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Title: Sporting Dogs

Their Points: and Management; in Health, and Disease

Author: Frank Townend Barton

Release Date: August 21, 2014 [eBook #46642]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8



E-text prepared by Giovanni Fini, Greg Bergquist,
and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team
from page images generously made available by
Internet Archive/American Libraries


Note: Images of the original pages are available through Internet Archive/American Libraries. See






Photo by T. Fall, Baker St.]


Head of Bloodhound Champion Sultan.





Veterinary Surgeon to the Gamekeepers' Kennel Association Veterinary Adviser to the "Gamekeepers' Gazette"



[All Rights Reserved]


Surely the lines—

"Trust, oh! trust me, I will be
Still true for ever, true to thee."

have never been more practically demonstrated, than in the following extract, from an account of a poaching affray, published in the Gamekeepers' Gazette.

"The dead gamekeeper's dog was to be seen by the roadside restlessly waiting for its master, while he lay in a cottage fatally riddled with shot."


Exhibitors, and Fanciers
throughout the King's Dominions



This work—Sporting Dogs: Their Points and Management in Health and Disease—has been prepared as a companion volume to those already published, viz., Non-Sporting Dogs: Their Points, etc., and Toy Dogs, in response to numerous inquiries from readers of those volumes, asking for a work upon Sporting Dogs, to complete the series, at a proportionate price.

The Points of the various breeds used by Sportsmen have been freely discussed, supplemented by illustrations from photographs of the most celebrated animals known.

Kennel Management, The Management of Hounds, Diseases, Accidents and Simple Operations forms an important section of the work—features that should render the book of far greater practical utility than one dealing solely with the different varieties of dogs.


Both Author and Publisher, will be satisfied, if it meets with the hearty reception accorded to the companion publications.

In conclusion, the Author wishes to express most hearty thanks to all Breeders and Exhibitors who have so generously supplied him with Photographs: to Our Dogs Gazette; The Kennel Gazette; The Gamekeeper, etc.



Chapter I 3
The Pointer
Head—Colour—Eyes—Back—Hind-quarters—Faults—Value of Points.
Chapter II 18
The English Setter
Laverack Setters—Coat—Colour—Skull—Ears—Eyes—Neck—Back-quarters—Tail—Fore-limbs—Weight—Faults.
The Irish Setter
The Black=and=Tan Setter (Gordon Setter)
Eyes—Ears—Head—Neck—Shoulders and Chest—Fore-limbs—Feet—Back—Loins—Stern—Value of Points.
Chapter III 32
International Gundog League
Pointer and Setter Society
Rules—Rules for the Trial Meetings.
Chapter IV 42
Flat-coated: Coat—Head—Ears—Eyes—Chest— Neck—Back—Loins—Limbs—Faults.
Rules of the Retriever Society
Chapter V 66
General Characteristics of the different Varieties—Temperament—Coat—Colour—Head—Ears—Fore-limbs—Body.
The Clumber
The Sussex Spaniel
Colour—Coat—Weight—Head—Eyes—Ears—Nose—Neck—Shoulders and Chest—Fore-limbs—Faults.
Field Spaniels
The Cocker Spaniel
Head—Ears—Coat—Colour—Club Prices—Faults.
The Irish Water Spaniel
Colour—Nose—Skull—Ears—Neck—Coat—Height—General Appearances—Faults—Weight—Club.
The English Water Spaniel
Chapter VI 94
International Gundog League
Rules—Regulations (subject to alteration).
Chapter VII 102
Training Spaniels
Chapter VIII 113
The Foxhound
Packs of Foxhounds.
The Otterhound
The Deerhound
Head—Ears—Neck—Shoulders—Stern—Eyes—Body—Legs—Feet—Coat—Colour—Height—Weight—Points required.
Chapter IX 141
The Bloodhound
Head—Eyes—Legs—Feet—Chest—Shoulder—Neck—Ribs—Back—Loins—Hind-quarters—Limbs—Tail—Coat—Colour—Height—Club—Association of Bloodhound Breeders.
Irish Wolfhounds
[xii]The Greyhound
The Whippet
Coat—Constitution—Fore-limbs—Hind-quarters— Feet—Tail—General Appearance of the Whippet.
Chapter X 179
The Borzois or Russian Wolfhound
The Beagle
English Beagle Club—Points—American Beagle Club—Points.
Chapter XI 194
The Dachshund
The Basset-hound
Colour—Coat—Head—Fore-quarters—Chest—Club Rules of Basset Club—Points of Basset Hound (smooth)—General Appearance—Points of the Basset-hound (rough).
Chapter XII 239
[xiii]The Fox Terrier
Standard of Points recommended by the Fox Terrier Club.
Rough Fox Terrier
Scale of Points—Disqualifying Points.
Chapter XIII 269
The Skye Terrier
The Bedlington Terrier
History—Height—Weight—Colour—Nose—Coat—Skull—Body—Tail—Limbs and Quarters—Club.
The Scottish Terrier
Coat—Height—Colour—Body—Neck—Chest—Limbs and Feet—Ears—Eyes—Head—Hair—Muzzle—Height—Clubs.
The Irish Terrier
Coat—Colour—Neck—Body—Limbs and Feet—Weight—Club—Prices.
The Airedale Terrier
Standard of the Airedale Terrier Club—Points—Rules and Regulations.
The White West Highland Terrier
Description of.
[xiv]The Welsh Terrier
Head—Neck—Arms—Forearms—Back and Loins—Tail—First and Second Thighs—Feet—Club.
The Dandie=Dinmont
History—Head—Neck—Tail—Fore and Hind limbs—Colour—Society—Standard of Points of Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club—Rules for Breeders' Challenge Cup—Rules for the Tiddeman Trophies—Rules for the Ringwood Club—Breeders' Cups, etc.
Chapter XIV 333
The Afghan Greyhound
Skull—Eyes—Ears—Neck—Colour—Weight—Height at Shoulder—Limbs.
The Lurcher
The Training, Use, and Abuse, of Night=Dogs
Chapter XV 351
The Gamekeepers' Kennel Association
Chapter XVI 363
Feeding Sporting Dogs
Conditioning Dogs
Chapter XVII 369
Specific Ailments
Distemper—Rabies—Blood Poisoning—Rheumatism—Chest Founder or Kennel Lameness.
Chapter XVIII 384
Constitutional Skin Diseases
Eczema—Boils—Herpes—Nettle Rash.
Chapter XIX 389
External Parasites and Parasitic Skin Diseases
Fleas—Pediculi or Lice—Ringworm—Sarcoptic Mange—Follicular Mange.
Chapter XX 394
Diseases of the Gullet, Stomach, Bowels, and Digestive Glands
Disease of the Gullet—Inflammation of the Stomach—Twist and Intussusception of the Bowels—Inflammation of the Bowels—Vomiting—Worms—Diarrhœa—Dysentery—Hæmorrhage—Hæmorrhoids—Dyspepsia—Jaundice—Ruptures.
Chapter XXI 413
Poisons and their Remedies
Poisoning by Arsenic—Antimony—Strychnine—Phosphorus—Rat and other Vermin Destroyers—By Lead—Mercury—Ptomaine Poisoning.
Chapter XXII 419
Diseases of the Urinary Organs
Disease of the Kidneys—Stone in the Bladder—Inflammation of the Bladder—Stricture of the Urethra.
Chapter XXIII 422
Diseases of the Ear
Dropsy of the Ear-flap—Otitis—Otorrhœa or Canker (internal)—Split Margin of Ear—(External Canker)—Eczema of Ears—Deafness—Morbid Growths in Passage—Concretions—Syringing ears.
Chapter XXIV 428
Diseases of the Eye
Ophthalmia—Blindness—Inverted Eyelids—Everted Eyelids—Torn Eyelids—Foreign Bodies in Eyes—Bareness around Margins.
Chapter XXV 433
Injuries and Minor Operations
Wounds—Overgrown Claws—Fractures.
Chapter XXVI 438
Minor Operations
Docking—Setoning—Enemas—Fomentations—Blistering—Tumours and Warts.
Appendix 443
White West Highland Terrier
Club Standard of Points.
Index 447



Head of Bloodhound Champion Sultan Frontispiece
Pointers on Partridges 5
Pointer Champion Faskally Brag 7
Pointer Champion Coronation 11
Pointer Bitch Barton Beauty 13
Pointer Bitch Barton Blanche 15
A Brace of English Setters at Repose (Pride and Sally) 19
English Setter Romney Rock 21
Irish Setter Dog 25
Irish Setter Champion Florizel 27
Mr Cartwright's Flat-coated Retriever Champion Colwyn Clytie 43
Typical Flat-coated Retriever 45
Flat-coated Retriever Danehurst Rocket 49
Flat-coated Retriever Busy Marquis 51
Typical Flat-coated Retriever Dog 53
Curly-Coated Retriever Dog 57
[xviii]Clumber Spaniel Dog Bobs of Salop 73
Mr Newington's Sussex Spaniel Dog Rosehill Rock 77
Typical Cocker Spaniel 85
Irish Water Spaniel Pat O'Brien 89
Mr Walter Winans' Pack of Hounds and Master 115
Enemies at Peace—Foxhound Nameless and Tame Dog Fox 117
Lecturer—A Member of the Crickhowell Harriers 123
Deerhound Champion St Ronan's Rhyme 131
Deerhound Dog Champion Selwood Morven 133
A Quartet of Typical Bloodhounds 143
Greyhound Bitch Lady Golightly 159
Fawn Greyhound Dean Baden Powell 161
A Trio of Greyhounds, Duke o' Ringmer, Lady Golightly, Glory o' Ringmer 163
Greyhound Sussex Belle 165
Typical Whippet Dog Dandy Coon 169
Borzois Padiham Nordia 175
Borzois Dog 177
A Group of Leyswood Beagles 183
Pocket Beagle Cheerful of Rodnance 185
Dachshund Champion Snakes Prince 195
A Brace of Typical Dachshunds 197
Dachshund Dog and Bitch 199
[xix]Red Dachshund Victoria Regina 201
Mr Proctor's Basset-hound Bitch Queen of the Geisha 209
A Brace of Typical Smooth-coated Basset-hounds 211
Smooth-coated Basset-hound Bitch and Her Puppies 213
Smooth Basset-hound Dog Champion Louis le Beau. A veritable pillar of the Stud Book 215
Typical Smooth-coated Basset Bitch 217
A Group of Champion Smooth-coated Bassets 219
Typical Rough Basset Bitch 221
Rough-coated Basset-Hound Dog Champion Puritan 223
Typical Rough-coated Basset Dog 225
Mr Scott's Smooth Fox Terrier Millgate Joe 241
Champion South Cave Leger 243
Smooth Fox Terrier Duke of Doncaster 245
Smooth Fox Terrier Champion Cymro Queen 249
Miss Lewis's Wire-haired Fox Terrier Champion Donington Venture 251
Mr Scott's Smooth Fox Terrier Millgate Bandit 253
Smooth Fox Terrier Dog Champion Dukedom 257
Smooth Fox Terrier Dog Darley Dale 259
Wire-haired Fox Terrier Dog Remus of Gaywood 261
Mr Scott's Wire-haired Fox Terrier Millgate Leader 263
Typical Prick-eared Skye Terrier Dog 271
[xx]Bedlington Terrier Dog 275
Scottish Terrier Dog Champion Hyndman Thistle 279
A Trio of Scottish Terriers 281
Group of Scottish Terriers 285
Irish Terrier Blackbrook Banker 289
Airedale Terrier Dog Barkerend Masterpiece 291
Airedale Terrier Dog Crompton Marvel 295
Airedale Terrier Dog Barkerend Victoria 299
Brace of White West Highland Terriers 305
Welsh Terrier 309
Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Dog Thistle Grove Ben 311
Afghan Greyhound 335
The Celebrated Keeper's Night-Dog Thorneywood Terror, said to be the most perfectly trained Night Dog ever bred 339









International Gundog League










The Pointer

Most authorities are in agreement that the English Pointer has been derived from a cross of the old Spanish Pointer and Southern Hound, or with the former and a Foxhound.

The old Spanish Pointer was a heavy, loose-made dog, had a large head, short and smooth coat, thin, loose ears and a thin tail.

In colour he was generally black, black and white, liver and white, red and white, dark brown, liver, etc. The breed, it is said, was first introduced into this country by a Portuguese merchant, living and shooting in Norfolk.

According to accounts, the Spanish Pointers had a remarkable degree of scenting power, never missing their game.

In Germany there are two varieties of Pointers—the[4] Rough-and the Smooth-coated. Like the old Spanish Pointer, these dogs are slow, but sure workers: they are heavily built, and frequently liver, or liver and white.

The chief drawback to the Spanish Pointer was his slowness, and indifferent temper. The French Pointer was probably superior, and may have had considerable influence towards making the many good qualities possessed by the English Pointer of to-day. A medium-sized dog is the most useful, the heavy being too slow and the light weights too fast, especially for aged shooters.

The Pointer may be described as fairly hardy; generally of good constitution, and when bred from working parents, puppies usually respond readily to the breaker's tuition.

A second-, or third-season dog, is preferable to a first-season one, so that, when purchasing, this should be borne in mind. Another matter worthy of attention, and that is, never to purchase a Pointer without having him for a week or two's trial on your own shoot.

The colour of a Pointer is more a matter for individual taste, though there is no doubt that one should choose such as can be the most readily discerned in the distance. Lemon and white, black and white, and liver and white ticked, especially the last-named, are the most general colours. Liver, and red and white are frequently seen, though the former is not so readily recognisable on ploughed land, etc.


[Photo by Horner.

Pointers on Partridges (Property of Mr F. R. Horner).


Pointer Champion Faskally Brag (Property of Mr H. Sawtell)


In action, these dogs ought to move with beauty and freedom, unobserved in any other breed. The movements alone ought to be sufficient to create admiration in the mind of the sportsman.

Head.—Should be of good size, wide in the dome, and wider between the eyes, with a long, broad, square nose and broad, well-dilated nostrils, giving the head a somewhat square conformation.

In colour, nose ought to be black, but in lemon and white dogs, flesh-coloured. Cartilages of ears, long and thin, covered by soft hair, and carried close to cheeks.

Eyes.—Of medium size.

Twenty-four per cent. of points are allowed for skull, nose, eyes, ears, lips, and six for the neck, which ought to be long, arched, and free from loose skin or dewlap. Long oblique shoulders and long arms are essentials of beauty in the Pointer. Forearms long, having plenty of bone and muscle. Pasterns of medium length, feet round (like those of the cat), and the soles hard. A good deal of attention is paid to the legs and feet, by Pointer judges. Some prefer the hare-foot. The elbow must stand well off the brisket and be low placed. Dog must not be "out" at elbow. Viewed from the front, the chest of[10] the Pointer, nevertheless, ought not to be broad, otherwise the beautiful elastic step is interfered with. The contour of the chest is round and deep. Back ribs must be deep, and flanks broad and thick, so as to give strength in these regions.

Back and Hind-quarters.—The back should be of good length but strongly built, and the loins broad and deep. First and second thighs well covered with muscle; hocks strong and good; stifles broad.

Too much importance cannot be attached to the stern of the Pointer, and judges are keen on quality in this region. First of all, it must be strong at its "set on," and gradually taper to a fine point.

If the tail is as thick at the end as it is at its "set on," or coarse in other respects, it indicates inferior breeding. Should be carried on a line with the back.

Faults.—Any approach to curl in tail, coarse coat, soft feet, short back ribs, wide chest, too heavy in head and facial expression, short on legs, under-or over-sized, presence of flews or big cheeks, undershot; too much of Hound character, bad temper, disobedience, bad constitution, etc.


Pointer Champion Coronation (Property of Mr H. Sawtell).


Pointer Bitch Barton Beauty (Property of Sir Humphry de Trafford, Bart.).


Pointer Bitch Barton Blanche (Property of Sir Humphry de Trafford, Bart.).


Value of Points

Skull 10
Ears 5
Nose 10
Neck 5
  —— 30
Shoulders, chest, back and thighs, 30
Colour and coat, 10
Stern and general quality, 10
Legs 6
Feet 6
Elbow 4
Hocks 2
Stifles 2
  —— 20
Total 100



The English Setter

Most authorities, or those who have made diligent inquiries into the history—if such it can be called—or origin, of the English Setter, are agreed that it has been derived from the Spaniel—Setting Spaniel—and Laverack, in his work on the Setter, says,—

"I am of the opinion that all Setters have more or less originally sprung from our various strains of Spaniels, and I believe most breeders of any note agree that the Setter is nothing more than a Setting Spaniel. How the Setter attained his sufficiency of point is difficult to account for, and I leave the question to wiser heads than mine to determine. The Setter is said and acknowledged by authorities of long standing, to be of greater antiquity than the Pointer. If this be true—and I believe it is—the Setter cannot at first have been crossed with the Pointer to render him what he is."

If the foregoing views be accepted, it follows that our lovely Setter is but an improved Spaniel.


A Brace of English Setters at Repose (Pride and Sally, Mr Stanhope Lovell).


An English Setter (Romney Rock).


The Laverack Setters—a strain preserved by the late Mr Laverack—has always played an important part in the more recent history of the Setter. The Llewellin Setter—a strain bred by Mr Llewellin—(a Laverack cross) stands out as being one of the best strains ever produced, both on the show bench and in the field.

A high-class English Setter should have a rich, glossy coat, and every movement should be one of elegance, dash, and beauty.

A high degree of intelligence and great power of physical endurance are a sine qua non.

Field trials have done more towards perfecting the working qualities of the Setter than could have been attained by any other means.

The breeding of stock from dogs coming out top at these trials affords the surest means of attaining the highest degree of working capacity.

The points of the English Setter are as follows:—

Coat.—To be soft, silky, and free from curl. There ought to be an abundance of soft feather on fore and hind legs.

Colour.—Not a great deal of importance is attached to this. The chief colours are:—Liver and white, lemon and white, black, black and white, red or yellow, orange Belton, black and white ticked, with splashes of black, or bluish tint—blue Belton, black, white and tan markings, &c. Black and white ticked are commonest.


Skull.—Long and narrow, with a well-developed occipital bone. Muzzle square, and lips full at their angles.

Ears and Eyes.—Ears set on low, thin and soft, carried close to the cheeks, and covered by silky hair about a couple of inches in length. Eyes of medium size, either brown or hazel.

Neck.—Slightly arched and covered by somewhat loose skin.

Back and Quarters.—Arched, and loins wide and strong. Hocks, strong.

Tail.—Should be carried in a straight line with the body, and the feather upon it to consist of straight, silky hairs, shortening towards the point. A beautiful flag is a great adornment to the Setter, especially when at work.

Fore-limbs.—Shoulders set well back. Forearms straight and strong, of medium length, and with a good fringe at the back. Pasterns short and nearly vertical. Feet well feathered below and cat-like.

Weight.—Dogs from 50 to 60 lbs. Bitches, 45 to 55 lbs. Club.—The English Setter.

Faults.—Curly coat, snipy head, bad carriage of stern, too light in bone, too short or too long in leg, out at elbows, too heavy in head, bad symmetry, disobedience, bad scenting power, indifferent at work, etc., etc.


The Irish Setter

The origin of these dogs, as in many other breeds, is enshrouded in mystery. The theory that they have been derived from Red Spaniels, crossed with the Bloodhound, is accepted by some breeders, the traces of Hound blood being observable in their method of working (scenting their game), so much objected to, by many sportsmen.

Irish Setter Dog.

In Ireland these Setters have been, and still are, greatly used for snipe shooting, being hardy, fast, and very keen-nosed—their ability to bear fatigue, and cold, being unequalled by any other variety of Setter.


It has been said that the finest and oldest strain of Irish Setters have a slight tinge of black on the tips of the ears and muzzle; others, again, regard the presence of black hairs as a sign of impurity of blood, agreeing that these dogs ought to be a very deep, rich red—a dark or blood red being preferred. White hairs ought not to be present anywhere, excepting on the forehead and chest, though many object to white in the situation last named.

The Coat should be close, of strong growth, and neither coarse nor silky in texture. Feather of a golden tinge, and of moderate amount.

Ears.—To be long, set low on the head, and have a medium degree of feathering.

Eyes.—A deep hazel or brown, and the nose dark or mahogany flesh. A black nose should disqualify.

Neck.—Of fair length, slightly arched, and body proportionately long; the chest deep, and ribs well sprung.

Forelegs.—Straight, not too much feathered, and the feet small, firm, and close, with well-arched toes.

Strong Loins, powerful thighs and hocks, and a horizontal carriage of the tail (not cocked) are excellences in this region.

Taken as a whole, the Irish Setter is built more after the type of a racer. Moreover, has a little wider skull than the English variety.


Irish Setter Champion Florizel (Property of Mrs Hamilton).


The Black-and-tan Setter (Gordon Setter)

This famous breed of Setters can be traced back for a hundred years to the castle of the Duke of Gordon, but whether this nobleman laid the foundation stone of the present breed of Black-and-tan Setter, becomes a matter of speculation.

It is not the least improbable that these Setters have been derived by crossing the English Setter with a Black-and-tan Collie, as certain Gordons exhibit more than a trace of the Collie element.

During the last few years the Black-and-tan Setter classes at the Kennel Club Shows in London have been very badly filled, and unless breeding this variety of dog becomes more popular, in England at least, it will soon deteriorate.

A well-broken Gordon is a most useful dog in the field, though certainly his luck at field trials has not been anything like that of the Englishman.

In colour he should be a glossy raven black, with rich mahogany tan markings, pencilling of the toes being allowable.

On the inside of the fore-limbs, tan ought to show nearly up to the elbows, and up to the hocks, on the inner sides of the hind ones.

There should be tan on the lips, cheeks, undersides of the ears; spots over eyes, on front of the chest, on the vent, and at the root of tail or flag.


Eyes.—To be of medium size and deep brown.

Ears.—The ears of the Gordon are longer than those of the Irish or English, are set on low and lie close to head.

Head.—There ought to be good evidence of "stop," rendering the occiput well-defined.

From eye to occiput, head should measure nearly 6 inches.

The old type of Gordon was much too clumsy in the head.

Neck.—Long, clean, and racey.

Shoulders and Chest.—Shoulders of good slope and chest deep. Ribs to be well sprung.

Fore-limbs and Feet.—To be of moderate length; strong in the forearms, and elbows well in. Feet arched and cat-like.

A strong back, loin, and well-bent stifles are qualifications of the Gordon.

Stern.—The tail carried as nearly in the same line as the body. Many Gordons have defective carriage of the caudal appendage.

The so-called "tea-pot" tail is the worst fault, and destroys a dog's chance of winning in the show ring.

Gordon Setter puppies are not difficult to rear, though good specimens are difficult to produce; still more so to purchase, when grown up, and thoroughly broken.

In America this variety of Setter is much thought[31] of, and in that country a great deal has been done towards the improvement of the breed, where the value of points is as follows:—

Head, muzzle and nose 15
Shoulders and chest 15
Back, loins, thighs and stifles 15
Stern and flag 8
Fore-limbs 15
Colour and markings 8
Symmetry and quality 8
Neck 5
Eyes, ears and lips 5
Texture of coat and feather 6




Pointer and Setter Society

Constitutional Rules

1. That the object of the Society be to promote the Breeding of pure Pointers and Setters, and to develop and bring to perfection their natural qualities. In order to carry out these purposes, an Autumn Trial—on grouse, if practicable—shall be annually held within the United Kingdom; and also Spring Trials on partridges shall be held (if possible), either on the Continent, or in the United Kingdom.

2. That the Society shall consist of a President, Vice-Presidents, a Central Committee, and an unlimited number of members, and that there may also be appointed triennially a Vice-President and Honorary Secretary for each separate Country or Colony. That these officers, after election, be empowered to call Sub-committees of their fellow-countrymen (being also members of the Pointer[33] and Setter Society), to advise and report to the Central Committee.

3. That one-third of the Central Committee (exclusive of the officers) shall be withdrawn by lot each year, at the Annual General Meeting for the first two years, and afterwards by rotation, and members shall be elected to fill their vacancies; the retiring members to be eligible for re-election. The President, Vice-Presidents, and Honorary Secretaries shall be ex-officio members of the Central Committee.

4. That the entire control and management of the Society shall be vested in the Central Committee (of which three shall form a quorum), who shall have power to make bye-laws and decide upon all matters in dispute not provided for by the Rules of the Society; and further that any member of the Central Committee, if unable to be present at a Central Committee Meeting, shall be permitted (upon application for same) to vote by proxy, duly signed, upon any resolution appearing upon the agenda paper, except as provided in Rule 8.

5. That each Candidate for admission shall be proposed and seconded by members of the Society. The Candidate's name, rank, residence and profession or occupation, if any, shall be sent to the Central Secretary a fortnight before the election[34] of Candidates at the Central Committee Meeting; and that each member of the Central Committee be advised, at least seven days beforehand, of the proposed election of a new member of the Society.

6. That the election of members shall be vested solely in the Central Committee, and be made by ballot, two black balls to exclude.

7. That for the present no entrance fee shall be charged, and that the annual subscription shall be two guineas, payable 1st January in advance; and that any member whose payments shall continue in arrear for six months shall (due notice of such arrear having previously been given in writing by the Central Secretary) have his name struck off the list, and shall cease to be a member of the Society. Any member joining the Society after the 31st of August in any year shall not be liable for an annual subscription for the current year. Life membership may be acquired upon payment in a lump sum of twenty guineas.

8. Any member of the Society who shall be proved to the satisfaction of the Central Committee to have in any way misconducted himself in connection with Dogs, Dog Shows, or Trials, or to have acted in any way which would make it undesirable that he should continue to be a member, shall be requested to retire from the Society; and if a resolution to[35] that effect shall be carried by three-fourths of the Central Committee (present and voting), duly summoned or warned to the consideration of the case, the member so requested to retire shall henceforth cease to be a member of the Society.

9. That subscriptions and donations, after payment of all liabilities, shall be applied in such a manner as the Central Committee may determine, for prizes at Trials or Workers' Classes, at not more than one Dog Show each year, or otherwise; and all balance shall be invested for the use of the Society, in such a manner as the Central Committee shall direct.

10. That Central Committee Meetings may be held at each Trial Meeting of the Society, or at such other times and places as the Central Committee may determine, notice thereof having been duly sent to each member of the Central Committee.

11. That the Annual General Meeting of the Society be held in May or June in London, and that a Special General Meeting may be called at any time, and at such place as may be agreed to by the Central Committee, on the requisition of six members.

12. At every meeting the President, or one of the Vice-Presidents, shall be chairman, or, failing these, a member of the Central Committee; such[36] chairman to have a casting vote at all meetings. And, further, the minutes of the preceding meeting shall be read, approved, confirmed, and signed by the chairman at the commencement of the next subsequent meeting.

13. Any member may withdraw from the Society on giving notice in writing to one of the Honorary Secretaries, or to the Central Secretary, provided always that such member shall be liable for his subscription to the Society for the current year in which he gives such notice.

14. That the Central Secretary shall enter the name and address of each member of the Society in a Book kept for that purpose.

A. E. Sansom,


12 and 13 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden,

London, W.C.


Pointer and Setter Society

Rules for the Trial Meetings

1. In Single Stakes the competing dogs shall be drawn into pairs by lot, dogs belonging to the same owner being guarded from each other as long as possible. The Judges having seen each pair run as drawn, if possible, will at the end of the first round[37] give to the Committee the names of those dogs which they consider have a chance of being placed. The Committee will then proceed to draw these dogs again, taking care that dogs which have met in the first round do not run together in the second. At the end of the second round the Judges will call up at their own discretion, any dogs they require further, and run them as they choose. If any dog would, by the withdrawal of his antagonist before running, be left untried, the Judge may order him to run with any dog similarly circumstanced in that round, or with the dog that has the bye. The dog that has drawn a bye, if not called for previously by the Judges, shall run as one of the first pair in the next round.

2. In Brace Stakes, the two dogs running together must belong to the same owner, and the order of running in the first round shall be decided by lot. No dog shall be allowed to form part of more than one brace at the same meeting, and only one man at a time shall work any brace.

3. In all Stakes the Judges will, except in cases of undoubted lack of merit, try each pair in the first round for at least fifteen minutes, and in Single Stakes the first and second prize dogs must have run together, likewise the second and third. In the Brace Stake, all prize-winning braces must have been down twice.


4. The Judges are requested not to award a Prize to any dog unless they are satisfied that he will back of his own accord.

5. The Judges will, in making their awards, give full consideration to the manner in which the ground is quartered and beaten, and are requested not to award a Prize to the dog of any owner or handler who does not beat his ground, and work exactly as he would do were he actually out shooting.

6. The Judges will avoid, if possible, holding a dog so long on his point, for the purpose of securing a back, as to cause the birds to run: but if the pointing dog be so held on a point by order of the Judge, he shall not incur any penalty for misbehaviour in reference to that particular point.

7. The Judges shall not decide the merit of a dog's running from the number of times he points game, backs, etc., but from the style and quality of his performance as a whole. Dogs are required to maintain a fast and killing range, wide or narrow, as the necessity of the case demands; to quarter the ground with judgment and regularity; to leave no birds behind them; and to be obedient, cheerful, and easily handled.

8. The Judges are requested and empowered by the Committee to first caution, and upon repetition of the offence, turn out of the Stake any breakers not beating the ground to their satisfaction; not[39] keeping together or out-walking their opponents; unduly whistling or shouting, or behaving in such a manner as, in the opinion of the Judges, is detrimental to the chances of success of their opponents. Any breaker or owner who feels that the behaviour of his opponent is unsettling his dog, may request the interference of the Judges.

9. A gun must have been fired over all aged dogs as well as puppies before they can be awarded either a Prize or a Certificate of Merit.

10. Certificates of Merit will be awarded with a view to the establishment of Workers' Classes at the Dog Shows, and as a guide to purchasers of dogs which, though not in the list of Prize Winners, give promise in their work of being valuable sporting dogs. In a Brace Stake this honour may be conferred on one dog without reference to the behaviour of his companion.

11. The Judges are empowered to withhold a Prize when, in their opinion, no merit is shown, and to exclude from competition bitches on heat, or any animals they may consider unfit to compete, and the entry fees of such dogs will be forfeited.

12. After the first round the Judges may order a flag to be hoisted at the end of each individual contest to indicate which of the two competitors has shown the greater merit in that particular trial. The hoisting of the "colour" of a dog whose performance[40] on that one occasion has been the more meritorious will not necessarily imply that his opponent is debarred from winning in the Stake. When a striking evenness of merit is shown, both flags will be hoisted simultaneously; and, conversely, when there is a total lack of good work, no flags will be displayed.

13. In the event of the weather being considered by the Committee unsuitable for holding trials, it shall be in their power to postpone the meeting from day to day until the Saturday following the first day of the trials, on which day either the stakes not already decided shall be abandoned and their entry fees returned, or a fresh draw for them shall take place, at the discretion of the Committee.

14. If, from unforeseen circumstances, the Committee deem it advisable to alter the date of the meeting after the closing of the entries, this may be done by sending formal notice to all competitors that they may recover their entry fees by exercising the option of cancelling their entries within four days from the date of such notice. All entries, however, about which no such application is made, within those four days will stand good for the meeting at its altered date.

The Committee also reserve to themselves the right to abandon the meeting at any time, on returning the entry monies to the competitors.


15. If any of the advertised Judges be prevented from fulfilling their engagement for either the whole or part of the Meeting, the Committee shall appoint any other person to judge, or shall make any other arrangement that to them seems desirable.

16. The Committee have the power—if they think fit—to refuse any entries for the Society's Trials, and if they consider that any persons by their conduct or otherwise, are undesirable visitants at the Society's Trials, they shall exclude such persons from the Trials, without being obliged to assign any reason for their action.

The disqualifications of any other recognised Trial Society—British, Continental or otherwise, shall be upheld by this Society.

17. An objection to a dog may be lodged with the Secretary at any time within seven days of the last day of any meeting, upon the objector depositing £5 with the Secretary, which shall be forfeited if the Committee deem such objection frivolous. All objections must be made in writing.

18. Upon any case arising not provided for in the above rules, the members of the Committee present shall decide, and their decision shall be final.




(a) Flat-coated

There is good evidence to show that the Retriever is what may be termed a "made" breed, and that his present state of perfection is the outcome of careful selection during the last fifty years or thereabout, the latter thirty years of this time having been devoted by enthusiastic sportsmen to raise the standard of the Retriever to the highest standard of excellence, and no one did more in this respect than the lamented late President of the Kennel Club, S. E. Shirley, Esq., Ettington Park, Stratford-on-Avon.

Most of Mr Shirley's exhibits were an ornament to the show bench, and not only were they ornamental, but equally useful in the field, this gentleman being a keen sportsman and one of the most successful breeders and exhibitors of Flat-coats in the annals of this or any other time.

The Retriever is gradually coming more and more into favour, and will continue to do so when his usefulness becomes better known. It is a variety of dog that stands little chance of becoming spoiled by interbreeding, as in the case of so many Spaniels.


Mr Cartwright's Flat-coated Retriever Champion Colwyn Clytie.


Typical Flat-coated Retriever.


To the sportsman, the Retriever can claim advantages over the Pointer, Setter and Spaniel, but unless very thoroughly handled during his training, he is not of much service. A perfectly broken Retriever—more especially if rich in show-bench points—should readily bring sixty or seventy guineas at least, and cheap at that price.

Coat.—Should be perfectly flat—not wavy as formerly—of an intense raven blackness,[1] glossy, and the hair of good length and dense, more especially over the tops of the shoulders and along the back, but the contour ought not to be interfered with.

White hair upon any part of the body, head, tail, or extremities, is not desirable, and should, in the author's opinion, tell against the animal. We are aware that the presence of a few white hairs upon the chest is not regarded as being of much importance. Still, there is no gainsaying that to be perfect in all points, the Retriever must not have such.

Head.—Ought to possess the highest degree of intelligence. The occipital dome to be wide, of medium height, becoming much narrower as the nose is approached; the latter to be black.


Ears.—Small, carried close to cheeks, and thin cartilage covered with soft hair, yet free from feather at the margins.

Many Retrievers are very faulty here, a touch of the Spaniel element sometimes being in evidence.

Eyes.—To be of a deep hazel. Any tendency towards the so-called "snipy" nose is a defect.

Chest.—Deep, but not wide, and well covered with soft, black hair.

Neck.—Somewhat short, but thick.

Back and Loin.—A long, strong back and loin, slightly depressed about midway, with a beautiful rise towards the hind-quarters. These latter should be well muscled and covered by the same flatness of coat.

Limbs.—Shoulders, strong and oblique, and forearm big-boned and muscular; of medium length; pasterns short and strong; feet of proportionate size.

From the hinder face of the fore-limb there should be a sparing amount of feather, not of sufficiency to interfere with the dog when swimming.

When at rest the tail is carried down, but under excitement straight out, though slightly below the level of the back. Any tendency to curling of it, is very faulty.


Flat-coated Retriever Danehurst Rocket.


Flat-coated Retriever Busy Marquis (Property of Mr E. H. Blagg).


Flat-coated Retriever Dog.


Many capital working Retrievers carry their tails very badly, indicative of inferior breeding. What is equally important—no matter whether it be the Flat-, or Curly-coated variety—in a Retriever, is that of being good-tempered, obedient, persevering, quick to find, to remain at heel until given the word of command, and to have a very tender mouth.

If a dog is too headstrong, he will never make a good Retriever, running out directly a shot is fired. Must respond with alacrity to his master's word of command, in short, perfect obedience.

An "unstable" Retriever is not a useful dog; in fact, an annoyance. The chief faults of a Flat-coated Retriever are—too Setter-like in appearance, wavy coat, short coat, Spaniel-like ears, rusty tint, white hair, bad temper, disobedience, too long on the leg, too short on the leg, too much of the Newfoundland element, etc., etc.

