The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Etymology of Local Names, by R. Morris

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most
other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions
whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of
the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at  If you are not located in the United States, you'll have
to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this ebook.

Title: The Etymology of Local Names
       With a short introduction to the relationship of languages.
              Teutonic names.

Author: R. Morris

Release Date: August 8, 2018 [EBook #57658]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Produced by Steven Gibbs and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at







Names have all some meaning when first imposed; and when a place is named for the first time, by any people, they apply to it some term—in early times generally descriptive of its natural peculiarities, or something else, on account of which it is remarkable, from their own language. When we find therefore, that the old names of natural objects and localities in a country belong, for the most part, to a particular language, we may conclude with certainty that a people speaking that language formerly occupied the country. Of this the names they have so impressed are as sure a proof as if they had left a distinct record of their existence in words engraven on the rocks. Such old names of places often long outlive both the people that bestowed them, and nearly all the material monuments of their occupancy. The language, as a vehicle of oral communication, may gradually be forgotten and be heard no more where it was once in universal use, and the old topographical nomenclature may still remain unchanged.—Pictorial History of England.






Introduction 5
Works Consulted 10
The Value of Local Names 11
The Composition of Local Names 13
(A) Names of Tribes, Individuals, Families, and Gods 14
(a) Tribes 14
(b) Families 15
(c) Individuals 17
(d) Gods 18
(B) Names of Animals 19
(C) Names of Trees, Plants, &c. 27
(D) Names of Minerals 32
(E) Names of Qualities 33
(A) Names of Rivers, Lakes, &c. 35
(B) Names of Mountains, Hills, &c. 47
(C) Names of Valleys, Plains, Woods, &c. 53
(D) Names of Habitations 59




“Languages,” says the author of “The Cosmos,” “compared with each other, and considered as objects of the natural history of the human mind, being divided into families according to the analogy of their internal structure, have become a rich source of historical knowledge. Products of the mental powers, they lead us back, by the fundamental characters of their organisation, to an obscure and otherwise unknown distance. The comparative study of languages shows how races, or nations, now separated by wide regions, are related to each other, and have proceeded from a common seat; it discloses the directions and paths of ancient migrations; in tracing out epochs of development, it recognises in the more or less altered characters of the language, in the permanency of certain forms, or the already advanced departure from them, which portion of the race has preserved a language nearest to that of their former common dwelling-place.”

The coincidences between the languages of the globe have been made the subject of careful study by eminent scholars, who have established Comparative Philology upon the footing of a new science.

It has been found that mere verbal comparisons are utterly worthless in determining either the formation of groups of languages or their relations to one another. The dictionary of a nation may be borrowed, for words are soon lost and easily[6] replaced; but the grammar of a language—that is to say, its syntax, conjugations, and declensions, the formation of new words from certain primitive forms, and those relational words which perform a similar function, as pronouns, numerals, and particles—is as constant and invariable as the nation itself. Grammatical analysis and comparison is therefore the only true method for the classification of languages according to their radical affinity; mere superficial resemblances of words prove nothing, nor have they any value unless tested and confirmed by arguments drawn from grammatical structure.

On the evidence afforded by a searching grammatical analysis, the languages of the greater part of Europe and Asia have been divided into three great families, whose grammatical forms are perfectly clear and distinct. They have been named Indo-European or Arian, Semitic, and Turanian.

(A) The Indo-European or Arian family of languages extends from the mouth of the Ganges to the British Isles and the Northern extremity of Scandinavia. The term Arian is derived from Arya, the original name of this family. It signifies honourable, or of a good family. In Asia we find two great branches of this family:

I. The Indian. This branch includes the Sanskrit (the language of the Vedas, the first literary monument of the Arian world), with its living representatives, the Hindustani, Mahratti, Bengali, Guzerati, Singhalese, &c.; the Prakrit and Pali idioms; the Siah-Posh (Kafir dialect), and the language of the Gipsies.

II. The Iranian or Persian. To this branch belong the Zend or Old Persian (the language of the Zendavesta), with its representatives; the language of the Achaemenians, written in the Cuneiform character; the speech of Huzvaresh or Pehlevi; the Pazend or Parsi; and the modern Persian. The following dialects, though not very important in a philological view, belong to this class:—the Afghan, Bokhara, Kurdian, Armenian, and Ossetian.

In Europe there are no less than six branches of the Arian family:

I. The Celtic. Though the Celts seem to have been the first[7] inhabitants of Europe, very few of their dialects are now spoken, having been superseded by the Teutonic idioms.

Modern Celtic dialects are divided into two classes; (a) the Gallic or Ancient British, including the Welsh (Cymric), Cornish, and Armorican of Brittany; (b) the Galic, Gadhelic, or Erse, including the Irish (Fenic), the Highland Scottish (Gaelic), and Manx, the dialect of the Isle of Man.

II. The Teutonic. This branch is divided into three dialects; (a) the High German, including the Old High German, the Middle High German, and the Modern High German; (b) the Low German, including the Gothic, the Anglo-Saxon and English, the Old Saxon and Platt-Deutsch, the Frisic, the Dutch and Flemish; (c) the Scandinavian, including the Old Norsk, the Icelandic, the Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish.

III. The Italic. To this class belong the Oscan, Umbrian, and Latin dialects; the Old Provençal, and the Romance languages (Provençal and French, Italian and Wallachian, Spanish and Portuguese) formed during the decay of the Latin.

IV. The Hellenic. This branch includes the Greek and its dialects, the Aeolic, Ionic, Doric, and Attic.

V. The Albanian; including the Geghian and the Toskian dialects spoken in Illyria and Epirus.

VI. The Slavonic or Windic branch is divided into two dialects; (a) the Lettic, including the Lithuanian, Old Prussian, and Lettish; (b) the Slavonic Proper, which is again divided into two branches, termed the Eastern and Western.

The Eastern dialect includes the Russian (Great, Little, and White Russian), the Servian, Kroatian, and Slovenian; and the Bulgarian, or in its oldest form, the Ecclesiastical Slavonic.

The Western dialect includes the Polish, the Bohemian, the Polabian, and the Lusatian.

(B) The Semitic Family (so called from Shem, one of the sons of Noah) is not so widely extended as the Arian family, but the nations composing it were the first to appear upon the theatre of history. It comprises the following branches:—

I. The Arabic, which includes the Ethiopian or Abissinian and the Maltese.


II. The Chaldean, which includes the Old Babylonian, the Chaldee of Babylon and Mesopotamia, the Chaldee of Daniel and of the Targums, and the Syrian (Aramaic).

III. The Hebrew, the language of Canaan, which includes the Phœnician and Carthaginian.

IV. The Berber dialects, which are spoken in Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, and Fez. The Haussa and Galla dialects are now considered as Semitic idioms.

(C) The Turanian family of languages is distinguished from the Arian and Semitic in the total absence of inflection.

To express the variations for case, mood, &c., Turanian words undergo no inflection; but an additional word is glued, as it were to the noun, verb, &c., as the case may be, in order to express the relations of case, mood, &c. Hence these have been termed agglutinizing languages.

To connect the idea of plurality with the English word boy, we merely inflect it, and obtain the word boys; but upon the principle of agglutination, a syllable indicative of plurality must be affixed, e.g., singular, boy; plural, boy-crowd. Thus the roots are never obscured, while they admit of a vocal harmony which is altogether peculiar to this family of languages; e.g., (Turkish) aghâ, a lord, becomes in the plural, agha-lar; er, a man becomes in the plural, er-ler, and not er-lar, as in the former case.

The vowels of the agglutinized syllables, it is easily seen, must harmonize with those of the roots; e.g., (Magyar) kert, a garden, makes kert-esz-nek to the gardener, and not kert-asz-nak.

There are two great divisions of this family:—

I. The Northern or Ural-Altaic division includes (a) the Tungusian dialects, spoken in Upper and Lower Tunguska, on the coast of Okhotsk, and by the Mantchoos or Mandshus (in China); (b) the Mongolian dialects, spoken in the North and South of Gobi, in Tibet and Tangut, in the plains on each side of the Volga (by the Olöts or Kalmuks) and by the Buriäts of Lake Baikal; (c) the Turkish dialects, spoken in Derbend, Krimea, Antolia, and Rumelia; (the Yakuts, the Tatars or[9] Turks of Siberia, the Kirghis, the Bashkirs, the Kumians, the Nogais, and the Karatschais, the Usbegs, Uigurs, and Turkomans, speak Turkish dialects); (d) the Finnish dialects, spoken by the Hungarians, Lapps, Finns, Esths, Voguls, Permians, &c.; (e) the dialects of the Samoiedes and Ostiakes.

II. The Southern division comprises the Tamul, the Bhotiya, and the Malay.

The Caucasian dialects are degenerated branches of the Turanian family; they include the idioms of the Georgians or Grusians, the Suans, the Lazes, the Lesghi, the Mitsgeghi, and the Kerkessians and Abasians.



“Local Nomenclature of the Anglo-Saxons,” by H. Leo.

“Codex Diplomaticus Ævi Saxonici,” edited by Professor Kemble.

“The Germania of Tacitus,” edited by Dr. Latham.

Bosworth’s “Anglo-Saxon Dictionary.”

Meidinger’s “Comparative Dictionary of the Gothic Tongues.”

Jamieson’s “Scottish Dictionary.”

“The Saxons in England,” by Professor Kemble.

Worsaae’s “Danes and Norwegians in England.”

“The Northmen in Cumberland and Westmoreland,” by R. Ferguson.

Wright’s “Provincial Dictionary.”



Names of places in a great measure belong to the oldest and most primitive evidences of language, and they are of the highest importance in the history of nations and dialects.—H. Leo.

It cannot be doubted that local names, and those devoted to distinguish the natural features of a country, possess an inherent vitality which even the urgency of conquest is unable to remove.—Kemble.

The geography and history of a nation must be sought in the language of the name-givers of that country, or in a translation of the language of the name-givers of that country.—Pococke.

Geographical nomenclature is a branch of geography generally left to chance or caprice; and it will not be easy to find any department so left, which has been more abused. Wherever names exist, and where these names may have existed for a number of ages, it appears something like sacrilege to disturb or change them; such names, besides the sacredness of antiquity, are often significant, and contain in themselves information as to the migrations of the human race, and the former connexion which existed between tribes now far separated. Names are seldom vulgar or ridiculous, and they furnish a copious fund of distributive terms, to obviate the confusion which arises to geographical nomenclature in the repetition for the hundredth time of rivers—Thames, Trent, and Tyne, &c.; and it fortunately happens that in no country, however barbarous or thinly peopled, are the great features of nature, as rivers and mountains, without names; and the name of a river or mountain may be appropriately applied also to the district in which it occurs.—Capt. Vetch.

“He who calls departed ages again into being,” says Niebuhr, “enjoys a bliss like that of creating.” The study of words does this; it recalls the past with all its associations, so that for a time it becomes a part of the present. It cannot be otherwise, for every word rests upon some fact; so that when we attempt to account for the meaning of a word, we only go back to the fact upon which it rests. There is one class of words which is very suggestive—we mean those names which have been attached for ages to places familiar to us from the days of our childhood, from our pleasure excursions, or from our course of reading. The thoughtful mind cannot remain long contented with names that convey no meaning with them; there is always the desire to retain them in the memory by some principle of[12] association, and this leads to an inquiry concerning their origin and history, or when and why they were imposed. The study of place-names is one, then, of great interest to the historian and to the teacher. The signification of a single name throws much light upon the history of nations and their migrations. In point of fact, there is often more dependence to be placed upon words than upon history; for, says Halberstma, it pleases not the muse of history to speak but late, and then in a very confused manner: yet she often deceives; and before she comes to maturity she seldom distinctly tells us the truth. Language never deceives, but speaks more distinctly, though removed to a higher antiquity.

The object of the following pages is to supply teachers with the chief root or key-words which are necessary for the explanation of local names in England, and such kindred forms as are to be met with in those countries occupied by nations belonging to the same family, and usually termed Teutonic. It is a well-known fact that many of the names of places in England are also common to Germany. Verstegan, in his scarce work, printed in 1605, very plainly alludes to it. “Thus the Saxons,” he says, “who at first came unto the aid of the Britons, became about two hundred years after, to be the possessors and sharers of the best part of the Isle of Britain among themselves. And, as their language was altogether different from that of the Britons, so left they very few cities, towns, villages, passages, rivers, woods, fields, hills, or dales that they gave not new names unto, such as in their own language were intelligible, and either given by reason of the situation or nature of the place, or after some place in some sort like unto it in Germany, from whence they came—as the name of Oxford or Oxenford, on the river Thames, after the town of the same name in Germany, situated on the Oder; our Hereford, near unto Wales, after Hervford, in Westphalia. And so, in like manner, may be said of Stafford, Swinford, Bradford, Norden, Newark, Bentham, Oxenbridge, Buchurst, Scorethorpe, Holt, Mansfield, Swinefield, Daventry, Hampstead, Radcliff, Rosendale, and a great number of places in our country, that yet retain the names of places in Germany and the Netherlands (albeit the ancient orthography may in some of them be a little varied), as here to be reckoned up would be tedious.”

