The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Virtue and Use of Coffee With Regard to
the Plague And Other Infectious Distempers, by Richard Bradley

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

Title: The Virtue and Use of Coffee With Regard to the Plague And Other Infectious Distempers

Author: Richard Bradley

Release Date: September 8, 2019 [EBook #60264]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Produced by Chuck Greif and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at (This file was
produced from images available at The Internet Archive)


Virtue and Use
With Regard to the
And Other
Infectious Distempers:


The most Remarkable Observations of the Greatest Men in Europe concerning it, from the first Knowledge of it, down to this Present Time.

To which is Prefix’d, An Exact Figure of the Tree, Flower, and Fruit, taken from the Life.

By R. Bradley, Fellow of the Royal Society.


Printed by Eman. Matthews, at the Bible in Pater-noster-Row; and W. Mears, at the Lamb without Temple-Bar. M.DCC.XXI.

(Price Six-Pence.)




The Right Honourable


Lords Spiritual and Temporal,

And to the Honourable

The Commons of Great Britain in
Parliament Assembled,





Is most humbly Inscribed,


Your Honours

Most Obedient, and

Most Humble Servant to command,

Richard Bradley.



P R E F A C E.

AT this time, when every Nation in Europe is under the melancholy Apprehension of an approaching Plague or Pestilence, I think it the Business of every Man to contribute, to the utmost of his Capacity, such Observations, as may tend to the Service of the Publick. Upon this foot, I have some Months since published my Thoughts of the Plague in general, upon an Hypo{6}thesis which many of the Learned concur with, tho’ some few dissent from it: However, I find, that the Remedies prescribed by the Physicians of both Opinions, are little different from each other. It is remark’d by several Learned Men abroad, that Coffee is of excellent Use in the time of Pestilence, and contributes greatly to prevent the spreading of Infection: And one of them, in a Letter to me, observes, that in some Parts of Turkey, where the Plague is almost constant, it is seldom mortal in those Families, who are rich enough to enjoy the free Use of Coffee, but that the Poorer Sort, who want that Benefit, seldom escape. Again, the same Person observes, that Coffee is not subject to be destroy’d by any Insect, or is subject to rot, as most other Seeds or{7} Grains will do; and therefore justly concludes, that it is of great Virtue and Use in all Distempers, which are supposed to be occasioned by Insects, or unwholesome Air. And it is likely, if the true Virtue and Use of Coffee had been known in London in the Year 1665, when the Plague raged there, that Dr. Hodges, and other Learned Men of that time, would have recommended it. But since it is now become a Liquor known to most people, I have thought fit to republish its History, with several Additions and Remarks; especially how far it is useful in Pestilential Cases, with an Account of the best Method of roasting the Berries, and preserving them after roasting: And for the Satisfaction of the Curious, have{8} prefix’d a Figure of the Tree, Flower, and Fruit, which I delineated from a growing Tree in the Amsterdam Gardens.


Historical Account
C O F F E E.

COFFEE, of late Years, is grown so much in request throughout England, Holland, and other Parts of Europe, that I need say little to recommend its History to the World: The general Use of it rather seems to command this Work, that by our having a more familiar Knowledge of it, we may relish it the better. And again, what yet prompts me further to this Undertaking, is the{10} Opportunity I have at this time to present the World with a perfect Figure of the Tree that produces this celebrated Fruit; which is not done here by any random Guess, or according to the uncertain Report of others, but drawn by my own Hand from a growing Tree.

AND that I may observe some sort of Method in the Prosecution of my Discourse, I shall, in the first place, give my Reader the Names and Descriptions of it, from the several Authors who have mentioned it; and then I shall offer a more exact Account, from my own Knowledge, of the Plant, Flower, and Fruit, for the better understanding of the aforesaid Figure: after which, I shall set down the Time and Manner of its first Appearance in England, with its Virtues and Uses. To which I shall add some necessary Observations relating to the Original Place of its Growth, and Manner of Trading for it; and conclude with some Remarks I have made of its Culture in the Amsterdam Garden.

JACOB COTOVICUS, in his Travels to Jerusalem, Anno 1598. mentions the Coffee to have been at that time a{11} Drink much in use amongst the Turks; and tells us, that some of the Arabians called it Cahua, and others Bunnu and Bunchi, but gives us no Description of the Plant. He is the first Author that I find to have mentioned this Liquor.

