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Title: The Beaver, Volume 1, No. 10, July, 1921.

Author: Hudson's Bay Company

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Language: English

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Vol. I
JULY, 1921
No. 10

The Beaver
A Journal of Progress

An H.B.C. Fur Brigade


The Beaver "A Journal of Progress" CONTENTS The "Lords of the North" in Annual Conclave Minutes of Council, 1878 ENGLISH RIVER EDMONTON SASKATCHEWAN CUMBERLAND GRAND RAPIDS NORWAY HOUSE ISLAND LAKE YORK FACTORY MANITOBA SWAN RIVER LITTLE JOURNEYS TO FUR TRADE POSTS OF THE HUDSON'S BAY CO. Hudson's Hope Post, B.C. Discovery and Exploration of the Yukon (Pelly) River Aged Fur Trader Moves The Beaver "A Journal of Progress" A National Flag for Canada Carrying Water Arena Lust H.B.C. Enters Consignment Fur Business Impressions of the Store Managers' Conference Humorous Extracts from Some Official Letters "Some Reputation" Suggestion Competition—Labrador District FORT McMURRAY NEWS H.B.C. Fur Trade Post on San Francisco Bay, 1824 H.B.C. Aided Wilderness Wanderer PAS MOUNTAIN POST NEWS STANLEY POST (SASK.) NOTES Buying Everything in Sight As They Were McKay Post Manager Dies Tried for North Pole by Balloon WHAT HAPPENED AT FORT SIMPSON, N.W.T. DURING WINTER, 1921? The Englishman and The "Grizzly" Pigeon Trap Old Fur Trader Ill The Vanished Buffalo Herds of North America FAMOUS H.B.C. CAPTAINS AND SHIPS F. T. C. O. Notes KAMLOOPS, B. C. STORE NEWS A True Fish Story Gets Wheelbarrow-full of Aluminum Pans MONTREAL WINNIPEG Retail Store News Listening-in at an H.B.C. Dance! Joe Scott Tends Goal Against All-Stars WHOLESALE DEPOT Modern Canoes for Northland LETHBRIDGE (Alta.) STORE NEWS GENERAL OFFICE (WINNIPEG) NEWS VANCOUVER Watch These Ball Players From Now On No Skirts for This 4200-Foot Climb Presentation to Mr. Horne H.B.C. Cribbage Players Win Baxter Cup Wholesome Minds Leaving for New Posts at Victoria The Wild Man EDMONTON Retail Store Topics A. & A.A. Early Season Sports Events LET'S FORGET IT Masquerade Baseball Match Amuses CALGARY New Department The Adventures of Sales Book No. 666 The Story of Saleslip No. 1 700 Attend Eighth Annual Field Sports Miss McColl Wins Prize in Music Festival H.B.C. Marine and River Transport News Hudson's Bay Company Incorporated A.D. 1670


The "Lords of the North" in Annual Conclave
Commissioned Officers of H.B.C. Met in Grand Councils to Formulate Annual Plans for Administration of Vast Fur Districts; a Typical Meeting in 1878

"Lords of the North" was the appellation sometimes applied to those intrepid Factors and Chief Factors of H.B.C. who for many years gathered in annual conclave at some central fort to arrange for the administration and provisioning of the great fur-trade districts.

Norway House, Fort Carlton on the Saskatchewan, Fort Garry on the Red and the "Stone Fort" were successively the meeting places of these ancient councils.

When the season's furs had been gathered and stoutly baled and marked with the cryptic signs which destined them for the far-away auction mart at London—when the shouting, chanting fur brigades of the north went swinging away down roaring watercourses to meet the sailing ships on the great Bay—just at this time the bearded chieftains of the inland districts mobilized their voluminous accounts, dried their goose quill pens and shot away in swift birchbarks to the grand council.

Some of these officers travelled a thousand miles; others, at more southerly stations had not far to go. But in any case their only carriers were the canoe, the York boat, the plodding oxen or the pony of the plains.

The council was not usually complete until early July. Then the grizzled veterans of the fur service sat down to "talk musquash" under the chairmanship of the Chief Commissioner, and in the space of a fortnight had deliberated upon the commerce and government of a wilderness empire and promulgated the specific orders that would control the victualing, the supply and the trade, the commercial, civic, industrial and religious life of the vast unplotted north country for another year.

Weighty problems of transport were solved at these historic meetings, so that the chain of H.B.C. communication might be unbroken; mail packets, freight and furs traversed the forest leagues and the expanse of mountain and prairie under "timetables" placed in effect by this council. And rare indeed was there instanced the loss of a package of merchandise or pelts—or even a letter—notwithstanding the extraordinary difficulties of travel, the storm and stress of climate.

Some idea of the plan under which the grand council operated may be conveyed by the following extracts from the minutes of a typical meeting of the Factors and Chief Factors held at Fort Carlton, beginning the first of July, 1878:

Minutes of Council, 1878

Memoranda having reference to a Meeting at Carlton called by the Chief Commissioner for the purpose of receiving advice and information regarding the Trade and Requirements of the Several Districts in Northern Department from the officers in charge of the same commencing on the 1st day of July, 1878, at which the undermentioned qualified Commissioned Officers were present by request:

The following Factors, Chief Trader and Junior Chief Trader were also invited to attend:

Article 1—That the appointments of Commissioned Officers for the current outfit be as follows, viz.:

McKenzie River—Julian S. Camsell, Factor; John Wilson, Junior Chief Trader; Charles F. Gaudet, Chief Trader.

Peace River—James McDougall, Chief Trader; Alexr. MacKenzie, "A" Junior Trader.

Athabasca—Rodk. McFarlane, Chief Factor: Henry J. Moberly, Chief Trader; John McAulay, Junior Chief Trader; William F. Gairdner, Junior Chief Trader.

English River—Ewen McDonald, Chief Trader.

Edmonton—Richard Hardisty, Chief Factor.

Saskatchewan—Lawrence Clarke, Chief Factor; Wm. McKay, "C" Factor.

Cumberland—Horace Belanger, Factor; Pierre Deschambeault, Senior Chief Trader. 3

Grand Rapids—Alexander Matheson, Chief Trader.

Norway House—Roderick Ross, Factor.

Island Lake—Cuthbert Sinclair, Junior Chief Trader.

York Factory—Joseph Fortescue, Factor.

Swan River—Archibald McDonald, Factor; William J. McLean, Junior Chief Trader.

Manitoba—Wm. Clarke, Junior Chief Trader.

Red River—John H. McTavish, Chief Factor; Wm. Flett, Chief Trader; Joseph J. Hargrave, Junior Chief Trader; Duncan Matheson, Junior Chief Trader; Alexr. Christie, Junior Chief Trader.

Lac la Pluie—Alexr. R. Lillie, Chief Trader; James B. McKenzie, "A" Junior Chief Trader.

General Service—George S. McTavish, Inspt. Chief Factor; J. Ogden Grahame, Junior Chief Trader.

Article 2—Winter Arrangements, 1878-9

An H.B.C. Fur Trade Council at one of the north-central forts during the later years of the nineteenth century. The artist has here caught much of the facial likeness of such commissioned officers as McDougall, Camsell, McKay, McDonald, Livock and King, who were all present at the last council of the Company's fur trade Officers, held at Athabasca Landing, July, 1898.


Isle a la Crosse—Ewen McDonald, Chief Trader; Walter B. West, Apprentice Clerk; Francois Maurice, Clerk.

Portage la Loche—Nicol Sinclair, Clerk; Pierre Laliberte, Clerk.

Green Lake—Scott W. Simpson, Clerk.

Outpost—Charles Lafleur, Interpreter.

Disposable—Fredk. S. Church, Apprentice Clerk.

Article 3—That 25 servants, including tradesmen and interpreters, and about 550 pieces of goods including winter allowances and servants' equipments constitute the current outfit of English River District, the goods to be conveyed inland via Carlton and Green Lake.

Article 4—That the appointments of Clerks and Postmasters, Summer 1879, be made by Chief Trader Ewen McDonald as he may deem expedient and that he be directed to superintend the transport of outfits and returns of A. & R. Districts between Green Lake and Portage la Loche.

Article 5—That the country-made articles for English River District for Outfit 1879 be provided at Fort Garry, Summer 1878.

Article 6—Winter Arrangements, 1878-9.


Edmonton House—Richard Hardisty, Chief Factor; John Sinclair, Clerk; Frank Wilson, Clerk; Wm. Leslie Wood, Clerk.

Lac Ste. Anns—James Kirkness, Clerk.

Victoria—Wm. R. Brereton, Clerk.

Bow River—Angus Fraser, Interpreter.

White Fish Lake—Joseph Nooskeyah, Clerk.

Lesser Slave Lake—Harrison S. Young, Clerk; Charles Anderson, Interpreter.

Lac la Biche—Wm. E. Traill, Clerk.

Disposable—Joseph Favel, Pilot.

Article 7—That 8 engaged and 4 temporary servants with about 800 pieces of goods including winter allowances and servants' equipments constitute the current outfit for the Edmonton District, the goods to be conveyed from Fort Garry by steamers.

Article 8—That Chief Factor Richard Hardisty be instructed to assist Saskatchewan District with country produce required for general service as far as his means will admit.

Article 9—That Chief Factor Hardisty be authorized to make the necessary and proper arrangements for the summer business of the District, 1879, and to change the appointments of the clerks if he deem it necessary.

Article 10—That Chief Factor Hardisty be instructed to be prepared to forward to Lesser Slave Lake from 600 to 800 pieces of goods intended for the Peace River and Athabasca Outfit, 1879, as early as possible after the same shall have reached Edmonton and that he superintend the transport between Edmonton and Smoky River.

Article 11—That the following country produce be forwarded to Lesser Slave Lake from 4 Edmonton for the Transport Service between that point and Smoky River:

20 bags flour.
30 bags pemmican, each 100 pounds.
50 whole buffalo skins.

Article 12—That the following supplies for New Caledonia Outfit 1879 be forwarded from Edmonton to Peace River for delivery at Hudson's Hope on or before the 10th September, 1879:

350 whole buffalo skins.
300 lbs. common pemmican.
20 lbs. sinews.

Article 13—That the country-made articles required for the trade of Edmonton District for Outfit 1879 be provided at Fort Garry, Summer 1878.

Article 14—Winter Arrangements, 1878-9


Carlton House—L. Clarke, Chief Factor; George McCrum, Clerk; Jas. K. Simpson, Clerk; Angus McKay, Apprentice Clerk.

Fort Pitt—Wm. McKay, "C" Factor.

Cold Lake—Wm. McKay, "J" Clerk.

Turtle Lake—Daniel Villebrun, Interpreter.

Battleford—August H. Bastien, Postmaster.

Prince Albert—Philip Turner, Clerk; Colin McIntyre, Apprentice Clerk.

Fort a la Corne—George Goodfellow, Clerk.

Article 15—That Chief Factor Lawrence Clarke be authorized to make the necessary and proper arrangements for the summer business of the District season 1879, including the forwarding of the Outfit for the Districts north of Carlton and that he change the appointments of clerks in his District as he may deem necessary.

Article 16—That the following country produce be deposited at Cumberland House in the Spring of 1879 for the use of passing brigades and for the trade of that District:

200 bags common pemmican.
400 whole dressed buffalo skins.
50 large dressed moose skins.
8 leather tents, each 10 skins.

Article 17—That the following country produce be forwarded to Green Lake, Autumn 1878, or Spring of 1879, for transport service in English River District, Season 1879, viz:

250 bags common pemmican, each 100 lbs.
400 whole dressed buffalo skins.
50 large dressed moose skins.
8 leather tents, each 10 skins.

Article 18—That the following country produce be furnished by the Saskatchewan District, season 1878, for distribution 1879, among the Districts of Norway House, York Factory and Island Lake, and that the same be forwarded to Grand Rapids for that purpose:

300 bags common pemmican, each 100 lbs.
20 leather tents, each 10 or 12 skins.
600 whole buffalo skins.
400 half buffalo skins.

Article 19—That the country-made articles for the Saskatchewan District for Outfit 1879 be provided at Fort Garry, Summer 1878.

Article 20—That Chief Factor Clarke be instructed to comply with no additional requisitions for country produce of any kind except he is satisfied there may be a hitch in the transport for the want of them.

Article 21—Winter Arrangements, 1878-9.


Cumberland House—Horace Belanger, Factor; Nicol McDougall, Clerk.

Le Pas—Charles Adams, Clerk; Robert Ballendine, Postmaster.

Moose Lake—John McDonald, "D" Clerk.

Pelican Narrows—John E. Stewart, Apprentice Clerk; Antoine Morin, "B" Interpreter.

Lac du Brochet—Pierre Deschambeault, Chief Trader; Pierre Morin, Postmaster.

Rapid River—Philip McDonald, Clerk; Angus McLeod, Interpreter.

Disposable—Joseph Hourston, Postmaster.

Article 22—That 20 servants and 700 pieces of goods, including Winter allowances and servants' equipments, constitute the current outfit for Cumberland District, the goods to be conveyed from Fort Garry by steamers.