We have chosen English names as the basis of comparison because they are more familiar, and, indeed, of more importance[13] than any others. Emerson, speaking of them, says—“The names are excellent; an atmosphere of legendary melody spreads over the land. Older than all epics and histories, which clothe a nation, this under-shirt sits close to the body. What history, too, and what stores of primitive and savage observation, it unfolds!”

The names of places in England, and among the Teutonic tribes generally, are composed of two parts. The first member is a descriptive word referring to some particular historical circumstance, to personages, to animals, vegetables, or minerals; or it may be merely an adjective. The second member designates, by some general and appropriate term, either the natural features of the country, settlement, or neighbourhood to be described—as hill, mountain, river, &c.—or some artificial constructions, as town, borough, field, &c. The first member is generally prefixed to distinguish places having similar positions—e.g., Staple-ford, Notting-ham, New-ark, &c. Sometimes the names of places are represented by a single word—e.g., Slough, Ford, Holt, Down, Berg, Furt, &c.

All places do not admit of explanation. Those ending with Ing or having after it Ham or Ton, are derived from the names of tribes, families, or individuals. The subject is naturally divided into—

I.—The Descriptive Element.

II.—The General Element.




(a) Tribes.

(1) German.—This name was not applied to the people of Germany by themselves, but they received it from the Celts on account of their terrible war cry. The root of the word is the Celtic verb Gairmean, “to cry out.”

(2) Dutch (Deutsch).—This term, which is now applied to the people of Holland, is literally an adjective signifying “popular” (Diut-isc). It was originally applied to the language of the Teutonic people in order to distinguish it from the Latin. The word Teutones, the Latin form of the native word Theotisci, Teutisci, &c., is derived from the Gothic root Diut, a “people or nation.” It occurs in the modern name Teut-o-berger.

The following tribes have left their names as an element of local nomenclature:—

(3) Angrivari, in Angern, Engern, Anger-munde.

(4) Angles, in Angles-ey, Eng-land, Angeln, Hunger-ford (Angles-ford).

(5) Aravisci in the river Raab, anciently Arabo.

(6) Burgundians, in Burgundy.

(7) Cherusci (Crherstini) in the Hartz mountains, Hartz-burg, and Herz-burg. The root seems to be the Gothic Har, Haruc, “a temple.” In the poem of Beo-Wulf it occurs as the name of the great palatial hall of Hrothgar.

(8) Cauci, in Cux-haven.


(9) Catti, in Hesse.

(10) Eudoses, in Eyd-er, Eud-ing, and Dosse.

(11) Frisians, in Fries-land, Fris-by, and Fris-thorpe.

(12) Goths, in Goth-land, Gothen-burg, Goth-a.

(13) Langobardi, in Lombardy, Barden-gan, Bard-wick.

(14) Monavi (Menapi), in Man, Mona, and Menai straits.

(15) Saxons, in Es-sex (East Saxons), Sus-sex (South Saxons), Middle-sex (Middle Saxons), Holsteini.e., Holt Sassen, or Olt Sassen, “Old Settlers.” The inhabitants of Holstein were called Holsati or Holzati, from the Platt-Deutsch Sitten, Satten “to sit.”

(16) Suiones, Suevi, in Sweden, Suabia, Oder, at one time called Suevus, and the Viadrus, whose mouth is still called Swine-mund.

(17) Suardones, in Schwart-au.

(18) Thuringi, in Thuringian-wald.

(19) Rugii, in the island of Rugen.

(20) Lemovii, in the river Leba.

(21) Dulgibini, in the river Dulmen.

(22) Sitones, in Sigtun, Situn.

(b) Families.

The names of families and individuals enter largely into the composition of local names. They may be easily discovered by the particle ing before Ham, Ton, Hall, &c. Thus Birming-ham was originally the home of the Beormingas, the descendants of Beorm; Balding-ham of the Baedlingas; Bucking-ham of the Bucingas; Littling-ton was originally the enclosed residence of the Lythingas; Elving-ton of the Elfingas, and Killing-hall the fortified residence of the Cylingas.

Professors Leo and Kemble have thrown much light on this subject; the latter writer has furnished us with a valuable list of these family names in his Saxons in England.

The following extract from the pen of Mr. Wright will be of some service to the students of names:—

The family or clan did not always take its name from the chief who obtained the allotment of land; it was often but a branch of a much older family in the land from which the settlement came. Hence we find patronymics[16] in distant parts of England, which would seem to indicate that different members of the same original family had joined in various separate expeditions to Britain; and it is still more curious that this identity of name is found in districts peopled severally by the different races, Angles, Saxons, or Jutes. This admits of two explanations; it shows the close relationship between the three races themselves, and it proves, probably, that when a great chieftain of one race, an Angle, for instance, planned an expedition to Britain, subordinate leaders from the other Saxons, Jutes, or others, were ready to enlist among his followers. Thus we find the Billingas at Billing-ham in Durham, at Billing-ley in Yorkshire, at Billing-hay in Lincolnshire, at Billing-ton in the counties of Bedford, Stafford, and Lancaster, as well as at other places, all within the district occupied by the Angles. We find a settlement of the same family at Billing-hurst, in Sussex, and some of them appear to have established themselves in the outskirts of London, and to have given name to Billings-gate. (There was a family of Billung on the Continent; and Hermann Billung was invested with the Duchy of Saxony by Otto I. In 1106 the male line of this house became extinct on the death of the last Billung, Duke Magnus, who left two daughters, Eilike and Wulfhild; Wulfhild was married to Henry of Bavaria, surnamed the Black, a descendant of the Guelph family.) The Bosingas are found at Bosing-ham in Kent, and again at the two Bossingtons in Hampshire and Somerset.

The Scearingas are found at Sharring-ton, Shering-ford, and Sharring-ton in Norfolk, Sheering in Essex, at Scarring-ton in Nottinghamshire, and at Sheering-ton in Buckingham and Wiltshire. We have the Haningas at three places named Hanning-ton in Northamptonshire, Herefordshire, and Wiltshire, and also probably at Hanning-field in Essex. When we examine further we find in these patronymics, names which belong to the great families whose history is mixed up in the earliest Teutonic mythology. The Waelsings, who are found at Walsing-ham in Norfolk, at Wolsing-ham in Durham, and at Woolsing-ton in Northumberland, appear to have been offsets of the great family of the Volsungar of the Edda, and the Volsungen of the old German romances. The Harlings (Herelingas), who are found at three places named Harling-ton in Middlesex, Bedfordshire, and Yorkshire, as well as at Harling in Norfolk, are also connected with the ancient Teutonic mythology, and their name is found at Harlingen in Friesland. The Swaefas, a tribe who was known to have dwelt on the borders of the Angles on the Continent, appear to have given their name to Swaff-ham in Norfolk. Mr. Kemble, quoting other well known names from the mythic and half mythic history of the continental Teutons, points out as further instances, that the Brentings of the northern romance are found in England at Brenting-ley in Leicestershire, and at Branting-ham in Yorkshire. The Scyldings and Scylfings, celebrated northern races, give their name to Skelding, and to two places named Skilling-ton in Northumberland and Dorsetshire. The Ardings, who are found at Arding-ton in Berkshire, and at Arding-ley in Sussex, are, he says, the Azdingi, the royal race of the Visigoths and Vandals; and the Banings of the Continent, over whom, when the curious Anglo-Saxon fragment called the Traveller’s Song was written, a Prince named Becca ruled, are recognised[17] in Banning-ham in Norfolk. The Helsings gave name to Helsing-ton in Westmoreland, and to Helsing-land in Sweden; and we find the name of the Blecingas as well in Bleckingen in Sweden as in Bletching-ton in Oxfordshire and Bletching-ley in Surrey. In the Gytingas found at Guyting in Gloucestershire, we perhaps trace the Jutungi of Germany; and another Alamannic tribe, the Scudingi, are supposed to be traced in the Scytings, who gave their name to Shutting-ton in Warwickshire.—(The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon.)

(c) Individuals.

The names of persons, especially those of princes and great landowners, constitute a very large element in local nomenclature. The name of Ella is found in Elles-mere (Ella’s-lake); and in Elles-croft (the field of Ella); and that of his son Cissa is found in Chi-chester (Cissan-ceaster, the fortified residence of Cissa), and in Cis-bury, the city of Cissa. Cerdic is remembered in Char-ford (Cerdic’s-ford), and in Chears-ley (Cerdic’s-meadow). Bebba, the Queen of Ida, has left her name in Bam-borough (Bebba’s city—Bebban-burg). The Christian prince Oswald, who was slain in battle, and fell at a particular place near Maserfield, has left his name in Oswes-try, or Oswald’s-tree. The name of the Danish King Canute is found in Knuts-ford (Canute’s-ford), Cnuts-delf (Canute’s-ditch), and in Canew-don (Canute’s-hill). Danish names are a very important element of the local names in the North of England—e.g., Orms-kirk, Worms-head, Ormes-by and Unst (Ormst), derive their names from some Scandinavian leader Orm or Urm. The name of Rafn or Raven is found in Raven-side (the seat or residence of Raven), and in Raven-stone (the stone of Raven). Uller has given his name to Ullers-thorpe, Hubba to Hubber-sty, and Ulfr to Ulles-water and Ulver-stone. Numerous other examples might be given of names of Danish origin, but many of them will be noticed as we proceed.

The following places are derived from the names of the original possessor—e.g.,

(d) Names of Gods.

It is well known that the ancient Teutonic tribes were heathens, and that in their original settlements they worshipped Odin, Thor, Tiw, &c., whose names are still preserved, not only in the days of the week, but in the names of numerous places.

Wuotan, Woden, or Odin, the presiding deity of the Northern nations, has his name preserved in O-dean, Wooden-dean, (Odin’s-hollow), Woods-dale (Odin’s-vale); Wednes-bury and Wan-borough (Odin’s-city); Wednes-field (Odin’s-field); Wam-pool (Odin’s-pool); Wam-brook (Odin’s-brook); Won-stone (Odin’s-stone); Wans-ford (Odin’s-ford); Wans-beck (Odin’s-rivulet); Wan-stead (Odin’s-residence); Wens-ley-fold (Odin’s-meadow-enclosure); Wans-dike (Odin’s-ditch); Odin’s-wald (Odin’s-forest); Oden-se (Odin’s-lake.) The name of his wife, Frigga, Frea, or Freyja, occurs in Freys-torp, in Friday-thorpe, and Frais-thorpe (Frigga’s-city.) We are reminded of Thor by such places as Thor-up and Thors-torp (Thor’s-city); Thors-dal and Turs-dale (Thor’s-vale); Tor-ness (Thor’s-promontory); Thurs-by, and Thurso-by (Thor’s-town); Thurdys-toft (Thor’s-field); Tor-boll (Thor’s-dwelling); Kirby-Thore (Church of Thor); Thurs-ley, and Thur-ley (Thor’s-meadow); Thors-aa (Thor’s-stream).

Thor was also known by the names of Donar (Thunor) and Hamar, which occurs in Thunders-field (Thor’s-field); and in Thunders-ley (Thor’s-meadow); in Hamer-ton and Homer-ton (Thor’s-town); Hamer-ton-kirk (Thor’s-town-Church); Hamer-wick (Thor’s-marsh); and in Hamer-stein (Thor’s-stone). The name of Balder, the son of Odin, and god of light, is still preserved in Balders-ley (the meadow of Balder); Balders-dale (Balder’s-vale); Boldre-wood (Balder’s-wood); and in Balders-haye (Balder’s-enclosure); that of Brage, the god of orators, in Brag-naes (Brage-naes, the promontory of Brage).

The god of war and of champions, Teu, Tiw, or Tyr, has his name conferred upon Tewes-ley, and Tew-ing (the meadow of Tew), and upon Tye-hall and Tye-farm.


Lok appears in Lox-wood, Lox-field, and in Lock-ing.

Seator appears in Satter-leigh, Satter-thwaite, and in Satter-land.

Perhaps local names are indebted to the fairy mythology. Mab, the elf queen, occurs in Mab’s-hill, and the merry Puck in Puck-pool Bay, Poock-burne (Pucke-ridge), Poock-hill, and Pucke-tye. Grim-a, a ghost, hag, or witch, is found in Grims-by, Grims-bury, Grimms-hoo, Grims-how, and in Grims-ditch. It is the safest plan, however, in tracing local names to their origin, to resort to such a mode for their explanation only when we find ourselves unable to offer a more rational etymology—that is to say, one in harmony with their natural or historical associations.