PROSPER ALPINUS, a Physician of Venice, in his Book of Egyptian Plants, makes mention of the Tree, and gives us an imperfect Cut of it: He tells us, that he first saw it in a Garden belonging to a Captain of the Janizaries at Grand Cairo, brought from Arabia Felix, and planted there as a great Rarity: It is, saith he, like the Euonymus or Prickle-Timber, but with Leaves thicker, harder, and greener. Of the Fruit (called Buna) the Turks and Arabs make a Decoction or Drink, which they use instead of Wine, and is called Coava.

PALUDAMUS, after him, mentions it by the Name of Choava; and Rauwolfius calls it Chaube; but neither of them do make any Remarks upon it, that are worthy to be communicated to my Reader; for these Authors writ near a hundred Years since, when Coffee was little known to the Europeans.{12}

SANDYS, in his Travels through the Turkish Empire, met with this Drink at Constantinople: He says, “It was sold in many publick Places there, which he calls Coffa-Houses, where the Turks sit chatting most of the Day, and sip of a Drink called Coffa, in little China Dishes, as hot as they can suffer it; black as Soot, and tasting not much unlike it.” He believes it to be that black Broth, which was in use amongst the Lacedemonians.

PARKINSON, in his Theatr. Botanic. pag. 1622. gives us a very indifferent Figure of it, calling the Tree, Arbor Bon, and tells us, the Fruit is somewhat larger than a Hazel-Nut, pointed at the Extremities, and of a greyish Ash-Colour; that each Berry contains two white Seeds, which the Turks make Drink of, and is in great Esteem amongst them.

JOHN BAUHINE calls it Bon vel Ban Arbor.

CASPER BAUHINE describes it thus; Euonymo Similis Ægyptica fructu Baccis Lauri simili.{13}

Mr. RAY, in his Histor. Plantar. pag. 1691. calls it Coffee Frutex, ex cujus Fructu fit Potus. He had not seen the Plant, but discourses largely on its Virtues, which I shall give an Account of in the proper Place.

MONSIEUR PONCETT, in his Voyage to Æthiopia, makes it a Native of that Country; it was, as he says, transplanted from thence to Arabia Felix, and at this time the Æthiopians cultivate it only as a Curiosity: he describes it to be like the Myrtle in its Leaves, but larger and tufted; the Fruit like Pistachio Nut, green at first, and of a darker Colour when it is ripe: and this they call Coffee.

MANY others have mentioned the Fruit to be of a Citron Colour, and of a Greyish White: but it appears plain to me, they have never seen it in its Prosperity, as I have done; of which my Reader may be satisfied, when he compares such Accounts with the Description I shall give of it.{14}

Dr. COMELIN, Botanick Professor at Amsterdam, in his Lectures on Plants, places this Tree among the Jessamines, and compares the Leaf to that of our common Chesnut; but as that Gentleman has not yet printed any Account of it, I shall not therefore attempt to publish the Name at large, which he has given it. He is undoubtedly in the right to class it with the Jessamines; but I rather join in Opinion with my learned Friend Mr. Petiver, that the Leaf is more like to that of the Laurus Vulgaris, or common Bay, but larger.

THUS having given a View of what has been mentioned by the several Authors concerning the Name and Description of this Tree, I shall proceed to describe it from the Knowledge I have of it.

IN the Physick-Garden of Amsterdam are two Coffee-Trees above seventeen foot high, which have been for some time in a bearing State, and have, at most Seasons, Fruit upon them; from one of these Trees I design’d the Figure prefix’d to this Treatise, which in every Point re{15}sembles the Branch I took it from, except only the Size, which ought to be one third part bigger to make it equal with the Life.

THE Tree is of very quick Growth, and naturally inclinable to shoot upright; ’tis reported, that in its native Country it generally attains to the height of forty or fifty foot, although the Stem, in the thickest part, does not exceed five Inches in Diameter. The Leaves are Bi-composite (or set in cross Pairs at the Joints) and not unlike those of the common Bay, but curl’d at the Edges, and inclinable to hang down. The Flowers put forth in Clusters at the Joints, towards the Extremities of the Branches; they make their first Appearance in July, and are in Figure, Size, and Colour the same with those of the common Jessamine, with the Addition only of five yellow Apices, which hang loosely on the Top of the Flower, and a Style which projects near half an Inch above it: their Smell is faint, and little worth our Notice.