Article 23—That Factor Belanger be authorized to make the necessary arrangements for the summer business of the District, Season 1879, and that he change the appointments of commissioned officers and clerks in his District as he may deem necessary.

Article 24—That Factor Belanger be instructed to forward to Norway House, Spring 1879, the following country produce, viz:

50 lbs. large snowshoe netting.
50 lbs. small snowshoe netting.

Article 25—That Factor Belanger take measures to have rendered at Portage la Loche, Summer 1879, on or about 25th July but not later than 1st August, 8 boat loads, each boat load to consist of 75 pieces of the Athabasca Outfit which will be landed from the Steamer "Northcote" at Cumberland, and that on the return trip the crews of the 8 boats be engaged to take in each boat not less than 50 packs furs and deliver the same at the Grand Rapid should the Steamer "Northcote" have ceased running.

Article 26—That the country-made articles for Cumberland District, Outfit 1879, be provided at Fort Garry, Summer 1878.

Article 27—Winter Arrangements, 1878-9.


Grand Rapids—Alex. Matheson, Chief Trader; Colin Thompson, Apprentice Clerk.

Article 28—That Chief Trader Alexander Matheson be instructed to receive at the Grand Rapids all goods intended for the Northern Districts that may be sent there and have conveyed by the Steamer Northcote to Cumberland the goods intended for that District and 600 pieces of those intended for Athabasca District, sending to Carlton by the same steamer the goods intended for the Districts of Saskatchewan, English River, Edmonton, Peace River and McKenzie River as well as the remainder of those intended for "i."

Article 29—That the country-made articles for Grand Rapids District for Outfit 1879 be provided for at Fort Garry, Summer 1878.

Article 30—Summer Arrangements, 1878-9.


Norway House—Roderick Ross, Factor; D. C. McTavish, Clerk; James Flett, "C" Apprentice Clerk; Walter Franklin, Apprentice Clerk.

Nelson River—Wm. Isbister, Clerk.

Berens River—James Flett, "B" Clerk.


Grand Rapids—John Moar, Postmaster.

Poplar River—Alex. Stout, Postmaster.

Disposable—John C. Sinclair, Postmaster.

Article 31—That 20 servants and 650 pieces of goods, including Winter allowances and servants' equipment, constitute the current outfit for Norway House District and that the outfit be conveyed from Fort Garry by steamer or otherwise as most convenient.

Article 32—That Factor Roderick Ross be instructed to forward per boats to the Grand Rapids, Summer 1879, any goods on depot at Norway House intended for the trade of the Northern Districts Outfit as early as navigation will permit and have brought back from there to Norway House any returns or country produce intended for the supply of Norway House, Island Lake or York Factory Districts or for shipment to England from the latter place.

Article 33—That Factor Ross be instructed to make arrangements with Factor Fortescue as to the number of boats requisite to bring up from the Factory any gunpowder or other articles intended for shipment inland and avail himself of the freight room downwards to forward to the Factory as large a portion as possible of the returns of Norway House District besides any castorum, buffalo tongues and quills received from other Districts for shipment to London, after providing for the country produce intended for Island Lake and York Factory.

Article 34—That the country-made articles for Norway House District for Outfit 1879 be provided at Fort Garry, Summer 1878.

Article 35—Winter and Summer Arrangements, 1878-9

"Playmates of the North." This chubby lad, who seems to have the entire confidence of the lead dog of the team, is the son of Mr. John J. Loutit, post manager at Fort Chipewyan.


Oxford House—Cuthbert Sinclair, Junior Chief Trader.

Island Lake—Thos. M. Linklater, Clerk.

Article 36—That 8 servants and 320 pieces of goods constitute the current outfit for Island Lake District, the same to be conveyed from York Factory by the Oxford House boats and provided for in York Factory requisition.

Article 37—That the Island Lake boats make one round trip between Norway House and York Factory, Summer 1878, laden with such cargoes as the officers in charge of these Districts may have to go forward should they be required to do so.

Article 38—Winter and Summer Arrangements 1878-9


York Factory—Joseph Fortescue, Factor; John K. McDonald, Clerk; A. O. T. Bennett, Apprentice Clerk; James Cowie, Apprentice Clerk; George Grieve, Postmaster.

Severn—John Taylor, Postmaster.

Trout Lake—James Tod, Clerk.

Churchill—John R. Spencer, Clerk.

Article 39—That 35 servants, including mechanics, constitute the summer and winter establishments of York Factory District and that the outfits and returns of the Posts of Severn and Trout Lake be transported in the usual manner and those of Churchill landed from and shipped in the annual vessel from London which is directed to call at Churchill on its way out to York Factory.

Article 40—That Factor Fortescue be instructed to have in readiness, Spring 1879, for shipment to Oxford House the outfit intended for the trade of Island Lake District, 1879, and that he direct Mr. Cuthbert Sinclair to send to York Factory by boats the returns of Island Lake District as early in the summer as possible providing at the same time a sufficient number of men and boats for the transport of the Outfit for 1879.

Article 41—That Factor Fortescue be instructed to forward to Norway House as opportunity offers the gunpowder and country-made articles on hand at York Factory (exclusive of beads, country-made articles, etc.) which are set aside for the Inland Districts.

Article 42—Winter Arrangements, 1878-9.


Oak Point—Wm. Clark, Junior Chief Trader; Geo. F. Kinnaird, Apprentice Clerk.

Manitoba House—Isaac Cowie, Clerk.

Water Hen River—Alexr. Munro, Clerk.

Shoal River—Donald McDonald, "A" Clerk.

Fairford—An Interpreter.

Article 43—That Junior Chief Trader William Clark be authorized to make the necessary and proper arrangements for the summer business of the District, Season 1879, and change the disposal of the clerks if he may think it necessary.

Article 44—That 4 servants and 300 pieces of goods, including winter allowances and servants' equipments, constitute the current outfit of Manitoba District and be imported via St. Paul to Fort Garry and thence by carts to Oak Point.

Article 45—That the live stock on inventory in Manitoba District be priced at their market value in the District, less 331/3%

Article 46—That Junior Chief Trader William Clark be instructed to procure at Fairford and forward to Berens River for the use of Norway House District, Summer 1879:

20 fathoms birch bark for canoe bottoms.
20 fathoms birch bark for canoe sides.


Article 47—That the country-made articles for Manitoba District, Outfit 1879, be provided at Fort Garry, Summer 1878.

Article 48—Winter and Summer Arrangements, 1878-9


Fort Ellice—Archibald McDonald, Factor; David Armit, Clerk; Hugh McBeath, Clerk.

Riding Mountain—James C. Andy, Clerk.

Qu'Appelle—Wm. J. McLean, Junior Chief Trader; George Dreyer, Postmaster.

Fort Pelly—Adam McBeath, Clerk; John Calder, Apprentice Clerk.

Touchwood Hills—Angus McBeath, Clerk; Thomas W. Lillie, Apprentice Clerk.

Egg Lake—Henry McKay, Clerk.

Article 49—That 10 servants and 800 pieces of goods, including winter allowances and servants' equipments, constitute the current outfit of Swan River District and be imported via St. Paul to Fort Garry and thence by carts to the District.

Article 50—That Factor Archibald McDonald be authorized to make the necessary and proper arrangements for the summer business of the District, season 1879, and change the disposal of clerks if he may think it is necessary.

(Note—Articles 51 to 107 of the Minutes are of a similar nature to the foregoing.)


Hudson's Hope Post, B.C.

The Post is situated at the head of navigation on the Peace river. From here to Vermillion there is good water for stern-wheelers and gasoline boats, for five hundred fifty miles.

Immediately to the west is the famous Rocky Mountain canyon, which makes a horseshoe of twenty-five miles; and from the head of the canyon to Finlay Forks there is another good stretch of water. The Peace river here cuts through the Butler range, the most easterly range of the Rockies.

The climate is excellent. In winter chinook winds break up the cold snaps. The extreme minimum last winter was 45 below on two nights. In summer, the maximum sometimes rises over 90. One peculiarity is that during winter there are no winds excepting the warm chinooks. The country generally is well wooded. Many streams are unexcelled for fly-fishing. At Moberly Lake (15 miles south) trout very often scale more than 35 pounds.

The "town" consists of the Honourable Company's buildings, postoffice, telegraph, police offices and the freighter. Close in are several homesteaders. There is also a meteorological station, deputy mining recorder's post and hydrometric station.

During the summer business is brisk, for usually there are government geological parties in the field, tourists passing through and trappers going outside to "blow in their wads." In winter things are somewhat dull, for there are not enough Indians to keep business steady. Then it is that the violin, gramophone and H.B.C. library are called on to relieve ennui in the evenings, for there is no theatre nearer than Edmonton.

For industrial possibilities, Hudson's Hope undoubtedly occupies a strategic position. It is known that extensive bodies of the hardest soft coal in the world are in the immediate vicinity, but owing to lack of transport facilities they have not been worked to any extent.

Some gold is found forty miles west on Branham Flat and a few outfits will be in this summer to work there.

A marvellous mountain of copper and silver was reported up north some two years ago, but for some reason or another nothing definite has transpired regarding it.

For the past three years government geologists have been examining the vicinity for oil possibilities and their reports have been so good as to lead one or two drilling outfits this way.

Although all grains and vegetables grow here to perfection the agricultural aspect of the country is not to be enthused over, for the arable land is along the river bank only. A cattle ranch has started on the south fork of the Halfway river.

It should be added that the river invariably opens for navigation the first week in May. This year the spring was early—bluebirds and robins on the 8th of April, geese on the 12th, with poplars in bud. 7

Discovery and Exploration of the Yukon (Pelly) River
(Former H.B.C. Chief Factor)

NOTE—Sir George Simpson expressed his satisfaction regarding these explorations in a letter to Mr. Campbell, the author, and spoke of the arrangement made by H.B.C. with Russia for a great stretch of Alaskan territory. The letter follows:

Red River Settlement,
16th June, 1839.

To R. Campbell, Esq.,
Fort Halkett.

Dear Sir:

I have much pleasure in acknowledging receipt of your letter of 17th September, and have to express my entire satisfaction with your management in the recent voyage down the Pelly or Stickine river, bearing ample evidence that the confidence reposed in you was well placed.

I was always of the opinion that the Pelly and Stickine rivers were identical, but many of my friends in this country thought differently. You have at length, however, set the question at rest, and your writing the note to our gentlemen on the coast was very judicious.

I last winter concluded an arrangement for the Company with Baron Wrangle, acting on behalf of the Russian-American Company, by which we become possessed of the whole of the Russian mainland territory (for a term of ten years) up to Cape Spencer. By that means we become possessed of their establishment situated on Point Highfield, entrance of Stickine river, immediately, and have access to the interior country through all the rivers falling into the Pacific to the southward of Cape Spencer.

This arrangement renders it unnecessary for us now to extend our operations from the east side of the mountains or Mackenzie river, as we can settle that country from the Pacific with greater facility and at less expense.

Your services will now therefore be required to push our discoveries in the country situated on the Peel and Colville rivers and I am quite sure you will distinguish yourself as much in that quarter as you have latterly done on the west side of the mountains.

With best wishes, believe me,

Very truly yours,

The Yukon is the largest river that flows from the American continent into the Pacific ocean. Rising as the Pelly in the Rocky Mountains on the northern frontier of British Columbia, it maintains a westerly direction for several hundred miles.

It crosses the 141st meridian, which forms the eastern boundary of Alaska, and holding a northwest course for more than six hundred miles, it is joined by the Porcupine river from the north. Up to this point it is called the Pelly, but for the remaining 1200 miles of its course to its embouchure in Behring Sea it is known as the Yukon.

After the failure of previous efforts to establish a Hudson's Bay Company's trading post at Dease's Lake, I volunteered my services for that purpose; and in the spring of 1839, after overcoming many difficulties, I succeeded in my mission, and then crossed over the mountains to the west side, where I struck the source of a rapid river, which I ascertained from the hordes of Indians I met to be the Stikene (afterwards the great highway to the northern gold fields of British Columbia), a discovery which caused no small commotion and surprise at the time among H.B.C. men, especially from the fact that a young man with only a half-breed and two Indian lads had effected what had baffled well-equipped parties under prominent and experienced Hudson's Bay officers from both sides of the mountains. This led to part of the coast being leased by the Company from the Russian government.

On returning to Dease's Lake, we passed a winter of constant danger from the savage Russian Indians and of much suffering from starvation. We were dependent for subsistence on what animals we could catch, and, failing that, on "tripe de roche." We were at one time reduced to such dire straits that we were obliged to eat our parchment windows, and our last meal before abandoning Dease's Lake, on 8th May, 1839, consisted of the lacing of our snowshoes.

In the spring of 1840 I was appointed by Sir George Simpson to explore the north branch of the Liard river to its source, and to cross the Rocky Mountains and try to find any river flowing westward, especially the headwaters of the Colville, the mouth of which was in the Arctic ocean, discovered by Dease and Simpson.

