The Project Gutenberg EBook of Papers and Proceedings of the Thirty-fourth
Annual Meeting of the American Library Association Held at Ottawa, Canada June 26-July 2, 1912, by Various

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Title: Papers and Proceedings of the Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting of the American Library Association Held at Ottawa, Canada June 26-July 2, 1912

Author: Various

Editor: American Library Association

Release Date: May 25, 2014 [EBook #45756]

Language: English

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JUNE 26-JULY 2, 1912



General sessions: PAGE
Addresses of welcome and response 57
Address Herbert Putnam 59
President's address: The public library: a leaven'd and prepared choice Mrs. H. L. Elmendorf 67
Publicity for the sake of information: The public's point of view W. H. Hatton 72
Secretary's report George B. Utley 75
Treasurer's report Carl B. Roden 81
Reports of boards and committees:
   Finance committee C. W. Andrews 81
   A. L. A. Publishing Board Henry E. Legler 83
   Trustees of endowment funds W. C. Kimball 91
   Bookbinding A. L. Bailey 93
   Bookbuying W. L. Brown 95
   Co-ordination C. H. Gould 96
   Co-operation with the N. E. A M. E. Ahern 101
   Federal and state relations B. C. Steiner 102
   Library administration A. E. Bostwick 102
   Library training A. S. Root 113
   Library work with the blind Emma N. Delfino 114
   Public documents George S. Godard 115
   Preservation of newspapers Frank P. Hill 116
Publicity for the sake of support Carl H. Milam 120
Breadth and limitations of bookbuying W. L. Brown 124
Open door through the book and the library C. E. McLenegan 127
What do the people want? Jessie Welles 132
Assistant and the book Mary E. Hazeltine 134
Type of assistants Edith Tobitt 138
Efficiency of the library staff and scientific management Adam Strohm 143
What library schools can do for the profession Chalmers Hadley 147
Address Sir Wilfrid Laurier 159
Conservation of character J. W. Robertson 161
Address George E. Vincent 170
Book advertising: information as to subject and scope of books Carl B. Roden 181
Book advertising: illumination as to the attractions of real books Grace Miller 187
Report of Executive Board 192
Report of Council 195
Report of resolutions committee 201
Memorial to Frederick Morgan Crunden 203
Report of tellers of election 204
Social side of the conference R. G. Thwaites 205
Day in Toronto M. E. Ahern 208
Day in Montreal Carl B. Roden 209
Post-conference trip Julia Ideson 211
   Agricultural libraries 213
   Catalog 227
   Children's librarians' 247
   College and reference 268
   Professional training 295
   Trustees' 302
   Public documents round table 307
Affiliated organizations:
   American association of law libraries 312
   League of library commissions 316
   Special libraries association 329
Attendance summaries 354
Attendance register 355
Index 367

Note: The minutes of the National association of state libraries have not been received in time to be included in this volume. They will be separately printed by that association.

[Pg 57]


JUNE 26-JULY 2, 1912


(Wednesday evening, June 26, 1912, Russell Theatre)

The association convened in a preliminary session on Wednesday evening, June 26, with Dr. James W. Robertson, C. M. G., chairman of the Canadian royal commission on industrial training and technical education, presiding as acting chairman of the Ottawa local committee.

Hon. George H. Perley, acting prime minister of Canada, was introduced and welcomed the association to Canada on behalf of the Dominion government. The speaker called attention to the hundred years of peace between the two countries and the plans being formulated for celebrating it, and said that international conferences such as this were the best guarantees of peace; that the more we know of each other the less liable we were to get into trouble.

In Canada schools and libraries are growing apace, particularly in the new regions of the far west, very much the same as in the United States. Exchange of ideas as in this convention is the very best kind of reciprocity and will help both nations in their aims and aspirations for the good of civilization.

Comptroller E. H. Hinchey, the acting mayor of Ottawa, spoke the city's welcome, calling attention to Ottawa as a convention city and its growing claims for being considered the Washington of the North.

The association was graciously welcomed in behalf of the Women's Canadian Club of Ottawa by the president, Mrs. Adam Shortt, who also voiced the welcome from the Women's National Council of Canada. She said the preachers, the teachers, the writers and the librarians are four great standing armies, standing to protect us and to dispel the hydra-headed enemy Ignorance, but that she thought of librarians as captains of individual garrisons scattered here and there through towns and cities, who are sending out emissaries among the people and moulding and forming the mental and moral fibre of each community.

The CHAIRMAN: The Women's Canadian historical society was most kind in pressing forward its desire to have this convention held here. The president, however, desires not to speak to-night.

I have now the pleasure of asking Hon. John G. Foster, United States Consul-General, to speak, as one of ourselves. He is a good citizen, and though of you, with us—we count him almost one of ourselves.

Mr. Foster said he could have assured that portion of the delegates who were his fellow countrymen and countrywomen that they would feel very much at home in this country, whose people, institutions and traditions are so similar to those of the United States.

The CHAIRMAN: Many other representative bodies joined in the effort to secure this meeting for Ottawa and are represented on the platform to-night, but the only other speaker who I shall ask to voice for them or for himself welcoming sentiments is the Hon. Martin Burrell, Minister of agriculture, and, if I may say in parenthesis, also Minister of copyrights, since that comes within his department.

Minister Burrell spoke enthusiastically of the value of books and the habit of good reading and the greater ease with which books could now be secured than formerly. Continuing he said:

"I have heard it said by some skeptical gentlemen that it is true that a librarian never reads a book; in fact, that he can[Pg 58]not be a perfect librarian and read, because he is immediately lost. I do not like to hold that view. I rather hold to the view that the ordinary librarian, perhaps I should say the model librarian, should be a guide, philosopher and friend, and I do not doubt that many of you are very real guides, philosophers and friends to those who are seeking for perhaps they know not what and whom you can direct in right channels with incalculable good to their after life. It is absolutely true that in our modern life we need that guidance. I do not know that I could put it better than in the words of another great book lover, and good library lover too, our friend Robert Louis Stevenson of imperishable memory, who said once there was a sort of dead-alive, hackneyed people in the world who if they were not engaged in a conventional occupation were in a state of coma; that the few hours they did not dedicate to a furious toiling in the gold mill were an absolute blank. It is your high privilege to supply that blank; it is your priceless privilege to fill the hours of life which have to be a blank because we cannot train ourselves for them in this more material age,—to fill them up with a companionship and with an influence of the great thoughts of the great writers of all ages."

Concluding, he expressed his pleasure at the prospect of entertaining the delegates at the Experimental Farm on the following Saturday.

The CHAIRMAN: The real president of the Canadian Club found it impossible to be in Ottawa to-night, and I am the poor substitute for Dr. Otto J. Klotz, who has been a great pillar of strength in Ottawa to those who love books and use books. He deputed me to say that he was exceedingly sorry he could not meet so many old friends of his as would surely be in attendance, and still more sorry because he was deprived of the joy of thus paying a little more back to those who love books and use books for all that books and learning have done for him. He is one of our good men. I am sorry he is not here.

We are delighted to have a woman as your president; and in calling on Mrs. Elmendorf to respond may I say—this comes to me after meeting her yesterday and today—that she is altogether a woman of whom it may be said in relation to her office as president of the American Library Association, "thy gentleness has helped to make it great."

The PRESIDENT: Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, Members of the American Library Association,—I am sure that I but express what you are all feeling in saying that this royal welcome to the Dominion of Canada makes us not only happy but very much honored. Some members of the association are already at home in their own capital, being keepers of "kings' treasuries" of Canada itself. Others of us are librarians from hither and yon in the country beyond the border, but we have all come with "joy and goodly gree" to sit in council in the very capital of the lovely land which is so loyally and affectionately

"Daughter in her Mother's house."

A small party of us came across the border, as William Morris's heroes are wont to move, "by night and cloud," and when we reached the boundary line a sudden inspiration took us and we stooped down and silently, gently gathered that boundary line in our hands and brought its firm lengths with us. I hold what might represent its shining links here in my hands. Therefore, while we visit here with you, in the very capital of the Dominion, while we hold that boundary line thus in our possession, from Boston Harbor down the coast through New York and Charleston to Key West, along the Gulf to New Orleans, across the great West to Pasadena, up the Pacific coast line to Seattle, from East to West, from North to South, there is no let or hindrance to the lines of influence which go forth. Those lines of influence run free without chance for knot or tangle or any such thing.

I hope you will not need to try whether[Pg 59] "the King's writ runs" but I am sure that you will find that Shakespeare reigns in our realm, that Tennyson and Bobby Burns touch our hearts in song, and he who writes the songs of a people need not care who writes their laws.

Just one small story and then I shall have finished, for thanks must needs be brief if they come from the heart, and there is one to come after who will say to you with grace and directness and clear precision much that I might envy but never approach.

My tall brother happened by good fortune to be in London Town the night that the great city went nearly wild in her glad rejoicing at the relief of Ladysmith. It was a sight to see and join in, and he and his wife went on such progress through the streets as a cab could make for them. In his hand, at the full length of his long arm, he waved from the front of the cab a Union Jack and a Stars and Stripes to indicate his sympathy and good feeling. All went well until in one of the many enforced pauses a rough chap jumped for his hand crying, "Aw, sir! One flag'll do!"

We are very happy to be here and are just a little happier to see by these beautiful draped banners that you have not felt that One flag need to do!

The CHAIRMAN: Those of us who have gone to Washington have sometimes thought we should revise our boyhood's interpretation of the New Jerusalem of the Book of Revelation. Nothing I had ever imagined from St. John's description was quite a match for the glory and magnificence of the beautiful Library of Congress. I have found it delightful to think of a nation of great wealth providing such a fitting home for its literary treasures. Books are the friends and ministers of the mind and the soul of the people. The Washington building is the expression in materials of their aspirations for what is best and most beautiful. It is a wonderful building, leaving impressions of wonder on the casual visitor, and still more on those who linger in its chaste corridors and see something of the working of the library itself. I think of the sweet and stately beauty of the place, I think of the institution and its services, and I think also of the man who is more than a match for the magnificence of the home of those books. We will now hear from the man, Dr. HERBERT PUTNAM.


Our acknowledgments as visitors having now been made by the highest authority among us, it is not for the purpose of merely enlarging them that I am assigned a place upon the program. It is rather, I understand, with the view to an expression in behalf of the community of interest represented by this gathering as a whole; and some definition as to what we are, what we aim at, and wherein, if at all, we differ from our predecessors.

Our aim is in terms a simple one. It is to bring a book to a reader, to lead a reader to a book. The task may indeed vary in proportion as the book is obvious or obscure, the reader expert or a novice, so that our service may be as the shortest distance between two simple points; or as the readiest point between two distances. But its main and ultimate end is the same.

And it remains so in spite of organization grown elaborate, apparatus and mechanism grown complex. For the organization is merely to respond to a larger and more varied demand, and with a view to a more ample and diversified response.

What then is the difference between the library of today and the library of a few centuries—a single century—ago?—Is it merely in the development of this organization, the introduction of this apparatus and mechanism?—Is it to such matters that our efforts are directed?—Is it they which require incessant gatherings such as this for explanation, exploitation and discussion, and the innumerable reams of written contribution in our professional journals? They are indeed accountable for a large percentage of it: but back of[Pg 60] them, beneath them, is a change which is fundamental, a change in attitude which is essential as no mere form or method can be. It consists in the birth and development—not indeed of a new characteristic in either book or reader, or the discovery of new potencies in the one or new sensibilities in the other—but of a new sense of responsibility on the part of the library in the utilization of the one for the benefit of the other. It is an incident of democracy.

Now, so far as democracy means the participation of the community as a whole in the conduct of its affairs the form of it has existed with us in the United States for generations; and the substance of it has existed throughout the Anglo-Saxon world. But democracy ought to mean something more: it ought to mean the participation of every individual in its opportunities. And a constitution of society which still left the resources for power and intellectual direction in the hands of the few was in effect an aristocracy, and no complete democracy. Among these resources a chief is education. And the practical monopoly of education—and of books as an element in it—meant a monopoly of influence also,—a monopoly which survived after limitations of caste were removed and the opportunities for wealth became widely diffused. Against it the free public school, the easily available college, the cheaply procurable newspaper and magazine, and the free public library fought and are fighting their fight in the interest of the prerogative of the individual, in the endeavor to equip him as an independent and co-equal unit, so that the actual constitution of society shall accord with its political form, and indeed assure the efficiency and the permanence of the form.

So, having provided for the mass the interest has of late centred upon the individual.

Meantime, with the evolution from homogeneity to heterogeneity the individual himself has become more and more diversified in trait, aptitude and need; so that the treatment of him by the agencies acting for the community as a whole has also had to become varied. Not merely that, but pursuing its responsibilities, to become affirmative, where before, so far as it existed, it was merely responsive.

Now the service of school and college furnishing definite instruction and perhaps training, to an organized body of youth, within a limited age, and under control, can be reasonably systematized and standardized. But the library is to furnish not merely education but enlightenment, and even culture, to the community at large—without respect to age, and without subordination to control. It cannot impose, it does not control. It may recommend, but it cannot direct. It must still respond to a need voluntarily expressed; but its duty is held to go further: it must remind that the need exists,—it must even inspire the need,—that is to say, the consciousness of it. In this way it is engaged in creating the very demand which later it seeks to satisfy.

Now this duty upon it accounts for the prodigious energy in the effort itself, and the activity and range of the discussion, which are the characteristics of the modern library movement, particularly in English speaking America. It accounts for the incessant repetition of explanation, of exhortation, of recited experience, which give to a present-day library conference something of the aspect of a revival meeting.

To librarians of the older school these are somewhat distasteful; to librarians of the more modern school already convinced and experienced, they may be tedious; but they seem necessary still for the enlightenment and encouragement of others newly entering upon the problem, of a public not yet fully familiar with the relations of it to their own welfare, and to the helpful solution of local problems where the idea meets conditions still impeding: for the field is vast and conditions are still very unequal.

The efforts, still inchoate, include also many devices which are crude and of[Pg 61] doubtful expediency: especially many designed chiefly to attract—in which the library seems to compete with other enterprises courting popularity in a way scarcely dignified for a public institution maintained by government. They shock the conservative in somewhat the same way as an advertisement by a lawyer or physician shocks the traditions of those reticent professions: and they include not merely schemes of advertising—which might seem to impair the dignity of the book, but auxiliaries for attracting attention such as savor of the devices of a business house in exploiting its goods. The ultimate aim is, of course, the commendation of the book itself,—and the justification lies—or is sought—in this. But the means,—well, the means often afflict the conservatives in the profession, and even cause uneasiness to certain of us among the progressives.

The compensating assurance is that they are the promptings of an enthusiasm in itself meritorious; that they are experiments; that they may prove to be expedients merely temporary, and that later they may be dispensed with after they have served their purpose. They are to rouse the dormant, stir the stagnant: but there are also other agencies at work to rouse and to stir; and the time may well come when the operation of these in combination will have achieved the creation of a spirit in the community safe to act upon its own initiative.

Apart from the portions of our programs devoted to the discussion of such methods and devices—which concern the direct action of a particular library upon its own constituents, is the portion—a large one—devoted to schemes of co-operation among our institutions as such in the interest of economy and therefore of efficiency—in their administration. These are necessarily technical, and their immediate interest is to the librarian rather than to the reader. But their ultimate benefit is to reach the reader,—particularly in freeing to his use a larger measure of the direct personal service of the administration, in interpreting the collections to his need. In proportion as they succeed in this they will achieve a reversion to that service held precious in the library of the older type,—which, lacking the modern apparatus, and with an imperfect collection, at least put the reader into direct contact with what it had, and gave him also the inspiring personal touch with an enthusiast already saturated with its contents: and which accordingly sent him forth with a grateful glow, too little, alas! evident in one relegated to the mere mechanism of modern library practice.

The mechanism became inevitable: the increase of the collections, the increase of the constituency, the greater diversity of the need, and the demand that this should be met promptly, have required it. This isn't so apparent to the public, who think of the problem—of getting the right book to the individual reader—in only its simplest terms. But to us librarians it is not merely apparent but urgent. And accordingly we expend upon it a length and a zest of discussion that quite mystify the portions of our audiences outside of the craft.

What impels us is that the mechanism is not merely elaborate: it is expensive. It is the more so in proportion as it is variant in form and involves a multiplication of expense by each library acting independently in its own behalf. Our effort, and the purpose of our discussions, is therefore to promote a standardization of the form and a co-operative centralization of the work itself, in which our libraries as a whole may secure a participating benefit.

Now the mechanism consists of certain apparatus necessarily independent with each library—administrative records, charging systems, etc.; but also of classification, catalog and bibliography. All of these may be standardized,—but the opportunity for a co-operation which may save expense occurs chiefly in the three last named. The extravagance, the needless extravagance, of an absence of it represented by the old conditions was little[Pg 62] apparent to the general public or to boards of control. It becomes obvious when one considers that thousands of libraries receiving hundreds of identical books,—and hundreds of libraries receiving thousands of identical books—were each undertaking independently the expense of cataloging and classifying these: thus multiplying by exactly their number the total cost of the community. As against this, the economy of a system under which a particular book shall be cataloged—and perhaps classified—at some central point once for all, and the result made available in multiple form to all libraries receiving copies of it—needs only to be stated to be convincing. A condition of it is, in the case of classification, identity in the basic scheme and notation, in the case of catalog identity in the form, and uniformity in the practice. The general availability of bibliographic lists does not depend upon either, though convenienced by both.

Identity in classification seems still remote, nor does the undoubted vogue of the Decimal scheme assure it: for this is chiefly among the smaller libraries. In the larger, the Decimal scheme, where adopted, is apt to be accompanied by variations of detail, which mean a variation in the place and symbol assigned to a particular book, and thus bar the general adoption of a decision in the classification of it made at any central bureau. So far as this variance affects the direct administration of a particular library it may be unimportant: for the arrangement of its own books upon its own shelves—provided this is based on a subject scheme, consistently carried out—may be sufficiently effective for its own purposes, even though purely individual with itself. What it implies, however, in multiplication of an expense that might be avoided by the adoption of an identical scheme, is of an import very serious. The construction of a scheme which should suit equally all libraries and all librarians is not to be expected. The best that can be hoped for is a scheme sound in its fundaments and upon which the concessions of individual preference necessary will be only as to detail. The reluctance—of librarians—to make such concessions is due, I think, to an exaggerated estimate of the importance of classification as such—that is to say, of the precise location of a particular book in a given collection; a failure to realize—what experience should have taught—that in many groups no location can be absolutely permanent, owing to changes in the literary output and in the subject relation of that group to the rest. This reluctance is, I fear, one of the conservatisms least creditable to the profession. It induces tenacity in adhesion to systems adopted, and it leads to the adoption of new systems devised to accord with supposed idiosyncrasies of a particular collection—or pursuant to the ingenious inventiveness of a particular librarian. I can express myself the more frankly because in this latter respect the Library of Congress has itself been a sinner;—and one not yet come to repentance. For at the outset of its problem it found the Decimal classification in considerable vogue, the Expansive in considerable favor. And it adopted neither, but proceeded to devise a scheme of its own. It did this out of declared necessity, with regard to its supposed interests; and considering those interests alone the results have seemed a justification. They are even being utilized in certain other institutions, and though not proffered as a model for general adoption, they render even now a general service in proving the economy of centralizing the process of classification, as well as that of cataloging, at some central point or points from which the decisions may radiate.

The general availability of a catalog entry depends of course upon uniformity in cataloging practice as well as identity in size and form of the card itself,—if the result takes the form of a card. Agreement in this has fortunately been rapid, and we have now in English speaking American a set of decisions, embodied in a code of rules—substantially accepted among our own libraries and even substantially acceptable to the libraries of[Pg 63] Great Britain. Between continental practice and our own variances still exist, and bar the complete interchange of results. One cannot doubt, however, that time will eradicate, or adjust these also.

Between bibliography as distinguished from classification and cataloging, there exist, however, no such impediments; and the centralization of bibliographic work—co-operation in it—is progressing apace.

The prospect is, therefore, fairly cheerful that librarians will be able in the near future to free themselves and their funds from undue attention to the mere mechanism of their craft, and more completely to devote their resources and personal service to the book as literature, and the reader as a human being.

The spirit for this is ardent. It is manifest in our two countries as nowhere else in like degree. As regards the reader it calls itself proudly "the missionary spirit"; it seeks him, appraises him, sympathizes with him, counsels him. It does not doubt its duty in this to be an affirmative one. But as regards the book itself it is not yet so decisive. For in the selection of what it is to offer it still concedes much to what is called the "popular taste"—which means the popular fancy of the moment, ignoring in doing so its prerogative as an "educational" institution to assert standards, and to abide by them. Its hope is to improve the taste itself; and the need of this—its appropriateness as a function of the library, and the means of effecting it—are to be a main feature of the program of this conference. They are justly so,—even though they are matters of concern chiefly for that type of library which is engaged in serving the public at large. It is, however, precisely that type of library with which also the duty should lie of representing the standards established by time, and the taste represented by the more refined rather than by the average instincts of the community. And as the temptation—to make concessions is also peculiarly theirs—the responsibility is particularly upon them, their librarians, their trustees, and the conservative in public opinion—to assert this duty and to conform to it. The assertion of it may cause resentment; but this will prove merely individual; it is not likely to organize into formidable resistance. And in time it will become merely sporadic. It will tend to diminish in proportion as associations such as this, in conferences such as this, declare solidly for the authority of the library in such decisions—while clearly distinguishing it from any censorship of literature as such.

The temptation to court "popularity"—natural in institutions maintained at the public expense and therefore dependent upon the favor of city councils—has another phase which I hope may prove but transitory. It is in the exploitation of the service done by the books which are the "tools of trade" as against those making for general information, or general culture. The supposition is that the service of the first named is one which will convince certain important opinion as a "practical" service, and particularly that it will appeal to those who are just now insistent upon vocational studies as the studies to be given right of way in the education of youth. The temptation is the greater because the service of a book of this sort is a service whose results are readily demonstrable, it is concrete and objective;—while that of general literature is but subjective.

Its importance cannot be questioned, nor the duty of the library to perform it, nor the success of our public libraries in the actual performance of it. The only criticism might be lest in the emphasis upon it, our libraries may seem to underestimate, if not to disparage, that other service which in its ulterior benefit to the community may prove of even greater importance; that service which reminds the public that livelihood is not the main purpose of life, nor the present, the local and the particular, the only era, the only place, the only thing worthy of consideration and regard. The books which achieve this may have their greatest value in offsetting the tendencies of mere industry. This is not to say, however, that they may not advance industry itself; for though they[Pg 64] may not improve the mere dexterity of a particular individual in a profession, art or trade, they may aid to that sense of proportion, that larger view of a worldwide relation which will advance the art itself; and they cultivate the imagination which is the essential of modern industry in its larger relations.

As, therefore, our colleges still stand for the utility of the general studies even in a career looking to vocation, so our libraries may well stand for the utility of the general literature. Particularly is this duty upon them since the opportunity—in its relation to the community at large—is uniquely theirs: for no other agency—not even the museum, or the art gallery, or the theatre, the opera house, or the concert hall—potent as may be the influence of these—matches the book in power and availability in this service of quickening the sensibilities, refining the taste, enlarging the understanding, diversifying the experience, warming the heart and clarifying the soul.

And this service—understood everywhere—is nowhere—save perhaps in England—quite so completely followed into its consequences as in Canada and the United States. The conviction of it grounds our libraries upon a public opinion assuring permanent support; and inspires among individuals enthusiasm for gift and endowment. The greater, therefore, the responsibility of librarians and trustees to see to it that this conviction, this enthusiasm and the resources which they provide shall be so utilized as to effect not merely the most showy but the most substantial results.

And the responsibility should include not merely a zeal for the general reader, but a regard for the scholar: since a benefit to the general reader may end with himself, but a benefit to the scholar becomes amplified and diffused through him. He is not, be it understood, a class by himself. He includes the specialist whose vocation is research in a particular field; but he includes also the reader for whom research is but an avocation. He is the unusual man, but he is also the usual man in his unusual moments. What is the conscious aim of the one may be the incidental achievement of the other—to advance knowledge. And the aid rendered by the library to either may be of a consequence to the community more far reaching than the mere diffusion of ascertained knowledge among a multitude of individuals.

If the effort of our libraries in this direction has not kept pace with their efforts in the others, the explanation is obvious in the emphasis necessary upon the others during the past fifty years. But the time has come when the obligation to the scholar should resume its due place—in our programs, as well as in our practice.

And with the resumption of that interest may we not hope for a recognition—a recognition—in our organizations also of that type which gave personality to the libraries of old?—I mean the type represented by the Panizzis, the Garnetts, the Winsors, Pooles, Cutters and Spoffords. For however indifferent such men may have been, or might be today, to the mere mechanism which of late we have been exalting, and which we must hold to be necessary under modern conditions, they succeeded in producing an atmosphere which had a potency of its own, which no mere mechanism can reproduce, and for which the zeal of routine personal service, however "missionary" in spirit, cannot be a substitute. For the mechanism gives the impression of intervening between the reader and the book; and the routine personal service fails from the very nature of its effort. The reader reached out to may be pleased and aided: but he loses the lesson and the penetrating suggestion afforded by the mere absorption of the old-time librarian in the book itself. It was that which once took the visitor out of himself, away from affairs, and gave him touch with a different world, a sense of different values. Does he not miss it now? I think he does; and that, however he may respect the mere efficiency of the modern librarian, as administrator, his really af[Pg 65]fectionate admiration turns back to the librarian of the old school whose soul was lifted above mere administration, or the method of the moment, or the manner of insistent service, and whose passionate regard was rather for the inside of a book than for the outside of a reader,—even the librarian to whom a reader seemed indeed but an interruption to an abstraction that was privileged.

I for one, should be sorry to think that this type has passed finally. There is need for it; there should be a place. I trust that it will be restored to us; and I deplore the influence upon the younger generation in our profession of referring to it with condescension if not with contempt.

"Our profession." I use the term because it is current. We have assumed it, and no one has challenged it. There are grounds on which it might, I suppose, be challenged. "The word implies," according to the Century Dictionary, "professed attainments in special knowledge, as distinguished from mere skill; a practical dealing with affairs, as distinguished from mere study or investigation; and an application of such knowledge to uses for others as a vocation, as distinguished from its pursuit for one's own purposes." The latter two requirements are certainly met: we are engaged in practical affairs, and to the use of others. But the "professed attainments in special knowledge, as distinguished from mere skill," while certainly represented in individuals among us, are not with us conditions of librarianship as a vocation or as an office, nor have we in America, as they have in Germany, the conventional preparation, the preliminary examination as to qualifications, and the license which by law or usage are requirements in the professions strictly so-called. A profession should imply uniform standards in such qualifications: but the qualifications of persons accepted among us for library posts of importance,—even among persons who have made notable successes in such posts, vary extraordinarily in both kind and degree. A profession should imply a certain homogeneity in ideals, methods and relations; while among us there is still a notable diversity. The modern library with its large establishment and organization, and the responsibility of large funds, has, like the modern university, created a demand in its administrators for the traits necessary in business rather than characteristic of the professions or expected of them. (This demand, and the vogue of woman in our work—a vogue which finds its completest recognition at this meeting—are indeed the most notable of recent phenomena affecting our personnel.) As yet the conventional training has not attracted a sufficiency of men and women with such traits to meet the need; nor has it, on the other hand, attracted a sufficient number of men and women grounded in special branches of the sciences and the arts to fill the positions in our research libraries which administer, and should interpret, the literature of these. The actual personnel of our association includes therefore the utmost diversity in trait, education and experience.

A considerable such diversity exists among teachers, and does not disentitle them to the claim of constituting a profession; and we are sometimes called educators. But we cannot claim to be, for we lack the didactic authority, purpose and method.

The final characteristic of a profession is its influence upon the community as such. Now, our lack of such an influence as a body is in part due to the lack of that homogeneity in ideal method and personnel—but in part also to the necessary limitations of our office. We are necessarily non-partisan. We are to furnish impartially the ammunition for both sides of every issue. The moment we become identified with a single side merely, we lose our influence and our authority. And it matters not whether the issue be political, or theological or economic or social. If it be scientific, or merely literary, we have more freedom, since the subject matter is more nearly academic and[Pg 66] less emotional. But even here we must avoid the charge of faddism. In a contest of morality we may indeed take side against the baser, because with this we have no influence and no need to court one. But there are today few moral issues clearly distinguishable as such in which there is need or temptation for us to engage.

The result of this neutrality is an attitude which to the world at large must seem somewhat colourless; but also a habit of mind which insensibly in itself becomes neutral. We are content to be observers. We avoid becoming contestants. Such characteristics do not go to the solidification of opinion in a profession, nor to the assertion of it in an aggressive way.

The sum total of all of which (observations upon us) is that in spite of our numbers, in spite of the momentous aggregate that our "establishment" represents, in spite of the assured place which it occupies in the community and the social system, we are at present, and in many ways must continue to be, an aggregate of individuals rather than a body politic. But even as the Devil's advocate I would not so conclude in a deprecatory sense, for we may find and show many reasons for complacency—and special opportunities for service—in the relations which this situation implies.

My original invitation was a large one: no less than to estimate the place of the library in English-speaking America. I have not attempted to comply with it: for it seemed too large for my fraction of this program. But as a theme it was enticing. And so would have been the reverse of it,—that is, the place of English-speaking America in the development of the library. That also will perhaps be worthy of treatment at some large opportunity. One particular aspect of it is suggested by a letter of Francis Lieber to General Halleck, fifty-seven years ago. It runs—

"... Have you laid the foundation of a great public library in California? Your state, above all others, ought largely to provide public funds for a library,—say $20,000 a year for the first five years, and then, permanently so much a year. We cannot do in our days without large public libraries, and libraries are quite as necessary as hospitals or armies. Libraries are the bridges over which Civilization travels from generation to generation and from country to country, bridges that span over the widest oceans; and California will yet be the buttress of the bridge over which encircling civilization will pass to Asia, whence it first came...."[1]

[1] From "Life and letters of Francis Lieber." Edited by Thomas Sergeant Perry. Boston. 1882.

If California may be such a buttress, what may we not propound of English-speaking America as a whole—from which through its universities and colleges occidental ideals and methods are already being transmitted to the Orient through the effective medium of students sent here for their education?

Such are some of the thoughts with which some of us at least approach this conference. They are thoughts, even if, as yet, only in part satisfactions. There is a satisfaction, however, which is dominant with those of us who come from over the border. It is that this conference is to be held on Canadian soil; and that here, with the broad welcome extended to us, with a common subject matter, and with purposes in connection with it that can awaken neither cavil nor suspicion, we are free to indulge in reciprocities that will be complete, mutual, and enduring.

Mr. Lawrence J. Burpee read the following telegram from the private secretary of the Duke of Connaught, which was received with hearty applause:

The Governor-General wishes meeting of American Library Association every success and His Royal Highness regrets exceedingly that it is impossible for him to be present at your annual meeting tomorrow.

Mr. BURPEE: Similar letters of regret have been received from the Right Honorable [Pg 67]Prime Minister and several members of the cabinet and from Sir Wilfrid Laurier, and we are yet in hopes that Sir Wilfrid will be able to be with us on Dominion Day.

I have been asked by the Dominion Archivist and by the Director of the Victoria museum and the Custodian of the National gallery to extend to you a most hearty welcome to visit those institutions, and I have also been asked by the president of the Ottawa Electric Railway to say that the railway would like you to consider yourselves guests of the company while here, and that the A. L. A. button will identify us sufficiently.

The CHAIRMAN: The work of the local committee has been done largely by two men,—Dr. Otto Klotz and Mr. Lawrence J. Burpee,—and perhaps at a later session we will have occasion to give thanks to Mr. Burpee, who behind the scenes has made our official tasks come so lightly and so easily.

The secretary read a cablegram bearing greetings from the New Zealand Libraries Association, through the secretary, Mr. Herbert Baillie, librarian of the Wellington (N. Z.) public library.



(Russell Theatre, Thursday, June 27, 9:30 a. m.)

The PRESIDENT: I have the honor to announce that the Thirty-fourth Annual Conference of the American Library Association is now open. It seems to me, with the welcome given us this morning, in the beautiful sunshiny weather, nearly as bright and genial as the welcome that we were given last night, we open under very happy auspices indeed, and I hope that when you hear the speakers as they shall take up the matters on the program, you will feel that the auspices have been very well carried out.

I shall have the pleasure to talk to you for a very few moments on the subject as printed on the program.


The Public Library: "A Leaven'd and Preparéd Choice"

Last evening's jesting pretense that the party from the States had stopped on the border and removed the boundary line to bring it with them here, into the very Canadian capital, was not quite all a jest. The American Library Association is itself a witness that though the boundary line firmly and clearly defines the limits of rule of the two countries in some great and essential things, some

"Glories of our blood and state,"

it need not, it does not, even divide, still less alienate, the two peoples.

It is one of the worthiest, most auspicious foundations of the American Library Association that it is, and has ever been, continental not national in its sympathy and membership. Within its circle "all who profess and call themselves" English-speaking may unite their best thought and their best endeavor for this important public service.

There are many fundamental library principles that are common to both countries and your Program Committee has intended to arrange the program and discussions to take account of these, leaving to other and minor meetings such things as are national or local in their bearing. The committee has wished to transcend all division by boundary lines. By so much the jest was fact.

The attempt has been made to stand away from detail of all sorts so far that it may be possible to see the library world as "a world" indeed, "a whole of parts," as a system of members, each member distinct yet, by virtue of the very peculiarities which constitute its distinctness, contributing to the unity of the whole.

We shall fail to see the library world thus, as a world, as a whole unless, amid the mass of facts, of experiences, of needs, of adaptations involved, we can finally discern and seize upon the true center, the truly dominant thing.

[Pg 68]

If we could once see the true center as the center, and the mass of detail taking ordered place about it; if we could once perceive the dominant that should surely rule, and lesser matters in due subjection to that rule, then from the obvious things ever before our eyes, and only too familiar, by that very familiarity made difficult to apprehend, the library might all at once appeal as an entity, as a clear conception. So the forest becomes visible to the artist's eyes, the forest, formed of trees, but never really seen until all at once in the vision of the forest the trees are lost to sight.

Some modes of thought, some phrases of expression which have been used are those which the philosopher has weighed and clarified for his own carefully measured statements. Do not smile at my temerity, and on the other hand do not be in the least alarmed. I ventured but a little way and you will not be called to go far into the philosopher's country under my lead. Even if one be no swimmer it is an experience to venture out, with careful balance, feeling for secure foothold upon the solid bed, even a little way into a mighty stream whose full mid-current would sweep over one's head. One gets, out of even so limited an adventure, a sense of the sweep of the river, feels the embrace and pull of the current, stoops to drink a little of the clear, bright, deep waters, ever thereafter to thirst for deeper draughts and to long for strength and mastery to plunge into and breast the full stream.

In trying to find warrant for my own thoughts and ordered and lucid statement for them, I have sought and consulted certain books and some of them were too hard for my full reading. I shall not further acknowledge my debt now but, once more departing from precedent, I shall list them for print at the end of the address.

In the wish to find the center or dominant of the library world it would be presumptuous for me to dogmatize and say "Lo here! this is the point," or "Behold! this is the principle." In the very name of the institution which we are talking about there are two elements joined—Public, and Library—and it seems quite obviously proper to try the first as the center.

Perhaps the application which follows might repel some as narrow, as exclusive of any but a single type of libraries. The principle itself may, however, be made to apply to the entire library world by recognizing as "public" all libraries which are not private, and by defining public anew as applied to each group or type of libraries, always letting it include all those individuals for whose use and pleasure the library is maintained.

What does "public" signify in Canada and the United States? What but all the people of these two great experiments in democratic society? Pray note that I say society not government. An excursion into discussion of the latter might involve dabbling in the stream of politics which would threaten dangers far more imminent, for me, than philosophy promised. To consider democratic society for a few moments very simply is a less hazardous matter.

What is any society but "a world" again, a whole, in which the great thing that matters is the level and fullness of mind that is reached through the diversities of complete development and perfection of the individual members which compose it?

The level of value and happiness for the whole can only be raised by raising the condition of the individuals and, on the other hand, that individuality is the most complete, of most real, felt value to itself, which contributes to the perfection of the whole, because it is only thus that the individual is conscious of having done his utmost.

Why try to say it again when the philosopher has said it so exactly?

"What a man really cares about—so it seems to me—may be described as making the most of the trust he has received. He does not value himself as a detached and purely self-identical subject. He values himself as the inheritor of the gifts and surroundings which are focussed in him[Pg 69] and which it is his business to raise to their highest power. The attitude of the true noble, one in whom noblesse oblige is a simple example of what, mutatis mutandis, all men feel. The man is a representative, a trustee for the world, of certain powers and circumstances. And this cannot fail to be so. For suffering and privation are also opportunities. The question for him is how much he can make of them. This is the simple and primary point of view, and also, in the main, the true and fundamental one. It is not the bare personality or the separate destiny that occupies a healthy mind. It is the thing to be done, known and felt; in a word, the completeness of experience, his contribution to it, and his participation in it.

"At every point the web of experience is continuous; he cannot distinguish his part from that of others, and the more he realizes the continuity the less he cares about the separateness of the contribution to it.... It is impossible to overrate the co-operative element in experience."

Does it not appear then that the highest possible service to the public is service to the individual, in giving to the individual stimulus and opportunity for the fullest, most diverse, most perfect development, creating thus a world the more enriched, the more unified, in that each of its members has rich powers, functions and experience of his own?

But the crux is to come. A people, a society, is made up of individuals of diverse tastes and powers, but it includes very many who are far short of being fully alive to the powers which they may possess. If the span of such lives passes thus, if no stimulus, no illumination reaches them, life will be uninspired, unfruitful of much service, or much joy. It will not be life at its full, nor "the soul at its highest stretch."

It is not always afar from our own doors that such things happen. President Eliot says, "Do we not all know many people who seem to live in a mental vacuum—to whom, indeed, we have great difficulty in attributing immortality, because they have so little life except that of the body?"

From such conditions not only individuals but all society suffers. As a spot of unnourished, inactive tissue in a human body is a host ready to receive any one of many forms of disease, so, in the body politic, individuals not fulfilling their utmost best are soil made ready for all manner of social and political ills.

The time may come when society will recognize that many social and political ills are partly caused by its own neglect, and call not for more restrictions, for more stringent laws and severer sentences, but rather for more carefully and universally given opportunity.

Listen once more to the philosopher.

"The more highly differentiated the individuals composing a society, the more complete becomes the social bond between them. A man who feels that he is rendering to the community a service at once indispensable and only to be performed by himself, will have come near to fulfilling his part in the highest attainable scheme of social harmony."

If this be true, then there seems clear warrant for saying that the community, for its own sake, has a vital interest in trying to secure for each individual the most effective opportunity not only for discovering what his distinct contribution may be made, but also for developing his power to render that contribution most completely.

Does the community anywhere concern itself to give such opportunities? Democratic society has recognized its necessity to give a certain amount of knowledge and training by means of its schools. It is beginning to make the experiment of giving a certain amount of skill to earn a livelihood. This teaching is done in classes and a class is made up of individuals of similar knowledge and attainments, and to them is given general and identical information which tends to produce like results. The community has need for unlikeness, for individuals who can render unique service.

The community can never decide what the special individual aptitude may be. No living soul can discover for another. The "power to become" is innate and must[Pg 70] make its own response to the stimulus which is capable of affecting it.

It is true that the universe is a great battery incessantly sending an infinity of calls of infinitely varied messages. But the receiving operator may be asleep, he may never come within range. The universe is very wide. The range of experience of all is narrow, of some pitifully narrow.

Because of lack of opportunity to see, to do, to know, to feel, it is not exaggeration to say that multitudes live a half-alive existence, never useful to their possible limit, never happy to their full, for happiness is "felt perfection."

From the beginning of time, some men have received their messages, found their work, given their service, lived life to the full and laid it down with a will. The record of these men and their accomplishment, of man's great adventure to find himself, has been written by many hands, and that record is literature.

Arnold says, "To know ourselves and the world we have, as a means to this end, to know the best that has been thought or said in the world," and "Literature may mean everything written or printed in a book."

The library is the reservoir of literature, a collection of books, but it is something more, it comes to have identity, a self of its own beyond the sum of all its books, when, by the fusing of the whole under the vital power of the minds that gather and order it, it becomes, in the Shakespearian phrase embodied in my title, "A leaven'd and preparéd choice."

The library is the one place where time and space are set at naught. It is the microcosm of the universe.

Here all the wonders of nature are flashed back from the mirrors of eyes that have beheld them.

Here India, and the Arctic and the isles of the sea are as close at hand as Niagara.

Here Archimedes' lever, Giotto's circle, Newton's apple, Palissy's furnace, Jacquard's loom, Jamie Watt's tea-kettle, Franklin's kite are cheek by jowl with the last Marconigram.

Here the fate of Aristides, of Columbus, of Gordon is as clear to read as the doings of yesterday in Chicago.

The record of what happened at Thermopylæ, at Lucknow, at the Alamo receives beside it the tale of the courage that rose as the Titanic sank.

What Buddha and Socrates and Jesus taught answers the cry and strengthens the heart of doubt and pain today.

The library is the great whispering gallery of noble deeds and, catching a whisper,

"The youth replies, I can"

and goes forth.

The library is haunted with visions of beauty that Plato, that Michael Angelo, that Shelley saw—the youth exclaims "I see!" and follows his lure.

Here Clotho sits twirling her "thread-running spindle" and the youth, catching the clue, fares forth whither the fateful thread leads.

The library is almost never the goal but to many it may be the starting point whence they go forth "to strength and endeavor, love and sacrifice, the making and achievement of souls."

The public for whom the library exists has little conception or comprehension of its power. How shall such publicity as will give this knowledge of it be given?

Such publicity should make clear the larger aspects of the library's service, showing that the life of any society is "an indivisible inheritance" and the welfare of all made or marred by the condition and service of each one, therefore the library should be equipped to be universal in its appeal and service, a public necessity for individual use.

The public for whom the library exists gives it support insufficient for the task it should perform. If the library commanded respect would it not receive funds?

Books are the treasure to be gathered for its work. What shall be the principles[Pg 71] of buying? How create the "leaven'd and preparéd choice?"

Books are the medium of appeal, the stuff of human knowledge, experience and wisdom stored by means of the printed leaf. The extent to which each individual shares in the stored treasure of the race-mind, is, in its sum, the measure of public safety and happiness and the starting-point for service. How show, how make known the attraction and stored power of books?

Every individual must choose his own path. How leave him free to choose in a wide field?

Service, but not authority, must be at hand. What shall the tests of fitness for such service be?

The staff fit for such service must be of rare material and quality.

The members of the staff are instruments of the highest elaboration and most delicate adjustment. The requisite quality of service can only be rendered under fit conditions. It is not a matter of knowledge, conscience and will solely, it is a matter of these things plus insight, sympathy and response. Exhaustion, or an approach to it, discouragement from lack of appreciation, are like a ground wire for loss of power. Body, mind and spirit are all involved in this service. How conserve their strength, well-being and joy?

Unskilled people cannot render fit service. What are the things that matter in training? How far can training be effective.

These are the subjects that your Program Committee has thought it might interest all to consider. Certain leaders will discuss them, each according to his own will and way. In their wisdom and in that of the discussions with which you will follow them will lie all the value of this conference.

Books Consulted: A Short List

Bosanquet, Bernard. The principle of individuality and value. Macmillan. 1912.

Bryce, James. The American Commonwealth. Vol. 2, p. 828, and chapter CII. Macmillan. 1910.

Chesterton, G. K. Manalive. Lane. 1912.

Douglas, Robert. The choice. Macmillan. 1911.

Eliot, C. W. The function of education in democratic society. In his Educational reform. Century. 1908.

Goldmark, Josephine. Fatigue and efficiency. Charities Pub. Co. 1912.

Hobhouse, L. T. The individual and the state. In his Social evolution and political theory. Columbia Univ. Press. 1911.

—Liberalism. Holt. 1911.

Jones, Henry. Idealism as a personal creed. Macmillan. 1909.

—Working faith of the social reformer. Macmillan. 1910.

Macdonald, Greville. The child's inheritance: its scientific and imaginative meaning. Smith, Elder. 1910.

Mark, Thiselton. The unfolding of personality as the chief aim of education. Univ. of Chicago Press. 1911.

Sidis, Boris. Philistine and genius. Moffatt. 1911.

Woodberry, G. E. The torch: eight lectures on race power in literature. McClure. 1905.

The PRESIDENT: I have very great pleasure in presenting one who in truth needs no introduction to you; one who has not for some time appeared on our platform but whom I know you will all welcome with pleasure, Miss TESSA L. KELSO.

Miss Kelso, of the Baker and Taylor Co., New York City, spoke informally from notes only on the topic, "Publicity for the sake of information: the librarian's point of view," and has been unable to furnish a copy of her remarks for publication.

The PRESIDENT: I think you may have seen it mentioned once or twice in the course of your reading, that there was such a thing as the "Wisconsin idea." Now, I would not for a moment, having been born in that lovely state, have you get any notion that that "Wisconsin idea" is singular. We have therefore asked to come and talk to us this morn[Pg 72]ing a gentleman who, those closest to him say, is a repository of "Wisconsin ideas," and I have great pleasure in introducing to you Mr. WILLIAM H. HATTON,—"Mr." Hatton by request, though he is ordinarily known in his own country as Senator Hatton.


When man first discovered that his hands would respond to the command of his brain and that he could use a club to defend himself from his enemy, and that he could through combined mental and physical effort, react upon his environment, the gateway on the road to continuous progress was opened to mankind.

The potential power of man cannot be measured. The Creator, in so far as we are able to judge, has fixed no limits to man's progress. The only limitations are his lack of knowledge and his lack of power to discern the true relations of the forces which surround him.

Mankind is a social organism, not a collection of separate and independent parts. Where any part is neglected and fails to develop so as to discharge efficiently its function, the whole organization suffers. Therefore society is not only deeply interested in education during childhood and adolescence, but it is concerned in the education of man throughout his whole life. The public is as much concerned in the education of the man of forty years of age as it is in the education of the boy of five years. One of the chief functions of the state is to secure justice, equity and equality of opportunity. Dr. Lester F. Ward says, "There can be no equality, no justice, not to speak of equity, so long as society is composed of members, equally endowed by nature, a few of whom only possess the social heritage of truth and ideas resulting from laborious investigation and profound meditations of all past ages, while the mass are shut out from all the light that human achievement has shed upon the world."

What shall be done that this "light of human achievement" shall penetrate the cloud of ignorance and cause the lamp of wisdom to burn in every home? Your reply doubtless will be, "The formal training of the schools." Yes; that is a step in the right direction, but all will agree that the training of the schools is only and can be only a beginning, a learning how to acquire and assimilate knowledge and develop power. There must be other institutions and agencies which shall carry forward the work of education, if we are to have that continuous and universal development which is possible and desirable.

The library is peculiarly suited for this work and its power and future influence are not fully appreciated even by those engaged in library work. It is not necessary to say to this audience that the public library is an essential part of a complete educational system and that there should be harmony within the system.

The training in the schools should be such as shall make a beginning at least in the preparation for social life and social service, in the broad sense. The students should be shown that the library is a social mirror, a record of the social activities of mankind. If for any cause students leave school, they should be in such close relation to the library and be so familiar with library methods that they will be encouraged to continue studying; thus we shall find the book in the hand of the worker, the ideal condition, assisting him in solving his problems and opening to him visions of life of which he had never dreamed.

The school authorities should never overlook the fact that the average time which the individual student attends school is short; but be it short or long, pupils should be trained in the use of the library, and taught how to find in books answers to their questions. Questions which shall require students to go to the library should be regularly given them. In the higher grades and in the high schools emphasis should be placed on library work. Stu[Pg 73]dents should not only be required to read certain specified books, as supplementary reading, but there should be regular assignments of topics for investigation, which will require them to use the library and other sources of information, thus training them in research methods and developing their power of original investigation. By this method their school work will become a living motive-force in their lives.

The colleges and universities offer a great number of courses. So many subjects are open for study that the most that can be done during the college years is to select a few and concentrate effort upon those selected and leave the great field of knowledge for future exploration and conquest. Therefore, if a student leaves college with high ideals and an ambition to explore still further the field of knowledge and develop his individuality, his immediate need is a good library. Therein is the crystallized wisdom of ages held in "magic preservation." Here he may find freedom for the development of his individuality and be able to increase his power to react on his environment, enabling him to find profit, pleasure and culture in the various activities of life.

But has he learned how to use the library? Let us take the testimony of Dr. Harper, former president of the University of Chicago. "It is pitiable," he said, "to find that many graduates of our very best colleges are unable, after taking up the more advanced work of the divinity school or other graduate courses, to make use of books. They find nothing; they do not know how to proceed in order to find anything. No more important, no more useful training can be given men in college than that which relates to the use of books. Why do so many men give up reading when they leave college? Because in college they have never learned the use of books."

This is the testimony of a man of wide experience. A college librarian should be a person of strong personality and broad culture, and the example of some of the universities and colleges of making the librarian a member of the faculty should be followed by all colleges. The most important work for schools and colleges is to arouse in the students the spirit of research, train them in research methods, and develop their powers of independent investigation. Impress upon them the fact that education cannot be received but must be acquired, and that the acquisition of knowledge is a process co-extensive with life.

President Hibben of Princeton says, "It is the nature of education that it does not result in a complete and finished product, but rather a progressive process. There is nothing final about it. Its achievements always mark new beginnings. Education must always be defined in terms of life, of growth, of progress."

It will be readily seen that those who complete the regular courses of the schools, colleges and universities need the library. It is well known that the majority do not take advantage fully of the opportunities offered by the schools, but for various reasons they drop out all along the line. For these we need the library. We have a large immigration of adults from foreign lands. These people come here to make homes and to take part in our government. Self-government requires knowledge and understanding. Great questions are constantly arising which demand intelligent action. Ignorance, whether it be the ignorance of the rich or of the poor, is a menace. One of our grave social problems is the ignorance and indifference of the ostentatious rich. Rich in material things, but poor in the things which make life rich. They have not learned that every man owes a debt to society that can be paid only in service. Complex our social organization is and it is becoming more complex each year. Grave questions are before us for solution. The people in general have no adequate conception of the possibilities of the library, when properly organized, as an effective force for dealing with these conditions; and it is doubtful if the most optimistic librarians[Pg 74] appreciate what may be, and will be done in the future with this great instrument of education. A community without a public library lacks an essential of a well organized community.

Let us have in the library men and women of broad culture who have had special training in psychology and sociology, who are sincerely and sympathetically devoted to humanity. Let this great educational institution be directed by people of commanding power, trained for public service, who have entered the profession as a life work, salaries to correspond, with qualifications required and services rendered. We say services rendered because all service must be rendered before it can be measured. The library will thus become the center of intellectual activities of the community, a continuation school, a local university.

Society is under obligation to furnish every means possible for the development of human capacity. There is in the world latent talent and capacity beyond measure. For the development of this latent talent, society is in a measure responsible. If opportunity is offered, capacity will develop.

Great forces surround us pressing for admission to our lives, telephones, electric light, printing, anæsthesia, antiseptics, synthetic chemistry, wireless telegraphy, etc. These things have always been possible but the cloud of ignorance obscured man's vision, and kept him from realizing his power.

The degree to which a community discharges its obligation can be measured by the opportunities it offers for the development of the members of that community. To offer better opportunities for those who wish to continue their studies and to bring together those of like tastes and desires, let there be opened seminar rooms in the library building, or in other buildings which shall be under the control of the library authorities. To these seminar rooms bring students, from every walk of life, to study under competent direction and to investigate subjects in which they are interested either from a material or cultural point of view. Only a small percentage of those who complete the high school course go to college. There should be provided graduate courses for the high school graduates, and other students of like qualifications in these seminar rooms, directed by the library staff. The school teachers and library staff can meet in these seminar rooms and discuss questions of common interest; and also pursue advanced studies. These rooms should be the centers for university extension work.

People can be brought together here for study and discussion of questions of citizenship, government, civic betterment, and all questions pertaining to social adjustment. Study groups can be formed for regular and systematic study under the direction of competent teachers. People of all ages can be brought together for study, which is impossible under our present system of education. In these groups the mature man and woman of high ideals will exert a powerful influence upon the young. Through this system regular and systematic reading under competent direction can be encouraged. Teachers and parents can meet in these seminar rooms and discuss school questions.

Continuation schools should be maintained. Bring the people from their vocations to these continuation schools; out of these schools organize classes for special work in the library seminar rooms; thus may be secured the union of instruction and practical application which make for increased efficiency, cultivates the whole man, and brightens his life.

John Stuart Mill said, "The business of life is an essential part of the practical education of a people without which book and school and instruction, though most necessary and salutary, does not suffice to qualify them for conduct and for adaptation of means to ends. Instruction is only one of the desiderata of mental improvement. Another indispensable, is vigorous exercise of active energies."

It matters not how highly we value the[Pg 75] formal training of the colleges we must never overlook the fact that a very large majority do not have the full benefit of such training. We must therefore deal with conditions as they exist. When we call to mind the names and careers of such men as Shakespeare, Benjamin Franklin, Hugh Miller, Herbert Spencer, Richard Baxter, Abraham Lincoln, Michael Faraday, Sir Humphrey Davey, Horace Greeley, Sir William Herschel, we come to realize that many of the brightest stars in the world's constellation have been cut and polished by forces other than the formal training of the schools. Wide is the field and great is the opportunity.

The question may be raised, "How shall we secure the money for this great work?" We are expending in the United States more than two-thirds of our national income for wars past and for military purposes, educating men to destroy. Let this fact come to the knowledge of our people and a demand will be made to cut down the appropriations for educating men to destroy and increase the appropriations for educating men to construct.

A hundred years of peaceful intercourse between two great nations, Canada and the United States, with over three thousand miles of boundary without a gunboat or a soldier, is the best answer to the militarist who would spent the money for instruments of destruction that should be used for instruments of construction.

How shall we bring to the knowledge of the people information relating to this great work? There are more than twenty millions of students in the schools of Canada and the United States. These students touch directly or indirectly every home. With libraries at various local centers correlated with the schools, we have what may be called the nervous system of education of these great nations. Through this system the people may be reached more uniformly and regularly than in any other way. Here is a great body of people seeking information coming into direct contact with the homes.

Therefore we put the schools in the first place as a means of publicity for the sake of information. Let us bring the library and the schools into closer relation. Render service to mankind wherever mankind is. The best publicity is secured through services rendered. The patronage of the lawyer and physician depends largely on the quality of service rendered. The business man secures custom when he establishes a reputation for fair dealing. May not the library expect good measure of publicity from the reputation it has for real accomplishment? Study the problem, do things that are worth while. Bring the whole power of the organization to bear on the subject of social adjustment. This will lead to various fields of activity. Produce results which shall compel attention. Do things that will be considered news. Having done, having produced, do not hesitate to make known. Give your reports what the newspaper man calls the "news turn."

Every librarian should have training in psychology and sociology and should continue to study. Study man individually, in groups, in communities and mankind as a whole.

The PRESIDENT: The next in order will be the secretary's report.


The close of another conference year finds the executive office still enjoying the hospitality of the Chicago public library in the commodious, convenient and well equipped rooms in the Chicago public library building. Heat, light and janitor service have also been supplied gratuitously as in previous years. The association has now held headquarters offices in Chicago for nearly three years and it is a pleasure for the secretary to report that the prospects for continuance and permanence of headquarters were never brighter than they are now. The income from membership fees is steadily increasing. In 1909 the amount raised from this source was $4,557.50; in 1910, $4,888.48; in 1911, $5,325.46; and the receipts thus far for 1912 warrant us in hoping that the total[Pg 76] amount from membership fees will be at least $6,200. While the finances of the association even yet do not permit us to do many things that are very much worth doing and which are in the legitimate field of activities, we seem gradually to be approaching the time when excursions can be made into new avenues.

Although the work of the headquarters office varies from day to day so that no two days are alike the year's work in the aggregate so closely resemble that for last year that much repetition of last year's report would be made if a detailed statement were presented. The routine work has of course been performed, such as editing the bulletin, attending to the correspondence, advertising for the publishing board and sale of its publications which in the last year has been the heaviest in its history, the payment of bills, the keeping of books, the printing of publications for the publishing board, with the attendant work of making contracts for printing and the reading of proof, the arrangements for the midwinter meetings and the annual conference. The volume of this routine work has been very great and is still increasing so that often for days at a time there is little chance for doing anything else.

Since November 1, 1911, a record has been kept of mail sent out from the office. From November 1, to May 31, 1912, 11,818 pieces of first-class mail have been dispatched, or an average of about 67 pieces a day. In addition to this 15,794 pieces of circular matter were mailed either in the interest of the A. L. A. or its publishing board during the same period. No record of mail received has been kept but it runs from 50 to 70 letters a day, and frequently reaches 150 a day at certain seasons and on certain days of the week. Of course not all of this requires the personal attention of the secretary, a large share being orders for publications, or remittances for the same, payment of membership dues, and various inquiries, which are entirely handled by the office assistants. The headquarters office, however, continues to be, we are pleased to say, a clearing house for general library information. The Chicago public and John Crerar libraries are frequently consulted by the secretary, and occasionally the Newberry and other libraries, and I desire to express at this time my hearty appreciation of the cordial assistance given me by the reference librarians of these various institutions. Thanks to their kind offices we have been able in most instances either to give the desired information or tell where it may be found. To those seeking advice regarding establishment of libraries, selection or purchase of books or policy of administration we have gladly helped so far as we were able but always make it a point to try to put the inquirer in touch with the library commission of his state or the state library. We have taken particular pleasure in corresponding with certain towns in New Mexico, Florida, Mississippi and Montana where a public library is either being organized or where a campaign to secure one is being conducted. Notwithstanding the systematic efforts of the various commissions to cover thoroughly the library work of their respective states many small libraries and library boards seem blissfully ignorant of the existence of such an institution as a state library commission, and we consider it no small service to be able to enlighten them on this point. The commissions, on the other hand, are constantly putting the small libraries in touch with the A. L. A. The state library commissions can always be counted on to co-operate with the A. L. A. to publish our news notes and notices regarding publications in their bulletins, to recommend membership and A. L. A. publications and to respond quickly and efficiently to any special call. This is thoroughly appreciated by the secretary and the executive office. During the past year the secretary has made several demands on the time of the secretaries of the various state library associations and has found response in most cases prompt, intelligent and willing.

[Pg 77]

The library interests of the country are making progress towards a harmony of effort that is good to see and that will bring its sure result in better and more intelligent service to the people.

We have endeavored to keep the value and importance of publicity steadily before us and have accomplished as much in this direction as time and funds permitted. Multigraphed articles have been sent out to about 175 of the leading papers of the country several times during the year and from marked copies sent to the office and from reports from librarians who have seen the articles in their local papers we know that these contributions have been pretty generally used. Several special articles on either the work of the A. L. A. or the Publishing Board have been written for particular papers. A publicity committee has, at the request of the secretary, recently been appointed in the hope of securing still greater publicity. The work of the executive office, however, does not lend itself to the making of "stories" interesting to those outside the profession. Nearly every live and up-to-date library, on the other hand, is every week living out experiences which, if written up in a breezy and popular style of which many of our library folk are masters, would make capital articles acceptable not only to the daily press but to the more exclusive magazines as well. It appears, therefore, that the executive office can perhaps best promote publicity for the profession, by urging the preparation of these contributions from the reference librarians, the children's librarians, the loan desk people, the municipal reference workers, these people who, as Kipling puts it, have

"lived more stories
Than Zogbaum or I can invent."

The secretary has written four or five articles on the A. L. A. for various encyclopedias and year books, and has endeavored to get the association listed in all the leading reference almanacs and annuals. Lectures before library schools by the secretary regarding the A. L. A. and its work, and official representation at the state meetings have also given publicity to the association.

During the past year twelve persons have received library appointments through recommendations of the secretary. This is a somewhat smaller number than the year before when about fifteen were helped to positions through the executive office. With two or three exceptions the secretary has made recommendations only when requested to do so.

The work of the publishing board occupies practically three-quarters of the time of the assistant secretary, at least half of the time of the stenographer and order assistant and probably a quarter of the time of the secretary. In consideration of this the publishing board appropriates $2,000 a year to the operating expenses of the office. The work of the publishing board is heavier than ever before in its history; the receipts from sales for the calendar year 1911 being $8,502.88, and for the first five months of 1912 $6,090.16. Further notice of this feature of the work of the office can be found in the report of the A. L. A. publishing board presented in print at this conference.

The secretary wishes here to commend most heartily the faithful services of his fellow-workers at the executive office, Miss Clara A. Simms and Miss Gwendolyn I. Brigham. Their capable and willing service has been a large factor in the work of the association and its publishing board and without such intelligence and loyal help the results of the year could not have been attained. For the active co-operation and good will of the officers and other members of the executive board the secretary is deeply grateful. It has been a pleasure to work under such congenial conditions.

Membership—There are more members in the A. L. A. at the present time than ever before in the history of the association. The secretary has conducted as vigorously as possible a steady campaign for new members, this work not only being the duty of the office but directly in[Pg 78] line with the conviction of the secretary who has recommended membership in the national association to all library workers in the earnest belief that this action is fully as beneficial to the individual as to the association.

When the January membership bills were mailed we enclosed in each envelope an appeal for the member addressed to secure at least one new member for the association. This resulted directly in the addition of over one hundred new members and the secretary wishes to take this opportunity to thank most sincerely and heartily those members who aided in this work. Besides the pleasure of securing these new members it was gratifying to feel that so many old members took such practical interest in aiding the association. In April membership appeals were sent to 1854 members of state library associations who were not members of the A. L. A. This has resulted in a fair increase of membership. In December the secretary sent letters requesting membership to 232 library people who had, according to the news columns of library periodicals, recently changed their positions assumably for the better. In addition to these more or less impersonal appeals the secretary has written a large number of personal letters to those with whom he is either personally acquainted or else with whom he has conducted an office correspondence. As in all other lines of business it is this personal appeal that has been the most effective and has brought the largest percentage of returns.

When the 1911 Handbook went to press last August there were 2046 members in the A. L. A. Of this number 13 have since died and 26 have resigned. Since last August 351 new members have been received making the present total net membership 2,358. Assuming that the usual number, or about 150 persons, will discontinue their membership this summer the net membership in the 1912 Handbook will be approximately 2,208. Of the present total membership 332 are library or institutional members, 24 of whom have joined since last August.

A. L. A. Representatives at Other Conferences—The practice of having an officer or officially appointed delegate represent the association at the state library association meetings has been followed the past year with success fully equal to that in previous years. Since the Pasadena conference there have been 39 state or provincial library meetings, and a speaker representing the A. L. A. has been present at 16 of these. The A. L. A. at present has too small a budget to meet the traveling expenses of these speakers, which have been met either by the state association or by the delegates personally.

The joint conference of Michigan and Ohio at Cedar Point, Ohio, Sept. 2-8, was attended by Mrs. H. L. Elmendorf, president of the American library association, who delivered an address on "Joy Reading," and by the secretary, who spoke informally on the work of the A. L. A. The New York state meeting in New York City, Sept. 25-30, was also attended by both the president and secretary, Mrs. Elmendorf giving her address on "Joy Reading," and the secretary speaking on "What the American Library Association Stands For."

Mrs. Elmendorf was the official delegate to the Keystone State library association meeting at Saegertown, Pa., Oct. 19-21, giving an address on "Joy Reading;" at the District of Columbia library association conference, at Washington, November 8, where she gave a talk on some of the recent books; and at the New York state teachers' association meeting at Albany, Nov. 27-29, speaking on the subject, "School and library co-operation; a concrete example and a little theory."

Mr. J. I. Wyer, Jr., represented the A. L. A. at the state meetings of Iowa, at Mason City, Oct. 10-12; of Illinois, at Joliet, Oct 11-13; and of Missouri at Hannibal, Oct. 18-19; delivering at each meeting an address on the subject, "What Americans Read."

Mr. Chalmers Hadley, librarian of the[Pg 79] Denver public library, and ex-secretary of the A. L. A., was the representative of the American library association at the meeting of the Pacific northwest library association, at Victoria, B. C., Sept. 4-6, giving an address on "The Library and the Community."

The secretary attended the Minnesota meeting, at Lake Minnetonka, Sept. 20-22, the Nebraska meeting at Omaha, Oct. 18-19, and the North Dakota state meeting at Jamestown, Oct. 20-21, giving at each conference an address on "Reaching the People." He also gave an address at the joint session of the Indiana library association and the Indiana library trustees' association, at Indianapolis, Nov. 8th, on "The Legal and Moral Requirements of a Library Trustee."

Dr. Arthur E. Bostwick, librarian of the St. Louis public library, and ex-president of the A. L. A., was the principal out-of-state speaker at the Alabama library association conference, at Tuscaloosa, and at the State University, November 21, 22 and 23. Dr. Bostwick gave two addresses; the first on "The Companionship of Books;" and the second on "The Message of the Library."

Miss Clara F. Baldwin, secretary of the Minnesota public library commission, attended, as A. L. A. delegate, the joint meeting of the Montana state teachers' association and Montana library association, at Great Falls, December 27-29, 1911, and spoke on "The work of a library commission."

Dr. Reuben G. Thwaites, secretary of the Wisconsin State Historical Society, and an ex-president of the A. L. A., officially represented the association at the inauguration of Dr. George E. Vincent, as president of the University of Minnesota, October 18.

Mr. Carl B. Roden, of the Chicago public library, and treasurer of the A. L. A., represented the association and gave an address on "The library as a paying investment," at the Wisconsin library association meeting at Janesville, February 21-23.

The secretary has lectured during the year before the Iowa summer library school, the New York public library school, and the University of Illinois library school. He also addressed the summer library conference at Madison, Wisconsin, on the work of the A. L. A.

Changes in Officers and Committees—Following his election as first vice-president, Mr. Henry E. Legler resigned as non-official member of the executive board and Miss Alice S. Tyler was elected by the board to fill the unexpired term ending in 1912.

Mr. Harrison W. Craver was unable to accept re-appointment as chairman of committee on library administration and Dr. Arthur E. Bostwick was appointed in his place.

Miss Margaret W. Brown resigned from the committee on bookbinding and Miss Rose G. Murray was appointed to succeed her.

Necrology—The association has lost heavily by death during the past year. Our losses include the senior ex-president of the association, who was a life member, two other life members, and several who were, by their regular attendance through many years, familiar figures at our annual conferences. In all 13 members and 4 former members have passed away since we last met in conference. The roll is as follows:

Emma Helen Blair, for several years a member of the staff of the Wisconsin State Historical Library, died September 26, 1911. Miss Blair had performed valuable and important work as an editor and professional indexer, assisting among other things in editing "Jesuit Relations" and the long series of historical documents in Spanish entitled "The Philippine Islands." She had been a member of the A. L. A. continuously since 1896 (No. 1524), and attended the conferences of 1896, 1900 and 1904. See Library journal, 36:603.

Isaac S. Bradley, for many years librarian and assistant superintendent of the[Pg 80] Wisconsin State Historical Society, died April 22, 1912. He joined the A. L. A. in 1890, (No. 790) and had taken great interest in the work of the association. Few faces were more familiar at the conferences than his, as he attended sixteen of the annual meetings, those of 1890, '92, '93, '95, '96, '97, '98, '99, 1900, '01, '02, '03, '04, '06, '07 and '08.

Frederick Morgan Crunden, senior ex-president of the A. L. A., life member, and librarian of the St. Louis public library, from 1877 to 1909, died October 28, 1911. He was president of the A. L. A. 1889-90, presiding over the Fabyans conference of the latter year, and vice-president of the International Library Conference at London in 1897. He joined the A. L. A. in 1878 (No. 129) and became a life member about 1889. To record Mr. Crunden's services to the American library world and to the A. L. A. would be practically to give a history of the association for the past 30 years. He participated in many programs and conference discussions and was one of the best known and beloved of American librarians. Mr. Crunden attended the conferences of 1883 and 1886 to 1905 inclusive, twenty in all, without an absence, except at the San Francisco conference of 1891. He also attended the London international conference in 1897. See A. L. A. Bulletin 6:3; Library journal, 33:569-70; Public libraries, 16:436-38.

Irene Gibson, chief assistant in the publication section of the Library of Congress, died July 9, 1911. She joined the association in 1893 (No. 1114), and became a life member in 1910. She attended the conferences of 1893, '97, 1903, '08, '10. See Library journal, 36:439.

Jessie Sherburne Gile, assistant in charge of the work with schools in the public library of Haverhill, Mass., died October 22, 1911. She joined the A. L. A. in 1902, (No. 2555), and attended the conferences of 1902 and '06.

David L. Kingsbury, assistant librarian of the Minnesota Historical Society of St. Paul, died January 24, 1912. He joined the A. L. A. in 1904 (No. 3079), and attended the conferences of 1904, '08 and '11.

Mrs. Evelyn N. Lane, head of the circulating department of the Springfield (Mass.) City Library, died August 30, 1911. She had been a member of the A. L. A. since 1902 (No. 2454), but so far as recorded attended only the conference of that year.

Robbins Little, for twenty years superintendent of the Astor Library, New York City, died April 13, 1912. He joined the A. L. A. in 1880 (No. 389), and later became a life member. So far as recorded he attended none of the conferences.

Stella Lucas, librarian of the Tainter Memorial Library of Menominee, Wis., died July 30, 1911. She joined the A. L. A. in 1901 (No. 2252), and attended the conferences in 1901, '05 and '08.

Adolph L. Peck, librarian of the Gloversville (N. Y.) Free Library since its foundation in 1880, died October 9, 1911. He joined the A. L. A. in 1883 (No. 466), and was a familiar figure at the annual conferences, having attended those of 1883, '85, '86, '87, '90, '92, '93, '94, '96, '98, 1900 and 1906.

Mrs. Minerva A. Sanders, for many years librarian of the Deborah Cook Sayles Memorial Library, Pawtucket, R. I., died March 20, 1912. Although Mrs. Sanders was an enthusiastic attendant on A. L. A. conferences she never personally joined the association, but was officially entitled to a seat in the conferences by virtue of the institutional membership of her library. She had attended fifteen conferences and was well known to the veterans of the association, who well remember her early advocacy of open shelves and work for children.

L. W. Sicotte, president of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society, of Montreal, died September 5, 1911. He joined the A. L. A. in 1900 (No. 1947). So far as recorded he attended only the conference of 1900 held in his home city.

T. Guilford Smith, of Buffalo, regent of the University of the State of New York, died Feb. 20, 1912. He had been a member of the A. L. A. continuously since 1893[Pg 81] (No. 1193), and attended the conferences of 1897 and 1903.

The following persons at various times were members of the association but were not at the time of their death:

Zu Adams, for many years connected with the Kansas State Historical Society, died April, 1911. She was a member of the A. L. A. for the year 1904 (No. 3203), and attended the St Louis conference.

Caroline A. Farley, formerly librarian of Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Mass., died March 14, 1912. She joined the association in 1896 (No. 1394), and was a member continuously until 1909. So far as recorded she attended none of the conferences.

Stephen B. Griswold, for many years law librarian of the New York state library, died May 4, 1912. He joined the A. L. A. in 1892 (No. 943), and remained a member until 1904. So far as recorded he attended no conferences.

William E. Parker, treasurer of Library Bureau, Cambridge, Mass., died November 2, 1911. He was a member of the A. L. A. continuously from 1889 (No. 757), to 1909, and was secretary of the association in 1890. He attended the conferences of 1889, '90 and '96.

The secretary's report was accepted on motion of Mr. J. I. Wyer, Jr., seconded by Dr. C. W. Andrews.

The treasurer's report which had been previously printed, was read by title, and accepted.


Report of the Treasurer, Jan. 1st to May 31st, 1912.

Balance, Union Trust Company, Chicago, January 1, 1912 $2,005.66
Trustees Endowment Fund Interest 175.00
Trustees Carnegie Fund Interest 1,524.33
George B. Utley, Headquarters collections 4,815.50
A. L. A. Publishing Board, Installment on Hdqrs. expense 1,000.00
Interest on bank balance Jan. to May 17.34 $9,537.83
Checks No. 28-32 (Vouchers No. 437-505)
Distributed as follows:
Bulletin $ 187.90
Conference 15.50
Committees 54.17
Salaries 2,103.10
Miscellaneous 308.33
Trustees Endowment Fund (Life mem.) 150.00
A. L. A. Pub. Bd. Carnegie Fund interest 1,524.33
Balance Union Trust Company, June 1, 1912 $5,194.50
George B. Utley, National Bank of Republic 250.00
Total balance $5,444.50

Respectfully submitted,

C. B. RODEN, Treasurer.

Chicago, June 1, 1912.

The following report of the finance committee was read by Dr. C. W. Andrews, chairman, and accepted.


To the American Library Association:

In accordance with the provisions of the constitution the finance committee submit the following report:

They have duly considered the probable income of the association for the current year and have estimated it at $19,450, and have approved appropriations made by the Executive Board to that amount. The de[Pg 82]tails of the estimated income and of the appropriations are given in the January number of the Bulletin. The committee have also approved the appropriation to the use of the Publishing Board to any excess of sales over the amount estimated. The receipts and expenditures of the Publishing Board have been included in the figures given, so that they now exhibit the total financial resources and expenditures of the association.

On behalf of the committee the chairman has audited the accounts of the treasurer and of the secretary as assistant treasurer. He has found that the receipts as stated by the treasurer agree with the transfer checks from the assistant treasurer, and with the cash accounts of the latter. The expenditures as stated are accounted for by properly approved vouchers. The bank balance and petty cash, as stated, agree with the bank books and petty cash balances. The accounts of the assistant treasurer have been found correct as cash accounts.

On behalf of the committee Mr. E. H. Anderson has examined the accounts of the trustees for 1911, has checked the securities now in their custody, and certifies to the correctness of the figures, to the bonds on hand, and the balance in bank. He finds that at par value the bonds and securities amount to $102,500 for the Carnegie fund, and $7,000 for the Principal account.

He has examined the vouchers for the amounts transmitted to the treasurer and has compared the reports of the treasurer and trustees in regard to the number of new life memberships. He certifies that to the best of his knowledge and belief all of the accounts as submitted to him are correct.

All of which is respectfully submitted for the committee.


The following reports which had been previously printed, were read by title and accepted.

[Pg 83]


With the issuance of the A. L. A. Catalog, 1904-11, which is now in press, the Publishing Board practically completes an important group of bibliographical aids which has been in process of compilation or publication during the past five years. The chief publications embrace the following:

A. L. A. Catalog, 1904-11, to be issued in 1912.

List of subject headings for use in dictionary catalogs, 3rd edition revised by Mary Josephine Briggs. 1911.

Small library buildings; a collection of plans with introduction and notes by Cornelia Marvin. 1908.

Guide to the study and use of reference books, by Alice B. Kroeger. 1908.

Supplement to the above, compiled by Isadore G. Mudge. 1911.

Foreign book lists, embracing to date German, French, Hungarian, Norwegian and Danish, and Swedish.

550 Children's books; a purchase list for public libraries, by Harriet H. Stanley. 1910.

Selected list of music and books about music for public libraries, by Louisa M. Hooper. 1909.

Hints to small libraries, by Mary W. Plummer, 4th edition. 1911.

This list does not include a number of new tracts and handbooks, nor the tentative chapters of an A. L. A. Manual of library economy which it is proposed upon completion to assemble in book form. An index to annual library reports, which is well under way, will probably be put into type before the expiration of the calendar year. In addition, during the quintennial period now closing, the Board has been instrumental in securing the publication of the following important bibliographical aids bearing the imprints of other organizations: Index of economic material in documents of the states of the United States, prepared by Adelaide R. Hasse; A. L. A. Portrait index, edited by W. C. Lane and Nina E. Browne.

New chapters of the Manual of library economy are noted in another paragraph.

Directions for the librarian of a small library (3000 copies), by Zaidee Brown was reprinted for the League of library commissions from the type used by the Free public library commission of Massachusetts.

The library and social movements; a list of material obtainable free or at small expense (1250 copies), compiled by Ono Mary Imhoff, of the Wisconsin free library commission, was reprinted for the League from the type used for the edition of the Wisconsin free library commission.

Subject index to vol. 7 of the A. L. A. Booklist (2500 copies) was printed in June, 1911. Although proportionately valuable to vols. 1-6 the sale has been very unsatisfactory and is not an encouragement to prepare future yearly indexes.

During the past year the following publications have been reprinted: A. L. A. Index to general literature, edited by W. I. Fletcher, 1905 edition (500 copies); Cataloging for small libraries, by Theresa Hitchler (Handbook No. 2) (1000 copies); Binding for small libraries, compiled by the A. L. A. Committee on Bookbinding (Handbook No. 5) (1500 copies); Guide to reference books, by Alice B. Kroeger (1000 copies); and Cutter's Notes from the art section of a library (Tract No. 5) (1000 copies). A new edition of Miss Stearns' Essential in library administration (2000 copies) is now in press. It has been brought up to date by the author.

Publications out of Print—Several publications for which plates were not made have recently become out of print. Magazines for the small library, by Katharine MacDonald Jones, and Graded list of stories for reading aloud, by Harriot E. Hassler were both League publications which had been turned over to the Board. There is a steady demand for them and they should be either brought up to date and reprinted or something else issued on the same subject.

[Pg 84]

Questions of Policy—The work now nearing an end has engaged the attention and absorbed the resources of the Publishing Board to an extent that precluded entry into new fields calling for large expenditures. The editorial work involved in the compilation of the third edition of Subject headings, extending over a period of several years, and the editorial expenses incident to the publication of the A. L. A. Booklist have practically exhausted the current funds available for such service. Beginning with the new fiscal year, the funds derived from sales will doubtless care for all outstanding obligations, and the income from the Carnegie endowment can be devoted to maintain and to further strengthen the Booklist, and to undertake new enterprises.

Out of the great labor involved, and time required in the preparation of Subject headings, and of the A. L. A. Catalog, has developed the suggestion that work for new editions of the former compilation should be continuous, and that the Booklist bears a logical relationship to the A. L. A. Catalog. While the members of the Publishing Board are not fully prepared at this time to urge a definite permanent policy in this connection, an interesting suggestion comes from Mrs. Elmendorf, which well merits consideration in having an important bearing on future development. Her suggestion, in her own words, is this:

"Would it not be well to consider the publication of the A. L. A. Catalog in loose-leaf form on something the same principle as Nelson's Cyclopedia? Different parts of it might then be revised from time to time and the parts or pages might be for sale separately.

"It could be so printed that the pages might be mounted and arranged in a vertical file, headings being suggested at the bottom for arrangement as any library preferred, in regular classed order or in alphabetico-classed. A card index to the vertical file might be made to minimize the difficulties of the classed arrangement. The notes should be attractive notes, letting the presence of the book in this "Choice Catalog" vouch for its worth and in a general way for the treatment, for the choice should be guided by the best popular, readable treatment. I am more and more thinking that effective helps to awakened personal interest are needed and are lacking. The A. L. A. Catalog has always been too bulky, too costly, too much directed to the buyer for effective personal service. I have long been convinced that the greatest popular service can be performed even in the large libraries with quite a limited number of books, I think not more than 20,000, perhaps not more than 10,000. I should like to advertise that many adequately and attractively and watch the results.

"I know that there are many objections and difficulties to be met, and yet I believe that there is the germ of a workable scheme present."

List of Subject Headings—The chief publication of the year has been the new List of subject headings, revised and edited by Mary Josephine Briggs, cataloger of the Buffalo public library. After nearly five years of labor this third edition appeared October 1st, 1911 and has met with a most appreciative reception. 3000 copies were printed as a first edition. 1312 copies have already been sold (to June 1), and a steady demand continues. The reviews have been almost uniformly favorable.

A. L. A. Catalog, 1904-11—The new A. L. A. Catalog, 1904-11, although not yet off the press as this report is written, will be distributed we hope about the date of the Ottawa meeting. It contains a selection of about 3000 of the best books published since the A. L. A. Catalog of 1904, with a list of books now out of print which appeared in that Catalog, and also of new editions. Children's books are listed separately. Five thousand copies are being printed as a first edition, of which nearly 3000 have been subscribed for in advance of publication. From the preface written by the editor, Miss Elva L. Bascom, the following extracts are selected:

"The general plan of the Catalog and the[Pg 85] routine of co-operation in the selection of titles practically coincide with those of the original work except that the whole routine, from the preliminary selection to the final preparation for printing, has remained in the hands of one person.

"All titles have been submitted to the publishers for latest information, so that the list should be dependable for prices.

"The sixth edition (1899) of the Decimal Classification has been followed. This decision was made on the information that the smaller libraries had not to any extent adopted the seventh edition. It is to be hoped that when the time comes to revise the 1904 Catalog there may be at hand a complete revised edition of the "D. C." simplified for the requirements of the smaller libraries.

"The addition of subject headings (not given with the titles in the 1904 Catalog) was determined on before the decision to print only a class list was made. It has been a frequent request from the librarians of smaller libraries, who need help in this matter and who found it difficult to find the headings chosen for the Dictionary list in the 1904 Catalog. The new edition of the List of subject headings has been followed with some additions. Where the subjects of analytics are easily ascertainable, they are only recommended.

"While in the beginning the attempt was made to adhere fairly closely to the proportion of titles to each subject given in the 1904 Catalog, it was found impossible to do so without impairing the usefulness of the list. The output of books in the subjects grouped under Sociology has been so great, and the demand for them so heavy, that it seemed better to include a larger number than was originally planned rather than risk weakening the usefulness of the section. The greatest increase has been in Useful Arts, and this was intentional, since there is no division where the average librarian is more in need of help, nor where it is more difficult to find the "best book" on short notice.

"Two special lists are incorporated in the Catalog, both in answer to definite requests. One is a selection of about 50 titles of religious books specially chosen for Catholic readers. Two preliminary selections were made, one by an assistant in the St. Louis public library at the request of the librarian, Dr. A. E. Bostwick, and a second by the Rev. W. J. McMullen of Pittsburgh, at the request of the librarian of the Carnegie library of Pittsburgh, Mr. H. W. Craver. Both lists were then incorporated into a much more extensive one, covering all subjects, compiled by Mr. William Stetson Merrill, of the Newberry library. The final selection, limited to religious books, was submitted to Archbishop Ireland, and at his request was examined by the Rev. J. A. Ryan, of the St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, Minn."

