speedy prevention of Sir Walter Aston, then Leiger Ambassadour there: By whose earnest mediation he being delivered, and afterwards sent home by direction of Sir Robert Maunsell Generall: I now commend his grievous and lamentable cause, unto your Lordshippes tender and Religious Consideration. Resting,

Your Lordships to Command,
to serve You:

From Fulham this tenth
of July. 1626.

Sir Thomas Button.

[X. 493.]And now to conclude this Tragicall discourse, the Religious eye, may perceive Gods compassionate love, foure wayes here extended. First, his powerfull providence in my long and admirable preservation in Prison: hunger, Vermine, and Tortures, being my comfortlesse Companions. Secondly, the pittifull kindnesse of his All-seeing Gods miraculous mercy in my deliverances.Eye, in the miraculous Wonder of my Discovery, when the perverted policy of subtile Serpents, had sceleratly suggested my concealement. Thirdly, his unspeakable mercy in my unlooked-for deliverance, beeing [427]by hopelesse me, not thought, nor sought; and yet by his munificence was wrought. And lastly, his gracious goodnesse, in the recovery (after some large measure) of my health and use of body againe; all prayse and glory be to his infinite Majesty therefore.

And finally, merit beeing masked, with the darkenesse of ingratitude, and the morning Spring-tide of 1627. come: I set face from Court for Scotland, suiting my discontents, with a pedestriall Progresse, and my feete with the palludiat way; where fixing mine eyes on Edenbrugh, and prosecuting the Tennor of a Regall Commission (which partly beeing some where obeyed, and other-where suspended) it gave mee a large sight of the whole Kingdome, both Continent, and Iles. The particular Description whereof, in all parts, and of all places, besides Ports and Rivers: I must referre to the owne Volume already perfected, Intitulated Lithgowes Surveigh of Scotland: which this Worke may not Containe, nor time suffer to publish till a fitter occasion. Only Commenting a little upon some generalls. I hasten [X. 494.]to be at Finis. Traversing the Westerne Iles (whose inhabitants, like to as many Bulwarkes, are abler and apter to preserve and defend, their libertie and Precincts from incursive invasions; then any neede of Forts or Fortified places they have, or can be required there: Such is the The kindnes I received from the illustrious Lord the Marques of Hammilton.desperate courage of these awfull Hebridians:) I arrived (I say) at the Ile of Arrane, Anno 1628. where for certayne dayes, in the Castle of Braidwicke, I was kindly intertayned, by the illustrious Lord, James Marquesse of Hammilton, Earle of Arrane and Cambridge, &c.

Whom GOD may strengthen, with the liveliest Heart,

And fearelesse Minde, of all, e’vr fac’d that Art

For Bohems Queene: Heavens prosper His intent!

With Glorious Successe, and a Brave event:

That by a King beene Sped, for a Kings Sake,

To helpe a King; all Three from Him may take [428]

Auspicuous Service, Friendship, Faithfull Love,

’Gainst whom, and his, no time can breach improove.

Let then (great God) blest Sparkes of Favour fall

On his Designes, and Theirs, our Friends, and All;

And Angels Guard Him, let Thy Mighty hand

(Partition-like) ’twixt Him, and dangers stand:

That Martiall ends, and Victory may Crowne

His happy Hopes, his Life, with Love Renowne.

This Ile of Arrane, is thirty miles long, eight in breadth, and distant from the Maine, twenty foure miles; beeing sur-clouded with Goatfield Hill: which with wide-eyes, over-looketh our Westerne Continent, and the Northerne Countrey of Ireland: bringing also to sight in a cleare Summers day, the Ile of Manne, and the higher [X. 495.]Coast of Cumberland: A larger prospect no Mountaine in the World can show, poynting out three Kingdomes at one sight: Neither any like Ile or braver Gentry, for good Archers, and hill-hovering Hunters. Having agayne re-shoared the Maine, I coasted Galloway even to the Mould that butteth into the Sea, with a large Promontore, being the South-most part of the Kingdome. And thence footing all that large Countrey to Dumfries, and so to Carlile: I found heere in Galloway in diverse Rode-way Innes, as good Cheare, Hospitality, and Serviceable attendance, as though I had beene ingrafted in Lombardy or Naples.

The nobility and commodities of Galloway excell in goodnesse.The Wooll of which Countrey, is nothing inferiour to that in Biscai of Spaine: providing they had skill, to fine, Spin, Weave, and labour it as they should. Nay, the Calabrian silke, had never a better luster, and softer gripe, then I have seene and touched this growing wooll there on Sheepes backes: the Mutton whereof excelleth in sweetnesse. So this Country aboundeth in Bestiall, especially in little Horses, which for mettall and Riding, may rather be tearmed bastard Barbs, then Gallowedian Nagges.

Likewise their Nobility and Gentry are as courteous, and [429]every way generously disposed, as eyther discretion would wish, and honour Command: that (Cunningham being excepted, which may bee called the Accademy of Religion, for a sanctified Clergy, and a godly people) certainly [X. 496.]Galloway is become more civill of late, then any Maritine Country, bordering with the Westerne Sea. But now to observe my former Summary condition, the length of the Kingdome lyeth South and North: That is, betweene Dungsby head in Cathnes, and the afore-sayde Mould of Galloway; beeing distant per rectam lineam, which my weary feet troad over from poynt to poynt (the way of Lochreall, Carrick, Kyle, Aire, Glasgow, Stirveling, St. Johns Towne, Stormount, the Blair of Atholl, the Bra of Mar, Badeyno