ABOUT October these Trees have done blowing, and then the Green Fruit{16} appear, which hang on them till the July following before they are ripe; they resemble at that time the Berries of the Lauro-Cerasus, or Bay-Cherry, and are much of the same Shape and Colour (i.e. of a dark Red) but instead of a single Stone, these have two Kernels, which split in the middle like the Bay-berries of the Shops.

THE Fruit being come to its Perfection, is gathered and prepared either for making Drink, or for propagating other Plants. For the first of these Uses they are spread on Mats, in the open Sun, to dry and harden, which requires some time to accomplish; they are afterwards rolled to and fro in rough Baskets to get off the Husks, and then tost in an airy Place to clean them. Being thus ordered, they are ready for the Roaster, who fits them for our Use.

MONSIEUR BERNIER tells us, that in the roasting of the Berries chiefly depends the Goodness of the Liquor; and affirms, that at Grand Cairo, (where there were above a thousand Coffee-Houses) there was but two Persons who rightly understood that Art.{17}

I HAVE taken some pains to experience the best Method of roasting it, and find none so good as by an Iron Vessel made to turn on a Spit, and it may be roasted before a clear Fire, or over a Charcoal Fire: and here every Berry has an equal share of Heat; and I like it roasted in a middle way, not overburnt. I would recommend therefore the roasting of it to every particular Family in England, they being then most secure from having any damaged Berries, or any Art used to increase the Weight, which is very injurious to the Drinkers of Coffee. Most Persons of Distinction in Holland roast their own Berries.

MONSIEUR DU FOUR, a Merchant of Lyons, in his Treatise of this Liquor, recommends to us, that the Decoction be prepared in Earthen or Stone Vessels, as preferable to those of Tin, Copper, or any other Metal; which (says he) take from it much of its Flavour and Goodness. And an ingenious Friend of mine observes, that Boiling of it evaporates too much the fine Spirits; for which reason he advises us to pour boiling Water upon the Powder, and let it{18} stand to infuse four or five Minutes before the Fire: and this Method, in my Judgment, much exceeds the common way of preparing it.

SOME of the most curious Coffee-drinkers have informed me, that as soon as they have reduced the Berries to Powder, ’tis the best way to put the fresh-ground Coffee into the Coffee-Pot, which should be either of Stone or Silver; and let it stand over the Fire a Minute or two, before they pour the Water upon it: Others, who have not the Opportunity of getting their Berries fresh roasted, recommend the drying and warming them before the Fire, immediately before they grind them. And indeed both these ways I find contribute greatly to the good Flavour of the Liquor; but whether we prepare this Liquor by Decoction or Infusion, it commonly remains thick and troubled for some Minutes after it is made, unless we pour into it a Spoonful or two of cold Water, which immediately precipitates the more heavy Parts to the bottom, and renders it clear enough for drinking. In travelling I have often found my Account in packing the Powder of fresh-roasted Coffee in{19} Bottles, which for more than twenty days has preserved its Strength and Goodness; which I mention for the sake of those who have been so much used to drink Coffee in the Morning, that they have not their Health without it, or have been forced to take up with ill-tasted damaged Stuff in some Country Village. I am the more careful to make this Remark, because I have sometimes been a Sufferer on this Account, and I would advance, as much as possible, the Content of Mankind.

THE first Knowledge and Use of Coffee is not certainly known; but, according to Banesius, it was discovered by mere Accident: He tells us, “It is the common Tradition amongst the Eastern People, that a certain Keeper of Camels or Goats in Arabia Felix, complained to the Religious of a Monastery in those Parts, that his Herds, twice or thrice a Week, not only kept awake all Night long, but spent it in frisking and dancing in an unusual manner. The Prior of the Monastery, led by his Curiosity, and weighing the Matter, believed that this must happen from the Food of these{20} Creatures. Marking therefore diligently that very Night, in company with one of his Monks, the very Place where the Goats or Camels pastured, when they danced; found there certain Shrubs or Bushes, on the Fruit of Berries, of which they fed. He resolved to try the Virtues of these Berries himself; thereupon boiling them in Water, and drinking thereof, he found, by Experience, it kept him awake in the Night. Hence it happened that he enjoined those of his Monastery the daily Use of it; for this procuring Watchfulness, made them more readily and surely attend their Devotions, which they were obliged to perform in the Night. When by this frequent use of it, they daily experienced its Wholesomness, and how effectually it conduced to the preserving them in perfect Health, the Drink grew in request throughout the whole Kingdom; and, in progress of time, other Nations and Provinces of the East fell into the use of it.”[A]{21}

THIS Story may very likely have given rise to that Opinion so generally receiv’d amongst the Italians, That the Use of Coffee was first discover’d and brought out of Asia into Europe by some Fryers.

