The Project Gutenberg EBook of Mr. Punch in Wig and Gown, by Various

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most
other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions
whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of
the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at  If you are not located in the United States, you'll have
to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this ebook.

Title: Mr. Punch in Wig and Gown
       The lighter side of bench and bar

Author: Various

Release Date: February 22, 2015 [EBook #48339]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Produced by Chris Curnow and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at (This file was
produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive)


Edited by J. A. Hammerton

Designed to provide in a series of volumes, each complete in itself, the cream of our national humour, contributed by the masters of comic draughtsmanship and the leading wits of the age to “Punch,” from its beginning in 1841 to the present day.



Courtroom full of birds




WITH 120



Mr. Punch, as judge



Decorative leaves


Punch Library of Humour

Twenty-five volumes, crown 8vo, 192 pages
fully illustrated



























Mr. Punch, as judge

Mr. Punch has done his share towards bringing about various law reforms. We find him hammering away continually for many years at the Law’s delays, its costliness, its inconsistencies, and the evils he has satirised, the inconveniences he has laughed at have largely been remedied. He makes fun of the jesting judge and the bullying barrister, while he is genially amusing at the expense of the timid and blundering witness, and the youthful vanity or elderly pomposity of members of the bench and bar. He is rightly bitter now and then when he touches on the comparatively light sentences inflicted on audacious, but wealthy, swindlers, and the comparatively heavy penalties exacted from lesser, poorer, and more ignorant burglars and pickpockets; but in the main he devotes himself to the lighter side of law and justice and the professions that are concerned in its administration.

Here and there you come across echoes of famous law suits—of the Tichborne trial, the Parnell Commission; here and there you have reminders of Bradlaugh’s fight to get into Parliament without taking the oath; of the days when London was agitated by the Fenian scare and valorous householders were sworn in as special constables, and again when everybody passing into the law courts had to open his bag that the policeman on duty might be assured that he was not carrying a bomb inside it.

The reading matter is particularly apt and good; not a little of it was written by barristers in the intervals of waiting for briefs, and the writers were thus intimately acquainted with the grievances they ventilated, and were often suffering the hardships of the briefless themselves when they sat down to make fun of them.

Mr. Punch, as judge, with attendants



Novice.—(a) Don’t, unless you want penal servitude for life. (b) Any respectable burglar. (c) We do not answer questions on chiropody in this column.

Hard Up.Brougham on Conveyances will explain whether your contract to purchase the motor-car is binding or not.

Farmer.—It is either an “escrow” or a scarecrow; impossible to state definitely without further information.

B. and S.—There is no reduction (of the fine) in taking a quantity—generally the reverse.

Traveller.—By travelling in the manner you describe, viz., under the seat, you render yourself liable to “stoppage in transitu,” and to completing the rest of your journey on foot “in custodia legis.” The authorities on this point are very clear. See Constable’s Reports, P.C. X. Y. Z., Vol. XIV., pages 72-85.

Justice.—If the defendant lost, you, being plaintiff would win, and vice versâ. Consult a solicitor.

Student.—Can only spare space for half your questions. “Aggravated assault” explains itself, an assault which aggravates or annoys you. “Damage fesant,” a badly shot pheasant. “Simple larceny,” taking an empty purse out of a pocket in which a sovereign is lying loose. “Misdemeanour” is of course the demeanour of an unmarried woman, or in plainer language, the airs she gives herself.

Prisoner in the dock

“Gentlemen, I am ready to admit that his career in the past has not been free from blemish——”

A Brief Existence.—A barrister’s.

The Letter of the Law.—The “letter of the law” must be x. It expresses a quantity that is unknown.

A Law Suit.—Wig, gown, and bands.

How to make use of “the Block in the Law Courts.”—Try wigs on it.

Good Legal Securities.—De-Benchers of Lincoln’s Inn.

Mr. Punch as judge

Office Hours 12 to 3, Saturdays 12 to 1; Back at 1, (signed) Clerk


Mr. Blazer, K.C., returns unexpectedly to his chambers in the middle of vacation.


I am watching, I am waiting,
And my hair is growing grey,
For it is exasperating,
That no business comes my way.
Other men in briefs may revel
When successfully they plead,
I am only a poor “devil,”
Often worked but never fee’d.
E’en the bank-clerk in the city
Has a salary that’s small,
But we juniors, more’s the pity,
Don’t make anything at all.
Living still on false pretences,
Since the truth we dare not own,
Some not earning their expenses
If the facts were truly known.
And meantime the years are flying,
Bringing changes p’raps for some,
Not for me tho’; I’m relying
On the practice that’s to come.

Legal Mem.—A barrister is only invited to sit on the Bench when he has had some considerable amount of standing at the Bar.

A Winding-up Case.”—A watch’s.

Young lady in legal attire


In ladies’ winter costumes.


Barrister, addressing the jury; judge, napping

“Never miss a chance of ingratiating yourself with the jury, even at the expense of the judge.”

(An opportunity often occurs after lunch.)

Barrister laughing at the judge’s jokes

“Always laugh at the judge’s jokes. It is not upon such an occasion that his lordship observes that he will not have the court turned into a theatre.”

Barrister fiercely cross-examining policeman

“Show no mercy to the police; they have few friends.”



Policeman X 24, drunk and almost incapable, is just able to blow his whistle for help!


The sons of lawyers, who are intended for their fathers’ profession, cannot too early become familiar with legal phrases and their meanings. Old nursery rhymes might easily be adapted for this purpose. For instance—


Alibi, baby, on the tree top,
Proved ’gainst your foes,
The case it will stop;
When we suppose
The evidence fall,
Down goes the alibi, baby, and all.


Dickory, dickory, dock,
The burglar picks a lock,
Police come down,
Case for Crown,
Dickory, dickory, dock.


Goosey, Goosey, Gander,
Whither do you wander?
Up-stairs and down-stairs into Judges’ Chambers.
Old Baron Longwigs,
Finished his affairs,
Puts him out his left leg,
Puts him out his right leg,
Puts him out his both legs and walks down-stairs.


Taffy was a Welshman,
Taffy was a thief,
Taffy came to my house,
And stole a leg o’ beef.
P’liceman went to Taffy’s house,
Taffy wouldn’t own;
Took him up to my house,
Thence to Mary’bone.[1]


Ride a cab horse,
Beyond Charing Cross,
To see any lady get a divorce;
Ring on her finger
Still dully shows;
Will she have music wherever she goes?

[1] Subaudi, Police Court.


(Left in the Hall of the Law Courts.)

The gentle genius of the night,
Of course I mean Diana,
Made me dilate with rapt delight
To you, my fair Susanna.
But please don’t think my words were true
The moon played me a sorry trick,
Beneath the sun I write to you,
I merely was a lunatic.
You’ve mulcted me to a pretty tune,
I’ll have revenge—I’ll shoot the moon!

Junior barrister prompting angry-looking senior

The Trials of an Anxious “Junior.”—Prompting a deaf and testy “chief” in open court is not his idea of perfect bliss.

Veiled lady in the witness box


His Honour. “H’m! Will you kindly raise your veil. I find it extremely difficult to—h’m—hear anyone distinctly with those thick veils——”

Lady has raised her veil; judge horrified at her appearance


“Er—er—thank you! Silence! I will not have this court turned into a place of amusement!”

Prisoner pleading

The Meshes of the Law!”—Rural Magistrate. “Prisoner, you are charged with—ah—loitering about in a suspicious manner, without any ostensible employment. How do you obtain a living?”

Prisoner. “Your wusship, I’m engaged in the manufacture of smoked glasses for observing eclipses—an ‘industry’”—(solemnly)—“an ‘industry,’ your wusship, which involves protracted periods of enforced leisu-are!!”

Discharged with a caution!

Group of justices meeting group of prisoners

Pity the Poor Prisoners!—Scene—County Prison: Visiting Justices on Inspection.

Visiting Justice. “Any complaints?”

Prisoner. “Yes, your Honour. We’re guv on’y one bucket at shavin’ time, so we’ve all got to dip our razors in the same water, and who knows wot skin diseases a cove might ketch!”

The Barrister’s Favourite Hymn.—“‘Brief’ life is here our portion.

Legal Query. (From an Earnest Enquirer.)—“Sir, I have often heard of ‘The Will of the Wisp.’ Was this will ever proved? Who was ‘the Wisp’? Why so called? Because he was a man of straw? Wisper your answer to me, and oblige yours,

Colney Hatcher, E. I.

The Gas Companies’ Lawyer.—Coke.

Two Sorts of Police.—The Detective—and the Defective.

Criminal Query.—Can a prisoner who commits himself, also form his own conviction?

The Legal Fraternity.—Brothers-in-law.

Legal Question.—What are the “Benchers” of our Inns of Court?

Persons so called from their persistent adherence to legal forms.

Legal “Instruments.”—“Soft recorders.”

Meeting in a solicitor’s office

Solicitor. “Now, as a matter of fact, when expressing your opinion of your opponent, you did use a leetle strong language?”

Client. “Wull, I don’t know as I forgot anything!”

Old Saying (By our own Detective).—Professional thieves are notoriously dense, hence the proverbial expression, “Thick as thieves.”

When a leading barrister gets someone to “devil” for him, may the latter’s occupation be correctly described as “devilry”?

The result of going out for a “lark” very generally is, that the last part of the lark you see is the beak.

Sittings in Error.—A pew in a Mormonite chapel.

Law and Time.—A “watching brief” must have much to do with second-hand information.

Cause Without Effect.—An action resulting in a farthing’s damages.

A “Counter-Case.”—Shop-lifting.

Diamonds of the Cape.—Intelligent policemen.

Information Wanted.—At what time in the morning are barristers called?

Baby crawling on table and thumbing its nose at the judge


“Alleged contempt of court by an infant”

Lady in the witness box

Compliments.“The Court” (thinking aloud). “Hu—m—’markably fine young wom——.”

The Witness (overhearing). “Excellent judge!!”

Adviser visiting invalid gentleman at home

Cantankerous.Legal Adviser (drawing up the old gentleman’s will). “Um—seems a pity you should cut off your son with a shilling. But, if you’re determined—hem!—what about the pictures? You have a very valuable collection, sir?——”

Crusty Invalid. “Oh, drat the pictures! Leave ’em to the Blind Asylum!!”


O poor jury, boxed, poor jury,
Three weeks odd, each day but one;
Rose impatience not to fury
Ere your weary task was done?
You were special, picked and chosen
For the nonce, were you, indeed.
But had one among your dozen,
Business of his own to heed?
Put an artist on an action,
Or a scribe as juror bind,
How shall that man help distraction,
From his duty, of his mind?
Thoughts of lost employment pressing
He can chase not, nor control
Fell anxiety, distressing,
If it were to save his soul.
If your case needs comprehension,
Litigants, your jury, then,
Must, to give it due attention,
Be composed of leisured men.
Swells in yachts life idly leading,
Fishing, hunting, shooting, who
Might, to work for bread not needing,
Sing, “We’ve got no work to do.”

A very ugly building


“One anonymous architect has sent in a frantic design, which the commissioners have not chosen to exhibit.”—Times, Feb. 11, 1867.

Maritime Law.—The law of libel does not apply to a “running down” case. The parties are not in the same boat.

Question.—Can a process server legally be said to be a writualist?

Question every Magistrate ought to ask himself before going to Sleep.—“I wonder if I have committed myself in any way to-day?”

How to Prevent a Conspiracy from Leaking Out.—Let the plot thicken.

A Moral Phenomenon.—A barrister returning his fee.

Briefless Theory.—’Tis practice makes the barrister perfect.

After you,” as the policeman ought to be allowed to say to the bubble-bank director.

Legal Quibble.—A barrister should cultivate a good temper, if he would succeed as a cross-examiner.

Smartly-dressed K.C., down-at-heel clerk


Mr. Bigwig, the eminent K.C., and his clerk.

In a County Court.Judge (to Mr. Pettiphog, plaintiff’s solicitor). I really cannot see that you have proved the defendant’s means.

Mr. P. (excitedly, to defendant). No means! How did you get here, sir?

Defendant. I walked.

Mr. P. Where did you get the boots to walk in?

Defendant. I borrowed them.

Mr. P. (triumphantly). On what security, sir, on what security?

Defendant. On the fact that you had taken up the case against me.

[General merriment. No order.

Brief “Bags.”—Short trousers.

Drink for Lawyers.—The Wool-sack.

The Policeman’s Lady-Love.Ar(e)abella.

The Jury Starvation System.Q. What foreign institution does starving a jury approach the nearest to?

