The Project Gutenberg EBook of Scapa and a Camera, by C. W. Burrows

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

Title: Scapa and a Camera
       Pictorial Impressions of Five Years Spent at the Grand Fleet Base

Author: C. W. Burrows

Commentator: F. S. Miller

Release Date: May 4, 2014 [EBook #45583]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Produced by sp1nd, Chris Jordan and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at (This file was
produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive)



First published in 1921.

"The Sure Shield of Britain and of her Empire."
(Extract from His Majesty the King's message to his Navy at the outbreak of war.)















The Author desires to express his indebtedness to the undermentioned, who, by the loan of photographs or in other ways, have assisted in the production of this book:

The Photographic Bureau, Imperial War Museum.
O. Baird, Esq., Admiralty.
P. Goodyear, Esq., Senior Constructor, Admiralty.
Lieut.-Commander N. A. K. Money, R.N., O.B.E., Admiralty.
Paymaster-Lieut. Humphrey Joel, R.N.R., H.M.S. "Excellent."
T. Kent, Esq., Kirkwall.
A. H. Dominey, Esq., late Junior Army and Navy Stores, Ltd., S.S. "Borodino."
Jas. Mackintosh, Esq., Kirkwall.
Guibal House, Lee, S.E. 12, March, 1921.




It was my privilege to be in administrative charge of the Naval Base at Scapa from August, 1914, to May, 1916, until relieved by Rear-Admiral Prendergast.

The Author, Mr. C. W. Burrows, assumed duty as Cashier of the Dockyard Section at the Base in May, 1915, and was so employed until March, 1920, and thus had a long and intimate knowledge of local doings and surroundings.

He has compiled a unique and profusely illustrated book, which should prove of surpassing interest, not only to those who only know of Scapa by hearsay, but particularly to the thousands of officers and men of the Naval, Marine, and Civil Services of the Crown, the Mercantile Marine, and others who were employed in and near Scapa Flow. To the latter it will serve as a remembrance of the incidents, many joyous and some sad and tragic, associated with their sojourn in the northern mists which shrouded Scapa from the public eye. Part IV., dealing with the German ships at Scapa Flow, their dramatic sinking on 21st June, 1919, and the subsequent salvage operations of several of them, is an exceptionally fine pictorial record.

Owing to the lack of facilities, practically the whole of the Base Establishment had to be accommodated afloat, and until the arrival of H.M.S. "Victorious" in March, 1916, as accommodation ship and workshop for the Dockyard Staff and workmen, the officers and men experienced considerable discomfort. The men usually found quarters on board the ships upon which they were working, and, owing to the shortness of notice, they were frequently taken to sea.

A very marked feature throughout the war was the spirit of loyalty, good comradeship, and emulation which evinced itself among all ranks, ratings, and[xii] grades, whether on duty or in recreations. It was this spirit that lightened the discomforts and difficulties which necessarily occurred, maintained the Grand Fleet and Base in a healthy state of efficiency, and brought about the breakdown of the German morale, resulting in the ignominious surrender of the German ships in November, 1918, and their ultimate transfer to Scapa Flow.

The Author is to be congratulated in providing such a delightful souvenir of the Great War.


Long Hope, Shortheath, Farnham, Surrey.






"The Sure Shield of Britain and of her Empire" Frontispiece
Map of Scapa Flow and the Orkney IslandsTo face xx
H.M.S. "Cyclops" at Long Hope1
St. John's Head, Hoy5
Drifter Net-Boom Defence at Houton7
Sunken Ships between St. Margaret's Hope and Burray7
The Grand Fleet Base at Long Hope, 1916, looking towards Weddel Sound9
Closer View of the Base Ships at Long Hope9
H.M.S. "Imperieuse" at Long Hope11
H.M.S. "Victorious" at Scapa Flow12
R.F.A. "Ruthenia"13
Torpedo Sub-Depôt Ship "Sokoto" lying in the Inner Hope14
The Brough of Birsay, off which H.M.S. "Hampshire" was lost on 6th June, 191614
Driving off from the First Hole on Flotta15
Children's Race at Long Hope Sports16
Watching the Sports16
A Boxing Match on Flotta17
A Ship's Garden at Crockness18
U.S.S. "New York" leading the 6th Battle Squadron into Scapa after crossing the Atlantic19
Harvest Festival20
The "Green Room" of a Battleship; Officers making up for a Show21
German Battleship "Kaiser" entering the Boom at Scapa Flow for Internment at Dawn on 26th November, 191823
The German Ships interned at Scapa23
German Battle Cruiser "Derfflinger" Four Minutes before finally Sinking, 2.45 p.m., 21st June, 191924
[xvi]Vice-Admiral Sir R. J. Prendergast making his Farewell Address on H.M.S. "Victorious," 15th February, 192025
Good-bye to Scapa!26
View looking South from Houton Bay29
Wideford Hill and the "Peerie Sea"32
Loading Stores at Scapa Pier32
Kirkwall Harbour from the Cathedral Tower 33
Albert Street, Kirkwall34
St. Magnus Cathedral from the Earl's Palace 35
Old Houses in Kirkwall 36
Stromness from the Sea37
Houton Bay Air Station38
The Clestron Barrier, Stromness39
The Standing Stones of Stennis40
The Ring of Brodgar40
The Tumulus of Maeshowe41
The Entrance to Maeshowe41
A Winding Road in Hoy42
Ward Hill and Graemsay Island from the Sea43
Ward Hill—the Road to Rackwick44
Ward Hill from the East44
The Old Man of Hoy45
The Dwarfie Stone46
The New Stone Wall and Pier, Lyness47
Crofts near Lyness47
Excavations at Lyness in Connection with the Building of the Wharf48
The First Train in Orkney48
Sunset over the Martello Tower, Crockness49
The Martello Tower, Crockness49
View looking through the Martello Tower, Crockness, towards Long Hope50
Melsetter—on the Road from Lyness to Long Hope51
Long Hope Pier and Post Office52
Long Hope Hotel52
Kirk Hope, South Walls53
Cantick Lighthouse, South Walls53
[xvii]Digging the Peats—Hoy54
Carting Home the Peats54
Horse and Ox Harrowing55
Loading Sea-Weed for Manure55
An Orkney Cart55
Making Straw-backed Chairs, Orkney56
Interior of an Orkney Cottage57
Battle Squadron exercising in the Flow59
Admiral of the Fleet Earl Beatty on the Quarterdeck of H.M.S. "Queen Elizabeth"62
H.M.S. "Queen Elizabeth"63
H.M.S. "Revenge" and Ships of the First Battle Squadron at Scapa64
H.M.S. "Ramillies"64
H.M.S. "Resolution"64
H.M.S. "Royal Oak"64
Fourth Battle Squadron exercising in the Flow65
Battleships "Orion," "Monarch," and "Conqueror" in the Flow66
Battleships "Colossus," "St. Vincent," and "Bellerophon" exercising in the Flow66
H.M.S. "Renown"67
H.M.S. "Tiger": A Famous Ship of the Battle Cruiser Squadron67
H.M.S. "Emperor of India"68
H.M.S. "Whitshed"68
H.M.S. "Barham"68
Light Cruiser "Calliope" at Scapa69
"Make and Mend" on Light Cruiser "Yarmouth"69
The Deck of an Aeroplane Carrier, H.M.S. "Furious"70
Submarine "G 13" alongside H.M.S. "Queen Elizabeth"71
Submarine "K 16" under Way in the Flow71
Officers of Submarine "K 7" in the Conning Tower71
Marines Drilling on the Quarterdeck of a Battleship72
General View of Captain's Sunday Morning Inspection73
"Tidying Up" for Inspection74
Officers and Men exercising on the Quarterdeck75
[xviii]Washing Down Decks77
Stokers at Work 78
Church Service on H.M.S. "Queen Elizabeth" 79
Hospital Ships at Scapa Flow80
H.M. Hospital Ship "Magic II.," afterwards renamed "Classic"80
Transferring a "Cot Case" from a Battleship to the Hospital Ship Drifter81
Dentist at Work on a Battleship (H.M.S. "Collingwood")82
H.M.S. "Imperieuse" with Fleet Mail Steamer "St. Ninian" and Mail Drifters from the Fleet alongside83
Mail Boat "St. Ola" coming alongside H.M.S. "Victorious"83
Sorting Mails for the Fleet on H.M.S. "Imperieuse"84
Distributing Newspapers for the Fleet (H.M.S. "Imperieuse")85
Dockyard Workmen leaving H.M.S. "Victorious" for Work in the Fleet86
Repairing a Steam Pinnace on the Slipway at Lyness86
School Children's Entertainment on H.M.S. "Victorious"87
Three of the Young Orcadian Guests87
"No Coupons Required"88
Crew of Drifter "Shalot"89
Lifting Chain Cables89
Mooring Vessel "Recovery" at Scapa Flow89
U.S.S. "Patuxent" and "272" alongside H.M.S. "Victorious" for Repairs90
American Minesweepers in the Floating Dock for Repairs90
A Damaged British Destroyer being repaired in the Dock90
S.S. "Borodino," Junior Army and Navy Stores' Store-Ship with the Grand Fleet91
Interior of Shop on S.S. "Borodino"91
A Corner of an Officer's Cabin92
Fishing for Sea-Trout93
A Ship's Picnic93
A Bathing Party93
The Naval Cemetery at Lyness94
The "Hampshire" Memorial94
An Interesting Stone to the Memory of a Chinaman who died at Scapa94
The "Malaya" Memorial95
[xix]The "Vanguard" Memorial95
Making for Home96
The Scuttling of the German Ships97
H.M.S. "Lion" entering Hoxa Boom, Scapa Flow, at Head of German Battle Cruisers, 25th November, 1918100
H.M.S. "Repulse," "Renown," "Princess Royal," and "Tiger" Escorting German Battle Cruisers through Hoxa Boom, 25th November, 1918100
German Battle Cruiser "Seydlitz" entering Hoxa Boom, 25th November, 1918102
German Battle Cruiser "Von der Tann" entering Hoxa Boom, 25th November, 1918 102
German Battle Cruiser "Moltke" entering Hoxa Boom, 25th November 1918 103
The Interned German Ships at Scapa 103
German Battle Cruiser "Seydlitz" 104
German Battle Cruiser "Moltke" at Scapa Flow 105
German Battle Cruiser "Derfflinger" at Scapa Flow 106
German Battle Cruiser "Hindenburg" at Scapa Flow 106
German Battleship "Friedrich Der Grosse" 107
German Battleship "Kaiserin" 107
German Light Cruiser "Köln" 108
German Destroyers at Lyness, with Battleships in the Distance 108
Plan of the Anchorage of German Ships at Scapa Flow 110
A Party of French Officers visiting the German Ships 111
German Battleship "Bayern" sinking by the Stern, 2 p.m., 21st June, 1919112
The Final Plunge of the "Bayern" 113
German Destroyers sinking or beached off the Island of Fara 114
German Sailors taking to the Boats 115
British Boarding Party alongside sinking German Destroyer 116
General View showing German Destroyers sinking on the Right and Battleships in the Distance, at 3.30 p.m., 21st June, 1919 117
German Battle Cruiser "Hindenburg" as she now rests at Scapa 118
Whaler "Ramna" stranded on German Battle Cruiser "Moltke" 23rd June, 1919, taken just before "Ramna" refloated119
German Cruiser "Nurnberg" immediately after being refloated at 2 p.m. on 3rd July, 1919120
Salvage Operations on Battleship "Baden" and Cruiser "Frankfurt" beached at Smoogroo121
[xx]Salvage Work on the "Baden" 122
Pumping out the "Frankfurt"123
Cruiser "Bremse," which capsized whilst being beached124
Battle Cruiser "Seydlitz," lying on her Starboard Side in Shallow Water124
Hoisting the Union Jack on a sinking German Destroyer 125
On the "Seydlitz"125
"Baden" being towed South to Invergordon125
Salving German Destroyer "G 102"126
Salvage Party working on a German Destroyer127
View showing Salved ex-German Cruisers and Destroyers at Long Hope, October, 1919 128
The Salved German Cruisers "Nurnberg" and "Emden" in Long Hope Bay129
View Looking Aft from After-Control Top of "Frankfurt"130
View Looking Forward from the Same Position130
Expansion Ring Marking on 6-Inch Gun "Nurnberg"131
A Humorous Effort on the Part of One of Our Sailors131
The Propeller Blade of the "Seydlitz"131
Range-Finder and Searchlight Platform, "Nurnberg"132
88-Mm. Guns, "Nurnberg"132
6-Inch Gun on "Nurnberg" After-Turret133
5·9-Inch After-Breech, "Nurnberg"133
Searchlight Control Platform, "Frankfurt"133
10·5-Cm. Gun on a German Destroyer 134
Torpedo Tubes on a Destroyer135
Engine-Room Control Board, "Emden"136
Lower Conning Tower, "Emden"137
German Destroyer being towed South to Rosyth, March, 1920138
Blowing up the Minefields140
Closer View of Mine Explosion140
Salvage Operations on S.S. "Aorangi"142
Sunset over the Hills of Hoy144