(b) The Curly-coated

Of the two varieties, the Curly-coated can, we think, lay claim to have been the first established. In almost every particular, save that of coat, the Curly Retriever corresponds to the description given under the heading of (a)—the Flat-coat. Weight about 80 lbs. Particular attention is paid by judges to the coat. The dog must be covered all over with small tight curls, the tail to be the same. Any tendency towards slackness of curl or an open coat[56] necessarily handicaps the dog in the show ring. If black, should be free from any rusty tint, or from white. Face clean, neck long, and chest deep.

Liver Curly-coated specimens are nothing like so frequently met with as the black. Should be of an intense liver, free from white hairs and a nose of corresponding colour.

The Curly-coated Retriever Club has done much towards encouraging breeding typical specimens. Although very useful, we fancy that the Flat-coats are in more demand, probably because really A1 Curly-coats are not so readily obtainable at a moderate price, and an indifferent one, has not as good an appearance as an indifferent specimen of the Flat-coats.

At the recent Kennel Club Shows in London, etc., the proportion of Flat-coats to Curly was as three to one—the best evidence as to which is the most popular variety.


At the Kennel Club Show there are classes for this variety of Retriever, and, in our opinion, the Labrador will, in course of time, become very popular amongst sportsmen, as they are excellent retrievers, when properly broken. They are wavy-coated dogs, either black, fawn, or yellow in colour, and, what is remarkable, these coloured dogs often appear in a litter belonging to a black sire and dam.


Curly-coated Retriever Dog.


White specimens have been produced, and it seems likely enough that a race of white Retrievers will, in course of time, become established, though, from a sportsman's view, they will not be as serviceable as their black or darker-coloured brethren.

The author remembers several fawn-coloured Labradors on an estate in Scotland, and the gamekeeper spoke most highly of the breed for work, though, constitutionally, somewhat delicate.

Constitutional Rules of the Retriever Society

1. That the object of the Society be to promote the breeding of pure Retrievers, and to develop and bring to perfection their natural qualities. In order to carry out these purposes, a working trial, if practicable, shall be annually held.

2. That the Society shall consist of a President, Vice-Presidents, a Committee, and an unlimited number of members.

3. That one-third of the Committee (exclusive of officers) shall be withdrawn by lot each year, at the Annual General Meeting for the first two years, and afterwards by rotation, and members shall be elected to fill their vacancies; the retiring members to be[60] eligible for re-election. The President, Vice-Presidents, and Honorary Secretaries shall be ex-officio members of the Committee, and shall be elected annually.

4. That the entire control and management of the Society shall be vested in the Committee (of which three shall form a quorum), who shall have power to make bye-laws, and decide upon all matters in dispute not provided for by the rules of the Society; and, further, that any member of the Committee, if unable to be present at a Committee Meeting, shall be permitted (upon application for same) to vote by proxy, duly signed, upon any resolution appearing upon the agenda paper, except as provided in Rule 8.

5. That each candidate for admission shall be proposed and seconded by members of the Society. The candidate's name, rank, residence, and profession or occupation, if any, shall be sent to the Secretary a fortnight before the election of candidates at the Committee Meeting; and that each member of the Committee be advised, at least seven days beforehand, of the proposed election of a new member of the Society.

6. That the election of members shall be vested solely in the Committee, and be made by ballot, two black balls to exclude.

7. That for the present no entrance fee shall be charged, and that the annual subscription shall be[61] one guinea, payable 1st January in advance; and that any member whose payments shall continue in arrear for six months shall (due notice of such arrear having previously been given in writing by the Secretary) have his name struck off the list, and shall cease to be a member of the Society. Any member joining the Society after the 31st October in any year shall not be liable for an annual subscription for the current year. Life membership may be acquired upon payment in a lump sum of ten guineas.

8. Any member of the Society who shall be proved to the satisfaction of the Committee to have in any way misconducted himself in connection with Dogs, Dog Shows, or Trials, or to have acted in any way which would make it undesirable that he should continue to be a member, shall be requested to retire from the Society; and if a resolution to that effect shall be carried by three-fourths of the Committee (present and voting), duly summoned or warned to the consideration of the case, the member so requested to retire shall henceforth cease to be a member of the Society.

9. That subscriptions and donations, after payment of all liabilities, shall be applied in such a manner as the Committee shall determine, for prizes at Trials or Workers' Classes at Dog Shows, or otherwise; and all balance shall be invested for the use of the Society, in such manner as the Committee shall direct.


10. That Committee Meetings may be held at each Trial Meeting of the Society, or at such other times and places as the Committee may determine, notice thereof having been duly sent to each member of the Committee.

11. That the Annual General Meeting of the Society be held in May or June, in London, and that a Special General Meeting may be called at any time, at such place as may be agreed to by the Committee, on the requisition of six members.

12. At every meeting the President, or one of the Vice-Presidents, shall be chairman, or failing these, a member of the Committee, such chairman to have a casting vote at all meetings. And, further, the minutes of the preceding meeting shall be read, approved, confirmed, and signed by the Chairman at the commencement of the next subsequent meeting.

13. Any member may withdraw from the Society on giving notice in writing to the Secretary, provided always that such member shall be liable for his subscription to the Society for the current year in which he gives such notice.

14. That the Secretary shall enter the name and address of each member of the Society in a book kept for that purpose.

A. E. Sansom,


12 and 13 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden.


Rules Adopted at the Retriever Society

(Subject to Alteration)

1. Before the Trials a number will be drawn by lot for each competing dog, and the dogs will be tried by batches accordingly during the first round. The handler of the dog must shoot with ammunition supplied by the Committee, and he will not be allowed to carry in his hand anything besides his gun. After all the competing dogs have been tried, the Judges will call up, at their own discretion, any dogs they require further, and try them again. No dog can win a prize which has not been subjected to both tests of "walking up" and "driving."

2. All aged dogs will be expected to retrieve fur as well as feather, if ordered to do so, but no handler must send his dog after any game until bidden by a Judge to do so. The Judges have power to order any handler to set his dog to retrieve game not shot by him personally.

3. The principal points considered by the Judges are sagacity, steadiness, nose, dash, perseverance, obedience, and retrieving. This last should be done quickly, with a tender and dry mouth, and right up to the hand.

4. Any dog not present to be tried in its turn, the Committee reserve the right of disqualifying at the expiration of fifteen minutes.


5. The Judges are empowered to turn out of the Stake the dog of any person who does not obey them or who wilfully interferes with another competitor or his dog, and to withhold a prize when, in their opinion, no merit is shown; and to exclude from competition bitches on heat, or any animals they may consider unfit to compete. The entry fees of all such dogs will be forfeited.

6. Certificates of merit will be awarded with a view to the establishment of Workers' Classes at the Dog Shows, and as a guide to purchasers of dogs which, though not in the list of prize-winners, give promise in their work of being valuable Sporting Dogs.

7. An objection to a dog may be lodged with the Secretary at any time within seven days of a meeting, upon the objector depositing with the Secretary the sum of £2, which shall be forfeited if the Committee deem such objection frivolous. All objections must be made in writing.

8. The Committee have the power, if they think fit, to refuse any entries for the Society's Trials, without assigning any reason for their action.

9. In the event of the weather being considered by the Committee unsuitable for holding the Trials, it shall be in their power to postpone the Meeting from day to day until the Saturday following the first day of the Trials, on which day the Stakes not already[65] decided shall be abandoned and their entry fees returned.

10. The Committee reserve to themselves the right to abandon the Meeting at any time, on returning their entry monies to the competitors, and if, from unforeseen circumstances, they deem it advisable to alter the date of the meeting, after the closing of the entries, this may be done by sending formal notice to all competitors that they may recover their entry fees by exercising the option of cancelling their entries within four days from the date of such notice. All entries, however, about which no such application is made within those four days, will stand good for the Meeting at its altered date.

11. If an advertised Judge be prevented from filling his engagement for either the whole or part of the Meeting, the Committee shall appoint any other person to judge, or shall make any other arrangements that to them seem desirable.

12. Upon any case arising not provided for in the above Rules, the Members of the Committee present shall decide, and their decision shall be final.




General Characteristics of the Different Varieties

Regarding the word "Spaniel" as a generic title, and the different varieties (Toys excepted) as "species" belonging to this genera, the author purposes taking a brief survey of certain features characteristic of Spaniels, leaving distinctive features for discussion under the various titles of classification as adopted by the Kennel Club. Judging from the literature at our disposal upon the subject, it is at once evident that the Spaniel of to-day—no matter how changed by selection—is of very ancient lineage, having existed as the Springing Spaniel and Cocking, for upwards of 600 years, and his uses were[67] then, as they are—or rather ought to be—now: to range well within gunshot, chase neither fur nor feather; never give tongue; find quickly, and retrieve tenderly on either land, or water.

All these excellences are revealed in many of the beautiful old coloured sporting prints, now so highly priced and prized, and so difficult to obtain, though when obtained are a joy for ever, gladdening the hearts of lovers of the old forms of such sport.

It is, we believe, universally accepted that the Spaniel originally came from Spain, but during what period, there is no reliable data to go upon. The departure, from what we may conveniently speak of as the normal type of Spaniel, is most marked in that of the Irish Water Spaniel, more especially in those coming from the north of Ireland.

Adhering to our original intention of general comparison, the author will first of all consider—

Temperament.—Most Spaniels are of a quick, inoffensive disposition, a sour temper being oftener the results of bad training than any inherent vice.

As with all other breeds, quarrels frequently arise over canine love affairs, etc. Few, we think, can speak of the Spaniel as a quarrelsome dog.

The sportsman's Spaniel—which is not commonly the show-bench animal—is of hardy constitution, taking the water in the coldest of weather, doing his[68] eight or ten hours' work in a day, and roughing it in the matter of food and kennelling.

The progeny of the working dog are not any more trouble to rear than those of a rough-and-tumble Terrier.

The "soft" constitution of so many black and Sussex Spaniels is due to that foolish system (in breeding) having been carried beyond all sense of reason.

All are water-loving dogs, and, when properly trained, retrieve their game tenderly.

Coat.—Either flat, wavy, or curly, a flat coat being typical of the up-to-date Spaniel. Many of the older type have a strong tendency to show a "top-knot," and even now and again (Water Spaniels excepted), in a litter of well-bred ones there is a reversion towards this type. All have an abundance of feather on both fore and hind limbs, Irish Water breed excepted.


Irish Water Spaniel    Liver.
English Water Spaniel Liver and white, black and white, black, or black, white, and tan.
The Clumber Spaniel White, with red, lemon, or orange patches.
The Sussex Spaniel Golden liver.
Field Spaniels(?) Black or tri-coloured, also liver and white, or tan.
[69]Cocker Spaniels Black, black, white and tan, liver, roan, liver and white, black and white, red and white, etc., etc.
English Springers Variously coloured.
Welsh Springers     Do.        do.

Liver, liver and white, black, and black and white, are by far the most frequent colours of the Spaniel. Tan markings are very common in Welsh Springers.

The Irish Water and the Clumber Spaniel are really the only two varieties free from the introduction of blood from other varieties of the breed.

Except in rare instances, the show-bench Sussex contains a lot of Field Spaniel blood, the result of crossing a typical Sussex Spaniel with a black bitch, over twenty years since, and its perpetuation until the present day.

Head and Ears.—They all agree in the anatomical outlines of their skulls, the greatest breadth being in the head of the Clumber.

Heavy facial expressions are characteristic of the pure Sussex, the half-bred, or Jacobs' strain of Sussex, and the Jacobs' strain of Black Spaniels. Many Cockers also show it.

Long ears, not only long in the cartilage, but heavily feathered—excepting the Northern Irish[70] Water—are very characteristic of Spaniels, but this large amount of hair in this region can hardly be a recommendation for work, knowing that it is very liable to become entangled in brambles, etc.

The occipital dome is well marked, and in some there is evidence of "stop," as in Toys. Muzzles generally broad; nose broad, and cheeks full.

Fore-limbs.—With the exception previously alluded to, Spaniels all agree in having a short arm and short forearm, largely augmented in the Spaniels of to-day (excepting Clumbers, etc.) through the introduction of Sussex blood.

From a sportman's point of view, this has been a detrimental influence, short legs greatly interfering with retrieving of hares, etc., although there may be what can be described as compensatory advantages, such as getting under the low runs of brushwood, etc.

The older type of Field Spaniel was vastly superior for work to many of the lethargical, long-bodied, low-legged, semi-intelligent specimens on the show benches at the present time.

Body.—Mostly of medium length, with well-sprung ribs, strong back and loins.

Tail carried on a level with the back. In all, the feet are full, and toes prominent, well feathered in the interspaces.

Length of body has always been a marked feature[71] of the Sussex, and "massiveness" characteristic of body, head and limbs in the Clumber.

From the foregoing outlines, it must be allowed that conformity of type throughout the whole of the Spaniels is general.

The points, etc., of the different varieties are as follows:—

The Clumber

Very early on, these Spaniels were bred at Clumber House, the seat of the Duke of Newcastle, one William Mansell having had the care of them under the Duke for a great number of years, and much was done to improve the beauty and utility of this handsome variety of Spaniel.

It is, in the author's opinion, the one variety of Spaniel that has suffered the least in the way of introducing the blood of other species. To attempt to cross the Clumber, with the object of making some improvement, is defeating the first principles of the Clumber exhibitor, purity of breed being the aim of his affection.

On the other hand, the introduction of Clumber blood into other strains of Spaniels, for working purposes at least, is rather beneficial than otherwise, and it is a cross frequently employed.

At one time the Duke of Portland had a very fine kennel of Clumbers, and when these dogs appeared[72] at the Palace or other Kennel Club Shows, they simply swept the boards.

Mr Holmes of Lancaster had also a strong team, though I did not like the appearance of his Clumbers anything akin to those shown by the Duke.

Probably the handsomest—we will not say the most typical—Clumber that ever adorned the show bench was Mr Parkinson's Champion "Trusty," though, for some unknown reason, this exhibitor quietly dropped from the show ring, and "Trusty" sank into insignificance.

My dog, Champion "Psycho," was one of the most typical Clumbers going the rounds, and deserved a much more successful career than he had. He was about as sweet-tempered a dog as it was possible to have, and formed a most devoted attachment to my mother, under whose care he chiefly was.

At one time the classes for Clumber Spaniels were well filled, though in recent years they have declined considerably.

Lately His Most Gracious Majesty the King, and the Duchess of Newcastle, have shown Clumbers, and this alone should give a fresh impetus towards the popularity of the breed. At anyrate, we hope it will have this effect.

When carefully broken, Clumbers make excellent workers, and can stand a lot of heavy work.


Clumber Spaniel Dog (Bobs of Salop).


A typical Clumber must be long, low and heavy. The author does not like a Clumber to be so short on the leg that the belly nearly sweeps the ground, and considers extreme lowness ought not to be encouraged. The Americans bred their Clumbers for use more than show bench, consequently kept up a good useful sort. Of course, any tendency to legginess is fatal to type.

Weight, about 55 lbs.; bitches a trifle less, and big in bone.

The Head of a Clumber is very characteristic. It must be "massive" in every sense of the word, or wide in all proportions, and the nose broad, full and flesh-coloured—a Dudley nose.

Ears.—Long, carried close to head and "set on" low with feathering on front edge, not elsewhere. [2] Eyes.—Deeply set in orbits, and rather large.

Coat.—Soft, silky, shining, straight, dense, and feather long and profuse.

For colour markings, we prefer orange ears, with an evenly marked head and ticked legs. Orange is a common marking. Less marking on the body the better.

Powerful loins; a long and straight back, and a[76] nicely rounded croup are essentials of beauty. A deep chest, well-rounded ribs, and powerfully-built fore-quarters are equally important.

A good Clumber must have staying power, and if he has not a well-developed muscular system, he cannot have this requisite.

Neck.—To be of medium length and stoutly built.

The head, body and hind-quarters constitute fifty per cent. of the total value of points, and the neck and shoulders fifteen per cent., hence the significance of being well done up in these regions.

Stout arms and forearms, with an abundance of feather, are necessary.

A good deal of brushing and combing, together with washing before showing, are needful to make the Clumber look fit. His heavy appearance can be increased by keeping him a bit above average condition.

One should be able to purchase a good pup—one likely to make a winner—for, say, ten guineas.

Club.—Clumber Spaniel.

The Sussex Spaniel

This is a very old variety of Spaniel, said to have originated in the county of Sussex, in the locality of Rosehill.


Mr Newington's Sussex Spaniel Dog Rosehill Rock.


Five-and-twenty years ago, typical specimens of the Rosehill strain were scarce, and since that time not a great deal has been done towards maintaining the purity of breed.

Very few Spaniels shown in the Sussex classes can claim purity of breeding, the introduction of black blood by mating Champion Bachelor to Negress, being the cause of this. Jacobs Bachelor was by Buckingham ex Peggie and own brother to Rover III.—though very different types of Spaniels.

The author was personally acquainted with these and many other old Sussex Spaniels.

I always took Buckingham to be a very typical Sussex and Rover III. was much of the same stamp as his sire; whereas Bachelor was more akin to the Dam Peggie—of course much her superior, though quite unlike his brother, Rover III.

At one time the judges would not look at Champion Bachelor, Messrs Willet then preferring Rover III.

Later on the order was reversed, and we believe—though cannot be certain—at the London Kennel Club Show. Champion Lawyer—at one time in my possession—was a heavily built type of Sussex. The Rev. Mr Shields, Mr Fuller, and Mr Newington, all had some of the pure Rosehills, and I also bought a good bitch from Mr Henry Hawkins by Rover III. ex Duchess. The last time that old Buckingham ever appeared on the show bench—and then not for[80] competition—was at the Royal Lancashire Agricultural Society's Show, held at Preston about 1880.

Although the litter out of which I bought Countess was an exceptionally good one—and Countess very typical—Messrs Willet would not award them prizes, owing, they said, to the faintest evidence of tan markings, observed with difficulty.

The typical colour for the Sussex is a light golden liver, and this Bachelor certainly was, Rover being darker.

Poor old Bachelor had a violent death through fighting with a kennel companion—a Gordon Setter.

Champion Rover III. was withdrawn from the show ring for some reason.

Even in those days animated discussion went on in the Press as to what was and what was not typical of the Sussex. There is no gainsaying one fact, and that is that the Sussex of twenty years ago existed in a different state of purity to what he does in the present day.

In casually looking over recent entries at the Kennel Club Show of Sussex Spaniels, it is questionable whether there is a single animal so entered that can justly claim the title of Sussex.

When Mr Jacobs had old Champion Bachelor in his possession, he had not more than one Sussex bitch to mate him with, to my recollection. There can be no doubt that the great improvement—for[81] the show bench—of the modern Spaniels began when Jacobs crossed Bachelor with old Negress, a black Field Spaniel bitch. It destroyed the purity of the Sussex, but if it had not been indulged in, there would, in all probability, have been no class for the breed now. Blacks, livers, and liver and tan, all used to come in the same litter out of Negress, who certainly constituted the nucleus of a fortune to her owner.

The points of the Sussex are as follows:—

Colour.—Deep golden liver.

Coat.—Flat, and slightly wavy, but absolutely free from any tendency to curl. Soft and abundant.

Weight.—About 40 lbs.

Head.—Heavy, though smaller and lighter than that of the Clumber.

Eyes.—Rather deeply set, giving the dog a very thoughtful expression.

Ears.—These should be long and well clothed with long, silky hair. Above, the ears ought to be rather narrow, but broad below, set on low down, and carried close to sides of head.

Nose.—Broad and liver-coloured, open nostrils.

Neck.—Short and strong, and the back long, strong, and level.

Shoulders and Chest.—A fairly deep chest, oblique shoulders, and well-sprung ribs are necessary.

Flat-sidedness, and "tucked up under" are decidedly faulty.


Fore-limbs.—Must be short on the leg. Arms and forearms short but well boned. Crooked fore-limbs are objectionable; turned out at elbows equally bad. There should be an abundance of feather springing from the backs of the fore-limbs, and down to the hocks, in the hind ones.

For the show bench the more feather the better.

Feet also well feathered, round and strong. The chief faults of the Sussex are: white hairs on any portion, tan markings, curly coat, too leggy, light in body, snipy head, short ears, want of feather, bad constitution, and Bloodhound expression on face.

Field Spaniels

To attempt to define the term "Field Spaniel" so as to be free from objection, would be, indeed, a difficult problem.

Unquestionably it is a very ambiguous term, and capable of wide interpretation. The mere fact of the Kennel Club and other shows having a class or classes for Field Spaniels, does not satisfy (though it simplifies classification) the mind of the thoughtful observer.

Anything from a half-bred Clumber, or Irish Water Spaniel may constitute a Field Spaniel, and rightly so, in the eyes of a sportsman.

That such dogs would win—say at a Kennel Club[83] Show—could not be entertained for a moment. It is the cross-bred Sussex that generally comes out top, and the longer and lower and more Sussex-like in character, the better the chances of success on the show bench. These are the author's views, though they may not coincide with those of others.

Some twenty-five years ago the "modern" Field Spaniel was as yet unknown. Jacobs' Champion Kaffir and Royle's Champion Zulu, and my dog Negro (by Kaffir ex Negress) were all black Field Spaniels of the Sussex type.

Zulu, with his Bloodhound-like eyes, had a remarkable show career, so had Kaffir, but they were not Field Spaniels from a sportsman's point of view, more especially Zulu. I had the two best pups[A]—one whole black and the other liver and tan—though, unfortunately for me, they both died from distemper before they were three months old. The black puppy I remember in particular. He was a facsimile of his dad, old Champion Bachelor, and had he lived, might have proved to be a little gold mine. Like his brother, nothing would ever have persuaded me that he was a "Field Spaniel," accepting that term as did the sportsman of days gone by.

My black Spaniel, Negro, though a big winner, was about as stupid a sportsman's dog or companion as ever saw daylight. The author's opinion is that[84] a Field Spaniel should have a fair length of leg, be of good size, have short, thick ears, and not much feather on them, or yet on the legs. Should be stoutly built, have a good tight jacket, be big-boned, have nice full eyes, well-rounded ribs, and, above all, quick hearing and a sound constitution. Colour unimportant, but black and white, black, or black, white and tan, or liver and white, for preference. Weight 40 to 50 lbs. There is no doubt that in course of time the Field Spaniel Trials will do much towards building up a proper type of field dog. A flat coat, of silky texture, and very glossy: long, heavily-feathered ears, short, strong, straight, cull-feathered fore-limbs, long body, and well-sprung ribs, long, graceful neck, and a long, moderately-wide head, with level carriage of the tail, are points of the Show Field Spaniel. Black (no white) or particolours (also liver) are preferred.

The Cocker Spaniel

This is a pretty type of small Spaniel, and one that has been in existence from a very early date.

Modern Cockers have been bred in all sorts of ways, though lately it has become a fairly general rule to breed only Cocker with Cocker, not necessarily of the same colour. A typical Cocker should weigh between 20 and 25 lbs., and be of smart, active appearance.


Typical Cocker Spaniel.


Probably two of the most successful black Cocker Spaniels ever adorning the show bench were Obo and Miss Obo. My (formerly Mr Easton's) Champion Bess was a very typical variety Cocker.

The American clubs' standard for Cockers is not quite the same as the English, the weight there being from 18 to 28 lbs.

Head.—Ought to be of medium length, and the muzzle square cut off, tapering from the eye, though there must be no appearance of the so-called "snipy" head.

There is a marked "stop," and from it there is a groove running up the skull, gradually fading away.

Ears.—Set on low, covered with long, silky, straight or wavy hairs, and reaching at least to the tip of nose.

Coat.—To be free from any sign of curl, plentiful, straight, or wavy and silky. Body of medium length, with well-sprung ribs, fairly deep chest, and full in the flanks. Many Cockers are very defective here, being what is called "tucked up."

Short fore-legs, strong, straight, well feathered, and well-placed, good-sized, feet. The tail should be carried on a level with back when dog is at ease, but lower under excitement.

Colour.—Unimportant; regularity and beauty of markings (if any) being qualifications.


Clubs.—The English Cocker Spaniel; the American Cocker Spaniel.

Prices.—Very typical puppies can be bought for three or four guineas shortly after weaning.

Faults.—Top-knot, out at elbows, light in bone, too leggy, and, from a sportsman's view, too short on leg. In whole-coloured specimens white is objectionable; shallow flanks, high carriage of tail, deafness, and bad constitution. Narrowness of chest, flat-sidedness, and a narrow flank constitutes faulty conformation.

The Irish Water Spaniel

There are said to be two distinct types of Irish Water Spaniels, one coming from the South and the other from the North of Ireland. The former is usually pure liver-coloured, with long and well-feathered ears, whereas the latter has short ears, and the liver colour mixed with considerable white.

One of the most characteristic features of the Irish Water Spaniel is his "top-knot," consisting of a crown of hair from the occiput to between the eyes, leaving the temples free. These Spaniels, to a sportsman of but slender means, in particular, cannot be over-valued. They are, so to speak, born to water, and in their element when retrieving wild-duck in the depth of winter, requiring very little tuition.


Irish Water Spaniel Pat O'Brien (Property of Major Birkbeck).


A famous dog of this variety, and one that had a wonderful show-bench career, was Mr Skidmore's Larry Doolan. The writer remembers this dog very well, as he was shown from north to south, east to west.

In Colour, these Irishmen should be a dark liver, free from any white hairs, unless it be a very small patch on the breast, or toes. A boiled liver (sandy) colour is objectionable.

Nose.—Large, of the same colour, and the Eyes a deep amber.

Skull.—High in the occipital dome, and of good width. A good top-knot essential.

Ears.—Set on low, having long cartilage (15 to 20 inches), and well feathered, the hair in this region being wavy and profuse.

Hair on tail short, and straight, blending the curls, towards its set-on , with those on the stern. Tail, whip-like.

Neck.—Long and well set up, blending below with strong shoulders.

A deep chest, strong back and loins, are necessary for the working capacity of the breed.

Coat.—Very important. To consist of tight, crisp curls all over body, and limbs. Fifteen per cent. of points go to the coat.

Height (shoulder measurement).—Not more than 24 inches, or less than 20 inches.

General Appearances.—To win, the Irish Water[92] Spaniel must look proportionate all over, be active, have a tight curly coat and a good top-knot, carry the head well up, be keen in facial expression, have a cat-like tail, and look as though he would be ready to dive at the word of command—in fact a workman from top-knot to tail.

Faults.—Total absence of top-knot, a fully feathered tail and much white hair will disqualify. An open woolly coat, light in colour, cording of hair, Setter feathering on legs, and a moustache, are objectionable, and should tell heavily against an Irishman in the show-ring.

Weight.—55 to 65 lbs.

Club.—The Irish Water Spaniel Society.

The English Water Spaniel

Bewick gives an excellent figure of a large Water Spaniel. It is generally liver-coloured and white, with the hair on the body in little curls. The dog is of medium size, strong, active and intelligent, and used by the water-fowl shooter.

In the Gentleman's Recreation and in the Sportman's Cabinet, this variety of dog is also described.

In the writer's opinion, there are plenty of these dogs to be seen about at the present time. They are larger than the Field Spaniel, and stronger built[93] altogether, looking as though they had both the blood of Retriever and Irish Water Spaniel in them.

The English Water Spaniel Club looks after the interests of this breed, and the Kennel Club provides a class for them.

A narrow head, small eyes, large nose, straight neck, strong back, rather narrow, deep chest, long strong legs, large feet, a six-inch dock, with a coat of ringlets or curls (no top-knot), and good general appearance, are the chief points.

Black, liver, liver and white, black and white, black and liver, are the accepted colours, but pied is most admired.

In addition to this breed of Spaniel, the Kennel Club also provides classes for English Springers and Welsh Springers.




The Sporting Spaniel Society

Constitutional Rules

1. The name of the Society shall be "The Sporting Spaniel Society," its objects being to encourage the working qualities of Spaniels in every possible way, the breeding of them upon working lines, and the judging of them at shows from a working standpoint. All varieties of Sporting Spaniels, English and Irish Water, Norfolk, Clumber, Sussex, Black Springer, and Cocker Spaniels, and any other varieties of Spaniels used with the gun, shall be fostered and encouraged by this Society. It shall, if possible, hold a series of working Trials.

2. The Society shall consist of an unlimited number of members, whose names and addresses shall be kept by the Secretary in a book, which book shall be kept open to the inspection of members at reasonable times. Any respectable person favourable to the objects of the Society is eligible for admission[95] as a member. Each candidate for admission must be proposed by one member and seconded by another member. The election of members shall be vested solely in the Committee and shall be by ballot, three members to form a quorum, and two black balls to exclude.

3. The annual subscription for each member shall be one guinea, payable on 1st January in each year. Anyone failing to pay his subscription by 31st January shall have notice given him by the Secretary, and if his subscription be still unpaid on 31st March, his rights of membership shall cease until he has paid his subscription. By non-payment of his subscription, a member renders himself liable to be struck off the list of members. No new member shall be entitled to enjoy the privileges of members until he has paid his subscription. This rule will be strictly enforced. Life membership may be acquired upon payment in a lump sum of ten guineas. The payment of the first subscription of any member elected after the 30th June in any year will cover the period up to the 31st December next after the following 31st December.

4. The affairs of the Society shall be conducted by a President, Vice-President and a Committee consisting of twelve members. All officers of the Society shall be honorary, and no member may make the Society a means of private speculation, or trade in[96] any way whatever, and if found to have done so, he is liable to expulsion.

5. That the property and management of the Society be vested in the Committee jointly, which shall have power to call meetings of the Society, to make necessary bye-laws, to arbitrate in disputed matters, to refuse the admission of any person deemed objectionable, and to expel any member guilty of dishonourable conduct; after such expulsion, the member so expelled to have no claim whatever against the Society, or to be entitled to recover any portion of his subscription. Any member of this Society, who has been declared by the Kennel Club Committee incapable of competing for, or winning a prize at a Show under Kennel Club Rules for any period shall cease to be a member of the Society. The Committee shall also have power to deal with any question not provided for by the Rules. The Committee shall decide upon the value and nature of the prizes to be offered during the year.

6. Meetings of the Society shall be held as occasion shall require for the transaction of business. A meeting may be specially convened by the Secretary on receipt of a written requisition signed by not less than six members, stating the time, place, and object of such meeting, to be lodged with the Secretary at least a fortnight previous to the date fixed for such meeting to take place. An Annual General Meeting[97] of the Society shall be held in London, if possible in May or June, and at the said meeting the whole of the Committee in office shall retire, the retiring members being eligible for re-election. Any member not being able to attend this meeting, and wishing to vote at the election of officers, can do so by proxy. But the proxy paper, properly filled up, must be lodged with the Secretary at least forty-eight hours before the meeting, and no person can be nominated a proxy unless he be a member of the Society. The Committee shall have power to appoint sub-committees for any special object. The Committee and officers shall stand elected from one Annual General Meeting to another.

7. All the Officers shall be annually elected at the Annual General Meeting, and their duties shall be purely honorary.

8. The minutes of the last Meeting shall be read at the commencement of, and be approved and confirmed by the next subsequent similar Meeting. The Chairman shall have a casting vote in addition to his own. Notice of a General Meeting shall be sent to each member at least seven days previous to the date fixed for such Meeting to take place, and with the notice shall be stated a list of the business to be transacted, and copies of all proposed resolutions shall accompany the notice. The Honorary Solicitor to be ex officio member of the Committee.


9. All authorised expenses incurred by the Officers on behalf of the Society shall be defrayed out of the funds of the Society. The Society's Rules, and its Prize Lists, together with the names of its Committee and Officers, and a List of the members and their addresses shall be printed and supplied to each member. The accounts shall be presented at the Annual Meeting duly audited by two auditors appointed at the Annual Meeting.

10. Any member can withdraw from the Society on giving notice to the Secretary (such member to have no claim whatever on the Society), provided always that such member shall be liable for his subscription for the current year in which he gives such notice.

The Sporting Spaniel Society

Regulations (subject to Alteration)

1. In Single Stakes for Spaniels, the order of running shall be decided at the Draw. At the end of the first round the Judges will call up, at their own discretion, any dogs they require further, and run them as they choose. The Judges will, except in a case of undoubted lack of merit, try each Spaniel for at least fifteen minutes in the first round, but they can carry on the trial of two dogs simultaneously, not ordering down together two dogs worked by the[99] same person or belonging to the same owner. All shooting will be done by guns appointed by the Committee.

2. In Brace and Team Stakes the order of running in the first round shall be decided by lot, and the dogs composing a brace or team must belong to the same owner. No dog shall form part of more than one brace or team at the same Meeting, and only one man at a time shall work any brace or team.

3. In all Stakes the Spaniels shall be regularly shot over in the customary sporting manner, and may be worked up and down wind, and on feather and fur.

4. In all Stakes the principal points to be considered by the Judges are scenting power, keenness, perseverance, obedience, freedom from chase, dropping to shot, style, method of beating and working to the gun—whether in cover, hedgerow, or the open. In Single Stakes, besides, the Spaniels are expected to retrieve at command as required—tenderly, quickly and right up to the hand; and any additional excellence, such as dropping to hand and shot, standing to their game and flushing it at command, etc., will be taken into account; while in Brace or Team Stakes they are expected to beat their ground harmoniously together. In all Stakes with puppies under twelve months old, the retrieving of fur shall be optional.


5. Any dog not present to run in its turn, the Committee reserve the right of disqualifying at the expiration of fifteen minutes.

6. The Judges are empowered to first caution, and, upon repetition of the offence, turn out of the Stake the dog of any person who does not beat the ground to their satisfaction; to withhold a prize when, in their opinion, no merit is shown; and to exclude from competition bitches on heat, or any animals they may think unfit to compete. The entry fees of all such dogs will be forfeited.

7. An objection to a dog may be lodged with the Secretary at any time within seven days of a Meeting, upon the objector depositing with the Secretary the sum of £2, which shall be forfeited if the Committee deem such objection frivolous. All objections must be made in writing.

8. The Committee have the power, if they think fit, to refuse any entries for the Society's Trials without assigning any reason for their action.

9. In the event of the weather being considered by the Judges unsuitable for holding the Trials, it shall be in their power to postpone the Meeting from day to day until the Saturday following the first day of the Trials, on which day the Stakes not already decided shall be abandoned and their entry fees returned.

10. The Committee reserve to themselves the[101] right to abandon the Meeting at any time, on returning their entry monies to the competitors, and if, from unforeseen circumstances, they deem it advisable to alter the date of the Meeting after the closing of the entries, this may be done by sending formal notice to all competitors, who may exercise the option of cancelling their entries within four days from the date of such notice, in which event their entry fees will be returned to them. All entries, however, in regard to which no such option is exercised, will stand good for the Meeting at its altered date.

11. If an advertised Judge be unable to fulfil his engagement for the whole or part of the Meeting, the Committee shall appoint any other person to judge, or shall make any other arrangements that to them seem desirable.

12. The decisions of the Committee present shall, in all matters arising at the Meetings, be final and conclusive, and shall bind all parties.



Training Spaniels

(being an Extract from "Land and Water")

"Most people are contented if a dog will work within gunshot and push out the game for him to kill. Almost any mongrel with the necessary practice and experience will do this, but I assume that the sportsman takes a pride in his dogs, likes to have good-looking and well-bred ones, and if he wishes to shoot in comfort and in good form when he uses Spaniels, it is quite as necessary to have them well-trained as any other breed of sporting dog. I will therefore give such directions as experience has taught me are useful. I know no dog that more repays the trouble of breaking yourself (that is, if you have the requisite knowledge and patience) than the Spaniel, who, from natural love and affection he has for his master more than any other dog, should be more ready to work for him than anyone else. The Spaniel's natural love of and ardour in hunting require a firm hand over him until[103] he is matured. There is an old saying that 'A Spaniel is no good until he is nearly worn out.' There is a great deal of truth in this, and the Spaniel's enthusiasm must be largely reduced before he can get down to cool, earnest work. I recollect an old bitch, that belonged to a Devonshire sportsman, that was so cunning that she used to catch as much game as he shot. When the old man died, I bought the bitch, as she had a great reputation; but she was far too much of a pot-hunter for me. I could have backed her against a moderate gun any day.

