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Title: A Treatyse of Fysshynge wyth an Angle
       Being a facsimile reproduction of the first book on the
              subject of fishing printed in England by Wynkyn de Worde
              at Westminster in 1496

Author: Juliana Berners

Contributor: M. G. Watkins

Release Date: September 21, 2018 [EBook #57943]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Produced by RichardW and the Online Distributed Proofreading
Team at (This file was produced from
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Transcriber's Note is here.

A Treatyse of Fysshynge wyth an Angle,
by Dame Juliana Berners

In the Press, and shortly will be Published, uniform with “The Treatyse of Fysshynge wyth an Angle,”
With an Introduction by WILLIAM BLADES, Author of the “Life and Typography of Caxton.”

This fac­sim­ile is faith­ful­ly re­pro­duced by pho­tog­ra­phy; it is being print­ed on rough hand-made pap­er sim­i­lar to that of the or­i­gi­nal, and will be bound in hand­some con­tem­po­rary bind­ing. The in­ter­est and val­ue of this re­pro­duc­tion will be great­ly en­hanced by Mr. BLADES’ Preface, which treats at length, in separate chapters, of the AUTHORSHIP, TYPOGRAPHY, BIBLIOGRAPHY, SUBJECT-MATTER, and PHILOLOGY of the Work.

As THE BOOK OF SAINT ALBANS is the Work in which THE TREATYSE OF FYSSHYNGE WYTH AN ANGLE was in­cor­po­rated on its first pub­li­ca­tion, its pos­ses­sion by the Sub­scrib­ers to the lat­ter should be se­cured, in or­der to com­plete the set of “dy­uerse bokys con­cern­ynge to gen­tyll and no­ble men.”

A full Pro­spec­tus con­cern­ing the pub­li­ca­tion of “The Book of Saint Al­bans” will be sent on ap­pli­ca­tion to

A Treatyse of Fysshynge wyth an Angle.


With an Introduction by

Preface to Dame Juliana Berners’ Treatyse on Fysshynge wyth an Angle.


HE scholarly angler is here pre­sent­ed with an exact fac­sim­i­le of the first En­glish trea­tise on fish­ing. The book is of extreme interest for several reasons, not the least curious being that it has served as a literary quarry to so many suc­ceed­ing writers on fishing, who have not dis­dained to adapt the authoress’s sent­i­ments to their own use, and even to borrow them word for word without ac­knowl­edg­ment. Walton himself was evidently familiar with it, and has clearly taken his “jury of flies” from its “xij flyes wyth whyche ye shall angle to ye trought & grayl­lyng;” while Burton, that universal plunderer, has extracted her eloquent eulogy on the secondary pleasures of angling for incorporation with the patchwork structure of his “Anatomy of Melancholy.” Besides giving the earliest account of the art of fishing, the estimate which the authoress forms of the moral value of the craft is not only very high, but has served to strike the keynote for all subsequent followers of the art both in their praises and their practice of it. To this little treatise more than to any other belongs the credit of having assigned in popular es­ti­ma­tion to the angler his med­i­ta­tive and gentle nature. Many pure and noble intellects have kindled into lasting devotion to angling on reading her eloquent com­men­da­tion of it. Such men as Donne, Wotton, and Herbert, Paley, Bell, and Davy, together with many another excellent and simple dis­po­sition, have caught en­thus­iasm from her lofty sen­ti­ments, and found that not their bodily health only, but also their morals, were improved by angling. It became a school of virtues, a quiet pas­time in which, while looking into their own hearts, they learnt les­sons of the highest wisdom, reverence, resignation, and love—love of their fellow-men, of the lower creatures, and of their Creator.

Nothing definite is known of the reputed authoress, Dame Juliana Barnes or Berners. She is said to have been a daughter of Sir James Berners of Roding Berners in the county of Essex, a favourite of King Richard the Second, who was beheaded in 1388 as an evil counsellor to the king and an enemy to the public weal. She was celebrated for her extreme beauty and great learning, and is reported to have held the office of prioress of the Benedictine Nunnery of Sopwell in Hert­ford­shire, a cell to the Abbey of St. Alban, but of this no doc­u­ment­ary ev­i­dence exists. The first edi­tion of her “Book of St. Alban’s,” print­ed by the school­master-printer of St. Alban’s in 1486, treats of hawk­ing, hunt­ing, and coat-armour. In the next ed­i­tion, “En­prynt­ed at West­mestre by Wyn­kyn the Worde the yere of thyn­car­na­cōn of our lorde. M . CCCC . lxxxxvi,” among the other “treatyfes perteynynge to hawkynge & huntynge with other dyuers playsaunt materes belong­ynge vnto noblesse,” appeared the present treatise on angling. The aris­to­cratic in­stincts of the authoress prompted this mode of pub­li­ca­tion, as she herself explains in the concluding paragraph—“by cause that this present treatyse sholde not come to the hondys of eche ydle persone whyche wolde desire it yf it were enprynted allone by itself & put in a lytyll plaunflet, therfore I haue compylyd it in a greter volume of dyuerse bokys concernynge to gentyll & noble men to the entent that the forsayd ydle persones whyche sholde haue but lytyll mesure in the sayd dysporte of fysshyng sholde not by this meane vtterly dystroye it.” The present publication is the “little pamphlet” which was enclosed in this “greater volume.” An edition of it as a distinct treatise appears to have been issued by Wynkyn de Worde soon after that of 1496, with the title, “Here begynnyth a treatyse of fysshynge wyth an Angle” over the curious woodcut of the man fishing which is on the first page of the present facsimile, but only one copy of it is known to be in existence. At least ten more editions appeared before the year 1600. This shows the great popularity of the book at the time of its publication, and con­si­der­ing how human nature remains the same, and the charms of angling are equally grateful to every fresh generation of anglers, affords a sufficient reason for the strong antiquarian delight which all literary anglers of the present century have felt in the book. It is worth while briefly to trace the bibliography of angling onwards until the appearance in 1653 of Walton’s Compleat Angler, when the reader will be on familiar ground. In the interval of more than a hundred and fifty years between these two names of Berners and Walton, so deeply reverenced by every true scholar of the craft, there occur but four books on angling, though each one of these possesses a fame peculiar to itself. First came Leonard Mascall’s Booke of Fishing with Hooke and Line, published in 1590. Taverner’s Certaine Experiments concerning Fish and Fruite followed in 1600. Then came in 1613 the Secrets of Angling of the celebrated angling poet, J. D. [John Dennys], whose verses have perhaps never yet been surpassed; and finally, in 1651, appeared Barker’s Art of Angling. With this fisherman and “ambassador’s cook,” as he calls himself, Walton must often have conversed.

It is a further testimony to the attractions which angling has always possessed for contemplative natures that the art appears here sys­tem­a­tised, so to speak, as early as the middle of the fif­teenth cen­tury in En­gland, where it has been prac­tised ever since with more en­thus­i­asm and skill than in other countries. There is a sad gap in angling lit­er­a­ture from the days of Ausonius, at the com­mence­ment of the fourth century, to those of Dame Juliana Berners. Fly-fishing, indeed, is not named between the time of Ælian and that of the Treatyse. It is clearly de­scribed by the former writer, who alone among the ancients mentions it, but in the present book it is spoken of under the term “angling with a dubbe,” as if it were well-known and practised. Not only so, but it is clear that the writer had books of angling lore before her, perhaps monkish manuscripts, as Hawkins suggests, which would be of inestimable interest could they now be recovered. Thus in speaking of the carp, the reader will find she writes—“as touchynge his baytes I haue but lytyll knowlege of it. And me were loth to wryte more than I knowe & haue prouyd. But well I wote that the redde worme & the menow ben good baytys for hym at all tymes as I haue herde saye of persones credyble & also founde wryten in bokes of credence.” No better rules can be given for fly-fishing at present than the two which she prescribes for angling—“for the fyrste and pryncypall poynt in anglynge : kepe ye euer fro the water fro the sighte of the fysshe,” and “also loke that ye shadow not the water as moche as ye may.” The “troughte” is to be angled for “wyth a dubbe” [artificial fly] “in lepynge time;” but as for the salmon, “ye may take hym : but it is seldom seen with a dubbe at suche tyme as whan he lepith in lyke fourme & manere as ye doo take a troughte or a gryalynge.” With the imperfect tackle and clumsy rod of those days, it is no wonder that the capture of salmon with a fly, which is still the crowning achievement of the craft, could seldom be effected.