To face p. xx.
Map of Scapa Flow and the Orkney Islands.



H.M.S. "Cyclops" at Long Hope.





Some slight apologia seems necessary to-day for the publication of a book of war reminiscences (even though they be mainly photographic), when so many personages, from Admirals and Generals downwards to the humbler ranks of W.A.A.C.'s and lady typists in Government offices, have seen fit to record in print their experiences during the Great War. This little album is being published at the suggestion of various friends in the Naval Service, with whom the writer has come into contact during the five years he has been associated with the Royal Navy at the Grand Fleet Base at Scapa Flow, and, it is hoped, may reach a wider circle of those to whom the name "Scapa Flow" has hitherto conveyed but a hazy notion of islands shrouded in perpetual northern mist—somewhere north of Scotland, c/o G.P.O., where for five years the Grand Fleet kept its monotonous vigil in readiness for "the Day," and where finally it had its reward when, in November, 1918, the German Fleet was ignominiously escorted into the waters of the Flow, whose defences its submarines had more than once endeavoured, unsuccessfully, to penetrate.

Various writers—e.g., "Bartimaeus" and the author of "In the Northern Mists"—have written vivid pen pictures of the everyday life of the Navy, and the photographs reproduced in the following pages, besides recalling many monotonous—and some pleasant—times to those who served at Scapa during the war, may help to supplement these books by presenting the actual environment and life of those whose "lawful occasions" necessitated so long a sojourn in these northern waters.

To many "Scapa" is a name (judging from the warmth of their remarks when the subject is mentioned) that they would like to eradicate for ever from their book of remembrance. Their feelings are expressed in a parody of a well-known song which appeared in the Orcadian of the 5th December, 1918, entitled—


(A Hymn of Hate).

Have you ever heard the story of how Scapa got its name?
If you haven't then you're slow, because it's earned a world-wide fame.
It has caused a lot of howling amongst our tars at sea,
So I'll tell to you the story as a sailor told it me:
Sure a little bit of wastage fell from out the sky one day,
And it fell into the ocean in a spot up Scotland way.
And when the Sea Lords saw it, sure! it looked so bleak and bare
They said, "Suppose we start to build a Naval Base up there."
So they dotted it with colliers, to provide the tars with work,
With provision boats and oilers, that they dared not dodge or shirk.
Then they sprinkled it with raindrops, with sleet and hail and snow,
And when they had it finished, sure, they called it Scapa Flow.
Now the Navy's been at Scapa ever since we've been at war,
And whenever it is over, they won't want to see it more.
But for years and years to come, whenever sailors congregate
You may bet your life you may hear them sing that Scapa hymn of hate.

Curiously enough, the weather forecast given in the Orcadian immediately below read: "Showers or drizzling rain; local mist."

Certainly even the most enthusiastic Orcadian has to admit that the islands have few natural features to commend them, and even less of the artificial amenities of civilisation: country practically bare of trees and vegetation, days in winter when the sun hardly seems to rise at all, and a climate that seems to hold the record for rainfall, storms, and unreliability.

St. John's Head, Hoy.
(The Highest Cliff in Great Britain.)

Yet, in spite of all the unkindness of Nature, to many there hangs a cloud of romance over these far-away northern islands. To those who have the observing eye, they are rich in the remains of a prehistoric past, with a history extending far back into the centuries. They possess a coast of unsurpassed grandeur of form and beauty of colouring, and as they are approached from the south, or seen from one of the hills of Hoy on a fair day, appear like some "fairy archipelago set in a summer sea," whilst a distant mirage often heightens the effect of unreality. In few places does one see such wonderful sunsets and cloud effects as in Orkney, followed often a little later by the "searchlight" rays of the Aurora Borealis. But mainly will those who spent long months and years in Orkney look back, not without[5] regrets, on the spirit of comradeship which made exile endurable, and which, in face of a common danger, united even the most varied personalities to work in harmony for a common cause. Many friendships were made which will long survive the war; many a "cheery night" in the wardroom will recall pleasant memories of those who are now scattered over the Seven Seas; and few of the many thousands who returned to civil life after serving in the Navy during the war but will have some regrets for the days when they took the rough and the smooth together (it was mostly rough) in the northern mists of Scapa Flow. Not a few married into Orcadian families, and the writer recalls his embarrassment on one occasion when in Stonehouse Naval Hospital recovering from an operation, in discussing somewhat freely various Kirkwall acquaintances with a naval officer invalided from the Northern Base, he happened to mention a certain lady's name as one of the fairest of the Orcadian maidens, whom he understood had married a naval officer. "Yes," was the reply, "she is my wife."

Until quite recently Scapa Flow and the Orkneys were practically unknown to the majority of Englishmen, and even to-day very few could point out the exact location of Scapa Flow on the map. In a well-known London newspaper of 23rd June, 1919 (after the scuttling of the German Fleet), Scapa Flow was marked on a map as north of Kirkwall, whereas it will be seen from the map reproduced in this volume that it is actually south of that town.

It is recalled also that on one occasion a travelling claim of a certain officer at the Base was returned from the Admiralty with a query as to the car hire claimed, and the inquiry was made as to why more use had not been made of the railway facilities!

T. Kent.
Drifter Net-Boom Defence at Houton.
J. Phillips.
Sunken Ships between St. Margaret's Hope and Burray.

Scapa Flow was used as an exercise ground for the Home Fleet many years before the war, with headquarters at the north-eastern corner of the Flow; but no preparations appear to have been made for its use as a permanent war Base prior to 1914, and consequently an enormous amount of pioneer work was needed to render it a safe and efficient harbour for the Grand Fleet and its auxiliaries. The magic growth of the Base from a few ships to many hundreds of vessels of all types—battleships, cruisers, destroyers, submarines, depôt ships, oilers, colliers, store and ammunition ships, hospital ships, etc.—constituting the most powerful Fleet ever assembled in one place, was a gradual process, in which many novel situations arose and many difficulties had to be met and contended[8] with. The absence of railway communication, the difficulties of local transport in weather conditions which at times even large vessels could not face, were additional obstacles to the hurried improvisation of arrangements, both ashore and afloat, which were essential to the effectual working of the Grand Fleet.