The second list consists of 50 titles of modern drama and books about it. It was impossible to get any unanimity of opinion on such a brief selection and the editor is aware that it will satisfy a very small proportion of libraries. It is allowed to stand, however, for the suggestion it may give to the perplexed librarian of the smaller library.

"It is hardly to be imagined that any one ever prepared a list of this character and extent without wishing to ask the indulgence of possible critics and to explain why it is so much farther from perfect than it was expected to be. It seems a fairly simple task to select 3000 titles from the books published in eight years, but a list based on the co-operation of about 75 librarians and 100 experts, all fully engaged with their own work, and selected, edited and prepared for printing in the intervals between work having a prior claim, is bound to progress but slowly and to suffer many changes of fortune. One needs to be this sort of clearing house of opinion but once to realize how far apart our libraries are in the matter of book selection. In many cases what is one library's meat seems to be another's poison, and one soon reaches the conviction that there are no "best books" on any subject for a library of any size—if librarians alone are to be consulted. Hap[Pg 86]pily, professors, special students and experts in general are less at variance. It is only fair to say that the Fiction and Children's lists represent librarians' votes only. It is to be doubted if the Fiction, at least, would have retained the proper amount of "light reading" if it had passed through the hands of literature professors. If it does not prove a good "working" selection the editor will be greatly disappointed, for it was on that ground alone that many titles escaped the deleting pencil."

A. L. A. Booklist—With the current number of the A. L. A. Booklist, volume 8 is completed. Since the initial number appeared in January, 1905, the Booklist has come to be regarded as an indispensable tool in every library. There has been no deviation from the original policy of furnishing to the libraries, and the numerous small libraries particularly, an unbiased guide in selection of books currently published. The number of titles listed from the 2500 annually examined, has been expanded from time to time, but the general character of the publication has been retained. Suggestions have come to the Board for change of name, for change of form and size, and for other changes that might lead to a larger use of the list by the general public. While the members of the Board have given careful consideration to the arguments presented, they have deferred reaching a final conclusion until practical unanimity can be arrived at as to the wisdom of the changes sought. A total of 7729 titles has been included in the 2456 pages which comprise the eight volumes of the Booklist:


Volume No. of Titles No. of Pages Nos. in Vol.
1 500 144 8
2 690 256 8
3 681 238 8
4 643 317 9
5 739 197 6
6 1,417 424 10
7 1,583 456 10
8 1,476 424 10
Total 7,729 2,456

Manual of Library Economy—Six chapters of the Manual were printed and ready for distribution previous to the Pasadena conference, namely:

1. American library history, by C. K. Bolton.

2. Library of Congress, by W. W. Bishop.

4. The college and university library, by J. I. Wyer, Jr.

17. Order and accession department, by F. F. Hopper.

22. Reference department, by E. C. Richardson.

26. Bookbinding, by A. L. Bailey.

During the latter half of 1911 the four following chapters were printed, also each in a separate pamphlet, appearing in the order here named:

20. Shelf department, by Josephine A. Rathbone.

15. Branch libraries and other distributing agencies, by Linda A. Eastman.

9. Library legislation, by W. F. Yust.

12. Library administration, by A. E. Bostwick.

Since their publication the following number of copies of each chapter have been sold (to March 31):

Chapter 1 528 copies
2 473
4 589
9 251
12 267
15 475
17 591
20 474
22 617
26 671
Total 4,936

Manuscripts for two more chapters, The library building, by W. R. Eastman, and Proprietary and subscription libraries, by C. K. Bolton, are ready and in the secretary's possession, but funds for printing are not in hand at present, owing to the heavy obligation incurred by the printing of Subject headings and the A. L. A. Catalog, 1904-11, within so short a time of each other. It is hoped, however, to print[Pg 87] these and perhaps some others before the end of the year.

Periodical Cards—The shipments of periodical cards sent out since the close of the last report of the Board (May 1, 1911) have comprised 3,009 titles and 180,241 cards, not including reprints of cards in which errors have been discovered after the cards have been distributed.

Copy is received regularly by the editor, Mr. William Stetson Merrill, every two weeks, on the fifth and twentieth of the month from the following libraries:—Columbia, Harvard, John Crerar, New York and Yale. This copy is edited promptly and prepared for the printer.

Advertising—The Board's publications have been regularly advertised in Library Journal and Public Libraries and in one special number of The Dial. For the rest circularization and correspondence from the headquarters office has been relied upon. During the year over 15,000 pieces of circular matter have been mailed from headquarters office in the interest of our publications.

Particular effort has been made to advertise widely the new List of subject headings and the A. L. A. Catalog. For the latter in addition to circularizing the libraries descriptive postal cards were addressed to 7,000 high school and normal school principals. From these circulars only about 100 orders for the Catalog can be directly traced. It seems plain that it does not pay to advertise our publications among the high schools. Slips advertising the Catalog were sent to the librarians of all the leading colleges, requesting that these slips be distributed to members of the faculty interested in book selection. This resulted in getting orders from many college libraries addressed, but very few from the teaching staff. Experience would indicate that libraries and librarians are the only classes to which advertising can profitably be addressed. We have endeavored to keep the state library commissions regularly informed on all our publications and all of them which issue monthly or quarterly bulletins list our new publications therein, generally with appreciative annotations and descriptions. Exhibits of publications have been made at several state library meetings visited by the secretary.

During the past year the principal libraries of England, Scotland and Ireland have been circularized with lists of our publications, and a very gratifying number of orders have been received as a result. When the revised edition of Subject headings appeared copies were sent to nearly all the library periodicals of the various countries of Europe with the result that they reviewed the book and quite a number of continental orders have been directly traceable to these reviews. Copies of Subject headings and the new A. L. A. Catalog have been ordered from almost every important country in the world.

This report would be incomplete without hearty acknowledgment of the excellent work of the Secretary, Mr. George B. Utley. To his good business judgment and careful and judicious management is due in great measure the splendid financial showing recorded in the accompanying fiscal statement. The affairs of the Board have never been in better shape than now. The sales are increasing encouragingly, the inventory shows a salable stock with less "dead" material than at any time for years back, and the office organization is now well systematized and effective.

HENRY E. LEGLER, Chairman.

[Pg 88]


Cash Receipts June 1, 1911, to May 31, 1912.
Balance, June 1, 1911 $2,337.70
Interest on Carnegie Fund 4,524.33
Receipts from publications:
   Cash sales $3,781.47
   Payments on account 7,690.89 11,472.36
Interest on bank deposits 4.53
Sundries 1.98 $18,340.90
Payments June 1, 1911, to May 31, 1912.
Cost of publications:
   A. L. A. Booklist $1,940.35
   Library and social movements (1250 copies) 25.50
   Supplement to Guide to reference books, 1909-10 (3000 copies) 220.12
   Subject headings, second edition reprint (200 copies) 132.30
   Subject index to Booklist Vol. 7 (2500 copies) 223.00
   Copyright on Hints to small libraries 1.03
   Copyright on Supplement to Guide 1.03
   Directions to librarian of a small library (3000 copies) 76.49
   Government documents in small libraries, reprint (1000 copies) 25.50
   Manual of library economy, Chap. 1, 2, 4, 17, 22, 26 376.55
   Manual of library economy, Chap. 20 48.80
   Manual of library economy, Chap. 15 62.80
   Manual of library economy, Chap. 9 43.40
   Manual of library economy, Chap. 12 37.55
   Binding for small libraries, reprint (1500 copies) 29.00
   Reprints from Bulletin 40.91
   Cataloging for small libraries, reprint (1000 copies) 64.00
   Library statistics tables 2.25
   A. L. A. Index to general literature (part of reprint) 108.00
   Notes on the art section of a library, reprint (1000 copies) 20.00
   Guide to the use of reference books, reprint (1000 copies) 259.08
   Subject headings, third edition (3000 copies) 3,518.96
   Periodical cards 1,516.38 $8,773.00
Addressograph machine supplies 21.84
Furniture and fixtures 103.00
Advertising 282.15
Postage and express 631.49
Rent at Madison office 300.00
Travel 281.35
Salaries 3,670.00
Expense at headquarters 2,000.00
Supplies and incidentals 1,066.36
Printing (stationery, etc.) 43.25
Balance on hand, May 31, 1912 1,168.46 $18,340.90
[Pg 89]


April 1, 1911, to March 31, 1912.
A. L. A. Booklist, regular subscriptions 1115 $1,115.00
   Additional subs, at reduced rate of 50c 141 70.50
   Bulk subscriptions paid 1,083.65
   Extra copies 1659 242.78 $2,511.93
Handbook 1, Essentials in library administration 492 71.63
Handbook 2, Cataloging for small libraries 677 89.15
Handbook 3, Management of traveling libraries 88 12.73
Handbook 4, Aids in book selection 42 6.23
Handbook 5, Binding for small libraries 139 21.35
Handbook 6, Mending and repair of books 602 78.21
Handbook 7, U. S. Government documents 652 84.87 364.17
Tract 2, How to start a library 80 4.00
Tract 3, Traveling libraries 26 1.30
Tract 8, A village library 219 7.65
Tract 9, Library school training 196 9.55
Tract 10, Why do we need a public library? 390 13.50 36.00
Foreign Lists, German 100 42.25
Foreign Lists, French 150 26.09
Foreign Lists, French fiction 130 4.25
Foreign Lists, Hungarian 95 9.70
Foreign Lists, Norwegian and Danish 98 16.71
Foreign Lists, Swedish 105 18.56 117.56
Reprints, Arbor day list 30 1.50
Reprints, Bird books 33 3.30
Reprints, Christmas Bulletin 65 3.25
Reprints, Library buildings 139 13.78
Reprints, National library problem today 26 1.30
Reprints, Rational library work with children 64 3.20 26.33
Periodical cards, subscriptions 1,197.45
Periodical cards, Old South Leaflets 15.75
Periodical cards, Reed's Modern Eloquence sets 9 22.50
Periodical cards, Smithsonian reports set 1 15.00 1,250.70
A. L. A. Manual of library economy:
   Chap.      I. American library history 528 46.73
   Chap.    II. Library of Congress 473 34.60
   Chap.    IV. College and university library 589 52.67
   Chap.    IX. Library legislation 251 18.96
   Chap.  XII. Administration of a public library 267 20.44
   Chap.    XV. Branch libraries 475 32.71
   Chap. XVII. Order and accession department 591 46.25
   Chap.    XX. Shelf department 474 34.65
   Chap. XXII. Reference department 617 55.54
   Chap. XXVI. Bookbinding 671 53.78 396.33
A. L. A. Index to general literature 31 177.00
Catalog rules 486 271.06
Children's reading (now out of print) 6 1.48
Girls and women and their clubs 57 13.55
Guide to reference books 686 888.25
Guide to reference books, Supplement 761 181.50
Hints to small libraries 203 136.69
Larned, Literature of American history 29 160.47
Larned, Literature of American history, Supplement 79 64.21
List of music and books about music 82 20.12[Pg 90]
List of editions selected for economy in bookbuying 126 30.99
List of 550 children's books 346 55.85
List of subject headings, 2nd edition 218 397.45
List of subject headings, 3rd edition 1125 2,717.00
Plans of small library buildings 98 120.52
Reading for the young 9 6.61
Reading for the young, Supplement 16 3.94
Subject index to A. L. A. Booklist, v. 1-6 260 66.23
Subject index to A. L. A. Booklist, v. 7 961 84.49 5,397.40
League publications:
   Anniversaries and holidays 13 3.25
   Directions for librarian of a small library 1186 54.53
   Graded list of stories for reading aloud 335 32.71
   Library and social movement 1000 31.63
   Magazines for the small library 313 29.38 151.50
   A. L. A. Bulletin and Proceedings 258 87.96
   A. L. A. Bulletin, Hopper reprint 462 11.85 99.81
Total sale of publications $10,351.73
[Pg 91]


To the President and Members of the American Library Association:

The Trustees of the Endowment Funds in presenting their annual report for the year ending January 15, 1912, desire to say that there has been no change in the securities held by the Board. The market price of most of them remaining about the same, changes could not be made to the advantage and desired betterment of the fund.

The Trustees are pleased to state that all interest has been promptly paid.

Mr. E. H. Anderson of the New York public library was again deputed to audit the accounts of the Board and inspect the securities, and he gives to the Trustees, as the result of that examination, the following letter:

Dear Mr. Appleton:

Enclosed herewith are the vouchers from Mr. Roden, Treasurer of the American Library Association, and the receipt for the rent of the safety deposit box in the vaults of the Union Trust Company. I have written the chairman of the Finance Committee that I have examined these vouchers and found them in accordance with your type written statement.

The four type written sheets which you gave me yesterday I have checked as correct as to the bonds in your custody, as to the vouchers referred to above, and as to the cash balance on hand. I have certified to Mr. Andrews, the chairman of the Committee on Finance, that to the best of my knowledge and belief the reports contained on these sheets are correct.

Very sincerely,

(Signed) E. H. ANDERSON.

The General Endowment Fund has been increased during the year by the taking of seven life memberships by the persons named, adding to the Fund, $175.00.

Respectfully submitted,


Trustees of A. L. A. Endowment Fund.


Cash donated by Mr. Andrew Carnegie $100,000.00
Invested as follows:
June 1, 1908 5,000 4% Am. Tel. & Tel. Bonds 96-1/2 $ 4,825.00
June 1, 1908 10,000 4% Am. Tel. & Tel. Bonds 94-3/8 9,437.50
June 1, 1908 15,000 4% Cleveland Terminal 100        15,000.00
June 1, 1908 10,000 4% Seaboard Air Line 95-1/2 9,550.00
June 1, 1908 15,000 5% Western Un. Tel. 108-1/2 15,000.00
June 1, 1908 15,000 3½% N. Y. Cen. (Lake Shore Col) 90        13,500.00
June 1, 1908 15,000 5% Mo. Pacific 104-7/8 15,000.00
May 3, 1909 15,000 5% U. S. Steel 104        15,000.00
Aug. 6, 1909 1,500 U. S. Steel 106-7/8 1,500.00
July 27, 1910 1,000 U. S. Steel 102-1/2 1,000.00
102,500 99,812.50
Jan. 15, 1912 Union Trust Co. on deposit 187.50

In addition to the above we have on hand at the Union Trust Company $150 profit on the sale of the Missouri Pacific Bonds, which we have carried to a special surplus account.

[Pg 92]


January 15, Balance $2,487.76
February 15, Int. N. Y. Central 262.50
March 1, Int. Missouri Pacific 375.00
March 1, Int. Seaboard Line 200.00
May 2, Int. U. S. Steel 437.50
May 2, Int. Cleveland Terminal 300.00
July 5, Int. Amer. Tel. & Tel. Co. 300.00
July 5, Int. Western Union Tel. Co. 375.00
August 9, Int. N. Y. Central 262.50
September 1, Int. Seaboard Line 200.00
September 1, Int. Missouri Pacific 375.00
November 1, Int. U. S. Steel 437.50
November 1, Int. Cleveland Terminal 300.00
December 31, Int. Union Trust Co. 54.33
January 2, Int. Western Union Tel. Co. 375.00
January 2, Int. Am. Tel. & Tel. Co. 300.00 $7,042.09
March 2, Carl B. Roden, Treas. $2,487.76
August 15, Carl B. Roden, Treas. 2,000.00
October 6, Carl B. Roden, Treas. 1,000.00
December 27, Rent Safe Deposit Co. 30.00
January 15, 1912 Cash on hand 1,524.33 $7,042.09


January 15, On hand, Bonds and Cash $7,111.84
April 1, Life membership Mary E. Hawley 25.00
April 1, Life membership Mary F. Isom 25.00
May 1, Life membership H. W. Craver 25.00
August 9, Life membership M. S. Dudgeon 25.00
August 28, Life membership F. K. Walter 25.00
October 4, Life membership R. G. Thwaites 25.00
November 1, Life membership R. B. Stern 25.00 $7,286.84
Invested as follows:
June 1, 2 U. S. Steel Bonds  98½ $1,970.00
October 19, 2 U. S. Steel Bonds 102-5/8 2,000.00
November 5, 1½ U. S. Steel Bonds 101 1,500.00
July 27, 1½ U. S. Steel Bonds 102½ 1,500.00
January 15, 1912 Cash on hand, Union Trust Co. 316.84 $7,286.84


January 15, Cash on hand $448.41
May 2, Int. U. S. Steel 175.00
November 1, Int. U. S. Steel 175.00 $798.41
February 15, C. B. Roden, Treas. $448.41
July 5, C. B. Roden, Treas. 175.00
January 15, 1912 Cash on hand 175.00 $798.41
[Pg 93]


During the year the special library edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, mentioned in last year's report, and at various times in the library periodicals, was placed on the market under considerable difficulty. As planned at first, three special library editions were all to be bound in England and imported for libraries by the publishers. Unfortunately, it was discovered after orders had been taken that the publishers could not, under the copyright law, import any copies, and notices to that effect were sent to libraries that had ordered these editions. The publishers then found that the cloth bound set, according to the A. L. A. specifications, could be manufactured in this country and again librarians received communications from the publishers. Owing to these various communications from the publishers, together with notices from this committee, many librarians remained without knowledge as to the real state of affairs.

At the present time the committee understands that the cloth bound set, with special reinforcements, can be obtained directly from the publishers in this country, and that sets bound by Mr. Chivers can be obtained directly from him. Several complaints of the new bindings have come to the committee, but upon investigation, it was found in every case that the complaints were due to imperfect or torn pages and not to defective binding. Undoubtedly many imperfect sheets were passed in the first copies that were sold. We have reason to believe, however, that later sets have been more carefully collated. Complaints about the cloth binding have also been received from large libraries. As a matter of fact this edition was not intended for large libraries. From the beginning it has been stated that the cloth edition was for the use of small libraries. Large libraries were expected to get one of the leather editions.

It is quite evident that publishers are beginning to realize that good binding, especially of reference books, is an asset of considerable value when dealing with libraries. During the year the committee has several times been called upon for specifications and suggestions for the binding of large reference books. Perhaps the most noteworthy instance was that of the Century Company, which submitted samples of binding for the new edition of the Century Dictionary. The Century Company and the J. F. Tapley Company, of New York, which did the binding, adopted various methods of strengthening the volumes, and the samples submitted included not only all of the committee's specifications, but several others. The samples were so good and the honesty of purpose of the Century Company and the J. F. Tapley Company so evident that the committee felt no hesitation in stating that the result was the best piece of commercial (machine bound) binding ever brought to its attention. Visits of two members of the committee to the bindery showed that the specifications in every case were being lived up to. The committee, furthermore, obtained full description and specifications of this binding, which, with certain modifications, can be used as a standard for this kind of work.

Specifications for strong binding were also submitted to H. W. Wilson Company for the binding of the new volume of U. S. Catalog; to Robert Glasgow, of Toronto, for a set entitled "Makers of Canada"; and to the Review of Reviews Company for the "Photographic history of the Civil war." The specifications, as submitted, were adopted by the Robert Glasgow Co., and the Review of Reviews Co. The H. W. Wilson Co. adopted them with some slight modifications which met with the approval of the committee.

So far as the reinforcing of fiction and juvenile books by publishers is concerned, matters stand about the same as they have been for the past two years. The plan has practically been dropped by all publishers. In a few cases, books which the publishers have discovered are in constant demand by libraries, are kept in stock in special binding. Examples of these are the Little Cousin Series, published by Page,[Pg 94] and the Peter Rabbit Series, by Warne. The number of titles of such books is very few.

It must not be supposed, however, that because the publishers have stopped doing this, such books are unobtainable. On the contrary, it is easier to get reinforced publishers' covers than ever before, and with the surety that the work is well done, which was not always the case when they were bound by the publishers. Those who wish to use the attractive publishers' covers, and at the same time have a book which will outlast the period of extreme popularity, can do so by ordering from one of the several firms which do work of this kind. In most cases the increased cost is greater than was the case when the books were done by the publishers, but the work is far better done and in the opinion of the committee the increased value more than compensates for the increased cost. Furthermore, the books are not injured for rebinding. In fact, in some cases the sewing of the book is designed to last during its lifetime. When the first cover wears out, all that is necessary is to re-case it.

While discussing the question of reinforced bindings it may not be amiss again to call attention to the special binding of the Everyman's Library. Experience in the use of these volumes only emphasizes their serviceability, attractiveness and cheapness. Whenever possible all replacements should be made from this collection.

During the year the publishers of two periodicals, Everybody's and World's Work, adopted a scheme of binding which necessitated cutting off the backs of signatures. It was apparent at once that this scheme made it necessary for libraries which bound these periodicals to have them overcast in sewing. Since few binders understand the proper method of oversewing and moreover generally charge extra for it, many libraries were put to much inconvenience and added expense. Protests from this committee to the publishers were promptly heeded, and as a result all libraries now receive the regular edition with folded sheets.

The correspondence of the committee has largely increased. Inquiries are frequently received from publishers, from binders and from librarians. Inquiries from librarians cover all phases of binding, and not infrequently the committee is asked for opinions as to the work of certain binders. In answering these questions about individual binding the committee has been at a disadvantage, because, except in the case of a very few binders, it has no definite knowledge of their work. To remedy this difficulty the committee has, with some hesitation, planned to establish a collection which shall include samples of the work of all binders which make a specialty of library binding. These samples are to be four in number and will show methods of binding fiction, juvenile books and periodicals. In addition to these samples binders are asked to answer 24 questions which cover methods, materials, and prices. It is hoped that, with these samples and answers to these questions, the committee will be in a position to form more definite opinions about the work of any binder, and librarians who ask for opinions will receive answers based on actual knowledge.

The scheme is yet in its infancy but already samples have been received from several binders, and letters from some of them express approval. The committee realizes that good binding may be done in several ways, and while members of the committee may have individual preferences, every effort will be made to give impartial opinions. Certainly no binder who does good work need fear unjust criticism. Librarians can help in this work by,

1. Sending names of library binders.

2. Urging binders to comply with the requests of the committee.

3. Asking for opinions when the collection is complete.

In view of the facts outlined above, it seems reasonable to suppose that one of the committee's most valuable functions is to act in an advisory capacity, not only to librarians, but to publishers and binders. For this reason all librarians are urged to[Pg 95] submit their binding problems to the committee.

Magazine Binders

During the year a number of varieties of magazine binders have been examined. Several firms failed to respond to a request for a sample or did so too late. Others doubtless exist of which the committee has not heard. The result of study of this subject during the past three years, aided by the chapter dealing with it in Dana's "Book binding for libraries," Edition 2, is here set forth.

Of course no one binder is best for all libraries or for all requirements of one library. Each must decide for itself by noting the condition of its magazines when they are ready for the bindery whether any binder at all is needed. A library which has no money to spend on the more durable covers or dislikes them for any reason may use one of the methods described in the chapter in Dana referred to above. A method, used to some extent by the Brooklyn public library, consists, in brief, of putting on a brown paper cover and securing it by paste or brass staples to a bunch of advertising pages at front and back.

The best inexpensive binder is that known as the "Springfield." It can be made in any bindery, consisting simply of a cover with a stiff strip at the back in which are three eyelet holes, one at each end and one in the middle. The magazine is laced in with tape or shoe string. This method damages the magazine much less than others similar, some of which require drilling holes through from side to side. In principle the binder made by Cedric Chivers, Brooklyn, N. Y., is a more durable form of the Springfield and is heartily recommended.

Some libraries desire a binder from which a magazine cannot readily be stolen. This is a matter of local opinion. The best for this purpose appear to be the new "Bull dog" binder just put on the market by Gaylord Brothers, Syracuse, N. Y., and the "Buchan" binder mentioned by Mr. Dana. All such binders are heavy, clumsy, and slow in operation. For those magazines deceitfully put together without sewing or staples the "Bull dog" and the "Buchan" binder will both give satisfaction.

Among a multitude of other binders the best type is that whose mechanism consists of a stout rod firmly fastened though playing free at one end, and fastened at the other by a simple catch. Many built on this principle are too clumsy. A few are needlessly flimsy. Of those examined the best are the following:—

"Universal" made by J. J. Ralek, New York City.

"A. L. B." made by American Library Bindery, Philadelphia.

"Torsion" made by Barrett Bindery Co., Chicago.

For covering binders various materials have been used. For long service and good appearance we recommend pig skin back and keratol sides. Cow hide and buckram are cheaper and will not last as long. Canvas is ill suited for this purpose.

Respectfully submitted,

A. L. BAILEY, Chairman.



During the past year the A. L. A. Committee on Book buying has been negotiating with a Committee of the American Booksellers' Association with a view to bringing about a better understanding between the booksellers and the libraries.

Upon the request of the Committee of the Booksellers' Association, your committee made a statement of the situation, which was delivered to them in October, 1911. The booksellers' committee prepared a reply to this statement, which was delivered to your committee in April, 1912.

A meeting of the two committees was held on Thursday, May 6th, 1912, in Cleveland, but it was without any definite result. It was agreed that the two committees report progress to their respective associations and that they submit to their ex[Pg 96]ecutive committee the statement and reply referred to, with a report upon the present situation and to ask to be allowed to continue the negotiations if the executive committee thought it wise to do so.

WALTER L. BROWN, Chairman,


The following report is the result, in part, of a question referred to the Committee on Co-ordination by a meeting at the Pasadena conference.

The question was, Whether libraries are justified in making a moderate charge in connection with every volume lent, sufficient in the long run, to cover the administrative expense involved in looking up and sending the volume asked for: not as payment for the use of the book, but to relieve the lender of an undue burden of expense, unavoidably attendant upon the system of lending with some freedom to other libraries.

In the opinion of the committee this question could be most profitably discussed only in connection with the whole subject of inter-library loans. It is clear, both from past and present developments, and from the direction these developments are taking that inter-library loans are, as yet, merely in their infancy. It is clear, too, that such loans increase the efficiency of libraries which participate in them. Finally, it is evident that there is a marked tendency not simply to multiply library loans, but to enlarge the field within which it is considered appropriate to effect them—taking "field" both in a geographical sense, and as relating to different classes of borrowers. Accordingly, it is not surprising that additional machinery and new methods should be required, and that some at least, should already have been devised. Also, it is safe to predict that this growth in machinery and in methods will continue.

Therefore, the Committee on Co-ordination has thought that it might be helpful, at the present time, to attempt a discussion (which will partake of the character of a symposium) in regard to the purpose and scope of inter-library loans. It is hoped that, as a result of this and subsequent discussion, it may become practicable to formulate some general rules for the conduct of inter-library loans. If a code of such rules could be framed, even granting that the provisions would, of course, bind no library against its will, one more step would yet have been taken in the direction of systematizing and extending a process which has already produced excellent results, and bids fair in the near future, to modify library practice in important particulars.

While the purpose of inter-library loans is uniform in the main, it varies to some extent, with the nature and duties of the participating libraries.

Neglecting minor differences, such libraries fall into two groups: Reference libraries, including libraries of colleges and universities; and libraries whose work is of a more popular character; or, to state the matter in terms of readers: Libraries, most of whose readers are "serious," and libraries, some, at least, of whose readers are not so very serious.

This distinction is not a sharp one, yet it produces wide divergence in the point of view, and in the practice of these two classes of libraries. A comparison of the third contribution to this symposium with the first and second will make this matter evident. Both points of view are accurate, and varieties of practice, provided only that they exist among the members of a comprehensive system, are the best guarantees of the ultimate achievement of great results.

C. H. GOULD, Chairman.


The purpose of inter-library loans is to make available the unusual material in one library to an enquirer who cannot visit it in person and does not find available the identical material in some institution nearer at hand or which has a nearer constitutional duty to serve him. The service to him must be subject to the convenience of the constituency of the lending library[Pg 97] and can be expected only if the risk and expense of it shall be met by the borrowing library in his behalf.

1. It is not to be expected therefore that a library will lend either (1) books which if not in the applicant library, are within the ordinary duty of the latter to supply; or (2) books in constant use among its own readers; or (3) books for the general reader as against the investigator.

2. It is not to be expected that material will be sought the transportation of which, even with the best precautions, involves a necessary injury,—as for instance, by strain,—or a contingent injury in its use outside of the walls of the institution owning it by persons over whose use it has no supervision. A stipulation for its use within the walls of the borrowing library, while entirely reasonable, may not cover the case completely, as the responsibility for the care of the material cannot, by a mere stipulation for care, be transferred from the owning to the borrowing library.

3. Subject to 2, the important service in inter-library loans being to make generally available the unusual book for the unusual need of the serious investigator, the fact that the book needed is either rare, or part of a set which may be marred by the loss of a single volume, or that it is even unique, as for instance a manuscript, ought not to be conclusive against the loan, for it is just through such material that the inter-library loans may render their most important service.

4. The applicant library should refrain from applying (a) for ordinary books which are within its constitutional duty to supply to its immediate readers, or (b) for unusual books requested for a purpose which it knows to be trivial, or by a person of whose discretion and seriousness it is not assured, or (c) for books which, within the legitimate provisions of a loan are to be had from some institution nearer at hand, or having a nearer constitutional duty to it and to the constituency which it serves, or (d) for books which upon their face must be in constant use in any library possessing them.

5. The lending library may reasonably stipulate: (a) That the entire cost of the service shall be met by the borrowing library, and may look to this library alone as responsible both for the safety and prompt return of the material and for the replacement of the material if lost or damaged, and (b) it may reasonably include as part of the expense: (1) packing; (2) carriage; (3) insurance; (4) the fraction, if estimable, which the particular loan should bear of the expense of administering the service. (c) As to the duration of the loan: that it shall not exceed the period of its local loans, with an allowance added for the transit both ways; and the lender may reasonably couple with this a right of summary recall. It may also impose penalties for delays in returning material, or for carelessness in its use or in repacking. It may of course reserve the right to decline further loans to a library which has shown indifference in these regards, or whose applications have been incessantly frivolous. (d) It may of course limit the number of volumes lent to any one library or for the use of any one investigator at any one time. (e) It may, without prejudicing applications from other institutions, deny the application of any particular library, because of lack of assurance as to the safety or intelligent use of the material if lent. Its decisions in this regard resting often upon the impressions of a general experience, ought to be unembarrassed. It should not therefore be called upon to explain them.



A statement of general policy in regard to inter-library loans

The primary purpose of inter-library loans is the promotion of scholarship by placing books not commonly accessible and not in use in one library, temporarily at the service of a scholar who has access to some other library. It should not be allowed to interfere with the reasonable and customary use of books by home readers, and the extent to which sending can be carried depends on the local conditions[Pg 98] of the lending library, the importance of the service to be rendered, the character of the books desired, the distance to which they are to be sent, and a number of other circumstances.

The larger university libraries, having large numbers of professors, advanced students and other professional scholars immediately dependent on them, may find it necessary to restrict the scope of their loans in justice to their local constituency, while others may rightly extend the system beyond the limits indicated, so as to meet the wants of readers in public libraries, teachers in high schools, and others.

Libraries should not be expected to lend text-books for general class use, popular manuals or books for the general reader, inexpensive books and those which can easily be procured through the book-trade, books to assist in school or college debates, or books for ordinary purposes of school or undergraduate study. Neither should they lend books which are likely to be in frequent demand by their own readers, or books which they do not lend at home on the ground that they ought always to be accessible on the shelves. In this respect practice will naturally differ widely, one library being ready to lend books which another would consider it necessary to keep always at hand.

Caution should be exercised in lending volumes of newspapers, periodicals or society transactions and parts of expensive sets, since such volumes, if lost, are disproportionately expensive and sometimes practically impossible to replace. Moreover, periodicals and society publications are often unexpectedly wanted for the purpose of verifying references, etc., and students may justly expect that they will always be accessible with a minimum of delay.

The borrowing library should bear the expense of transportation both ways, and additional charges, if required, for the insurance of specially valuable books. It should be financially responsible for the replacement of books lost or injured in transit.

Borrowing libraries should take pains to borrow from sources nearest at hand or most naturally under obligation to lend.

Titles of books wanted should be given with all practicable precision, both to insure getting the very thing asked for and to make the labor of finding the book as light as possible for the lending library.

Applications for loans should always be made through the librarian of the borrowing library and not directly by the professor or student for whose advantage the loan is desired. If books are lent on direct request of the individual, not transmitted through the library with which he is associated, this library cannot be held responsible for the prompt and safe return of the books or for replacing them if lost in transit. Librarians are therefore justified in declining to lend on direct request and in insisting that application must be made through the librarian.

A library is justified in placing a limit on the number of volumes which it may be expected to lend at one time to a single institution—say five or ten volumes.

Loans should be made for a definite period, but the length of this period naturally varies with the occasion. The period begins with the despatch of the book from the lending library and ends with the day on or before which the book should be sent off by the borrowing library. If an extension of time is desired, it should be asked for long enough in advance of the book's being due to enable an answer to be received. Books may always be recalled by the lending library in advance of the date originally named if needed for the reasonable service of its home readers.

In lending rare books, large volumes, portfolios of plates, etc., a library may be expected to insist that they must be used only within the building of the borrowing library. In some cases, it may be advisable to put the same restriction on all books lent.

Fines may properly be charged and collected for books detained beyond the allotted time without request for extension. Repeated failure to return books promptly,[Pg 99] or negligence in packing them safely is sufficient ground for declining to make further loans. When books are sent out or returned, separate notice of the fact should be sent by mail, stating date of shipment, mode of conveyance, etc. It is recommended that blank forms prepared for this purpose be used. Applications for loans may also most conveniently be made on suitable blanks.

Libraries that are called upon for frequent loans are justified in making a moderate charge in connection with every volume lent, sufficient in the long run to cover the administrative expense involved in looking up and sending off volumes asked for. This charge is not to be considered as a payment for the use of the book, but is intended simply to relieve the lending library of an undue burden of expense unavoidably attendant upon the system of lending with some freedom to other libraries.

It is recommended that libraries arrange so that the services of some competent person may be regularly available at a moderate charge for looking up information, verifying references, etc., when the time and labor involved in such inquiries seem to exceed what may reasonably be demanded of the library staff. The employment of such a person to obtain specific information will also occasionally serve in place of making a loan.

It is also suggested that the possession of a cameragraph, for making rotary bromide prints, or other similar device by which facsimile copies can be made inexpensively, would often enable a library to send a satisfactory copy of portions of a rare book or manuscript in place of lending the original.



Inter-library loans

I. Purpose.

(1) Prompt service. (a) The book, if purchased, might have to come from a greater distance and so cause delay. (b) The book, if out of print, would take time to find or might not be possible for an agent to locate for a very long time, if at all.

(2) Economical service. (a) The library that loans the book. Rather than have a book, that has cost time and money, stand idle on the shelves, the library owning it would be better repaid for the expenditure if the book were used by more people. (b) The library that borrows the book. Rather than purchase a book which would seldom be requested, it would be better to borrow it, and use one's funds and time and shelf room for books that would be in constant demand. For example: take two special lines of library service here in California at the present time.

(1) Books for the blind. Aside from a small collection in the San Francisco reading room and library for the blind for the local blind, and the small collection for the students in the Berkeley California institute for the education of the blind and the deaf, the state library has almost all the books and magazines used by the blind of the state. It would not be economical for other libraries or individuals to undertake to carry on this work, so the state library discourages anyone else buying such books and undertakes to furnish them to anyone needing them. If many want to read certain periodicals they are duplicated several times and sent in order to the various blind borrowers.

(2) Medical books and periodicals. The Lane medical library in San Francisco and the Barlow medical library in Los Angeles have perhaps the best medical collections in the state. The state library of course has and is building up a collection in this line for the use of the whole state, but it often borrows from the first two mentioned.

II. Scope.

There will be no limit, apparently, to the scope of inter-library loans in California. Each library at present makes an effort to loan anything asked of it by any other library. For example, the state library buys no fiction, but from the union catalogs of the county free libraries which is located at the state library, it is possible[Pg 100] to tell where a certain book is located and to direct one to the other for a rush request of fiction.

Rare books are loaned by library to library and used by the borrower at the library.

Newspapers it is not necessary now to loan as by cameragraphing the needed extract from them, the expense, wear and tear, and risk of such loans are avoided. The same applies to articles in unbound or bound periodicals. Cameragraphing an article in a periodical also makes unnecessary the duplicating of certain periodicals because of some especially needed article. Cameragraphing is also economical in that it keeps the files in the library and so more material is always available for reference use.

Even reference books, however, are loaned or borrowed frequently to meet certain needs. So the scope is of necessity a matter of judgment of the particular case in question.

III. Extent of borrower's financial responsibility.

When a library borrows, it takes the financial responsibility, in case of loss or injury, and if the borrower is an individual, he takes it. The State library pays transportation on all loans to and from the county free libraries, and the county free library on all loans within the county. Loans to other libraries are usually paid—sending charge by the library sending the book and returning charge by the library returning the book.

The expense of administering the service of inter-library loans is not being considered here in California, and we believe that question will never arise here, no matter how great the demands on each other grow to be.

The spirit of co-operation is growing so rapidly here that the rivalry seems to be more who has and can give more rather than who can take more.

IV. Order in which libraries should be applied to for a loan.

There is no order here in California except that almost all libraries apply first to the State library and the State library being naturally the best informed on the special lines of strength in the various libraries in California, can request the library that is either known to have it or is likely to have it, to forward it to the library needing it. This is already possible for periodical files as there is at the State library a union list of periodical files in California libraries. Periodicals which are not in any California library, are borrowed with least loss of time, from the Library of Congress or Surgeon General's library.

V. Average duration of loans.

It would not be economical to plan a time limit on loans, as usually the library requesting it states the time the book will be needed and it is, if possible, loaned for that period. As soon as the library borrowing it is through with it, even if sooner than the time it expected to need it, the book is returned. Any book must of necessity be subject to recall by the library loaning it. There cannot well be a limit to the number of volumes loaned at any one time. That would naturally depend upon the need. No fines or other penalties for negligence in returning loans are necessary where there is a spirit of perfect co-operation, as librarians all understand the necessity of system, and in California at least, show great consideration for each other.

VI. Forms of application for loans; notice of shipment, etc.

The forms used by the State library and county free libraries in California have been found to be perfectly satisfactory. Requests are sent in to the State library in duplicate. One is returned with the disposition made of it written on it and the duplicate is kept on file as a record at the State library. If not in the State library a similar duplicated request is sent to some other library.

VII. Inter-library loans in California.

We in California find that a request is never refused and that requesting such loans in itself makes a library proud of its strength and of its place in the sys[Pg 101]tem and builds up in this way a strong feeling for co-operation.

The rules to be adopted for inter-library loans in California will be those that experience shows are necessary, and are likely to give the best results for California conditions.



The Committee on Co-operation with the National Education Association is in a position to report that an appointment has been made by the executive board of the National Education Association of a representative of the American Library Association to speak at the third general session of its meeting in Chicago on the place of the library in educational movements. The committee feels that this recognition of the work of the library on the part of the National Education Association is a decided victory, as for many years the authorities of the National Education Association have courteously but constantly turned away from the request made by the American Library Association committee for a representative on their program.

A selection was made of Dr. Arthur E. Bostwick, librarian of the St. Louis public library, to present the library cause before the National Education Association. It is needless to add with full assurance, that the matter is safe in his hands.

At the invitation of the president of the library department of the National Education Association, Mr. E. W. Gaillard of New York, the committee has endeavored as best it could in the short time allowed, owing to the lateness of the invitation, to make an exhibit of American Library Association material, booklists and material illustrative of the relations between libraries and schools, to be in place at the National Education Association meeting to be held in Chicago.

It seems, therefore, that the work of the past year is one that should afford satisfaction in the recognition that the American Library Association has received from the National Education Association.

President George E. Vincent, of the University of Minnesota, who will deliver an address at the Ottawa conference, at the invitation of the American Library Association program committee, has been invited to present the official greetings of the National Education Association to the American Library Association.

The committee through its chairman has advised with several groups of school librarians, but it has been the policy to confine action to affairs in which the national organizations as individual units were concerned.


The PRESIDENT: The next report is that of the committee on catalog rules for small libraries.

The SECRETARY: The chairman of this committee, Miss Theresa Hitchler, wrote me that she hoped to make a report through some other member of the committee, and that it was the hope of the committee to have that work finished by fall.

The PRESIDENT: Then the chair will accept that as a report of information.



(Russell Theatre, Friday, June 28, 9:30 a. m.)

First Vice-President Henry E. Legler presided.

The FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT: It has always been a moot question as to what vice-presidents were for. Mrs. Elmendorf has undertaken the very doubtful experiment of endeavoring to find out, and so she has designated the respective vice-presidents in their order to preside over the meetings of the conference.

We shall reverse the order of the pro[Pg 102]gram and call for the committee reports first.

The following reports were presented and received, all having been previously printed, with the exception of the supplement to the report of the committee on library administration and that on work with the blind. The committee on international relations stated that they had no report to make.


Your committee's chief activity has been along the line of a parcels post, as we have felt that was the most feasible measure for obtaining lower postal rates. The chairman of the committee had personal interviews with the chairmen of the House and Senate committees on Post Office, and filed with the latter a formal endorsement of the parcels post, as well as the resolution looking in that direction, passed by the Council at its meeting in January last. The committee recommends that the continuance of this advocacy be authorized by the association.

We also recommend that the association endorse a movement for the better safeguarding of the national archives and rendering them accessible to students, feeling that the preservation of these governmental records is one of considerable importance, and one in which librarians have an especial interest, inasmuch as they have under their care manuscripts as well as printed books.

The attention of depository libraries is called to the report of Senator Smoot, on the revision of printing laws (62nd Congress, second session. Report 414, p. 33 and following) which discusses the proposed amendments to the laws with reference to depository libraries.



Your committee has not been active during the whole year, the present chairman having been appointed to fill a vacancy. What it has done has been in the way of a small beginning toward a general survey of methods in public libraries, which it is hoped may be carried forward to completion in future years.

The scientific position that the first thing to do, in making an investigation, is to find out the facts, has only recently been taken in work of this kind. It has generally been assumed by those who have desired to better conditions of any sort that the existing conditions were well known to all. The fact is that no one person or group of persons is in a position to know all the conditions thoroughly and that the elementary task of ascertaining them and stating them is usually by no means easy. It is now generally recognized that we must have a Survey—an ascertainment and plain statement of the facts as they are—as a preliminary to action or even to discussion.

It has seemed to your committee that the general feeling, shared by the educational and industrial worlds, that methods are not always efficiently adjusted to aims should find some place also in the library. We are spending large sums of public money, and investigations by "economy committees," "efficiency bureaus" and the like are taking place all around us. It will be well for us to take a step in advance of these and get for ourselves some sort of a birds-eye view of our work, from the standpoint of its possible lack of complete efficiency—adaptation of end to aim. In order to do this we must first have a survey, which we conceive to involve in this case a statement of just what libraries are trying to do and just how, in some minuteness of detail, they are trying to do it. Comparison and discussion of methods will naturally follow later.

The method of taking up this matter was suggested by some very preliminary work done in the St. Louis public library. The head of each of the various branches and departments was asked to make a detailed written list of the various operations performed by the assistants in that particular department, dividing them into purely mechanical acts and those involving some[Pg 103] thought or judgment. This in itself proved to be an interesting task and both information and stimulation resulted from it. Certain operations, common to the largest number of kinds of work, were then selected and tests were made, involving both speed of performance and efficiency of result. From a large number of such tests it is expected that some standardization of operations may result, or at any rate the cutting out of useless details and the saving of time for needed extensions of work. The object of an investigation of this kind is of course not to discover ways of making assistants work harder and faster but to find out whether the same amount of work, or more of it, may not be done with less effort.

To extend this bit of experimental work, which has not progressed beyond its first steps, to all the libraries of the United States is of course impossible without modification. Your committee has not the machinery to handle detailed lists of operations from thousands of different libraries. Fortunately it is easy to select operations that are common to very large numbers of libraries of divers sizes and kinds and in all parts of the country. As examples of such operations, and as a small beginning, we selected those of accessioning, charging and discharging, and counting issue. Even with a narrowing of the field to two operations, however, it was impossible to investigate these in all our libraries, or even in a large number. After a discussion by correspondence, revealing some difference of opinion, we decided to select about twenty-five libraries, as representative as possible of different sizes, different institutions and different localities. The list as finally made up was as follows:—

To the librarians of each of these libraries was then sent the following letter:—

To the Librarian:—

The Committee on Library Administration of the A. L. A. is beginning a survey of simple operations common to all sorts of libraries, especially with a view to finding out whether there is much diversity of detail in them, and ultimately of noting particular methods that seem likely to result in time-saving or in better results. For the moment, however, a mere survey, involving a detailed description of the method of performing certain kinds of work is all that is aimed at. The Committee has selected 26 libraries of very different sizes and types, and yours is one of these. If you are willing to co-operate, will you kindly send at once to the chairman a description, in as minute detail as possible, of the following operations:

Please describe each step of these operations seriatim and in detail, not omitting such as are purely mechanical, and noting points where different assistants would be apt to act in different ways. A description of the operation of accessioning in the New York public library (Reference department) is enclosed as a sample.

If you can not do this, please notify us immediately, that another library may be put on the list in your place.

Yours truly,


A. L. A. Com. on Administration.

[Pg 104]

Sooner or later we obtained the desired data from 20 of the 26 libraries to which this letter was sent. Only one, the Grosvenor Library of Buffalo, returned no answer. Five declined on various grounds. The California State library wrote to us: "We do not feel satisfied with our present arrangements and do not believe we are in a position to offer any suggestions that would be of service in connection with this investigation." The Mercantile library of New York wrote: "We regret that we find ourselves unable to co-operate with your committee in this undertaking." The librarian of Trinity college, Hartford, writes that "with the exception of student assistants the librarian is the entire staff." The senior regent of Shurtleff college, Alton, Ill., writes: "Our building is not yet complete and in the management of the old, we are so nearly without a system that I hardly feel it worth while to try to reply to these questions." The librarian of the New York Engineering Societies writes: "This library * * * has no charging system. Its system of accessioning will be abandoned as soon as possible. I suggest that you enter another library on your list."

Replies such as these seem to imply a misconception of the nature and purposes of a survey. Our object is to ascertain facts, not to gather a selected number of ideal cases.

For these five libraries the following were substituted:

These furnished that data for which we asked, with the exception of the Washington State library, which declined. We have material, therefore, from 24 libraries altogether.

The last of this body of data comes to hand just as this preliminary report goes to press, but it is being digested and tabulated and some of the results, at least, will be ready for the Ottawa meeting, although there will not be time for any study of these results or for recommendations based thereon.

The reports from the various libraries will be on file at headquarters at Ottawa and will be accessible to all members of the association who desire to consult them.

Regarding the question of the counting of circulation through traveling libraries, deposits and the like, which has been referred to your committee, we beg to report as follows:—

The sending of books from a library to a school, a club, or some other place where they are to be used or circulated may be regarded in two ways by librarians. It may be held that the sending of the books from the library is itself an act of circulation or that the place to which they are sent for use or distribution is a temporary station of the library, and that sending books thereto is no more circulation than if they were sent to a library branch or delivery station. Obviously, if the former view is accepted, no use that is made of the book after it reaches the station can be recorded by the library. When we have lent a book to a reader we do not inquire how many persons in the family use it or whether a neighbor borrows it. The library borrower is responsible for it and it simply counts as one in the issue. But if the place to which it goes is to be treated as a station, then the use of the book at or from that station is part of the library record. If it is used in the school, club, or other place where it is deposited, such use is not circulation, however, but hall or library use, as if it had been used in a branch library. If it is issued from the station for home use, such issues, and every such issue, is properly counted with the circulation.

It seems to your committee that the second of these alternatives is the one that should be recognized, both from theoretical and practical reasons. The sending of a collection of books to a place where it is to be used resembles much more[Pg 105] closely the temporary transfer of such collection to a branch than it does ordinary circulation. Practically also, it is desirable to take account of whatever use is made of the books in such places and logically this can be done only on the second theory.

On neither of the theories is it allowable to count the original sending as one issue and then to count or estimate issues from the station; or to count uses in the station as home issues.

Some libraries report that they are unable to secure proper statistics of use at the station and that they must therefore either count the original issue or guess at the use in some way, or fail to report it at all. In cases of this kind, whatever is done should be made plain by a note in connection with the published statistics.

To recapitulate, we recommend:

(1) That the act of sending books from the library to a station of any kind, no matter how temporary, be not regarded as an issue to be counted in the circulation, although separate account of books thus sent should be kept and may be published if desired.

(2) That books used in the station be counted as hall or library use and that books issued from the station be counted as home use.

(3) That where it is found necessary to depart from this method in any way, such departure be plainly stated in a foot note to the published report.

All of which is respectfully submitted.


(Supplementary Report)

As a supplement to that portion of its report which has already been presented, your committee now submits the following preliminary tabulation and discussion of results. As is usual, in such investigations, our questions have not been interpreted in the same way by all to whom they have been addressed. Supplementary questions must therefore be sent out in many cases and these must be framed separately for each case. This will be the next work of this committee, should you see fit to continue it as at present constituted.

Your committee trusts that it is clearly understood that it does not desire to infer from the extremely small proportion of cases discussed anything that should be properly inferred only from a large number of cases. Facts are stated numerically, but no numerical conclusions are or can be drawn. At this stage of the investigation no recommendations at all can be made.


The material received varies so much in respect to the items reported upon, and the fullness with which each step is treated, that a second questionnaire must be sent out before there can be any uniformity of tabulation. For example:—

One librarian writes us, "We keep no accession book for ordinary circulating books, only for expensive art books" and fails to state what items are entered.

Another reports that "the books are accessioned, each separate volume being given a separate accession number" but does not say whether an accession book is used or not.

Two librarians write that "the Standard A. L. A. Accession book is used" and leave us to infer that every column is filled in.

And two assure us that the promised material will be sent in soon.

It is interesting to note, however, that only two libraries, the Boston Athenaeum and the Forbes library, use the Bill Method of accessioning. The other libraries all use an accession book, but differ widely in the number of items entered; for example, one library enters only author, title, source and price, and another has an accession book printed for its own use, including columns for the following: Date of entry, accession number, place of publication, publisher, date of book, size, class, additions classified (including a column for each of the main classes in the D. C. system, one for fiction, and one for juvenile books), volumes bought, volumes received as gifts, peri[Pg 106]odicals bound, pamphlets bound, the language of the book (4 separate columns marked Eng. Ger. Fr. and Other), source, publisher's price, discount, net price, binding, remarks.

The majority of libraries reporting, use the A. L. A. standard accession book or the condensed form of the same.

Charging and Discharging

The data contributed on this subject are so uneven and varying that any accurate and minute comparison is impossible at present. The functions that constitute a charge or discharge are variously regarded by different libraries. The eighteen libraries forming the basis of this study, with a note of their charging systems, may be roughly arranged in the following groups:

Reversing this arrangement and grouping under charging systems, we have:

It is evident from this tabulation that libraries of the same character use the same systems—identical in their essentials but different in detail. College libraries and those whose use corresponds to that of a college library find with but two exceptions a double file useful—one of borrower and one of books—the latter varying greatly in arrangement, owing to the distinctions between students and faculty.

A résumé of the college and state systems studied follows:

Iowa State. When book is issued, assistant copies the call number from the book plate upon a manila charge slip, then adds the name of borrower and her date of loan. Charge slips are deposited temporarily in a drawer, and next morning are arranged by call-number and filed in the charging tray. There are no fines; books are issued subject to call. The first of each month the tray is examined; all slips bearing a date a month old are taken out, compared with the shelves to ascertain if the books have been returned, and shelved without being discharged, and with the shelf list, to verify the call number; at which time the author and title are copied on the reverse side of slip. Notices requesting the return of books are filled in with the author, title and date of loan, and sent to borrowers. Date of notice is placed on charge slips with colored pencil, and the slips refiled in tray. In discharging books, the slips bearing corresponding call numbers are taken from tray and destroyed.

Oberlin College. Charge. Book pocket contains two cards, one white, one pink with author's name, title of book and call number and accession number. Borrower signs name on both and leaves on desk. Dating slip with date of issue is put in book pocket. Assistant stamps both cards with date of issue—filing white cards by call number under date and pink card alphabetically with borrower's card under borrower's name. These are ultimately divided into two files, the "day file" and the "long file," the latter including books drawn by professors and others privileged to retain them more than two weeks. When book is returned dating slip is taken out and saved for future use. Book is checked off by finding book card in file and borrower's name is checked from that. Pink card is then withdrawn from borrower's file.

Syracuse University. Borrower's cards are kept on file by serial number. When a book is issued its call number is written on borrower's card and date of issue stamped on it and on dating slip. Book card is stamped with borrower's number and date of issue. Borrower's card is filed under number and book card filed by call number. When book is returned book is checked off, date on borrower's card stamped with date of return and the card put in regular file of borrower's cards. (The book card system itself seems to be the Newark).

Tulane University. Borrower makes out a temporary book card which is filled out with the book data, his name and address and date and is filed by class. When book is returned temporary book card is destroyed.

University of Kansas. Corresponds to Oberlin except that book card filed with borrower's card is not signed or dated and that the single file is by class. Has two files—one for students under date and one for faculty under name. Books are[Pg 108] discharged at students' leisure by checking off.

Virginia State. Borrowers' file and book file of temporary book cards alphabetically under title.

Wesleyan. When book is issued a manilla slip is written giving name of borrower, call number, author and title. The date due is stamped on dating slip in book. Slip is placed in box and next morning a second slip is made from it giving call number first, then author, title and name of borrower. Date due is then stamped on both cards. First card (borrower's slips) are filed (by date if student, by name, if professor). The other slips (book cards) are filed alphabetically under author. Book is discharged by checking off—both slips being withdrawn from issue and presumably destroyed.

Westminster. No students' cards. Permanent book card—stamped with date and borrower's name. Date stamped on book pocket. Cards filed under date. Assistant discharges at leisure by checking off.

Public or circulating libraries prefer the Newark or Browne system—the majority the Newark:

Boston Athenaeum. Corresponds to Oberlin save that day of year instead of day of month is used for dating. That one slip is filed in borrowers' case with information relating to borrower's assessments, etc., instead of with borrower's card, and that the single file is by author. When book is returned date of return is stamped on book slips when book is checked off.

Carnegie Library of Atlanta. Newark system, using slots in desk to sort cards. No details of checking off.

East Orange. Newark system, using colored bookcards to distinguish classes. Magazines and four weeks' books not stamped on reader's cards. In children's room non-fiction not stamped on reader's card. Books checked off near charging desk.

Forbes Library. Browne system. Borrower's pockets filed numerically under each letter of alphabet in order of registration. Fiction and non-fiction pockets kept in separate file. When book is issued borrower gives his number by which his pocket is found. Book card is taken from book pocket and put in borrower's pocket and date of return is stamped on book pocket. Book record is kept by arranging under date, book cards in pockets alphabetically under author and title. (Details of information on book card not given). Book is discharged by withdrawing book card from borrower's pocket and transferring to book pocket. Recent books (last two years) are evidently discharged and shelved at once. Others three times a day. Empty borrower's pockets are filed throughout the day.

New York Public. Newark system. Book card has author's surname, title of book, class number and accession number. Variously colored book cards are used to indicate various classes. Assistant makes hurried examination of book to be issued and copies borrower's card number on book card and stamps date with dating pencil on reader's card, book pocket and book card—the latter to be done at leisure if there is a rush. Puts borrower's card in pocket and gives books to reader. Book card is dropped in proper slot in desk (ten slots indicating the ten classes). Book cards filed under date of issue by class author and accession number. Book cards for foreign books are arranged alphabetically after book cards in English. When book is discharged, assistant checks off book comparing date of card with that of book, examines book for damage and then cancels date on reader's card, restoring card to reader. (Note. It hardly seems that this checking off before cancelling date on reader's card can be done except in a very slack hour, and must cause annoying delay to reader). Books are then placed on truck to right of assistant, later revised and shelved.

System has many exceptions, one of which is to write reader's card number on dating slip as well as book card. Others are the writing of Special or Sp. on book card, opposite card number to indicate the privilege of extended time to special card[Pg 109]holder, as well as on dating slip. In this case, call number or accession number is written on card (presumably reader's card) and the use of branch initial on reader's card to show card issued from a branch other than that from which book is borrowed.

This library uses a reader's receipt file for books returned without card—a slip giving name, address, card number, class number, date of issue and return. This system with variations is also in use in the St. Louis public library (called the "write-ups") and also in the Pratt Institute free library and supposedly many others.

Pratt Institute Free Library. Newark System. Uses different ink pads for fiction and non-fiction, and dating pencils. Puts book cards into slots in desk; fiction, non-fiction and teachers. Stamps dates first and then writes card number. Uses different ink pad for discharging. Charging and discharging (including checking off done at same desk) done by same assistant except in a rush hour. Checking off however is done at assistant's leisure—that is, the reader's card is stamped off before book card is found. Book cards are filed by class under date. Keeps a separate renewal file.

St. Louis Mercantile Library. Browne system, with separate reader's identification card, seldom used. Uses blue reader's pocket for fiction, salmon color for non-fiction, and manilla pockets for pay duplicates. Book card corresponds in color, except in case of regular books issued as extras. Book card has Cutter class number, author and title. Assistant stamps date due on dating slip and book card which is placed in reader's pocket. Pockets are put temporarily in tray near issue desk and later filed by class, under date due. Books are discharged by charging assistant at charging desk, by taking book card from pocket and slipping it into book. Empty reader's pockets are constantly being filed in regular reader's file.

St. Louis Public Library. Newark system. Different colored ink-pads for seven day and fourteen day books and for discharging. Reader's number first written on bookcard, then book card, dating slip and reader's card stamped. Reading-room books charged on slips filled out by reader. Two books generally are issued on one card but "Additional Books" stamped on reader's card entitles cardholder to a greater number of volumes, of non-fiction, usually six. This privilege is granted to educators, social workers and others engaged in serious study, at the discretion of the head of the circulation department.

Discharging is done at a separate desk in the usual way, receipts being filed for books returned without reader's card. Books are placed on a truck and checked off by a special assistant.

Society Library

The Medical Society of the County of Kings—Uses a borrower's receipt, giving author, title, accession number and borrower's signature. These receipts are filed by borrower's name. When book is returned, it is discharged by stamping date of return on receipt and placing in file of cancelled loans.

The libraries using colored book cards to denote the classes are:

Those using colored book cards for their double file (borrower's and book) are:

At the time of book's issue bookcards are dropped into a drawer through slots designating classes of the books issued by the following libraries:

Libraries using temporary bookcards,[Pg 110] filled out at time of book's issue by borrower or assistant:

Libraries using a borrower's record for privileged classes (professors, etc.) and a time record for students:

Cards identifying the readers appear to be required by all the libraries save Westminster. These vary—those of the Boston Athenaeum, Medical Society of County of Kings, apparently taking the form of a subscription entry while the St. Louis Mercantile Library issues one as an identification card, which is seldom called into use.

Libraries using borrowers' cards in a file at the library to indicate what the reader has out, are:

Those using a borrower's card which remains in the possession of the borrower, while he has books from the library, to indicate number of books out, date either of issue or when due, and a date of return are those employing the Newark system:

Syracuse uses the Newark system but retains cards in borrower's file (under borrower's number) at library.

As regards the discharge of books, the use of the Browne system presupposes a complete discharge of the book, in case of a borrower taking another at the time of its return.

Libraries retaining borrowers' cards at the library discharge at their leisure.

Where the Newark system is used (with the exception of the New York public library) an incomplete discharge is made at the time of the book's return—consisting of the stamping of the date of return on reader's card. It is obviously impossible to delay a reader while book is checked off. Checking off is then done at leisure either at charging desk by desk assistant or special assistant appointed for that work.

Counting of Issue

The eighteen libraries reporting on this subject may be grouped under the following heads:

Eight of these libraries record statistics of reference use:

The following do not include reference use on their statistics sheets, although in some cases it is probably kept separately:

The Medical Society of the County of Kings and Oberlin College library make no record of reference use, but the latter records daily and monthly attendance.

Four libraries keep no record by class:

The following count the circulation on the day of issue:

In all the other libraries it is counted next morning, save in Kings County Medical, where only an annual count is made.

East Orange and New York use colored bookcards to indicate the various classes; St. Louis Mercantile uses different colors for fiction, non-fiction and pay-duplicates, and Tulane uses a colored slip for reference requests.

Two libraries, Iowa State and University of Kansas, report that no record of issue is made.

Public or Circulating Libraries

Boston Athenaeum. The manilla cards forming the author record are counted at night and the number is entered in a book. There is no entry by class and reference use is not reported.

Carnegie Library of Atlanta. Issue is kept in three groups for fiction, rent or pay collection and classed books. The latter are arranged under class numerically or alphabetically. Fiction and rent collection are alphabeted and all are counted on the following morning and entered on a daily sheet, juvenile issue being counted separately. No report on reference issue.

East Orange. Colored bookcards are used here to indicate different classes. The issue is counted on the following morning and arranged according to the Dewey Classification and entered in a statistics book. No report on reference issue.

Forbes. Counted by groups of classes.

New York Public. Colored bookcards are used here. Adult and juvenile issue are counted separately on the following morning:

1. By Dewey classes, issues in each class being added together to obtain the total issue in each group and the two groups then added for the grand total of the day.

2. By language.

3. Poetry, periodicals and music are counted separately as well as with their respective classes.

Reference books are charged on slips, signed by the reader, the number of volumes issued being noted on the upper right hand corner. At the close of the day these slips are counted twice, first by readers and second by volumes.

Pratt Institute Free Library. The daily issue is counted on the day of issue and arranged in four groups—fiction, non-fiction, teachers and renewals, and entered on manilla slips which are divided into spaces for the ten Dewey classes and also for languages, duplicate pay collection, summer issue, delta and double star, the last two being special collections. These totals are all transferred to a daily statistics sheet. A reference record is not reported on, but is undoubtedly kept in some form.

St. Louis Mercantile. The issue is kept in seven and fourteen day trays and arranged by class, salmon colored cards be[Pg 112]ing used for non-fiction and blue for fiction. Before the library opens in the morning the issue is counted and entered in a book under classes (Cutter). Reference record is not reported.

St. Louis Public. Issue is kept in trays, separated into groups for seven and fourteen-day fiction, the ten Dewey classes and (in summer) vacation issue. At night it is counted and entered on a statistic sheet, under the same heads. Reading-room issue is entered on the same sheet, also by class. The home issue is then separated by date, seven-days in one alphabet and fourteen-days in another, and arranged by author and accession number not class. This arrangement, by affording but one alphabet in which to search for a book due on a given date, reduces the opportunity for mistakes to a minimum. Three-day magazines are inserted with seven-day cards under the correct date. In the morning the circulation is revised for errors in alphabeting and also for illegible charges which are traced by means of a number, assigned to each assistant.

Reference use is entered on a form divided into four columns for main reference room, art room, technical department and totals. The entries are by class and the number of volumes given to each reader noted. All records are transferred the following morning to a permanent statistics book.

College or University Libraries

Oberlin. The author cards are arranged at night under date of issue by classes, fastened together with a rubber band and placed in the issue tray ahead of all previous circulation. In the morning they are counted and entered on a statistics sheet under class, then filed in the issue tray. Statistics of reference use are not kept.

Syracuse University. Statistics are recorded for home issue, reading room issue and attendance. When the books are charged they are divided into over-night and two week circulation; in the morning these are subdivided into twelve classes and again recorded as charged to students, faculty or departments. Methods of reporting reference use are not outlined but a record of some sort is made, probably at the discretion of the various reading-room attendants. One of the colleges (Applied Science) reports to the general library only once a year and others monthly. Other departments report only attendance.

Tulane University. Every morning charging slips are grouped into classes and counted. Yellow slips, indicating library use are counted in the same manner and then destroyed. Entry is made in a record book under class, library use being recorded in pencil and home issue in red ink directly beneath it.

University of Kansas. No record of issue is kept.

Wesleyan University. The issue is counted each morning in four groups; bound and unbound (issued to individuals), reserve, or books placed on reserve shelves and seminar, or volumes sent to seminars for temporary use. The last two groups are counted only at the time of issue, their reference use not being noted. Entry is made in a day book under these heads; no count is taken by classes.

Book cards are counted each evening for home circulation, reference books as they are given out during the day. There is apparently no record by class and the method of entry is not stated.

Westminster. Counted by class each evening. Reference books counted as issued.

State Libraries

Iowa State. No record of issue is kept.

Virginia State. A blank form spaced for fourteen classes is used for keeping the daily record of books given out both for reference and home use, the distinction being presumably indicated by the use of pen and pencil, although this point is somewhat obscure. At night these totals are added.

Reference Library

Newberry Library. There are six reference departments, each keeping statistics for men and women, morning and even[Pg 113]ing visitors and books used, the latter being entered by classes. These reports are drawn up at night and taken next morning to the accessions clerk who enters the figures in a permanent statistical record.

Society Library

Medical Society of the County of Kings. No record is here maintained of reference use. Home use slips are filed and counted annually to determine the circulation for the year but there is no record by class.

It is evident from the preceding tabulations that the reports of the various libraries are too uneven to admit of accurate comparison. Many points of interest, as the record of reference use, are omitted, although in many cases this record is doubtless preserved.

In closing your committee desires to acknowledge valuable assistance in the tabulation and discussion of the above results, rendered by three members of the St. Louis public library staff, Mrs. H. P. Sawyer, chief of the department of instruction, Miss Mary Crocker, chief of the open shelf department, Miss Jessie Sargent, first assistant in the issue department, and Miss Amelia Feary, of the catalog department.


Committee on Administration.


After correspondence, it was decided at the beginning of the year to make another effort to obtain from the Executive Board an appropriation which would make possible the repeatedly suggested inspection of library schools. Accordingly, such a request was made at the meeting of the Executive Board at Chicago last January, and an appropriation of $200 was obtained.

About the same time, a request was presented to the chairman of the Committee on library training, signed by representatives of nearly all the library schools, requesting that the committee recommend a minimum standard admission, length of course, and curriculum for library schools.

To this the chairman replied, calling attention to the reports of 1905 and 1906, in which an endeavor had been made to meet a part of the request, and requesting that the schools indicate in what respects these reports should be modified or supplemented. The replies to this request are most interesting and will be of great service to the committee. When all the schools have answered this inquiry, the replies will be manifolded and the committee will give the request careful consideration. A thoroughly satisfactory recommendation, however, will naturally follow, rather than precede, the contemplated inspection of schools.

A tentative scheme of points to be observed in the proposed inspection has been prepared, and is being considered by persons interested. When their criticisms and suggestions have been received, the committee will consider the scheme. When approved by the members of the committee, and when the committee has found a suitable person to make the inspection, the library schools will be given the opportunity to ask for such inspection, and to the extent of the funds available for the purpose, the inspection will be made.

In the light of the facts obtained in such a careful study of the library schools, it is hoped to make some recommendations which will be of service to the schools, and to the profession.

On account of the absence of the chairman of the committee from the country since the first of February, the work has progressed slowly. For the same reason, this report is submitted without being first considered and approved by the other members of the committee.

AZARIAH S. ROOT, Chairman.

[Pg 114]


The committee on library work with the blind notes with satisfaction the progress which has been made in the past year towards increasing the production of new embossed literature. The installation of stereotype-makers operated by electricity and of power presses in some of the printing offices means a constantly increasing stock of books for circulation. Most important of all there seem to be indications that a new era is dawning when all America can unite on one point type.

The eleventh convention of the American association of workers for the blind, held at Overbrook, Pa., June, 1911, was marked by one session unparalleled in the history of type discussions, when, during the report of the uniform type committee, the blind themselves contributed $1800.00 towards the creation of a fund to be used in making scientific tests and experiments to determine upon a uniform system of embossed point print. With the completion of the fund of $3,000 and the co-operation of certain printing offices, members of the committee have been hard at work preparing tests and making experiments. An outline of the work of this committee appears in the "Outlook for the blind" for April, 1912, (v. 6, no. 1).

Lists of new publications in embossed type as well as lists of magazine articles referring to the blind are published from time to time in the "Outlook for the blind," which is the only magazine in this country especially helpful to workers for the blind. Librarians are urged to place the "Outlook for the blind" on reading tables and among the current magazines and to encourage its reading by the general public, who need educating concerning the best methods of helping the blind.

Helen Keller has said, "I follow with keen interest your efforts to make the 'Outlook for the blind' a success. Nothing is more useful to the sightless than an intelligent magazine in their interest, setting forth their needs, making known what they can do to earn a living, and advocating movements of the right sort in their behalf. The 'Outlook for the blind' is just such a publication. The fact that influential and wise persons who have the welfare of the blind at heart favor the magazine makes it all the more valuable. It deserves liberal support from philanthropists and practical workers for humanity."

The Samuel Gridley Howe Society has been organized in Cleveland, Ohio, with headquarters at 612 St. Clair Avenue, N. E. "The plan of this society is to raise funds from local sources to defray the cost of the presswork, the paper and the very simple binding used," in the work of adding to the list of books in tactile print.

The list of publications already issued, in American Braille without contractions, includes titles by Deland, Davis, John Fox, Jr., Van Dyke and others.

The Michigan school for the blind, at Lansing, now publishes a magazine in American Braille, with contractions, entitled the "Michigan herald for the blind," issued monthly except July and August. The subscription price is 25 cents per year.

The Xavier Braille publication society for the blind, 824 Oak Avenue, Chicago, which was organized in 1911, has since issued the "Catholic review," a monthly magazine in American Braille, with contractions, subscription $1.00 per year.

The Society for the promotion of church work among the blind announces that volumes 1 and 2 of the music of the Hymnal of the Protestant Episcopal Church have been finished and are ready for distribution. Copies may be obtained from Mr. John Thomson, treasurer, 13th and Locust Streets, Philadelphia.

Since the fire in March, 1911, when the New York state library for the blind was almost totally destroyed, the new collection has grown with rapidity and is now nearly as large as at the time of the fire. Miss Mary C. Chamberlain, the librarian, writes, "We hope soon to make the collection larger than it has ever been."

The circulation of embossed books from[Pg 115] the public library of Cincinnati, Ohio, "increased during the past year from 1,400 during 1910 to 3,900 during 1911, which was attributed to the fact that the library society for the blind has provided a catalog in point print, which is sent out."

The reading room for the blind in Washington, D. C., which was discontinued in 1911, has been reopened in the Library of Congress.

During the past year the Perkins institution for the blind has given away about 2,000 volumes in line type to libraries and schools, retaining a sufficient stock of duplicates for use in the circulating library of the school. The new library of the institution, now in course of construction at Watertown, Massachusetts, will be very large and commodious; it will be capable of holding 20,000 volumes, with provision for an extra gallery for 10,000 additional volumes if necessary.

In commemoration of the Dickens centenary, "Great Expectations" has been embossed in American Braille.

The committee plans a full report of libraries which are doing work for the blind and will endeavor to secure from them an outline of the work they are doing at present. In addition the special needs of readers will be sought with a view to having the books desired brought to the notice of one or more of the publishing houses. Efforts will be made to secure the establishment of additional libraries of embossed books in states where no such libraries are now maintained.

Respectfully submitted,



Your Committee on Public Documents respectfully reports that two important reports relating to the printing, binding and distribution of government publications have been made and are now before Congress.

The first is the report of the Special Commission on Economy and Efficiency, appointed by President Roosevelt, and transmitted February 5, 1912, in a special message approving the same by President Taft, which "recommends that the work of distributing documents be centralized in the office of Superintendent of public documents in the Government Printing Office as a substitute for the present method of distribution by each of the departments, offices, and bureaus issuing such documents. The plan does not contemplate any change in the authority which determines the persons to whom documents shall be sent, but only that the physical work of wrapping, addressing, and mailing the documents shall be done at one place, and that the place of manufacture."

The second report is that made by the Congressional Committee on Printing of which Senator Smoot is chairman. This committee was appointed under an act of Congress approved March 3, 1905, and was directed to revise and codify the laws relating to public printing, binding and distribution of government publications. After seven years of investigations and hearings this committee has formulated and presented to Congress a new bill (Senate Bill 4239) covering this entire subject. This bill which makes radical changes in the general printing act approved January 12, 1895, has passed the Senate and is now before the House.

While both reports embody many recommendations and suggestions made by our association and by the librarians of our larger libraries, your Committee on public documents has thought best to delay its formal report until after the discussion at the sessions of the government documents round table, at which time a paper by Superintendent of Documents, August Donath, will be read, and possibly also one from Senator Smoot, who has written that other engagements will prevent him from being present and speaking.

As copies of the proposed bill and the special reports relating to the same have been sent to several librarians, it is hoped there will be a full and free discussion in order that any desirable changes or omissions in the proposed bill may be called to[Pg 116] the attention of the Congressional Committee while there is an opportunity.

Respectfully submitted,

GEO. S. GODARD, Chairman.

The FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT: No doubt all of you have very carefully and thoroughly read the printed report of the Publishing Board, which was distributed at the first session of this conference. It will therefore be unnecessary for me to point out to you some of the very important recommendations, or suggestions, which appear therein, and I mention it at this time merely for the purpose of adding that since the former session, through the generosity of Mr. Walter L. Brown of the Buffalo library, the Publishing Board is enabled to distribute in connection therewith a list which illustrates one of the very strong suggestions, as we think, which appears in that report. You will find this list for distribution at the entrance, and those of you who may care for it, may help yourselves as you pass out.[2]

[2] The list referred to was a reading list of selected books on Greece, prepared with annotated notes in the form advocated by Mrs. Elmendorf in the report of the Publishing Board.

We will now hear from the committee on deterioration of newspaper paper. We have had for the last two years some exceptionally interesting and important reports on that very important subject, and we are glad to know that Dr. Hill will at this time present a supplemental report covering the investigations which he has made during the last year, additional to the facts which he has reported heretofore. Dr. Hill will please report for this committee.


Two years ago a report on the "Deterioration of newspapers" was presented to the American Library Association at the Mackinac conference, and as a consequence the executive board appointed Messrs. Frank P. Hill, Brooklyn public library, Horace G. Wadlin, Boston public library, and Cedric Chivers, bookbinder, a committee to consider the subject further and report back to the association. As stated at the Pasadena conference last year, the committee was appointed too late to make any satisfactory report at that time. This year the report can be only one of progress.

In order to bring the matter more clearly to your minds liberal quotations are made from the 1910 report.

"An examination of old Brooklyn and Manhattan papers showed that in many instances papers published within the last forty years had begun to discolor and crumble to such an extent that it would hardly pay to bind those which had been folded for any length of time. Upon further investigation it was found that practically all of these newspapers were printed on cheap wood pulp paper, which carries with it the seeds of early decay, and that the life of a periodical printed on this inferior stock is not likely to be more than fifty years.

"This is a serious matter and demands the attention of publishers and librarians throughout the country. It means that the material for history contained in the newspapers will not be available after the period mentioned, and that all such historical record will eventually disappear unless provision is made for reprinting or preserving the volumes as they exist at present. The historian depends to such an extent upon the newspapers for his data that it will mean a serious loss if some preservative cannot be found.

"As soon as the condition of the files of the Brooklyn public library was discovered a circular was sent to some of the prominent newspaper publishers asking (1) the result of their experience; (2) whether a better grade of paper was being used for running off extra copies for their own files; (3) what, if any, means were being taken to preserve the files in their own offices. It was hoped as a result of this circular that definite measures of improvement would be suggested. From responses received it is evident that there [Pg 117]is a desire on the part of the publishers to meet the requirements of librarians and others on this subject; and it is likely that a conference of publishers and librarians will be held in the near future to consider the feasibility of printing some copies on better paper, but the answers showed that no special paper was used and that no means were taken to preserve (by reprinting or by chemical process) those in the worst condition.

"Inquiries were also sent to various manufacturers of paper with no better result. No encouragement was received from this source except that one manufacturer thought that some newspapers were using a better grade, and another, that he had just the paper which ought to be used. It was stated that two New York publishers used a better grade of paper for a few additional copies, but returns from these papers indicate that no difference is made at the present time."

During the past six months the members of the committee have been in correspondence with publishers regarding the possibility of striking off a few extra copies on a better quality of paper, and Mr. Chivers has taken upon himself the duty and responsibility of experimenting with a "cellit" solution prepared especially for the preservation of newsprint paper.

Early in June of this year the committee invited representatives of the leading New York and Brooklyn papers to meet in conference on the subject. The following papers were represented: The Brooklyn Daily Eagle by H. F. Gunnison, the New York American by Jerome Buck, the New York World by E. D. Carruthers, and the Publishers' Weekly by John A. Holden. The object of the conference was stated to be: 1st. The consideration of method of preserving bound volumes of newspapers; and 2nd. The possibility of publishers printing extra copies of the current issue on a better grade of paper for binding purposes.

Mr. Chivers stated that he had not used "celestron" the German product, but had made successful experiments with "cellit," an American solution. His investigation proved that the deterioration was due in a large measure to the exposure of the paper to light and air and that by covering the paper with a coating of "cellit" or "celestron" the pores were filled and oxidation prevented. He was afraid, however, that the question of expense would deter most librarians and publishers from dipping the volume page by page in the solution, as suggested in the earlier report of this committee, but expressed the hope that some method would be devised by which it could be used less expensively. Mr. Chivers was of the opinion that since oxidation begins at the edges the life of the paper may be extended from 50 to 75 years if the edges of the bound volume are painted with the solution, and that this treatment could be repeated with the same result. He called special attention to the necessity of binding newspapers as soon as possible after publication so that they need not be long exposed to the air. The desirability of this practice was emphasized by some of the publishers and by Mr. Arthur D. Little, the Boston chemist.

Considerable discussion arose over the question of printing extra copies of current issues on a better grade of paper, and the conclusion arrived at was that there was no practical objection to it, and that it could be done without very much extra cost of time, labor or paper.

The conference developed the fact that there was another drawback to the preservation of newspapers, namely, the poor quality of ink, and that nothing would be gained by using the better quality of paper unless a better quality of ink was used.

Mr. Carruthers, of the New York World, drew attention to the fact that the colored sections of the Metropolitan Sunday papers were destroyed by worms within a short time after publication.

So far as the committee was advised the first and only newspaper in the country to print extra copies on better paper was and is The Red Wing (Minn.) Republican, which furnishes copies of its publication[Pg 118] to the State historical society for filing purposes.

Considerable publicity has been given the subject since the meeting through the American Newspaper Publishers' Association, and several valuable suggestions have been received.

Mr. Gunnison of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle writes:

"I have given considerable thought to the matter of the better grade of paper and have come to the conclusion that the only feasible way is to have rolls of good paper and use that after the regular edition of the paper is run off. As Mr. Carruthers of the World said, this would be almost impossible for some of the larger papers to carry out. The Eagle could do it very nicely because we have a different system of handling the paper and we shall try to put this into operation beginning with the first of the year."

As is well known the Eagle is one of the best newspapers in the United States, so that if anyone is particularly interested in securing for filing purposes a paper which will last for 100 years or more he should subscribe to the Eagle.

Miss Jane Roberts, of Newark, N. J., states that she uses a preparation put up by a Newark chemist and has met with success in its application.

Mr. Conde Hamlin of the New York Tribune sent in the following:

"I did think of one method which seemed to me would be less expensive than the use of a special grade of paper for the printing of a few copies. That would be to take a fine grade of French tissue paper and after separating the sheets which composed the paper to be preserved, covering both sides of the printed matter with this tissue and a fine grade of paste. This, of course, would make the bound volume much thicker but would preserve the paper itself.

"I doubt whether this suggestion is of any value but take the liberty of making it."

It was decided that the subject was of sufficient interest and importance to warrant further investigation and the conference adjourned to meet in September. We therefore recommend that the Committee be continued.

FRANK P. HILL, Chairman,

The FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT: Inasmuch as the report of the committee contains a recommendation, that recommendation is now before you for action. Unless there are objections, the report will be referred to the executive board for consideration of the recommendations contained therein.

Dr. HILL: Mr. President, I hope we may hear from Mr. Chivers for a moment if he is here.

The FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT: With characteristic thoroughness Mr. Chivers has proceeded with his experiments as outlined by Dr. Hill, and we shall be very glad to hear from him at this time as to what he has found out.

Mr. CHIVERS: The report you have heard deals pretty fully with the subject, and I think the association may be congratulated upon the fact that the publishers of the more or less national newspapers, who would be required to print quite a number of copies, are willing to do it, but that is not the whole of the problem. The difficulty of bad paper and newspaper files will be felt in the future rather with local newspapers, because only a few copies would be required for filing purposes, and the printer would find special printing too troublesome and expensive.

As you have heard, there is a substance called cellit, a solution of cellulose and spirit, into which the paper may be dipped, and thoroughly saturated. The spirit quickly evaporating leaves the paper quite tough. The result is a very satisfactory paper. It is, however, practically impossible to dip so large a surface as a newspaper into this solution. The fibre when wet is too weak to handle; also the spirit in the solution quickly evaporates, leaving a glutinous mass, impracticable to deal with. We understand that oxidation of the paper[Pg 119] resulted from the action of light, air and deleterious atmosphere. If the newspaper for filing were not allowed to be used in the reading room but were set aside on the morning of publication, kept from the light and air, and a board or weight placed upon it, and if the volume were bound directly it was complete, very little mischief would happen. Again, if the edges of the volume were frayed out and this solution of cellit, which is comparatively cheap and quite practical to use in this way, should be painted upon the edges, you would have a newspaper file which would last for a great number of years. How many, I do not know, but the chemist who accompanied me to the British Museum, in conducting the examination of newspapers under the instructions of your committee, could see no reason why the paper should not last indefinitely. We discovered there—because in the British Museum there are more newspapers brought together than in any other place in the world—that newspapers which were left lying about before binding were in a very bad condition in the course of four or five years, while newspapers which had been bound some fifteen or twenty years, of the same kind of paper, were in thoroughly good condition, proving that if you could take care of the paper and not allow it to be exposed to the air there is no reason why even bad paper should not last a very long time. The rule should be made as I have suggested it. In the British Museum there had been no rule, but the exigencies of the binding shop had been consulted, and here and there a newspaper had been bound quickly, and it was all right; and if it had been left about, as some of them were, it was all wrong. That is my practical contribution to the discussion.