In pursuance of these instructions I left Fort Halkett in May with a canoe and seven men, among them my trusty 8 Indians, Lapie and Kitza, and the interpreter Hoole. After ascending the stream some hundreds of miles, far into the mountains, we entered a beautiful lake, which I named Frances lake, in honor of Lady Simpson. The river thus far is rather serpentine, with a swift current, and is flanked on both sides by chains of mountains, which rise to a higher altitude in the background. The country is well wooded with poplar, spruce, pine, fir and birch. Game and fur-bearing animals are abundant, especially beaver, on the meat of which, with moose, deer, geese and ducks, we generally lived.

The mountain trout are very fine and plentiful, and are easily taken with a hook and any bait. About five miles farther on the lake divides into two branches round "Simpson's Tower." The south, which is the longer branch, extends forty miles. Leaving the canoe and part of the crew near the southwest extremity of this branch, I set out with three Indians and the interpreter.

Shouldering our blankets and guns, we ascended the valley of a river which we traced to its source in a lake ten miles long, which, with the river, I named Finlayson's lake and river. The lake is situated so near the watershed that in high floods its waters flow from both ends down both sides of the mountains towards the Arctic on the one hand and the Pacific on the other.

From this point we descended the west slope of the Rocky Mountains, and on the second day from Finlayson's lake we had the satisfaction of seeing from a high bank a splendid river in the distance. I named the bank from which we caught the first glimpse of the river "Pelly Banks," and the river "Pelly River," after our home governor, Sir H. Pelly.

I may mention, in passing, that Sir George Simpson in a kind letter called them both after me, "Campbell's Banks and River," but in my reply I disclaimed all knowledge of any such places. After reaching the actual bank of the river, we constructed a raft, on which we embarked and drifted down a few miles on the bosom of the stream, and at parting we cast in a sealed tin can with memoranda of our discovery and the date.

Highly delighted with our success, we retraced our steps to Frances lake, where we rejoined the rest of our party, who during our absence had built a house on the point at the forks of the lake which we called "Glenlyon." Returning, we reached Fort Halkett (on Liard river) about the 10th of September, and forwarded the report of our trip by the party who brought up our outfit.

The Company now resolved to follow up these discoveries, and with this view I was ordered in 1841 to establish a trading post on Frances lake so as to be ready for future operations westward. In 1842, birch bark for the construction of a large canoe to be used in exploring the Pelly was brought up from Fort Liard with the outfit, and during the winter was sent over the mountains by dogsleighs to Pelly banks, where the necessary buildings were put up, and the canoe was built in the spring of 1843.

Early in June, I left Frances lake with some of the men. We walked over the mountains to Pelly banks, and shortly 9 after I started down stream in the canoe with the interpreter Hoole, two French Canadians and three Indians. As we advanced, the river increased in size and the scenery formed a succession of picturesque landscapes. About twenty-five miles from Pelly banks we encountered a bad rapid—"Hoole's"—where we were forced to disembark everything; but elsewhere we had a nice flowing current. Ranges of mountains flanked us on both sides; on the right hand the mountains were generally covered with wood; the left range was more open, with patches of poplar running up the valleys and burnsides, reminding one of the green braeface of the Highland glens. We frequently saw moose and bear as we passed along, and at points where the precipice rose abruptly from the waters edge the wild sheep—"big horn"—were often seen on the shelving rocks. They are very keen-sighted, and when once alarmed they file swiftly and gracefully over the mountain. When we chanced to get one we found it splendid eating—delicate enough for an epicure.

In this manner we travelled on for several days. We saw only one family of Indians—"Knife" Indians—till we reached the junction of the Pelly with a tributary which I named the Lewis. Here we found a large camp of Indians—the "Wood" Indians. We took them by no ordinary surprise, as they had never seen a white man before, and they looked upon us and everything about us with some awe as well as curiosity. Two of their chiefs, father and son, were very tall, stout, handsome men. We smoked the pipe of peace together, and I distributed some presents. They spoke in loud tones as do all Indians in their natural state, but they seemed kind and peaceable. When we explained to them as best we could that we were going down stream, they all raised their voices against it. Among other dangers, they indicated that inhabiting the lower river were many tribes of "bad" Indians—"numerous as the sand"—"who would not only kill us, but eat us." We should never get back alive, and friends coming to look after us would unjustly blame them for our death. All this frightened our men to such a degree that I had reluctantly to consent to our return, which under the circumstances was the only alternative. I learned afterwards that it would have been madness in us to have made any further advance, unprepared as we were for such an enterprise.

DINNERTIME on the East Coast of Hudson Bay. H.B.C. "tripping" party enjoying a snack at sixty degrees below—with gloves on!

Much depressed, we that afternoon retraced our course upstream; but before doing so I launched on the river a sealed can containing memoranda of our trip.

I was so dejected at the unexpected turn of affairs that I was perfectly heedless of what was passing; but on the third day of our upward progress I noticed on both sides of the river fires burning on the hill-tops far and near. This awoke me to a sense of our situation. I conjectured that, as in Scotland in the olden time, these were signal-fires and that they summoned the Indians to surround and intercept us.

Thus aroused, we made the best use of paddle and "tracking-line" to get up stream and ahead of the Indian signals. On the fourth morning we came to a party of Indians on the further bank of the river. They made signs to us to cross over, which we did. They were very hostile, watching us with bows bent and arrows in hand and would not come down from the top of the high bank to the water's edge to meet us. I sent up a man with some tobacco—the emblem of peace—to reassure them; but at first they would hardly remove their hands from their bows to receive it. We ascended the bank to them and had a most friendly interview, carried on by words and signs. It required, however, some finesse and adroitness to get away from them.

Once in the canoe we quickly pushed out and struck obliquely for the opposite bank, so as to be out of range of their arrows, and I faced about, gun in 10 hand, to observe their actions. The river was there too broad either for ball or arrow. We worked hard during the rest of the day and until late. The men were tired out, and I made them all sleep in my tent while I kept watch. At that season the night is so clear that one can read, write or work throughout.

Our camp lay on the bank of the river at the base of a steep declivity which had large trees here and there up its grassy slope. In the branches of one of these trees I passed the greater part of this anxious night, reading "Hervey's Meditations" and keeping a vigilant lookout. Occasionally I descended and walked to the river bank, but all was still.

Two years afterwards, when friendly relations had been established with the Indians in this district, I learned to my no small astonishment that the hostile tribe encountered down the river had dogged us all day, and when we halted for the night had encamped behind the crest of the hill, and from this retreat had watched my every movement. With the exactitude of detail characteristic of Indians they described me sitting in the tree holding "something white" (the book) in my hand, and often raising my eyes to make a survey of the neighborhood; then, descending to the river bank, taking my horn cup from my belt, and even while I drank glancing up and down the river and towards the hill.

They confessed that had I knelt down to drink they would have rushed upon me and drowned me in the swift current and after thus despatching me would have massacred the sleeping inmates of my tent. How often without knowing it are we protected from danger by the merciful hand of Providence!

Next morning we were early in motion and were glad to observe that we had outwitted the Indians and outstripped their signal-fires. After this we travelled more at leisure, hunting as we advanced, and in due time reached Frances lake.

For a few years after this we confined our operations to trading between Frances lake and Pelly banks; but during the summer we sent hunting parties down to Pelly to collect provisions for our establishments; and by this means we obtained accurate information respecting the Pelly river, its resources and Indian tribes.

In the winter of 1847-8 we built boats at Pelly banks and, sending off our returns to Fort Simpson, we started off early in June, 1848, to establish a post at the forks of Pelly and Lewis rivers, which I named Fort Selkirk. Ever since our discovery of the Pelly in 1840 various conjectures were hazarded as to what river it really was and where it entered the sea. Fort Yukon was, I think, established in 1847, from Peel river near the mouth of the Mackenzie.

From the first I expressed my belief, in which hardly anyone concurred, that the Pelly and the Yukon were identical. In 1850, having obtained Sir George Simpson's permission, I explored the lower river, descending a distance of about 1200 miles and by reaching Fort Yukon proved the correctness of my opinion.

From Fort Yukon I directed my boat and party upwards into the Porcupine river. I was accompanied by Mr. Murray, who was conveying the returns and whose duty it was to take back with him the Yukon outfit from La Pierre's house at the head of the Porcupine river, to which point supplies were transported over the mountains in winter by dogsleighs from Peel river. La Pierre's house duly reached, we left our boat there and walked over the mountains to Peel river, about ninety miles; thence by boat we ascended the Mackenzie river to Fort Simpson.

I thus performed a circuit of several thousand miles from my point of departure on the Liard river. Great astonishment was felt by all my friends and acquaintances when they saw me reach Fort Simpson by coming up the Mackenzie river instead of descending the Liard, for no one entertained a suspicion that the Pelly river had any connection with the Yukon or that the Pelly was linked with the Porcupine, Peel and Mackenzie rivers.

Thenceforward this new route, so unexpectedly found out, was made the highway for the transport of outfits to, and results of trade from the Pelly and all intermediate posts.

When I visited England in 1853 this vast stretch of country—until then a blank on the map and untrodden and unknown of white men—was under my direction correctly delineated on his map of North America by J. Arrowsmith, Hudson's Bay Company's topographer; and hence it happens that 11 many of these rivers and places of note are named after my friends or after the rivers in my native glens.

CHIPEWYAN Indians returned to H.B.C. Post with a fine bag of the great grey geese that flock in thousands over Lake Athabasca.

I may mention that in these explorations, which embraced a period of fifteen years, we had to rely for the means of existence almost entirely on the natural resources of the scene of our operations, however dreary and barren a region it might be. We were once cut off from all supplies and connection with our people, to the extreme peril of our lives, for over two years—from May, 1848, till September, 1850—during which time we received neither a letter nor supplies, and the opening up of communication with the outside world was ultimately brought about by our own unaided and determined efforts in the face of appalling obstacles.

The Pelly-Yukon is a magnificent river, increasing in size as it is joined by the many affluents that swell its tide. It sweeps in a gentle, serpentine course round the spurs of the double mountain range that generally skirts each side of the valley. Of these twin ranges the more distant is the loftier. Many of its summits are dotted with wreaths of snow, while others wear a perpetual mantle of white.

At a distance of some forty-five miles from Yukon the mountains recede, the river widens and for miles wanders among countless islands. Many of the Pelly's tributaries are large streams—especially the M'Millan, Lewis, White, and Stewart rivers.

Four kinds of salmon ascend the river in great numbers in their season; and then comes a busy harvest time for the Indians, who assemble in large camps along the river and handle their spears with great dexterity. Large numbers of salmon are killed, some for present and some for winter use. This fish has been seen and killed above Pelly banks, which is more than two thousand miles from the sea.

Steamers from the Pacific have already ascended to Fort Yukon (twelve hundred miles); and during the freshet they can ascend more than twelve hundred miles further (to Hoole's Rapid).

The lakes all over the country abound in excellent white fish.

The fauna of the country is abundant and varied. It includes moose and reindeer, bears (black and grizzly), wolves and wolverines, rats and hares, the fox and lynx, the beaver, the mink, and the marten. I saw the bones, heads and horns of buffaloes; but this animal had become extinct before our visit, as had also some species of elephant, whose remains were found in various swamps. I forwarded an elephant's thigh bone to the British Museum, where it may still be seen.

The flora of the country is rich and diversified. I forwarded several specimens of the vegetation to Sir William J. Hooker, director of the Kew Gardens, I also sent him specimens of all the rocks from Yukon to Pelly banks. The climate is more pleasant and genial than in the same latitude on the east side of the mountains.

Aged Fur Trader Moves

H. J. Moberly, 86, fur trader in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company for thirty-seven years, passed through Edmonton, June 15th, on his way from Cedarvale, B.C., to his home at Duck Lake, Sask.

This aged veteran of the H.B.C. fur trade service has the distinction of having seen Edmonton at an earlier date than any living white man. He reached the Saskatchewan at Edmonton in 1854, sixty-seven years ago. Mr. Moberly has been staying for the past year at the fruit ranch of his son, forty miles west of Hazelton, B.C. 12

Published Monthly by the Hudson's Bay Company for Their Employees Throughout the Service

The Beaver
"A Journal of Progress"

Copyright, 1921, by the Hudson's Bay Company

Address all communications to Editor, "THE BEAVER," York and Main Streets, Winnipeg, Canada.

Vol. I
JULY, 1921
No. 10

A National Flag for Canada

Canada has no flag; a startling assertion, but true. The Dominion emblem so familiar to Canadians is a marine ensign authorized by the Imperial Government many years ago for use on Canada's merchant shipping. No flag has ever been officially adopted by the Canadian people.

Among designs submitted for a distinctive Canadian flag, one which most appeals to the sense of fitness displays the Union Jack in the upper left quarter and nine blue stars in the form of the Great Dipper and North Star on a field of white in the remaining three quarters. One star for each province, in the form of the familiar constellation of the Northland, sealed with the symbol of Empire!

The antipodean dominion of New Zealand has the Southern Cross on a field of red, with the Union Jack, for her official flag. This design was adopted from several hundred submitted by citizens.

Canada too should have a flag of her own—an emblem to emphasize her essential nationhood—of a design that will connote her stewardship of this North Portal of the Empire.

Carrying Water

A motorist, mired down on a country road, asked a passing lad with a team to pull him out.