After the eloquent pleading for angling with which the treatise opens, the lady at once proceeds to teach the making of the “harnays” of it. The rod she orders to be constructed somewhat resembles, save in its larger size, the modern walking-stick rod. A hazel wand, or failing it, one of willow or mountain ash, is to be procured, as thick as the arm and nine feet in length. This is to form the butt, and is to be hollowed out by means of divers red-hot irons into a tapering hole, which is to receive the “croppe,” or top, as we now call it, when not in use. This “croppe” is to be made of a yard of hazel, joined to a length of blackthorn, crab, medlar, or “jenypre.” All these are to be cut between Michaelmas and Candlemas, the lady giving very particular directions as to their drying and the like. When the two portions of the “crop” are “fretted together,” the whole rod is to be shaved into a shapely taper form; the staff encircled with long hoops of iron or latten at both ends, and finished with a “pyke in the nether ende fastnyd wyth a rennynge vyce : to take in & oute youre croppe.” The line is then to be wound round the crop and tied fast with a bow at the top. The reader will note that there is no mention of a reel; it was only used, seemingly until the beginning of this century, for large salmon and pike. An angler who hooked a fish when armed with this ponderous rod (which must from its description have been nearly eighteen feet long, as large as a modern salmon rod), would act as Izaak Walton would have done in the like predicament,—throw the rod in to the fish and recover it when he could. But the lady is wonderfully pleased with this mighty rod, and thus concludes—“Thus shall ye make you a rodde soo preuy that ye maye walke therwyth : and there shall noo man wyte where abowte ye goo. It woll be lyghte & full nymbyll to fysshe wyth at your luste. And for the more redynesse loo here a fygure,” and she adds the curious woodcut which the reader may see reproduced at page 5.

Then follow directions how to dye and make lines and hooks. There were evidently no manufacturers of hooks in the fifteenth century: each angler made his own. The casting of plummets and forming of floats succeed. The six methods of angling and the mode of playing a fish are next treated, and the latter alone shows that Dame Juliana must herself have been a proficient in the craft. No one but a thoroughly good fisher could have summed up the art of playing a fish in the words—“kepe hym euer vnder the rodde, and euermore holde hym streyghte : soo that your lyne may susteyne and beere his lepys and his plungys wyth the helpe of your croppe & of your honde.” The place, the time of day, and the weather in which to fish, are next particularly described after the exac­ti­tude peculiar to fishing manuals of the olden time. These para­graphs are well worth the con­si­der­a­tion of a modern angler, especially the charge, “yf the wynde be in the Eest, that is worste For comynly neyther wynter nor somer ye fysshe woll not byte thenne.”

The following part of the treatise, with what baits and how to angle for each kind of fish, together with a brief description of each, certainly furnished Walton with a model for some of his chapters. This portion of her book is regarded by the authoress as most necessary to be known and proficiency in carrying out her rules “is all the effecte of the crafte.” She adds amusingly, “for ye can not brynge an hoke in to a fyssh mouth wythout a bayte.” A few of the quaint receipts of her age succeed; how to keep live baits, to make pastes and the like, ending with a rule which is often given to flyfishers for trout at the present day: “Whan ye haue take a grete fysshe : vndo the mawe, & what ye fynde therin make that your bayte : for it is beste.”

Just as the authoress rises to eloquence at the beginning of the treatise when comparing the fisher’s happy life with the toils and troubles which too often fall to the lot of the hunter, hawker, and fowler, so the end of these rules once more recalls her enthusiasm. The last two pages of the book give us a portrait of her con­cep­tion of the perfect angler, and it is no pre­sump­tion to say that a nobler and truer picture has never been limned. Sim­plic­i­ty of dis­po­si­tion, for­bear­ance to our neigh­bours’ rights, and con­si­der­a­tion for the poor, are strongly in­cul­cated. All cov­e­tous­ness in fishing or employment of its gentle art to increase worldly gain and fill the larder is equally condemned. She holds the highest view of angling; that it is to serve a man for solace, and to cause the health of his body, but especially of his soul. So she would have him pursue his craft alone for the most part, when his mind can rise to high and holy things, and he may serve God devoutly by saying from his heart his customary prayer. Nor should a man ever carry his amusement to excess, and catch too much at one time; this is to destroy his future pleasure and to interfere with that of his neighbours. A good sportsman too, she adds, will busy himself in nourishing the game and destroying all vermin. So will what Walton calls “the civil, well-governed angler” escape the vices which spring from idleness, and enjoy the full delights of an elevating and noble recreation. “And all those that done after this rule shall haue the blessynge of god & saynt Petyr, whyche he theym graunte that wyth his precyous blood vs boughte.”

“And therefore to al you that ben vertuous : gentyll : and free borne I wryte & make this symple treatyse folowynge : by whyche ye may haue the full crafte of anglynge to dysport you at your luste : to the entent that your aege maye the more floure and the more lenger to endure.”

M. G. W.

¶ Here begynnyth the treatyse of
fysshynge wyth an Angle.


Alamon in his parablys sayth that a good spyryte makyth a flourynge aege / that is a fayre aege & a longe. And syth it is soo : I aske this questyon / . whi | che ben the meanes & the causes that enduce a man in to a mery spyryte. : Truly to my beste dyscrecōn it semeth good dysportes & honest gamys in whom a man Ioy | eth wythout ony repentannce after. Thenne folowyth it yt gode dysportes & honest games ben cause of mannys fayr aege & longe life. And therfore now woll I chose of foure good dispor | tes & honeste gamys / that is to wyte : of huntynge : hawkynge : fysshynge : & foulynge. The beste to my symple dyscrecōn why | che is fysshynge : callyd Anglynge wyth a rodde : and a lyne {2} and an hoke / And therof to treate as my symple wytte may suffyce : both for the sayd reason of Salamon and also for the reason that phisyk makyth in this wyse (¶ Si tibi deficiant medici medici tibi fiant : hec tria mens leta labor & moderata dieta.
¶ Ye shall vnderstonde that this is for to saye / Yf a man lacke leche or medicyne he shall make thre thynges his leche & medycyne : and he shall nede neuer no moo. The fyrste of theym is a mery thought. The seconde is labour not outrageoꝰ. The thyr | de is dyete mesurable. Fyrste that yf a man wyll euer more be in mery thoughtes and haue a gladde spyryte : he must eschewe all contraryous company & all places of debate where he myghte haue ony occasyons of malencoly. And yf he woll haue a labour not outrageous he must thenne ordeyne him to his her | tys ease and pleasaunce wythout studye pensyfnesse or trauey | le a mery occupacyon whyche maye reioyce his herte : & in why | che his spyrytes may haue a mery delyte. And yf he woll be dy | etyd mesurably he must eschewe all places of ryotte whyche is cause of surfette and of syknesse / And he must drawe him to pla | ces of swete ayre and hungry : And ete nourishable meetes and dyffyable also.