When Admiral Jellicoe succeeded Sir George Callaghan as Commander-in-Chief of the newly-named "Grand Fleet" on 4th August, 1914, there were practically no defences whatever on any of the islands, with the exception of a few 12-pounder guns landed from the Fleet, whilst there were, of course, no booms or obstructions across the numerous entrances (Hoxa, Switha, Hoy, and Holm Sounds) to the Flow. It was not until the end of 1914 and the beginning of 1915 that sunken ships were placed across the narrower channels, such as Burra, Water, and Holm Sounds, and that net-boom defence drifters were placed across the larger ones, and 4-inch and 6-inch guns landed at various batteries, which were erected to command these entrances. Consequently, during these early months of the war, the Grand Fleet could not remain in harbour in the Flow for more than a very brief period, owing to the danger of submarine attack; indeed, as Jellicoe remarks in his book on the Grand Fleet, it is a wonder that the Germans did not make a more determined attack on our Fleet during this period. It was on 16th/17th October, 1914, that the "Battle of Scapa Flow" took place, when a report that a submarine was in the Flow caused great excitement, and every available type of craft got under way in the endeavour to locate and sink it, firing at anything remotely resembling a periscope, and at night-time sweeping the seas with their searchlights. It was, I believe, never actually ascertained whether a submarine was present, but, as a result, the Grand Fleet moved further westwards to Lough Swilly, and did not return to Scapa until a few months later when the defences were somewhat more secure. Meantime the organisation of the Base proceeded apace, and H.M.S. "Cyclops" and "Assistance," Fleet repair ships, were joined by a large and increasing number of vessels, with Rear-Admiral F. S. Miller in command of the Base. Even so, continued difficulty was felt to accommodate the even more rapidly expanding personnel, and Admiral Jellicoe writes regarding the "Cyclops" at this period: "The manner in which the great demands on her accommodation were met was a standing wonder to me. In the early part of the war, officers on Admiral Miller's Staff and others were obliged to make their sleeping berths as best they[9] could on the deck or on top of their writing-tables, and it was surprising that the overcrowding in all directions did not affect health."

The Grand Fleet Base at Long Hope, 1916, looking towards Weddel Sound.
"Cyclops." "Victorious." "Assistance." "Imperieuse." "Ruthenia."
Closer View of the Base Ships at Long Hope.

Towards the end of October, 1914, the Base, owing to weather conditions, was moved from Scapa Bay to Long Hope, where it remained until April, 1919, when it was transferred to Lyness, where a substantial sea-wall was in process of completion, and where the Floating Dock was moored. Here it still remains, though of it "Ichabod" must be written, for it retains only a shadow of its former activities. The Fleet itself lay north of Weddel Sound, and the auxiliaries were disposed between Long Hope and Gutter Sound (see map).

H.M.S. "Imperieuse" at Long Hope.

One of the earliest arrivals at the Base was H.M.S. "Imperieuse" (previously "Fisgard I."). She left Portsmouth in September, 1914, in company with "Fisgard II.," with a party of dockyardmen who were coming up for work in the Grand Fleet; unfortunately "Fisgard II." capsized off Portland Bill with the loss of several lives, but "Fisgard I." arrived safely at Scapa Flow, and was renamed "Imperieuse." During the war she discharged many useful and important functions, and there are few naval officers who served any length of time at Scapa who did not at some time pass through her. Primarily she was the receiving and distributing centre for the mails for the Fleet, and some idea of the enormous number of letters, etc., dealt with may be gleaned from the fact that when the Fleet was present some 50,000 items were sorted and despatched daily. "Imperieuse" was also the headquarters of the staffs of the Admiralty Port Officer (or King's Harbour Master, as he would be styled at a dockyard port), Fleet Coaling Officer, Naval Store Officer, Victualling Store Officer, Naval Ordnance Officer, Cashier, Base Censor, and also accommodated the dockyard working parties, until at a later stage other vessels arrived which relieved her of some of these functions. In spite of the limited office and cabin accommodation, it was an interesting time: the work and the conditions were novel, and there was always plenty to be done in straightening out the various problems that arose. One could write a small volume on the personalities one met at the Base at that time: of a certain genial captain, addicted to forcible but effective speech; of "V.O.S.O.," equally proficient in supplying flour and potatoes, and music; of "N.O.S.O.," who insisted on a duly receipted, countersigned, and approved voucher (in triplicate) before he would part with a minute brass screw; of the "Drifter King," whose knowledge of Scotch drifter-men and their idiosyncrasies[11] was profound; of a certain officer in charge of Water Boats, sent to the Base by the Admiralty as a "gentleman of affairs," whose versatility flowed into such diverse channels as the organisation of a band, sports, the edition of a ship's magazine, the supervision of gifts forwarded by the Fresh Fruit and Vegetables Fund, and in numerous other directions; of W—— and B—— (the "Bullion Brokers"), who could give you the very latest tip straight from the horse's mouth: these are but a few of those who enlivened the Base in 1915-1916.

H.M.S. "Victorious" at Scapa Flow.

One of the next noteworthy arrivals at the Base was that of H.M.S. "Victorious," early in 1916. A "dockyard ship" had been awaited for nearly a year to relieve the congestion on "Imperieuse," and in September, 1915, the "Caribbean," duly fitted out for the purpose, left Liverpool for Scapa, but, like "Fisgard II.," sank on the journey north off Cape Wrath. H.M.S. "Victorious" was then taken in hand, and reached the Base safely in March, 1916. She was well provided with workshops and accommodation—being indeed a miniature "floating dockyard"—and at times over 500 dockyard artisans were accommodated, although these usually lived afloat on the ships of the Grand Fleet. The presence of such a large body of civilian workmen on a ship officered and manned by Service ranks[13] and ratings presented several novel problems, and it was largely due to the tact and consideration of both parties that the experiment, on the whole, was justified by the results. The possession of such a ship at the Base, by enabling defects to be adjusted and installations, such as director firing gear, protective deck plating, flying-off platforms, etc., to be fitted by skilled workmen at the Base instead of at a southern dockyard, added considerably to the fighting strength of the Fleet at a time when ships were badly needed, and when our numerical superiority over the enemy fleet was less marked than at a later period of the war.

R.F.A. "Ruthenia."

Early in 1917 the addition of a small Floating Dock enabled much useful work to be done in carrying out minor refits and emergency repairs, and over 200 keels were docked whilst it remained at Scapa.

The Fleet repair ships, H.M.S. "Cyclops" and "Assistance," have already been referred to, and they should not be overlooked in this connection; both these vessels carried out, with naval ratings, valuable repairs in connection with the maintenance of the machinery, etc., of the ships of the Grand Fleet.

Torpedo Sub-Depôt Ship "Sokoto" lying in the Inner Hope.
The Brough of Birsay, off which H.M.S. "Hampshire" was lost on 6th June, 1916.

Meantime the duties of "Imperieuse" were still further relieved by the arrival of other vessels. R.F.A. "Ruthenia," previously a dummy battleship, became the storeship and headquarters of the Victualling and Naval Store Officers, and the Fleet Coaling Officer took up his quarters in R.F.A. "Perthshire" in[14] the secluded waters of Pegal Bay; whilst the "Sokoto" (a depôt ship for the storing and repair of torpedoes) and M.F.A. "Zaria" (repair ship for small craft, such as drifters, trawlers, etc.) were already at Long Hope.

Driving Off from the First Hole on Flotta.

Once the early work of organisation was over, life at Scapa, especially for the Base ships, settled down to a somewhat monotonous routine, varied by spasms of excitement when the Grand Fleet received orders to proceed to sea, and one wondered if this time it was actually a "stunt," or merely once more "P.Z." The summer of 1916 was not, however, without incident. The return of the Fleet from Jutland, on the morning of 2nd June, was an exciting moment, followed a few days later by the dramatic news that Lord Kitchener had been lost in H.M.S. "Hampshire" off Marwick Head, and later in the month the King paid a short visit to the Fleet. Just over a year later, in July, 1917, the battleship "Vanguard" blew up with the loss of practically the entire ship's company. The explosion occurred late at night (about eleven o'clock), and the vivid flames which illumined the twilight sky (it was still fairly light) were followed by a dense column of smoke rising about half a mile into the sky. Everyone rushed on deck clad in a varied assortment of night attire, every available craft was rushed to the scene of the disaster, and anti-submarine precautions were ordered to be taken. Some idea of the force of the explosion may be gathered from the fact the "Vanguard's" pinnace was blown clean over the next ship in the line, and landed in the water on the other side, practically undamaged, whilst it was reported that a packet of Treasury notes was picked up intact next day on the neighbouring island of Flotta.


Children's Race at Long Hope Sports.
Watching the Sports.


Imperial War Museum.
A Boxing Match on Flotta.


A Ship's Garden at Crockness.