Paying the boy's price of two dollars the car owner remarked, "Well, son, do you make much money at this sort of thing?" "You are the fifth I have pulled out to-day," replied the boy.

"I should work nights, too, at that rate," said the motorist.

"I do," said the boy, "at night I haul water for the mud-hole."

In business many young men are like the boy and the mud-hole. They have a single eye to making the job last. Fixed in a situation with certain routine things to do they lose ambition and are chiefly concerned with stretching their duties to fill a day. No origination. No progress. No increasing of efficiency to fit themselves for greater responsibilities.

They are "carrying water" in this blind way oftentimes until it's too late to stride out into bigger things.

Don't "carry water." Mend the road, and find a way to speed up traffic. The pay will be higher and the work more satisfying.

Arena Lust

The day of the Gladiator is not past. Near New York this month the pugilistic champion of the United States, for the consideration of merely a million dollars, will stand up for something less than an hour to pummel and be pummeled by the pugilistic champion of Europe.

Nearly seventy thousand fervid partisans will look on, eating peanuts—primordially yelling for blood.

Among them, it is said, will be hundreds who figure prominently in Bradstreet's, the Blue Book and the Society Column.

Gentlewomen will be there—in the fifty dollar seat section. Roustabouts and longshoremen, barristers, doctors and preachers, business men and government officials—and small boys roosting in neighboring trees—all with "thumbs down" when one bruiser weakens.

Who is there to stop wars and rumors of wars while the spirit of the gladiatorial combat is thus rampant in human society, breaking through the carefully laid veneer of civilization? 13

H.B.C. Enters Consignment Fur Business
Company Takes Over Warehouses of Defunct Nesbitt Firm; Will Strengthen London Market

One of the most interesting events in the fur trade last month was the announcement by the Hudson's Bay Company of its intention to accept consignments of skins for sale at its London auctions. The news came as a surprise to many, as it has long been known that the famous old Company took particular pride in offering no skins for sale at its auctions save those collected by its own posts and graded with that excellency which has earned for the Company the reputation of setting an accepted standard for all skins.

To those who are familiar with the past history of H.B.C., the news did not come altogether as a surprise. The Company has demonstrated on many occasions in the past that it does not hesitate to reverse its decisions and alter its policies when the changes wrought by time and economic progress in the domain of the Company make such changes a business necessity.

Many in the fur trade wondered why the Company did not enter the consignment business sooner but the sequence of events has since demonstrated that by keeping out of that end of the business until after the speculators had had their fling, the Company was able to enter on the "ground floor," so to speak, and with everything in its favor.

The establishment of great fur auction companies in St. Louis, New York and Montreal tended to deprive London of its old-time prestige, and, naturally, anything that detracted from the influence of the London fur market also affected the Hudson's Bay Company.

With the passing of the famous old firm of Nesbitt, the London fur market lost one of the best-known consignment houses in the world. This house was particularly happy in its connection with the American trade and enjoyed the confidence and respect of the best American firms. When the Nesbitt firm was forced to liquidate in order to save as much as possible for its clients, it was felt that the London market had lost one of its landmarks and was, to a certain extent, weakened in its uphill fight to regain its leadership in the fur trade.

By taking over the warehouses and offices of the Nesbitt Company and announcing its willingness to accept consignments of fur skins, the Hudson's Bay Company carries on where Nesbitt Ltd. left off. H.B.C. will now be in a position to hold its auctions on its own premises.

The London market will be made all the stronger by the entrance of the Company as a consignment house, as it will naturally follow that the class of goods consigned will have to be up to a fine standard and will only be accepted from reputable and first-class firms.

By taking the lead in the London market, by setting the standard for all the trade, both in goods and in business principles, by inducing the best firms to send their best goods to the London market, by eliminating speculative bidding and by having great financial strength and sound business methods back of it, the Hudson's Bay Company has once more proved its ability to come through all kinds of trials and tribulations with flying colors.

Impressions of the Store Managers' Conference

Being comparatively a newcomer with the Hudson's Bay Company, judging by the long records of service of other managers present, I felt deeply moved by the cordial spirit of comradeship shown me by my co-partners.

I was greatly impressed by the frank way we were received by the Canadian Advisory Committee.

The conference was a remarkable one in many ways. It created a precedent, insofar that it was the first time in the history of the Company that managers of the many H.B.C. stores were gathered together for consultation, advice and mutual benefit.

I feel that this conference will prove the forerunner of an era of singular prosperity to the Company and of increased efficiency throughout the Company's stores. 14

Humorous Extracts from Some Official Letters
Written in all seriousness and not in the least intended to be humorous

In an official letter from an outpost manager the activities of the opposition were reported upon as follows:

"The opposition ain't raisin' no 'ell."

By which it was assumed that the outpost manager was holding his own.

"Dear Brother and Fellow Superior:

"I have spent a lonely and dissolute (meaning desolate) winter, owing to the loss of two good hunters and a beloved wife."

"...The canoes you sent up last fall arrived safely. Everything was in order with the exception of one or two destitute items in the displacement."

"I am very thankful for the increase of salary accorded to me by the Commissioner. Now that I have my new eyes (meaning glasses) I am able to see better, and my new teeth help me to masticate my food better, which aids the "deegestion" and keeps me in better health so that I can do more work now. Now I think I am capable of taking charge of a much larger Post than the one I am at."

"I could not make my cash agree with the books, but it agrees now, because I made an entry 'To cast to cook the account, $60.00.'"

"I am sorry that I caused you so much worry last fall when I wrote you that I was at death's door and asking you to send my successor, as I expected soon to enter the pearly gates.

"I am sorry to say I recovered soon after and the black suit I asked for to be buried in was not required. I had no mourning envelopes on hand, so I blackened the edges of an official envelope with ink, to advise you befittingly of my approaching demise."

"Hereafter I am to receive my instructions from Fort ——. I am sorry to leave you. We have differed sometimes about the orders issued from time to time, but I have endeavoured to carry out the instructions when I thought they were for the good of the post."

"Some Reputation"

In looking over an old Hudson's Bay wharf with a view to repairs, the contractor remarked:

"Well! the piles are so badly eaten away, I'm hanged if I know what keeps the wharf up."

A bystander promptly replied:

"Nothing but the Company's reputation is keeping up that wharf, sir."

Suggestion Competition—Labrador District

In connection with awards made in the 250th Anniversary Suggestion Competition (Fur Trade department) it is to be noted that H.B.C. men in Hudson's Straits and Ungava (Labrador District) were without the opportunity of participating, owing to their extreme isolation in the far north.

First word of the competition was conveyed to these men by the Company's supply ship in August, 1920. With the landing of the supplies and preparation of the annual accounts, there was no opportunity for the men to write out their suggestions before the sailing of the supply ship on her homeward voyage. Since that time there has been no communication whatever with these posts.

It is regretted that owing to the short time between the receipt of the instructions regarding the competition and the date by which replies were to be in Winnipeg it was impossible for northern Labrador posts to participate.


The H.B.C. motor tug "Nechemus," left McMurray for the north on May 12th, laden with horses and wagons together with the season's first shipment of freight for FitzGerald.

The H.B.S.S. "Fort McMurray" sailed on May 13th on her second trip, bound for FitzGerald with a hundred and twenty tons of supplies for the northern posts. Passengers on the steamer included: J. G. M. Christie and wife, who are going to McPherson and back. Mr. Christie is a retired employee of the Company and is looking forward to renewing old acquaintances with H.B.C. men along the Mackenzie. Mrs. C. C. Sinclair, with Miss Sinclair, are going down to McPherson, and will join Mr. Sinclair, Manager of Athabasca-Mackenzie District.

Bishop Lucas, of the Anglican diocese of Mackenzie, was on his way to the land of the Midnight Sun. The bishop spent the winter in the old country, and is bound for his headquarters at Chipewyan. 15

H.B.C. Fur Trade Post on San Francisco Bay, 1824
Company Did Not Own Million Acres of California Land, as Reported, but Had Two Fur Posts and Farms, Closed in 1832-49.

NOTE.—In a leading Western Canadian newspaper we read: "It is not commonly known that at one time the Hudson's Bay Company owned a million acres of land in California surrounding the present site of the City of San Francisco. The importance of the great harbour now known as the Golden Gate was not recognized and the area was sold for one dollar an acre."

When in 1824, shortly after the amalgamation of H.B.C. with the Northwest Company, the fur brigades under Sir George Simpson swept to the verge of the Pacific, north, west and southwest, the flag of H.B.C. was carried far down the California coast. One new fur trading establishment was planted by the Company at the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay; another was erected at Umpqua, not many miles to the northward.

Up to 1820 the only fur post on the Pacific coast between Sitka, Alaska, and southern California was Fort George. This post had been first opened by Astor of New York, but was taken over by H.B.C. at the time of the amalgamation with the Nor'westers. Meanwhile it had been re-christened "Fort George" by Captain Black of H.M.S. "Raccoon" in 1813.

From Fort William at the head of the Great Lakes came Dr. John McLaughlin, James Douglas and John Work, ordered by the Company to Fort George to take charge of the newly created Western Department of the H.B.C. fur trade. Dr. McLaughlin was in charge, James Douglas was accountant and John Work was what might be termed an explorer.

Dr. McLaughlin was a versatile man, but leaned towards the development of farming and stockraising, while John Work's only interest was in fur trading.

In 1824 they arrived at Fort George and at once mapped out plans for development of their department.

It was decided to abandon Fort George because the farming possibilities of the neighbourhood were not so promising as those of the country further up the river. A new site was selected just below the Willamette River, and the construction of Fort Vancouver (Washington) was commenced.

At that time the whole territory was known as Oregon Territory. The country was also known as Columbia District, and when the boundary line between Canada and the United States was established, the part to the north of the line was named British Columbia District, and still retains this name in the Company's organization.

In order to stock the newly established farms, the Company sent men south for sheep, cattle and horses, and I believe that it was on this account that Posts were opened at Umpqua and San Francisco Bay in 1824 or 1825, and operated until 1832, when they were abandoned and there is nothing in the records to indicate that the Hudson's Bay Company ever afterwards claimed one foot of soil in or around San Francisco.

In fact, there is information that would make it appear that the San Francisco Bay Post alone was closed in 1832 and Umpqua not until a later date, as a letter written by Sir George Simpson to Captain J. Sheppard, R.N., dated 28th May, 1849, mentions Umpqua as being still in existence. Sir George said the names of Posts west of the mountains were at that time:

American Territory, South of 49°


British Territory, North of 49°

Europeans employed at these posts numbered six hundred, besides hundreds of Indian laborers.

There were seven vessels employed in the service:

3 barques, carrying goods to and from Europe,

In order to take care of the Russian American Company's and the H.B.C. Posts' requirements, large farms and dairies were necessary, and suitable land was plentiful between the Puget's Sound and the Columbia River. When the negotiations between the Hudson's Bay Company and the United States government were under way to settle the Oregon dispute, the Company claimed 160,000 acres of land as being farmed and grazed by them.

There has undoubtedly been a tendency on the part of historians and newspaper writers to confuse the Company's Oregon land claim with the lands at the H.B.C. San Francisco Bay post, but there is absolutely no connection.

H.B.C. Aided Wilderness Wanderer

The following letter of appreciation was recently received by the Company from J. P. Burns, an engineer who met with misfortune in the wilds of British Columbia:

"Because of a serious accident last fall I was compelled to call at one of your trading posts situated at the junction of the Dease river and Liard, run by Mr. F. J. Bass. Mr. Bass did all in his power for me at a time when I was almost destitute and in a very low state of health owing to a broken bone in my right foot and a bad wound on my right side. I wish you would thank Mr. Bass for his hospitality and hope and trust that the Hudson's Bay Company will long remain and prosper in regions where engineers and dogs struggle for life and civilization.

Yours faithfully,



The excitement which always prevails during the breakup around this Reserve was perhaps of a more serious nature this Spring than previous years.

Usually the Carrot river on the banks of which the Post is situated, overflows every other second year or so, but this time the flood proved to be a record.

The ice broke up on the 23rd of April and started going out on the 26th. During that day it travelled well.

As it was the first breakup I had ever witnessed, the sight was most interesting and fascinating. Some of the blocks, I estimated, were perhaps ninety by thirty feet and eighteen to twenty inches thick. These huge blocks were to cause us a considerable amount of discomfort before the day was over.

Towards evening it was noticed that the ice was travelling very slowly on the east bend of the river. As the river flows directly south past the Post and then takes a turn east, our view for over a mile is fairly good. We watched with strained eyes and beating hearts, for already the water was rising. Ah! yes, it was only too true, there was a jam!

Soon the water was coming over in front of the house. Immediate action was necessary. Canoes had to be attended to, boards, posts, boxes and barrels moved to a place of safety.

Very soon the water was making a noise like a waterfall and sweeping everything before it. In a short time the sidewalk was trying to pilot its way through the garden gate. A cord of wood made an effort to follow suit 17 but did not succeed. That night the roaring waters sang us to sleep.

All day the ice and driftwood kept going by. At 7 o'clock in the evening the Post was completely surrounded by water and a canoe was for the next few days to be our only mode of travelling.