NOw thenne woll I dyscryue the sayd dysportes and ga | mys to fynde the beste of theym as veryly as I can̄ / alle be it that the ryght noble and full worthy prynce the du | ke of Yorke late callid mayster of game hath discryued the myr | thes of huntynge lyke as I thynke to dyscryue of it and of alle the other. For huntynge as to myn entent is to laboryous / For the hunter must alwaye renne & folowe his houndes : traueyllynge & swetynge full sore. He blowyth tyll his lyppes blyster And whan he wenyth it be an hare full oft it is an hegge hogge Thus he chasyth and wote not what. He comyth home at euyn rayn beten pryckyd : and his clothes torne wete shode all myry Some hounde loste : some surbat. Suche greues & many other hapyth vnto the hunter / whyche for dyspleysaunce of theym yt loue it I dare not reporte. Thus truly me semyth that this is not the beste dysporte and game of the sayd foure. The dyspor | te and game of hawkynge is laboryous & noyouse also as me semyth. For often the fawkener leseth his hawkes as the {3} hunter his hoūdes. Thenne is his game & his dysporte goon. Full often cryeth he & whystelyth tyll that he be ryght euyll a thur | ste. His hawke taketh a bowe and lyste not ones on hym rewar | de. whan he wolde haue her for to flee : thenne woll she bathe.
with mys fedynge she shall haue the Fronse : the Rye : the Cray and many other syknesses that brynge theym to the Sowse.
Thus by prouff this is not the beste dysporte & game of the sa | yd foure. The dysporte & game of fowlynge me semyth moost symple For in the wynter season the fowler spedyth not but in the moost hardest and coldest weder : whyche is greuous. For whan he wolde goo to his gynnes he maye not for colde. Many a gynne & many a snare he makyth. Yet soryly dooth he fare. At morn tyde in the dewe he is weete shode vnto his taylle. Many other suche I cowde tell : but drede of magre makith me for to leue. Thus me semyth that huntynge & hawkynge & also fowlynge ben so laborous and greuous that none of theym maye perfourme nor bi very meane that enduce a man to a me | ry spyryte : whyche is cause of his longe lyfe acordynge vnto yt sayd parable of Salamon. ¶ Dowteles then̄e folowyth it that it must nedes be the dysporte of fysshynge wyth an angle. For all other manere of fysshyng is also laborous and greuous : often makynge folkes ful wete & colde / whyche many tymes hath be seen cause of grete Infirmytees. But the angler maye haue no colde nor no dysease nor angre / but yf he be causer hymself. For he maye not lese at the moost but a lyne or an hoke : of whyche he maye haue store plentee of his owne makynge / as this sym | ple treatyse shall teche hym. Soo thenne his losse is not greuo | us. and other greyffes maye he not haue / sauynge but yf ony fisshe breke away after that he is take on the hoke / or elles that he catche nought : whyche ben not greuous. For yf he faylle of one he maye not faylle of a nother / yf he dooth as this treatyse techyth : but yf there be nonght in the water. And yet atte the leest he hath his holsom walke and mery at his ease. a swete ay | re of the swete sauoure of the meede floures : that makyth hym hungry. He hereth the melodyous armony of fowles. He seeth the yonge swannes : heerons : duckes : cotes and many other fou | les wyth theyr brodes. / whyche me semyth better than alle the {4} noyse of honndys : the blastes of hornys and the scrye of foulis that hunters : fawkeners & foulers can make. And yf the angler take fysshe : surely thenne is there noo man merier than he is in his spyryte. ¶ Also who soo woll vse the game of anglynge : he must ryse erly. whiche thyng is prouffytable to man in this wy | se / That is to wyte : moost to the heele of his soule. For it shall cause hym to be holy. and to the heele of his body / For it shall cause hym to be hole. Also to the encrease of his goodys. For it shall make hym ryche. As the olde englysshe prouerbe sayth in this wyse. ¶ who soo woll ryse erly shall be holy helthy & zely.
¶ Thus haue I prouyd in myn entent that the dysporte & game of anglynge is the very meane & cause that enducith a man in to a mery spyryte : Whyche after the sayde parable of Salomon & the sayd doctryne of phisyk makyth a flourynge aege & a longe. And therfore to al you that ben vertuous : gentyll : and free borne I wryte & make this symple treatyse folowynge : by whyche ye may haue the full crafte of anglynge to dysport you at your luste : to the entent that your aege maye the more flou | re and the more lenger to endure.

YF ye woll be crafty in anglynge : ye must fyrste lerne to make your harnays / That is to wyte your rodde : your lynes of dyuers colours. After that ye must know how ye shall angle in what place of the water : how depe : and what ti | me of day. For what manere of fysshe : in what wedyr How ma | ny impedymentes there ben in fysshynge yt is callyd anglynge And in specyall wyth what baytys to euery dyuers fysshe in e | che moneth of the yere. How ye shall make your baytes brede where ye shall fynde theym : and how ye shall kepe theym. And for the moost crafty thynge how ye shall make youre hokes of stele & of osmonde / Some for the dubbe : and some for the flote : & the grounde. as ye shall here after al thyse fynde expressed o | penly vnto your knowlege.
¶ And how ye shall make your rodde craftly here I shall teche you. Ye shall kytte betwene Myghelmas & Candylmas a fayr staffe of a fadom and an halfe longe : & arme grete of hasyll : wy | lowe : or aspe. And bethe hym in an hote ouyn : & sette hym euyn Thenne lete hym cole & drye a moneth. Take thenne & frette {5} hym faste wyth a cockeshotecorde : and bynde hym to a fourme or an euyn square grete tree. Take thenne a plūmers wire that is euyn and streyte & sharpe at the one ende. And hete the shar | pe end in a charcole fyre tyll it be whyte : and brenne the staffe therwyth thorugh : euer streyte in the pythe at bothe endes tyll they mete. And after that brenne hym in the nether ende wyth a byrde broche / & wyth other broches eche gretter than other. & euer the grettest the laste : so that ye make your hole aye tapre wexe. Thenne lete hym lye styll and kele two dayes. Unfrette hym then̄e and lete hym drye in an hous roof in the smoke tyll he be thrugh drye ¶ In the same season take a fayr yerde of gre | ne hasyll & beth hym euyn & streyghte. and lete it drye with the staffe. And whan they ben drye make the yerde mete vnto the hole in the staffe : vnto halfe the length of the staffe. And to per | fourme that other halfe of the croppe. Take a fayr shote of blac | ke thorn̄ : crabbe tree : medeler. or of Ienypre kytte in the same se | ason : and well bethyd & streyghte. And frette theym togyder fe | tely : soo that the croppe maye iustly entre all in to the sayd hole. Thenne shaue your staffe & make hym tapre wexe. Thenne vyrell the staffe at bothe endes wyth longe hopis of yren or la | ton in the clennest wise wyth a pyke in the nether ende fastnyd wyth a rennynge vyce : to take in & oute youre croppe. Thenne set your croppe an handfull within the ouer ende of your staffe in suche wise that it be as bigge there as in ony other place abo | ue. Then̄e arme your croppe at thouer ende downe to ye frette wyth a lyne of .vj. heeres. And dubbe the lyne and frette it fast in ye toppe wyth a bowe to fasten on your lyne. And thus shall ye make you a rodde soo preuy that ye maye walke therwyth : and there shall noo man wyte where abowte ye goo. It woll be lyghte & full nymbyll to fysshe wyth at your luste. And for the more redynesse loo here a fygure therof in example. :

AFter that ye haue made thus your rodde : ye must lerne to coloure your lynes of here in this wyse. ¶ Fyrste ye must take of a whyte horse taylle the lengest heere and {6} fayrest that ye can fynde. And euer the rounder it be the better it is. Departe it in to .vj. partes : and euery parte ye shall colour by hymselfe in dyuers colours. As yelowe : grene : browne : tawney : russet. and duske colours. And for to make a good grene co | lour on your heer ye shall doo thus. ¶ Take smalle ale a quar | te and put it in a lytyll panne : and put therto halfe a pounde of alym. And put therto your heer : and lete it boylle softly half an houre. Thenne take out your heer and lete it drye. Thenne ta | ke a potell of water and put it in a panne. And put therin two handfull of ooldys or of wyxen. And presse it wyth a tyle stone : and lete it boylle softly half an houre. And whan it is yelow on the scume put therin your heer wyth halfe a pounde of copo | rose betyn in powdre and lete it boylle halfe a myle waye : and thenne sette it downe : and lete it kele fyue or syxe houres. Then̄ take out the heer and drye it. And it is thenne the fynest grene that is for the water. And euer the more ye put therto of copo | rose the better it is. or elles in stede of it vertgrees.
¶ A nother wyse ye maye make more brighter grene / as thus Lete woode your heer in an woodefatte a lyght plunket colour And thenne sethe hym in olde or wyxin lyke as I haue sayd : sauynge ye shall not put therto neyther coporose ue vertgrees.
¶ For to make your heer yelow dyght it wyth alym as I haue sayd before. And after that wyth oldys or wyxin wythout copo | rose or vertgrees. ¶ A nother yelow ye shal make thns. Ta | ke smalle ale a potell : and stampe thre handful of walnot leues and put togider : And put in your heer tyll that it be as depe as ye woll haue it. ¶ For to make russet heer. Take stronge lye a pynt and halfe a pounde of sote and a lytyll iuce of walnot le | uys & a quarte of alym : and put theym alle togyder in a panne and boylle theym well. And whan it is colde put in youre heer tyll it be as derke as ye woll haue it. ¶ For to make a brow | ne colour. Take a pounde of sote and a quarte of ale : and seth it wyth as many walnot leuys as ye maye. And whan they wexe blacke sette it from the fire. And put therin your heer and lete it lye styll tyll it be as browne as ye woll haue it.
¶ For to make a nother browne. Take strong ale and sote and tempre them togyder. and put therin your heer two dayes and two nyghtes and it shall be ryght a good colour. {7}
¶ For to make a tawney coloure. Take lyme and water & put theym togyder : and also put your heer therin foure or fyue hou | res. Thenne take it out and put it in a Tanners ose a day : and it shall be also fyne a tawney colour as nedyth to our purpoos
¶ The syxte parte of your heer ye shall kepe styll whyte for ly | nes for the dubbyd hoke to fysshe for the trought and graylyn | ge and for smalle lynes for to rye for the roche and the darse.