Towards the end of December, 1917, our Fleet was strengthened by the arrival of four U.S. battleships, which were incorporated into the Grand Fleet as the Sixth Battle Squadron. The presence of the Americans contributed some new features into the life of the Base, notably in the domain of sport, and baseball became for a time quite a popular game. The importance of games and sport, incidentally, has always been recognised in the Navy, and nowhere was the need for recreation more essential for the maintenance of morale and fitness than at Scapa. Football was played all the year round (there being no summer to speak of in these northern latitudes) on Flotta (the playing ground of the Grand Fleet), and at Long Hope and Lyness by the Base ships, whilst two or three rough golf courses were laid out for the use of officers. Admiral Jellicoe used often to be seen playing a hurried game round the course at Flotta in the few moments of relaxation he was able to snatch from his work on the "Iron Duke." Tennis was hardly a possible game, owing to the inclement weather and the continual winds, but one or two ash and gravel courts were made at the shore batteries. Sailing and pulling matches were frequently arranged, and the sports of the Base ships at Long Hope became an annual event greatly looked forward to[19] by the local inhabitants as well as by the ships' companies. Another annual event of great interest was the Grand Fleet Boxing Championship Contest, held outside the Y.M.C.A. Hut at Flotta. These competitions were witnessed by as many as 10,000 men, and the writer recalls an inspiring speech made by Admiral Beatty to this great gathering of sailors in July, 1917, after he had distributed the prizes. Prince Albert, incidentally, was present on this occasion.

Humphrey Joel.
U.S.S. "New York" Leading the 6th Battle Squadron into Scapa after crossing the Atlantic.
"Harvest Festival."

The work of the Y.M.C.A. Huts, at Flotta and Long Hope, and of the Church Army Hut later at Lyness, was of great value in providing almost the only recreation and social amusement obtainable outside of one's ship, and the ladies who volunteered for service in these lonely islands deserve every praise for the way in which they cared for the comfort and entertainment of the men during the war.

Imperial War Museum.
The "Green Room" of a Battleship: Officers making up for a Show.

Gardening became at one period quite a popular, as well as profitable, recreation amongst many of the men and officers, and although neither the soil nor the climate was very promising, some remarkably good crops of vegetables were obtained, which were especially welcome in view of the difficulties of obtaining[21] fresh fruit and vegetables on board ship. One enterprising ship actually raised chickens and pigs on one of the islands, although the uncertain movements of the ships made the feeding question a difficult problem at times.

A variety of indoor amusements was provided on board ship. The "movies" were always a standing attraction, whilst billiards proved a popular war-time innovation, the movement of the ship adding a fascinating element of uncertainty to the game! Some excellent "shows" were organised, and an improvised stage, with the necessary accessories, was rigged up on the Frozen Meat Ship "Gourko," which proved an ideal "theatre ship," although it was advisable to come warmly clad, as the auditorium was over the refrigerating room!

Very little of interest occurred at the Base in the early part of 1918, and the Grand Fleet spent a considerable time in this year at Rosyth, where the completion of the boom defences permitted exercises and firing to be carried out with almost the same degree of safety and convenience as at Scapa. The progress of the war was, as elsewhere, watched with great excitement towards the end of the year, and the signing of the Armistice on the 11th November, 1918, came as a great relief after four years of strain and effort. One of the most welcome of the minor changes effected by the Armistice was the removal of the Censorship which had been rigorously maintained during the war, and for the first time the general public became aware of the jealously guarded secret of the location of the Northern Base of the Grand Fleet.

The German Ships interned at Scapa.
(Battle-cruisers "Hindenburg" and "Derfflinger" in the foreground.)
German Battleship "Kaiser" entering the Boom at Scapa Flow for Internment at Dawn on 26th November, 1918.

The entry of the German ships into Scapa Flow for internment towards the end of the month was a memorable sight, which will not soon be forgotten by those who witnessed it. The vessels came north from Rosyth in detachments, and each group of ships entered the Flow in the grey dawn of an autumn morning, escorted by our own ships. Little groups of spectators who had gathered at points of vantage on the islands identified the various ships as they entered with great interest, and more especially in the case of those who had last met them in action. It was some compensation for those who had spent so many months and years at Scapa that "the Day" should have culminated in such a dramatic and complete surrender of the German Fleet, although it seemed then almost unthinkable that such a surrender should have been made without at least an effort to strike a last blow, or in the last resort to scuttle their ships in port. That some, at any rate, of the officers of the German Navy had these feelings was [23] evident from the destruction of one of their submarines just before the Armistice in the act of entering the Flow, whose outer defences it had indeed penetrated. There seems little doubt that this was a last desperate attempt to sink as many as possible of our Fleet before the final and then inevitable surrender, and one cannot but acknowledge the spirit and the bravery of those who took part in such a forlorn hope.

German Battle Cruiser "Derfflinger" Four Minutes before finally Sinking, 2.45 p.m., 21st June, 1919.
Vice-Admiral Sir R. J. Prendergast making his Farewell Address on H.M.S. "Victorious," 15th February, 1920.

Even more dramatic was the afternoon of Saturday, 21st June, 1919, when the large majority of the interned vessels sank beneath the waters of the Flow.

N. A. K. Money.
Good-bye to Scapa!

In accordance with the terms of the Armistice German crews were allowed to remain on board the interned ships, and after the preliminary inspection, there was practically no communication with our own ships except for essential matters of duty. This rather aided the preparation of the plans made by the Germans, and shortly after noon on the 21st the sea-cocks of all the vessels were simultaneously opened, and ensigns, and in some cases the Red Flag, hoisted. The First Battle Squadron, which was then at the Base, was exercising in the Pentland Firth at the time, and was not able to return until later in the afternoon, but all available tugs and small craft were immediately ordered to the sinking ships,[27] and as many as possible were run ashore on the surrounding islands. It was a clear afternoon, and probably no more wonderful sight has ever been witnessed than that of these huge vessels on all sides heeling over and plunging headlong—some with their sterns almost vertical above the water, others listing over to port or starboard, with steam and oil and air pouring out of the vents and rising to the surface long after the ships had completely disappeared beneath the water. Débris of all sorts, boats, hammocks, lifebelts, chests, etc., littered the sea for miles round. Small craft of all descriptions were variously engaged: here a drifter would be seen picking up Germans from the water, there a pinnace towing a long string of boats and Carley floats full of prisoners to the Flagship, whilst other craft were occupied heading off parties of Germans who were endeavouring to make for the shore. One or two amusing incidents occurred during the scuttling. One of our water-boats was busily engaged supplying water to one of the ships as she was sinking, and whilst the Germans were actually leaving the ship on the other side. Some school children from Stromness in the tug "Flying Kestrel" had the unique experience of a trip round the ships in the morning, which on their return journey were sinking or had disappeared.

By five or six o'clock the whole of the ships had sunk, except the battleship "Baden," which was boarded in time to save her, and three cruisers, which were run ashore or beached. The battle cruisers "Hindenburg" and "Seydlitz" drifted into shallow water, and with the cruiser "Bremse," which turned turtle as she was being beached, are resting on the bottom, and present a spectacle of interest to visitors as they pass in the Mail Boat to Stromness.

Such was the inglorious end of the German Fleet, and with its disappearance the Base began slowly to break up. One by one the ships went south, and the acquaintances of many years were severed. On 15th February, 1920, the Base reverted to a peace-time status, and the Admiral commanding the Orkneys and Shetlands (Vice-Admiral Sir R. J. Prendergast) hauled down his flag. Towards the end of the month and during March the salved German cruisers and destroyers were towed south to Rosyth for distribution amongst the Allied Powers, and on 25th March the last of the Base ships remaining, H.M.S. "Imperieuse" and H.M.S. "Victorious," left for Rosyth and Devonport respectively.

To-day not a vessel remains of that vast assemblage of ships which were gathered at the Base during the war, and Scapa will probably in future be an[28] exercising base only for the Fleet as in pre-war times. But, whatever its future, the name of Scapa is one that has earned an undying fame in the history of the British Empire and of the world, and it will remain as an enduring memory to those who were destined by the chances of war to be exiled in those lonely islands of the North.



View looking South from Houton Bay.





"Voir Kirkwall, et mourir," a French naval officer remarked to me when visiting Scapa Flow. Without inquiring too closely as to whether there might not have been some ironical "double-entendre" in his apparent admiration of the capital of the Orkneys, it was certainly the Orcadian "Mecca" of the Grand Fleet, and never in its history has it known such activity and prosperity as during the five years of war. A sleepy little town of four or five thousand inhabitants, it was suddenly called upon to assist in supplying the needs of a floating population of close on 100,000 men, and its narrow main (and only) street, "where two wheelbarrows tremble when they meet," bustled with unwonted activity—messmen from the ships loading provisions, naval men and officers engaged in an afternoon's shopping and sightseeing, with an occasional motor lorry or car trying to thread its way amongst the traffic.

Kirkwall, as will be seen from the map, is approached from the Flow by way of Scapa Pier, whence it is a walk or drive of about a mile and a half to the town.

The little hamlet of Scapa, incidentally, from which the Flow takes its name, assumed importance during the war as a seaplane station, and is the scene of an old custom long forgotten, which is related rather amusingly in a volume on Orkney by a Rev. John Brand, dated 1701. He writes: "In Scapha about a mile from Kirkwal to South-West, it is said there was kept a large and ancient Cup, which they say belonged to St. Magnus, King of Norway, who first instructed them in the principles of the Christian religion and founded the Church of Kirkwal, with which full of some strong drink their Bishops at their first landing were presented; which, if he drank it out, they highly praised him, and made themselves to believe, that they should have many good and fruitful years in his time." He adds rather regretfully: "The Countrey to this Day have the tradition of this, but we did not see the cup; nor could we learn where it was." The fact that[32] the Highland Park Distillery (the most northern distillery in the British Isles) is on the upper Scapa road rather tends to confirm the legend!