A. The Diet of Hungary.

Housekeeper talking to visiting gentlemen

A Case of Self-sacrifice.Mrs. Grimes. “No, sir, Mr. Smith ain’t a-bin in ’is chambers not for a week, sir.”

Mr. Brown. “Oh! You’re sure now you know the gentleman I mean—Mr. Meldon Smith?”

Mrs. Grimes.Hi knows ’im right enough. Wy, I does all ’is washin’ and mendin’ for ’im!”

Shawled, black-eyed woman in the witness box


Counsel. “Do you know the nature of an oath, my good woman?”

Witness (with a black eye). “I did ought to, sir! Which my ’usban’ ’s a Covin’ Garden porter, sir!”

An Expensive Call to Pay.—A call to the Bar.

Legal Inquiry.—If I buy a pair of trousers warranted to wear well, and they turn out a failure, should I, on bringing an action for damages, be “non-suited,” or could I counterclaim damages for “breeches of promise”?

Dissolute jurymen


These gentlemen are expected to be in a judicial frame of mind after hanging about the precincts of the court for several days, under penalty of a heavy fine, while their private business in the city and elsewhere is going to the dogs. (Why should not half-pay officers do the work, and relieve busy men?)

Brief Authority.—A barrister’s.

The Division List.—Divorce Court causes.

Centre of Gravity.—A judge in court.

The Block of Legal Business.—The wig block.


(“The first lady barrister has just taken the oath at Paris.”—Daily paper).

O Portia, many maids there are,
Who wear their wigs as gaily
As thou, appearing at the bar
To take refreshers daily;
They rustle too, in silk like thee
With oft a clerk resplendent
And, not infrequently you see,
Solicitors attendant.
Their trade is legal—so is thine,
Yet not their craft thou pliest,
For they are in the liquor line
And thou in law—the driest.
But welcome, bar maid! hail to thee!
Bright be thy lot and griefless!
And may thy portion never be,
Like this poor writer’s, briefless.

The Eye of the Law.—Policeman’s bull’s-eye.

More than a Miracle.—When a prisoner is “taken from the dock unmoved.”

Song for Magistrates.—“Let us speak of a man as we’ve fined him.”

Two gentlemen talking


“But if you really think Jones has injured you, my dear fellow, why not consult some clever lawyer?”

Lawyer, indeed! With men of my stamp, the only possible reply to a man of Jones’s, is the horsewhip, since it can no longer be the sword!”


Where there’s a will there’s a law suit.

The successful lawyer is a man of actions.

Look before you leap into litigation.

The wise man keeps his own counsel, and the wise counsel keeps his own man.

Many a muddle makes a muckle for the lawyers.

No suit lasts longer than a suit in Chancery.

A conveyancer is never afraid of drafts.

A brief in the hand is worth two in a solicitor’s office.

’Tis better to have fought and lost than to have had no case at all.

Little plaintiffs have large fears.

The good solicitor is known by his good deeds.

Two heads, a leader and a junior, are better than one.

Law for Ladies.—Why ought every lady nowadays to learn the legal doctrine concerning “wrong to the person”?

Ans. They ought to learn it because it’s tort. (Ask any barrister!)


[“A Policeman’s Conscience.—Police-Superintendent Roberts, of Torquay, has won a splendid reputation for impartiality. He even punishes himself for breaches of the law. The other night while cycling home from Brixham his lamp went out, and yesterday he appeared before the magistrate, in response to a summons issued by himself against himself. He said a clergyman spoke to him on the subject, and this brought the offence to his notice. He was fined 5s.”—Daily Telegraph.]

Boy bringing the birch to his mother

Master Bob. “Please, ma, will you kindly chastise me? I’ve been at the jam again!”

Cabby at police-station reception desk

Cabby (at police-station). “’Ere, I’ve just charged a fare sixpence too much, and I want a summons out aginst meself.”

Lady greeting gentleman

Miss Candid. “Oh, Mr. De Tiring, I was at home yesterday when you called; but you are such an awful bore, you know, I was compelled to send you away.”

Judge, scribbling

Learned Judge. “Before adjourning the court to-day, I wish to state that I have been guilty of betting, at a ‘place’ within the meaning of the Act. I therefore fine myself a sum of twenty pounds and costs, coupled with a severe reprimand.”

Gentleman using an Automatic Conscience Clearer machine

Of course, the “Automatic Conscience Clearer” for minor offences would soon be immensely popular. We beg to offer the above suggestion. N.B.—The inventor has been provisionally protected.


Oh, where, and oh where is my learned counsel gone?
He’s gone to the Queen’s Bench where a case is coming on,
And it’s oh, in my heart, that I wish my case his own.
What fee, and what fee did your learned counsel clutch?
Five guineas on his brief he did not think too much;—
And it’s oh! if he’s a barrister, I wish he’d act as such.
In what court, in what court is your learned counsel found?
I cannot catch him anywhere, of all he goes the round;—
And it’s oh! in my heart, that to one I wish him bound.
What excuse, what excuse can your learned counsel make?
None at all, none at all, but his head he’ll gravely shake,
And it’s oh! in my heart, that the fee he’s sure to take.

Conversation in Chancery Lane.Dull Youth. I say, what’s a legal digest?

Bright Youth. Why, you fool, it forms part of the legal course—for instance, every barrister, after he has eaten his terms, has to go through his digest!

A Firm Conviction.—Transportation for life.

Bar Gold.—Fees to counsel.

Barrister haranguing prisoner

It was rather too bad, you know, that Larkins serving poor Jones like this! And his first circuit, too!

Confused-looking judge


In order to husband our judicial staff, in future a judge will be expected to hear two cases at the same time.

Portrait of a judge trying a theatrical cause célèbre, and a nice question as to a “remainder-man” and a “tenant in tail male.”

The Best Game for Junior Barristers to Play.—Follow my leader.

Waiting for an Answer.—What is the difference between eating your words and eating your terms.

Courtroom scene

“May it please your ludship, I ask that the witness be forced to produce the papers that were burnt!”

A Knowing Beggar.—A beggar posted himself at the door of the Chancery Court, and kept saying: “A penny please, sir! Only one penny, sir, before you go in!” “And why, my man?” inquired an old country gentleman. “Because, sir, the chances are, you will not have one when you come out,” was the beggar’s reply.

Michaelmas Term—Legal Examination


Q. Mention some of the principal law books which you have studied?—A.. Hoyle’s Laws of Whist, Cribbage, &c. The Rules of the Cricket Club; ditto of the Jockey Club.

Q. Have you attended any, and what, law lectures?—A. I have attended to many legal lectures, when I have been admonished by police magistrates for kicking up rows in the streets, pulling off knockers, &c.


Q. What is a real action?—A. An action brought in earnest, and not by way of a joke.

Q. What are original writs?—A. Pothooks and hangers.


Q. What are a bill and answer?—A. Ask my tailor.

Q. How would you file a bill?—A. I don’t know, but would lay a case before a blacksmith.

Q. What steps would you take to dissolve an injunction? A. I should put it into some very hot water, and let it remain there until it was melted.

Q. What are post-nuptial articles?—A. Children.


Q. What is simple larceny?—A. Picking a pocket of a handkerchief, and leaving a purse of money behind.

Q. What is grand larceny.—A. The income-tax.

Two ruffians in a cell

Odd-handed Justice.First Ruffian. “Wot was I hup for, and wot ’ave I got? Well, I floor’d a woman and took ’er watch, and I’ve got two years and a floggin’.”

Second Ruffian. “Ha!—I flung a woman out o’ the top floor winder; an’ I’ve on’y got three months!”

First Ruffian. “Ah, but then she was yer wife!!”


The days are gone when I used to seek
Refreshment and fun in the Henley Week,
But now all that is a thing of the past,
The pace at the time was too good to last.
Farewell to the straws and the flannel shirts,
Farewell to the house-boats, launches, and flirts,
Farewell to champagne cups and cigarettes,
To the gloves and the sweet things lost in bets;
In chambers, alas! I sit and groan,
Slaving, and writing, and waiting alone.
On parchment and paper with pen and ink
I draw the draughts that I cannot drink.
I’ll see if my chief is here … I’ll try.…
He’s off! To Henley?… hem!—So am I!!

Pater, in armchair by fire, talking to his son

A Testamentary Disposition.Pater. “Now, my boy, I’ve been making my will, and I’ve left a very large property in trust for you. I merely wish to ask you if you’ve any suggestion to offer?”

Son. “Well, I don’t know that I have, sir—unless—hum”—(ponders)—“Quesh’n is—as things go nowadays, wouldn’t it be better to leave the property to the other f’llar, and—ah—’ppoint me the trustee?!!”


(Fragment from a Criminal Romance)

The burglar had so far been successful. He had broken open the safe and transferred its contents to his pocket without disturbing the household. He had come down the creaking stairs with less than the customary noise. He was in sight of the street door, which, once opened, passed, and closed, would lead to freedom.

It was a pleasant prospect.

“It will delight my wife and little ones,” he murmured. “With the proceeds of this night’s work I shall be able to take them a trip to the Continent.”

Then he walked forward and opened the street door. In a moment he was seized by mechanical hands, and found himself manacled.

“Confound it!” he cried; “I had forgotten that recently patented novelty—the automatic policeman!”

Lawyers yawning


A sketch in the law courts, showing the patient and respectful attention of the counsel for the plaintiff during the speech of counsel for defendant.

Ladies at the breakfast-table

Her “Court” Dress.Fair Defendant in Cause Célèbre (reading report of yesterday’s proceedings). “The idiots! There’s no trusting one’s reputation with these newspapers. They describe my heliotrope poplin as puce alpaca with a muslin frill!”


Dear Mr. Punch,

A writer in the St. James’s Gazette, dealing with the subject of the Divorce Laws, calmly proposes that in any revision of the code, which he strongly advocates, “women should be placed on the same footing with men.” Such a pestilent heresy of course provoked correspondence, and, as I have made a careful study of the subject, I beg to submit to you, sir, a few reasonable grounds for divorce, which this reformer will, I hope, include in his precious revised code.

A man should be allowed to obtain a divorce from his wife on all or any of the following grounds:—

1. If he sees anyone he likes better than his wife.

2. If his mother-in-law comes too often.

3. If his wife’s brother borrows money of him.

4. If she objects to his going to Paris without her.

5. If, knowing that he prefers the tops of the muffins at breakfast, she eats any of them.

6. If she hears him come in at four in the morning, when he has considerately taken off his boots to do so quietly.

7. If she refers to it.

8. If she ever says, “My dear, I think we’ve heard that story before.”

9. If she does not laugh consumedly whenever he tells a comic story.

10. If she objects to smoking.

11. If she is not civil to all his male friends.

12. And female ones.

There, sir, you have a dozen suggestions which I would commend to the attention of this law-reformer. You will observe I have not included any trivial reasons for divorce, and the procedure, as the St. James’s Gazette says, “should be as expeditious and inexpensive as possible.”

Yours faithfully,

A Tender Husband.

Turtle-Dove Terrace.

Courtroom scene

Live and Learn.”—Magistrate. “Do you know the nature of an oath, my boy?”

Witness (promptly): “Yess, sir. Must take it, sir—’relse I can’t be ’memb’r o’ Parl’ment, sir!”


If Faraday’s or Liebig’s art
Could crystallise this legal treasure,
Long might a pleader, near his heart,
The jewel wear with chuckling pleasure.
The native brilliant, ere it fell,
A squeeze produced in Walker’s eye,
Which, winking, dropped the liquid “sell,”
The spring of plausibility.
Nice drop of rich and racy light,
In thee the rays of humour shine;
Almost as queer, all but as bright,
As any gem or joke of mine.
Thou fine effusion of the soul!
That never fail’st to gain relief,
Which barristers can ne’er control,
When thou art like to help their brief.
The farce-wright’s and the jester’s theme
In many a joke, on many a stage,
Thou moisten’st Chitty’s arid theme,
And Blackstone’s dry and dreary page.
That very lawyer, who a tear
Can shed, as from the bosom’s source,
With feeling equally sincere,
Could weep on t’other side—of course.

Courtroom scene, unsavoury-looking defendant


Newly-appointed Magistrate. “Any previous convictions against the prisoner?”

What our Articled Clerk said.—The chief lawyer of Turkey can never be a weak man, since every new law there is established by a firman.

[We have transferred our A. C. to a provincial firm.

Pendente Lite.”—A chandelier.

The Greatest of the “Great Unpaid.”—The National Debt.

Advice to Crown Lawyers.—Employ a hydropathic doctor, if you want to pack a jury.