THE same Author mentions, “That some among the Turks, in a sort of Thankfulness to these Monks, have sett and peculiar daily Orisons for Sciadly and Aidrus, which they believe are the Names of the Monks beforemention’d.”

BUT it is a more receiv’d Opinion throughout the Turkish Empire, that an Angel taught the Use of this Coffee-Drink to a Mussel-man, or true Believer: however, of this we are certain, the Use of it was not known in England, till the Year 1657; at which time Mr. Daniel Edwards, a Turkey-Merchant, in his Return from Smyrna to London, brought over with him one Pasqua Rosee, a Ragusean Greek, who was used to prepare this Liquor for him every Morning: The Novelty of it drew so great Resort to his House, that he lost all the Fore-part{22} of the Day by it; insomuch that he thought it expedient to rid himself of this Trouble, by allowing his Greek Servant (in conjunction with his Son-in-law’s Coachman) to make and sell it publickly. They set up their Coffee-House in St. Michael’s Alley in Cornhill, which was the first in London. But some small time after, these Partners fell out and parted; and the Coachman got leave to pitch a Tent in St. Michael’s Church-yard, and there to sell his Coffee in opposition to Pasqua, as appears by a Letter written at that time by a curious Gentleman, who lately communicated it to me.

AND thus was the Use of Coffee first introduced amongst us. The Cheapness of it, with the Conveniencies in this Way of meeting (being preferable to those in Taverns and Ale-Houses) soon increas’d its Drinkers; and other Coffee-Houses were set up in most Parts of the Kingdom: so that, in a few Years, it did not only gain a general Esteem with us, but also became one of the most valuable Commodities imported by the East-India and Turkey Companies.{23}

WE may here observe, That King Charles II. finding the daily Increase of Coffee-Houses, and that at those Places People were apt to talk too freely of the State, endeavour’d the suppressing of them: but the Judges being consulted, they declared it could not be done by Law; and only ended in laying a Tax on them.

OF its Vertues; It is noted, That the Arabs, and others of the Eastern People, in the Summer-Season, use only a Decoction made of the outside Husks of this Fruit; and in the cooler Seasons make use of the Kernels, esteeming the first to be cooling, and the other to be of a hotter Nature. Veslingius seems to be of their opinion, in his Notes on Alpinus, where he tells us, The Husk and Kernel of this Berry have different Qualities; the first he esteems cold and dry, and the latter to be moderately warm: And this Assertion is likewise confirm’d to us, by Peter de la Valle.

Dr. Lemery of Paris, speaking of Coffee, as it is in use amongst the Europeans, tells us, It is of an excellent drying Quality,{24} comforts the Brain, and dries up Crudities in the Stomach. Mr. Ray mentions it to be of singular Use and Efficacy to such as are afflicted with Pains in the Head, Vertigo, Lethargy, and Coughs: it has a good Effect on moist and cold Constitutions; but on the other hand, he disallows the Use of it to such as are Paralytick, and likewise such as are troubled with Melancholy Vapours, or have Hot Brains.