Loading Stores at Scapa Pier.
Wideford Hill and the "Peerie Sea."

Conveyances known locally as "machines" (they do not speak of traps or chars-à-bancs in Orkney) are always available to convey one to Kirkwall from the Pier, and anyone who has travelled over that bumpy road in one of these vehicles will not forget the experience!

Kirkwall Harbour from the Cathedral Tower.

Arrived in Kirkwall and suitably refreshed (let me recommend the Ayre Hotel of many pleasant memories), the most striking building which meets the eye, and which dominates the town, is the Cathedral of St. Magnus. Kirkwall, as its name signifies (Kirkevaag or Kirk Voe), is the bay of the church, although the original church from which the town takes its name was not that of St. Magnus. Founded before the middle of the twelfth century, it is a very fine example of Gothic architecture, which, fortunately, owing to its remoteness, escaped the zeal of the Reformers, and remains to-day a stately witness of the Norse warriors of old, who played such a prominent and adventurous part in the history of Orkney.[34] Near by are the Bishop's and Earl's Palaces, both also eloquent relics of the days when feasting and fighting were the main preoccupations of the Norse Jarls, whose exploits are recounted so graphically in the "Orkneyinga Saga."

Albert Street, Kirkwall.
St. Magnus Cathedral from the Earl's Palace.

Kirkwall during the war was an examination base, and hundreds of craft of all nationalities passed through the harbour to be searched for contraband of war. Later, after the Armistice, it became the headquarters of our own and the American Mine Clearance Service, and the advent of four or five thousand American sailors contributed further to the prosperity and enlivenment of the town. Baseball, for example, and the "jazz," had not hitherto penetrated so far north as Orkney, and dancing soon became almost as great an obsession amongst the fair maidens of Kirkwall as it was further south.

To-day Kirkwall is again outwardly the same quiet town it was prior to[36] 1914, but the infusion of new ideas and modes of life, which was inevitable from contact with so many of our own and American people, has produced many changes of mental and social outlook, and in no town will the years 1914-1919 be remembered for their historical significance more than in the capital of the Orkney Islands.

Old Houses in Kirkwall.


Stromness, situate at the western extremity of the mainland, is next to Kirkwall in size, and is in many respects the rival of the capital. Its position did not give it the same importance as Kirkwall during the war, although it was a convenient centre for some of the subsidiary activities of the Base. For a considerable period it was the headquarters of the Western Patrol, and the various building operations, including the wharf at Lyness and the Air Stations at Houton and Scapa, were supervised from the office of the Civil Engineer at Stromness. The[37] accessibility of Stromness to the sea through Hoy and Burra Sounds, and the probability of submarine attacks on the Fleet through these channels, rendered defensive measures an imperative necessity, and at the time of the Armistice a triple series of boom defences, with the additional safeguards of sunken ships and minefields, rendered ingress a practical impossibility. One of the most remarkable of these defences was the Clestron Barrier between the island of Graemsay and Clestron. This was constructed of conical frameworks of steel rails, which were placed in position with their bases resting on the bottom of the channel, an operation rendered the more difficult by the tides which sweep around these shores, which give Stromness its name (the ness of the "strom" or current).

Stromness from the Sea.

Stromness is a picturesquely situated little town, with its straggling houses, rising straight from the water's edge, and its rugged coast scenery. The traveller from Kirkwall, after traversing fifteen miles of somewhat monotonous road, is suddenly confronted with the quiet town lying below him in a landlocked bay, with the heights of Hoy rising beyond and adding grandeur to the beauty of the scene.

T. Kent.
Houton Bay Air Station.

Amongst the quaint houses in its zigzag mile-long street is one of noteworthy interest, being the house in which Sir Walter Scott wrote the notes of his Orkney[38] novel, "The Pirate," most of the characters in which are drawn from people who actually lived in Stromness.

The Clestron Barrier, Stromness.

Stromness was a popular "week-end" resort for those who, during the war and afterwards, were fortunate enough to get leave, there being an excellent and modern hotel, with good fishing in the lochs, and a nine-hole golf course in the near neighbourhood. Close at hand, too, are many places of interest to the historian and antiquarian, which are briefly noticed in the following pages.


"The Standing Stones" are the most noteworthy antiquarian relic in the county of Orkney, and their origin, like those of Stonehenge, is wrapped in obscurity. They were probably erected by the early Celtic inhabitants of Orkney, possibly as sacrificial spots, and they were undoubtedly standing when the Norsemen overran the islands in the ninth century. Standing on the narrow little peninsula in the midst of the Loch of Stennis, and seen as the shadows of evening are falling, they are impressive in their lonely solemnity, and insensibly carry one back to the dawn of history in these islands—to days of sacrificial rites and strange matrimonial ceremonies, to the worship of Thor and Woden.


The Standing Stones of Stennis.
The Ring of Brodgar.


The Tumulus of Maeshowe.
The Entrance to Maeshowe.


A mile or two from Stennis stands the celebrated Tumulus of Maeshowe. This is a conical-shaped mound rising to a height of about 35 feet, and surrounded by[42] a moat. The interior is approached by a long, narrow passage, leading into a central stone chamber about 15 feet square, from which a number of crypts or cells branch off at the sides. On the walls are inscribed a number of runes, of which, as one humourist observed, "several professors have given as many translations, apparently all different." There is certainly considerable diversity of opinion as to the age and origin of the mound, but it seems to be generally accepted that it was originally the chambered tomb of some chieftain, dating from early Celtic times.

A Winding Road in Hoy.
(Pegal Burn.)


The island of Hoy lies on the western side of the Flow, and, as most of the Base ships were anchored in its vicinity, it was the island which became the most familiar to and frequented by those going to the "beach" for recreation and exercise. The names of Long Hope, Lyness, Melsetter, North Ness, are as familiar to the many thousands of naval men who spent so long at Scapa, as are the Strand and Charing Cross to Londoners. Fortunately, Hoy is perhaps the most interesting[43] and picturesque of the Orkney Islands, and some of its hill and cliff scenery is amongst the finest in Great Britain, whilst the sportsman, the botanist, and the geologist can find ample material for their various pursuits.

Hoy will probably show more permanent evidences of the "naval invasion" of Scapa Flow than any of the other islands, as it has now become, at Lyness, the headquarters of the permanent peace-time naval establishment at Scapa Flow. At Lyness there are the makings of a miniature dockyard, with a wharf accommodating vessels of 30 feet draught, slipway, storesheds, oil, fuel, and petrol depôts, and a reservoir for fresh water supply, which, in the event of war, would be at once available for meeting the requirements of the Fleet. Such an establishment would have been of immense value at the outbreak of the present war, and, indeed, had been contemplated for some years prior to 1914.

Ward Hill and Graemsay Island from the Sea.


Ward Hill is the highest hill in Orkney (1,556 feet), and from its summit on a clear day a magnificent panorama of the Orkney Islands unfolds itself, lying at one's feet like "the scattered fragments of some ingenious and parti-coloured toy map," whilst on the further side of the Pentland Firth the coast of Scotland is clearly defined as far as Cape Wrath. During the war the whole of the Grand Fleet could be seen in the Flow, and it seemed hard to realise that those small and insignificant specks as they appeared in the distance lay as a "sure shield of Empire" between our nation and the domination of the German Eagle.


Ward Hill: The Road To Rackwick.
Ward Hill from the East.


The Old Man of Hoy.


The lonely pillar of rock standing well out on the western coast of Hoy is one of the best-known "sights" of Orkney. It stands 450 feet above the sea (as high as St. Paul's Cathedral) in one of the most inaccessible parts of the coast, but the scene repays the hard walk over the moors which a visit to the rock entails. The photo happens to show the features of the "Old Man" quite distinctly.



The Dwarfie Stone is one of the strange relics of antiquity which abound in Orkney. It is a mass of sandstone about 30 feet in length, 14 feet in breadth, and from 2 to 6 feet in height, and lies in a lonely valley at the foot of Ward Hill. It has been hollowed out on either side of the entrance door shown in the photo into two chambers, each with a stone bed, with a hole in the roof to serve as a window or chimney. Nothing appears to be known of the origin or purpose of the stone, but a rather quaint theory is brought forward in an old book on Orkney (1701), as follows:

"Who hewed this stone, or for what use it was, we could not learn, the Common Tradition among the People is, That a giant with his wife lived in this Isle of Hoy, who had this stone for their Castle. But I would rather think, seeing it could not accommodate any of a Gigantick stature, that it might be for the use of some Dwarf, as the name seems to import, or it being remote from any House might be the retired Cell of some Melancholick Hermite. The stone also may be called the Dwarfie Stone, per Antiphrasin or by way of Opposition it being so very great."

The Dwarfie Stone.

Sir Walter Scott refers to the stone at some length in his novel "The Pirate," the scene of which is laid in the Orkneys and Shetlands, and which will be found of interest to the student of Orkney traditions and history.



The New Stone Wall and Pier, Lyness.
Crofts near Lyness.

Following the rough road on the east coast of Hoy from Ward Hill, by way of Pegal Burn, one reaches Lyness, in pre-war days a few scattered crofts, and now the Naval Base in Orkney. The stone wharf, built by Messrs. Kinnear and Moodie, of Glasgow, is now only just nearing completion, and the other buildings (torpedo and paravane depôts, petrol tanks, store sheds, etc.) were not available in time to be of much value during the war, but they will be ready for the next! Some idea of the difficulties with which the contractors had to contend will be realised, when it is remembered that every ton of material had to be brought by rail and sea from the south, during a time when, owing to the submarine menace and the shortage of shipping, it was often months before delivery of stores could be made. The work was frequently completely held up by non-delivery of a machine or replacement, whilst the difficulties of recruiting labour in such a desolate spot as the Orkneys were a great handicap. On many days work had to be suspended owing to gales, whilst in winter operations were only practicable during the few hours of daylight available. The works, incidentally, were responsible for the introduction of the first train into Orkney!