Towards twilight the last of the ice and driftwood passed. We gave a sigh of relief and were about to retire when our attention was attracted by a noise in the bush on the opposite bank of the river; on looking, it was no little surprise to see a birch bark, and three Indians come into sight. From the conversation, we gathered that the country for miles around was under water.

Many cattle belonging to the Indians in this Reserve were drowned, also an old house was carried away and where it once stood we have now a small creek running from the river to a muskeg.

The Swirling Waters in Front of the Store.


The last of the freighters reached here on April 18th, on their return trip to Prince Albert, having delivered all the freight for Lac du Brochet Post at South Deer Lake. The season being late, they had to work night and day, under adverse weather conditions.

One big snowstorm lasted a day and a night, and the wind was terrible, the track being covered up a few moments after it had been opened. The rain and the soft weather we had in March formed a hard crust on the deep snow, which was very bad for the horses.—Thos. Bear, Post Manager.

Buying Everything in Sight
By P. H. GODSELL, Fort Simpson

The article by Mr. Forbes in connection with the London Auction Sales calls to mind a rather amusing incident that occurred when I once attended a H.B.C. fur sale at College Hill, London.

Being young, I took a keen interest in everything, especially in the actions of the auctioneer.

I studied my catalogue and notes closely and when a lot would be called by the auctioneer invariably raised my head and looked him in the eye.

As I was leaving the sale room at the termination of the afternoon sale I passed Mr. Ingrams and Mr. Randall. They remarked that I must feel very well satisfied with my afternoon's business, as I should be the owner of almost every lot that was put up.

It was not until then that I learned that by even such a small sign as a direct look a lot would be knocked down by the broker, and that I had to all appearances bought everything in sight!

As They Were

We begin in this number publication of a series of "Youthful Portraits" depicting present-day H.B.C. employees as they appeared at a "tender age." It appears that considerable interest will be demonstrated by our readers in trying to discover familiar likenesses in these quaint old photographs.

McKay Post Manager Dies
B. F. Cooper Served H.B.C. Thirty-Seven Years in North

B. F. Cooper, an old timer and Hudson's Bay fur trader, died at Fort McMurray, May 28th, after an illness of some weeks. Mr. Cooper was an Englishman, an old "blue-coat school" boy, brought up in London. Instead of moving in the limelight of politics Mr. Cooper chose the quiet and lasting work of pioneering on the frontier posts of the empire and for thirty-six years had been a trusted and faithful servant of the Hudson's Bay Company, in charge of the Fort McKay post.


A few weeks before his death, an urgent message was sent to Fort McMurray for medical help and immediately the Company chartered a motor boat to bring Mr. Cooper from McKay. He was given every possible care.

The funeral took place on Sunday, May 29th, in the little Presbyterian church at McMurray, the coffin being covered with the Hudson's Bay flag 18 and borne by Hudson's Bay men, C. C. Sinclair, J. Cunningham, L. Lane, G. Petty, H. Porter, Captain McLeod, Ed. Jones and J. Sutherland. The little church was crowded with people who followed to the cemetery the remains of the respected old timer whose only relative present was a son of sixteen years. Mr. Cooper leaves a wife and seven children. His record with the Company follows:

1884-1885 Clerk N.D. Office, Winnipeg
1885-1887 In charge Fort Ellice
1887-1895 In charge Touchwood Hills
1895-1899 Accountant Chipewyan
1899-1904 Clerk in charge Fond du Lac
1904-1905 Clerk Onion Lake
1905-1912 Clerk Fort Smith
1912-1914 Post Manager Chipewyan
1914-1921 Post Manager McKay

Tried for North Pole by Balloon
H.B.C. Was on Lookout for Ill-Fated Andree Polar Party, 1896

While I was stationed at North West River Post on the Labrador coast in 1896, the government of Norway and Sweden sent out an arctic expedition in a polar balloon to make an attempt at reaching the North Pole.

The Company, anxious to lend a hand to the success of this scientific exploration to the top of the earth, despatched to its many far northern posts drawings of the balloon like the illustration shown, accompanied by the notice:

"In the summer of 1896 a balloon (an object like that shown on the drawing) may be seen floating in the air. This balloon will convey a party of three Swedish scientists who have been making explorations towards the North Pole by these means.

The Government of Sweden and Norway has requested that the explorers may receive all possible assistance. Natives should therefore be told that the balloon is not a dangerous thing, but merely a mode of conveyance in the air just as a ship is in the water.

Natives should be told to approach the people in it without fear and to give them all the help in their power.

If the balloon is seen only, the natives should be told to communicate the day and hour, the direction and time it was visible, and the direction of the wind.

If the people arrive, having lost the balloon, the natives to be told to give them all possible assistance.

It is requested that the travellers may be supplied with passport and all necessary official documents, the names being:

Mr. Solomon August Andree, aged 42; Dr. Nils Gustaf Ekholm, aged 48; Mr. Nils Strindberg, aged 24."

The Drawing of Andree's Polar Balloon.

According to instructions, I informed all the Indians to be on the lookout for the balloon.

Early one morning an Indian rushed into the store to say he had heard an awful "ringing of bells" away up in the heavens and was sure it was the balloon passing.

I could see or hear nothing, but the native persisted in his story. I told him it might have been Andree ringing the breakfast bell. I could only get him calmed down by giving him some tobacco. Probably that was all he was after.

Traces of Andree were said to have been found at Cape Mugford, Northern Labrador, but no positive proof was ever obtained.

Another story came from Ft. Churchill to the effect that an Eskimo had found some clothing supposed to have been from the balloon, but these were said to have been left behind by Mr. J. B. Tyrrell on one of his expeditions. 19

From entries in the Post Journal by Manager A. F. Camsell

Jan., 1921

1—The usual reception was given the Indians this morning and a Dance will take place in the evening till 12 p.m.

5—Mail arrived from Liard this evening; they were ten days coming down.

8—Mail arrived from Providence at 10 a.m.

10—Mr. P. H. Godsell with Robbillard, driver, and two Liard men left for Liard this morning. Mr. Godsell goes to Liard on an inspection trip. The mail left yesterday for McPherson.

12—Five men and two trains of dogs arrived from the south this afternoon en route to the Norman oil fields to stake claims.

13—Tony Neis and a party of oil men arrived from the south this evening en route to the Norman oil fields to stake claims; Corporal Doke and Constable Brackett of the Mounted Police also arrived and are to be stationed at Norman.

17—Clear and cold, 38 below.

22—Mr. T. W. Harris and W. George left for Norman this morning in connection with the staking of claims below Norman.

28—Inspector Godsell returned today from a trip to Liard.


2—Wind North. Mr. Godsell, Mr. Jackson, clerk, Robbillard, W. Sibbiston and John Hope, forerunner, left for Good Hope this morning with two trains of dogs. Wind North.

19—Mail arrived from the South today, 20 days behind schedule time.

23—Clear and fine. Mr. Conibear and two sons arrived from Smith with two trains of dogs to stake claims at Norman.

25—Clear and mild, thawing in the sun for the first time this season. Norwegian arrived from Rabbit Skin River with a good bunch of furs.


2—Most of the oil prospectors left for the south today after recording their claims here.

12—Mr. Harry McGurn arrived with the mail from the North last night. Mr. Wada and party accompanied him from Wrigley.

18—Mail arrived from Providence today, 18 days behind time. This mail will do down as far as McPherson.

30—Cloudy and thawing. H. Camsell and W. Johnson went for a moose across the river this morning. Two airplanes arrived this morning at 11:30 a.m. from Peace River. They were one hour and forty minutes travelling time from Providence.


1—W. Johnson, H.B.C. engineer, making propellor for airplane.

5—One of the airplanes started for Norman this morning and met with an accident in starting, smashing the prop. and damaging one of the wings.

15—One of the airplanes took a trial trip with a new prop. this afternoon and appeared to give satisfaction.

18—W. Johnson left this morning at 2 a.m. with two trains of dogs and supplies for work on the S.S. Liard at Spence River.

22—Wind North and snowing most of the day. Both airplanes are now ready, and they will be leaving for Peace River as soon as the weather is favourable.

The Englishman and The "Grizzly"
A Bear Story With a Stinger

Leaving Wrangell, Alaska, for Telegraph Creek, British Columbia, in the spring of 1914, I overtook an Englishman who intended to spend the summer in the interior of British Columbia, and after enjoying a big game hunt in the fall would return to civilization.

Before we had got far up the river, night overtook us, making it necessary for the "gas" boat on which we were travelling to tie up for the night. The beach on which we landed was a sandy one that would permit of walking along the shore for some distance; so my friend, the Englishman, started out to stretch his legs.

Not far up the beach there commenced a large piece of low, swampy country and just before coming to it my friend caught a glimpse of what he thought was a large grizzly bear going speedily through the bush. Wasn't the Englishman excited! A few well-directed spider-like movements landed him back on the launch. After his struggle for breath was over we learned the exciting news. We agreed that our friend should be allowed to do all the execution, while we kept in the background in order to help out should the brute attack.

Guns were made ready and a stealthy advance was commenced. At length the rifle of our friend went to his shoulder and bang! In a moment the monster was dead. 20

By this time it was quite dark, so we made haste and prepared to drag the game to the launch to be skinned. Finally, after tugging and working with all our strength, with perspiration pouring off our foreheads, we concluded the carcass was too heavy to be handled by only six ordinary men.

A suggestion was then made to run a line from the boat and attach it to the hand capstan and haul him along in that way. This scheme was tried and after working hard (putting more grease on the gears every ten minutes) our enthusiasm began to wane and before another half hour had passed it was decided to leave the monster where it was until daylight, when it would be skinned where it lay.

We were up bright and early the next morning and while breakfast was being prepared the hunting and skinning knives were ground and sharpened to a fine edge and fit to cut the toughest hide or even to shave with.

Breakfast was finished and we trooped off to where lay the king of the forest (especially the low-lying swampy fringed forest) and after coats were thrown off and sleeves rolled up to above the elbows the operation of skinning was ready to commence.

Our friend the Englishman was naturally anxious that the job be a neat one, as he certainly was anxious to have that hide mounted, especially on account of its large size and its being the first specimen of big game killed by him in Cassiar, and he suggested that we wait a few minutes longer until it was full daylight.

At last the light of the rising sun commenced to show brightly in the east until it ended in one great burst of brilliant glory which held us as in a trance admiring its beauty.

Finally we turned to the animal and the work of skinning. One glance in the improved light was sufficient to show that there was something wrong, and that our grizzly bear was not a bear after all.

But what was it? Owing to my years of experience the matter was referred to me, and after making a close examination I was able to announce with surety that the supposed grizzly bear was only a common, everyday Stikine River mosquito, of perhaps a little greater size than is usually encountered.

It was then up to everyone to remark that they were sure from the first that it was not a bear. But the climax was reached when the Englishman expressed surprise that we had any doubts about what the animal really was right from the start, because he had killed it only to get the stinger, which, he was told, made an excellent golf club.

Pigeon Trap

In the June issue I note a reference to the pigeon trap at H.B.C. Calgary Gun Club.

As a devotee of the gun myself, and without any wish to presume to dictate to Mr. Chamberlain or any member of the Gun Club, I would respectfully draw his attention to the fact that the practice of shooting live pigeons sprung from traps has received severe condemnation; so much so that it is contemplated to discontinue the "sport" at Monte Carlo, Biarritz, and many other fashionable resorts. Also the British parliament intended to set the seal of its disapproval on this pastime by an Act which would render it prohibitive.

The Times of April 27th, 1921, says:

"A standing committee of the House of Commons, over which Mr. Hodge presided, yesterday considered the Bill introduced by Sir Burton Chadwick to prohibit the use of captive birds in all shooting carried on under artificial conditions.

"Sir Burton Chadwick moved a minor amendment to Clause 1, which renders any person concerned in shooting of captive birds liable to a maximum fine of £25, or imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months or to both."

Again on May 27th, The Times reports:

"We are able to state on high authority that the directors of the Casino at Monte Carlo have decided to abandon the use of living birds in the pigeon-shooting competitions at Monte Carlo."

John McMurray, Chief Accountant's Office,

Old Fur Trader Ill

Joseph Sinclair, 83, a former H.B.C. fur trader at York Factory and in the Saskatchewan district, was admitted to the Winnipeg General Hospital on April 21st. Mr. Sinclair is suffering from cancer, a rodent ulcer on the face. He has had an attack of pneumonia while in hospital, but recovered and according to his physician is doing as well as could be expected. 21

The Vanished Buffalo Herds of North America
Kingly Race That Once Roamed a Continent Almost Wiped Out for "A Dollar a Hide"; Straggling Survivors Carefully Guarded

About the year 1879 a party of Metis hunters came to the plains southwest of the present situation of Regina, Saskatchewan, to hunt buffalo. The party consisted of the father, a man then on the elderly side of middle age, but who had been in his youth a noted buffalo runner and Indian fighter; his wife, a heavy half-breed woman of some fifty years; and his daughter, a girl of about seventeen of a comely and attractive appearance.