Dr. BOSTWICK: I would like to ask Dr. Hill if his committee investigated the newspaper report that it is now possible, or will be shortly possible, to obtain a thin, tough metallic sheet which can be printed upon. It was reported that that had been done.

Dr. HILL: Nothing of that nature came before the committee, Mr. Chairman, but I am sure that at the next conference some publisher or some commercial house will give us that desired information. I would say for the benefit of those who are interested in this subject, and a great many of us ought to be, that there are extra copies of the first report of the committee on the table for distribution.

Dr. BOSTWICK: I would like to ask Mr. Chivers if he proposes, in applying the cellit to the edges of the sheets, to apply it to the bound volume as a whole, and whether in that case the edges of the sheets would not stick together?

Mr. CHIVERS: No. The spirit very quickly evaporates and leaves a coating upon the edge of the paper. Last year at Pasadena I was able to show the edge of a piece of paper before and after treatment, and dealt with quickly it is not glutinous in any way, and the application is perfectly successful.

Mr. BOWKER: I would like to ask Mr. Chivers if it would not be practical to dip the newspapers by some such process as is used in the development of moving picture films or kodak films. They have rollers which carry the paper quickly through the solution.

Mr. CHIVERS: That occurred to me, but, if you will remember, I said the substance is a solution in spirit, which very quickly evaporates. The rollers might get clogged up in the course of a minute or two.

Dr. ANDREWS: Has the committee ever investigated the process used by the New York State library for the restoration of its manuscripts which came so near total destruction. The result there seemed to be admirable, but the process might be too expensive.

Mr. HILL: I would say, Mr. Chairman, that the committee had two or three letters from Mr. Wyer, the director of the library, but I do not think he mentioned that. He may be able to answer the question himself.

Mr. RANCK: I would like to ask if the committee gave any consideration to the temperature and humidity of the rooms in which the newspapers were kept, as having some bearing on the life of the paper.

Mr. CHIVERS: Some attention was given[Pg 120] to that in the British Museum. The papers are carefully kept. The temperature there does not vary as it does in America. Sometimes it is humid more or less, but it does not vary so much. It is the action, not of the humidity, but of light and air itself upon the paper which produces early decomposition.

May I say in reply to Dr. Andrews that we certainly took into consideration the covering of the newspaper with other paper or some other material, and it is altogether too expensive. The report that I was able to give of the action of cellit meets the difficulty in a better way, and for a fraction of the cost and trouble.

The FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT: On behalf of the executive board the chair is requested to announce the appointment of the following committee on resolutions: Dr. Reuben G. Thwaites, chairman; Miss Mary W. Plummer, Mr. Judson T. Jennings.

The dainty bit of literature which appeared in connection with the first issue of the program and bulletin, bearing the signature of the president of this association, strong and persuasive as it was dainty, renders unnecessary any introduction by the present chairman to the program of this morning. The topics, as you will note, are attractive, they are in the hands of those competent to speak upon them, they grow out of the forceful keynote address at the initial meeting of this association; like the branches from a tree, they are consistent parts of the whole. We will begin by listening to MR. CARL H. MILAM, secretary of the Indiana public library commission, who will speak on


In every community there are scores of intelligent men—men who are well-informed on most subjects—who do not know what the modern public library does, whose conception of it is what might have been expected a generation or two ago. The word "library" to them means such a collection of books as they have in their homes, or the library they used while in college. There is no thought in their minds of the aggressive, civic and educational force that we believe the American public library to be.

These men are not found in any one particular class. Business men and public officials may seem to head the list, but there are college professors and presidents, and well educated professional men who are quite as uninformed and indifferent as any others. I could point to dozens of men and women in my own state, high up in educational affairs, and some of whom are officially in close touch with libraries, who do not realize at all what place a public library can hold in community life.

Perhaps the best evidence on this proposition, if evidence is needed, is found in the recent books dealing with civic and educational affairs. In many of them the authors speak forcibly and unmistakably in favor of the public library, and exhibit a knowledge of current library practice that is gratifying to the library profession, but there are other books—not few in number—in which the writers show an entire lack of appreciation of the public library movement.

It is very easy for us to say, when such a condition is brought to mind, that it is the other fellow's fault, that there is no excuse in these days for anybody's being ignorant of the public library movement. Perhaps that is true; but, for my part, I am inclined to wonder if the fault is not with the librarians themselves. They have been so busy working out their own administrative problems that they have not taken the trouble to keep the public informed on the progress made. They have pushed the establishment of libraries—that has been comparatively easy—but they have not yet, to any very great extent, created a public sentiment that insists enthusiastically on generous appropriations.

There is need for some advertising that will take care of this situation. It might[Pg 121] emanate from different sources: from the state and national library associations and departments working on the public generally; and from the libraries themselves, individually working on their own communities. Most of the library association publications are professional literature; most of the speeches made under the auspices of the associations are made to librarians and others already interested.

What is needed now, if my reasoning is correct, is a publicity campaign that will cover a wider range. Let its purpose be to give concrete, up-to-date information about the public library to every man and woman who reads, to every individual who is interested in any way in civic improvement or educational affairs. Surely no better way can be found of laying a foundation for liberal library appropriations.

One great need is for popular books and pamphlets on public library work. Dr. Bostwick's "The American public library," is the one available volume of this character; there is room yet for several other publications, shorter, for the most part, and dealing with special phases of library work rather than with all phases. Many people will have to read a short article or pamphlet before they will acquire sufficient interest to undertake a whole book.

The different lines of library work that offer subjects for popular treatment are many. Most of them have been written about for librarians; why can't we have them written about now for the general public? Properly printed and attractively illustrated, a series of books and pamphlets of the sort I have in mind could be used to a good advantage all over the country. Of course, a good deal of the material distributed would never be read, but the fact that little advertising booklets are widely used by business men would indicate that in the long run they do have a good effect.

Perhaps the most promising field is that of the magazines, for practically all intelligent Americans read some monthly or weekly periodical. Some would be reached by the good literary magazines, some by the so-called family magazines; others read only the trade journals, and a few only religious. All together they offer a medium of publicity that would reach nearly everybody. If we could successfully emulate the people who have pushed some of the great movements like conservation or industrial education we should soon have everybody believing that the public library is a live issue. No other movement offers better opportunities for such publicity, for there is no other institution quite so broad in its interests as the public library.

Why cannot the library associations have a publicity man whose business it would be to get such articles into the magazines, to prepare little booklets such as I have described for the information of the general public, and to do whatever else he can to interest influential men and the world at large in public libraries? This man might also be made responsible for getting library news articles and feature stories into the newspapers. Such articles would undoubtedly do a great deal to educate newspaper readers to a knowledge of library work as it now is, but if they did nothing more than to keep the subject before the people they would be worth while.

There is also a large field open for public speakers. A publicity man, representing a national or state organization, could make himself very useful as a speaker at public gatherings. He could easily secure a place on the programs of many civic, scientific and educational organizations, and by a popular presentation of the public library's service along the line that particularly interested the members, could undoubtedly make scores of new friends for public libraries.

Such a person would be welcome also as a lecturer on librarianship at college, academy and high school gatherings, at chapel and convocation exercises, etc. These talks would have a double value in that they would help to bring good people into the library profession and at[Pg 122] the same time give information about library affairs to students and instructors.

So far as I know, the library profession has never indulged in paid newspaper or magazine advertising. This may be due to the fact that we can usually get all the space we want in the regular news columns free of charge; but I suspect it is due partly to our conservatism, to our fear that paid advertising would be considered undignified. Certainly if the newspapers and magazines are willing to print without pay all that we wish, we need not consider the paid "ad." But if it is impossible to secure the desired space in any periodical free of charge, it might be worth while to buy it.

The paid library advertisement need not be similar to the ordinary commercial advertisement. It could be modeled after the "talks" sometimes used by large corporations and promoters which are meant to create a sentiment favorable toward the company. They should be done in newspaper English and should, of course, be short and to the point. Charles Stelzle, in his "Principles of successful church advertising," says that "One denomination in the U. S. has made a selection of a group of newspapers throughout the country which print regularly an editorial on some doctrinal or ethical theme and which is paid for by the national body." If it is not undignified for a church to do these things, surely it would not be out of place for the public library.

So much for the advertising methods that might be followed by the A.L.A., the League of Library Commissions, or the various state associations and commissions. By such means the attitude of friendliness toward libraries in general would undoubtedly be fostered and an interest in their establishment and maintenance greatly increased. But the librarian of a public library could not rest on this. The proper "taste" for library expenditures—if we may so express it—in his particular town will depend largely on his particular library and his own methods of advertising.

Of course we shall all agree that the best advertisement is satisfied patrons and lots of them, and that without the backing of such patrons, the advertising will do little good; also that special work for the special classes who have most to do with tax levies and appropriations will bring good results.

Almost as important as satisfactory service is a business-like administration. The library management ought to be such that it will command the respect of business men. No amount of mere talk about the need for more money or of the wonderful advantages that will accrue to the city in case an extra thousand dollars be appropriated, will count for anything unless the librarian knows how to talk business. In fact it does not seem surprising that some libraries are poorly supported when one realizes that there are hundreds of librarians who know nothing about their library finances, who leave the money matters entirely to the library board.

Unfortunately, the librarians who are ignorant of the financial condition of their libraries, except their own salaries and the fines, are not all found in the country towns and are not all without library school training.

I know of one librarian in a city of nearly one hundred thousand population who never knows the amount of the library income, for either the current or the past year.

I know of another library, this one in a small town, that has been running for several years on a very limited income although the board has absolute power to more than double the library levy. Recently the librarian, a library school graduate, resigned, because, she said, there was no future. A few weeks later a candidate for the position met with the board to talk things over. She went armed with a p-slip full of figures. She knew the assessed valuation of the town, and the present and possible library income. She knew something about the city finances and whether the town could afford an in[Pg 123]crease for the library. She had similar figures for the adjoining townships and was prepared to tell how township support might be secured. In fact, she went to the board meeting prepared to discuss the financial possibilities of the library in a business-like way, to tell what ought to be done, how much it would cost to do it and finally, what she would take to shoulder the proposition.

Of course, she was employed. She was employed at her own salary and on her own conditions, and the board agreed to follow out her recommendations.

Such a librarian is a perpetual advertisement for the library of the very best sort. His reputation for a good business administration will win the business men, and his knowledge of city finances will win the respect of public officials and others interested in city government.

The library and the librarian also need a reputation for being interested in all civic improvement societies and other organizations that have for their business the public welfare. Agreeable professional relations with the men and women who are members of these societies will make friends for the library of the best and most active people of the city. The librarian can without difficulty, secure an invitation to address such organizations on matters pertaining to the library and if he is the right sort, he will be allowed to present his cause when he is asking for more money.

The librarian who does all these things ought not to have any great difficulty in securing the money necessary to run his library properly. It will be an added advantage, however, to keep the name of the library before the people. We ought not to be satisfied until everybody knows that there is such a thing as the public library and that it is situated at a certain place. The mere fact that a man knows a thing exists will make him approachable when the time comes to ask his support.

In order that people who do not use the library may nevertheless know something about it and be prepared to play the part of intelligent citizens when appropriations are discussed, there is need for a continuous series of newspaper articles that will tell, frankly and fully, what the library is doing. These articles should appear as news items whenever possible and should be readable. The librarian who does the largest part of the reporter's and editor's work is likely to get the best results. If the papers are accustomed to getting something from the library regularly, they will be willing to print financial reports and budgets with explanations when the time comes. If for any reason the library cannot get its items printed as news, then the same material can be used in paid "talks" to the public.

Just before time for making the appropriation, comparative statistics can be used to a good advantage, especially if graphically shown with cuts. They can show the smallness of the library income as compared with incomes of other city departments, the lack of growth in library income as compared with the growth of the city, and the appropriation for the library in question as compared with other libraries in cities of equal size.

The newspaper is the recognized medium for all sorts of local advertising. It reaches more people than any other medium and many people who could not be reached in any other way. In advertising the needs of the library, however, where only a comparatively small number of people must be reached, it seems reasonable to assume that the circular letter might accomplish good results. It should be carefully written to catch the attention, beginning with some statement in which the reader is interested, proceeding rapidly to the business in hand, and, above all things, stating clearly at the end, the exact action desired.

It is possible now to get up perfect imitations of individual typewritten letters. Such letters with the name and salutation inserted on a machine, and with personal signature, ought to bring results. Those or actual personal letters are the last word.

[Pg 124]

Any man who has in the background of his mind a knowledge of what the library stands for, a good opinion of the library based on good service and continued publicity, ought to be influenced to definite action by a good personal letter.

The FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT: It is not given to many of us to approach a subject from so many directions as Mr. WALTER L. BROWN, librarian of the Buffalo public library, in grappling with the subject of "The breadth and limitations of bookbuying." His all-around experience will make this next paper one of exceptional value to us.

Dr. Thwaites has kindly consented to read the paper for Mr. Brown.


One of the first principles of public library management is that of adjusting it to the needs of its public, by whom and for whose benefit and pleasure it is supported by the municipality. Upon this proposition there has been no disagreement, as it is self-evident.

Questions of general policy arise when we attempt to decide what is beneficial and what is detrimental, just how far we may go to supply books for special and limited use, and just how far we may respond to the popular taste in the demand for the expenditure of public funds for pleasure.

The breadth and limitation of book buying should be determined by the needs of the public rather than from the ratings of the books which are being published. We should find the books that are best fitted for the people who are to use them, rather than to try to fit the people to the books which we may consider as the most desirable. The questions so often raised as to the admittance to the library shelves of some books of fiction of doubtful morals or the latest piece of erotic literature seem very trivial when we consider the problems that face us in the broad field of library work. The library is a public enterprise for public good, and not merely a coöperative scheme for the purpose of obtaining cheap reading, nor a bibliographical storehouse. The important question is whether the books we are asked to buy will serve any legitimate end of library service.

Most of our American cities resemble each other in the exceedingly complex character of their population, each of whose varied elements has more or less claim on the services of the public library. While it is not possible to classify definitely the residents of a city for library purposes, there are certain large groups which we may recognize.

In the first place, the public library has to serve, as libraries of all times have served, those who have had all the advantages of systematic education—those in the learned professions and in other walks of life who have had given to them, through college and university training, a wider vision than that of the average citizen; those who have had given to them at least the knowledge of the existence of the store of accumulated thought and of the records of the past. Upon these more fortunate ones rests the responsibility, in a large measure, of carrying the torch of knowledge and civilization a little farther with each generation. The public library does not pretend to act as a guide to this part of the community, but it must serve as its laboratory and as its source of supply.

A second group which includes a large part of our population is made up of those who have had the advantage of the full course of the grammar school, with the smaller number who have had that of the high school. From this group come not only the clerks in our stores and offices, but men in the more skilled occupations, and also many business men and employers of labor. Some of these are existing through gray, narrow, uneventful, toilsome lives, while others take a large and leading part in all that concerns the life of the community and in the moulding of public opinion. It includes men of many creeds and civilizations, prejudices, desires and ambitions; of many degrees of culture and[Pg 125] taste, high and low; influenced by very different inheritance, associations and opportunities.

Some gain through application most of the advantages of the best training, while others not only fail to make use of, but often practically lose the education the city has given them. For the larger number of this group there are great possibilities for good in the means of education and cultivation which are now being provided by the municipality.

How may the public library best meet the needs of these people, so many and so diverse? How may it give to those who lack it that which will enliven, improve, stimulate and cultivate, creating not only the desire for what is best in life, but supplying the essence so far as it may be gained from the stimulus and inspiration of books? How may we give others the practical knowledge that is needed by them in their varied occupations and activities?

Probably the most potential group in our cities is that large one made up of the children of the immigrants. If they can be lifted by education, if their taste can be guided and directed toward better desires, the help which the library is able to give will act as a tremendous force for good. If these children are left alone to indulge in what is vicious and demoralizing in the life of the crowded sections of the cities, they will become a menace to the municipal life. Their parents have little to give them. The schools have on an average a brief five years in which to influence these children, but they do send them out with the power to read English. The public library may exert its influence not only during their school life, but if it acquires a hold upon them at that time, it will continue to be an influence for good upon these future rulers of the city.

Is it not possible, in a small way at least, to cultivate their taste and give them some desire to read what is worth while?

The broad base upon which city life rests is still another group made up usually of the newcomers from many lands. A very large number have little or no education excepting such as their toil has brought them. Many are able to read their native tongue, but all their traditions and all their lore is that of other lands and literatures. We find that many of the more intelligent among them have brought, in addition to their muscular strength, much that might enrich their adopted country if it could find means of expression. They constitute a danger in our life only when lacking the knowledge of our tongue, our ways and our ideals, and when in ignorance of the adjustment of our government by the popular will, they become the prey of the demagogue. He easily gains a blind following among the ignorant by preaching class hatred and a kind of discontent which is unrighteous.

Library work among these people should not only act as a safeguard, but may prove an opportunity for some at least to attain a broader life by awakening the desire for knowledge and the ability to grow which comes with the reading habit and the knowing how to use books.

The public library has not only to carry out its mission to the individuals of these groups as its part in social advancement, but it has to coöperate in the work of betterment with the schools, and with clubs and "movements" and with all manner of philanthropic and social endeavor.

There is no lack of appreciation of this function of the public library and we need not emphasize it any more than the service which it renders promptly and liberally to the scholars and other leaders of the mental life of the community. If we should fail to recognize our duty in either respect, objection would be promptly expressed.

The real value of a public library as a municipal institution can be best measured by its service toward building up a more intelligent, hopeful and happier citizenship.

It is possible to help the immigrant through the writers of his native tongue which bring him pleasure and pastime.[Pg 126] We may even now help him in his material progress in his new home by giving him elementary books in English, from which he may acquire some knowledge of American institutions and American life, and the time may come when we will be able to do far more with great effect by having American books translated into other tongues for this purpose.

We need to help by far the greater proportion of foreigners to acquire English, because it is a tool which all must have in this country for intelligent bread-winning purposes. We need to study the race history of those represented in the population, and we should know something of their conditions before coming to America; something of their education and their mental development. Many sections of our large cities have different problems in the amalgamation of the population and the library should do what it can to help solve them.

A library agency in the neighborhood of these newcomers is a center of real service and helpfulness. No work shows more definite results, or is appreciated more than that which we do among the immigrants and their children, who are often used as go-betweens by the parents and the library.

While there are many agencies at work upon the children of the immigrant, the library has a very important place and much responsibility. No matter what the other demands may be, we cannot afford to neglect these children, and we must make generous provision to get them interested in good books through the schools and the library.

Between the immigrants and their children at one extreme, and the educational institutions and the scholar at the other, there is that very large group of the community made up of the more or less educated people, concerning whose needs and desires most of the questions on bookbuying are raised. This is a reading group. A certain part of it consumes tons and tons of newspapers and cheap magazines, the very names of which are strange in libraries. This is the reading—perhaps the only reading—of many of them, and we find that they go to the newspapers for the stirring and morbid records of crime, for scandal, for gambling news and other sensational matter, and they are reading the magazines for stories of much the same character.

Such readers crave excitement; they seldom read a book for pleasure, and they have never used the printed page for the purpose of obtaining information since their school days. It seems vital that the public library should find some meeting place with this section of the community. The plane of the cultivated reader has no temptation whatever. One must get down to earth to start growth, and the danger of bending down is far less than that of keeping aloof by reason of too high a standard. It is possible to do this without wholly giving up our demand for good quality, and we may find popular books free from vulgarity and from any pernicious influence, which, if properly used, may create a zest for better books when they are offered.

In selecting books of different grades for the purpose of leading readers from the poorer books to the better, we do, of course, put before the readers of the better books a selection of descending quality. Fortunately, however, there is little danger in this, for there is a safeguard in the fact that a taste for the better books carries with it a dislike to those of inferior quality.

It is well to remember also that even the lightest fiction selected by the library is free from most of the objectionable qualities of the reading indulged in by many readers whom we hope to reach.

As we advance in the scale of our readers, the demands upon the library increase. More and more the library is becoming of commercial use. Not only men of the various industries are finding use for the recorded experiences and the advice of experts in their own lines, but business men are beginning to find great possibilities in the use of books as time[Pg 127]-savers and as a help to efficiency. The use of the book as a tool is becoming constantly greater, and the public library, as a matter of course, is to supply all books which may be so used. It is the plain duty of the public library to make known its ability to help its community in these practical ways.

It would seem that wise book buying would result more often through a study of the city rather than from the searching of book catalogs. The public library perhaps more than any other educational institution may receive help from social surveys, social engineering, and the records of commercial organizations.

If a social survey has not been made of our city, we should at least ascertain the elements which go to make up its population. Let us know the types of people to be reached and their numbers. How many Americans of native stock? How many residents of foreign birth? How many children of foreign born parents? What are the races represented—English speaking, Germanic, Slavic, Latin, etc.? What are the social and economic conditions? What are their occupations? What of their education and æsthetic development? These are pertinent questions for the library.

Then let a search be made for the most attractive books for each group, always remembering that there is a place for sound, clear, elementary books on all subjects, and that these should be duplicated freely. Let the business of the community be analyzed. Are there textile, steel or wood industries? What manufacturing is done, and what raw materials are used? What of its markets? What of its transportation? What authoritative material may we find on all these subjects, and how may we make it of valuable use? What is being done in our city for the fine arts; for natural science; for the study of literature; for religious and ethical teaching? How may we coöperate in all this work by supplying the necessary books? Let there be a thorough understanding of how and where good books may be used, and then let us consider the breadth and limitation of our book buying.

The FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT: One is tempted to linger over the flavor which has been given to the wording of the next topic, "The open door, through the book and the library; opportunity for comparison and choice; unhampered freedom of choice," and if we do not linger longer on this it is because we know that that flavor will be made permanent after listening to the address itself of the speaker, Mr. CHARLES E. McLENEGAN, librarian of the Milwaukee public library.


A professor in one of our large universities recently complained that college students of the present day are so woefully ignorant of many things that they could reasonably be expected to know. The exciting cause of the professor's outburst was an attempt to get from his class some information about Chanticleer. He was met by conservative and judicious silence until one youth, who was not quite sure, ventured the opinion that it was a popular song sung by Jane Addams. Of course such an answer would irritate a Chicago man, and justly too, when we consider that Miss Addams is what made Chicago famous.

But the wail of the professor provokes the question: Where do all the scholars and thinkers of the world come from? What keeps up the breed? What is it that fills in the ramshackle, ill-jointed, unpromising frame of much of our school product, and returns us so much of fine manhood and womanhood, and so much of the sound learning and ability of the working world? We must, I think, admit that the world is fairly furnished with men and women, intelligent and useful, whom no college can claim. And every college has its quota of dunces who may never be anything else. My professor[Pg 128] made no discovery of an alarming decadence, for what he complains of has always been true. We should not be pessimistic about youth, and we must be fair to our schools. They make better what we send them, but they have no science of alchemy. Many men and women find their inspiration in schools. But after the largest measure of allowance, it will be conceded that the amount of scholarship and efficiency in the world far exceeds the output of our scholastic plants. There are more of such people than schools produce, and the surplus must be accounted for in some other way. This surplus comes, somehow, from that vast throng who are, in a sense, the forgotten children of modern education—those hundreds of thousands who fall out of the ranks in school days, and yet who persist and find themselves without the help of the schools. It is very fortunate that this is so, for otherwise we might have to abandon some of our weightiest political maxims. The world is governed by proverbs, but as a rule of action, a proverb is as dangerous as dynamite. It is as useful as a club in a political campaign. But Dr. Holmes was right: proverbs should be sold in pairs so that one may correct the other as a counter irritant.

One of the most venerable and mossy of these narcotic saws is that our school systems are the bulwark of democracy. Undoubtedly presidents could be elected on this platform alone, if you could find an opposing party foolish enough to deny it. Yet schools can be the bulwark of democracy only by a confusion of terms, by which we mean that education and intelligence are the bulwarks of democracy. This we may grant; but we are now speaking of something besides the three R's and things that children learn in school. By education and intelligence, we mean the resultant of many forces acting on one point. We may readily admit that democracies like ours have only intelligence with which to oppose the powers that tend to gather at the center or to fly off the circumference.

It seems to me that what we call the education of our schools is a very imperfect instrument for the work it is supposed to do. What do we say first to that fifty per cent of the population who drop out of grammar schools with only the most elementary and inadequate knowledge of the three R's? What has the school given them with which to fight the battles of democracy? It is not only the spur of necessity which drives youth to labor so early. That is undoubtedly one cause. There are also the profound weariness and distaste which come of forever seeking from the text-book page, from the teacher's voice, and from the gradgrind drill for something to awaken the mind where the mind has no interest. Germany has been the first to see this failure of the common school to equip the majority; the killing effect of one sort of training for every type of mind. Witness the system of continuation schools for those who find themselves after beginning the bread and butter work of life. Witness the compulsion of the employer to devote part of the apprentice time to special instruction in the chosen craft. Even the unused moments of garrison life in the army are not wasted. Everywhere the progress of Germany is prolonging the school day in the discovery of aptitude, and in the cultivation of it after it has been discovered. In our English-speaking world we are trying to find the same thing in our trade schools, in our manual training, in our vocational education, in the many things which we perhaps hastily call fads in education. They all indicate a reaching after something which is not now attained; a search for an awakening influence on minds that are now dormant; for something to light the inward eye. In all there is the implication of a need which has not been met. These things are the evidence that the diet of public education is not varied enough to nourish all the children of the commonwealth, to awaken the dormant power for SOME THING that lies somewhere in most of humanity.

[Pg 129]

"The hungry sheep look up and are not fed."

Public education has given long and careful thought to those who remain in school. It is just becoming conscious of the great majority who do not remain—the great majority whom necessity, choice, or lack of adaptation of the school to the child drive yearly into the rough school of life. At present the best that schools do for these is to provide each child with the means of self education—the ability to read. But we are to remember that this is only one of the instruments of education; it is not education itself. It is no discovery, and it needs little observation to point out, that with this instrument of reading, the newspaper, the magazine and the book are the potent educators of our day. They are, or should be, the bulwark of democracy. I am not concerned to discuss this further than to show that what we have vaguely depended solely upon our schools to do, is not done by them, and never has been done by them. For the great mass, our schools give each child the one open sesame—reading. There they leave him to open what doors he can and will.

Before I suffer as a heretic, let me quote a really thoughtful man, Thomas Carlyle, called by a breezy miss in our last civil service examination "the great English apostle of hope." You remember that, in speaking of the origin of universities, Carlyle in his Heroes said, "If we think of it, all that a university or final highest school can do for us is still but what the first school began doing—teach us to read. The place where we are to get knowledge is the books themselves. It depends on what we read after all manner of professors have done their best for us. The true university of these days is a collection of books." Possibly there is a little something "proverbial" about this, and perhaps it should be mixed with a trifle of Mark Hopkins on the end of a log. But a collection of books, be it large or small, is a library. That definition still holds, though we may have to include "skittles and beer" after awhile. It is quite clear that this aspect of a library as a distinct and active factor in education has only of late impressed itself upon the public mind. It marks the library as a vitalized public utility, from which we are to expect more than has yet been received. Even the best of schools has its limitations because of the inflexibility of its courses of study, and it may fail, often does fail, to touch with any spark of living fire. But the library may provide something for every type of mind. The library cannot create mind or the will and disposition to use it, any more than the school can. But where the desire to feed any mental craving exists, it would be a very poor library indeed that cannot satisfy it in some degree. This power of the right book to supplement the school, or even to take the place of it, is not yet comprehended in any fullness in our public education. But it is just in this power of the book that a library has one of its best reasons for being, and it is for this reason that, when the library comes into its own, it will be a most important factor in education. Let us see to it that one door is kept open for those who discover themselves after school days are gone. There are thousands who fail to grasp their opportunities in the way and at the time that schools prescribe that they should. Some of these find themselves by living, by working, by accident it may be, or by any of the infinite ways in which humanity adjusts itself to its surroundings. For them the library is a path into fields of learning, into avenues of power that make all things possible. Here is the college of our self-educated man. There is no mystery about it. It is the natural result of following the inward light. We know that the better part of education is what we give ourselves.

One should not use a single instance to prove a principle. It is not merely bad logic; it is not logic. Yet the fact that everyone who deals either with people or with books knows many such cases shows that the experience is universal. One day[Pg 130] not long ago, as I sat alone in the office, a lad came in. "Mister, do you buy the books here?" I admitted complicity. "Will you buy one that I want?" I asked what it was. "Chickens." To cut the story short, I asked him to sit down and we talked about chickens, for I am something of a farmer. I found that he had read everything in the library on poultry and was hungry for more. He knew the hen intimately. He had mastered the genealogy, the sociology, the psychology, and the "Why" of hens. Furthermore, while he was doing time in school, he was also carrying on a successful chicken business on a city lot, from which business he had wrung two thousand hard dollars, which he had safely in the bank. He had already marked down a little farm near the city which would be his as soon as he had "completed his education" in the grammar school, and then he would make the feathers fly. I am glad to say he got his book, and I added another lesson to the many my boys have taught me.

What is our concern with this lad? He is a type of what I have in mind. I do not value him for his ability to make money. Men make money who aren't worth a cent. I measure him by his value as a producer, by his value to humanity as an example, and by his value to a library as a walking delegate for free and unrestricted choice in books. He is an educated man, joyfully occupied in something which engages every faculty of his mind, which he loves, understands, and has mastered for himself. Your country and mine will be the better the more they can grow of that sort of man. He has made good; he has arrived. And to arrive somewhere, under your own steam, is a great thing in life. You might not get the answer you were looking for, but you could not get a foolish answer, if you asked him of Chanticleer.

Lest I be misunderstood, I repeat for a moment. Schools must be systematized. They must follow a course of study. Unhappily, what is called economy dictates that the young must be herded together in droves, graded by their ability to do one or two things into groups of presumptively equal power, equal ability to comprehend and to labor, and of similar tastes. It is the best that modern education has been able to do in the schools. Yet every one of these presumptions of equality is false. In spite of the Declaration of Independence, no two people on earth are equal except in their right to live, move and have their being. But on this educational bed of Procrustes each soul of our Anglo-Saxon race lays him down to pleasant dreams. Alas for him whose mental legs are too long, or too short, to fit the couch! Dreams? For some they are nightmares! Just because of this narrowness of public education, because of its inability to touch all types of mind, we have that endless procession, out and ever out, from our schools.

It is not my wish to take a hopeless view of education. There is no reason for taking such a view. I wish merely to emphasize a fact which has always been true, but a fact of which we are just becoming conscious. The problem of education in the days that are coming is to adjust our machinery so that these lost products shall be lessened. In this readjustment the library will have its place as a recognized and systematic factor in "the greatest business of the state."

The open door through the library and the book has a pleasant sound. Yet probably the most surprising fact in actual experience is the helplessness of even intelligent people in using books. The address of Prof. Chamberlain, delivered before this association a year ago, did not overstate the case of the schools. But schools are beginning to meet the issue, and in time they will remedy the conditions for those who are fortunate enough to remain in schools. But always for us will remain that contingent who drop out of school, in days before the school can reach them with this gospel of the book. The school has lost them, and, if ever they find the open door through the book, it will be by chance, or because the li[Pg 131]brary itself opens the door. It rests with us to proclaim our mission to them. Of course every good library has always taught those insistent ones who knocked at its doors. But the library has been a passive agent of this education, not an active one. A public library, in my judgment, should be equipped with the necessary apparatus to conduct this work systematically, to propagate its own use, to spread the gospel of the open door among the people whom it serves. If this seems a violent innovation, I beg you to consider it from the schoolmaster's point of view, as well as from the librarian's. Here is a great body of people in every community whom other agencies have taught to read, who depend upon reading to return service to the state and to promote their own welfare. On the other side, the library, with the admitted duty of furthering education through the book. Does it not rest with the library to teach persistently, systematically, and by every practicable means, how and where to find what to read? The means of doing this is another matter, but for the expediency of it, and the need of it, examine in any considerable community, the roster of the great correspondence schools, and reflect how many people are groping their way out of darkness toward the light. What people pay for, as they do for this instruction, they want; and what these learners get for their money, they should have for nothing in any public library. When we teach how and where to find what to read, the open door through the library and the book will have some meaning for every man, woman and child who can simply read. All the artificial barriers that stand between the reader and his book will go; the barrier in the book itself will largely be removed, and the library will reach through intelligent choice many of those who are counted down and out by the schools: the thoughtful man who has come to realize the possibilities of his work: the one who has waited long to find his aptitude; the timid; the hesitant; the shy and distrustful; the misunderstood; those who see the "dawn of a tomorrow." The procession is endless, and each has his human need, which runs the gamut from utility to the highest joys of life. We talk so much about the struggle for existence that we forget that the best thing in life is just to live. Not all reading is for material profit; some of it is for happiness, and that happiness is purest and most complete which we find for ourselves. It is the discovery of one's own light that brings the abiding joy. What man or woman cannot look back to the inspiration of some finding of his own for which he owes no one but his Creator? These are the finest moments of life.

"Then felt I like some watcher of the skies,
When a new planet swims into his ken."

So said Keats upon first looking into Chapman's Homer. To express the rapture of the poet is given only to the poet. But the pure joy of finding for ourselves some of the true and beautiful with which we are in harmony, is reward enough. Whether we look upon our library as a source of recreation, of happiness or profit (and it is all of these) this army, who have fallen out of the ranks in the onward march of education in the school, seem to be our especial wards. To open the door through the book for them is a work worth doing, not as a means of salvation, but as a means of sowing more efficiency and more happiness among men. Ours is not the schoolmaster's task of teaching things: it is the nobler task of showing humanity how to teach itself.

And, while we speak of missions, the library need not take itself too seriously. The world is not looking to us for the salvation of mankind. When all is done that can be done, there will still be those who will not read, and who will follow the primrose path after their natures. There are many agencies in life that work for good and the library is one, not the only one. Our field is clear-cut and well-defined—to extend the use of books. There seems to be a sort of nervous notion abroad that one of the chief ends of li[Pg 132]braries is to draw a crowd and put a nice book into every hand. I do not know about all these enrichments of our libraries as I read of them. Have books any compelling power over those who merely come into their presence, unless such people love the books or at least wish to read them? Of this I have no doubt: There are enough who care to use our libraries, if we can take away that helpless bewilderment which overcomes those who are cast adrift, without rudder or compass, upon a sea of books. Teach them the ways in which books may be made to yield their treasures. Open that door in youth if possible, and it will be the best possession which youth carries into manhood. But open it sometime, for the real harvest time is when he who wishes to read, reads what he wants. It might be more soul-satisfying to me to hand out to my chicken boy books that minister to more attenuated needs—but what about the boy? Is he not better that he finds for himself in the book what feeds his mind? The glory and power of the library is that he who can merely read, may there find what the in-dwelling spirit asks for. It is good that there should be one place in education where there is no brimstone and treacle, no Mr. Squeers, and no Smikes. "For books are not absolutely dead things, but do contain a potency of life in them to be as active as the soul whose progeny they are."

The FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT: A curiosity which has existed since libraries were first started is about to be gratified. We are to get the answer to the question, "What do the people want?" from MISS JESSIE WELLES, of the Carnegie library of Pittsburgh.


If we are to believe the voices in the air the people want some big things, for it is a notable fact that the things most loudly demanded are wanted by a few people for all the people. The socialistic group wants a coöperative industrial system for everybody, another familiar group in no uncertain voice demands votes for all, whether we want them or not, and there is a third group to which our president has referred, the members of which think that they see in universal education a panacea for the ills of state and society. Of this group all librarians must be at least ex-officio members while librarians in public libraries must work definitely toward the end which it avows.

[3] Abstract.

How are we doing this? It will not serve to take refuge back of the statement that our only hope for universal education is with the child. We have a duty toward the adult as well as toward the child, and our aim must be not to get people to read books but to get all the people to read the right books, the books best adapted for their individual development.

Are we supplying the right books? For book selection, a well nigh perfect technique has been established, but is technique enough? Knowledge of books and of technique are imperative but the librarian who supplies the right books to all the people must know and understand his fellowmen.

Who are the people whom we are to serve? Do we perchance throw them into one great group and call them the public as distinguished from librarians? Who are we but "the public" to the actor, the artist, the man in the railway office? No, a wise providence has endowed men with a great variety of characters and temperaments, and when environment has further complicated matters, we must try to understand them all. For our present purpose let us group the people on the basis of a taste for knowledge.

Some people are born with a thirst for knowledge, some acquire a taste for it through early training and environment and some must have knowledge thrust upon them if they are to have it at all. Of book selection for the educated in any of these groups this paper does not deal. The subject has been discussed often and well, and while we have by no means reached the point where we no [Pg 133]longer need to study how to serve them, the question is not a gravely puzzling one.

The elimination of the educated brings us down to a study of book selection for the under-educated and the indifferent in the interest of universal education for the benefit of state and society.

Some of these uneducated ones may be found in each of the three groups. Many from the first two groups come to our libraries and should be served thoughtfully and wisely. In many cases the only indication of a thirst for knowledge is an omnivorous appetite for exceedingly poor novels. If they have already devoured many, their taste is probably hopelessly perverted and about all we can hope to do is to hold their interest and eliminate the yellow horror with its debilitating influence by supplying free, easily accessible books of even the lightest grade found upon our library shelves. This is a very slight advance, but it is a step forward. Others of this class if "caught young" can be interested in better literature, and are worthy of our careful thought and the wisest service.

There come also to libraries many in whom the real desire to know is awake but still rubbing its eyes. They must not be confused with that class of people, difficult to deal with in every sphere, who seek to appear wiser than they are, and some personal knowledge of the individual is imperative in order to avoid this mistake. They usually ask for assistance in book selection and great care should be taken in giving it, as it serves well the future of our race to help one of these "derive education," as one such borrower has expressed it.

And now we come to the most difficult group of all, those who must have knowledge thrust upon them if they are to have it at all. These do not come to our libraries, but we go out to them by means of various forms of extension work. We are inclined to take this branch of work lightly, but it is full of potential good for the commonwealth. Here we have the citizen at our mercy, why not see what we can do with him to help the cause of universal education?

Extension work can be carried on with a small staff, but every worker should be of the best, strong in knowledge of books and of human nature. The book selection for these smaller centers can be based upon some personal knowledge of the individual, and the collection may be made a powerful educational tool. The individual can best be reached through his personal tastes, for the developing of which he does not dream that books exist.

This personal work must be devoid of sentimentality. The worker's motive must be a desire for fair play, and he must not approach the people in a missionary spirit. They do not want to be uplifted by a missionary nor surveyed by a social worker. The only spirit in which we can study their needs is the spirit of good fellowship, with the honest desire to share with others what we ourselves enjoy. We can reach only a few of the people who need help most and books can give then only a small part of the awakening and training and broadening that the state desires for them, but our effort should not be gauged by what we can accomplish. We have to thank previous generations for many benefits which result from their aiming high above their power of achievement, and if by personal study of the under-educated we can raise the standard of their reading in the slightest degree, the general standard of intelligence of the next generation will advance in the same ratio, and this the state finds worth while.

After this paper the session adjourned.


(Russell Theatre, Saturday, June 29, 9:30 a. m.)

Joint session with the Professional training section. Mr. James I. Wyer, Jr., director of the New York state library, and ex-president of the A. L. A., occupied the chair.

The CHAIRMAN: Your temporary chairman for the morning has but one[Pg 134] compunction in accepting this pleasant privilege, and that is that it inevitably deprives you of the gracious presence of your rightful presiding officer, even though it be only for a few minutes.

Miss MARY E. HAZELTINE, preceptor of the University of Wisconsin library school, will speak to us on


The library movement is no longer a crusade, it is a movement of peaceful education. In truth, the library movement is not a movement at all, it is an achievement. The library has come to be a center of personal interest. People, one by one, are the object of our labors. They are to be brought, through the personalities of those who preside over books, into touch with the personalities that dwell within books.

There are many militant movements today, those for universal peace (strange paradox), equal suffrage, labor reform, and for human betterment in crowded cities—great social movements that are being promoted through the vigorous propaganda and the emphatic zeal of their leaders. Over against these dynamic social movements, the library operates as a quiet force, at once personal, intellectual, educational, persuasive but powerful, studying community interests, serving community needs it is true, but accomplishing the work through the individual. These other movements will, after their first victories are won, likewise take on an educational aspect, but they will become strong and far-reaching only as people are touched and served by them.

No cause can be greater than the personality which interprets it. It matters little how proud the ideals of the leaders, or how great the possibilities of the work itself, nothing can really be accomplished except through the vision, ability, and knowledge of those who have actual contact with the public. Technique and method in library work are of less importance than the personality of the assistant, his preparation for the work, his continued renewing of himself in interest and knowledge, his immediate contact with affairs of the day, and his ability to share his interest and information with others.

If this be true, behind the library must lie a personal force. This must be secured, first, through the personality of those who labor within its walls; then, through the personalities of the books themselves that are ready if permitted, to answer every human need. The vital connection between these depends upon the person that can stimulate a love of books, or arouse a feeling for their need. Are our libraries today manned by such assistants?

The plain matter of fact is that we are still over-technical. For petty details in devotion to routine and technique, we crucify personality; we kill the love of books among our library workers, for there is no time to read, no opportunity to make or keep a real acquaintance with books. Schemes to induce others to read are constantly being devised, red tape is ever being wound around our system of details, professional duties are allowed almost brutally to shut us out from contact with the best in literature. There are too many meetings to attend; too many papers to write; have you ever been obliged to forego an open-air performance of Electra at your very door that would have brought interpretation and understanding, because you had to rival Euripides and prepare a paper for the American Library Association? Librarians, alas, take their work too seriously, and too painfully do their duty.

"For each man kills the thing he loves,
By each let this be heard,
Some do it with a bitter look,
Some with a flattering word."

The librarian of the older days was a crabbed and positively forbidding guardian of books. Then for a period of years—and there are traces of this time still with us,—the library worker had the attitude of the clerk, so important seemed the details of library service. Now we are approaching the time when the librarian[Pg 135] shares in the spirit of the social worker. The one big blessed thing that we all want to do (and we are all assistants to the public) is to get people to love the human messages in books, for "Books are not dead things and do contain a potency of life in them to be as active as that soul whose progeny they were." The only way to do this is to make sure that the person who deals with the public knows books—is fairly radiant with book lore. He should not be a rapt scholar absorbed in his own research, nor on the other hand a spiritless, lifeless, or flippant clerk.

Within a decade there has come a change in the tenor of most library reports, most noticeable within the last five years. The emphasis is now largely on the myriad things that are done for the public which require a knowledge of books and the ability to use them for people. This new library service can only be carried forward by assistants who know both books and people. The library assistant is now rapidly becoming a constructive social worker and has the most potent spiritual forces of all the ages at his command.

But in addition to personality there must be education. This is a primary requisite for an assistant. Nothing can supply the lack of knowledge. Where nothing is, nothing results. It is evident that our libraries are recognizing educated assistants.

Mr. Anderson H. Hopkins in his report to the Board of trustees of the Carnegie library of Pittsburgh, said in 1908:

"Near the beginning of the report appears a statement of the names of members of the staff, in an arrangement showing the positions that they occupy. I have long felt that this is not adequate, although it is in accord with the custom of large public libraries in this country. A number of the members of our staff have not only academic degrees, but also degrees or certificates from professional schools, and I believe it would be a good plan for us to set these forth in our statement, as is commonly done in the calendars of colleges. There can be no question that the work done by the staff compares favorably with that done by any similar professional body and I believe that it would be well to take this step in recognition of the fact."

In the report of the Cleveland public library for 1909 this statement is made:

"An analysis of the preparation of the various members of the staff for their work gives this interesting showing: college graduates, 47; partial college courses, 24; library school graduates, 46."

From the report of the Boston public library for 1909 the following is quoted:

"Three grades of educational qualifications are required. The lowest grade, which includes a comparatively small number of pages, sub-assistants, etc., requires a training equivalent to a grammar school course. The middle grade requires qualifications equivalent to a high school training and familiarity with one foreign language. The third grade, including seventy-seven of these persons, requires qualifications equivalent to those obtained by a college course, and familiarity with two foreign languages. The proper cataloging and classifying of books and the reference work necessary to aid those using the library also requires in many positions much higher qualifications than those which could be obtained by the ordinary college course."

Libraries should secure more assistants with academic training, whose minds have come in contact with the many subjects that reveal the past and interpret the present. We must rely on the colleges for the production of such assistants, that they shall come to us already knowing the sweep of literature on the library shelves, already loving books and knowledge, and filled with their power. Such workers can not help radiating a passion for books. They will make the library a living institution, a center of glowing personality. Of some it can be said:

"Who reads and reads and does not what he knows,
Is one that plows and plows and never sows."

It can never be said of the college bred assistant who has been fired with the message of books that he is such an one, but rather, he will sow day in and out that priceless seed of the love of books in the[Pg 136] living soil of human hearts. Because such workers have seen the vision, have walked in its light, they will continue to make books a part of their daily living, never losing the habit of systematic reading, despite the routine and immediate demands of the library.

We have said that the responsibility for supplying this knowledge and love of books a part of their daily living, never answer, however, that they cannot bring to their students in four years this literary culture if they do not come to college with some previous acquaintance with books; and that, if the student must study all the practical, social, utilitarian, and commercially valuable things demanded today, the reading of books is crowded out. Is not then, the responsibility for awakening the love of books for their own sake thrown back upon libraries, and upon the book knowledge of those that serve within their walls? Our book service, of which we have been boasting for many years, ought surely by this time to show results among those whom we have been serving. If the colleges claim that there are few among their students who have any real knowledge of books, should not we count the failure partly ours?

And what is the reason? The assistant who has given the book to the growing boy or girl has done it mechanically, has done it as a clerk has done it without knowledge of its message, and as a result has failed to arouse a love of books, a love of reading. The failure is in the library assistant. We have substituted for training in book values, for appreciation of their literary content, for knowledge of their true worth among assistants a mechanical skill in the handling of books.

The trained assistant must ever keep alert in himself the spirit of knowledge that is in him. In this same spirit and by this same habit, the reading of trained members of the staff must become a contagion and quicken the love of books in the untrained. The library looks then to the trained assistant to come with a knowledge and love of books that shall be retained as his birthright, and used as a talent not hid in a napkin.

Library assistants cannot all be college bred. Many library workers are recruited locally, among those for whom the library itself has been a university. These make up a large body of the assistants who fill important positions in all types of libraries. For their book knowledge and love of learning the colleges cannot be held responsible. The end desired must be secured by the library itself. First, by choosing for an assistant today one who has appreciated the environment of books; second, by encouraging and aiding him to a fuller knowledge of books through systematic reading; third, by creating an atmosphere of books in which future assistants may grow up.

To the average assistant who feels her importance because she is working in a library, librarianship means an ability to do things with the hand, rather than with head and heart. Many seek a library position because they think it involves only neat and easy work, having in mind the purely mechanical and technical side, without a thought of its meaning and strength. The line should be drawn very sharply between those who know books, can think about them, and who can express the reason that is within them about their values, and those who only know their outside, their mechanical care, and the keeping of their records. So we find the responsibility for the book shortcomings of even our best educated assistants at our own door.

It is said that librarians do not know the great life interests, the pervading charm of music, the thraldom of art, the abiding realities of religion, the solace of the out-of-doors; have never sensed the author's heart-throbs which have gone into the books they lightly handle, or gloried in the transcendent mysteries which lie in poetry. How many library assistants really do read books for the joy of it? In how many has this joy been killed; in how many has it never been created? For these is not the library responsible?

[Pg 137]

Some libraries are already seriously caring for the training of their assistants. In the large city libraries positions are filled chiefly from the training class conducted by the library itself where a graded service has been established and promotion depends upon examination. But much of this training, like all library training, is of necessity technical and professional, rather than cultural. Many libraries further report staff meetings for general discussion of library matters, while a few report such meetings for the general book knowledge of the staff.

From the Dayton, Ohio, public library the report comes that monthly staff meetings have been held since January, 1908, for various stated library purposes, and that the members contribute anything of interest from personal reading which would be suggestive to other members for their own reading, or helpful to them in dealing with the public. Library time is allowed for these meetings.

In 1906, Mr. Dana reported that members of the staff met once a week to discuss library matters in general and to have a report by one of the class on the literature of some assigned subject. Among the subjects reported on were, photography, history of literature, French revolution, French history, travel in Japan, opera, etc.

In 1907, Mr. Brown, of the Buffalo public library reports:

"We have done more staff training this year than was possible before. Round tables are now held in nearly every department, at which methods and books are discussed. To this we can trace habits of greater carefulness and accuracy, a more comprehensive view of the work as a whole, and happier, better service."

In 1908, the report says:

"The staff round tables—'the part of our work which keeps us keen and alive' as one member expresses it—have been held as usual. At these meetings methods of work and books are discussed and frank talks upon the best means of helping borrowers are given; but the spirit of sympathy and comradeship which results from meeting together as library workers and talking over the work, its purpose and ideals, is really the most valuable and important result of these meetings."

From Cedar Rapids, 1905, comes the report:

"A meeting of the staff has been held on Thursday mornings for the discussion of current events and library problems." In 1908: "The Thursday morning hour has been given to the reading aloud of poems suggested in Dawson's 'Makers of English poetry.' Some time was devoted to Browning and Milton. New books were discussed and current events were considered." In 1909: "The staff has taken up the study of Brander Matthews' 'Development of the drama,' and has read several of the Greek tragedies. Current events and new books were also discussed." In 1910: "The weekly staff meetings have been continued and are most helpful."

The Cleveland report for 1910 says:

"The staff round table continues to meet; this year, more than ever, emphasis has been laid upon a broader and less superficial knowledge of books on the part of the staff, and it is believed that some progress has been made in this direction. * * * All this shows a flexibility of mind on the part of our staff which has made them grow with their work. There has also been the ability of the older members to train and inspire younger and newer assistants."

Constant study is required among those who have attained academic distinction, evidenced in advanced degrees, in record of profound research, in contributions to learned societies and journals, and in published monographs and books. Even teachers in the grades must pass examinations to hold their positions, and excel in order to secure promotion. No one employs a physician who does not keep abreast of scientific and medical discoveries by graduate courses or private study; few listen long to a preacher who does not keep in touch with the spirit of the times. Can it be that the library profession is the only one in which a systematic progression is not generally demanded?

A definite amount of reading should be required of all library assistants. They must not be allowed to stagnate, nor to think that because they live in an atmosphere of books they are exempt from reading. There should be on the part of the librarian a keener feeling of responsibility for his assistants and for their growth in the knowledge and love of[Pg 138] books. Whether this shall be brought about through organized classes, whether it shall be through weekly reading with required reports, or whether it shall be through the subtle influence of the librarian's personality and love of books which inspires him; or whether it shall be a combination of all these, remains to be worked out by each local institution,—but worked out it must be, unless with our boasted free books, we are to become the by-word and the laughing stock of future generations.

We all acknowledge that the assistant is a most important individual. Have we looked well to his necessary book qualifications and to his continued opportunities for improvement while serving the library? And have we analyzed what these opportunities should be? We say frankly: First, the librarian is brother's keeper of all the assistants. Second, the educated library assistant in creating a love for books, owes as much to his fellow assistants, who have been less fortunate in the matter of education, as he does to the public. Third, that the library itself should become a progressive training school for love of books and reading.

It is the assistant who has caught the message of books, who has heard the gods calling him to celestial heights, who realizes what Robert Louis Stevenson expressed when he said that he felt like thanking God that he had a chance to earn his bread upon such joyful terms—it is such an assistant who makes the library a place where people want to read. And that is the true library whose books are read.

No one has a richer opportunity to be a public servant in all the fine significance of that word, than the assistant to the public in the public library. He may unlock the treasures of the past, for those treasures are committed unto him not for keeping but for sharing freely. This public servant may extend the knowledge of the discoveries and innovations of the present, and thus become an interpreter of the scholar's message. This public servant may match the answering book with the inquiring mind, the responsive page with the hungry soul. This public servant may lead out the spirit of youth, lift the burdens of middle life, may speak solace to old age through the thoughts and songs of poet and prophet, dramatist and seer. This public servant must be a great personality, either an achieved personality, or a personality in the making; this public servant must be a lover of people, a lover of life, and therefore a lover of books.

The CHAIRMAN: The next paper on the program is by Miss EDITH TOBITT, librarian of the Omaha public library. Miss Tobitt herself, I regret to say, is detained, but she has sent her paper and it will be read by Mr. Frank K. Walter, of the New York state library school.


When gathering the material for my part of this discussion of "Type of assistants," my inclination turned constantly to another wording of the title, that is, "the value of the book to the public dependent upon the intelligent discrimination of the assistant," so while I shall try to adhere more closely to the original subject than this would indicate, I hope that you will pardon me if I now and then talk on the second title.

"Efficiency in business" has received so much discussion of late that it is a brave person who dares assume the privilege of continuing the subject, but having seen the statement that "the more books of the right kind are read, the more efficient a nation becomes," a librarian naturally believes that the discussion has no end but may be continued indefinitely, for this means not only a supply of the right kind of books but also an efficient distribution of these books.

When speaking of the efficiency of the employees in a library, it would seem that[Pg 139] the same general rule would hold as in other occupations, but this is scarcely true. The people who are served by an institution maintained at public expense expect a higher grade of service than when served by the employees of some private institution or business. No doubt, this is because a higher grade of honor or integrity is expected in the occupant of the office which is maintained for the public good, at the public expense, than one which is maintained for private gain. Naturally the same general rules regarding adaptability, politeness, industry, and various other attributes should be applied to the occupant of any position but in the case of the public servant only the very highest standards should be tolerated.

Aside from the public the librarian's first interest should be in the employees of the library. Again and again the statement has been made to the effect that the "work of getting the right book to the right person falls upon the desk assistant chiefly," but as almost all of the employees of a library are desk assistants at some time during each day, it follows that all of the employees bear almost equal responsibility.

It would seem that the selection of books for the library should have first attention, but books are easy of selection compared to employees, and easily disposed of if not found to be useful, while the assistant must be carefully placed in the department for which she is the best fitted. For taking all of the valuable characteristics of all of the assistants into consideration, there are to be found as many grades of value as there are books in the library. To be able to do the subject of "the library assistant" justice, the writer should have a very thorough knowledge of human nature, a knowledge generally possessed by successful teachers and sociological workers, but not often by the librarian. Such knowledge comes from a kind of experience not easily obtained by a librarian. It is more to a librarian's credit to know thoroughly the members of the staff and consequently be just to all than it is to have succeeded with any other one piece of work, because perfect justice toward employees will produce the best work for the library.

While the actual work of getting the right book to the right person may fall chiefly upon the desk assistant, the manner in which this is done emanates from those who decide the policy of the library. If those who are at the head of affairs have forgotten or have never realized that the library exists for the people, and that it is maintained at public expense for that purpose, and because of this lack of knowledge maintain an attitude of arrogance toward the people, the assistants will do the same. It is true that an indifferent and unsympathetic librarian cannot always prevent a capable and efficient assistant from doing her work well, yet the lack of efficiency at the head will often discourage capable assistants and will never better the work of poor ones.

In a library of medium size having thirty employees or less it is a comparatively easy matter for the librarian to keep in close touch with the work of the members of the staff and by personal effort maintain a definite standard, while in a large library this duty must of necessity be detailed to others. But whatever the means adopted, every library must have a definite standard of efficiency which bears directly upon the service to the public and although a full knowledge of the technical details of the work of the library are without question necessary, a proper knowledge of the right attitude toward the public is a greater necessity and should receive from the librarian much greater emphasis than the technical side.

The characteristic most to be desired in a library employee, in no matter what position, is that of the self-disciplined and well trained servant who understands the rights of others and what they should expect of him in his position, and who attempts to respond to this demand. These characteristics, if they exist, are inherent but may be more fully developed by experience.

[Pg 140]

It may be well to try to outline in a general way what should be expected of the occupants of some of the important positions in a library, for the final outcome of the work will depend upon the librarian's ability to discriminate in the selection of the right persons to fill these positions. For the children's librarian, the first requirement is a knowledge of children and the ability to feel and show sympathy and affection without being sentimental. Many attractions may be introduced into the children's department but the vital things are to know the children and the books. A mistake in the appointment to this position might be more nearly fatal than a mistake in any one of the other departments, for the ability of the children's librarian to discern intelligently those qualities in a book which are right for the child may permanently settle that child's taste in literature. The future well being of the library often depends upon the wise choice of the children's librarian.

A knowledge and love of people may also be put as the first requisite for the head of the circulation department, extending not only to the people who are generally called "the public" but also to the employees of the library. This position may well be considered the most important in the library, next to the librarian and assistant, for from this source the other employees will instinctively acquire the standard for their treatment of the public and obtain their ideas of what is the amount of knowledge of books which should be expected of a desk assistant. The personality of the head of the circulation department and her ability to be helpful and to teach those in her department to be helpful, can do more toward increasing the usefulness of a library than any other one characteristic. The employee given to much detail is not generally a success here. Rather that employee who, by strength of personality, leads others to do good work, is the best. The head of the circulation department has the best opportunity of any one in the library for making a direct path from the borrower to the book.

Scholarship, without question, must be considered the first requirement for the reference librarian, and if the public is to learn to have confidence in the library as an educational institution, no mistake must be made here. But the scholarship must always be allied with the desire to do service.

Frequently the cataloger appears to the other members of the staff to be so far removed from direct contact with people that it is assumed she cannot intelligently know what the public wants. Except in very rare instances this is a mistake, as has been proved by some of our great catalogs, the makers of which probably rarely waited upon the public. It is the ability to put oneself in the place of the questioner, to have a sympathetic interest in the people, that counts, and also to realize seriously that only by means of the catalog can the public have a true knowledge of what is in the library.

The same general rules may be followed all through the library. Different positions require different qualifications and it rests with the librarian to see that the employee fits the position. If this is not done it will make little difference how good the collection of books may be, the contents of the library will not reach the public in a direct way. The library is what the librarian and assistants make it by their intelligent use of the material supplied.

This may all seem very commonplace. If it is, then why have we not profited more by what we already know? It must be granted that many libraries inherit employees who are not particularly well fitted for the place they are expected to fill. The only thing to do in this case is to put them where they will do the least harm. We cannot expect to maintain an all star cast, but by studying carefully the people in the employ of the library the librarian can generally so manipulate things that eventually the right person will be in the right place.

The program makers asked to have dis[Pg 141]cussed "the ability to discern quality and essentials in books." For this we must have first the student and careful reader who, through the study of various subjects is able to judge the literature of those subjects. It cannot reasonably be expected that library employees will be able to have a first hand knowledge of all classes of literature, but all employees may become reasonably familiar with the names of the best writers on many subjects and the character of their work. It is by means of the various literary tools provided and the ability to acquire a more general knowledge of many subjects by much reading that the library employee increases in value. In this particular part of the work the library assistant gains more by much reading than she does by experience.

It is not my duty to discuss the kind or the extent of the education possessed by those who become library employees. We all agree that this should be the broadest and the most general possible with emphasis placed on literature and history. Most of our assistants enter the library training classes at the close of a high school course, and, generally speaking, librarians do not expect more than this because the salaries which are offered will not attract people of higher education. Therefore, if an assistant is to learn to discern quality and essentials in books some provision should be made by which this knowledge may be acquired in the library after entering as an employee. Just as the librarian is responsible for the attitude of the assistants toward the public so are the librarian and heads of departments responsible for the growth of the efficiency of the employees in this particular phase of library work.

A standard of efficiency must be maintained along this line of education as well as personal treatment of the public, therefore it is impossible to emphasize too strongly the necessity of continuing the education of the library employees after finishing the work of the training class and after having become an employee of the library. It can scarcely be considered advisable to attempt to give much practice work in all departments to all employees but it should be one of the requirements of the library that provision be made whereby all of the employees in a department shall learn to know the general character and the value of most of the books in that department.

From the library periodicals of England one may gather that there is some rather severe criticism of the assistants in libraries, the general feeling being that a lack of efficiency deprives the public of their proper share of service. I should like to quote from a paper by Mr. John Bar, which appeared in the Library world (vol. 13).

"If the library would only adopt a policy whereby a guarantee could be had that the assistants in the library would be taught their profession in a thorough manner, I am positive that the now prevalent lament regarding the apathy and carelessness of assistants would be reduced to a vanishing point, because from observation, I believe that the assistant is the product of his environment; he is what the conditions in the library make him. The policy of the library should be to provide the staff with every opportunity for improvement in general, literary, and technical knowledge. In order to meet the first part of the proposal, the time of the staff should be so arranged as to allow a reasonable portion for private study as well as recreation. And in order to fulfil the latter part—that relating to technical knowledge—the work of the library should be so organized as to ensure that every assistant shall, in a series of progressive steps, obtain an adequate and thorough knowledge of all the practical details of librarianship."

The people of America cannot offer quite as severe criticism of their library employees as this would imply has been offered in England, but the suggestions regarding further education after entering the library, are such as we might well follow.

The second item suggested by the program makers reads "the power to give in[Pg 142]formation rather than advice." This naturally would come through the ability of the employee to eliminate his own opinion and to put forward instead the opinions of those who are qualified to know. Here again the employee may, by much reading, become more efficient. There is nothing so offensive to patrons of a free institution as to have unsolicited opinions and advice offered by employees. And yet this is a characteristic of the new employee and is prompted not by conceit but by a desire to be helpful and to please. The best way to be helpful in a library, as elsewhere, is to help people to help themselves. In this as in all of the work of the library the standard must be that established by those highest in authority, and ways and methods must be put forward whereby the assistant may know what plan she is to follow.

The ability to be helpful comes by much experience, both personal experience and the experience of others. To quote, "experience is the force which makes life possible ... and books alone give permanence to the facts of experience." Therefore to busy people in need of the experiences of others, the greatest help comes by much reading.

We may attempt in every way possible to make general rules governing the efficiency of the library staff, and attempt to maintain certain definite standards, both for the sake of the public and in order to keep down the expense of maintenance, but with all this we shall never be able to reach a perfect system, partly because many employees give promise of much, but soon reach the limit of their capacity and cease to grow, and also because of the frequent unavoidable changes.

There is some variance in the minds of librarians regarding the place of the library in a city, but without discussion we must all agree that first of all the free public library is a collection of books maintained for the use of the public. In order that these books may be available the employees must not only give efficient service, but they must also have a clear understanding of the public.

It has been said many times that a few books in the hands of an intelligent and discriminating employee are of greater value than a large collection poorly handled. The employees constitute the medium by which the books reach the public and it rests with the buyer, the cataloger, the desk assistant, the reference librarian, and the children's librarian to see that these get into the hands of the right people at the right time. It is here that the careful discrimination of the librarian and assistants is necessary.

The average library is much too large to be well used by the public and the employees of the library. In most libraries of 100,000 volumes there are possibly not more than 10,000 which are of real value. If the employees could know the authors, titles, and something of the contents of most of these it is quite as much as may be expected. If the assistant comes to the library with a reasonably good education and something of a desire to add to what she has, and will read regularly of books which are of general interest there is no reason why she should not learn to discriminate quite as carefully in the selection of books for the individual borrower as the assistant who has made a special study of the criticism of literature.

No mention has been made of requirements for special positions in a library. This can only be settled after the employee has shown some fitness for special work. As the library is what the librarian and assistants make it, it rests with the librarian and those in the highest positions in the library to decide definitely on a policy, the result of which shall be prompt and efficient service from the time of the purchase of the books to their final distribution into the hands of the people.

The CHAIRMAN: Next upon the program occurs the paper, "The efficiency of the library staff and scientific management," by ADAM STROHM, assistant librarian Detroit public library.

[Pg 143]


In conversing one day with the superintendent of one of our local industries where the library is maintaining a station, I learned something of the many provisions devised by the welfare department of the organization as conducted by the social secretaries of the company. From my tour of inspection I have a vivid recollection of attractive dining rooms, an indoor gymnasium with an up-to-date swimming pool, office or laboratory for a medical attendant to administer first aid and attend to accidents of more or less serious nature, architectural plans, free of charge, for prospective home builders, a well selected book collection of popular and technical character, presided over by a representative of the public library, which institution also arranges for biweekly noon lectures on popular and instructive topics. On my commending the humanitarian spirit animating the management of the company the prompt response came: "That element enters only as incidental in our policy. It is all a matter of business. We must hold our organization intact. It is important to retain our skilled workmen and we must make it worth their while to remain with us."

If it has been found to be good policy to provide for the contentment and welfare of the human units in an organization where, after all, a large part of the day's work is rather mechanical and of fixed standards, how vastly more important it must be to give a close, generous consideration to the happiness and comfort of the personnel in a library system where the personal service is of paramount importance, where the physical and mental vitality is under constant pressure, where improvement in the day's work is always exacted and where the result yielded to the individual effort is uncertain and often undemonstrable.

In the case of library service, humanitarian regard should weigh equally with considerations of statistics and output, inasmuch as library work is a service for humanity and its welfare. Those entrusted with the management of libraries may well remember the maxim that "as we do we teach," which, applied to library conditions, may lead us to conclude that whatsoever is done to promote the happiness and best instincts of the rank and file in a library organization, will result directly in instilling in the public service, rendered by them, a spirit of sympathy, ready regard of the rights and needs of the public and an eagerness to serve loyally. Any library management conceived and executed in this spirit may be depended upon for achievements in what is really library economy.

I'll endeavor to formulate some suggestions toward effecting such results and I can harbor but feelings of satisfaction, should I be advised later that they have already been practically realized in some institutions.

The question of how to maintain and increase the efficiency of the staff might well be approached from two angles, the physical and the mental conservation of forces.

Dr. Luther H. Gulick makes the statement, that "there are conditions for each individual under which he can do the most and the best work. It is the business of those in charge of others to ascertain these conditions and to comply with them."

We hear so much in our day about scientific management that we may be led to begin inquiring skeptically if its value is not exaggerated in the interests of professional organizers, systematizers, etc.

No working chart for computing the energy of a mental effort or for the increase of its productiveness has as yet been devised but none of us will deny the need of a working plan for the day's work. Else we drift.

According to the new doctrine as laid down by Mr. H. N. Casson, "there is no such thing as unskilled labor, there is an intelligent method for every accomplish[Pg 144]ment. Scientific management does not mean frenzied production. On the contrary, it individualizes the workman, it means the better ordering of the work for the best interests of both individual and the service. Consequently, it provides for recreation as well as for work. It insists that the individual shall not sag so far down at the end of the day's work that he will not recuperate." This concerns not only expended energy but misdirected energy.

The day's schedule should be so arranged that work requiring the highest mental effort be assigned to the most fruitful hours of the individual, the work so distributed that each individual performs the task he can best do and is most worthy of his highest skill.

Pride in the work under your hand, the sense of doing something worth while, generates the spirit of loyalty and happiness which reckons, not so much with the written library regulations, as with the unwritten law of the service to stand by cheerfully as long as needed.

During the recent years I spent in the East, it was my privilege to become intimately acquainted with one of the most distinguished engineers our country produced during the last half-century. One day when I had occasion to call upon this gentleman, I was directed to proceed from his office to one of the noisiest departments of his extensive mills. There I finally located him seated on an anvil, watching taciturnly the moving throng of busy mechanics. I learned afterwards that the lifelong habit of this philosophic engineer was to emerge from his secluded office and enter the quarters where the "wheels turn around." There he would in his quiet manner ask shrewd questions and enter into conversation with any one whose task or skill attracted him. It is on behalf of the rank and file in the library world that I draw upon this recollection of an industrial organization noted for its resources and efficiency. Invite the confidence of every member of the staff, welcome suggestions, allow your assistants to voice the conclusions their experience and service bring home to them, listen with sympathy to suggestions prompted by loyalty and daily pondering. There are times when we may well forget our official gradings, when it will prove profitable to learn from the members of the crew how our theories stand the test.

The question of hours, salaries and vacations can be answered only in a general way. The gauge by which we examine the running of the human machinery entrusted to us should be read with sympathy, and we should set a pace that we can hold the entire day or the working period of a normal life. Speaking for our own institution, we adhere to the 42-hour weekly schedule with provision for a weekly half-holiday. Evening work should certainly never exceed the number three in any one week and personally I'm leaning toward the more desirable two evenings a week. Where a special evening force is employed the recommendation of course, does not apply.

The restroom and the kitchenette are now so generally established as to be past the stage of argument. These restrooms should be well equipped and no niggardly considerations should stand in the way of making them neat, airy and inviting in order to afford comfort and relaxation. The appearance and atmosphere of the restroom should banish the dull sense of drudgery and evoke the gentler side of life.

The half-holiday and vacation should be provided, not so much because a faithful servant has earned a rest, but because without it life means living at a low level, with the certain result of deadening one's faculties, ambition and alertness, whereas these should all grow with one's experience and work. Certainly a month's vacation in the course of a year is a minimum respite in any professional activity of confined nature and mental concentration. We must consider the weight of the statement made by Luther H. Gulick that, "growth is predominantly a function of rest and that the best work that most of[Pg 145] us do is not in our offices or at our desks, but when we are wandering in the woods, or sitting quietly with undirected thoughts." Those who are entrusted with the responsibility of supervising the daily toil of others should so govern that each individual remains "master of his own work and not its slave."

Just a few words as to the rate of compensation prevailing in the library profession today. In so far as the city of Detroit is concerned, the scale of wages now in operation and adopted some three years ago, was based on the salaries paid in the public schools which seems a fitting arrangement inasmuch as our public library is an outgrowth of, and, as to appointment of trustees, still under the control of the Municipal Board of Education. The professional training and executive skill required in a librarian of today make it seem reasonable that his or her compensation should be fairly at par with the salaries paid in other city departments where professional training is among the requisites, such as Department of City Engineer, City Attorney, Municipal Museum, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Principal of a High School, etc. Our salary schedule based upon the schedule applying to principals and teachers in our local public schools operates in parts as follows:

Heads of departments to receive the same pay as principals of eight room schools.

Branch librarians to receive the same pay as principals of seven room schools.

First assistants to heads of departments to receive a salary corresponding with that of assistants to principals of schools. In the same manner the schedule applies to the rank and file, promotions being given semi-annually, based on seniority and service record.

That this regulation would apply satisfactorily in other municipalities is questionable, as may be deduced from a statement made by one congressman, who, in discussing the salaries paid the school teachers in the city of Washington remarked with blunt sympathy that "the policemen were paid more to crash the skulls of the children in Washington than the teachers were paid for putting something into them."

To maintain the efficiency of the library staff it is necessary not only to consider the welfare of the individual during his working hours but to provide such material regard for his day's toil that his vitality and enjoyment of life may be conserved by having the means to afford the necessary comfort and social status consistent with our profession.

To consider the importance of personal appearance, neatness in dress in our service with the public is simply to recognize the point of view of the library patron whose opinion is worth while, and how are we to exact this showing of "fine front" if we do not defray the cost thereof?

It is difficult, if not physiologically unsound, to speak about the mental conservation of the library staff apart from its physical maintenance, but in considering the former I would invite your attention to what Mr. P. W. Goldsbury so aptly calls "the recreation through the senses." Mr. Goldsbury remarks, "the importance of our understanding, the wide range of the functions of our senses, the influence of our surroundings and the manner in which they react on our minds." He illustrates his point by quoting the saying that "for horses the hardest road out of London is the most level one. There are no hills to climb and descend, and the tired horse has no chance to rest one set of muscles while another works. Monotony produces fatigue; and because this particular road is one dead, monotonous level, more horses give out on it than on any other road leading out of London." Irresistibly the moral of the canvas before us breaks in upon our individual sense of self-preservation and our responsibility for the welfare of others. For economic as well as for humanitarian reasons it behooves us to so apportion the[Pg 146] day's work that one's senses are exercised one after another and through interchange of duties and tasks, not only one's body but one's mind is given a variety of exercise and impressions. The rotation of duties every two hours in departments where direct service with the public is given, will, I believe, be found to afford some relaxation and wholesome change to attendants on duty, especially so, if the change afford the alternative of stationary position and moving about.

We all know how one's mind, spirit, aye, even nerves are affected by objects within our vision, the feeling of depression that benumbs us when our eyes rest on dingy colors and ugly outlines, when we dwell in gloomy quarters or poorly ventilated rooms. Architects and librarians will find that the efficiency of the human machinery housed within the library walls will be maintained at its best if beautiful effects in color and design of interior decorations are features of the library equipment, if daylight is abundant, furnishings tasteful, atmospheric conditions invigorating—let us sometimes have even the fragrance and color-play of flowers. The capacity of our senses for higher development is nourished by the stimulus from the outside world which brings to us, often unconsciously, mental and physical refreshment and recreation. The occasional relaxation in the day's work contributes to a reasonable mental and physical balance, even the occasional conversation during working hours may well be tolerated, certainly any undue restriction thereof will do more harm than good.

I trust that in siding with the authority just quoted and submitting to you these considerations I will not be charged with implying that "work is to take secondary place." To the contrary:—it is by consideration of the little things, by modulating adverse factors, by dealing in a common sense manner with the conditions surrounding our physical and mental field of daily toil, that we may be able to restore the energy that we expend and not only maintain, but increase, our efficiency.

Our stock in trade, our best assets in library work are the joy of the work and the happiness of the individual. The response from each one of us to the call for ever more faithful and efficient service will come with a hearty good will if our strength be protected—our altruistic visions given time and leisure to go woolgathering.

The CHAIRMAN: It is well known to all of us that the Province of Ontario has done notable library work in recent years. Under the guidance of a corps of educational and library officials this work has been stimulated and intensified. A great aid too in the work has been the Ontario library association, with a membership, organization, meetings and committee work that correspond favorably with any other library organization anywhere. The conference has not up to this moment had an opportunity to hear in an official way from the Ontario library association, which must of course be numbered among the hosts of this meeting. Dr. C. R. Charteris, its president, is in the room, and the chair is very certain that the conference will not be content without a few words of greeting from the president of the Ontario library association.

Dr. Charteris expressed pleasure at bringing greetings from the Ontario library association, saying they were backed by about one hundred representatives from the province. He was sure that all, whether trustees or librarians would return home with renewed energy and endeavor to increase interest in library work.

The CHAIRMAN: As this point, ladies and gentlemen, the program naturally divides, and we are brought to that portion of it prepared by the Professional training section of the association. The gavel will be turned over to the chairman of that section, Mr. Matthew S. Dudgeon, secretary of the Wisconsin free library commission.

(Mr. Dudgeon takes the chair.)

The CHAIRMAN: Those of us who[Pg 147] are interested directly in library schools, as well as those of you who are more indirectly, but none the less vitally, interested in library schools, feel that we are fortunate that the next subject, "What library schools can do for the profession," should be presented by a man who has not only seen the inside of library schools as a student, but also, as secretary of a state commission, as secretary of the American Library Association, and as librarian of a public library, has seen the needs of the library and has seen what the capacities of the library school graduate are to meet those needs. I will call upon, but not introduce, Mr. CHALMERS HADLEY, librarian of the Denver public library.


For nearly thirty years an invigorating influence has come to library work through the library schools. During that time hundreds of young men and women, selected for personal and educational qualifications, have been given training in the mechanics of library work and have been placed in touch with the best library thought. As a result, fewer libraries have been converted into laboratories for experimental work in technique.

The library schools have been commended repeatedly by this association and their services are too obvious for comment. In considering, however, what they can do for the profession today, we shall assume the role of the devil's advocate and endeavor to point out how they may serve more fully in what they are doing and what they should do that perhaps is not being done. In the time available we can do little more than summarize.

The first library school was founded and conducted in connection with a university library and for several years at least, its curriculum showed the strong influence of university demands. The curricula of the later schools have been modified somewhat, but changes have been unimportant as compared to the traditions retained. These were carried from the pioneer school to those established later with certain general basic principles which doubtless always will be kept.

For several years a feeling has been sensed, although vaguely expressed that changes and modifications in library school courses were needed. There have been convictions that the schools were not as closely in touch with certain growing activities in library work as libraries themselves were with growing demands and new fields open to them. These convictions have been most pronounced in the schools themselves. As stated by one library school director,—"In some way, the library school should train its students to meet the vital demands that humanity makes upon all who come regularly in communication with people." The aim of the school seems more clearly realized than the means of attaining it, but efforts are seen in the shifts and changes in curricula. In preparing its students to meet the vital demands that humanity will make, it is evident the schools have concluded this can best be done by additions rather than eliminations from courses of study. The training conducted by the oldest school began with a three months' course which in the second year was increased to seven months and then to two years. Another school, typical of several, has never increased the time period over one year, but has so increased the work required that in eight and one-half months, including vacations and holidays, instruction and examinations are given in forty-three subjects, a minimum of three hundred and seventy-seven hours of practice work is required, and a trip of six hundred miles in ten days is taken when some fifteen to twenty libraries are inspected and reported on.

In these crowded courses of study, the schools should be expected by the profession to prevent its ideals from being smothered in the stress of technical work. The usual incentive to enter library work comes from a love of books but this love will avail little if it be unaccompanied by[Pg 148] a consuming desire that the community also share it. Generalities and pseudo-sentiment concerning ideals have invited ridicule, but no librarian, however reticent or how unrecognized his actuating principles may be, can carry on his work successfully without following the vision which vitalizes his professional life. From 1876 to the present day, this association has cherished its aims and our schools can do no greater service than imparting those guiding principles that the means of work may not become the end.

No institution can create qualities lacking in a student and library schools will concern themselves mainly with the mechanics of library work, which is most difficult to obtain elsewhere. But this instruction may either strengthen or weaken indispensable qualities for librarianship and the profession reasonably can expect the schools to foster such. Three related qualities which should be developed in prospective librarians are: a sense of proportion in library work, initiative and judgment.

When we consider the importance of a proper sense of proportion, should we not congratulate ourselves that the schools are devoting less attention to a particular handwriting and other incidentals, the insistence on which always seemed to belittle the dignity of a great work. Legibility in a medical prescription is more important than on a catalog card, but medical colleges and library schools alike can concentrate their strength on more vital needs.

In expecting the schools to develop initiative and good judgment in a student, it is not suggested that students be encouraged to attempt changes in systems of classification, cataloging and other technical processes which have been perfected by the best library thought of two generations. In such a course as book selection, however, after general principles are presented, cannot students be thrown more fully on their own judgment and their practice work be confined to evaluating current publications? Their conclusions could then be verified by comparison with selections in the order department. A year's work confined to sitting in judgment on books from five to fifty years old, when these books are known to be desirable through their presence on the shelves, deadens initiative and judgment and makes routine of what should be one of the refreshing pleasures of the work.

One of the profession's needs today is more men—men whose abilities would qualify them for the highest positions in any work, and these the library schools should attract. While many of the most useful and talented library workers are women, the fact remains that the demand for good men far exceeds the supply, yet we find an astonishing shortage in the schools. Even the school most largely attended by men, reports a decrease since the year 1903. More than one school has attracted so few that the presence of a man is noteworthy and there seem to be schools connected with universities where hundreds of young men are preparing for professional life, that have yet to enroll one man student.

Should we not expect the schools to supply more men? Can they not co-operate with the American library association in presenting the claims and rewards of librarianship to young men in the universities? Not only would such presentations interest both men and women, but they would help to dispel many existing mediaeval conceptions of library work which still survive. Our shortage in men cannot be due entirely to the financial returns in library work. The average salary of men in that work exceeds the average in several crowded professions, and yet our greatest rewards are not in money returns. Men may regard the school courses simply as means to an end, and if so, perhaps the means could be made to appeal more strongly to men. It is rash in these days to compare attributes of the masculine and feminine mind, but may we venture to say women, as a rule, have more patience and enjoyment than men in work requiring sustained atten[Pg 149]tion to details. Do not library school courses, as now arranged, appeal largely to the house-wifely instincts and cannot courses be devised for men who never intend to fill library positions where the exercise of these instincts will ever play so important a part in their work as will problems of administration and questions of library policy. We shall admit that all students should have sufficient training in cataloging for instance, to know good or poor cataloging when met with. But personally I fail to see why a man destined for administrative work should necessarily have to do expert cataloging in order to appreciate it, any more than he would first have to write a book before his judgment in book selection for his library could be relied on.

During the last ten years the library has undergone phenomenal development in its relations with other educational and social forces. Today we must co-operate not only with the public school, but with the social settlement, the juvenile court, and various other special municipal activities. The profession should expect the schools to provide their students with a working knowledge of what the relations of a library to these activities should be, what methods employed bring best results and what some of the problems and possibilities are from such relations. And most important of all, the schools should be expected to provide candidates for library work with a proper appreciation at least of the importance of the library's public relations in general. No mastery of technique or high endeavor greatly avails if the library's public relations be not handled intelligently and skillfully. Rules and regulations are but the written creeds of institutions in the details of loaning books, but back of all of them are the great unwritten laws and principles of procedure, more important than all the printed regulations in existence. Great policies in public relations are being tried and tested today and light on them should be focused through the schools so prospective librarians can see ahead more clearly. Questions of relations with the public are confronting all who, in the words quoted before, have to meet the vital demands that come through constant communication with people. In the Public service magazine of April, 1912, under the heading "Public relations—the vital problem," the following is taken from the president's address before the Illinois Association of Gas Manufacturers:

"Slowly probably, but surely, the majority of owners and operators of public utilities are coming to the realization that the most important,—the most vital subject with which they have to deal in the management of their properties today, is that of public relations. It used to be that the man who could put the most gas in the holders at the lowest cost, or could generate the most power at the electric or street car plant, was the most important in the whole organization.

"It is different now. The basis of organization has changed and the man who has made a study of public relations—the man who can create and conserve the public good will is given the reins of control."

But should a man wish to make a particular study of the library's public relations before he is compelled to assume the responsibilities accompanying them, he may have difficulty. One school makes provision for special students, but on account of the extra work each additional student makes on the faculty, it is often impossible to enter. Admission depends on available desk room and on condition that the regular classes are not so large as to occupy the entire time of the faculty.

The theory at present seems to be,—give every student a little of everything he may need, as the process of forgetting what he will not use is easier than the work of acquiring it should he need it. We therefore see men destined for control of large libraries, women planning for positions as catalogers in university libraries, candidates for small public institutions, those who will specialize in bibliographical work—all of them differing in natural inclinations, special preliminary[Pg 150] training and professional aims in library life, being introduced to forty-three phases of library work, with instruction in all of them varying from 2 to 101 hours, according to the subject, with at least 377 hours of practice work and a library trip—through all of which the student emerges in eight and one-half months, possibly somewhat bewildered by the process but groping for the ladder up which he is determined to climb.