OTHER Authors assert, it cures Consumptions, Swooning Fits, and the Rickets; and that it helps Digestion, rarefies the Blood, suppresses Vapours, gives Life and Gayety to the Spirits, prevents Sleepiness after eating, provokes Urine and the Catamena. The Arabian Women drink this Liquor constantly in their Periodical Visits, and find a good Effect from it. It contracts the Bowels, and confirms the Tone of the Parts, being drank after Victuals, provided it be fresh made; for if it stands but two or three Hours, it loseth much of its Virtue. It is prevalent in such as have Running-Humours, Sores, or King’s-Evil. It is an effectual Remedy against Worms in Children; so that if the Mother drinks fre{25}quently of it when she is With-Child, the Infant will not be troubled with Worms, during its first Years. ’Tis allowed to be a strong Antihypnotick, greatly dissipating sleepy Vapours, and Fumes of Wine. ’Tis likewise useful to such as are afflicted with Rheumatick or Gouty Humours. The Dutch Physicians commend the Use of it in Intermitting Fevers, and hold it to be good against Infection; because of the great Refreshment it gives the nobler Parts of the Body, and its sudden Effect upon the Spirits, which are wonderfully recreated by it. And it is apparently the Opinion of all Physicians who have yet wrote concerning the Plague, That such Bodies whose Spirits are the most overcome by Fear, are the most subject to receive Infections. And again, That the Spirits must be refresh’d only by such Liquors, or Preparations, as will not promote Inflammations. And of this nature, say they, is Coffee, which by a right Use supports the vital Flame, and defends the Body from Pestilential Infection. And as such it is generally recommended, as a necessary Drink, at least twice a day; the first thing in a Morning, and at four in the Afternoon. Now whether the Hypo{26}thesis of venomous Animalcula brought by the Air, or that of Aerial Atoms, poison’d and rendred unwholesom, be the Cause of the Pestilence, will be examin’d in another Work; but at present I shall only say, That most of the Physicians, of both Sects, prescribe the same Methods of Prevention, and of Cure.

IT has been remark’d by several eminent Men, That in the Countries of the East, where this Liquor is drank plentifully, the Inhabitants of those Parts are seldom or never troubled with the Stone, Gout, or Dropsy; which Distempers they imagine to be subdu’d by the powerful Virtue of this Decoction: but whether this Drink be proper for such as are afflicted with the Stone, I shall leave to the Judgment of the Learned, after they have read the following Relation, which I had from a Gentleman of Leyden, and what I believe may be depended upon: A Person of that University prepared two Gallons of Coffee-Drink, after the rate of eight Ounces of Powder to a Gallon of Water, and drew a Spirit from it, and again distilled from{27} that Spirit another, which he set by in his Study, till he could find some Opportunity to try its Effects. About eight Months pass’d before he had any Occasion to make use of it, when, to his great Surprize, he found at the bottom of the Bottle a Crustaceous or Petrified Matter, so very hard, and so strongly cemented together, that, notwithstanding his great Skill in Chymistry, he was not able to dissolve it. And this Case (I think) may well admit of farther Enquiry, and more especially if we consider the Volatile Spirits contain’d in Coffee to be one fourth part of the Weight of it, which appears by so much Loss in the common Way of roasting the Berries.

I SHALL now proceed to give an Account of the Country it comes from, with some Observations relating to the Mercantine Part.

THAT curious Gentleman, Robert Balle Esq; furnish’d me with the following Relation, as he had it from a Person that had been upon the Place, and seen it grow: Coffee, says he, is not known{28} to grow naturally in any Part of the World, but only in Arabia Felix, some few Days Journey Inland from Moco, in the Valleys of the Great Mountains, and near the City Saana, about twenty Degrees North-Latitude: The Prince of which, about eighty Years since, beat the Turks in a Battel near that Place, freed himself from their Yoke under which he was before, and made himself Independent as at this Day, permitting great Freedom of Trade to all Nations.

I SHALL here take occasion to remark, wherein lies the Difference between what we call Turkey and India Coffee, and why the latter has not been esteemed so good as that we receive from Turkey.

THE first of these is bought by the Turks Merchants, who go up into the Country where it grows, and there contract for the Fruit of Gardens, or so many Trees as they have occasion for, (as our Fruit-mongers do for Cherries in Kent.) When it is gathered and prepared, as I have already mentioned, they bring it upon Camels down to Juda, a{29} Port at the bottom of the Red-Sea (which is the Port to Grand Cairo) to be transported to Suez; from thence by Land, about seventy Miles, to Grand Cairo, and so down the Nile to Alexandria, where it is ship’d off for Asia or Europe.

THERE commonly comes thus every Year to Egypt, from sixty to seventy thousand Bales of Coffee; which may contain, one with the other, about three hundred weight each.

THE Bashaw of Cairo sets a Price upon it, according to its Abundance or Scarcity, and the People there make use of it as Money in the Market, counting so many Berries to an [B]Asper, in proportion to the Value or Price settled by the Bashaw.