"Spaniels get very knowing in working to the gun after a few months, and it is astonishing what efforts they will make to manœuvre the game out to the shooter. I have seen numberless instances of this, particularly in hedgerow shooting, when I have frequently seen a clever old dog, on winding game, not make a rush at it, which would have had the effect of sending it out on the other side, but pop through the fence and push it out to you. This, as I have said, is only acquired by experience; and a young, vigorous Spaniel will sometimes push up the game, irrespective of lending any aid to the gun. A really good Spaniel, even when he is busy questing and bustling about, should always have an eye to the gun, and to work to it instead of for himself and his own gratification and amusement. You cannot well begin too early to train young Spaniels to[104] get their noses down and to hunt close; to work thoroughly every bit of ground and every hole and corner that can possibly shelter a head of game. This is what the Spaniel is required to do when he is grown up; and in order to inculcate this habit in him, and to discourage him in what he is so prone to do—namely, go ahead—you should begin by flinging small bits of meat or boiled liver into small patches of turnips in a garden, or small patches of thick bushes, or any kind of covert that will cause him to seek for it with his nose, and not with his eye. By no means enter your young Spaniels to rabbits if you can avoid it; they take to them naturally when they get the chance, and there is no fear of their not having the opportunity soon enough. Enter them to winged game, by all means, and for this purpose get an old cock partridge, cut one wing, and put him into a small patch of thick covert.

"Never take young Spaniels into large or thick coverts where they can get away from under your eye. Confine your working ground to small bits of covert, patches of turnips, bushes, bits of gorse—any thing, in fact, where you will be likely to have thorough control over them, and where they are in reach of an attendant; whom you should always have with you to turn them to your whistle. I have found it a first-rate plan to take them out on the sides of rivers and ponds, where there are lots of[105] moorhens, and plenty of sedge and rushes; let them hunt in the rushes till they are tired, and a morning's work of this kind will do them more good than anything I know of. They soon become fond of the work; it teaches them to work close, and they are perfectly under the control of yourself and assistant.

"Teach them early to drop to hand and shot, and spare no pains about it; this is a part of a Spaniel's education which is generally neglected. I know many men who, instead of making them drop to shot, make them come to heel, using the words 'come around,' or 'heel.' It answers every purpose; and as it brings every dog to you, and he has to work right away from you again when he gets the signal, it has its advantages in keeping them under control; but, on the whole, I prefer the dropping to shot and wing instantly. It is difficult to make a Spaniel drop to fur; and if you can keep him from chasing, merely putting up hares and rabbits, but not following them after they are started, rest satisfied that little more is necessary or desirable.

"I once saw an interesting thing of this kind. I was shooting with a gentleman near Southampton, in one of his coverts, to a team of small Clumbers; we were both standing in a ride, and saw a charming little bitch feathering near us towards the ride. Just as she got to it, out popped a rabbit and scuttled[106] down the ride, followed out of the covert by the bitch; but as soon as she cleared the wood and was in the ride, close on to the rabbit, which she had not seen till then, down she dropped entirely of her own accord. She had not seen either of us, neither did we know that we were each observing this pretty bit of work until we compared notes a few minutes after, and agreed that we had never seen anything better. It is rather difficult to describe, but to me it was worth all the afternoon's shooting, and it made an impression at the time which is as fresh as ever now. She was, I need scarcely say, thoroughly broken.

"If it is desired to make young Spaniels take water, and they show any disinclination to it, the best plan is to take them to a stream which you can wade through. Walk through to the other side, and they will probably follow you at once; if they do not, walk straight away from the opposite side and go out of sight; they will come, after making a little fuss about it. If you have not a suitable shallow stream, but are obliged to make use of a deep river for your purpose, get an attendant, whom they do not know, to hold your puppies while you go round by a bridge out of their sight, and come down opposite to them, and follow the instructions I have given above. Remember many young dogs have, at first, a great fear of getting out of their depth all at[107] once, but will freely dabble into a shallow stream; so that it is best to lead them on by degrees. Once having got off their legs, and finding that it is an easy matter to swim, there will be no further trouble. Always choose warm weather for this teaching. There is, however, no better plan of teaching them to take to the water than letting them hunt moorhens. As to whether Spaniels should be taught to retrieve or not, will depend upon what your requirements are, the number you use, and so on.

"If you own but one dog, by all means take all the trouble you can to perfect him in this business; and for this purpose you should choose your whelp from a strain that retrieves naturally.

"If you work three or four Spaniels together, unless they are thoroughly broken, they all want to retrieve, and it is often the cause of much trouble. Nothing looks worse than to see several dogs all tugging at one bird, except, perhaps, the bird itself afterwards. If your dogs are sufficiently broken and under command, and will drop to shot or come to heel, and you can direct either one of them to find the wounded game, while the others remain down or at heel, you can let them take it in turn which shall be allowed the pleasure and honour of recovering the wounded; but how rarely one sees Spaniels so well under command as this. In the case of a team of Spaniels, I think it better that they should not be allowed to[108] retrieve, and this duty is better confined to a regular retriever.

"It is a good plan with young Spaniels to walk round a covert towards evening, when pheasants are out at feed in the stubbles, having an attendant with you to prevent them getting into covert, and walk in a zigzag way about the stubbles; you can generally give them plenty of practice in this way, and enter them well to the scent of winged game. If your puppies do not readily return to your whistle, but show a disposition to go on, turn your back upon them and go the other way, which will generally have the desired effect—and a rate or a crack of the whip from your attendant will greatly aid it. If a puppy is too fast, put up a fore-leg in his collar, or tie a strap tightly round one hind-leg just above the hock; but neither of these must remain long without changing, or you will produce swelling and inflammation. Apart from the pleasure and satisfaction there is in shooting to dogs of your own breaking, there is this advantage that they learn to understand your ways, and to know thoroughly your every look and motion, while you at the same time perfectly understand them.

"In selecting young Spaniels to break, if you do not breed your own, be most particular in getting them from a good working strain, of a sort that a friend of mine designates as 'savage for work.'


"To work Spaniels in thick, large woods, you should always go with them to work them, or send someone they are accustomed to work with, or they will become wild or slack."











The Foxhound

At no period of English history has fox-hunting, with Horse and Hound, been more vigorously pursued than it is during the twentieth century.

Scattered from north to south, east to west, are approximately some two hundred packs of these magnificent specimens of the canine race.

Judging from the excellent sport enjoyed by the majority of hunts during this last season, one has no need to be sceptical as to the progress and continuance of this grand and manly form of sport. Looking back on the times when such great followers of the chase as Peter Beckford and Mr Apperley ("Nimrod"), one is apt to think that through lapse of time, agricultural depression, and inroads made into the country through commercial industry, fox-hunting might well-nigh have become a sport of the past, but, happily, this is not so.

Given good weather and a favourable season, there is as good sport to be obtained with Horse and Hound as in the days of Beckford. The modern Foxhound,[114] has, by selection, been derived from the old Southern Hound, a dog that had longer ears, was heavier built, and slower.

This Hound was supposed to have been used by the Ancient Britons for hunting the larger game present at that time.

The number of Hounds constituting a pack varies, and if the pack is a very large one, the dogs and bitches are hunted alternately.

As to which is the best for hunting, opinions vary.

From twelve to twenty-five couples may be taken as the average number working at one time.

The following is a description of the Foxhound, taken from the Foxhound Stud Book:—

Head, of full size, but by no means heavy.

Brow pronounced but not high or sharp.

There must be good length and breadth, sufficient to give in the dog Hound a girth in front of the ears of fully 16 inches. The nose should be long (4½ inches) and wide, with dilated nostrils.

Ears set on low and lying close to the cheek.

The neck must be long and clean, without the slightest throatiness. It should taper nicely from the shoulders to the head, and the upper outline should be slightly convex.

The shoulders ought to be long and well clothed with muscle without being heavy, especially at the points. They must be well sloped, and the arm must be long and muscular, but free from fat and lumbar.


Mr Walter Winans' Pack of Hounds and Master.


Enemies at Peace—Foxhound Nameless and Tame Dog Fox (Property of Mr Walter Winans).


The chest should girth over 30 inches in a 24-inch Hound, and back ribs to be deep. The back and the loin both ought to be very muscular, running into each other without any contraction (waist) or nipping between them.

The couples must be wide even to raggedness, and there should be the slightest arch in the loin, so as to be scarcely perceptible.

The hind-quarters, or propellers, are required to be very strong, and as endurance is of even more consequence than speed, straight stifles are preferred to those much bent, as in the Greyhound.

Elbows set quite straight, neither turned in nor out, are a sine qua non. They must be well let down by means of the long true arm previously mentioned.

Every Master of Foxhounds insists on legs as straight as an arrow and very strong; size of bone at knees and stifles being specially regarded as important.

Not much attention is paid to colour and coat, so long as of good Hound colour, and the latter short, dense, hard and glossy. Typical Hound colours are: black, white and tan (tricolour), black and white and the various "pies," compounded of white and the colours of the hare and badger, or yellow and tan.

In some old strains the "blue mottle" of the[120] Southern Hound is still preserved. The stern is gently arched, coming gaily over the back and slightly fringed with hair below. It should taper to a point. The symmetry of the Foxhound is considerable, and what is called "quality" is highly regarded by all Hound judges. Dogs ought to weigh 70 to 80 lbs. and bitches from 60 to 70 lbs.

As to height, this varies in accordance with the country over which the Hounds have to hunt. From 22 up to 26 inches, but between these heights is general.

It is a very old custom to crop the young Hounds' ears with scissors, the operation being known as "rounding". It is done with the object of preventing the ears from becoming lacerated by briars, etc.

Recently there has been a good deal of discussion as to the necessity for a continuance of this practice, many asserting that it is not necessary, and constitutes cruelty.

As to the cruelty, there can be no two opinions.

The Kennel Club put their veto on the cropping of Bull-terriers, Black-and-tan Terriers, Boarhounds, etc., and there is little doubt that in course of time small ears will be the result. The old type of Foxhound had very much bigger ears than the modern one.

All things considered, the author is of opinion that the time has arrived for total abolition of this cruel operation.


The following is a list of some of the principal packs of Foxhounds in


Beaufort, Duke of.
Berkley, Old West.
Blackmore Vale.
Braham Moor.
Cornwall, North.
Do., East.
Do., North.
Devon, East.
Do., Mid.
Do., South.
Oxford, South.
Shropshire, South.
Staffordshire, North and South.
Taunton Vale.
Warwick, North.
Fitzhardinge, Lord.
Fitzwilliam, Earl.
Flint and Denbigh.
Kent, East.
Do., West.
Rutland, Duke of.
Tredegar, Lord.
York and Ainsty.
Whaddon Chase.
Yarborough, Earl of.


Some Packs in Scotland

Buccleuch, Duke of.
Lanark and Renfrew.

Some Packs in Ireland

King's County.
Galway County.


Although there are packs of Harriers in various parts of the country, they are of a very limited number, hare-hunting with Hounds being a very inferior sport to that of fox-hunting. Moreover, hares are not as plentiful as in the days of our forefathers, in a large measure arising through diminished agricultural industry and commercial relations.

That good sport is still to be had with Harriers we do not for a moment dispute, but it is not general.

Formerly "dwarf" foxhounds were used for hare-hunting, though proved not to be equal to the typical Harrier for this purpose.

Harriers vary in their height according to the nature of the country they have to work in.


Lecturer—A Member of the Crickhowell Harriers.


From 16 to 20 inches is the general height, sometimes a trifle more, or less.

Unless very carefully trained, Harriers will hunt rabbits, and then they are with difficulty broken of this vice.

The most useful colour is black, white and tan (tricolour), but hare, red, tan, badger and yellow pies are frequent.

Throughout, the Harrier should be symmetrical, have a large nose, dilated nostrils, ears low set on and lying close to the cheeks, and the neck long and strong. A short neck is a defective one.

There must be no loose skin, such as dewlap, etc., in this region.

Elbows well let down and carried in the same line as body.

Loins.—Broad; and back straight, strong, and wide.

Back ribs.—Deep.

Chest.—Deep, but not wide.

Fore-limbs.—Straight as a line, well rounded and of good bone and substance. Feet must be hard and compact.

Strong hind-quarters, and a gay carriage of tail are typical of a well-built Harrier.

Coat.—Dense, smooth (not coarse), and glossy.

Twenty couples were considered by the late Peter Beckford as constituting a full pack of Harriers, though there is no fixed number for this purpose.


Our illustration represents one of the Crickhowell Harriers, and for the picture I am indebted to Mr Stanhope Lovell of Crickhowell.[3]

The Otterhound

Otter-hunting is a very ancient sport, otter dogs being used during the reign of King John.

The Hounds in those days had not the beauty of the present-day Otterhound, as very different types of dogs were then used, e.g., a cross-bred Terrier, Foxhounds, etc.

One of the best packs of Otterhounds in this country are those belonging to the Dumfriesshire otter-hunt, the River Tweed affording the pack excellent hunting ground. It is an old-established pack, and has always given, we believe, the best of sport.

Looking at a typical specimen of this breed, one is not slow to recognise a "workman all over."

To a casual observer he has the appearance of a rough-coated—if such there can be—Bloodhound.

These dogs weigh from about 65 to 80 or 90 lbs., and the bitch Hounds 10 or 15 lbs. less, and of different colours, but grizzle (black and grey), and tan is the most general.

Colour.—Fawn, yellow, blue and white and black-and-tan[127] are frequently seen. The last-named colour should not be encouraged in these Hounds.

White markings are common.

His coat should be dense, of a wiry texture, shaggy in appearance, and of a water-resisting nature.

When judging these dogs, particular attention is paid to the coat.

A soft coat is decidedly objectionable, so is one that is thin.

Height.—About 25 inches.

Eyes.—Deeply sunk, thoughtful, showing the "haw" plainly.

Ears.—Long and sweeping, hanging closely to the cheeks.

Skull.—The peak is less prominent than that of the Bloodhound and the head shorter, but the flews large and loose. Like the ears, it is covered by shaggy hair, softer than that on the body. Beneath the lower jaw there is a moustache. Large teeth and powerful jaws are indispensable in an encounter with an otter.

Of Foxhound-like conformation, the frame is of stouter build altogether.

Neck.—Thick, of medium length, ending in very powerful shoulders and arms, and the chest must be deep, running and swimming demanding a sound heart and lungs. Dewlap loose. A strong back and loins, the latter slightly arched, an additional qualification[128] of the breed. Should be shorter in the leg than a Foxhound, but have big-boned, muscular limbs, with large feet, close, and horny below.

These Hounds hunt both by scent and by sight, their scenting-power being developed to a remarkable degree.

The music of Otterhounds is rich, deep and mellow.

The Deerhound

Regarding the origin of the Scottish Deerhound there is very little reliable information, though there can be no questioning the fact that it is a variety of dog indigenous to the Highlands, and bred specially for the purpose of hunting the deer.

About forty-five years since there were not many of these Hounds in England, and even in their native land at, or about, this period, they were by no means common.


Although powerful and swift dogs, they are only used to a very limited extent, and breeders of these Hounds keep them more for companionship, and exhibition purposes.

They make excellent watch-dogs, and are exceedingly hardy.

The following description is that issued by the Deerhound Club:—

Head.—The head should be broadest at the ears, tapering slightly to the eyes, with the muzzle tapering more decidedly to the nose.

The muzzle to be pointed, but the teeth and lips level.

The head ought to be long, the skull flat, rather than round, with a very slight rise over the eyes, but with nothing approaching a "stop."

The skull should be coated with moderately long hair, which is softer than the rest of the coat.

The nose to be black (although in some blue fawns the colour is blue) and slightly aquiline.

In the lighter coloured dogs a black muzzle is preferred. There should be a good moustache of rather silky hair and a fair beard.

Ears.—These to be set on "high," and in repose folded back like those of the Greyhound, though raised above the head during excitement without losing the fold, and, in some cases, semi-erect.

A "prick" ear is bad.

A big, thick ear hanging flat to the head, or[130] heavily coated with long hair, is one of the worst faults. The ear should be soft, glossy and like a mouse's coat to the touch, and the smaller it is, the better. It should have no long coat or long fringe, but there is often a silky, silvery coat on the body of the ear and the tip.

Whatever the general colour, the ears ought to be black, or dark coloured.

Neck and Shoulders.—The neck should be long—that is, of the length that befits the Greyhound character of the dog.

An overlong neck is neither necessary nor desirable, for the dog is not required to stoop to his work like a Greyhound, and it must be remembered that the mane, which every good specimen should have, detracts from the apparent length of the neck.

Moreover, a Deerhound requires a very strong neck to hold a stag.

The nape of the neck must be very prominent where the head is set on, and the throat clean cut at the angle, and prominent.

Shoulders to be of good slope and blades well back. Loaded and straight shoulders are faulty ones.

Stern.—To be tolerably long, tapering and reaching to within 1½ inches of the ground, and about the same distance below hocks.

When the Hound is at rest, tail ought to be quite straight down, or curved.


Deerhound Champion St Ronan's Rhyme (Property of Mr Harry Rawson).


Deerhound Dog Champion Selwood Morven (Property of Mr Harry Rawson).


During excitement, curved, and in no case lifted out of the line of the back.

It should be well covered with hair on the inside, thick and woolly, underside longer, and a slight fringe near tip not objectionable. A curl or ring tail very faulty.

Eyes.—These should be dark; generally they are dark brown or hazel. A very light eye is not liked. The eye is moderately full, with a soft look during repose, but a keen, far-away expression when the Hound is roused. Rims of eyelids ought to be black.

Body.—The body and general formation is that of a Greyhound, of larger size and bone.

Chest deep, rather than broad, but not too narrow, and flat-sided. The loin well arched, and drooping to the tail. A straight back is not desirable, this formation being unsuitable for uphill work, and very unsightly.

Legs and Feet.—The legs to be broad and flat, with good broad forearms and elbows.

Straight fore-limbs, and close compact feet.

The hind-quarters to be drooping, and as broad and powerful as possible, the hips being set wide apart.

The hind-legs to be well bent at the stifle, with great length from hips to hocks, and the latter broad and flat.

Cow-hocks, weak pasterns, straight stifles, and splay feet are the worst of faults.


Coat.—The hair on the body, neck, and quarters should be hard and wiry, and about 3 or 4 inches in length, and that on the head, breast, and belly much softer. There ought to be a slight hairy fringe on the inside of the fore and hind legs, but nothing approaching the feather of a Collie.

The Deerhound ought to be a shaggy dog, but not overcoated. A woolly coat is a bad one.

Some good strains have a mixture of silky coat with the hard, and this is preferable to a woolly coat. The proper Deerhound coat is thick, close-lying, ragged, and harsh or crisp to the feel.

Colour.—More a matter for individual fancy.

A dark blue-grey most preferred, and after this, darker and lighter grey, or brindles, the darkest being preferred.

Yellow, sandy-red, or red-fawn, with black points (i.e., ears and muzzle), are equally esteemed, more so because two of the oldest strains—the M'Neil and Chesthill Menzies—are of these colours.

White is condemned by all the old authorities, but a white chest and white toes, occurring as they do in a great many of the darkest coloured dogs, are not so much objected to, though less the better, as the Deerhound is a self-coloured dog.

A white blaze on the head, or a white collar, should entirely disqualify.

A white tip on tail occurs in most strains.


Height of Dogs.—From 28 to 30 inches.

Height of Bitches.—From 26 inches upwards.

A big bitch is better for breeding and keeping up size. Ought not to exceed the height of the dog under any circumstances.

Weight.—Dogs, 85 to 105 lbs. Bitches, 65 to 80 lbs.

Mr Rawson, of Joppa, kindly supplied me with photographs.

The Total Points Required for a Deerhound

Length and shape of head 10
Ears 6
Beard and eyebrows 3
Eyes 5
Coat 7
Neck 5
Tail 4
Nails 2
Teeth 5
  —— 47
Height at shoulder 10
Substance and girth 9
Length and symmetry of body 9
  —— 28
Loins and hocks 10
Fore-limbs 8
Feet 7
  —— 25
Total   100






Irish Wolfhounds





The Bloodhound

For several centuries at least, the Bloodhound has existed as a distinct variety of the canine race. According to Jesse, the earliest mention of Bloodhounds was during the reign of Henry III., and that the breed originated from the Talbot, brought over by William the Conqueror, and very similar to a breed from St Hubert's Abbey and Ardennes, which, according to the old legends, was imported by St Hubert, from the south of Gaul, about the sixth century.

The Talbot was the popular Hound from the twelfth to the sixteenth century, becoming extinct about the end of the last century.

"The Southern Hound, another very old breed, showing many characteristics of the Bloodhound, is difficult to find now in his pure state, although many old packs of Harriers have descended chiefly from Southern Hounds. The best authorities agree that the St Hubert, Talbot, and Bloodhound are all closely allied."


The foregoing is an extract from the Century, by E. Brough.

These Hounds were used by Henry VIII. in the wars in France; by the Spaniards in Mexico, and by Queen Elizabeth against the Irish.

One of the most remarkable features of the Bloodhound is found in his abilities to track the footsteps of strangers, but in towns and cities he is quite useless for this purpose.

Within recent years, these Hounds have frequently been employed with the object of tracking a criminal, and in some instances, we believe, with very satisfactory results.

In appearance the Bloodhound has a very stately bearing, and usually of a kindly disposition.

On the hunt their music is deep and bell-like.

Although generally of good constitution, Bloodhound puppies are very troublesome to rear, distemper being the scourge to which most of them succumb.

For the photograph of the beautiful quartet, the author is indebted to Mrs Chapman of Thrapston, and to this lady, and Mr Fall for the lovely picture of the head of Champion Sultan.

The points of the Bloodhound are as follows:—

1. Head.—This is characteristic.

The skin covering the forehead and cheeks is heavily wrinkled, the more so the better. Reference to the picture showing the head of Sultan shows the remarkable expression in this region.


A Quartet of Typical Bloodhounds (the Property of Mrs Chapman, Thrapston).


The occipital dome is high but not wide, and very round. At the top it forms a peak.

The nasal surface, i.e., from eyes to nose, is very long, so that from peak to nose it may measure as much as a foot. The brows are prominent; the flews very long—sometimes a couple of inches—and the nostrils large and well dilated.

Eyes.—Small, hazel in colour, deeply sunk, and should show a great deal of "haw," i.e., the membrana nictitans, or third eyelid. These features are very characteristic of the Bloodhound.

Long ears, thin, soft to the feel, set on low down, hanging close to cheeks, and meeting, when pulled together, over the nose.

The facial expression ought to appear quick and penetrating.

2. Legs and Feet.—There must be plenty of bone and muscle here; strong knees; straight and round well-formed, cat-like feet.

3. Chest and Shoulders.—Width and fair depth are desirable, the shoulder being very strong, the arm also strong.

4. Neck.—A long neck is essential, and the dewlap should be well developed.

5. Ribs, Back and Loin.—Well-sprung ribs, with a wide back, of moderate length, and strong loins.


6. Hind-quarters and Limbs.—There should not be much more than skin, bone, and muscle in these regions. The hocks are strong and coarse. Must not be cow-hocked.

7. Tail.—Gay carriage as in other Hounds. At rest tail is down.

8. Coat and Colour.—Black-and-tan. The black hair is generally blended with the tan, and this ought to be of a deep red. Some Hounds are tan-coloured only. Lion colour uncommon, but coveted. The body coat short and hard, but on the ears, and head, fine and soft.

Height.—For dogs, about 2 ft. 3 in.; bitches, 2 ft. (measured at shoulder).

Club.—Bloodhound Breeders' Association, particulars of this being given.


(Founded 1897)

Objects of the Association

1. To foster the interests of the breed generally.

2. To establish a Fund by means of a subscription of 10 per cent. of all money prizes that each member may have won and received, as provided by the Rules.

3. To approach Show Committees with the view[147] of obtaining extended Classification in the Bloodhound Classes.

4. To promote Stakes in connection with the progeny of Stud Dogs.

5. To promote Stakes in connection with the progeny of Brood Bitches.

6. To offer prizes for competition at Shows in addition to those offered by Show Committees.

7. To do everything possible to promote, by trials or otherwise, the training of Bloodhounds to hunt man.

Rules and Regulations


1. The Association shall consist of an unlimited number of Honorary Members and Members, who shall be persons interested in the promotion of the breeding and training of Bloodhounds, whose names and addresses shall be entered in a register to be kept by the Secretary.

Honorary Members

2. The Committee shall have power to elect as Honorary Members any persons whose election may be considered beneficial to the interest of the Association. Honorary Members to be exempt from paying the Annual Subscription, and shall not[148] participate in any benefits to be derived from the Association, nor take any part in its management.

Mode of Election

3. Each Candidate for Membership shall be proposed by one Member and seconded by another, and the election shall be vested absolutely in the Committee.


4. The Annual Subscription shall be One Guinea, payable on the 1st of January.

Members' Prize Fund

5. Each member shall, during the continuance of his membership, contribute to a fund, to be known as The Members' Prize Fund, 10 per cent. of all money prizes received by him (except out of the Fund) during each year, and won for Bloodhounds at Shows and Trials held under Kennel Club Rules.

6. The Fund shall be closed on the 31st December in each year, and the amount received shall be offered for competition amongst the Members during the year following in such manner as the Committee may deem fit.

7. No Member shall be entitled to compete for prizes offered out of a Fund subscribed for whilst he[149] shall not have been a Member, except as provided by Rule 8.

8. No Member shall be entitled to compete for prizes offered out of the Fund subscribed during the year during which he shall have been elected a Member, unless he shall have, within one month of his election, paid to the Association 10 per cent. of all money prizes previously received by him during that year for Bloodhounds at Shows and Trials held under Kennel Club Rules.

Members in Arrear

9. No Member shall be allowed to vote or compete for Association Prizes, or in any way whatsoever enjoy any of the privileges of Membership, whilst his current subscription and any other debts due by him to the Association are outstanding, and for which application has been made.

10. The Committee shall have power to erase the name from the list of Members of any Member whose subscription remains unpaid on 31st day of March.


11. The affairs of the Association shall be conducted by a Chairman, a Committee of five, a Treasurer and a Secretary. All officers of the Association shall be Honorary, and no Member[150] shall be allowed to make the Association a means of private speculation or trade, or to derive money profit through it. The Chairman, Treasurer, and Hon. Secretary shall be ex-officio Members of the Committee.

12. The Executive shall be elected annually, as provided by Rule 22:—Chairman, Mr Edwin Brough; Committee, Mr Walter Evans, Mr H. C. Hodson, Mr Arthur O. Mudie, Mr W. K. Taunton, Mr J. Sidney Turner; Hon. Secretary, Mr Edgar Farman.

Annual General Meeting

13. An Annual General Meeting shall be held in January, for the purpose of electing the officers of the Association for the ensuing year.

Powers of the Committee

14. The management of the Association shall be wholly vested in the Committee, which shall have the power to call meetings of the Association, to make necessary bye-laws and rescind the same, arbitrate in disputed matters, the absolute power of the election of Members, and the right to refuse the admission of or remove from the Association any person deemed objectionable. The Committee shall also have the sole power to deal with the funds and property of the Association in its absolute discretion,[151] also to deal with any question or matter not provided for by these Rules, and also elect persons to fill up any vacancy occurring in its numbers. Such elections to be confirmed at the next Committee Meeting, and such persons shall continue in office until the next Annual General Meeting. The Committee shall decide upon the value and nature of the prizes to be offered at the various Shows and Trials.


15. There shall be a meeting of the Committee as often as deemed necessary—three shall form a quorum. There shall be Meetings of the Members of the Association—five actually present shall form a quorum—in London or elsewhere, as often as the Committee may deem necessary.

Minutes and Votes

16. The minutes of the proceedings of all Meetings shall be kept, and the minutes of the last preceding Meeting shall be read at the commencement of the next subsequent Meeting, and be approved and confirmed by vote. Each Member shall have one vote, and the Chairman shall have a casting vote.

Shows and Trials

17. The Association shall, if possible, promote and[152] hold such Shows and Trials as the Committee may deem expedient, and either in or without connection with any other Exhibition, as the Committee may direct.


18. All expenses incurred by the Secretary, Treasurer, or other Member of the Committee, or by any Member for or on behalf of the Association, on the authority of the Committee, shall be defrayed out of the funds of the Association.

Report and Audit

19. An Annual Report, with a statement of the financial position of the Association, shall be drafted by the Retiring Committee, and presented at the Annual General Meeting.

Withdrawal from Membership

20. It shall be competent for any Honorary Member or Member to withdraw from the Association on giving notice of his intention in writing to the Secretary, but any Member leaving the Association shall remain liable for all subscriptions not already paid, including that due for the current year, and shall not be entitled to receive back any money he may have paid to or on account of the Association during his Membership, or have any claim against the Association, except under Rule 18.



21. Any Member violating the Rules and Regulations of the Association for the time being in force, shall be liable to be expelled by the Committee; and any Member of the Association who shall be proved to the satisfaction of the Committee to have in any way misconducted himself in connection with Dogs, Dog Shows, or Trials, or to have in any way acted in opposition to the fundamental rules and principles upon which the Association has been established, or in any other manner which would make it undesirable, in the opinion of the Committee, that he should continue to be a Member, shall be requested to retire from the Association, and if a resolution to that effect shall be carried by a majority of the Committee, the Member so requested to retire shall thenceforth cease to be a Member of the Association, as if he had resigned in the usual course, and shall not be entitled to have any part of his Annual Subscription for the current year returned to him, and shall remain liable for all arrears of subscriptions unpaid and any dues owing, but before any such expulsion or request to retire, the Member shall have an opportunity of being heard in his defence.

Election of Committee and Officers

22. The Chairman, Treasurer, Hon. Secretary, and[154] Committee shall be elected annually. Their election shall take place at the Annual General Meeting, and be by ballot. Only Members of the Association shall be eligible to hold office. Nominations shall be sent in to the Secretary, seven days prior to the Meeting, of gentlemen whom it may be deemed desirable to elect; and Members of the retiring Committee shall be eligible for re-election without nomination.

A Member shall not give more than one vote for any one candidate, and must vote for the full number of vacancies.


23. Notices of the convening of any Meetings may be inserted in the Kennel Gazette, Field, Stock-Keeper, Our Dogs, Kennel News, or such other similar publication of which due notice is given to the Members, and that shall thenceforth be deemed full and sufficient without notice in writing.

Service of Notices

24. A notice may be served by the Association upon any Member, either personally or by sending it through the post in a prepaid letter addressed to such Member at his registered place of address.

25. Any notices, if served by post, shall be deemed to have been served at the latest within twelve[155] hours after the same shall have been posted, and in proving such service it shall be sufficient to prove that the letter containing the notice was properly addressed and put into a post-office letter box.

26. As regards those Members of the Association who have no registered address in the United Kingdom, a notice posted up in the office or residence of the Secretary for the time being shall be deemed to be well served on them at the expiration of twelve hours after it is so posted up.

Irish Wolfhounds

The present breed of Irish Wolfhounds appears to be the outcome of crossing the Deerhound with the Boarhound, though several centuries ago this variety of dog was said to be in existence, and employed, as its name indicates, for hunting the wolves in this and his own country.

The extermination of wolves in these countries would naturally account for the decadence of the Hounds hunting them.

Be this as it may, the present type of Hound is a fast and powerful dog, and, we should judge, would prove to be quite equal to his earlier representatives.

In colour these Hounds are red, brindle, fawn, grey, black, white, etc., and have a rough, hard coat on body, head and limbs, the hair under the jaw and over the eyes, being long, and wiry in texture.


Weight, height (proportionate), and powerful build are essentials, and should be one of the principal aims of the breeder.

Dogs ought not to be less than 31 inches, and bitches 28 inches. In weight, the former ought to scale 120 lbs. and bitches about 100 lbs.

Head.—Must be long, of medium width above the eyes, and the muzzle long and pointed.


Neck.—Ought to be well curved, long, and deep.

A deep chest, wide brisket, and long, strong back and loins, together with a long curved tail, having an abundance of hair upon it, are qualifications for a typical specimen.

Fore-limbs.—Strong, big-boned forearms , straight and carried straight, ending in large round feet and strong claws, are essentials of beauty in these regions.

Hind-quarters.—To be clothed with well-developed muscles—weakness in this respect being a fault—having a long second thigh, and hocks low placed.

In many respects the Irish Wolfhound resembles the Russian Wolfhound, our own Deerhound and Greyhound, though it is a more massive animal than any of these, but like these Hounds, built upon racing lines, though of the heavy-weight class.

The Irish Wolfhound Club watches over the interests of the breed.


The Greyhound

From representations upon Egyptian monuments, etc., the Greyhound has been shown to have been in existence for three thousand years at least, and, according to Holinshead, was introduced into Britain some time during the third century. The first record of any coursing club in this country is said to be that founded by Lord Orford in Norfolk, during 1776.

The modern Greyhound is vastly superior to those of the ancients, if the old prints are faithful representations of these fleet-coursing thoroughbreds.

Although the Greyhound hunts by "sight," he is by no means "devoid" of hunting by "scent," as the Foxhound, Otterhound, etc. Misterton, winner of the Waterloo Cup in 1879 (63 lbs. weight); Coomassie, winner of the Waterloo Cup twice (weight 42 lbs.); Master M'Grath, winner of the Waterloo Cup three times (54 lbs.), and Fullerton (65 lbs.), winner of the Waterloo Cup three times and a division of it the fourth time with his kennel companion, may be said to have been the grandest quartet of Greyhounds ever gracing the course.

To enter into a detailed account of the Greyhound would be quite outside the title and scope of this work, therefore the author will only give a brief outline of some of the more important points of these fleet-footed Hounds, which are as follows:—


Head.—This should be long and narrow, wide between the ears and low between the eyes. The head of a bitch is of finer mould. Lean jaws.

Eyes.—Penetrating and full of animation.

Ears.—Elegantly carried and small.

Neck.—Very important. Must be long, strong, very supple, and, above all, graceful. A high degree of flexibility is indispensable.

Fore-quarters.—Shoulders must not be over-loaded with muscle, but a great degree of obliquity is a sine qua non.

Arm, long, ending below in a strong elbow joint.

Fore-arm.—Very long, strong, and should consist of little beyond bone, muscles and tendons. It is in this region, particularly, that the Greyhound excels in beauty. Must be as straight as a line from elbow to knee, and, above all, well placed in relation to the parts above and below.

The forward position of the fore-limbs are a striking feature of the Greyhound, giving a minimum of weight to carry in front.

Long oblique pasterns, and compact hard feet are points of great importance.

Hind-quarters.—Strength, width, and a great degree of flexibility are necessary in this region. Weak, or soft muscles destroys a Greyhound's speed, turning and staying power.


Greyhound Bitch Lady Golightly (Property of Mrs. Dewè).


Fawn Greyhound Dean Baden Powell (Property of Mr Eyers, Blandford).


A Trio of Greyhounds (Property of Mrs Dewè).
Duke o' Ringmer.    Lady Golightly.    Glory o' Ringmer.


Greyhound, Sussex Belle (Property of Mrs Dewè).


First and second thighs must be long, and well muscled.

The oblique position of the second thighs constitutes the main beauty in this region. Their backward curve joins the hocks in such a manner as to give the greatest possible leverage on the long, strong, pasterns and feet below.

The angles of the hocks are very acute, and, in relation to the body, placed very far back.

If a Greyhound has not typically formed and well-placed hind-quarters, he will never make his mark as a runner.

Chest.—Most certainly should be deep, but not wide.

If a greyhound is not well-hearted he is no good for speed, or endurance.

Flatness of ribs, especially towards the keel, is advantageous.