Excavations at Lyness in Connection with the Building of the Wharf.
The First Train in Orkney.



Sunset over the Martello Tower, Crockness.

Crockness lies a little beyond Lyness, to the south, and is chiefly noteworthy for its Martello Tower, which, with that at Hackness on the further side of Long Hope Bay, was erected during the Napoleonic Wars, and completed in 1818 as a protection for the harbour. It was in Long Hope Harbour that merchantmen bound for America and the Continent assembled to await convoy, and it is curious that exactly one hundred years later history has repeated itself, and that during the war just concluded the same system of convoy was adopted from Kirkwall, into which harbour all neutral vessels were sent for examination and convoy. It is rather characteristic of our nation that both the Martello Towers and the works at Lyness were completed some time after the Napoleonic Wars and the European War respectively were over!

The Martello Tower, Crockness.

The Towers are very solidly built structures, with gun mountings on top, and underground cellars for stowing ammunition, etc., but they have never apparently been of any practical use. It is related that it was not until the present war that a monthly payment, which originated in 1818, to a crofter family for certain services rendered to the original occupants of the Tower, was at length discontinued, when it was discovered that the Tower had been disused for some generations! but the accuracy of the story cannot be vouched for.


View looking through the Martello Tower, Crockness, towards Long Hope.



Continuing by the road from Crockness, the village of Melsetter is passed on the road to Long Hope.

At Melsetter is the very fine residence of Mr. and Mrs. Middlemore, whose hospitality was always open to the many naval officers who used to call there. The visitors' book among many famous names contains those of the King and the Prince of Wales, and Admirals Jellicoe and Beatty. A William Morris Tapestry in one of the reception rooms is noteworthy as recording the exploits of "Sir Gawaine of Orkney," one of the Knights of the Round Table.

Melsetter—on the Road from Lyness to Long Hope.

Long Hope Bay during the war was the headquarters of the auxiliaries of the Grand Fleet, and never in its history were so many vessels of such varied types assembled in the harbour. The village of Long Hope, where there is a good pier, naturally became much frequented by officers and men from the ships, and eventually a commodious Y.M.C.A. was erected, which did much useful work. "Tea on the beach" was always a pleasant change from ship life (and tinned milk!), and the Post Office at Long Hope became a favourite rendezvous for informal tea-parties. (Possibly the attractions of the fair postmistress and her sister had something to do with this!)

Incidentally, a writer on Orkney remarks that "there is a considerable Celtic element in the population of South Walls brought by some seventy-one Highlanders,[52] who, evicted from Strathnaver to make room for sheep, settled in the parish between 1788 and 1795, and who have thrown in a dash of good looks not so common in other parts of the group." The comment seems hardly fair to the rest of Orkney, however true it may be with regard to Walls.

Long Hope Pier and Post Office.
Long Hope Hotel.

The inn at Long Hope (where the King stayed on one of his visits to the[53] Fleet) was transformed into the office of the Admiral Commanding the Orkneys and Shetlands, and a wireless station was erected alongside. It has now (1921) reverted to its pre-war condition, much to the gratification of the Long Hope inhabitants.

Kirk Hope, South Walls.
Cantick Lighthouse, South Walls.


The road from Long Hope leads past the Y.M.C.A. to the lonely little cemetery (shown on the left of the photo above) at Kirk Hope, and thence to the lighthouse at Cantick Head. A fine view of the islands is obtained from the Lighthouse Tower, and the visitors' book contains the names of R. L. Stevenson and Prince Albert, amongst others of interest.



As there are practically no trees in Orkney, wood is not available for fuel, but fortunately peat is very plentiful, and is used almost universally for heating purposes. The peats are cut in the spring, and a peculiar-shaped form of spade, known as a toysker, is employed to cut the turfs, which are stacked on the side of the bank as shown in the photograph. After a few weeks the peats are "raised"—i.e., set on end—and arranged in small heaps, so that they may dry more thoroughly. They are then carted home and stacked, each croft possessing its stack for the winter months.

Digging the Peats—Hoy.

During the war parties of men from the ships could often be seen assisting the crofters in digging the peats—such assistance being very welcome at a time when labour was scarce and there was plenty of work to be done on the land. A day at the peats can be recommended to anyone who wants to know what it is to feel really tired after a hard day's work!

T. Kent.
Carting Home the Peats.



Horse and Ox Harrowing.
Loading Sea-Weed for Manure.
T. Kent.
An Orkney Cart.


T. Kent.
Making Straw-backed Chairs, Orkney.

The primitive cottages which prevailed in Orkney, until a few years ago, are gradually giving way to larger and more substantial dwellings, but some of the crofts are still reminiscent of very early times, consisting only of a "but and a ben," with the beds let into the wall, after the style of the French cupboard beds of Brittany, and with the floors made of stone flags.

Orkney has several cottage industries, no doubt due to the long winter evenings and the inclement weather. Amongst these is rush plaiting for the famous "Orkney chairs," which, with their comfortable rush backs and seats and hoods, are familiar to all who have been in Orkney.


T. Kent.
Interior of an Orkney Cottage.



Spinning is another occupation of the winter evenings, which has been widely revived recently in Orkney owing to the high price of wool. The Orkneys and Shetlands are noted for the softness and quality of their wool, and the various processes of teasing, carding, spinning and dyeing are all carried out on the crofts.





Battle Squadron Exercising in the Flow.




The photographs which follow depict various aspects of the work and play of the Grand Fleet and the Auxiliaries at Scapa, and are more or less self-explanatory. Owing to limitations of space, it is not possible to deal adequately with a subject on which so many volumes have been written, but an effort has been made to include as many types as possible of the varied units of the Grand Fleet, and to depict the various phases of the everyday life and recreations of the personnel of the Fleet. Owing to the strict photographic censorship during the war, it was not practicable to take many subjects which would otherwise have found a place in this record, but those which are shown in the following pages will give the reader some little idea of how the Navy "carried on" during the eventful years 1914-1919.


Humphrey Joel.
Admiral of the Fleet Earl Beatty on the Quarterdeck of H.M.S. "Queen Elizabeth."


H.M.S. "Queen Elizabeth."


H.M.S. "Revenge" and Ships of the First Battle Squadron at Scapa.
H.M.S. "Ramillies."
H.M.S. "Resolution."
H.M.S. "Royal Oak."


Humphrey Joel.
Fourth Battle Squadron exercising in the Flow.


Humphrey Joel.
Battleships "Orion," "Monarch," and "Conqueror" in the Flow.
Humphrey Joel.
Battleships "Colossus," "St. Vincent," and "Bellerophon" exercising in the Flow.


H.M.S. "Renown."
(In which the Prince of Wales made his recent visit to the Colonies.)
H.M.S. "Tiger": A Famous Ship of the Battle Cruiser Squadron.


H.M.S. "Whitshed."
(One of our Latest Type Destroyers.)
H.M.S. "Barham."
H.M.S. "Emperor of India."


Humphrey Joel.
Light Cruiser "Calliope" at Scapa.
"Make and Mend" on Light Cruiser "Yarmouth."
(Note the bins for "Bones" and "Pig Food.")


Imperial War Museum.
The Deck of an Aeroplane Carrier, H.M.S. "Furious."
Humphrey Joel.
Submarine "G 13" alongside H.M.S. "Queen Elizabeth."
Submarine "K 16" under way in the Flow.
Officers of Submarine "K 7" in the Conning Tower.
Imperial War Museum.
Marines Drilling on the Quarterdeck of a Battleship.


Imperial War Museum.
General View of Captain's Sunday Morning Inspection.


Imperial War Museum.
"Tidying Up" for Inspection.


Imperial War Museum.
Officers and Men exercising on the Quarterdeck.


Imperial War Museum.


Imperial War Museum.
Washing Down Decks.


Imperial War Museum.
Stokers at Work.
(Over 4,000,000 tons of coal were supplied to the Fleet at Scapa from the outbreak of war to the date of Armistice.)


Imperial War Museum.
Church Service on H.M.S. "Queen Elizabeth."


Hospital Ships at Scapa Flow.
H.M. Hospital Ship "Magic II.," afterwards renamed "Classic."


Imperial War Museum.
Transferring a "Cot Case" from a Battleship to the Hospital Ship Drifter.
(The more serious cases from the Fleet were sent to the Hospital Ships—of which there were generally three or four at Scapa one of which, H.M.H.S. "Agadir," was set aside for infectious cases only. In addition to the drifter "Coryphæna," shown in the photograph, two other drifters were detached for Hospital Ship duties, named, rather suggestively, the "Golden Harp" and "Elysian Dawn!")


Imperial War Museum.
Dentist at Work on a Battleship (H.M.S. "Collingwood").


H.M.S. "Imperieuse" with Fleet Mail Steamer "St. Ninian" and Mail Drifters from the Fleet alongside.
Mail Boat "St. Ola" coming alongside H.M.S. "Victorious."
(The "St. Ola" took the place of the "St. Ninian" during the last few months of the war, and mails were then distributed by H.M.S. "Victorious.")
For the first three months of the war all mails for the Fleet were landed and distributed at Scapa Pier. In November 1914, a Branch Post Office was opened on H.M.S. "Imperieuse," where the mails and newspapers were sorted and despatched to the Fleet. Some idea of the volume of business transacted to the date of the Armistice can be gathered from the following figures: 42 million letters and parcels sorted and despatched; 85 million letters and parcels delivered; value of postal stamps sold, £275.500.