The father, according to his custom, followed the chase on horseback, the old woman, seated amongst robes and camp baggage, drove the creaking Red river cart, whilst the young girl was in and out of the vehicle like an eager young spirit of the prairie.

That season there were very few carts which came to the plains after buffalo. The great herds that used to blacken the country to the rim of the horison had thundered away into the limbo of the lost, and all that was left of them was a few stragglers that still haunted some of the more remote valley bottoms.

The halfbreeds had strange and superstitious ideas about the passing of the buffalo. They could not believe that they had gone never to return. It was only yesterday that the plains were black with the shaggy herds. Their trails and wallows were still to be seen everywhere.

Our map diagram indicates the approximate distribution of the buffalo grounds prior to 1800; limitations, Mississippi River, Rocky Mountains, Gulf of Mexico and Great Slave Lake.

This particular Metis hunter believed that they had gone to some new pasturage, and that if they could be 22 found the hunting would again be as good as in the days of yore.

So for a period of years he led his family up and down the plains. One season they wintered at Wood Mountain, another they wandered as far north as Ile a la Crosse, then again at the Milk River; but in all their wanderings they found none of the vanished herds.

One winter they came to Fort Edmonton, and there the mother who had suffered for years from goitre, and was doubtless wearied with much wandering, lay down and quietly died.

Towards the close of the winter there came to the Post a Touchwood Indian who had been in the Slave River country as a dog driver for a Hudson's Bay officer. He told the halfbreed hunter that in the northern country of the lakes and rivers he had heard strange tales of great herds of buffalo. He had actually seen some himself. They were larger than the old-time buffalo of the plains, and their coats were longer and silkier.

The old hunter brightened at the news. Here at last was the word of the missing herds; making a company of travel with an Iroquois river man, they penetrated through labyrinths of waterways to the region of the far north.

There is no doubt but that the old hunter had been misled by rumors of the herd of wood-buffalo which had existed for many years in the Slave River country, and which are today carefully protected by the Northwest Mounted Police patrol.

The original area over which the buffalo ranged began almost at tide-water on the Atlantic coast. It extended westward through a vast tract of dense forest, across the Alleghany mountains to the prairies along the Mississippi, and southward to the delta of that great stream.

Although the vast plains country of the west was the natural home of the species, where it flourished most abundantly, it also wandered south across Texas to the burning plains of north-eastern Mexico, westward across the Rocky mountains into New Mexico, Utah and Idaho, and northward across a vast treeless waste to the bleak and inhospitable shores of Great Slave and Hudson Bay.

Vast herds of bison seemed to clothe the prairies in a coat of brown. They roamed the country around the headwaters of the Qu'Appelle river in tens of thousands.

Catlin has given some idea of the enormous numbers of bison that were killed during the first half of the nineteenth century. In 1832 he stated that 150,000 to 200,000 robes were marketed annually, which meant a slaughter of 2,000,000 or perhaps 3,000,000 bison. So great was the destruction that he prophesied their extermination within eight or ten years.

The death knell was struck when the construction of the Union Pacific railway was begun at Omaha in 1866. Prior to the advent of the first transcontinental railway the difficulties of marketing the results of the slaughter served as a slight check on the rate of extermination. The destruction began in earnest in 1876 and was complete four years later. The facility for shipping out the hides over the new railways was the cause of the rapid disappearance of the buffalo.

In the United States, buffalo hunters grew prosperous shooting down the animals for "a dollar a hide."

While the accompanying map is approximately correct, the feeding ground was necessarily subject to food material. In such years, for instance, as the grasshoppers spread devastation over large tracts of the Northwest—when for miles and miles not a blade of grass could be seen—it is only reasonable to expect that the buffalo changed his regular stamping ground.

William T. Hornaday, the naturalist, estimated, January 1st, 1908, the number of wild bison in the Rocky Mountains at 25, and the number in Canada at 300. About 130 are captive in Europe, and 1116 in the United States, bringing the total number of pure bred bison up to 2047. A large herd is under the protection of the Canadian government in the park at Wainwright, Alberta. The more notable American herds are found in Corbin's game preserve, New Hampshire; in Oklahoma; in the Yellowstone national park; and on various private ranches in the western part of the United States. 23

(Continued from the June issue)
By H. M. S. COTTER, Cumberland House

The "Pelican" once scraped the sunken ledges near Cartwright, but no H.B.C. ship has left her "bones" to rot on that iron-bound shore.

Little is known of the wrecks that do take place on this coast, but I have heard of appalling disasters amongst the hardy fishermen. On the Nova Scotian coast, collision with ice and subsequent loss of life is not infrequent. Every year there are wrecks of some kind. Ocean-going steamers have been forced ashore and become total wrecks. And so it is remarkable that H.B.C. ships have never met with disaster, especially considering their many ports of call.

In 1908 I was a passenger on the "Pelican" (Captain Alex. Grey) bound for Fort Chimo, Ungava. From the time we left Quebec till we passed Cape Harrison, North of Hamilton Inlet, Labrador, we had enjoyed fair weather. But the clouds and rising sea denoted a change.

We were then standing off the coast nearly twelve miles and steaming at about seven knots. The wind kept veering between N. and N.E., finally blowing straight down the coast about north. We stood farther out to sea. At nightfall it was blowing half a gale with rain coming down—and mist. Our speed then was not more than three knots and gradually getting less till about 2 o'clock in the morning when the wind increased to a living gale, screeching and howling through the rigging and stopping all progress. It was then decided to run for shelter, but the nearest harbour was forty miles south, a place named Webek. Captain Grey had been in this harbour only once, about twenty-five years before, and no one else aboard had ever anchored there. They turned the ship and we came scudding south in the blackness of night, then lay-to till dawn, and picking up the land approached at half speed.

To give some idea of the gale outside, when we finally came to an anchorage about 8 o'clock in the morning, the swell was so great in the harbour with the continued violence of the wind that we kept steaming to the anchors to prevent dragging and as the sailors say we were rolling "like maggots in an oak apple." Several fishing schooners had run in the day before and even in shelter the crews had abandoned some of the vessels, as they were dragging their anchors and in imminent danger of going ashore.

The Captain was on the bridge all night. For hours he stood in the bow of the boat hanging in the starboard davits peering through the gloom and mist, looking for landmarks and the harbour entrance. He had on a black sou'wester and oil-skin coat and great long sea-boots. His face was streaming with the rain and spray—a gigantic, picturesque figure, and on this particular morning, unusually silent.

When the ship was snug and safe he came off the bridge, and all he said was, "Aye, aye, a little wind," and then he turned in.

The entries in the log were quite commonplace—all in the day's work, as it were—and one would never glean from them that a ship and cargo worth a quarter of a million had been safely brought to a haven of refuge through exceptional seamanship and courage.

It was in 1894 that Captain Grey in the "Erik," when near Resolution Island at the entrance of the Straits, ran into an iceberg. It happened at night in a thick fog. The ship was moving slowly at the time and before the lookout saw or could give warning she had poked her nose into the 'berg. Her long bowsprit of pitch pine was crumpled up like so much matchwood, and the gear attached to it and one of the catheads was carried away.

Masses of ice came thundering down on her forecastle head, doing much damage to the woodwork. In the meantime the lookout sprinted aft, the watch below came tumbling up on deck and made for safety. The ship was put astern and hove to till daylight. They steamed up next day close enough to see a hole as big as a house which they had punched in the side of the 'berg. All the damage to the ship fortunately was done above the water line. 24

When the "Erik" returned to Rigolet in October she was sporting a dinky little jib-boom made from one of the spare spars carried on deck for just such an emergency.

Mr. John Ford, a passenger on his way to Georges River Post, told me he never saw Captain Grey more cool or collected. He gave orders as if nothing unusual were taking place. And at breakfast next morning all he said in reference to it was, "Aye, aye, a little ice."

F. T. C. O. Notes

Ralph Parsons, district manager for Labrador, left St. John's, Newfoundland, June 1st for inspection of fur trade posts in his district, including Cartwright, Rigolet, Northwest River and Davis Inlet. Mr. Parsons will later board the H.B.C. supply ship at Grady, off the Labrador coast, and proceed north to the Hudson Straits section of his district.

L. Romanet, fur trade general inspector, left Vancouver at the end of May for inspection of posts in the British Columbia district. He will return in August.

T. P. O'Kelly was to go on Company's business with the "Lady Kindersley," which was scheduled to sail from Vancouver for the Western Arctic, June 28th.

W. R. Mitchell, post manager at Fort Churchill, left Winnipeg June 17th for his station, going via The Pas and York Factory.

John Bartleman, district manager for Keewatin, left Winnipeg June 20th for his regular summer inspection trip of fur trade posts.

The Company has engaged twelve apprentice clerks in Scotland for service at H.B.C. fur trade posts in northern Canada. The party of young men sailed from Southampton June 15th on the "Corsican" for Montreal.

J. J. Barker, district manager for Saskatchewan, left Prince Albert June 18th on summer inspection trip. He will return August 1st.

Mrs. Owen Griffith, wife of the post manager at Albany, James' Bay district, was in Winnipeg during June visiting her mother, Mrs. Allan Nicolson.


Miss Smith, of the ready-to-wear department, returned June 1st after two weeks' vacation, part of which was spent with her mother and sisters at Barriere.

Mr. Madill, of the shoe department, made a short visit to Calgary to meet Mr. Purves, manager of shoe department of Winnipeg Depot.

Miss Weatherby, of the dry goods department, is on a two weeks' vacation trip to the coast cities.

Mrs. Munn, wife of our grocery manager, who has just undergone two very trying operations in Vancouver Hospital, is home again and we are pleased to note her marked improvement.

Harry Campbell is the latest addition to our grocery staff and is welcomed by all.

Youthful Portrait No. 1

Who is it? Send your guess to the Photograph Editor, The Beaver and watch for the name next month.

Mrs. L. G. Mayer, wife of the post manager at Great Whale River, was visiting relatives in Fort William during June and has returned to the post. 25 Nixon, our esteemed checker and shipper, is a recognized expert in all matters pertaining to horticulture. When the North Kamloops May-Day committee was making preparations for their celebration this year and wanted something very special in the way of flowers for the May Queen's crown they appointed Mr. Nixon a committee of one to grow flowers for this purpose and to make the crown.

A True Fish Story
By GEO. R. ROBSON, Esquimalt, B.C.

If one chanced to be in the neighbourhood of the Naas river in the early spring of the year, when the bolachan (candle fish) run begins, he could not fail to notice the large number of ducks gathered in the bays and the eagles perched on almost every tree skirting the beaches, all on the watch for the coming feast.

Sit down for a while and notice what is going on. Ah! there is a fishhawk darting into the water of the bay. It is up again with a fish clutched in its talons; see, there comes an eagle in full chase rapidly overtaking the hawk which is now soaring up and up. It is useless; the eagle soon rises above and swoops down on the osprey. The fish abandoned and falling is followed by the eagle and caught before it reaches the water. So it goes on day by day while the run continues.

At Nelson one Sunday afternoon when walking towards town, looking towards the lake I saw a hawk rise with a fish, and sure enough an eagle just starting in pursuit. (I pointed them out to my wife and children who were with me.) They were coming in our direction, flying low.

Thinking the eagle might be driven off, I gathered a few pebbles, and when the birds were almost above us threw them and shouted loudly. To my surprise the hawk dropped the fish and both birds wheeled about and flew in the direction of the lake. The fish fell in the brush about a hundred feet away. I ran to the spot; there was a fine trout wriggling in the grass. Jack Gibson, the drug store man, had appeared on the scene and called out, "What have you got there?" "Oh, only to-morrow's breakfast," I replied.

Guests at Kitchen Shower given for Miss Smith

Gets Wheelbarrow-full of Aluminum Pans

Miss Smith, manager of the ready-to-wear department, who is leaving shortly to be married, was the guest of honor at a kitchen shower given at the home of Miss Stella Cozens by the lady members of our staff and friends, who represented in almost every instance former members of the staff.

The shower consisted of aluminum kitchen utensils in a wheelbarrow decorated with crepe paper and flowers, surmounted by two kewpie dolls dressed as bride and groom.

After lunch was served and everybody felt happy and comfortable, Miss Dougans gave a little exhibition of acrobatic skill.


H.B.C. Eastern Buying Agency News

The following buyers for the new H.B.C. Victoria store were in the East during June:

Miss F. O'Grady and Mr. Frankish, from the Winnipeg retail branch, were with us June 17th, and Mr. Thomas Ross, of the Winnipeg Depot, also spent a few days in Montreal.

Miss Kate Currie, of Vancouver, recently paid us a visit and is now en route for home. 26


Retail Store News

At a recent meeting of the managers and buyers of the store two of our associates were honored for their service records. Miss F. Smith had just attained ten years' service, all of which was given in Winnipeg store. Mr. Roland Hoccon had just completed twenty years in the Company's employ.

In the name of the Governor, Mr. Sparling commented upon the creditable records of both Miss Smith and Mr. Hoccon, and presented Mr. Hoccon with a twenty-year bar to his long service medal.