The names of animals which enter largely into geographical nomenclature need little explanation; most of them, being familiar, may be easily identified.

Nate, Net (Scandinavian) horned cattle; Neat (English), occurs in Nate-ly, Nat-land, and Nate-ly Scures.

The Wild Boar, in Anglo-Saxon Ever (éofer, ebur, efer), is found in

Eber, the German form of this root, occurs in

The Bear (Bar, Barin in German) no doubt was an inhabitant of the following places:—


In the following places we find the name of the Badger (Broc, Baw, Baud, Bag, Badge, in Anglo-Saxon, and Dachs in German):—

The Beaver (in German, Biber), occurs in

The Dutch form of the root Bever occurs in Bever-en (in the province of East Flanders), and in Bever-n (in the duchy of Brunswick), both signifying the beaver’s river isle.

The Buck (Bucca, in Anglo-Saxon) may be traced in

The low German form is Buck, the High German, Bocke.g.,

The Cow (Cu, Cy) may be found in

The Ox may be traced in

The Calf (Cielf) occurs in

The Hart (Heort), in German Hirsch, is found in

The Kid (in Anglo-Saxon Tic, Tych, and in German Ziege), appears in

In Stags-den and Stags-bath we see the name of the Stag; in Dur-ness, Deer-hurst, Dear-ham, Dyr-have, Dar-field, Dere-ham, we find some form of the modern word Deer, with a more general signification. Like its Gothic and German cognates, it denoted any wild animal.

The Goat (Gaet) occurs as an element in the formation of the following names:—


The Hare (Hara) is found in

The German form, Hase, is found in

The Horse occurs under the forms Hors, Hest (Scandinavian) and Rosse.g.

The Sheep (Scep) occurs in

The same root is found in Shap-wick and Shap-moor, Shepper-ton and Shepp-ey; Skip-ton, Skip-sea, and Scop-wick.

The German form is Schaf, which is found in

The English Wether (Weder) is found in


The Lamb in

We find the Scandinavian forms for Sheep (Saudr and Faar), in

Sow (Sugu) may be traced in

Swine in

Gris (Scandinavian) wild swine, gives name to

We may trace the Wolf in

The Fox gives name to Fox-hole, Fox-hunt, Car-Fox, &c.; but Tod, another name for this animal, occurs in


The dog, Hound or Hund, is found in

The Squirrel (Dray) is the root of

Want-ley, Wantis-den, and Want-age, derive their name from Want, Wanat, the mole.

The names of Birds are sometimes to be met with in local nomenclature; among the most important are the following:—

The Eagle, Arl (German) in

We find some trace of the Scandinavian name for the eagle (Ari, Arin, Ern, Orn) in

The Daw, in


The Owl, in

The Crow (Crawe, Anglo-Saxon; Kraka, Scandinavian) in

The Crane, in

The Scandinavian Trana, a crane, is perhaps found in

The Swan, in

The Dove (Culver), in

The Wren, in

The Hen (Haen), in

The Goose, in


The word Fowl, which occurs in numerous places, had originally a much wider meaning than at present. Any flying creature, was a bird; and in this sense we find it in

The names of Fish seem rather scarce; we find

The Salmon (Lax) occurs in

The Trout (Truht) is found in

The Eel may be traced in

The Frog and Toad are perhaps the only reptiles we find in place-names. They evidently give names to

The Scandinavian term for the reptile is Padda, which occurs in

The insect Wigga, Wiega, a beetle, is perhaps found in

In German, the name of the beetle is Kafer, cognate with the En-Chafer, which occurs in



Trees performed no unimportant part in the division of land among the Teutonic nations; they were used as land marks and boundaries, and county courts were held under them.

The word Tree occurs very often in the names of places, and is no doubt connected with some historical circumstance: e.g.

The Oak (Ac) is found in

The Ash (Aesc) occurs in

The Scandinavian form occurs in

The German form is found in


The Alder is found in

The Broom gives name to

The Beech may be traced in

The Birch gives name to

The Apple is found in


The Hazel occurs in

The Lime-tree (Linde) occurs in

The Maple-tree is found in

The Pine occurs in

The Thorn gives name to

The German form, Dorn, occurs in

The Willow (Welig) may be traced in


Sauch, Sough, Say, a willow, is the root of Nick-sough, Saw-ley, Saigh-ton, and Saug-hall.

The Yew appears in

The Brier occurs in

The Fern gives name to

The Furze (Fyrs), Whin, Scandinavian, occurs in

Flax (Lin) appears in

Grass (Gaers, and Sprot) is found in


Cress (Nasturtium) occurs in

Moss gives name to

Sedge appears in

The Rush is an element in

The Nettle in Nettle-combe, Nettle-den, Nettle-stead, and Nettle-ton.

The Reed gives name to

Barley (Bigg) may be traced in

Beans appear in

The Oat occurs in Oad-by, Ot-ley, and Oat-land.

The Scandinavian Haver (oats) gives names to Haver-ham, Haver-ford, and Haver-thwaite.

The Slow is easily seen in Slow-burn and Slow-combe.

Haw-ley and Haw-don derive their name from the haw; Apse, Asp-ley, and Asp-don from the asp (aps).


Wheat appears in Whit-field, Wheat-ley, Wheat-hamp-stead, Wheat-on, Whate-ly, and Whit-barrow.

Shrop-ham, Shrop-shire, Scrop-ton, Scrop-ley-hill, Scrap-loft, and Scrobb are derived from Scrybe, a shrub; as well as Screve-by, Scroo-by, and Scraf-ton.

Wort-ley, Wort-well, Wor-stead, Wors-borough, Wors-ley, Wroot, Wurz-burg, Wurz-ach, Wurz-em, &c., contain the root Wyrt, Wort, an herb.


Erz (German), Ore, occurs in

Clay in

Cisel (gravel)

Chalk gives name to Chalk-grove, Chal-ford, Chilt-ern, Kalk-stein, and Calke.

Gries (German), gravel, is found in

Marl occurs in Mar-low, Marl-borough, and Marls-ton.

Salt appears in Salter-ton, Salt-ash, Saltn-ey, Sal-combe, Salt-coats; Salz-brunn, Salz-burg, Salz-dahl-um, Salz-wedel, &c.

Eisen (German), iron, is found in Eisen-ach, Eisen-berg, Eis-eld, Eis-leben, Eis-grub, Eisen-burg, &c.


Sand gives name to Sand-wich, Sand-hurst, Sander-croft, &c.

Stone (Stan) appears in Stone-leigh, Stan-ley, Stan-ton, Staines, Stan-bury, Stain-land, Stain-drop, Stan-hope; Steen-bergen, Steen-wyk, Stein, Stein-ach, Stein-au, Stein-bach, Stein-borth, Stein-holm, Stein-horst, Stein-weiss, &c.


Al, Alt, Ald, Au (old)—Ald-borough, Al-thorpe, Al-bourne, Al-ton, Al-ford, Al-cester; Alten-burg, Alten-markt, Alten-dorn, Alten-feld, Al-torf, Olde-bach, Olde-boorn, Olden-dorf, Olden-burg, Au-burn, and Au-thorpe.

Brad (broad)—Brad-well, Brad-stock, Brad-ford; Breit-horn, Breiten-bach, &c.

Cheil, Col, Cald (cold)—Col-burn, Coal-brook, Cold-stream, Cold-side, Chels-field, Cowd-ham, Child-hay, Chilt-thorn, Chil-worthy, Cald-well; Calde-cote, Cal-bourne, Caude-bec (Calde-bec), Colden-weide, Colden-hoff, Kalt-brun, Kalten-nord-heim, and Kalten-sund-heim.

Deop (deep)—Dept-ford, Deep-dale, Diepen-beck, Diepen-heim, Diepen-au, &c.

Kine, King (royal, king)—Kine-ton, Kinner-ton, Kings-bury, Kinger-by.

Ost, Oost, Osten (east)—East-bourne, Eas-ton; Ost-ende, Oster-ach, Oster-end, Oster-holz, Oste-rode, Oster-sunde, Ost-hem, Ost-heim, Ost-wolde, Oost-burg, Ooster-einde, Ooster-wyk, Ooster-wolde, Oost-kerke, &c.

Hol (hollow)—Hol-beach, Hol-land, Hol-born, Hol-bek, Hollen-beek, &c.

Lang (long)—Lang-baurgh, Lang-don, Langen-hoe.

Lille (little)—Lilles-don, Lilles-hall.

Mickle, Much (large)—Mickle-fell, Mickle-field, Much-wen-lock.


Nor, Nord (north)—Nor-folk, Nor-ham, Nor-mandy, Nor-mark, Nor-den, Nord-heim, Norr-telge, Norr-land, Norr-koping, Nord-horn, Noord-welle, Noorder-wyk, Norden-ey, &c.

Neu, Nieu (new)—Neu-berg, Neu-haus, Neu-land, Neu-stadt, Nieu-wold, Nieuw-kerk, Nieu-berg, Ny-stad, Ny-kerk, &c.; New-lands, New-ark, New-bury, New-ton, &c.

Nieder, Nether (downward or further)—Nether-bury, Nether-compton, Nether-lands, Nieder-bronn, Nieder-rad, Niedern-hall, Nieder-wald, Nider-dorf, &c.

Sud, Sut (south)—Sur-rey, Suf-folk, Sut-ton, Sus-sex, South-leigh, Sout-ham, South-end, Sut-torp, Sud-bury, Suder-oe, Sunder-land, Kalten-Sund-heim, Sund-gau, Soder-fors, Soder-hamn, Soder-telge, Sorer-Koping, &c.

Sell (happy, fortunate)—Sel-by, Sel-kirk, Sell-hurst, &c.; Seligen-stadt, Seligen-thal, &c.

Up, Upper (higher)—Up-ton, Up-hay, Up-lyme, Up-sala, &c.

Under (lower) Under-barrow, Under-cliffe.

West, Wester, Vester (west)—West-bury, Wester-borg, Wester-by, Wester-holt, Wester-land, Wester-loo, West-heim, West-land, West-rup, Westr-um, Vest-irg, Vester-hoe, &c.




Ea.—This Anglo-Saxon word signifies (1) water in general, and (2) any running body of water, river, &c.—It occurs in the names of rivers, in the names of places near rivers, and in the names of marshes formed by rivers.

The rivers Medway and Stour were anciently written Meduw-ea, and Stur-ea. In the East Anglian counties the term is still preserved, for we meet with Popham’s ea, St. John’s ea, Hammond eau, &c.

Eye, Yeo, and Aye, are slightly altered forms of the same root, and ea is another name for the river Leven.

The following places near rivers contain some form of the Anglo-Saxon root, ea:—

It formerly belonged, together with Peter’s-ham, to St. Peter’s Abbey, Cherts-ey.

The plural form, Eas, water-course, occurs in Eas-dale, Eas-writh, and Eas-tyn.

In the Gothic we meet with the following cognate forms:—aha, aue, awe, owe, ahva, and ach, e.g.,


We find a, a contraction of aha, in Schwein-a, Asch-a, Born-a, Buch-a, Baren-wald-a, Konigs-werth-a, Hoyers-werd-a, Berk-a, Vach-a, Goth-a, &c.

In Burgundy, we find the terminations ay, oy, and y, used to designate habitations established along running water, e.g.—Cambr-ay, Tourn-ay, Dou-ay, Quesn-oy, Chaum-y, &c.

The ending ow, in Beesk-ow, Godan-owa, and Buch-ow, is another form of the same root.

The form Ach occurs in

The plural form, ar, er, signifying the confluence of waters, occurs in Ohre, Er-furt, Ohr-druf, and Neck-ar.

The Scandinavian forms for water, are, A, Aa, and Aae.

In England we find Cald-a, Routh-a, Rath-a, Ay-am, Ay-cliffe, &c.

Aa occurs as the name of several rivers in Hanover, France, Brabant, Groningen, and Switzerland.

Aa is found in

Ain, the river, forms part of the following names:—Glomm-en, Alt-en, Ul-en, Sus-en, &c.


Beck (Scandinavian), a rivulet.—In England, the following places contain this root:—

In Denmark we meet with Aale-beks, Aal-bek, Egje-bek, Vinde-bek, and Hol-bek.

In Oldenburg we find Vis-beck, sacred rivulet; in the south of Luxemburg we meet with Becke-rich, the district of the rivulet.