Tail.—Long and tapering.

Coat.—Of medium texture, neither too coarse, nor too fine.

Colour.—Unimportant. A good Greyhound may be any colour.

Our illustrations are from photographs kindly lent by Mrs Dewè of Ringmer, and Mr Eyers of Blandford.

The Whippet

The Whippet may be described as a miniature Greyhound,[168] and is judged much upon the same lines. The chief use of these little dogs is that of racing on a course, and for rabbiting, also as a snap-dog. It is rather singular, but miners, etc., are remarkably fond of Whippets, and the Lancashire and Staffordshire towns contain a lot of this breed.

This variety of canine flesh resulted through crossing a Greyhound and Terrier.

The best time of the year to breed Whippets is the spring, so that the youngsters will have the whole of the summer to develop in.

For general purposes, from 15 to 18 or 20 lbs. is the most useful weight, and of either whole, or mixed colours. Fawn, bramble, blue, red and white are very common ones.

Coat.—Should be fine and close.

Constitution.—Must be sound (otherwise a Whippet is not the slightest use), and the chest of good capacity, i.e., the dog ought to be well-hearted. A long, lean, finely-chiselled head (wide between the eyes), and flat on the top, with bright, expressive eyes, and small rose ears, are essentials.

Shoulders should have a good slope; the neck long, clean, and inclined to be straight, not arched, as stated by some authorities.

Fore-limbs.—These must be as straight as a line; have good bone, be long, have well-developed muscles, and well placed in relation to the body.


Typical Whippet Dog Dandy Coon (Property of Mr Thomas Redruth).


The shoulders long, the arms long, forearms very long, and pasterns long, but proportionate.

The loins are very important features in a good Whippet. This region should show strongly-developed muscles, be slightly arched, passing in front on to a broad and square back.

Front ribs to be well rounded and long; the back ones short.

Hind-quarters, Tail, and Feet.—If a racing dog is poorly developed in these regions, he is no use for the purpose. The outlines of the individual muscles ought to be plainly seen.

Long first and second thighs are a sine qua non in the Whippet. Both width and strength are necessary. Well-bent stifles and strong hocks equally essential. Feet round, and well split up.

Tail.—Long, tapered, and nicely curved.

General Appearance of the Whippet.—A smart, racily-built, active-looking dog, of various colours, having a deep chest, narrow waist, and long, beautifully modelled, muscular extremities.



Mixed Hounds





Basset-hounds (Rough and Smooth)


Borzois Padiham Nordia (Property of Mr Murphy).


Borzois Dog (Property of Mrs Heaven).



The Borzois or Russian Wolfhound

The Borzois appears to be unquestionably of Russian origin, being, in anatomical structure, closely allied to the Greyhound, and in his native country is used for hunting the wolf, a brace being "slipped" after the wolf has been beaten out of cover, much in the same fashion as Greyhounds' coursing. The Hounds retain their hold until the huntsman arrives to secure it.

Russian Wolfhounds have during recent years become remarkably fashionable in England, probably in a large measure owing to the fact that Queen Alexandra, the Duchess of Newcastle—who owns some of the finest specimens of the breed in this country—and many others of aristocratic lineage, have been keen supporters of these noble creatures. In England, the only use for these hounds is that of companionship. They are, when trained, fairly good house dogs, though the uncertain temper of many of these Hounds renders them not very reliable. Although always carrying a most benignant expression, this will often be found to be deceptive.


A typical Borzoi should have a long, lean head; flat and narrow skull, and long, tapering muzzle, the head of the bitch being somewhat finer than that of the dog.

Greyhound-like ears, and dark, elliptically-shaped eyes.

Chest, narrow and deep, with great depth of rib behind the elbows, one of the most striking features of the breed.

Neck, very muscular, rather long and deep where it joins the shoulders, and these ought to be fairly oblique, but well clothed with muscles.

A long, straight back and broad loins, with powerful quarters, long thighs and low-placed, strong hocks are counted points for the show bench. The hind limbs, in relation to the body, are placed very far back, only just appearing to be under it at the lower part of the extremities when the dog is standing still.

Tail must be heavily feathered, long, and carried down, the so-called "gay" carriage being a drawback.

Fore-Limbs.—Good fore-limbs are a sine qua non. The arms should be well muscled, and the forearms long, straight, broadening out as they approach the arms, and tapering from a trifle above the knees until the feet are reached. These ought to be long, toes well arched, and close.

Colour.—Grey, or orange patches on a white ground.


Coat.—Short and smooth on the head, ears, and fore-limbs. The frill on neck should be abundant and somewhat curly. That covering the head, body, tail, and hind-quarters, long and silky.

Height.—Dogs from 28 inches, and bitches from 26 inches.

Faults.—A drooping nose; sickle-shaped carriage of the tail, short back, weak forehand, etc.

Club.—The Borzoi, formed in 1892.

The Beagle

This is a very ancient variety of sporting dog, and one that was much in favour during the Elizabethan period, these miniature Hounds even at that time being spoken of as the "merry, singing Beagles."

The typical Beagle is a modification of the Foxhound, and has every appearance of having been derived, by selection, from this source.

Just as the Foxhound is used for hunting the fox, the Harrier for hunting the hare, so is the Beagle employed for rabbit-hunting—hence the term "Rabbit Beagles," of which there are many small packs of these splendid little creatures up and down this, and other countries sometimes used for hare-hunting.

The smaller ones—Pocket Beagles in particular—are lovely little Hounds, and to the sportsman who[182] loves hunting on foot, they are ideal field companions.

Typical specimens of the breed are, in our opinion, handsome; their symmetrical form and workmanlike appearance carry an irresistible charm into the heart of the rabbit-hunter.

There is also the Rough-coated Beagle, and for these a class is usually provided at the Kennel Club and Cruft shows, in London.

In order to breed Pocket Beagles it is advisable to select as small a sire and dam as possible, because there seems to be a natural tendency for these Hounds to become over, rather than under, sized.

By instinct, the Beagle seems to take to work.

Taking puppies out along with a "schoolmaster" or "mistress" will generally be sufficient education, if carried out in systematic lessons.

These Hounds are, as a rule, quiet and affectionate, and some are not at all bad house dogs, though, of course, this is quite outside the uses for which they have been designed.

When purchasing Beagles, more especially for work, there are several important matters to look to.

Buy Hounds having a dense, rather coarse coat; short, strong, upright pasterns, cat-like feet, short back, heavily muscled on the quarters and second thighs, and well-hearted, i.e., a deep chest and well-sprung ribs.


A Group of Leyswood Beagles.


Pocket Beagle Cheerful of Rodnance (Property of Mrs Oughton Giles).


Good coupling is essential.

Long ears, low set on, fine, and hanging close to cheek are additional points of beauty.

The classes at the London Kennel Club shows are:—

1. Not exceeding 10 inches.
2. Not exceeding 12 inches.
3. Over 10 but not over 12 inches.
4. Over 12 but not over 16 inches.
5. In the Novice Class—any height.
6. Class for Rough Coats.

The following descriptions and standards of points will afford the reader the best information upon the subject, but as the English and American standards differ somewhat in details, the author deems it advisable to insert the descriptions framed by both clubs.


Description and Standard of Points

Head.—Of fair length, powerful, without being coarse, skull domed, moderately wide, with an indication of peak, "stop" well defined, muzzle not snipy, and lips well flewed.

Nose.—Black, broad, and nostrils well-expanded.

Eyes.—Brown, dark hazel or hazel, not deep-set or bulgy, and with a mild expression.


Ears.—Long, set on low, fine in texture, and hanging in a graceful fold close to the cheek.

Neck.—Moderately long, slightly arched, and throat showing some dewlap.

Shoulders.—Clean and slightly sloping.

Body.—Short between the couplings, well let down in chest, ribs fairly well sprung and well ribbed up, with powerful, and not tucked-up loins.

Hind-quarters.—Very muscular about the thighs, stifles and hocks well bent, the latter well let down.

Forelegs.—Quite straight, well under the dog, of good substance and round in bone; feet round, well knuckled up, and strongly padded.

Stern.—Of moderate length, set on high, carried gaily, but not curled over the back.

Colour.—Any recognised Hound colour.

Coat.—Smooth variety: smooth, very dense, and not too fine or short. Rough variety: very dense and wiry.

Height.—Not exceeding 16 inches.

General Appearance.—A compactly-built Hound, without coarseness, conveying the impression of great stamina and activity.

Pocket Beagles must not exceed 10 inches in height, although ordinary Beagles in miniature. No point, however good in itself, should be encouraged, if it tends to give a coarse appearance to such minute specimens of the breed. They should be compact[189] and symmetrical throughout, of true Beagle type, and show great quality and breeding.

Classification.—It is recommended that Beagles should be divided at shows into Rough and Smooth, with classes for "not exceeding 16 inches and over 12 inches"; "not exceeding 12 inches and over 10"; and "not exceeding 10 inches."

Standard of Points

Skull 6
Ears 10
Eyes 3
Expression 5
Muzzle, jaws, and lip 10
Coat 5
Legs and feet 15
Neck and shoulders 10
Chest 5
Back, loins, and ribs 15
Hind-quarters 10
Stern 6

Disqualifying Point.—Any kind of mutilation. (It is permissible to remove the dewclaws.)



Points, &c.

Head.—The skull should be moderately domed at the occiput, with the cranium broad and full. The ears set on low, long, and fine in texture, the forward or front edge closely framing and inturned to the cheek, rather broad and rounded at the tips, with an almost entire absence of erectile power at their origin.

Eyes.—The eyes full and prominent, rather wide apart, soft and lustrous, brown or hazel in colour. The orbital processes well developed. The expression gentle, subdued, and pleading.

Muzzle.—The muzzle of medium length, squarely cut, the "stop" well defined. The jaws should be level. Lips either free from, or with moderate, flews. Nostrils large, moist, and open.

Defects.—A flat skull, narrow across the top of head, absence of dome. Ears short, set on too high; or when the dog is excited, rising above the line of the skull at their points of origin, due to an excess of erectile power. Ears pointed at tips, thick or boardy in substance, or carried out from cheek, showing a space between. Eyes of a light or yellow colour. Muzzle long and snipy. Pig jaws, or the reverse, known as undershot. Lips showing deep, pendulous flews.


Disqualifications.—Eyes close together, small, beady, and Terrier-like.

Neck and Throat.—Neck rising free and light from the shoulders, strong in substance, yet not loaded; of medium length. The throat clean, and free from folds of skin; a slight wrinkle below the angle of the jaw, however, may be allowable.

Defects.—A thick, short, cloddy neck carried on a line with the top of the shoulders. Throat showing dewlap and folds of skin to a degree termed "throatiness."

Shoulders and Chest.—Shoulders somewhat declining, muscular, but not loaded, conveying the idea of freedom of action with lightness, activity, and strength. Chest moderately broad and full.

Defects.—Upright shoulders and a disproportionately wide chest.

Back, Loins, and Ribs.—Back short, muscular, and strong. Loin broad and slightly arched, and the ribs well sprung, giving abundant lung-room.

Defects.—A long or swayed back, a flat, narrow loin, or a flat, constricted rib.

Forelegs and Feet.—Forelegs straight, with plenty of bone. Feet close, firm, and either round or hare-like in form.

Defects.—Cow-hocks and open feet.

Tail.—The tail should be carried gaily, well up, and with some medium curve, rather short as compared[192] with the size of the dog, and clothed with a decided brush.

Defects.—A long tail, with a "tea-pot" curve.

Disqualifications.—A thinly-haired, rattish tail, with entire absence of brush.

Coat.—Moderately coarse in texture, and of good length.

Disqualifications.—A short, close, and nappy coat.

Height.—The meaning of the term "Beagle" (a word of Celtic origin, and in Old English, "Begele") is small, little. The dog was so named from his diminutive size. Your Committee, therefore, for the sake of consistency, and that the Beagle shall be in fact what his name implies, strongly recommend that the height line shall be sharply drawn at 15 inches, and that all dogs exceeding that height shall be disqualified as overgrown and outside the pale of recognition.

Colour.—All Hound colours are admissible. Perhaps the most popular is black, white and tan. Next in order is the lemon and white, the blue and lemon mottles; then follow the solid colours, such as black-and-tan, tan, lemon, fawn, etc. This arrangement is of course arbitrary, the question being one governed entirely by fancy. The colours first named form the most lively contrast, and blend better in the pack, the solid colours being sombre and monotonous to the eye. It is not intended to give a point value to colour in the scale for judging, as beforesaid all true[193] Hound colours being correct. The following remarks on the subject are therefore simply suggestive.

General Appearance.—A miniature Foxhound, solid and big for his inches, with the wear-and-tear look of the dog that can last in the chase and follow his quarry to the death.

Note.—Dogs possessing such serious faults as are enumerated under the heading of "Disqualifications" are under the grave suspicion of being of impure blood. Under the heading of "Defects," objectionable features are indicated, such departures from the standard not, however, impugning the purity of the breeding.



The Dachshund

Like many other varieties of the dog, the origin of the Dachshund seems to be involved in obscurity, though there are fairly reasonable grounds for concluding that the home of the Dachshund is Germany, where the terrier-like type is that cultivated, the Hound characteristics of the breed having become largely developed through the English system of breeding.

To anyone unacquainted with this breed of dog in his own country, the Hound features are the most striking, in fact, so overshadow anything of the Terrier element as to completely obscure it.

Some few years since the Dachshund was an exceedingly fashionable variety of dog, chiefly as a lady's companion.


Dachshund Champion Snakes Prince (Property of Mr de Boinville).]


A Brace of Typical Dachshunds (Property of Mr de Boinville).


Dachshund Dog and Bitch (Property of Mrs Gerald Spencer).


Red Dachshund Victoria Regina (Property of Miss Blackoe).


Latterly he seems to have been displaced by the Pomeranian, Pekinese, and Japanese Spaniels. This brings us back to the adage that "every dog has his day." So with the Dachshund, yet the classes at the London shows are always well filled. The Terrier-type of Hound is usually smaller and built upon lighter lines. The legs are not so crooked, the head shorter, so are the ears.

In weight they are from 10 to 16 lbs. or thereabout.

The so-called Toy Dachshund or Spiel Dachs are a diminutive production of the smallest Terrier-type of the variety, but not specially sought after, at least in this country.

In England Dachshunds are but rarely used for sporting purposes, but in Germany they are largely employed for hunting the fox in his home.

These little dogs can go into the earth after any fox, and are not long in giving tongue when Reynard is in the ground, and if several of these little dogs are at work on one fox they are not long in causing him to bolt, or settle the dispute by underground combat. With the badger—always a formidable antagonist—these little dogs are said to be equally game, usually fighting to a finish. A few sportsmen have made use of Dachshunds for driving rabbits out of cover, but they have no particular qualification in this respect, and are decidedly inferior to the Beagle, or a pack of Beagles for this purpose.


It is a variety of dog not the easiest to rear, distemper being, as in most other breeds, accountable for the high mortality amongst them.

The colour of Dachshunds varies considerably, but the chief ones are, deep red, chocolate and tan, fallow-red, black-and-tan, and dapple.

White on the body is objectionable, less so on the feet.

The so-called "Tiger Dachs," or steel-blue and tan-colour is uncommon, though it gives the animal a very handsome appearance. At the London Kennel Club shows there is a class for dappled dogs and bitches. As a rule, the crossing of a black-and-tan Dachs with a red one, produces puppies true to type, i.e., some are black and tan, others red, and not a mixture of these two colours. A red dog and bitch, will, however, sometimes throw a black-and-tan puppy; or a black-and-tan sire and dam produce a whole-red puppy. This is precisely what happens with certain other varieties.

There are really three varieties of coat, viz.:—

(a) The Smooth.
(b) The Rough.
(c) Wire-haired.

The coat should be short and thick and the skin remarkably loose—a characteristic feature of the breed, and one that undoubtedly affords the animal a degree of protection during combat.


Head.—This is distinctly wedge-shaped and large in proportion to the size of the animal. Jaws strong.

Nose.—Black or Dudley (flesh) coloured. A red dog may have a black nose.

Eyes.—Well apart, with brown or black iris.

Ears.—These ought to be long, thin, covered by silky short hair and free from scales.

Neck.—Short and thick.

Chest.—Wide and deep, almost touching ground.

Shoulders.—The shoulders are very prominent and heavily clad with muscle, giving the dog a square appearance in front. A long body and well-rounded ribs are essentials.

Legs, Feet and Toes.—Most important. The forearm should be short and thick, running inwards so as to form almost right angles with the parts below. At the wrists or knees the parts touch each other and almost immediately bend outwards (splay-feet), as long, flat paws. These latter ought to be large and shovel-shaped, bearing long, strong, slightly-hooked claws of a black or brown colour, a white claw (as in Pugs) being objectionable. The more the "crook" the better. This, with well-rounded ribs and a long body, constitutes one of the chief points in a Dachshund, giving it a well-let-down appearance, but not too low.

Hind-quarters.—Strength in this region is of great[206] importance, the croup being well-rounded and the thighs strong. The loins must be well arched. The tail thick and tapering, and carried like that of the Foxhound under excitement. It must not curl over the back, this being one of the worst faults a Dachshund can have.

From 17 to 22 lbs. is the average weight of dogs in fair condition.

The Dachshund Club, and the Northern Dachshund Association, are the two principal societies, in this country, presiding over the interests of the breed.

The service of A1 stud dogs can be had at fees from two to four guineas, and excellent youngsters obtained from three to ten or twelve guineas.

The Basset-hound

This is said to be a very ancient variety of dog, having existed in France for several centuries. In France the term "Basset" is frequently employed to indicate any crooked-legged variety of dog, being synonymous with the English word "Terrier" and the German "Dachs." Consequently the word "Basset," when applied to a dog in France, may become a very ambiguous one. There are Rough and Smooth-coated strains of Basset-hounds, but the Smooth-coated[207] are the most popular varieties, and most of the Hounds shown at the Kennel Club shows are of the Smooth-coated variety, although this useful canine body provides a class for Rough-coated ones in addition. The Smooth-coated Basset had his origin in the province of Artois, whilst the Rough-coated variety came from Flanders. Although there are the crooked, half-crooked, and straight-legged Bassets in both Rough and Smooth coats, the only one of interest in this country is that having the full-crook of leg.

The late Mr Everett Millais brought the breed into prominence in England in 1874, through the importation of a famous Basset, called Model.

He purchased this hound at the Jardin d'Acclimation in Paris.

This animal was the foundation-stone of the Basset as he appears in England at the present day.

The late Mr G. R. Krehl did much towards the improvement of the breed, and later, many other enthusiastic admirers, none more so than Mrs Tottie.

The scenting powers of these dogs are said to be exceptional, and many prefer them to Beagles for rabbiting, their deep, clear musical notes telling one exactly of their whereabouts. Most of these Hounds are exceedingly sweet-tempered, though rather troublesome to rear.


In height they are from 9 to 12 inches at shoulder, but 12 inches is a desirable height, and about 40 lbs. weight.

Colour.—The most popular one is the tricolour, viz., white body with black markings and a tan-coloured head. Many varieties of white and black and tan.

Coat.—Glossy, smooth and close, but the hair must be hard enough to make the jacket fairly waterproof.

Head.—Taken as a whole in the Smooth-coated variety, the head has the expression not unlike that of a Bloodhound, chiefly owing to the high peak, deeply-set eyes, exposed "haw" and close carriage of the ears at their set-on . This expression of face is, however, overshadowed in the Rough-coated variety, the Airedale or Otterhound being more in evidence in this region.

In the Smooth-coated variety there is often a very weird expression on the face, and one that betokens a good-natured animal. Head must be long, have a good peak (no "stop"), and be rather narrow, but no snipy appearance. A typical head and ears, a good front and long body are, in short, the principal beauties of the Basset, and points of vital importance in judging the breed. A black nose, strong teeth, good long cheeks (flews as they are called), and a long, strong jaw with large, long, velvety ears, complete the beauties in the region of the head.


Mr Proctor's Basset-hound Bitch Queen of the Geisha.


[Fall, Photographer.

A Brace of Typical Smooth-coated Basset-hounds (Property of Mrs Lubbock, Farnborough).


Smooth-coated Basset-hound Bitch and Her Puppies.


Smooth Basset-hound Dog Champion Louis Le Beau. Died 1902. A veritable pillar of the Stud Book (Property of Mrs Tottie).


Typical Smooth-coated Basset Bitch. (Note the perfection of facial expression).


A Group of Champion Smooth-coated Bassets.


[Horner, Photographer, Settle.

Typical Rough Basset Bitch (Bred by Mrs Tottie).


[Horner, Photographer, Settle.

Rough-coated Basset-hound Dog Champion Puritan.


Fore-quarters and Chest.—Viewed from the front and in profile, this region is powerfully built, the chest nearly touching the ground, the shoulders short and muscular, arm very short, with a short, stoutly-made forearm, turning in at the knee. From the wrist (knee) the parts below turn outwards, so as to give the Hound a very splay-footed appearance.

Typical Rough-coated Basset Dog.

The back is long, somewhat hollow, rising slightly[226] at the loins to the top of the croup, and from this very powerful muscles should spring. Weak hind-quarters are a serious defect. Well-rounded ribs and plenty of loose skin, especially over the tops of the shoulders and back, are desirable qualifications for the show ring.

Our illustration represents one of the most typical Basset-hound bitches ever seen.

Club.—The Basset Society.

Rules of the Basset-hound Club.

1. That the name of this Club be "The Basset-hound Club."

2. That the objects of the Club be to promote the breeding of pure Smooth-coated and Rough-coated Basset-hounds, to define precisely, and publish a description of the true type; to urge the adoption of such type on breeders, exhibitors, judges, dog-show committees and others, as the only recognised and unvarying standard by which Basset-hounds should be judged, and which may in future be uniformly accepted as the standard of excellence in breeding, and in awarding prizes of merit in Basset-hounds: and by giving prizes, supporting and originating shows, and taking other steps to do all[227] in its power to protect and advance the interests of the breed.

3. That the Club compile a correct Stud Book for dogs and bitches, containing the names and pedigrees, as far as can be ascertained, of all pure-bred Basset-hounds, and keep a register of the birth of pure-bred Basset-hounds.

4. That in the event of a Hound winning a prize under the Kennel Club Rules, whose pedigree does not agree with the Basset-hound Club Stud Book, the same shall be objected to on behalf of the Club by the Hon. Sec., with a view to the investigation of its correctness, but in any case the Club Special which may go into the prizes shall be withheld.

5. That the Club consist of unlimited number of Members, whose names and addresses shall be entered in a book to be kept by the Secretary, which book shall be open for inspection at reasonable times. That any respectable person favourable to the object of the Club be eligible for Membership, except professional dealers. That ladies be eligible for Membership.

6. That each candidate for admission be proposed by one Member of the Club personally known to him, and seconded by another, also personally known to him. That the first twenty Members be original members.

7. That the Annual Subscription be two guineas.[228] That the Annual Subscription be due on 1st January of each year, and that any Member failing to pay his Subscription before 31st January have notice given him by the Treasurer; and if his Subscription be still unpaid on 31st March, his rights of Membership shall cease until he has paid his Subscription which is in arrear, and he shall render himself liable to be struck off the list of Members of the Club, unless he can give a satisfactory explanation to the Committee. That the liability of Members shall be limited to their Entrance Fee and Annual Subscription.

8. That the Club offer no prizes or cups at any show not held under the Kennel Club Rules, except at such other shows as the Committee or Sub-Committee may especially approve.

9. That the affairs of the Club shall be managed by a Committee of eight or a Sub-Committee of three, including a Treasurer and Secretary. Three shall form a quorum. That the Committee and Sub-Committee shall retire annually, but shall be eligible for re-election. That the Election of Members to serve on Committee and Sub-Committee be held Annually.

10. That the election of Members shall be made by ballot of Committee or Sub-Committee, two black balls to exclude. That the election of a Member shall be at once notified to him by the Secretary, and[229] the Member shall at once be liable for his Entrance Fee and Subscription for the current year.

11. That the Committee or Sub-Committee meet at least twice a year, and that they have full power to transact all business relating to the Club which they may think fit; to make necessary bye-laws, to arbitrate in disputed matters, to refuse admission to the Club, to decide upon the value and nature of the prizes to be offered at the various shows, and to deal with any question not provided for by these Rules. That seven days' notice must be given of Committee Meetings.

12. That any Member of the Club who shall be proved to the satisfaction of the Committee or Sub-Committee to have in any way misconducted himself in connection with Dogs or Dogs Shows, or to have in any way acted in opposition to the Rules and principles upon which the Club has been established, or in any other manner which would make it undesirable that he should continue to be a member, be expelled from the Club. That such Member shall have no claim against the Club. That the Committee or Sub-Committee may report the expulsion of such Member to the Kennel Club with a view to his being disqualified from exhibiting at any show held under the Kennel Club Rules, and from competing for prizes or cups offered by this Club or the Kennel Club.


13. That there be one General Meeting of the Club each year, to be held at such time as may be found suitable by the Committee or Sub-Committee.

14. That an Extraordinary General Meeting may be convened by the Secretary. That such Extraordinary General Meeting shall have power only to deal with the objects for which it was called.

15. That all Minutes of Meetings be read at the commencement of, and be approved and confirmed by, the next subsequent Meeting.

16. That all expenses incurred by the Treasurer or Secretary for or on behalf of the Club be defrayed out of the funds of the Club.

17. That an Annual Report, the names of the Members and Officers, and the Annual Statement of Accounts (duly audited by two Members of the Committee) be printed, and supplied to each Member not later than 11th February in each year.

18. That no new Rule, or alteration of existing Rules, or reversal of any former act or decision, shall ever be made without a fortnight's notice being given previously in writing to all Members, and without the sanction of at least two-thirds of the Members present. That it shall be competent for any Member unable to attend the Meeting to record, by letter to the Secretary, his opinion to be read at[231] the Meeting, such opinion to be entered in the minutes.

19. That it be competent for any Member to withdraw from the Club on giving notice to the Secretary before 11th December (such Member to have no claim on the Club); provided always that such Member shall be liable for his subscription to the Club for the current year in which he gives such notice.

20. That every Member bring to the notice of the Club Committee any apparent dishonesty at Dog Shows, &c., against which the Club may publish a formal protest.

21. That the Club shall, if possible, hold a special Basset-hound Exhibition, at least once in each year, either confined to members of the Club, or open, as the Committee or Sub-Committee may determine. That the judges at this exhibition be appointed solely by the Club, and that the dogs be judged according to the standard of excellence as defined by the Club.

22. That at other shows, not held or managed by the Club, prizes, cups, or certificates of merit may be provided by the Club for the competition in Basset-hound classes, where these classes are judged by judges appointed or approved by the Club, and according to the standard of excellence adopted by the Club.


23. That a list of Members competent and willing to act as judges of Basset-hounds be annually made by the Committee or Sub-Committee, and the Secretary shall, on the application of the Committee, Secretary, &c., of any Dog Show, send a copy of such list, and arrange with the gentlemen chosen to act as judges at such show; the expenses to be borne by the show at which the judges officiate.

24. That the judges shall not exhibit at, or be interested either directly or indirectly in, any show at which they officiate.

25. That at all shows at which the Club offers prizes or cups, the name of the judge shall be, prior to the date of closing of the entries for such show, submitted to the Secretary of the Club, for the approval of the Committee.

26. That Members may vote by proxy at the General Meeting, such proxies to be sent to the Secretary or Treasurer at least forty-eight hours before the time of Meeting.

27. In the above Rules the word "dog" shall mean both sexes.

28. That the payment of his Subscription by any Member shall imply his full acquiescence in the above Rules.


Points of Basset-hound (Smooth)

Head, skull, eyes, muzzle, and flews 15
Ears 15
Neck, dewlap, chest and shoulders 10
Forelegs and feet 15
Back, loins and hind-quarters 10
Stern 5
Coat and skin 10
Colour and markings 15
"Basset character" and symmetry 5
Total 100

General Appearance

1. To begin with, the head is the most distinguishing part of all breeds. The head of the Basset-hound is most perfect when it closest resembles a Bloodhound's. It is long and narrow, with heavy flews, occiput prominent, "la bosse de la chasse," and forehead wrinkled to the eyes, which should be kind, and show the haw. The general appearance of the head must present high breeding and reposeful dignity; the teeth are small, and the upper jaw sometimes protrudes. This is not a fault, and is called the "bec de lievre."

2. The ears are very long, and when drawn forward[234] folding well over the nose—so long, that in hunting they will often actually tread on them; they are set on low, and hang loose in folds like drapery, the ends inward curling, in texture thin and velvety.

3. The neck is powerful, with heavy dewlaps. Elbows must not turn out. The chest is deep, full, and framed like a "man-of-war." Body long and low.

4. Forelegs short, about 4 inches, and close-fitting to the chest till the crooked knee, from where the wrinkled ankle ends in a massive paw, each toe standing out distinctly.

5. The stifles are bent, and the quarters full of muscle, which stands out, so that when one looks at the dog from behind it gives him a round barrel-like effect. This, with their peculiar waddling gait, goes a long way towards Basset character—a quality easily recognised by the judge, and as desirable as Terrier character in a Terrier.

6. The stern is coarse underneath, and carried Hound-fashion.

7. The coat is short, smooth and fine, and has a gloss on it like that of a racehorse. (To get this appearance, they should be hound-gloved, never brushed.) Skin loose and elastic.

8. The colour should be black, white and tan; the head, shoulders, and quarters a rich tan, and black patches on the back. They are also sometimes hare-pied.


Points of the Basset-hound (Rough)

Head and ears 20
Body, including hind-quarters 35
Legs and feet 20
Coat 15
"Basset character," etc 10
Total 100

General Appearance

1. The head should be large, the skull narrow but of good length, the peak well developed. The muzzle should be strong, and the jaws long and powerful: a snipy muzzle and weakness of jaw are objectionable. The eyes should be dark and not prominent. The ears should be set on low, of good length and fine texture.

2. The neck should be strong, of good length and muscular, set on sloping shoulders.

3. The body should be massive, of good length and well ribbed up, any weakness or slackness of loin being a bad fault. The chest should be large and very deep, the sternum prominent.

4. The forelegs should be short and very powerful, very heavy in bone, either half-crooked or nearly[236] straight. The elbows should lie against the sides of the chest, and should not turn out.

5. Hind-quarters should be powerful and muscular, the hind-legs should be rather longer than the forelegs, and should be well bent at the stifles.

6. Stern of moderate length and carried gaily, should be set on high.

7. Coat.—An extremely important point. It should be profuse, thick and harsh to the touch, with a dense undercoat. The coat may be wavy.

8. Colour.—Any recognised Hound colour.

9. Weight.—Dogs, from 40 to 50 lbs., bitches rather less.

The Rough Basset should appear a very powerful Hound for his size, on short, strong legs. Body massive and a good length, without slackness of loin. The feet should be thick, well padded and not open. The expression should be kindly and intelligent. Any unsoundness should disqualify the Hound.



Fox Terriers




Club Rules



The Fox Terrier

These Terriers have been for a number of years, and still are, exceedingly popular, chiefly, we believe on account of the following reasons:—(1) Their size renders them easily and conveniently kept; (2) their gameness makes them good for destroying vermin, such as rats, etc.; (3) making excellent house dogs, and are smart, active companions, and as such suitable for both sexes.

At most shows the Fox Terrier classes are better filled than those devoted to any other variety.

There is very little reliable information as to how and when the Fox Terrier sprang into existence, as it is hundreds of years since Terriers were written[240] about, though very little can be gleaned, as the word at that time had a very ambiguous meaning, consequently most of such records become speculative when discussing the probable origin of any given type of Terrier.

Rawdon B. Lee, in his book on the Fox Terrier, gives numerous extracts from various ancient writers with reference to the early history of the Fox Terrier, but the information leaves one very little wiser, upon the earlier history of these game little Terriers. It is a problem that bears every possibility of remaining unsolved.

For the present purpose it is sufficient to know that the breed is with us in a very high state of perfection, and that this has been attained by selection within the last fifty years, or thereabout.

Whether these Terriers, as we find them on the show bench, are equal to the tasks usually imposed upon their predecessors, is another matter, and one that Fox Terrier men, in general, are not always inclined to discuss.

That there are any amount of game Fox Terriers on the show bench there is abundant evidence to prove, but we have no knowledge as to whether these constitute the majority.


Mr Scott's Smooth Fox Terrier Millgate Jof.


Champion South Cave Leger (Property of Mr A. Jowett).


Smooth Fox Terrier Duke of Doncaster (Property of Mrs Bennett Edwards).


The Fox Terrier Club, the Fylde Fox Terrier Club, and Fox Terrier clubs galore in other parts of the country have done wonders towards improving the show-bench qualities of the modern Fox Terrier, and still more to render him popular in almost all parts of the globe.

There are two varieties—the Smooth and the Wire-haired, but of the two the Smooth are in greater demand, requiring much less attention to their toilet.

Fox Terriers are very easy to rear, are hardy, usually of good constitution, pleasant in the house, though not always reliable with children, more especially under provocation.

Puppies should be docked when they are two or three weeks old, and weaned about the fifth week. Before showing, we recommend washing on the previous day, adding a little blue to the water. Hard coats are greatly softened by washing.

The Fox Terrier Club's description leaving little to be desired as to the show points of the Terrier, the author has taken the liberty of reproducing it as issued by that body.

Standard of Points Recommended by the Fox Terrier Club

Head and Ears (value 15).—The skull should be flat and moderately narrow, and gradually decreasing in width to the eyes. Not much "stop" should be apparent, but there should be more dip in the profile between the forehead and top jaw than is seen in the case of a Greyhound.


The cheeks must not be full.

The ears should be V-shaped and small, of moderate thickness, and dropping forward close to the cheek, not hanging by the side of the head like those of a Foxhound.

The jaw, upper and under, should be strong and muscular; should be of fair punishing strength, but not so in any way to resemble the Greyhound or modern English Terrier. There should not be much falling away below the eyes. This part of the head should, however, be moderately chiselled out, so as not to go down in a straight line like a wedge.

The nose, towards which the muzzle must gradually taper, should be black.

The eyes should be dark in colour, small, and rather deep-set, full of fire, life, and intelligence; as nearly as possible circular in shape.

The teeth should be as nearly as possible level, i.e., the upper teeth on the outside of the lower teeth.

Neck (value 5).—The neck should be clean and muscular, without throatiness, of fair length, and gradually widening to the shoulders.


Smooth Fox Terrier Champion Cymro Queen (Property of Mr A. Jowett).


Miss Lewis's Wire-haired Fox Terrier Champion Donington Venture.


Mr Scott's Smooth Fox Terrier Millgate Bandit.


Shoulders and Chest (value 10).—The shoulders should be long and sloping, well laid back, fine at the points, and clearly cut at the withers.

The chest deep and not broad.

Back and Loin (value 10).—The back should be short, straight, and strong, with no appearance of slackness.

The loin should be powerful and very slightly arched. The fore-ribs moderately arched, the back-ribs deep, and the dog well ribbed up.

Hind-quarters (value 15).—Should be strong and muscular, quite free from droop or crouch; the thighs long and powerful; hocks near the ground, the dog standing well up on them like a Foxhound, and not straight in the stifle.

Stern (value 5).—Should be set on rather high and carried gaily, but not over the back or curled. It should be of good strength, anything approaching a "pipe-stopper" tail being especially objectionable.

Legs and Feet (value 15).—The legs viewed in any direction must be straight, showing little or no appearance of an ankle in front. They should be strong in bone throughout, short and straight to pastern. Both fore-and hind-legs should be carried straight forward in travelling, the stifles not turned outwards. The elbows should hang perpendicular to the body, working free of the sides. The feet should[256] be round, compact, and not large, the soles hard and tough, the toes moderately arched, and turned neither in nor out.

Coat (value 10).—Should be straight, flat, smooth, hard, dense, and abundant. The belly and under side of the thighs should not be bare.