Heirs-at-Law.—Barristers’ wigs.

Proper Decoration for a “Blocked” Law Court.—Bar-relief.

Sunday Observances.—See the Monday charges at the police courts.

A Bolt from the Blue.”—Running away from a policeman.

Proof of the Integrity of the Law.—The return of the Lent Assizes.

Procession of policemen, followed by Spadgett, marching in step


Little Spadgett never can resist his military instincts under these circumstances.

Lovesuit and Lawsuit.—Promise of marriage is like precious china—a man has so much to pay for its breakage.

Police!—What tune would a person whistle who had been stealing milk? “Robin Adair,” eh? (Robin’ a dairy!!!)

The Force of Contradiction can no further go.—To make a will is the wont of every prudent man.

Definition of the Bar (by an unlucky suitor).—Silk, stuff, and nonsense.


To the lawyers brings elation,
To the clients consternation,
To the counsel animation,
To the “devil” reputation,
To the usher agitation,
To the jury aggravation,
To the witness indignation,
To the judge consideration,
To reporters expectation,
To the loser lamentation,
To the winner exultation,
To the public information.

Out shooting in the countryside

Professional Caution.Mr. Bluebag (out for a day’s shooting with his articled clerk). “Stop a minute—don’t fire!—let’s see if that bird’s in the schedule!!”

Legal Intelligence.—A smart young articled clerk, hearing it stated by a lecturer that “man is merely a machine,” remarked, “Then I suppose an attorney may be said to be a suing machine.”

A Case to which a Barrister objects.—A fee-nominal one.

A Bar Mess.”—Recent difficulties about latitude of counsel in cross-examination.

The real Nine Points of the Law.—Costs.

Open to Conviction.—A prisoner at the bar.

Definition of “Stuff and Nonsense.”—A junior urging a ridiculous plea.

The Wheel of Misfortune.—The treadmill.

Contempt of Court.”—Neglecting to attend a Levée.

A Safe Precaution.—No boating party should be without a lawyer. In case of accident, he is the man for ba(i)ling out the water.

Three judges, happy

Hilary Term commences January 11.

Playing at Draughts.—The ventilation of our Law Courts.

The most lasting Stuff for a Silk Gown.—A Chancery suit.

A Bar’s Rest.—The Long Vacation.

The only Profession where there isn’t “The ‘Devil’ to Pay.”—The legal.

Faculty of Advocates.—Speech.

A Legal Conveyance.—The police van.


A junior who will wear his gown straight, and not pretend that intense preoccupation over dummy briefs prevents him from knowing that it is off one shoulder.

A judge who can resist the temptation to utter feeble witticisms, and to fall asleep.

A witness who answers questions, and incidentally tells the truth.

A jury who do not look extremely silly, and ridiculously self-conscious, when directly addressed or appealed to by counsel; or one that really understands that the judge’s politeness is only another and subtle form of self-glorification.

A K.C. who is not “eminent,” who does not behave “nobly,” and who can avoid the formula “I suggest to you,” in cross-examination; or one that does not thunder from a lofty and inaccessible moral altitude so soon as a nervous witness blunders or contradicts himself.

An usher who does not try to induce the general public, especially the female portion thereof, to mistake him for the Lord Chancellor.

A solicitor who does not strive to appear coram populo on terms of quite unnecessarily familiar intercourse with his leading counsel.

An articled clerk who does not dress beyond his thirty shillings a-week, and think that the whole court is lost in speculation as to the identity of that distinguished-looking young man.

An associate who does not go into ecstasies of merriment over every joke or obiter dictum from the Bench.

Anybody who does not give loud expression to the opinion, at the nearest bar when the court rises, that he could have managed the case for either or both sides infinitely better than the counsel engaged.

A court-house whose atmosphere is pleasant and invigorating after the court has sat for fifteen minutes.

(Anyone concerned who, on reading these remarks in print, will think that the cap can, by any scintilla of possibility, fit himself.)

Messenger accosting gentleman

Wretched-looking Messenger. “Beg pardon, Mr. Brown, it’s come at larst! I’m entirely dependent on myself. My wife’s been and got a separation order!”

Justices with clothes-pegs on their noses

In order to deaden the sense of smell, second-hand clothes-pegs will be used by the bench and the bar.

Justices mounting a ladder to break windows

Lords Justices Bowen and Fry prepared to break the windows of the court, and relieve the asphyxiated bar.


Shocked-looking lawyer; his pince-nez falls off


Poor Mr. Wiggles has just been described by a facetious witness of the lower orders as “that there h’old bloke wiv a choker, an’ a cauliflower on ’is ’ed”!!!


There seems to be at present a very considerable difference of opinion among the gentlemen of the Bar as to what may or may not be done by a barrister. We had some idea of publishing a small hand-book of etiquette for the exclusive use of the gentlemen of the long robe; but as what is etiquette to-day may not be etiquette to-morrow, we feared the work would not possess the permanent utility which alone would recompense us for the labour of writing it. We have, however, drawn up a few general rules founded on our own observation as to what a barrister may do, and what he may not do, consistently with his professional dignity:—

1st. A barrister may be employed in inducing Members of Parliament to vote in favour of railway bills; but he may not report for a newspaper.

2nd. A barrister may practise the “artful dodge” for the purpose of defeating the ends of justice; but he must not enter an assize town in an omnibus.

3rd. A barrister may tout for a small judgeship; but he will be very properly disbarred if he advertises his readiness to plead the cause of clients.

4th. A barrister may libel a rival candidate for an office in a “private and confidential” circular; but he must not degrade himself by asking an attorney to dine with him on the circuit.

5th. A barrister may take a fee when he knows he cannot attend to the cause; but he may not return the money, for his doing so would be very unprofessional.

6th, and lastly. A barrister may be a very honourable man; but many things which professional etiquette allows him to do, would be thought disgraceful and dishonest among ordinary people.

A Delicate Distinction.Cross-examining Counsel (to fair witness). And is your name Aurelia Jessamine Jones?

Fair Witness (after a pause). No, sir; but it ought to have been, only my god-parents were so ill-chosen.

Skeletal figure, the dead hand


Important Suitors in Chancery.—Having occasion the other day to visit the Chancery Offices, we discovered an announcement which we are surprised has not been more generally noticed, and we take no little credit to ourselves for being the first to give extended publicity to the important public directions to the unhappy suitors, who may have been wandering in the Court so many years. The information is contained in the following short announcement—“The Way Out”—which we can assure our readers we have copied from an official notice stuck up in that Court.

An Immediate Landlord.—One who will not wait for his rent.

Mr. Punch as judge

Westminster Hall, procession of judges


Westminster Hall. Showynge ye ceremonye of openynge terme.

Legal Nomenclature.—Occasionally we hear of “running down cases” being tried. The unlearned in the law naturally inquire if these are actions for slander.

Prison Thought.—“When’s a Christian,” said a poacher in gaol to himself, “sarved the same as a hare?—When he’s jugged like I be.”

House of Lords, nearly empty


Hyghest court of law in ye kyngdom. Ye Lords hearyng appeals.

An Under Tenant.—One who occupies a cellar.

Happy Release.—Paying off a mortgage.

In Two Words.—Our police system and the housebreaker’s system—Bunglery and burglary.

Letters of Request.”—Begging epistles.

Packed courtroom


Appearance of ye crymynyal covrte dvryng an “interestyng” tryal for mvrder.

Outside the County Court.Jenkins (to Jorkins, a debtor). What, only five bob a month! How did you manage it?

Jorkins. Why, always addressed the judge as “My Lord,” of course.

Pope asks: “Is there no bright reversion in the sky?” This is, clearly, a question which only a lawyer can answer.

A very fat man getting into a horse-drawn carriage


We beg to solicit the attention of our innumerable readers to the state of the law respecting cruelty to animals.


From Circuit to Circuit, although we may roam,
Be it ever so briefless, there’s none like the Home;
A fee from the skies p’rhaps may follow us there,
Which, seek through the courts, is ne’er met with elsewhere.
Home, Home, sweet sweet Home,
There’s none of the Circuits can equal the Home.
When out on the Home, lodgings tempt you in vain,
The railroad brings you back to your chambers again:
On the Home the expenses for posting are small;
Give me that—’tis the Circuit, the cheapest of all.
Home, Home, sweet sweet Home,
There’s none of the Circuits can equal the Home.

Legal Pugilism.—The Chancery Bar has been lately occupied with a question relating to a patent for pins’ heads. The costs are estimated at £5,000. The lawyers are the best boxers, after all. Only let them get a head in chancery, even a pin’s, and see how they make the proprietor bleed.

Policeman picking up a man collapsed in a gutter

“Let us speak of a man as we find him.”


And did you not hear of a jolly young barrister,
At the Old Bailey who used for to ply?
He made out his case with such skill and dexterity,
Twisting each fact, while he glozed o’er each lie.
He stuck at nothing; and that so steadily,
The felons all sought his aid so readily,
And he saved from conviction so many a thief,
That this barrister ne’er was in want of a brief.
What sights of fine rogues he got off by his blarney;
His tongue was so glib, and so specious withal,
He was always retained by the great City forgers
To Newgate from Mansion House sent, or Guildhall.
And often the Press would be gibing and jeering,
But ’twas all one to him, its carping and sneering;
He’d swear black was white in behalf of a thief,
So this barrister ne’er was in want of a brief.
And yet, only think what strange morals have lawyers,
The bar of such conduct think nothing at all;
Whilst should any poor counsel report for a paper,
“To Coventry with him!” that instant they call;
From their mess they’ll expel him, he’ll find, to his sorrow;
But they’ll dine with the housebreaker’s hireling to-morrow!
Then hurrah!—though his client be swindler or thief,—
For the barrister never in want of a brief.

Song for Detectives.—“Let us speak of a man when we find him.

Policeman assisting two young ladies across the road

Linked Sweetness long Drawn out.”—Country Lass (to policeman who takes them over the road at Oxford Street Circus). “I’m so much obliged to you for taking the trouble——”

Gallant Constable. “Lor’ bless yer, miss, I wish the crossin’ was twice as long!”


I’m a little barrister, taking little fees;
Raising knotty little points, and signing little pleas;
Making little motions in a little court;
Causing by my speeches not a little sport.
I’m a little barrister, in my little wig,
Feeling rather little, when looking very big;
No one knows my modesty—but my little self,
For I feel I’m little more than on a little shelf.
I’m a little barrister, in my little gown,
Getting now, I must avow, not a little brown:
As I’m called a junior you would little guess,
I’m fifty and a little more—rather than little less,
I’m a little barrister, in my little home,
Up to which at Camden Town I from chambers roam;
With my little children climbing up my knee,
As with a mutton chop I make a dinner of my tea.
Though annoyed with little notes demanding little bills,
I do my little utmost to conquer little ills;
But often to my countenance there comes a little smile,
As I think that all our troubles last a very little while.

Legal Query.—Is there any precedent for a good practical farmer being styled one of the judges of the land?

Outside the courtroom; defendant meets his lawyer for the first time

Depreciative.Defendant (on bail). “’Im my counsellor! Then blowed if I don’t conduct my own case in pusson!”


Q. What are first fruits?

A. Rhubarb and little green gooseberries.

Q. When is it necessary to commence a fresh suit?

A. When the other has become too ventilating or seedy.

Q. What is a release?

A. To exchange the society of your ugly aunt for that of your pretty cousin.

Q. What is a clerical error?

A. Preaching a three hours’ sermon.

Q. What is a settlement of a conveyance?

A. When an omnibus smashes a cab.

Q. What is the master’s general report?

A. That wages are too high.

Q. Is “What’s that to you,” deemed a sufficient answer?

A. It may be, or may not; but it is likely to be excepted to for impertinence.

Q. Describe the meaning of the term Nunc pro Tunc.

A. It is the general exclamation you make when you are run against by a clumsy person. It generally has the word “stupid” added—ex. gr., “Now then, stupid!”

Q. Give an instance of a “similiter”?

A. You’re another!

Q. What is the meaning of “putting yourself upon the country?”

A. Going to the workhouse.

Q. Where is the Great Seal kept?

A. In the Arctic Ocean. A small specimen may be seen at the Zoological Gardens.

Q. What are “breaches of trust”?

A. Trousers procured on tick.

Blindfolded justice

Offender meeting with his lawyer

Offender (in the course of lengthy explanation). “So I ses to the inspector as I were, as you might say, ill, ’an demanded to be examined by Doctor Jones, an’ the inspector ’e ses as ’ow I must see Doctor Smith, the police doctor. ‘No,’ I ses, ‘you may run me in,’ I ses, ‘but you ain’t goin’ to make me change my medical adviser!’”