In West Flanders the form beke occurs in Roos-beke, Wam-beke, Haerle-beke, Meule-beke, &c.; in south Brabant the form beeke is prevalent, e.g.—Buns-beeke, Clab-beeke, &c. We also meet with a Becke-voort, having the same signification as Beck-ford in England. The root Beck occurs very frequently in the names of places in the neighbourhood of the rivers Rhine and Elbe, e.g.—Wandes-beck, Schwarzen-beck, Flot-beck, Stein-beck, Barn-beck, Suder-beck, Hals-beck, Schip-beck, &c.

In France we find the exact spots where many of the old Norse leaders settled down, by the presence of this root—e.g.,

In Germany and Austria we find the cognate form, Bach, a rivulete.g.,

Bath (baed, baeth, bad, Anglo-Saxon), water.—Bath, Bath-ford, Bath-easton, Bad-by, Bad-bury, Badon-hill, Bux-ton, Ba-ke-well, &c.

The German form, Bad, Pad, occurs in Baden, Wies-baden, Carls-bad.

Borne, Bourne, Burn, Burne (Anglo-Saxon), a stream, from Birnan, to burn.—It “denotes the bubbling of a welling running stream with the singing of the boiling water and the flaming of fire.”

We find Born on the continent, in Sal-born, Pader-born, Sonne-born, Eschen-born, &c.

The German form, Brun, occurs in

Botten, Botn (Scandinavian), the sea.—Gulf of Bothnia, Norr-botten, Boden-see, Bott-sand, Holt-pade, Lacus Bodam-icus (Lake Constance), Botten Viken, Botten Hafvet, &c.

Brigg, Bridge, a passage of wood or stone over a river.—It is often applied to fording and landing places.

The Scandinavian form, Bro, occurs in

As cognate forms, we find Bruges, Esten-brug, Coppen-brugge,[39] Brugg, Brig, Inns-bruck, Del-bruck, Konigs-bruck, Hers-bruck, Bruck, Brucken-au.

Bred, Bread (Anglo-Saxon), border, shore-bank.—Bread-sale, Bret-by clump, Bred-hurst, Bred-field, Bred-sted.

Brad (Anglo-Saxon), broad, expansive, the expansion of a river in a flat country, a lake so formed.—Outton-broad, Braydon-broad, Breydon-water, Mut-ford-broad.

Broc (Anglo-Saxon), a brook, a rushing stream.—Brox-ash, Brox-bourne, Ock-brooke, Cole-brooke, Ful-brook, Wam-brook, Mill-brook, Bruck-land.

We find the same root in Rad-brock, Alten-brock, Ooster-brock, Wester-brock, Strad-broke.

Bruoch (old High German), and Bruch (German), evidently cognate forms, signify a bog or marsh, e.g.—Alten-bruch, Bruch-sal, Bruch-berg and Brussels (Bruschels).

Ceol, Ciol (Anglo-Saxon), Keol (Danish), a ship.—Kiel, Kieler-fiord, Culen-burg, and Kuylen-burg.

Crundel (Anglo-Saxon), a water-course, “a spring or well with its cistern, trough, or reservoir to receive water.”—Grindle, Grindla-ton, Grindles-mere, Cron-dall, Crow’s Crundel, Cradwan Crundel (Crowden Farm).

Comber (Scandinavian), Kumpr (Old Norse), a running sheet of water; and hence it enters into combination with the names of places bordering on ponds and water-troughs.—Comber-ton, Comber-mere, Comber-bach.

Dam, from Dammen (German), to bank, dam.—Amster-dam, (Armstel-dam), Rotter-dam, Saar-dam, Schie-dam, &c.

Delve (English), to dig.—Delve is a local word, signifying a quarry or ditch.—Delven-au and Delft.

Dic (Anglo-Saxon), a ditch, dike, or river.—Wans-dike, Wran-dyke, Dish, Flen-dish (Flamin-dic), Cars-dyke, Hague-dike, Dyck-buttel, Wolvers-dyke, &c.

Diupr, diup (Scandinavian), deep.—It is often applied to parts of the sea, and to rivers.—Dieppe, Diupa, Depe-dale, Hollands-diep, Mars-diep. We also find Linn Deeps.

Dub (Scandinavian), a pool or piece of water (from Dyb, (Danish), deep).—Ash-dub, the ash-pool.


Efes, Eves (Anglo Saxon), the bank of a river, a border, edge of a mountain.—Eaves-ham, Habergham-eaves, Eves-batch, Eves-knoll.

Elf (Scandinavian), a river.—Elfs-burg, Elfs-nabben, Kong-elf, Elf-karle-by, Elbe, Alb, &c.

Fiord (Danish), Fiorth (Old Norsk), Firth (Scotch), an inlet of the sea, a bay, a station for ships.—Firth of Forth, Firth of Tay. (Frith is a mis-spelling for Firth.)

The Ford in Mil-ford, Haver-ford, Water-ford, is not to be confounded with Ford, a passage, but is another form of the Scandinavian Fiord, in Kieler-fiord, Ecken-fiord, Laxe-fiord, &c.

Ford, Fort, Fyrd (Anglo-Saxon), Forth (Scandinavian), a passage through a stream.

The German Furt, a ford, occurs in Hirsch-furt (Hart-ford), Her-furt (Here-ford), Schwein-furt (Swine-ford), Ochsen-furt (Ox-ford).

The Dutch Voort, a ford, is found in Wester-voort, Becke-voort, Amers-foort, Brede-voort, &c.

Fen, Faen (Anglo-Saxon), wet-land.—Fen-ham Flats, Fen Ditton, Walling Fen, Fen-stan-ton, Feni-ton, Fins-bury, Fen-brig, &c.

The Dutch form, Veen, occurs in Amster-Veen, and in Ven-lo, &c.

Fljot, Floi, Flod (Scandinavian), Fleot, Fleth (Anglo-Saxon), Fleet (English), a flow or flush of water, channel or arm of the sea between the coast, and an island, a river, a tide creek.—The presence of the root marks habitations on the sea, rivers, or canals.—The Fleet, Long-fleet, Ben-fleet, Shal-fleet, Salt-fleet, Fax-fleet. The Flow (a piece of water in Scotland), Flow Moss, Solway Flow, Flout-ern, Scar-let, and Flow-ton.


In France the root Floi occurs under the form, Fleur, in Bar-fleur, Har-fleur, Vite-fleur (White-fleet), Flot-beck, Pos-flethe, Beyden-fleth, and Aver-fleth.

Fors, Forse, Force, Foss (Scandinavian), a water fall.—River Foss, Forss-water, Forse, Forsin-ard, Low-force, Scale-force, Billing-fors, Fos-kilde, and Fos-land.

Gat (Scandinavian), a sound.—Catte-gat, the Gatt, Helle-gat, Rams-gate, Mar-gate.

Gau (German), a district watered by a river.—Aar-gau, Tor-gau, Breis-gau, Bur-gau, Wolve-ga, and Finke-ga.—Gaw, in England, as a local word, signifies a hollow with water springing in it, a furrow.—Gaw-thorpe, Goy-don, &c.

Geo (Scandinavian), a hollow, a chasm in the shore, a small inlet.—Wolfs-geo, Gui-odin, Gue-odin (Odin’s-inlet), Varren-ge-fiord, Varen-ge-ville, Varren-gue-bec.

Goe (Old Norsk), a cleft, a small opening in the land, a bay.—Red-goe, Raven-goe, Tod’s-goe, Whale-goe.

Gill (Scandinavian), a small gravelly stream, also a glen or valley; Gool, a ditch.—Row-gill, Woo-gill-tarn, Kesh-gill-burn, Esh-gill, Ive-gill, Gils-land, &c.; Goole, Gille-by, Gille-skaal, &c.

Gout, Gote, a drain or ditch, from Geotan (Anglo-Saxon), to pour.—River Goyt, Win-thorpe-gout, Trus-thorpe-gout, Tyd-gote, Got-ham, &c.

From the German Giessen, gösse, gegossen, to pour, to water, are derived—Gies-en, Giess-bach, Goss-au, &c.

Haf (Scandinavian), the sea, Havn (Danish), a haven.—Stone-haven, White-haven.

The old Haaf, Havre, Haver-ford, Hafs-lund, Frische-haf, Aland Haf, Haff of Stettin, Hafs-loe, Westman’s havn, Havn-sur-Dive, Havn-sur-Mederet, &c.

Hamn (Scandinavian), a port, bay, gulf.—Hamna-voe, Soder-hamn, Carls-hamn, Torn-hamn-sudde, Quister-ham, Go-ham, Cane-ham, Estre-ham, Ham-bye, &c.

Hatch (Provincial), a flood-gate, dam.—Mers-ham-hatch, Kelve-don-hatch.


Hyd, Hithe, Hythe (Anglo-Saxon), originally a receptacle; (2), haven; (3), coast.—Hythe, Hyde, Seche-Hythe, Rother-hithe, Green-hithe, Lamb-eth.

Holm (Scandinavian), a river island, a green plot of ground surrounded by water, low land lying along the river or ocean.—Holm, Holmes, Holm-moss, Holm-head, Holm-forth, Kirk-yet-holm, Hipper-holme, Den-holm, Steep-holm, and Flat-holm, Houlmes (near Rouen), Engo-homme, Tur-hulm (Tor-holm), Stock-holm, Hoy-holm, Borg-holm, Born-holm.

Heafod (Anglo-Saxon), the source of a stream.—Wood-head, Holm-head, Leather-head, &c.

Ig (Anglo Saxon), an island.—It assumes the various forms of Eage, Aege, Eig, &c.—Aig-burth, Eigh-ton, Eg-ham, Ight-field, Ight-ham, &c.

Kell, Keld (Scandinavian), a spring, “the gathering of water within a hill side, which then bursts out with a considerable gush, and forms a strong stream.”—Kil-ham, Kil-bourn, Kel-sal, Kil-hope, Kel-stedge, Kel-sale, Kel-sey, Lath-kill, Gunner-kild-bottom, Oer-kell, Halli-keld, Sal-keld, Kielder Moors, Kelder-vik.

Lad, Lode, Lade (Anglo-Saxon), water running into the sea, a pan for water, a drain, a pool, a gentle lake, an artificial water-course.—River Lyde or Lythe, Even-lode, West-lode, Whap-lode, Salter’s Lode-sluice, So-ham-lode, Burwell-lode, Reach-lode, Swaff-ham-lode, Lech-lade.

Lays (Provincial), lakes; Lay, a large pond.—Lowes-toft, the field of lakes; the provincial form is Lays-toft; forest of Lowes, Lowes-by, &c.

Laug (Scandinavian), water.—Bal-laugh, Lamp-lugh, Laugh-ton, Skir-laugh, Winters-lag, &c.

Lock, meeting of waters, junction of rivers.—Mat-lock, Whee-lock, Wen-lock.

Lecha, Letch, a small river.—Leck-hamp-stead, Latch-ford, Leckon-field, Letch-worth.


Lagu, Lage, Lache (Anglo-Saxon), water, a lake.—River Lac, Mort-lake, Shock-lach, Laken-heath, Ship-lake, Burg-has-lach, Dur-lach, and Lace-by.

Mere (Anglo-Saxon), a lake.—Comber-mere, Winder-mere, Col-mere, Mer-ton-Say, Hornsea-mere, Youns-mere, Ring-mer, Aves-mere; Haar-lem-mere, Alk-maar, Mor-ton, Mar-tin.

Mire, the Scandinavian form, Myri (Old Norsk), signifies a marsh or bog.—Gris-mire, Ling-mire, Wrag-mire, Sour-mire.

In Norway we find Rosse-myre, and in Iceland, Skala-myre.

We find the Frisian form, Mar, in Mar-strand, Hiel-mar, Mar-stall, Wis-mar, Wol-mar.

Mersc, Mars, Mas (Anglo-Saxon), a marsh or bog.—Mars-ton-moor, Mers-ham, Raw-marsh, Alder-mas-ton, Merst-ham, Meas-ham, Marsk, Os-mas-ton, Mas-ham, Tor-mas-ton, Mars-den, the Mash.

Perhaps the river Mease or Meuse is derived from the same root.

Mund (German), the mouth of a river; Muyden (Dutch); Mouth (English).—Rore-mund, Wel-mend, Witt-mund, Warne-munde, Munden, Muiden.

Oe (Scandinavian), an island.—Angles-ey, Guerns-ey, Aldern-ey, Shepp-ey, Nordern-ey, Wolv-ey, Holm-oe, Wragg-oe, Wag-oe, Rom-oe, Hoal-oe, Far-oe, Langer-oog, Wanger-oog, Cantal-eu, Jur-a, Isl-a, Straths-ay.

Ord, Ort (Dutch), a point, the junction of two rivers.—Havel-ort, Calv-orde, Frederiks-ort.