As regards colour, white should predominate, brindle red, or liver markings are objectionable. Otherwise this point is of little or no importance.

Symmetry, Size, and Character (value 15).—The dog must present a general gay, lively, and active appearance; bone and strength in a small compass are essentials, but this must not be taken to mean that a Fox Terrier should be cloddy, or in any way coarse—speed and endurance must be looked to as well as power, and the symmetry of the Foxhound taken as a model. The Terrier, like the Hound, must on no account be leggy, nor must he be too short in the leg. He should stand like a cleanly-made hunter, covering a lot of ground, yet with a short back as before stated. He will then attain the highest degree of propelling power, together with the greatest length of strides that is compatible with the length of his body. Weight is not a certain criterion of a Terrier's fitness for his work—general shape, size, and contour are the main points, and if a dog can gallop and stay, and follow his fox up a drain, it matters little what his weight is to a pound or so—though, roughly speaking, it may be said he should not scale over 20 lbs. in show condition.


[Photo by Reveley, Wantage.

Smooth Fox Terrier Dog Champion Dukedom (Property of Mr Redmond).


[Photo by Reveley, Wantage.

Smooth Fox Terrier Dog, Darley Dale (Property of Mr Redmond).


Wire-haired Fox Terrier Dog, Remus of Gaywood (Property of Mr Weaver).


Mr Scott's Wire-haired Fox Terrier Millgate Leader.


Rough Fox Terrier

This variety of the breed should resemble the Smooth sort in every respect except the coat, which should be broken. The harder and more wiry the texture of the coat is the better. On no account should the dog look or feel woolly, and there should be no silky hair about the poll or elsewhere. The coat should not be too long, so as to give a dog a shaggy appearance, but at the same time it should show a marked and distinct difference all over from the Smooth species.

Scale of Points

Head and ears 15
Neck 5
Shoulders and chest 10
Back and loins 10
Hind-quarters 15
Stern 5
Legs and feet 15
Coat 10
Symmetry, size, and character 15


Disqualifying Points

Nose.—White, cherry, or spotted to a considerable extent with either of these colours.

Ears.—Prick, tulip, or rose.

Mouth.—Much undershot or much overshot.





Skye Terriers

Bedlington Terriers

Scottish Terriers

Irish Terriers

Airedale Terriers

White West Highland Terrier (Poltalloch Terrier)

Welsh Terriers




The Skye Terrier

These little Terriers are natives of the Island of Skye and adjoining coast, though by what means the breed was originally produced there does not appear to be any accurate data to go upon. The Skye is the only truly long-coated Sporting Terrier in Great Britain, cross-bred dogs excepted.

The introduction of this long coat into a Terrier—dogs originally bred for rough-and-tumble work, can hardly have been advantageous, and the remarkably profuse coats of typical specimens in the present day is absolutely detrimental for work; moreover, it requires very careful grooming to keep the coat in a perfect state, though the texture of the hair being much harder than the silky coat of the Yorkshire Toy, gives less trouble than the last named.

Skyes are divided into "drop"-eared, and "prick"-eared, the chief differences being the carriage of the ears and tail. The drop-eared has a little longer and softer coat, longer body, and slightly smaller head; in[270] all other respects they are practically the same. They are generally very game little Terriers, and will hold their own, weight for weight, in combat with any dog. Are good companions; of good constitution, and not given to quarrelling, unless interfered with.

Many indifferent specimens of the breed are remarkably clever for destroying vermin, and take to water without the slightest trouble.

In colour the Skye should be a steel-grey or blue, silver-grey, or fawn. If fawn, black or dark-brown tipped, and if silver-grey, black tipped.

The coat is a very important matter; taken along with the head it constitutes thirty-five per cent. value in point judging.

For the show bench, the outer coat must be long, in fact, reaching to the ground. For work, this is objectionable. Better to be of medium length, and this is the sort of coat that judges will do well to plump for. The outer coat to be of hard texture; straight, and long, and the under coat close and woolly. The long hair on the head almost completely conceals the sharp brown or hazel-coloured eyes.

A thick, soft, woolly undercoat affords the most perfect protection against wet to the skin, and supports the outer coat, as in Rough-coated Collies. Both limbs and tail must be well feathered in the case of show dogs, but for work, too much hair in these regions is a nuisance.


Typical Prick-eared Skye Terrier Dog (Property of Miss M'Cheane).


In drop-eared Skyes a low carriage of tail is desirable, but in the prick-eared variety on a level with the back.

The hair down the spinal column has a parting in it, causing the coat to hang, in curtain-like fashion, from head to tail.

Head.—This should be long, rather wide between the eyes, flat on the skull, and narrow between ears. Nose black, and hard palate black, or nearly so. Ears about 2 inches, and lying close to cheeks. If prick-eared, to be well up, and inclined forward.

Body long, and ribs well rounded. The back ought to be fairly level, rising at the croup.

Legs, short and strong, having round feet, well covered with hair.

Weight.—From 16 to 20 lbs.

Faults.—Short back, faulty carriage of ears, thin coat, too short coat, legginess, bad carriage of tail, bad colour, too light, etc.

Club.—Skye Terrier.

Prices.—Typical puppies, at six or eight weeks, can be bought at prices ranging from four to twelve guineas, but it is advisable to purchase Skyes when they are older, as one is then in a better position to speculate—for such it is—as to the probable subsequent value, for the show bench.


The Bedlington Terrier

This breed of Terrier has certain features distinct from that of all others, and originated, so far as we are able to glean, in the county of Northumberland, over a century since.

William and James Allan appear to have had a great deal to do with laying foundation-stone of this variety of Terrier.

It is said that James Allan lived in a gipsy camp about the year 1730, in the Rothbury Forest, and that his father, William, was famed for other hunting Terriers, which were then known under the title of Rodbury, or Rothbury Terriers.

During 1825 a stone mason, to name Tom Ainsley, had a dog that he called Young Piper, and through his residence in the locality of Bedlington (near Newcastle), the present breed derived its name.

The dam of Piper was black, with brindled legs, and light-coloured hair on the top, and she weighed about 14 lbs. and the sire was about the same weight, liver-coloured, with a somewhat hard texture of hair.

Bedlingtons are very game dogs, and will generally tackle anything their own weight.


Bedlington Terrier Dog (Mr H. Warnes).


They make good watch-dogs, and are capital "ratters," etc. Many cross-bred Terriers—and game ones too, have a considerable proportion of Bedlington blood in them. Their chief points are as follows:—

Height.—About 15 inches.

Weight.—22 to 24 lbs.

Colour.—Sandy, liver, dark blue, blue and tan, liver and tan.

Nose.—If dark blue, or blue and tan, the nose should be black, but when liver-coloured, sandy, or liver and tan, then the nose ought to correspond, being either liver, or flesh-coloured.

Coat.—Hard in texture, standing well off the body. A great deal of trimming is necessary to get Bedlingtons fit for the show bench.

Skull.—Narrow, but should have a good dome on it, with a silky "top-knot" or "crown." From the eyes to nose, face ought to be long, and rather narrow.

The jaw to be long and the lips tight-fitting, free from flew. Strong, level teeth.

Small, deeply-sunk, keen-looking eyes, moderate-sized ears, carried flat on cheeks, and covered with soft hair, are typical of the Bedlington.

The neck should be long, well set up, and strongly muscled.

Body.—This is moderately long, deep at the chest, and slender at the waist.

Tail.—Long, tapering, thick at "set-on ," feathered[278] on under surface, and the carriage of it reminds one, somewhat of the Setter.

Limbs and Quarters.—To be of medium length, straight and strong.

Club.—The Bedlington Terrier.

The Scottish Terrier

Sometimes spoken of as the "Die-hard," a name said to have been given to them by George, Earl of Dumbarton, owing to the pluck of a pack owned by him.

The title is certainly not a misnomer, these little Terriers of Highland descent still having the gameness of their ancestors, though many of them at the present time are only used as ladies' companions.

The terms "Aberdeen" and "Scottish" Terrier are—or should be—synonymous, though an inferior specimen of a "Scottie" has, and is, frequently sold to the unwary as an "Aberdeen." Another name is that of "Cairn" Terrier, which speaks for itself, these dogs having been expressly bred for hunting in the cairns, or spaces amongst heaps of rocks, etc.


Scottish Terrier Dog Champion Hyndman Thistle.


A Trio of Scottish Terriers (Property of Mr M'Candlish).


Owing to their small size, they are admirably adapted for such purposes. Some will retrieve and take well to water; are good companions, and active house dogs. They are very hardy, consequently puppies are not difficult to rear, and fair specimens of the last-named can be had at two and three guineas apiece.

The following are the chief points of the Scottish Terrier.

Coat.—In point judging, 20 per cent. of the marks are allotted to the coat—so many are faulty in this respect. Outer coat must be very thick, short, and of a hard or wiry texture, and absolutely free from any sign of curl, or waviness.

Hair, 2 or 3 inches in length. Under coat, very dense.

The so-called "open" coat is a fault. The term is sufficiently explanatory.

Weight.—From 14 to 20 lbs. for dogs and a few pounds less for bitches.

Colour.—Not of great importance, but white markings are objectionable; less important on the breast, but better without any white hairs.

White specimens are rare.

Brindle, black, red, mustard, and iron-grey, are the[284] usual colours, the black and brindle shades being preferred.

Body.—Important (value 10). This should be short, so as to give the dog a sturdy, compact appearance.

Some Scotties are too long in the body.

Neck.—To be short and thick, ending in good, strong, sloping shoulders.

Chest.—Deep, well-rounded on to the shoulders, and plump.

Limbs and Feet.—Legs, short, big-boned, well-muscled, straight, though generally turned out at ankles, ending in large fore feet, and smaller well-padded hind ones. The same hard hairs should clothe the limbs. If soft, it is a fault.

Ears.—Erect, or semi (half) erect. Must never "droop" at tips. Should be covered with short hair.

Particular attention is paid by judges to the carriage of the ears of the Scottie.

Eyes.—To be either dark brown or hazel, giving a lively expression to the face.

Head.—Rather long, and wide above the eyes. Most of the length is gained from eyes to nose.

Hair to be hard and short (not soft).

Muzzle.—Long, tapering, and very strong.

Sound teeth—exceptionally large—and tight lips are a sine qua non.


Group of Scottish Terriers (Property of Mr M'Candlish).


Height.—9 to 12 inches.

Clubs.—1. The English Scottish Terrier Society; 2. Scotch Scottish Terrier Society.

The Irish Terrier

This is unquestionably a very ancient variety of dog, indigenous to the Emerald Isle, in certain features being a modification of the Wolfhound of that country.

Practically, there is no history of the breed, its origin being involved in obscurity.

Ballymena and County Wicklow are said to have been the chief birth-places of these Terriers. Although but a speculative statement at its best, it is a very probable one, and in accordance with what one knows of the history of many other breeds. More recent history of the breed may be said to date from about 1875, marked by their appearance on the show bench in Ireland and the following year in England. They are excellent vermin Terriers, very affectionate to those to whom they become attached, and, as a rule, exceedingly good-tempered. Their dash and pluck has earned for them the sobriquet of "Dare-devils," as in the case of the Scottish Terrier—"Die-hards."

These Terriers should have a black nose, strong and level teeth, small hazel-coloured eyes, small V-shaped[288] ears, directed forwards, so as to fall closely to the sides of the head, free from feather, and the hair on them of darker shade than the rest of the body. A Dudley (red) nose will disqualify. The head long, like that of a Fox Terrier, the skull flat, and from the lower jaw there should be rather longer hairs, forming a sort of beard—a characteristic feature of the Dare-devil. A good punishing lower jaw is essential. The head, jaws, teeth, and eyes constitute fifteen per cent. of value in the Irish Terrier Club's scale of points, only equalled by that of the coat.

Coat.—Straight and flat, free from any curl, and of hard or wiry texture.

A soft coat very detrimental, as in the Wire-haired and Scottish Terriers. If the hair of an Irish Terrier is too long, he loses the contour of body, and this ought not to be so.

Colour.—Bright red is much preferred. Some are yellowish-red, others yellow, wheaten and grey.

Brindle will disqualify, and white on feet is a fault, less detrimental, in the judge's eye, when on the chest, but, as in nearly every other breed, Irishmen are better without any white hair.

Neck.—To be of moderate length, carried well up, having a slight frill on either side of it, and ending in strong shoulders, of good shape, with a chest of medium width.


Irish Terrier Blackbrook Banker.


Airedale Terrier Dog.


Body.—The Irish Terrier has rather a long body, due, in part at least, to the rather narrow—though very muscular—upper part of the thighs, increasing the flank area. In this region the breed is somewhat shallow. Strong loins and the so-called "gay" carriage of tail is requisite. Dock not too short.

Limbs and Feet.—Must be free from feather. Feet small, compact, and black toe nails. Forearms of medium length, straight, with plenty of bone and muscle.

Many Irishmen have very poor fore-limbs, either too long, bent, or weak.

Must be well set up in front, and free movers in both fore-and hind-limbs.

Weight.—About 20 lbs., a few pounds more or less being unimportant.

Club.—The Irish Terrier.

Prices.—First-rate puppies can be got at three and four guineas each.

The Airedale Terrier

This useful variety of dog first of all appears to have sprung up in the districts of Saltaire, Bingley, Shipley Glen, Keighley, etc., in Yorkshire, and it is to the credit of Yorkshiremen for having produced a most useful variety of Terrier. Few other breeds can surpass, or even equal, the gameness, docility, and[294] general usefulness of these rough-and-ready, companionable Terriers.

In appearance, it would hardly be correct to speak of the Airedale as being handsome, but the weird expression upon the face, and thoughtful-looking eyes offer an irresistible charm to those who are fond of a really good pal, and inexpensive forms of sport, such as ratting, etc., on river-banks, and the like used to be called Waterside Terriers.

When looking at many of the larger Airedales, one can hardly help thinking but that the breed has been produced by crossing some Terrier, e.g. Bedlington, etc., with an Otterhound. To this latter breed many inferior specimens bear a strong resemblance, in appearance, habits, and temperament.

If properly trained, an Airedale ought to take to water like a duck, be obedient to his master's call, and form an unceasing attachment towards him.

Typical specimens should have a rough or broken coat, dense and wiry, free from curl—a common fault; be of a dark grizzle on the back from top of skull to set on of tail, likewise on the sides of the body and skull.

The remaining portions of the body ought to be a rich tan, the ears being of a deeper tan than the rest.

The weight for dogs should be from about 40 to 45 lbs., and bitches 35 to 40 lbs.


Airedale Terrier Dog Crompton Marvel (Property of Leaver Brothers).


Colour, coat, and head are very important points, and judges of the breed lay great stress upon the "ideal" in these particulars.

Skull should be flat, of medium width, and show no "stop" when viewed from the front; with square, long and strong jaws, bearing large and level teeth, free from decay. Nose black, and nostrils full, V-shaped ears, with Fox-Terrier carriage and small dark eyes.

Chest deep, of fair width (not wide); shoulders long, strong, and of good slope; neck of medium length, with short, strong back, well-sprung ribs and broad, muscular loins—the last two being specially desirable. Fore-limbs well rounded, straight and strong, ending in round, thick feet.

As to the hind-quarters, these ought to be well clothed with powerfully developed muscles, the "dock" being set on high up and carried (when excited) very like that of a Fox Terrier.

The chief disqualifying points of the Airedale are: a Dudley nose, white feet, white on throat or face, and defective teeth, undershot, etc.

Many Airedale Terriers are much too big, rendering them over cumbersome for activity.

It is a variety of dog fairly easy to rear, and good specimens, during puppyhood, can be bought at prices varying from two to five guineas.

Clubs.—Airedale Terrier; South of England Airedale Terrier Club.


Standard of the Airedale Terrier

Airedale Terrier Club

Head.—Long, with flat skull, not too broad between the ears and narrowing slightly to the eyes, free from wrinkle. "Stop" hardly visible, and cheeks free from fulness. Jaw deep and powerful, well filled up before the eyes, lips tight. Ears V-shaped, with a side carriage, small but not out of proportion to the size of the dog. The nose black. The eyes small, and dark in colour, not prominent, but full of Terrier expression. The teeth strong and level.

Neck.—Should be of moderate length and thickness, gradually widening towards the shoulders and free from throatiness.

Shoulders and Chest.—Shoulders long and sloping well into the back, shoulder blades flat. Chest deep but not broad.

Body.—Back short, strong and straight. Ribs well sprung.

Hind-quarters.—Strong and muscular with no droop. Hocks well let down. The tail set on high and carried gaily but not curled over the back.

Legs and Feet.—Legs perfectly straight with plenty of bone. Feet small and round with a good depth of pad.


Airedale Terrier Dog.


Coat.—Hard and wiry and not so long as to appear ragged, it should also lie straight and close, covering the dog well all over the body and legs.

Colour.—The head and ears, with the exception of dark markings on each side of the skull, should be tan, the ears being of a darker shade than the rest. The legs up to the thighs and elbows being also tan. The body black or dark grizzle.

Size.—Dogs 40 lbs. to 45 lbs. weight. Bitches slightly less.

That as it is the unanimous opinion of the Airedale Terrier Club that the size of the Airedale Terrier as given in the above Standard is one of if not the most important characteristics of the breed, all Judges who shall henceforth adjudicate on the merits of the Airedale Terrier shall consider undersized specimens of the breed severely handicapped when competing with dogs of the standard weight. And that any of the Club's Judges who, in the opinion of the Committee, shall give Prizes or otherwise push to the front dogs of a small type, shall at once be struck off from the list of Specialist Judges.

Rules and Regulations

1. The Club shall be called "The Airedale Terrier Club."

2. The objects of the Club shall be to advance and protect the interests of the Airedale Terrier, and to improve the breed.


3. The Club shall consist of a President, four Vice-Presidents, a Committee, Honorary Treasurer and Secretary, and an unlimited number of Members.

4. The President, Vice-Presidents, Committee, and Honorary Treasurer and Secretary, shall be elected annually at the first General Annual Meeting of the Club.

5. The first General Annual Meeting of the Club shall be held at the Liverpool Dog Show, and any other General Meetings shall be held at such places and times as the Committee shall think desirable.

6. Any respectable person favourable to the objects of the Club shall be eligible for admission as a Member. Such person shall be proposed by one Member of the Club and seconded by another Member, and the election shall take place at any General Meeting of the Club. Two black balls shall exclude from Membership.

7. There shall be an Entrance Fee of 10s., and an Annual Subscription of 10s. for each Member, due on the 1st day of January in each year.

8. No one shall be deemed a Member of the Club or entitled to the privileges of Membership, until the Annual Subscription and Entrance Fee are paid.

9. The question of giving Prizes of Cups at Shows shall be decided by any General Meeting, or by the Committee, or by a Sub-Committee to be appointed[303] for that purpose, who shall satisfy themselves as to the Classes and Prizes, and Judges.

10. The President, Vice-Presidents, and Committee of the Club shall be ex-officio Judges at any show where the Club's Prizes or Cups are given for competition.

11. All expenses incurred on behalf of the Club shall be defrayed out of the funds of the Club.

12. The voting at all Meetings shall be by show of hands, unless otherwise determined by such Meetings.

13. In the absence of the President, or Vice-Presidents, at any Meeting, the Members present shall elect a Chairman for the purposes of such Meeting.

14. Any Member can withdraw from the Club on giving notice in writing to the Secretary, provided always that such Member shall be liable for his subscription for the current year in which such notice is given.

15. Notices of all Meetings to be held, and Reports of such meetings, may be sent to the Stock-Keeper, Our Dogs, and other Fanciers' Publications, or as may be determined by the Committee.

16. Any Rules or Regulations of the Club shall only be made, altered, or amended, at the First General Annual Meeting of the Club, and such Rules, Regulations, Alterations or Amendments, shall only[304] be made on notice given by any Member to the Secretary at least ten days previous to such Meeting.

The White West Highland (Poltalloch) Terrier

To Colonel Malcolm, C.B., the author is, through the kindness of Our Dogs' Gazette, indebted for the following description of the breed (see Appendix).

"The White West Highland or Poltalloch Terriers are a very old breed of dog in the West Highlands of Scotland, with traditions of two hundred years, and they are known to have existed for at least eighty years certain at Poltalloch, in Argyllshire. It is only of late years that any of them have been publicly exhibited, and this because Colonel Malcolm, C.B., of Poltalloch, felt that it was not just to the West Highlands, and I think, of Scotland, that this ancient breed of handsome hard-bitten dogs should be absolutely ignored by the canine world.

"The Western Highlands of Scotland are not overrun with railways and other means of rapid communication, so showing is both difficult and extra expensive, and the possessors of good dogs of the breed have not hitherto come forward in numbers to show what they have. And this is a breed which must be carefully handled by bench judges, for they are actual working dogs, and it will be a thousand pities if they get spoiled, or, in Mr G. T. Teasdale-Buckell's words, become defiled by scales of points, or degraded by the hunting of the tin-pot at dog shows.


Brace of White West Highland Terriers (Property of Colonel Malcolm, C.B.).


"Colonel Malcolm's views are much as follows:—Dogs should not exceed 18 lbs., nor bitches 16 lbs., in weight. They should be very active, for in power to spring considerable heights they may at times owe their lives in a fox cairn. Heads should be broad, and eyes not closely set. The latter point gives room for the brain pan, and without brains there cannot be much intelligence. The former point provides for the very powerful muscles which enable his dogs to cope successfully with badgers, foxes, otters, etc., in their native fastnesses. He strives also for as light a jaw as may be, contending that the fox is as good a model as can be followed, and against the craze for heavy, or as they are called, 'strong' jaws, that the heads of the cat and otter, both of which animals have a bite of extraordinary power, might almost be called round, so short and so wide are their jaws.

"Another point, practically as yet never looked at by the show-bench judges, is the working coat. Now it is no matter whether the outer coat be hard or soft. It should be long enough first to throw off water with a good shake of the body, and to act as a good thatch to a thick undergrowth of finest down, which will enable the wearer to stand the worst of weather, and for perfection the coat should be strongest on[308] the sit-down portions of the body. Eyes must be dark and nose jet black, and also a good deal of the mouth inside. This dog is as good underground as he is on the show bench. How many champions, I wonder, of other Terrier breeds have killed underground?"

The Welsh Terrier

It is only within the last few years that this variety of Terrier has made his appearance on the English show benches, though indifferent specimens have been in existence in Wales for a number of years.

The Welsh Terrier Club and the Kennel Club have been the chief mediums through which the present standard of excellence has been obtained.

They are nice, smart, active little Terriers, and when properly trained make exceedingly useful companions, being full of pluck and ready to tackle anything their own height.

In colour, the Welshman is grizzle and tan, the coat being similar in texture to that of the wire-haired Fox Terrier, smooth and free from curl.

The Head ought to be long, more especially from eyes to nose, the occipital dome being a trifle more marked than it is in the Irish Terrier. Ears small, and curved close to sides of face.

Neck.—Of medium length and thickness, ending in oblique shoulders.


Arms.—Short and strong.

Forearms.—Of medium length, straight, and well muscled, tapering from elbows to feet.

Welsh Terrier.

Back and Loins.—Strong, and ribs well sprung.

Tail.—Docked short, and curved like that of an Irish Terrier.

First and Second Thighs.—Strong and well muscled.

Feet.—Of a hare shape, but compact. A typical Welsh Terrier should be compactly built all over.

Club.—Welsh Terrier.


The Dandie-Dinmont

It was not until 1814 that this variety of dog received his present name, through Sir Walter Scott having written Guy Mannering, in which the hero, Dandie Dinmont, plays such a conspicuous part.

To the Field, so far back as 1778, a Mr J. Davidson wrote a letter as to how James Davidson, the original Dandie Dinmont, came into the possession of his first Dandies, the chief of this account being as follows:—

"The Border Muggers were great breeders of Terriers, and in their wanderings the different tribes would meet once or twice yearly at some of the border villages. If they could not get a badger, they would try their dogs on a foumart (wildcat) or a hedgehog.

"Jock Anderson, the head of the tribe, had a red bitch that for such work beat all the dogs that came over the border.

"Geordie Faa had a wire-haired dog that was the terror of all the dogs in the district, and that was good at badger, fox, or foumart.

"A badger had been procured, and both the dog and bitch drew the badger every time.

"Geordie Faa said to Jock Anderson, 'Let's have a big drink, the man first down to lose his dog.'


Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Dog Thistle Grove Ben (Property of Mr R. Fisher, Hawick).


"'Done,' says Jock.

"Down they sat on the green, and in eighteen hours Jock was laid out, and Geordie started off with the dogs.

"They were mated, and produced the first Pepper and Mustard, and these were presented by Geordie to James Davidson ('Dandie Dinmont')."

The foregoing account would appear to be fairly acceptable, and one that is in accordance with the gameness of these little Terriers.

The breed is a hardy one; are good-tempered, and make excellent companions.

The chief points of the Dandie-Dinmont are as follows:—

Head.—The skull ought to be broad between the ears, and the forehead well domed. It should be covered with light, silky hair, softer the better. The muzzle deep, and from it—excepting the bare part about an inch from the back part of the nose—there ought to be hair growing, a little darker than that on the head.

Level, strong, and sound teeth are a sine qua non.

Large, full round eyes, set well apart, and low down, with a lively expression; a black nose; black inside mouth, together with large, low-placed, pendulous ears, hanging close to cheek, and tapering on their posterior borders.


The ears should be covered with soft, brown hair, forming a feathering around the bottom, and 3 or 4 inches long.

Neck.—Short and well rounded.

Body, long and strong, with well-rounded ribs, and a downward curve behind the shoulders, but slightly arched at the loins.

Tail.—About 8 inches in length, thick at the set-on , and then thicker for 2 or 3 inches, afterwards tapering.

The upper face of the tail should be covered with wiry hair, and the under side also have lighter-coloured hair. When at rest, the tail ought to assume a scimitar-like curve, and under excitement carried on a level with its set-on .

Fore-and Hind-limbs.—Short fore-legs, set well apart, and if dog is blue-coloured, the hair on them should be tan or fawn, in accordance with body colour.

A couple of inches of feather ought to be present, and a shade lighter than that on the front of the legs.

In a "mustard" Dandie the hair on the head is cream-coloured.

The hind-legs, have no feather, neither should they have any dewclaws. If present at birth they must be removed.

Colour.—Mustard or Pepper. If the former, the tint is from a reddish-brown to a delicate fawn; the head creamy and darker.


Pepper-coloured Dandies are either steel-coloured, or a light silvery grey, and are preferred with the body colour blending with that on the limbs.

The most useful weight is about 20 lbs., and the height 8 to 11 inches.

The coat should be a mixture of hard and soft hair, yet crisp to the feel.

Society.—Dandie-Dinmont Terrier.

Standard of Points of the Dandie-Dinmont Terrier,

As Defined and Adopted by The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club.

Head.—Strongly made and large, not out of proportion to the dog's size, the muscles showing extraordinary development, more especially the maxillary. Skull broad between the ears, getting gradually less towards the eyes, and measuring about the same from the inner corner of the eye to back of skull as it does from ear to ear. The forehead well domed. The head is covered with very soft silky hair, which should not be confined to a mere top-knot, and the lighter in colour and silkier it is the better. The cheeks, starting from the ears proportionately with the skull, have a gradual taper towards the muzzle, which is deep and strongly made, and measures[316] about 3 inches in length, or in proportion to skull as three is to five. The muzzle is covered with hair of a little darker shade than the top-knot, and of the same texture as the feather of the fore-legs. The top of the muzzle is generally bare for about an inch from the back part of the nose, the bareness coming to a point towards the eye, and being about 1 inch broad at the nose. The nose and inside of mouth black or dark coloured. The teeth very strong, especially the canine, which are of extraordinary size for such a small dog. The canines fit well into each other, so as to give the greatest available holding and punishing power, and the teeth are level in front, the upper ones very slightly overlapping the under ones. [Many of the finest specimens have a "swine mouth," which is very objectionable, but it is not so great an objection as the protrusion of the under jaw.]

Eyes.—Set wide apart, large, full, round, bright, expressive of great determination, intelligence and dignity; set low and prominent in front of the head; colour, a rich dark hazel.

Ears.—Pendulous, set well back, wide apart, and low on the skull, hanging close to the cheek, with a very slight projection at the base, broad at the junction of the head and tapering almost to a point, the fore part of the ear tapering very little—the tapering being mostly on the back part, the fore part of the ear coming almost straight down from[317] its junction with the head to the tip. They should harmonise in colour with the body colour. In the case of a Pepper dog they are covered with a soft, straight, brownish hair (in some cases almost black). In the case of a Mustard dog the hair should be mustard in colour, a shade darker than the body, but not black. All should have a thin feather of light hair starting about 2 inches from the tip, and of nearly the same colour and texture as the top-knot, which gives the ear the appearance of a distinct point. The animal is often one and two years old before the feather is shown. The cartilage and skin of the ear should not be thick, but rather thin. Length of ear from 3 to 4 inches.

Neck.—Very muscular, well-developed, and strong, showing great power of resistance, being well set into the shoulders.

Body.—Long, strong and flexible; ribs well sprung and round, chest well developed and let well down between the fore-legs; the back rather low at the shoulder, having a slight downward curve and a corresponding arch over the loins, with a very slight gradual drop from top of loins to root of tail; both sides of backbone well supplied with muscle.

Tail.—Rather short, say from 8 inches to 10 inches, and covered on the upper side with wiry hair of darker colour than that of the body, the hair on the under side being lighter in colour and not so[318] wiry, with nice feather about 2 inches long, getting shorter as it nears the tip; rather thick at the root, getting thicker for about 4 inches, then tapering off to a point. It should not be twisted or curled in any way, but should come up with a curve like a scimitar, the tip, when excited, being in a perpendicular line with the root of the tail. It should neither be set on too high nor too low. When not excited it is carried gaily, and a little above the level of the body.

Legs.—The fore-legs short, with immense muscular development and bone, set wide apart, the chest coming well down between them. The feet well formed, and not flat, with very strong brown or dark-coloured claws. Bandy legs and flat feet are objectionable. The hair on the fore-legs and feet of a Pepper dog should be tan, varying according to the body colour from a rich tan to a pale fawn; of a Mustard dog they are of a darker shade than its head, which is a creamy white. In both colours there is a nice feather, about 2 inches long, rather lighter in colour than the hair on the fore part of the leg. The hind-legs are a little longer than the fore ones, and are set rather wide apart, but not spread out in an unnatural manner, while the feet are much smaller; the thighs are well developed, and the hair of the same colour and texture as the fore ones, but having no feather or dewclaws; the[319] whole claws should be dark; but the claws of all vary in shade according to the colour of the dog's body.

Coat.—This is a very important point; the hair should be about 2 inches long; that from skull to root of tail, a mixture of hardish and soft hair, which gives a sort of crisp feel to the hand. The hard should not be wiry; the coat is what is termed pily or pencilled. The hair on the under part of the body is lighter in colour and softer than on the top. The skin on the belly accords with the colour of dog.

Colour.—The colour is Pepper or Mustard. The Pepper ranges from a dark bluish black to a light silvery grey, the intermediate shades being preferred, the body colour coming well down the shoulder and hips, gradually merging into the leg colour. The Mustards vary from a reddish brown to a pale fawn, the head being a creamy white, the legs and feet of a shade darker than the head. The claws are dark as in other colours. [Nearly all Dandie-Dinmont Terriers have some white on the chest, and some have also white claws.]

Size.—The height should be from 8 to 11 inches at the top of shoulder. Length from top of shoulder to root of tail should not be more than twice the dog's height, but preferably, 1 or 2 inches less.


Weight.—From 14 lbs. to 24 lbs.; the best weight as near 18 lbs. as possible. These weights are for dogs in good working condition.

The relative value of several Points in the Standard are apportioned as follows:—

Head 10
Eyes 10
Ears 10
Neck 5
Body 20
Tail 5
Legs and feet 10
Coat 15
Colour 5
Size and Weight 5
General Appearance 5

Rules for Breeders' Challenge Cup

1. These shall be four breeders' Challenge Cups—one for Pepper Dogs, one for Pepper Bitches, one for Mustard Dogs, one for Mustard Bitches—to be competed for at shows to be decided upon by the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club: but they shall not be offered at any show where the competition is not open to all the Members.


2. No dog or bitch whelped prior to 1st Jan. 1902 shall be eligible to compete for the Cups.

3. Every dog or bitch competing for one of the Cups must be bred by a Member (who is a Member at the time the dog is whelped) of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club, and must at the time of competition be the bonâ fide property of a Member of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club, and the Cup or Cups shall be awarded to the breeder, who need not necessarily be the owner.

4. No dog or bitch shall be eligible to win a cup more than once.

5. Each cup must be won five times by the same Member before becoming his or her property.

6. A medal shall be presented in commemoration of each win.

7. Winners for the time being shall have the custody of the cup or cups, subject to the conditions to be fixed by the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club.

Rules for the Tiddeman Trophies

1. The two Shields subscribed for in memory of the Rev. E. S. Tiddeman, the late President of the Club, shall be called the "Tiddeman Trophies." In the competitions one Shield shall be for the[322] best dog and the other for the best bitch in the Dandie classes.

2. The Trophies shall be competed for as Perpetual Challenge Shields, and shall be confined to Members of the Club. The name of every winning dog or bitch and its exhibitor shall be inscribed on the Shield, together with the particulars of the win, at the expense of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club.

3. The Trophies shall be competed for once in every year at a show to be decided on by the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club.

4. The Trophies may be won any number of times by the same dog or bitch.

5. A medal shall be presented in commemoration of each win.

6. The winners for the time being shall have the custody of the Trophies subject to the conditions fixed by the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club.

7. All other matters affecting the Trophies shall be adjudicated on by the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club, whose decision shall be final.


Rules for the Ringwood, Club, Langley, and Boughton Breeders' Cups

Presented by Mrs Grieve, The Club, Messrs W. Goodall-Copestake and T. B. Potterton for Pepper Dogs and Bitches and Mustard Dogs and Bitches.

1. The above Cups are for dogs and bitches under two years of age, open to Members of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club only.

2. The Cups to be competed for by dogs and bitches who in competition in their particular class have secured not less than a third prize, and who have been bred by Members of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club, i.e., Members of the Club at the time of dog's birth.

3. The Cups to be won three times before becoming the property of the breeder.

4. No breeder to be permitted to win a Cup more than once with the same dog or bitch.

5. The Cups not to be offered more than once a year, and at a show to be named by the Committee.

6. All points not provided for in the foregoing conditions to be settled by the Committee.


Rules for the Pickle Cups

1. The two Cups presented by Mr W. H. A. Jacobson shall be called the "Pickle Cups." In the competitions, one Cup shall be for the best Pepper Dog, the other for the best Pepper Bitch.

2. The Cups shall be competed for as Perpetual Challenge Cups, and shall be confined to Members of the Club. The name of every winning dog or bitch and its exhibitor shall be inscribed on the Cups, together with the particulars of the win, at the expense of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club.

3. The Cups shall be competed for once in every year at a show to be decided on by the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club.

4. The Cups may be won any number of times by the same dog or bitch.

5. A medal shall be presented in commemoration of each win.

6. The winners for the time being shall have the custody of the Cups subject to the conditions fixed by the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club.

7. All other matters affecting the Cups shall be adjudicated on by the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club, whose decisions shall be final.


Rules for Open Produce Stakes of £1 each,

Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Brood Bitches to be entered and their produce to be shown as explained below.
(5s. forfeit to the fund.)

Entries close each year on 31st January.

The show will extend to all produce of the entered Bitches that shall be born between 1st January and 31st December in the year of entry, and will take place at such time as the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club shall decide. The Puppies will be shown under the Kennel Club Rules and the following special

Conditions and Rules:

1. Any number of Brood Bitches, the property of the same owner, may be entered for the Stake.

2. Bitches shall only be eligible for entry in respect to Produce to be born on or after 1st January. Entries may be made at any time before the closing of the Stake on 31st January, but Bitches must be entered before their Produce is born.