Imperial War Museum.
Sorting Mails for the Fleet on H.M.S. "Imperieuse."


Imperial War Museum.
Distributing Newspapers for the Fleet (H.M.S. "Imperieuse.")


Dockyard Workmen leaving H.M.S. "Victorious" for Work in the Fleet.
Repairing a Steam Pinnace on the Slipway at Lyness.


School Children's Entertainment on H.M.S. "Victorious."
(The Navy is renowned for its hospitality, and the above shows a group of school children and their teachers who were entertained to a cinema show and tea on board. Many of the children had never seen the "movies" before.)
Three of the Young Orcadian Guests.


Imperial War Museum.
"No Coupons Required."
(The work of victualling the Navy at Scapa was no small task, as the following figures of the monthly Fleet requirements indicate: Meat, 320 tons; potatoes, 800 tons; flour, 6,000 140-lb. bags; sugar, 1,500 120-lb. bags; bread, 80,000 lbs.)


Crew of Drifter "Shalot."
(Attached to the Victualling Store Officer R.F.A. "Ruthenia.")
Lifting Chain Cables.
Mooring Vessel "Recovery" at Scapa Flow.
(The mooring work of the Base was performed under the control of the Admiralty Port Officer, H.M.S. "Imperieuse." Amongst the mooring vessels which did useful work in laying and lifting moorings for the Fleet, in addition to the "Recovery" pictured above, should be mentioned the mooring craft "Strathmaree," "Ben Doran," "Ben Tarbet," and "Bullfrog.")


U.S.S. "Patuxent" and "272" alongside H.M.S. "Victorious" for Repairs.
American Minesweeper in the Floating Dock for Repairs.
A Damaged British Destroyer being repaired in the Dock.


S.S. "Borodino" Junior Army and Navy Stores' Store-Ship with the Grand Fleet.
Interior of Shop on S.S. "Borodino."
(The Junior Army and Navy Stores was one of the most popular "institutions" at Scapa, and from 1914 to 1919 it was the great shopping centre of the Fleet. Almost every variety of article was stocked, from "an elephant to a shirt button," and in addition a hairdressing saloon and a laundry were installed.)


A Corner of an Officer's Cabin.
(An officer's cabin is his exclusive "sanctum," and in this case the occupant appears to have been determined to keep in mind "the girls he left behind him!")



Fishing for Sea-Trout.
A Ship's Picnic.
A Bathing Party.


The Naval Cemetery at Lyness.
(The Naval Cemetery at Lyness is situate on some rising ground overlooking the waters of the Flow. Here lie buried those who died whilst serving at Scapa, those who fell in the Battle of Jutland, and those who perished in the "Hampshire," "Vanguard" and other vessels. Their memory is perpetuated by the memorials which have been erected by their shipmates, some of which are here shown.)
The "Hampshire" Memorial.
An Interesting Stone to the Memory of a Chinaman who died at Scapa.


The "Malaya" Memorial.
The "Vanguard" Memorial.


Making for Home.
(H.M.S. "Victorious" in the Irish Sea on the way to Devonport, March, 1920.)



The Scuttling of the German Ships.




Although the association of the Grand Fleet with Scapa Flow would of itself have given that hitherto almost unknown spot a peculiar and honourable significance in our naval history, it was undoubtedly the choice of Scapa as the place of internment of the German ships and their subsequent dramatic sinking, which made Scapa a familiar name, not only in this country but all over the world. The photographs which follow show the various phases of the German "occupation" of Scapa from the time that the vessels arrived for internment to the final scenes in March, 1920, when those vessels which had been salved after the scuttling in June, 1919, were finally towed south for distribution amongst the Allied Powers.

The first phase took place on 23rd November, 1918, and the succeeding days, when the surrendered ships were escorted from Rosyth to Scapa and anchored in the Flow, prior to taking up their permanent billets in Gutter Sound (previously the collier anchorage of the Fleet; see map on p. 110).

The ships arrived in the following order:

Date.German Vessels.British Escort.
Saturday, 23/11/1820 Torpedo-Boat Destroyers.Torpedo-Boat Destroyers.
Sunday, 24/11/1820 Torpedo-Boat Destroyers.Torpedo-Boat Destroyers.
Monday, 25/11/185 Battle Cruisers, 10 Torpedo-Boat Destroyers."Lion" and First Battle Cruiser Squadron and 10 Torpedo-Boat Destroyers.
Tuesday, 26/11/185 Battleships and 4 Light Cruisers.5 Ships First Battle Squadron and Second Light Cruiser Squadron.
Wednesday, 27/11/184 Battleships, 3 Light Cruisers.4 Ships First Battle Squadron and Third Light Cruiser Squadron.

The German ships carried full navigating parties, and came north under their own steam. The dense clouds of smoke which will be observed in the photographs on pp. 102 and 103 testify to the poor quality of the coal with which they were supplied. The crews were later reduced to care and maintenance parties only.


J. F. V. Guise.
H.M.S. "Lion" entering Hoxa Boom, Scapa Flow, at Head of German Battle Cruisers, 25th November, 1918.
H.M.S. "Repulse," "Renown," "Princess Royal," and "Tiger" Escorting German Battle Cruisers through Hoxa Boom, 25th November, 1918.


The complete list of capital ships (apart from destroyers) interned at Scapa is shown below. The battleships "König" and "Baden," and cruiser "Dresden," were later arrivals.

BayernKronprinz Wilhelm
MarkgrafFriedrich der Grosse
KönigKönig Albert
KaiserinPrinzregent Luitpold
Grosser Kurfürst
HindenburgVon der Tann

During the period of their internment, communication between the German ships and our own Fleet was restricted to a minimum, and no one from our own ships was allowed on board the interned vessels unless on duty of an urgent nature. The Germans were required to victual and store their own ships from Germany, coal and water only being supplied locally. As German warships were not constructed for living aboard for long periods (the sailors being mostly accommodated in barracks when in harbour), the crews at Scapa must have had a rather unenviable time of it, though there was a certain element of poetic justice in interning them in the region where for so long our own Fleet had kept its lonely vigil. As one of their officers remarked in writing home and describing the bleakness and desolation of Scapa: "If the English have stood this for four years, they deserve to have won the war."

The German ships were patrolled by a number of drifters—a somewhat ignominious guard for the much-vaunted German Fleet.

The Germans' love of music was in evidence even at Scapa, and it was somewhat strange and at times rather pathetic to hear the unfamiliar strains of "Die Wacht am Rhein" and "Die Lorelei" rising from the German ships, some of which still retained their bands.

German Battle Cruiser "Seydlitz" entering Hoxa Boom, 25th November, 1918.
German Battle Cruiser "Von der Tann" entering Hoxa Boom, 25th November, 1918.
German Battle Cruiser "Moltke" entering Hoxa Boom, 25th November, 1918.
The Interned German Ships at Scapa.

The anniversary of Jutland (31st May) was not forgotten, and most of the[102] ships displayed bunting, on the pretext of drying their flags, as they were not allowed to fly their ensigns after Beatty's signal on the evening of the surrender at Rosyth. One of the ships prominently displayed a notice in English: "To-day we celebrate the German victory of the Battle of Jutland."

German Battle Cruiser "Seydlitz."
(One of the ships which bombarded Scarborough.)

It was somewhat difficult, owing to the isolation of the German ships, to form an idea of the discipline which prevailed on board. It was evident that on most of the ships there were representatives of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Councils, as the members could be readily distinguished by their white armlets. Indeed, there is probably some truth in the report that when the German ships surrendered, the crews confidently expected that our ships, the crews of which they believed to be on the verge of mutiny and Bolshevism, would make common cause with them, and they must have been considerably surprised when Admiral Beatty refused to negotiate with the Council representatives. There were undoubtedly disturbances on some of the German ships whilst they were at Scapa, and it appears to have been due to a rather serious case of insubordination that Admiral[105] Von Reuter, who was in command of the German ships, changed his flagship from the "Friedrich der Grosse" to the "Emden."

On the other hand, the simultaneous sinking of the German ships on 21st June, 1919, proved conclusively that a certain discipline still prevailed, for the scuttling was undoubtedly organised and carried out with (from the German point of view) very commendable precision and thoroughness.

The scuttling of the German ships on 21st June, 1919, has already been briefly referred to in the earlier part of the book, but as the writer was privileged to be an eyewitness of the events of that afternoon, the reader will perhaps pardon the intrusion of the personal element in a more detailed description of the sinkings.

German Battle Cruiser "Moltke" at Scapa Flow.
German Battle Cruiser "Derfflinger" at Scapa Flow.
German Battle Cruiser "Hindenburg" at Scapa Flow.