Ora (Anglo-Saxon), the shore, coast, border, those parts of the sea or river affording safe landing-places.—Or-ton, Hor-ton, Ore-by, Toln-ore, Hor-dle.

The Scandinavian, Eyr, Eyri, Aur, Oi, Ore, occurs in Eri-boll, Eri-sta, Ore-sund, Sand-area, Net-area, Rabbit-area.

Ofer, Ofra, Over (Anglo-Saxon), the shore, bank.—Little Over, Mickle Over, Over-leigh, Wend-over, And-over; Over-yssel, Hann-over, Over, near Cologne, Ofer, in the neighbourhood of the Elbe.


Pot (Scandinavian), the hole formed by a river in the rocks which compose its bed.—Lade-pot, Bull-pot, Spear-pots.

Piddle, Puddle (Anglo-Saxon), a thin stream.—Piddle-town, Piddle-trent-hide, River Biddel, Tol-puddle, Aff-puddle.

Pol, Pole, Pell (Anglo-Saxon), deep standing water, a detached or enclosed piece of water, a haven or harbour.—Pool-croft-hea, Pul-ham, Pel-ham, Yar-pole, Pul-borough, Pool-ey, Poles-worth, Poole, &c.

Pine (Provincial), a pit.—Wash-ford-pyne.

Pyt (Anglo-Saxon), a body of standing water, a puddle, cistern; from Pyttan, to excavate.—Putn-ey, Putten-ham, Pits-ford, Pud-sey, Pitn-ey, Wool-pit, Pit-stone, &c.

Ra (Scandinavian), a river.—Oxe-ra, Bro-ra (bridged-river), Nordu-ra.

Rea (Anglo-Saxon), Ry-ton, Rye-gate.

Run (Anglo-Saxon), a stream, water-course.—Run-ton, Run-ham.

Rack (Scandinavian), a trace, strait, channel.—Dam-rack, Sky-rack, &c.; the Race, Skage-rack.

Sola (Old High German), water, river.—Bagos-sola (bug), Salza, Saale.

Sloh, Slaew (Anglo-Saxon), a slough.—Slough, the name of several places in England.

Slaed, Slade (Anglo-Saxon), wet ground, low marshy ground.—Lin-slade, Slai-thwaite, Sled-dale, Sloten.

Spout (Scandinavian), a waterfall.—Cautley Spout, Gale-forth-spout, Spyten-vand (in Norway), Spout.

Strind, Strund (Scandinavian), the beach, sea coast.—The Strand, Whitby-strand, Flad-strund, Nord-strand, Es-strand, &c.

Sike (Scandinavian), a water course, drain.—Ful-sick, Meer-syke.


Stang (Scandinavian), a pool.—Meller-stang, Gar-stang, &c.

Strom (Scandinavian), a stream.—Stroms-a, Stroms-oe, Strom-ness, Straums-ey, Stroms-holm, and Mael-strom.

Strommer, a channel which separates the Isle of Siaeland from the Isle of Amak.

Saef, Siv (Anglo-Saxon), a rush, torrent.—The river Sheaf, Swaves-ey, &c.

Sea (Anglo-Saxon), See (German), the sea, a lake.—Sea-ham, Sea-ton, Sea-forth, Horn-sea, Whittle-sea, &c.; Lang-see, Esrum-see, Gruner-see, and Moss-see.

The Scandinavian Soe (sea), occurs in Mor-soe, Mos-soe, Sonder-soe, &c.

Skell (Scandinavian), a well, spring.—Skel-man-thorpe, Skell-eftea, Skelder-vik, Skel-ton, &c.

Sund (Scandinavian), separated, a channel, a strait.—Sunder-land, the Sound, Helle-sund, Stral-sund, &c.

Tjorn, Tern, Tarn (Scandinavian), a small lake.—Lough-rigg-tarn, Flat-tarn, Flou-tern-tarn (from Floi, Scandinavian, a bog, marsh, &c.), Angle Tarn, Beacon Tarn, Tjorn (an island off the coast of Sweden), Holms-jon, Mars-jon, Flas-jon.

Vatn, Vat, Vand (Scandinavian), water, a lake.—Apa-vatn, My-vatn, Sands-vatn, Bjork-vatn-et, Rys-vand; Olle-vat (a lake in the Hebrides), Vatn-dale, Watend-lath (in Cumberland), Steapa-vat, &c.

Sometimes Vand is changed into Water, as in Helga-water (a lake in Shetland), Ulls-water, Gates-water, Broad-water, Oude-water, Water-vliet (netherlands), Vara-bot (France).

Vaag, Voe (Scandinavian), a bay, harbour, in


Vig, Vik, Wick (Scandinavian), a small bay, harbour, landing-place, town on the sea coast, mouth of a river.—Bruns-wick, Schles-wig, Laur-vig, Steen-vig, Lem-vig, Weston-vik, Bra-viken, Wool-wich, Green-wich, Har-wich, Ips-wich, Dib-ic, Cu-ic, and Green-oc.

Wath, Wade (Scandinavian), a ford.—Wath-upon-Dearne, Winder-wath, Wades-mills, Wads-ley; Waythe, Biggles-wade, Sands-vath, Waithe.

Wash (Scandinavian), an arm of the sea, a river, ford.—The Wash, Ship-wash, Vis-by, Wash-field, and Was-dale.

Well (Anglo-Saxon), a spring.—Both-well, Wyl-am, Wel-ton, Wil-land; Waedensch-wyl, Walch-wyl, Wyl-au, Hof-wyl, &c.

Wasser (German), Waes (Anglo-Saxon), water.—Wasser-burg, Wasser-trudingen, Waes-ten, Waes-land, Water-loo (water meadow), Weasen-ham, Wassen-bury, &c.

Wac (Anglo-Saxon), soft marshy ground; Wax (Scandinavian).—Wac-ton, Wax-holme, Wax-holm, Wax-ham, Whax-grove, &c.

Wael, Wheel (Provincial), a whirlpool.—Wheel-don, Weel, Weel-ey, Wheel-ton, &c.

Worth (Anglo-Saxon), an island formed by a river, a canal between the two branches of a river, a farm.—Teb-worth, Hems-worth, Tets-worth, Nails-worth, Rush-worth, Til-worth, Clos-worth, Wid-worthy, Tat-worth, Chil-worthy, Dodge-waart, Bols-waard, Holt-wierde, and Schoenen-werth.

Wychen (Anglo-Saxon), springs; Wych (Provincial), a salt spring.—Whix-ley, Wick-en, Middle-wich, Nant-wich, and Ford-wich.



Bac, Beac (Anglo-Saxon), a ridge or back; Bac (Gothic), a woody mountain, an ascent or descent.

Buhel, Puhel, Buhl (German), a hill, rising ground.

Baich (Old English), a “languet of land.”—Saddle-Back, Bac-ton, Bacon’s-field, Hog’s-back, Bainton-Beacon, Inkpen-Beacon, &c.

Cæsar makes mention of a Sylva Bacen-is, which separated the Cherusci from the Suevi; and Ptolemy speaks of a Meli-boc-os, in the north of Germany. There is still a Meli-boc-us in the south of Germany.

The German form (Buhl, Puhel, &c.), occurs in

Breg, Beorg, Beroh (Anglo-Saxon), a mountain, a hill, a heap of stones or earth; Berg Pereg (High German), Bairgs (Gothic), Bierg, Bjorg, Borg (Scandinavian).—Ha-berg-ham-caves, Wa-ber-thwaite, Wi-berg-thwaite (holy mountain path), Leg-ber-thwaite (low mountain path), Brown-berg-hill, Lang-baurgh.

Barrow and Barf occur frequently in the north of England. They are probably only slightly altered forms of Berg.—Under-barrow-scar, High-barrow-ridge, &c.; Clee-barf, Barf near (Bassen-thwaite), &c.

The German Berg is found in

The Scandinavian form Borg, appears in


Break (Scandinavian), the slope of a mountain, the hollow in a hill.—Mel-break, Cal-break, Lov-brekke, Skards-brekke, Sand-brekke, &c.

Calf (Scandinavian), a smaller mountain near a larger one. It is also applied to islands.—Calva, Calf, Kalva-berg (the “Calf of Man”), Calver-peak, &c.

Car (Anglo-Saxon), a rock.—Uugin-Car, Rugh Car, Gol-car, the Carrs.

Cam (Scandinavian), a summit, top.—Cam-fell, Cachede-cam, &c.

Clife, Clif, Cliffe, Clee, Clou, Clough (Anglo-Saxon), a rock.—Cleve, Old Cleeve-hill, Cleve-land, Claver-don, Cleve-don, Claver-ley, Clippes-by, Clip-stone, Clop-hill, Klop-stock, Clop-ton, Clop-ham, Cliffe, Cliff-ton, Top-cliffe, Shorne-cliffe, Swil-low-clift, Cliffe-end; Clee-thorpes, Cle-hanger, Clee-hills, Clee-barf, Cleever, Claw-ton, Cleo-bury, Clough-ton, Buc-cleugh, Cleves, Kloppen-burg.

Clump (Provincial), a heap.—Chariot-clump, Heaver-clump.

Clud, Clent (Anglo-Saxon), a piece of rock.—Pen-ket-cloud, Temple-cloud, Cloud-end, Clent-hill, Clin-ton.

Cnol (Anglo-Saxon), rising ground, a small round hill.—Falkland Knoll, Brent-knoll, Mays-knoll, Knowl-bury, Windy-knowl.

Cop (Anglo-Saxon), a top, summit.—Mold-cop, Wyle-cop, Mow-cop, War-cop, Schnee-koppe (snow top).

Dodd (Scandinavian), a mountain with a rounded summit.—Harts-op-dodd, Skiddaw-dodd.

Dun, Don, Down (Anglo-Saxon), a hill, sometimes applied to dwelling-places on hills.—The Downs, Downe, Down-ton, Leigh-down, Hunting-don, Ham-don, Snow-don, Dun-fell, Dun-mallet, Down-holm, Down-head, Duns-by, Dun-score, Duns-fold, Dun-stan.

Edge (Anglo-Saxon, Ecg), high moor-lands, the sharp ridge of a mountain.—Edge-hill, Swirrell-edge, Strathon-edge, Land-egge.


Fell, Fjeld (Scandinavian), a rock-hill, mountain chain.—Dovre-fjeld, Hardanger-fjeld (the mountains of hunger and poverty), Rute Fielle, Fal-aise, Oxen-fell, Hart-fell, Shap-fell, Bow-fell, Campsie-fells, Snae-fell, Mickle-fell.

Gare, Gore, Gor (Anglo-Saxon), a triangular piece of ground, a narrow slip of ground, generally dirty or marshy.—Water-gore, the Gore, Haven-gore-marsh.

Ha (Scandinavian), high.—Ha-wick, Ha-warden, Ha-worth, Hea-ley, Hea-laugh, Hea-ton, Hey-don, Hey-thorpe, Hey-shot, Pool-croft-hea, Hirne-ha.

Hammer (Scandinavian), a rock.—Hammer-scar, Hammer-end, Hammer-fest, Hammer-stein, Stor-hammer, Lille-hammer.

Hart, Hard (Gothic), high.—Harder-wyk, Harden-burg, the Hardt mountains.

Hawes, Haw (Scandinavian), a rock, an oblong mountain, a prospect.—Esk Haws, Buttermere Haws, Haws-water.

We find Aas (pronounced Aws), the Norwegian form, in Aas-fjeld, Aas-vand, &c.

Haugh, Houg, How, Ho, Hoo, Hov, Hoe, Hoy, &c. (Scandinavian), a hill, sepulchral mound, promontory.—Bothwell-haugh, Haugh-am, Haugh-ton, Haugh-ley, Haugh-mond-hill; Alders-haugh, Hogh-ton, Bar-haugh, Hough-ton-le-spring, Green-ough, Bere-hough, Hew-by, Kew (Kay-hough, Kay-howe); the Haugh, Haigh-ton, Scale-how, Hund-how, Red-how, Grimes-hoo, the Hoo, Haux-ley, Hax-ley, Hox-ay (the isle of the promontory), Haugs-eid (the isthmus of the hillock), Haux-ton, &c.; Loose-hoo, Iving-hoe, Stapl-oe, Hoy-land, Al-sta-haug, La Hogue, Jord-heue, Le-hou, Ne-hou, Cape Hoc, Heve, Hogues d’Isigny, Hogues de Baucy, Hoy-a, Hoy-holm.

Haus (Old Norsk), top, summit.—Herd-house, Lad-house, Husa-fell, &c.

Hang (Anglo-Saxon), a heel.—East and West Hang, Hangle-ton, Hanke-low.