3. One entry shall only cover one litter of Puppies, but Bitches once entered may be re-entered at any time after the date of closing, if it is intended to breed another litter from them for competition.

4. A Notification of Service (Form B) must be made[326] by the owner of each Bitch entered for the Stake. In the case of Bitches which have been served before the time of entry, this notification must accompany such entry; and in the case of Bitches which have not been served before the time of entry, this notification must be sent to the Hon. Sec. within one calendar month after the time such Bitch shall have been served.

5. Within one calendar month from the Birth of the Puppies of any Bitch entered for the Stake, the owner shall forward to the Hon. Sec. a Certificate (Form C), signed by himself, stating the date of birth, with sex and colour of each Puppy.

6. Five shillings to be paid on entering each Bitch—the only liability in case of forfeit—the remaining fifteen shillings to become due and to be paid if and when the owner accepts for one or more of the Puppies for the Stake, on or before the date which will be appointed for that purpose and duly announced.

7. Any number of Puppies of one litter are eligible to compete under one subscription, provided that, if the breeder shall have sold or otherwise parted from any such Puppy or Puppies, no other person may accept for them or for any of them for the Stake, unless he also pay £1 for such acceptance, and forward to the Hon. Sec. a Certificate from the late owner, properly identifying the Puppy or Puppies in question.


8. Notice for accepting for the Puppies for competition will be sent at the proper times to all who have entered Bitches, and when the acceptances have come in, the Committee of the Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club will decide the number and proportion of the prize into which the Stakes will be divided.

9. If a Bitch entered for a Stake be sold or otherwise parted with before her Puppies are born, the new owner shall forward to the Hon. Sec. a Certificate of the fact, signed by the late owner, and shall in all other respects comply with the Rules hereinbefore set out.

10. If any Judge appointed shall have made any entry for this Stake, he shall have his subscription in respect of such entry returned to him.

11. Any one failing to comply with the above Rules respecting Certificates shall be refused permission to accept for the litter in respect of which a breach of Rules has been committed, and shall in such case forfeit his entrance fee, 5s.

12. All matters of doubt or dispute arising under these Rules and Conditions, or otherwise respecting the Stake, shall be settled by the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club, and their decision shall be final.






Afghan Greyhound




The Afghan Greyhound

Through the kindness of Cary Barnard, Esq., of Hailsham, I am able to give an illustration of this variety of dog so scarce in this country, the specimen depicted being typical of the breed.

These Hounds are said to be somewhat difficult to obtain, the owners are unwilling to part with them, being kept by a class who consider it a distinction to own them.

In the Natural History Museum at South Kensington there is a stuffed specimen, practically identical with the one herein portrayed.

Built on racing lines, in almost every particular, these dogs look exceedingly quaint, chiefly because of the feather, or long hairs, upon the ears, throat, backs of the limbs, feet, and tail.

Skull is rather broad, and flat on the top, but there is no "stop."

Eyes.—Small, placed close together and well to the front, giving the animal the appearance of having a very penetrating vision.

Ears.—Remind one of a short-eared Spaniel, and from over their surface long hairs proceed.


Neck.—Long, rather thick, and the body and loins long, yet well coupled.

When viewed from the front, these Hounds look very tall, due to the great length of the arms and forearms. These regions, and those of the shoulders, are strongly built.

When at rest, tail is carried rather like that of the Irish Water Spaniel, and during excitement, elevated, but not carried over the back. It has an abundance of long hair.

First and second thighs long, and feathery to a short distance above the hocks. Hind toes are well clothed with hair. The hocks are strong, low-placed, and pasterns long.

Colour.—Fawn, with the feathered portions running to a silvery white.

Weight.—About 50 lbs.

Height at shoulder.—24 inches, or thereabout.

Uses.—During Captain Barnard's residence in Afghanistan, the Hound depicted in our illustration was used for running jackal, and said to be very useful for this purpose.

He is an exceptionally fine jumper, having made a clean leap over a fence 9 feet 4 inches in height—a most creditable performance. This Hound has won numerous prizes, including a 2nd, at Crystal Palace.


Afghan Greyhound (Property of Mr Cary Barnard).


The Lurcher

We shall do little more than mention the existence of this cross-bred variety of dog.

The proprietor of a Lurcher has always been regarded as one who will, when the opportunity offers, take his dog "up the back stairs," and gamekeepers generally look upon the owner of a Lurcher as one worthy of a little extra vigilance.

Any cross-bred dog, in whom the Greyhound blood predominates, may be designated as a Lurcher, and can be trained as such.

Many of these dogs are wonderfully clever on rabbits, and some will kill a hare single-handed, more especially if about three-quarter bred on the Greyhound side, when staying power and swiftness are highly developed.

Good at fighting, good at poaching, good at retrieving, and fidelity to master, may justly be claimed as the Lurcher's inheritance.


To Mr W. Burton, of Thorneywood Kennels, Nottingham (per gamekeeper), I am indebted for the following account.

"A perfectly trained and reliable night-dog[338] is as useful to the gamekeeper as two or three additional assistants, and, indeed, I have personally heard old poachers remark that they would rather face a dozen men than half that number accompanied by one of these animals, even if resistance would be offered at all where a dog was employed against them. Such being the case, it makes one wonder why night-dogs are not more frequently used by gamekeepers in rough localities, and I am afraid the animals have come into disrepute, owing to the manner in which their employment has been abused by careless watchers.

"It must not be supposed that a night-dog simply requires rearing, and that when old enough a muzzle has only to be put on and he will face anything he is encouraged to attack. The dog must be trained to his duty as a retriever is taught to bring in game, or he will never prove a satisfactory companion when poachers are about.

"When a puppy has been procured, he should be accustomed to wear a muzzle from an early age—five months for instance—and strangers should not be allowed to pet and caress him; on the other hand, they may tease him as much as they like, providing that he is not hurt. Of all the muzzles made I prefer those with a solid piece of leather beneath the jaw, and straps round the neck and nose having buckles so that they may be manipulated as required.


The Celebrated Keeper's Night-Dog Thorneywood Terror, said to be the most perfectly trained Night Dog ever bred. (Property of Mr Burton, Thorneywood Kennels, Nottingham.)


"When the dog is ten months old and quite used to wearing its muzzle, he should be taken muzzled to a quiet place where you have previously arranged for a perfect stranger to be. This man should have a bag rolled up and strapped to one hand, and a glove on the other, and should be in hiding at the appointed spot; when the dog and his master get within a hundred yards or so, the stranger should 'break covert' and run out across the field. The dog must at once be released and encouraged to attack the man, his owner running with him the while. Upon the dog's coming up with his quarry it is the duty of the latter to buffet him with the bag, pull his tail and flank, and tease him generally. Do not let this continue too long without a break, as a muzzled dog is soon winded. His master should reach the spot as quickly as possible, encourage the animal a little, and then take him off and loosen his muzzle; after a slight rest he may be permitted another run as before.

"When the dog begins to display anxiety for the fray, the man may be provided with a thin cane, and instructed to give him a slight stroke or two, but, at this moment, great care should be taken to observe its effect. Some dogs, although game[342] to a finish, are shy and sensitive, and a stroke with a stick will cause hesitation, not from fear of the blow, but because an impression of doing wrong is conveyed thereby. Should the dog waver at this treatment, relinquish the use of the stick for a time, and then introduce it again by degrees; if bred right he will soon commence to resent it with fury. I have known pups from the same litter to vary greatly in the development of courage, one standing any amount of stick at a year, while others would not face it until six months older.

"Such an instance I came across a short time ago. A keeper had a youngster from me and eighteen months later reported that it had been no good. I was surprised, and inquired if he had thoroughly tried the creature. 'Yes!' said he, 'I got one of the night-watchers to run across the park, and I then set the dog on him. The dog followed all right, but, when struck with a stick, returned to me, and I shot him.' This man knew I had retained one of the litter, and inquired how the puppy had progressed. I arranged for him to visit me and see the dog work, and he was surprised at what he witnessed. Afterwards I explained that an animal of this description required training, but my friend differed, and asserted that education ought not to be necessary.


"In no case should a dog be trained and tried on a lead or chain, or the result will be that he will not chase a man. Instead, he will only go for a poacher at close quarters, and then will continue to look round for his owner. Teach the dog to rely on himself. Some gamekeepers use their dogs on a long rope and religiously keep hold of the end thereof, but the reason for this I never could determine, unless it is to retain the animal for their own bodily protection. If so, the dog is not being put to its proper duty.

"A night-dog is more valuable for catching a man than for fighting one; still, he must be taught to give battle, because it is love of the scrimmage following which causes him to give chase. A dog is certainly useful when a rough fight takes place, but he is doubly so when active poachers have a long start of their pursuers, for, if he jumps at a man, he is bound to bring his victim to the ground. Besides, if a dog refuses to chase a man, he is of no good in the case of a gang which freely stones the keepers, as then a resolute animal is a welcome assistant. The chances against the dog being hit with a stone as he makes for his assailants are ten to one, and, once he is at close quarters, stones cannot be thrown at him for fear of comrades being struck, and while the animal is busy among the party the members of it will have[344] plenty to do to stave off his attacks, and he will allow them little leisure for pelting the keepers who must now hasten to the fight.

"To hark back. Suppose the dog goes for the man when released and shows no fear of the stick, he must then be taught to keep up the attack and not have a jump or two and then return from the fray, allowing his foe an opportunity of escaping. As a means of accomplishing this, the dog's owner should be as close to the animal as possible and encourage him to maintain the assault. When it is plainly to be seen that he is scant of breath, at once take him off, because, if permitted to become tired, the probability is that the dog will stand still, and, as the man promptly does the same, will return to his master, perhaps, regarding the affray as over. Once he acquires the much-to-be-regretted habit of doing this, it will need some patience to correct it. It is a golden rule never to unduly exhaust a youngster, and then, when age has been acquired, he will be game all day or night.

"Having progressed thus far, the dog should next be taught to find a man hidden in a ditch or up a tree. Candidly, this is a somewhat difficult undertaking, and it is not every night-dog which becomes clever in this particular. Instruct the man to secrete himself in a ditch at the opposite side of the field; be careful to give the dog the wind, and in[345] nine cases out of ten it will be noticed that he gazes as if looking for someone. Now move towards the hidden person and encourage the animal onward. As both near the ditch the dog will strongly detect the scent of his quarry, and at this point the hidden man should make a slight movement for the purpose of attracting the animal's attention. This action should be repeated until discovery takes place, and, if the dog can thus be taught to use his nose, he quickly becomes an adept at finding concealed poachers.

"When this is asserted, it is not meant that a man may be despatched with a few minutes' grace, and if the dog is put upon the trail the man will be followed; some bull-mastiffs may become clever enough to foot a man, but recent trials have proved that even bloodhounds have to possess the best of blood and training before they will unerringly hunt a man under these conditions.

"Another important thing a night-dog should be taught is to at once leave a man he has thrown down and start after another of the gang when the keepers have arrived on the scene and laid hands on the first man. Suppose a party of watchers drop across half-a-dozen poachers, who all promptly take to their heels on seeing that the opposing side are a match for them; the chances are the poachers get a good start, and are nearly certain to escape, if the[346] dog is not competent to play his part. If he is capable, promptly slipped, and closely followed, he will soon bring one to book; he should then be taken off and encouraged to serve another likewise, and so on, until all have been arrested.

"To train the dog to do this, two men should start at one time, both being armed with sticks. Instruct the two to keep together, and when they are well on the run slip the dog and follow him as before directed. When the animal gets close the men must separate, and he will confine his attentions to one; immediately the man he first attacks is down, despatch the dog after the second, who should be making good pace away, while his companion stands perfectly still. At first, the dog will plainly manifest that he prefers to stay and worry the one he has succeeded in defeating rather than seek for fresh glories, but persevere with him until he does renew the chase without the least hesitation. You will succeed better in this if the second man is not allowed to get too far away, and it will be advisable for him to wave his stick and otherwise try to attract attention and invite attack. When the dog recognises what is required of him, increase the distance between first and second man, or let each run in an opposite direction. It is very necessary that a dog should be taught to respect friends, that is, to attack only those at whom he is set, and then at no[347] other time but when he is encouraged to do so. If he fails to learn this, he is as likely as not to go at one of the watchers who happens to move or otherwise attract notice.

"When a dog has been sufficiently tried to prove that he is in every way game, it is advisable to allow the man upon whom he has been exercising his powers to sit near and endeavour to make friends with his four-legged opponent. All dogs will not consent to do the agreeable to this extent, but the majority will generally settle down and be quiet when they clearly understand that such behaviour is expected. It is very necessary that a dog should learn to recognise when the battle is over, and that having duly fulfilled his part he must be quiet, for it would be awkward, to say the least, if a keeper has to struggle with the animal to take him off a captured poacher, and then the rascal takes advantage of the exhaustion of both keeper and dog to escape.

"A night-dog should not under any circumstances be tried on a person who may at some future time have to accompany the animal while out watching. If so, the dog is nearly certain to go for this person when released for a scrimmage with poachers. Several instances like this have occurred, and in certain of them the dog had not been tried on the watcher he attacked since a puppy. This proves that they do not easily forget the identity of an opponent.


"There is one other thing a dog should learn, and, having acquired cleverness at it in addition to the lessons mentioned previously, the animal may be regarded as a perfect night-dog. When lying out with a party of watchers he must not be allowed to get into the habit of curling himself up and going to sleep like a fat pig. He must be taught to listen for the coming of poachers, as it is only natural that he should detect their approach by both sound and smell long before their advent on the scene is palpable to human senses. Some dogs do this naturally, and the remainder only need encouragement to render them proficient watchers. If a young dog displays a tendency to fall asleep when out, arrange for a man to come on the scene just about the time the animal will be settled down. This individual should move as cautiously as he can, go straight to the dog, and have a good rough round or two with him. Repeat the dose at intervals, and the dog will soon take to watching attentively, expecting every sound to announce the appearance of an antagonist.

"Never permit a night-dog to chase game or rabbits; if he is allowed to do this the movements made by them at night will monopolise his attention, and the watchers will never be sure whether he is pricking up his ears at a rabbit rustling in the dead leaves or at the approach of poachers; when released for a chase or scrimmage he will be[349] likely to direct his attention towards the less noble game.

"Opinions vary as to the weight a night-dog should attain, but a small dog, however persevering he may be, cannot be so effective as one which has the qualities of being large, game, and active. Suppose a dog, of 50 or 60 lbs. weight only, were to jump at a man, the latter could not be knocked down. A clever poacher would wait his opportunity, catch the animal in his arms, and throw him over an adjacent wall or fence, well aware that the dog could not jump back. A night-dog should not be less than 80 lbs., and if he is 100 lbs., strong and active, so much the better. He ought to be able to jump a gate with ease and to get over ground at a good pace. For colour a brindle is to be preferred, not being so plainly visible at night as a red, fawn, or even black dog.

"When a perfect dog has been bought or trained, every care should be taken that the animal is used properly. He should only be slipped at a man when absolutely necessary, and then must be securely muzzled. If a scrimmage becomes desperate and develops into a fight for life, the watchers must use their own discretion as to allowing their dog freedom to bite; if his muzzle be taken off, the man he attacks will surely be marked in such a way that he will be easily identified. To slip a night-dog at lads trespassing after mushrooms, blackberries, etc., is the[350] height of wanton folly, as the lads may be injured or terrified to a serious degree. Remember, it is best not to loose the dog at all if a man can be captured without his help, and he should be muzzled except in extreme cases. If a poacher who has had his clothes torn and been bitten simply because he ran away is brought before magistrates, he may excite the pity of the latter, although he heartily deserves condemnation from his judges; besides, a civil action for damages may ensue.

"It is entirely through forgetfulness of these rules that so many gentlemen object to night-dogs being used on their estates. But, if an animal of this kind is regarded in its proper light, and its use not abused, its mere presence will do more to deter poaching than the employment of half-a-dozen extra hands."




Concerning the Association

The Gamekeepers' Kennel Association has been formed with the primary object of taking over the organisation of the Gamekeepers' Dog Show as first held at the Westminster Aquarium, on 31st July and 1st and 2nd August 1900, it being deemed advisable by all parties concerned that the show should cease to be proprietary or to be promoted by any firm having trading interests with Gamekeepers. The other aims which the Association has in view are fully described in the following pages, and the Executive will do everything in their power to uphold and protect the rights of Game-preservers, recognising that in this lie the best interests of the Association and its members. The rule regarding the exclusion of undesirable persons from membership will be strictly enforced, and the Executive hope, that in time, the fact that a Gamekeeper is a member of the Association will be looked upon as a proof of ability and good character.


Donations and Subscriptions in aid of the Funds of the Association will be gladly received and acknowledged by the Secretary. Cheques and Post-office Orders should be made payable to the Gamekeepers' Kennel Association and crossed "Barclay & Co." Secretary's address is:—

Mr F. W. Millard,

Hertford, Herts.


1. That the name of the Association be "The Gamekeepers' Kennel Association."

2. That the object of the Association shall be to hold an Annual Show for the exhibition and sale of trained dogs owned by Gamekeepers, to uphold by all lawful means the rights of Game-preservers, to maintain at the Offices of the Association a register of Gamekeepers out of place, of situations vacant, and of dogs for sale, and also to promote the interests of game-preserving and Gamekeepers generally in the United Kingdom.

3. That the funds of the Association be spent in the furtherance of these and other objects considered by the Committee to be necessary for the welfare of Gamekeepers generally.

4. That a President, Vice-President, and Treasurer be elected annually.


5. That the present Committee remain in office two years.

6. That after the lapse of two years from the formation of the Association one-third of the Committee shall retire annually by rotation.

7. That the said rotation be decided according to alphabetical order.

8. That all members of the Committee retiring shall be eligible for re-election.

9. That all members of the Committee re-elected on retirement, and members elected in the place of those who resign, remain on the Committee for three years.

10. That the Committee have power to add to their number.

11. That the Secretary of the Association be subject to one month's notice.

12. That only bonâ fide Gamekeepers be eligible for membership.

13. That the definition "Gamekeeper" be understood to include, for the purposes of membership, anyone wholly engaged in the preservation of game, deer, or fish.

14. That a Gamekeeper who has been a member of the Association five years or more shall, on retiring from his duties as Gamekeeper through old age or other physical incapacity, still be eligible for membership.


15. That retired gamekeepers who wish to at once become members of the Association, be eligible for election at the option of the Committee.

16. That the annual subscription to be paid by members be fixed at 5s. per annum for head-keepers and single-handed-keepers, and 2s. 6d. per annum for under-keepers.

17. That these subscriptions be considered due on the 1st of January each year, and must be paid before the 31st of that month.

18. That members wishing to join the Association at any time other than the month of January must pay the full subscription for the current year.

19. That all under-men wishing to join the Association must be recommended by a head-keeper under whom they have served.

20. That no head-keeper, after 31st December 1904, shall be accepted as a member, without a recommendation from his employer, or another head-keeper who has already been enrolled.

21. That the Committee reserve the right to refuse any application for membership, and also to expel any member for any wilful misconduct which they decide is detrimental to the objects of the Association.

22. All members who have benefited by the Register, and not continued to belong to the Association, must, if re-elected to membership, pay[355] any subscriptions in arrear, together with a fine of five shillings.

23. That no one except a member of the Association be allowed to exhibit at any show promoted by the Association.

24. That no member be allowed to show a dog at any show unless he has been enrolled a member since before 1st February of the same year.

25. All cheques to be signed by both Treasurer and Secretary.

26. That all persons assisting in the management of the Association who are known to have trading interests with the members thereof, be understood to hold office in their private capacity only.

27. That the Gamekeepers' Kennel Association recognise the authority of the Kennel Club, and agree to obey the Rules and Regulations laid down by the Kennel Club.

28. All new rules shall be framed and adopted in Committee.

Rules for the Conduct of Meetings

1. That the dates and places of all meetings be fixed by the Secretary, and approved by at least three members of the Committee.

2. That each member of the Committee shall receive notice of all meetings at least seven days previous to the date of such meetings.


3. Want of service of notice of meeting on any member of the Committee shall not affect the validity of such meeting.

4. That five members of the Committee be considered a quorum.

5. That votes be taken by show of hands.

6. That all questions be decided by majority.

7. That the President or Chairman of any meeting for the time being shall have a second or casting vote.

8. That minutes of the proceedings of every meeting be fairly entered into a book kept for that purpose.

9. That notices of motions to be moved at any meeting by any member of the Committee be sent in to the Secretary on receipt of notice convening such meetings.

10. That the Committee from time to time make such rules as they consider necessary for the Regulation of the proceedings at their meetings.

Legal Bureau

Every member has a right to legal advice from the Honorary Solicitor of the Association regarding any matter connected with his duties. All applications for such advice must be made through the Secretary, and letters addressed direct to Mr Everitt will not receive attention. This regulation is necessary to[357] prevent outsiders seeking benefits reserved exclusively for members. Mr Everitt is prepared to take legal action on behalf of members and their employers at recognised fees, and his great knowledge of the intricacies of the Game Laws should ensure his engagement in all difficult cases with reference to a breach of these laws.

Veterinary Bureau

Every member of the Association has the privilege of obtaining free veterinary advice on all matters pertaining to his kennels, diseases of game, etc. Applications must be sent through the Secretary of the Association, a description of the symptoms, duration of the disease, number of animals affected, and any other information likely to be of service to the expert when forming an opinion.

The Situation Register

The Executive of the Association will make every effort to assist those of its members requiring situations, and, for that purpose, advertisements will in due season be inserted in certain papers asking gentlemen requiring Gamekeepers to write to the Secretary and state their wants. A register of members out of place will be maintained at the offices of the Association, and it is hoped that head-keepers[358] requiring under-men will in all cases apply to the Secretary before seeking elsewhere.

Directions to be followed by Members desirous of obtaining a Situation through the Association

A member out of place wishing to be entered on the Register of the Association must apply to the Secretary for a form to fill up and return.

Each member in corresponding with the Secretary must give his number, which number will be found on his card of membership.

Should a member on the register obtain a situation by other means, he must at once acquaint the Secretary that he has been engaged.

Should a member be taken into the employment of a gentleman or head-keeper, with whom he has been placed in communication by the Secretary, he must at once inform the Secretary, that his name may be removed from the register.


The Secretary will place members requiring situations in communication with applicants for Gamekeepers as fast as inquiries fall in, but in each case the two parties must arrange their own terms. The Executive will do their best to find suitable men for the places offered, but they give no recommendation. It is earnestly requested that members making a[359] change will at once send their new address to the Secretary.

The Register of Dogs for Sale

The Association maintains at its offices a register of sporting dogs, belonging to its members, which are for sale, and from time to time advertisements will be placed in certain papers that dogs are on the register for disposal. It will be the earnest endeavour of the Executive to induce sportsmen, in want of well-trained dogs, to apply to the Secretary, and it is hoped that head-keepers requiring dogs will purchase through the Association.

Directions for Placing a Dog upon the Register of the Association

A member of the Association having a dog for sale must write to the Secretary for a form on which the animal and its capabilities may be described. When the Secretary receives this form back the dog will be entered upon the Register of the Association.

Each member in corresponding with the Secretary must give his number, which number will be found on his card of membership.

Should a dog upon the Register of the Association be disposed of privately by its owner, he must immediately inform the Secretary, that it may be removed from the Register. Breaches of this order[360] will be dealt with by the Committee, because endless confusion and delay will ensue if it is not followed out.

Beyond placing seller and purchaser in communication with each other, the Association can accept no responsibility.

Rules to be observed by both Parties when a Dog goes on Trial

1. When an intending purchaser stipulates for a trial, a dog must be in his hands four clear days, the days of despatch and return not being counted.

2. The intending purchaser must be deemed responsible for the dog's safety during the period allowed for trial.

3. The carriage of a dog on the outward journey must be paid by the person to whom it goes on trial.

4. If a dog is returned after a trial as unsuitable, its owner must pay carriage on the homeward journey.

5. On a sale being concluded, the late owner of the dog sold must immediately inform the Secretary.

6. If a dog after trial is returned as unsuitable, its owner must at once inform the Secretary. Until he has done this, no further measures for its sale will be taken.



Gentlemen will much simplify the work of the Secretary if, when requiring a dog, they explicitly state their wants, and mention the price they are prepared to give.


The Executive hope that both parties to a transaction will implicitly observe the foregoing rules and directions. When filling up the forms, an exact description of a dog and its capabilities should be given; if misrepresentation is attempted, irretrievable harm will be done to the Association and its objects. Once sportsmen are assured that the Association is a reliable source from which well-trained dogs may be obtained, they will not fail to resort to it. By observing the utmost care when filling in a form, members will be protecting their own interests, aiding the Executive, and enhancing the honour of the Association.

Stud Dogs

That Gamekeepers may be encouraged to breed true to the recognised types, the Secretary of the Association will be glad to correspond with owners of prize stud dogs with a view of securing a reduction of fees in favour of members of the Association. All members will be duly advised through[362] The Gamekeeper of such reductions when they are allowed, and the Executive hope that the efforts they are making in this direction will be to the advantage of both members and owners of stud dogs. Members of the Association, who have valuable dogs, are particularly requested to place them at the service of other members for stud purposes.


The Secretary will be pleased to forward particulars to members who are desirous of making the Association known amongst their Gamekeeper friends. It is hoped that each member will do his best to add to the roll of the Association by inducing others to join. Forms of application for intending members may be obtained of the Secretary, who will be glad to answer all inquiries.

A monthly report concerning the work and position of the Association will be found in each issue of its organ, The Gamekeeper.

A list of stud dogs, placed at the service of members at reduced fees, is also occasionally published in The Gamekeeper, copies of this paper being obtainable from the Editor, Hertford, Herts.

Recently efforts have been made towards instituting a fund for the benefit of keepers during later life.



Feeding Sporting Dogs

Amongst Masters of Hounds and breeders of other Sporting Dogs, it is a general custom to feed the animals but once a day, and in most instances this is economical and satisfactory.

To maintain an even condition of the whole pack is one of the best tests as to the huntsman's management of the pack, and the kennelman's skill in feeding them.

Like all other varieties of dogs, Hounds differ in their likes and dislikes to food, so that whilst certain members of the pack are thriving on the food set before them, others are losing flesh, otherwise not improving in condition. Another reason why one or more of the Hounds may not be "doing well" is often due to the weaker members being "snapped at" by their stronger and peevish brethren when at the feeding vessels. Observation will soon settle whether this be the cause of particular hounds not thriving.

Shy feeders should either be allowed to have the first cut at the food, or else fed by themselves, say[364] two couples at one time. Horse-flesh and good oatmeal—or some form of Hound meal—constitutes the best staple food for Hounds. During the hot weather the flesh requires to be boiled twice or thrice weekly. As a substitute, skimmed milk can be used.

Nothing but sound horse-flesh ought to be used. Cattle, sheep, or pigs, that have died suddenly—unless certain that cause of death is of a harmless nature—should be avoided.

There is a risk of the animals contracting anthrax, deaths from this malady amongst dogs by no means being unknown.

Tuberculous cattle are equally objectionable as food for dogs.

In every instance the author recommends boiling the flesh, so that no redness, or uncooked portions remain.

The Hounds should be fed at least a couple of hours before starting off. Nothing can be worse than to run dogs with a full stomach.

Precisely the same remark applies to all other Sporting Dogs, but to the working Hound in particular.

The advantages of placing puppies "out at walk" is, as in the past, largely carried out, and the system leaves little to be desired. Most puppy walkers do justice to their charges, but huntsmen and others will do well to see that thin puppies are kept in fat conndition,[365] and not low. The erroneous opinion, though so general, that a puppy ought to be kept down in condition when distemper is approaching, is the greatest fallacy under the sun, and one that ought to have exploded long ago.

My advice to "walkers" and to owners is to feed your puppies well and get them fat, because distemper will soon plough out their ribs, etc., if unfortunate enough—as most of the good ones are—to contract it.

A little black treacle (teaspoonful), mixed with meal, rice, etc., and given once a week, is beneficial. If too much be used, it makes the bowels loose, especially after the dogs get warm with work, etc.

A change of food is of course desirable. Pointers, Setters, Retrievers, Beagles, Terriers, etc., etc., may have dry dog-biscuits—or soaked if preferred—given to them in a morning, and soaked stale bread—with water squeezed out—mixed with cut-up meat for the evening meal.

Boiled (or raw) paunches make a splendid food for dogs, and have great nutritive value. Boiled rice, flour, and various other meals are suitable, only must have a proportionable amount of flesh added to them.

Many sportsmen believe that flesh destroys a gundog's scenting power, and others that it makes thin dogs hard-mouthed. The author cannot share[366] this belief. For the satisfactory performance of work, a dog must be allowed flesh, and shortness of this—a dog's natural diet—is one of the chief causes of so many dogs breaking out in skin eruptions.

In addition to good food, regularly given in suitable quantities, it is necessary to see that the dogs have a plentiful supply of pure water, but it is not a good plan to give water immediately after feeding.

Another matter, in connection with feeding, that gamekeepers, etc., will do well to bear in mind, is to avoid feeding a dog on the entrails, etc., of rabbits and hares—a fruitful source of worms.

Conditioning Dogs

First of all, let us ask the apparently simple question, what is meant by "Condition?"

Our answer is: "The highest standard of excellence for a given purpose."

To the uninitiated, it may seem a very simple matter—only a question of plenty of food—to get a dog into condition—or, we ought to say, with a good layer of flesh upon his ribs.

But the huntsman, sportsman, and exhibitor know different to this.

It is not merely a question of food, but one of well-carried-out training—at anyrate in the eyes of the two first-named.


Foxhounds, Harriers, Greyhounds, Beagles, Otterhounds, Whippets, etc., must be "well winded," and this can only be obtained by daily exercise, first on foot, and then on horseback, gradually increasing the distance and pace.

The late Mr Apperley ("Nimrod") said: "That the highest virtue in a Foxhound is his being true to the line his game has gone, and a stout runner at the end of the chase." In the words printed in italics is embodied the term "Condition," as understood by the huntsman and hound-master.

Accepting the statement as correct, it is not necessary to say the amount of flesh a dog should carry.

With the exhibitor, matters are rather different, show condition being his desideratum.

If a sporting dog is going to a show, feed night and morning on meat and bread, so that by the time fixed for the show the ribs will have a good layer of flesh over them, being felt in outline only when the fingers are passed across them.

When a dog is very thin, give him a tablespoonful of malt or cod-liver oil and malt, night and morning.

Raw flesh will help matters greatly.

Before starting to lay on flesh by extra feeding, oil, etc., it is generally advisable to satisfy oneself that the dog is practically free from worms, otherwise[368] the extra nourishment will be wasted. Try for tape-worm with a dose of areca nut, and for round-worms, three days afterwards, with 10 grains of santonin, mixed with a dessertspoonful of treacle and one tablespoonful of castor oil.

The use of a hound-glove, chamois leather, and brush and comb, with an occasional bath, will do the rest.

It is better to wash your dog several days before the show, because the water destroys the natural lubricant, or that making the hair glossy.

Curly-coated Retrievers are improved in tightness of curl by the use of cold water.



Specific Ailments

Distemper—Rabies—Blood-Poisoning—Rheumatism or Kennel Lameness

Under the title of "Specific" Ailments, the author deems it advisable to give a brief account of such diseases as distemper, blood-poisoning, rabies or madness, rheumatism, kennel lameness, or chest founder, these complaints having as their cause germs, or micro-organisms; the production of these ailments—in three of them at least—being due to the entrance of minute organisms into the system, the excretions, or poisonous products resulting in the several forms of disease, as named above.

By far the commonest of these specific canine ailments is—


This malady is only too well known amongst owners and breeders of sporting dogs, and to its almost constant presence in certain kennels the rearing of puppies is seriously handicapped. It is readily communicable from one dog to another—more[370] particularly the young—either by direct or indirect means.

Some kennels are singularly exempt from its presence, whereas others are hardly ever without it.

In the latter case, the disease obviously exists upon the premises, measures for its extinction having been inadequately carried out.

One would hardly credit the multifarious channels through which this canine scourge can be propagated.

Feeding utensils, benches, the hands and clothing of attendants, hampers, collars and chains, bedding, water vessels, by contact of the diseased and healthy, and possibly by wind carrying the dessicated discharges, are all liable to become active agents for the production of the malady.

So varied is distemper in its method of attack, that the most expert professional may ignore its existence. Previous to the development of the symptoms, there is the so-called period of incubation, i.e., the time during which the germs are, as it were, dormant, though in reality they are maturing, the advent of their maturation being the development of the specific lesions designated distemper. By far the commonest manifestation of this horrible canine scourge is that in connection with the mucous membranes lining the eyelids, and upper air passages.


Possibly these are the chief portals for the entrance of the germs, and if the specific poison would only confine its ravages to these regions, the ultimate results would be of a much less serious nature.

No amount of good government will confine the assaults of the germs to positions so readily accessible to amelioration by medicinal applications, bronchial and pneumonic complications being common results, or what is, equally severe, bowels and brain lesions supervene, proving an additional source of depleting an already weakened economy. Masters of Foxhounds and proprietors of other dogs, are, we fear, only too well acquainted with the truth of this statement. The usual period of incubation is from four to fourteen days, and this should be borne in mind, so that any puppies that have been in contact with the disease may be isolated, and their temperatures taken for the next two or three weeks night and morning. The normal temperature is 101° Fahr. or a trifle over; therefore, if the mercury rises above 102° Fahr. in the morning—more particularly so—this is sufficient to warrant the animal's separation from the rest of the puppies.

It has been stated that distemper may exist without any rise of temperature, or even the presence of catarrhal signs, but the author does[372] not attach the slightest importance to such statements, and claims an experience equal to that of any other veterinary expert.

If there is no rise of temperature, no prostration, and no catarrhal signs, one may at once conclude that the animal is not affected with distemper.

Dulness, loss of appetite, sneezing, redness, heaviness of the eyes, slight husky cough, and, it may be, vomiting, are the premonitory signs of distemper.

If temperature be taken in the rectum or vagina, it will probably be about 103° or 104° Fahr.—the best positive evidence. There will generally be either constipation—more especially if a young dog—or an opposite condition of the evacuations. One well-known M.R.C.V.S. believes that distemper in adult dogs is of very rare occurrence.

This is not the author's experience, he having encountered and treated numerous cases when the animals have had distinct attacks of distemper two, and three times. Like scarlatina, measles, small-pox, etc., in the human subject, once the patient has passed through a well-marked attack of the disease, it is to a great extent "protected," but certainly not immune, to succeeding ones.

There is indisputable evidence in support of this statement, even the oldest observers being aware of its truth.

Following upon the preliminary symptoms already[373] indicated, there is a profuse discharge from the nasal and ocular openings, at first watery in character, subsequently creamy.

The discharge (unless cleaned off) irritates the margin of the eyes, occluding these and the nasal openings.

Sometimes the malady remains in this—the so-called simple or catarrhal form—for several days, and then convalescence begins.

In the case of coarse-bred dogs (mongrels, etc.) the foregoing is the usual condition of affairs. Bronchial and lung troubles are frequent, and probably more puppies die from the broncho-pneumonia of distemper than from other causes. Bronchitis is indicated by frequent attempts at expectoration, and the so-called "rale," heard within the chest. This sound is due to the air passing through the inflammatory exudate in the tubes. If pleurisy is present, there will, during the earlier stages, be friction or dry rubbing sounds, heard when the ear is placed against the chest wall. It is generally associated with varying degrees of pneumonia, either single or double. Quick breathing—more especially noticeable in the region of the flanks—is the best guide as to its presence for the amateur physician. Dropsy of the chest is not at all an uncommon result of pleuritic inflammation.