BUT that Sort, which we have under the Character of India Coffee, is bought at Bettelfukere, where the English, Dutch, and French, of late Years, send up Factors to buy the said Commodity,{30} and bring it on Camels to Moco, from whence it is shipped for Europe. By which means (although it is obliged to pass the Line twice) what we now have that way is little inferiour to Turkey; which was formerly the Refuse, or what the Turks left at Bettlefukere.

THE immense Quantity of this Fruit, which is yearly exported from this one Country to other Parts of the World, is almost incredible; which, as we are informed, is computed to be about a Million of Bushels, one Year with another: and although it may seem unreasonable to believe, that this Country alone should produce it in so great abundance, (considering how small a Quantity can be gathered from each single Tree) yet with as much Surprize we may admire how it is possible, that even the Number of Bushels I have mentioned should be sufficient to answer the vast Demand for it; since it is certain, that besides the general Esteem it has gained all over Europe, it is not less requested throughout Africa and Asia, to their utmost Bounds.{31}

HENCE we may reasonably conjecture what vast Riches must be amass’d by these Arabs, seeing they are the Proprietors of this Commodity, and thereby command so great a Part of the Wealth of the most opulent Countries. This part of Arabia Felix is truly (as Mr. Ray observes) φερώυμος, and merits the most happy Name for its Fertility in rich Produce. I admire, continues that Author, how so great a Treasure has remained so long peculiar to one Country, and that neither the Envy nor Avarice of its Neighbours have tempted them to share in this great Advantage! But so prudent are its Masters, that on no account will they suffer either Plant or Seed of it to come alive out of their Dominions; taking great care to destroy the germinative Faculty of those Berries they send abroad, and inflicting the most severe Punishments on such as shall attempt the Transportation of any Plants of it.

BUT notwithstanding this their extraordinary Care and Caution to preserve this Plant peculiar to themselves, the{32} Hollanders, some Years ago, found means to furnish themselves with it, and have made a Plantation of it about Batavia, in the Island of Java, which has already produced some Tuns of Fruit. From this Plantation they have lately brought two Trees to Amsterdam, which, by the Skill of their ingenious Gardiner, flourish and bear Fruit in such Perfection, that several hundred Plants have been raised there from Seeds, ripened at that Place; and which, from time to time, they transmit to Surinam, and such Places in the West-Indies as are in their possession.

THE Heer Gerbrand Pancrass, Commissary of the Garden, and President of the City of Amsterdam, did me the Honour to accommodate me with this great Curiosity, which I sent into England, and intrusted to the care of Mr. Thomas Fairchild, a most accurate Gardiner at Hoxton.

AND since it has now found its way to England, it may be necessary to offer some proper Directions for its Culture, agreeable with the Method observed in the Amsterdam Garden.{33}

WHEN we have an Opportunity to propagate these Trees from the Berries, we must, immediately after they are gathered, carefully take off the outside Husk, and separate the two Seeds which are found in each; and set them an Inch deep in Pots of fine Earth, which are already warm in a Bed prepared with Horse-litter; keeping the Glasses close covered for six Weeks, and often sprinkling them with Water. From this way of Management we may expect them to come up in less than two Months time after Sowing. And then, for their further Improvement, you are only to remark, they love Warmth, little Air, a light sandy Earth, and much Water. And this last Hint answers to an Observation of that Great Naturalist Sir Hans Sloane; where he tells us, that the Arabians cut artificial Channels from the Rivers, on purpose to nourish these Plants. See Philosophical Transactions, Numb. 208. pag. 64.

THESE Rules being well observed, we may expect them to bear Fruit in five Years time from the putting in of the Seed; but in a hotter Clime,{34} such as South-Carolina, or in the Caribbee-Islands, much sooner.

IF the Plague should ever come into England (which God forbid) I recommend to every Person, when they walk out, that they put in their Mouth a little Piece of Myrrh, as an excellent Preservative from receiving any Infection; which I shall treat of more largely in another Work.

F I N I S.


Books Printed for W. Mears, at the Lamb without Temple-Bar.