Cannot the schools do the greatest service to the student and to the profession by abandoning the plan of putting all students through the same square hole? Instead of giving a little of everything, cannot the school give much of what the student will use and nothing of what he can dispense with or what can be got easily outside of the school? Cannot the courses be simplified somewhat to permit this? Entrance examinations are conducted early in June for admission to the school in September. Cannot a study of the history of libraries, the history of books and printing, the reading of library literature on publishing houses and other non-technical work be required of the student during the intervening three months? The literature would gladly be provided by libraries over the country and the three months' reading and intelligent observation in the library by the student before beginning his technical training would be advantageous. Three months' acquaintance and observation of the student by the librarian would make his recommendations valuable to the school.

But school courses as at present outlined cannot be made sufficiently flexible to provide specific training for specific work. Therefore, cannot the schools divide the instructional field between them and concentrate their individual efforts on special lines. This division of work is done most successfully by libraries in large cities.

Such a division would have several advantages. A man loving responsibility and the management of affairs could secure a maximum of definite training for administrative work and a minimum of work less important in his professional career. A woman under appointment as head of a small public library, would receive a maximum of training for this work and a minimum in the methods and features of work in a college library. One of promise as a cataloger would receive a maximum of technical training made possible through a minimum of time and effort required in studying the problems of a children's librarian.

The objection can be raised that neither the school nor the student can determine his future work and therefore a minimum number of hours in as many as forty-three subjects is preferable as a foundation. But in these general courses as outlined today, there is a great preponderance of work in certain lines. In speaking of the time devoted to cataloging, one school director said, "There is, however, much reason for this, as a large number of the graduates become catalogers and many others enter positions where a knowledge of cataloging is essential."

We shall agree that an expert knowledge of cataloging is essential in many positions, but has not the large number of graduates from this school who have become catalogers, been due partly at least to the fact that twice the time in school was devoted to this work than to any other, the aggregate equaling the combined hours of seventeen other branches.

The fact that one's special training largely determines one's field of work, is seen in another library school where a maximum of children's work is made possible by a minimum in some other departments. The result is that of the 148 graduates of this school, 107 were, last year, engaged in children's work, principally as heads of departments. The remaining 41 graduates were represented in other fields of library work.

The division of the field between the various schools would have another advantage of the student. At present, a school's geographical location, or its entrance requirements largely decides a stu[Pg 151]dent in selecting a school. But would it not be better if the student's selection were based on what the school could offer in special lines of work.

It may be thought that a prospective student lacks the self-knowledge to determine his qualifications for special work. Many students have and more should have library experience before schools are entered and these will know their intentions and qualifications. Even if an occasional mistake were made, the student still would have instruction in the various lines of library work.

In the school referred to before, the 41 graduates who are not filling positions for which special training was given, are successfully occupying positions of honor and responsibility in other library fields.

Again, the law of supply and demand makes no exception to library work, and with a division of the field, a student could receive the fullest training in the work for which there was the greatest demand.

In conclusion, the profession should not expect the schools to turn out finished products. Librarianship is not merely a process. It is also a habit of mind—an attitude towards public affairs which seeks activity through the medium of books. But in inculcating the principles toward this attitude, the profession must rely and can rely with confidence on the schools.

The CHAIRMAN: The paper just presented, and other phases of the subject, will be discussed by Mr. William H. Brett of the Cleveland public library.

Mr. BRETT: My good friend Mr. Hadley has stated so clearly the problems, the purposes and the difficulties of the library school, and I am so heartily in accord with so much that he has said, that I regret that I must differ from some of his conclusions. In considering these questions we must bear in mind that a majority of the students are in schools giving only a one year's course, and only a minority are so fortunate as to be able to attend the schools giving courses of two or more years. Now, the problem and the difficulty in a one year school is to arrange a course of study which shall be best for students entering school with widely differing preparation, some with, others without, library experience, and with differing aptitudes, abilities, ambitions and plans for the future. To arrange a course which will best meet the needs of such an aggregation of students is a serious problem.

The criticisms on the work of the schools in the paper, seem to be mainly, first, that too much of the routine work, the technical work, is unnecessary for those who may be so fortunate in the future as to fill administrative or other important positions, in which they will not need to do such work, and that routine work of that sort tends to deaden those more important things, sense of proportion, initiative, judgment, ability to deal with the larger problems of life. While I fully agree as to the importance of these things, I believe there is little occasion to fear that a solid technical course will lessen these qualities in any one who is so fortunate as to have them in any eminent degree. It seems to me that those qualities are rather the gift of God to their fortunate possessors than the work of the library schools. My own conviction is that whether it be had in the first year of one of the larger schools, or in a school giving a one year course, a definite, solid basis of technical training is an absolutely essential foundation for good library work. I believe that any specialization in library work should be built on such a foundation, just as specialization in law, in medicine and in the technical professions, is based on a general professional training.

We should have, I think, in our library training, the opportunity for specializing when the students are ready for it, but I believe that whatever position one is to occupy, whatever work in the library one may be fortunate enough to do, the solid, general training of one year in a library school is none too much as an introduction and basis. So that I believe that specialization in a one year course is not desirable, even if it were practicable, which it is not for at least two reasons: The time is too short and the expense too great. Such a suggestion reminds me of something which I[Pg 152] heard President Eliot of Harvard say once upon a time at a meeting of school superintendents, on the subject of enriching and broadening the course in grammar schools. He argued in a very strong and interesting way for greater freedom for the brighter child to pass along more rapidly by means of special instruction. It was answered in various ways by the school men, but to me the answer was very clear, namely, that what Harvard university, with one instructor for eight or nine students, could do is not practicable in grade schools with one instructor for fifty students.

So any attempt to specialize in a one year course would require an increase of cost for instruction greater than the result would be likely to justify. An important co-operation has been at various times suggested and discussed as follows: If the courses of the one year schools could be so closely approximated to the first year's work in the larger schools that students having completed the one year's course might afterwards, if able to meet the requirements, complete their work, specializing, if they chose, in the second and third years' work of the larger schools, this would seem a perfectly feasible and desirable thing.

Another co-operation which I think would be of great value might be arranged with the colleges if they would give credit for work in the library school. A large part of the work in the library school, such as book selection, the subject headings, classifications, the use of reference books, and some other subjects, have a definite and high educational value, equal I believe, we may fairly say, to that of the average value of the college curriculum. If the college would be willing to give credit for a fair share of this work, the student might by some overtime work, graduate from college and from a library school giving one year courses, in four years, or by adding another year, from college and a two year library school. This would, of course, require co-operation through the course. In one instance such a co-operation has been planned and will be put into operation, the college proposing to give a credit of six-tenths of one year for one year's work in the library school. The initiative in that case came from the college. It is true as we all know that we are trying to secure for the service a preparation in college and in library school which is out of proportion to the salaries paid. This is the inevitable condition of a new profession. Adequate recognition will not be given to a profession until it has by long service demonstrated its importance, nor will individual members receive adequate salaries until they prove their efficiency. This is as true in the library as it is in business. In business salaries are usually based on the proven value of services already rendered. No young man in a mercantile house is likely to receive a salary in 1913 larger than he has shown his ability to earn in 1912. In other words, the man or the woman who grows in business relations must keep the work ahead of the salary. Keep the work away beyond the compensation and the compensation will follow it along even though it may not overtake it.

To bring about the best results the library schools should co-operate with each other and with the colleges to bring up and maintain high standards and to insist on a good, solid, general and technical foundation, upon which specialization may be built.

The CHAIRMAN: I am not sure but that there should have been a second paper, upon the subject of "What the library schools can not do for the profession." I wonder if it has ever occurred to you that a medical school confines a student for four years before he is permitted to go at large. I wonder if you have ever put to yourselves the question, how many medical students, in their first, or second, or third, or fourth year after graduation, you have been ready to employ in vital matters in your own family. I am quite sure that were any of the young ladies here seeking to employ a lawyer in a breech of promise suit against any of the young men, they would not go to the law graduate in the first year of his experience. It seems to me, therefore, that it is not surprising at all that we do not find in the library school graduate, during the early years of his actual[Pg 153] work, all the business ability, the diplomatic qualities and the personality, book knowledge and tact that we might expect. We cannot do everything in one year, I think we all agree. What we do wish to know, and what we welcome very definitely, I am sure, from the standpoint of the schools, is that you let us know, in any way possible, what we can do that has not been done.

The discussion will be carried on further by Mr. Edwin H. Anderson, of the New York public library.

Mr. E. H. ANDERSON: I find myself in such general agreement with Mr. Hadley's excellent paper that I fear I can do little to stir up interest by discussion.

His point that in the first library school the influence of the university library was too marked and that university demands have had too much influence on the curricula of all schools, seems to me well taken. It is only natural that it should be so; but since most of the schools are now directly connected with, or closely related to, public libraries, I think their courses of instruction are more and more losing the marks of university influence. This influence should still hold with the schools connected with universities. But these schools, it seems to me, should frankly specialize and prepare students for university library work.

Mr. Hadley very properly emphasizes the need for more men students in the schools. I am sure all the existing schools are glad to have as many good men as they can get. The difficulty seems to be to find enough men of the right sort who are sufficiently interested in library work to take a course of formal training for it. If the schools could, as Mr. Hadley suggests, coöperate with the American Library Association in presenting the claims and rewards of librarianship to young men in the universities, I think the results would justify the effort. I would suggest therefore that the A. L. A. Committee on professional training consider this suggestion and arrange to act upon it as soon as possible. There is a crying demand for more men from the schools. The only remedy for the present condition is to induce more men of the right sort to enter the schools. Mr. Hadley has suggested one method of accomplishing this. Another and more direct method is for librarians themselves to call to the attention of young men of the right sort the opportunities which the schools open to them for professional library work. I think the heads of the schools will agree with me when I say that in general their best students are those who are sent to them by librarians. Now if these same librarians would make a special point of urging upon educated young men the advantages of the school training, both the schools and the profession would profit by it. Nothing is so effective as personal suggestion and explanation; and a librarian who likes his work should have little difficulty in arousing the interest of university men of his acquaintance who are not attracted by the older professions.

Mr. Hadley seems to think that much of the instruction in the schools at present is wasted upon one "destined" for administrative work. The difficulty is to tell when a man or a woman is destined for work of this sort. The inclination for it is not always accompanied by the necessary qualifications. How are we to determine who is destined for administrative work and who for work of another sort? A student might enter a library school expecting to prepare for administrative duties and find after a term's study that he preferred, or was better fitted for, some other kind of work. Personally I can say that few of the things I studied at the library school have proved useless to me in administrative work.

Mr. Hadley makes one suggestion which has often been under discussion in library school alumni associations, and which I happen to know was very seriously considered by the faculty of one library school some five years ago. This suggestion is that the schools provide courses of instruction in general library administration for those who look forward to admin[Pg 154]istrative positions. Most of the schools have lectures each year from librarians of various sorts of libraries—large, small, public, university, etc.,—in which they are asked to tell in general terms how their libraries are administered. The question is, can the schools go further than this? Is there a science of administration which can be taught? The qualities needed for administrative work, library or other, are the gift of the gods, not of the schools. The schools can give the students a firsthand knowledge of the various phases of library work, and this is important. But they cannot give breadth of view to a mind naturally narrow; nor can they endow the student with personal force and poise, tact, savoir-faire, sympathy, a sense of justice,—in a word with gumption. Now a course of formal instruction in administrative gumption is one that no librarian with any gumption would attempt to give. The whole school of life is devoted to this course, and few degrees are conferred. He would be a god-like instructor indeed who could impart to his students the gifts of the gods as developed and perfected by the great school of experience. Anything less than the thunders of Sinai would be an inadequate introduction to such a course. What I am trying to emphasize is that the essential qualities for administrative work are too general and intangible to be taught formally in any kind of school. The schools cannot give their students a knowledge and love of books; these, for the most part, they must bring with them. Neither can they give them a knowledge of life. Are they not, therefore, by the very nature of the case, restricted to teaching chiefly the technique, I had almost said the mechanics, of library work? A knowledge of the technique is necessary to the administrator; but the ability to make the best use of this technique is a natural endowment developed by experience and environment through the course of years. Have we any right to expect a library school to provide more than a small part of that experience and environment? Are we not asking of the library schools what no other profession expects from its special schools? Do we get our bankers from business colleges, or the managers and presidents of our railroads from schools of engineering?

Some one has said that knowledge is the material with which wisdom builds. The library schools can impart a knowledge of library methods. They can hardly teach the wise use of those methods. They can suggest and illustrate it; but courses of instruction in administrative wisdom are, I fear, an iridescent dream.

The CHAIRMAN: This subject is open to discussion if there is any one who feels moved to contribute to our wisdom.

Mrs. ELMENDORF: Mr. Chairman, may I put in one straw from the outside world to show that other technical concerns are taking up this point of view also. One of the great universities is about to establish a technical school. They have called to the aid of the faculty three men very high in the technical world, all of them having attained great practical success. Those three men have agreed in recommending to the faculty that they reduce the technical hours in the schools, as compared to other technical schools, and devote more time to the humanities.

Dr. BOSTWICK: May I say just a word from the standpoint of one who is interested in the product of the library school, as making use of that product? I do not think this point has been alluded to at all this morning, which is my excuse for intruding it upon you for a moment.

I want to emphasize the value of library schools as selectors, which it seems to me is very great, transcending even, perhaps, their great value as trainers. I know a great many persons who use library school students, who, if they were asked why they preferred one library school to another, would say it was not because the training in that school was so much better, or because the instructors in that school were so much better, but simply because they always got better people from that library school. Why? Because those persons, who exist in great[Pg 155] numbers, who are congenitally unfit to become librarians, are not allowed to get into such schools, and, if they do, they are not allowed to graduate. Consequently, if you choose graduates of those particular schools you are always sure of getting good persons. Therefore, I regard the selective function of a library school as extremely valuable. No matter how good the training you give, no matter how good the instructors you have, if you allow people in your schools who are unfitted for library work, your product will be worth little.

Miss RATHBONE: The cap that Mr. Hadley has constructed, fits so well that I could not forbear putting it on. I want to assure you all, however, that its conical shape is not the result of inheritance but of evolution. The curriculum of the particular school I have the honor to be associated with has been a growth, and a growth very largely made up from suggestions, the solicited suggestions, of its own graduates who have worked in the library field. Subjects have been added, others have been omitted, others have been reduced in time given to them, according as our students have found in their practical work that they needed things they did not get, or that certain things that we gave them were not of the greatest practical value. Again and again we have sent out circular letters, and have requested in personal interviews, the frankest possible criticism from our graduates of the preparation that they received in the school. I have seen a great many such letters, and have talked with a great many people. I must confess, however, that I have never yet had the criticism from any of the graduates that too much time was devoted in the school curriculum to cataloging. That criticism may come, and when it does we shall be glad to meet it, but I have not yet happened to receive it.

One other point I want to make, and that is that I think the libraries depend upon library schools for general assistants. That is one reason why a one year school, I think, should give all of its students experience in all of the different departments of library work, because, though after they go out into the field, some become catalogers, some children's librarians, some reference librarians, and a few, administrators of large libraries, the average graduate that goes out, three-fourths of our product certainly goes at first into a public library as a general assistant. The heads of such libraries want assistants who can go one week into the children's room; who, if a shortage occurs in the reference room, can be put there; and if in the meantime the work has piled up in the cataloging department, can be transferred from the children's room, or the reference department, to that department. I think that kind of all-round instruction, and the flexibility that results from it, is one of the most valuable assets that the trained librarian can take with him into general library work.

Dr. HILL: Mr. Chairman, in the first place, I would like to ask Mr. Brett if he will give us the name of the college which is allowing the library course to be taken as part of the rating.

Mr. BRETT: It is the College for Women of the Western Reserve university of Cleveland, and the school that co-operates with it is the Western Reserve library school.

Dr. HILL: In the second place, Mr. Chairman, the note in Mr. Hadley's paper which attracted and arrested my attention, related to men, naturally. Now, I want to say that as mere men we are not afraid of anything, we are not afraid that we are going to be crowded out of the library profession by our women friends, but we are looking around to see that we do not get crowded too much; and this subject of bringing into the profession more men and better men—although I would say to the ladies that there are a good many good men among us still available,—was taken up by the American Library Institute last fall, and presented very clearly by Dr. Dewey. He said in a paper which was submitted to the Institute that it was the duty of the[Pg 156] American Library Association to interest the universities so that the work of our association might be brought to the attention of the students, and that we ought to arrange to have lectures given by librarians at the various universities. I became interested in this subject and last winter, talking with a president of one of the Eastern universities, asked if such lectures would be acceptable. He said that he would be very glad as president of that university to extend an invitation to the library association to send representatives there to place before students the advantages of the library profession, and to carry on a course which would enable interested students to direct their work along library lines. He said, further, that he had no doubt but what every college and university in the land would welcome such co-operation. Such being the feeling of the president of one university, it seems to me that it is time for the committee named by Mr. Anderson to take some active measure to have the country divided in such way that librarians in the neighborhood of the various universities will arrange to lecture before the students. I think the matter should be given immediate attention.

Miss KELSO: Mr. Chairman, I have made a study also this last winter, not with college presidents, but with certain members of the graduating class of Columbia university and Harvard university. In the dogma expressed here it seems to me you treat the university graduate, who has had four years' earnest study, as if he were in kilts, and the girl in short skirts. Those men and women have wrested from the college tradition the right to say what they are going to do, in their junior, if not their sophomore year, and to come out after their graduation from economical and sociological courses and to be presented to the curriculum you have, is little short of absurd. Go to the professors at the head of the economics departments of our universities, men or women, and they will tell you that their students have known for two years what they were going to be. I know several undergraduates that, before their graduation, had opportunities of national importance, as executive secretaries, to go in and organize a national office. To ask those fellows, who have been taking volunteer practice work, as numbers of them do, in health department work, in tuberculosis and a thousand and one things, to go and take up this library school curriculum,—they will not. Bring an undergraduate who is in his senior year to talk to you; go to the professor at the head of one of these departments and ask him to send you a young woman or a young man to talk to you about what the aims of their classes and fraternities have been.

I do believe there is a way out, and that is to admit frankly that the library schools can select, as Dr. Hill has well said, and send students to the libraries for the trying-out process, and above all to have the library association show very much more interest and attention to what the library schools are doing. And I can say to you, as an old librarian, that you are reaping what it seemed to me was a whirlwind sowed some years ago. For a long time past, and when we first had the schools, we shut the door on the possible entrance of politics into libraries,—a very serious menace, as we all know. We all rushed forward and talked about the library school, and if a community had a man or woman who could fill the place, who had special literary ability, had been well educated and was proved to have some executive ability, we all roared, "You're lost if you don't take some one who has gone through a library school training." You know we did. And the poor old committee succumbed and got a library school candidate. We cannot prepare librarians unless we relate them to the great field of human endeavor and social affairs to which the library belongs, if it is used in a proper way, and we must find other means in the library association to evolve some system to afford the trying-out process.

Mr. WALTER: Although we get at the matter from different points of view,[Pg 157] I am quite certain that Miss Rathbone, Miss Kelso and I are in exact accord on some points. One is in the recognition of the real responsibility for the curricula of library schools. The library school courses are what they are because the libraries want them so. Miss Kelso may probably not be quite so familiar with the special demands of libraries as those who are on library school faculties are. A great demand exists at present along two lines. The most frequent demand, I think, is for college or university graduates, who are masters of every branch of library technic, and who possess as well a wide and extensive knowledge of all subjects, which will make them valuable in varied lines of work and in different departments; in other words, universal specialists. This demand comes repeatedly from the smaller libraries and not infrequently from the larger ones. The library school is forced in many ways to make a concession to that demand and to teach many things rather than a few specialties. I am not sure that the concession is always as great or as harmful as has been asserted, and one reason why I am not so sure of this is because I have been studying the curricula of several schools of philanthropy (whose practical character has just been commended) in order to make some improvements in a proposed course in the institution with which I am connected, and the differences in the general plans of the two kinds of schools are so far from being radical that we have been able to take over many of their specialized ideas and put them in our curriculum, with so little change that I defy you to find where the joints are.

Another demand is for real specialists to put in charge of special departments of large libraries. I believe that demand is growing. But you must remember, if you are going to have them, that two things are necessary. If you want specialists trained in different subjects, you must give them time to get their training and you must pay them enough to attract them and to keep them when you get them.

In an engineering school you have lengthy courses full of engineering technic, because you demand engineers. No good school would cut out that technic simply because you needed an engineering student in your technology department and couldn't afford to wait or to pay for a graduate. Why should we have to stop doing what experience, and the experience of years, has proved necessary, what most of the people who go out of the library schools say is necessary—why should we cut out general subjects simply because of a temporary or limited demand for short-cut semi-specialists? You do not give time to prepare specialists. You are prone to send in a letter on Saturday saying you must have a man in charge of a special department next Tuesday, that he must be a graduate of one of the best technical schools of the country and that he must also have a thorough knowledge of library technic. At present I do not believe there is enough demand for those people to attract many of them, because, these specialists, in most cases, are obliged to come into general library work and to keep in general work until the special positions for which they are particularly fitted become vacant or are created.

I believe thoroughly in the missionary spirit. I believe every librarian ought to have in him the spirit of St. Francis, to enable him, if need be, to go barefoot and get along with almost no food at all, but I do not believe in the right of the public to demand that he work for a salary so small that he must wear the habit and eat the food of St. Francis. If you expect to find these exceptional men you must pay for them and have places ready for them. You cannot expect the impossible. The question of technic is a serious one but it is not going to be solved entirely by omissions and short-cuts.

I might also say that the institution with which I happen to be connected depends very largely, so far as the changes in its curriculum are concerned, on the suggestions of the people who have gone out from the school and who are working[Pg 158] in libraries, and it often plans its courses in accordance with what they suggest, as the result of their own experiences. What is more,—and I am not speaking for ourselves only, for similar conditions exist in other schools—in this way we have (among others) the experience of more than thirty men and women who are at the head of libraries in cities of the United States in either the first or the second class.

Mr. JOSEPHSON: It may well be that the present library schools cannot train both librarians and assistants; and perhaps, in consequence, we must have two kinds of school, one school for assistants and one for librarians. However that may be, either school must teach bibliography, and by that I mean the knowledge of the records of books and the art of describing books, so that the one who reads the description may know what the book is. Description includes, of course, not only cataloging but classification and annotation as well.

I would like to supplement Mr. Strohm's paper in one particular. I think it would be well if chief librarians would do something to encourage the continuation of professional studies among the members of their staffs, particularly among the younger members, both those who come from library schools and those who do not. We cannot expect them to study too hard after a full day's work, but I think in most cases we would find that such encouragement would be appreciated. The assistants who are ambitious to go forward would be willing to spend a couple of hours a week on further studies, and it might not be entirely out of the way for the library to allow some time for such work.

Mr. GEORGE: It seems to me that in our discussion today a means of practical relief has been missed by each of the speakers, and that is that the ordinary, customary method of universities be adopted by these library schools, and instead of attempting in a year's time to issue a diploma of doubtful value at best, as representing anything in particular, they should adopt the certificate plan, and allow their course to extend over a sufficient time to guarantee something; have their courses divided up in such a way that a certificate will represent something definite to those of us who want to use library school students. It seems to me in that way we can get some practical value from the schools and get efficient aids and assistants in the library service. The great difficulty about the whole thing is that most library school graduates lack a sufficient background and there is not time in one year's course, naturally, for them to acquire anything of that kind, or an experience that can be of practical value to us. I merely throw this out as a practical hint, because I have been waiting for it to come from some of the speakers. By having a certificate covering part of the ground, either cataloging or some other branch of library service undoubtedly we would be perfectly willing to recognize that as an authoritative guarantee from the schools, rather than a diploma that, as I say, is doubtful at best as representing anything, because of the varying courses and requirements of the different schools.

At the conclusion of this discussion the session adjourned.


(Monday, July 1, 9:30 a. m.)

Dominion Day Program

Dr. James W. Robertson, C.M.G., took the chair, on behalf of the Ottawa local committee, and called the meeting to order.

The CHAIRMAN: Your president has in her genial and successful way insisted that the acting chairman of the local committee should preside on this occasion.

Of most men one might say when they are forty-five they are middle-aged and mature. This is the forty-fifth anniversary of the birth of this Dominion; and Canada is still but a youth, a sturdy, growing, promising youth among the nations. She is a people of great heritages, of lofty aspirations and of fine ideals, and[Pg 159] she has in Sir Wilfrid Laurier a son worthy of herself. He will speak to us this morning.

SIR WILFRID LAURIER:[4] Though I have no claim whatever to be here on this present occasion, still if my presence on this platform can further convince our American visitors how welcome they are amongst us, I can assure them that I would have traveled many and many a long mile to swell the greeting with the seal and hand of the Canadian government and the Canadian people. Welcome you are, not only for the good work in which you are engaged, not only for the intellectual labors which are your daily vocation, but also because whenever you cross our borders, and whenever the Canadian members of this association cross your borders, you and they are real missionaries of peace, apostles of civilization, and those visits tend further to improve our relations, to dispel old prejudices and to make us appreciate the blessings of the peace which hath prevailed between your country and my country for nearly a hundred years.

[4] Printed only in part.

May I take advantage of the present opportunity to remind you of the fact, which has been twice already brought to your attention, that today is the national holiday of Canada. We celebrate our national holiday on the first of July, you celebrate yours on the fourth of July,—but the resemblance goes no further. The day you celebrate on the fourth of July recalls the fact that your forefathers wrenched and violently tore asunder the tie which had bound them to the motherland. I think I can call upon your memory to confirm that history attests that this step was not taken lightly, that it tore the heart strings of many and many of those who signed the Declaration of Independence, but that it was forced upon them by the vicious policy that was followed toward the colonists by the British government.

Our history is a very different one. The day that we celebrate in Canada recalls no violence. On the contrary we celebrate the day when the authorities of England, King, Lords and Commons, delivered unto us a charter of union, of liberty and of local independence. Thus at the very start our courses were cast in different directions. You are a republic, we are a monarchy. We have kept the old monarchy of England. As to the merits of respective forms of government, republican institutions or monarchical institutions, I would not say a word on this or any other occasion, because this has always seemed to be an idle speculation. We know that the form of government is after all a matter of indifference; we know that there must be a virtue in republicanism, and we Canadians are here to testify that in the monarchy of England there is as ample liberty as there is in any part of the world, not excepting even the American republic.

Proud as I am to say that you have your democratic institutions, we are blessed with institutions more democratic, and we have what Abraham Lincoln called the government of the people, by the people and for the people. I do not mean to say by this, Ladies and Gentlemen, that the people never make mistakes. I speak for my country, not for yours. But speaking for my country, I would say that at that we must not be surprised nor angry, because it is an attribute of mankind, after all, to err.

Though, Ladies and Gentlemen, as I have told you, our lots have been cast apart, though you are one country and we are another, still, after all, we can say with some pride that we have been friends, and better friends we ought to be. Men there are in this country, I am sorry to say, who are rather afraid of you American people. They believe that you have some hostile design upon us; and some of your men have perhaps harbored that thought themselves. But if these views are scattered amongst some of my countrymen, they have not at all scared me; I have no fear at all of the American people. I am not afraid of contact with you. I would not be afraid to trade with you, to sell to you and buy [Pg 160]from you, because I believe that after all, proud as you have reason to be of your own nation, we Canadians are just as good as you are.

But, if we cannot trade, if we cannot sell and buy,—and I would not enlarge on this, because I would perhaps trespass on politics,—if we cannot trade and buy from one another, at least we can exchange ideas, sentiments, principles, and this is the very thing which you have been doing in Canada during this last week. To this nobody can object. Ideas and principles can travel freely across the line, and I believe that everybody would be all the better for this interchange. So I have no fear whatever that there should be an absorption of this country by your country. And may I say what is my own ideal?

It seems to me that there is a greater future for Canada, and for the United States. You have your problems and we have enough of our own problems. We can afford to share the continent and we can be, you Americans and we Canadians, the pioneers of a new civilization, a civilization representative of the twentieth century. We can give to the world this example of friendship without hesitation and with perfect confidence in one another. The bane of Europe today is militarism. All the nations of Europe are distrustful of one another; they spend one-half their income for war, in military preparation one against the other. Thank heaven, on this continent, we never think of war with one another. We have the longest frontier that separates two nations, and I thank God there is not a fortress to be found upon it, nor a gun nor a cannon to frown across it. This is the example which we give to the rest of the world. It is certainly an achievement of which we have every reason to be proud; and when you, Ladies and Gentlemen, come over to our country, as you have, you are further instilling the truth of that sentiment, and my last word to you will be, as the first. Come again, come often, and the more often you come the more cordial and warm will be the welcome.

President ELMENDORF: I am quite certain that this audience would be unwilling that some reply should not come from itself. May I ask Mr. R. R. Bowker, whom I see in the box, to reply for the audience?

Mr. BOWKER said, that as he rose to propose on the part of the United States members of the American Library Association a vote of thanks, he wished to express the equal gratification of our fellow members that we have received the hospitality, so unbounded, of the administration of Canada, and especially that we had been thus welcomed by the man whose presence personifies and whose name is a synonym not only for his own party but for United Canada. He said the United States members took only one exception to what he had said, and that was that they used the word "American" in a broader sense than he. The American Library Association means, not the United States, not Canada, but both. We have no United States library association. We may almost hope that there shall be no Canada library association, but we hope that Ontario, with its library association, will be the pioneer to lead its sister provinces into the fellowship and affiliation in which our other associations stand in the American library association.

The speaker said it was not only in the brilliant and eloquent pages of Parkman that the history of the two sister nations was interwoven; that a man from Woburn, Massachusetts, was the first to see what the site of Ottawa meant; that our own Thwaites had brought anew to life the deeds of the Jesuit fathers and early explorers, and that Miss Plummer had personally conducted many thousands of boys and girls of the children's rooms through Canada with her "Roy and Ray."

Mr. Bowker said he supposed we did not rightly recognize Canadian writers in the United States libraries because they were so thoroughly a part of English literature, and that it would be very grateful if some one so good as Mr. Hardy, the secretary of the Ontario library associa[Pg 161]tion, could before the close of the meetings give a bird's-eye view of Canadian writers.

"It is a significant coincidence that on this very day there goes into operation throughout the British Empire a law which, if not for the first time, at least most explicitly, recognizes the relationship of the several English nations to the motherland, for the new copyright code which today goes into operation states in so many words that the self-governing dominions of Canada, Newfoundland, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa may adopt the imperial act, or modify it to meet their own judicial process, or legislate independently. It is interesting to some of us that this recognition should be so explicitly made in the field of letters."

In closing, the speaker proposed that we express our thanks to our Canadian brethren, our hosts who have been so hospitable, by a rising vote.

Amid hearty applause the entire audience arose.

The CHAIRMAN: Before it became necessary for Dr. Otto Klotz, who was and is chairman of the local committee, to be absent from the city, I had agreed to deliver an address to the convention on Conservation in Canada. The time having come, on the program, for that event, I propose now to tell you a little of what we in Canada are doing to conserve the best we have.


We are all concerned for the good name of our community, for its reputation and its character. Most of us are concerned for the welfare of our nation, for its place of honor and influence and power among the nations of the earth. Canada is one of the youngest among the self governing peoples. It is only forty-five years since we became a Dominion, and we begin only now to find ourselves as a nation. A people who gain self-government become in reality a nation only when they are animated by some dominant purpose to preserve their ideals by further achievement. The preservation of whatever we have found to be worthy in the past,—the good, the true, and the beautiful,—by using them in everyday life for further accomplishment and attainment,—that is conservation. There have been rotations of nations and of civilizations on the face of the earth, as there have been rotations of crops on the fields of the farm. This year's crop is for its own harvest and also to prepare the land for the crop to follow it. The far foresight which peers thoughtfully into eternity while planning for tomorrow is also a part of conservation.

In common use the word "conservation" becomes a bland and comprehensive expression into which we put all our scattered convictions and aspirations and gropings after what is best for the largest number of people for the longest stretch of time. It took on a new meaning when Theodore Roosevelt used his megaphone on it. And because it is an omnibus with room always for one more,—for one more idea, one more suggestion, one more policy, it becomes mightily popular.

The first concern of conservation is necessarily with natural resources, but it does give a significant purpose to all the activities of a nation and of an individual. The large, inclusive aim of Canada in conservation is that Canada shall be great in the character of her people, great enough to match the matchless heritage that has come to her in blood and ideals, in possessions and institutions, in opportunities and obligations. Canada's contribution to humanity in a large, uplifting way will be in the perfection by a composite people, diverse in origin of race, language and religion,—the perfection by such a people of the finest of all fine arts, the fine art of living happily and prosperously together, while working with intelligent skill and unfaltering will for ends believed to be for the common good. These large ends include the improvement of the material and social setting of every home, the refinement of the inherited quality of life of every child and the reformation from generation to generation[Pg 162] of the habits, standards and ideals of the people. All to the end that we may find satisfactions, large, broad and lasting, through invigorating labor, social service and abiding good will amongst ourselves and also extended to all our neighbors.

Let me give you a very brief glimpse, merely an indication, a suggestion, here and there, of what we are trying to do. First of all, a word on what we have in possessions to conserve; then a glimpse or two of what we are doing with our estate; afterwards a glance at what we are seeking for ourselves; and finally a look in on what we stand for as a young people among other kindly and competing nations.

On What We Have

We have a great deal. Never before in the history of the race did seven millions of people have such a heritage come into their free possession. Half a continent wide and a whole continent long,—that is our estate. We are happy in the setting of our national life. A very brief survey of what it means to us and what it is in itself must suffice this morning. Who knows it? I hear people speak of Canada as a red patch on the map, as a stretch of prairies where wheat grows, as the northern fringe of the glorious free republic of the United States. These hardly shed a candle power of light on our estate. Half a continent wide and one-sixth of the way around the globe! If Europe were eleven in area, we are twelve, and much of it habitable, destined to be the setting of fine homes of a robust people.

Let us take Canada in four areas, in thousand-mile stretches. We can afford to speak of ourselves in those dimensions. A thousand miles in from the Atlantic,—where else do you find a better place for homes for a dominant people whose purpose it is to pull up by strength and intelligence and justice and good will, and not to crush down and hold back? Dominant because the human race can be at its best in physique, in endurance, in tenacity, in capacity, in aspiration, where apple trees grow in beauty and bounty and the summer air is full of the fragrance of clover blossoms. Think back through your books, and over the globe, and into the lives of the people. Recall the old stories, the apple trees of Eden and the land flowing with milk and honey. After all, physical setting means much for the glory of human life. This is a fine stretch of a thousand miles for homes, of apple trees and clover blossoms with plenty of running water, with skies decked in beauty by clouds, with showers and sunshine in alternate abundance, and farm houses with yards full of children rolling on the grass picking flowers and climbing the apple trees. That is worth while,—to have a thousand miles filling up with homes, willing for more to come and share their joy.

Then we have a thousand miles of wilderness, a great reservoir north of the Great Lakes. It tempts the adventurous to seek gold and silver; great areas for trees, and lakes to refresh the thirsty land on both sides by the genial droppings from the rains gathered from the wastes.

Then come a thousand miles of prairies, stretching out to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. It took a thousand times a thousand years to make that place fit for our possession and habitation now. The frugality of prodigal nature was storing in the soil plant food for crops for thousands of years, not that men might ship wheat, but that boys and girls should have the finest chance that the race had known hitherto to be a strong, dominant, lovely and loving people. A thousand miles of prairies! Why do your people flock over to those prairies? Not for greed of money. I have been enough in the States to know that you libel yourselves in one unkind way. You say the American worships the almighty dollar. Chase the charge down and he wants the dollar for the sake of a home, for the pleasure of conquest, for the worship of some boy or girl, to give him and her a better footing and a better start. The call of Canada is not merely from property and a chance to get it.[Pg 163] The call of Canada is the call of a wide chance for possessions, for a piece of good land to own for oneself. It is also the call of the land where law is respected, as well as obeyed. It is most loudly and convincingly the call of a land with chances for children. That is what pulls them here, the chances for children; and these newcomers are amongst the foremost of those who see that the biggest and best and best-sustained building in the place is the public school.

Then we have five hundred miles, half a thousand, going over the mountains to the Pacific Ocean. It is a piece of the great Creator's fine art in the rough, with the impressiveness of nature's majesty and the instability which endures. Tucked in between the mountains are fertile valleys with peaches and plums and wheat and all good things to sustain the homes. A great asset is that five-hundred mile strip, the mountains pregnant with coal and gold and silver, and the streams teeming with fish from the inexhaustible feeding places of the north.

That is a glimpse, merely the head-lines, of our national home, our real estate; and we believe the people will be quite a match for it. We come to feel the responsibility for that now.

Only a word or two of detail. We have forests in vast areas, some of them as yet unsurveyed, and a climate and soil which lets nature far more than restore the lumberman's cut. Our forests are inexhaustible in the abundance of their serving power for coming generations; now that we have begun to conserve them by preventing fires, by providing patrols, and also by diffusing knowledge, training and conviction throughout the common schools. Then we have fisheries. Many of you come up here and regale your friends for evenings afterwards by fish stories. I speak of the great value to Canada of fish and fishing. When I go to the coasts, how I glory in the conservation of life by fishing! I fish a little. One of my pawky friends once gave me a book called "Fishin' Jimmy." It had one sentence with which I comfort myself when I feel disposed to fish when I should be otherwise diligently employed. It was this, "Young man, the good Lord, when He needed fellows to help Him for the biggest job ever taken up, picked out chaps who caught fish." Think of Nova Scotia, the fishing smacks, the men who are not afraid, those who go down to the deep in ships, they see the wonders of the Lord while they do their duty for their families. There is conservation of the quality of life by the un-boasting and the uncomplaining, heroic commonplaces of daily toil. With quiet tenacity, against conditions of discomfort which cannot be escaped, and carelessness of personal ease such men teach us how to live. Then we have waterways, and water powers, not merely to illuminate houses and run cars, but to enlarge leisure by having our heaviest tasks done by man's further alliance with the electric current. Then we have minerals and lands. Each of these merits more than a discourse for itself. I feel the incompleteness, the insufficiency, of my statements of our resources and our efforts towards conservation. However, just a word about lands, good land and fertile land.

Take an example, one only. Seager Wheeler lives north of Regina. How our hearts go out in sympathy to those people who suffer from nature's inhuman manifestation of her strength. (A reference to the Regina cyclone of the day before.) I have not learned to look up through nature's devastations to nature's God, but I have learned to look through human life to man's God,—Whose tender mercies are over all His other works. Seager Wheeler lives north of Regina. Out at the Experimental Farm, where we were on Saturday, Dr. Saunders, patiently, quietly, modestly, brought together a strain of wheat from Calcutta and a strain of wheat from the North-West. A new child is born unto us in Wheatland. Seager Wheeler gets some of that wheat and begins the process of selection on his own farm, "the best out of the best for the best." Last autumn I was in New York at the back-to-the-land ex[Pg 164]position. A thousand dollar prize in gold was there for the man who would bring the best bushel of wheat from anywhere on the continent. The judges were expert men from the United States, and Seager Wheeler from the middle of our North-West plains won the thousand dollar prize for his bushel of wheat from that part of our land. More than that, I have a photograph of the plot from which this bushel of wheat was taken, and it measured up 80 2-3 bushels to the acre. No wonder we think well of our land, and you folks want to get some of it.

One other sentence only, otherwise I should be beguiled into talking far too long about our lands. In these days, dangerous in their clamors for bigness and swiftness and luxury, one needs to remind himself that satisfactions do not come from these things, but from honest labor whereby one conserves the strength and beauty of some part of nature and man, and develops power and joy in another unit of nature and man, making the earth and man rejoice together. Truly a nation's life consisteth not in the abundance of the things it possesseth.

On What We Are Doing

We in Canada are happy in the occupations of the people, as well as in the setting of our lives. What has occupation to do with conservation? Occupation conserves the best that humanity has achieved in human beings themselves. Not books? It would be a loss if all the books were taken from us,—it would be a loss somewhat modified by the advantages. But whosoever will offend one of these little ones in whom is conserved all the achievements and attainments of the race to this day, it were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck. The menace of books is that they sometimes crush down and crush out the aspiration of young life for joy in constructive, creative, co-operative labor, through merely selfish, silent reading for gratification. We are happy in the occupations of our people that minister to greatness in character. A new country like ours needs the constructing and conquering qualities, more than the sedentary, absorbing, remembering capacities. The farmer follows one of the conquering, constructive occupations, gathering wealth out of the otherwise chaos. His labor creates wealth and conserves the health and virility of the people. What a grudge I have against the modern factory that, in making things, debases men. I do my thinking aloud in a meeting like this. Therefore I do not flatter. I will warrant we should not have women, as I have seen them, working in factories, with poor air and little sunshine amid the infernal rattle of machinery, if we believed in our heart of hearts that things were for homes and that good homes for all the people was the dominant object of a strong nation. Why should I have cloth in my house because it is cheap—when it is transfused by the blood of women in Leeds? Why should I want a coat on my back that carries with it the stain of tears from children who have had no chance? Why should I walk easily in boots, factory-made in order that they may be a dollar a pair cheaper, when I have seen women atrophied by the monotonous poverty of their job who should have been mothering a family and nursing the aspirations of young people? We do not want to have things, things, things as our idols and our end in life.

The fundamental occupations which engage the large majority of our people are farming, making homes and teaching and training the young. The farm, the rural home and the rural school together provide the opportunities and means of culture in forms which children and grown people can turn into power—power of knowledge, of action and of character. Farming is much more than moving soil, sowing grain, destroying weeds and harvesting crops. It is taking care of part of the face of Mother Earth as a home for her children. Making homes is much more than building houses and providing furniture, food, clothing and things. It is creating a temple, not made with hands,[Pg 165] as a place of culture for the Divine in us. Those who live by agriculture are not all of the earth earthy, and the rural home is a fine school for the soul. Teaching and training the young is much more than instructing children in the arts of reading, writing and reckoning—those flexible, useful tools of the intellect. Much of the time of the school has been consumed in these tasks; but now we come to a happier day when those arts can be acquired joyfully in less than a year and a half, instead of painfully, reluctantly and with difficulty as spread over six years. The main portion of the school time will soon be devoted to caring for the health, the habits and the standards of the pupils while watching and directing the development of their powers of body, mind and spirit.

These three fundamental mothering occupations in Canada nourish and sustain all the others, such as commerce, manufacturing, transportation and the professions. By means of them, followed as well as they can be by an educated and cultured people, the country will be kept prosperous and fertile. It can be made beautiful only by radiant homes, whence youth will go forth from generation to generation to refine life by their characters, to exalt it by their ideals and to improve its conditions by intelligent labor.

I must say a word or two as to whence we got the impetus, the stimulus, towards conservation. Intelligent, conscious, planned and organized effort for conservation came to us from Washington. We are the Washington of the North in more ways than one, and I think I express, if I may venture to do so, the hope and conviction of my friend Sir Wilfrid Laurier when I say that, a hundred years hence and less, the Washington of the North will be more than abreast of the Washington of the South because of the influence, the moulding influence, of climate and homes and schools such as we in this country will have. But the Washington of the South had a great gathering in 1908, when the Governors of all the States and others were assembled to consider conservation. I read the report of the proceedings with some care. Then I turned more than once to read, right after it, an old classic about a gathering in the time of King Ahasuerus, the gathering of the governors of 127 provinces. And I laid down the Bible with the conviction that that Ahasuerus assembly was no higher in its essence and in its fruits than a pow-wow debauch of Indian chiefs on the plains. Take the setting and the spirit of the Ahasuerus crowd—self-seeking, careless of human rights, neglectful of children's claims. That story was worth recording as a great exhibition of monstrous selfishness, the thing itself—worth avoiding, worth opposing, worth smiting to the death every time it rears its ugly greedy head. On the other hand, consider Washington. The governors of sovereign states come together, for what? Not to consider how they might enrich themselves at the expense of the weak and those in their care, but how they might conserve for all the people, the property of all the people, for the benefit of all the people, for the longest stretch of time. That was a great gathering. It will go down in history as marking a new epoch in human activity and endeavor. And whatever may be said amid the transient controversies of party politics, the name of Theodore Roosevelt will stand out illustrious for leadership in a new effort for conservation that saves, not merely forests and material resources, but that saves moral earnestness among the people. I have no sympathy, myself, with your own harsh criticism of these political conventions you are holding now in the States. Not being a politician, I can speak of politics without fear. May I tell you what my thinking has been? Perhaps only twice before did the United States ever get such service, such an awakening—when you had the struggle for liberty, and, afterwards, the war for freedom. What means the present commotion which bursts through conventional conventions of polite speech? Is it not that you shall be saved from a supine[Pg 166] sense of satisfaction with having only things—from the loss of great concepts of justice and right aflame in moral earnestness? I rejoice with you that we are indebted to Washington for impetus and stimulus in moral earnestness regarding forests and other resources. That is Gifford Pinchot's contribution—not to make lumber cheap, but to make the land fertile and prosperous, that boys and girls may be beautiful and strong and glad. Worth while is the moral earnestness that uses materials only as the mechanism of its efforts for the improvement of life.

Then Canadians attended officially another meeting in Washington in 1909, came back and Parliament instituted a Commission of Conservation. That Commission has been at work for three years seeking to serve our people by showing how they could improve themselves as well as their circumstances through effort to conserve their resources.

On the Provincial experimental farm in Wellington County, Ont., Professor Zavitz works. He took thin, light grains from a variety of oats, and sowed those by themselves; and, from the same variety, he took plump, heavy, dark grains, and sowed these by themselves. For twelve years he followed that plan on the same soil, under the same climate, with the same management. At the end of twelve years the crop from this plump seed rose by twenty-six bushels more to the acre and ten and a half pounds more to the bushel than the crop from the poor seed. That was conservation secured by intelligent application and good management. You can do that with life as well as with seed and with land. The long distance aim as well as the local object of conservation is to make Canada a better country to live in and a more beautiful country to love; and to make Canadians a people of greater vigor, finer texture and nobler character.

On What We Are Seeking

We in Canada are a composite sample of life. We have come to us Anglo-Saxon, Celtic, Gallic, Teutonic, Slavonic and others. All these streams of blood flow over Canada and mingle in us. It is not any longer with us merely a toleration of an individual or of an idea from Russia—or the States—but an appreciation of the person and the idea, to make them serve our people better. There is conservation in that. The best we have inherited is the quality of life. Our more immediate ancestors loved liberty, prized intelligence and cherished justice. These they had won by courage, by struggle, by patience and by privation. They left them to us to be improved by education. Concepts such as these are what count in the great issues of life.

Let me without any offense or bad taste be personal and speak of one of my ancestors. He has been dead a long time. I didn't know him. But not infrequently I can feel the thrill and the efforts at domination of his convictions and his habits. I remember a dog biting me. I could have strangled the creature with my hands. I did not learn that in school, but I had the instinct in me from that old ancestor. I can think of him in a cave, living a bare coarse life. But he conserved the chance for the babies; and the lion and the wolf and the bear could not stand against the club and the fire which he used for the protection of his wife and children. Coarse! Of course he was. A thing of paws and claws and jaws! But he conserved his concepts of duty, his ideals of protection for the young and the weak. His concepts and the labors and struggles they involved by and by refined his body. Then, ages afterwards, 20,000 or 30,000 years afterwards, we had Lord Lister. Two hundred and fifty thousand women saved annually through the service of his refined brain and his trained hands, and his large concepts of duty. And we had Florence Nightingale; and you had Abraham Lincoln. And we all have everybody and anybody that conserves concepts of joy and glory through duty discharged by constructive, contributing labor, social service and abiding good will. In these[Pg 167] and others innumerable we have a heritage, not made with hands.

Time fails me even to name all our other heritages which are not in material resources. There are customs, institutions, laws, manners, ideas, traditions, standards, ideals, art, songs, language and books. Books are more than material things. They are material humanized into food for the mind and spirit as soil and air may be glorified into apples and flowers for the senses. Sometimes produced with immense pains, they bring infinite joys. The Kingdom hath come to us for such a time as this when a new day dawns for happiness and well-being on earth.

Some of the means under modern conditions through which further advances in the formation and conservation of character are to be looked for are,—first those which lead young people to the achievement of joy through the processes of labor as distinguished from its wages or other rewards. Every child who is given a fair chance can manage that. In this a little child may lead us. Secondly, those which produce the pleasure of working together for some end believed to be good for all. Will not school pupils and older students work themselves into social efficiency, by co-operating in productive labor, as well as play themselves into ability by means of team games? Both together are better than twice as much of either alone. Thirdly, those which yield gladness through creative work whereby each individual strives to give expression to his own concepts of utility and beauty in concrete things as well as in words and other symbols. The insistence, by school and college, upon passive receptiveness for prolonged periods may have disciplined the mind for the perception of symbols, and the understanding of theories and rules. But has not the heaping of instruction upon enforced passivity led to an atrophy of the love of constructive creative labor? Immobility in classes all day long is not goodness. That sort of thing is the one persisting attribute of the dead or the nearly moribund. Every man who actively conserves these constructive, co-operative, creative powers, and achieves joy and satisfaction through their exercise, saves himself and becomes a saving factor in his community. In doing these things he transfuses the routine of life by a spirit of trained intelligence, cultured ability and habitual good will. The use of books and book-information are a helpful aid to the growth of mental power, the development of moral ideas and the progress of education. Books furnish some of the food and stimulus to thought. But when these are not turned into service through action, they become so much cloying debris upon vitality.

I have happily seen enough in the last few years to bring me to the conclusion, that, in less than ten years on this continent, all children from rural homes will come to the schools at 6 or 7 years of age able to speak better than they speak now, and able to write and read and to figure up to division. They will come to school able to do all that, having played themselves into ability. We have been on wrong lines in making a child take up a book at six, and so far as schooling is concerned, stay under the domination of a book until he is sixteen. Then he has been liberated into a laboratory, or into life, and says, "Thank the Lord that book business is done!" That is not wise, that is not safe. How the book has menaced humanity in recent years, on all sides, by its insistence that reading is the end of education, the main means and object of culture, instead of being merely a contributing means toward the larger end of living. You people concerned with books must take the bread of life in your hands and minister to life, not under the guise of book-learning, but for the formation of habits and standards and fine ideals.

Put into the language of everyday life the main steps in every complete educational experience are: observing, thinking, feeling and managing towards and into some form of expression. It appears to me that the closer in point of time[Pg 168] the steps are taken together, the greater the growth of power and the surer the formation of habits. Frequency of experience is what forms habits and not repetitions of instructions or information. In so far as these experiences can have close relation to the threefold activities demanded by life, so much the better for the culture of the student, even if not so complimentary to a subject or its professor. I mean the activities which we explain as those of body, mind and spirit in the individual's capacity as an earner, a member of society and a trustee in the scheme of life. No doubt this runs counter to the common notion that culture—even real culture as a process and as a result—develops and implies a certain aloofness from the practical work done by men and women to earn their living, and a sweet, or sour, sense of superiority to utilitarian questions of bread and butter. But we must not forget that invigorating toil—invigorating bodily toil—is the only known road to health, strength and happiness. Nowadays culture is becoming a term almost as elusive as education itself. Agriculture was doubtless the root, the root word as well as the fundamental process, of human culture. The man on the farm gets some light on its intrinsic nature from his occupation. To him culture stands for crops, the best in quality and the largest in quantity that can be obtained, for the suppression of weeds, insects and disease, and for the increase of beauty and fertility. Culture has no origin in idleness, indolence or sloth. These make for the corrosion of all the vigors of the physical and mental and moral nature. Culture means plowing and harrowing and sowing and hoeing. It means labor and sorrow as well as play and flowers. It means the ripping of the iron share as well as the genial affection of the sun. Culture is far deeper than the polite polish on the skin of manners and speech. It is not gained by the mere learning of languages, living or dead, or the acquisition of knowledge, scientific or superstitious, in the poetic meaning of that word. It is the residuum, the leftover, such as it is, in character—in body, in mind and in spirit—after every completed educational experience. From actual practice comes skill in the finest of all fine arts, the fine art of living happily together while working for some good end. Alike in school and college, on farm and in factory, in shop and office, in home duties and public affairs, that kind of life develops a quick sense of responsibility, it establishes good standards close by which are understood, it nourishes conscience and strengthens the will-energy towards further culture, better work and happier living. These things we seek to conserve, using our material resources for the enrichment of the quality of life we have inherited, in order to pass it on undiminished and unimpaired.

On What We Stand For

This end of an educated people, cultured in character, which itself is only a means towards the largest end, is worth striving for and worth living for. All life is an unceasing struggle. The point is to choose the right objects and means. In the past, humanity has been winning all along the line with an occasional setback such as threatens the present. Its warfare is ever against ignorance, helplessness, poverty, disease, vice and ill-wills. Education is to train individuals for that warfare. Its endeavors are most successful when the experiences which it provides for each individual are in themselves a vital part of the hard campaign. It must ever vary its strategy and tactics and weapons, as the field of operations is moved forward. Times change and we change with them. The need of the times is education to qualify us all to achieve satisfaction through labor and service and good will.

Finally, I present to you the more excellent graces of conservation as earnestness, cheerfulness and the habit of cherishing and following high ideals. At first these are rather traits of character in embryo than fixed attitudes or habits of mind. The particular and specific disci[Pg 169]plines of life and of good books are to correct softness, to promote gentleness and to develop a capacity for enduring and enjoying hardness as a good soldier of truth, beauty and goodness in everyday life. In reality, each individual disciplines himself in liberty, by self-government, by diligence, by rational obedience to authority and by co-operation. The discipline which develops character and power is administered from within; external regulations are like the finger posts to indicate the open path and also the place where trespassing is forbidden. In the choice and in the action is discipline. "Choose ye this day whom ye will serve" is at the parting of the ways every morning, and is seldom displayed in prominence at the dramatic crises of life. Habits are grown in quiet ways, like the shapes of trees and the budding and ripening of fruit. They become the destiny "which shapes our ends, rough-hew them how we will." The librarian and every other citizen who lives and moves and has his being in an atmosphere of earnestness, cheerfulness and high ideals, is ready for his best work. Such men and women go through life with open minds, with broad sympathies, and appreciative respect for all the worthy achievements and attainments of men and women, of boys and girls. Their patriotism, their humanity, in brief, their conservation of character, finds its best accomplishment in making and leaving a better place, with a better path, for better children, to carry the torch of life onward and upward, clearer and stronger, because of what they have been and done.

From one of yourselves (Ella Wheeler Wilcox) we have beautifully expressed one of the great dominating purposes which I think animates all Canada today:

"Build on resolve and not upon regret
The structure of thy future: do not grope
Among the shadows of old sins, but let
The light of truth shine on the path of hope
And dissipate the darkness: waste no tears
Upon the blotted record of lost years;
But turn the leaf, and smile, oh smile, to see
The fair white pages that remain for thee."

At the conclusion of Dr. Robertson's address a brief paper was read by Sir James Grant on some of the literary products of Canada. Following this paper Professor John Macnaughton, of McGill university, delivered an address on "The value of literature." He protested vigorously against the present day tendency toward pure utilitarianism in education and pleaded for a large place for the great and ennobling literature of the past in our educational systems.

The CHAIRMAN: I have the pleasure of asking Sir Wilfrid Laurier to serve the Canadian libraries and librarians in presenting a little gift to the president.

SIR WILFRID LAURIER: Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, I am entrusted with a very pleasant duty. The Canadian members of the American Library Association are desirous of presenting to its president some expression of their respect and esteem, and they have chosen to convey it in the shape of a gavel which they want to present to you, Madam President. It is of Canadian wood and Canadian silver, and I hope you will carry it with you as a token adding pleasure to your sojourn here, pleasant at all events for all of us, and, I hope, for you also.

President ELMENDORF: Sir Wilfrid. Mr. Chairman and Canadian friends: This beautiful gift to the association is made, I am told, of Canadian wood inlaid with Canadian silver. Of course Canadian wood means the wood of the maple and how does that wonderful close fiber come into being? The maple leaf reaches upward into the free air and there it gathers sunshine and the gases of the atmosphere and combining, converting and solidifying these impalpable things into fiber stores them away as this beautiful wood.

What is literature and how does it come into being? By means of the printed leaf, out of human life, are gathered individual knowledge, experience and emotion and[Pg 170] combined and converted these individual contributions pass as wisdom into the race mind there to be stored forever to

"Help such men as need."

You have thus given us fit symbol indeed of our profession.

Just one thought more. I come from the border line where there is much hope that some permanent memorial of the hundred beautiful years of peace may be built. In the same spirit, I hope that this gavel may be the only weapon ever raised to enforce order between Canadians and Americans.

Mr. BOWKER: Let us remember "kindness in another's trouble" and that even a closer bond than the common work in our profession, is the bond of sympathy in time of loss.

I move, in view of the partial destruction of the public library at Regina and the great catastrophe that has come to her people, that the president of the American Library Association be authorized and requested to send the sympathy of this conference to the public library and the people of Regina.

The motion was agreed to unanimously, and the message ordered sent.



(Russell Theatre, Monday, July 1, 8:30 p. m.)

President Elmendorf occupied the chair.

The SECRETARY: It was our hope that Dr. Claxton, U. S. Commissioner of Education, would be with us at this conference, but he was unable to come and so sends us this greeting:

Mrs. H. L. Elmendorf, President, American Library Association, Ottawa.

"Convey to association my greetings and best wishes for successful meeting.


The PRESIDENT: Ladies and Gentlemen, my introduction to-night is to be very short indeed, that you may the sooner reach the treat in store. Our honored speaker of the evening has his own message for us. He also bears a message from the National Education Association. He is the honored son of his great and beloved father Bishop Vincent, he has been dean of the University of Chicago, he is still president of the Chautauqua Institution, he is the president of the University of Minnesota, more than all, he is himself, Dr. GEORGE EDGAR VINCENT.


Dr. VINCENT said, in opening his address, that he brought the greetings of the National Education Association, being an "uninstructed delegate," and he firmly believed "that with your tact, with your boundless energy, with your irresistible enthusiasm, you will ultimately sweep away into the vortex of your aggressive enterprise even the school teachers of the United States and Canada."

Continuing Dr. Vincent said:

I find some difficulty in deciding just what analogy I shall use this evening. This is a subject which has exhausted almost all the forms of metaphor, simile and analogy. Librarians have been likened to almost everything under the sun. There are three metaphors which have survived from the old days. You are all familiar with these. You use them ironically, to describe that condition of affairs which prevailed in libraries before you supplanted those archaic people who used so thoroughly to misinterpret the functions of the librarian.

One is the analogy of the museum, the library as a museum of books, a museum carefully guarded, a museum to which the public is not to be admitted except under conditions which make resort to the place so irksome that only a few persist. You remember the old story of the man in Philadelphia who had committed a crime. To escape detection and go where nobody would look for him, he resorted to the reading room of the Philadelphia library.

Then there is the other analogy—I do not know that this has been, so far, insisted upon, but it is a very good one, it seems to me—the analogy of the penitentiary of books, with the librarian as a[Pg 171] jailer. Just why these people should have been put in prison as they were in the old days, just why their friends should not be permitted to visit them, it is hard to say. This is akin to another analogy, the library as a mausoleum of books, a place where books are buried, and the librarian is a bibliotaph.

These old analogies, these figures of another day, serve pleasantly to flatter a little your complacency over things as they are. But we have no time to devote to the dead past. Let us consider some of the analogies which are still living. I have been a little bewildered by that analogy this morning, the maple leaf and the gavel. I have not been quite able to work it out. It seems to me, with all deference to the delightfully poetic figure, which took everybody by storm, including myself, it is a mistake to try to analyze these sentiments. There was something about preserving the light in the maple leaves and the leaves of the book. Now, as a matter of fact, leaves are put away in a library very much as they are in an herbarium. There is no botanical relation to the trunk of a tree after they have been folded and put away. So I don't see how that works out—but that doesn't make any difference. An analogy never goes on four legs. This one just happened to have about two and a half feet upon the ground. But that is Mrs. Elmendorf's analogy; I propose to leave it alone. There may be an explosive possibility about it which she will explain some time when she has a chance to work it out. She had very short notice and she did it beautifully, and I know so little about botany that it gave me practically no intellectual difficulty.

Then there is the analogy that we are all very fond of, the analogy of the library as a department store. There you have your efficient business manager. The library is a place where it is no trouble to show goods, where you have your various departments and the goods are up to date; where you have all sorts of advertising methods, where you advertise in the daily papers, send out bulletins, get up circulars and posters and attract attention by illustrations, where you have an elevator and all that sort of thing. Just think of the sacrifice that librarians are making, the mere pittances they are receiving, when they might be running these great emporia in our large cities. The department store offers a good analogy if you do not press it too far. There is not very much money in the business. It doesn't pay very well in dollars and cents, but think of the intellectual advantages it offers, the psychic dividends that a business of that sort pays!

Then there is a figure I worked out myself a while ago, the library as a social memory. That seems to me capital. I think, so far as I know, I have a copyright on that figure. It was a good address, by the way, in which I used this trope. I wish I had remembered it; I should have brought it along and read it to-night instead of making this carefully set address. Yes, the social memory idea is a good analogy. It reduces the librarian to a medulla oblongata, so far as I am able to understand the psychology of the situation. Yet that is an honorable function, although largely automatic. It is a good thing to control the resources of the social memory, to be able to put these at the service of the public mind—decidedly a fruitful analogy, but I do not care to elaborate it this evening.

Another figure is an hydraulic image—the library as a reservoir—a reservoir of the world's refreshing, stimulating, energizing, fructifying influences. The librarian becomes a gate keeper and an irrigator. It is a beautiful thought, that you are letting out these fertilizing floods over the plains of human ignorance and stupidity. No wonder you think well of yourselves.

Then there is another that appealed to me this morning—you are a center of radioactivity, of intellectual and moral radioactivity, you are social and psychological physicists. The library as a center of psychic radioactivity strikes me as something satisfying, fascinating, delightful.

[Pg 172]

Another figure has appealed to my imagination. It is the library as an inn of books. Had you thought about that? Of course, you had—and that makes you hotel keepers. You see, being hotel keepers you would naturally be interested in all kinds of equipment; you would have the rooms prepared for your guests in the very best way, you would have a fireproof hotel, the rooms rather narrow, if you please, but plenty large enough and fairly well lighted and ventilated. The trouble is when you are running a big hotel to have the register carefully kept. You know, almost none of our best hotels can ever tell you whether a man is in or out. They are always uncertain about it, and in the old days before libraries and hotels became so efficient you could never be sure the clerk knew his business. You have changed all that, you are the most competent of hotel keepers and know how to build hotels and equip them. You furnish lobbies and parlors in which to meet guests, or if one likes he may take them home with him. I wish I had time to elaborate this idea of the Inn of Books. I am getting fond of it as the imagination plays with it. You can fancy Socrates coming in, looking about cautiously, with a certain apprehension, a little nervous for fear that she might be there. You can imagine him hanging about the corridors, listening to the gentlemen as they talk, coming up behind them, listening a little while, then saying in that calm way of his, that dangerously calm way, "I beg your pardon, but just what do you mean by 'progressive?' Precisely what significance do you give to 'life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness?'" Oh, it would be dreadful if Socrates were to come around and ask what we meant by the things we say. No wonder they gave him the hemlock cup. You couldn't permit him in your hotel. People would not understand him and would not associate with him in these days when we so much resent being asked to analyze and explain our automatic phrases.

You can see Horace coming in. He wouldn't be at all anxious to avoid the ladies. He would soon catch sight of the pretty stenographer. What pleasure he would take in dictating to her a clever ode. Yes, Horace would like the modern hotel. Then picture Pepys coming in, registering and then buying a yellow journal. How dismayed he would be! Pepys would have no chance whatever with Mr. Hearst. Then you can see the entrance of Lord Bacon. He would reveal his dual character, insist upon having the state suite all to himself, then hasten to discover how the electric lights and the elevator worked. You can image this sort of thing and can draw from it any analogy you please, but I have not time to do more than merely suggest it. It would make an admirable address for somebody who will be invited to address you next year.

I am not going to talk about these analogies, I am going to talk on the psychology of pictures. You know these are psychological days. We have now the psychology of almost everything. We have the psychology of infancy, the psychology of childhood, the psychology of adolescence and the psychology of senility; we have the psychology of advertising, we have the psychology of salesmanship—and we have Henry James. Therefore one need make no apology—in fact, one would apologise for not talking upon a psychological theme. I am going to try to see whether psychology has anything to say to librarians. Of course, it must have something to say. You are all psychologists. Anybody that knows how to give some one a book he does not want and make him think he likes it, is a psychologist. It is perfectly obvious that a psychological theme will be appropriate for a company like this.

When we try to describe what is going on in our minds we are immediately forced to use some sort of imagery, ideas made familiar in some other field. So when anybody reads psychological literature nowadays he is sure to come across the phrase "the threshold of consciousness." Here is a simple picture—a two-room house. One is the conscious room,[Pg 173] the other is the unconscious room. There is a door between, and when an idea goes from the conscious to the unconscious room it goes over that threshold, and when it goes back it necessarily has to go over that threshold again. Then James has given us that fine figure, "the stream of consciousness." How good it is! Your thoughts and feelings flow on day after day and year after year like a stream. Practical questions arise at once. What sort of a stream of consciousness have I? Is the stream going steadily on, or is it rather like a babbling brook, making a pleasant murmur but with little power? Or like the River Platte, spreading out and disappearing in the sands of stupidity, or like a turgid stream, so muddy that it is almost impossible to see anything beneath the surface? Or is it a strong, clear, on-sweeping current to which new ideals and feelings are contributed day by day, so that as the years go on it becomes a mighty energy to turn the wheels of the world? A very good figure, and we may very well put such questions to ourselves.

Professor Cooley, of Michigan, has suggested another figure which I think would sufficiently antagonize Professor Macnaughton if he were here. Let us imagine a room, the walls and ceiling of which are incrusted thickly with incandescent lights. Near the door let us imagine a box containing a lot of switches. You turn on a switch and that immediately lights up a line across that wall, over the ceiling and down the other wall. You can stand there and turn on and off these switches and light up those circuits of electric lights at will. In similar fashion you have brain cells and these brain cells are like incandescent electric lights, the filaments of which connect with one another into circuits of association. When some one turns on a switch, by a visual image, or by an odor, or by a sound, there suddenly lights up in your mind one of these circuits of memory. When you look at the turrets of that beautiful Chateau Laurier, what do you see? Are you not in the valley of the Loire? Can't you see the frowning front of Chinon, the gracious facade of Asay-le-Rideau, the lacelike stairway of Blois, the massive turrets of Amboise? It is a fine thing to have one's mind well-wired, to have the circuits in good condition. A personal question you can put to yourself is "What sort of mental lights have I? Are they four candle power or thirty-two Tungsten? Are my switches in perfect working order, or are my circuits crossed, and fuses melted so that my mind is in semi or complete darkness?" This is a very practical way of applying these figures; and this address would be of no value if it did not now and then sound the homiletic note.

There is another figure to which I call your attention. It is the figure of the stereopticon lecture. We all go to stereopticon lectures. Many of us are fond of moving pictures. We may say we are not, we may take high ground, but we sneak in to see them. We all like pictures, we are like children in this regard; and when we go to a stereopticon lecture we know that no matter how stupid the lecturer may be, once in two minutes we are going to get a slide. The laws of physics work in our interests, for if the lecturer keeps a slide in the lantern longer than two minutes the heat is likely to break it. Therefore cupidity thwarts the passion for speech. We are all the while attending stereopticon lectures. We all have screens in our minds, and on these screens pictures are passing constantly. Our mental life can be described accurately and vividly in terms of these pictures, these slides of memory and imagination. Then, too, there is a spectator within us looking at the pictures, commenting upon them and having feelings about them. The character of the individual is revealed by the pictures he fondly holds on the screen of his mind. How curiously mental pictures are related to one another, and what strange slides some of them are! Let us examine them for a little.

In the first place, it is important to notice that some pictures are very vague.[Pg 174] That means they are not well focused. You have been to a stereopticon lecture when the man could not work the lantern and when there were most unseemly altercations between the gentleman on the platform and the unfortunate person who was trying to run the lantern. It is bad enough to have the slides put in upside down; it is bad enough to have them start at the end of the lecture instead of the beginning; it is bad enough to have one of your favorite colored slides drop on the floor, but the worst thing is to have a slide so badly focused that you cannot tell what it is. Do you realize that in these mental panoramas, in these stereopticon exhibitions that we are attending, there are some pictures that are not well focused? Think of the ideas we have that are vague and hazy. Attention is the power which focuses pictures on the screen of the mind. You haven't possession of a picture until you can see it in its clear outlines. What a deal of vagueness there is in the world! How many ideas that, as a friend of mine says, "are fuzzy around the edges." The only mental picture that is to be trusted is the slide which is precise and clear and definite and accurately focused.

Then another thing to note about these pictures is the way in which they are related to one another. We may have a passive or an active attitude toward the show that is going on. When you are in a passive condition, you know how oddly these pictures come on, what an absurd relation sometimes they have to one another. They seem to have no logical connection whatever. Some pictures always appear together, although they may have no connection except that they were originally associated in that way, and you can never get one of them without the other turning up. It is amusing, sometimes grotesque, sometimes absurd, the way these pictures are grouped. Some come in what we call a logical series; that is, they have some connection with one another, one brings up another, and you go through the series from one point to another. Oh, how promiscuously these pictures come on the screen of the mind, some without the slightest premonition of their coming. It is fascinating to recall the process by which one picture suggested another, and that one a third. At times the spectator within us takes control and says, "I won't have that picture any longer, I will have another." He has the power to summon pictures. There lies the control. If there be in this world anything like self-control, that self-control is in the control of mental imagery. That control is the secret of personality. In terms of mental imagery can we define the individual and his power over himself, for mental pictures control our lives. Habit is merely a mental picture which has become automatic. Just because you can do the thing although you are conscious of the picture no longer, it does not mean that that image was not there once. When I want you to do something, I tell you to do it. If I have authority over you I put the picture of that act in your mind and I hold it there until it has worked itself out in conduct. Of course, I should not go about it in that way, with you, as an association of librarians. Not at all. I should attempt it in quite another way. I should sneak the picture into your mind by what we call indirect suggestion. If you were somebody I could browbeat into doing what I told you to do, I could order you to do it. In other words, I could jam the picture right into your mind, hold it there and say, "Now, you do that thing." But, with you, I couldn't do it that way. But I think I could manage some of you at any rate. When you were not watching, I should slip the picture into your mind. You wouldn't know where it came from. It would come on naturally. You would think you thought of it yourself. That is the gentle art of suggestion, to slip a picture on the screen of a person's mind without letting him know how it got there. He naturally, then, supposes it is the result of those deceptive processes which he identifies with personal thinking. You cannot cram ideas down the throat of a[Pg 175] free-born American citizen. Of course, you can't. Moreover, what is the use of cramming them down his throat when you can squirt them into him with a psychological hypodermic? That is the charming thing about suggestion. All control, then, is control through mental imagery. You have had this experience, for example. As you stood in a railroad station and a locomotive came thundering in, you have had, for a moment, an impulse—not only an impulse,—you have had the picture in your mind of throwing yourself under the locomotive. From a casual inspection of the company I should suppose that none had tried that experiment as yet. Why? Because you were able to remove that picture from your mind and substitute for it another—a picture of the presumable appearance of things in a very short time after you had made the experiment, or the vista of a long and happy life stretching out before you, or of obligations to family and friends. Any one of these pictures will serve the purpose. But if the time ever comes when that picture of going under that locomotive gets firmly fixed in your mind, nothing except physical force from without can prevent your going under the wheels. Every motor idea that comes into our minds tends to work itself out into action. That is the secret of the hypnotic sleep, in which the person who is under your control, through pictures produced in his mind, automatically carries these things out into action. Mental imagery is the secret of life, and control of mental imagery means the control of mankind. Self-control is the control of one's own imagery.

The personality, the self, is revealed in this imagery and in the attitude of the spectator within us. You know those different attitudes. There are some pictures that come upon the screen of your mind, and the spectator within you is immediately interested. For example, here comes a picture on the screen of your mind of the day when that board that you had been working with so long, that unintelligent board, that board made up of reactionary people that you had so long been nursing, came to the point where you were able to tell them of that scheme of yours which must inevitably, logically and remorselessly lead to putting the library in your community on a modern basis. When the picture of your triumph on that occasion comes upon the screen of your mind, the spectator within you claps her hands and says: "You were very clever about that; you waited a long time, you worked it skillfully, you certainly are a capable person." You all get pictures of that kind. You can't help looking at them. Here is another slide—a reception. Of course, when they said that yours was an extremely becoming gown, you were quite delighted; and you talked well; you did say a lot of brilliant things. To be sure they were not original—nobody expects that—but you were very fortunate in your anthology that afternoon. I can see by the broad and amiable smiles all of you are wearing, that pictures of a similarly agreeable kind are by suggestion appearing on the screens of your minds.

But you have pictures of a very different sort. How could you?—of course, you were just from the library school, it was only your first position, but, at the same time, how could you?—you cannot imagine how you could have mistaken Sir Thomas More, in the sixteenth, for Thomas Moore in the nineteenth century. How could you have done it? Yet you did. When that picture comes on the screen of your mind the spectator within you shrinks and says: "Why must we look at that? Take it off at once." It would be very piquant if I could take other illustrations from your own experience, but I cannot do that. I shall have to take one out of mine. I have a number which my spectator dislikes. Here is a recent one:

At our experimental farm we have a very beautiful new saddle horse. As I pretend to be something of a rider I went to ride this horse. There was a sort of celebration that afternoon, and I thought it would be pleasant for the president of the University to ride one of these blooded horses[Pg 176] to give eclat to the affair. I went out and rode this mare about. Everything went well until I encountered several traction engines in active operation and a number of automobiles. I was in a very narrow place. There being almost no other direction for the mare to go, she began to take a vertical course. She was in good condition and rather rotund, and the laws of physics worked out their inevitable result. At forty-five degrees I held on admirably. At sixty-five degrees, I began to feel some little distress. At eighty degrees I looked behind me, and at 89½ degrees I slid off. Now, such is the admirable press organization in the great state of Minnesota that every newspaper, I think, in the commonwealth—I haven't found one yet that skipped the item—called attention to the fact that the president of the University had come a cropper—or, if not strictly a cropper, the effect of it was the same. One of the papers was kind enough to say that, being an expert rider, I landed on my feet. If I did, my fundamental ideas of anatomy have been entirely erroneous. As I have been traveling about the state in the last few weeks, I haven't met a man, woman or child who has not sooner or later worked that back-sliding into the conversation. This is a picture of which, when it comes on the screen of my mind, the spectator within me says, "I suppose we have got to stand this, but it is certainly getting to be slightly tiresome." We all get slides of that sort in our collection.

Then there are pictures of another sort, beautiful pictures, inspiring pictures, yet for some reason the spectator within us is left cold and unaffected by these images. It is the very tragedy of human nature that we may intellectually know beautiful, noble, inspiring things, may have uplifting visions, and yet the spectator within us may look at these things and never so much as feel a flutter of the pulse. We do not incorporate ideas until these things have become not only a part of our intellectual apprehension, but until they have become a part of our emotional nature, until we make them into the very fabric of ourselves. We define the self, therefore, in terms of mental pictures, and the control of self is the control of mental pictures. Let me know the pictures to which you constantly revert, let me know the pictures that come steadily to the screen of your mind, let me know the pictures that the spectator within you gloats over and feels a loyalty to, and I will reveal to you your character. Whatsoever a man thinketh in his heart, whatsoever pictures he makes his own, whatsoever pictures he gloats over with joy and satisfaction, these things reveal the true personality.

Consider another thing: the content of these pictures, the kind of pictures. How are they determined? They are determined by our social relationships. Do you think the same sort of pictures are in the mind of the Englishman as are in the mind of the American? Do you think the same kind of pictures come into the mind of the Frenchman as come into the mind of the German? There are certain universal pictures, the same for all educated people, but most pictures take on a group character. What are the pictures that come into your minds as librarians? Pictures of your active calling. These pictures are very definite. You have your own phrases, your own language. These phrases and these forms of speech are themselves the labels of mental imagery. Every social group is held together by its phrases. Oh, how we love these phrases and how glibly we repeat them! So too, college professors have their own phrases. What a sesquipedalian terminology it is with which they bewilder the lay mind and overpower the student! How would lawyers get on but for their monopoly of archaic forms of speech? Think of the doctors' terminations, so many of them fatal, in itis, which they have invented in the last few years. So every social group determines very largely the conduct of its members by cleverly putting into their minds the imagery that it wishes to have carried out. Why do you dress as you do? Do your clothes represent your individual[Pg 177] taste? In some measure, but for the most part you dress as you do because society puts fashion pictures into your heads. You ladies dress as you do because these fashion plates and the women you see upon the street leave a deposit in your mind, a composite picture, and that composite picture works itself out in your own charming and becoming wardrobe. To be sure, as librarians, you have individuality; as librarians, you have a certain personal distinction, but it is, after all, only a variation upon the common modes which you share with all your sisters everywhere. These standards, these ideals, these types, that we talk about are put into our minds by the social groups of which we are members, and we are to a very large extent dominated by these pictures. Do you doubt it? Just examine your mental imagery. How much of that mental imagery have you secured as a result of your own first hand experience? How much of that mental imagery represents original thinking? How much of that psychic panorama have you received ready-made from the society to which you belong?

The pictures come quickly upon the screen of the mind. How readily they are summoned by suggestion! If I had time I could bore you almost to extinction by calling up in your minds images that are common to all of us. We all have large collections of slides. The depressing fact is that for the most part they are identical. How refreshing it is to meet an original person. Who is the original person? Just the person that has some slides that were made at home. Most of us have the same old, tiresome slides. When we have to make conversation, what do we do? Go to the pigeon-hole, take out a slide, put it into our minds and then reflect it to our friends. We have to be able to talk on a great variety of subjects. In the nature of things we could not think out these things for ourselves. Society has provided the slides. There they are, like a well-organized collection, a card catalog, with a topical index. To suppose that we make the slides ourselves is a grateful illusion. There may be a few who do, but most of us get ours from the stock houses in New York and Chicago.

Was there ever a time when pictorial imagery was presented to the public as in these days? These are the days when people's minds are filled with visual imagery as never before in the history of mankind. And never before was the same imagery spread over so wide an area. Think, for example, of what cartoons do. Cartoons are a substitute for thinking. Cartoons are ready-made slides. Cartoons are arguments ready to serve. Cartoons demand no intellectual effort. They would not be successful as cartoons if they did. A cartoon which you have to analyze is in the nature of things a mistake and a disappointment. A cartoon tells the story instantly. It is a slide put into the minds of millions of people in a single week. Then consider the imagery sent out by the illustrated magazines. There is only one magazine, I think, now, that does not have illustrations. Some of us take it just for that reason. It has a kind of distinction on that account. The Atlantic Monthly has no illustrations except in the advertising pages—some of those are very good—but it has that sense of uniqueness, that kind of snobbishness, which is appreciated even in a democracy like our glorious democracy, where we are all free and equal, as contrasted with the social distinctions of this monarchy under which we are so hospitably received this evening. It is a mistake to suppose that the visual is suggested merely by drawings and photographs. When we go to a lecture on "Mother, Home and Heaven" we expect the speaker in lieu of lantern slides to supply "word pictures." The Sunday supplement is the absolute symbol of our state of mind.

As we haven't time to think—i. e., to make our own slides—naturally we haven't time to bring our collection together to see whether it is consistent. We are going about with a most extraordinary selection of slides. The only reason we get along with peace of mind is that we do not take[Pg 178] our slides out of the different boxes at the same time. You keep your religious slides in one box, your moral slides in another, your business slides in another, your professional slides in another—and never take anything out of two pigeon-holes at once. For that reason you go through life without knowing what an extraordinary collection of hopelessly contradictory and mutually destructive ideas you are carrying about under that hat of yours. It is only by keeping these things in their boxes that we have anything like peace of mind. A few people, of course, are constantly going through their boxes, sifting, reorganizing and unifying their collections. These are the men and women who think, who have courage, and for the most part they represent genuine leadership. But most of us are satisfied to get our slides ready made, to get them in quantities and to have them remain a most heterogeneous accumulation.

There is a vast popular demand for ready-made slides. In every possible way these substitutes for thought are being sent out. Political slides are industriously distributed. You notice the difficulty that you have just now in talking about the political situation in our glorious country. We do not yet know what to say. You see, the slides haven't yet been sent out for this week. We have to wait until the slide makers put them on the market. We are all waiting to know what to say; we are all waiting for a new set of slides which shall be adjusted to the new conditions. If you bring out that old slide about the Republican party that saved the country—No! You don't want to say anything about that. You see at once, even though it has saved the country for years—you can see that that slide won't do. It is cracked.

Pardon a digression which enforces the point that in these days everything has to be pictorial. You see, when I am addressing a group of librarians in a jaded condition, I have to use pictorial illustrations. It is true, I should like to be didactic and pedagogic on an occasion like this, but you are in a psychological condition which makes it absolutely impossible. Even the thought of listening to these songs that are coming afterward, would not keep you if I were not constantly pictorial and keeping your minds filled with this beguiling imagery.

Imagery, then, is absolutely essential; self-control and social control are dependent upon the distribution of appropriate mental slides. The very life of the nation depends upon this. Here we are, nearly a hundred million people—we always include children—whose slides must be supplied and in some fashion unified. The imagination breaks down at the thought of this vast task. This national like-mindedness is a glorious achievement. It has never been equaled anywhere on the face of the earth. To keep these millions of people, who are scattered over three million square miles, with the same fundamental pictures in their heads is a marvelous triumph.

That we are the most progressive, the most mighty, the most highly civilized country on the face of the world—that is a gorgeous colored slide, which we keep on hand all the time. There are a lot of slides like that, that are common to everybody. True, we have slides specialized for the use of various social groups, but the fundamental slides that preserve our nationality, are common to millions.