Hook, Hawk, Hack, and Hoch have a similar signification.—Hace-by, Hacker-sall, Hack-ford, Hack-thorne, Hack-ness, Hack-don, Hoc-kliffe, &c.; Hawk-moor, Hook, Hooker-ton, Hook-nor-ton, Hack-sted, Hack-low.


Hohe, Hoch (German), height, high.—Hohe-geiss, Hohen-stein, Hohen-linden, Hohen-as-perg, &c.; Hoch-heim, Hoch-kirch, Hoch-wald, &c.; Hoog-veen, Hoog-meide.

Heigh, High (Anglo-Saxon), elevated.—Heigh-am, Heigh-ley, Heigh-ton, High-bray, High-ley, High-week, &c.

Heaford (Anglo-Saxon), head-top, upper.—Head-lam, Head-ley, Head-worth, Hed-don, Hed-hope, Heed-ley.

Hean (Anglo-Saxon), high.—Hean-or, Hean-wood, Hainton, Hent-land, Haun-ton.

Hope, Op, Ope (Scandinavian), the side of a hill, a sheltered spot on the side of a hill.—Hop-town, Harts-op, Harr-op, Wool-hope, Oxen-hope.

Hob (Scandinavian), a rising eminence; Heap (English).—Hob-linch, Hob-knap; Heap, Heap-ey, Heap-ham, &c.

Hul, Hyl (Anglo-Saxon), a mountain, elevation in general.—Tintin-hull, Soli-hull, Mag-hull, Hil-ton, Hil-bury, Hil-gay, Hill-am, Hillers-don, Hil-per-ton, and Hill-side.

Hofved, Hoved (Scandinavian), a head, promontory.—

Head, when it occurs in the names of capes, promontories, &c., in England, is of Scandinavian origin.

Horn, Hurne, Hyrne, Herne (Anglo-Saxon), an angle or corner-land projecting into the sea or river, a peak.—Hirne-ha, Cold-irne, Guy-hirne, Horn-castle, Horn-sea, Horn-um, Stor-horn, Breit-horn, Tenfels-horn, Wild-horn, and Rinder-horn.

Knot (Scandinavian), a round heap.—Hard-knot, Scald-knot, School-knot, Whim-bury-knots, Knots-low.

Knaep (Anglo-Saxon), rising ground.—Mister-ton Knap, Hob-knap, &c.

Knab, the Scandinavian form, occurs in Knab-scar, the Knab, &c.; Knipe-scar, Knipen-berg.


Low, Lewe, Loe, Law (Anglo-Saxon), a small round hill.—Broad-low, Had-low, Tax-low, Mar-low, Wins-low, Hal-low, Doller-law, Bug-law-ton, Hag-loe, Lev (Scandinavian), Orms-lev, and Ors-lov.

Loppe, Hlype (Anglo-Saxon), an uneven place, a leap.—Hind-lip, Lop-ham, Lax-leip, Hous-lip-burn, Deer-leep-hill, &c.

Lynch, Link (Anglo-Saxon), ploughed ground on the side of a hill, high ground.—Stock-linch, Moor-lynch, &c.

Loft (Scandinavian), a mound.—Carl-lofts, Lof-sta, Lofta-hammar, Loft-house, Lofts-ome, &c.

Lad (Scandinavian), a pile or heap.—Lost-lad, Lad-cragg.

Klint (Scandinavian), sea rocks.—Spoel-klint, Stevens-klinte, Steyns-klint.

Mor, Moor (Anglo-Saxon), a common, highlands covered with heath; Moor (English).—Nort-moor, Backe-moor, Mor-peth.

Nap (Anglo-Saxon), a hill, peak, point, top of a hill; Neb (Scandinavian).—Nap-ton-on-the-hill, Nap Farm, Nep-ton, Nep-cote, Whinney Neb, White Nab, Con-mer Nab, the Nabs, Nabs Buts.

Ness, Naze, Nose (Scandinavian), damp, humid land stretching out into the sea, a promontory, a projecting portion of land.—Lowestoft-ness, Foul-ness, Dunge-ness, Sheer-ness, Skeg-ness, Strom-ness, Bow-ness, Scar-ness, Fur-ness, Skeg-nas, Sand-noes, the Naze.

In France, Ness takes the form of Nez.

Pike, Peak, Pig (Scandinavian), a point.—Kid-sty-pike, Dufton-pikes, Mur-ton-pikes, the Peak, Pig-don, Knock-pikes, Pick-mere, Jolly Waggon Pike, Pike-law, West-pike.

Rigg (Scandinavian), a ridge, an oblong hill; Hrigg (Anglo-Saxon), a back.

The German form, Ruck, occurs in

Rise (Anglo-Saxon), Raise (Scandinavian), a mound, hill-top, a high wood, &c.—Clap-ham Rise, Rise-ley, Raise-gill, Rise-holm, Rise-brough.


Scar, Scarth, Scarf, Scor, Scree, Skrid (Scandinavian), a rock, sharp, steep, or precipitous.—Scar-borough, Scar-overton, Black Hope-scars, Scars-dale, Ul-sker, Skerry, Ul-scarth, Gate-scarth, Balder-scarth, Scarf-gap, the Screes, Scree-scar, Scrax, Skar-a, Skiel-skior, Skaa-up, Skier-um, Sten-bids-skaar, Scar-stad, Scar-ild, Ska-tunge, Einer-sker, Svart-sker, Cher-bourg, Evar-skard, Haka-scard, Skarven-Fjeld, Maastjern-skarv, Skard, Skrid, Ref-skrid, Skrids-hol, Scarthin-cliffs, Scor-burgh, Scor-ton.

Scug (Scandinavian), a declivity.—Scugger, Skugg, Skeg-ness.

Sty (Scandinavian), an ascending path.—Kid-sty-pike, Sty-head, An-sty, Hubber-sty, Stee.

The Anglo-Saxon forms are Steele, Steigle, Stege.—Ham-steel, High-stile, Long-stile, Stile, Steel Fell.

The German Steig, a path.—Occurs in Alten-steig, Stege, Steiger-wald.

Steap (Anglo-Saxon), steep.—Steep-holm, Stoupe-brow, Steep.

Shelf, Skelf (Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian), a crag, rock, steep places.—Shelf-anger, Shel-don, Tib-shelf, Self-stones, Ra-skelfe, &c.

Stack, Stake, Stickle (Scandinavian), a rock, peak.—Stawkers, Stack, Hay-stacks, the Stake, Harrison Stickle, Pike o’Stickle, Stickle-stad, &c.

Stert (Anglo-Saxon), a tail.—Start-point, Stert-island, &c.

Stones (Provincial), hills, heights.—Blake-low-stones, Ox-stones, Dane Head Stones, &c.

Top (Anglo-Saxon), head, summit.—Top-cliffe, Tops-ham, Lewis-top, Pon-top Pike, Tip-ton, Top-croft, &c.

Tunga (Scandinavian), a promontory, headland, applied to rocks and mountains.—Tonge-with-Haulgh, Middle Tongue, Tong-fell, Tunge-fiord, Ska-tunge, Tang-fjeld, Tungn-fell.

Weald, Wald, Wold, Wealt, Would, Wild, Welt (Anglo-Saxon), a forest, a high woodland district.—The Wealds of Kent, the Wolds of Yorkshire, Moncton-weald, Glen-whelt, Walt-ham,[53] Cots-wold, Wold-brow, Wald-au, Wald-bach, Wald-burg, Wald-eck, Wait-by, Wald-heim, Wald-kirch, Wald-see, Ost-wolde, Wold, and Woude.

Winch, Wink (Scandinavian), a corner.—Winch-combe, Wink-field, Wink-leigh, Winchel-sea, Finkle-bridge, Winkel-seth, Rose-Winkel, Ruh-winkel, &c.

Warn, Wharn (Anglo-Saxon), steep.—Wharn-side, Wharn-cliffe, Wharn-ham.

Yoke (Scandinavian), a hill, chain.—Yoke-thwaite, Yoke-cliffe.


Acre, Aker (Anglo-Saxon), a field.—West-acre, Kint-aker.

Bearw, Bearo, Bern (Anglo-Saxon), a fruitful productive wood, from Beran, to yield; Bar, Bur, a bower, knoll; Byras, woods, plots of woody ground.—Brown-ber-hill, Bram-ber, Tod-bere, Green-ber-field, Bur-ton, and Bar-ton, Sheb-beare (sheep-wood), Kentis-beare, Beer (near Seaton), Bier-low, Baum-ber (tree-wood), Bear-stead, Bears-ton, Bear-ley, Ber-don, Bur-combe, Bur-land, Burs-lem, Bur-stall, Bur-marsh, Bur-wash, Bar-ham, Bar-ford, and Bar-well.

Bearne (Provincial), a wood.—Barn-by, Barn-ey, Barn-well, Barn-ham, Barn-brough, &c.

Bit (Anglo-Saxon), a pasture.—Cow-bit, Nes-bit, &c.

Bus, Bush (Anglo-Saxon), a small wood.—Busch (German), Bosc (Scandinavian).—Bush-ey, Bos-ham, Bus-by, Bus-cot, Bush-bury, Buss of Newham, Buss of Werdie; Col-bosc, Mille-bosc, Rom-bosc, Boschen-ried, and Dicke-busch.

Bent (Provincial), a plain, field, a common.—Bent-ham, Bent-ley, Hayton’s Bent, Bent-hall, Bent-worth, Chow-bent, &c.


Botm (Anglo-Saxon), Bottom (English), a dale.—Gunner-kild-bottom, Houn-dene-bottom, Shuffle-bottom (Shaw-field-bottom), Owler-bottom, and Brook-bottom.

Car (Anglo-Saxon), a plain.—Car-ham, Car-stairs.

Chin, Chine (Anglo-Saxon), a cleft, hollow.—Chin-ley-churn, Crow-chine, &c.

Cup (Anglo-Saxon), a hollow.—Bu-cup, Cub-ley, &c.

Croft (Scandinavian), a small field.—Craw-ton, Wey-croft, Croft Farm, Sander-croft, Haver-croft, Crof-ton, Cox-croft, and Wivels-croft. In France the same root is found under the form Crottes.

Comb (Anglo-Saxon), a valley or low piece of ground, a space between two hills.—Combe, Brans-combe, Bor-combe, Clo-combe, Gat-combe, Sted-combe, Comp-ton.

Dal (Scandinavian), a valley (from Dala, to depress); Thal (German).—Scar-dale, Ken-dal, Arun-dell, Dal-wood, Dingley-dell, Co-dale, Gris-dale, Ul-dale, Dul-wich, Dul-ver-ton, Schön-thal, Rein-thal, Dussel-thal, Dal-hem, Dals-land, Dal-bye, Dal-heim, Dal-river, &c.; Dane-tal, Darne-tal, Delle du Bog, Delle du Fosse.

Deonu, Dionu, Denu, Den, Dean (Anglo-Saxon), a wood, pasture, valley, hollow, ravine, &c.—Taunton Dean, Forest of Dean, Deb-den, Cob-den, Hammer-den, Bals-dean, O-dean, Dib-den, Den-by, Den-bigh, &c.

Field, Feld (Anglo-Saxon), detached localities partly open, an open height, a plain.—Heath-field, Spring-field, Neither-field, Lang-field, &c.

The German form, Feld, occurs in Feld-berg, Feld-kirch, Lingen-feld, Hume-feld, Alten-feld, Lichter-velde, Basse-velde, &c.

Fold, Fol, Fald (Scandinavian), land district, enclosure for sheep, &c.—Nettle-ford, Ox-fold, Had-fold, Ex-fold, Ash-fold, Frith-fold, Duns-fold, &c.

Gap (Scandinavian), an opening between hills.—Raise Gap, Whin-latter-Gap, Yap-ton.


Grafe (Anglo-Saxon), a small wood, a grove.—No-bottle-grove, Bo-grove, By-grave, Graf-ton, Cot-Grave, Red-grave, and Chal-grove.

Hag, Hay, Hedge, Edge (Anglo-Saxon), a limit boundary, fence, any enclosure, a single field, a plot of ground fenced in and surrounded by an hedge; Haga (Scandinavian), Hag (Gothic), enclosed pasturage, a cultivated copse or woodland.—Hag-borne, Hag-ley, Hag-loe, Hedger-ley, Hay-don, Hay-dock, Hay, West-hay, Cut-hayes, Wil-hay, Child-hayes, Hay-ton, Hayes, Comb-hay, Hag-a, Hagen, the Hague, Hagen-au, Dorls-hagen, Falken-hagen.