1. A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature; endeavouring to set forth the several Gradations remarkable in the Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal Parts of the Creation; tending to the Composition of a Scale of Life. Containing, I. An Account of the most remarkable Appearances in Earths and Mineral Bodies. II. What is most remarkable in Plants and Super-Plants. III. Of immoveable Shell-Fish, and of such as have local Motion; with curious Observations on the rest of the Fish-kind, in Salt and Fresh-Waters. IV. Of Animals and Insects, more particularly those of the Serpent-kind; with several Observations relating to Climates, Fruit-Trees, &c. with a distinct Account of such Lands in England as are stiled bar{36}ren, and some Remarks relating to Fish-ponds. Also a Description of the most curious Gardens in Europe, especially in Britain; with some Experiments for the improving of Fruit-Trees and Flowers, never before made publick. With Directions for the best Method of pruning Vines, and Instructions for the most expeditious raising of forward Fruits, with many curious Cuts.

—— All their known Virtue appears
Productive in Herb, Plant, and Nobler Birth
Of Creatures Animate, with gradual Life
Of Growth, Sense, Reason—— Milton.
By Richard Bradley, F. R. S.

2. New Improvements of Planting and Gardening; both Philosophical and Practical; explaining the Motion of the Sap, and Generation of Plants, with other Discoveries never before made publick; for the Improvement of Forest-Trees, Flower-Gardens, or Parterres: with a new Invention, whereby more Designs of Garden-Plats may be made in an Hour, than can be found in all the Books now extant: likewise several rare Secrets for the Improvement of Fruit-Trees, Kitchin-Gardens, and Green House Plants. The Third Edition corrected. By Richard Bradley, Fellow of the Royal Society. {37}

3. The Gentleman’s and Gardiner’s Kalendar; directing what is necessary to be done every Month in the Kitchin-Garden, Fruit-Garden, Nursery, Management of Forest-Trees, Green-House, and Flower-Garden. With Directions for the making and ordering Hop-Grounds. By Richard Bradley, F. R. S. Also the Design of a Garden-House (finely engraved after a new manner) contrived purposely for the Good-keeping of Exotick Plants. Sy Signior Gallilei of Florence. The Third Edition. To which is now added, An Abstract of the several Acts of Parliament, to encourage the Planting of Timber-Trees, Fruit-Trees, and other Trees for Ornament, Shelter, or Profit, and for the better Preservation of the same, and for preventing the burning of Wood, &c. Price 2 s.

4. The History of Succulent Plants; containing the Aloes, Ficoids (or Fig-Marigolds) Torch-Thistles, Melon-Thistles, and such others as are not capable of an Hortus-Siccus. Engraved, from the Originals, on Copper-Plates, with their De{38}scriptions and Manner of Culture. By Richard Bradley, Fellow of the Royal Society.

5. The Plague at Marseilles considered; with Remarks upon the Plague in general, shewing its Cause and Nature of Infection; with necessary Precautions to prevent the spreading of that direful Distemper. Published for the Preservation of the People of Great Britain. Also some Observations taken from an Original Manuscript of a Graduate Physician, who resided in London during the whole time of the late Plague, Anno 1665. By Richard Bradley, F. R. S. 3d Edition. Price 1 s.

In the Press, and Speedily will be Published,

A Philosophical Treatise of Agriculture; or, a new Method of cultivating and increasing of all sorts of Trees, Shrubs, and Flowers: being a very curious Work, enriched with useful Secrets in Nature, for helping the Vegetation of{39} all Sorts of Trees and Plants, and for fertilizing the most stubborn Soils. By G. A. Agricola, M.D. and Doctor in Philosophy at Ratisbonne. Translated from the German, with Remarks. Adorned with Cuts. The whole revised and compared with the Original: Together with a Preface, confirming this new Method. By Richard Bradley, F. R. S.


[A] See Discourse on Coffee, p. 4, 5.

[B] A small Turkish Coin, worth about three Farthings.

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of The Virtue and Use of Coffee With
Regard to the Plague And Other In, by Richard Bradley


***** This file should be named 60264-h.htm or *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:

Produced by Chuck Greif and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at (This file was
produced from images available at The Internet Archive)

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties.  Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark.  Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission.  If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy.  You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research.  They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks.  Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial



To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at

Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United

1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or

1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (,
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.


1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal

defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS' WITH NO OTHER

1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.

Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need, are critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation web page at

Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at
809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email  Email contact links and up to date contact
information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official
page at

For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director

Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including checks, online payments and credit card donations.
To donate, please visit:

Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic

Professor Michael S. Hart is the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.