We have to have institutions that keep these slides vivid in the minds of our people. It is the greatest attempt at social control that has ever been conceived.

But the national slide industry is by no means perfected. On the whole, there is an appalling number of these pictures that are vulgar slides, cheap slides, commonplace slides, uninteresting slides. It is your business—for now I come to my analogy—it is your business, as the people who are running the moving-picture concerns of the United States, to see to it that better pictures are put into the minds of your fellow citizens. You have the responsibility of superseding in the mental collections of millions of our citizens slides that are cheap and unworthy and inaccurate and misleading, with mental pictures that are clean-cut, trustworthy, in[Pg 179]forming and inspiring. That is your business. You are in competition with the moving-picture houses. There are nine thousand of these moving-picture concerns working night and day in the United States, filling the minds of people with mental imagery. But every library is full of potential mental pictures which can be made interesting, ennobling and uplifting to millions of people. It is your privilege to get these slides out into circulation, a mighty appealing thing to do, a splendidly stirring thing to do. I hope you are thoroughly alert as members of this mental picture syndicate. You know what you have to do. You must advertise and you must capture the public in every possible way; you must not be ashamed to put out posters describing the wonderful pictures.

And what rare pictures you have! What is a novel? It is a film of moving pictures. What is a great novel? It is a series of great pictures—and what lovely pictures they may be; what interesting, what inspiring pictures they may be! What a great collection of such mental pictures you have in your libraries! And when people read George Barr McCutcheon, try to get that film away from them and give them George Meredith. You laugh at that, but how about "Harry Richmond?" Isn't it as good a story as ever Anthony Hope or as ever George Barr McCutcheon wrote? It is a good slide, a good film. When people come and want to read Laura Jean Libbey—of course you wouldn't have her on the premises—but if that is their standard try to work off Robert Louis on them. You know, there are some of Robert Louis' that are fairly sensational. You can get people started on the right road with Robert Louis if you go about it in a clever way to pull the cheap slides out of people's minds.

But, you say, there are a lot of people whose mental apparatus, if I may modify the figure a little bit,—no, it is not a modification, it is an amplification, it is a perfectly logical development of the figure,—you say that for a good many people you want a magic lantern in their mind that will focus properly. That is the business of education. That is what Dr. Robertson and I are trying to do, to make the minds of the young focus properly, on the right sort of things. You must get a great deal of inaccurate information made accurate and definite. You know, one of the great troubles with our educational system is that our ideas are so haphazard, so untrustworthy.

The scientific slides need looking after carefully. They are changed every few minutes, but we have to do the best we can to run the latest and most trustworthy slides into the minds of the people. Then think of the literary slides. I was very much interested in the discussion this morning. I fear it will go on indefinitely as long as the gentlemen do not define their terms. But I think if they were to do this they would discover that they both believe about the same thing.

But here at hand is the real application of this figure. What is it that makes life interesting? It is to be able to associate with the ordinary, commonplace experiences of life an illuminating, inspiring, fascinating imagery. Do you realize that the books in your library give no pleasure whatever except as they interpret life to people who bring the experience of life to the books? A book is a mere dead symbol until it becomes vital in the life of a living man or woman. You have books in your library in foreign languages. These books are sealed to people who do not know those foreign languages. You would not think of offering a French or German book, say, to an average college graduate. You must have people who understand the language in which books are written. So when you give a book of history or a book of science or a book of poetry to a man or woman, that man or woman must bring a little bit of life, a little gleam of life experience, in order to get into any kind of relationship with that book. Then the book reacts and becomes a guide for the further investigation and interpretation of life. And so the book and life together go on enriching human experience.

I wish we had more accurate slides about history, especially about the French Revolution. We mostly get our slides on[Pg 180] the French Revolution from the Sunday evening sermons of eminent divines who are proving that the French Revolution was completely parallel with our times, and that France went to the bad largely because the Church was temporarily disestablished. Now, if we get our slides of the French Revolution from popular pulpits and from stump speakers we shall get some curious pictures. We want to put into the minds of the people the slides from men like Morse Stephens and von Holst before we introduce those lurid and beautifully colored slides from Carlyle and those rather melodramatic slides from "A tale of two cities." Then there is the fall of Rome, for example. Anybody can explain the fall of Rome, and we are always upon the brink of a French revolution. What we need is an accurate picture of what caused Rome to fall. Then as for Greece—Greece, that magic word! We need a lot of pictures about Greece. I have a good deal of interest in classic culture if it can be, for a large number of people, divorced from the classic languages. To suppose that there is an identity between Greek grammar and Greek life, its social institutions and its aspirations and their lessons for us, is to make a very serious blunder. You have noticed that an eminent Greek scholar from England has been lecturing at Amherst. Did he talk about grammar? No. He talked about the philosophy of Greece, the politics of Greece, the social history of Greece. These are things we need; for, my friends, you know, and you need to preach this doctrine, that modernity defeats itself. To suppose that reading the daily newspaper and having the mind filled with contemporary events gives any one a right to judge of those events, is absurdity itself. We can understand the present only as we can connect that present with the past. Therefore, if we are to have an intelligent population many men must have a vivid and accurate panorama of human history; they must be able to see the present in the light of the past, and then to predict with some little degree of certainty what we are to have in the future. Look, for example, at our present crisis. I am not going to interpret it, I do not understand it; but we cannot possibly see beneath the surface of it unless we try to interpret it in the light of the experience of other nations. What have all the great nations of Western Europe done? When we ask that question, and when we see how parties are aligned in this Dominion where we meet to-night, we cannot fail to get a little light upon what is going on at home. There the same social forces are at work, under different conditions, to be sure, but working themselves out inevitably.

So it is our business to fill the minds of our fellow citizens with accurate pictures, with definite pictures, with pictures of reality, with pictures which shall illumine every department of life. If there is any aim in education, it seems to me it is to make man a citizen of the world, to make him at home in nature, at home with mankind, at home with all the great forces which play a part in his personal development, which sweep through him into the lives of generations yet unborn. When his mind is filled with such pictures, when the spectator within him goes out to the best and finest and truest of these pictures with genuine appreciation, then you have the development of personality and the development of a great civilization.

You, my friends, are the keepers of these films and slides. It is your business to see that they are well chosen, to see that they are made available, to see that the people are stimulated, that the people are made to realize vividly what it means to have their minds filled with these true, these beautiful, these inspiring pictures which will enable them to interpret life, to enter into it more richly, to get out of it more joy, the joy of intelligent appreciation, the joy of work well done, scientifically done, the joy of comradeship, the joy of association in great enterprises. When these pictures fill the mind, when the spectator within is loyal to them, then there is richness of personal life, then[Pg 181] there is genuine advancement of civilization.

Imagery is the clue to conduct. Without mental imagery there can be no development of character. Without mental imagery there can be no social progress. This mental imagery comes from the experience of life. You are not the sole purveyors of it. Books, as I have said, are dead and inert things until men with some experience of life come to them for further insight and for guidance as they go their way trying to understand life and to interpret it more truly and to get out of it greater richness.

There is a delight in mental pictures. May our pictures be interesting and true and ennobling, may they increase in number as the years go on, may they open up to us vistas of personal satisfaction, give us keener insight into the meaning of life and stir us to larger loyalties and to truer service. May we pledge ourselves to this great work and to the furthering and fostering of those things which Watson has so finely called "the things that are more excellent."

"The grace of friendship, mind and heart
Linked with their fellow heart and mind,
The gains of science, gifts of art,
The sense of oneness with our kind,
The thirst to know and understand,
A large and liberal discontent,
These are the goods in life's rich hand,
The things that are more excellent."

At the conclusion of President Vincent's address, Mr. Lawrence J. Burpee announced that M. Amedee Tremblay, organist of the Basilica, would accompany a number of Canadian folk songs which M. Normandin, of Montreal, would sing. They were given in three groups of three, and between each group was given one of Dr. Drummond's poems in character, by Mr. Heney, of Ottawa, a most excellent interpreter of these sketches of the French-Canadian habitant.

These unique, interesting and well rendered contributions to the exercises of the evening were much appreciated by all present, and at their conclusion the session closed with a brief but hearty expression of acknowledgment from President Elmendorf.


(Russell Theatre, Tuesday, July 2, 3 p. m.)

President Elmendorf occupied the chair.

Mr. CARR: Many of us appreciate the work done in days past by Frederick W. Faxon, in personally conducting our post-conference tours. Business obliged him to take another course this year and cross the water. It has been suggested that we send him a wireless despatch of appreciation and felicitation in the name of the association. Madam President, I move the authorization of such a telegram.

The motion was carried unanimously, and the cablegram ordered sent.

The PRESIDENT: Now, we will proceed with the regular program, which brings us to the last of our series growing out of the idea of service to the individual, and we shall take pleasure in hearing Mr. CARL B. RODEN, assistant librarian, Chicago public library, on


At my first A. L. A. conference, that of Waukesha, now eleven years ago, I heard discussed that topic ever fruitful of discussion: the librarian's attitude toward those books which are technically known as 'off-color.' The Indignant resentment of that part of the public which failed to appreciate the censorious solicitude of the librarian was vividly set forth, and there were those who felt that the only permanent way out was, in the words of George Ade, to "give the public what it thinks it wants." But the Librarian of Congress, in defending the library's point of view, uttered a remark which, as his remarks have a habit of doing, clarified the atmosphere as a Chicago lake breeze lifts a fog, and we settled back again[Pg 182] serene in the knowledge that our orthodoxy had once more been vindicated and set upon its firm foundations.

He said, in effect, that the duty of the librarian was not exclusion but selection and that in the full consciousness of his responsibility to the entire community he, the librarian, must exercise fully and freely his prerogative of selecting, out of the multitude of books, those which best suited his purpose and served his ends.

The phrase "not exclusion but selection" struck at least one in that audience as so clear and telling a characterization of the librarian's business that he has kept it in mind, and well within reach for instant use, ever since. Many times it has served to confound the irate patron who combatively insisted that he was old enough to judge for himself what was good for him. Not a few times has it been the stone offered the facetious newspaper man who came seeking for bread in the form of a "story" on the "barring out" of the latest shady novel. Today it recurs again as a fitting text upon which to base a plea for the more effective advertising of books as to subject and scope, and I trust that my exegesis may not prove too violent to establish the relation between my text and my topic, which to my mind is close and intimate.

A library, of the kind with which we are now concerned, is first of all—and after all—a collection of books, selected and assembled by the librarian. It may be so administered as to become a great civic force, a social instrument, an educational agency, but first of all it is a collection of units, brought together upon certain principles as they operate in the mind of the library's administrator. Now, the word "administer" is a transitive verb, one definition of which is: "to manage, to conduct, as in public affairs," and another, "to serve, to dispense, as in medicine." We may so administer—manage, conduct—the library as to render it a power for the advancement of humanity, and when we do that we are responding to the impulse which is generated in the very air which we in this age of advancement breathe.

Or we may administer—serve, dispense—the books, as in medicine; knowing the powers and the virtues of each; perceiving the stimulating effects of one, the acceleration of heart action induced by another; this one as an emollient and an anodyne, that one as a vesicatory or an excitant; here a bromide, there a sulphite, yonder a tincture blandly dissolved in a vehicle of simple syrup, next a pill, sugar-coated, but none the less a stern and bitter dose. And when we do that we are returning to the habits and practices of that "old librarian" so useful to use now as a horrible example and a subject for humorous divagation, but we are also returning to the faith once delivered to the saints, for after all, the Fathers believed with Lord Bacon that "some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested" and they did love to administer them "as in medicine."

It is far from my intention to imply that the new librarian does not know his books. Certainly he has not surrendered one ounce of his faith in their potency. Rather does he impute to them, collectively, greater powers than ever before, regarding his library as a moral unit of large influence and seeking to extend its operation to the uttermost limits of his jurisdiction. But is it not thus collectively that he prefers to regard and administer it; as a great, powerful moral force which shall permeate the community and envelop it so that, by a sort of intellectual pantheism, we may all be in tune with the Infinite if we but open the windows of the soul? Is he not being borne along in the modern trend in therapeutics which is replacing doses and cordials, tinctures and bitter pills with a state of mind?

Creating the library habit by such methods: by putting the library in the way of the public and making it a familiar and consuetudinal part of the environment; pervading the civic fabric and injecting itself into the daily life of the citizen, is one[Pg 183] thing. It is a very great and glorious thing. To the multitude it has opened new channels of relaxation, of stimulation, of mental growth and moral adjustment. Its possibilities have not been overstated even by the librarian himself. And on the day when librarians discovered the means and perfected the methods which set the library in that commanding and strategic position, on that day they set themselves in their rightful place as public educators and added a powerful impulse to that divine momentum by which humanity is being driven forward toward the goal of perfection which must be its destiny. But creating the reading habit—well, is that quite the same thing? And if it be not quite the same thing, are librarians still concerned as much as formerly with promoting the generation of the reading habit as a part—say the lesser half—of their task? And if librarians are so concerned, are they—are we—using the most effective methods to advance that part of our task? And is advertising the library just the same thing as advertising the books? It is by the consideration of these questions that I hope to expound my text and deal with the topic assigned to me.

The library habit is akin to the museum habit, the public conservatory habit and the menagerie habit, and differs from the reading habit as visits to these institutions differ from cultivating your own garden patch or rearing your own pets. Perhaps the logical conclusion of these comparisons would seem to be that one must own one's books, but happily one does not have to own a book's body in order to possess its soul. Our present library machinery is admirably adapted to the nurture of the library habit. Open shelves, book display racks, branches in which all visible barriers and restrictions have become as obsolete as the "keep off the grass" signs in the parks, all these invite the promiscuous and profuse handling of books, the sipping and skipping, the skimming and returning for more. Our card catalogs with their stern noncommittalness and deadly monotony make it necessary for the reference patron to call for whole armfuls of books which he fumbles hastily, scouring the index and tables of contents, and laying them aside for the next dip into the grab bag. Our monthly bulletins, presenting in serried ranks the accessions of the month, severely marshalled by the rules of the decimal classification, and with one title closely followed by the next, so that the roaming eye is constantly caught by new and ever more attractive possibilities for skipping and skimming—what could be devised more effectively to promote that species of gluttony which is indicated by long lists of call numbers of books which we simply must see before next month's bulletin appears with another long list? All these things conduce to high circulation statistics and are therefore grateful to our senses. But how many of them are calculated to impart the reading habit, are effective in instilling "much love and some knowledge of books" as a distinguished librarian has paraphrased it in a recent lecture? How far does any of this machinery go in advertising books as to their subject and scope, as the program has it?

The science of advertising claims a psychological basis all its own. Perhaps it is no psychology at all but only a functioning of instinct that causes us to respond, and often capitulate in the end, to the ceaseless reiteration and ever-present insistence upon a given assertion. But whatever it is, it reacts upon the volition in so compelling a manner as to justify, even in the final acid test of the cash book, the enormous outlay of money poured forth in arousing it. And the keynote of it all is, not the fact of the reiteration, though that is important, but the overpowering irresistible confidence with which the assertion is put forth. The advertiser who would go before his public with the guarded statement that "our soap seems to be a very good soap and barring certain blemishes, a very desirable article," or would quote somebody else's testimonials (a practice now employed only by those Ishmaelites of commerce,[Pg 184] the patent medicines) might spread his placards in a solid wall across the country, with no other result than that of obliterating the landscape which now he only makes hideous. Yet I ask whether the foregoing does not fairly represent the general style of book annotations in library publications, when we treat ourselves to the luxury of annotations at all?

Yet the business man and the librarian both need publicity, and that which each should secure varies from the other only in degree, not in kind nor in the object primarily to be attained by it, namely, the patronage of the public. The merchant seeks this patronage for his own ends of private gain; the librarian, for ends which he knows to be of higher value and of greater consequence to the life of the community. The former offers for sale an article which he has manufactured or purchased, and to the use of which he sets out to convert the public by methods which have been found effective, though they are expensive. The latter buys his goods, not, let us hope, with quite the same purpose of securing only such as are likely to appeal to the passing fancy of his constituency. His aim being higher than the mere gratification of tastes and desires, he applies higher standards to his purchases. His business is selection. Every book that he adds to the library he first selects out of all that are offered, and each selection is fortified and backed by his deliberate judgment that that particular book will be a good one for his public. He knows why it is so, and now it becomes his business to convince his patrons that it is so, and to induce them to profit by the selection which he has made. How does he go about it?

His task is both easier and more difficult than that of the merchant. Easier, because he asks nothing more intrinsically valuable than time and thought; more difficult, because to most people the use of a book is not yet so proximate a need as a safety razor or even a cake of soap. In common with the merchant he is striving to secure that indispensable element upon which every human transaction between two parties must rest, namely, the confidence of those with whom he seeks to deal: confidence in his motives, in his judgment, and in the value of the service which he offers to perform. And while the merchant constantly faces the danger of losing the faith of the public through the easily aroused distrust of the value of that which he offers, the librarian finds even greater difficulty in overcoming the fear that his design is the philanthropic one of uplifting and improving their mental condition instead of merely amusing them. While the one must combat the lurking suspicion of his customers that he may be "doing" them, the other must dissimulate lest he be discovered in the act of "doing them good."

Each, then, is under the same necessity of securing the attention of the public, and ultimately for the same end: that of ensuring the prosperity and consistent growth of his enterprise. We know how the merchant advertises. Now, how does the librarian advertise? By means of catalogs, bulletins, reading lists, occasionally by space in the newspapers, when that can be had free. Very good means, these,—for advertising the library; for implanting the library habit. But very poor and weak means, indeed, for advertising the books or instilling the reading habit. Books are not advertised in library publications, except incidentally, for you cannot advertise a book merely by mentioning its name, or copying its title page.

In his spacious and optimistic way the librarian, when speaking ex cathedra, in library publications, vests himself, without intending to, in a sort of cloak of infallibility as unbecoming as it is unnatural, saying: "Behold, I bring you the books of the month; they are good books or they would not be here. That is enough for you to know. I have spoken!" And yet he has at his command twice over the chief essential ingredient of all good advertising, namely, confidence. Confidence in the righteousness of his mission and confidence in the merit and integrity of his book[Pg 185] selection, and in the conscientious methods employed in making it. Why does he not try to do a little of that which the merchant spends millions in trying to do—transmit that confidence to his patron? Why, when his business is book selection, and he knows he prosecutes it faithfully, is he so afraid of being caught at it?

The monthly bulletins of our public libraries, with a few shining exceptions, are bare and bald author and title lists employing that deadliest of all monotonous forms, the catalog entry. Now, I have been too long apprenticed to the trade of the cataloger to find it in my heart to cavil at his art and the carefully evolved, scientifically derived principles upon which it rests. But when the cataloger is "a-cataloging" he is not writing advertising copy. He is making a permanent record, and he is following certain rules which long experience has established and vindicated as good and necessary for that purpose. He finds it necessary to establish, beyond the possibility of confusion, the absolute identity of an author, and he does this by giving that author his full and correct name, stripping him of all disguises and never heeding the fact that the author himself may have been trying through all his years of discretion to live down the indiscretions of his baptismal record. This practice of employing full names in a card catalog can still be defended, though with much labor. But when an author is made to appear thus full-panoplied in a monthly bulletin, which should have the freshness and attractiveness of a news-sheet—which is all it is—he is more often disguised and concealed from, than revealed to, the view of him who is expected to read as he runs. Again, the cataloger rightly confines himself to rendering an accurate transcript of the title page, neither adding thereto, nor, if he be wise, subtracting one jot or tittle therefrom. But title pages, like human faces, are often but a poor index to character, and many a book which might upon closer acquaintance prove a very good friend indeed, if only some one had been near to speak the few formal words of introduction required in good society, is passed by because of a forbidding and austere, or otherwise misleading, countenance. And so the monthly record becomes a stern and monotonous affair, requiring to be furbished up and trimmed with all sorts of side issues by way of supplying what the city editor calls human interest, all of them well contrived to advertise the library, but using up the space which should be given over to advertising the books—of which, first of all, and after all the library is composed.

Mr. Dana, in his pamphlet on booklists, makes a statement, from the experience of his own library, but which must have found an echo in many a heart, to the effect that the monthly list did not supply any definite demand and was very little used. Exactly! So might a monthly list of additions to the city directory be very little used; so does the periodical revision of the telephone directory supply a definite demand only to those who are looking for something—and the average citizen is spending very little of his time looking for books. They must be shown to him, and then he must be shown why it will be to his advantage, pleasurable or profitable, to make their closer acquaintance.

Open shelf rooms, or, wanting these, display racks and tables are in themselves a mighty stride forward in shortening the distance between the reader and the books. But do they always go the whole distance? Is it enough to turn a man loose in a roomful of books, all beckoning to him and standing in rows expectant to be chosen, like children in a game? They cannot speak, the attendants, gracious and hospitable and expert though they be, cannot speak to everyone. They often have enough to do to give attention to those that have the courage to speak to them. But placards could speak. Small groups of books, taken out of their tactical formation on the shelves and brought together because of some bond of common interest not always convertible in terms of the decimal classification, could become elo[Pg 186]quent. And eloquent, indeed, and welcome to the dazed explorer of unfamiliar precincts, would be a bulletin, many of them, plenty of them—for a belief in signs of the right sort is a mark of wisdom—which would tell him in an authoritative, confident, and confidential way what he wishes to know, namely, something about the books, or only about a few of them, that surround him. We do these things, sometimes, on rare occasions, on special days, by means of special bulletins. But it is mostly in the children's room. In fact we take great pains that the children should receive the benefit of our expert judgment and ministrations. But to their elders, to most of whom we might well apply a reverent adaptation of the words of the precept, beginning: "Except ye become as a little child ...," to their elders we pay the subtle and misdirected compliment of assuming that they know as much as we do about what is, after all, our chief business, the selection and proper employment and enjoyment of books.

It begins to appear, then, I hope, that what I am driving at is that the way to convey information as to subject and scope of books is to talk about them, and to talk about them in such a way as to transmit not only the information, but our own interest in them, our confidence in them, and our point of view—which is not different from that of the people we seek to serve, though it may be more clearly defined when it comes to books. We are all human beings together and our chief common interest is human interest. When we can establish that bond between ourselves and those whom we desire to reach the task is done.

Why is it that the Chicago Evening Post, three weeks ago today, devoted 500 words in its editorial columns to comment upon the shelf of classics and the illuminating explanatory legend accompanying it, in the Springfield, Mass., library? Why is it that when we receive the St. Louis bulletin, we turn first to the page of "Books I like and why I like them?" Why do the pleasant little informal chats in the Chicago book bulletin about the troubles of the reference department meet with so wide a response? Why is Mr. Wellman's charming booklet about "Some modern verse" still kept in every librarian's little private file of things really worth keeping? Because in all of these, in one form or another, there appears the common bond of sympathy, the common note of human nature, which finds its complement wherever nature is human; the common ground of interest in the self-revelation of human beings which these little isolated and intrinsically unimportant enterprises bring to light. The book bulletin that would report upon the books of the month in the same pleasant, informal fashion, that would embody a page or two of book-chat in the same style of sprightly, intimate, personal causerie, think you that such a book bulletin would stand in great danger of being suspended because "it was very little used?"

Let us, then, talk more about our books: by word of mouth, in print, by placards, by whatever means ideas may be conveyed, so that the means be effective and the ideas—our own! When we annotate, and so breathe the breath of life into the dry bones of a catalog entry, let us honestly assume responsibility for the presence of the books in the list, by giving our own appraisal, and not always by quoting from some organ of orthodoxy whose very name connotes oppressive solemnity to the man in the street. We have our own collective opinion ready made for us every month in the A. L. A. Booklist, concisely put, simply worded, and the result of the combined judgment of a body of collaborators of the highest respectability. But this we mostly keep to ourselves, as a sort of trade secret, instead of giving the public at large the benefit of this most admirable product of co-operative skill.

And let us do these things not by way of pretending to oracular gifts or the possession of omniscience, but as a means of revealing ourselves and so of establishing a channel of communication between our[Pg 187]selves and our people through which the clear stream of human nature, which is common to us all, may flow unobstructed. And upon that stream we may confidently launch our several ships, freighted with wisdom and joy, profit and pleasure, inspiration and growth and life itself, safe in the knowledge that they will be wafted straight down the stream to their destinations, the hearts and minds of our patrons.

Perhaps this is one of the things in the mind of the president when she laid down the following query as the point of departure for this week's program: "Should not the library, neglecting no other known service, make very certain that it fulfills its own unique task, that is, to provide and to make known the sources of joy?"

The PRESIDENT: I think it is quite evident from several references in Mr. Roden's very delightful paper why the president went to Springfield for a paper on making known the charm of books. The librarian at Springfield was by "royal command" compelled either to write a paper himself or produce some one who could write it, and Mr. Wellman has produced Miss Grace Miller's manuscript, which he will read to us.

Mr. WELLMAN: Madam President, Ladies and Gentlemen, I am very sorry that Miss Miller could not be here to present her paper in person. She is known to some of you through the notes which she writes for the Springfield Bulletin.

Mr. Wellman read the following paper, prepared by Miss GRACE MILLER, of the Springfield city library.


The reputation of the American people as a nation of readers evokes a pleasurable sensation of pride in the patriotic heart. But when we pause to ask, "What do they read?" that pride is destined to fall. Newspapers, periodicals, novels, the popular books of the hour—yes, but how many of the books of all time? It may be doubted if the present generation, with all its opportunities, reads as many of these as did its fathers.

Two traits seem forcibly to impress the cultivated foreigner as characteristic of our men and, to a lesser degree, of our women—a hard materialism and a lack of interest in the finer things of life. Is there any relation between this dearth of idealism and the reading habits of the nation? Ideals are the greatest force in life, and what a man's ideals are is largely determined by what he reads. The power of great literature to awaken noble ambitions, to cultivate the imagination, to impart the ability "to see life steadily and see it whole" is undisputed. In face of all this, where does the library of today stand?

It has been pointed out that the modern library movement is of recent growth. We look with amazement at all that has been accomplished in the last quarter-century. There seems little to connect the library of the present with the library of the past. But one link remains—the book. Sometimes it seems as if that was the one thing we were leaving out of our thought—the book, not as a material object, paper, printing, binding, to all of which we pay much attention, but the book as literature. Is the library, too, becoming materialized? As the authorized custodians of the wisdom of the past, we stand in an important and dignified relation to the present. How can we share our treasures with a public that too often fails to appreciate its need for them?

First of all—above all mere schemes and devices however good—must come a real love and enthusiasm for books, and a knowledge of them among library workers. It is impossible to awaken an interest in other people in a subject in which you are not interested yourself. There has been more or less good-natured raillery among librarians over that time-honored recommendation for one who wishes to enter library work, that he is "fond of reading." In the long list of qualifications which, we are told, the library assistant should possess—a list so compre[Pg 188]hensive that one is reminded of the old jest about expecting all the virtues for four dollars a week—love of books seems to be ranked very low. It may be questioned if this is not a mistaken policy. After all, books are the basis of all library work and the attitude of the workers toward the books, cannot be unimportant. One of the most scathing indictments ever brought against library assistants was made when Gerald Stanley Lee accused them of being "book chambermaids." We like to judge our profession—if I may be allowed that disputed term—by its leaders; but the public judges us by the people who answer their questions in our delivery rooms and at our information desks and in our reference departments. And it is no use trying to evade the issue, as some libraries do, by requesting people not to ask questions at the delivery desk. Two-thirds of our public never get any farther and, even when referred to some other department, show an inexplicable unwillingness to go there.

A few years ago the following communication appeared in a well-known paper: "Will you kindly inform me through the columns of the Saturday Review of Books where I can find the story of 'Gil Blas'? I inquired at one of the public libraries and the attendant said she had never heard of it." Incidents like this, and we must in all honesty admit that they are liable to occur in any library, may be one reason for the too prevalent impression that the library is merely a place where one can get a new novel. If we wish to promote the reading of the best books in our communities, we must have literary taste and a familiarity with books in the members of our library staffs.

The power of the viva voce, personal opinion is apt to be underestimated. "It's great," says the little cash-girl in the department store, and her word settles the matter for the hesitating purchaser. With the public at large, your recommendation of a book goes farther than a learned review by a real authority. Here is where our opportunity lies, not only inside the library, but outside. A librarian who recently read "Eothen" and found it thoroughly delightful, casually spoke of it among his friends and, as a result, knows of no less than seventeen people who read the book and twelve who bought it. This incident is typical. Why did you choose the last book you read? Even if you are a librarian and in the habit of looking over endless numbers of book reviews, it is more than likely it was because someone spoke of it in a way to arouse your interest.

In our professional capacity we all expect to be called upon for advice in selecting books, but even outside the library we are probably alike in finding that people assume we can help them to discover the "something interesting" for which they are looking. Accordingly, the advantage of a broad range of literary likings is obvious. The world of literature is wide and there is something in it for every taste. If your personal preference happens to be for the moderns, if you enjoy Ibsen and Shaw and Maeterlinck—don't look askance on that other type of mind that finds happiness in Scott and Browning and Tennyson. The mental breadth that can sympathize with a point of view that it does not share, is nowhere more desirable than in library work.

Much effort is being expended by libraries at the present time in promoting the reading of their books. It is being more and more recognized that a smaller number of books more widely read fulfills the real purpose for which the library exists better than a larger number standing on the shelves. This is now so much of a commonplace that we are liable to forget how new the idea is. It was not so long ago that the annual report pointed with pride to the large proportion of income spent on books and the small amount on administration. The whole movement expressed by the term, "publicity," is the growth of a few years. So far most of our work along this line has been devoted to promoting the reading of new books and technical works. Gratifying success[Pg 189] has crowned our various schemes. But every library worker knows that the easiest class of books for which to find readers is new books. The reasons for this are so apparent that we need not dwell upon them. To circulate the great books, the classics, the books which constitute literature in the restricted sense is another and a far more difficult undertaking, and on this we have hardly made a beginning. Yet if the library is to stand—and we all believe it should—for the highest, for true culture and refinement, if it is to be a source of ideals, as well as ideas, here is a side of our work which must not be neglected.

We may be inclined at times to underrate the library's ability to secure the reading of specific books. An experiment tried some years ago may serve as an object lesson. Van Vorst's "The woman who toils" and "The souls of black folk," by Du Bois, were selected for this experiment. Under ordinary conditions the first of these books would have enjoyed a fair degree of popularity, while the second would have had a rather small circulation. The library bought a number of copies of each, sent notices to all the papers, had book-notes in its bulletin, put up publishers' advertisements on its bulletin-boards, and (note this last) discussed the books in staff-meeting so that every assistant was able to talk about them intelligently. The results surpassed expectations. For months it was impossible to meet the calls for them, and reserves came in steadily; most remarkable of all, after eight years the circulation of one is eight and the other three times above the average. So much for what a library can do in determining what its constituency shall read.

One reason why the best books are not read is that many people do not know how readable they are. In the vocabulary of the great public the word classic is synonymous with dry. It frightens people. How much the schools are responsible for this through their use of great literary masterpieces as text-books is a disputed question. If we can only succeed in making people understand that the reason these works are classics is because their inherent interest is so great that it has kept them living and vital through the years that have brought oblivion to hordes of weaker writings, we shall have accomplished something truly worth while. But if to many of our patrons the classic is something to be feared and avoided, there are others who really wish the best, but either do not know it or are so busy that they neglect it, taking the book that comes first to hand. Like those daughters of time—the hypocritic days, books too bring diadems and fagots.

"To each they offer gifts after his will,
Bread, kingdoms, stars and sky that holds them all."

How often have we, wearied and hurried, hastily taken a few herbs and apples, only to feel later the solemn scorn of a wasted opportunity.

There are probably few libraries today, outside the very small ones, that do not employ book lists, more or less elaborate in form, to call attention to their resources. These can be used to good advantage to recommend the purely literary attractions of the library's collection. But there are book lists and book lists. To some librarians a book list is a list of books, and nothing more. The newest member of the staff can take his subject, a pencil and a pad, and look in the card catalog under the proper heading, and lo! the list is made! And it is worth just about the amount of work put into it. A successful list requires far more than this. The books must be carefully selected by some one who knows them. If there are annotations, they must really annotate. If your brief note adds nothing that the public wishes to know, it is wasted. The number of entries, the title, the arrangement, the paper, and the print, all are important in deciding the popularity of a list. A distinction needs to be drawn between the list for students and the list for popular reading. The former may be very full, but experience tends to show that the latter should[Pg 190] be brief—twenty-five entries at the longest; and many times, ten would be better. Ten great autobiographies, ten world-famous dramas, ten literary masterpieces—the very titles hint at that multum in parvo which gives popularity to collections like Dr. Eliot's five-foot library. To read five feet of books and find oneself simply but sufficiently armed and equipped to hold one's own with any university giant, how enticing it sounds! and how simple. The public dearly loves superlatives—"the best," "the most famous," "the greatest." If any librarian doubts the drawing power of these phrases, let him make a trial of them. A knowledge of psychology may be a great aid in library work.

To be successful, the compiler of a book list should thoughtfully consider whom he hopes to reach by it and then take measures to see that it reaches them. Advertise your list, and do not for a moment think that great literature, because it is great, needs no advertising. If your local paper will say that the library is distributing a fine list on the immortal Greek tragedies, far more people will be interested in that list than if you merely hand it out at your delivery desk.

The most encouraging thought in regard to the promoting of the reading of the best books by means of lists is the broad field from which the books can be selected. The true book-lover in library work often feels like Tantalus—seeing all the time so much he would like to read and cannot. And so he turns with avidity to preparing for more fortunate mortals lists, not only of the things he has read and loved, but of the things he would love to read. Poetry, drama, essays, biography, letters, travel—here is a world from which to choose.

Supplementing the lists and adding to their attractiveness are collections of the books themselves. In large libraries most people are more or less at sea. Who has not seen them wandering aimless and bewildered from shelf to shelf, and who has not noted the relief with which they turn to almost any small selection of books. Many libraries have kept statistics showing the circulation of books placed on special shelves, and it is invariably found that it is much higher than that of the books kept in their regular places. This has passed the experimental stage. Today we know that we can in this way increase the use of any books we select. There are just as good books in the stack, but they will not be read to anything like the same extent. A library has in its delivery room certain shelves on which appear all the new books that are bought, regardless of class. The circulation from these shelves is notably large. After a varying length of time these books are sent to the regular shelves. Immediately the use of them decreases. Books that were read almost continuously while they were on the special shelves only go out occasionally. But take them back to one of the small miscellaneous collections in the delivery room and they immediately begin to circulate again. The merchants learned long ago that people buy what they see, and so in all the stores a large amount of stock is on the counters for inspection. Librarians have learned that people also read what they see. In both cases, however, the methods adopted to secure patrons are influenced by the natural limitation as to the amount that can profitably be seen. The experienced clerk does not show the prospective buyer too many different kinds of cloth, lest he should become confused, be unable to decide, and refrain from buying. So with the reader. He can select something satisfactory from a single case of books, when row after row of them gives him mental vertigo. So do not say to him, "Here is all Greek literature—choose." But bring together on a table or a shelf a few books and say, "Here are a dozen of the greatest tragedies in the Greek language. All of them are worth reading. Take one."

But when you have brought together this little collection and called attention to it, never think your work is done. After a little while change it for something else. The wonted soon becomes out-worn. When[Pg 191] the collection is new, it is regarded with interest. Leave it too long, and people cease to see it. They walk past the shelf with a subconscious feeling that they know what is there. The thing to cultivate in them is a delightful uncertainty as to what they will find, coupled with the expectation that it will be something different from what they saw last time. Change we must have. Here again we may take a lesson from the merchant. Time, thought, and money are spent on preparing a beautiful window display. Does the proprietor settle back and say, "This is the high-water mark. We cannot arrange a better window than this; therefore we will make it permanent." Not at all. He realizes that while at first it will draw crowds, after a bit it will become an old story. He must offer something fresh. So get together a collection of the best books; call attention to them; get your public in the habit of looking for them; but change them frequently. The infinite variety of literature is such that its presentation need never become stale.

One method of introducing people to the best literature seems comparatively little used in this country, though common in England, and that is the lecture course. It is generally affirmed that the American people no longer care for lectures. Forms of popular entertainment wax and wane. The New Englander of the middle nineteenth century was an enthusiastic attendant of lectures and there can be no doubt that he owed much in an intellectual way to the habit. Almost all of the best-known literary and public men of that period either went on lecturing tours or gave readings from their works. Their influence was thus greatly extended and an interest awakened in things worth while to an extent otherwise impossible. The old-fashioned lecture certainly compares favorably in its results with many methods of entertainment in vogue today. It is to be feared that the latter, far from stimulating mental life, are conducive to inertia of thought. It would be an interesting experiment for the libraries to attempt a series of lectures on literary lines and see if their old popularity could be revived.

Another way of calling attention to the best in literature seems wholly neglected by libraries; and, surprising as it seems, this is through their bulletins. Nearly all large, and many small, libraries publish a bulletin, but little has been done to develop this important library agency. Here is a field that may well be cultivated. Most publications have to put much money and work into the task of securing readers. Our clientele is already provided by the patrons of our institutions. Because the bulletin gives a list of new books, and because many of the reading public are interested in new books, they read our bulletins. Why do we not give them something more than a bare list of accessions? If we wish to make our influence felt in the character of the reading in our communities, this is our opportunity. The work may be difficult, but it is certainly worth attempting.

All librarians have viewed with mingled feelings of wonder and amusement those ingenious literary ladders, by which the unsuspecting reader is triumphantly led from Mary J. Holmes to Thackeray. During the library experience extending over a number of years, the present writer has hopefully watched for an instance of some individual reader climbing this amazing structure, but she has watched in vain. It is not my aim to show how the reader of Ella Wheeler Wilcox's poems may be induced to change to Milton; or how a devoted lover of Gaboriau may follow a blazed trail that shall lead via Münsterburg's study of criminal psychology to William James; or by what methods Jack London's "Call of the wild" might eventually end in Darwin's "Origin of species." This puzzling task must be left to some more ambitious soul. But in every community there is a class of people, be it smaller or larger, to whom an attractive presentation of the stimulating qualities of real literature would appeal; and if such a presentation was rightly made, they would respond. Will not some li[Pg 192]brary make trial of this method? Let it publish in its bulletin a series of brief articles about the great books, telling what they have meant in the past, what they mean today; showing them as sources of inspiration and of consolation; making it clear that any one who has made himself master of their treasures can never be mentally poor. Then let that library report the outcome and tell us whether, in its opinion, it paid. The trouble with too many library experiments is that the experimenters never seem to follow them up and tabulate their results. The schemes sound fine, but as to their actual working there is much haziness. Librarians are notably ready and anxious to learn from one another, and a plan reported as being tried in one place is likely to be immediately started in many others. If libraries would carefully investigate the actual results achieved by their various devices, and report their failures as well as their successes, much wasted effort might be avoided.

Another untried scheme that might be suggested is a series of readings. The wealth of English poetry commends that form of literature as well suited to this purpose, though of course there is no dearth of material along many lines from which to choose. The theory of this method is the same as that of the story-hour for children, and the same question would present itself—whether the auditor would merely enjoy the entertainment or whether sufficient interest would be awakened to induce him to pursue the subject farther. Most libraries have small lecture rooms, and this plan has the recommendation that it can be tried at slight expense.

But after everything possible has been said for schemes of one kind and another, we shall come back in the end to the supreme importance of personality. No amount of advertising, no number of lists and special collections can ever take the place of the cultivated and enthusiastic book-lover in promoting the reading of the best books.

The PRESIDENT: It all pretty nearly amounts to saying that our public are our friends, our books are our friends, and we wish to help the friends of the first part to the pleasure of knowing the friends of the second part.

The next order of business is the report of the Executive board and the report of the Council, which the secretary will read.

The SECRETARY: There have been two meetings of the Executive board, and two meetings of the Council, during this conference.


At the first meeting of the Executive board ordinary routine business was first transacted, and, later, Mr. Henry E. Legler, as chairman of the committee appointed to draft a by-law stating definitely what person or persons are entitled to cast votes for institutional members, reported that the committee recommended that the by-laws be amended by adding the following section:

Sec. 11. The vote of institutional members shall be cast by the duly designated representative whose credentials are filed with the secretary. In the absence of such designation or of such delegate the vote may be cast by the chief librarian or ranking executive officer in attendance at the meeting.

Consideration was given to the recommendations adopted by the Council from the Committee on relation of the A. L. A. and State library associations and on motion of Dr. Andrews, it was voted to recommend to the association that Section 14 of the Constitution be amended by inserting the following clause, after the words "and twenty-five by the Council itself;"

"and one member from each state, provincial and territorial library association (or any association covering two or more such geographical divisions) which complies with the conditions for such representation set forth in the by-laws."

Also that Sec. 3a be added to the By-laws as follows:

"Each state, territorial and provincial library association (or any association[Pg 193] covering two or more such geographical divisions) having a membership of not less than fifteen members, may be represented in the Council by the president of such association, or by an alternate elected at the annual meeting of the association. The annual dues shall be $5.00 for each association having a membership of fifty or less, and ten cents per additional capita where membership is above that number. The privileges and advantages of the A. L. A. Conferences shall be available only to those holding personal membership or representing institutional membership in the Association."[5]

[5] As this by-law would be meaningless until the above recommended amendment to the Constitution is in force, action on the by-law was postponed by the Association until the next annual conference.

Adjourned, subject to the call of the chair.

The second meeting was held after the election of officers. Mr. Legler presided.

Mr. George T. Settle, acting assistant librarian of the Louisville free public library, appeared before the board and in behalf of the library board and various officials and organizations of Louisville and Kentucky invited the association to meet in Louisville in 1913.

A letter was read from Mr. George F. Bowerman, librarian of the District of Columbia public library, in which was expressed a desire that the association meet in Washington in 1913 and, if found practicable and desirable, to adopt the policy of holding recurrent meetings in that city.

Invitations for the conference of 1913 were also received and read from the convention bureaus of Chicago, Buffalo and San Francisco. All of these invitations were tabled for due consideration.

After general discussion it was voted as the opinion of the Executive board that the next conference should be held at some summer resort in the eastern section of the country and the secretary was instructed to investigate places of this nature, and report to the board.

A report of considerable length was received from the Bookbuying Committee relative to negotiations between the respective committees appointed by the A. L. A. and the American Booksellers' Association, upon which it was voted that this report be sent to the respective members of the Executive board and their opinions and suggestions thereon be filed with the secretary to be later considered by the board.

A communication from the secretary of the Catalog section was received stating that the following resolution had been unanimously adopted by that section:

RESOLVED, that the A. L. A. Executive board be asked to appoint a committee to investigate the cost and method of cataloging in accordance with the suggestions in Mr. Josephson's paper, "What is cataloging?"[6] Mr. Josephson's paper accompanied the communication. It was voted that the president appoint a committee of three for this purpose and that an appropriation of $15 be made for the necessary expenses of the committee. The president appointed as this committee Mr. A. G. S. Josephson, Miss Agnes Van Valkenburgh and Miss Emma V. Baldwin.

[6] For Mr. Josephson's paper, see page 245.

A communication was considered from Mr. Asa Don Dickinson, addressed to the secretary, relative to a campaign for a library clearing house for periodicals. It was taken by consent that such a campaign would not be practical for the A. L. A. to undertake under present conditions.

Mr. Wellman, as special committee of one from the Publishing board, to investigate the advisability of the appointment of a committee to work upon the compilation of a code for classifiers, reported favorably on the plan and recommended that the Executive board take the matter in hand and appoint a committee as requested. On motion it was voted that the following committee be named: W. S. Merrill, J. C. Bay, W. S. Biscoe, W. P. Cutter, J. C. M. Hanson, Charles Martel and P. L. Windsor.

On motion of Dr. Andrews it was voted that the secretary secure data relating to the library careers of the members of the association, this information either to be incorporated in the annual [Pg 194]Handbook or filed at the headquarters office for use of the membership.

On motion of Dr. Andrews it was voted that the president suggest to the members of the Executive board any changes he deems desirable in the membership of the standing committees and to ask for such suggestions and that the secretary inform the members of any changes suggested by the committees themselves.

On motion of Miss Eastman it was voted that C. W. Andrews and A. E. Bostwick be re-elected members of the Publishing board for terms of three years each.

Voted, that at its January meeting the Council be requested to define the policy of the association as to the number of general sessions advisable at the annual conference.

On motion of Dr. Andrews it was voted that the program committee be asked to consult the wishes of the affiliated organizations regarding the closer grouping of their respective sessions at the annual conference.

Voted, that at future conferences of the association the ensign of the United States and the British union jack be placed side by side to signify the international nature of the association.


Note: The standing committees for the year 1912-13 were later appointed as follows and although these appointments were not a part of the Ottawa conference business, the list is here given for convenience of reference.

A. L. A. STANDING COMMITTEES, 1912-13[Pg 195]


First Meeting

The first meeting, held June 27th, was called to order by President Elmendorf, with 37 members present. First Vice-President Legler, at request of the president, took the chair.

Voted that a committee of three be appointed by the chair to nominate five members for Council to be elected by council for a term of five years each. The chair appointed George H. Locke, R. G. Thwaites and Mary L. Titcomb.

Mrs. Elmendorf, as chairman of committee on relations of the A. L. A. and certain other national associations, made a report of progress, stating that the committee had formulated a letter setting forth the desire for closer co-operation, which letter had been transmitted by the secretary to 35 associations. Replies had been received from 23, all of which expressed a desire for closer co-operation between their association and[Pg 196] the A. L. A. Voted that the report be received as report of progress and the committee continued.

In the absence of Mr. W. C. Lane, chairman of the special committee to promote and co-operate in the development of printed cards in relation with international arrangements, Dr. C. W. Andrews made an informal report on his own work as a member of the committee, stating that the John Crerar library was testing the time required to order printed cards from the Royal Library of Berlin to see whether such orders would reach their destination in time to be filled. He expressed the hope that a majority of such orders would be received in time. Mr. Bowker spoke of the work as seen by him on a recent trip abroad. Dr. Putnam spoke informally of the Leipzig exhibit of book arts planned for two years hence.

The committee on ventilation and lighting reported informally through the chairman, Mr. Samuel H. Ranck, who stated that a formal report had been prepared and would be presented at a later session.

Miss Alice S. Tyler, chairman of the Committee on relation of the A. L. A. and State library associations, presented the following report:

The Committee on relation of the A. L. A. and State library associations reports to the Council the further consideration of the report which was referred back to the Committee at the January meeting of the Council and makes the following recommendation:

That Council recommends that the Executive board consider the advisability of amending Section 14 of the Constitution and Section 3 of the By-laws to include representation of state, territorial and provincial library associations in the Council and the conditions of such membership.

The Committee further suggests that the By-laws be amended to provide that the privileges and advantages of the A. L. A. conferences shall be available only to those holding personal, or representing institutional, membership in the association.

Voted that this report be adopted.

The Committee appointed to consider the government of American libraries and their relation to the municipal authorities, presented a report through the chairman, Dr. A. E. Bostwick, upon which it was voted that the report be recommitted to Committee for consideration as to minor changes and further report.

On motion it was voted that the Committee be continued and that membership be increased to five. The president named M. S. Dudgeon and Adam Strohm as additional members.

Adjourned, subject to call of the chair.

Second Meeting

At the second meeting, held June 29th, 24 members were present. Vice-President Legler presided at the request of President Elmendorf, who was present.

Dr. Andrews, as a member of the Committee on conditions governing affiliation of other than local, state and provincial associations, reported orally, recommending that a by-law be framed to include as one feature that a membership fee of $25.00 a year be assessed on such affiliated organizations, stating that three at least of the already affiliated organizations had expressed their willingness to such fee, and that the remaining association has been received on condition that it accept such terms of affiliation as might be determined by the A. L. A.

On motion of Mr. Bowker it was voted that the report be received and that the Committee be continued but that at the request of Dr. Putnam he be relieved and Mr. J. I. Wyer, Jr., be appointed as a member of the Committee.

At this meeting Council elected the following persons as members of the council for a term of five years each: Josephine A. Rathbone, Mrs. Percival Sneed, Mrs. Harriet P. Sawyer, M. S. Dudgeon and W. O. Carson.

The report of the Committee on government of American libraries, Dr. Bostwick, chairman, which was presented at a previous meeting and recommitted to the Committee for certain minor changes, was again presented and it was voted that the report as amended be received and the resolution adopted. The report,[Pg 197] including the resolution referred to, is as follows:

Report of Committee on Relation of the Library to the Municipality

To the American Library Association:

Your special committee to whom was referred the matter of drafting a report on what the association regards as fundamental in the relation of the public library to the municipality, submits herewith its report. This whole subject is of such great importance that your committee believes it should receive further consideration, especially if it is desired that there should be submitted the draft of what may be termed a model library article, chapter, or title in a city charter, particularly a charter in a state operating under a so-called home rule law, whereby each city may make its own charter within the limitations fixed by the state constitution and a general state law.

Your committee believes that the association is practically unanimous in its conviction that the public library should be regarded as a part of the educational machinery of the community, and that the functions of the educational organization are generally separate and distinct from those of the local government organization. In the very nature of things it is therefore impossible for the public library to get the kind of administration it deserves when it is administrated as a part of the city's system of parks, or under the supervision of its board of public works. It may be stated that in some of our states the state constitution recognizes this distinction by providing for two corporations with the same geographical boundaries, the one dealing with the questions of local government and the other with education,—the public schools. This constitutional distinction is based on the principle that education is a matter of state concern, that the interests of the state in education are paramount, and therefore that the state should exercise greater control in educational affairs than in local government affairs. In line with this thought, your committee submits the following resolution, which it recommends to the association for adoption at this time:

RESOLVED: That the American Library Association calls the attention of municipal governments, and of public bodies engaged in the preparation of new or amended charters for such governments, to the necessity for securing independence of action of the public library as an educational agency co-ordinate with the schools. Radical changes in forms of municipal government have sometimes left the library's position insecure or doubtful, and charters providing the so-called "commission form" of government have in particular often failed to define adequately the position of public libraries and their governing boards. Where there is classification of municipal functions, this association feels very strongly that the public library should be grouped with educative agencies such as the public schools rather than with departments that have little or nothing to do with its work. While it is desirable to keep the control of the library in independent hands and not to place it and the schools under the same direct management, we believe that a city charter should contain no provision grouping the library otherwise than with educative agencies.

If the foregoing resolution is adopted, we recommend that a committee be appointed to study this subject further and to submit the draft of what might be termed a library chapter for a city charter.

For the purpose of discussion and to clarify the thought of the association on this subject your committee submits the following tentative points which it believes should be considered for such proposed model library chapter.

First, the charter should provide for a library board which should have power to administer and control the public library of the city, and at the same time administer all libraries municipally owned in the city. This would include the municipal legislative reference library in the city hall, libraries in public schools, high schools, and possibly such others as libraries in municipal art galleries, museums, etc. This board should consist of not less than five or more than nine mem[Pg 198]bers, excluding ex-officio members, the number of which should not exceed one half of the appointive or elected members. A sufficiently small proportion of the board should be elected or appointed each year to make its membership fairly continuous so that it may develop a constructive policy, something that is impossible where the membership is likely to change materially at brief intervals. In no case should the terms of more than half of the members expire at one time.

In our smaller cities or towns it would seem advisable to consider whether the municipal art gallery and museum should be administered by the same board which administers the library. It has been suggested that in such places it would be possible to carry on this work with very much less expense under one management than under several managements, and experience apparently demonstrates that having the library, art gallery, and museum interests in the city in the same building, or in a group of related buildings, adds immensely to the public service of each at a minimum expenditure of money. In other words, having all these interests under one roof or in buildings closely adjoining each other makes it possible for each institution to strengthen the other, and at the same time makes it possible for the best coöperation and coördination; and furthermore many more people will use each of these institutions when they are together than when they are widely separated. In larger cities where it may seem desirable to have the art and museum interests under separate boards the charter should provide for official (ex-officio) representatives of each of these institutions on the boards of the others as well as with the board of education of the city, so as to insure the greatest amount of coöperation and coördination. It is the conviction of this committee that the educational interests of the community in many of our cities today should be coördination to a greater extent than they are now, not only for the purpose of eliminating duplication of work and effort but also for the mutual strengthening of the work and effort of each.

In many small cities and some larger ones it has been the practice for the public library to be managed by the board of education. The disadvantage of this, however, is that the library interests are usually turned over to a committee and that the membership of this committee is likely to change from year to year, so that there is no constructive policy; and where there is no constructive policy the interests in the library on the part of other members of the board is likely to be small. However, many of the difficulties with the management of a public library by a board of education have frequently grown out of the method of appointment or election of the school board. If the school board is in politics and therefore more or less partisan, the library is apt to suffer by this arrangement even more than the schools themselves. Possibly, where public opinion is sufficiently alive to the value and importance of education a single board might manage all the educational interests of a city, just as the board of regents of one of our large state universities administers its varied activities.

Another point to be considered is whether the library board should be elected by the citizens at large, or appointed by the mayor or selected by the board of education. Election by the citizens of members to such a board should be absolutely non-partisan. Women should have the right to vote and should be eligible to the board. The board should have power to fill vacancies which may occur by death or resignation, until the next general election, in case the board is elected by the citizens at large. Of course, if the members are elected by the board of education, vacancies could be filled at any time by that board, and if they are appointed by the mayor he could fill a vacancy.

Your committee believes that it is unwise for a public library to be governed by a board which elects its own members, or a majority of its own members: in[Pg 199] other words, a "close corporation" is not the form of governing board that is best for a library belonging to all the people of the community. This would not apply where cities make a terminable contract with an existing institution. It is generally unwise for the corporate name of a municipal public library to bear the name of an individual. It should bear the name of the city, and the charter should fix its name.

The charter should provide for the organization of the library board by the election of a president and vice-president, with the city treasurer as the ex-officio treasurer of the board and the city comptroller as the auditor of the board's accounts. It should also provide for a secretary or clerk, who should be an employee of the board rather than a member of the board, and it is highly desirable that this officer should be the librarian. In any case his powers should not conflict with those of the librarian.

The charter should give the library board full power to hold trust funds which may be placed in its hands, to administer the same, and to accept and to hold gifts of real and personal property for the general purposes for which the board was created. The charter should provide, if the state law does not do so, that the library should not receive less than a minimum fund for its maintenance, based on the assessed valuation of the city. It ought never to be possible for a council so to cut a library's budget that it is necessary to close branch libraries or abandon established work for a year or more, thereby cutting off for the time being all normal growth and sometimes crippling the library so that it takes years to recover. This has happened in more than one American city. The whole idea of a minimum tax for the maintenance of a library is in line with the thought expressed in many of our state constitutions: namely, that the educational interests of the community are paramount.

The library board should have full legal rights for defense in the courts, etc. The charter should provide that the chief law officer of the city should be its legal representative.

The library board should be given the power to render library service by contract to communities outside of the city limits, such as towns, townships, or counties. In short, it should be given liberal powers for extending its usefulness into similar or related unoccupied fields.

The library board should be given absolute power and responsibility over its employees, their appointment, promotion, salaries, removal, etc., within the general limitations of the charter. It should provide that all employment should be given on the basis of merit alone, but that a civil service system should not be imposed upon it from the outside any more than a municipal civil service should be imposed upon a board of education in the employment of teachers in the public schools. Your committee has yet to learn of a single American city where a municipal civil service commission, which deals mainly with the employment of clerks in offices, policemen, firemen, etc., has been able satisfactorily to select or promote employees for educational work.

The library board should also have power to draft and enforce regulations governing the reasonable use of the library under the general limitations of the city charter or state law.

And, finally, the charter should provide that the library board should submit annually to the mayor or the legislative or tax levying body of the city a report of its receipts and expenditures together with a general account of its work and trusts.

As stated above, your committee offers all of this to serve as a basis for discussion if it is desired that a model library section for a charter should be drafted.

All of which is,

Respectfully submitted,


The Committee on ventilation and lighting of library buildings, Samuel H. Ranck,[Pg 200] chairman, made a verbal report of progress, stating that a lengthy written report covering the investigations and results of correspondence had been prepared. The Committee stated that certain commercial companies proposed to make experiments along the lines of the Committee's investigation and it was taken by consent that the Council express its gratification that these experiments are to be undertaken by the respective companies and that the results will be watched with interest. On motion of Dr. Steiner it was voted that the report be accepted as a report of progress and Committee continued.

Mr. Charles S. Greene informed Council that the California library association had unanimously passed a resolution to invite the A. L. A. to meet in California in 1915. The statement was received as information and ordered transmitted to the Executive board.

Adjourned, subject to call of the chair.

The PRESIDENT: You have heard the reports. If there is no objection they will be received, but there are certain recommendations incorporated in them that need action. Will the secretary please read once more the recommendations from the report of the Executive board?

The secretary read again the proposed amendment to Section 14 of the Constitution.

The PRESIDENT: What is your pleasure? It should be remembered that this amendment to the Constitution will require an affirmative vote for two successive sessions of the association.

On motion of Mr. Samuel H. Ranck, duly seconded, the amendment received an affirmative vote.

The secretary read again the proposed Section 11 of the By-laws, recommended by the Council, and on motion of Dr. Bostwick, seconded by Dr. Andrews, this amendment to the By-laws was adopted.

The secretary here read again the resolution incorporated in the report of the Committee on government of American libraries and their relation to the municipal authorities.

Dr. BOSTWICK: Madam President, in moving the adoption of this resolution, I would suggest that opportunity be given for its discussion by the association.

Mr. RANCK: I second the motion for the adoption of that resolution, Madam President.

The resolution was adopted.

The PRESIDENT: Here is a matter of news from the outside world. The bulletins have announced that Governor Woodrow Wilson has been nominated on the forty-sixth ballot by acclamation. I think this is the first time that a woman ever made that kind of an announcement.

There is a matter of business from the Public documents committee, on which we should like to hear from Mr. Godard.

Mr. GODARD: This resolution which comes from the Committee on public documents, comes before you in a little irregular manner, because the government documents round table was not held until yesterday afternoon, and there has been no meeting of the Council since, and will not be to the end of the conference; but the purpose of the resolution is simply to convey to the Congressional committee on printing, at Washington, the thanks of this association for the efforts that committee has made to embody in the bill which has been passed by the Senate the several recommendations made from time to time during the seven years' existence of the committee, relating to the printing, binding and distribution of documents. The bill as a whole has met with the approval of the various librarians, as manifested at the government documents round table yesterday afternoon. While some minor suggestions were made, it was thought best that these suggestions should go to the committee in the form of suggestions rather than be embodied in the resolutions.

If in order, I should be pleased to read the resolutions.

WHEREAS the Congressional Committee on printing, appointed under an Act passed March 3, 1905, has after seven years of investigations and hearings, formulated and presented to Congress a new bill relating to public printing, binding[Pg 201] and distribution of government publications, which embodies so many of the suggestions and recommendations upon these subjects, made from time to time by this association and its several committees,

RESOLVED, that we, the members of the American Library Association, assembled at our Thirty-fourth Annual Conference at Ottawa, Canada, June 26th to July 2nd, 1912, express our appreciation to the Senate and House Committees on Printing, and to the Superintendent of Documents, for the uniform courtesy and careful consideration extended, and the hope that the Bill (S 4339) may be enacted into law substantially as passed by the Senate.

The PRESIDENT: You have heard the resolution as presented from the public documents committee. What is your pleasure?

Dr. ANDREWS: I hope the association will by three-fourths vote approve this resolution. I can testify that Mr. Godard did not understate the approval which the draft of the bill met with at the government documents round table.

The resolution was adopted unanimously.

The PRESIDENT: The next business in order is the report of the Resolutions committee, of which Dr. Thwaites is chairman. I want to say just one word before those formal resolutions are read, to express my own personal appreciation of the efforts of our Canadian hosts. It seems to me that in their welcome to us, in their kindly courtesy, in every attitude which they have taken toward us, they have made an atmosphere of good cheer and hospitality in which all our business has been done; it has been an atmosphere of the greatest acceptance and delight, and has been like the sunshine out of doors. We will hear the report of the Resolutions committee.

Dr. Thwaites, chairman of the committee, read the following report:


Your committee beg leave to recommend the adoption of the following minute, to be spread upon the records of the conference, and that copies thereof be forwarded by the secretary to the several bodies and persons mentioned therein.

In its membership and its sympathies, the American Library Association is broadly American. It aims to secure among the librarians of the continent that practical reciprocity in ideals and interests that should everywhere prevail among those engaged in undertakings for the moral and intellectual betterment of humanity.

The association is deeply gratified in being able to hold its 34th annual conference within the Dominion of Canada, whose representatives have for many years prominently participated in the management and deliberations of the association. Since its meeting in Montreal, twelve years ago, the membership of the association has increased from nine hundred to twenty-three hundred. Toward this expansion (itself a visible sign of that quickening of popular concern in educational affairs which has been so marked a feature of the past decade), Canada has contributed a goodly share. It is hoped and believed by the association that this conference will still further inspire and strengthen those public-spirited men and women, who, in various capacities, are conducting the public and institutional libraries of the Dominion.

Of the fine temper and professional zeal of its Canadian membership, the association has had frequent evidence; but the experiences of the past eight days have brought to the members from the United States a new, although by no means unexpected, sense of the abundant hospitality of their Canadian colleagues. Any vote of thanks that may be adopted by this association, can seem to the visitors south of the international boundary, but cold recognition of the warm sincerity of their greeting in the capital of the great Dominion. It is hoped, however, that between the lines of this fraternal salutation from the men and women of the south, their confreres of the north may read such sympathy and love as words cannot convey.

[Pg 202]

The association begs to place on record its heartfelt thanks to all of those many Canadians who, in whatever measure, have contributed towards the success of this delightful meeting and to the entertainment of its participants. But to the following men and women who, either officially or personally, have been intimately concerned in preparations for and in the management of the many charming hospitalities that have made this conference so notable in the history of American librarianship, the association unanimously expresses its especial appreciation.

At Toronto, entertaining the western delegation: The Government of the province of Ontario, represented by Sir James Whitney, premier, the Hon. R. A. Pyne, minister of education, and Mr. Walter R. Nursey, inspector of public libraries; Professor Needler, librarian of the University of Toronto, and Professor Lang, librarian of Victoria college; the Ontario Library Association and its officers: the members of the Toronto public library board, and their chief librarian, Dr. George H. Locke.

At Ottawa, the Government of the Dominion, represented by the Hon. George H. Perley, acting premier, and the Hon. Martin Burrell, minister of agriculture; His Worship the Mayor of the Corporation of the City of Ottawa; the local Committee of Ottawa, the chairman of which, Dr. Otto Klotz, was represented by Dr. James W. Robertson, C. M. G.; particularly Mr. Lawrence J. Burpee and Mr. D. P. Cruikshank, together with the lady members of the committee; the Ottawa public library board represented by Alderman Ainslie W. Greene, chairman; the Canadian Club of Ottawa; the Women's Canadian Club of Ottawa; the Ottawa Electric Railway represented by its president, Mr. Thomas Ahearn; Mr. John F. Watson of the Dominion Central Experimental Farm; United States Consul-General and Mrs. J. G. Foster; Manager F. W. Bergman of the Chateau Laurier; and Manager Mulligan of the New Russell.

In addition to its acknowledgment of the foregoing the association wishes to express most sincere appreciation of the cordial message which it received from the Governor-General, H. R. H. the Duke of Connaught, who unfortunately was detained at Montreal because of the illness of H. R. H. the Duchess, whose subsequent recovery is a source of international gratification; of the great kindness of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, in consenting to address the conference upon Dominion day; of the excellent addresses by Dr. George E. Vincent, president of the University of Minnesota and by Professor John Macnaughton, of McGill university; and of the admirable arrangements for the post-conference tour made by one of the ex-presidents of the association, Professor Charles H. Gould, librarian of McGill university, Montreal.


Committee on Resolutions.

The PRESIDENT: You have heard the report of the Resolutions committee. Let us pass it by a rising vote.

The resolutions were adopted unanimously, by a rising vote.

Dr. THWAITES: I have another resolution, Madam President, to offer from the committee,—a resolution, not a minute:

RESOLVED, that the American Library Association, as an international organization, has viewed with profound satisfaction the project for the establishment of a National Library in and for the Dominion of Canada, and takes pleasure in joining the Royal society, the Ontario library association, and other learned societies in Canada, in respectfully urging upon the government of the Dominion the vital importance of such an institution in the fostering and conservation of the intellectual resources and national spirit of Canada; and further, in urging upon the government the desirability of effecting such establishment at the earliest possible moment.

The resolution was adopted unanimously.

The PRESIDENT: We have one more resolution, which is a tribute of love and respect that we shall pay with all our hearts. Dr. Andrews will report for the[Pg 203] special committee appointed to draft a suitable memorial concerning our late friend Frederick M. Crunden.

Dr. ANDREWS: First let me express my regret that Mr. Henry M. Utley, chairman of the committee appointed by the board to draw up this memorial, is not present in person; secondly, to state for the committee that we have departed from the usual custom of offering a resolution, and have placed before you a brief statement of Mr. Crunden's life and character, which we hope will convey to those who have come into the association since the time when he had to give up active connection with it, a record of his services.


Frederick Morgan Crunden was born at Gravesend, England, September 1, 1847, the son of Benjamin Robert and Mary (Morgan) Crunden. Coming to St. Louis while a child, he was educated in the public schools of that city and graduated from its high school in 1865, with a scholarship in Washington university. In the latter institution he took a course in the arts and sciences, graduating in 1868 with the degree of bachelor of arts. Teaching in the public schools of St. Louis before graduation, and later in the college faculty of the same university, he received the degree of master of arts in 1872.

His marriage to Miss Kate Edmondson was in 1889. During his college course Mr. Crunden took a vital interest in library work, and in January, 1877, he became secretary and librarian of the St. Louis public (then public school) library, continuing as such until 1909.

Equally identified with many other societies, local and national, he had been a contributor to leading magazines upon educational and sociological subjects, and had attained international fame before he was stricken in 1906 with the malady which resulted in his death October 28, 1911.

Mr. Crunden's public services were by no means confined to the distinctively library interests of his community and the country. He was particularly interested in the mutual relations of schools and libraries, developing them in St. Louis in a manner which served as a model for others, and contributing largely to the evolution of the present official relations of the National Education Association and the American Library Association.

In his public writing he has expressed most clearly and happily the fundamental principles of these relations, and it is a great pleasure to his friends, as it was to him in the last days of his life, to know that his statement of the value of recorded thought has been carved in granite on the walls of his cherished institution. Nevertheless it was to library work that the greater part of his time and thought was given, and it is the success of his work as a constructive librarian that naturally we most fully recognize. He combined high executive ability with a comprehensive knowledge of the contents of the collections under his charge. He had that sense of the real librarian, which has been said to be "an intensive perception of the needs of the present, and a prophetic insight into the needs of the future."

He worked zealously and unceasingly, first for the broadening of the work of the St. Louis public schools library, then for its conversion into a free public library, and finally for its development into a strong institution ranking among the great libraries of the land. It is pleasant to know that even in the last years he was able at times to follow its course along the lines forecast by him, and that he could realize the high appreciation of his services so generally felt by his fellow citizens.

Almost in the beginning of his library career, he began also his services to the American Library Association, which were secondary only to the work he did for St. Louis.

He attended first the Boston conference of 1879, and rarely after that did he miss a meeting. Elected councillor in 1882, he served the association almost continuously until his illness. He was vice-president[Pg 204] in 1887-88, and under his presidency the Fabyans conference of 1890 took rank as the largest and one of the most successful meetings held up to that time. When the association met at St. Louis, in 1889, and again in 1904, he was a most thoughtful host, whose care for our welfare contributed largely to the success of those meetings. He served also as one of the vice-presidents of the Chicago conference in 1893, and as vice-president of the international library conference at London in 1897, and was one of the chief spokesmen of the association party. This list of offices by no means measures the debt of the association to him. The much longer list of committees on which he served would indicate better the character and breadth of his work, but even this would leave unexpressed the professional knowledge and the personal pleasure gained from his companionship by the individual members.

This sense of personal loss must be felt by all who met him in the other library circles in which he was interested, especially the Missouri state library association, of which he was the first president, and the New York state library association, whose annual meetings he so often attended.

No member of the A. L. A. of his day had a wider and closer personal acquaintance among the membership than Mr. Crunden. He had a spirit of friendliness and human sympathy which prompted him to take hold upon the hearts of those with whom he was brought into contact in his profession. He had no ambition which inclined him to self-seeking, but was always quick to recognize the merits of others and to give acknowledgment freely and heartily. He was naturally of a modest and retiring disposition, but wholly without self-consciousness or reserve. He looked upon every question with frankness, unbiased by any consideration outside of its true merits as approved by his mature judgment. He held his views firmly, but he never undertook to force them upon others. His many fine qualities of mind and heart are a source of joy to all who recall the memory of him as he was in the midst of his long and brilliant career. His more intimate friends recall with wonder the patience with which he bore the strain of the years of ill health which preceded the final breakdown, and remember with gratitude his gracious hospitality.

The PRESIDENT: What is your pleasure, Ladies and Gentlemen?

Dr. BOSTWICK: I move that this memorial be spread upon the minutes of the association, that it be printed in the proceedings of this conference, and that copies of it be sent to Mrs. Crunden and to Mr. Frederick M. Crunden's brother, Mr. F. P. Crunden of St Louis.

The motion was unanimously adopted.

The PRESIDENT: The chair would like the support of the first vice-president on the platform, and in the meantime, while he comes forward, after the report of the tellers of the association, we have one additional treat which when the time comes I shall ask Mr. Burpee to announce. The report of the tellers of election is in order, which will be read by the secretary.

The SECRETARY: The report of the tellers states that you have elected the following officers:


No. of Votes
For President
Henry E. Legler, Librarian, Chicago Public Library 151
For First Vice-President
E. H. Anderson, Assistant Librarian, New York Public Library 143
For Second Vice-President
Mary F. Isom, Librarian, Portland (Ore.) Library Association 145
For Members of Executive Board (for three years)
H. C. Wellman, Librarian, Springfield City Library Association 145
T. W. Koch, Librarian, University of Michigan 148
For Members of the Council (for five years)
F. K. Walter, Vice-Director, New York State Library[Pg 205] 145
Margaret Mann, Chief Cataloger, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh 144
W. W. Bishop, Supt. of Reading Room, Library of Congress 147
E. R. Perry, Librarian, Los Angeles Public Library 141
Caroline Burnite, Director of Children's Work, Cleveland Public Library 146
For Trustee of Endowment Fund (for three years)
W. C. Kimball, Chairman, New Jersey Public Library Commission, Trenton, N. J. 146


Tellers of Election.

The PRESIDENT: I have had this beautiful gavel but a very little while, but it nevertheless gives me great pleasure to transfer it. Do you remember that Miss Kelso said that we should be able to produce evidence in the way of results for the value of our work? I am going to make a very distinguished, a very large claim: I think you owe the presence of the president-elect not here only but in the profession to the interest which was originally aroused in his mind in the Milwaukee public library.

Mr. Legler, I have great pleasure in presenting the gavel for the meeting of 1913 to you as president-elect and in asking you to take charge for the remainder of this meeting.

The PRESIDENT-ELECT: Madam President, Members of the American Library Association,—For the personal good-will which you have expressed, I give to you my thanks. In so far as your action attests confidence, it must be received as a call to service, and—if I may be so presumptuous as to represent in what I say those who have been grouped by you for the ensuing year into one official family—in that spirit we receive this gavel, not as a symbol of authority but of service. Without venturing upon the uncharted sea of prophecy, we shall endeavor to interpret in terms of action those mental images which have been crystallized for us by the strong, virile papers, fortified by the abounding interest and the contagious enthusiasm of all participants in this conference. The modern library movement, recent as has been its inception, has progressed through two strongly marked stages, and is entering upon a third. The first era was that of pioneering, the sowing of seed. The second may perhaps be termed the era of experimentation, out of which grew a few mistakes and some splendid results. But we have entered upon a third era, the period of constructive work, of careful patient planning, of building enduringly. If a year hence, when we yield into other hands the high commission which you have entrusted to us, we shall be able to say that some advancement has been made, we shall be proud and happy; and we hope that your work, which, of course, must be our work, will yield some realization of our high hopes and aims and aspirations.

What is the pleasure of this conference?

I am advised that Mr. Burpee has another pleasure in store for us, and we shall be glad to hear from him.

Mr. BURPEE: Mr. President and friends of the American Library Association: On behalf of the local committee I have asked our friend Mrs. Herbert Ault, of Ottawa, to try to express to you our feelings in bidding you farewell. Mrs. Ault will sing the old Scotch song, that you all know so well, "Will ye no come back again."

After the singing of this fine old song, Mrs. Ault led the audience in the singing of "Auld Lang Syne," whereupon the president-elect declared the Thirty-fourth Annual Conference of the American Library Association adjourned.


Throughout the eight days which we officially spent within the confines of the Dominion, cordial appreciation of our presence was constantly in evidence.[Pg 206] Twelve years had passed since a gathering of the association had been held among our hospitable co-laborers north of the international boundary; I think we all were convinced that in so long delaying our second visit, we of "the states" had been the losers. No doubt there will hereafter be a greater frequency of Canadian meetings.

The western delegation was the first to experience the sincere and unaffected warmth of Canada's greeting. Ontario's capital and metropolis was reached by the Chicago special at noon of Tuesday, June 25. The Toronto committee of arrangements was composed not only of librarians, but representatives of the provincial government, prominent educators, and professional and business men and women. Their program of entertainment had included a morning automobile ride through the many parks and charming residence quarters of the city; but the ride was abandoned, for the hour at which the guests were tardily delivered to them by the railway managers spelled luncheon, a British institution that brooks no delay.

The scene of the spread was the attractive refectory of Victoria College, one of the considerable group of educational institutions comprising Toronto University. The customary welcome was voiced by Sir James Whitney, premier of the province, the Hon. R. A. Pyne, provincial minister of education, and Dr. George H. Locke, chief librarian of the Toronto public library. Each of these local speakers expressed the hope that the Association might at some early date honor Toronto with one of its annual conferences. Dr. Andrews of John Crerar gracefully responded for the visitors.

Luncheon over, the spacious and well-equipped buildings of the university were visited and admired, and in due time afternoon tea was charmingly served on the smooth-shaven lawn of one of the delightful quads. Dinner followed not long after, in the beautiful new public library building, so admirably administered by Dr. Locke, to whose kindly activity we owed a large share of the day's greetings; and here the guests tarried and rested amid familiar surroundings until the departure of their train for Ottawa, close upon ten o'clock.

Arriving at Ottawa towards noon of Wednesday, the westerners soon were commingling with their fellows from other parts of the Union and Canada, forgetful of geographical sections and national boundary lines. Before nightfall, all of us realized that we simply were members of a household of co-workers gathered under the family roof-tree of the citizens of Ottawa and the members of the government of the great Dominion. A peculiarity of Canada's hospitality, as we experienced it, was that the government itself, both in Toronto and in Ottawa, was quite as active and as informally cordial in arranging for our entertainment, as were individual or associated bodies of its citizens.

Fortunately our week included both Sunday and Dominion Day. The morning of the former was largely devoted to visits to the many large and sumptuous churches. Especially favored were those who witnessed the fine ante-pilgrimage parade of those French Catholic societies that have for their name-giver St. Jean Baptiste, the patron saint of all French Canadians. The afternoon was spent in driving or trolleying to the numerous parks and several interesting suburbs, and in taking the many walks wherein the stately panoramic view of three commingling rivers (Ottawa, Rideau, and Chaudière) caused us all to envy the lot of those who dwell with this array of mountains and waterfalls at their very doors.

The patriotic exercises of Dominion Day (July 1) reminded us strongly of the historical origin of modern Canada, which owes a large share of her prosperity to the grit and enterprise of the Loyalist pioneers. Driven forth from the American colonies because they failed to sympathize with the movement whose culmination we observe with such enthusiasm, three days later each July, they[Pg 207] carried to the wilds of the north those same sturdy Anglo-Saxon qualities of mind and heart and brawn that have erected and maintained the American Union. That Canada had at last become a powerful, self-conscious, and justly-proud nation, only sentimentally linked with the parent isle and her sister dominions over seas, was a fact borne home to the visitors, with a forcefulness novel to many of them. It is not likely that any American librarian present at the Russell Theatre during Dominion Day, will again flippantly discuss the possibility of our annexation of Canada—the day for that sort of talk has passed, and happily for both sides of the border.

Of course Sir Wilfrid Laurier, no longer premier, but now "leader of His Majesty's Opposition" in Canada, was the chief attraction in the day's program. Foremost of French Canadians, one of the most accomplished of orators, and in every way a world character, Sir Wilfrid's appearance attracted a crowded house; and his graceful speech and charming manner, so characteristic of his race, deserved such recognition. But some other features of the program were no less entertaining in their way—the vigorous, thoughtful, but strictly practical views of Dr. Robertson, as he graphically described Canada's almost boundless resources, and with large vision outlined his plans for their conservation; and the equally clear and insistent, yet delicately humorous, protest of Professor Macnaughton, against such materialistic tendencies of modern education as had been expressed by his friend and predecessor. The day was admirably closed by President Vincent of Minnesota, whose marshalling of the possibilities of librarianship in the furnishing of mental pictures for the entertainment and instruction of humanity, resembled the falls of Chaudière in sparkle and velocity.

Not content with representation on the program and in honorary seats on the platform, the government of the Dominion took a considerable hand in the social activities of the week. Among the attractions of Ottawa is the central experimental farm of Canada, with its broad, well-kept acres, in which the astronomical observatory is in close touch with the silos, and pastures and barns are attractive features of the landscape gardening, and up-to-date poultry-runs are charmingly mingled with evidences of floral and horticultural experimentation. In this interesting environment, a garden party was given under the auspices of the minister of agriculture, the Hon. Martin Burrell, ably seconded by Mr. John F. Watson of the farm staff. There were tents and lawn chairs, a very British-looking band, military-like policemen as ushers, brilliantly-green foliage, and the socially élite of Ottawa acted as cicerones to the varied activities of farm and observatory. Thus the librarians (who had autoed to the scene, through miles of drives along the park-like banks of the Rideau Canal) were made paradoxically to feel not only at home, but quite as though the scene of their entertainment were four thousand miles eastward, in the motherland itself. Another governmental activity, especially attractive to the young folk of the conference (there are, however, no old librarians), was an informal ball in the parliament building itself. Because of these things, the bibliographical fraternity from the states almost unanimously came to the conclusion that thenceforth they would, in all courtesy, forget all about the recent unpleasantness over reciprocity, and be stout supporters of the present Dominion government. A division on the question, at the close of the conference would, I fancy, have revealed few members of the A. L. A. in the opposition lobby.

The representatives of our own government were not to be outdone in these matters. Consul-General and Mrs. J. G. Foster were informally "at home" on Sunday afternoon. Scores of American librarians, especially those concerned officially in the association's affairs, were much pleased for a short hour to be entertained as guests on what constructively is American soil.

[Pg 208]

But while official "functions" necessarily stood out with prominence, there was ever on the tapis a succession of unofficial attentions to the visiting throng. Dr. Robertson was the life of the enterprising local committee. Around this body clustered several effective agencies of welcome and entertainment—his worship the mayor (every Canadian mayor is "his worship," but this title of genuine respect would be a serious misfit in some of our cities south of the boundary), the public library board, the local Canadian Club, and the Woman's Canadian Club, all were actively and omnipresently enlisted in our behalf. And wonder of wonders! our little identification button meant free trolley rides within the corporation limits—a much-appreciated premium for wearing the badge. In short, every door was open to us; at every turn, right glad we were made to feel that we had come to Ottawa.

Curiously enough to those of us who think of the A. L. A. in the oft-quoted classification of the hotel agency, as an institution "mostly women," the Ottawa newspapers appeared never to recover from their astonishment in this regard. The preponderating numbers of "lady librarians" was the cause for daily editorial comment. But it was noticeable that the head-lines persistently referred to the event as "Library men in council"—painful evidence of the fact that the prevalent American evil of head-line inaccuracy has at last spread to the northland.

The practice of holding state, library school, and library staff dinners in the course of the conference, is increasing. These gatherings form an interesting and welcome feature of our social activities during conference week. At Ottawa they were more numerous and noticeable than heretofore, and gave rise to much good-natured rivalry as to enthusiasm, numbers, and table decorations. It is evident that the library schools are gathering traditions with age; and their alumni associations are growing in pardonable self-consciousness. A new feature was the exchange of rival "yells." One director was heard to express her intention of offering prizes in the next school year, for appropriate class songs and collegiate battle-cries, that her school might not be outdone in this respect by the vociferous young women of Pratt and Wisconsin. One heard more or less at Ottawa, of "the girls of our class," "dear old Pratt," "the way we do it at Albany," the "traditions of Wisconsin" (five years old!), and the like. It is thus that the profession is looking up.

Socially, the Canadian conference was eminently successful, both at Toronto and Ottawa. This feature was, in its way, quite as good as the literary program itself, and that is saying much. As for Madame President, she sweetly and dignifiedly looked and acted her part, socially as well as behind the gavel, and the Dominion folk fairly worshipped her. I fancy, when all is said, that that perhaps is a good share of the secret of our undoubted success in Canada.



A most cordial invitation from the Toronto public library, through the librarian, Dr. Locke, had been received for a day's visit in that city en route to the A. L. A. meeting at Ottawa, and the party which assembled at Chicago to take the special train looked forward with great expectation. Needless to say these expectations were fully met. As this was the first hospitality offered, the zest for enjoyment was at full height when the party from the middle-west reached Toronto, Tuesday morning, June 25. Most of the company had left their various posts of duty only the day before and were ready to enter a new land with a joyful spirit.