Tom Johnson, of the men's clothing department, was a busy man during the week of June 1st. Tom is a hard working member of the Manitoba Football Association and was on the reception committee from Manitoba to welcome the visiting aggregation of Scottish football experts.

Everyone regrets that we are losing Miss Netta McEwan, who will occupy an important position in the new Victoria store. Miss McEwan's pleasing personality has won her many friends during her years of association with us and we are, frankly, jealous of Victoria store.

Suppose Mr. Saalfeld would probably like to present us with a crate of retired eggs—one at a time—for saying so, but it just occurred to us that an advertisement of the following character should be productive of considerable business during the summer months:

"The Beauty Parlors announce for Wednesday a sale of stylish new moustaches. These will be made up for two simoleons, in color desired to match any facial decoration scheme—waxed, fitted and attached free of extra charge. Line forms on the left!"

Miss Kandie, Miss Garnier and Miss Girourd have all left us, amid showers of confetti, during the last little while. Object, matrimony.

Youthful Portrait No. 2

Who is it? If you "have a hunch" send in your guess and watch for name in the August issue.

Listening-in at an H.B.C. Dance!
(Imaginary Scraps of Desiccated Conversation Collected at a Company Dance).

"I have just two left open." "Say, isn't he lanky!" "Who is that dressed in Copen?" "There—I've lost my hankie!"
"Hear that saxophone whine!" "Who's your friend, may I ask?" "Have yu tried the grape-vine?" "Whew! This three-step's some task!"
"Now, you take a pace back." "See here—when do we eat?" "Like a sea-going hack— "Stepped all over my feet!"
"Such a long intermish!" "Do you wish lemonade?" "She's like Dorothy Gish." "Yes, that's imported Jade."
"I could fox-trot all night." "And never grow weary!" "M-m-m! My face is a sight; "Slip me your puff, dearie."
"There's those two, cheek to cheek!" "Ho! See that man bowing." "Now, don't jump when I speak— But your ears are showing!"
"'Home, Sweet Home!'—You live far?" "Why you're really so kind,— But then Art. bro't his car; I am sure you won't mind."

From "Piebald Pomes and other Atrocities" by the Akoond of Swat. 27

Joe Scott Tends Goal Against All-Stars

Joe Scott was pleasantly surprised when he received a handsome gold watch fob bearing the following inscription:

Presented to Joseph Scott by his admirers in Hudson's Bay Store for splendid display as goalkeeper against Scottish All-Star Football Team,

Winnipeg, June 9th, 1921.

Joe is an esteemed member of our delivery department and was honored by Manitoba footballers in being chosen to keep goal for Manitoba against the visiting Scottish stars.

Said the one and only Jimmy McMenemy: "We won with ease, but there is one consolation left for the home boys, and that is that they are the best team we have yet opposed.

"Your goalkeeper, Joe Scott, is a worthy custodian. Facing a blinding sun and having to handle a lively ball, he put up a great game between the sticks. I thought that some of his saves were particularly fine."

Joe Scott stopping a "hot shot" from Andy Wilson of the visiting stars.


Miss Rose Paradis, late steno star, was our first "June bride." Rose was married at Sedan on Wednesday, June 8th.

Miss Maude Poole, who came out from England, joining the staff of steno stars, was our next "June bride," being married on Saturday, June 11th, to Mr. L. Keeble, of Winnipeg. The wedding took place at St. Luke's church, Fort Rouge, at 4 o'clock. The girls of the staff presented Miss Poole with an electric table lamp as a token of their appreciation.

Poor Bobby (Miss Gow) is on the sick list and is unfortunately compelled to miss the first part of the tennis season. Bobby was one of our enthusiasts last year.

Miss Fairbanks is another unfortunate one on the sick list.

Football—The team in the Commercial League are still going at a great gait—Government Telephones and Eaton's Wanderers being beaten 2-1 and 1-0, respectively. To date the Wholesale have played four games, winning two and drawing two.

Tennis—Like bears awakening after the winter's sleep, so the long evenings and fine weather is luring the tennis fans on to the courts. The latest converts are Miss Kellet, Miss Vusom, Miss Smeaton and Bill Paul. All members of the staff are welcome and we wish that more would come out and take advantage of the courts.

Quoits.—The Wholesale section of the depot are going to try for the quoits championship this year. Many are coming out for practice games, and as one remarked the other night, "Watch our smoke."

Modern Canoes for Northland

A carload of modern Peterboro canoes will go forward shortly from Edmonton to Fort McPherson, at the mouth of the McKenzie River, for distribution among the northernmost posts of H.B.C.

This modern type of canoe is being shipped in to take the place of the old time birchbark, and this summer will see them being paddled by Eskimos and Indians who hitherto have never navigated anything more modern than a kayak or birchbark canoe.

The new canoes weigh but forty pounds each, although twelve feet in length. They are intended especially for the requirements of the lone hunter. There are twelve canoes in all going to the far north in this shipment, including the various types and sizes from the big cruiser to the trapper's craft. 28


An enjoyable time was had on May 24th at the club house on Henderson Lake by the members and friends of the Hudson's Bay Athletic Association of Lethbridge.

Baseball, boating, music and dancing provided entertainment for the large crowd. In the afternoon a presentation of a knife and fork cabinet was made to Mr. Charles Briggs, who recently took unto himself a wife. The presentation was made by Mr. C. H. Fair on behalf of the management and staff.

Miss Reeves attended the Gossard corset demonstration at Calgary recently.

Mr. W. Thomson, who recently arrived in Canada from Scotland, and who has served overseas with the Imperial Army as French and German interpreter with the army of occupation, is now manager of the house furnishings department. Mr. Thomson has had a number of years' experience in Glasgow.

Mr. Charles Briggs has been transferred to the managership of our grocery department.

Miss Patterson left for a short visit to Vancouver where she has undergone an operation and we are pleased to know that she is progressing favorably and able to enjoy the scenic wonders of the coast city.

Mrs. Mars is now back with us after a short illness.

Mr. George Burns, manager of the shoe department, is on the sick list, but we hope to see him back in his department shortly.


The publicity department removed June 8th from York Street to the executive offices at 208 Main Street.

T. H. Irvine, caretaker, was heard talking to himself, chuckling, and saying something about a "prize bairn." Mrs. Irvine is doing well, and Thomas Henry is the name of the fine new baby.

Colin Urquhart, whose retirement was reported in our issue of December, 1920, was a visitor last month. He looked the picture of health.

Miss Peggy Boyle and Mr. W. A. Wylde, of the chief accountant's office were on holidays from June 13th to 27th.

Winnipeg Dry Goods Staff, 1898. Any familiar faces here?



This up-and-coming aggregation of H.B.C. Vancouver baseball artists has been playing in hard luck so far, but enthusiastic rooting will encourage them to fight for a place at the top. Our 'photo shows the players from left to right: McReery, Leaney, Vater, Stedham, Barber, Anderson, Jopson, Cline, Rawlinson, Adams.

Watch These Ball Players From Now On

Out of four games played the team has yet to win a game, but the boys are trying hard and with a little co-operation and support from the rest of the store staff the ball team will yet be seen in the form of a championship contender.

All games are played immediately after the close of business and it is hard to expect the boys to be on hand and ready to play at a moment's notice. However, that is one of the hardships they are working under and if the supporters of our team will have patience until the team gets into its stride they will see the team win ball games.

Support the team. Come out to every game; let the boys who are playing know that you are behind them. Make a noise when you are there and don't let the players think that the whole crowd is rooting for the other team.

City senior baseball is good and any team that can make good in the league are ball players.

In view of the fact that this is the H.B.C. store's first attempt to field a team in the city league, and all other teams have the rest of the city to choose from, whereas the H.B.C. team is being confined to store boys, we have a very formidable aggregation.

No Skirts for This 4200-Foot Climb

A party of five of the younger set—Misses E. Martin, L. Geach, V. Fairhurst, A. Humphreys and M. Phillips, started out for a hike up Grouse Mountain on a Sunday in June.

After an enjoyable ride on the ferry they boarded the car for the mountain, started to climb about ten o'clock and reached Mosquito Creek (2000 feet) about noon. There camp was struck. The climb was continued to the summit, which was reached about 4 o'clock.

A lively game of snowball was enjoyed by these ardent Alpine spirits, who nothing daunted by the 4200-foot grade, declared they had the time of their lives.

Many of the staff will no doubt want to follow in the footsteps of these pioneer trail-breakers. But girls, side-step skirts and get into riding trousers for this climb!

Mr. H. Pout, H.B.C. manager at Vernon, who has been recently appointed to position of merchandise manager at Victoria store, was in Vancouver during June making arrangements for entering his new sphere in the Company's service.

Presentation to Mr. Horne

J. S. Horne, assistant accountant, who has devoted twelve years of faithful service at the Vancouver store, was presented on June 11th with a gold watch and chain as a mark of the regard in which he is held by the staff, the occasion being the transfer of Mr. Horne to the new store soon to be opened at Victoria.

Mr. Lockyer, general manager, made the presentation in the presence of representatives from the different departments of the store. 30

H.B.C. Cribbage Players Win Baxter Cup

The aggregate scores for the season in the Vancouver inter-club and cribbage association show the Hudson's Bay Company players as winners of the T. S. Baxter cup for single points, while G.W.V.A. has carried off the double championship and with it the cup donated by H. T. Lockyer.

Wholesome Minds
A Few Thoughts for Our Younger Folks (older ones not barred)
By Mrs. Jack Hawkshaw

When a young woman's skirt or a young man's trousers show bulging creases over the knees, their owners are living a sedentary life or have never learned to walk correctly.

Stand erect with the upper part of the chest "leading." Breathe deeply, laugh deeply and smoothly. Don't giggle and squirm, girls. Have poise. It is the most wonderful health inspirer on earth. How many of us realize that a flustered mind is the cause of more disease than the inoculation of poisonous germs?

Physicians are coming more and more to see the power of mentality. A great deal of practice of the now-a-days physician is in "cheering up" his patients and routing morbid fears. Every thought has an effect of some sort on the human body. How often an unreasoning fear of a disease will bring about conditions which make for the "catching" of it!

We would have fewer cases of "chronic ailments" if only folks would realize that if it is "chronic" then it can not be very "killing" trouble, else people would not last for years (sometimes for more than half a century) with some affliction that they become so attached to they could not live without.

You know in every community there is the chronic sufferer from insomnia who forty-nine times out of every fifty nights has not "slept a wink." Sleeplessness is his hobby.

By all means let us throw the windows of our minds wide open to the blessed breezes of heaven and rejoice in this "best of all possible worlds." Live vitally, energetically. Really "enjoy your work" and throw yourselves with might and main into play.

And remember, the Hudson's Bay Company, which has existed for 251 years, does not require you to be its Atlas when you go home at night. It will get along quite as well if you lay business aside, out of your mind, and relax and "air your brain" from the fatigues of the day and then come back in the morning full of "pep" ready to give good measure in the service you have sold them.

Some of our young ladies like to do a little bit of homekeeping in their spare time; one we know of has a wonderful little "cabin home" on the wooded shores of Burrard Inlet. On Wednesdays and Sundays she dispenses hospitality to a chosen friend or two.

We heard of a most entertaining "party" held not so long ago. It would appear that the guests foregathered at a rendezvous to be driven to "Ozocomfy" in another young lady's motor car. They all had a wonderful day of it, notwithstanding the fact that the motor tires blew off, and the gas gave out. They pluckily stuck to the game and arrived home after a most hilarious outing.

Leaving for New Posts at Victoria

Those about to leave Vancouver for their new appointments at Victoria Store are as follows: Mr. Porte, manager; Mr. Stanhope, manager, furniture department; Mr. Marten, manager, draperies; Mrs. Grew, librarian; Mr. Stewart, manager, ladies' shoes; Miss McLaren, manageress, whitewear; Miss Grimason, manageress, ready-to-wear; Mr. Wilkinson, manager, delivery; Mr. Horne, accountant; Mr. McBain, traffic manager.

The Wild Man

"Who's the stranger, mother dear? Look! He knows us! Ain't he queer?" "Hush, my own! Don't talk so wild, "That's your father, dearest child!" "He's my father? No such thing! Father died, you know, last spring!" "Father didn't die, you dub! Father joined a golfing club, But they closed the club, so he Had no place to go, you see! No place left for him to roam, That's why he's coming home. Kiss him—he won't bite you, child, All these golfing guys look wild!"



A pyramid of pretty players who are upholding the honor of H.B.C. Edmonton retail in the lively game of basketball. Won one, lost two. More wins soon.

Retail Store Topics

Miss Vera Solick has recently been promoted as assistant to Mr. Briggs in the whitewear section.

Miss Winnie Campbell, of the whitewear department, is leaving, to be married. The event will take place the latter part of June.

Miss A. Lavoy, of the underwear department, leaves on the 1st of July for the coast, a change being absolutely necessary for her health.

Mrs. K. Duncan, our corsetiere, is leaving for Calgary to attend the "Gossard School of Instruction" which is being held in that city.

Miss Ritchie, of the transfer desk, has changed her name. Mr. Yuill, of H.B.C. wholesale department, is the cause of this drastic procedure. The whole store staff tenders them their most hearty congratulations.