WHan your heer is thus colourid : ye must knowe for whi | che waters and for whyche seasons they shall serue.
¶ The grene colour in all clere water from Apryll tyll Septembre. ¶ The yelowe coloure in euery clere water from Septembre tyll Nouembre : For it is lyke ye wedys and other manere grasse whiche growyth in the waters and ryuers whan they ben broken. ¶ The russet colour seruyth all the wynter vnto the ende of Apryll as well in ryuers as in poles or lakys ¶ The browne colour seruyth for that water that is blacke de | disshe in ryuers or in other waters. ¶ The tawney colour for those waters that ben hethy or morysshe.

NOw must ye make youre lynes in this wyse. Fyrste loke that ye haue an Instrument lyke vnto this fygure portrayed folowynge. Thenne take your heer & kytte of the smalle ende an hondfull large or more / For it is neyther stronge nor yet sure. Thenne torne the toppe to the taylle eue | ryche ylyke moche. And departe it in to thre partyes. Thenne knytte euery part at the one ende by hymself. And at the other ende knytte all thre togyder : and put ye same ende in that other ende of your Instrument that hath but one clyft. And sett that other ende faste wyth the wegge foure fyngers in alle shorter than your heer. Thenne twyne euery warpe one waye & ylyke moche : and fasten theym in thre clyftes ylyke streyghte. Take thenne out that other ende and twyne it that waye that it woll desyre ynough. Thenne streyne it a lytyll : and knytte it for vn | doynge : and that is good. And for to knowe to make your Instrument : loo here it is in fygure. And it shall be made of tree sauynge the bolte vnderneth : whiche shall be of yren. {8}

WHan ye haue as many of the lynkys as ye suppose wol suffyse for the length of a lyne : thenne must ye knytte theym togyder wyth a water knotte or elles a duchys knotte. And whan your knotte is knytte : kytte of ye voyde shor | te endes a strawe brede for the knotte. Thus shal ye make you | re lynes fayr & fyne : and also ryght sure for ony manere fysshe. ¶ And by cause that ye sholde knowe bothe the water knotte & also the duchys knotte : loo theym here in fygure caste vnto the lyknesse of the draughte.

YE shall vnderstonde that the moost subtyll & hardyste crafte in makynge of your harnays is for to make your hokis. For whoos makyng ye must haue fetefyles. thyn̄ and sharpe & smalle beten : A semy clam̄ of yren : a bender : a payr of longe & smalle tongys : an harde knyfe somdeale thycke : an anuelde : & a lytyll hamour. ¶ And for smalle fysshe ye shall make your hokes of the smalest quarell nedlys that ye can fyn | de of stele / & in this wyse. ¶ Ye shall put the quarell in a redde charkcole fyre tyll that it be of the same colour that the fyre is. Thenne take hym out and lete hym kele : and ye shal fynde him well alayd for to fyle. Thenne reyse the berde wyth your knyfe / and make the poynt sharpe. Thenne alaye hym agayn : for elles he woll breke in the bendyng. Thenne bende hym lyke to the bende fyguryd herafter in example. And gretter hokes ye shall mabe in the same wyse of gretter nedles : as broderers nedlis : or taylers : or shomakers nedlis spere poyntes / & {9} of shomakers nalles in especyall the beste for grete fysshe. and that they bende atte the poynt whan they ben assayed / for elles they ben not good ¶ Whan the hoke is bendyd bete the hynder ende abrode : & fyle it smothe for fretynge of thy lyne. Thenne put it in the fyre agayn : and yeue it an easy redde hete. Thenne sodaynly quenche it in water : and it woll be harde and stronge.
And for to haue knowlege of your Instrumentes : lo theym here in fygure portrayd.

¶ Hamour.   Knyfe.   Pynsons.   Clam̄
Wegge.   Fyle.   Wreste.    & Anuelde.

WHan ye haue made thus your hokis : thenne must ye set theym on your lynes acordynge in gretnesse & strength in this wyse. ¶ Ye shall take smalle redde silke. & yf it be for a grete hoke then̄e double it : not twynyd. And elles for sma | le hokys lete it be syngle : & therwyth frette thycke the lyne the | re as the one ende of your hoke shal sytte a strawe brede. Then̄ sette there your hoke : & frette hym wyth the same threde ye two partes of the lengthe that shall be frette in all. And whan ye co | me to the thyrde parte thenne torne the ende of your lyne aga | yn vpon the frette dowble. & frette it so dowble that other thyr | de parte. Thenne put your threde in at the hose twys or thries & lete it goo at eche tyme rounde abowte the yerde of your hoke. Thenne wete the hose & and drawe it tyll that it be faste. And lo | ke that your lyne lye euermore wythin your hokys : & not with | out. Thenne kytte of the lynys ende & the threde as nyghe as ye maye : sauynge the frette.

NOw ye knowe wyth how grete hokys ye shall angle to euery fysshe : now I woll tell you wyth how many heeres ye shall to euery manere of fisshe. ¶ For the menow wyth a lyne of one heere. For the waxyng roche the bleke & the {10} gogyn & the ruffe wyt a lyne of two heeris. For the darse & the grete roche wyth a lyne of thre heeres. For the perche : the floū | der & bremet with foure heeres. For the cheuen chubbe : the bre | me : the tenche & the ele wyth .vj. heeres. For the troughte : gray | lynge : barbyll & the grete cheuyn with .ix. heeres. For the grete troughte wyth .xij. heeres : For the samon with .xv. heeres. And for the pyke wyth a chalke lyne made browne with your brow | ne colour aforsayd : armyd with a wyre. as ye shal here herafter whan I speke of the pyke.
¶ Your lynes must be plumbid wyth lede. And ye shall wyte yt the nexte pūbe vnto the hoke shall be therfro a large fote & mo | re / And euery plumbe of a quantyte to the gretnes of the lyne. There be thre manere of plūbis for a grounde lyne rennynge. And for the flote set vpon the grounde lyne lyenge .x. plumbes Ioynynge all togider. On the grounde lyne rennynge .ix. or .x. smalle. The flote plūbe shall be so heuy yt the leest plucke of ony fysshe maye pull it downe in to ye water. And make your plū | bis rounde & smothe yt they stycke not on stonys or on wedys. And for the more vnderstondynge lo theym here in fygure.