The special train was nearly two hours late in arriving at Toronto and thereby lost to the visitors the pleasure of an automobile ride which had been arranged by the City Council. Still, as no one had anticipated it, the pleasant street car ride, which took its place, was a welcome[Pg 209] change from the confines of the sleeping car. The ride around the business part of the city on the special cars ended at Victoria college. A local committee consisting of Dr. A. H. U. Colquhoun, Deputy Minister of Education, Prof. A. E. Lang, librarian of Victoria college, Prof. G. H. Needler, librarian of University of Toronto, with Dr. G. H. Locke as chairman, received the party at Victoria college, where a luncheon was served to 175 persons, the hosts of the occasion being the Education Department of the Province of Ontario and the Senate and Board of Governors of the Victoria college. The Hon. Dr. Pyne, minister of education, presided over the occasion and speeches were made on behalf of Victoria college by Hon. Justice MacLaren, on behalf of the Government by Chairman Dr. Locke and on behalf of the University by Prof. Alfred Baker. Each in turn expressed the appreciation of the ideas cherished by the A. L. A. and were most cordial in invitation to the association to hold a future meeting in Toronto. Response for the visitors was made by Dr. C. W. Andrews of the John Crerar library, Chicago, who complimented Ontario on the progress which had been made in library development and particularly the city of Toronto in its new work under the new librarian, Dr. Locke, whom Dr. Andrews claimed as a Chicagoan in view of the fact that he had been so valued a part of the faculty of the University of Chicago, at one time, for six years.

After the luncheon the new library at Victoria college was thrown open for inspection. Prof. Lang and his assistants were most courteous in showing the visitors through and displayed for their inspection some of the rare volumes and manuscripts, especially specimens of ancient papyri which are unique.

Later the Premier of the Province of Ontario, Sir James P. Whitney, received the librarians in the legislative chambers, Parliament Buildings, and made an address of welcome. From the Parliament Buildings the librarians visited the library of the University of Toronto, which they found exceedingly interesting, and well up to date. Regret was felt by many at the absence of Mr. Langton of the library, who was in Europe in search of health. A most delightful occasion was the garden party in the university quadrangle tendered by the Board of Governors of the university. The ivy covered walls, the greensward, the perfect day, delightful company and the most cordial hospitality accompanying the refreshments left an impression of the greatest pleasure on all who were present. The large number of Toronto citizens who were present, the faculty with the members of their families, were most courteous in making the occasion one of great delight.

At six o'clock dinner was served by the public library Board in the art room of the reference library building. There were 229 at the dinner which deserved far greater consumption than the hospitality of the day had left room for, but "the feast of reason and the flow of soul" were much in evidence. The chairman of the occasion was the President of the public library Board, Mr. Turnbull. A most hearty address of welcome was made by Chief Librarian Locke and was responded to in kind by Mr. Legler of the Chicago public library. After dinner the building was thrown open for inspection and the visitors enjoyed greatly seeing the magnificent reading room as well as the other departments of the library. Of special interest was the J. Ross Robertson historical collection of 1,000 Canadian pictures, representing various phases of Canadian life from the earliest period.

It was a happy, if tired party that left on the special train at 10 p. m. for Ottawa with most grateful memories of cordial hospitality and pleasant company in the day spent in Toronto.



One's capacity for receiving bounteous acts of hospitality may be never so unconfined; one's pleasure in accepting[Pg 210] them may be never so untrammelled by thoughts of unworthiness or of the hopelessness of ever making an adequate return for all this charming thoughtfulness and lavish entertainment; yet there comes a time when one's vocabulary of appreciative acknowledgments merely and abjectly fails from overwork, and collapses with nothing more articulate than a gasp left to signify an impotent desire to do justice to the occasion. With many of the librarians this unhappy condition became acute in the course of the day at Montreal. Leaving Ottawa on Wednesday morning, July 3rd, by special train, a goodly company—comprising the Post-Conference party, reenforced by numerous "trippers" whose return passage made Montreal the point of departure—was received, on arriving at the latter city, by a local committee, headed by the librarian of McGill University, and was promptly transferred to a long line of comfortable vehicles which were soon moving up town through the broad streets and past the stately buildings of Canada's largest city. To the traveller from the western plains the upward direction of the journey was especially noticeable and much sympathy and some solicitude was expressed for the stocky horses in their long pull through the warmth of the midday sun. But they plodded sturdily on, conscious of the pitiless grade of those rock-ribbed streets only as part of the day's work. And soon they came to the shady drives and beautiful banks of Mount Royal Park and so onward and upward to the summit, whence the unparalleled outlook over the city, the majestic St. Lawrence and the country beyond unrolled before the admiring eyes of the visitors. After an all too brief enjoyment of this superb spectacle, the party re-entered the waiting carriages and was quickly conveyed down hill and deposited on the beautiful campus of McGill University, where, to the accompaniment of noonday whistles and bells, luncheon was served under the trees. These Canadian garden affairs, how they impress the visitors from over the line! The dignified beauty of the setting rendered complete by the invariably benevolent co-operation of the weather; the profusion and variety of appetizing and daintily served viands, and the unobtrusive yet efficient service—truly the stoutest jingo was led to exclaim with unfeigned heartiness: "They do these things so much better in Canada!" After luncheon a brief inspection was made of several of the college buildings, notably of the charming library, with its delightful reading room, which was visited by some in order to study its architecture or its administration, but by many more for the purpose of paying their respects to the official home of the librarian of the University, their cordial host and the ubiquitous chairman of the committee to whom the entertainment at Montreal was due. Mr. Gould won the hearts of his guests completely and earned their lasting gratitude and perpetual wonderment, the former through the generous hospitality he provided for them; the latter through the calm, simple, self-effacing yet all pervading way in which he dominated the situation and acquitted himself of his arduous task. And still there was more to come, for on reassembling on the lawn the visitors found a long and inviting line of motor cars in waiting, and in these a tour of the city was made, ending at the pretty new public library in the suburb of Westmount, where they met with a pleasant welcome by Miss Saxe, the librarian, and—with more refreshments! From here the guests dispersed and made their way back to town in small groups at their own convenience. An invitation from the White Star Line to join in the festivities on the new steamship Megantic to mark its impending maiden voyage, attracted some of the librarians during the evening. The Post-Conference party reassembled on board the steamer Saguenay and left for its pleasure trip at nine o'clock, while the others went each his own way, some homeward, some by circuitous routes prolonging their holiday, but all with regret that the delightful Canadian days had come to an end, and[Pg 211] with deep gratitude and appreciation of the cordial hospitality and gracious good-fellowship of their Canadian brethren and indefatigable hosts.



"Done with indoor complaints, libraries, querulous criticism,
Strong and content, I travel the open road."

So the librarians assembled aboard the "Saguenay." The day in Montreal had been a full and pleasant one and its evening found the post-conference party tired but tranquilly expectant of the joys the boat's departure was to bring. To this some excitement was lent by the dash on board, just as the gangplank was going in, of the New Jersey Library Commission contingent who had lingered too long at the reception tendered the A. L. A. on the White Star liner "Megantic." Many friendly farewells were waved by the A. L. A. members whose official travels ended at Montreal. As the boat started for Quebec, deck chairs were soon filled by those who wished to watch the noble sweep of the river and the graceful skyline of the city with its myriads of lights.

During the short stop at Quebec the next morning only a few strenuous ones ventured ashore. The majority were content with the splendid view of the city with its frowning precipice crowned by the Citadel and the graceful pile of the Chateau Frontenac, below which were spread the picturesque roofs of the Lower Town. It was the Fourth of July and after the flags flourished by the patriotic members of the party had been duly saluted, everyone settled down to the calm enjoyment of a safe and sane fourth. The boat glided past the falls of Montmorency, the lovely Isle of Orleans, the wooded shores of the river where in one place forest fires raged, showing a thin tongue of flame under a hovering cloud of smoke, and on from the stately grandeur of the St. Lawrence to the wild beauty of the Saguenay. It was here that the real business of travel began. Baedekers made their unblushing appearance, most of them bearing on their backs the mystic symbols 917.1. The maps and guidebooks provided by the company were studied while the really "litry" were turning the pages of "A chance acquaintance" or "The golden dog."

At half past six, a landing was made at L'Anse St. Jean but word was given that the real village was some distance beyond, a nice walk—from British standards! A gay start was made but the muddiness of the road and the "recedingness" of the village combined with the ravages of the black fly, which Van Dyke has truly said is "at the bottom of the moral scale of insects," caused even the most valiant to turn back. There were a few who with true Yankee enterprise chartered the only vehicles in sight and came back with glowing tales of the quaintness and charm of the village, but for the majority, it must remain the fair Carcassonne of dreams.

The great Capes of Trinity and Eternity, towering up through the gloom, were passed after nightfall. A searchlight thrown on them from the boat brought out their craggy inaccessibility and made weirdly impressive the statue of the Virgin on one of the terraces of Trinity. At Ha Ha Bay few were up in time for exploring but the view of the charming Bay was to be had from the deck or even from conveniently located staterooms. It had been suggested that here opportunity would be given anglers to make the acquaintance of the "unsophisticated fish" of the region, but if any wonderful catches were made, no stories of them floated to the ears of the feminine contingent. Turning back from here the boat passed through the most striking part of the journey, stopping for some time around the capes of Trinity and Eternity. To attempt to describe the scenic beauties of the trip would be to attempt what was admirably done by the chronicler of the post conference of 1900 (see Proceedings A. L. A. 1900, pp. 174-182.) The pleasing pastime of trying to hit the sides of the capes with rocks thrown from the boat was indulged in by a few of the passengers. Howells tells us that his uninspired hero actually did it. And that was forty years ago![Pg 212] The origin of this custom might be an interesting question for a class in library economy to investigate.

The hours spent at Tadousac will be pleasantly enshrined in the book of memory. The air was fresh and cool and many came and went visiting the salmon hatcheries, and the ancient chapel, strolling through the picturesque streets where they were met with kindly hospitality by the habitants, or driving through the balsam scented woods.

Leaving these pleasant shores, a few hours brought the boat to Murray Bay, where the night was spent. Every one started out for a walk in the morning, but the road led past the shops dealing in homespun, and there was a general halt. These characteristic raids sometimes cause one to pause and wonder whether the greater pleasure of traveling comes from adding new and beautiful slides to our mental collection or new articles of vertu to our domestic equipment. Those who did get beyond the shops were rewarded by a walk through a straggling French village with quaint views and picturesque glimpses most enticing to the amateur photographer. A number also with true tourist thoroughness visited the former summer home of the President of the United States and even took snap-shots on his front steps.

All met for luncheon at the Manoir Richelieu, a meal well served and good. A round of applause was given Captain Koenig as he joined the party and another was given Mr. Gould, the perfect host, whose kindness and thoughtfulness will long be remembered by those whom he personally conducted.

After luncheon vehicles of all kinds, including that most fascinating of all, the calèche, waited to take the party to the Falls. The drive through a beautiful country with fields of clover and daisies and hedges of wild pink roses ended at a pulp mill, where the interesting process of converting the virgin forest into wood pulp was viewed. Beginning at the front door where the bales of pulp were taking their departure, the party went back step by step. To achieve the last a steep chute had to be ascended and the perils of descent seemed so great that nearly all preferred to go around and cross back by some stepping stones. The water was not deep but the stepping stones were small. There may have been other falls but if there were, no one seems to have seen them.

That night was a gay one on board the "Saguenay." It was the culmination of the delightful evenings spent around the piano with music, songs and story telling. At the command of Mr. Bowker who, with his charming wife, made admirable masters of ceremonies on these occasions, in accordance with the precedent set twelve years before by the A. L. A. post conference, all purchases of homespun, coverlets, rugs, and dress patterns were brought out and hung over the gallery rail for a loan exhibit. After they had been duly inspected a war dance was led by Miss Askew, the participants being each clad in his respective purchases. Stories, songs and charades followed and the evening ended in singing the following choice composition to the tune of the "Little Brown Jug."

The A. L. A.'s started one day,
To explore the Saguenay,
Young and old, gay and grim
Twenty-five hers to every him.
Ha Ha Bay, A. L. A.,
Sailing up the Saguenay,
Ha Ha Bay, A. L. A.,
Each from his own library!
Oh, Mr. Gould from Montreal,
Our genial host, beloved of all,
We'll rue the day when we must say
Farewell to you and Saguenay.

During the next two days in Quebec, librarians circulated themselves freely, the torrid heat seeming to cause no appreciable falling off. On Sunday morning various church services were attended, many going to the Basilica. Nearly every one found opportunity to visit the principal sights,—Dufferin Terrace, the Plains of Abraham (where early impressions gathered from school histories of the hazard of Wolfe's climb were somewhat modified), and the[Pg 213] lower town, and many, like true "debtors of their profession" visited the library of Laval University. Luncheon was enjoyed on both days at the Chateau Frontenac.

On Sunday afternoon, a much appreciated hospitality was extended the American Library Association by Mr. and Mrs. Henry Porteous, seigneurs of the Isle of Orleans, who entertained with a delightful garden party in their beautiful grounds and gardens. In the evening many found their way to Dufferin Terrace to listen to the music and watch Quebec promenade by.

Monday morning the party was received by Alderman Collier, in the absence of the Mayor, who extended a courteous welcome and after that a street car ride around the city was enjoyed by the party as guests of the City of Quebec.

In the afternoon a special train was chartered to take the party to the church of St. Anne de Beaupré. A courteous priest acted as guide and carefully explained all the wonders of this miraculous shrine. On the return trip the falls of Montmorency and Kent House were visited.

It was with great regret in spite of the heat, that farewell was said to this most picturesque of cities. Good-byes were said the next morning in Montreal and each went on his separate way with the feeling that the past week had been one of pleasure and rich experience long to be remembered.



The first meeting since organization was held on the evening of June 27. Mr. James I. Wyer, Jr., presided. In his opening remarks Mr. Wyer gave a brief account of the events leading up to the formation of the section. He also spoke of the various kinds of agricultural libraries and of their growth and influence.

An address of welcome was delivered by the Hon. Martin Burrell, Canadian minister of agriculture.

WM. M. HEPBURN, librarian of Purdue university presented a paper on


Extension work is now a name to conjure with. Its most popular aspects, the corn train, the wheat special, the farmers' short course, where a thousand or more men and women from the farms gather for a week's instruction, have all been exploited in the newspapers to such an extent that they are well known everywhere. The new methods of extension work were developed in the agricultural colleges or agricultural departments of universities. It seems now as though many of these methods were to be applied in other fields. The moving cause for all this activity is the desire to bring opportunities for education to every man, woman and child in the state who has sufficient energy and ambition to desire them. Along purely agricultural lines the extension work carried on by the State college of agriculture at Cornell, is typical. The December number of the "Announcer" outlining this work contained eight quarto pages giving information under twenty-five separate heads. The work carried on by a university as a whole is best illustrated by Wisconsin, whose university extension division has carried this work further than any other similar department. The phrase, "The university that goes to the people," applied to Wisconsin, and the slogan, "If you can't come to the college, the college will come to you," used by North Dakota agricultural college, illustrate the aims of the workers in this field.

Of course much of this extension work is altogether outside of the sphere of the library, but there are signs that the libraries of agricultural colleges, and of the land grant colleges especially are waking up to the fact that there are public needs[Pg 214] which they are best fitted to supply. The extension departments of the various colleges have found a number of problems confronting them in which they need the help of the college library, such for instance as matters relating to the use of books for special study, and the general problem of awakening in the farm community an interest in books and reading. I shall attempt briefly to characterize the various phases which this library extension work has taken, or may take, without more than passing reference to the work of specific institutions.

The first letter of enquiry sent by a farmer to his state college or experiment station, might be said to have originated the entire extension work, and the growth of correspondence between farmers and the college, with its professors and experts, indicates the nature of the demand on the part of the public, and the success of the work of the stations and colleges in arousing this interest. This correspondence forms and always will form a very important phase of university extension work. To get in touch with individuals, to have them take the trouble to write you concerning their needs is a sure indication of their interest. Just as the correspondence of the commercial house is systematized, and form letters used where possible, so the growth of this extension work has led to the publication of brief bulletins, or circulars in place of the elaborate and lengthy bulletins so often issued by the experiment stations on the same subjects.

One of the needs which was soon felt in correspondence was that for a brief list of books on agriculture, which could be sent in response to inquiries from individuals and libraries. This list is sometimes a simple mimeographed list, or a short printed list, or even a more elaborate bulletin, such as the Cornell publication, "What shall the farmer read" or the more recent one, "Reading in the farm home." There is real need for these lists, and every college library or extension department should have such a list available for distribution. There is room perhaps for some co-operation here in order to secure greater uniformity and the opinions of many who are in close touch with the needs of the farming community.

One of the outcomes of the extension work in agricultural colleges, was the forming of reading and study clubs and clubs for social and civic purposes, and the publishing of study outlines for reading courses, which might be taken up individually or by groups. In some cases all the reading necessary was included in the bulletins published, such as the Cornell reading courses. In others special books were assigned which could be purchased from the extension department, or borrowed from it. Thus began the lending of material from the college library or some department of the college, a practice which I believe is destined to grow to large proportions, especially when we secure parcels or book post. In several states this work is now well organized. The University of Wisconsin, the North Dakota agricultural college and perhaps others are prepared to send out what they call package libraries to individuals, clubs, societies or schools for a certain fixed period of time. These package libraries consist of pamphlets, speeches, newspaper clippings, articles clipped from magazines, bulletins issued by the university and other miscellaneous matter.

North Dakota gives a list of subjects on which they are prepared with package libraries in agriculture, biography, education, science, municipal affairs, etc. They will even lend typewritten copies of declamations, dialogues, orations and printed copies of amateur plays.

Wisconsin in addition to its package libraries issues bibliographical bulletins on subjects of general interest, as does the University of Texas. If these package libraries are made more elaborate including larger pamphlets and books, they can be dignified by the name of traveling libraries. So far as is known by the writer, this work is not carried on by the college library except in one instance, the library of[Pg 215] Massachusetts agricultural college, where Prof. Charles R. Green has this work in charge. In other colleges it is managed by the extension division or department with, however, the co-operation of the college library and other library interests, as in Wisconsin. It will readily be seen that this work duplicates to some extent, the work of the public library, or at least the work that the public library should be doing. It is evident too, that this work would have its best field in states where there were few public libraries in the smaller towns and villages.

The looking up of references on domestic science, the boy scouts, or the fireless cooker and other similar subjects is supposed to be the work of the public library. It may be that notwithstanding the emphasis placed by the public library on its reference work, and work with schools, the college by its extension service is going to enter this field and do at long range what the public library is not doing for its own local community. If there is sufficient demand from the rural districts for the service given by the public discussion and information divisions of the extension work (as it is often called) it is certainly a strong argument in favor of the extension of the public library service over the counties or townships as is now being done in several states. There is a good field here for co-operation between the local library, the organized library interests of the state, the college library and the extension service of the college or university.

An interesting feature of the work of the extension department at Purdue university is the combination of the printed list of books, the sample library, and the actual sale of books to the farmers. Some months ago by consultation with members of the station staff and actual examination of many volumes, a list of about 75 titles relating to agriculture, was compiled and printed. Several sets of these volumes were then obtained from the publishers, and arrangements made with them for mail orders of these books at certain discounts. The printed lists and sample volumes were taken to county fairs, institutes, farmers short courses, and on special trains. The lists were distributed, the books shown to the farmer, and his order taken on the spot at list price. Many orders come in later by mail. There is good psychology in this method of getting the book to the farmer. He can examine the book for himself, give the necessary weight to the recommendation of the man in charge, and having confidence in the university as represented by the extension department, he trusts it with his money.

During the year and a half that this plan has been in operation 1,350 volumes have been placed in the hands of farmers in the state and the sales have been as high as $475 in a month. Some may see objections to this method of book distribution and there are dangers that must be guarded against, but in Indiana it is regarded as firmly established.

There are problems that can only be briefly referred to here connected with the distribution of agricultural literature, that are partly extension and partly library problems. Many tons of printed matter are being distributed every year by the various colleges and experiment stations. To insure the best use of this material some "follow-up" system and some instruction to the farmer in its care and preservation would seem to be essential. The small circular or bulletin is taking the place of the more elaborate publications formerly issued on the same subject and these are being sent only to those who request them and have a real need for them.

The college should be willing and able to lend books to institute workers, lecturers, clubs, and to other libraries unless this service is already well done by some other agency.

It should also be a clearing house for information relating to agricultural literature and should co-operate wherever possible with the other departments of the institution whose work looks toward the betterment of rural life. The value of[Pg 216] books to both young and old in the farm home, may be overlooked by the other departments organized for more practical and perhaps more well defined ends, and in this matter the librarian has both an opportunity and a duty.

Dr. James W. Robertson, chairman of the Canadian royal commission on industrial training and technical education, delivered an address on economic and agricultural conditions in Canada.

Mr. Wyer read a paper prepared by Dr. A. C. TRUE, director, U. S. office of experiment stations, U. S. Department of Agriculture on the subject


Dr. True said in part:

Fifty years ago next Tuesday, the 2nd of July, the act was passed which authorized the establishment in each state of a college "to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts," and it was just twenty-five years ago this year that the act was passed which created the agricultural experiment station as a department of the agricultural college.

It seems, therefore, peculiarly fitting that on this jubilee anniversary we should be discussing the relation to each other of these two institutions which have done so much for the agricultural interests of our country, and we believe are destined to do much more.

The agricultural or land-grant colleges authorized by the Morrill act of 1862 were the direct outcome of a persistent demand for an education better suited to the needs of an age of progress than the classical form then in exclusive use. Interest in experimental work grew rapidly and culminated in the passage by Congress and signing by President Cleveland in 1887 of the bill introduced by Wm. H. Hatch, of Missouri, which provided for the establishment of an agricultural experiment station at each of the agricultural colleges, as a department of the college. This act provided the sum of $15,000 annually for the establishment and maintenance of the experiment station. It was later supplemented by the Adams act passed in 1906, which provided for an increased annual appropriation, bringing the sum total of federal appropriation for each station up to $30,000.

In the Hatch act establishing the experiment stations the wording of the law clearly sets forth the fact that the station is a department of the college.

It would seem obvious, therefore, that, since the station is a department of the college, the station library should be considered a part of the college library and thus come under the general direction and control of the college librarian. This involves the presumption that the college authorities appreciate the importance of a well managed library and therefore employ a well-trained and efficient librarian, and have a good library organization.

The work of the experiment station may be broadly grouped under the two heads research and the dissemination of the results of that research. A necessary preliminary to all successful research work is the examination of the records of similar or allied work. These records are contained in books and periodicals, and a moment's thought reveals the fact that the station library lies at the very heart of the station's work and is second to nothing in importance. Even the records of hypotheses tested and found untenable are valuable, as they may save much useless effort and consequent loss of time. The equipment of the station library should, therefore, be one of the first considerations in the organization of the station, and not merely a desirable adjunct if better advocated activities permit.

The function of the agricultural college library is primarily to serve the interests of the professors and students who compose the college, whereas the mission of the experiment station library is to serve the investigators and scientific workers who constitute the station staff. For[Pg 217] the college library to accomplish the best results there should be direct and constant intercourse between the professors and the librarian. The latter should be cognizant of the broad outlines of the courses being given and should be specifically informed of theme work about to be assigned and theses subjects when chosen. If the librarian does not know these things before the call for material comes, it may be very difficult to supply just what is wanted. Even with every care there will sometimes be a conflict of interests, but a system of co-operation between the teaching force and the librarian should reduce these conflicts to a minimum, should work for the benefit of all concerned, and make the library a constantly increasing aid in the process of education.

The experiment station library, being designed for the use of scientific investigators, is really a reference collection. It should consist of the records of agricultural investigations the world over and such books of reference in each branch of the station's work as the investigator in charge of that work thinks necessary.

The co-ordination of the interests of the two constituencies,—the investigator on the one hand and the teaching force and student body on the other, is one of the most important problems of the librarian of the agricultural library. It is a task which will require his best ability as an administrator, and will be accomplished only by the exercise of boundless patience and unlimited tact, combined with an impartial sense of justice to everybody. Only when the investigator, professor and student each realizes fully that the librarian's chief concern is to be of service to him, will the ideals of the library be realized.

The vital concern of experiment station workers and the officers of the agricultural colleges in the library and its activities was evinced by the fact that a session of the Association of American agricultural colleges and experiment stations which met in Columbus, Ohio, November, 1911, was devoted to this subject. Nobody knows better than the workers themselves how useful the library may be to them, and their discussion of different phases of its problems was full of suggestions for the improvement of the service.

In the development of the libraries of the agricultural colleges and experiment stations in the various states there have grown up three distinct types of libraries.

The first type is the experiment station library which is kept separate from the college library but under its control and which is devoted somewhat exclusively to the use of the station workers. An example of this type of library is found at the State college of Washington.

The second type is the agricultural college and experiment station libraries combined into a single agricultural library and kept separate from the university library, as at Wisconsin. This type may be considered as belonging to the departmental type of library. Other states which have adopted this plan are California, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska and Virginia.

In the third type the collections of agricultural literature including the experiment station collections, are consolidated with the college or university collections and administered as one unit. Examples of this type are the libraries of the University of Illinois, the Oregon agricultural college and the Kansas agricultural college.

Under certain conditions the advantages of one type may far outweigh the disadvantages and leave little doubt that this is the best for the particular institution concerned.

In the library of the first type,—namely, the experiment station library kept separate from the college library but under its control, the collections are composed principally of the following classes of literature:

1. As complete a collection as can be had of publications (a) of the U. S. Department of agriculture; (b) of state experiment stations in the United States;[Pg 218] (c) of agricultural, horticultural, dairy and live stock and kindred societies; (d) the publications of departments of agriculture, of agricultural schools and societies in foreign countries, all of which literature may be designated as the "official agricultural literature."

(2) Files, at least current ones, of the leading agricultural periodicals of the United States, together with the best of those published in the interest of each of the special branches of agriculture,—live stock, dairying, horticulture, etc.

(3) A collection of reference works both general and agricultural, as well as standard works on agriculture and its various branches and allied sciences.

Few if any of the separate experiment station libraries can be said to have notably complete collections, aside from the "official agricultural literature." Scientific books and periodicals are expensive and most of the agricultural colleges have not felt able to duplicate expensive sets of periodicals and scientific reference works. Therefore, since the college needs such works as well as the stations, the result has been in most cases that they have been filed in the college or university library and the station collections have been limited principally to the "official agricultural literature" described above.

That the experiment station workers should have readily available as complete a collection as possible of the "official agricultural literature," both American and foreign, seems most desirable if not imperative. Whether this material should be filed in the station library or in the college library and to what extent it should be duplicated is a matter for each institution to decide, according to its needs and local conditions. In the case of an experiment station located on the college campus and near enough to the college or university for the station workers to use the general library, there is still much to be said in favor of a separate reference and reading room for the experiment station staff with an assistant in charge, the collection consisting principally of the "official agricultural literature," a selected list of current periodicals and a good selection of reference books of special interest in experiment station work. The ideal plan would be for this room to adjoin the university library like a seminar room. If it is not feasible on account of distance for the experiment station workers to have the collection next to the general library, then it should of course be in the experiment station building or agricultural hall.

Libraries of the second or departmental type,—namely, where the college of agriculture and the experiment station collections are combined, contain in general all the library resources of the institution along purely agricultural lines, including the "official agricultural literature," and in addition a fairly complete collection in the sciences relating to agriculture. Such libraries have a two-fold purpose. They must supply the needs of the professors and scientists in connection with their investigations and in addition must serve the students of the agricultural college. If the college of agriculture and the experiment station are some distance from the university,—so far as to make frequent consultation of the university library impracticable, there is no question but that the college of agriculture and the experiment station ought to have a separate library for their especial needs. If on the other hand they are near enough to the university library to make it feasible for the professors and scientists to use it frequently, it is an open question whether it is wise to separate the agricultural collections. It is then a question of a central library versus a departmental or special library. The nearer the college of agriculture library is to the university library, the more intensive should its collections become.

There is much to be said in favor of the third type of agricultural library,—namely, where the agricultural collections are incorporated with the college or university collections. When the topography of the campus and the location of the buildings are such as to make it feasible for the sta[Pg 219]tion workers and the agricultural professors to use the college or university library, the balance of the arguments seems to be in favor of this arrangement, both as regards economy of funds and efficiency of service, if the special needs of the station workers can be and are given proper consideration by providing the really necessary duplicates and an assistant especially qualified to aid in the bibliographical research connected with the investigations of the experiment station. There is a decided tendency toward unity in modern science. This is especially true in the sciences relating to agriculture. The entomologist needs to use botanical books, the botanist must use chemical books, etc., etc. This has an important bearing on library problems and as far as agricultural libraries are concerned, is an argument for centralized collections.

As it is probable that it will be a long time in the future, if ever, before the experiment stations will have sufficient funds to build up complete collections for their special use, independent of the colleges, and since it is a question whether, if funds were actually available, it would be wise to expend them in duplicating to such an extent the college library collections, it seems evident that some compromise arrangement is inevitable. In attempting to work out a satisfactory library plan, every institution should make a careful survey of local conditions, such as the size of the collections, the size of the library staff, funds available, location and architecture of the college and experiment station buildings, and then attempt to work out the best possible policy under its peculiar conditions. In working out such a policy, there are three important points to consider,—the question of administration, the question of convenience and the economy of funds.

As regards administration, attention has already been called to the fact that the station is by law a department of the college and under its control. If fully lived up to, this fact would seem to decide many vexed questions of administration. Sooner or later, it is believed, the colleges and experiment stations will find that there is less to be gained by standing alone than they had supposed and they will realize the advantages of a unified library administration for the institution as a whole.

In considering the question of convenience, distance is the most important factor. This difficulty can, however, to a great extent be minimized by an adequate telephone and messenger service between the library and the various departments of the college. Even for the sake of convenience, it is a question whether any institution is justified in separating its agricultural collections from the college or university library, unless it is prepared to provide an efficient assistant to look after the collection. Because books are near at hand does not mean that they are more accessible.

If an institution is limited in funds and if its total resources in books do not exceed 30,000 volumes, there seems little doubt but that the interests of the station and college can best be served by combining forces and resources in one strong library with adequate service, unless the topographical conditions make this plan impossible. Such a combination certainly husbands the finances, since separate libraries involving a duplication of catalogs and reference books necessitates a considerable outlay of funds.

But whatever the details of the library arrangement for the institution may be, the station should by all means have if possible the services of some person, call him what you will,—librarian, bibliographer, or reference assistant, who may give his time and energy quite fully to the special requirements of the station,—for example, in keeping the official literature complete and up to date, in looking up references, making excerpts, making and taking care of indexes, preparing bibliographical lists, and in doing bibliographical work of a miscellaneous character. There is unquestionably need for librarians trained along agricultural lines. It would seem as though the library training[Pg 220] schools of the universities of Wisconsin and Illinois were peculiarly well situated to make a specialty of training librarians for agricultural work.

One of the important duties of such an assistant, regardless of whether the agricultural collections are maintained as a separate library or incorporated with the general library, should be the care and collection of agricultural publications obtainable by gift or exchange. There is now a great accumulation of public and miscellaneous documents, American and foreign, which may be obtained at little or no expense as regards purchase, but the collection, safeguarding and general care of this material is a very considerable task. Too many of the agricultural colleges and experiment stations have not sufficiently regarded the importance of collecting this material and of keeping their files complete and in a readily available form. A large portion of this material is never noted in the bibliographies of the book trade. It must be sought for in catalogs and book lists, in reviews, second-hand catalogs, and in many less obvious places. Much of the material is not for sale and is only obtainable by gift or exchange. It is therefore an important matter that there should be close co-operation between the experiment station and the library in arranging such exchanges. The station bulletins and reports, published by each state, should be the means of obtaining for the station or college library many valuable exchanges from this country and abroad.

In regard to the accessions to the library, whether obtained by purchase or gift, there are certain definite principles which should be followed: first, it is most desirable that all the purchases of books and periodicals for all the collections included in the university and experiment station should be made by the central general library, even the books purchased from the Adams fund, in connection with some definite project; second that all the records in regard to the resources of the library be kept in the general library. Furthermore, all the collections, whether obtained by gift or purchase, should be regarded as the unquestioned property of the institution at large, and under the custody of the librarian.

In regard to the purchase of books from the Adams fund, the fact that the experiment station worker needs in connection with an investigation certain books not already in the library, which books he is allowed to purchase from the Adams fund, is not, in the opinion of the office of experiment stations, reason for assuming that the books should not be purchased through the library or that they shall not be regarded as the property of the library. Therefore, in a library efficiently administered, there would be no inflexible rules which would make it impossible for any experiment station worker to retain in his laboratory for an indefinite period while he is carrying on his investigations, the books which he especially needs to have at hand, regardless of the fact that they were purchased through the library. As far as the office of experiment stations is concerned in the supervision of the accounts of the purchases made by the state experiment stations from the Adams fund, it has interpreted the law to mean that the funds can be used in part for the purchase of books needed to carry on a special experiment in progress but it does not hold that books so purchased must be held as the property of the department. On the contrary, it is inclined to believe that the funds will be safeguarded fully as well if not better, by the purchase of books through the library.

As regards the assignment of funds for the library, there is lacking in many of the agricultural colleges and experiment stations any well matured policy. A hard and fast allotment of funds to departments is of doubtful wisdom. It would be better to be guided more by the use likely to be made of the books by the various departments than to attempt any impartial division among them. In all but a few of the state agricultural colleges and experiment stations the funds available for[Pg 221] books are pitiably small. They need to be greatly increased. In some instances the purchase of scientific books seems unduly restricted as compared with expensive apparatus. As long as the funds are meagre, there is the more need for a well equipped, progressive librarian, with a knowledge of the resources of other libraries, who will co-operate with other libraries, and by exchanges and inter-library loans be able to supplement the resources of his own library. The library of the U. S. Department of Agriculture has been glad to lend its books to state agricultural colleges and experiment stations as freely as possible without interfering with the work of the department. The borrowing of a book needed for the special use of an investigator will often avoid the necessity of purchasing it and leave the funds available for the purchase of books of more general use.

The answers to the questionnaire sent out by the Agricultural libraries section disclosed the fact that a large number of the agricultural colleges, but none of the experiment stations, have library committees, and that the college library committee's activities do not, except in a few instances, extend to the stations. It is not the purpose of this paper to discuss general library problems except so far as they touch upon the problems of the agricultural library. No arguments pro or con will therefore be brought to bear upon the desirability of library committees. If, however, it is thought best by an institution to have a library committee, it should by all means be a committee for the whole institution. As already emphasized, the station is a department of the college and there would seem to be no reason for excluding it in the consideration of the library problems of the college, for there is no department of the college whose interest in the library is more vital. It was interesting to note that in one of the state agricultural college libraries, whose growth in the last few years has been remarkable, there is no library committee. In another college with a growing and progressive library, the library committee was referred to as not much help and no hindrance. In some colleges the powers of the library committee are described as merely advisory as to library policies; in others, it evidently has considerable power, the decision in regard to the purchase of books being left largely to the library committee. It is a question whether this latter arrangement is altogether wise. There are certain dangers connected with it. If the librarian cannot be trusted to make a wise selection of books for the college, with the help of recommendations of the members of the faculty and station staff, then the disadvantages connected with a library committee empowered to decide on the purchase of books should be minimized as far as possible by having the library committee rotate in office, in order to insure a fair representation of the needs of all departments of the institution.

In the case of the experiment stations, the decision in regard to the purchase of books in most instances rests entirely with the director or the heads of the departments. This plan, too, has its disadvantages. The ambitious specialist allowed to have his own way without regard to the needs of his fellow workers is apt to purchase books of service only to himself. If there is a library committee for the institution, it would be far better to have the book purchases for the station considered by the committee on the basis of a general policy taking into account the special requirements of the station's work and funds. If there is no library committee, then the librarian of the college should by all means be consulted in regard to the purchase of all books for the station as well as the college. It should, of course, be understood by the librarian, as well as by other officers of the institution, that purchases of books and periodicals for the experiment station under the Hatch Act should be strictly confined to those required in connection with the work of the station and under the Adams act to those directly relating to the approved project of research. It will, therefore, be neces[Pg 222]sary for the station director to pass on the extent of the library purchases from station funds and the character of the books and periodicals to be thus purchased.

Among the functions, problems and opportunities of the librarians of our agricultural colleges, extension work remains to be considered. The extension work of the agricultural college is now one of its vital activities and is every year enlarging its scope. Leaders are needed for every phase of this work,—for correspondence schools, for farmers' institutes, for movable schools of agriculture, for work on practice farms, and in many other of the activities which are being used in carrying the improved methods of modern agriculture to the farmer himself. The experiment station is an organized effort of science to improve agriculture, and the extension work of the agricultural college is the practical means of reaching the farmer with useful information. The rural problem is one of the burning public questions of the day and upon its proper solution depends much of the progress which we confidently expect. The farmer must himself co-operate in the solution of this problem and the leadership is of a very high order that recognizes as an absolute essential to success, and succeeds in enlisting, an active participation on the part of the farmer in the work of bringing about an improved practice of agriculture. If then the library is as important in all the phases of the work of the agricultural college as we deem it to be, the work of the library should by all means be represented in all the extension work activities.

In conclusion, the above suggestions regarding the administration of the agricultural college and experiment station libraries and their opportunities for service to the investigator, the student and the farmer, may be briefly summarized as follows:

First: The libraries of the agricultural colleges and experiment stations should always be in charge of well-trained and efficient librarians.

Second: The books and periodicals should be selected with reference to the well-considered needs of the various branches of the institution, having regard for the vast amount of literature which may be secured by gift and exchange.

Third: The experiment station collection, even when separately housed, should be considered and administered as an integral part of the college or university library, under the direction of the college or university librarian.

Fourth: The needs of the experiment station staff should be met by the employment of a librarian, bibliographer or reference assistant especially qualified to serve the station in all its interests.

Fifth: In the extension work activities of the college for the more direct benefit of the farmer, the library should have its share.

It is realized that there may be a wide difference of opinion as to the methods to be employed, but the object of this paper will be in part accomplished if it directs attention to the principles upon which a policy of administration should be built. The problems of the library need the combined thought and efforts of librarians, faculties and experiment station staffs in order that it may by its efficiency promote to the fullest extent the work of the agricultural colleges and experiment stations.

Several papers were presented on


The first was by CLARENCE S. HEAN, librarian of the college of agriculture of the University of Wisconsin, on the type

(a) Agricultural College and Experiment Station Libraries Combined and Separate from the University Library but under its Control.

Mr. Hean said in part:

The administrative officers of the University of Wisconsin believe thoroughly in the theory that teaching and research should go hand in hand. That theory practically applied in our college of agri[Pg 223]culture and agricultural experiment station virtually combines the two organizations into one.

This agricultural department of the university is housed in a group of buildings at the extreme western end of the campus. The general university library is situated at the extreme eastern end, a full half mile away. It therefore seemed advisable to establish a departmental library for the convenience of our agricultural workers.

In our college the funds received from the United States are not nearly sufficient to finance all of the station work, or research work as we call it. The budget is made up by adding together the income from all sources and apportioning this whole amount among the departments according to their needs and talents. Orders may then be issued by each department, subject to the dean's approval, to the extent of its allotment. When bills are received the head of the department marks with an "R" all items ordered for research (i. e. station) work. The bookkeeper enters items so marked against United States funds until they are exhausted. The library being a department of the college its funds are treated in this same manner. This marking of research items in the bills with an "R" is the only distinction ever made between books purchased for station or for college purposes.

All of the books purchased are classified, cataloged and filed as one collection. It is understood throughout the college that books for the Adams or Hatch investigations are to be purchased by the library. Such books when received are given the right of way in all library processes and forwarded immediately to the investigator who requested them.

The selection of books rests with the library committee. This committee consists of five members of the faculty appointed by the dean for a term of one year, and the librarian, an ex officio member. The chairman of the committee has been reappointed for many consecutive terms. The other members are rotated among the different departments. Lists of books for consideration at their monthly meetings are made up by the librarian. Any member of the faculty, or student either for that matter, may recommend books to go on the list.

The selections having been made, the list is forwarded to the university librarian. It is then checked with the university catalog. Items already available anywhere on the campus are reported back for further consideration. If it is the judgment of the committee that an additional copy is needed in our library it is so ordered, but all needless duplication is avoided. The actual order is made out by the university librarian who has at hand the bibliographical data for such work.

The books are received, accessioned and plated at the general library. They are then forwarded to our college library to be classified and cataloged. All our books are permitted to circulate not only among the students and professors of our own college but among those of any college of the university. In return the same privilege is granted to us by the other colleges. Having a well developed delivery system and a liberal loaning policy, we encourage the policy of a strong central library.

The next paper, prepared by ASA DON DICKINSON, librarian State college of Washington, treated type

(b) The experiment station library separate from the college library but under its control.

Mr. Dickinson said in part:

In the state college of Washington, the experiment station library is said to be separate from the college, but under its control. Our college library building occupies a central position on the campus, not over two hundred yards from the offices of most of the members of the station staff. Part of the lowest tier of the college library book stack is set aside for the accommodation of the station library, the point of division being marked by a gate. A specially designated member of the college library staff acts as station li[Pg 224]brarian, under the direction of the college librarian. Her salary is paid largely but not wholly out of the station funds. Her duties as station librarian occupy about one-third of her time, but these duties have precedence over her college library work. In the absence of the station librarian, members of the station staff are served by the college library staff.

Our station library is made up almost entirely (1) of publications of the U. S. Department of agriculture; (2) of publications of the state experiment stations, and departments of agriculture and horticulture; (3) of the agricultural, horticultural and kindred periodicals. The college library contains duplicate collections of the first two classes of material. The third class in our experience is relatively of less importance, as it consists chiefly of the popular "farm-papers." The station library, like the college library, has its own card-catalog of U. S. Department of agriculture publications, and its own card-index of experiment station literature.

Students and practitioners of the science of agriculture seem to be specially fortunate in that so much of the valuable material on their subject is published and freely distributed by the federal and state governments. There is perhaps no other science in which the unofficial literature is so relatively unimportant. It is true, the technical journals of the allied sciences contain much that is of value to the experiment station worker. But so far as my experience goes, the use of this is not constant and continuous, as is the case with governmental material. Let us have separate and distinct sets of state and federal "Bulletins," for our college workers and for our station workers, as both classes need to refer to them so frequently. But is not this going far enough? Is it not the wisest policy to confine our station library collection principally to these well-thumbed publications, and to place the less constantly used and more expensive unofficial material in the college library, where it can be of service to a larger public?

MISS MARGARET HUTCHINS, of the reference department of the University of Illinois library described type

(c) Experiment station library consolidated with the university library.

Until 1897 the library of the Illinois experiment station and the university library were separately housed, cared for and supported. In that year the state erected a library building for the university and in it the experiment station deposited its collection of nearly five thousand titles. From that time the station ceased buying books from the Hatch fund, with the possible exception of a very few books for laboratory equipment, and it has never bought any from the Adams fund. The books deposited by the experiment station in the university library were classified and cataloged and became a part of the library. The only difference in treatment from books otherwise acquired was that the experiment station books were accessioned separately so that it would be possible to take them out of the library again if desired. All books and periodicals bought or exchanged for the experiment station since 1897 have been dealt with like those bought or exchanged for the university. The questions of administration come therefore for the most part under the general library policy.

Books are purchased for the university either out of the legislative appropriation for the library or the appropriations for the university and its different colleges and departments of investigation.

1. Library funds.

The library funds are assigned to the various departments in the colleges of the university by a committee on the apportionment of library funds, consisting of the president, the librarian and the deans of the colleges, who act on the recommendations of a senate library committee. This is composed of the president and the librarian and seven members representing the following interests; Agriculture, Engineering, Science, Graduate school, Library, The languages, literature and arts, and The philosophical and social sciences. Besides preparing for the first mentioned[Pg 225] committee on apportionment, detailed estimates of the library needs of the various colleges, schools and departments, the library committee acts as an advisory board to the librarian in matters of library administration and policy. The college of agriculture, which in Illinois is of course intimately connected with the agricultural experiment station, receives its share of the library funds for the purchase of books selected by its professors and investigators.

2. Maintenance Funds, called Equipment funds in the Library to distinguish from Library funds.

Books are also purchased out of the legislative appropriations for the support of certain colleges and out of allotments made by the trustees from the general university funds for colleges not specifically provided for by the legislature. In the case of agricultural books these funds have the two purposes: the maintenance fund for the college of agriculture and the experiment station and, second, the appropriations for special departments of investigation in the experiment station.

The general policy of the faculty of the college of agriculture (or the staff of the experiment station) as to purchase of books out of these two different funds for college and experiment station is to buy books for special investigations out of station funds unless they clearly would be of use also to the students and instructors of the college at large. Books needed by the special investigator and the college in general at the same time are duplicated. When books are no longer needed in the laboratory or office for the special work for which they were bought, they are returned for general circulation to the main library by whose staff they were ordered and cataloged. Books already in the library, whether bought out of library funds or equipment funds for any college may be sent to a laboratory, office, or reading room from the main library unless they are needed for reference or class use in the main library or any branch of it.


The library and experiment station also work together in the matter of exchanges. The library exchange assistant arranges for the exchange of experiment station publications the same as for other publications of the university, while the station attends to the actual mailing of its publications, as it has better facilities for this than the library. In this way the library receives from the exchange of the agricultural experiment station publications alone between four and five hundred publications, of which more than one-half are from foreign countries, seventy agricultural periodicals and the publications of ninety learned societies being obtained in addition to the publications of state universities and stations and universities and libraries all over the world. Besides these, the library receives by the exchange of other University of Illinois publications many hundred more publications, some of which are of interest to agricultural scientists and economists.

Advantages of the Consolidation of Station and University Libraries

1. Economy of administration.

No staff of agriculturists or any other specialists trained for scientific or literary research can be expected to order, catalog and care for books as quickly and efficiently as can the well organized library staff of forty, with its order department, gifts, exchange and periodical assistants, and cataloging, binding, loan, and reference departments, whose whole time and attention is devoted to these special lines of library work. The library, too, which handles some thirty thousand new books a year can afford to have more elaborate equipment in the way of trade bibliographies of various countries, catalogs of other libraries, mechanical means for duplicating catalog cards, shelving books, etc., than can such an institution as an experiment station whose money should be spent mostly on salaries of specialists and laboratory and field equipment.

2. Security in preservation of valuable books.

While the majority of agricultural de[Pg 226]partments at Illinois favor departmental libraries, they all make it conditional—"If we had a proper and secure place for them." All with whom I have talked have also emphasized the advisability, almost the necessity, of keeping all books on the campus, whether in departmental libraries, laboratories or main library, under the central administration and the supervision of the librarian of the university.

3. Opportunity to use books and periodicals purchased by other colleges of the university.

It can readily be seen that books and periodicals purchased especially by the College of Science may also be of use to the Agricultural experiment station. The agricultural faculty also benefit by the periodicals, university publications, etc., received in exchange for publications of other colleges in the university.

4. Greater educational opportunities.

The agricultural experiment station, while receiving the benefits thus enumerated from its close connection with the university library, is able also to extend its circle of influence through the library, which naturally reaches more people than the station could by itself. Not only do the students and faculty of the other colleges of the university have an opportunity to use the agricultural books, but people throughout the state can and do borrow them from the library.

Discussion on the same type of library administration was continued in a paper prepared by Mrs. IDA A. KIDDER, librarian of the Oregon Agricultural College library.

She said in part:

Our policy of one central library was rather thrust upon us by the exigency of our situation than deliberately chosen, for we began with a single librarian and one part time student assistant, but after four years' experience I should pursue the same general course. It is evident, however, that in libraries growing at the almost incredible rate of many of our western libraries, one must have principles of organization and administration, rather than a fixed policy, or inflexible plans.

At the Oregon agricultural college we have the advantage of having all our class room and laboratory buildings located near each other.

We have had no difficulty or complication as to funds, since nearly all our station funds have been used for experiments and laboratory equipment. At first we had almost no college funds for the purchase of books and periodicals, having only such portion of the general equipment fund as could be spared after equipping our rapidly growing laboratories, but at the last session of our legislature the library was granted a fund of $15,000 for the biennium for books, periodicals and binding, and of the Crop Pest fund of $15,000 a year, granted for investigation, ten per cent could be spent for books and periodicals. This has been used and the library has therefore had this biennium, $9,000 a year. Most of the Crop Pest fund has been spent for books directly useful to the station investigator. Of the regular college library fund, the station departments have received their share along with the strictly instructional departments. The library fund is apportioned by the president of the college, after consultation with the librarian, the basis of judgment being the need of the department together with its present equipment. The books purchased from station funds are usually for some specific investigation and are kept in the laboratory collection of the department purchasing. A record is kept of the books purchased under each different fund.

The head of each department is responsible for the books in his laboratory collection, and once a year an inventory is taken. In our general catalog we have the cards of every book kept in a department stamped, under the call number, with the name of that department; thus it is possible to locate from the catalog all books except those out on loan. All our freshmen have one semester's instruction in the use of the library, that is, one lecture and one practical problem a week,[Pg 227] with one college credit allowed. During this period we urge the students to feel at liberty to go to any laboratory to consult any book needed for their work, but with all the encouragement we can give them, I feel convinced that the books kept in the laboratory collections do not have the general use from the students which they would have if they were located in the general library.

We expect soon to place in our agricultural building duplicate catalogs of the publications of the United States Department of agriculture and of the state experiment stations. This will be a great accommodation to the men working in the station.

We keep our duplicate reports and bulletins arranged so that at a moment's notice any duplicates may be found. We have one department whose work it is to secure and care for the continuations of value to an agricultural college. This is one of the most valuable features of our organization, and though it was difficult to give the service for such a definite department, from our small library force, it seemed imperative and has proved a wise step. The reference librarian of the college does the reference work for the station as far as called upon. She borrows for the use of the station from a number of other libraries.

It seems to me that the problem of administering the college and the experiment station library, whether separately or combined must always present a number of almost insurmountable difficulties; men engaged in research demand all material for their work closely and immediately at hand, instructional work requires that all the material on the campus shall be easily accessible to its use. To meet these so often conflicting demands without extravagant duplication requires of the librarian a broad-minded impartiality of judgement.

The next topic was a symposium of recent reference books and new periodicals of special interest to agricultural libraries, which was treated under the following heads: (a) New periodicals, by E. Lucy Ogden, Library of Congress; (b) Agricultural reference books, by Elizabeth S. Ingersoll, of Cornell university library, and (c) Reference books in sciences relating to agriculture, by Emma B. Hawks, of the U. S. Department of agriculture library.

Miss Claribel R. Barnett, librarian of the U. S. Department of agriculture library was re-elected chairman for the coming year.



(Thursday, June 27, 8:15 p. m.)

The first session of the Catalog section was held Thursday evening, June 27, the chairman, Miss Laura A. Thompson, of the Library of Congress, presiding. The reading of the minutes of the last meeting was dispensed with and they stand approved as printed.

The topic of the evening, "Subject headings," was introduced in a paper by Miss MARY JOSEPHINE BRIGGS, cataloger of the Buffalo public library, and editor of the "A. L. A. list of subject headings." In the absence of Miss Briggs, this paper was read by Miss Sula Wagner, of the St. Louis public library.


Every cataloger, at least at the beginning of her career, has an ideal of the catalog which she would like to make: a catalog conforming to the most approved rules, accurate in bibliographical detail; consistent in form, in method of entry and in arrangement.

She realizes from the first that the task[Pg 228] of achieving this ideal will be difficult; she soon begins to fear that it will be impossible. After perhaps years of endeavor, she questions if it is even desirable.

Absolute consistency in the matter of author entry may be attained by strict adherence to the A. L. A. rules, and the divergences from these rules necessary to adapt them to the varying conditions of public circulating, reference and university libraries are slight and unimportant. But who can frame a code of rules or formulate principles through which consistency in subject headings may be attained? And is consistency so absolutely necessary or desirable? Is not the ideal catalog the one which is best adapted to the needs of the majority of its users; which is so arranged that the reader can find what he wants in the shortest possible time, even at the sacrifice of absolute consistency?

When the work of revising the Subject headings was begun, an effort was made to learn the wishes of all interested in regard to the principles upon which the new edition should be based.

Many of you remember the list of questions that was published in the Library journal and in Public libraries. Some of you sent answers to those questions. They were questions of scope, of principle of selection, and of arrangement. The answers received from librarians, catalogers and reference workers, the opinions of members of the advisory committee upon these and other problems, the ideas expressed by library workers consulted by Miss Crawford in the various libraries which she visited, the suggestions gleaned from correspondence with other library workers and with experts upon various subjects, were all carefully noted by Miss Crawford, and in some instances tabulated so that the varying opinions could be seen at a glance. These notes, together with lists of headings from many libraries, large and small, made up the material from which the third edition of the Subject headings was compiled.

The most casual examination of this material revealed the fact that while on some points there was practical unanimity of opinion, upon others there was the greatest diversity.

The following are not exact quotations, as I no longer have the correspondence at hand; but they fairly indicate the opposing views of some of the writers:

"Expand the list by the addition of necessary new headings, but make few if any changes. The A. L. A. headings are in very general use, and the possible advantage of changes would not compensate for the inconvenience and expense of wholesale alterations in existing catalogs."

"The old headings are antiquated. Do not hamper libraries yet to be by perpetuating phraseology that no longer conforms to modern usage."

"For the sake of uniformity, adopt the Library of Congress headings, even if not always entirely satisfactory for a public library."

"The Library of Congress headings are not at all adapted for use in popular libraries. Disregard them."

"The public library is for the plain people,—use headings they will understand."

"If the public does not understand scientifically accurate headings it should be taught. Do not lower the standard of scientific cataloging."

To choose headings that should offend as little as possible these widely differing advisers, to steer a course between ultraconservatism and iconoclastic radicalism, was the difficult task that confronted me in undertaking the compilation of the new list of Subject headings.

A special effort was made to formulate a principle that should govern the choice of adjective phrase; inversion; or noun, subdivided. Is it better to enter under Chemistry, Physiological, or Physiological chemistry? Under Psychology, Educational, or Educational psychology? Under Negro suffrage or Negroes—Suffrage?

A strict rule for this sort of heading would be a boon to catalogers, but surely not to the users of the catalog. The average reader does not reason concerning the[Pg 229] principles upon which the catalog is constructed. The fact that he today finds what he seeks entered under Chemistry, Organic, will not prevent his turning to Electric engineering rather than Engineering, Electric, tomorrow. The adoption of either form of entry to the exclusion of the others would lead to absurdities. Because it is satisfactory to subdivide Railroads, would it be desirable to abandon headings beginning Electric and substitute subdivisions of Electricity for Electric conductors, Electric lighting and Electric power? Or because Botany, Structural, is preferable to Structural botany, should we use Physics, Agricultural, instead of Agricultural physics?

In the end, all efforts to frame the desired rule resolved themselves into something like this: It is necessary to use all three forms of heading; noun with subdivision, adjective phrase, and inversion. Each case must be decided upon its own merits, and that form used under which it is believed that the majority of readers will look,—the majority of readers in each particular library, be it understood. A university library will use many subdivisions because it is convenient for professors and students to have much of the material brought together under large subjects. A medical library will use few, if any, headings beginning Medical, because Medical is understood.

As was stated in the introduction, no radical changes from the second edition were made except in response to what seemed to be a very general demand. There were few dissenting votes to the proposition to abandon the headings Arts, Fine, and Arts, Useful. The majority in favor of Government instead of Political science was less decisive, but still a majority, and the confession heard more than once, "I never can remember the difference between political science and political economy," was a straw that helped to turn the scale. Trade union is no longer a comprehensive term when organizations of teachers and of others outside the trades must be included. The phrase Domestic economy is being superseded in recent books by Home economics or by Domestic science. It is impossible to mention the changes in detail or to give the reasons for each, but no changes were made without careful consideration.

Just how far it is advisable to alter existing catalogs in order to conform to the new headings is a problem that each cataloger must decide for herself. If in your opinion the heading already in use is better than the new one suggested, by all means retain it. If, while admitting a slight advantage in the new heading, you think that the gain is not sufficient to justify the labor of changing, it is much easier to alter your copy of the Subject headings than to erase or re-write catalog cards. But if you are convinced that the new heading is one that will be more readily found by the users of your library, and by the desk attendants who have not catalog training, then make the change, even at the expense of considerable time and labor. And by all means consult the attendants in the circulating and reference departments if in doubt as to the advisability of making a change. They know how books are called for. They know how they themselves look for them; and "see" references are irritating when there is a line of impatient borrowers reaching from the request window to the door.

Such changes as have already been made in the catalog of the Buffalo public library have met with general approval from the loan desk. Recitations and readings; Grammar, English; Spelling, English; Corn instead of Maize; Humor instead of Wit and humor; the transfer of the subheading Best books from Bibliography to Books and reading; and the removal of Immigration from under country, have received especial approbation. The necessity for the latter change was made apparent when it was discovered that the half dozen cards under Immigration were so soiled as to be almost illegible, while those under U. S. Immigration bore no evidence of use; either because the "See also" reference had been overlooked, or because readers[Pg 230] were daunted or confused by the complex arrangement of the cards under United States.

In all these cases the new heading differs from both the old A. L. A. heading and from the Library of Congress heading.

Starting with the intention of retaining all headings upon which the A. L. A. list and the Library of Congress were agreed, I soon found that some of these very headings had occasioned the greatest dissatisfaction. If the new list was to be acceptable to any considerable number of those who had taken sufficient interest in the subject to answer Miss Crawford's questions, I must endeavor to get closer to the point of view of the users of the catalog, rather than be governed by theory or established precedent.

The Library of Congress headings are admittedly devised to meet conditions in the Library of Congress,—certainly very different conditions from those of a public library. Moreover, the Library of Congress headings have been, and still are, in a state of development. Many changes have been made in the last dozen years, and as it is plainly impracticable to reprint immediately all cards bearing a discarded heading, libraries purchasing cards printed several years ago will often find headings suggested that are no longer in use by the Library of Congress. Sometimes cards for two editions of the same book bear altogether different headings.

The varying headings adopted by the departmental libraries, whose cards are printed and issued by the Library of Congress, cause still further apparent inconsistency. We cannot be sure that any particular heading was ever approved by the Library of Congress unless the card bears the Library of Congress serial number. The Department of Education, for example, uses Secondary education and Art education, while the Library of Congress uses Education, Secondary, and Art—Study and teaching. The Department of Agriculture has adopted Botany, Agricultural; Fruit and fruit trees; and U. S.—Forestry; while the Library of Congress enters the same material under Botany, Economic; Fruit culture; and Forests and forestry—U. S. Such variations make it impossible for any cataloger using the printed cards to follow blindly the headings suggested thereon, and emphasize the fact that no list of headings can be satisfactory to all kinds of libraries.

Most of the headings for the new A. L. A. list were decided upon before the Library of Congress began to issue its printed lists. On comparing the lists first received, I found cases where the Library of Congress had changed its practice, and as each instalment was issued I made changes in the manuscript already prepared, in order to bring the two lists into closer agreement. Doubtless in the Library of Congress lists yet to be issued there will be many headings different from those in use five years ago, at the time the list which was my guide was copied from the Library of Congress catalog.

Conformity in general to the Library of Congress headings was my aim, and in most cases of doubt the usage of the Library of Congress, if known, was the determining factor in the decision. But when, fortified by the approval of such advisers as were available, including in important cases the member of the Publishing Board who is now president of the American Library Association, I was convinced that some other form of entry would be more helpful to the users of a public library, I adopted that form, even though inconsistent—as in the treatment of English language,—or not altogether accurate—as in the substitution of Corn and Rubber for Maize and India-rubber. I may add that in no case did I decide in opposition to the majority of the members of the advisory committee, though only a few specific headings were submitted to them.

The list, being prepared for moderately large libraries, contains many headings that may well be ignored by the smaller libraries. Not only are most of the subdivisions unnecessary, but so also are[Pg 231] many distinctions which would result in separation of material that might better be kept together if the entries are few, such as Charity organization, Infants (Children being a sufficient entry), Soil absorption, Soil moisture.

The list is not intended as a guide to be followed blindly, but to be adapted to individual needs, by the exercise of common sense—perhaps the most necessary part of a cataloger's equipment.

Consideration of cost and weight of the book necessitated limitation of the scope. There was a strong plea for the inclusion of geographical terms, at least in cases of disputed spelling. A list of such names was prepared by Miss Crawford, with full references and definitions. It was estimated that this list would add perhaps one hundred pages to the book, and the Publishing Board did not feel that it was advisable to include them. Very many headings that might be considered as falling within the scope of the book were omitted because their use would be infrequent, and it was thought better that the occasional cataloger should write these headings on the blank pages, rather than that all should be required to pay for an unnecessarily long and correspondingly heavy list.

Just a word in regard to the actual amount of material in the book. The statement of the Publishing Board that the third edition contains about three times the material in the second edition has been questioned on the score that the new edition is printed on one side of the leaf only. It should be remembered, however, that only the printed pages are numbered, so that the list of headings in the third edition occupies 397 pages, double column, while the second edition contained but 193 half pages and 12 full pages. That is, the printed matter in the third edition occupies nearly four times the space filled in the second edition. Moreover, the type is smaller, so that the new page contains twelve lines more than the old one. Therefore, allowing for the blank space occasioned by the disparity of the lists of "See also" and "Refer from" references, it is believed that the estimate of three times the material of the second edition is conservative.

The subject was continued in a paper by Miss MARY W. MACNAIR, of the Library of Congress on


The list of subject headings issued by the Library of Congress is used also, for reference and comparison, by many other libraries throughout the country. It has been suggested that a statement in regard to the purpose, scope, and manner of printing of the list, might be useful to the librarians receiving it, and possibly valuable as well to others who are interested in the undertaking, and who may be, to some extent, unfamiliar with the Library of Congress catalog.

The printing of the list of subject headings was begun in the summer of 1909. Up to that time, the second edition of the A. L. A. subject headings had been used as a basis for the subjects assigned in the Library of Congress catalog. But so many additions and alterations had been made in our interleaved copies of the A. L. A. list, that the need of an entirely new list of headings began to be urgently felt, although the difficulty had been partially obviated by the printing of lists of additions to the old A. L. A. list, for distribution to the catalogers at the Library of Congress. At this date the third edition of the A. L. A. list was already in preparation, yet it was considered wiser to print a list of the Library of Congress headings, rather than to co-operate in the A. L. A. undertaking, as the headings needed in our catalog differed to such an extent from those required for the average public library.

The distribution of the list to other libraries was not, at first, contemplated. The printing of the subject headings was undertaken to facilitate the work of the catalogers in the Library of Congress, and it was believed that, if supplied to other libraries in its preliminary form, the list[Pg 232] would give rise to many queries in regard to unavoidable omissions and inconsistencies. It had not progressed far, however, before many libraries intimated that it would be useful to them to receive the letters as they were issued, and when requests became too urgent for refusal, it was decided to supply copies at a price insuring that only those libraries should order them which had serious use for them. It was considered that 50 copies for distribution outside the Library of Congress would surely be sufficient, but it turned out that the estimate was too small, and, in consequence, there has had to be much reprinting of the early letters of the alphabet. The edition of the letter P, just issued, was 500 copies.

The scope of the list of headings is largely inclusive in its character, covering subjects in all branches of knowledge as far as they have been adopted in the Library of Congress catalog. The names of persons and places are, however, omitted, also names of societies, institutions, and bodies of various kinds, names of treaties and conventions, and systematic names of genera and species in botany and zoology.

The classes theology, and military and naval science are only partially represented in the list, as these sections are not yet re-cataloged. The classes language, literature, and philology, which are now in the process of recataloging, are more fully, but not yet wholly, represented. In the earlier letters of the alphabet, few headings in law were introduced (as it has only been during the past few months that the law headings have been systematically considered), but they are now included in the list, and many of those omitted in the earlier letters are being entered in the lists of additions to the subject headings issued in connection with the main list.

We include in the list the more important subdivisions under a subject. These subdivisions are printed in italics, and separated from the main subject by a dash. One point to which I would especially call the attention of librarians using the list is that ordinarily only those subdivisions are printed under a subject which are distinctive, or peculiar to that subject. General form subdivisions, such as Directories, Periodicals, Societies, etc., which may properly be used under any subject requiring them, are, as a rule, omitted from the list. (A list of these form subdivisions can be found on p. 19 of the "Preliminary list of subject subdivisions," issued by the library in 1910.) Under names of countries only the history subdivisions are included.

Turning now from the consideration of the subdivisions, a few words may be useful in regard to the cross-references from subject headings to related subjects. In general, it may be said that references are made from the more inclusive to the smaller subjects, and not ordinarily back from smaller to larger. We should refer from Grain to Maize and Rye, but not from Maize and Rye back again to Grain. Where practicable, references are made from the most inclusive to somewhat more limited subjects, and from these latter to subjects still more specific, rather than from the inclusive to the specific subjects. We refer from Art to Engraving, from Engraving to Stipple-engraving, not directly from Art to Stipple-engraving. These general principles have been departed from where it has seemed expedient, the desire being to render the list useful and practical, rather than to make it adhere too strictly to rigid rules of procedure.

The seeming incompleteness of references from many subjects, references which obviously are needed to round out the various aspects of subjects is due to the fact that certain headings are not as yet introduced in the Library of Congress catalog. We have been very conservative about introducing new headings until called for by the books in hand, judging that the headings should be made to conform to the literature, rather than the literature to the headings.

The printing of a subject in antique type indicates that, in the library catalog, the subject has country subdivision, as in Edu[Pg 233]cation, Labor and laboring classes, Insurance, etc. It may be helpful to add here that the country is subordinated to the subject in our catalog, when it seems desirable to keep the material on a topic together, rather than to distribute it under the country headings. This includes many subjects in technology, science, art, and the social sciences.

The numbers which follow the subject headings indicate where the material dealing with those subjects is classified in the Library of Congress. The explanatory words following these numbers serve merely to guide those interested in the classification scheme. They are in different form from the subject headings, and should not be confused with them. In the matter of hyphens, the Century dictionary has been used as an authority.

At the present time the list of headings has been completed through the letter P. Q and R are now ready for the press, and will probably be issued in the course of a few weeks. The editor of the list sometimes feels it to be a cause for gratitude that the English alphabet is composed of only 26 letters. Should it contain as many letters as some other alphabets, the Sanskrit for example, the day of completion of the list might indeed be far away.

A few words in regard to the printing of the lists known as "Additions and corrections" will, I think, be needed for a full understanding of the subject headings. I have already spoken of the lists of additions issued in connection with the old A. L. A. list, before the Library of Congress list of headings began to be printed. When letter A of our new list was ready for press, there had been four of these lists issued, the additions being cumulated in each successive number. The corrections in the lists appeared but once, and were carried over by the catalogers to copies of the A. L. A. list. The headings in these early supplementary lists have, of course, been incorporated in the Library of Congress list, as far as the letters have been printed.

Even after the new list was begun, it was found impossible to dispense with the "Additions and corrections" lists, as the library catalog grew and expanded. We have continued to issue them from time to time, as occasion has demanded, and have included in them new headings in the section of the alphabet not yet printed, as well as additions to the letters which have already appeared in print.

Each "Additions and corrections" list is cumulative, as far as the additions are concerned, so that a library possessing the main list and the latest supplementary list has a complete record of all the Library of Congress headings which have been printed. As was the case in the lists supplementary to the A. L. A. headings, the corrections noted appear but once, and should be carried over by catalogers to the main list of subject headings.

The classification numbers, and cross references to related subjects, known as the "See also" references, are not included in the supplementary lists. Direct "See" references from one subject to another, or from one form of name to another, are, however, usually included, that the cataloger may avoid the pitfalls lurking for the unwary.

Including the early supplementary lists, there have been, up to the present time, eight lists of "Additions and corrections" issued, and number 9 is ready for the press.

Having now touched upon some general features in regard to the issuing of the list of subject headings, with its supplementary lists, I will conclude with a word as to a later and fuller edition. The list now being issued is a preliminary list, printed as manuscript, and, to some extent, experimental in its nature. While it is being made as complete and inclusive as present conditions seem to warrant, the intention has been to reissue it later in book form, wider in its scope and more inclusive in its references. Concerning the date of issue of the fuller edition, should this desired consummation be brought about, it is impossible at this time to make a statement. Probably it will be best to wait until the remaining classes[Pg 234] of books in the library are reclassified and re-cataloged, before any definite decision as to date is reached.

It has been suggested that the next edition of the list might be put into loose-leaf form, with a view to keeping it to date by inserting new leaves, when necessary, in place of old ones. Experiments may be tried along this line, and the relative merits of the various loose-leaf binders investigated. The advocate of this plan suggests that the Linotype slugs be kept standing, and that once a month the sheets on which changes have been made be reprinted, and distributed to the catalogers at the Library of Congress, and to subscribers to the list.

The subject matter of a later list would doubtless agree with the present list in general features, but some minor changes might be found to be desirable. One point to which our attention has been called is the possible advantage of entering subjects in zoology and botany in the plural form rather than in the singular, as most of them have been entered in the present list. Another matter which merits consideration is the substitution of subdivided headings for the inverted forms now in use in certain classes of subjects, as in the headings Oxygen, Physiological effect of, and Man, Origin of. Some other questions to be considered are as to whether it would be advisable to distinguish in the list those subjects which are divided by country and then by city, from the subjects which have direct local subdivision; whether certain classes of headings now included could be advantageously dispensed with; and whether the main subdivisions of the animal and vegetable kingdoms are a valuable feature of the list.

Doubtless other matters will suggest themselves for consideration as time goes on, and we shall hope eventually to publish a list which may commend itself as a valuable tool to library workers. Borrowing the words of Mr. Charles A. Cutter in the preface to his "Rules for a dictionary catalogue" we may say with him: "It is to be expected that a first attempt will be incomplete, and we shall be obliged to librarians for criticisms, objections, or new problems, with or without solutions."

It had been hoped that Mr. J. C. M. Hanson would personally supplement this paper by an informal account of the early practice and experimentation of the Library of Congress. In his unavoidable absence, brief extracts from a personal letter were read by Miss Thompson, who then called upon DR. E. C. RICHARDSON, librarian of Princeton university, to open the discussion with some previously prepared notes on


This discussion by the direction of proper authority is a discussion of the alphabetic subject catalog as suggested by the A. L. A. and Library of Congress subject heads. It is confined to general principles and general principles, of course, always have exceptions. This discussion is, however, free in considering these so far as it pleases.

Some of the fundamental principles may seem more like rules than principles at first sight but it is believed that they are all well principled. However, it is not pretended that they are all the principles in sight; quite the contrary, there is quite a pocket-full of these left each with the memorandum of some principle, big or little, and there are but twenty-one here enumerated. This being a discussion rather than a systematic paper properly refers to matters of recent personal experience. Since the first page of the new subject index contains subjects down to the name "Absolute," there has been drawn a synopsis of all the subject headings used by the A. L. A., Library of Congress, Harvard, Sydney, Princeton and the indexes of the Expansive Classification and Decimal Classification.

This will illustrate the variety of usages which have to be dealt with in attempting to systematize this matter so as to get uniformity and may be regarded as illustrations of the principles enumerated.

[Pg 235]

1. A catalog is a name list of concrete or specific objects as distinguished from classes of objects; a list of plants in a botanical garden, of mineral specimens in a museum or books in a library, but a list of kinds of plants, minerals or books apart from concrete specimens is not. In the case of books such a list is a bibliography. The book catalog is a directory or guide book to certain concrete books, the bibliography is a list of books in the abstract, applying equally whether its books exist in one place or another, or even if they no longer exist at all.

2. A library catalog is a directory or guide book to books for use. The immediate object to publishers, new book dealers, book auctioneers or antiquarians is sale, the object to the librarian is use. This difference affects both the form of the catalog and the description of the books.

3. Library catalogs in turn may be distinguished into catalogs for the administration (which include chiefly accession catalog and the shelf list) and those for direct use of readers (which include author, subject, title, imprint, etc., catalogs)—the special use in every case modifying the form of the catalog.

4. Catalogs for readers differ according to the two needs of readers which the catalogs try to meet. These needs are (1) To find a given book; (2) to find a book or group of books of a given character. It is not quite exact to say under this second head, that the object is to find information on a given subject or topic, for it may be that the object is to find special forms such as incunabula or Venetian imprints, association books, fiction, poetry, drama, essays, orations, ballads, encyclopedias, dictionaries, periodicals, classes of rarities, books on vellum, etc.

5. The prime object of a library catalog or directory to books for use resolves itself into a matter of the economy of time and of attention. Where there are only two or three books in a man's library there is obviously little need of catalog. As soon as there are many the guide book is needed. Whether, therefore, the catalog is author or subject, the controlling thought in its making is the economy of attention of the user.

6. The alphabetic order is on the whole the quickest reference order. The economic solution for these two needs proves, therefore, to be, the two alphabetical catalogs (1) the author and title catalog, (2) the alphabetical subject catalog. Title catalogs and the like are simply supplementary practical devices to aid inexperienced or forgetful readers.

The author and title catalog is distinguished from the author and catch-word catalog by the entry of anonymous titles under the first word rather than under the most significant word.

6b. Following a natural evolution, the systematic library catalog and the alphabetical classed catalog are practically extinct species, overwhelmed in the struggle for existence by the alphabetical subject catalog's quick and ready reference. This economy is, to be sure, effected for the average use, at a very great expense to the use of a good many readers who wish to consider all related aspects of a topic, but with the growing habit of classification of libraries, there is in fact a handy substitute, for these readers, in the classification, its index, and the shelf list. The alphabet subject catalog has thus become the recognized sole form of subject catalog for users in general.

7. The nature and origin of the alphabetical subject catalog is the same as that of the alphabetical encyclopedia, the alphabetical index to books and alphabetical index to a system of classification. Its rules and applications may, therefore, be guided by experience and practice in these three fields as well as direct experience in the alphabetical subject catalog.

8. Habit being a chief factor in quick reference, it is important that the name of the subject should be that of common usage. By this is not meant necessarily the use of the common people, but the form generally used in book indexes, [Pg 236]encyclopaedias, and library classifications. It is greatly to be desired that all encyclopedias, classifications, indexes and alphabetical subject catalogs should use just the same terms—the same form among synonyms, the same practice as to singular or plural, adjectives or substantive entry.

9. At least the names of the subjects in the alphabetical subject catalog should be identical with those of the alphabetical index to the systematic catalog if there is any or the classification of its own library.

10. Whatever names are used must be clearly defined. This is the first principle of subject cataloging, whether the arrangement is alphabetical or systematic, that the subject word shall be so clearly defined that there is no mistaking what is to go under it. It is hard to lay too much stress on this matter. It is the Alpha and Omega of subject cataloging of every sort, besides which even uniform names and the question of arrangement are quite secondary.

11. In choosing the names for classes, the most specific should be used. This is a very important aid indeed to clear definition. The only objection is the splitting of kindred subjects—the same idea which leads to the alphabetical classed or systematic catalog.

Many cautions are issued warning against being too specific—some well founded, but the danger lies almost wholly in the other direction. There may be a limit but the principle is one of the clearest and most important in the whole matter and even the encyclopedias—even the Britannica itself—are getting further and further away from the old Britannica type.

12. The names of subjects so far as they are identical with author catalog entries should be determined by the same rules as in the author catalog. This is another important aid to uniform names which should be strictly insisted on.

13. The alphabetical subject catalog should have a classed index, as the classed catalog or the shelf list must have an alphabetical index. Note that the index to the new Britannica by its alphabetical index recognizes itself as an alphabetical classed encyclopedia rather than an alphabetical subject encyclopedia. Note also that it has the systematic index—the idea which in the end must be applied to every alphabetical subject catalog and which will be fully served automatically if the names of the classification index are identical with the subject headings and the class number attached to each of the subject catalog headings.

14. Sub-headings and sub-sub-headings should be alphabetically arranged. They should not be systematic or chronological.

15. Sub-headings should be chosen by the same rules and principles as main headings and thus make a duplicate list. There may be practical limits to this but principle is clear.

16. The arrangements of titles under main subject or sub-headings need not be alphabetical. Much is to be said for the chronological order of authorship or publication, but almost the only use for alphabetical arrangement by authors under heading is a poor duplication of author catalog use. It might be a real advantage to break the bad habit of using subject catalog for author purposes and on the other hand, the chronological arrangement of titles in the vast number of cases would save turning all the cards as required in the alphabetical order. Nevertheless the alphabetical is now the common method.

17. Complex books may be analyzed for the subject catalog. This is the distinctive advantage of the subject catalog over the shelf list that it can put different articles in the same volume or various subjects involved in one title under all their effective headings. It is obvious, however, that this principle must be limited—to apply in a wooden way would involve all periodicals and essays, a rock on which more than one attempt at subject cataloging has been wrecked.

18. The subject catalog should not be overloaded with references. The principle of economy of attention requires this. Few things are more aggravating in working under subjects than to have to finger[Pg 237] over a large number of irrelevant cards. Some of the remedies for this are subdivision, the arrangement in chronological order of publication as above suggested, limiting analysis by excluding all works analyzed in accessible indexes and, where there is more than one edition of the same work, indicating one only and referring to the author catalog for the others.

19. The card should not be overloaded with details. The principle of economy of attention involves reducing the amount of material in a title to its lowest terms (whether on card or printed book) a matter greatly helped by typographical distinctions or corresponding distinction in the breaking of written lines, the location of certain details on certain lines or certain fixed places on the card, the use of red ink, underscoring, and similar details enabling the user to get the essential facts as to the identity of the work and its location in the building in the shortest possible time.

20. The indications on the cards of either catalog should be as brief as may consist with clearness and so displayed on the card as to catch the eye quickly.

21. Subject cataloging is a practical art, not a science. Names will be changed from time to time and a part of the art is therefore to develop a method of record on cards which shall cost the least possible effort for making changes.

Dr. G. E. Wire, of Worcester, continued the discussion of subject headings, with special reference to medical headings in the third edition of the A. L. A. List of subject headings.

Dr. Wire said a lack of knowledge of medical and surgical terms had led the compilers of nearly all the library catalogs into using erroneous headings, "Sees" and "See alsos" and that these errors had been continued in the third edition of A. L. A. subject headings.

A cataloger of good preliminary education, with experience gained in a large library, and with the opportunities to be found in a large library, college, reference or circulating, of consulting books, or people or both, can in time produce a fairly logical system of "Sees alsos" and "Sees," and subject headings in almost any subject except medicine.

Among the changes suggested by Dr. Wire are the following:

Abdomen. The rational references and cross references are:

See also, Intestines, Viscera.

Cross reference should be simply Viscera.

Anatomy. Why refer to Glands and not to Liver, the biggest gland in the body? Why to Chest and not to Lungs? Autopsy should not be referred to; that reference should come from Pathology.

Appendicitis. This is a surgical disease and should be put under Surgery, Practice of, instead of Medicine, Practice of.

Contagion and contagious diseases. Contagion and Infection seem to be confused. We are referred from Infection to Contagion as if they were synonymous terms.

Homeopathy. "See also Medicine" should be used for polemical treatises only. These headings show a bias against Homeopathy which is common in some classifications.

Hygiene. Has 54 "See alsos," most of which are fair but one-half of them could be omitted to the bettering and clearing of the list.

Hygiene, Public. This is better on the whole than Hygiene (plain), more consistent and logical in their references and cross references, thus confirming our contention that it is from lack of medical and surgical knowledge that these lapses occur.

Medicine. I should omit the following special headings, leaving only the general: Allopathy; Anatomy; Anæsthetics; Antiseptics; Autopsy; Bacteriology; Dentistry; Diagnosis; Histology; Homeopathy; Hospitals; Inoculation; Narcotics; Pathology; Pharmacy; Physiology; Stimulants; Surgery; Therapeutics; Vaccination.

From Medicine, Practice of, I should omit all the surgical headings as follows:[Pg 238] Appendicitis; Bones, Diseases; Cancer; Erysipelas; Eye, Diseases and Defects; Obstetrics; Surgery; Tumors.

Dr. Wire recommended that a medical mind with suitable library training should have been consulted about these headings before a final printing.

Miss Anna M. Monrad, of Yale university library, outlined the principles and scheme of subject headings for philology and literature applied in the catalog of Yale university library.


(Friday, June 28, 8:15 p. m.)

The second session of the Catalog section was held in the ballroom of the Chateau Laurier on the evening of Friday, June 28, Miss Thompson presiding.

Mr. Keogh, Miss Van Valkenburgh and Miss Mann were appointed by the chairman as nominating committee.

The first paper was by Miss ONO MARY IMHOFF of the Wisconsin legislative reference library, on


The state which studies the laws and experience of other states and countries in order to bring to its own statute books the best features of each, combined with the results of original work, confronts a problem of no small dimensions. The mass of laws put forth by the forty-eight states of this country is so overwhelming that it is practically impossible for one man thoroughly to comprehend their merits and disadvantages. The legislative reference library, therefore, must be of service in helping to select that which is worthy of imitation, at the same time discarding the impractical features.

The reasons for the success or failure of such laws, and the differences in economic or local conditions in two communities must always receive serious consideration by those who are endeavoring to meet the advancing economic demands for properly constructed and better laws. The comparative element of this vast accumulation of material must always be remembered, not only in the care, but also in the gathering of material, if the library is to serve its highest purpose.

Because of this and other well known characteristics of a library of this type, the demands are of a peculiar nature and cannot be met by the ordinary library material treated in the usual library method. It is more or less of a quasi-library, requiring an adaptation of library processes to a combination of office and library work. As a result of this difference, the general library rules for cataloging must be decidedly modified. One is justified in making the catalog of such a library a law unto itself, for each and every one of its class has its own particular problems, environment and limitations, which will probably be met in its own particular way.

Since the problem becomes so largely one of individuality and circumstances, it might be well to consider for a moment some of the essential differences in purpose and treatment of material, and to realize the desirable points to be attained as well as the non-essentials, or things actually to be avoided.

The processes and methods of this kind of a library must in their nature be conducive to rapidity and conciseness of service. Time saving devices are unusually important, not only in the acquisition of material and the actual technical work, but in the delivery of material. The speedy availability of the most serious treatises on the most profound subjects is absolutely necessary. Between sessions many, many hours of the most earnest and serious efforts must be spent in investigation, study and research in order to relieve the pressure of heavy research work as much as possible during the session.

The library deals with business men who are seeking an answer to some special need. They have a definite reason for seeking the information and a definite point of view and they expect the library[Pg 239] to answer their questions in a business-like manner. Too much emphasis cannot be placed upon efficiency of service as shown through rapidity of service. The legislator is a busy man and any time saved through devices which quicken delivery of material, or shorten the time devoted by the patron himself, is well worth while. If two hours is necessary on the part of the library worker between sessions to put material into such shape that it may be delivered ten minutes sooner during the legislative session, it should be given cheerfully.