An excitable horse

Happy Thought.Nervous Rider. “Look here, policeman! I give this horse in charge!”

[Puts rein in policeman’s hand, and bolts.



Whereas, on certain boughs and sprays
Now divers birds are heard to sing,
And sundry flowers their heads upraise;
Hail to the coming on of Spring!
The songs of those said birds arouse
The memory of our youthful hours,
As green as those said sprays and boughs,
As fresh and sweet as those said flowers.
The birds aforesaid—happy pairs—
Love, ’mid the aforesaid boughs, enshrines
In freehold nests: themselves, their heirs,
Administrators and assigns.
Oh, busiest term of Cupid’s Court,
Where tender plaintiffs actions bring—
Season of frolic and of sport,
Hail, as aforesaid, coming Spring!

Life, we are told, is a trial, but the worst of it is there is no Court of Appeal we can go to in the event of our not being satisfied with the result of it. For myself, I should like uncommonly to move for a new trial.

Briefless Barrister.

Courtroom scene

Wit at a Disadvantage.—“Well, Jackson, you are always here for being drunk, so I shall fine you five shillings.”

“Not got a penny, your worshup.”

“Not a penny, sir!”

“I got only coppers,—‘hot coppers,’ your worshup.”

[He was most promptly and most properly locked up.

The Rule of the Road.Query (from a correspondent).—When a street runs into another street, what is the remedy at law?

The Answer.—Consult a solicitor.

Conscientious Lawyer’s Advice.—Do right; don’t write.

A Juryman of a Size.—A Welsh publican who weighs thirty stone has lately been informed that his bulk will not invalidate him from sitting on juries. “Squashing the verdict” is likely to become a popular feature of the Welsh Assizes.

Motto for the Opponents of Capital Punishment. No noose is good news!

Called to the “Ba.”—The shepherd’s dog.

The Ends of Justice.—A cat-o’-nine-tails.

More judges required. We don’t want to hear so much of Chancery Division as of Chancery multiplication.

Mounted ruffian, stopped by a policeman

Shows his Breeding.Equestrian (to policeman on the look-out for a stolen horse). “‘How did I come by ’im?’ Why, bred ’im myself, to be sure—down at a little place o’ my own.”


I. The Fox who lost his Tail in the Gin.

The Fox stood seized of an estate in trap, and by a device duly executed he left his hairs a remainder in tail.

II. The Fox and Crow.

In this case the Crow was evidently seized of a piece of cheese, with contingent remainder to the Fox, in case she opened her mouth, which, on her doing so, instantly descended to the Fox, who became seized of it.

Prevention of Burglary.—Prospect of a dog and certainty of “the cat.”


Lock the jury up together,
Lock them up the live-long night,
Even in the closest weather!
Is it rational? is it right?
What pretence can lawyers put up
For a rusty rule, but fudge?
Why, a jury when you shut up,
Not as well shut up the judge?

Old lady and friend observing courtroom

Her First Visit to a Police-court.Old Lady. “What a villainous-looking man the prisoner is!”

Friend. “Hush! That’s not the prisoner. That’s the magistrate!”


Burglar’s Ballad. Air—“Those Evening Bells.

Those silent boots! Those silent boots!
When out upon our gay galoots,
’Twill give us coves the bloomin’ jumps,
If we carn’t hear the copper’s clumps!
’Ave bobby’s bluchers passed away?
That there will bust the burglar’s lay!
Wot, silent “slops”—like evening swells?
It’s wus than them electric bells!
No, no! I ’opes, till I am gone,
The bobby’s boots will still clump on.
Their warnin’ sound our bizness soots,
But bust the thought o’ silent boots!

The Windy Side of the Law.”—Which side is this? Go into a solicitor’s office: you’ll soon be able to answer the question when you get near a draught.

The only Company not Limited by Act of Parliament.—Bad company.

Note by our own Irrepressible One.—A solicitor who is struck off the rolls has generally been eating someone else’s bread.

A punting-party setting up their picnic, ignoring TRESPASSERS BEWARE! sign


Courtroom scene

The New Act again. Different Points of View.Magistrate. “You are charged with having been drunk when in charge of a child under the age of seven years.”

Prisoner. “Please, your worship, she was a-takin’ me ’ome.”


SceneThe Central Criminal Court. The usual company assembled, and the place wearing its customary aspect. “Standing room only” everywhere, except in the jury box, which is empty. Prisoner at the bar.

Judge. This is most annoying! Owing to the refusal of the jury to serve, the time of the Bar, the Bench, and I may even add, the prisoner, is wasted! I really don’t know what to do! Mr. Twentybob, I think you appear for the accused?

Counsel for the Defence. Yes, my Lord.

Judge (with some hesitation). Well, I do not for a moment presume to dictate to you, but it certainly would get us out of a serious difficulty if your client pleaded guilty. I suppose you have carefully considered his case, and think it advisable that he should not withdraw his plea?

Counsel for the Defence. No, my lord, I certainly cannot advise him to throw up his defence. It is a serious—a deeply serious—matter for him. I do not anticipate any difficulty in establishing his innocence before an intelligent jury.

Judge. But we can’t get a jury—intelligent or otherwise.

Counsel for the Defence. If no evidence is offered, my client should be discharged.

Counsel for the Prosecution. I beg pardon, but I must set my friend right. Evidence is offered in support of the charge, my lord.

Judge. Yes; but there is no properly constituted body to receive and decide upon its credibility. I am glad that the grand jury (to whom I had the privilege of addressing a few observations upon our unfortunate position) have ignored a larger number of bills than usual; still, the present case is before the court, and I must dispose of it. Can you assist us in any way, Mr. Perplebagge?

Counsel for the Prosecution (smiling). I am afraid not, my lord.

Judge. Well, I suppose I have no alternative but to order the prisoner to be taken back to——

Prisoner. To the place I was in last night? No thankee!—not me! Look here, gemmen all, we knows one another, don’t we? Well, just to oblige you—as Dartmoor ain’t ’arf bad in the summer, and as in course I did do it—I plead guilty!

Judge (with a sigh of relief). Prisoner at the bar; we are infinitely beholden to you!

[Passes regulation sentence with grateful courtesy.

Prisoner brought before chaplain

The Ruling Passion.Prison Chaplain (charged to report on convict’s religious knowledge). “Do you know the Commandments?”

Prisoner. “Yes, Sir.”

Prison Chaplain. “Say the eighth.”

Prisoner (promptly). “Thou shalt do no manner of work; thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter.” &c.

Habes Confitentem Reum.—Suitors write to the papers to complain of the “block in Chancery.” Who but a block (we must ask) would be in Chancery?

The Thief’s Motto.—“Take things quietly.”

Spring Assizes.—Trying weather.

Query.—Would an ideal barrister be a counsel of perfection?

A Proverb Revised.—Too many cooks spoil the—police.

Saying of Solicitors.—November is at best a pettifogger.

An Equity Draftsman.—A lawyer who sketches.

A ridiculous garb

Improved costume for the Metropolitan Police during the great heat of 1893.



Spinster of the Saxon beauty,
At the Grainthorpe Manor mill,
Of this heart you’ve had possession
Since I made my uncle’s will:
Yours the image all engrossing
When I try to read reports,
You, my Amy, am I drawing,
Even in the Chancery Courts.
Ah! that brow as smooth as—vellum—
Ah! those lips vermilion red—
Kisses wherewith I have sealed them
No one ever witnessèd:
I would sue the man who ventured
To deny you dressed with taste,
I would tax his costs who hinted
An “impeachment” of your waist.
Soon the long vacation’s coming,
Soon the weary term will end;
No more writs and affidavits,
No more actions to defend:
I shall take the first conveyance—
Train at five p.m.—express—
I shall count the sluggish moments—
Forty minutes, more or less.
Meet me, cousin, at the station
With the trap that’s duty free,
It can take my rods and gun-case,
We will walk, prochein Amy,
Past the glebe and old inclosure,
Past the deeply mortgaged inn,
On to where the freeholds finish
And the copyholds begin.
There I’ll make my declaration,
There I’ll pause and plead my suit;
Do not let it be “in error,”
Do not be of malice mute;
But “surrender” to your cousin
In the customary way,
And become the donee, dearest;
Of an opal negligée.
I’ve a messuage—recent purchase—
Sixty-eight in Mortmayne Row,
Title good, and unencumbered,
Gas and water laid below;
Come and share it, undisputed
Owner of this heart in fee,
Come and be my junior partner,
And in time we both may see,
Girls, fair copies of their mother,
Boys, the counterpart of me.

Prisoner in the dock


The Magistrate. “Oh!—you admit making counterfeit money then?”

Prisoner (airily). “Well, the fact is, your washup, the supply o’ the genuine article is so extremely limited, and things generally are so very tight commercially, that a poor fellow must do something these times to turn an honest penny!”

“Brief let it be”—as the barrister said in his conference with the attorney.

Woman exiting police station into a hackney carriage

Dignity under Difficulties.Puffec’ Lidy (retiring from the public gaze for the 150th time). “Home, John!”


(Suggestions for alteration and adaptation to Modern Manners and Customs, after the Jackson decision by the Court of Appeal.)

Common Law.—“The tradition of ages shall prevail,” save when it runs counter to the opinions of a leader-writer of a daily-paper.

Equity.—(1.) “No right shall be without a remedy,” save when it is sentimentally suggested that somebody’s right may be somebody else’s wrong.

(2.) “Equity follows the law,” at such a distance that it never comes up with it.

(3.) “Equity is equality,” save when a man’s wife is literally his better half.

(4.) “Where there is equal equity the law must prevail,” in any view it pleases to take at the instance of the Lord Chancellor for the time being.

(5.) “Where the equities are equal the law prevails,” in any course it likes to pursue.

(6.) “Equity looks upon that as done which is agreed to be done,” especially when, after obtaining legal relief, the suitor ultimately finds himself sold.

Contracts.—(1.) “All contracts are construed according to the intentions of the parties,” save where one of them subsequently changes his mind.

(2.) “The construction should be liberal” enough to suit the fancy of the Judge who enforces it.

(3.) “It should be favourable” to a long and angry correspondence in all the principal newspapers.

(4.) “The contract should in general be construed according to the law of the country where made,” but certainly not in particular.

(5.) “That testimony cannot be given to vary, but may to explain a written contract,” save when someone suggests that this practice shall be reversed.

(6.) “He who employs an agent does it himself,” unless it is considered advisable to take an opposite view of the matter.

Parent and Child.—“A father shall have the custody of his children,” except when they get beyond his control and defy his authority.

Landlord and Tenant.—“A landlord has a right to receive his rent,” if the tenant does not spend the money on something else.

Husband and Wife.—“A man has a right to the society of his wife,” when she does not prefer to give her company elsewhere.

Birthright of an Englishman. (Popular traditionally, but strictly speaking supplementary.)—“An Englishman’s house is his castle,” but only the pied à terre of the lawfully wedded sharer of his income.

Old Father Antic.

Lawyers wheeling baby-carriages

Artful Dodger and Charley Bates talking about the director awaiting examination

At the Head of the Profession.—Scene: Prisoners’ waiting room adjoining police-court. (Eminently respectable director awaiting examination.)

Artful Dodger (to Charley Bates). “You’ve been copped for a till—and me for a cly. But ’e’s been copped for a bank—shared somethin’ like six million swag among the lot!”

Charley Bates (in a tone of respectful admiration). “Lor!”

Policeman, directing

“On there! Pass along!” (Exeunt.) Antony and Cleopatra, Act III., Sc. 1.

We scoff at savages who bow down before strange idols, yet we invariably “worship” the bench.

“It is very odd,” said Serjeant Channell to Thessiger, “that Tindal should have decided against me on that point of law which, to me, seemed as plain as A B C.” “Yes,” replied Thessiger, “but of what use is it that it should have been A B C to you, if the judge was determined to be D E F to it?”

A Thought in the Divorce Court.—There is a wide difference between the judge ordinary and an ordinary judge.



(Private and Confidential)


“Doom’d for a certain term to walk the night.”—Hamlet, Act I., Sc. 5.

It being considered in accordance with the spirit of the age, the march of intellect, and the principles of progress, that those persons who are unfortunate enough to come under the unfavourable notice of tribunals established in unenlightened times, should be enabled to avail themselves of systematic arrangements for defeating the coarse and selfish tyranny of the many, an association is in course of formation with the following objects:—

To defend, in the best and most costly manner, all persons who, being assured in the projected society, shall be afflicted by prosecutions.