 The grounde lyne rennynge
 The grounde lyne lyenge.
 The flote lyne
 The lyne for perche or tenche.
The lyne for a pyke : ¶ Pln̄be : Corke armyd wyth wyre

THenne shall ye make your flotys in this wyse. Take a fayr corke that is clene without many holes. and bore it {11} thrugh wyth a smalle hote yren : And putt therin a penne iuste and streyghte. Euer the more flote the gretter penne & the gre | ter hole. Thenne shape it grete in the myddis and smalle at bo | the endys. and specyally sharpe in the nether ende / and lyke vn | to the fygures folowynge. And make theym smothe on a gryn | dyng stone : or on a tyle stone. ¶ And loke that the flote for one heer be nomore than a pese. For two heeres : as a beene. for twel | ue heeres : as a walnot. And soo euery lyne after the proporcōn. ¶ All manere lynes that ben not for the groūde must haue flo | tes. And the rennynge grounde lyne must haue a flote. The ly | enge grounde lyne wythout flote.

NOw I haue lernyd you to make all your harnays. Here I woll tell you how ye shall angle. ¶ Ye shall angle : vnderstonde that there is .vi. manere of anglyng. That one is at the grounde for the troughte and other fisshe. A nother is at ye grounde at an arche / or at a stange where it ebbyth and flowyth : for bleke : roche. and darse. The thyrde is wyth a flote for all manere of fysshe. The fourth wyth a menow for ye troughte wythout plumbe or flote. The fyfth is rennynge in yt same wyse for roche and darse wyth one or two heeres & a flye. The syxte is wyth a dubbyd hoke for the troughte & graylyng ¶ And for the fyrste and pryncypall poynt in anglynge : kepe ye euer fro the water fro the sighte of the fysshe : other ferre on the londe : or ellys behynde a busshe that the fysshe se you not. For yf they doo they wol not byte. ¶ Also loke that ye shadow not the water as moche as ye may. For it is that thynge that woll soone fraye the fysshe. And yf a fysshe be afrayed he woll not bi | te longe after. For alle manere fysshe that fede by the grounde ye shall angle for theim to the botom. soo that your hokys shall renne or lye on the grounde. And for alle other fysshe that fede {12} aboue ye shall angle to theym in the myddes of the water or somdeale byneth or somdeale aboue. For euer the gretter fisshe the nerer he lyeth the botom of the water. And euer the smaller fysshe the more he smymmyth aboue. ¶ The thyrde good poynt is whan the fysshe bytyth that ye be not to hasty to smyte nor to late / For ye must abide tyll ye suppose that the bayte be ferre in the mouth of the fysshe / and thenne abyde noo longer. And this is for the groūde. ¶ And for the flote whan ye se it pul | lyd softly vnder the water : or elles caryed vpon the water softly : thenne smyte. And loke that ye neuer ouersmyte the strengthe of your lyne for brekynge. ¶ And yf it fortune you to smyte a grete fysshe wyth a smalle harnays : thenne ye must lede hym in the water and labour him there tyll he be drownyd and ouercome. Thenne take hym as well as ye can or maye. and euer bewaar that ye holde not ouer the strengthe of your lyne. And as moche as ye may lete hym not come out of your lynes ende streyghte from you : But kepe hym euer vnder the rodde / and euermore holde hym streyghte : soo that your lyne may sus | teyne and beere his lepys and his plungys wyth the helpe of your croppe & of your honde.

HEre I woll declare vnto you in what place of the water ye shall angle. Ye shall angle in a pole or in a stondinge water in euery place where it is ony thynge depe. The | re is not grete choyse of ony places where it is ony thynge de | pe in a pole. For it is but a pryson to fysshe. and they lyue for ye more parte in hungre lyke prisoners : and therfore it is the lesse maystry to take theym. But in a ryuer ye shall angle in euery place where it is depe and clere by the grounde : as grauell or claye wythout mudde or wedys. And in especyall yf that there be a manere whyrlynge of water or a couert. As an holow ban | ke : or grete rotys of trees : or longe wedes fletyng aboue in the water where the fysshe maye couere and hyde theymself at certayn tymes whan they lyste Also it is good for to angle in depe styffe stremys and also in fallys of waters and weares : and in floode gatys and mylle pyttes. And it is good for to angle where as the water restyth by the banke : and where the streme rennyth nyghe there by : and is depe and clere by the grounde {13} and in ony other placys where ye may se ony fyssh houe or ha | ne ony fedynge.

NOw ye shall wyte what tyme of the daye ye shall angle ¶ From the begynnynge of May vntyll it be Septem | bre the bytynge tyme is erly by the morowe from foure of ye clocke vnto eyghte of the clocke. And at after none from foure of the clocke vnto eyghte of the clocke : but not soo good as is in the mornynge. And yf it be a colde whystelyng wynde and a derke lowrynge daye. For a derke daye is moche better to angle in than a clere daye. ¶ From the begynnynge of Sep | tembre vnto the ende of Apryll spare noo tyme of the daye :
¶ Also many pole fysshes woll byte beste in the none tyde.
¶ And yf ye se ony tyme of the daye the trought or graylynge lepe : angle to hym wyth a dubbe acordynge to the same month And where the water ebbyth and flowyth the fysshe woll byte in some place at the ebbe : and in some place at the flood. After yt they haue restynge behynde stangnys and archys of brydgys and other suche manere places.

HEre ye shall wyte in what weder ye shall angle. as I sa | yd before in a derke lowrynge daye whanne the wynde blowyth softly. And in somer season whan it is brennyn | ge hote thenne it is nought. ¶ From Septembre vnto Apryll in a fayr sonny daye is ryght good to angle. And yf the wynde in that season haue ony parte of the Oryent : the wedyr thenne is nought. And whan it is a grete wynde. And whan it snowith reynyth or hayllyth. or is a grete tempeste / as thondyr or ligh | tenynge : or a swoly hote weder : thenne it is noughte for to angle.

NOw shall ye wyte that there ben twelue manere of ympedymentes whyche cause a man to take noo fysshe. wt | out other comyn that maye casuelly happe. ¶ The fyrst is yf your harnays be not mete nor fetly made. The seconde is yf your baytes be not good nor fyne. The thyrde is yf that ye angle not in bytynge tyme. The fourth is yf that the fysshe be frayed wt the syghte of a man. The fyfth yf the water be very thycke : whyte or redde of ony floode late fallen. The syxte yf the fysshe styre not for colde. The seuenth yf that the wedyr {14} be hote. The eyght yf it rayne. The nynthe yf it hayll or snow falle. The tenth is yf it be a tempeste. The enleuenth is yf it be a grete wynde. The twelfyfth yf the wynde be in the Eest / and that is worste For comynly neyther wynter nor somer ye fysshe woll not byte thenne. The weste and northe wyndes ben good but the south is beste.

ANd now I haue tolde you how to make your harnays : and how ye shall fysshe therwyth in al poyntes Reason woll that ye knowe wyth what baytes ye shall angle to euery manere of fysshe in euery moneth of the yere / whyche is all the effecte of the crafte. And wythout whyche baytes know | en well by you all your other crafte here toforn auayllyth you not to purpose. For ye can not brynge an hoke in to a fyssh mo | uth wythout a bayte. Whiche baytes for euery manere of fyssh and for euery moneth here folowyth in this wyse.

FOr by cause that the Samon is the moost stately fyssh that ony man maye angle to in fresshe water. Therfore I purpose to begyn̄ at hym. ¶ The samon is a gentyll fysshe : but he is comborous for to take. For comynly he is but in depe places of grete ryuers. And for the more parte he holdyth the myddys of it : that a man maye not come at hym. And he is in season from Marche vnto Myghelmas. ¶ In whyche season ye shall angle to hym wyth thyse baytes whan ye maye gete theym. Fyrste wyth a redde worme in the begynnynge & endynge of the season. And also wyth a bobbe that bredyth in a dunghyll. And specyally wyth a souerayn bayte that bredyth on a water docke. ¶ And he bytith not at the grounde : but at ye flote. Also ye may take hym : but it is seldom seen with a dubbe at suche tyme as whan he lepith in lyke fourme & manere as ye doo take a troughte or a gryalynge. And thyse baytes ben well prouyd baytes for the samon.