Condensations, digests, and briefs may be prepared during the interval between sessions which will save hours of time during the actual high pressure season of the session itself. Any sort of short-cut brought about by analyticals, or any other devices known to the cataloger, should be used. Shrewdness of judgment and a general discrimination as to what is really valuable is not only highly desirable but absolutely essential.

Since time is such an important element, it might be well to call attention to the fact, that the legislative reference library may be adequately maintained without many of the records which are favored in libraries in general. Do away with as much "red tape" as possible. Simplicity of material, simplicity in service, simplicity in the whole department is to be commended above almost any other one characteristic. Among those records which can be abandoned with perfect propriety in such a department, are the accession book, gift book and withdrawal book. So much of the material is ephemeral in its value that the cost of maintenance outweighs the value received in actual results. The serial list may be exceedingly simple. Records of the number of books cataloged, or circulation statistics are of very doubtful value in this work.

Since the loss of material is inevitably rather large, an inventory is almost essential. However, material is easily replaced, much of it is free and because of this fact, a biennial inventory will prove satisfactory in most cases. There is no need of a complicated charging system. In truth, establish no records of any kind within the library until convinced that its efficiency will be hampered without them. Emphasis is put upon this point, because of the fact that all legislative reference departments have small appropriations in the beginning, and it is during this early period that the library must justify its existence by showing results in active service rather than in catalogs and records. At first there are never enough assistants to do both efficiently. Therefore, let the tendencies be toward those things which will bring into evidence vital things rather than mere good housekeeping.

It might be well to state that the term "catalog" will be used in the broadest possible sense. The definition of the term as it will be used in this paper, might be given as "a record of sources and of material," and not merely a record of material to be found upon the shelves of any one library or institution.

The catalog should be kept as simple as possible in its essentials. Conciseness of title, brevity of treatment, and above all clearness, must always be borne in mind. Sacrifice library school rules if necessary. Let there be no hesitation in enlarging or changing the title if by so doing greater clearness is gained. It must be remembered always that the catalog is made not for librarians with technical knowledge, but for men whose use of it will be that of an untrained student. Let it be such that your constituency may use it without help. Be exceedingly generous with notes, never failing in the case of bills to show whether such bills became laws or failed in passage. If a bill became a law, give the citation. If reports or cases are known by special names, be sure to note that fact. Let there be no ambiguity either in title, subject or note. Annotations as to the substance of material are also highly desirable, particularly when they show whether[Pg 240] a given article is favorable or antagonistic, or state the reliability of the author concerned.

The material itself falls into three distinct classes which influence the cataloging treatment; books, pamphlets, and clippings. The books and pamphlets show comparatively little variation from regular cataloging methods. Clippings in the Wisconsin legislative reference department are mounted upon manila sheets, eight by ten, arranged chronologically under classification number, marked with a book number Z and treated as a single pamphlet. They have no author card, being entered merely under the subject-heading necessary, with the author line left blank. This procedure is convenient in some other cases, such as certain extracts from the Congressional record, containing discussions in which various members take part and where it is difficult to enter under any individual or even joint authors.

Since the author phase of the catalog is of less interest than the subject phase which acquires unusual importance, secondary cards may be very largely omitted. Joint author cards are really of very little service. Series and title cards are the exception rather than the rule. Whenever possible it is advisable to make continuation cards instead of entering new compilations or new editions on separate cards. In the case of continuation cards, it is advisable to choose a brief title and pay no attention to such variations as may be given in different editions. For instance, a 1907 compilation of state tax laws might be entitled, "Laws relating to assessment and taxation," and the 1909 one simply "Taxation laws," and the 1911 one "Revenue and taxation laws." These may all be entered upon one card under the simple title, "Tax laws," and the three volumes added as continuations. In short, do not attempt to show the exact detail by means of cataloging, such as is advisable in public libraries. What your patron wishes to know is whether you have the tax laws of that state and what is the date of their compilation. These are the facts which interest him and the number of pages or the particular form of the title, is of absolutely no value to him. This is a good example of that freedom in condensation and changing of titles which is somewhat heretical in its nature, but which after all leads to that saving of time and patience which is so necessary. Use only such imprint as is absolutely essential; omitting on the whole, illustrations, maps, portraits, and plates. In cases of excerpts from periodicals the name of the magazine with the date of that particular issue is usually deemed sufficient.

Because the ordinary patron of the legislative reference library is unfamiliar with library methods, it has been found convenient to file "see also" cards at the beginning of the subjects rather than at the end. For this same reason, the guide cards should be much more numerous than in other libraries, and it is of great advantage to have the main headings brought out upon thirds with the subdivisions of these main headings on fifths of a different color. Blue and manila form a good color contrast for such a scheme.

As has been said before, the comparative feature of this work is one which is worthy of special consideration. Its value can scarcely be over-estimated. The efficiency of the library can be greatly increased by a constant lookout for such material. Every book, pamphlet or clipping, passing through the hands of the cataloger must be most carefully reviewed, not only for its general material, but for any comparative statement which shows either conditions, laws, or tendencies in two or more communities, states, or countries. It may take form as a tabulated statement, a chapter, a paragraph, or even a mere foot-note, but at some future time it may serve as a starting point for an investigation, or give instantaneous help in the question as to "what states or countries have laws similar to[Pg 241] this." The advisability of listing such comparative material in a separate catalog must be determined by each library. When it is buried in the regular catalog it requires much longer to answer such questions than when kept in a separate file. If made into a catalog by itself, there should always be a note showing exactly what states or countries are included in the comparison and the dates covered by such material. In other words the comparative entry must be justified either by the title or a note showing that it really is a comparison. Probably two-thirds of such material is analytical in character.

The question of analyticals will be greatly influenced by the subject matter under consideration. Upon certain subjects there are practically no book treatises, and most of the material will be found in the form of analyticals. The amount to be analyzed, the choice of form and the relative value of the material concerned must be determined by shrewd judgment on the part of the cataloger. The entire library will be greatly enhanced by a careful selection of analyticals, but the bulk of the catalog must not be increased unless with good reason.

The percentage of analyticals will be in most cases much higher than in the ordinary library, because so often a few pages are worthy of special notice on account of their comparative nature, the particular view point of the author, or sometimes merely because of the scarcity of material on that subject. As to the cataloging form for analyticals, there is no reason why it should not follow the general rules of the library as a whole. My own preference is for the long form, because oftentimes the short form is not perfectly clear to the legislator. Although advocating simplicity, as a general thing, it should not require clearness to be sacrificed at any time. There is room for discussion on this point and there is difference of opinion, but my conclusion in the matter has been reached after some experimentation. A little more work on the part of the librarian is preferable to the slightest bit of doubt on the part of the legislator.

Since legislators are investigating specific problems, looking at them from a single point of view, and not always considering a subject in its broadest sense or in its relationship to knowledge in general, the question of subject headings, outside of classification, becomes practically the most important single proposition the cataloger has to consider. In practically every case the popular rather than the technical form of heading is desirable. The simple ordinary term should be chosen, for it is under this type of heading that your reader will be most certain to look. In his haste and absorption he fails to realize that there is any possible viewpoint, other than his own. Having but one thought in his mind, he naturally expects to find his material under this subject. Most certainly he should find at least a cross reference. Therefore, one recommendation is to be exceedingly generous in the matter of cross references. Under such conditions it is always wiser not to trust one's own judgment, but to call upon various people asking under what heading they would look for material of a certain type. In this way the cataloger may secure suggestions which are unusually helpful and which put into the catalog the ideas of many persons rather than of one.

For instance, a book or pamphlet relating to the extortion practiced by usurers would be found under a heading such as "Interest" or "Usury." However, there are various other headings under which individuals might expect to find material of this kind, depending upon the particular phase of the question which he had in mind at the time. A busy man, wishing to draft a bill putting the loan shark under control, would be thinking of a loan shark and not of the underlying principle of interest. Another man approaching the question through interest in the installment plan would expect to find material of use to him under that subject.[Pg 242] Another man taking a broader view of the subject might look under "Interest." Each of these men would be justified in looking under the particular subject he had in mind, expecting to find either the material or a reference sending him to the chosen heading. Every possible heading which suggests itself is worthy of consideration, for such an investment of time will more than pay for itself in the satisfaction it brings to those who use the catalog. The necessity for painstaking effort and careful thought in this connection is verified by experience.

Special and local names may well be noted on all main cards and cross references made in every case from such forms. For instance, the law governing the sale of stocks recently passed in Kansas, which is popularly known as the "Blue sky law" should be noted as such in the catalog. The "Mary Ann" bill may be called for by that name and if there is no cross reference in the catalog the untrained assistant in the library, or the stenographer, will never find it. The mechanical part of the catalog should be so complete that it does not require acquaintance with all phases of the subject in order that a person may use it intelligently. Therefore, special and local names inevitably need attention.

The contents of a legislative reference library are largely of either an economic or a legal nature, and its patrons sometimes approach the material from the legal side and sometimes from the economic side. In assigning subject headings this fact must never be forgotten. Consequently, the headings will sometimes take a legal turn and sometimes an economic turn. At times it is necessary to compromise and choose one halfway between the two.

Let us consider for a moment the relationship of the economic and the legal material. Justice Holmes, in his book on the "Common law," expresses this relationship unusually well. He says in substance that the growth of the law is legislative; it is legislative in its grounds; that the secret root from which law draws all the juices of life is consideration of what is expedient for the community.

The economic necessity for law precedes the legal expression. The need for a statute is felt long before it is formulated. This is readily recognized by political economists and lawyers. Judge Dicey, in his book entitled, "Law and opinion in England," (Lond. 1905, p. 367) says: "A statute * * * is apt to reproduce the public opinion, not so much of today as of yesterday." Since a legislative reference library is busied with the process of law-making, rather than with the administration or interpretation of law, the trend will be toward the economic headings rather than the legal. The tendency of law is to crystallize, and subjects legal in aspect are likely to be complete in themselves, and therefore less amenable to library purposes. As an example, a subject heading such as "Eminent domain" is legal in its nature. This will be used in the main body of the catalog without a doubt. It may have cross references of both a legal and an economic nature. At the same time "Eminent domain" may be used as a subdivision of economic headings, such as "Railroads," "Street railways," "Telegraphs," and "Telephones." This shows how the legal aspect of an economic question may be brought directly in touch with the economic phase of the question. Another example is "Liquor problem;" as it is used in the subject headings, it is an economic question, yet we use the subdivision "Illegal traffic" which includes purely a legal phase. "Discrimination," a legal term, will cross refer to some specific form under an economic heading such as "Railroads—Rebates." It is often necessary to refer from some rather popular headings to legal forms, such as "Funeral expenses, see Estates of deceased persons." Again it may be necessary to mix the two with a heading such as "Ethics—Business and professional," with cross references from legal headings, such as "Professional ethics,"[Pg 243] "Legal ethics," "Medical ethics," etc. The general conclusion reached is that there is likely to be either subdivisions or cross references back and forth from any type of heading to any other type, with one exception, namely, an economic subdivision of a legal heading. In our experience in Wisconsin, we have not found this combination of headings either necessary or advantageous. This fact but emphasizes what has already been said, that law once established, becomes permanent and fixed in character.

Geographical divisions as main headings should be used sparingly, but geographical subdivisions of subjects are very helpful. Primary election laws, road laws, tax laws, will all be more available if divided by states, not only in the classification, but in the subject heading. If clearness or rapidity of service demand subdivisions, they should be made, even though there be few cards under each subdivision.

Many helpful suggestions for subject headings and cross references may be obtained from law indexes, law encyclopedias, and the New York index of legislation.

Not only is it necessary for the cataloger to know the material which is in the library itself, but if efficient work is to be accomplished it is decidedly necessary that material not within the four walls should be made available. Let all kinds of knowledge be at the cataloger's command, and make the mechanical devices carry as much of this burden as possible. First of all, material which is in town but which is not contained within your own library, should be noted. Statutes and session laws of all the states should be obtainable though not necessarily a part of the library itself. If a state or law library is near at hand, it is far better to rely upon them as a source of reference than to duplicate such a collection on your own shelves. Articles in law magazines, reports large in bulk, but issued only occasionally, may be noted, when not placed upon the shelves. In Wisconsin we make a distinction between material in existence within the city and that which is in existence elsewhere, such as in the Library of Congress, the John Crerar library, or nearby institutions. A manila catalog card tells us that the material may be found outside of the city, whereas by stamping the name of the library in the place of the call number on a white card, we indicate that the material is in town. Subject entries only are made for material of this sort.

There are many indexes already in existence which will supplement the catalog and call to the attention of the worker available material. One of the most valuable sources of all is found in the experts of the neighborhood. The librarian is too prone to think that all the most useful knowledge is in books or printed form. Some of the best help imaginable can be obtained from men. Every community has within its borders specialists of various types; men who have given their lifetime to the study of some particular question. Make such individuals a portion of the catalog; use them as sources. The telephone is at your command and oftentimes more valuable information can be obtained from some person within telephone call than can be gotten from hours of work with shelf material.

Furthermore, do not limit yourself to the talented man within the community, but use the expert wherever he may be found. Correspondence will often bring information to your door; mount the letters; put them with the clippings or catalog them separately; in case of urgency, telegraph. In fact, have some of the appropriation deliberately set aside for supplementing the catalog by telegrams.

A record of sources, arranged both by places and subjects is of service. Under your subject list enter the names and addresses of those who are specialists. Experts throughout the country will thus be at your command. In the geographical list, put the names of parties to whom you may apply for material relating to a[Pg 244] given community. Suppose for instance, that your state is contemplating a Workmen's compensation law and some state where there is no legislative reference department is also considering the matter. This state passes a law on Tuesday, and on Saturday the bill of your own state is coming up for consideration. You need exact information as to which bill is passed, whether it passed with or without amendments; in fact, you must have immediate and full knowledge concerning that law. You may have within your mind some possible source, but during the stress and pressure of the legislative session such a list relieves one of the necessity of remembrance.

The catalog, through its mechanical devices, can carry this burden. The catalog is not merely a record of sources within the four walls, but must endure as a record of all possible available sources, so that time and energy given to "the living part" of the catalog, is well expended.

In addition to the sources already mentioned, there are numerous other possible indexes of value. When the bills are available in printed form, a subject index indicating the final disposition of a bill—whether killed, passed or vetoed—is of inestimable use. Such indexes for the general laws and the local and temporary laws are advantageous. A comparative index, apart from the regular catalog, already noticed, may be mentioned again in this connection. An index of the documents of the state is also a valuable asset, since the publications of most states are rather poorly indexed and have practically no centralized list of subjects. The decisions of the attorney-generals quite often are of as much importance in law conclusions as are the decisions of the courts. They have virtually either vitalized or invalidated laws upon the statute books. In states where statute revisions are rather infrequent, statute indexes may be necessary. These indexes should be made supplementary to the regular catalog. Some of them may be carried along as side issues at the same time as the regular work, and others may be taken up in their entirety to be accomplished as time permits.

Since the importance and value of such a library depends, not upon the quantity, but upon the quality and efficiency of the collection, the disposition of material which has become historical in its nature comes prominently into the foreground. Unless there is constant supervision and reduction, there is an unnecessary and useless accumulation. The working library will never be a large one. After a state policy relating to a given question is established, the library should, within a reasonable time, dispose of the larger portion of the collection on that subject. Its present usefulness from the legislator's standpoint is over. Its future value is as a historical contribution. As a result, there will be continual withdrawals as well as continual acquisitions.

After all, that which makes library work so stimulating and so interesting is the human element. The progress which one may make in its mechanical side, the service of all its books and pamphlets, the importance and the value of the material, depend primarily upon the human side of it. The mere fact that the scholar, as well as the man with a hobby, the student along with the crank, the conservative together with the radical, the theoretical and the practical man, are all brought together in a common place, shows that the mechanical is truly the lesser value in this field of work. However, it is in the making of a more perfect apparatus, in the saving of time and energy, in the additions to its efficiency, that the cataloger receives his reward. The possibilities of this work are so far reaching, that every reasonable device or idea is at least worthy of trial so that there may be every possible advancement in every practical direction. It is a new work and there are few guide posts. We cannot accept other experiences unquestionably. What are virtues in another library may be vices in the legislative[Pg 245] reference work. What we most need is a safe and sane balance of judgment, quickness of perception, a sense of foresight, combined with all the special knowledge possible, great discrimination, initiative and the ability to meet any situation, and above all, the disposition to test every new conception or suggestion which may lead to development; in fact, the more of these virtues which the cataloger may possess, the more efficient will be the result, not only in the catalog itself, but in the net results shown by the work in its entirety.

In the discussion following the paper, Mr. W. H. Hatton, chairman of the Wisconsin free library commission, spoke of the importance of knowing not merely books but men and making a wise use of correspondence.

Next on the program was Mr. A. G. S. JOSEPHSON'S query


In raising this question I am not concerned with the principles of cataloging, with the difference between cataloging and bibliography, or any problem of that kind. My problem is the much more practical: What part of the work of a library staff is meant when cataloging is spoken of in an annual report? What does it mean when a librarian states that a certain number of assistants have during a certain period cataloged a certain number of books? And, bringing the matter down to a particularly practical point, what does he mean when he says that it costs a certain sum of money to catalog a book? I am not going to answer the question, I want it answered. I don't want it answered right off. I would like to see this section go after the problem and bring in the answer. In a word, I suggest that this section appoint a committee for the purpose of investigating the method and cost of cataloging in a number of representative libraries. I would not be much concerned for the present with the methods of the small public and college libraries, but only with such libraries as may be said to have a special cataloging force; and I would not extend the inquiry to more than a score of libraries at the most.

The following draft of a questionnaire will show succinctly enough what I have in mind:

1. How many persons between the grades of head of department and clerical attendants are connected with your cataloging force? In how many grades are these divided?

2. How many of these are occupied with the actual writing of the titles?

3. How many persons of the grades of clerical attendants and pages are occupied with copying of cards, typewriting headings, filing and other such more mechanical work?

4. Are any persons of a higher grade than clerical attendant doing any of the above kinds of work, and why?

5. Are those of your assistants who write the titles occupied with this all day, or do they change regularly to some other kind of work? If the latter, is such other work treated merely as relief from the drudgery of title writing, or does it occupy a considerable part of the assistants' time? Or, are a certain number of days a week devoted to cataloging (i.e. title writing) all the time, and other days given up to other kinds of work?

6. Are the following items, or any of them, determined by the assistants who write the titles, or by superior members of the staff:

(a) general form and completeness of entry;

(b) author heading and added author headings and cross references;

(c) collation;

(d) subject headings;

(e) classification.

7. What is the average salary of the members of your cataloging force?

There may likely be other questions to be included; some of the above questions may be made more detailed or given a different formulation or bearing. I believe that an inquiry of this kind, if carried out as it should be done, would do[Pg 246] much to show us where changes in our methods might be introduced, to the increased efficiency of the cataloging force and to the benefit of its members.

The ensuing discussion, participated in by C. B. Roden, W. S. Merrill, C. W. Andrews and others resulted in the adoption, on motion of Mr. Roden, of the following resolution:

RESOLVED, that the executive board be asked to appoint a committee to investigate the cost and methods of cataloging in accordance with the suggestions in Mr. Josephson's paper.

A report on uniformity in cataloging rules, made by Miss Helen Turvill, instructor in cataloging in the Wisconsin library school, as chairman of a committee appointed at the January, 1912, meeting of the library schools instructors, was presented by Miss Mary E. Hazeltine.

In connection with this report, Miss Hazeltine submitted for inspection a double file of printed rules on cards embodying the present usage of the Wisconsin library school, which it was hoped might serve as a basis for the further work of the committee. One file was arranged numerically as given to the students for class work; the other, alphabetically under topical guides, as the students would have them filed with illustrative sample cards, at the end of the course.[7]

[7] These card rules may be obtained of the Democrat Printing Company, Madison, Wis., $2.50 per set.

The report itself, which was merely one of progress, to be completed at the midwinter meeting, was accompanied by a request for discussion at Ottawa and a list of points on which an expression of the preference of librarians was desired.

Miss Gooch and Miss Van Valkenburgh, members of the committee, spoke in explanation of its purpose and scope.

Mr. Merrill said that as editor of the A. L. A. periodical cards he was glad to learn that a committee was working to secure greater uniformity in catalog entries.

Among the libraries contributing the copy for the periodical card work of the Publishing board, there is still variation in the mode of entering authors' names: sometimes date of birth is given and sometimes it is omitted; names unused by a writer are looked up and entered upon the card by one library and disregarded by another library; periods after initials are used or omitted; names of joint authors are both given in the heading by one library and only first name is given by another, while there is even diversity about filling out initials of the second author's name.

These divergencies are not only theoretically inconsistent but practically inconvenient, because the printed cards do not conform entirely to the practice of any library. Mr. Merrill said he hoped that agreement upon these points might soon be reached.

The question of methods of bringing the matter to the attention of librarians was informally discussed by Miss Margaret Mann, Miss Bessie Goldberg, Miss Bessie Sargeant Smith, and others, but as the chairman, Miss Thompson, pointed out, the report was but a partial one and [Pg 247]not from a committee of the Catalog section. Therefore no action was required.

Owing to the lateness of the hour, further consideration of this subject and also problems of arrangement in a dictionary catalog, which was scheduled in the program, were referred to the incoming section officers.

The nominating committee submitted this ticket: Chairman, Miss Harriet B. Gooch, instructor in cataloging, Pratt institute school of library science; secretary, Miss Margaret Sutherland Mackay, head cataloger, McGill university.

They were unanimously elected and the meeting adjourned.



(Friday afternoon, June 28th)

The first session was held at the Chateau Laurier Friday afternoon, June 28th. The chairman, Miss Mary de Bure McCurdy, presided. The general topic was "Work of special libraries with children."

MISS MARY S. SAXE, of the Westmount public library of Montreal, read a paper on the subject.


Miss Saxe said they had in Westmount the only properly equipped children's room in any library in the province of Quebec, and that the only library work for children in Montreal was done by the McGill university settlement workers in the slums of that city. The best children's work in the province of Ontario is now done by the public libraries of Toronto, Ottawa, London, Collingwood, Berlin, Sarnia and Fort William. Among the smaller libraries the work done at Galt is particularly worthy of mention, the quality being due, as is generally the case, to the unselfish and enthusiastic work of the librarian. At Winnipeg, although they have a handsome library building and a room set apart for the children, activities seemed at a low ebb when the speaker visited the library two years ago.

"The Church of England in Canada has done a good work up there within the Arctic circle with its Sunday school libraries. The Indian children and the half-breed children, of whom there are many, get all their reading from this source.

"Away out on the Pacific coast, a missionary of this same church became interested in the logging camps that he found among the islands of the gulf of Georgia. He returned to the Bishops of Columbia, and of New Westminster, stating that he must have a boat built, which would be a church, and also an ambulatory library. It was a beautiful scheme—it was also an expensive one. But those of you who care to read of its development in a little book entitled "Western Canada" can do so, and you will learn with delight how well the idea has worked out.

"In the past two years the library movement in Canada, especially in the Northwest, has expanded rapidly. Regina has opened a new public library within the past six weeks, and the work for children is to be well looked after. Calgary, New Westminster, Vancouver, Victoria, all tell the same tale of a long struggle in crowded quarters—and now new buildings and splendid promise of good work. It is most unfortunate for us in Canada, that our distances are so great, our ties have to be mostly railway ties.

"In Westmount we opened the Children's room in January, 1911. We began agitating the dire need of such a department fully seven years before the reality came."

The paper on County work with children prepared by Miss ALICE GODDARD, head of children's department, Washington County free library, Hagerstown, Maryland, was read by Miss Gertrude Andrus in Miss Goddard's absence.

[Pg 248]


My subject, as announced on the program is "County work with children." In the first place let me say that there is little or nothing to be said about county work with children that does not apply equally to work with adults in the same community. The experience of the Washington County free library of Hagerstown, Maryland, during eleven years of rural work, has been that the books that go into the country homes are read by old and young alike. The reason for this is not far to seek; the children are going to school, for a few months of the year, at least, and are receiving an education that was, in many cases, denied the parents. Before the installation of our library, books, other than an occasional religious periodical, perhaps, were an unknown quantity in the average farm house, so that, even if the farmer or his wife had acquired the reading habit as a child, it had lapsed, through disuse. Consequently, when our books were first brought to the door the same books appealed to both parents and children. One mother told us, with tears in her eyes, that we could never know how she enjoyed hearing the children read the books aloud, for neither she nor her husband could read or write.

At a farmers' institute in Ohio, an enlightened farmer once remarked that the three things that had done most for the amelioration of the lot of the farmer's wife were, rural free delivery, rural telephones and Butterick patterns, and to that trilogy we add rural free delivery of books. How to reach the country children, is, of course, the problem that confronts a county library. The methods of the Washington County free library of Hagerstown, Md., are:

First—The children's room of the central library. This is a large, pleasant room, on the second floor, where the usual activities of any children's room are carried on. Two story hours a week are held, Friday nights for the older children, and Saturday mornings for the younger ones; many of our regular Saturday morning visitors are from the outlying districts; there are three little boys who come "four mile," as they express it, nearly every week to hear the stories, they have been known to be led into the extravagance of spending even their return fare on the train—such are the temptations of city life!—and having to walk home. One very small boy who is with us almost every Saturday is the son of a stage driver, his father brings him in, and leaves him with us for the morning, he is known among us as "sonny," because of characteristics similar to those of Ruth McEnery Stuart's hero.

Any child in the county, so soon as he can write his name, may "join liberry," regardless of "race, or previous condition of servitude," a phrase not without meaning still, in Maryland. The same privileges are extended to all, town and country children alike, two books at a time, with privilege of renewal. Country books may, of course, be renewed by telephone or mail, and frequent cards come to "Dear teacher," or even "Dear friend."

The teachers draw to a practically unlimited extent upon the circulating collection, as well as from the school duplicates, of which more a little later. So much for the work of the main library.

Second—Branches throughout the county. These are deposit stations, placed in the country store, the post office, the toll gates or, in some cases, in private houses, the boxes contain about fifty books, and are returned every two or three months for a fresh supply. A custodian is appointed who keeps track of the books by means of an alphabetized blank book, the book slips being kept at the library, filed by the Browne system, under the name of the station, Shady Bower, Black Rock, etc.

Third—The Boonesboro Reading Room. This village began with a deposit station, and became so interested that a permanent reading room was established, maintained entirely by the village, except for the books, which are supplied by the library; a permanent collection was given, which[Pg 249] is supplemented by an exchange every ten days. A fortnightly story hour is carried on here; during the past two years it has become necessary to divide the children into two groups, to the older ones the same series of stories is told as to the older group at the library, Norse myths, Iliad and Odyssey, and, this winter, Chaucer, Spencer and Shakespeare. The latter author, by the way, meets with special approbation among our country friends.

Fourth—Schools. The country schools, as well as those in town, are visited, and collections are sent; with the books are sent pictures, prints of the masterpieces, mounted, and annotated with sufficient fullness to serve as a lesson outline, if the teachers wish to use them so.

Fifth—The book wagon, or to be strictly accurate, one must now say book automobile. About six years ago it was discovered that thirty of the stations were off the line of railroad, trolley or stage, and the question of transportation arose; for a year a horse and wagon filled the need, going out simply for the purpose of carrying cases back and forth. Then the book wagon was built, so constructed as to carry several cases for deposit stations, and at the same time, some two hundred books on its shelves; thus began our rural free delivery of books, and the wagon, with its driver, Mr. Joshua Thomas, became one of the features of the county, until about two years ago, when a most unfortunate accident deprived us of both. A stray engine, coming round a curve, struck and completely demolished the wagon; happily, Mr. Thomas and the horses were across the track, the horses escaped uninjured, and Mr. Thomas, though thrown out and stunned, sustained no injuries other than the shock, which, at his age, was naturally very great. Mr. Thomas has now retired from active labors, and the wagon has been succeeded by an automobile.

Perhaps I can best give you an idea of the work of the wagon if you will come with me, in spirit, for a typical day in the country. The new car is constructed very much as the old wagon was, with room for two passengers, besides the chauffeur, one member of the staff goes on the trips now, for our chauffeur is a chauffeur only, nor is he the picturesque figure Mr. Thomas was.

Let us choose a morning in spring, when red bud and dogwood are in bloom, and the fruit trees are fluffy masses of pink and white clouds, and the tender green of new life is showing on hill side and forest, and the "hills of Maryland" stand out like lapis lazuli against a turquoise sky. It is a fair country, and one can understand why the early settlers tarried in this valley in their march westward, over the very National Road that we shall drive over today; a road full of historic meaning, a road that has seen the covered wagons of the emigrant tide, that has resounded to the tread of advancing and retreating armies, and that is now a thoroughfare for motor cars. We see little, or no actual poverty, occasionally the down-at-the-heels farm of a "poor white," but thrift and comfort are the rule.

We spin gaily along in our motor wagon, stopping at the farm houses along the way; occasionally horses shy at us, and children stick their fingers in their mouths and stare, for automobiles are still somewhat of a novelty on cross roads and lanes, and country horses and children are not so sophisticated as their city brethren. Sometimes we go a mile or more off the main road, to reach one house; we are rewarded in one such case, for we find a girl of sixteen, who has never read Miss Alcott, and we leave her with Little Women in her arms. A swarm of "sunbonnet babies" greets us here, too, and we find a picture book for the older sister to read to them.

At one house we have some difficulty in enticing the farmer's wife out to look at our wares. "He" is out on the farm, and there is not much time for reading. We discover a boy of twelve or thirteen, however, lurking in the background, with a dog at his heels, the dog is a convenient[Pg 250] topic of conversation, and Beautiful Joe happens to be in the wagon. An inquiry as to the family elicits the information that this boy is all, except an "orphant boy we took." After some difficulty the "orphant boy" is brought forth from the recesses of the barn, where, we strongly suspect, he has had an eye at a crack all the time, and proves to be the regulation "bound boy" of Mary E. Wilkins, tattered straw hat, patched overalls and all; he, too, has a fondness for animals, and so we drive away, leaving boys and dog looking after us, with Seton-Thompson as a companion.

One wide detour, up a hilly lane, brings us to a house, commanding a wonderful view of hills and valleys, and the Potomac, a winding silver thread in the distance. Here we find the mistress of the house, and a girl of sixteen or eighteen, who "lives there;" they used to get books from the old wagon, they tell us, and it has seemed a long time since they had any. Accordingly, we bid them help themselves, and as we are preparing to drive away, one of them, hugging a huge pile of heterogeneous literature, says to the other, "Law, Bess, we'll fergit to listen on the 'phone!" an unconscious tribute both to us and the rural telephone system.

And now we find that the dinner hour has arrived; sometimes there is a country hotel at hand, but more often we have dinner at some hospitable farm house, which gives us a golden opportunity to make friends with our people. It is noticeable that the conversation is confined almost entirely to us women, the men attending strictly to the business in hand; the women, however, make the most of an unusual event, and between serving and conversation, it often seems to us as though their own wants must be entirely forgotten.

There is a country school on our way, and we stop there to get the key to a church a little farther on, where we are to pick up a case of books; the temptation to a story teller is too great to be resisted, the wagon goes on, to come back a little later, the two rooms are put together, and I have the pleasure of telling "Johnny Cake" and "Seven little kids" to children who have never heard them before. When the wagon appears we suggest a picture, and a grand stampede follows, all the school commissioners and truant officers on earth could not have kept a child in that building—the charm of the Pied Piper was no greater!

"And what do your country children read?" We are often asked, and we like to reply, with considerable pride, that they read good books. When the wagon is being loaded for a trip a large proportion of the books is from the shelves of the children's room, and of the fiction fully 75% bears the mystic symbol "J," showing, as I have said, that the same books are read by parents and children; war stories are always in demand, particularly of the Civil War; Henty is a prime favorite, and of the better Hentys, With Clive in India, Beric the Briton, for instance, we duplicate quite freely. Novels of a religious character, such as Ben Hur are popular, and Pilgrim's progress is always in demand.

And so our day slips by, and before we know it evening is upon us; by four o'clock we see preparations for the night going on in the barn yard. We go home, tired, but with depleted shelves, and the consciousness of a good day's work. May there be many more to come, and may each one of you fare forth with us one day, on some such happy library adventure.

Mr. Henry E. Legler read a paper prepared by Miss JEAN McLEOD, house librarian, Sears, Roebuck & Co., Chicago, on


I have been advised that there is only one thing more ruinous to one's reputation than an absent debut to the American Library Association conference, and that is to inflict a maiden paper upon someone else to read. But after absorbing some of[Pg 251] Mr. Legler's courage and optimism, I cannot refrain from treading upon this dangerous ground and setting forth a few pet theories. I do not know that Sears, Roebuck & Company needs an introduction or an explanation, but as the character, combined with the magnitude of the house, is quite unique, and is such a vital part of the library work, the foundation of this paper, as well as of the work itself, must of necessity be predicated upon some knowledge of the house machinery.

We are dealing with a mail order retail house, and this paper will be based upon the central plant only. The existence of the outlying factories, not only in Chicago but throughout the country, all under the control of one corporation, opens up a new field in commercial library work, which to my knowledge has never been touched.

The house handles everything—that does not mean the usual stock of a department store, but everything that can be bought and sold. New opportunities arise as your eye wanders down the list of the various departments. Our house directory lists over 200 departments, including jewelry, baby clothes, and farm implements. In fact, a home can be furnished complete from parlor to stables.

Besides the merchandise, we have the various administration and utility departments, which include press rooms, bindery, machine shops, shipping rooms, employment department, restaurant, green house, hospital, barber shop, chemical laboratory, etc. With this cosmopolitan center, condensed under one management, there is no limit to library possibilities. My experience so far has been that everything in print can find a congenial resting place somewhere in the house.

The central plant occupies three square blocks, including five buildings and a sixth in the process of construction. The largest of these, the merchandise building, is nine stories high and two blocks long, and is a condensed village in population and activity. The library is located next to one of the most popular sections in this building, the employees' and house sales department. In this section employees are obliged to call for their personal purchases. This is an added convenience and a time saving arrangement. The printing building, administration building, power house and paint factory complete the group of this seething little city, and make one wish that a branch library might be established in every corner.

Our library is primarily a deposit branch of the Chicago public library. We have about 1600 books on deposit, which give us a circulation of about 4000 a month. In addition to that, our daily express service gives us the resources of the main library stock, and makes it possible to send individual cards with specific requests through the station department. This is a great help in making out lists on special topics, as 25 or 30 books on a subject may be listed and drawn one after the other without further reference. Our circulation for these books runs from between 75 to 100 a day.

In addition to our public library books, we have about a thousand of our own. About 75 per cent. of this collection is light fiction and juvenile books; that is, stories for both boys and girls of the intermediate age. Books of this character are, of course, in the greatest demand, and it is for the right kind of this material that we are constantly searching. This supplementary collection of our own does not in any way detract from our public library books, but rather serves as added bait and leads to the better books of the public library, upon whose resources we depend for our existence.

We subscribe for about 40 monthly and weekly periodicals, both technical and popular. In addition to these, we have several shelves of miscellaneous magazines, composed of month-old copies sent out from the main library, as well as our own old copies, and donations from the employees. All of these magazines we circulate. In fact, we are in no sense a reading room, as the very nature of a busy 8-hour day and 45-minute lunch period will prove. Our charging tray and a few pieces[Pg 252] of furniture are the only things we refuse to let go to the homes or departments.

In taking charge of the library last fall, I realized that there were two distinct phases of the work: the commercial or economic, and the social—the first to be established, the second to be developed—both sides equally interesting and offering equal possibilities.

The commercial value must be established not only by becoming familiar with the policy of the house, but by co-operating with the heads of departments and making the library felt as a live agent throughout the house.

Co-operation is best established by the reference work which can to a large extent be created. For instance: One of the buyers in the supply department is dealing with two agents for rubber bands. The contract is a big one. There is much discussion as to which make of rubber band will live the longer. In self-defence, the buyer telephones the library for any information on rubber. Right here is the librarian's chance to make or mar. Perhaps this buyer has no library card, but at the eleventh hour has thought of the library as a last resource. There is one sure way to cure him of ever using the library again, and to persuade this time-pressed business man that the library is a plaything done up in red tape, and that is to send word to him that he must come personally to the library, sign an application, and wait for the book according to our library law. He will probably decide to take a chance on the merits of the rubber bands, and condemn the library as an agent of too slow blood for his purposes.

The point is to get the information and to get it at once to the right man. If we can find something on our own shelves, a boy is sent with the book at once, even if he carries an encyclopaedia with him. If, as often happens, we are not so fortunate, a signal of distress is sent over the 'phone to the reference librarian at the main library, and she sends out material on the next delivery. Not only does this apply to the buyer of rubber bands, but to the chemist who wants material on fabrics, textiles, and lubricating oils; to the manager of the grocery department, on the blending of coffee; to the furniture buyer, on cabinet making and period furniture; to the head of the agricultural department on the silo and the traction engine; to the clerk in the shipping department, on parcels post; to the girl in the correspondence department, on punctuation; to the boy in the automobile repair shop, on the gas engine; and so on indefinitely. A memorandum of these requests makes a busy day for the weekly visit to the reference room at the main library. Books of interest on each particular subject are listed, even to government bulletins. We have even had intrusted to our care material from the public document department, and Mr. Legler's liberality has given us an economic value that will be the stepping stone to a new work, and make the library a factor to be reckoned with by the progressive commercial house.

In our library, as well as in any other, the reference work is not confined to the books alone. The value of magazine material is an old story, but its worth is self-evident in a progressive business house whose aim is to anticipate future contingencies as well as to meet present needs. Before discarding magazines, all the usable material is appropriated and sent to the man or woman interested. Not only does this apply to the man's business, but to his hobbies—a little article for instance, on poultry raising or photographic chemistry will often create public opinion very favorable to the library. So far we have not kept a clipping file of these articles, but that is one of the next steps that could be made quite an important feature.

To keep in touch with the buyers and department heads, the newest books on subjects of special interest stimulate not only the men in charge, who are always ready to respond to new ideas, but arouse new interest among all employees and indirectly lead to promotion through more[Pg 253] efficient work. These books are sent right to the department, either to be examined with a view to buying, or, if already purchased, to be circulated in the department. We find that in this way we lose few if any books and our time-honored statistics do not suffer.

And so in many little ways it is possible to creep into the commercial life of an immense concern; to develop gradually from a convenience to a necessity.

The social side of our work is perhaps a misnomer. At least, it is an intangible sort of thing that has no name. Our reason for existence is the same as for any other public library—that is, for the common good. To do any grade of work other than simply handing the books over the counter, it is necessary first of all to become familiar with the personnel of our employees. We have about 8500 employees, and to become personally acquainted with each is, of course, impossible. However, a surprisingly large number can be reached on this footing, and the rest is a question of time combined with a sane democratic attitude. We do not want our people to feel that reform through the library is one of the rules on the application blank, or that the librarian's stamp of approval must go out with every book. Advice, so labeled, is never given.

Of our 8500 employees, one-half are girls varying in education from grammar school to college graduates. One-fifth of this number are under 18 years of age. The work with this last group is intensely interesting, and can be developed in many ways. We have, of course, the usual problem, in trying to direct from Mary J. Holmes and Southworth to a better grade of reading. However, we are not working in the dark to the same extent as is the usual public library. Our girls are all banded together with a common interest, and we are at once on the same big plane. We have access to them at any time of the day. We are a part of the thing most vital to them—their daily work and means of support. They come to the library during the noon hour for a change of scene and to see the other girls, as well as to exchange their books. We give them books for their parties and books for their night school classes. A girl is told by her employer that she will lose her position unless she learns to use good English. In desperation, she comes to the library, and we give her a book, yes, even three books, if she needs them, to help her keep her position. Another girl must be transferred to a less desirable position unless she can increase her vocabulary in order to take dictation more intelligently. She is advised to come to the library, and we are there to see that she gets the right books. The next time she may come without being sent. The girls come to us to find out when the lake boats begin their trips, as well as to find desirable places in which to spend vacations. And so we welcome them each time they come, regardless of what their errand may be, for we want them to feel that the library is theirs, and is a convenience as well as a pleasure.

The work with the girls is so varied, and is such a study in itself, that I have only touched upon its possibilities. However, a book on the subject would not cover the field, but lack of time and consideration for your feelings will prevent further comment, and I will simply outline just a few of the ways in which we try to reach the boys, one-third of whom are under 21 years of age. Aside from the eternal vigilance to blot out all Alger traces, we have many really interesting phases of the work with the boys. We first of all can and do have confidence in the boys. We can get necessary information as to their home conditions, if we wish it. We have, in common with them, as with the girls, their vital interest, the beginning of their career. The influence that can be exerted over these young boys, many of whom are leaving home for the first time, and are, so to speak, "men among men," is tremendous. Often a wavering ambition can be reinforced and a chance for "making good" saved by showing a little unasked interest.[Pg 254] We try to give the boys material for both work and play. We post lists of books on the bulletin boards in various departments, and so call attention to books on "choosing a career," or "business efficiency." Then we make up lists on athletic sports, interest in which is stimulated by our athletic association, whose membership includes both boys and girls.

Many times a department is discovered where little or no interest is taken in the library. We find that the boys and girls from there never come to the library, and so we take the library to them. In every case the managers are very anxious to co-operate and are willing to have us send a small collection of light fiction to the time clerk's desk. She circulates these as she wishes. So far, we have lost no books in this way, and in every instance new borrowers have been the direct result.

Many of the boys have been obliged to leave school before entering high school or even the upper grades, and in many ways we can supplement their lack of school training—especially if we can discover a gleam of interest in any one subject, such as mechanics, electricity or history.

All our work, our aims, and our possibilities are crystalized in our Library Bulletin, a home product in every sense of the word. The direct object of this little publication is to attract all ages and all classes of our employees. It is sent to every department, and from there distributed personally. We try to have in each issue a section to appeal to popular demand, as well as to promote some special feature. We hope to make this bulletin a strong factor in our work, a lever that will gauge not only the circulation of our books, but will be the connecting link between the library and the employees, and make it the medium of a new energy and a new enthusiasm radiating from our small quarters to every activity of the plant.

And so, in these few pages, I have tried to show that the commercial house library, although in its infancy, has come to stay. And as the pioneering becomes more and more an established fact in library work, more commercial houses will recognize the need. They will be more than ready to respond to the progressive public libraries, whose efforts to expand and to bring their resources to the very centers of civic activity will thus establish a more intelligent relationship and efficient co-operation with their very means of support.

Miss Grace A. Whare, of the Houghton, Mich., public library, was present at the meeting and asked the privilege of presenting a very attractive exhibit of colored slides and illustrations which she used in telling Miss Lagerlöf's Story of Nils. Each of twenty-six illustrations depicted an adventure of Nils.

Business Meeting

The regular business meeting of the section was held at Chateau Laurier, June 29th at 9:30 a. m. Miss McCurdy presided.

The minutes of the last meeting were read and adopted. The chairman announced that the terms of two of the five members on the advisory board had expired and that only one member was appointed at the last meeting, instead of two. This raised the question as to the advisability of having an advisory board since none of the other sections had such boards. It was urged that an executive committee be formed consisting of the three officers of the section and two other members to be appointed by the chairman, and that all the members of this executive committee be actually engaged in some phase of library work with children. It was finally decided, however, to continue the advisory board as heretofore and the chairman was requested to appoint members to fill the vacancies. Mr. Hill and Miss Titcomb were appointed to serve for three years each. The chairman appointed the following committee on nomination for officers: Annie S. Cutter, Gertrude Andrus and Adah Whitcomb. The meeting then adjourned.

[Pg 255]


(Monday afternoon, July 1st)

The second session of the section was held July 1, at 2 o'clock. The general subject was "Work with high schools." Mr. FRANK K. WALTER, vice director of the N. Y. State library school, read a paper on


Within the past few years the literature of this subject has become so copious that any original discussion of basic principle has become nearly out of the question. The excuse for papers like this one, which is mostly mere reiteration, lies in the fact that outside of library circles the matter has not been very seriously considered in spite of the constant repetition, and relatively few teachers have as yet attempted to give definite instruction in the use of books.

It is one of the characteristics of the present that we are learning the necessity of saving time and effort by doing better the things we can already do passably well. To this end vocational schools and vocational courses are being established everywhere. If the use of the tools of the trades must be taught in the interests of greater individual development and greater efficiency, there certainly is need of teaching the efficient use of books which are the already recognized tools of the professions and which are more and more coming to be recognized as necessary supplements to the tools of the handicrafts.

So far, it must be admitted, the response on the part of teachers has not been very general or very enthusiastic when courses of instruction in the use of books are advocated. At first sight this may seem strange. The primary purpose of both school and library is educational and many of the principles on which each line of work is based are equally familiar to teachers and to librarians. Let me instance but a few.

1. Education is a continuous process, started but not concluded in school. This is generally accepted and correspondence schools, study clubs, and similar activities are recognitions of its truth.

2. The complexity of modern life is lengthening the period of formal school instruction and the rapid rise of new industrial processes and the social problems arising in consequence, make after-school reliance on either past instruction or individual personal experience unsafe.

3. Education is not confined to books but books of the right kind are the best single aid to education.

4. Modern methods of teaching demand the comparative use of books, not reliance on a single text-book. Modern courses of study emphasize this by their lists of references to material for the use of teacher and pupil. In a pamphlet of 40 pages on "The high school course in agriculture," issued by the University of Wisconsin, 17½ pages are devoted to references to suggested reading. Children now study a subject, not a single text-book or series of text-books.

5. The library is the only continuation school really practicable for all the people at all times and for all subjects, and like any other institution, its value increases in proportion to the intelligence shown in its use.

Contrary to a rather hazy though somewhat general impression, there are only a few choice spirits to whom it is given to love books instinctively and to know them intimately without instruction. The multitude, whatever their rank or fortune, handle them more or less all the time without knowing much about them or caring much about them. It is true that a knowledge of books comes more readily to some than to others, but training will do much for even unpromising people who, without training, would be practically helpless. The need of this training was shown very clearly a decade or two ago when the method of teaching changed rather generally from text-book mastery to the so-called laboratory method. There were few more pathetic sights than many of the older teachers, almost totally un[Pg 256]trained in the comparative use of books which the new method involved, and yet forced to give up their reliance on the catechetical method and memorized text-book which could be kept open by the teacher while the pupil recited.

If the library and the school have so much common doctrine and if both recognize in their precept and their practice the importance of books, it seems obvious that some instruction along this line should be given in the high school and, indeed, much earlier. Again, if pupils are to be taught to use books, it seems equally obvious that the intelligent use of books must first be learned by the teacher. That is, there should be a "library course" in the normal school.

If library and school agree so far as to recognize the need of such a course there still remain several general methods of attempting to get the desired results.

(1) By experiment. This is the customary way; the empirical method or, under certain conditions, the inductive method. "We learn to do by doing" was a pedagogical maxim to conjure with some years ago and it has not yet lost its siren's charm. Teachers are still assuming that pupils will learn to use books well by using them without direction, even though an excess of the experimental method has confessedly failed in other directions. We do not often learn to do things in the best way without some direction nor does mere handling of an object teach us much about it. Infinitely more biology can be learned from two or three angle worms studied in a laboratory than from quarts of them used for fish bait. The laissez-faire method and the experimental method without a competent teacher to make it really inductive are both uncertain in result and costly of time and effort.

(2) By sending pupils to the nearest library for all aid outside the text-book and by handing over to the nearest librarian all responsibility for teaching the use of books. Librarians often advocate this method. It is only an application of the specialization which is so common in high schools and by which each subject has its own teacher who may or may not try to correlate his own work with that of his colleagues. The librarian, who at least ought to know about books, is the logical person to plan courses and to give formal instruction and in any school which can possibly have a librarian who devotes her entire time to the library this is the proper course to follow. It happens, however, that many schools which greatly need such a course have no one but the regular teachers to administer the library and to teach its use. In such an emergency no school faculty is complete without at least one teacher who can show the pupils—and her fellow-teachers, if need be—something of the best methods of using books. Moreover, teachers need to know how to use the books connected with their own courses even if they need do little or nothing in the way of general library work.

(3) A third general method remains: systematic training in regularly scheduled classes in the high school and a systematic course in the normal school for the future teachers of elementary and of high schools. This is the plan generally adopted for other subjects and the failure of the schools to provide in their curricula a place for library training can reasonably be attributed only to the fact that librarians have failed to impress on teachers the necessity for such instruction. There are several reasons for the failure. One of the fundamental principles of successful advertising is that the prospective customer must be convinced that the value of the advertised article exceeds its cost. Perhaps we librarians have not always recognized the value of this principle in our own campaigns. We use our library jargon and speak learnedly of "library methods," and "the library world" as though our work were based on some occult secret (which it is not) and as though we who carry it on were a peculiar people (which we sometimes are), and we plan elaborate courses in "library economy" which would strike terror to the[Pg 257] heart of any teacher, were any teacher interested enough to look at them.

It is well to remember that, as far as its place in the school is concerned, the library must always be an auxiliary, not an independent affair—an auxiliary of the greatest importance which aids all courses but interferes with none. This is what it is in the increasing number of schools in which the use of the library is being successfully taught and whenever teachers are shown that librarians are urging something that is a time-saver, not a time-consumer, and that the course they suggest is not an independent affair but something which, even in its own lessons and problems can be made to bear directly on the daily work of the school, there will not be much trouble in getting periods in which to teach the use of the library. As we too often present the matter, in the form of courses planned with little reference to actual conditions in the school and with problems compiled from our library-school note-books, or our training-class notes and not from material selected for its direct relation to the subject matter of any course in the school, we are seemingly asking the teacher to become interested in our work, not in a subject that is of importance to teacher as well as to librarian.

No general can plan a successful campaign of invasion without a knowledge of the topography and people of the country to be invaded and no course of study can be successful unless based on sound pedagogy and visibly related to the cultural or vocational need of the persons for whom it is intended. It is also well to remember that in strategy an officer counts for more than a private and that if official recognition is to be secured for any subject, the interest of principals and superintendents, who plan the curricula, is absolutely necessary. Work with subordinate teachers alone will make slow progress.

Another point which we are just beginning to emphasize is the necessity of getting articles in which we desire teachers to be interested, into periodicals intended for teachers instead of confining them to the columns of library periodicals. The advertiser who wants to reach engineers will not send his advertisements exclusively to the "American journal of theology."

Although the high school and the normal school are usually mentioned together in discussions on the general subject of library instruction in schools, there should be decided differences both in content and in general purpose between the courses in the two kinds of schools. In the high school, the purpose should be to teach the pupils to use books efficiently in solving problems arising in their individual experiences. The care and management of libraries can legitimately be taught only in so far as such knowledge helps the pupil to use libraries of all kinds more intelligently. There is no need of detailed instruction in technique, though some elements of method are necessary. The use of the catalog must be taught in order to overcome the prejudices of most readers against card catalogs by teaching the youth before he arrives at obstinate and benighted manhood, that red headings, indentions and other conventions of the catalog are as sensible and necessary as black ruling, red ruling and other conventions of day-book and ledger. A little attention also to the theory of the charging system will help later in preventing honest but inaccurate thrusts at "red tape in libraries."

The general characteristics of reference books should be discussed with the meaning and significance of those universal but little known elements of all modern books, the title page, table of contents and index. The growing popularity of bibliographies of all kinds suggests instruction in their make-up and use while the growing importance of periodicals of all kinds shows the need of knowing how to use the general periodical indexes. In all this work there can be and should be the closest relation to the other work of the school course and the various teachers can easily suggest material of direct use to[Pg 258] them which will be quite as interesting and valuable for illustrating the use of the library as set problems compiled exclusively by the librarians. Moreover, such procedure will demonstrate conclusively both to teacher and to pupil the direct value of the library in helping school work to be done better and quicker. Though any teacher can be of help in this way, English, geography, civics and history are particularly good subjects with which to begin this co-operation.

It is doubtful whether the librarian should attempt much formal instruction in book selection in the high school unless it is done with the full knowledge and with the assistance of the other teachers. Otherwise, such instruction will almost inevitably lead to duplication and to conflict with the work regularly given in other courses. Tactful suggestions to teachers on the value of material which they overlook or know nothing about and personal attention to the voluntary reading done by pupils outside the school-room and not connected with the regular work of the school will furnish any school librarian plenty of opportunity for missionary work.

Some description of the anatomy of a book will probably help cultivate a greater respect for books as books and may lessen the tendency to use books badly which is now so prevalent among school children furnished with books paid for by the school board and not directly bought by their parents.

All of this teaching should be very simple. What is perhaps the most successful manual of the present on the subject of teaching the use of books in schools (Ward's Practical use of books and libraries), owes its success largely to its attention to the small details which everybody, large and small, is supposed to know but of which nearly everybody is quite ignorant.

No high school course of this kind is complete unless it cultivates friendly relations with the public library and promotes the use of the library after the pupils have left school, by calling on it for aid while they are still in school. The best school librarians make every possible use of the public library while they are at the same time using to the utmost the resources of their own school libraries.

The amount of time required for such a course as that outlined here and which is substantially the same as dozens of other courses outlined elsewhere, depends considerably on whether any preliminary work of the kind has been given in the lower grades, and, to some extent, on the size and general character of the school's collection of books. Something worth while has been done in five or six lessons, though not much can be done in less than ten or twelve, and the twenty to thirty periods which interested principals have sometimes granted are none too many. The general plan will also depend partly on whether the instruction is all given in one year or throughout the entire high school course.

In the normal school the purpose of the library course should be not only to teach the use of books, but to teach, in addition, the principles of their proper selection and enough of the essentials of library technique to enable the teacher to administer successfully a small school library and to understand the methods used in larger libraries. It should be not only for individual improvement, as in the high school, but designed also to give skill in teaching others how to use the library. It is necessary, of course, to supply any deficiencies in training of the kind that was suggested for the high school, before the administrative side of the work can profitably be taken up.

The technical side of the work, therefore, will be more in evidence in the normal school course. The preparation, adaptation and use of the important records such as the accession book, the shelflist, the catalog and the charging system are necessary parts of the equipment of any teacher who is likely to be put in charge of a school or class-room library. A study of the most common trade lists and a few typical booksellers' catalogs[Pg 259] with some comment on trade discounts and the purchase of second-hand books will save much time and trouble later when the teacher is expected to advise as to what and where to buy.

Instruction in simple methods of book repair will yield large dividends in the shape of better cared for and longer lived books.

Simplicity and direct relation to school work are the two things to be insisted upon throughout. Though the subjects and, to some extent, the treatment should be the same as that of the library school, there is neither opportunity nor need of the same variety and extent of instruction and practice which should characterize schools for the professional training of librarians, nor should any school which can afford special teachers in other subjects thrust technical library work upon its regular teachers. To the teacher, the library is auxiliary to her main work and insistence on elaborate administrative methods will defeat its purpose.

This instruction in technique should be simple, but it does not follow that a teacher who has learned merely these elements of technique is fitted in turn to give satisfactory instruction to other teachers or even to administer a school library in the best way. To do this a librarian of wide training and experience is necessary,—one whose knowledge of library theory and practice is wide enough to give the perspective necessary to judge what is essential, and intimate enough to determine what adaptations should be made to fit either general library conditions or special contingencies of individual libraries. Efficient simplicity is the result not of ignorance but of trained judgment and the apparent simplicity obtained by reckless or ignorant amputation of library manuals may be worse than none at all. A well managed school must have a well-administered library and a well-administered library implies a competent librarian, not merely the regular presence of a teacher with rather fewer classes and consequently more leisure than her colleagues.

Indeed, though considerable technique has been suggested as advisable, I am very strongly of the opinion that technique, if by this term is meant the processes of keeping library records, should be thrust upon teachers only as a necessity, not as a desirability. In a school so small that one teacher or a very few teachers at most must do all kinds of work, it will be necessary and therefore it must be taught to these teachers. In larger and better equipped schools there is no more reason for teacher-librarians with a mere smattering of library training than there is logic or justice in compelling the teacher of English or of history to be the principal's secretary.

Of even more importance than technique is a careful study of important reference books. Only a small proportion of the books which would be useful can possibly be obtained and it is very important that the teacher be able to use to the utmost such books as the school may possess. The compilation of reading lists and lists of references, whether for the use of the teacher or the guidance of the pupil, implies the use of bibliographies, footnotes and appendixes and a consideration of the bibliographic aids which are so common in modern text-books and so little used by teachers.

Moreover, the teacher must know some of the principles of book selection, must know a fair number of the best aids to book selection and must know where to find and how to use good book reviews. No approved list of library, library commission, or state department of public instruction can take the place of independent knowledge, though these approved lists are indispensable aids.

The proper relations of school and public library certainly must be taught if any closer and more general co-operation of the two is to be brought about. Both teacher and librarian must be parties to such co-operation and each needs to know the point of view of the other.

There is no general agreement as to the amount of time which the normal school[Pg 260] ought to devote to library instruction. In a summary compiled in 1909 by the Newark free public library (Public libraries 14:147), the number of hours devoted to such work in 28 normal schools varied from one lesson to 60. Most of the schools which are recognized as leaders in this work gave about 20 lessons. There is reason to believe that the general situation has not materially changed except that the shorter courses are being lengthened and more normal schools are offering courses in library methods. The small number of lessons in even the good courses makes directness and emphasis on essentials imperative. If all normal school students had been taught to use books before entering the normal school, considerable time which is now used in teaching things which should already be known could be devoted to the methodic and pedagogic side of the subject.

More and more normal schools are putting instruction in library methods on a par with other subjects by giving credits for it. This is only what all ought to do. No normal school is doing its work well if it sends its students out unskilled in the use of the tools of their own trade. A course in the use of books and libraries is no more of a luxury in the general training of any teacher than a gas range and a kitchen sink are luxuries in the equipment of a domestic science department or planes and chisels in a manual training room.

It is not merely altruism that urges librarians to encourage this work. It is highly commendable to increase the good feeling between two members of the so-called "educational trinity," the church, the school and the library, but the benefits to the library will be more direct than mere pleasure in promoting the success of another line of social welfare. To ensure its own permanence, the library must have a reading public in the future as it has in the present and the adult reader of the future is the child of the present. To ensure the further development of the library, not only readers but more readers are needed and the library will be sure of getting them only when school room and children's room work together, and when not only those who come to the library from choice, but all the children whom the community entrusts to the school are taught in the school the latent power in the books the library offers for their use and are taught by trained teachers how best to make that latent power dynamic.

The discussion of this paper was led by Mr. W. J. Sykes, librarian of the Ottawa public library, and formerly head of the English department of the Collegiate institute of Ottawa, who read a paper prepared by Dr. L. B. Sinclair, dean of the school for teachers, Macdonald college.

MISS MARY E. HALL, librarian of the Girl's high school, Brooklyn, N. Y., read a paper on


Miss Hall said in part:

To those of us who are interested in the problem of guiding the reading of boys and girls one of the most important recent developments of the modern library movement is the new life which is coming into the high school libraries throughout the country.

The high school library, although an old institution, is just beginning to "find itself" in the library world of today. It not only has a right to exist but has possibilities for doing important work in the future which will fully justify its existence. It must serve not only as a great laboratory for the work of all departments in the high school but as an important experiment station for all our work with young people of high school age and aid us in the public library's solution of the problem of helping the thousands of boys and girls who leave grammar school and the children's room and go out into the adult room of the large public library with no one to guide them in their explorations among the books, and no one to take the friendly personal interest in them that the teacher and li[Pg 261]brarian of the children's room always felt. Through the high school library and the public libraries' young people's department of which we dream, we must undertake to "follow up" the work begun in the children's room and build upon the foundations which librarian and teacher have already laid.

What are some of the revelations which have been made to those of us who reluctantly undertook this work some eight or ten years ago? In the first place we are, as our high school debaters would say "firmly convinced" of the need of a large carefully selected collection of books within the high school building where they may be had at a moment's notice for reference and reading. We are convinced that we were wrong when in our first enthusiasm over the public library we decreed that the high school library should be limited to books of reference and "required" reading, and that all books to be read for the pure joy of reading should be given over to the public library.

For four reasons I would plead today for a large, well equipped library in every city high school, a library managed according to modern library methods and in charge of a trained and experienced librarian who shall be the equal of the high school teachers in broad education and thorough professional training. This librarian must be able to win the confidence and friendship of pupils and teachers and to enter sympathetically into the life of the school. This library may be under the control of the Board of Education or a joint undertaking of Board of Education and public library as in Cleveland, Newark, Passaic, Madison, Wis., and Portland, Oregon.

My first reason for this new high school library is found in the aims and ideals of the modern high school. It is no longer content to serve merely as a preparatory school for college. It realizes that for the great majority of pupils it must be a preparation for life. As these four years end their formal school education it must make the most of the time. These four wonderful years of high school age are the time when ideals are being formed, when boys and girls are hero worshippers, and the personal contact with teacher and librarian or the reading of good biography may do marvelous things in moulding character and setting up standards. In aiming for social efficiency the modern high school endeavors to prepare for intelligent citizenship, for interest in and service for the various movements for social betterment.

My second reason for this larger and more efficient library in the high school is the need created by modern methods of teaching. The text book today is only a guide,—with its footnotes and bibliographies it is a vade mecum to the interested student to the best books in school and public library on the subject covered. The efficient teacher today uses books, magazines, daily paper, pictures and lantern slides to supplement the text book. Many of these must be at hand in the school building and so classified and cataloged that they are available at short notice. Unexpected questions arise in class discussions and must be settled before the close of the recitation period by a student being delegated to "look it up" in the school library and report to the class while interest is keen. This could not be done in a library even five minutes' walk from the school. There are odd minutes at the close of a recitation when a book from the school library can be borrowed and enough read to make the student eager to finish it. Pictures are wanted to illustrate some topic and are loaned from one class-room to another for every forty minutes of a school day when the teacher finds they help to awaken interest. The whole method of the recitation has changed. "It becomes," says one, "the social clearing house where experiences and ideas are exchanged and new lines of thought and inquiry are set up." One of the most interesting things in the school library work is the use of books and magazines for the three minute talks pupils have to give in English, French, German and Latin as cultivation[Pg 262] in the art of oral expression. They may chose anything that interests them or would interest the class,—some interesting bit of news in the morning's paper, some anecdote about a famous person, an account in the Survey of the Camp-fire girls, etc.

The search for material for these three minute talks makes the school library a busy place at times. Students vie with one another to bring to class the most interesting contribution from history, biography, literature, current events, etc. So interested are the students in this kind of library work that some of them began making a rough index of material in newspapers, magazines and books that would be good for such talks. The use of the library depends not so much upon the subject as upon the teacher,—a teacher of mathematics who is a constant reader will get the students to make a better use of the library than the English teacher who prides herself that she has taught Shakespeare's "As you like it" so thoroughly "inch by inch" that her pupils cannot possibly fail in the final examination. The biology teacher whose one cry a few years ago was the need of cultivating the powers of observation now acknowledges that the books in the school library or public library are needed to make the laboratory and field work of greatest value. Even the instructors in the gymnasium feel that books may help. Interesting books such as Mrs. Richards' "Art of living," Dr. Gulick's "Mind and work," Woods Hutchinson's practical talks on the subject of health, etc., are placed on reserve shelves or tables and read by pupils not as "required" reading but because they find them interesting. Students interested in problems in chemistry or in the work of physics come up to the school library for a free study period to look over the books on the library shelves and to read them on the suggestion of the teacher. School library reading is coming more and more to be the result of suggestion rather than compulsion.

History teachers add to the interest of the recitation by suggesting collateral reading which will appeal to the students,—biography, historical fiction, orations, poetry, and drama are all called into play, attention is called to articles in current periodicals and a wise use of the daily paper is made in order to interest students in history in the making. The history teacher posts on the bulletin board interesting subjects for "special topics," brief oral reports to the class on interesting material outside the text book and students eagerly volunteer to look them up in the library and report to the class. "How did the Romans tell the time of day?" "Describe the daily life of a monk," "Methods of travel in the middle ages," etc. Debates also are an important feature of the history recitation: "Which contributed most to civilization, the Greeks or the Romans?"

In English there has been a great revolution recently. Aside from the interesting work in oral expression already mentioned teachers are beginning to realize that training in the power of expression and the cultivation of taste and appreciation must come from extensive reading of good books, rather than intensive reading of a few. Supplementary reading is no longer an "assignment" of a standard work of literature to be taken as a dose of medicine by the pupil with the comforting assurance of the teacher that it "will do him good." With the best English teachers supplementary reading is really an introduction to the best books in school library and public library, books to be read not for marks but for pleasure with the hope that it may mean a permanent interest in good reading, a wise use of the public library and the building up of home libraries. The supplementary reading list of today is a list of many different kinds of interesting books, old and new, which ought to appeal to the average high school boy or girl. There is ample opportunity for each to find something which he will really like and he may take his choice.

The skillful English teacher no longer spoils this reading by requiring an examination as to plot, character develop[Pg 263]ment, climax, etc. Instead of this dreaded written report which was warranted to dull the interest in the most exciting novel as it haunted the reader all the way through the book the recitation is occasionally given up to an informal talk about the books the pupils have read and enjoyed—very much such a book symposium as we librarians delight in. The enthusiasm of a pupil in his report on a book will create an immediate demand for it. "I want that book you talked about in class, it must be a dandy one," the librarian hears one student say to another as they browse at noon among the books of fiction. In the more intensive study of the masterpieces of English literature the best English teachers make the study one of training in appreciation and not an "exercise in mental gymnastics" or a process of vivisection. They realize with Burroughs that "if you tear a thing all into bits you haven't the thing itself any more." They have the pupils read other works for comparison,—the Alcestis and Medea and compare them with some of Shakespeare's plays they have been studying. If reading Lycidas, then Theocritus, Shelley's Adonais, Arnold's Thyrsis are read and discussed. In studying Burke, orations by Lord Chatham and Mansfield are read and compared. Students find in this comparative work a great delight and in this work as well as in the debates which English teachers encourage some of them surprise us with their powers of discrimination and their deep thinking. All of this calls for the use of many kinds of books in school and public library.

My third plea for a school library is in the needs of individual students for a guidance in their reading which can be better given by the librarian in the school library than in the busy public library. The school librarian has the teacher always close at hand and can know the problems of these teachers in their work with pupils. Through attendance at the teachers' meeting she can keep in close touch with the school's methods of work and its ideals. She can unify the library work which the school is urging upon the pupils as twenty branch librarians working with groups of these same students cannot do. She comes to know each of these hundreds or thousands of pupils better even than some of the teachers in these large schools who have them in their classes for only six months or a year while she has them in the library every day for four years and comes in close personal touch with them. She knows them through their parents, their teachers, and their friends and can sometimes find the point of contact which certain teachers have failed to find. We must make the school library do for the pupils what the little home library used to do for many of us. In these days of apartment houses and tenements, when families move about so constantly there is little chance for the home library.

My fourth plea for a library within the high school building is that it is absolutely necessary as a connecting link between the high school and public library in our large cities. Wonderful things may be accomplished by the high school librarian, who believes the most important work of the school library is preparation for the best use of the public library and who encourages the use of the public library through all the four years. She can be an excellent "go between" not only for pupils who do not use the public library, but between public library and principals and teachers who have no idea what it can do for them. She can enlighten them on the functions of this institution of the people,—show them how much more it is than what they suppose it to be, "a collection of fiction for those too poor to buy their own books." She can enlighten teachers as to the necessity for giving the reference librarian due notice when material is to be needed by classes on a special topic, and the need for ascertaining whether there really is any available material before requiring reports from students on impossible subjects. She can bring about a personal acquaintance of high school teachers and librarians in[Pg 264] public libraries and invite the library workers in public libraries to conferences with teachers in the school library.

She can take a census of each entering class at high school and find how many are not using the public library and why. Such a census shows usually 30% who have no library cards. Some have their cards taken from them by parents when they enter high school lest they read so many books it interferes with their studies. This is a frequent occurrence. In other cases a heavy fine has made a drain upon the purse of some poor mother and she has vowed that not one of her children should have a card in the public library. Many of this 30% have never cared enough for books to have a card in the public library. The librarian who finds these conditions early in the term explains to parents by personal notes and interviews that library cards in the public library will be an absolute necessity for high school work. Students who have never had cards are urged to apply for them at once and they are sent to just the right person in the public library who will take an interest in them, often a personal note of introduction being given to the pupil to make that first visit to the public library easy and pleasant.

In addition to the possibilities in high school library work already mentioned the librarian has opportunities for doing many things not possible or not done so easily in the public library.

1. Creating the right attitude towards the library reading called for by the modern high school.

The old time school library was not a pleasant place. She can introduce public library methods,—an attractive room, plants, pictures, bulletin board, etc. Let them feel an atmosphere of friendliness from the start and bring in the spirit of joy rather than stern duty by making the first visit a delight. An informal "library reception" to each entering class or to groups of 40 or more as they enter the school until all have had this meeting with the librarian, makes a good start. Here the students are shown the beautiful illustrated books, pictures, etc., and librarian and pupils talk over the books they have read and liked. Teacher and librarian call attention to books they may like to read during free study periods and pupils are made to feel that the library reading is one of the pleasures of high school life.

2. The study period.

This has marvelous opportunities for the librarian. Here, every 40 minutes come from 60 to 100 pupils, filling every available seat. Many come for definite reference work, special topics, required reading,—many just to spend a free period in browsing. In our best high school libraries there is as little red tape as possible, even "library passes" being dispensed with at times. Pupils are free to use books as they choose. They crowd around the library bulletin boards for suggestions as to good books to read, interesting magazine articles, a glimpse of the day's news as it had been clipped by seniors and posted in the form of a "model newspaper" under heading, "Foreign affairs, National, State, City, Art, Civic and social betterment, etc." The bulletin boards call attention to special art exhibits in the city, to musical opportunities in the way of opera and concerts, etc. Teachers in the various departments make the department bulletin boards in the library a constant means of awakening interest. The French department posts post cards showing views of places mentioned in their reading. Latin teachers post reading lists on life in the time of Cicero, and pictures of Pompeian houses, furniture, cooking utensils, etc., to make the life real. Often at the close of a study period if all are through their regular work the librarian gives an informal three minute talk on some interesting thing on the bulletin boards, urges the reading of some poem or essay or new book of biography, such as Mary Antin, calls attention to some unusually good magazine article, or to some good edition of a book to buy and own,—Hugh Thomson's illustrated Silas Marner in the Cran[Pg 265]ford series, Pride and Prejudice in Everyman's series, library binding, as a good edition to take out into the country for summer reading.

3. Instruction in use of books.

In the school library far better than by sending classes out to the public library definite and systematic instruction can be given by librarian on the uses of books. A regular schedule for this work is prepared by principal or head of English department and lessons, lectures, quizzes and problems are given by teacher or librarian as a part of the school work. By working in this close touch with teachers, problems will relate directly to their every day class work.

4. The library as a social center.

Here the librarian in the school finds boundless opportunities not possible in public library work. Parents' receptions are held in the evenings in the large and beautiful library room and the librarian acts as hostess. Here come rich and poor of all nationalities,—learned and unlearned and the librarian meets them all, talk over with them, the boys and girls, shows them what the library tries to do for them and goes over the parents' problems with those who read too much or those who are reading trash,—and last but not least those who do not like to read. The librarian suggests good books and good editions for parents to buy and the number of note books and pencils at work show how eager many are for this help—they delight in the beautiful illustrated books almost as much as the boys and girls.

The noon hour offers great possibilities to the school librarian. Here she is "at home" to all students who want to talk about books. Around her desk is held a daily "book symposium." Absolute freedom and frankness is encouraged. She is aided in her recommendations by the pupils' own comments of approval and their word goes farther with a doubting soul than any word of hers. If a pupil returns a book with "I don't like it," the librarian tries to find where the trouble was. If it was the first page or chapter which seemed uninteresting she points out the place just ahead where it begins to be most interesting, gets a student nearby who read and liked the book to tell just enough to show the doubting pupil what he is missing by not reading it. Or, if on talking with the pupil it seems he would not like that particular book she assures him it is nothing to be ashamed of if one does not like all great books,—that we have to grow up to some, that some may never be interesting to us while absorbingly interesting to others. The personal equation has to be considered.

Library reading clubs are a great power for influencing the reading of high school pupils. It is the age of clubs and organizations. In the books the pupils choose while browsing the librarian finds a point of contact and by the reading clubs can direct the voluntary reading. Interests unsuspected by teachers are revealed to the school librarian. An interest in art by a pupil thought hopeless in mathematics and physics and only a fair student in other things. The librarian in the school has expert aid in this club work. For the library reading club on art she selects the most inspiring and sympathetic art teacher on the faculty. For those who are reading Darwin and Spencer and Huxley, the finest teacher in biology who thoroughly knows the literature and can make the reading mean much. For those interested in civic and social questions, clubs for discussion and debate are formed with English and history teachers for advisers, but all center in the school library and meet there after school. After school, also where the library is large or there are two rooms, students may stay to study,—tenement homes and apartments are often difficult places for quiet work. For our own school a biography reading club has been a great success, the students reading interesting biographies of famous women, Alice Freeman Palmer, Carla Wenckebach, Jane Addams, Florence Nightingale, etc. Also lives of great explorers, artists, musicians, statesmen, etc.

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5. Vocational guidance.

This is coming to mean great possibilities. If the librarian is sympathetic and has won the hearts of the students they will come naturally to her as a source of information on what a boy or girl can do to earn a living. It is a serious problem to the high school pupil,—often there is no one at home to help. The librarian must be ready with books, pamphlets, clippings to lay before the student the many possibilities in choosing a vocation. The books on these subjects are the most popular books in the library of a large boys high school. Catalogs of technical and trade schools, etc., should be on file for reference for students desiring to plan special courses in high school to meet their entrance requirements. Where there is a committee of teachers on vocational direction the librarian can be of great service in aiding in collections of books, magazines and pamphlet material.

These possibilities of the high school library make it a most tempting field for any one interested in work with the older boys and girls. The librarian has the opportunity of making the school library: (1) A great working laboratory for all departments which will meet their needs for reference and serve to stimulate interest or awaken interest in the work of class room or laboratory. (2) A preparatory school for the best use of college or public library by training students in the use of a library during the four years in school. (3) Compensation to the students for the lack of a home library. Carefully selected, largely a collection of the best books on the subjects which high school pupils would be interested in and containing all the really great things in the world's literature it affords a browsing place which should mean that inspiring and stimulating contact with books which many have felt in their home libraries, and it should mean also that personal guidance of the reading of the individual which in more fortunate homes parents give to their children. And perhaps quite as important as any other is the possibility of opening up to the high school students and teachers the great resources of the public library. The success of the high school library of the future will depend largely upon its relation to the public library. We are just at the beginning of things today in this matter of co-operation and shall probably see important developments along this line during the next five years.

Mr. Gilbert O. Ward, supervisor of high school branches, Cleveland public library, led the discussion on Miss Hall's paper. He said in part:

High school pupils after all are a very small proportion of the school community. Why should a public library put an expensive assistant into a high school, where, after all, the actual numbers affected are small? One answer is this: High school students like college students, though in a less degree, are a chosen few. They are in a position to become naturally leaders in the community. And it seems to me that public libraries which have the chance to establish high school branches should consider the possibilities of the indirect influence on the community as well as the direct influence on the limited number of high school students.

In considering now the relation between high school library and public library, let us first sum up the needs of the high school, the points in which the public library fails to meet the situation, and the points in which the independent high school library is liable to failure:

The high school needs:

1. Books, freely duplicated, including general reference books, books relating to school work and selected general reading adapted to the abilities and appreciation of high school students.

2. A trained librarian.

The progressive high school needs these in the building as it needs a chemical laboratory in the building. There is no better reason for making a student go to the public library for an ordinary bit of class work, than for sending him to the Y. M. C. A. for his gymnasium work.

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The public library fails with the high schools as follows:

1. It generally lacks official standing in the school plan, hence it has to work with the individual teacher or principal as chance offers.

2. Teachers are often too indifferent, careless, or over-pressed by work to come to the public library.

3. Visits to the public library for reference work, inside or outside of school hours, takes up pupils' time, even if the school is convenient to the public library. This difficulty gets worse as reference work increases.

4. Library instruction should cover a number of periods, and if given in the public library, the necessary number of visits deranges schedules, wastes time and raises questions of discipline.

5. The public library is sometimes unable or unwilling to duplicate books freely enough to meet school needs.

6. The public library is not on the spot to answer instant needs.

The independent high school library meets peculiar difficulties and dangers in fulfilling its duty. It is right to say here that the highest point of development in high school libraries has, to the best of my knowledge, been reached in certain high schools in which the library has no connection with the public library, but where it is managed by a well-paid, trained and experienced librarian. Generally speaking, however, especially in the case of high schools which do not employ a trained librarian, I think I may say that the independent high school library at present is likely to be narrow in scope, badly administered, self centered and neglectful of co-operation with the public library, and hampered by red tape getting books promptly through boards of education.

Neither school library nor public library, it seems to me, can alone meet high school needs. The school library needs the public library because of the broadening influence of the usually larger institution. It needs the resources of the usually larger collection. It can often benefit by suggestion and aid in administrative details, especially when in untrained hands.

The public library needs the school library, among other reasons, to bring it into closer contact with the school system officially. The public library, it seems to me, should require the high school librarian to attend its regular staff meetings if she be a public library official or invite her to attend them if she is not. The high school librarian in many cases attends school faculty meetings, and by regularly attending public library staff meetings she can intelligently interpret school to public library and vice versa. The public library needs the high school library so as to get earlier and more certain information of books needed for class use, for the purpose of reserving in the public library or of concentrating them in the school library. Six copies of a title concentrated at call in the high school library and lent from there for short loans, prevent a few students from monopolizing books, and so do much more satisfactory work than twice the number lent from the public library in the usual way. In general, the public library by working through the high school library should work more effectively by meeting the school on its own ground.

It is pretty clear, I think, that the school library and the public library need each other. The questions remaining are: What kind of co-operation is most effective? How can that co-operation be brought about?

I doubt if there is a universal answer for either question. I think that local conditions will have to be studied in each case, and under local conditions I include the school situation, the public library situation, personalities, local politics, etc.

Miss Hall has found a satisfactory answer for the library controlled by the school. The solution which has come under my observation is the administration of the school library by the public library, with a division between school and public library, of the expense.

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This plan in one form or another is now being tried with the high school libraries in five cities—Cleveland, O.; Madison, Wis.; Newark, N. J.; Passaic, N. J.; and Portland, Ore. This includes eleven libraries actually in operation, and five others in contemplation. The plan has also been adopted, I am informed, by a number of towns in New Jersey.

In bringing about co-operation, the first step is to make a careful, thorough study of conditions, not forgetting the questions, "What is the attitude of the principal?" and, "Which can pay the higher salary—public library or high school?"

The results under any plan, may we add, depend on the high school librarian. She should have a college education to put her on a par with the teaching staff. She must be adaptable. She must have solid book knowledge, especially of English and history. She must be able to manage a room full of students without fuss or strain. A raw high school graduate with a smattering of technique will not do.

Finally, whatever the public library's part in the scheme of co-operation, the public library must be willing to view the subject from the school side, and be willing to adapt its methods to school needs.

A short business session of the active members of the session followed this meeting. Upon recommendation of the Nominating Committee the following officers were elected: Chairman, Miss Effie L. Power, supervisor of children's work, St. Louis public library; vice-chairman, Miss Alice Goddard, head of children's department, Washington County free library, Hagerstown, Md., and secretary, Miss Hannah M. Lawrence, children's librarian, Buffalo public library.



(Friday, June 28, 8:15 p. m.)

The first session of the College and Reference section was held on the evening of June 28, in the banquet room of the Chateau Laurier, about 75 people being present. In the absence of Dr. A. S. Root, chairman of the section, and Miss Irene Warren, secretary, the meeting was called to order by Mr. P. L. Windsor, who had at the request of Dr. Root and of Mr. Utley, arranged the program; Mr. S. J. Brandenburg acted as secretary.

Mr. THEODORE W. KOCH, librarian of the University of Michigan, read the first paper entitled


The development of college and university libraries has been so rapid during the past score of years that it may be worth while to turn back for a moment and collect a few illustrations of early ideas of library management from the history of the older universities. The most interesting ones for this purpose are those of Oxford and Cambridge, Harvard, Yale and Columbia universities.

[8] Abridged from an address delivered before the New York State Library School and the University of Michigan Summer Library School.

The Bodleian in its reorganized form was opened in 1602 with a stock of two thousand five hundred volumes—a fairly large collection for those days. It had been established in Duke Humphrey's day in a suite of rooms over the Divinity School "far removed" as the old university records put it, "from any worldly noise." The first rules for the government of the library were drafted by Bodley himself. While in general they were wise ones, they reflected the spirit of the times in which they were written. Sir Thomas objected to the inclusion of belles-lettres as beneath the dignity of the institution he was fostering. "I can see no good reason," said he, "to alter my rule for excluding such books as Almanacks, Plays, and an infinite number that [Pg 269]are daily printed of very unworthy matters. Haply some plays may be worthy the keeping—but hardly one in forty.... This is my opinion, wherein if I err I shall err with infinite others; and the more I think upon it, the more it doth distaste me that such kinds of books should be vouchsafed room in so noble a library." Scholars were required to leave a deposit in cash as a pledge of good faith when borrowing books, but the deposit was usually a mere trifle compared with the value of the loan. Unscrupulous borrowers willingly forfeited the money and kept the manuscripts. Some volumes were stolen, while others were entered in the catalog as "missing," a distinction with perhaps very little difference. Tradition says that Polidore Virgil had stolen so many books that the authorities were finally compelled to deny him access to the library, whereupon he promptly obtained from Henry VIII a special license to borrow whatever manuscripts he desired and the librarian had to bow to the ruling of the King.

In a manuscript copy of the works of St. Augustine and St. Ambrose in the Bodleian, is written, "This book belongs to St. Mary of Robert's Bridge: Whosoever steals it, or sells it, or takes it away from this house in any way, or injures it, let him be anathema maranatha." Underneath another hand has written, "I, John, Bishop of Exeter, do not know where the said house is: I did not steal this book, but got it lawfully."