To supply, with the aid of practised writers, sensation articles to such newspapers as can be induced to accept them, such articles being framed in favour of convicted persons, and designed to produce a popular impression in their favour, by attacking the witnesses against them, vilifying hostile counsel, and ridiculing jurymen.

To procure other articles, in a graver tone, in which every mistake previously made by what is called justice shall be held up as an awful warning, and in which intimidation shall be freely directed against judges, Home Secretaries, and all who are charged with carrying the laws into effect.

To collect, after verdicts have been given, every kind of gossip, rumour, or invention that can discredit the case for the prosecution, and to circulate such things as largely as possible by means of the Press.

Sailor trying to wind a grandfather clock

A salt and battery

To get up petitions in favour of the convicted persons, some of such petitions to be framed so as to command the approbation of those who object to the special form of punishment that may have been awarded, and without reference to the innocence or guilt of the convicted parties.

It is believed, and experience warrants the belief, that by the irregular use of these and similar means a criminal trial will speedily be deprived of its antiquated solemnity and terror, and that the odds in favour of the ultimate escape of the assured will be very heavy indeed.

To the objection of the prejudiced, that such a system is unconstitutional, and tends to the subversion of the rules by which society is now protected, the promoters would reply, that the march of intellect, the spirit of the age, and the principles of progress, render such a cavil futile in the extremest degree.

A more detailed prospectus will speedily be issued with assurance tables prepared for the information of those who, with a wise forethought, look forward to their probably coming into collision with conventional arrangements, but who, owing to the uncertainties of life, may not be aware whether such collision will be occasioned by murder, manslaughter, burglary, highway robbery, garrotting, embezzlement, theft, or any other departure from ordinary rules. The rates will be carefully calculated, and brought within the means of all.

Further information may be obtained either of Jonathan Wild, Esq., Solicitor, Field Lane; or of Messrs. Alibi, Dodge, & Crammer, Private Inquiry Office, Spy Corner, Dirtcheap.

Old lady puts a penny into the slot, automated policeman's arm extends to block the roadway


Put a penny in the slot, and he stops the traffic.

Woman in the witness box


Counsel. “Why are you so very precise in your statement? Are you afraid of telling an untruth?”

Witness (promptly). “No, sir!”

The Lawyer’s Prayer.—The learned gentleman prayed a tales.

Truly Sweet.—“When I am in pecuniary difficulties,” said a pensive bankrupt, “my garden, my flowers, all fresh and sparkling in the morning, console my heart.” “Indeed!” asked his sympathising friend. “I should have thought they would remind you of your trouble, for, like your bills, they are all over dew.”

Unfair!—The overcrowded state of our law courts necessitates in almost every case a well packed jury.

Written agreements should be drawn up as shortly as possible; for parties are sure to agree best between whom there are the fewest words.

Lady and gentleman talking in the street

“I hear you had an action brought against you by a man who broke his collar-bone on your doorstep. How did the case go?”

“Met the same fate as he did.”

“How do you mean?”

“Slipped upon appeal!”


(A long way after “The Throstle”)

Vacation is over, vacation is over,
I know it, I know it, I know it.
Back to the Strand again, home to the Courts again,
Come counsel and clients to go it.
Welcome awaits you, High Court of Justice,
Thousands will flock to you daily.
“You, you, you, you.” Is it then for you,
That we forget the Old Bailey?
Jostling and squeezing and struggling and shoving,
What else were the Courts ever made for?
The Courts ’twixt the Temple and grey Lincoln’s Inn,
They’re not yet entirely paid for!
Now till next year, all of us cry,
We’ll say (for a fee) what we’re bidden.
Vacation is over, is over, hurrah!
And all past sorrow is hidden.

The Female Prerogative Court.—A woman’s will knows no codicil.

The best place for a Police-office.—Beak Street.

Criminal.—Why is a prisoner’s time like an abominable joke? Because it’s past in durance.

Parlourmaid offering Brown a book


(The judge is not at home, and Brown, Q.C., asks permission to write him a note)

Mary Elizabeth Jane. “Would you like this book, sir? Master always uses it when he writes letters!”

[Heavens! it’s an English dictionary!


“Mr. Pickwick envied the facility with which Mr. Peter Magnus’ friends were amused.”—Dickens.

SceneAny Court. TimeAny Trial.

Q. C. What sort of a night was it?

Witness. It was dark. (Laughter.)

Judge. My learned friend hardly expected the night to be light, I should think. (Laughter.)

Junior. Perhaps m’lud, the learned counsel was thinking of a nightlight. (Roars of laughter.)

Q. C. Well, we’ll take it that it was a dark night. You went out for a stroll?

Witness. No, I went for a walk.

Judge. At any rate the witness was walking about.

Witness. No, my lord, I wasn’t walking a “bout.” I was walking fast. (Great Laughter.)

Q. C. You were walking fast. Now did you see anything?

Witness. I saw the prisoner.

Q. C. Well, tell us what he was doing.

Witness. He was doing nothing. (Laughter.)

Judge. How did he do it? (Renewed Laughter.)

Witness. Very busily, my lord. (Laughter.)

Junior. Like a briefless barrister, m’lud. (Roars of laughter.)

Q. C. Did he continue to do nothing long?

Witness. No; he soon seemed to get tired of it.

Q. C. What did he do then?

Witness. He went into a public-house.

Q. C. What for?

Judge. What does my learned friend go into a public-house for? (Great Laughter.)

Q. C. Will you answer my question?

Witness. He went for some rum-shrub.

Q. C. (proud of his acquaintance with slang, and with a knowing look towards the Junior Bar). It was a very “rum plant” the prisoner was engaged on.

[Shrieks of laughter, during which the Court rose, being too convulsed to transact any further business.

Two demonstrators talking


(An echo of the Tichborne case)

Orton Demonstrator. “I don’ care whether he’s Orton or Tishbo’n or Cashtr’ or who he is, bu’ I don’ like t’ see a po’r man kep’ out of ’s prop’ty!!”

Second Orton Demonstrator. “Jesh sho!”

[They retire to refresh.

No Costs.—If you want to enjoy the luxury of law for nothing, all you have to do is to prosecute an inquiry.

Group of urchins accosting a lawyer


“Oh sir, please sir, is this Chancery Lane!”

“It is.”

“Ah! I knowed it was!”

“Then why did you ask?”

“’Cos I wanted to have counsel’s opinion!”


When you, my first brief, were delivered,
Every fibre in me quivered
With delight. I seemed to see
Myself admitted a K.C.;
Piles of briefs upon the table,
More work to do than I was able;
Clients scrambling for advice,
Then Lord Chancellor in a trice.
I seized my virgin pencil blue,
Marked and perused you through and through
The story brief, instructions short,
Defendant in a county court,
It needed not an ounce of sense
To see that you had no defence.
But, erudite in English law,
I fashioned bricks without the straw.
Around my chamber-floor I sped,
Harangued the book-case on each head;
Demosthenes and Cicero
On hearing me had cried a go.
Then I must own that I was nettled—
Out of court the case was settled.
All my points were left unmade,
And the fee is left unpaid.

When may a lawyer’s clerk be considered most captivating? When he’s engrossing.

Policeman accosting straitjacketed street performer


Policeman (suddenly, to street performer). “Now, then! just you move on, will yer?”


(By one of the Briefless)

Member of the Upper Bar (perusing Assize List). Shall I go round this time? Hum. Let me see. “Muddeford”—can get a day’s hunting there, I think. “Wandsbury”—go over to the Chilstons for Sunday, and have a jolly afternoon with Lily. “Swanston”—wouldn’t do any harm to go and look up Uncle George. “Leamouth”—excellent quarters at hotel there; fair dinner, too. “Deddingham”—good murder case; shouldn’t like to miss it. Yes, I think I’ll go round as far as that, and get back to town in time for the boat-race.”

Reform of the Law.—Chancellors, ex-Chancellors, and King’s Counsel, are members of a society for the reform of the law. They meet and denounce the wickedness of costs, and then hie away to practice. This reminds us of a passage in Borrow’s Gipsies of Spain:—“And now, my dears,” says the head of the family to the younger branches—“now you have said your prayers, go out and steal.”

Lawyers playing leap-frog


“Now then, Latitat, tuck in your six-and-eightpenny!”


(A report of the future)

The report that the Flashaway divorce suit is postponed is unfounded. It will commence on Tuesday as advertised. There are still a few gallery seats to be obtained at five guineas each.

At Bow Street yesterday, John Jones, a costermonger, was summoned for having obstructed the crowd waiting outside the pit of the Divorce Court. Lady Hightone having given evidence in support of the charge, the defendant explained that he was merely trying to get his barrow through the crowd on his way from Covent Garden.

The magistrate said that the pleasure-seeking public must be protected, and fined him five pounds and costs.

At the same court, the Earl of Blankley was charged with having driven a motor car to the public danger, and further with having run down a boy with fatal result.

His lordship explained that he was co-respondent in a divorce suit, and was on his way to the Law Courts when the accident occurred. The speed may have been a little excessive.

The magistrate said, that bearing in mind the public character of the business on which the defendant was engaged, he would discharge him on payment of half-a-crown and the funeral expenses.

The fine was at once paid.

A tiny puppy


Another culprit.

At the New Law Courts.—The cry of the solicitor who has to go to the top story to transact business is, “Please give us a lift.” The solicitor’s lift, if introduced, will be called a conveyancer.

A Very Bad Judge.—The man who tries his friends.

Motto for a Man Reprieved from the Gallows.—No noose is good news.

Strange Sort of Business.—Lawyers sometimes take a different view of things from other persons; so perhaps they may understand how a stationer can think it is to his advantage to give this public notice in his window,—“Deeds abstracted.”

The law-courts as a circus

“All in! all in! walk up, ladies!—just a going to begin! None of your shams here, but real bullet-headed murderers! All in! all in!”


The barristers of England, how hungrily they stand
About the Hall of Westminster, with wig, and gown, and band;
With brief bag full of dummies and fee book full of oughts,
Result of the establishment of the new county courts.
The barristers of England, how listlessly they sit,
Expending on each other a small amount of wit:
Without the opportunity of doing something worse,
By talking nonsense at the cost of some poor client’s purse.
The barristers of England, how when they get a cause,
They (some of them) will disregard all gentlemanly laws;
And bullying the witnesses upon the adverse side.
Will do their very utmost the honest truth to hide.
The barristers of England, how with sang froid sublime,
They undertake to advocate two causes at one time;
And when they find it is a thing impossible to do,
They throw one client overboard, but take the fees of two.
The barristers of England, how rarely they refuse,
The party they appear against with coarseness to abuse;
Feeling a noble consciousness no punishment can reach
The vulgar ribaldry they call the “privilege of speech.”
The barristers of England, how often they degrade
An honourable calling to a pettifogging trade,
And show how very slight the lines of separation are,
Between the cabman’s licence, and “the licence of the bar.”
The barristers of England, how, if they owe a grudge,
They try with insolence to goad a poor assistant-judge;
And after having bullied him, their bold imposture clench,
By talking of their high respect for the judicial bench.
The barristers of England, how sad it is to feel
That rant will pass for energy, and bluster goes for zeal;
But ’tis a consolation that ’mid their ranks there are
Sufficient gentlemen to save the credit of the bar.

Old man in the dock

Aged Criminal (who has just got a life sentence). “Oh, me lud, I shall never live to do it!”

Judge (sweetly). “Never mind. Do as much of it as you can!”


Q. What is a feme sole?

A. A lady’s boot that has lost its fellow.

From Scotland Yard.—Our police force, it has been observed, is deficient in height. The reason is plain. Tall policemen are discouraged, because they might look over things.

A Tight Fit.—A state of coma, which bobbies are too apt to confound with apoplexy.

A Special Plea.—A young thief who was charged the other day with picking pockets, demurred to the indictment, “for, that, whereas he had never picked pockets, but had always taken them just as they came.”

Justice admonishing barristers

Drawing the Line.Judge. “Remove those barristers. They’re drawing!”

Chorus of Juniors. “May it please your ludship, we’re only drawing—pleadings.”

[“Mr. Justice Denman said that he saw a thing going on in court that he could not sanction. He saw gentlemen of the bar making pictures of the witness. Let it be understood that he would turn out any gentleman of the bar who did so in future.”—Daily Paper.]