When consolidation of the lungs has taken[374] place, their respiratory usefulness becomes materially interfered with, so that, frequently, the animal has to make use of his lips as an auxiliary, the cheeks being inflated in a spasmodic manner. Recovery in this advanced condition of disease is exceedingly rare, though we have known it occur.

Pericardial (heart sac) inflammation is not uncommon in distemper, resulting through extension of inflammation from the pleural membranes.

A disordered liver is indicated by yellowness of the skin and mucous membranes, this bilious or hepatic form of the complaint being fairly common.

A fetid breath and pustular eruption over the belly, and on the skin inside the thighs are commonly observed; in fact, the pustular eruption is the most significant sign one can find.

Its presence is at once demonstrative that the animal is affected with what is known to the professional as a specific eruptive fever, which will run a definite course, and no amount of medicinal agents can cut it short.

One may control it by good nursing, suitable surroundings, and the judicious use of medicinal agents, but for any man to say that it is within his power to stay its normal progress, would, we opine, be bordering on madness. So much for distemper cures and their curers.

Ordinary small-pox vaccine has been employed[375] as a preventative for distemper. Almost everyone knows that when the arm of the human subject is scarified with the lancet, so as to admit the reception of the vaccine into the system, the part becomes inflamed and swollen, the seat of vaccination also showing a vesicle, etc., typical of a mild form of the disease, and if this does not take place the vaccine is said not to have "taken," i.e., it has done no good.

This is exactly what happens when used in the same way upon the dog, there being neither inflammation nor yet other signs, typical of local reaction, therefore it can be no use.

The mere fact of the disease never having occurred in a certain dog that has been vaccinated is not the least evidence in support of its utility.

Many dogs are very refractory to certain diseases, amongst these being distemper.

The Commission of Veterinary Surgeons, appointed to inquire into the utility of Dr Physalix's Vaccine, has convinced the writer that it was a failure from beginning to end, and he advises all dog admirers, Masters of Hounds, etc., to steer clear of its use.

There is no doubt that in course of time an anti-toxin, or some other attenuated form of distemper virus will be produced for the cure, or prevention of, this deadly canine malady.


Regarding the treatment of distemper, it has been suggested that a dose of castor oil may, with advantage, be given at the outset.

The author does not consider this advisable: the oil, owing to its extremely nauseating properties, tends to further weaken the animal by the production of vomition, etc. Moreover, castor oil leaves the bowels in a drier condition than before—an undesirable effect.

A soft—not dysenteric—condition of the evacuations is advantageous, much of the poison being got rid by the alimentary canal in this way.

A moist condition of the bowels is best maintained by the daily use of some of the natural aperient waters, such as Apenta, Hunyadi-Janos, etc., given in small doses once a day; say, every morning, taking particular care not to go too far.

The superiority of these saline aperients to those of oleaginous and other resinous purgatives, is further evidenced by the fact that they also act as febrifuges, lowering the excessive heat, thus diminishing the rapid loss of flesh, so characteristic of this affection.

For the husky cough give from one teaspoonful to a tablespoonful of ipecacuanha wine, just as it is. This should induce vomiting, and ought not to be repeated, at least for several days.

As a rule, very satisfactory results follow its use.[377] Inhalations of turpentine, eucalyptus, and spirit of camphor, or a little menthol, are exceedingly beneficial.

Four teaspoonfuls of each of the three first-named may be mixed together, and then one teaspoonful added to half a pint of boiling water, the dog being made to inhale the steam.

Five to ten drops of oil of eucalyptus, mixed with a little fine sugar, and placed inside the mouth night and morning, is good for the catarrhal symptoms of distemper, and the author can, from experience, recommend its employment.

When chest complications are marked, the application of mustard paste to the sides will do good.

Put the fore and hind limbs through holes cut in a thick piece of woollen blanket, and fasten it over the back. This will keep the chest warm and prevent the mustard from being rubbed off, more especially if a bit of brown paper be interposed.

Stimulants are indispensable in distemper, so that bovril, claret, and brandy are required. Brand's Essence is the best for nourishment. Give it in teaspoonful doses every hour. One may add the same quantity of brandy or whisky to it.

Bovril is a good stimulant in distemper, but it will certainly make the dog vomit, unless given in very small quantities, so long as the stomach[378] is in an irritable condition, one or two tablespoonfuls each time being quite sufficient.

As restoratives, claret and Coca Wine are excellent.

When dysenteric symptoms are troublesome, give an injection into the rectum night and morning. Use two to six tablespoonfuls of tepid boiled starch, to which ½ drachm of laudanum, 10 drops of turpentine and 1 drachm of tincture of hamamaledin has been added, injecting the lot, and then keeping the dog very still until the discomfiture of the injection has subsided.

In addition to this, from 5 to 15 grains of grey powder may be given, and repeated in the doses first named, daily. If no improvement, give 10 grains of powdered ipecacuanha every 10 hours.

To relieve the congested condition of the liver, the use of hot linseed and mustard poultices over the organ will be of service, followed by 10 to 20 grains of sal ammoniac, along with 5 grains of hyposulphite of soda, given in a tablespoonful of water night and morning.

Most reliance must be placed upon careful nursing, and if this is properly carried out better may be the issue, though, as already stated, no amount of careful nursing, or use of medicinal agents, will stop the ravages of distemper.


Fits are frequent, and another very common result is chorea, or St Vitus' dance, also called the twitch, jumps, etc. For fits, give 20 grains of bromide of potash, and if this does no good, double the dose, and for chorea try a course of Easton's Syrup—in capsules—malt, cod-liver oil, etc. Paralysis is not an uncommon sequel.

Dialysed iron—10-drop doses in a tablespoonful of water—is a very satisfactory drug to use so as to restore the weakened constitution, and bring back the appetite after distemper.


Although not present in our own country, it is very prevalent in certain provinces in India, etc.

The muzzling order and quarantine has been the means of abolishing this deadly malady from England.

In ninety-nine per cent. of cases in India, the disease is directly due to animals left to stray from the bazaars and villages.

At one time rabies was very prevalent in England, therefore cases of hydrophobia were not infrequent. Moreover other animals (horses, sheep, cattle, deer, etc.) had the malady through having been bitten by a rabid dog.

This disease assumes two distinct forms, one[380] known as the "furious" and the other "dumb" rabies. One of the earliest indications of rabies is an alteration of the dog's manner. He becomes restless, quarrelsome, and shy, having a strong inclination to wander from home.

At first the animal is able to drink, but very shortly he is unable, though evidently willing to do so. A depraved appetite is a singularly constant feature of rabies, gnawing at wood and snapping at imaginary (also real) objects.

A rabid dog has no particular inclination to seek objects for revenge; the injuries he inflicts beings agents that he regards as intercepting his onward march.

The author had, some years since, considerable experience amongst cases of rabies, and often innocent owners would bring rabid dogs for treatment!!

A very characteristic—though we cannot say pathognomonic—sign of rabies, is an alteration in the bark, and this is changed to a semi-bark and howl, easily recognised when heard a second time.

A rabid dog generally knows his master until overcome by the fury of the disease.

Most dogs succumb within a week after the advent of the first signs of the complaint. From a week to three months may be set down as the minimum and maximum periods for the development (incubation) of rabies, after the dog[381] has been bitten by a rabid animal, or received the virus of the malady into its system, such as might occur through rubbing, licking, etc., upon a mucous surface.

There are many other minor signs of rabies, and in the so-called "dumb" form, the most diagnostic one is dropping of the lower jaw, accompanied by a snuffling sound.

Although this latter might be confused with paralysis of the lower jaw from injury to the nerve, etc., the history of the case will afford the most reliable guide, when forming an opinion.

If rabies is suspected, isolation and destruction should be carried out at once. The speedier the better.

Before concluding, the writer wishes to say that the bite of a dog in ordinary health is no more injurious than a wound inflicted by any other means, and that the sooner this stupid fallacy explodes the better for beast and man.

To destroy a healthy dog because it happens to have bitten a person is akin to madness.


This is almost always due to absorption of septic matter, usually from the seat of a wound or other injury. We have frequently seen it follow a bite from another dog. It is generally fatal. The[382] skin assumes a bluish tint, and beneath it inflammatory products accumulate, giving, when pressed with the fingers, a crackling sensation.

In other instances, abscesses form both internally and externally, sometimes the whole of a limb being infiltrated with pus, etc.

Very little can be done.

To support the severe depression, give brandy, eggs, and Brand's Essence of Beef. Also 25 grains of salicylate of soda every six hours in a little cold water.


Masters of Hounds and Sporting-dog men in particular, are nearly all acquainted with this troublesome complaint.

Where dogs are kenneled on damp or low-lying ground, there may we expect to find kennel lameness—a title under which it has been known for many and many a score of years.

A previous attack is a predisposing influence to its recurrence.

Rheumatism may be either acute or chronic.

Although not common in its acute form, the writer has treated dogs that could hardly bear anyone to enter—much less shake—the rooms where they have been kept, the slightest shake causing the dog to howl from the agony of pain so induced.


Under these circumstances, the diagnosis of rheumatism becomes a certainty, much more so than in its chronic condition, when confined to a limb, joint, etc.

The muscles of the chest—Chest-founder—and the neck, are commonly affected.

Stiffness and difficulty in moving—the dog often suddenly howling from pain—are the chief signs. There is not much (if any) swelling in this complaint, as it occurs in the dog.

The shifting character of rheumatism is a great aid to diagnosis.

Treatment.—Keep dog in a dry and warm kennel.

Don't wash, especially in winter.

Give soda water to drink.

For the chronic manifestation of the affection, administer 5 grains of iodide of potash night and morning.

Open bowels with a purgative.

If acute, 20 grains of salicylate of soda every eight hours in a tablespoonful of water.

Rub the muscles with some stimulating liniment, such as white oil, belladonna, or aconite liniments.

Feed on soft food and nurse dog well.

Many cases of rheumatism never get any better, the dog remaining a confirmed cripple, though worse in damp weather.



Constitutional Skin Diseases



This is a very common complaint, indeed much more so than need be if proper attention were paid to the feeding and exercising of dogs.

That eczema is of a hereditary nature there seems abundant evidence to prove, the progeny of eczematous parents predisposing the offspring to suffer—when the exciting cause comes into play—in a like manner. Derangement of the digestive organs and impaired nerve force must be reckoned as chief amongst such causes.

Sarcoptic mange and certain other parasites are of course capable of producing eczema, but this is chiefly mechanical irritation, ceasing with the destruction of the irritant.

Not so, however, with eczema of a constitutional nature, the irritation requiring internal medication for its subjugation.

Eczema is denoted by the appearance of one or[385] more patches of inflamed skin, and unless checked, the whole of the skin may become inflamed, the hairs broken and shed, reducing the dog to a condition of misery and suffering.

Any portion of the body or extremities are the seats of eruption, but where the parts can be licked or scratched by the dog, the worse the zone of inflammation.

In the moist form of eczema small vesicles appear; the rupture of these and the dessication of their contents, along with scales, hair, etc., forms a scab or crust on the surface.

Many sporting (and other) dogs have a dry form of eczema known as Psoriasis, showing itself upon the points of the elbows and buttocks.

Here the patches are very intractable, the skin having a dry and leathery appearance.

Between the toes, around the eyelids, margins of the ears, are common situations for eczema to make its appearance.

Treatment.—This must be both local, i.e., applied to the diseased part or parts, and general, i.e., directed towards improving the constitution.

Plenty of exercise and a reasonable supply of good, sound, boiled flesh, mixed with bread, night and morning, will do much towards a cure.

Give a bath of sulphurated potash (2 ounces of sulphate of potash to 6 gallons of water) weekly, dry[386] thoroughly and then dress the parts with sulphur ointment, or boracic acid ointment.

If the disease has spread more, or less, over the whole skin, dress with the following liniment.

Paraffin oil 4 ounces
  Sulphur flowers 4 ounces
Oil of tar 2 ounces
Olive oil 30 ounces

Mix. Wash off in six days' time, and repeat once every ten days until cured.

N.B.—A cheap oil (rape, colza, etc.), can be substituted for the olive oil, though these are all distinctly inferior for the purpose.

In addition to the treatment, give the dog a 5-grain blue pill, say once every three or four weeks, and have the following mixture compounded.

Liquid extract of sacred bark 2 drachms
  Acetate of potash 1 drachm
Ammoniated citrate of iron 1 drachm
Tincture of orange 1 ounce
Fowler's Solution of Arsenic 80 drops
Water to 8 ounces

Directions: Give one tablespoonful night and morning before food. Several weeks' or months' treatment will be required ere a complete cure can be anticipated.

Mild cases of eczema are not difficult to bring[387] under control, but those of long-standing demand perseverance. If skin scaly, use tar ointment daily.


A common situation for these to make their appearance is upon or between the toes.

Frequently they are very troublesome, appearing and reappearing.

The best treatment is to poultice freely with hot linseed meal, and if at all tardy in healing, paint with Friar's Balsam.

Keep feet very clean, soaking in hot water at each time of removal of poultice.

Give a dose of Epsom salts, and don't allow dog to run about without a leather boot for a few days, or at anyrate until the sores have become perfectly healed. A little powdered boracic acid powder can be dusted upon the sore places. For drawing sores turpentine ointment is very useful.


By this term we mean an eruption of vesicles or small blisters in groups upon an inflamed skin. These blisters are larger than those of eczema. It is not uncommon to see them around the lips during an attack of distemper, causing the mouth to become extremely sore and painful. In ringworm, the patch is of a kindred nature, though contagious.



This complaint is characterised by the sudden appearance of numerous wheals or elevations upon various parts of the skin, causing a burning and itching sensation, provoking the dog to bite and scratch the parts affected.

Generally these wheals disappear as suddenly as they came, though now and again some are very stationary.

The best treatment comprises the administration of a 5-grain blue pill and the application of a little vinegar and water to the irritable patches.



External Parasites and Parasitic Skin Diseases

Fleas—Pediculi or Lice—Ringworm—Sarcoptic Mange—Follicular Mange


During the warm weather more particularly, fleas are a source of great annoyance to dogs, and frequently to their owners, more especially if the animal be kept in the house.

Owing to the rapid multiplication of fleas, dogs that are not regularly groomed or washed, soon become swarmed with these pests, consequently the severe irritation they produce upon the skin causes the animal to lose condition, whilst the scratching and biting destroys its coat. Regularity of washing, both dog and kennel, constitutes the best means of checking these pests.

Wash all woodwork with boiling water and Stone Ammonia, then expose to air.

Turpentine is a capital thing to sprinkle the kennel, benches, etc., with. Fleas seem to dislike this drug more than any other agent we have employed.

A very good dressing for destroying fleas is composed[390] of an ounce each of turpentine and terebene, dissolved in a pint of methylated spirits of wine.


Whenever dogs get into this condition, it is reasonable to conclude that there has been a want of proper attention.

One may go further, by saying that it is generally the outcome of neglect, and a lousy dog should only be found in the kennel of the sluggard, no matter whatever be the source of infection. Detection at an exhibition leads to exclusion, and rightly so.

The eggs or "nits" are attached firmly to the shafts of the hairs close to the root, and hatch in about five days after being deposited.

Any part of the body may be the seat of these parasites, but those parts where the hairy covering is dense, constitute the most favourable cover.

Loss of condition soon follows the invasion.

Treatment.—Use the brush and comb freely. Scrub all kennel fittings with strong decoction of tobacco.

Dress dog with the following:—

Oil of Stavesacre 1 ounce
  Olive Oil 14 ounces

Mix and rub in with a stiff brush.

An infusion of quassia is an excellent and harmless remedy.

Buy 4d. of quassia chips, and add a quart of[391] boiling water, with the addition of half an ounce of shag tobacco, infusing for six hours. Dress dog all over, rubbing well into "under" coat, if dog has one.

Dog ticks may be snipped off with scissors.


Although now and then affected with ringworm, the dog does not suffer from the skin disease anything like so commonly as cattle.

The chief variety seen upon the dog is that induced by the vegetable parasite, Tricophyton tonsurans, which assumes a circular, or shield-like form. Honeycomb ringworm is another variety. The patch is about an inch long as a rule, scaly, and shows the hairs broken across, giving it a stubbly appearance. It is easily recognised.

Ringworm can be readily transferred from one dog to another, or to animals of different species, and the converse.

Treatment.—Paint the bare patch or patches with iodine liniment; groom well and feed well. Keep dog away from others until cured.


This is a very common form of mange, though often confused with non-parasitic eczema.

The mange mite is known as Sarcoptes canis, and[392] takes up its abode upon the superficial dermoid structures.

The irritation thus induced, causes the dog to bite and scratch the part, ending in the production of a raw, weeping surface, extending from point to point, unless something is done to check the ravages of the mites. With licking, biting and scratching, these parasites are transferred as indicated, and an artificial form of eczema induced.

The diagnosis can be confirmed by microscopic examination of the under surfaces of the crusts upon the sores.

Treatment.—Being contagious, keep the diseased dog from healthy ones until cured.

All fittings, clothing, and other appliances likely to have been in contact with the diseased dog ought to be thoroughly scalded with boiling water and soda.

Short-coated dogs are more readily curable than heavily-coated varieties.

Wash dog twice weekly, and after thoroughly drying, dress all over with a dressing, composed of 4 ounces of flowers of sulphur, ½ ounce of oil of tar, and a pint of train, or colza oil.

This dressing should be washed off in about three or four days, and repeated until cured.

A bath of sulphurated potash is a capital remedy.

Add an ounce of sulphurated potash to every ten gallons of tepid water.


In some instances it is advisable to clip the dog, thus facilitating the penetration of the dressing.

Almost every kennel man and doggy man has his so-called mange cure, but the first principles are to make a diagnosis of the complaint under which the animal is labouring.


This is a very intractable variety of mange, resulting from the invasion of the hair-follicles by a minute mite, known as Demodex folliculorum, easily recognisable on microscopic examination. It is of lobster-like shape.

It will readily be understood that the inaccessible habitats of these mites renders the effective application of medicinal agents at a disadvantage.

Destruction of the roots of the hairs is a common result, and a permanent bare patch often remains as a legacy of the parasitic attack.

Like the sarcoptic, follicular mange is transferable from one dog to another, though less readily than the former.

Bare patches should be shaved all around, and the part painted with colourless tincture of iodine daily, or twice daily.

The most satisfactory way of dealing with this complaint is to consult a qualified veterinary surgeon.



Diseases of the Gullet, Stomach, Bowels, and Digestive Glands

Disease of Gullet—Inflammation of Stomach—Twist and Intussusception of the Bowels—Inflammation of the Bowels—Vomiting—Worms—Diarrhœa—Dysentery—Hæmorrhage—Hæmorrhoids—Dyspepsia—Jaundice or Yellow—Ruptures.


This begins at the back part of the mouth, the entrance into it is known as the pharynx, and ends at the stomach.

Stricture, or narrowing of the gullet, and injury to it, such as sometimes produced by the dog swallowing a sharp-pointed body, is not an uncommon accident.

External compression, such as the presence of a morbid growth in juxtaposition to the gullet, is capable of interfering with the functional use of the tube, thereby preventing the animal from swallowing properly.


Diseases of the gullet always demand the exercise of professional skill, and until this is obtained, nothing beyond trifling amounts of liquid nourishment ought to be given.


Probably the most frequent cause of gastric inflammation in the dog is that arising through the ingestion of irritant poisons, such as arsenic, antimony, etc.

Less frequently an inflamed stomach is due to the presence of worms, or to the specific poison of distemper: in the latter case the areas of disease generally being of an extensive nature.

The chief symptoms of stomach inflammation are vomiting; pain in the belly; prostration; thirst, and other signs of the dog being in a critical condition.

Treatment must be in accordance with the cause.


Neither of these morbid conditions are of uncommon occurrence amongst dogs, more especially so in young dogs, but why this should be so, is difficult of explanation.

A twisted bowel is certainly not so frequently met with as a telescoped or intussuscepted one. In both cases inflammation is set up, chiefly confined to the[396] area involved, or in those parts in juxtaposition to the lesion.

Practically speaking, one issue is the rule in both cases, and that is death.

Spontaneous reduction is rare, and as the diagnosis is attended with difficulty, relief by operation seldom attempted.

The true nature of these bowel complaints is generally only revealed on after-death examination.


We have already alluded to this in the previous paragraph, but inflammation of the bowels also arises from other than the causes therein named.

In the author's opinion, the most frequent causes of this complaint in puppies are round-worms (Ascaris marginata).

To avoid puppies being troubled with these parasites, small quantities of lime-water are of service. A tablespoonful will be sufficient at once.

Teaspoonful doses of Brand's Essence of Beef constitutes one of the very best substances that can be used when vomition is troublesome, and later on the yolk of an egg, with the addition of a teaspoonful of brandy.

As a medicinal agent, bismuth is particularly useful,[397] so that the following mixture should be obtained from the chemist:—

Carbonate of bismuth 3 drachms
  Pepsin 30 grains
Bromide of potash 2 drachms
Bicarbonate of soda 3 drachms
Compound tincture of cardamoms 1 ounce
Water to make 4 ounces

Mix. Dose: One tablespoonful every four hours until the vomiting ceases. For Terriers, etc., half this dose will suffice.

This mixture will be found specially suitable for the vomiting of distemper, and when arising from other causes, of a general nature. In case the dog has been poisoned or picked up some material of an objectionable nature, it may not be advisable to try and check the vomiting. Under these circumstances, it must be regarded as a salutary process. It is only when it becomes excessive that it is advisable to stop it.

Another very important matter when dealing with a case of excessive vomition, is that of keeping the dog as quiet as possible, together with the application of hot, dry flannels, applied over the belly for several hours at a time, and continued with until improvement sets in.

The bitch should be thoroughly dosed with worm medicine before she comes into season, otherwise[398] repeated purgation by worm medicine may have a prejudicial influence after service. Refusing to suck and crying from the pain in the belly are the surest indications of this condition in suckers. In adult dogs irritant poisons are not at all an uncommon cause of inflammation of the bowels. The specific poison of distemper is another cause. External injuries will produce it, and probably exposure to severe wet, such as lying on a damp kennel floor. Peritonitis is a frequent accompaniment. It is generally fatal, therefore the best of skill should be obtained. Hot fomentations and 15-to 20-drop doses of chlorodyne every three hours can be tried in the meantime.


The dog finds vomiting the readiest means of ejecting objectionable substances from within its stomach, and consequently many medicinal agents are conveniently—sometimes inconveniently—got rid of by this means.

Even this ready means does not safeguard our canine friends against death from the ingestion of various poisonous agents, though doubtless this prompt action of the stomach in response to stimulation of the vomiting centre in the brain, does confer a certain degree of immunity against toxic substances. Rapidity of absorption has an important bearing in this respect, such deadly agents as strychnine being absorbed by[399] the stomach, passing into the circulation to other vital organs in a very rapid manner.

During distemper, vomiting is common, its frequent repetition being an additional exhausting factor in this malady.

To avoid this, minute quantities of readily assimilable nourishment is essential.

When the ejected material is stained with blood or actually contains blood as blood, it points to ulceration of the lining membrane of the stomach—a condition of gravity.

Stoppage of the bowels is often followed by vomiting, and frequently brings on paralysis.

Treatment for Vomition.—Rest for the stomach is one of the first essentials of treatment. Nourishment must be given, and, if necessary, this can be in the form of nutrient enemas. (See Clysters.)

Fatty substances, milk, vegetables, and solid food, must be rigidly excluded until such time as the organ has regained its tone and proper power of assimilating the nutritive pabulum supplied. Soda-water to drink and 20 grains of powdered bismuth three times a day, along with a tablespoonful of the soda-water. If dog is paralytic give it an enema.


Although fairly common in other situations,[400] worms are most frequently found infesting the intestines and stomach.

The cavities of the heart, nasal and respiratory passages, cranial cavity, and bile-duct are more rarely the seats of parasitic invasion in the dog. When the heart and respiratory tubes are affected, the parasites are of a minute, thread-like character, hence known as Filaria, or thread-worms.

The flat, lancet-shaped worm, sometimes found up the nose, is spoken of as a trematode; the round-worms in the stomach and bowels as nematodes; whilst the other long, flat, or tape-like worms, are called Tænia.

Very few dogs are entirely free from worms of one sort or another, though it is only when these become numerous that the dog shows signs of having these pests.

Gradual loss of condition, irregular appetite, irregular evacuations, harsh coat, sometimes vomiting, and increased redness of the membranes lining the eyelids, are the usual signs, significant of internal parasites. Positive proof is of course the passage of segments of tape-worms, or round-worms, either by vomiting, or in the evacuations.

Sneezing and a catarrhal discharge from the nose is generally present when the nasal passages are infested with the lancet-shaped worms already alluded to. An uncommon true blood-sucking worm (Spiroptera[401] sanguinolenta) is occasionally found in the stomach.

Newly-born puppies seem predisposed to become infected with round-worms, known as Ascaris marginata, such infection taking place from the dam, hence the necessity for ridding her of worms, and the most suitable time to administer vermifuge medicine, in an efficacious manner, is prior to her coming in season.

With reference to the preventative measures against worm infestation, speaking practically, not a great deal can be done, the sources of infection being so varied. Feeding dogs on the viscera of animals must of course be condemned, and with the abolition of this practice so will diminish one source of infection. Many so-called worm specifics are now largely advertised, rival proprietors claiming superiority and even infallibility.

Some of these nostrums are given without fasting the dog, but said to be equally efficacious. This statement must be accepted with reservation, as all worm medicines act more energetically when the stomach and bowels are empty. Before administering worm medicine, it is advisable to fast adult dogs for twenty-four hours, but puppies should not be kept longer than fifteen hours without food.

Although an old, but well-tried remedy against both round and flat worms, areca nut still maintains[402] its position, and rightly so, because when given in suitable doses, and in accordance with the old rules, it seldom fails to give a satisfactory account of its action.

The freshly grated nut has advantages over the powder, more especially if the latter has been kept in stock for a considerable time, as usually happens where the demand for a certain drug is limited. When combined with santonin, its action on round-worms is greatly enhanced.

Areca nut, santonin, and male fern, are now all sold in capsular form, thus diminishing their nauseating effects.

The average dose of areca nut for such breeds as Pointers, Setters, Retrievers, Fox and other Hounds, is a drachm and a half, combined with 8 grains of santonin, and given as a bolus mixed with honey, treacle, etc., or in a little milk, though less liable to be vomited when given without any liquid.

About three hours afterwards give a full dose of castor oil.

Repeat weekly, for a month if needful. A course of tonic medicine may then follow, so as to brace up the constitution.

Such substances as powdered glass and other mechanical irritants ought to be avoided, being liable to set up gastro-enteritis. Powdered tin, glass, etc., belong to this class. Calomel, hellebore, pomegranate[403] bark, spirit of turpentine, Barbadoes tar, garlic, wormwood, Kousso, Kamala, etc., have been, and still are, much used, and abused.

Whatever be the drug employed, it is advisable to isolate dog both before and after dosing, so that the results can be properly noted.

Through neglect of this precaution, many failures or indifferent results arise.

The indiscriminate employment of worm medicines is but too frequently resorted to, and may further deplete an already exhausted system.

In many instances, a course of iron and arsenic tonics, followed by cod-liver oil and malt, does more good than the administration of anti-worm remedies.


Like almost every other animal, the dog is a frequent sufferer from a too loose condition of the evacuations, constituting diarrhœa.

A variety of causes are capable of bringing this about, but the presence of worms, cold, feeding on liver and other unsuitable foods, are, in all probability the most frequent causes.

During distemper, superpurgation is a frequent sign, calling for active but well-regulated treatment to control it.

It must be borne in mind that this excessive discharge[404] of liquid fæces is but symptomatic of derangement of the stomach, bowels, or digestive glands, and that it can only be successfully treated when viewed in this light, the administration of diarrhœa mixtures being often a failure, because these facts are ignored.

A little careful consideration will often determine the cause, the discharge ceasing with its removal.

In other instances it can only be conjectured, treatment becoming speculative.

Boiled rice and milk, arrowroot and milk, to which two or three tablespoonfuls of port wine has been added, constitutes suitable dietary whilst the evacuations are in a fluid, or semi-fluid state.

When arising through a chill, or the animal becoming overheated, the following mixture can, with benefit, be used:—

Rubini's Essence of Camphor 1 drachm
  Chlorodyne 2 drachms

Mix, and give 25 drops three times per day, along with a tablespoonful of cold arrowroot gruel.

Diarrhœa arising through the irritation of unsuitable food in the stomach and bowels must be treated as follows:—

1. Give a full dose of castor oil, along with 20 drops of laudanum.

2. After this has had time to work itself out, follow up with doses of the diarrhœa mixture, as sold by chemists for the human subject.



When diarrhœa is allowed to continue, it is liable to end with dysenteric symptoms, the lower end of the bowel becoming implicated, producing bloodstained evacuations, or the disease may be of a specific nature from the beginning.

No matter how arising, dysentery is an exhausting disease, and one that demands prompt treatment for its alleviation.

Internally, powdered ipecacuanha is the best remedy, and it should be given.

First give an injection of tepid water (½ to 1½ pints) to wash out the bowel, and then administer from 5 to 20 grains of the above drug, mixed with the same quantity of bicarbonate of soda, in a tablespoonful of honey and water. Repeat in eight hours.

Give no food, and keep dog very quiet for next twenty-four hours.

Injections of starch gruel and laudanum are often very useful for dysentery, and can be used twice daily.

Twenty to 60 drops of laudanum may be added to a couple of tablespoonfuls of tepid boiled starch, then injected into the lower end of the bowel by means of a vulcanite, glass, or ball syringe.

Particular attention must, of course, be paid to the animal's diet.


Nothing but farinaceous foods should be allowed unless it be Brand's Essence, or some stimulating liquid, such as bovril or Oxo, to which isinglass has been added. If pain severe, apply hot poultices to the belly.


Loss of blood may arise either from within or without the body, be of varying amount, and either arterial, venous, or capillary.

Excessive hæmorrhage is of course always injurious, but its gravity is greater when issuing from some vital part, such as the lungs, stomach, kidneys, cranium, etc.

In lung hæmorrhage the blood is coughed up, and of a bright-red colour—fresh blood.

When coming from the stomach it is generally intermingled with the vomited material.

If issuing from the urinary apparatus, it is either mingled with the urine, so as to stain this fluid, or passed as blood at the end of the act of urination.

In the latter case, it will most probably be coming from the bladder, or the kidneys.

Hæmorrhage from the bowels is passed along with the stools, or immediately following the act of defecation, as frequently happens in piles.

Rupture of the heart, or the larger vessels gives rise to a rapid and fatal hæmorrhage.


The treatment, with a view to arrest the bleeding, will of course depend upon the conditions through which it has been brought about.

If from without, e.g., a wound, the bleeding vessel ought to be ligatured, or else have a compress fastened on so as to exercise sufficient pressure upon and above the injured vessel.

When bleeding is due to small blood-vessels having been torn, tincture of steel, Friar's Balsam, etc., will sometimes be sufficient to arrest it.

Cold water, or an ice compress is equally useful. When blood comes from the lungs, e.g., a gunshot wound in this region, there is generally a certain amount of bronchial irritation, so that the dog must be kept warm. Have ice compresses applied to the chest, and 15 grains of gallic acid given three times a day. If this fails, Adrenalin Tablets can be tried.


The dog, like other animals, is liable to suffer from piles, causing it considerable discomfiture. The disease may be external, or internal. External piles consist of enlarged veins, the result of a sluggish circulation, and are more frequently seen in ladies' lap-dogs, or those leading an indolent and useless existence. Internal piles generally cause bleeding and pain during defecation, and are often seen protruding during the latter act.


Exercise, a liver laxative, such as 1 to 4 of Carter's Little Liver Pills now and then, with the application of a little gallic acid ointment, constitutes the safest treatment that the amateur can adopt.


Although the dog has remarkable powers of digesting such apparently insoluble substances as bones, etc., he, like most other animals, is a frequent sufferer from digestive disturbance, though this derangement of the digestive organs is certainly of more frequent occurrence amongst dogs leading inactive lives.

Probably the most frequent cause of dyspeptic symptoms are the various forms of worms, so prevalent amongst dogs.

Following this as a cause, decayed teeth are liable to provoke it, whilst prolonged feeding on unsuitable food, over, under, and irregular feeding, are equally fruitful sources of mischief to the digestive apparatus.

General unthriftiness, want of energy, and a morbid appetite, together with foul breath, are the leading features of disordered digestion.

It must be borne in mind, however, that the digestive organs are frequently in a perverted condition through disease in other parts, such as the heart,[409] kidneys, liver, etc., and can only be regulated for proper assimilation when treatment is directed towards the mischief, in connection with any of the foregoing organs.

Most suitable food is that containing a due proportion of flesh and carbohydrate; therefore a mixture of boiled paunch and boiled rice will meet this end.

Feed the dog regularly, and give no more than the dictates of common sense suggest as sufficient for the size of the dog. Give extract of malt daily.

Hounds and other sporting dogs should not be allowed to eat as much as they like, no matter however hard they may have been working.

If sickness is a troublesome symptom, it will generally be advisable to give the dog a dose of worm medicine. Should the results be negative, give one of the following powders night and morning.

Bismuth carbonate 1 drachm
  Pepsin 20 grains
Powdered charcoal 2 drachms
Powdered sugar 1 drachm

Mix and divide into one dozen powders, giving in their dry state, by placing on the back of the tongue.

Any loose or carious teeth ought to be removed, and a dose of compound liquorice powder given occasionally to regulate the bowels.

From a quarter to one teaspoonful of this powder will be a suitable dose.


Should there be no improvement in the animal's condition, it will be advisable to obtain skilled advice—not such as is frequently offered by unqualified canine specialists, or others of this class professing a knowledge of "all pertaining to the doggy world."


Affections of the liver, or when the secretion or excretion of bile is perverted, the symptom known as jaundice results.

Very few people are unacquainted with the characteristic yellow colouration of the skin and visible mucous membranes.

The word "jaundice" comes from the French "jaune," yellow, and "icterus," a Greek word for golden thrush.

The yellow colour of the skin, white of eyes, mucuous membranes lining eyelids and cheeks is, of course diagnostic that the colouring matter of the bile is circulating throughout the system.

The urine is usually deep yellow and very scanty, and the motions often clay-coloured and hard, though this latter condition is frequently absent, in fact diarrhœa present.

This is particularly well marked in the so-called hepatic or bilious form of distemper.


Gall-stones, when impacted in the bile-ducts, give rise to jaundice and colic pains.

There is also a catarrhal condition of the bile-ducts that leads to the same jaundiced condition.

As a considerable number of dogs succumb to this affection, very careful treatment is necessary. Linseed and mustard poultices over the region of the liver, and a hot bath, will often work miracles. Soda-water and milk should constitute the only nourishment for a few days, unless it be teaspoonful doses of Brand's Essence of Beef.

A grain of calomel along with a quarter teaspoonful of sugar, night and morning for two or three days (until the bowels are open), will be found to do good in most instances. Further treatment can, with advantage, be left to the veterinarian, so much depending upon individual conditions.


Although purely of a surgical nature, it may not be out of place to mention that any organ or tissue in any part of the body may be the seat of a rupture.

Ruptures of the stomach (rare in the dog), bladder, liver, blood-vessels, bowels, muscles, etc., are of occasional occurrence.

A very common rupture is that known as "umbilical," many puppies showing this swelling[412] in the region of the navel. Frequently it disappears with increasing age. It is of little importance.

Rupture of the wall of the belly and protrusion of the bowels, etc., is a serious condition, demanding immediate professional aid.

This is equally applicable when the generative organs or perinæum are injured.

Another form of rupture is that known as "inguinal," denoted by a variously-sized swelling in the region of the groin.

In scrotal rupture the testicular sac is enlarged.



Poisons and their Remedies

Poisoning by Arsenic—By Antimony—Strychnine—Phosphorus—Rat and Other Vermin-Killers—By Lead—Mercury—Ptomaine Poisoning


Very small quantities of this drug are capable of bringing on a fatal inflammation of the stomach and bowels, and it is only prescribed in the most minute doses.