THe Troughte for by cause he is a right deyntous fyssh and also a ryght feruente byter we shall speke nexte of hym. He is in season fro Marche vnto Myghelmas. He is on clene grauely groūde & in a streme. Ye may angle to hym {15} all tymes wyth a grounde lyne lyenge or rennynge : sauyng in lepynge tyme. and thenne wyth a dubbe. And erly wyth a rennynge grounde lyne. and forth in the daye wyth a flote lyne.
¶ Ye shall angle to hym in Marche wyth a menew hangyd on your hoke by the nether nesse wythout flote or plumbe : drawynge vp & downe in the streme tyll ye fele hym taste. ¶ In the same tyme angle to hym wyth a groūde lyne with a redde wor | me for the moost sure. ¶ In Aprill take the same baytes : & also Inneba other wyse namyd .vij. eyes. Also the canker that bredyth in a grete tree and the redde snayll. ¶ In May take ye sto | ne flye and the bobbe vnder the cowe torde and the sylke worme : and the bayte that bredyth on a fern̄ leyf. ¶ In Iuyn take a redde worme & nyppe of the heed : and put on thyn hoke a codworme byforn. ¶ In Iuyll take the grete redde worme and the codworme togyder. ¶ In August take a flesshe flye & the grete redde worme and the fatte of the bakon : and bynde abowte thy hoke. ¶ In Septembre take the redde worme and the menew. ¶ In Octobre take the same : for they ben specyall for the trought all tymes of the yere. From Aprill tyll Septembre ye trough lepyth. thenne angle to hym wyth a dubbyd hoke acordyn | ge to the moneth / whyche dubbyd hokys ye shall fynde in then | de of this treatyse; and the monethys wyth theym :

THe grayllynge by a nother name callyd vmbre ia a delycyous fysshe to mannys mouthe. And ye maye take hym lyke as ye doo the trought. And thyse ben his bay | tes. ¶ In Marche & in Apryll the redde worme. ¶ In May the grene worme : a lytyll breyled worme : the docke canker. and the hawthorn worme. ¶ In Iune the bayte that bredyth betwene the tree & the barke of an oke. ¶ In Iuyll a bayte that bredyth on a fern̄ leyf : and the grete redde worme. And nyppe of the he | de : and put on your hoke a codworme before. ¶ In August the redde worme : and a docke worme. And al the yere after a reddde worme.

THe barbyll is a swete fysshe / but it is a quasy meete & a peryllous for mannys body. For comynly he yeuyth an introduxion to ye Febres. And yf he be eten rawe : he maye be cause of mannys dethe : whyche hath oft be seen Thyse {16} be his baytes. ¶ In Marche & in Apryll take fayr fresshe che | se : and laye it on a borde & kytte it in small square pecys of the lengthe of your hoke. Take thenne a candyl & brenne it on the ende at the poynt of your hoke tyll it be yelow. And then̄e byn | de it on your hoke with fletchers sylke : and make it rough lyke a welbede. This bayte is good all the somer season. ¶ In May & Iune take ye hawthorn̄ worme & the grete redde worme. and nyppe of the heed. And put on your hoke a codworme before. & that is a good bayte. In Iuyll take the redde worme for cheyf & the hawthorn̄ worme togydr. Also the water docke leyf wor | me & the hornet worme togyder. ¶ In August & for all the yere take the talowe of a shepe & softe chese : of eche ylyke moche : and a lytyll hony & grynde or stampe theym togydr longe. and tempre it tyll it be tough. And put therto floure a lytyll & make it on smalle pellettys. And yt is a good bayte to angle wyth at the grounde And loke that it synke in the water. or ellys it is not good to this purpoos.

THe carpe is a deyntous fysshe : but there ben but fewe in Englonde. And therfore I wryte the lasse of hym. He is an euyll fysshe to take. For he is soo stronge enarmyd in the mouthe that there maye noo weke harnays holde hym. And as touchynge his baytes I haue but lytyll knowlege of it And me were loth to wryte more than I knowe & haue prouyd But well I wote that the redde worme & the menow ben good baytys for hym at all tymes as I haue herde saye of persones credyble & also founde wryten in bokes of credence.

THe cheuyn is a stately fysshe & his heed is a deyty morsell. There is noo fysshe soo strongly enarmyd wyth sca | lys on the body. And bi cause he is a stronge byter he ha | the the more baytes / whiche ben thyse. ¶ In Marche the redde worme at the grounde : For comynly thenne he woll byte there at all tymes of ye yere yf he be ony thinge hungry. ¶ In Apryll the dyche canker that bredith in the tree. A worme that bredith betwene the rynde & the tree of an oke The redde worme : and the yonge frosshys whan the fete ben kyt of. Also the stone flye the bobbe vnder the cowe torde : the redde snaylle. ¶ In May ye {17} bayte that bredyth on the osyer leyf & the docke canker togydr vpon your hoke. Also a bayte that bredyth on a fern̄ leyf : ye cod | worme. and a bayte that bredyth on an hawthorn̄. And a bayte that bredyth on an oke leyf & a sylke worme & a codworme togyder. ¶ In̄ Iune take the creket & the dorre & also a red worme : the heed kytte of & a codworme before : and put theym on ye hoke. Also a bayte in the osyer leyf : yonge frosshys the thre-fete kitte of by the body : & the fourth by the knee. The bayte on the hawthorn̄ & the codworme togyder & a grubbe that bredyth in a dunghyll : and a grete greshop. ¶ In Iuyll the greshop & the humbylbee in the medow. Also yonge bees & yonge hornettes. Also a grete brended flye that bredith in pathes of medowes & the flye that is amonge pysmeers hyllys. ¶ In August take wortwormes & magotes vnto Myghelmas. ¶ In Septembre the redde worme : & also take the baytes whan ye may gete the | ym : that is to wyte / Cheryes : yonge myce not heeryd : & the hon | ie combe.

THe breeme is a noble fysshe & a deyntous. And ye shall angle for hym from Marche vnto August wyth a redde worme : & then̄e wyth a butter flye & a grene flye. & with a bayte that bredyth amonge grene rede : and a bayte that bre | dyth in the barke of a deed tree. ¶ And for bremettis : take mag | gotes. ¶ And fro that tyme forth all the yere after take the red worme : and in the ryuer browne breede. Moo baytes there ben but they ben not easy & therfore I lete theym passe ouer.