Oh! take away my wig and gown,
Their sight is mock’ry now to me:
I pace my chambers up and down,
Reiterating “Where is he?”
Alas! wild echo, with a moan,
Murmurs above my fever’d head:
In the wide world I am alone;
Ha! ha! my only client’s—dead.
In vain the robing room I seek;
The very waiters scarcely bow;
Their looks contemptuously speak,
“He’s lost his only client now.”
E’en the mild usher, who of yore,
Would hasten when his name I said,
To hand in motions, comes no more,
He knows my only client’s dead.
Ne’er shall I, rising up in court,
Open the pleadings of a suit:
Ne’er shall the judges cut me short,
While moving them for a compute.
No more with a consenting brief
Shall I politely bow my head;
Where shall I run to hide my grief?
Alas! my only client’s dead.
Imagination’s magic power
Brings back, as clear as clear can be,
The spot, the day, the very hour,
When first I sign’d my maiden plea.
In the Exchequer’s hindmost row,
I sat, and some one touch’d my head,
He tendered ten-and-six, but oh!
That only client now is dead.
In vain, I try to sing—I’m hoarse:
In vain I try to play the flute,
A phantom seems to flit across,—
It is the ghost of a compute.
I try to read—but all in vain;
My chambers listlessly I tread;
Be still, my heart; throb less, my brain;
Ho! ho! my only client’s dead.
I think I hear a double knock;
I did—alas! it is a dun.
Tailor—avaunt! my sense you shock;
He’s dead! you know I had but one!
What’s this they thrust into my hand?
A bill returned!—ten pounds for bread!
My butcher got a large demand;
I’m mad! my only client’s dead.


Chamber Practice.Messenger (from studious party in the floor below). “If you please, sir, master’s compliments, and he says he’d be much obliged if you’d let him know when the repairs will be finished, for the knocking do disturb him so!”

Reform your Lawyers’ Bills.—There is one consolidation of the statutes that would be very useful—to make them so solid that no lawyer could drive a coach-and-six through them.

Two gentlemen talking

First Litigant. “I’m bankruptcy. What are you?”

Second L. “I’m divorce.”

First L. “Then you stand lunch!”


(Fragment from a romance not entirely imaginary)

Scene.A corridor in the Royal Courts. Eminent counsel in conversation with estimable solicitor and respected client.

Client. I am rather sorry, sir, that you could not conduct my case in person.

Coun. So am I. I took a deal of trouble in preparing the argument I proposed to advance, and it was a great disappointment to me that I was unable to deliver it in person.

Solic. But your junior, sir, represented you to perfection.

Coun. I am rejoiced to hear it. I give every credit to my young and learned friend, and am pleased to think that when we met in consultation I was able to choose the right line of policy.

Solic. Besides, if you were not with us, your retainer prevented you from being against us. And that was a distinct advantage.

Coun. You are most flattering, and too kind.

Solic. Not at all; and I am sure my client agrees with me?

Client. Well, of course I would rather have had the assistance of silk, although your junior no doubt did his best.

Coun. I am sure he did. And now, gentlemen, is there anything further I can do for you?

Solic. Thank you very much—I think not. You got up your case, consulted with your junior and if you were prevented from putting in an appearance in the Court itself, were there in spirit. Besides, I repeat it was a good thing for us that you did not join the Bar of the other side. Thank you very much indeed, sir. Good day.

Coun. Good day. (He prepares to walk off, when, noticing a movement of the solicitor, he stops.) You are sure I can do nothing more for you?

Solic. Oh, it’s scarcely worth mentioning. But perhaps you would not mind returning your fee.

Coun. With the greatest pleasure! (Hands over a bag of gold and exit.)

Client. Well, really, that seems to me very generous! Isn’t it rather unusual?

Solic. Unusual! Oh dear no! Why, it’s the practice of the whole profession!


Barrister and old lady talking

A Rising Junior.Old Lady (at the Law Courts). “Could you kindly direct me, sir, to——”

Young Briefless. “My dear madam, I’m a perfect stranger myself—don’t think I’ve been in a court for the last twenty years!”

Barrister with bag

His First!Constable (suspiciously). “That bag, sir—does it contain——?”

Little Barrister. “My brief!”


Sir,—A “Barrister” who lately wrote to the Times, in order to draw public attention to the existing anomalies in the Law of Divorce, omitted all mention of one of its most glaring absurdities. Allow me to state a case in point. Mr. A. runs away with Mrs. B., very good, I mean, of course very bad; well, Mrs. A. sues for a divorce from Mr. A., and obtains an order for alimony pendente lite. Mr. A. objects to pay this amount for the support of his wife, whereupon the Judge “orders an attachment to issue.” Now, sir, if it be, as it certainly is, in the power of the Judge Ordinary to order Mr. A.’s attachment to Issue, why should he not be able judicially to order Mr. A.’s attachment to Wife? I remain, sir, yours thoughtfully.

A Revising Barrister.

Courtroom scene


Judge (testily, to persistent junior). “Sir, if you don’t know how to behave as a gentleman in court, I can’t teach you!”

Junior (pointedly). “Quite so, my lud, quite so!”



Among the cheap furniture projects, is a tempting offer to supply everything necessary for a barrister’s chambers for five pounds. We have made a rough calculation in our minds of the meubles; and the following, we should say, is about the estimate that the advertisers form of


A mahogany chair, stuffed with hay, for the learned barrister0100
A japan chair, for the learned barrister’s clerk030
A table to hold a plate and a mug, for the learned barrister080
A foot-and-a-half wide by five-feet-six long French bedstead0130
A hay mattress for ditto050
A superior feather-bed, warranted best damaged quills150
Two blankets in one070
A superior brown quilt030
Six yards of calico, to fold into a pair of sheets050
A yard of matting for the learned barrister’s sitting-room040
A pint tea-kettle006
A wig-box, the wig to be hired when wanted040
Two yards of black stuff, to hang up to look like a gown030
A pair of endorsed dummies, as briefs016
A blue bag and white stock020
A fender and one fire-iron040
A coal-scoop010
A set of backs of old books, labelled “Reports”010

Motto for the Long Firm.—“Order is heaven’s first law.”

Three judges



The French Method, reported in a Paris Paper. Close of the Thirteenth Day.

The prisoner was admitted. He was self-possessed, grand, mysterious. He glanced round him with a air of disdain, and jeeringly bowed to the president, who regarded him with hatred. Then the president put questions to him.

The President. You are a thief, a scoundrel, an assassin! You know you committed the crime of which you are accused. You are a villain!

The Prisoner. And you—polite.

[General assent.

The President (with indignation). I will not have you say so! I tell you that I know you entered the room with the pistol. I know that you fired at the deceased. You know you did! Tell me, did you not kill the deceased?

The Prisoner. Why should I tell you? Is not your head of wood, M’sieur le Président.

[General laughter.

The President (with anger). You shall pay dearly for this! You have insulted me—you have insulted the son of my mother—and insulting her son, you have also insulted my mother!

[A deep murmur.

The Prisoner (shuddering). Oh, no! I deny it! I am not so base!

The President. But I tell you you are! I tell you that there is no more wicked man in the world than yourself! You are a poltroon!


The Prisoner. And you call the father of my innocent child a poltroon? It is an outrage!

[General assent.

The President. Your appeal to your innocent babe will avail you nothing. Your innocent babe would be better without such a father! (General Shuddering.) Yes, I mean what I say—you are a craven!

The Prisoner. This is too much! I am no craven! I love my country as a mother loves her son.

[General assent.

M. le Président. You insult France when you call yourself her son! You insult the Republic.

[Loud murmurs.

The Prisoner. It is not for you to judge! I know you, M’sieur le Président. Forty years ago you were in the service of the King!

M. le Président (with a cry). You shall be gagged if you utter such calumnies! You are a knave, a vagabond, a cut-throat! And now it is for the jury to decide. Have you anything to say in your defence?

The Prisoner (to the Jury). I have nothing to say, save that I brand this man as a traitor! As for me I ask for liberty in the name of my infant—in the name of my child! I confess I am no saint, and if I have murdered, why in the name of my innocent babe I beg of you to stretch out your hands to me and save me from the scaffold. I wish to return to the world to watch by the side of a cradle!

The jury, who were deeply affected, then retired, and, after two hours’ absence, returned a verdict of Guilty.

The English Method, reported in a London Paper. End of the First Day.

The prisoner, who was ably represented by counsel, appeared to be deeply sensible of his position. He kept his eyes on the jury during the brief summing up.

His Lordship said that he trusted the jury would give the benefit of any doubt they might feel in the prisoner’s favour. In so serious a case they must not convict unless they were convinced of his guilt. The facts had been carefully laid before them, and he would not say a word to bias them one way or the other. He entreated them to remember that the life of a fellow creature was at stake, and to let that recollection make them desirous to record only what was proper and just. The jury then retired, and, after five minutes’ absence, returned a verdict of Guilty.

Very large dog following old lady


Nervous Old Lady. “O, policeman! policeman! there’s a strange dog that will stick to me, and won’t leave me, and I can’t get rid of him! Couldn’t you take him in charge or something?”

Policeman (who doesn’t like the job). “Very sorry, ma’am,—but we can’t interfere with any dog so long as he’s a follerin’ o’ somebody!”

Two men at the bar (of a public house)


Ragged Party. “Ah! I should never a’ been redooced like this ’ere if it hadn’t been for the lawyers!”

Raggeder Ditto. “And look at me! All through my title-deeds bein’ made into banjos an’ such like! Why, I spent a small fortun’ advertisin’ for one tambourine as was supposed to a’ been made out o’ my grandmother’s marriage-settlement!!!”

Courtroom, almost everyone sleeping

Dreary Counsel (in the course of an hour’s oration). “Gentlemen, you cannot close your eyes—my lord cannot close his—to this important fact!”

Courtroom scene


Country Magistrate. “Prisoner, you’re discharged this time with a caution; but if we see you here again, you’ll get twice as much!!”

New Legal Definition.A Copyholder.—A compositor.

Stout magistrate questioning prisoner

Limited Liability.Worthy Magistrate. “Prisoner, you hear what the policeman says, that you, and some ten or twelve other boys not yet in custody, were seen in the act of demolishing a street lamp; now what have you to say for yourself?”

Prisoner. “So please yer worshop, as there was more nor ten of us engaged in the transagtion, why I pleads limited liability.”

Lawyer and dog outside the butcher’s shop


(See opposite page.)

Legal Distinction.Q. What is the difference between attorney and counsel?

A. One is a lawyer, and the other a jawyer.


Mr. Brisket (the butcher). “Good morning, Mr. Chattles! You’re a lawyer, and I want your advice. What can I do with a man whose dog steals some meat from my shop?”

Mr. Chattles (the lawyer). “Demand the value, or summon the owner.”

Mr. Brisket (triumphantly). “Then I want six-and-sixpence from you, sir, or else I’ll summons yer! Your dog there ran away with a piece of mutton o’ that valley from these premises last night!”

Mr. Chattles. “Hum—ah—h’m! Then if you’ll hand me over twopence, we shall just be square, Mr. Brisket—as my fee for consultation is six-and-eightpence!!”

Down-faced judge


(Respectfully dedicated to the Incorporated Law Society and the Bar Committee)

SceneInterior of the Duke of Ditchwater’s Study. TimeThe near Future. Present—His Grace and Mr. Kosts, the Family Solicitor.

The Duke (finishing a long business talk). And I suppose we had better be represented by Mr. Silvertongue, the Queen’s Counsel?

Mr. Kosts (hesitating). Certainly, your Grace, if it is your express wish.

The Duke (surprised). Why, Mr. Kosts, you surely know of no better representative?

Mr. Kosts (hurriedly). Oh no, your Grace. Mr. Silvertongue is a most eloquent advocate, and has the law at his fingers’ ends; but——

The Duke. Well? Surely we may entrust ourselves in his hands with perfect confidence? Do you not think so?

Mr. Kosts. Oh, certainly, your Grace, certainly. (Hesitating.) But matters have changed a little lately. There has been an alteration in the law.

The Duke. Indeed!

Mr. Kosts. Yes, your Grace. The fact is, that the two branches of the legal profession have been amalgamated.

The Duke. I don’t quite understand.

Mr. Kosts. Why, your Grace, there is now no real distinction between solicitors and barristers, except in name. So I thought, your Grace, that as I could do the work as well, that perhaps I might replace Mr. Silvertongue, and—— You see, it is simply a matter of business.

The Duke (interrupting). Certainly, certainly, Mr. Kosts. No doubt you could represent me admirably. But you see I am afraid Mr. Silvertongue might be a little offended. You know he is a personal friend of mine, and——

Mr. Kosts (promptly, with a bow). I trust your Grace will not give the matter another thought—Mr. Silvertongue shall be instructed. (Preparing to go.) Of course, your Grace’s young relative, the Honourable Charles Needy, will act as junior?