Hanger, Hangra, Anger (Anglo-Saxon), a meadow near a wood, surrounded by a furrow.—Fisher-ton-anger, Clay-hanger, Anger-ton, Cle-hanger, Oke-hanger-mere.

Hat, Had, Heath (Anglo-Saxon), field; Heide, (German).—Hat-field, Hat-cliffe, Hather-leigh, Hath-ern, Hather-op, Hat-ton, Heden-ham, Had-ley, Hether-set, Hethers-gill, Het-ton, Hide, Hadden-ham, Had-don, Had-leigh, Had-low, Had-nall-ease, Had-stock, Pook-hyde, Hoath-ley, Heidel-berg, Heiden-heim, Heide.

Hayne, a cleared spot fenced in, is perhaps connected with the German Hain, small grove, wood, though it is generally considered another form of Hag, Hay, &c.—Wil-hayne, Hoober-hayne, Cown-hayne, Down-hayne, Blanken-hayn, Balken-hayn, Burg-haun, and Hain-ault.

Hese, Hyse (Anglo-Saxon), a grove, wilderness.—Hes-wall, Hes-ton, Hes-ley-Hurst, Hess-ay, His-ton, His-ket, Has-combe, Has-field, Hase-ley, Has-guard, Has-land, and Haye.

Holt, Hot, Hod (Anglo-Saxon), a wood, copse; Holz (German).—The Holts, Spars-holt, Hoddes-don, Hots-pur, Boc-holt, Borck-holt, Holz-minden, Holt-land, Holt-rup, Ter-houlde.

Hunt (Anglo-Saxon), a chase.—Fox-hunt, Ches-hunt.


Hurst, Herst, Hest, Est (Anglo-Saxon), Horst (German), Hriostr (Old Norsk), woods which produce fodder for cattle, thicket, a clump of forest trees which have not attained their full growth, or masses of standing corn.—Ew-hurst, Pens-hurst, As-hurst, Wad-hurst, Sell-hurst, Ex-hurst, Hurst-ley, Worst-ley, Fing-est, Made-hurst, Hurst, Hors-mar, Baren-horst.

Ing (Anglo-Saxon), a meadow.—Ing-birch-worth, Inger-thorpe, Ingle-by, Ing-ham, Ing-oe, Read-ing. Bark-ing, Martins-ing, Earl’s-ing-Lee.

Leagh, Lah, Leh, Lay, Lea, Ley, Leigh (Anglo-Saxon), a meadow, field, thicket, a woodland district, enclosure, place favourable to growth of grass; Loh (German); Lo, Loo (Dutch),—Had-leigh, Hor-leigh, Hoo-leigh, Pash-leigh, Mor-leigh, Bing-ley, Leigh-ton, Wark-leigh, Lay-sters, Leigh-down; Ven-lo, Water-loo, Kafer-loh, and Sapel-loh.

Lease, Laes (Anglo-Saxon), pasture land.—Lewes, Lewes-ham, Oxen-lease, Cow-leaze.

Leben (German), ground cleared of wood.—Als-leben, Aschers-leben, Eis-leben.

Ling (Anglo-Saxon), heath.—Ash-ling, Bir-ling.

Lum (Provincial), a wooded valley.—Lum-ley, Burs-lem.

Lund (Scandinavian), a wood, forest.—Lund, Laund-booth, Lund-ditch, Laun-ton, Hoff-lund, Hanging-lund.

Maed, Mead (Anglo-Saxon), a meadow.—Hot-mead, Mad-ley, Made-ley, Meth-wold, Bass-mead.

Maestene (Anglo-Saxon), a forest, grove of oak.—Sel-meston, West-meston, Mis-ter-ton.

Mearc (Anglo-Saxon), a woodland district, meadowland; Mork (Scandinavian), a wood.—Mercia, Mark (Lincoln and Somerset), Mark-ham, Mark-by, Marks-hall.

Peece, Pacce (Anglo-Saxon), dirty, watery land.—Pash-ley, Patch-am, Patch-way, Pax-ton, Pas-ton, Pax-ford.

Plas, in Plas-ket, Plass-ey, Plax-tol, has a similar signification.

Plumbe (Anglo-Saxon), a woody place.—Plum-ley, Plump-ton, Plum-stead.


Paeth (Anglo-Saxon), a way, path, entrance, road.—Mor-peth (moor-path), Pad-field, Pad-worth, Pad-bury, Pate-ly.

Rake (Provincial), a mine.—Land-rake.

Rayne (Provincial), limit, bound.—Rain-hill, Rain-ham.

Riothr, Raith (Scandinavian), a clear place, an open field; Ryde, to clear away.—Reith-by, Raith-by, Rath-mill.

Rode (German), Rode, Rod, Royd (English), land cleared or grubbed up.—Ruthyn, Rut-land, Martin-royd, Hol-royd, Hunt-royd, Orme-rod, Ack-royd, Werni-gerode, Elbin-gerode, Rod-ach, Mount Ruti, Ruthi, Oste-rode.

Skogr, Scow, Scaw, Skov, Shaw, Shoe (Scandinavian), a wood.—Scaw-ton, Scof-ton, Scow-garth, Fla-scow, We-scow, Bri-sco, Ever-saw, Auden-shaw, Skovs-hoved.

In France we find Bois d’Escoves.

Shot (Anglo-Saxon), a wood.—Scot-by, Scot-ton, Shot-ton, Alder-shot (alder-wood), Bag-shot (badger’s-wood).

Snadas, Snaed, Snad (Anglo-Saxon), a piece of land with well-defined limits without enclosures, public woods, or pasture grounds.—Snaith, Sned, Snettis-ham, Whip-snade, Snod-land.

Stock (Anglo-Saxon), a wood, enclosure.—Stock-land, Stock-linch, Taw-stock, Hal-stock, Chard-stock, Stock-holm.

Smeth, Smid, Smith (Anglo-Saxon), smooth, level ground.—Smea-ton, Smes-towe, Smith-field, Smeeth, Smeeth-cote.

Spring (Anglo-Saxon), a grove.—Spring-thorpe.

Stob, Stub, Stobbe (Anglo-Saxon), a stump.—Stobs-wood, El-stub, Stepn-ey (Steben-heath), Stub-croft, Stub-land, Stubbe-rup.

Toll (Anglo-Saxon), a small grove of lofty trees.—Toll-piddle, Tol-ton, Tel-ton, Toller-ton, Tol-land, Tole-thorpe.

Toft (Scandinavian), a field, the border of the house and homestead.—Lowes-toft, Knocking-tofts, Toft.

In France we find Hau-tot, Crique-tot, Ec-tot, Sasse-tot, Anse-tot, Ebel-toft, Enges-tofte.


Tot (Anglo-Saxon), a small grove.—Totn-ore, Tot-ham, Totten-ham, Tut-bury, Tot-land Bay, Tet-bury, Dod-pits, Tot-lets, Tot-ern-hoe.

Telgr (Scandinavian), a tract of land.—Soder-telge, Soder-telje, Norr-telge.

Tved, Thwaite (Scandinavian), a path, an isolated piece of ground, ground cleared of wood.—Lock-thwaite, Stanger-thwaite, Hall-thwaite, Line-thwaite, Tvede, Om-thvett, Skis-ved.

Wan, Wing, Wang (Anglo-Saxon), a large indefinite tract of land, a meadow.—Wang-ford, Wing-field, Wan-stead, Tongs-winge, Wanger-oog, Wang, El-wangen.

Waste (Provincial), a level.—Waste-water, Thorn-waste.

Wride (Anglo-Saxon), an intertwining, luxuriant thicket.—Wrays-bury, Writtle, Ease-writh, Wret-ham, Wret-ton, Ting-rith (Tyn-grave).

With (Scandinavian), a wood.—Ask-with, Bram-with, Wither-by, &c.

Wood (English), Weide (German), pasture ground.—Weid-au, Wid-au, Wed-more, Wid-combe, Woot-ton, Widde-combe, &c.

Wiese (German), a meadow.—Wies-baden, Wiesen-thied, &c.



Band (Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian), a division, boundary.—How-Band, Millstone-band, Taylor’s-gill-band, Southernly-bound, &c.

By, Bo (Scandinavian), a town, from Bua, to dwell; Byr, the town of commerce.—Kir-by, Kirk-by, Thores-by, Der-by, Den-by, Wait-by, Horns-by, Ire-by, &c.; Kirk-boe, Frode-boe, Qual-boe, By-grave, By-field, Buer-dale, Wibel-buhr, and Ochtel-buhr. In France we find this root, under the form Beuf, in Lim-beuf, Mar-beuf, Quille-beuf, and Marque-beuf.

Bold, Balt, Booth, Bottle (Anglo-Saxon), a dwelling.—Shil-bottle, New-bold, New-bald, Bolt-on, Par-bold, Bootle, Lor-bottle, Booth-by, More-battle, Bot-ley, New-bottle, Boulder-dale, Buittle, Bot-ham, and Bot-hall.

Borde (Provincial), a cottage.—Bord-well, &c.

Buttel (German), a dwelling.—Wolfen-buttel, Lust-buttel, Bruns-buttel, &c.

Biggen (Provincial), a building, from Big, to build.—New-biggen, Sun-biggen (south-building), &c.

Bow, Bol (Scandinavian), a dwelling, house of a proprietor.—Bows, Bow-ness, Bow-scale Tarn (Bowness was anciently called Bol-ness, or Bul-ness), Boly, Bol-bec, Mum-ble, Strum-ble, Alden-bull, Tetten-bull, Bol-stadoren.

Burg, Bury, Borough (Anglo-Saxon), a city, place of retreat or defence.—Bury, Nether-bury, Hem-bury, Stan-bury, Sid-bury, Salis-bury (Scaro-byrig, the dry-city), Shaftes-bury (town of shafts), Burg-walter (Bridge-water), Borough-bridge, Sea-borough, Sad-borough, Water-perry, Wood-perry.

Burra-voe, Brough, and Brough-under-Stanmore are examples of the Scandinavian form, Brough.

Busta, Buster, Bust (Scandinavian), a dwelling-place, a contraction of Bol-stathr, dwelling seat. (See Bol).—Hob-bister, Swan-bister, Flad-bister, Swara-bister, Swara-ster, Mura-ster, Kirka-bister, and Busta-voe.


Chip, Cheap (Anglo-Saxon), a market.—

Cot, Coat, Cote, Ket (Anglo-Saxon), a hut, salt-pit, cottage, the dwelling of the poorer classes.—

Derne (Anglo-Saxon), a solitary place.—Dearne, Darn-all, Wath-upon-Dearne, Bode-dern, Dern-yett, &c.

Dacre, Daker (Scandinavian), log-house.—Dacre, Daker-stead, &c.

Ern, Erne (Anglo-Saxon), a dwelling, hermitage.—Crewk-erne, Ask-ern, Kill-earn, Cow-arne, &c.

Gata (Scandinavian), a street, road, path, thoroughfare.—Fresh-water-gate, Fisher-gate, Clappers-gate, Hollow-gate, Darn-yett. Some of the leading thoroughfares in London end in Gatee.g., Bishops-gate-street, Moor-gate-street, Kings-gate-street.

The form Gade, found in Denmark and Norway, has the same signification.—Gade-busch, &c.

Gale, Geil (Scandinavian), a dwelling in a hollow.—Gale-garth, Gale-hows, Grettis-geil, &c.

Hut, Hutte (Anglo-Saxon), a shelter, house, dwelling, &c.—Hut-ton, Hut-toft, &c.

Ham (Anglo-Saxon), Heim (German), Um (Frisian), Home (English), farm, enclosed land, a village or town; the same root occurs in Ham-let.—High-ham, Low-ham, East-ham, Ham-don, Hamp-ton, Ham-burgh, Dront-heim, Blen-heim, Hus-um, Hol-um, Fisk-um, Skiv-um, Ann-ham, and Zel-ham.


Garth, Guards (Scandinavian), an enclosed place; Yard (Anglo-Saxon).—Mel-guards, Stain-garth, Sky-garth, Gas-garth, Cal-garth, Bro-gar, Land-guards, Lan-gar, Humble-yard, and Yard-ley.

Hall, Ealh (Anglo-Saxon), a castle, mansion, house of a king, a temple; Alhs (Gothic).—Hal-twistle, Hal-stock, Lilles-hall, Coppen-hall, Darn-all, Ala-darp, Als-hein, and Als-feld.

Hold, Hald (Anglo-Saxon), tenement, fortress.—Hold-shott, Hold-fast, Hold-gate, Holden-by, Halder-ness, and Neu-Haldens-leben.

Helm (Provincial), hovel, cottage.—Helm-don, Helm-ley, &c.

Hem (Anglo Saxon), limit, border.—Hem-don, Hem-bury, Hem-ley, &c.