A  Tenche is a good fyssh : and heelith all manere of other fysshe that ben hurte yf they maye come to hym. He is the most parte of the yere in the mudde. And he styryth moost in Iune & Iuly : and in other seasons but lytyll. He is an euyll byter. his baytes ben thyse. For all the yere browne bree | de tostyd wyth hony in lyknesse of a butteryd loof : and the gre | te redde worme. And as for cheyf take the blacke blood in ye her | te of a shepe & floure and hony. And tempre theym all togyder somdeale softer than paast : & anoynt therwyth the redde worme : bothe for this fysshe & for other. And they woll byte moche the better therat at all tymes.
¶ The perche is a daynteuous fysshe & passynge holsom and {18} a free bytyng. Thise ben his baytes. In Marche the redde wor | me. In Aprill the bobbe vnder the cowe torde. In May the slo | thorn̄ worme & the codworme. In Iune the bayte that bredith in an olde fallen oke & the grete canker. In Iuyll the bayte that bredyth on the osyer leyf & the bobbe that bredeth on the dung | hyll : and the hawthorn̄ worme & the codworme. In August the redde worme & maggotes. All the yere after the red worme as for the beste.
¶ The roche is an easy fysshe to take : And yf he be fatte & pen | nyd thenne is he good meete. & thyse ben his baytes. In Marche the most redy bayte is the red worme. In Apryll the bobbe vnder the cowe torde. In May the bayte yt bredyth on the oke leyf & the bobbe in the dunghyll. In Iune the bayte that bredith on the osyer & the codworme. In Iuyll hous flyes. & the bayte that bredith on an oke. and the notworme & mathewes & maggotes tyll Myghelmas. And after yt the fatte of bakon.
¶ The dace is a gentyll fysshe to take. & yf it be well refet then̄ is it good meete. In Marche his bayte is a redde worme. In Apryll the bobbe vnder the cowe torde. In May the docke can | ker & the bayte on ye slothorn̄ and on the oken leyf. In Iune the codworme & the bayte on the osyer and the whyte grubbe in ye dunghyll. In Iuyll take hous flyes & flyes that brede in pysmer hylles : the codworme & maggotes vnto Mighelmas. And yf the water be clere ye shall take fysshe whan other take none And fro that tyme forth doo as ye do for the roche. For comyn | ly theyr bytynge & theyr baytes ben lyke.
¶ The bleke is but a feble fysshe. yet he is holsom His baytes from Marche to Myghelmas be the same that I haue wryten before. For the roche & darse sauynge all the somer season asmo | che as ye maye angle for hym wyth an house flye : & in wynter season wt bakon & other bayte made as ye herafter may know.
¶ The ruf is ryght an holsom fysshe : And ye shall angle to him wyth the same baytes in al seasons of the yere & in the same wi | se as I haue tolde you of the perche : for they ben lyke in fysshe & fedinge / sauynge the ruf is lesse. And therfore he must haue ye smaller bayte.
¶ The flounder is an holsom fisshe & a free. and a subtyll byter in his manere : For comynly whan he soukyth his meete he {19} fedyth at grounde. & therfore ye must angle to hym wyth a gro | unde lyne lyenge. And he hath but one manere of bayte. & that is a red worme. whiche is moost cheyf for all manere of fysshe.
¶ The gogen is a good fisshe of the mochenes : & he byteth wel at the grounde. And his baytes for all the yere ben thyse. ye red worme : codworme : & maggotes. And ye must angle to him wt a flote. & lete your bayte be nere ye botom or ellis on ye gron̄de.
¶ The menow whan he shynith in the water then̄ is he byttyr And though his body be lytyll yet he is a rauenous biter & an egre. And ye shall angle to hym wyth the same baytes that ye doo for the gogyn : sauynge they must be smalle.
¶ The ele is a quasy fysshe a rauenour & a deuourer of the bro | de of fysshe. And for the pyke also is a deuourer of fysshe I put them bothe behynde all other to angle. For this ele ye shall fyn | de an hole in the grounde of the water. & it is blewe blackysshe there put in your hoke tyll that it be a fote wythin ye hole. and your bayte shall be a grete angyll twytch or a menow.
¶ The pyke is a good fysshe : but for he deuouryth so many as well of his owne kynde as of other : I loue hym the lesse. & for to take hym ye shall doo thus. Take a codlynge hoke : & take a roche or a fresshe heering & a wyre wyth an hole in the ende : & put it in at the mouth & out at the taylle downe by the ridge of the fresshe heeryng. And thenne put the lyne of your hoke in af | ter. & drawe the hoke in to the cheke of ye fresshe heeryng. Then̄ put a plumbe of lede vpon your lyne a yerde longe from youre hoke & a flote in mydwaye betwene : & caste it in a pytte where the pyke vsyth. And this is the beste & moost surest crafte of ta | kynge the pyke. ¶ A nother manere takynge of him there is. Take a frosshe & put it on your hoke at the necke bytwene the skynne & body on ye backe half : & put on a flote a yerde ther | fro : & caste it where the pyke hauntyth and ye shall haue hym. ¶ A nother manere. Take the same bayte & put it in Asa fetida & cast it in the water wyth a corde & a corke : & ye shall not fayll of hym. And yf ye lyst to haue a good sporte : thenne tye the co | rde to a gose fote : & ye shall se god halynge whether the gose or the pyke shall haue the better.

NOw ye wote with what baytes & how ye shall angle to euery manere fysshe. Now I woll tell you how ye shall {20} kepe and fede your quycke baytes. Ye shall fede and kepe them all in generall : but euery manere by hymself wyth suche thyngꝭ in and on whiche they brede. And as longe as they ben quycke & newe they ben fyne. But whan they ben in a slough or elles deed thenne ben they nought. Oute of thyse ben excepted thre brodes : That is to wyte of hornettys : humbylbees. & waspys. whom ye shall bake in breede & after dyppe theyr heedes in blo | de & lete them drye. Also excepte maggotes : whyche whan thei ben bredde grete wyth theyr naturell fedynge : ye shall fede the | ym ferthermore wyth shepes talow & wyth a cake made of flou | re & hony. thenne woll they be more grete. And whan ye haue clensyd theym wyth sonde in a bagge of blanket kepte hote vn | der your gowne or other warm̄ thyng two houres or thre. then̄ ben they beste & redy to angle wyth. And of the frosshe kytte ye legge by the knee. of the grasshop the leggys & wynges by the body.
¶ Thyse ben baytes made to laste all the yere. Fyrste been flou | re & lene flesshe of the hepis of a cony or of a catte : virgyn wexe & shepys talowe : and braye theym in a morter : And thenne tem | pre it at the fyre wyth a lytyll puryfyed hony : & soo make it vp in lytyll ballys & bayte therwyth your hokys after theyr quan | tyte. & this is a good bayte for all manere fresshe fysshe.
¶ A nother take the sewet of a shepe & chese in lyke quantyte : & braye theim togider longe in a mortere : And take thenne floure & tempre it therwyth. and after that alaye it wyth hony & make ballys therof. and that is for the barbyll in especyall.
¶ A nother for darse. & roche & bleke. take whete & sethe it well & thenne put it in blood all a daye & a nyghte. and it is a good bayte.
¶ For baytes for grete fyssh kepe specyally this rule. Whan ye haue take a grete fysshe : vndo the mawe. & what ye fynde therin make that your bayte : for it is beste.

¶ Thyse ben the .xij. flyes wyth whyche ye shall angle to ye tro | ught & grayllyng / and dubbe lyke as ye shall now here me tell.

¶ Marche.

THe donne flye the body of the donne woll & the wyngis of the pertryche. A nother doone flye. the body of blacke woll : the wynges of the blackyst drake : and the Iay vndr the wynge & vnder the tayle. ¶ Apryll.
¶ The stone flye. the body of blacke wull : & yelowe vnder the wynge. and vnder the tayle & the wynges of the drake. In the begynnynge of May a good flye. the body of roddyd wull and lappid abowte wyth blacke sylke : the wynges of the drake & of the redde capons hakyll. ¶ May.
¶ The yelow flye. the body of yelow wull : the wynges of the redde cocke hakyll & of the drake lyttyd yelow. The blacke lou | per. the body of blacke wull & lappyd abowte wyth the herle of ye pecok tayle : & the wynges of ye redde capon wt a blewe heed.
¶ Iune. ¶ The donne cutte : the body of blacke wull & a yelow lyste after eyther syde : the wynges of the bosarde bounde on with barkyd hempe. The maure flye. the body of doske wull the wynges of the blackest mayle of the wylde drake. The tan | dy flye at saynt Wyllyams daye. the body of tandy wull & the wynges contrary eyther ayenst other of the whitest mayle of ye wylde drake. ¶ Iuyll.
¶ The waspe flye. the body of blacke wull & lappid abowte wt yelow threde : the winges of the bosarde. The shell flye at saynt Thomas daye. the body of grene wull & lappyd abowte wyth the herle of the pecoks tayle : wynges of the bosarde.
¶ August. ¶ The drake flye. the body of blacke wull & lappyd abowte wyth blacke sylke : wynges of the mayle of the blac | ke drake wyth a blacke heed.

¶ Thyse fygures are put here in ensample of your hokes.


¶ Here folowyth the order made to all those whiche shall haue the vnderstondynge of this forsayde treatyse & vse it for theyr pleasures.