At one time folios in the Bodleian were chained to the shelves but the custom was given up and the chains sold for old iron in 1769. That the arrangements at the Bodleian were viewed with favor by library benefactors can be seen from a letter which the worthy John Hollis of London, second founder of Harvard College library, sent to the authorities at Cambridge in 1735: "You want seats to sit and read in and chains to your valuable books like our Bodleian library or Zion College in London. You let your books be taken at pleasure to men's houses and many are lost, your boyish students take them to their chambers and tear out pictures and maps to adorn their walls."

Gibbon in his autobiography has commented upon the sloth of 18th century Oxford and its absolute indifference to study. The records of the Bodleian substantiate the low point to which the intellectual life of the university had ebbed. The registers of books borrowed for the decade 1730-1740 show that only rarely were more than one or two books asked for in a day. In some cases a whole week is passed over without a single entry being made. The indifference throughout the university showed itself in the management of the library. For 92 years, that is, from 1768-1860, the Bodleian was so unfortunate as to be in the hands of only two men, the Reverend John Price, of Jesus College, who died in his eightieth year, and Dr. Bulkeley Bandinel, his son-in-law, who lived to be even a year older than his predecessor. As an illustration of Price's ideas of librarianship we have it noted by Professor Beddoes that "he discouraged readers by neglect and incivility, was very careless in regard to the value or condition of the books he purchased, and had little knowledge of foreign publications." When Captain Cook's Voyages were first published there was quite a demand for the work. Librarian Price promptly loaned it to the Rector of Lincoln College, telling him that the longer he kept it out the better, for as long as it was known to be in the library he would be perpetually plagued by inquiries after it. Price has been compared to the verger who sorrowfully complained that people were continually invading his church and "praying all over the place." However, it must in justice be said that Price's correspondence as printed by John Nichols in his "Illustrations of the literary history of the 18th century," shows him to have been helpful to some of the scholars of his day.

Bodleian's librarians in the eighteenth century were mostly clerks in holy or[Pg 270]ders and it was not uncommon for them to fail to open the library at all on a Saturday if they were "taking duty in the country," on the following day. There is preserved in the Bodleian a scrap of paper which an angry scholar affixed to the door of the library in 1806 when he found it closed contrary to the statutes. On it were these words in Greek: "Woe unto you who have taken away the key of knowledge! Ye enter not yourself and hinder those who come."

How striking is the difference between the lax administration of the 18th century and that of the 20th can be seen by a study of the Bodleian staff-calendar, an annual of over 400 pages in which are listed day by day the special duties of various members of the staff, with all sorts of suggestions for the improvement of the service.

King George III in his famous interview with Dr. Johnson asked whether there were better libraries at Oxford or at Cambridge. The sage replied that he believed the Bodleian was larger than any library they had at Cambridge, at the same time adding, "I hope whether we have more books or not than they have at Cambridge we shall make as good use of them as they do,"—a reply which I always like to associate with the remark of Dr. Cogswell: "I would as soon tell you how many tons the Astor Library weighs, as how many volumes it contains."

While the university library at Cambridge has never been the recipient of such large and rich donations as has the Bodleian, it is today one of the best stocked university libraries in the world. Its first benefactor was Thomas Scott of Rotheram, archbishop of York, who not only gave 200 books and manuscripts, but also the first library building. Despite other benefactions the collection appeared "but mean" in the eyes of John Evelyn when he visited it in 1654.

Among the earliest gifts to one of the college libraries at Cambridge there are some volumes which raise curious questions. According to Dr. Montague R. James, the provost of King's College, Cambridge, one book has the Bury bookmark and evidently came from that source; another belonged to the canons of Hereford, another to Worcester, and another to Durham. How and under what conditions did the early collegiate and monastic bodies part with these? "Was there not very probably an extensive system of sale of duplicates? I prefer this notion," writes Dr. James, "to the idea that they got rid of their books indiscriminately, because the study of monastic catalogs shows quite plainly that the number of duplicates in any considerable library was very large. On the other hand it is clear that books often got out of the old libraries into the hands of quite unauthorized persons: so that there was probably both fair and foul play in the matter."

The most famous librarian of Cambridge University library was Henry Bradshaw, who not only left a strong impress upon the paleographers and historians of his day, but did much for librarianship by his contributions to bibliography and his work on the printed catalogs issued by the Cambridge University library. He believed in making the library as accessible as possible to those who were entitled to its use. The watchwords of his administration were "liberty and discretion," liberty for the people to go freely about the whole library, examining and borrowing such books as they liked, and discretion on the part of the administration in putting such extremely moderate restrictions upon this freedom that the security of its most precious books were safeguarded and the presence of the books most constantly needed for reference was assured without undue interference with freedom of access to the shelves or the borrowing of books from the library.

His management of the university library was not in all respects satisfactory, due mostly to the fact that the staff was very inadequate to the task of the attempted reclassification of the large collection of books, and also to the crowded[Pg 271] condition of the building. Bradshaw did not have a marked capacity for working through subordinates. "He could not," said one of his assistants, "bring himself to allow any one to answer letters for him." He used to carry large numbers of unanswered letters in his coat pockets and would sometimes take them out and show them with a certain mischievous glee and say in his droll way, "I am too wicked. What shall I do?" No one knew this failing better than himself. He once remarked to Thomas Buchanan Read, who wanted some information from him, "You had better come and get what you can by word of mouth. I offend lots of my friends by not answering their letters, or by losing them like yours." One friend, to whom he had long promised a visit and who could not get a definite answer to his invitations, sent Bradshaw two post cards on one of which was written "Yes," and on the other "No," asking him to post one or the other. Bradshaw promptly posted both, although by the next mail he wrote to say that he would come,—and he kept his promise.

Bradshaw used to say that whenever he was asked to send back an interesting book he "suffered from a chronic paralysis of the will and could not return it until the fit had passed away." In matters of routine business he was, however, seldom behind time and his library accounts were always accurately kept. He was very strict about the observance of the library rules and could never tolerate seeing books mishandled. Dr. Zupitza, a great friend and admirer of Bradshaw, tells how one day he was making notes in ink from the famous manuscript of Bede's "Ecclesiastical history," in the Cambridge University Library when Bradshaw happened to notice him. "You Germans have no reverence," said the librarian as he rushed at the ink bottle and carried it away. A manuscript of that character was not to be approached with anything more dangerous than a lead pencil.

Bradshaw had no personal ambition and was only too eager to give away such information as he possessed. He put his vast store of knowledge at the disposal of his large group of friends and their books were all the better for his bibliographical zeal. He himself left comparatively little finished work. "My province," he once wrote, "is to give help on certain details which most people don't care about."

Before leaving Oxford and Cambridge, a word must be said about the individual college libraries. Many of these date from the 15th century when it was the exception rather than the rule for university students to own books. Books were rented from both booksellers and tutors. The college libraries then, as today, did not have enough copies of text-books to go around. The statutes of St. Mary's College, Oxford, dating from 1446, forbade a scholar the continual use of a book in the library for more than one hour or at most two hours, for fear that others wanting the book might be hindered from the use of it. Most of the two score colleges of Oxford and Cambridge have their own libraries, many of them filled to overflowing with precious manuscripts and old authors. While the manuscripts, like those of Corpus Christi, naturally attract scholars from all over the world, the libraries are now comparatively little used by the students of the universities themselves. This is not surprising when it is known that to some of them no books have been added for a century or more. There is no union depository catalog in a central place showing what these libraries contain and very little correlation, although there has been some specialization, as in the dramatic collection at Trinity College, Cambridge, or the modern history at Merton College, Oxford.

Several years ago when I visited the Bodleian Library, I was shown around the portion known as "Duke Humphrey's library," and when I admired the old parchment bound volumes in the alcoves my guide remarked sententiously: "These books were on these shelves when the Pilgrims sailed for America." That re[Pg 272]mark points to an essential difference between many of the old world libraries and those of this country. The museum feature which is so strong in the administration of some of the European libraries is much less prominent in those of the United States.

Illustrations of university library history in this country naturally begin with Harvard. The library there was begun on the death of its first benefactor in 1638 with his bequest of 320 volumes. The Mathers were among the largest collectors of books in their day in New England but few of their possessions passed into the college collection, most of the Mather library having been destroyed in 1775 during the battle of Bunker Hill. About the close of the 17th century Cotton Mather said of the Harvard College Library that while it was "far from a Vatican or Bodleian dimension" he considered it the "best furnished that can be shown anywhere in the American regions." The fire of 1763 which destroyed the first Harvard Hall destroyed also the entire college library, housed in an upper room, with the exception of one volume: Downame's "Christian Warfare," which was out in circulation at the time. "May Harvard Library," wrote John Barnard of Marblehead, "rise out of its ashes with new life and vigor, and be durable as the sun, tho' the building is a nuisance." This contemptuous sounding phrase, intended to describe the ruined building, can again almost be justified in connection with the overcrowded and outgrown structure of today. The first general catalog of the library, printed in 1790, containing 350 pages, devotes 100 pages to theological tracts, 50 to religious books, 3½ to Bibles, ¾ of a page to periodicals, 4 to books of travel, and ten to Greek and Latin authors—all of which shows how closely the college had held to its original purpose as a training school for the ministry.

There was practically no change in the curriculum at Harvard College during the first two centuries of its existence. The old classical course as pursued by our forefathers required comparatively few books. With the introduction of such studies as modern history and languages, the sciences and economics, came the demand for access to many books, both old and new.

That books were regarded as a first essential in the establishment of colleges in the New World is shown not only by the terms of John Harvard's will, which bequeathed one-half of his estate and all his library "towards the erecting of a college," but also by the picturesque founding of Yale College. Eleven ministers met in New Haven in 1700 agreeing to form a college. Each member brought a number of books and presented them to the body, and laying them on the table said these words, or to this effect: "I give these books for the founding of a college in this colony." Then the trustees as a body took possession of them and appointed the Rev. Mr. Russel of Branford as keeper of the library, which at that time consisted of about 40 folio volumes. The library with the additions which came in was kept at Branford for nearly three years, and was then carried to Killingworth. In 1765 the library had grown to 4,000 volumes, showing a growth of only 60 volumes a year through two generations.

Other American university libraries showed equally modest beginnings. In a letter from President Manning to Dr. Llewellyn, 1752, is found the following reference to the early efforts made on behalf of the library of Brown University: "At present we have but about 250 volumes and these not well chosen, being such as our friends could best spare," a statement which was equally true of many other college libraries of that period.

The vicissitudes of American university libraries in their early years would seem to have been enough to discourage any but the stoutest hearted librarian. Thus the King's College buildings in New York having been required by the British for a military hospital, the books were deposited in the City Hall or elsewhere. Three[Pg 273] years later some 600 or 700 volumes were found in a room in St. Paul's Chapel. How they got there is a mystery, but they were all that remained of the nucleus of what is today the Columbia University Library. Mr. John Pintard, the founder of the New York Historical Society used to say that he remembered seeing the British soldiers carry away the books from the college library in their knapsacks and barter them for grog. Horace Walpole in his Memoirs sneers at the Prince of Wales, afterwards George III, for presenting a collection of books to an American college during the Revolutionary War, and says that, instead of books, his Royal Highness ought to have sent arms and ammunition.

In his report as secretary of the Smithsonian Institution for 1850, Prof. C. C. Jewett wrote: "Our colleges are mostly eleemosynary institutions. Their libraries are frequently the chance aggregation of the gifts of charity; too many of them discarded, as well-nigh worthless, from the shelves of donors. (But) among them are some very important collections, chosen with care and competent learning, purchased with economy and guarded with prudence."

In 1850 Marshall College at Mercersburg, Pa., reported that "the college library is distributed among the professors—each professor having charge of those books pertaining to his department." Until comparatively recent years the periodicals subscribed to by one of our western state universities were sent direct to the homes of the professors interested and whether they were brought to the library later for binding depended upon the whim of the professor.

One of the striking contrasts between the college library of today and that of the middle of the last century is shown by a comparison of the hours of opening. The Chinese character for "library" means "a place for hiding books," and if some members of the present day faculties think there is still justification for this pictograph, what would they say of the apology for a library which their predecessors had to contend with? In 1850 the libraries at Amherst and Trinity, for example, were open once a week from 1 to 3 p. m., at Princeton one hour twice a week, at the University of Missouri one hour every two weeks. At the University of Alabama there was a rule that "the books shall ordinarily be received at the door, without admitting the applicant into the library room." Harvard with its 28 hours of opening per week was as usual in the vanguard of progress, but contrast even those liberal hours with present day schedules of 89 hours and even more per week and you see that there has been considerable progress along this line.

"A quarter of a century ago the library in most of our institutions," said the late President Harper in an address delivered in 1894, "even the oldest, was scarcely large enough, if one were to estimate values, to deserve the name of library. So far as it had location, it was the place to which the professor was accustomed to make his way occasionally, the student almost never. It was open for consultation during perhaps one hour a day for three days a week. The better class of students, it was understood, had no time for reading. It was only the 'ne'er do well,' the man with little interest in the class-room text-book, who could find time for general reading. Such reading was a distraction, and a proposition that one might profit by consulting other books which bore upon the subject or subjects treated in the text-book would have been scouted. All such work was thought to be distracting. The addition of one hundred volumes in a single year was something noteworthy. The place, seldom frequented, was some out-of-the-way room which could serve no other use. The librarian—there was none. Why should there have been? Any officer of the institution could perform the needed service without greatly increasing the burden of his official duties."

That the college library of the middle of the last century was little more than[Pg 274] a storehouse for books, in which the undergraduate had very little interest, is amply substantiated by the reminiscences of older graduates. "To those of us who graduated thirty, or forty, or more years ago," said the late William Frederick Poole, "books, outside of text-books used, had no part in our education. They were never quoted, recommended, or mentioned by instructors in the class-room. As I remember it, Yale College library might as well have been in Wetherfield, or Bridgeport, as in New Haven, so far as the students in those days were concerned."

In the old days at Columbia College, freshmen and sophomores were allowed to visit the library only once a month to gaze at the backs of books; the juniors were taken there once a week by a tutor who gave verbal information about the contents of the books, but only seniors were permitted to open the precious volumes, which they could draw from the library during one hour on Wednesday afternoons. In 1853, the salary of the librarian of Columbia was raised to three hundred dollars! Professor Brander Matthews, who graduated from Columbia in 1871, says that the library was at that time small and inconvenient and that he never entered it to read a book and never drew one from it during all the time he was an undergraduate.

The rules of the old days forbade the use of any lights in the Harvard Library, "excepting only when the librarian is obliged to seal official letters with wax he may with proper precautions use a lighted taper for that purpose." This recalls an entry in the diary of John Langdon Sibley, who records spending "four hours with a lantern and cloak in the chilly cellar" where he found many books and pamphlets not in the College Library.

Mr. Sibley, who spent 36 years in the service of the Harvard Library, has frequently been pictured as typical of the old style collector and custodian of books. The story is told of his having once completed an inventory of the library and, when seen crossing the yard with a particularly happy smile, was asked the reason for this pleased expression. "All the books are in excepting two," said he. "Agassiz has those and I am going after them." Exaggerated as this picture of him undoubtedly is, it must be said that he did lay much more emphasis upon the collecting and preservation of books than upon their use.

His successor, Justin Winsor, was the author of the remark which has come to be regarded as one of the truisms of modern librarianship: "A book is never so useful as when it is in use."

In his second annual report (1879) Mr. Winsor thus summed up his idea of library management: "Diligent administration, considerate forbearance, care that no rule is enforced for the sake of mere outward uniformity, and the establishment of reciprocal confidence between the government and the users of the library, open the way to many relaxations of old established prohibitions, which could not be safely allowed if a less conciliatory spirit prevailed. There should be no bar to the use of books, but the rights of others, and it is to the credit of the mass of library users that, when a librarian manifests that single purpose, he can safely be liberal in the discharge of his trust."

Mr. Winsor had an exceptional faculty for organization and administration. For some time after he left the service of the Boston Public Library it was hardly noticeable that there was no librarian. This was due to the fine organization which Mr. Winsor had effected and did not prove, as Alderman O'Brien of Boston argued, that Mr. Winsor's services could easily be dispensed with. He found time for writing history during the years of his librarianship at Boston and at Harvard because he knew how to administer. No doubt in his later years the historian in him overshadowed the librarian.

The salient feature of Mr. Winsor's administration of the Harvard College Library lay in the fact that he extended very materially the use of books by students.[Pg 275] He instituted the system of "reserved" books by which the instructor is enabled to have gathered in an accessible place the reading which he required of his classes,—a device absolutely essential in the new method of teaching which substitutes the reading of authorities for the old time study of text-books.

And what as to the buildings in which these libraries are housed? The earlier ones like those of Harvard and Yale, were suggestive of Gothic chapels, while the later ones, like Michigan, Illinois and Cornell, are based upon an ecclesiastical motif, and have the questionable addition of a clock tower, the usual accompanying chimes helping to break into the quiet which it is so desirable to maintain in any library. Harvard's Gore Hall was an attenuated copy of the chapel of St. John's College, Cambridge, England, and necessarily ill adapted to the needs of a library. It was poorly lighted, poorly ventilated, hard to warm in winter, damp in parts during the spring and autumn. There were no private rooms, no working room, no conversation room, and no reading room worthy of the name. The only saving thing about the management was that the advice of old John Hollis was not followed and both students and professors were allowed to draw books for use in their rooms and homes.

In some cases where the library building has been presented as a gift or as a memorial, trouble has arisen from the proverbial difficulty about examining too closely into the lines of the proposed gift. Notable illustrations of this are found in the libraries of Columbia University, the University of Pennsylvania and the late but not lamented library of Leland Stanford University. The Columbia University Library, the gift of ex-President Low in memory of his father, was designed by McKim, Mead & White after the plan of the head of the firm, the late Mr. Charles F. McKim. Some of you may be familiar with the story of the visitor to Mr. McKim's studio asking how he was getting on with the plans for the new library. "Oh, everything is going lovely," said he. "You see there on the wall the outline of the facade and the layout of the building. I have worked up all the details of the reading room and the large dome—but I don't know where to put the darned books."

"Today," wrote President Harper, "the chief building in the college, the building in which is taken the most pride, is the library. With the stack for storage purposes, the reading room for reference books, the offices for delivery, the rooms for seminary purposes, it is the center of educational activity. The staff of assistants is often larger than the entire faculty of the same institution thirty years ago."

The importance of the university library in the educational work of the institution is being recognized more fully each year. "Much of the usefulness and attractiveness of the university for its students," said President Eliot in his annual report for 1905-06, "depends on the size of the library, on the promptness with which it obtains the newest interesting books, and on the efficiency and liberality of its administration. Any need of the library is therefore a need of the whole university."

The second paper was then read by Mr. WILLARD AUSTEN, assistant librarian of Cornell University. His paper, an abstract of which follows, was entitled


The problem of administering a college or university library with due regard to the rights of all the users is far from simple. A college or university community is not a democracy, where all have equal rights. The natural division into two great classes, the mature teacher and the immature student is the first apparent cause for the modification of privileges. The need of materials for teaching as opposed to the needs of the student suggests other modifications. The need for books of research at home or in the laboratory that may also be wanted for general read[Pg 276]ing, introduces a third factor that may disturb any set of rules that may be framed.

Any reader should be allowed to use any book in the library when and where it is most convenient to do so, so far as this can be done and preserve the rights of other users and preserve valuable materials not easily replaced for future generations of users. The ability to shift any book from the place where it is little needed to the place where it is much needed, at a moment's notice, is the ideal.

Users may be roughly grouped as follows:

1. Instructors of all grades, those whose need for books is primarily for teaching.

2. Those doing research work, which class may include teachers, graduate and undergraduate students.

3. Students needing books for collateral reading.

4. General readers of all classes, and all persons are general readers when not reading for a definite purpose, but for general culture.

Obviously the rights of all these classes are not of equal importance.

To outline the means of protecting their rights, it is necessary to classify users by certain of their characteristics which bear no relation to the groups named above. First, the conscientious worker who, while using many books, never retains one beyond his real need for it, and who constantly bears in mind the possible need that others may have for a book he is using. Library rules are not made for such. The next and most difficult class to deal with are those who want to gather about them all the books they can conveniently lay hands on, with the thought, that they will "come handy some day." A large class, running down to the lowest ranks of college students, comprise those who think they must have all the material on a subject at hand at one time. Another class, largely college students, is made up of those selfish persons who, having a task, ride rough shod, if necessary, over the rights of others in doing it. Then there is the small class that can be designated by no other names than thieves and vandals, those who steal books, and cut out text or illustrations.

An adequate code of rules and regulations should be drawn up, care being taken that all rules should be made for the sole purpose of preserving rights and property. Of first importance are the regulations for getting books back into the library. A time limit of one month on all books not in use for instruction or research has been fairly successful. All bound volumes of periodicals may be limited to two weeks or one month. A limit may be put on the number of volumes a user may have out at any one time. A requirement that all books must come back to the library, once a year, regardless of the use being made of them, will keep in the library many books that have been left lying around after being used.

Within the library the problem of making all books available for use when needed is not a simple one. Reserve collections, and the recall of books when needed are familiar practices; but when the demand for a book is very great, its use by one person may be limited to one-half or one hour as the case may call for. The failure to return a reserved book when due interferes seriously with others' rights. In these cases students must be made to respect the rights of others, even at the cost of losing their own privileges which is often a more effective discipline than a money fine. The library shares with other departments of the college or university the duty of teaching students a due regard for the rights of others. The problem of detecting the few thieves and vandals who curse all used libraries, may require professional advice. Few seem to be brought to justice, in spite of all efforts.

Whatever measures are employed to protect the users' rights and the library property, they must have their foundation in a system of classification and notation that clearly indicates in every record the character of the book and its relation to other material in the library; and in a system of record of use that tells not only where a[Pg 277] book is when out, how long it has been out, and who is responsible for it, but also tells the life history of that book from the time it comes into the library until it is worn out.

After the discussion of Mr. Austen's paper, Mr. F. K. W. DRURY, assistant librarian of the University of Illinois, presented a paper on


Is not this the day of the index? Have we not Poole, the Reader's Guide, the Portrait and the Engineering Indexes, Granger's Index to Poetry and Recitations, and the Index to Victrola Records? What Granger is to poetry, may we not compile for the short story? For if this is the day of the index, is it any less that of the short story?

If we agree to omit fairy stories and folk tales and most juveniles what is the extent of short story literature? In a very brief survey of the field did I not find 404 English and American authors and 37 foreign authors in English translation whose stories have attained book form?

Let us credit each author with ten titles and we have at once 4,400 stories worthy of recognition. And these do not include the vast horde of stories—literally thousands—that have appeared and are appearing monthly, weekly, yea even daily, in the magazines of the hour.

How recent then shall we make our list? Shall we anticipate the Get-rich-quick Wallingford tale announced for next month? Where shall we draw our line?

How inclusive shall our list be made? Shall the Saturday Evening Post and the two Sunday magazines be indexed? Or shall we stay within the circle of the Readers' Guide and the Magazine subject index? How many of the news-stand best sellers shall be admitted? Mr. Wyer shows us the million circulation figures of the Woman's World, Comfort, the Vickery and Hill list of three (Happy Hours, Hearth and Home, and Good Stories), yet these are not taken by our libraries and if indexed could be consulted with difficulty. Where shall we draw this line?

Again, how far abroad shall we go? Shall the short stories in foreign tongues fraternize with their English cousins? Or shall they be aliens and only admitted when really anglicized? Do we need an index? Let us test our present resources. How do you find in which volume of Kipling is printed "Thrawn Janet" or his "Man who would be king?" How many copies of "The necklace" can you supply? Granger tells you it is in Cody's "World's greatest short stories" and your catalog may show it in De Maupassant's works, or his "Odd number." But how would you find out that this classic is also in "Little French masterpieces," in Esenwein's book on the short story, and probably in several other places.

Somebody comes in and asks for "Napoleon Jackson" and you do not find it in the volumes you have by Ruth McEnery Stuart. Perhaps it is loaned out. Would not such an index show that this story appeared in the Century for January, 1902, under the title "The gentleman of the plush rocker"?

Vainly have I searched through catalogs and bibliographies and even biographies to find in which book of stories by "Adirondack" Murray may be found "A busted ex-Texan." The book itself must be in hand to find this information. Try to search down a particular title by Stockton, or Bret Harte and you will soon despair.

Have we not then three distinct classes of publications which can be indexed with profit?

(a) Collected stories of authors, of whom we have listed at least 4,400.

(b) Periodical sets, which Poole indexed by titles only, but since 1900 the Readers' Guide has by both author and title.

(c) Collections of stories, of which 73 at least are available today.

Can we not characterize or classify our short story by some such terms as those used in the Philadelphia free library[Pg 278] Catalog of Prose Fiction, published in 1904?

Have you ever been disappointed in reading a story? Have you not often wished to know if it were a "good" one or "worth while" before you began it? Indeed, have you not often refrained from reading one for fear of wasting your time?

How can we tell about these short stories? Are they good or bad? Detective or amorous? Psychological or mysterious?

Have you ever seen a short story reviewed? Have you any way of knowing? Must we read every one to find out?

Some may be characterized from the author. The Sherlock Holmes series are obviously detective stories. We can be pretty sure of Ambrose Bierce and Edgar Allan Poe. So stories in Harper's have a general tone quite characteristic.

Here at once is a most important and a most difficult part of such an index. Is not the value of Granger immensely increased by the topical index? Are we not laboring patiently to classify our novels by subjects? Why not also the short story?

We may now ask ourselves: What would be the scope of the entries? For discussion, we suggest:

1. Author list; giving author, title, number of words, location, character.

2. Title index.

3. Subject or character index.

You will readily see the elements of a dictionary catalog here, and it is debatable whether to separate the entries in the three groups as above, or to alphabet them together. Shall we double star the 100 best and star the 500 next?

Are not these questions too perplexing, is not the labor of compilation too arduous, and is not life too short for the reading and classifying all these titles, for one person to attempt this task alone? It has seemed so. Hence this question mark rampant, hence this interrogational presentation, hence this request for co-operation. Without the subject characterization one man could do it, but would not one of the most valuable features be omitted?

With definite assignments, under an editor-in-chief, is not this index possible? Is it not needed?

In the discussion it was brought out that the Chicago public library had made a list of fairy tales, that the Cleveland public library had begun a list of short stories not in periodicals, and that titles of stories frequently occur in reference lists on subjects like, for example, Hallowe'en.

After a discussion of Mr. Drury's paper, Mr. ROBERT KENDALL SHAW, librarian of the Worcester (Mass.) free public library, spoke on the subject


This subject has been so fully treated in recent years, notably by Mr. Lane in an address at Oberlin college in June, 1908, and in several reports of the Association of college librarians, that only an outline will be attempted here.

[9] Abstract.

A natural preliminary inquiry presents itself: Is reference work in all its phases adequately performed already? With a well trained library staff, whose work may be supplemented by the inter-library loan; by writing letters; by the use of the priceless though incessant telephone; or by seeking the aid of some such bureau of inquiry as that of Thos. Nelson's Sons, The Boston Transcript, The New York Times or Notes and Queries, are we keeping our public satisfied, and the voice of conscience still?

If not, and if the question of creating some central agency for auxiliary reference service is to be discussed, shall this central agency take the form of a central lending library, with its permanent building, book reservoir and staff to administer it, or of a central reference bureau, which will receive all kinds of inquiries, and answer them, as far as possible, by consultation in libraries already existing, or in other institutions which may possess the desired information?

[Pg 279]

That a central lending library, equipped and maintained under the auspices of the A. L. A. is today or even tomorrow impracticable, can scarcely be denied by intelligent librarians. The writer believes that no adequate endowment could be secured; that if any funds were obtained for this purpose, years would be required to build up a useful collection; that such a collection would, to a great extent, duplicate existing material; that running expenses would be far greater than for an information bureau, and that there are, in short, other more pressing needs.

If a central reference bureau is to be established, what form shall it take? Shall it be attached to some institution already in operation or exist independently? The latter seems preferable, as it could then maintain a consistent policy, unhampered by political or other undesirable influences; proceed unhampered with singleness of aim and method; be governed by persons disinterested and none others; and restrict its collections exclusively to the purposes which its founders intended it to pursue.

Where should such an agency be established? At some library center like Boston, New York, Philadelphia or St. Louis? At A. L. A. headquarters? At the Library of Congress or under the auspices of some active state library commission? The two institutions specifically mentioned are already doing a large work in this direction.

The duties and opportunities of this bureau would be: to collect and co-ordinate the public-service records of American libraries and cognate institutions (e. g. supply information on special collections, subject bibliographies, reading lists, etc.); by questionnaires, visits and in other ways obtain supplementary information along these and similar lines; to get results printed and disseminated; to furnish definite information on lending conditions now obtaining in American libraries, and, when possible, to improve them; and to serve as a free registration and employment agency for librarians and library assistants. Although this last suggestion has not been proposed, to the writer's knowledge in earlier schemes, its importance as a practical measure, is obvious. To the large body of faithful and efficient workers who have not enjoyed the benefits of a library school training such an agency would render signal service.

The unfortunate but frequently recurring repetition of reference research would, in large measure, be prevented if librarians were enabled to derive prompt assistance, in case of knotty problems, from a competent central agency. Their duty to dispatch to this agency solutions to such questions of probably common interest as they had themselves discovered, would be equally obvious.

The trend of library thought in the thinking world today is toward centralisation and co-ordination of effort; witness the sense of the Brussels conference of 1910 that central information bureaus should be established in all countries of progressive library spirit; the success and practical value of the gigantic Gesammtkatalog; and the expected benefits from the youthful Boston co-operative information bureau.

That American librarians are looking toward a fuller development of inter-library loans, and away from a central reference bureau, is the consensus of the recent (1910, March and May) symposium conducted by the Library Journal. Our duty now is, by sympathy, interest and contribution, to forward the work of the Library of Congress and the A. L. A. headquarters, and to make our own lending conditions the most generous in our power.

Mr. C. H. Gould, chairman of the committee on co-ordination, stated that the subject just presented had a close relation to several matters before his committee, and gave a résumé of their report submitted in print to a general session of the conference.

Dr. Andrews, as a member of the Committee, added that in his opinion photo[Pg 280]graphic reproductions might prove a satisfactory substitute for many inter-library loans. The installation of a cameragraph in the John Crerar library had proved of much more use than had been anticipated, not only in regard to the number of copies made, but also in regard to the scope of the material thus copied. It had been found in many cases that these photographic reproductions could be furnished for less than the cost of transportation of the volume, and that besides they gave a permanent record to the borrower. The only obvious limitation was the impossibility of reproducing copyright material.

After further discussion, the chairman asked Dr. W. K. Jewett, librarian of the University of Nebraska, to serve as chairman of the nominating committee and to select two others to serve with him. The session then adjourned.


(Monday, July 1, 2:30 p. m.)

The second session was held Monday afternoon, July 1, in the ballroom. The first paper was by Mr. J. C. M. HANSON, associate director of libraries, University of Chicago, and was read in his absence by Mr. M. G. Wyer, librarian of the State University of Iowa. The paper follows.


The pros and cons of the departmental system have been summarized in several of the articles mentioned above. In his annual report as librarian of Harvard college for 1898 Mr. Lane calls attention, on the one hand to the more convenient use of books in a small collection, and in case of scientific subjects, the possibility of having the books in or near the laboratory. On the other hand he emphasizes the increased difficulty of consultation on the part of persons not immediately connected with the department, less careful supervision, increase in expense of administration, less security from fire, lack of that reinforcement which every department of a general library receives from all related departments, tendency to narrowness, and growth of special collections beyond a convenient size.

On September 28, 1900, Professor E. D. Burton, the present director of the libraries of the University of Chicago, and Professor H. P. Judson, now president of the university, presented before the faculty briefs for and against the following proposition: That a limit should be placed in the near future to the development of the departmental library system. The affirmative urged that it was for the advantage of the departments whose interests and relationships are widespread, notably of philosophy, history, political economy, political science, and sociology, that all the library resources of the university should be gathered in one building and brought under one administration and catalog system. The convenience of scholars coming from a distance demanded concentration also facilitated the practical administration of the libraries. As departments grew and the number of books increased, the departmental library system became unwieldy.

In the negative the following advantages of the departmental system were emphasized: The importance of close connection with the classrooms, especially the seminar rooms. For the departments which have laboratories the retention of the libraries in connection with the laboratories was indispensable. Granting the importance of serving the convenience of visiting investigators, their convenience must always be subordinated to that of the large number of students and professors of the university. Practically all the valuable results of concentration could be secured by a catalog of all the departments in the general library and a system of underground book railways and telephone communication.

The latest summary which has come to my attention is one by Mr. Hicks in the Columbia university quarterly for March, 1911.

There is little that can be added to the arguments presented in these statements. Perhaps the following points in favor of the departmental system might be emphasized:

(1) Books in the same room with the reader and free access to them is a great inducement to study. It increases the use of books, makes it easier for the investigator to consult books in use by others, and also to consult with colleagues in regard to questions which arise during the investigation. The student feels more at home, less subject to inspection and observation by officials. This adds to the pleasure which he may take in his work and to the feeling of personal respon[Pg 282]sibility for the collection of books with which he is working.

(2) The ability of a departmental library to make collections of minor publications in the line of its special investigation to an extent difficult or even impossible for the general library may also be conceded.

Against the system more emphasis should be placed on the following:

(1) As Mr. Lane points out segregation of books in departments tends to narrowness. While seminary methods of instruction should lead the student to avail himself of the entire resources of the university library, the departmental system as carried out in many universities tempts him to limit his investigations to the departmental library. The narrowing influence of this must be obvious to those who have observed how various subjects and classes overlap and intertwine, how material of importance is found in unexpected places, in general collections, transactions and proceedings of societies and institutions, government reports, and encyclopedic works, not in the departmental library, the loss therefore of that reinforcement which each department should receive from all other related departments.

(2) The use of the departmental library is often limited to students of a particular department. It becomes difficult therefore for others to gain access. If admitted, they are hampered by special rules and arrangements unfamiliar to them. Books are as a rule not allowed to circulate and their withdrawal for use in connection with other related works becomes difficult.

(3) Many valuable books of reference which cannot well be duplicated are placed beyond the reach of the majority of students and professors.

(4) It increases the liability to loss, because when there are many departmental libraries open many hours a day it becomes practically impossible to provide in all of them adequate supervision at all times.

(5) The growth of the departmental libraries beyond a convenient size and the incidental disadvantages of inadequate shelf space, disorder, lack of accommodation for students, the relegation of less used books to garrets and cellars.

(6) To provide fairly complete catalogs, author, title, and subject, for a large library is becoming more and more difficult as the collections increase in size. To provide these catalogs also for a number of departments, or to furnish copies of the sections likely to interest a given department, would require an expenditure of time and money quite beyond the means of any university, and entirely out of proportion to the advantages to be gained therefrom. The absence of satisfactory catalogs in departmental libraries will therefore have to be reckoned with and must be emphasized as one of the most serious disadvantages of the system.

I realize that no argument is likely to change the conviction of certain professors and departments, that the departmental system is the only one which merits consideration, or the view on the other hand of other professors and students, perhaps also the librarian, that a strong general library with small working collections in the departments, largely duplicating books in the general library, is in the interest of the great majority and offers the only reasonable solution. It may, nevertheless, be convenient to have at hand a summary of the question with references to the literature on the subject, especially if governing bodies should be called upon to regulate the issue as has been the case in Italy and Prussia.

The development of the departmental, problem in university libraries dates back to about 1870. While a great many seminar collections, especially in Germany, were started prior to that year, they had not as yet reached a size which called for funds, special administration, or space, to a degree sufficient to embarrass the general library and the university.

It may have its interest to give a brief outline of the development of the system[Pg 283] in Prussia. It should prove suggestive as furnishing a parallel to our own situation.

In his "Eine Reise durch die Grösseren Bibliotheken Italiens,"[10] Dziatzko speaks of the Italian government regulations of 1885-1889 governing the relation of the departmental libraries to the general university library. The Italian regulations specified among other points the following:

[10] Beiträge zur Theorie und Praxis des Buch—und Bibliothekswesens. Sammlung Bibliothekswissenschaftlicher Arbeiten. 6. heft. p. 106-109.

Departmental collections are to be considered as part of the university library. The library commission of the university is to superintend the departmental libraries through the director of the university library. Second copies of books already in the university are to be purchased only in case of the most pressing necessity, and periodicals are not to be duplicated. Books are to be transferred from one library to another according to definite agreement. Books are to be accessioned in the university library and to be entered in its author catalog and stamped with the university library stamp. The approval of book appropriations on the part of the ministry depends on compliance with these regulations. The library commission had apportioned the annual book appropriations as follows: six-tenths to departmental libraries, laboratories, clinics, collections, etc., four-tenths to the general library.

Whether the Prussian ministerial regulations adopted soon after were based on the Italian is not known; but the similarity of the problem has undoubtedly led to considerable uniformity in the measures adopted.

It was in 1891 that the situation in the Prussian universities had reached a point where some government intervention seemed called for in order to regulate the relations between the university libraries and the so-called institutsbibliotheken. The regulations formulated (printed in the Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen, 1897) specified in part as follows: Departmental libraries cannot dispose of their books; when no longer needed they are to be turned over to the university library. They are reference libraries and no books can be loaned except by order of the university council, or at Berlin which has no council, by the ministry. All students of the university are admitted to the use of the departmental libraries. The university library shall make an author catalog of the books in the departments, one copy for the departmental library, the other for the union catalog in the general library. The university library can loan books to the departmental library for a semester, provided they can be spared.

While the government passed the regulations it neglected to provide sufficient appropriations to carry them out, the result being that the union catalog referred to was begun at only two universities, Berlin and Bonn, and at the former lack of help soon caused a considerable accumulation of arrears. The experience gained showed that, an indication in the catalog of the general library, that a given book can be found in a department is of little value. The general library has not on that account been able to dispense with the purchase of a copy, the distance to the departmental library and the difficulty of securing access making it necessary to duplicate. Occasionally a student has been referred to a departmental library, but it has not happened frequently enough to warrant the extra expenditure, or the duplication of catalogs. It has on the other hand proved of great assistance to the departmental library, and in Bonn its continuance is strongly urged by the departments. The same holds true of Berlin, although instances have been recorded where a department has refused to accept the catalog prepared by the general library.

In other respects the departments have neglected to follow the regulations. It has been said, for instance, that instead of turning duplicates over to the university library certain departments have disposed [Pg 284]of them through exchange or have sold them outright to book dealers.

In his report before the Versammlung Deutscher Bibliothekare, 1896, Dr. Naetebus gives an excellent survey of the departmental libraries of the Prussian universities, reporting in all on 367 different collections. A perusal of his report and of the discussion which followed shows that the problem in Prussia is in most respects similar to our own.

In the Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen, 1909, p. 103, et seq., Dr. Erman criticizes the regulations of 1891 for not specifying or providing means for enforcing them. Incidentally he says with reference to the development of the departmental libraries, that while the original plan had been to make the books most urgently needed by students in seminars and laboratories more convenient of access than was possible in the overworked and overcrowded university libraries, various circumstances had co-operated towards gradually making these collections more comprehensive than they were intended to be, to include in fact almost all the literature in a given field or in related and overlapping fields of knowledge, thus making the departmental libraries quite independent of the university library. While the original plan had seemed to furnish welcome relief to the university libraries, its recent extension had threatened seriously to cripple them.

It was perhaps the lack of funds on the part of the university libraries which had caused the difficulty in the first place. The departments finding that certain expensive books could not be obtained through the university library began to purchase them for their own use. As the funds of the departments were too small to permit of extensive purchases, every effort was made to increase them by special and extra appropriations, this being so much the easier as the directors of the departments were frequently the most influential and powerful men in the faculties, and funds which otherwise would have fallen to the university library were thus diverted to the departments, extending the size and scope of their working collections far beyond the bounds originally intended.

Dr. Erman states that many professors have according to his own experience sought to secure practically all new accessions of value for the departmental library, leaving for the general library only the books seldom or never asked for. To discontinue the university library altogether and divide its collections among the departments would seem a far simpler and more logical plan, and there should be no hesitation in considering its realization provided there seemed any hope that forty departmental libraries would replace the university library and perform its functions in a satisfactory manner. Unfortunately, such a solution seems out of the question. It would prove disastrous to the university in various ways. There would be lost to it the one department alike common to all members of the faculty and to the student body. Very few work in so narrow a field that they would be served by consulting only one of the departmental libraries. The younger instructors and students who might not have any department, would be at a great disadvantage. If the university libraries were ever discontinued Dr. Erman thinks that there would soon arise an irresistible demand for their restoration. He also thinks that the increase in the administrative expense resulting from a departmental system would be so great as to be practically prohibitive.

In Germany as with us, the desirability of some modus vivendi by which university libraries and the departments could be made to work in harmony and mutually assist one another, has repeatedly been emphasized. As it is, the professor to whom a general library was once a vital question, but who has now at hand a well equipped departmental collection, is likely to lose all interest in the former and devote himself entirely to the development of the latter. Here in America the separation may not as yet have reached the point where, as in a case cited by Dr. Er[Pg 285]man, a professor on being elected to the library council said to him that this was the first intimation he had had of the existence of a university library. At the same time, we have here and there evidence of a strong drift in this direction, particularly so in universities where the departmental system has been most fully developed.

Another eminent German librarian who touches on this problem is Dr. Milkau. In Kultur der Gegenwart, Abt. 1, p. 579, he states that in certain universities the total appropriation of all departmental libraries sometimes equals or even exceeds that of the general library. Originally intended as collections of reference books to be used in connection with instruction, they have gradually grown to considerable size, so that their supervision and regulation is year by year becoming more difficult. Dr. Milkau would not abolish the departmental libraries; on the contrary he freely grants their great value and superiority in some respects to the university library. There must, however, be co-operation between the departmental libraries one with another, and with the university library. Purchase of sets and expensive books must not be decided upon regardless of what is already in the university. Each department must limit itself strictly to its own particular field and omit all works not urgently needed, or of some permanent value. He offers as a remedy for the problem the following: To limit the size of the departmental collection, setting a maximum number of volumes not to be exceeded, a cure which seems a little too radical to find favor with all parties concerned.

In the discussion on the report of Dr. Naetebus referred to above, Dr. Gerhard, of Halle, insisted that the only way to secure relief would be through radical measures on the part of the government, viz., to cut down the departmental appropriations to a point where they would be forced to restrict purchases to the books most urgently needed for use in connection with instruction, the appropriations thus saved to be turned over to the university library. Dr. Roth, of Halle, complained of the lack of system in the development of the departmental libraries due to the frequent change of directors. He, however, considered the power of departments to secure books through gift and exchange an important and valuable factor, one not to be underestimated. Dr. Erman, Breslau, agreed with Dr. Gerhard and stated that there must be a readjustment of the funds appropriated for the purchase of books for the university and departmental libraries. There could be no complaint with the development of large and comprehensive collections in the departments, if at the same time the university libraries received enough to secure at least a small part of the books needed to keep their collections up to date. There would never have been so large a development of the departmental libraries if the university libraries had been in a position to answer the demands made on them. As it is, when an expensive book is wanted and the university library has not the funds to secure it, there immediately appear from two to three copies in as many departmental libraries, while there is no copy in the university library. The situation which results is intolerable. If in Breslau instead of 31,000 marks a year for the university library and 31,000 for the departmental libraries, the former had 40,000 and the latter 20,000, it would mean an immense improvement for all concerned.

Dr. Geiger, Tübingen, and Dr. Frankfurter of Vienna, reported that essentially the same or even a worse state of affairs exists in Wurtemburg and in Austria.

The radical measures recommended by Dr. Gerhard and others were not approved by Dr. Naetebus, especially on account of the ability of departmental libraries to secure gifts and exchanges not within the reach of the university library.

Since this discussion took place I understand that the book funds of the Prussian university libraries have been materially[Pg 286] increased, thus somewhat relieving the situation. After this brief survey of the conditions existing in certain European universities it may be of interest to turn to one of the two American universities in which the building up of departmental collections has preceded the development of a strong general library.

Departmental Libraries at the University of Chicago

The extraordinary development of the departmental library system at the University of Chicago is due largely to a number of causes and conditions, many of them accidental and peculiar to the university. The main reason was probably the lack of a general library worthy of the name; also the fact that some of the strongest men on the faculty favored the departmental system.

In the president's report (Decennial Publications, first series, 1903, vol. 1, p. 266-290) is found an "Outline history of the legislation of university bodies on the question of departmental libraries and their relation to the general library." The first sentence reads: "The system of departmental libraries for research work, supplementing the general library of the university, dates from the organization of the university itself." This would indicate that the departmental libraries were considered supplementary to the general library. However this may have been at the outset, later developments show that the general library has been so entirely outstripped and overshadowed by the departmental collections that in 1910, at any rate, when the writer had his first opportunity to observe conditions at close hand, the general library was found to consist of some 75,000 volumes of odds and ends, a mere conglomerate which would have been of little service, except for the fact that it was the only collection on the campus from which books could be drawn somewhat freely and to which undergraduates had general access. Appropriations for books amounted to $25,265, of which the general library had only $1550; the departmental libraries, $23,715. (See above, Dr. Gerhart's complaint about the situation at Halle, 31,000 marks for the general library, 31,000 for the departments).

While the original plan had no doubt intended that departments should abstain from ordering books of interest to several departments, that books of general interest therefore should be purchased only by the general library, the latter was unfortunately prevented by lack of funds and equipment from meeting these demands, the inevitable result being that the departments soon ceased to look to the general library and ordered for their own use any book to which a professor might have occasion to refer in his courses, regardless of whether it was in the general library or in another departmental library. Whether in placing orders he was intruding on the domains of a related department may or may not have been considered. At any rate books on exactly the same subject are now found in a number of departmental libraries, editions of the same book are separated and there is duplication of copies to an extent hitherto unheard of, as far as I know, in any university library.

That the president and faculty have been aware of the situation and have tried to find a solution, of that there is evidence enough.

Mr. Bishop in his articles in the Library journal, vol. 28, has given a survey of the discussion which took place at the University of Chicago in 1898-1901. A full report is found in the Decennial Publications, first series vol. 1 quoted above, and in the University record vol. 5. It has been referred to also by Mr. Henry E. Bliss in his recent article in the Educational review, April 1912.

The solution attempted, perhaps the only one possible at the time, consisted in a grouping of related departmental collections. The following group libraries were formally approved by the library board in 1899: Classical, Modern Languages, and Historical. In 1900 the university senate approved the general plan that all departments having laboratories should re[Pg 287]tain their libraries in the same building with the laboratory, those not having laboratories should as a rule be transferred to the general library building when one was erected. I have already referred to the briefs presented by Dr. Burton and Dr. Judson in October, 1900, on the proposition that a limit should be put in the near future to the development of the departmental library system. The University Congress after discussing them adopted two resolutions: (1) That it is the judgment of this body that the departmental library system should be retained. (2) That a committee of three for each of the several groups of departments recognized by the Board of libraries, laboratories and museums be appointed, the committee to consider and to recommend, respecting the group represented, what is best for it and the university in general. The report of this committee appeared in the University record Nov. 9 and 16, 1900. These reports from the different groups and departments are of interest in showing the sentiment in the various departments of the teaching body. They were briefly as follows: Of the Classical Department five favored the departmental system, two a general library. The Modern Language group was unanimous in favor of centralization. The Haskell group (Divinity School, Semitics, and Comparative Religion) proposed the maintenance of branch libraries of books likely to be in constant use by students in connection with the ordinary class work to be kept in the lecture hall building, that no books should be permanently assigned to these branch libraries of which there was not another copy in the general library. The Historical group held to the departmental library system, but was not so particular about the control of the libraries. Like the Divinity School, it preferred locating the departmental collection in one building with the general library and related departmental libraries. The Philosophical group recognized the great value of location of related departments in the same building, but held strongly to departmental control of the library and free access of students to books in which they are interested. If these two things could be granted, they would advocate a single building for all departments. The Mathematical group was non-committal, it emphasized however that Astronomy and Mathematics must be kept together and that books in these libraries are used almost exclusively by students of the two departments named.[11] The Biology group recommended that upon erection of a suitable library building a separate room be assigned to the Biology library. That arrangements be made for telephone communication and speedy transfer of books to laboratories, that special books and periodicals needed by the department for constant use be kept in each laboratory building as a branch of the departmental library, that books in such branch libraries be rendered easily accessible at all hours, and that provision for adequate supervision of these branch libraries be considered an indispensable preliminary to their establishment. The Chemical group wished the Chemical library to be retained in Kent Chemical Laboratory, but preferred to see the proceedings of academies and journals of general scientific interest kept in the general library, also that a reference shelf containing books of interest to those who are taking undergraduate work in chemistry be maintained in the general reading room of the general library, and that special books needed for consultation in connection with laboratory work be kept in the laboratory. Physics considered the departmental library as indispensable to the department. The Geology group reported most unqualifiedly in favor of departmental or group libraries that should embrace essentially all the literature pertaining to the group so far as practical considerations would permit. The full statement of this group deserves to be read. It is a most emphatic defense of the departmental system. The statement of [Pg 288]the Modern Language group and of Professor Hendrickson of the Classical group contain the strongest statements on the other side of the question.

[11] NOTE—Later on Mathematics decided that their library must be kept in the Mathematical building.

On November 4, 1900, these reports were referred by the library board to a committee of three, one of whom was the Associate Librarian, Mrs. Dixson. The committee reported on March 16, 1901 (see University record March 22, 1901) in favor of maintaining the departmental system, but recommended the centralization as far as possible at one point in a central building of the administration of the libraries, and of the books of the university not in use in the departments. After much discussion of the report and a later modification of it, it was decided to refer the matter to a commission consisting of professors and trustees appointed for the purpose of making a thorough study of the entire problem. The outcome of the work of this commission was a decision to place in buildings connecting with the general library the following departmental or group libraries: Philosophy, History and Social Sciences, Classics, Modern Languages, Oriental Languages, the Divinity School, the Law School. That further, the departmental libraries of Chemistry, Physics, Geology, and the Biological sciences, be retained in the department buildings of these departments, it being understood that these departments may place such books as they desire in the general library building. The library of Mathematics and Astronomy should be associated with the library of Physics.

Time will not permit any detailed consideration of the report of the commission. It was approved by the Congregation, August 28th, 1902, and adopted by the Board of trustees September 12th of the same year. It is the plan laid down in this report that has in the main been followed in the location and erection of the Harper Memorial library, dedicated on June 11, 1912, and which it is also proposed to follow in the separate buildings to be provided for the Historical Group, Philosophy, Modern Languages and Classics. When completed this plan will bring the Humanities, with the exception of Geography into buildings adjoining the General Library, connected with it or with one another by bridges.

Since the adoption of the report nearly ten years have elapsed during which there has been some progress in the direction of centralization, at any rate of management and control of libraries. A somewhat uniform system of rules and regulations was adopted in 1911. In the same year a common system of catalogs and classification was finally approved.

The catalogs will include:

(1) A dictionary catalog for the public in the general library, duplicated in part in the catalog department (Official catalog).

(2) Classed catalog for the public in the general library, duplicated in part in the catalog department (Shelf-list on cards).

(3) Author catalog and shelflist on cards for the departmental libraries located in buildings not connecting with the general library.

(4) Author catalog only for departmental libraries located in the general library, or in buildings connecting with it.

N. B. Catalogs in the departmental libraries will not according to the present plan include analyticals or other added entries which may be provided in the dictionary and classed catalogs of the general library.

Even with the limitations here indicated the catalog plan as outlined may seem a little ambitious and likely to prove expensive and difficult to maintain. In view of the present situation, as well as the outlook for the future, even assuming that departments which in 1900 favored a departmental system should be indisposed to change their attitude, it seemed nevertheless the safest plan to adopt. The general library aims to build up a strong central reference collection. This collection[Pg 289] should be classified and cataloged so as to yield the best possible results. Merged with the catalog of the general library will be one covering all the departmental libraries. It would, of course, be desirable to provide every departmental library with as exhaustive a catalog as the one proposed for the general library. The expense however, even in this day of printed cards would, I fear, be practically prohibitive. Moreover, it is doubtful if many of the departments would find the expected relief in an elaborate author and subject catalog of their collections as they stand. This last statement may seem to require some further substantiation, and I shall in the following endeavor to present the necessary proofs and illustrations.

It is no doubt true that heads of departments and their associates frequently take a personal pride in their departmental library and feel a certain responsibility for its growth and development. I have known cases where a department would resent any suggestion that a part of its books might to good advantage be transferred to the general library or to another department in exchange for material in these libraries bearing more directly on the special line of study which the department is supposed to represent. The fact remains, nevertheless, that these libraries frequently show in their development a lack of that strong coordinating influence so essential to systematic growth. A detailed examination of their collections soon reveals the fact that books have been ordered principally with reference to their use in connection with courses given in a department, no one apparently questioning the right of one department to poach on the premises of another or on that of the general library. There has resulted, therefore, a situation which cannot be remedied by any catalog, no matter how exhaustive or how perfect. This leads me to go a step further and to venture the assertion that the lack of a strong central library can not be compensated by merely bringing together related departmental libraries into the same or adjoining buildings. It is even doubtful if it would be worth while to prepare an exhaustive union catalog of such libraries without considerable migration of books from one department to another.

A few illustrations taken at random from the books which have come under my observation during the past month or two in connection with the recataloging, will, I think, bear me out in this statement.

General works on science are in a number of libraries, mainly in Geology, Biology, and the general library, but also in a number of other departmental libraries.

The History library includes many books which deal solely with Education, Medicine, Music, Art, Religion, Technology, and other subjects, overlapping, therefore, practically with all other departments. The main duplication, however, seems to be in Church History with the Divinity library, in History and Topography with Geography, in Ancient History with Classics and in Education and other subjects with the general library.

The Modern Language library duplicates chiefly material in the libraries of History and Geography, besides of course the general library. It is, however, the one department which strongly favors consolidation of books on the same subject, and if the other departments in or connecting with the general library will agree to such consolidation, its duplication, except with Geography and the Classical Department, should cease after the transfer of its books to the general library building. The fact that this library has on its shelves works like Alumni Oxoniensis, Catalogue of the Advocates Library, "Ersch and Gruber," La Grande Encyclopedie, Dante's Dictionnaire biographique et bibliographique des hommes les plus remarquables, Haebler's Typographia Iberica, etc., will therefore prove an advantage.

The Classical library presents one of the most vexing problems of our library situation, one not solved by a most liberal duplication. Its collections overlap mainly with those of History, Sociology, Science, Political Science, Economics, Literature,[Pg 290] Divinity, and the general library. I am not now referring to texts and translations of classical authors, but to modern books on ancient history, government, administration, and the like. What tends to aggravate the situation is the fact that this library possesses also the only set on the campus of certain important general, literary and bibliographical periodicals, e.g., Revue critique. Although this department is in the near future to occupy a building connecting with the general library, it has always taken a strong stand against any merging of its collections with those of other libraries. There is, therefore in this case little hope of relief through consolidation.

Books on Education have been a source of particular trouble inasmuch as they have been purchased extensively by a number of departmental libraries. Mediaeval literature and the history of the middle ages is again a field which has been developed by the Classical library, Modern Languages, History and the general library. General books on Literature may be found in Philosophy, History, Modern Languages, and the general library, and likely also in the Classical department. Books on Evolution treating the question strictly from the biological standpoint may be in Philosophy and History, but not in Biology. Whether the reverse holds true, I have not as yet been able to verify by an actual examination of the Biology library. Naturally books on Experimental and Physiological Psychology may be found in Philosophy, Psychology, and also in the Biology library.

Books on Metallurgy while chiefly in Geology are also represented in the library of Commerce and Administration. This holds true also of Engineering, Shop Management, and Agriculture. The latter subject is freely represented also in Botany, Economics, and in the general library.

Geography, which is connected with the departmental library of Geology in a building not to connect with the general library, buys extensively in History, also in Economics, Natural conservation of resources, Soils, Economics, Botany, Plant Industries, etc., etc.

Meteorology is represented in Geology, in Physics, Astronomy, and in the general library. Books on Water Supply, Irrigation and the like are in Geology and Geography, Chemistry, Economics, and the general library. Books on Fisheries, Whaling, and related subjects may be found in Geography, Biology, and the general library. Commerce is largely represented in Geography, Economics, the general library, Commerce and Administration, and the Classical library. Canals, Waterways, and Railroads, are mainly in Geography and Economics, but also in the general library. Mining is in Geography and Geology, and also in Economics. Marine Biology will be found in Geography and Geology as well as in Biology. Geology has a considerable number of books on Physics and Chemistry. Books on various industries are found in Economics, in Geology, and in the general library. Commercial Geography is somewhat evenly divided between Geography and Commerce and Administration.

Another great difficulty is the separation of volumes of the same work. For instance, there is in no library a complete set of the Statesman's Year Book or the Almanach de Gotha, but partial sets in at least two or three libraries. This holds true also of several bibliographical periodicals and annuals, e.g., Le Soudier's Annuaire de la Librarie française.

The instances here cited consider only the duplicating and overlapping of independent books or monographs treating the same subject, or the same phase of a subject; it does not take note of the duplication common to all libraries because of the inclusion in encyclopedias, general periodicals, and other comprehensive works, of material on a special subject; neither does it refer to the duplication which may be proper in such subjects as Railroads, Waterways, etc., where one department takes up the technical and another the economic phase of a subject.

It would be possible to go on citing[Pg 291] hundreds of illustrations similar to the above, but time will not permit. When the work which practically took its beginning in October, 1911, viz., reclassification and recataloging of the libraries, has been completed I dare say that anyone connected with the work who may have had time to make notes by the way, would be in a position to furnish valuable information as regards the practical workings of a departmental system similar to the one which has grown up at the University of Chicago.

I have stated that the bringing together of related departmental libraries under one roof and the thorough cataloging of all the books on the campus in the manner indicated above, will not furnish a satisfactory solution of our problems. This I believe can only come about through some exchange of books between departmental libraries which shall bring together, not necessarily all books on the same subject, but at any rate the bulk of the material which deals with a special phase of a subject, and the various volumes of a periodical, annual, or similar work which I trust all are agreed should stand together.

It resolves itself then into a question of reclassification or rather relocation of a part of the book resources of the university, and a partial surrender of the right on the part of the departments to determine absolutely the physical location of every book purchased on their recommendation. Personally, I feel rather hopeful that when the cataloging of a number of libraries has been completed and their resources brought together in a common catalog, the members of the various departments will see for themselves the advantage to all concerned of a partial redistribution.

In a small way the general library has inaugurated such redistribution by indirect purchase of general bibliographies and reference works from the departmental libraries, a sum equal to the cost of the work at the time of original purchase being transferred from the book appropriation of the general library to that of the department. Some of the departments have been most willing to agree to such transfers. If it can be put into effect in the libraries which are now to be brought under the same roof, i.e., the Humanities with the exception of Classics and Geography, it will go far toward the establishment of what it is hoped may prove a fairly efficient central library. The centralization of catalogs and reference books alone would in time make it desirable for the departments more and more to consult the general library. A real consolidation of the resources of the Historical Group, Modern Languages and Literatures, Religion and Theology with the present general library will, it is hoped, prove to be even more effective.

I have already stated that Geography would remain outside of this consolidation and probably also the Classical department, in spite of the fact that the latter is soon to occupy a building connecting with the general library. It is hoped that in both cases arrangements can in time be devised which, while satisfactory to the departments, shall prove effective in checking the almost unrestricted duplication of material in other libraries which now obtains.

It is true that ten years ago other departments of the Humanities also held that while related libraries might to good advantage be brought under one roof, there should be no merging of their possessions. Considering, however, the lack of co-ordination in the development of the same libraries, the overlapping and intertwining of their respective fields, it is difficult to believe that this view can prevail for any length of time.

I have endeavored in the above notes to show that the departmental problem is practically the same in various countries. In Italy, Germany, and Austria as well as in America the development of departmental collections to a point where they have become a perplexing and troublesome problem to government and university authorities is due primarily to the inability of the general university library[Pg 292] to provide books and conveniences desired by the departments. Neither a union catalog nor the most exhaustive duplication of books, service, and equipment has so far served to offset the weakening of the central library which has been an inevitable result of the rapid growth of departmental collections.

Possibly Mr. L. N. Wilson of Clark university may have pointed out a partial solution to some of our perplexities. He states that at Clark university not only is the drafting of the classification schedules attended to by the professors, but also the actual classification of the books. Where the faculty is willing to undertake these duties the librarian is naturally relieved of a great and difficult responsibility. While the plan has evidently worked out in a satisfactory manner at Clark, it would seem a difficult or even impossible expedient for certain other universities, particularly the largest ones. There would be difficulty in securing the necessary volunteer service. Then the librarian would no doubt have to exercise infinite tact in his efforts to co-ordinate and harmonize the work of so many volunteer classifiers. That some coordinating influence would be required we may take for granted. Personally, I see little relief in the direction here indicated. As for the University of Chicago, I imagine that we are, in common with most university libraries destined to have the departmental problem with us in some form or other as long as there are collections of books to be administered in connection with departments and courses of instruction. We shall watch with great interest the development of the plans of sister universities, a number of which are said to contemplate the strengthening and extension of at least a part of their departmental collections.

I may say in conclusion that judging by observations at Chicago I should be disposed to agree entirely with Dr. Gerhard of Halle, and others of our German colleagues, when they state that there can be no objection to the building up of strong departmental libraries, provided this can be achieved without crippling the general library. But where the departmental libraries are developed at the expense of the general library, and where willingness to co-operate, or to observe the most necessary restrictions as regards the fields to be covered is lacking, there the interest of the great majority both of faculty and students are made to suffer for the convenience of the few, a convenience which is, besides, in many cases only imaginary, and based on a lack of knowledge and appreciation of the possibilities of a general library, and no doubt also of the limitations of departmental libraries. As previously stated, the general library is the one department common to the whole university, the department which should have no ax to grind, and which under normal conditions might, therefore, be trusted to preserve an impartial attitude and to safeguard the interests of all departments alike without fear or favor.

In closing this paper it is difficult to refrain from expressing the opinion that whatever the policy adopted with reference to its library system, a university owes it to its constituency to see that a strong and well balanced general library constitutes an integral part of the scheme. The establishment of the latter should, when possible, take precedence over that of large departmental collections. When it becomes necessary to organize the latter, they should be considered distinctly a part of the general library and be placed under its control. A partial or nominal control on the part of the general library is not likely to prove effective or to furnish the best possible service for the greatest possible number.

Dr. W. K. JEWETT then presented a paper on


The college librarian, like every other department head in the institution, is[Pg 293] anxious to spend as much as possible for the development of his department and is consequently seeking to get his appropriation increased as often as possible. It is usually of assistance to him in securing the favorable attention of the authorities to be able to show that the prevailing tendency among institutions of similar rank is to do that which he requests in his own case. Sometimes the librarian is asking more money for books, sometimes more money for administration and frequently more money for everything. While preparing an estimate for the authorities of our own institution, I recently collected data from 25 representative college and university libraries in different parts of the country and was interested to compare the data and draw what conclusions I could from the examination and from my own knowledge of the standard of accomplishment in the respective institutions. All but one of these libraries have over 60,000 volumes. I was able to separate them into three groups with reference to their book expenditures; those spending $5,000 a year or less, those spending between $5,000 and $20,000, and those spending $20,000 or more.

Six of the 25 libraries were in the first group, spending not to exceed $5,000. In all of these the expenditure for library administration exceeded that for books, in some cases by more than 100%. By amount spent for library administration I mean the amount spent for salaries and wages of persons employed in library work. In other words I mean to include student assistants and to exclude janitors.

Twelve of the 25 libraries were in the second group, spending more than $5,000 and less than $20,000 for books. Ten of these spent less for administration than for books, one spent more and the remaining library spent the same for administration as for books.

Two libraries in the group receive gifts of considerable sums each year for the purchase of books, the buying of which is done through the library so that for all purposes of comparison it is as though their book funds were increased just so much. I have regarded the gift money as equivalent to part of the book fund, although the actual payment is made by the giver without its passing through the hands of the college treasurer. Aside from these two, only one library in the second group receives any great number of volumes by gift. The average number of volumes received by gift is about one-third of the number received by purchase. The proportion of income used for salaries ranges from 35% to 45% leaving out the two libraries above mentioned which spent 50% and 52% for salaries.

Seven libraries made up the third group composed of those spending $20,000 or more for books. I omitted to obtain any figures from Harvard, Yale or Chicago as they are known to be making extraordinary expenditures at present in reorganizing or recataloging. Of the seven, two spent less for salaries than for books, two spent the same for each and two spent more for salaries than for books. The seventh library like two of those in the preceding group has considerable sums placed at its disposal each year for book buying but the disbursement is made by the donor and not by the university treasurer so that exact figures for calculating percentages are not available in its case. The proportion of income employed for salaries by the other six ranges from 40% to 60%.

From this brief comparison of data it is possible to draw the conclusion that with the smaller libraries a certain minimum of administration cost is necessary in order to operate the library at all and that this does not necessarily increase with the growth of the book fund. Where the book fund is less than $5,000, it is no reflection on the capacity of the librarian if his salary expense exceeds that amount although it is evidently his duty to devote his principal efforts to securing increased book appropriations. After the book fund has passed the $5,000 mark, the librarian should be prepared to give most excellent reasons for letting his salary roll exceed or even equal the book fund in case his governing board should begin to make[Pg 294] comparison with the figures of other institutions. If his library is in what I have called the second group and his salary expense exceeds 45% of the total income, he ought to stand ready to show cause at short notice for some one is likely to attract the attention of the president to the fact any day.

If on the other hand his salary roll represents less than 45% of total income, the librarian may well resist the suggestions of professors to call for more book money and instead devote his annual appeals to securing additional needed assistance and more adequate compensation for the members of his present staff.

With the libraries of the great universities the case is different. An institution that can spend upwards of $20,000 a year for books has more complex needs and more varied activities than the smaller colleges and universities. The quality of service demanded of the library is higher and much less is forgiven by the ambitious holders of highly paid chairs. The pressure of research work demands greater facilities for the prompt purchase and cataloging of "rush" books. More accomplished reference librarians must be had to meet the needs of clients in a great institution with a large number of graduate students. Catalogers of special qualifications must be provided to handle the books in oriental and other languages not commonly encountered in the ordinary college library. In the work of a large cataloging department there is more opportunity for lack of uniformity to creep in, and the need of accuracy in an enormous catalog is more vital than in a small one. Therefore the work of the revisers has to be more painstaking and time consuming than in a smaller collection where everything is simpler. Reclassification of whole sections of books whose classification is now out of date, must be undertaken. Bibliographies have to be compiled for professors. The preparation of publications, like the catalog of a special collection, is called for while the smaller library may never print anything more extensive than a list of its Poole sets. The duties of the shelf department in a great library are more complicated than many persons dream of and in all the departments fuller and more accurate records are needed. More extended routine in the order department is required in order to prevent unintentional duplication. Messenger service for the delivery of books in response to telephone calls from other buildings may be furnished. The maintenance of an efficient exchange bureau is needed in order to conduct the exchange of university publications with the innumerable minor learned societies all over the world. These publications are often called for in the great universities, although one could not reasonably expect to find them in the lesser institutions.

In fact for many reasons the proportion of income required for administration in libraries of the first rank increases with the size of the collection itself. It is a fair inference therefore that a university library with a book fund of more than $20,000 a year is justified in maintaining a pay roll in excess of that sum without fear of criticism.

The committee on nominations, reporting through Dr. W. K. Jewett, chairman, recommended that the by-laws of the Section be so amended that, instead of electing a chairman and a secretary each year as heretofore, a committee on arrangements consisting of three members be elected, the one first named by the committee this year to serve for one year, the second to serve two years, and the third to serve three years; one member to retire each year hereafter and his successor to be then elected for a three year term.

On motion the recommendation was approved unanimously.

The committee then recommended that the following persons be elected as the committee on arrangements: Mr. Andrew Keogh, Mr. N. L. Goodrich, and Miss Sarah B. Askew. On motion the recommendation was adopted and the three declared elected. The session then adjourned.

[Pg 295]


The meeting of the section was held at the Chateau Laurier, Tuesday morning, July 2. Mr. M. S. Dudgeon, chairman of the section, presided.

Mr. FRANK K. WALTER gave an account of the new quarters and resources of the New York state library school.

Mr. Walter said that the new quarters in the new State Education building would probably be ready by October first of the present year, and would provide the most spacious rooms belonging to any library school. The present temporary quarters, however, are comfortable and fairly commodious. A good working collection of reference books and trade and subject bibliographies has already replaced that destroyed by fire. When present orders have been filled the new collection will be better than the old.

The collection of illustrative material, thanks to the untiring industry of Miss Florence Woodworth, is growing by leaps and bounds. About 4,000 administrative blanks and forms are mounted and classified and a large number are as yet unmounted. About 1,400 pictures and plans of library buildings (including post-cards) are mounted and filed.

There is an excellent collection of works on bookmaking, ancient and modern, and a fair number of examples of printing of various periods and of beautifully bound books. About 150 mounts show binding material, book illustrations, type faces and other material illustrating printing and binding processes.

Mention must be made of the "Alumni collection" which the New York State Library Association is collecting for the school. Its aim is "to cover all books, pamphlets, clippings, etc., written by students of the school and biographical or professional material relating to them," together with portraits of the students and library buildings erected under their supervision.

The "class work collection" numbers about 2,300 volumes and is intended primarily for class use, particularly in cataloging, classification and subject headings, in selection of books, and in printing and binding.

All of this material is listed in a separate dictionary catalog prepared expressly for the school's use. More than 10,000 cards are already included in this catalog which is growing rapidly as more material becomes available for use.

The collections of the New York State library will be available as soon as the new building is ready. Including such documents and other volumes as can be temporarily shelved for use, upwards of 200,000 volumes will probably be available. These include an excellent set of United States documents, a very fair collection of state documents, many important foreign documents, and a good working collection of statutes, law reports, legal periodicals and legal treatises.

Mention must also be made of the 700 annuals and serials (including reports, bulletins, etc.), on various phases of library work which are currently received and filed and of about 500 bound English and American periodical sets (including most of those listed in the various periodical indexes) besides the numerous foreign periodicals, transactions, etc., currently received.

Miss AGNES VAN VALKENBURGH, instructor in cataloging at the library school of the New York public library, read a paper on


It may be well at the start to explain the terms used, to be sure that we are looking at the matter in the same light. Teaching, in this instance, I understand to mean that assistants shall have had library school instruction, while training is the instruction which is given in the[Pg 296] library or department itself to fit the applicant for the special work she is to do. When I say assistants, I also mean librarians of the smaller libraries, such positions as the library school student has been called upon to fill.

There are two points of view in looking at the question, that of the assistant and that of the employer. On the first there can be little discussion, as the same principles are here involved which underly all education. It is certainly better for any person to have a view of the whole field rather than of one small part of it. I was talking to the head cataloger of a large department the other day, and she said that one of her main troubles was in getting the assistant who has been given a certain part of the work to do, to see that any other parts are necessary or important. If the curriculum of our library schools does not give our students this broader view, we are not living up to our opportunities.

No library school, or any other school, for that matter, turns out a finished product. I cannot say to you that the best pupil in my class at the end of one or even two years is a first-rate cataloger. I can only say that I hope and think that she understands the principles and their relation to the rest of the work, and with experience will prove competent, having shown capabilities which point in this direction. On the other side, I have talked with many library people of experience and they all say that, anxious as they are to give the persons under their care all possible instruction, they are so busy with the pressure of accomplishing so much work every day, that when they find a person who does one kind of work well, they are very apt to keep her at that, rather than to give her an opportunity to do all the kinds of work, for the sake of her education.

I always have the greatest admiration, not unmixed with reverence, for those who can conduct the business of a large department and a training class at the same time, as either alone seems to me to take all the energy of an ordinary person; also the more people you have to do work which can be done by fewer, the greater the economic waste.

From the point of view of the employer there is something to be said on both sides. Nowadays the old plea is seldom heard that library school people know too much and have no idea that any method is feasible but the one they have been taught. I did have once a graduate from a so-called library school, to assist in my department while I was ill; after she had been there about a week, she announced that she did not like the way the library was classified and during my brief absence she thought she would re-classify it. We had about 150,000 volumes at that time and more than a million cards in our various catalogs. Thus did ambition disqualify her, as we had regretfully to let her go, but fortunately her kind is rare enough to be interesting.

The other objection to the employment of trained people is the question of expense. The niece of the president of the board must have occupation and is willing to work for her spending money, so as an economical measure, it would be a good thing to employ her. This has two fallacies: First, someone has to pay for the education of every person and it is better from the point of efficiency to have this done by the employee herself rather than by the institution. Secondly, we should all be willing to pay for what we get, and you certainly get more for your money in employing the skilled person than the amateur.

Miss Sutliff, after years of experience as a library school teacher, and with both apprentices and graduates, said to me that she thought that a person who was trained for a certain piece of work, at the end of one year, did that work better than the school graduate, but at the end of five years the second was a much better employee.

There is also this to be said on both sides of the question. There are people constitutionally unfit for library work,[Pg 297] training or no training, just as there are people who can never run an aeroplane or climb a greased pole or be a third-term president; they are not fitted for it, and all of us have had more or less experience with these both in school and out. They may be excellent people; in fact, it is exactly this class of whom her friends say, "Isn't it too bad Mary never married; she would make such a fine wife for some good man."

I have had a green girl who could never be taught to write a dozen catalog cards correctly because she had no bump of accuracy; I also had a library school graduate with the same failing, and when I mildly suggested that the number of corrections seemed excessive, she replied, "Oh yes, but, you see, I knew you were going to revise them, so I was not more careful." She also did not remain with me.

There are many bright girls who will pick up knowledge of all parts of the work on their own initiative and without any special effort on your part, will be perfectly qualified to step into your place should necessity arise. There is one danger which may be mentioned here and that is the possible injustice done to this exceptional person when library boards refuse to consider any person except library school graduates. During the time students are at school, they and the faculty are carefully considering for which branch of the work they are best adapted, so the employer runs less risk in this respect also, than when he takes an unknown quantity which he hopes may fit some particular place. If the various library schools are not turning out people with broader horizons and greater adaptability, they are not doing their full duty; but if the students they have taught are better qualified for the work, this fact should have due consideration in the selection of assistants or librarians.

Miss JOSEPHINE A. RATHBONE, vice-director of the Pratt institute school of library science, described a projected normal course.


Much has intervened, but possibly some of you may remember that some thing was said on Saturday about specialization in the library school course. Discussion among the library school directors present showed a consensus of opinion that specialization is undesirable in the first year of a two years' course and practically impossible in a one year course, nor did any radical plan of differentiation of function among the schools, other than that which has come about already by natural causes, commend itself as possible at present at least.

The only practicable form of specialization therefore seems to be along the line of advanced courses for those who have acquired the fundamentals of technique and who have had sufficient experience to determine clearly the direction in which their aptitudes lie. Such a course we are making toward at Pratt Institute and it is of our plans and aims for this normal course in library training that I have been asked to speak today.

The inception of the course came about not as the result of a desire to do some new thing, but as a solution of two pressing problems with which I found myself confronted last summer; one of these problems is common, I am sure, to all library school directors, the difficulty of finding teachers for their faculties or of supplying from their graduates demands of public libraries for directors of training classes. The other problem was local and peculiar to ourselves, and by reason of it a possible solution was indicated for the former. This was the suggestion made by the librarian of the Brooklyn public library that the Pratt Institute Library school take over the instruction of the Brooklyn public library apprentices. As the professional school of Brooklyn, it was clearly our duty to perform this function for the public library of Brooklyn, and it only remained to find a way,—first, that would satisfy the needs[Pg 298] and requirements of the Brooklyn public library system; second, that would so strengthen the Pratt Institute school as to recommend the plan to our trustees; third, would help to alleviate the professional situation of which I had become so acutely concerned.

In response to this need, almost an answer to prayer, for the idea occurred to me in church, came the conception of a normal course to fit advanced students for teaching positions in the profession. Now for a normal course three elements are requisite. Knowledge of the subjects to be taught, training in pedagogical methods and directed practice in teaching. The necessary knowledge of the subjects taught could be obtained by admitting to the course only those who had already acquired library technique. Pedagogical training could be given at Pratt Institute where there already existed a splendidly organized department of education and for the practice teaching there was the apprentice class of the Brooklyn public library for which the normal students could prepare and conduct the courses in library economy under the direction and supervision of our instructor of proved success in teaching. These two indispensable factors inherent in our situation seems to mark the Pratt Institute library school as distinctly the place of all others in which this experiment of training for teaching positions in library work could be tried. Now, does the need exist for librarians who are trained to teach? What is the situation?

There are ten or eleven library schools offering courses of one or two years. There are probably twice that number of summer library schools. There are training classes in all of the larger libraries and many of the medium sized libraries. There are many normal schools in which library courses are now given and the trend in this direction is unmistakable. There are school departments in many of the larger libraries in which more or less actual teaching is done, and in which a librarian who was at the same time a teacher, who understands the teachers' point of view would connect school and library the more completely. Many of you know that these positions are not easy to fill. But could a course be planned that would fit candidates for such positions? I believe so.

I am not going to degrade pedagogic training for teachers. That battle has already been fought out in the educational world. Of course, the best teachers are born, not made, and some few heaven sent may teach the better for not having learned how, but there are not enough of them to go around and the greater majority teach the better for training in tried and approved methods, applied under competent direction.

The normal course will therefore consist of two main parts—theoretical training and practice teaching.

The first part embraces educational psychology, a forty-eight hours' course, a thirty-six hours' course in the history of education, a general survey with a supplemental course on American public education—high schools, normal schools and colleges—a thirty-six hours' course in the theory of education taking up the conduct of recitations and giving the presentation of subjects, examinations, etc. A study of public institutions, both civic and philanthropic, will also be included. So much for the theoretical side. The practical application of the theory of education to the teaching of library technique will be made by the preparation of the courses for the Brooklyn apprentices and the conduct of the classes. The plan for this work is as follows: The normal students will spend a month before the teaching of the apprentices begins in the study of the Brooklyn public library system and in the preparation for the classes they are to conduct under the direction of Miss Julia Hopkins who is to have charge of this work. This work has been planned in consultation with the Brooklyn public library librarian and staff and between us we hope to work out the ideal apprentice course. I will go[Pg 299] into this somewhat fully in order to show its value as teaching experience for the normal student.

1. There are to be two apprentice classes a year, beginning in October and March respectively. To these classes four months of instruction will be given. This gives each normal student the opportunity of preparing and conducting different courses each term.

2. The four months of instruction will be followed by three months of practical work in selected branches of the Brooklyn public library, during which time the apprentices will learn the technical details of branch work under the supervision of the branch librarian, thus freeing the course of these details and making it possible to spend the class room time on the broader professional and culture side of the subjects taught.

3. 160 hours of instruction will be given to apprentices, on three days of the week, Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, the alternate days to be devoted by them to study and preparation. Full library time will be required of them, which will ensure three hours of preparation for each hour of class room work or lecture. This means the compiling of full reading lists by the normal students to accompany the instruction.

4. The subjects taught fall into three groups, cultural, technical and professional, with strong emphasis on the first and an effort to correlate the first two quite closely. Besides a review of the classics of literature, there will be a study of the important literature of different subjects—history, biography, sociology, science, and to this study will be related as far as possible both parallel courses of classification and reference books, the apprentices being thus required to handle a great many books and to get at their subject contents quickly. They will be required also to make a great many short reading lists on related topics. In the course in children's work, which Miss Clara Hunt will supervise, emphasis will also be laid on the book. Miss Hunt will examine and criticize the lectures prepared by the normal students. We wish to strengthen this phase of the work both because it is needed by the apprentices and because it will be of the utmost value to the normal students, especially to those who go into normal school work later.

The technical courses will take up the usual subjects. In classification the emphasis will be laid on the subject content of the classes to add to the general information of the apprentices and the course related, as I said before, to the study of the literature of the subjects.

In cataloging the emphasis will be laid on an intelligent understanding of the use of a catalog rather than on the details of cataloging. On the professional side the course will be stronger than is usual in apprentice courses.

Now of what value will this course be in providing teaching experience to the normal student?

1. As preparation for directing apprentice classes in public libraries I feel that it will be of direct utility.

2. For giving instruction to high school students in bibliography, reference works, classification and the use of the catalog it would seem to give adequate training.

3. For conducting courses in normal schools these mentioned subjects plus the course in children's books and perhaps the history of libraries would seem to be a good preparation.

4. The courses in classification, reference work, history of libraries, work with children, loan desk work, compare favorably in length of time given to them and in thoroughness with the average one year library school course and the preparation, to say nothing of the conduct, of such courses would be an excellent foundation for the teaching of the same subjects in a library school.

In addition to these main features of the course, the pedagogic training and the practice teaching, there will be lectures on normal and high school library work[Pg 300] and permission has been obtained from the public school system for the normal students to have practical work in the library of the buildings, training school and in some of the high school libraries. Opportunity to study the organization and methods of presentation of other library schools has been promised.

The first year or two will, of course, be experimental and experience alone can show how the whole thing will work out, but we feel that the opportunity is a great one and we mean to approach it open-mindedly and to allow it to develop organically.

Its success will, of course, depend on our securing the right kind of material for the class and for this we must look to the profession at large and especially to the other library schools. We do not want large classes, ten would be the outside limit, five or six the desirable number. But our own school could not supply even so many, and if you believe the plan a good one, the need real, and if the theory of differentiation of function seems wise, I ask you to send us those of your students who seem fitted for such work, and by coöperation, council and support help us to make the course a benefit to the whole profession.

There seems to be some misapprehension in the profession as to the relation of the Brooklyn apprentice class and the general course of our own school. So far as our one year course is concerned the only connection is that the Brooklyn public library has graciously permitted us to put our students in the branches of the Brooklyn public library for practical work, while the apprentices are invited to attend the course of lectures by librarians. There is no thought of combining the two classes in class-room work, which would not be advantageous to either group.

Miss Mary W. Plummer gave the following outline of the work done during the past year at the library school of the New York public library and the plans for the second year.


During the past year we have done four things: Trained thirty students for the one year certificate; given partial training to members of the library staff, to be continued or completed the coming year; given the same to members of other library staffs, to be continued or complet