Herne (Anglo-Saxon), a dwelling, retired place.—Lan-herne, Mat-herne, Herne-Bay, Herne-hill, &c. (See Ern).

House (English); Hus, Huus (Scandinavian); Haus, Hausen, Husen, Sen (German), a residence.—Hus-thwaite, Wood-house, Bo-hus-land, Ar-os, Aa-huus, Haus-ruck, Schaff-hausen, Borg-holz-hausen, Ink-huizen, Al-sen, and As-sens.

Hof, Hoven (German), a court, temple; Hof (Scandinavian).—There is near Appleby a village called Hoff; Hoff-row, Hoff-common, and Hoff-lund are places containing the same root.

In, Inne (Anglo-Saxon), an enclosure, occupied by the proprietor.—In-gars-by, In-gate-stone, In-skip-with, In-golds-by, En-field, In-ward-leigh.

Kirke, Kirk (Scandinavian), a church.—Kir-by, Kirk-by, Aa-kirke, Dun-kirk, &c.

Lath, Laith (Scandinavian), a barn.—Lath-kill, Laith-kirk, Lath-bury, &c.

Land (Scandinavian), a district.—Nat-land, Mor-land, Ly-land, Rus-land, Gar-land, &c.

Mel (Gothic), a boundary.—Mel-guards, Mel-beck, Cart-mell-fel, Meal-rigg, Mel-ay.


Pightle, Pigle, Pingle (Anglo-Saxon), a small parcel of land enclosed with hedges, a field adjoining the farm-house.—Pightels-thorne, Pigles-thorne, and Pit-stone.

Ray, Reay (Scandinavian), a corner.—Reay, Dock-ray, Elle-ray, &c.

Rick (Provincial), a district.—Rast-rick, Land-rick, Lind-rick, Mar-rick; Reich, Rich (German), Reichen-hall, Reichen-au, Au-rich, and Ell-rich.

Row, Rowe (Anglo-Saxon), a street.—Row-botham, Hoff-row, Hard-row, Row-land, &c.

Sad (Anglo-Saxon), a camp.—Sad-borough, Sed-bergh.

Scale, Shiel, Shield (Scandinavian) a log-house, fisherman’s hut.—Scale-force, Thorny-scale, Bon-scale, Hud-scales, Scale-hill, North Shields, South Shields, Lin-sheels, Shill-hill.

Sel, Sele, Sale (Anglo-Saxon), a hall, mansion, seat.—Bo-sell, Kel-sale, Sel-side, Sale-fell, Sel-by, Buer-sill, Bruch-sal and Up-sala (high halls.)

Set, Seta (Anglo-Saxon), Seat, Side (Scandinavian), a seat or dwelling, pasture upon a mountain side.—Lang-sett, Somer-set, Dor-set, Settle, Shottle, As-kel-side, Orm-side, Raven-side, Seat-allan, Seat-Robert, Seat-oller, Out-seats, Thor-set, and Ulv-set.

Shir, Shire (Anglo-Saxon), a division.—Shares-hill, Sher-wood, Sharn-brook, Half-shire, &c.

Shed, Shad (Anglo-Saxon) a division.—Shad-well, Shad-forth, Shad-ox-hurst, &c.

Skans (Scandinavian), a fort.—Scan-dale.

Skew (Scandinavian), a place in a corner.—Scale-sceugh, Barn-skew, A-skew, North-sceugh.

Sok (Anglo-Saxon), a ward.—Sock-burn, Sock-hyre, &c.

Stall, Stell (Anglo-Saxon) a residence.—Bor-stall, Hep-ton-stall, Tun-stall, Bo-stell, Heiken, Borg-stell (a residence on the side of a hill).


Staple, Stapol, Stable (Anglo-Saxon), a market place, an establishment.—Staple, Barn-staple, Staple-ton, Stapl-oe, Staple-ford.

Stead (Anglo-Saxon), Stadr, Ster (Scandinavian), the site of a building, a mansion.—Kirk-steads, Hamp-stead, Ash-stead, Stead-combe, the Staithe, Staithes, Brab-ster, Wolf-ster, Honi-ster, Ul-ster, Lein-ster, Mun-ster, Y-stad, Neu-stadt, Strom-stratt, and Staden.

Stitches (Anglo-Saxon), deep narrow furrows for draining land.—Stitch-bury, Stitchel, Stetch-worth.

Stoke (Anglo-Saxon), a place by the water.—Stoke, Stoke-Pogis, &c.

Stow (Anglo Saxon) a place, village; Stoe, Sta (Scandinavian).—Stowe, Chep-stow, Sme-stow, Bri-stol, Stow-market, Stow-on-the-Wold, Dock-sta (marshy-place), Bro-sta (bridge-village), Fog-stoen, Haver-stoe (oat-village), and Mogle-stue.

Thing (Scandinavian), a council.—Thing-oe, Ding-wall.

Thorpe, Torp, Drup, Rup, Up (Scandinavian), a village; Torf, Dorf (German).—Col-thorpe, Adles-trop, Soul-drop, Cracken-thorpe (crow-village), Hack-thorpe, Ebers-dorf, Al-torf, Hump-drup, Brade-rup.

Ton, Tun (Anglo-Saxon), an enclosure, town.—Ac-ton, Wes-ton, New-ton, Clay-ton, Tun-bridge, Tun-stall, Eas-tyn, As-ten.

Twistle, Twizle (Anglo-Saxon), a border, boundary.—Ex-twistle, Hal-twistle, Hau-twysel, Tin-twisel, Twizell, Twisel.

Tye (Anglo-Saxon), a district.—Tee-ton, the Tyes, Tew, Teigh, Tey.

War, Wark (Scandinavian), a fortification.—Ne-wark, Grims-argh, South-wark, War-cop, Wark-leigh, Lessoe-varks, Wark-um.

Ward (Anglo-Saxon), a watch, guard, &c.—Ward-le, Ward-en, Wart-hill.


Wall, Vold (Scandinavian), a rampart, mound, fortification.—Ting-wall, Kirk-wall, Wall-op, Ude-valla, Eids-vold.

Weiler (German), a dwelling station.—Esch-weiler, Buchs-weiler.

Won, Win (Anglo-Saxon), a dwelling, possession.—Won-ersh, Won-ton, Won-ford.


Transcriber’s Note

Typesetting errors (misplaced, wrong or missing punctuation; use of italics and upper case letters) have been corrected. For the most part, place names have not been checked for accuracy: the large number of them made this impractical. A few spelling mistakes that were apparent have, though, been corrected.

End of Project Gutenberg's The Etymology of Local Names, by R. Morris


***** This file should be named 57658-h.htm or *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:

Produced by Steven Gibbs and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions will
be renamed.

Creating the works from print editions not protected by U.S. copyright
law means that no one owns a United States copyright in these works,
so the Foundation (and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United
States without permission and without paying copyright
royalties. Special rules, set forth in the General Terms of Use part
of this license, apply to copying and distributing Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works to protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm
concept and trademark. Project Gutenberg is a registered trademark,
and may not be used if you charge for the eBooks, unless you receive
specific permission. If you do not charge anything for copies of this
eBook, complying with the rules is very easy. You may use this eBook
for nearly any purpose such as creation of derivative works, reports,
performances and research. They may be modified and printed and given
away--you may do practically ANYTHING in the United States with eBooks
not protected by U.S. copyright law. Redistribution is subject to the
trademark license, especially commercial redistribution.



To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full
Project Gutenberg-tm License available with this file or online at

Section 1. General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works

1.A. By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement. If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or
destroy all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your
possession. If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a
Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound
by the terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the
person or entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph

1.B. "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark. It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement. There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement. See
paragraph 1.C below. There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this
agreement and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works. See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C. The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the
Foundation" or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection
of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. Nearly all the individual
works in the collection are in the public domain in the United
States. If an individual work is unprotected by copyright law in the
United States and you are located in the United States, we do not
claim a right to prevent you from copying, distributing, performing,
displaying or creating derivative works based on the work as long as
all references to Project Gutenberg are removed. Of course, we hope
that you will support the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting
free access to electronic works by freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm
works in compliance with the terms of this agreement for keeping the
Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with the work. You can easily
comply with the terms of this agreement by keeping this work in the
same format with its attached full Project Gutenberg-tm License when
you share it without charge with others.

1.D. The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work. Copyright laws in most countries are
in a constant state of change. If you are outside the United States,
check the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this
agreement before downloading, copying, displaying, performing,
distributing or creating derivative works based on this work or any
other Project Gutenberg-tm work. The Foundation makes no
representations concerning the copyright status of any work in any
country outside the United States.

1.E. Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1. The following sentence, with active links to, or other
immediate access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear
prominently whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work
on which the phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed,
performed, viewed, copied or distributed:

  This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and
  most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no
  restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it
  under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this
  eBook or online at If you are not located in the
  United States, you'll have to check the laws of the country where you
  are located before using this ebook.

1.E.2. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is
derived from texts not protected by U.S. copyright law (does not
contain a notice indicating that it is posted with permission of the
copyright holder), the work can be copied and distributed to anyone in
the United States without paying any fees or charges. If you are
redistributing or providing access to a work with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the work, you must comply
either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 or
obtain permission for the use of the work and the Project Gutenberg-tm
trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.3. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any
additional terms imposed by the copyright holder. Additional terms
will be linked to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works
posted with the permission of the copyright holder found at the
beginning of this work.

1.E.4. Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5. Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6. You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including
any word processing or hypertext form. However, if you provide access
to or distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format
other than "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official
version posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site
(, you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense
to the user, provide a copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means
of obtaining a copy upon request, of the work in its original "Plain
Vanilla ASCII" or other form. Any alternate format must include the
full Project Gutenberg-tm License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7. Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8. You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
provided that

* You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
  the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
  you already use to calculate your applicable taxes. The fee is owed
  to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he has
  agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the Project
  Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Royalty payments must be paid
  within 60 days following each date on which you prepare (or are
  legally required to prepare) your periodic tax returns. Royalty
  payments should be clearly marked as such and sent to the Project
  Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the address specified in
  Section 4, "Information about donations to the Project Gutenberg
  Literary Archive Foundation."

* You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
  you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
  does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
  License. You must require such a user to return or destroy all
  copies of the works possessed in a physical medium and discontinue
  all use of and all access to other copies of Project Gutenberg-tm

* You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of
  any money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
  electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days of
  receipt of the work.

* You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
  distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9. If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work or group of works on different terms than
are set forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing
from both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and The
Project Gutenberg Trademark LLC, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm
trademark. Contact the Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.


1.F.1. Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
works not protected by U.S. copyright law in creating the Project
Gutenberg-tm collection. Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may
contain "Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate
or corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other
intellectual property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or
other medium, a computer virus, or computer codes that damage or
cannot be read by your equipment.

of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal

defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from. If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium
with your written explanation. The person or entity that provided you
with the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in
lieu of a refund. If you received the work electronically, the person
or entity providing it to you may choose to give you a second
opportunity to receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund. If
the second copy is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing
without further opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4. Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS', WITH NO

1.F.5. Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of
damages. If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement
violates the law of the state applicable to this agreement, the
agreement shall be interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or
limitation permitted by the applicable state law. The invalidity or
unenforceability of any provision of this agreement shall not void the
remaining provisions.

1.F.6. INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in
accordance with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the
production, promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works, harmless from all liability, costs and expenses,
including legal fees, that arise directly or indirectly from any of
the following which you do or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this
or any Project Gutenberg-tm work, (b) alteration, modification, or
additions or deletions to any Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any
Defect you cause.

Section 2. Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of
computers including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers. It
exists because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations
from people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need are critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come. In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future
generations. To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation and how your efforts and donations can help, see
Sections 3 and 4 and the Foundation information page at

Section 3. Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service. The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541. Contributions to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent permitted by
U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is in Fairbanks, Alaska, with the
mailing address: PO Box 750175, Fairbanks, AK 99775, but its
volunteers and employees are scattered throughout numerous
locations. Its business office is located at 809 North 1500 West, Salt
Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887. Email contact links and up to
date contact information can be found at the Foundation's web site and
official page at

For additional contact information:

    Dr. Gregory B. Newby
    Chief Executive and Director

Section 4. Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment. Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States. Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements. We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance. To SEND
DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any particular
state visit

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States. U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses. Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including checks, online payments and credit card donations. To
donate, please visit:

Section 5. General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works.

Professor Michael S. Hart was the originator of the Project
Gutenberg-tm concept of a library of electronic works that could be
freely shared with anyone. For forty years, he produced and
distributed Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of
volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as not protected by copyright in
the U.S. unless a copyright notice is included. Thus, we do not
necessarily keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.