Miss Opal Jobe, recently of the whitewear section, has been transferred to the drug department.

Miss E. Rudder, of the library, is once more back in her old place at the stationery counter.

Mr. Saunders, of the drug department, is a newcomer and we welcome him to our ranks.

Miss Lillian Ritchie, bride-to-be, was the recipient of a linen shower, given June 4th by her friends of the store, at the home of Miss Jennie Jones, Bonnie Doon.

A certain buyer on the main floor went fishing during May, but reports that all he caught was a "bully cold." Our buyer didn't get a bite, but as he sat with his friend on the bank of the river he imagined that a big one was trying to take away his pole which was propped among rocks while he went for a drink of gingerbeer. He made a dash for the pole, stumbled on a stone and in trying to avoid a fall, grabbed his companion. They both rolled into the cold waters of the river. Thus ended disastrously a promising fishing excursion.

A. & A.A. Early Season Sports Events

Football—Our team continues to win and is at the head of the league table, having played four league games and won them all by scores of 4-0, 1-0, 5-0, and 7-0, and there seems to be nothing to stop us from annexing the league championship.

Baseball—The baseball team has played three league games so far, and won them all, so they too are strongly in the running, being the only unbeaten side so far.

Basketball—Our girls have played three games since the last report and have won one of them, losing the others by a single point in each instance.

Tennis—The two new tennis courts which have been in course of construction were opened on Friday, June 3rd, and a great number took advantage of the sport provided.

A tournament is being planned. Judging by the number of entrants, it should be a great success. 32


If you see a tall fellow ahead of a crowd, A leader of men, marching fearless and proud, And you know of a tale whose mere telling aloud Would cause his proud head in grief to be bowed, It's a pretty good plan to forget it.
If you know of a skeleton hidden away In a closet, and guarded, and kept from the day, In the dark, and whose showing, whose sudden display Would cause grief and sorrow and lifelong dismay, It's a pretty good plan to forget it.
If you know of a thing that will darken the joy Of a man or a woman, a girl or a boy, That will wipe out a smile or leastway annoy, Or cause a fellow any gladness to cloy, It's a pretty good plan to forget it.

How much brighter and how much more joyful would this old world be if we all got together and practised that old adage, "Do unto others as ye would that they do unto you."

This world is too full of sorrow and pain already, and we are all too ready to condemn when we ought to condone.

What is the matter with us anyway? If one has taken a false step in the past, is there any reason why they should be given the "cold shoulder," especially when they are endeavouring to lead a straight life?

Man or woman is entitled to a square deal, no matter what the past may have been.

Once the turning point has been passed between right and wrong, and a firm endeavor is made to keep to the "narrow way," then let us help and encourage instead of raking up the past and by so doing help wreck a human soul.

We are all human; many are subject to temptations from which others are immune. It is usually a case of environment, therefore judge not your neighbor harshly.

Let's all try to practice the suggestions in the above poem; let's judge fellow beings by the present—not by the past.

Masquerade Baseball Match Amuses

A big turn-out marked this amusing event on Saturday, June 11th, at the Company's grounds. About two hundred marched from the store, headed by a comic jazz band, dressed in almost every conceivable sort of costume.

On arrival at the baseball grounds the fun began in earnest. A troop of horsemen proved a circus in itself. No less than nine fiery chargers in the persons of Messrs. Crockett, Ferris, Edwards, Fleming, Arnold, Plowman, Crockett Jr., and Hardaker, provided fun which was a "scream" from start to finish.

Frequently the crowd of onlookers were charged by these cavorting and prancing steeds. Towards the end of the evening, however, Crockett's horse had its head knocked off and one or two more lost tails and other parts of their anatomy.

Never had Edmontonians witnessed such a motley crowd as those who took part and attended this masquerade baseball match. The store manager, Mr. F. F. Harker, dressed as a stalwart Chinese Mandarin, umpired the game.

The rival teams were as follows:

"Harmony Has-Beens"—Miss Peterson, Miss Doherty, Miss McEwen, Miss Larandeau, Miss Meghy, Mr. Digney, Mr. McKenzie, Mr. B. Stephens, Mr. Graham.

"Peerless Misfits"—Miss McLeod, Miss Bennet, Mrs. Astley, Miss H. Stephens, Miss Urquhart, Mr. Roberts, Mr. Ferris, Mr. P. Plowman, Mr. Stephens.

Score—"Misfits," 15. "Has-Beens," 8.

Youthful Portrait No. 3

Who is it? Send in your guess now and watch for name next month. 33


Retail Store News

Officers and Executive of H.B.A.A.A., Season, 1921

Standing—A. Wilkinson, Lou Doll, G. Benson, T. Walsh, H. Lambert, S. McKellar.

Seated—Miss Miller, F. R. Reeve, Secretary; J. S. Smith, Vice-President; J. M. Gibson, President; R. W. Mason, Treasurer; Miss McRay.

New Department

As a sales-stimulant during June it was decided to take two complete sections of the fourth floor and create a new department to be known as Fourth Floor Bargain Centre. This department was opened up in connection with June Stock Unloading Campaign which ran for a period of eight days.

Special advertising called attention not only to Fourth Floor Bargain Centre but to Main Floor Bargain Tables and Rendezvous Bargain Tables as well. Fourth floor signs were placed on all elevators and on different floors calling attention to the bargains to be found there.

Considerable interest has been taken by the staff in the formation of this department and all buyers are very keen to get their merchandise displayed. If this attitude is reflected by the public there is no doubt that the creation of this department will prove a decided success.

Holiday time is here and several members of the staff are enjoying themselves in the country and elsewhere. Miss Burrows, of the ladies' underclothing department, has taken a big risk; she has gone to Ponoka. Hopes are entertained that she will come back greatly benefited by her sojourn there.

Mrs. Marks, who has resided in Vancouver for a few years, has joined the whitewear department. She was formerly employed in the blouse department.

The Adventures of Sales Book No. 666
(Continued from June issue)

After the trouble that resulted from my being lost, of which I told you last month, my owner was for a time very careful where she put me, but when one is doing one thing and thinking of something altogether different it won't be long before there is a mistake made—and sure enough that is what happened.

A lady came up to the counter and my owner, who did not happen to be serving at the time, asked her what she could show her. The customer mentioned some little 10c article. My owner produced what was required and the customer said she would take two. I was then taken up and the sale was written down, but she did not notice, nor did the cashier, who knowing the price and looking on the sale slip for 20c saw that and nothing else. On the sale slip was written 2—— 10|20. It was intended to mean two articles at 10c ea.—20c; but my owner had placed the 10c in the $ column, making it look like $10.20. You cannot imagine how humiliated I felt at the trouble one of my sale slips was, I felt sure, going to cause; however, I will let it tell its own tale.

The Story of Saleslip No. 1

As you know, I am really meant to stand for 20c, but look like $10.20. The cashier, not noticing the error, stamped me Paid, tore me in half, placed the duplicate portion in the 34 parcel and the original on her file with a lot of others. Before long others were put on top of me and I stayed there till store closing time when we were all taken off the file, tied up and taken to the fourth floor and put in a box with a lot of other bundles. In the morning we were taken to the audit department where each bundle was summed up in turn by comptometer operators.

The turn of my bundle soon came; the slips were rapidly added and when it came to me, sure enough into the machine went $10.20. When the total of the bundle was compared with the deposit slip it showed the cashier as being $10.00 short. The bundle was turned back to be re-added; another operator went through it, and arriving at the same total, and it was the same with two others who added the bundle. Mr. Cunningham was then flashed for and the report given to him that the cashier was $10.00 short.

He questioned the cashier but she could not help him. Meanwhile the audit department were sorting the sale slips and when they had all the slips for each salesperson in rotation they compared them with the tallies. When they came to me they saw $10.20 and on the tally only 20c.

They were just about to add $10.00 more on to the tally when they noticed that the article written on my face was only a 10c article. Then they realised that the "10" was out of place and that I represented only 20c. By looking at the cashier's stamp number and referring to the cashier's report they saw she was listed as $10.00 short.

I was then taken to the saleslady who made me out and showed to her. Her only comment was, "Oh, that's nothing, it's only a little out of place."

Note.The above was an actual occurrence. The sale slip in question was sent to The Beaver but cannot be reproduced here.

700 Attend Eighth Annual Field Sports

With the exception of a short shower, ideal weather and a bumper crowd of joyous members made the eighth annual field day of the H.B.A.A.A. one of the most successful on record.

It was held on Wednesday afternoon, June 8th, on the athletic grounds at Parkdale. The big programme was run off without a hitch.

The membership to date is the highest on record and well over the 400 mark. Mr. Kitson, of the membership committee, promises to reach 500 before the season has passed.

Mr. Mason and his refreshment committee went to a great deal of trouble to make the refreshment end a success, and that they did so will be borne out by each one of the 700 people who partook of them.

Through courtesy of the local military headquarters, the loan of an army field kitchen was obtained which materially helped the handling of the liquid refreshments.

The Happy Throng at H.B.C. Field Day, Calgary, June 8th, 1921

Music was supplied by an all-star band during the afternoon, and the comedy police proved an added feature in patrolling the grounds during the day. They made several amusing arrests 35 and a court was busily engaged in pinning on the assessments.

The police tug-of-war team beat the H.B.C. strongmen handily. This is the same "cop" aggregation that won the title from the firemen at the gymkhana.

A grand prize drawing was held and twenty-four athletic events for men, women and girls during the afternoon. It is regretted that space will not permit to listing here of all the prizes and winners.

THE LAND DEPARTMENT branch at Victoria has removed from the District building on Wharf Street, and is now established at 401 Pemberton building.

Miss McColl Wins Prize in Music Festival

Miss Julia McColl, of H.B.C. credit office staff, won second prize in the contralto solo competition; marks, 86 per cent. and 86 per cent.; total, 172 per cent.

Miss McColl and Miss I. Ramsay also won second prize in vocal duet competition; marks, 83 per cent.

Adjudicators were T. F. Noble, M.A., F.R.C., A.R.C.M., of New York, and Walter Henry Hall, Professor of Choral Music, Columbia 'Varsity, New York.

H.B.C. Marine and River Transport News

The "Lady Kindersley" made her trial trip off Vancouver June 6th and proceeded June 9th to Seattle and Ladysmith where she loaded coal and fuel oil, returning to Vancouver June 15th to take on cargo for H.B.C. Western Arctic posts. She sailed for Herschel Island on her maiden trip, June 27th.

The H.B.C. schooner "Casco" arrived safely at Petropavlosk, Kamchatka peninsula, Siberia, on June 8th, according to a wireless message from that port which was relayed by cable from Japan.

The river boats "Hubaco" and "Nechemus" arrived at Fort McMurray June 6th from Fort FitzGerald after completing the second trip of the season to the portage. The "Hubaco" left McMurray again for the north, June 14th, with a house-boat in tow carrying the Treaty Party which will pay the annual government obligation to the Indian tribes of the Athabasca and Mackenzie. The "Nechemus" left for FitzGerald June 12th.

The H.B.S.S. "Fort McMurray" completed her second trip of the season to Fort FitzGerald on June 7th, and left McMurray for the North again on June 13th with freight and supplies for the Mackenzie.

The H.B.S.S. "Mackenzie River" came south from winter quarters, arriving at Fort Smith June 1st.

The H.B.S.S. "Nascopie" sailed from St. Nazarre, France, June 15th for St. John's and Montreal, where she will load supplies for Hudson Bay posts.

The Company has purchased the auxiliary schooner "L. Burry" at St. John's, Newfoundland. The vessel has been rechristened the "Fort Chesterfield" and will be utilized for the redistribution of supplies from the H.B.C. post at Chesterfield Inlet to the several posts and outposts of the district. Mr. A. Berthe, late of the Nelson River District, is in St. John's superintending the overhauling of the boat and will accompany her to Chesterfield.

The H.B.S.S. "Baychimo," of sixteen hundred tons deadweight, is a big steel steamer which has recently been purchased by the Company owing to the extension of its trade in the Hudson Bay and Straits districts. The "Baychimo" will supplement the "Nascopie," "Pelican" and "Discovery" which had been found insufficient to cope with the great supply tonnage going into the sub-Arctic. The new steamer sailed from St. Nazarre, France, on June 21st for Montreal.

The H.B. schooner "Fort Churchill," now lying in James' Bay, will be transferred this season to the Nelson River District (York Factory.) Captain Kean is proceeding from Montreal by way of Mattice and the Missanabie to take charge of the vessel on her voyage up the bay. 36

Hudson's Bay Company

Incorporated A.D. 1670

for your

Select good equipment for a good game

You can't expect to beat Colonel Bogey with golf equipment of doubtful origin. The better your clubs, the better your game. Be satisfied with nothing less dependable than H.B.C. Quality.

It will profit you to get the best; your score card will show. Let us help in the selection of suitable equipment from these famous lines:

The WILSON "Success" 1.62 Ball and the best in all accessories

Transcriber's Note:

Table of Contents included in html version.

Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation are as in the original.

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of The Beaver, Volume 1, No. 10, July,
1921., by Hudson's Bay Company


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