Fowler's Solution of Arsenic is the compound generally selected for administration of the drug in the liquid form, the average dose of it for the larger sporting dogs being 10 drops. Arsenious acid or white arsenic is an extremely cheap compound, and one that enters largely into the composition of many sheep-dips, a fact that it may be worth while to bear in mind should a dog be poisoned in a manner, suspiciously regarded.

This same poison is not uncommonly used for the destruction of rats and other vermin, though the[414] facilities for obtaining it are, to a great extent, a barrier against its frequent employment for such purposes.

Arsenic is a corrosive and irritant poison, producing vomiting, dysentery, acute pain within the belly, thirst, prostration, and a speedy but painful death.

As a rule, dogs poisoned by arsenic die, only the mildest forms making recovery.

Under any circumstances it is advisable to seek the assistance of a M.R.C.V.S., acting in accordance with his instructions.

In the absence of professional aid, provided the animal is not too much exhausted, an emetic should be given, and for this purpose there is nothing more suitable than 20 grains of white vitriol (sulphate of zinc), or the same quantity of blue vitriol (sulphate of copper), mixed with a couple of tablespoonfuls of tepid water. If neither of these agents are handy, use mustard, salt, and water.

Teaspoonful doses of brandy, mixed with the same quantity of olive or salad oil, can be given at frequent intervals.

Twenty-drop doses of chlorodyne, may be added if the pain is severe.

Hot fomentations to the belly will do good.


The compound of this element most commonly in use for medicinal purposes is that known as tartar[415] emetic—an exceedingly active poison. Minute doses are sometimes prescribed in order to induce vomiting, and in bronchial complaints to produce expectoration.

The symptoms and treatment are practically on a par with those laid down for arsenic. Vomiting and extreme depression of the vital powers are specially significant symptoms.

Both arsenic and antimony have their special antidotes, though even these are of very doubtful efficacy.


Although a difficult poison to procure from any source, it is surprising the number of dogs that are annually poisoned by this agent.

In appearance, strychnine is a harmless-looking crystalline (or powdered) white solid, the most minute particles readily inducing muscular spasms and death.

Strychnine also occurs in the form of a buff-coloured powder, known as nux vomica, the alkaloid or active principle being strychnine.

Many gamekeepers make use of strychnine for destroying such birds as hooded crows, etc.

Farmers now and then soak maize in a solution of strychnine, in order to destroy crows in a wholesale manner.

We merely mention these facts, as showing the various sources from which a dog might accidentally get poisoned.


In a very few minutes after swallowing strychnine the dog becomes convulsed all over. The muscular spasms may completely render the dog paralytic; in fact, this usually happens. Quick and laboured breathing is soon followed by complete collapse.

So rapidly does strychnine—especially if the dog has taken a few grains—produce death, that there is seldom much chance for the employment of remedial agents, or to call professional assistance.

If there seems reasonable hopes of recovery, call in a qualified veterinary surgeon at once. Twenty grains of chloral hydrate, 25 grains each of potassium, iodide and bromide, in water, can be used in the meantime.


It is hardly necessary to go beyond mentioning the possibility of poisoning by this agent.

It is a constituent of so-called "phosphor paste" largely used for the destruction of vermin, such as rats and mice.

Dogs have been known to partake of it, usually ending in death.

A most important matter is to avoid giving the dog any oily substances, if poisoned by this element.


We have already spoken of phosphorus being the active agent in some of these compounds. Barium[417] and arsenic are likewise employed. Most of these being proprietary articles, their exact composition is not of any particular interest.

Sickness, thirst, severe pain and prostration, are chief amongst the symptoms produced by such agents.

Empty stomach with an emetic; give small doses of brandy in water, along with 40 grains of carbonate of bismuth, every three hours, or oftener.

Keep dog quiet, and apply hot dry flannels to the belly continuously.


The most likely method for lead-poisoning to occur in a dog is through the animal licking paint, or drinking out of a leaden vessel.

It is an uncommon form of poisoning in the dog. Lead poisoning can be either "acute" or "chronic," and is denoted by colicky pains, constipation and a blue line around the gums. Paralysis and other nervo-muscular signs supervene.

Give half an ounce of Epsom's salts until bowels are freely open, and later on, 5 grains of iodide of potash night and morning.

Warm fomentations to belly.


Mercurial poisoning but seldom occurs, and when it does, it is chiefly the result of the continued medicinal use of the drug, or as an over-dose.


Dogs seem particularly susceptible to the action of mercurial compounds, so that this drug requires to be given with circumspection.

An excessive discharge of saliva from the mouth and loosening of the teeth are amongst the most prominent signs.


To this class belongs various organic poisons produced in food substances (fish, etc.), as the result of fermentative changes, arising through the presence of bacteria or other minute living organisms.

Although cases of ptomaine poisoning are more frequently met with in the human subject, there is a possibility of the occurrence of such in the dog.

Empty stomach with an emetic, say 20 grains of white vitriol and given in two tablespoonfuls of tepid water.



Diseases of the Urinary Organs

Disease of the Kidneys—Stone in the Bladder—Inflammation of the Bladder—Stricture of the Urethra


One or both of the kidneys may be the seat of acute or of chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation of the kidneys is not uncommonly the result of stone, or gravel, accumulating within what is called the "pelvis" of the kidney.

Under these circumstances, the dog suffers great discomfiture in passing his water, the latter being ejected in very small quantities, and it is generally stained with blood.

In some instances a single stone will occupy the whole of the pelvis of the kidney, destroying its functions, whereas in other cases the particles of stone are small, or even gritty, rendering them extremely liable to wander into other portions of the urinary tract.

Abscess of the kidney is induced by the presence of injecting material gaining admission.


Severe pain during urination, bloody-coloured urine passed in drops, loss of condition and tenderness across the loins, are some of the more prominent signs of this malady. If there is the least suspicion as to the presence of this complaint, consult a M.R.C.V.S.

In the meantime, if the animal is in pain, give 30 drops of laudanum, in a little water, or, as a substitute, 20 drops of chlorodyne. Avoid giving the dog much liquid, but easily-digested solid food, such as rice, boiled chicken, etc.


The dog is not uncommonly a sufferer from stone in the bladder, the writer having seen the whole cavity practically obliterated by the presence of one or more calculi.

Considerable numbers have been removed by operation.

When there are a number of calculi in the bladder, the rubbing of one against another causes the faces of them to become very smooth.

Calculi vary in size, hardness, weight, shape, and position; likewise are more frequent in dogs than bitches.

The chief indications of stone in the bladder are the passage of small quantities of urine at very frequent intervals, often bloodstained.


For the relief of this condition, surgical aid is necessary.


This arises through chemical, mechanical, and specific causes.

To the first class belong certain drugs; to the second, stone; whilst the third class includes the germs of distemper, blood-poisoning, etc., and the extension of inflammation from adjacent parts.

It may also occur as the sequel to an operation for stone in this organ.

The urine is passed in drops, and the dog is in considerable pain, more so when the parts in this region are pressed. It is generally fatal.


The urethra is a tube leading from the bladder to the exterior, serving for the passage of the urine.

Sometimes it is the seat of obstruction or stricture, i.e., a narrowing of it.

Congestion, spasmodic contraction, and organic changes are the principal causes.

The chief sign is the passage of urine in drops, together with pain.

Give a hot bath, 20-drop doses of chlorodyne in a little water, and consult a qualified veterinary surgeon.



Diseases of the Ear

Dropsy of the Ear-flap—Otitis or Inflammation of the Ear—Otorrhœa or Canker—Split Margin—Eczema of Ears—Deafness—Morbid Growths in Passage—Concretions—Syringing Ears.


Long-eared dogs—more especially Spaniels and Retrievers—are very liable to suffer from this complaint. In some instances the causes are, probably, of a constitutional nature, but as a rule it is the result of a bruise.

The bruise gives rise to the production of an inflammatory effusion between the skin and cartilage of the external ear, causing a baggy-like swelling, compressible with the finger, and alterable in shape when the external ear is manipulated.

The old, and by far the most satisfactory way of dealing with this serous (watery) abscess is to make a free cut into it. Introduce the finger into the wound and break down adhesions; then wash out[423] with a little iodine and water. Keep wound open for a few days. This will always effect a cure.


The passage of the ear is reddened and causes the dog to rub his sore ear, or even cry from the pain. Very frequently this condition is accompanied by a fetid discharge; if so, it is spoken of as internal canker of ear. A little cooling lotion, such as a couple of teaspoonfuls of Goulard, in eight ounces of water, applied night and morning, will usually suffice to cure this complaint. At same time give a dose of purgative medicine.


This is an exceedingly common disease of dogs, and when it has been allowed to run on unchecked becomes very intractable.

When the internal ear is in a diseased condition, i.e., disease of the bones, etc., the malady is incurable.

In the majority of instances the middle ear alone is the seat of inflammatory action and suppuration, and usually curable.

One form of ear canker is produced by parasites (Symbiotes auricularis canis) invading the passage.

The ordinary form of canker is the result of some slight abrasion of the middle ear, and subsequent infection of the wound by germs.


The secretion of the ear and constitutional predisposition towards eczema have no doubt an influence in determining the onset of canker, of a non-parasitic nature.

The entrance of water and other foreign materials is thought to be equally productive of this disease, but, as already stated, in all probability it is necessary to have some slight excoriation of the lining membrane.

Turning the head to one side—when one ear is affected, though frequently both are diseased—pain when the ear is manipulated, revealing, on close inspection of the passage, increased redness, with a sooty-like deposit (dry form), or moisture (moist form), passing into various stages of suppuration, are the usual signs of this disease.

Frequently the pus is mingled with blood, the latter either coming from the tender abraded lining of the middle ear, or, may be, from disease of the bones.

Careful inspection will generally settle the matter. The duration of the malady is of importance when forming an opinion.

In bad cases the discharge drops from the ears, emitting a most offensive odour.

Treatment.—Cleanse ears thoroughly with warm water and a little spirit of wine.

Syringe out daily.

Pour in some of the following lotion night and morning.


Glycerine 2 ounces
  Laudanum ½ ounce
Lead acetate ½ drachm
Water added 8 ounces

Mix. Warm before use.

Milder cases can be cured by dusting boracic acid powder into ear night and morning, and for parasitic canker, use in the same way a little white precipitate (ammoniated chloride of mercury).

Give a dose of purgative medicine, such as Epsom salts, and then follow up with a course of alterative medicine. (See Recipes).


Injuries of the flap of the ear are often very troublesome to treat successfully. On this account such sores are spoken of as external canker, in contradistinction to the disease previously discussed.

When the ear has been torn, it is necessary to have professional aid to make a satisfactory job of it.

An effort must be made to get the edges of the torn surfaces to heal by what is called first intention.


The margins of the flaps of the ears are commonly the seat of a dry eczematous eruption. They become scaly, thickened, and hairless.

Many dogs have their ears in this condition for[426] years; nevertheless, it is very unsightly, and the longer it exists the more the trouble of eradicating it.

Apply with friction an ointment, composed as follows, night and morning.

Oil of tar 2 drachms
  Glycerine 2 drachms
Powdered sulphur ½ ounce
Creosote 1 drachm
Lard added 4 ounces

Mix and rub well in all around the margins, for twenty minutes each time.

In addition to this, give a 5-grain blue pill, feed on meat and bread, giving less dog-biscuit, if this has been the principal food. A course of alterative medicine will be required.


Deafness may be "complete" or only "partial," and confined to one, or affecting both ears.

In some dogs it is congenital, i.e., present from birth; in others acquired.

Severe canker will cause deafness, so will a blow over the ear.

Morbid growths in the passage, and accumulation of waxy material, etc., will likewise produce "partial" or "complete" loss of hearing.

Treatment must be directed to the removal—whenever possible—of the cause.



Occasionally the middle ear is the seat of various morbid growths, either of a wart-like character, or as small-stalked tumours, causing complete or partial deafness, in accordance with the occluding area involved.

Surgical treatment is necessary, excepting in the case of a single-stalked growth (polypus), around which a thin piece of twine or wire can be fixed. It will then slough off.

Concretions.—These are chiefly accumulations of wax within the ear, and should be removed first by softening with a little warm almond oil and then syringing with weak spirit and tepid water.

Syringing Ears.—Special glass, vulcanite and rubber syringes are sold for this purpose. Before injecting the fluid, warm it.

The stream of liquid should be forced well into the ear.

For cleansing the ears, add a dessertspoonful of spirit of wine to a teacupful of rose-water, warmed before use.

This liquid can be syringed into the depths of the passage once a day.

The dog should have a tape muzzle put on, and then held by an assistant.



Diseases of the Eye

Ophthalmia—Blindness—Inverted Eyelids—Everted Eyelids—Torn Eyelids—Bareness around Margins


Inflammation of one or both eyes is of fairly frequent occurrence amongst dogs, more especially when a dog has distemper; in fact, the eyes nearly always participate in this malady. Injuries, such as those produced by passing through thickets, etc., are also causes of this condition: likewise chemical, and other mechanical agencies.

The conjunctiva, or membrane lining the eyelids becomes an intense red: the eyes are intolerant to light, and tears flow freely over the face: the eyelids adherent, more especially after sleep, with a purulent discharge issuing therefrom.

Prolonged inflammation is liable to end in the production of opacity of the cornea, the surface of this membrane becoming a bluish white.


In distemper, ulceration of it is not uncommon. When Hounds are kept in damp kennels, where the sanitary arrangements are bad, very severe forms of distemper ophthalmia are frequent. The remark applies also to other dogs so situated.

Treatment.—This must be of both a "local" and general kind.

Sponge eyes several times daily with a weak boracic acid lotion (30 grains to 6 ounces of water), using a sponge or piece of linen previously dipped in boiling water. Good results sometimes follow fomenting with luke-warm tea, its simplicity being a recommendation. When the cornea is ulcerated, use a solution of nitrate of silver (4 grains to the ounce of distilled water) as drops, night and morning. Keep the dog's head steady, part the lids, and then apply.

These drops will be equally useful for "cloudy cornea."

Rest the eyes by keeping dog in a dark place. Around the margins a little of Singleton's Golden Eye Ointment will be of as much service as aught else that can be recommended, and can be procured at any drug stores.


A predisposing factor in the production of blindness is that of old age, many aged dogs having what[430] is known as senile cataracts. Injuries of any kind to the eye are liable to end in either partial, or complete, blindness.

In cataract, it is the lens, its covering, or both, that are the seats of disease.

In the so-called glass eye (Amaurosis), the appearance of the eye is that of a normal one, the optic nerve being in a paralytic state.

Opacity of the cornea does, in accordance with the degree and situation of such deposit, produce corresponding deficiency of sight.


In this diseased condition it is generally the upper eyelid that is turned inwards. If the eyelashes grow inwards, it is called Trichiasis. In both conditions it follows that the lashes must be in contact with the globe of the eye.

If only a few lashes are growing inwards, they should be pulled out, but, if numerous, this is not a good plan. To cure it, a surgical operation is necessary.


Like inverted or turned-in eyelid, everted, or turned-out eyelid is not a diseased condition, but the outcome of disease, probably of a weak orbicular muscle.


It is the lower eye that is usually affected, and is curable by operation only.


Injuries to the eyelids, unless properly treated, are liable to result in permanent unsightliness, or, it may be, affect the sight.

Either of the conditions last alluded to can be produced through injury to the eyelids externally, or internally.

Unless very slightly torn, it will be better to consult a M.R.C.V.S.


Minute particles of foreign substances, such as thorns, the outer covering of various seeds, etc., are liable to gain admission into the eyes.

If the glume of an oat seed, etc., lodges on the cornea, it may remain adherent, setting up inflammation of it. Blindness is a common result.

When the cornea is punctured, it is advisable to have professional advice.

After the removal of a foreign body—best done by turning the upper lid outwards and upwards with the fingers—insert a drop or two of castor oil daily for a few days, or as long as seems necessary. Severe injuries to the eyeball are liable to be followed by sympathetic inflammation in the sound eye.



It commonly happens that around the margins, through several causes, the hairy part becomes destitute of hair, giving the dog a very unsightly appearance.

In most instances the disease is of an eczematous nature, requiring constitutional treatment for its removal. (See Eczema.)

As an erythema it is seen in distemper, arising through the acrid discharge from the eyes scalding the surrounding areas.

Smear the part with a little Singleton's Golden Eye Ointment, or with a little vaseline, cold cream, or boracic acid ointment.



Injuries and Minor Operations

Wounds—Overgrown Claws—Fractures


Lacerated and punctured wounds are very common, more especially amongst sporting dogs, and this chiefly owing to the thickets, etc., they have to face during work.

Wounds and fractures are not uncommonly associated; if so, the injury is spoken of as compound. The gravity of a dual injury is much greater than where either exists as a single one.

Gunshot wounds are not uncommon, and when examining such, a good deal of care is necessary. Sometimes the shots are simply lodged beneath the skin, and can be felt by rolling the skin beneath the fingers.

In other instances the flesh is penetrated, and, it may be, the internal organs injured.

Although shot may have penetrated the cavity of the chest, or the belly, it does not follow that the injury be of a vital nature; in fact, the author's[434] experience of gunshot wounds in the dog has been as a rule favourable, most of the dogs showing but little after effects.

If shot have passed deeply in, penetrating the chest, etc., no attempt should be made to interfere with the wounds.

When shots are lodged in tendons, etc., about the knee, they should be removed forthwith.

Lacerated or torn wounds will probably require sewing up; if so, they must first of all be thoroughly cleansed with some warm water, to which a little disinfectant has been added.

Special care must be taken to remove all irritating particles, and the hair ought to be clipped closely off in juxtaposition to the injury.

Severe bleeding must be arrested with cold water, or by touching the end of the bleeding vessel with the point of a hot iron, or through the application of a few drops of strong tincture of iron, tow, and a bandage.

A stout needle and boiled string can be used to sew up the wound.

A very common situation to find a clean-cut (incised) wound is upon the pads of the feet, caused by the dog stepping upon some sharp object, such as a bit of glass, flint, etc.

Put the foot in hot water and cover it with a pad of tow or lint, soaked in a little carbolic oil or other[435] antiseptic liniment, bandage, and keep dog at rest for a few days.

A little compound tincture of myrrh is an excellent remedy for painting superficial wounds, so is boracic acid as a dusting powder.

Every kennelman should keep these handy in case of emergency, likewise tow, a bandage, and some antiseptic, such as carbolic acid, chinosol, etc.


It is very common to find the length of the claws so excessive that the resulting overgrowth penetrates the soft structures, causing the part to suppurate, and the dog lameness.

Clip off the offending part with a sharp pair of nippers. As a rule, nothing further is required.


The long bones, i.e., the bones of the limbs, are those commonly broken, but short, flat and irregular bones are frequently injured.

Broken back may happen when a dog is run over, but this is more liable to happen to a non-sporting dog, or rather to such as are kept in the neighbourhood of busy thoroughfares.

A senseless puppy sometimes meets with an accident of this class.


A dislocation is an injury whereby the bone is forced out of its place.

The short bones of the feet are often broken, and their repair is usually an easy one, though, as in the case of the other fractures, complicated, if a wound be present.

Fractures of the skull are not common injuries amongst dogs, and when they do occur, call for special skill in treatment.

If the broken ends of a bone are not accurately adjusted, a deformed, or false, union results, more or less spoiling the utility of the animal.

As a rule, considerable swelling comes on after fracture of the long bones, especially of the forearm, therefore an effort must be made to subdue this by bathing freely with warm water.

Well-padded splints should be used—if applicable—and applied directly to the skin, being retained in position by a bandage.

If the bandage is too tightly applied, the circulation to the part will be interfered with, probably destroying the vitality of it. Coldness and numbness are the chief signs of this.

Leather, wood, gutta-percha, starch, egg and gum, etc., are all used as supports to a broken limb. A plaster bandage is very useful.

In the case of a valuable dog, it is advisable to consult a qualified veterinary practitioner.


Rest is of course an indispensable factor in the treatment of both fractures and dislocations.

When a dislocation accompanies a fracture, or wound and fracture, at a joint, the animal should be destroyed, as the results of surgery under these conditions is not often satisfactory.



Minor Operations

Docking—Setoning—Enemas—Fomentations—Blistering—Tumours and Warts


Such varieties as Fox, Airedale, Irish Terriers, Spaniels, etc., require to have their tails shortened, and this should be done when the puppies are, say, a couple or three weeks old. An old, but rather revolting custom is that of biting off the requisite portion.

A sharp pair of serrated scissors, or a chisel, will do the work satisfactorily, and nothing should be done to the cut end, beyond allowing the healing to follow its natural course.


Setons and rowels are not used in the present day so much as in times gone by, nevertheless, when employed with discretion, are of service.

At one time setons were largely used for insertion into the poll when a dog had fits, especially during distemper. In the author's opinion they are injurious for this purpose, but as a counter-irritant in lung and[439] bronchial complaints, good often results from their employment. Many local swellings can be dispersed through the insertion of either a set-on or a rowel. Tape, horse-hair, tow, or a circular piece of leather wrapped in tow, are the issues used. If a seton, the skin must be snipped at the inlet and outlet; the needle threaded and passed along under the skin (no deeper as a rule) to the point of exit, and the tape fastened off. It is usual to smear the tape with some stimulating substance, such as resin or turpentine ointment, in order to excite a speedy local inflammation. The tape must be moved (not removed) daily, kept clean, and smeared with the ointment twice weekly.


These may be either plain, medicated, or nutritive. For the two first-named purposes, either warm or cold water may be used, the amount varying with the effect it is desired to produce.

To empty the lower end of the bowel, from half to three pints will be found sufficient for most sporting dogs.

A little salt, soft soap, and glycerine, will increase the activity of the clyster.

A chronic, torpid condition of the lower end of the bowel is best overcome by injecting about half a teacupful of cold water into it every morning, at the[440] same time allowing plenty of exercise and a soft diet, such as oatmeal, or wet bread and meat.

In diarrhœa, dysentery, etc., good results are often obtained by giving a cold boiled-starch clyster. About four tablespoonfuls will be enough at a time. When it is desirable to administer nourishment by the rectum, it is necessary to wash out the lower end of the bowel with a warm-water clyster, before injecting the nutritive medium.

The yolk of an egg, a dessertspoonful of brandy, and a teaspoonful of sulphuric ether makes a useful, sustaining enema.

Another good injection is a couple of teaspoonfuls of salt, dissolved in half a pint of tepid water, then injected.

Loss of blood, etc., can often be made up by the use of this saline injection.


For many purposes fomentations are superior to poultices, the chief difficulty being in keeping up the heat to the desirable standard.

A pad of thick flannel should be planned, and this soaked in boiling water, then wrung dry in a roller.

To assist in maintaining the heat, a piece of mackintosh sheeting ought to be put over the pad, and a dry flannel above all.


For difficult breathing, pain in the belly, or local pain, etc., moist warmth is exceedingly beneficial, and quite harmless under any circumstances.

In animals, it is a general custom to bathe the seat of disease with the hot water.

Perseverance is essential to success, and more harm results from hot fomentations applied in a half-hearted manner than where they are not used at all.


Beyond the application of mustard, turpentine, or hot water, blistering agents are not much employed in the treatment of canine ailments.

As a remedy for external use in diseases of the bronchial tubes and lungs, mustard has not, in the author's opinion, any superior.

It can be used either as a paste applied directly to the skin, or in combination with boiled linseed poultices.

In long-haired dogs it is advisable to clip off some of the hair, so as to facilitate the full counter-irritant properties of the mustard.

It requires very little rubbing in, and it is not advisable to repeat the application, unless specially called for.


A multiplicity of morbid growths are liable to[442] occur in dogs, some of these growths being of a very simple nature, others of a malignant or recurrent order.

By far the commonest are warty growths upon lips, tongue, and generative organ.

It is remarkable, but these often disappear spontaneously.

Solitary warts, if sufficiently large, can be removed by tying a piece of strong whip-cord around the root of the growth. This remark is equally applicable to other small tumours.

Dressing with some caustic agent such as lunar caustic, strong acetic acid, blue-stone, etc., may be effected in some cases, and others (when on tongue), dusted with dry calcined magnesia.

Tumours about the belly, etc., demand professional skill.

Polypi, or stalked tumours, are commonly found growing from the mucous membrane of the ears, nose, and female generative passage.

They can be removed by ligature.



White West Highland Terrier


1. The General Appearance of the White West Highland Terrier is that of a small, game, hardy-looking Terrier, possessed with no small amount of self-esteem, with a varminty appearance, strongly built, deep in chest and back ribs, straight back and powerful quarters, on muscular legs, and exhibiting in a marked degree a great combination of strength and activity. The Coat should be about 2-1/2 in. long, white in colour, hard, with plenty of soft under coat, and no tendency to wave or curl. The Tail should be as straight as possible, and carried gaily, and covered with hard hair, but not bushy. The Skull should not be too narrow, being in proportion to the terribly powerful jaw, but must be narrow between the ears. The Ears should be as small and sharp-pointed as possible, and carried tightly up, but must be either erect or semi-erect, and both ears must be exactly alike. The Eyes of moderate size, dark hazel in colour, widely placed, rather sunk or deep-set, with a sharp, bright, intelligent expression. The Muzzle should be proportionately long and powerful, gradually tapering towards the nose. The Nose, Roof of Mouth, and Pads of Feet distinctly black in colour.

2. Colour.—White.

3. Coat.—Very important and seldom seen to perfection:[444] must be double-coated. The outer coat consists of hard hair, about 2-1/2 ins. long, and free from any curl. The under coat, which resembles fur, is short, soft, and close. Open coats are objectionable.

4. Size.—Dogs to weigh from 14 lbs. to 18 lbs., and bitches from 12 lbs. to 16 lbs., and measure from 8 ins. to 12 ins. at the shoulder.

5. Skull.—Should not be too narrow, being in proportion to his powerful jaw, proportionally long, slightly domed, and gradually tapering to the eyes, between which there should be a slight indentation or stop. Eyebrows heavy. The hair on the skull to be from ¾ in. to 1 in. long, fairly hard.

6. Eyes.—Widely set apart, medium size, dark hazel in colour, slightly sunk in the head, sharp and intelligent, which, looking from under the heavy eyebrows, give a piercing look. Full eyes and also light-coloured eyes are very objectionable.

7. Muzzle.—Should be powerful. The jaws level and powerful, and teeth square or evenly met, well set, and large for the size of the dog.

8. Ears.—Small, carried erect or semi-erect, but never drop, and should be carried tightly up. The semi-erect ear should drop nicely over at the tips, the break being about three-quarters up the ear, and both forms of ears should terminate in a sharp point. The hair on them should be short, smooth (velvety), and they should not be cut. The ears should be free from any fringe at the top. Round-pointed, broad, and large ears are objectionable, also ears too heavily covered with hair.

9. Neck.—Muscular, and nicely set on sloping shoulders.

10. Chest.—Very deep, with breadth in comparison to the size of the dog.


11. Body.—Compact, straight back, ribs deep and well arched in the upper half of rib, presenting a flattish side appearance. Loins broad and strong. Hind-quarters strong, muscular, and wide across the top.

12. Legs and Feet.—Both fore-and hind-legs should be short and muscular. The shoulder-blades should be comparatively broad, and well sloped backwards. The points of the shoulder-blades should be closely knit into the backbone, so that very little movement of them should be noticeable when the dog is walking. The elbow should be close in to the body, both when moving or standing, thus causing the fore-leg to be well placed in under the shoulder. The fore-legs should be straight and thickly covered with short, hard hair. The hind-legs should be short and sinewy. The thighs very muscular, and not too wide apart. The hocks bent and well set in under the body, so as to be fairly close to each other, either when standing, walking, or running (trotting), and, when standing, the hind-legs, from the point of the hock down to the fetlock joint, should be straight or perpendicular, and not far apart. The fore feet are larger than the hind ones, are round, proportionate in size, strong, thickly padded, and covered with short, hard hair. The foot must point straight forward. The hind feet are smaller, not quite as round as fore feet, and thickly padded. The under surface of the pads of feet, and all the nails, should be distinctly black in colour. Hocks too much bent (cow hocks) detracts from the general appearance. Straight hocks are weak: both kinds are undesirable, and should be guarded against.

13. Tail.—6 ins. or 7 ins. long, covered with hard hair (no feather), as straight as possible, carried gaily, but not curled over back. A long tail is objectionable.

14. Movement.—Should be free, straight, and easy all[446] round. In front, the leg should be freely extended forward by the shoulder. The hind movement should be free, strong, and close. The hocks should be freely flexed and drawn close in under the body, so that, when moving off the foot, the body is thrown or pushed forward with some force. Stiff, stilty movement behind is very objectionable.


1. Coat.—Any silkiness, wave, or tendency to curl is a serious blemish, as is also an open coat.

2. Size.—Any specimens under the minimum weight, or above the maximum weight, are objectionable.

3. Eyes.—Full or light-coloured.

4. Ears.—Round-pointed, drop, broad, and large ears, also ears too heavily covered with hair.

5. Muzzle.—Either under, or overshot and defective teeth.

Scale of Points.

General Appearance 5
Colour 5
Coat 10
Size 7 ½
Skull 7 ½
Eyes 5
Muzzle 5
Ears 5
Neck 10
Chest 10
Body 10
Legs and Feet 7 ½
Tail 5
Movement 7 ½
Total 100




Afghan Greyhound, 333

—— neck, 334

—— colour, 334

—— height at shoulders, 334

Airedale Terrier, 293

—— Standard of Points, 298

—— Club, 298

Antimony poisoning, 414

Appendix, 443

Arsenic, 413

Association of Bloodhound Breeders, 146


Bareness round margin of eyes, 432

Basset-hounds, 206

—— colour, 208

—— coat, 208

—— head, 208

—— fore-quarters, 225

—— chest, 225

—— Club, 226

—— Club rules, 226

—— (Smooth), points, 233

—— (Rough) points, 235

Beagle, 181

—— Club (English), description of points, 187

—— (American), points, etc., 190

Bedlington Terrier, 274

—— height, 277

—— weight, 277

—— colour, 277

—— nose, 277

—— coat, 277

—— skull, 277

—— body, 277

—— tail, 277

—— limbs, 278

—— quarters, 278

—— Club, 278

Black-and-tan Setter (Gordon Setter), 29

Blindness, 429

Blistering, 441

Bloodhounds, 141

—— head, 142

—— legs and feet, 145

—— chest and shoulders, 145

—— neck, ribs, back and loins, 145

—— hind-quarters and limbs, 146

—— tail, coat and colour, 146

—— height, 146

—— Club, 146

Blood poisoning, 381

Boils, 387

Borzois or Russian Wolfhound, 179

—— chest, neck, 180

—— fore-limbs, 180

—— colour, 180

—— coat, height, 181

—— faults, 181


—— Club, 181


Canker of ear, 423

Clumber Spaniel, 71

Clysters or Enemas, 439

Cocker Spaniel, 84

—— head, ears, 87

—— coat, colour, 87

—— Club, 88

—— prices, 88

—— faults, 88

Conditioning Dogs, 366

Constitutional Rules of the Retriever Society, 59


Dachshund, 194

—— head, 194

—— chest, shoulders, 205

—— hind-quarters, 205

Dandie-Dinmont Terrier, 310

—— head, 313

—— neck, tail, 314

—— fore and hind-limbs, 314

—— colour, 314

—— Society, 315

—— Standard of Points, 315

Deafness, 426

Deerhound, 128

—— head, ears, 129

—— neck, shoulders, stern, 130

—— legs, feet, 135

—— faults, 135

—— colour, 136

—— coat, 136

—— height and weight, 137

Diarrhœa, 403

Docking, 438

Dropsy of the ear-flaps, 422

Dysentery, 405

Dyspepsia, 408


Eczema, 384

English Setter, 18

—— points, etc., 23

—— faults, 24

English Water Spaniel, 92

Everted eyelids, 430


Feeding Sporting Dogs, 363

Field Spaniels, 82

Fleas, 389

Follicular Mange, 393

Fomentations, 440

Foreign bodies in the eyes, 431

Foxhound, the, 113

Foxhound, Stud Book, 114

Fox Terriers, 239

—— Club, 247

—— Standard of Points, 247

—— (Rough), 265

—— points of, 265

—— Disqualifying Points, 266

Fractures, 435


Gamekeepers' Kennel Association, 351

—— Rules, 352

Greyhounds, 157

—— head, eyes, 158

—— ears, neck, 158

—— fore and hind-quarters, 158

—— coat and colour, etc., 167

Gullet, disease of, 394


Hæmorrhage, 406

Hæmorrhoids, 407

Harriers, 122

—— loins, back, ribs, 125

—— chest, fore-limbs, 125

—— coat, 125


Herpes, 387


Inflammation of stomach, 395

—— of bowels, 396

—— of bladder, 420

—— of ear, 423

International Gundog League, 32

Inverted eyelids, 430

Irish Setter, 25

—— coat, etc., 26

Irish Terrier, 287

—— coat, colour, etc., 288

—— weight, 293

—— Club, 293

—— prices, 293

Irish Water Spaniel, 88

—— colour, coat, height, 91

—— general appearance, 91

—— faults, 92

—— Club, 92

Irish Wolfhound, 155

—— points, etc., 156


Jaundice, 410


Kidneys, disease of, 418


Labradors, 56

Lead poisoning, 417

Lurcher, 337


Mange, Follicular, 393

Mange, Sarcoptic, 391

Mercury, 417

Morbid growths in the ear passage, 427


Nettle-rash, 388

Night-dogs, the Training, Use, and Abuse of, 337


Ophthalmia, 428

Otterhound, 126

—— colour, 126

—— skull, neck, 127

—— height, 127

Overgrown claws, 435


Pediculi or lice, 390

Phosphorus poisoning, 416

Pointer and Setter Society, 32

Pointer, the, 3

Poisons, 413

Ptomaine poisoning, 418


Rabies, 379

Retrievers, 41

—— head, 47

—— ears, back limbs, 48

Retrievers (Flat-coated), 41

—— (Curly-coated), 55

Rheumatism, 382

Ringworm, 391

Rules adopted at the Retriever Society, 63


Ruptures, 411


Sarcoptic Mange, 389

Scottish Terrier, 278

—— coat, weight, colour, 283

—— neck, chest, etc., 284

—— head, muzzle, 284

—— height, 287

—— Clubs, 287

Setoning, 438

Skye Terrier, 269

—— head, 273

—— weight, 273

—— faults, 273

—— Club, 273

—— prices, 273

Spaniels, 66

—— colour of, 68

—— Sussex, 76

Specific ailments, 369

Split margin, 425

Stone in the bladder, 419

Stricture, 421

Strychnine poisoning, 415


Torn eyelids, 431

Training Spaniels, 102

Tumours and warts, 441

Twist of the bowels, 395


Vomiting, 398


Welsh Terrier, 308

—— head, neck, 308

—— arms, and forearms , 309

—— back, loins, tail, and feet, 309

—— Club, 309

Whippet, 167

—— coat, 168

—— constitution, 168

—— fore-limbs, 168

—— hind-quarters, 171

—— tail and feet, 171

—— General appearances, 171

White West Highland Terrier, 305, 307 (see Appendix, p. 443)

Worms, 399

Wounds, 433


Colston & Coy. Limited, Printers, Edinburgh


[1] Liver-coloured flat and wavy coated specimens are not at all uncommon, though not generally preferred.

[2] A moderate degree of development of the Membrana Nictitans (so called Haw) is not only typical of the Clumber, but advantageous. To remove this useful Membrane (unless for surgical reasons) is a cruel and useless procedure, deserving severe condemnation.

[3] The heights of the Crickhowell Harriers are as follows:—Dogs, 17½ to 18½ inches; bitches, 17 to 18 inches.




—Obvious errors were corrected.



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