The Duke. Certainly, Mr. Kosts. Give Charley as much of my work as possible. My wife’s cousin, I am afraid, is not overburdened with briefs.

Mr. Kosts. I am afraid not, your Grace. And yet Mr. Needy is a sharp and clever young gentleman. Good day, your Grace!

The Duke (after a moment’s thought, suddenly). One moment, Mr. Kosts. Did I understand you to say that the two branches of the legal profession were amalgamated?

Mr. Kosts. To all intents and purposes, your Grace. You see we can now do all the work of the Bar.

The Duke. And I suppose barristers can act as solicitors—I mean, undertake the same kind of business?

Mr. Kosts (laughing). There is nothing to prevent them, your Grace, save their incapacity.

The Duke (with dignity). No relative of the Duchess, Mr. Kosts, can be incapable!

Mr. Kosts (puzzled). I beg your Grace’s pardon. I do not quite understand——

The Duke. Then I will explain. You tell me that barristers can now act as solicitors. Well, you know the old adage, that “blood is thicker than water.” It is, Mr. Kosts; it is. You will pardon me, I am sure, if I suggest that the connection of your firm with my family has not been unlucrative.

Mr. Kosts. On the contrary, your Grace! I may fairly say that the connection is worth many hundreds a-year to us. We cannot be sufficiently grateful.

The Duke. Pray desist, Mr. Kosts. The matter is one of pure business. It really is not at all a question of gratitude. Well, as I understand you to say that Mr. Needy is quite qualified to undertake solicitor’s work——

Mr. Kosts (blankly). Theoretically, your Grace; theoretically.

The Duke (haughtily). Any relative of the Duchess can reduce theory to practice.

Mr. Kosts (bowing). No doubt, your Grace; no doubt.

The Duke. Well, as I now find that Charley can do the work I have hitherto given to you, Mr. Kosts, I feel that some alteration must be made. Charley is poor, and my relative. So I am sure you will not be offended when for the future I give him the whole of the legal work I used to give to you. You see, after all (as you explained to me just now) it is purely a matter of business!

[Scene closes in upon Mr. Kosts’ discomfiture.

Policeman accosting tramp who has pushed into the queue

Police Tyranny.Policeman (to obtrusive tramp). “Now then, what d’ye mean by shoving yourself in before these poor people out o’ your turn? You stand back or—(thinking deeply)—you shall have such a wash!!”

Courtroom scene

Impracticable.Judge (to witness). “Repeat the prisoner’s statement to you, exactly in his own words. Now, what did he say?”

Witness. “My lord, he said he stole the pig——”

Judge. “Impossible! He couldn’t have used the third person.”

Witness. “My lord, there was no third person!”

Judge. “Nonsense! I suppose you mean that he said, ‘I stole the pig’!”

Witness (shocked). “Oh, my lord! he never mentioned your lordship’s name!”

[Dismissed ignominiously.

Fat man, wife handing him lunchbox

The British Juryman Preparing for the Worst.Wife of his Bussum. “There, my love, I think with what you have had, and this box of concentrated luncheon, you may hold out against any of ’em!”

New Legal Work. (By the author of “In Silk Attire.”)—“The briefless junior; or, plenty of stuff to spare.”

Musical Law.—“Bar’s rest.” Long vacation.

A Laborious Occupation.—Shop-lifting.

A Lawsuit now pending in Tennessee between two families has run for such a length of time, that it takes six men of the strongest memories in the State to remember when it was begun.

Two Mr. Punch justices


(By A. Briefless, Junior)

“Here is something for you, sir,” said a sharp-looking youth, suddenly thrusting into my hand a document.

I quietly put the paper into my pocket without comment (I had no wish to bandy words with the process-server), and reflected that some half-forgotten tailor, or too-long-neglected hatter, was a person of no real delicacy of feeling.

“And will you see to the matter at once?” continued the sharp-looking youth, “as they can’t wait.”

“Certainly,” I replied, with a dignity which I intended should suggest that I had a perfectly fabulous account at Coutts’s. My account at the celebrated banking firm referred to is perfectly fabulous.

“All right, sir. I suppose we shall see you in the morning.”

The youth disappeared, and I journeyed home. As I walked along the Thames Embankment I pondered over the alterations made in our law by the Judicature Acts.

“When I was a younger man,” I murmured to myself, “a copy of a writ, when considered entirely without prejudice, was rather a handsome instrument than otherwise. The direct message from the Sovereign, for instance, used to be very far from ungratifying, although perhaps it would have been better had the greeting been joined to a matter a little less embarrassing, say, than an unsatisfied claim for the value of certain shirts. But nowadays the neat crisp document of the olden time seems to be abandoned for a far more bulky paper—for the packet I have in my pocket!”

However, I threw off my cares, and thought no more of the affair until the next morning, when, putting on my overcoat, I discovered, to my intense astonishment, to my overwhelming joy, that what I had believed to be a writ was actually a brief. I had to sit down on the hall-chair for five minutes to compose myself. My emotion was perfectly painful—it was my first, my maiden brief! The news spread like wildfire through the household, and the distant strains of “Rule, Britannia!” were heard coming from the nursery.

Man in pub

There was but one thing to be done, and I did it. I hurriedly collected all the law-books I possess (Shearwood’s “Abridgment of Real Property,” an odd volume of Stephen’s “Commentaries,” and an early edition of “The Comic Blackstone”), jumped into a hansom, and rattled down to Pump-Handle Court. Arrived there, I handed my brief to my clerk (the sharp-looking youth who had given me the paper turned out to be my clerk), and instructed him to put it in a prominent position in his own room, so that my client, when he arrived, might see it, and conclude that I had so many matters just then in hand that I had not had as yet time to look into his case, which was waiting its turn for consideration with numerous others. I was ashamed to give these instructions, but reflected that it was important, having regard to my professional prospects, that my expected visitor should be kept as long as possible in ignorance of the fact that he was my solitary employer.

“All right, sir,” said my clerk, with a facial gesture which I regret to say savoured of a wink. “He will be here by eleven.”

I now entered my own room. It was rather in disorder. I share my chambers with an intimate friend, and as I am very often away, he sometimes uses my sanctum (entirely with my consent) as a receptacle for empty packing-cases, old cigar-boxes, superfluous window-curtains, and worn-out boots. With the assistance of my clerk, who followed me in, I soon set things to rights, putting on the month-indicator from October to March, filling the inkstand with copying fluid, and removing somebody’s pot-hat from the brows of my bust of the late Lord Chancellor Brougham.

“There, sir, I think that will do now,” said my clerk, with a look of satisfaction, and he left me seated at my desk turning over some dusty brief paper which I had found knocking about in one of the drawers.

My room is a semi-subterranean apartment in a circular tower. I have two small casements looking out upon some gardens, but as I occupy the basement, I can only see the ankles of the passers-by, and am myself free from observation save when some more than usually unruly urchin brings his head level with mine, and makes faces at me through the window.

I repeat I was turning over the dusty brief-paper, and toying with Mr. Shearwood’s very excellent “Abridgment,” when the door was thrown open and my clerk announced, “Someone to see you, sir.”

“You will pardon me,” I said, without looking up, consulting in the meantime the hand-book before me with knitted brows, “but I am engaged for a few moments. I will attend to you directly.”

“Oh, certainly, sir,” replied the new-comer, in the most deferential tone possible; and he took a seat.

I jotted down the incidents of Borough English, frowned as if engaged in deep thought, and then smilingly turned to my visitor, and asked him how I could be of service to him.

“I want you to look into this case, sir,” he began, with a timidity that was as unexpected as it was gratifying—his nervousness gave me confidence.

“By all means,” I responded heartily, dipping a pen into the ink, and putting a fresh sheet of brief-paper over the page I had already used for the incidents of Borough English and a freehand sketch of a British Grenadier, “I shall be glad to hear all about it.”

“I must apologise for intruding upon you, knowing how busy you are, but I thought you would be interested in what I have to place before you.”

“Pray do not apologise,” I hastened to say; and then added, with a little laugh, “I certainly have taken you out of your turn, but then this is our first transaction. I hope it will not be the last.”

“I hope so, too,” replied my client, fervently. “If you will allow me, I will often place things like this before you. I should have come to you earlier only so many gentlemen object to seeing me.”

“Dear me!” I replied, a little surprised. “I suppose some men don’t care to jeopardise their professional reputation by failure. And now, with your permission, I will look into your case.”

“It is here, sir,” he answered, opening a rather large portfolio. “You will notice that these are very beautiful engravings.”

“Certainly,” I returned, making a note on the paper before me; “as you say, most beautiful. No doubt of very considerable value.”

“I am glad you like them, sir. They are forced to be got rid of at an enormous sacrifice.”

“Indeed!” I ejaculated, continuing my notes.

“Yes, sir. They are being sold at something less than cost-price.”

“Really!” And again I jotted down the particulars. Then I said, to show that I comprehended the affair at a glance, “I suppose there has been a dispute about the copyright?”

“No, sir, that’s all right.”

“Ah, to be sure—then there has been a breach of contract?” But finding that this also was not the case, I said, with hearty bonhomie, “Well, my dear sir, as I have made two bad guesses, perhaps you had better tell me what I can do for you.”

My client coughed deferentially, and then produced a paper.

“I beg your pardon, sir, but would you mind signing this?”

I read the document—it ran as follows:—

“To Messrs. Scamp and Vamp.—I hereby agree to purchase one copy of your ‘Pillars of the Law from the Earliest Ages,’ profusely illustrated, in one hundred and fifty-seven monthly parts, at seven shillings and sixpence a part. I further agree to pay for this work annually, at the rate of twelve parts in advance.

There was a solemn and awful pause. Then I drew myself up to my full height, and in a voice of thunder ordered him out! I know not how he disappeared—in a moment he had vanished, portfolio and all!

Rather fatigued after my late exertions, I called to my clerk, and with weary haughtiness desired him to bring me my brief, as I wished to “glance through the papers.”

“Your brief, sir?” he returned. “Oh, I should have told you, sir, that, while you were talking to the man with the engravings, they called to see you. They said they were in a hurry, and as you were engaged, they would take it to some one else.”

“Take it to some one else!” My maiden brief!

At this point I must pause—for the moment, I can write no more!

A. Briefless, Junior.

Two safe-breakers


[“Two burglars, charged with burglary, frankly admitted that the reason they wore gloves was because they didn’t want to leave their finger impressions for identification purposes.”—Daily Paper.]

First Cultured Safe-Breaker. “Harris.”

Second C. S.-B. “Sir.”

First C. S.-B. “Have you got your gloves on?”

Second C. S.-B. “Yes, sir.”

First C. S.-B. “Then take the kiver off!”

In the lawyer’s office


Legal Adviser (speaking technically). “In short, you want to meet your creditors.”

Innocent Client. “Hang it, no! Why, they’re the very people I’m most anxious to avoid!”

Barrister winding up his speech


“Now, gentlemen of the jury, I throw myself upon your impartial judgment as husbands and fathers, and I confidently ask, does the prisoner look like a man who would knock down and trample upon the wife of his bosom? Gentleman, I have done!”

A machine (in the form of a blindfolded justice): to obtain a verdict put a penny in the slot


No more exorbitant fees! No more law! No more trials!

Old lady and policeman

Exclusion.Policeman (at the Law Courts). “Strict orders to-day, m’m. No one to be admitted unless they’re in wig an’—that is—beg pardon, m’m—barristers, m’m—only barristers!”


Sir Joshua Dogberry. “If you meet a ticket-of-leave man, you may suspect him, by virtue of your office, to be no true man; and, for such kind of men, the less you meddle or make with them the better for your honesty.”—Much Ado about Nothing.

I don’t get this one so I can’t do an informative alt-text


Cold but in-vig-orating.


Old Style.Nervous Witness about to leave the box, when his progress is arrested by Counsel on the other side.

Counsel (sharply). Now, sir, do know the value of an oath?

Witness (taken aback). Why, yes—of course.

Coun. (pointing at him). Come, no prevarication! Do you understand the value, or do you not?

Wit. (confused). If you will allow me to explain——

Coun. Come, sir, you surely can answer yes or no—now which is it?

Wit. But you will not let me explain——

Coun. Don’t be impertinent, sir! Explanation is unneeded. Mind, you have been sworn, so if you don’t know the value of an oath, it will be the worse for you.