YE that can angle & take fysshe to your plesures as this forsayd treatyse techyth & shewyth you : I charge & requyre you in the name of alle noble men that ye fysshe not in noo poore mannes seuerall water : as his ponde : stewe : or other necessary thynges to kepe fysshe in wythout his lycence & good wyll. ¶ Nor that ye vse not to breke noo mannys gynnys lyenge in theyr weares & in other places due vnto theym. Ne to take the fysshe awaye that is taken in theym. For after a fysshe is taken in a mannys gynne yf the gynne be layed in the comyn waters : or elles in suche waters as he hireth / it is his ow | ne propre goodes. And yf ye take it awaye ye robbe hym : whyche is a ryght shamfull dede to ony noble man to do yt that the | uys & brybours done : whyche are punysshed for theyr euyll de | des by the necke & otherwyse whan they maye be aspyed & taken. And also yf ye doo in lyke manere as this treatise shewyth you : ye shal haue no nede to take of other men̄ys : whiles ye shal haue ynough of your owne takyng yf ye lyste to labour therfo | re. whyche shall be to you a very pleasure to se the fayr bryght shynynge scalyd fysshes dysceyued by your crafty meanes and drawen vpon londe. ¶ Also that ye breke noo mannys heggys in goynge abowte your dysportes : ne opyn noo mannes gates but that ye shytte theym agayn. ¶ Also ye shall not vse this for | sayd crafty dysporte for no couetysenes to thencreasynge & spa | rynge of your money oonly / but pryncypally for your solace & to cause the helthe of your body. and specyally of your soule. For whanne ye purpoos to goo on your disportes in fysshyng ye woll not desyre gretly many persones wyth you. whiche my | ghte lette you of your game. And thenne ye maye serue god de | uowtly in sayenge affectuously youre custumable prayer. And thus doynge ye shall eschewe & voyde many vices. as ydylnes whyche is pryncypall cause to enduce man to many other vyces. as it is ryght well knowen. ¶ Also ye shall not be to raueno | us in takyng of your sayd game as to moche at one tyme : whi | che ye maye lyghtly doo yf ye doo in euery poynt as this present treatyse shewyth you in euery poynt. whyche sholde {23} lyght | ly be occasyon to dystroye your owne dysportes & other mennys also. As whan ye haue a suffycyent mese ye sholde coueyte nomore as at that tyme. ¶ Also ye shall besye yourselfe to nouryssh the game in all that ye maye : & to dystroye all suche thyn | ges as ben deuourers of it. ¶ And all those that done after this rule shall haue the blessynge of god & saynt Petyr / whyche he theym graunte that wyth his precyous blood vs boughte.

¶ And for by cause that this present treatyse sholde not come to the hondys of eche ydle persone whyche wolde desire it yf it were enpryntyd allone by itself & put in a lytyll plaunflet ther | fore I haue compylyd it in a greter volume of dyuerse bokys concernynge to gentyll & noble men to the entent that the for | sayd ydle persones whyche sholde haue but lytyll mesure in the sayd dysporte of fysshyng sholde not by this meane vtterly dys | troye it.


Original spelling and grammar have been generally retained, with some exceptions noted here. Long s (“ſ”, Unicode character u+017f) have been replaced by “s”. Words that were broken at the end of a line using a word continuation mark, either hyphen or double oblique hyphen (u+2e17), have been rejoined. Supposed words that were broken at the end of a line, but without a word con­tin­u­a­tion mark, have been re­joined by inserting a vertical line (u+7c) with thin spaces be­tween the two parts of the sup­posed word. For example, the word “whiche” was often broken after the i, and would then be tran­scribed as “whi | che”. I produced the cover image and hereby assign it to the public domain. In the text edition, italic text is marked with low lines (“_”, u+5f); small capitals text is made uppercase; and superscripted text is marked with “^” (u+5e). Original page images are available from—search for “treatyseoffysshy00bern”.

The blackletter pages of the original book had no printed page numbers. Page numbers have been inserted into these ebook editions. If a page number would properly lie within a broken word or a supposed broken word, then the whole word was moved just below the page number.

There were throughout the blackletter part of the printed book instances of a symbol that re­sem­bled a y with a smudge over it. These are likely var­i­ously e over y or t over y, i.e. ab­brev­ia­tions for the and that. These symbols have been tran­scribed according to con­text as ye or yt. On page 16 there was what looks like a “d” with a smudge over it, which has been tran­scribed as “dr”. Other abbreviations that include a smudged small letter include “wyt”, “wt”, “togydr”, etc. In all these instances, the superscripted mark is a guess based on context.

Paragraphs or sections in the blackletter part were variously marked. Sections were indicated by either capitulum or else drop cap. Sparsely supported capitulum (u+2e3f) is replaced by pilcrow (u+b6) in all editions. The text was justified, and some­times a capit­u­lum would be pre­ceded by white space on the right end of a line of text and a line-break, sometimes by only a single space. Sometimes vertical white space preceded a capitulum or drop cap; sometimes not. There are three instances (see pages 3 and 9) of white space on the right end of a line of text followed by a new sentence on a new line, but without either capitulum or drop cap. In these ebook editions, either printed vertical space or a drop cap is tran­scribed as the beginning of a new paragraph, i.e. as a new < p > element in the html edition. Drop caps are indicated in the text edition by “++” preceding the letter.

The colon (u+3a) is used liberally throughout the blackletter part of the book. It was usually printed with no space on either side; less often with a space only on the right side; and rarely with a space only on the left side. Examples of the latter occur at page 4 line 4 and at page 8 line 2. In this transcription, the colon spacing has been standardized in the blackletter part of the book to narrow space on both sides.

Likewise, the glyph we would call period or full stop (u+2e) was variously printed with no space on either side, or space on one or both sides. These have been standardized to modern usage: space on right side only. This glyph seems to have been used variously in the ways we would use full stop or comma. In addition, roman numerals are tran­scribed with the full stop as in, for instance, “wyth .xij. heeres” (example is from page 10). In many places full stops seem to be missing from the end of a sentence; these have not been corrected.

In the following sentence from page 1, “Salamon in his parablys sayth that a good spyryte makyth a flourynge aege / that is a fayre aege & a longe.”, the “ / ” is our tran­scrip­tion of a glyph shaped some­what like an abun­dantly dis­torted “3”, com­pressed hor­i­zon­tal­ly. This glyph has been in­ter­pret­ed herein as punc­tu­a­tion, sim­i­lar to our modern comma or virgule. The glyph was variously printed with no space on either side, or with space on both sides, or with space on the right side. In this ebook, the glyph has been tran­scribed as solidus (u+2f) with thin space on both sides.

There is one exception. On page 20, line 1, the following sentence appears: “Ye shall fede and kepe them all in generall : but euery manere by hymself wyth suche thyngꝭ in and on whiche they brede”. In these html/epub/mobi editions, the mark after thyng is shown as an image of the original mark. This mark strongly resembles the glyphs that have been elsewhere tran­scribed as solidus, but is bolder and more angular. The text edition tran­scribes this instance as “ꝭ” (u+a76d, Latin small letter IS)

Page  2. The following sentence appears: “The seconde is labour not outrageoꝰ.” In the text edition, the mark following outrageo has been tran­scribed as “ꝰ” (u+a770, modifier letter US). This character occurs only once in the text.

Page  7. The phrase “For is is lyke ye wedys” was changed to “For it is lyke ye wedys”. In the phrase rendered herein as “that it woll desyre ynough”, it has been suggested that the penultimate word should perhaps be “befyxe” instead.

Page  8. In “And gretter hokes ye shall mabe in the same wyse”, “mabe” should perhaps be “make”?

Page 10. In the illustration caption, “Pln̄be : Corke” should perhaps be “Plūbe : Corke”.

Page 12. In “the more he smymmyth aboue”, the word should perhaps be “swymmyth”.

Page 13. In “in ony other placys where ye may se ony fyssh houe or ha | ne ony fedynge”, “ha | ne” should perhaps be “ha | ue”?

Page 17. In the phrase rendered herein “heeryd : & the hon | ie combe.”, “hon | ie” was originally printed as “hou | ie”.

Page 18. A smudge after the ampersand was ignored in the phrase “on the osyer & the codworme”.

Page 19. In “cast it in the water wyth a corde & a corke ”, the illegible mark ahead of “cord” has been tran­scribed “a ”. Also, the phrase “or ellis on ye gron̄de” possibly should be “or ellis on ye groūde”.

Page 20. In “But whan they ben in a slough”, the original print looked like “ben|in”, with a thick black line between “ben” and “in”. In the phrase “¶ A nother take the sewet”, there was a smudge after “nother” that might be taken for a comma, removed from this ebook edition. There were no other commas in the blackletter section of the book.

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of A Treatyse of Fysshynge wyth an Angle, by 
Juliana Berners


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