Lawyer in boxing gloves


“In these days of conflicts between counsel, I propose to make a few additions to my usual forensic costume.”—Extract from a Letter of Mr. Welnown Kaysee, K.C., to a young friend.

Wit. But you won’t let me speak.

Coun. Won’t let you speak! Why, I can’t get a word out of you. Now, sir, in plain English—are you a liar or not?

Wit. (appealing to Judge). Surely, my lord, he has no right to speak to me like this?

Judge. Be good enough to answer the counsel’s questions. I have nothing to do with it.

Coun. Now sir—once more; are you a liar, or are you not?

Wit. I don’t think that’s the way you would speak to me——

Coun. Don’t bully me, sir! You are here to tell us the truth; or as much of it as you can.

Wit. But surely you ought to——

Coun. Don’t tell me what I ought to do, sir. Again, are you a liar, or are you not?

Wit. Please tell me how I am to reply to such a question?

Coun. You are not there to ask me questions, sir, but to answer my questions to you.

Wit. Well, I decline to reply.

Judge (to Witness). Now you had better be careful. If you do not answer the questions put to you, it will be within my right to send you to gaol for contempt of court.

Coun. Now you hear what his lordship says, and now, once more, are you a liar or are you not?

Wit. (confused). I don’t know.

Coun. (to Jury). He doesn’t know! I need ask nothing further!

[Sits down.

Foreman (to Judge). May we not ask, my lord, how you consider this case is being conducted.

Judge. With pleasure, gentlemen! I will repeat what I remarked to the Master quite recently. I think the only word that will describe the matter is “noble.” Distinctly noble!

[Scene closes in upon despair of Witness.

New Style.Arrogant Witness about to leave the box, when his progress is arrested by Counsel on the other side.

Coun. I presume, sir, that——

Wit. (sharply). You have no right to presume. Ask me what you want, and have done with it.

Coun. (amiably). I think we shall get on better—more quickly—if you kindly attend to my questions.

Wit. Think so? Well, it’s a matter of opinion. But, as I have an engagement in another place, be good enough to ask what you are instructed to ask and settle the matter off-hand.

Coun. If you will allow me to speak——

Wit. Speak!—I like that! Why, I can’t get a rational word out of you!

Coun. (appealing to Judge). Surely, my lord, he has no right to speak to me like this?

Judge. Be good enough to attend to the witness. I have nothing to do with it.

Wit. (impatiently). Now, sir, am I to wait all day?

Coun. (mildly). I really venture to suggest that is not quite the tone to adopt.

Wit. Don’t bully me, sir! I am here to answer any questions you like to put, always supposing that you have any worth answering.

Coun. But come—surely you ought to——

Wit. I am not here to learn my duty from you, sir. You don’t know your subject, sir. How long have you been called?

Coun. I decline to reply.

Judge (to Counsel). Now you had really better be careful. I wish to treat the Bar with every respect, but if you waste any more time I shall feel strongly inclined to bring your conduct before your Benchers.

Wit. You hear what his lordship says. What are you going to do next?

Coun. (confused). I don’t know.

Wit. (to Jury). He doesn’t know! I needn’t stay here any longer.

[“Stands” down.

Judge (to Jury). May I ask you, gentlemen, how you consider this case is being conducted?

Foreman of the Jury. With pleasure, my lord. We were all using the same word which exactly describes the situation. We consider the deportment of the witness “noble.” Distinctly noble.

[Scene closes in upon despair of Counsel.

Lady speaking to urchin

Lady (solemnly). “When you see a boy always loafing round street corners, what place in life do you suppose he is fitting himself for?”

Boy. “To be a policeman, mum!”

Tomkins reaching to check his wallet is still there

Tomkins looking too long at the cartes de visite of the lawyers in Chancery Lane, is seized with a sudden involuntary panic. “Don’t be alarmed, my boy,” said his friend Wigsby, who happened to be passing at the time, “Your coat pockets are quite safe; we don’t do it that way!”

Lady’s hair styled like a lawyer’s wig


Suitable for ladies called to the bar (as they soon will be, of course).


Air“The Sea! the Sea!”

The Fee! the fee! the welcome fee!
The new! the fresh! the scarce to me!
Without a brief, without a pound,
I travel the circuit round and round.
I draw with the pens at each assize,
If ink before me handy lies.
I’ve got a fee! I’ve got a fee!
I’ve got what I so seldom see;
With the judge above, and the usher below,
I wait upon the last back row.
Should a silk gown come with argument deep,
What matter! I can go to sleep.
I love (oh, how I love) to bide
At some fierce, foaming, senior’s side.
When every mad word stuns the court,
And the judges wish he’d cut it short,
And tell him the case of So-and-So,
His argument doth to atoms blow.
I never hear Chancery’s dull, tame jaw,
But I love the fun of the Common Law,
And fly to the Exchequer, Bench and Pleas,
As a mouse flies back to a Cheshire cheese!
For the cheese it always seem’d to me,
Especially if I got a fee!
My whiskers are white, my head is bald,
Since the dreary hour when I was call’d.
The Steward he whistled as out he told
The fees at my call from a packet of gold.
And never was heard of a step so wild
As took to the bar the briefless child.
I’ve liv’d since then, in term and out,
Some thirty years, or thereabout;
Without a brief, but power to range
From court to court by way of change.
And death, whenever he comes to me,
Will find me most likely without a fee.

Two clerks talking

A Sore Point.First Articled Clerk. “Well how did your private theatricals go off?”

Second Ditto. “Pre’y well. My moustache went off at once, but nothing would induce the pistol to go off in the duel scene!”—(Dropping the subject.)—“How’s your mother?”

Song for the Burglar to his “Pal” who “Peached.”—“Never again with you, Robbin’.”

Suitors’ Sufferings.—As law is to rheumatism, so is equity to gout. The fusion of law and equity may be said to form the counterpart of rheumatic gout.

Two judges talking over dinner

Behind the Scenes.”—First Judge. “Breach of promise still running?”

Second Judge. “Going wonderfully. No standing room. “What are you doing?”

First Judge. “A building contract. Wretched business: not a soul in the place!”

A Spring Circuit.—Jumping through the hoops held for the riders round a circus.

Suitable Site for a Police “Court.”—The area.


At the top of the street many lawyers abound,
Below, at the bottom, the barges are found:
Fly, honesty, fly to a safer retreat,
For there’s craft in the river, and craft in the street.

Three lawyers bowing in farewell



End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of Mr. Punch in Wig and Gown, by Various


***** This file should be named 48339-h.htm or *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:

Produced by Chris Curnow and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at (This file was
produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive)

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions will
be renamed.

Creating the works from print editions not protected by U.S. copyright
law means that no one owns a United States copyright in these works,
so the Foundation (and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United
States without permission and without paying copyright
royalties. Special rules, set forth in the General Terms of Use part
of this license, apply to copying and distributing Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works to protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm
concept and trademark. Project Gutenberg is a registered trademark,
and may not be used if you charge for the eBooks, unless you receive
specific permission. If you do not charge anything for copies of this
eBook, complying with the rules is very easy. You may use this eBook
for nearly any purpose such as creation of derivative works, reports,
performances and research. They may be modified and printed and given
away--you may do practically ANYTHING in the United States with eBooks
not protected by U.S. copyright law. Redistribution is subject to the
trademark license, especially commercial redistribution.



To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full
Project Gutenberg-tm License available with this file or online at

Section 1. General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works

1.A. By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement. If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or
destroy all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your
possession. If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a
Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound
by the terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the
person or entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph

1.B. "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark. It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement. There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement. See
paragraph 1.C below. There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this
agreement and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works. See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C. The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the
Foundation" or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection
of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. Nearly all the individual
works in the collection are in the public domain in the United
States. If an individual work is unprotected by copyright law in the
United States and you are located in the United States, we do not
claim a right to prevent you from copying, distributing, performing,
displaying or creating derivative works based on the work as long as
all references to Project Gutenberg are removed. Of course, we hope
that you will support the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting
free access to electronic works by freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm
works in compliance with the terms of this agreement for keeping the
Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with the work. You can easily
comply with the terms of this agreement by keeping this work in the
same format with its attached full Project Gutenberg-tm License when
you share it without charge with others.

1.D. The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work. Copyright laws in most countries are
in a constant state of change. If you are outside the United States,
check the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this
agreement before downloading, copying, displaying, performing,
distributing or creating derivative works based on this work or any
other Project Gutenberg-tm work. The Foundation makes no
representations concerning the copyright status of any work in any
country outside the United States.

1.E. Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1. The following sentence, with active links to, or other
immediate access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear
prominently whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work
on which the phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed,
performed, viewed, copied or distributed:

  This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and
  most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no
  restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it
  under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this
  eBook or online at If you are not located in the
  United States, you'll have to check the laws of the country where you
  are located before using this ebook.

1.E.2. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is
derived from texts not protected by U.S. copyright law (does not
contain a notice indicating that it is posted with permission of the
copyright holder), the work can be copied and distributed to anyone in
the United States without paying any fees or charges. If you are
redistributing or providing access to a work with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the work, you must comply
either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 or
obtain permission for the use of the work and the Project Gutenberg-tm
trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.3. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any
additional terms imposed by the copyright holder. Additional terms
will be linked to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works
posted with the permission of the copyright holder found at the
beginning of this work.

1.E.4. Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5. Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6. You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including
any word processing or hypertext form. However, if you provide access
to or distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format
other than "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official
version posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site
(, you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense
to the user, provide a copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means
of obtaining a copy upon request, of the work in its original "Plain
Vanilla ASCII" or other form. Any alternate format must include the
full Project Gutenberg-tm License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7. Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8. You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
provided that

* You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
  the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
  you already use to calculate your applicable taxes. The fee is owed
  to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he has
  agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the Project
  Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Royalty payments must be paid
  within 60 days following each date on which you prepare (or are
  legally required to prepare) your periodic tax returns. Royalty
  payments should be clearly marked as such and sent to the Project
  Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the address specified in
  Section 4, "Information about donations to the Project Gutenberg
  Literary Archive Foundation."

* You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
  you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
  does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
  License. You must require such a user to return or destroy all
  copies of the works possessed in a physical medium and discontinue
  all use of and all access to other copies of Project Gutenberg-tm

* You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of
  any money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
  electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days of
  receipt of the work.

* You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
  distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9. If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work or group of works on different terms than
are set forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing
from both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and The
Project Gutenberg Trademark LLC, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm
trademark. Contact the Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.


1.F.1. Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
works not protected by U.S. copyright law in creating the Project
Gutenberg-tm collection. Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may
contain "Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate
or corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other
intellectual property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or
other medium, a computer virus, or computer codes that damage or
cannot be read by your equipment.

of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal

defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from. If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium
with your written explanation. The person or entity that provided you
with the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in
lieu of a refund. If you received the work electronically, the person
or entity providing it to you may choose to give you a second
opportunity to receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund. If
the second copy is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing
without further opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4. Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS', WITH NO

1.F.5. Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of
damages. If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement
violates the law of the state applicable to this agreement, the
agreement shall be interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or
limitation permitted by the applicable state law. The invalidity or
unenforceability of any provision of this agreement shall not void the
remaining provisions.

1.F.6. INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in
accordance with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the
production, promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works, harmless from all liability, costs and expenses,
including legal fees, that arise directly or indirectly from any of
the following which you do or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this
or any Project Gutenberg-tm work, (b) alteration, modification, or
additions or deletions to any Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any
Defect you cause.

Section 2. Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of
computers including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers. It
exists because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations
from people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need are critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come. In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future
generations. To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation and how your efforts and donations can help, see
Sections 3 and 4 and the Foundation information page at

Section 3. Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service. The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541. Contributions to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent permitted by
U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is in Fairbanks, Alaska, with the
mailing address: PO Box 750175, Fairbanks, AK 99775, but its
volunteers and employees are scattered throughout numerous
locations. Its business office is located at 809 North 1500 West, Salt
Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887. Email contact links and up to
date contact information can be found at the Foundation's web site and
official page at

For additional contact information:

    Dr. Gregory B. Newby
    Chief Executive and Director

Section 4. Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment. Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States. Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements. We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance. To SEND
DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any particular
state visit

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States. U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses. Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including checks, online payments and credit card donations. To
donate, please visit:

Section 5. General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works.

Professor Michael S. Hart was the originator of the Project
Gutenberg-tm concept of a library of electronic works that could be
freely shared with anyone. For forty years, he produced and
distributed Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of
volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as not protected by copyright in
the U.S. unless a copyright notice is included. Thus, we do not
necessarily keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.