It was at five minutes past noon that the signalmen reported that the German ships had hoisted ensigns and burgees. The excitement which this announcement produced was intensified a short time later when it became apparent that the ships were sinking, and that the crews were taking to the boats. Lunch was completely forgotten, and arrangements were hurriedly made to get all available small craft to the ships to ascertain if anything could be done to save any of them. I obtained permission from the Admiral to accompany him on an inspection of some of the nearer destroyers, from which it was ascertained that there was no possibility of saving any of the ships other than by beaching them, as the sea-cocks [106] had not been only opened but the valves had been destroyed. Our picket-boat happened to come alongside at this stage, so I jumped aboard and proceeded north up Gutter Sound, where the larger vessels were anchored. Our instructions were to board any German vessels which were still afloat, haul down their ensigns, and to take such steps as were necessary to save life and to direct any boats or Carley floats of Germans to the Flagship. Our picket-boat followed the course shown in the sketch map on p. 110, and we reached the "Seydlitz" at about one o'clock, boarded her and hauled down her colours, and at the same time opened the windlass with a view to parting it and allowing the vessel to drift ashore, but unfortunately it brought up at the slip and held. The "Seydlitz" was then beginning to list heavily, so we left her and next boarded the "Hindenburg," which was also beginning to list heavily to port.

German Battleship "Friedrich der Grosse."
(Admiral von Reuter's Flagship.)
German Battleship "Kaiserin."
German Light Cruiser "Köln."
German Destroyers at Lyness, with Battleships in the Distance.

We then proceeded past several of the battleships, which were seen to be rapidly settling down. Whilst abreast of "König Albert," our picket-boat was hailed from the deck of a trawler by the German Admiral, Von Reuter, who asked us to save the crew of the "Bayern," who were in the water. Two drifters which were near by were accordingly ordered close to the "Bayern" for this purpose, and we proceeded in the same direction, when the photographs on pp. 112 and 113 were taken. Immediately afterwards the ship turned over to port, bottom up, and sank, whilst the crews of the boats cheered loudly and waved their caps.

We next headed for the "Derfflinger," on the way sending back several boats full of Germans to the "Victorious." The "Derfflinger" foundered a few minutes after taking the photograph on p. 24. On the way back we passed the "Hindenburg," which had then settled on to an even keel with her masts and funnels showing, whilst the "Seydlitz" was then resting in shallow water on her starboard side, with her decks nearly vertical, and her port propeller just showing above the water.

Meantime a considerable number of the destroyers had been beached by tugs and other small craft, in addition to three cruisers, whilst the "Baden," the only battleship saved, was still afloat, though very low in the water.

On arrival on the "Victorious" we found the ship crowded with Germans, who, after examination, were sent to the Flagship, H.M.S. "Revenge"—which had by this time returned to the Flow from the Pentland, where the 1st Battle Squadron had been exercising—from which ship they were sent south.


Plan of the Anchorage of German Ships at Scapa Flow.


A large amount of salvage work ensued on the vessels which had been beached, most of them being pumped out and docked in the Floating Dock, although it was not found possible to get some of the destroyers off, and these still remain as a memento of that eventful day.

All the salved ex-German ships have now been towed south, and have been apportioned amongst the Allied Powers. It is interesting to note that the "Baden" and "Nurnberg," of which several photographs are shown in the following pages, have been allotted to Great Britain, whilst the "Emden" goes to France, and the "Frankfurt" to U.S.A. It appears that most of the salved vessels are to be broken up, thus finally disposing of the remnants of the once great German Fleet.

A Party of French Officers visiting the German Ships.


German Battleship "Bayern" Sinking by the Stern, 2 p.m., 21st June, 1919.


The Final Plunge of the "Bayern."


German Destroyers sinking or beached off the Island of Fara.


German Sailors taking to the Boats.


British Boarding Party alongside Sinking German Destroyer.


General View showing German Destroyers sinking on the Right and Battleships in the Distance.
At 3.30 p.m., 21st June, 1919.


German Battle Cruiser "Hindenburg" as she now rests at Scapa.


Whaler "Ramna" stranded on German Battle Cruiser "Moltke" 23rd June, 1919, taken just before "Ramna" Refloated.


German Cruiser "Nurnberg" immediately after being refloated at 2 p.m. on 3rd July, 1919.


Salvage Operations on Battleship "Baden" and Cruiser "Frankfurt" beached at Smoogroo.


Salvage Work on the "Baden."


Pumping out the "Frankfurt."


Cruiser "Bremse," which capsized whilst being beached.
Battle Cruiser "Seydlitz," lying on her Starboard Side in Shallow Water.


Hoisting the Union Jack on a sinking German Destroyer.
On the "Seydlitz."
"Baden" being towed South to Invergordon.


Salving German Destroyer "G 102."


Salvage Party working on a German Destroyer.


View showing salved ex-German Cruisers and Destroyers at Long Hope, October, 1919.


The Salved German cruisers "Nurnberg" and "Emden" in Long Hope Bay.


View Looking Aft from After-Control Top of "Frankfurt."
View Looking Forward from the Same Position.


Expansion Ring Marking on 6-inch Gun "Nurnberg."
A Humorous Effort on the Part of One of Our Sailors.
The Propeller Blade of the "Seydlitz."


Range-Finder and Searchlight Platform, "Nurnberg."
88-Mm. Guns, "Nurnberg."


6-Inch Gun on "Nurnberg" After-Turret.
5·9-Inch After-Breech, "Nurnberg."
Searchlight Control Platform, "Frankfurt."


10·5-Cm. Gun on a German Destroyer.


Torpedo Tubes on a Destroyer.


Engine-Room Control Board, "Emden."


Lower Conning Tower, "Emden."


German Destroyer being towed South to Rosyth, March, 1920.


MARCH, 1921.


R. J. Towers.
Blowing up the Minefields.
Group of mines exploded in February, 1919, by the Quoyness Mining Station, Flotta Island.
R. J. Towers.
Closer View of a Mine Explosion.
Photograph taken a mile away with a telecentric lens.




A few notes remain to be added to the preceding pages to complete the story of Scapa to the present time. The war necessarily left its aftermath at Scapa, as elsewhere, and although much of the "clearing up" has been accomplished, there will remain for many years visible traces of the "naval occupation" of the Orkneys.

The signing of the Armistice in November, 1918, entailed only a cessation of active hostilities, and it was not until the summer of 1919 that the reversion of the Base from a war to a peace footing really began. One of the earliest and most important operations to be undertaken after the Armistice was the clearance of the North Sea mine barrage between the Orkneys and Norway, which has already been briefly referred to. This entailed a sweep over an area of 6,000 square miles, and the destruction of over 70,000 mines. The American Minesweeping Detachment, to which the major portion of this task was allotted, arrived in Kirkwall in April, 1919, and by the end of September of that year their task had been successfully accomplished, and the northern gateway was open once more to the mercantile traffic of the world.

The mines which had been laid in the smaller areas around the entrances to the Flow were exploded simultaneously in sections—a very much simpler task, as these were connected electrically to shore stations. The photographs on p. 140 give some idea of the force of the explosions, which were audible for miles around. It is of interest to note that the buoy shown on the left of the photograph on the lower part of p. 140 marks the resting-place of the German submarine which was sunk in this minefield a few days before the Armistice.

The removal of the booms and the release of the boom defence drifters and trawlers was completed before the end of 1919. The fishermen who formed the crews of these vessels, incidentally, deserve to be recognised for their work during the war, the monotony and isolation of which made their task one of the least enviable at the Base.


T. Kent.
Salvage Operation on S.S. "Aorangi" in Holm Sound.
T. Kent.


The raising of the barrier at Clestron (see p. 39) proved a more formidable operation. The ice-breaker "Sviagator," early in 1920, made the unique experiment of crushing some of the hurdles to a sufficient depth to allow vessels of medium draught to pass over with safety, but it was not until the summer of 1920 that the removal of the hurdles was undertaken and completed by a salvage company, and the rails shipped south.

The raising of the "block" ships, which had been sunk in some of the narrow channels leading into the Flow, appears to have presented almost insuperable difficulties, mainly owing to tidal currents, and there does not seem to be much likelihood that the vessels in Burra and Water Sounds will ever be raised. In Holm Sound, however, one of the sunken ships, S.S. "Aorangi," was successfully salved by the East Coast Wrecking Company on 8th September, 1920, and beached near the churchyard at Holm.

Of the temporary shore establishments at Scapa very little now remains, and the buildings which are still standing have nearly all been converted to meet peace-time requirements. The "miniature base" at Lyness is in the hands of caretakers, and the completion of the wharf (on which £300,000 has been spent) has been stopped, whilst the control of the Naval Area, which since February, 1920, had been in the hands of Captain Alan G. Bruce, R.N., C.B., D.S.O., was on 1st December, 1920, removed to Invergordon.

The air stations at Houton, Smoogro, Caldale, and Stenness have been closed down or removed, whilst the seaplane station at Scapa has been acquired by the Orkney County Council as a tuberculosis hospital. Nearly all the shore batteries have been dismantled, the guns removed, the searchlights withdrawn, and the huts sold or demolished. Only at Hoy (Stromness) are the batteries intact, but these are in charge of a civilian caretaker. The Royal Marine Station at Carness (near Kirkwall) remains, but as a smallpox hospital under the Orkney County Council.

Various schemes have been under consideration for the removal of the sunken German ships, but at present they still remain as they sank on the memorable 21st June, 1919—a constant source of danger to ships passing through the narrow channels where they lie. It remains to be seen whether steps will eventually be taken to remove the more dangerous of these vessels, or whether they will remain as a permanent memorial of one of the most dramatic episodes of naval history.


Sunset over the Hills of Hoy.
(Mast of sunken German destroyer showing in foreground.)


Transcriber's Notes

Some place names have been found with alternative spellings. These alternatives may be legitimate and have been left as found.
Smoogroo, Smoogro
Burra, Burray
Stennis, Stenness.

The cruiser Nurnberg should be Nürnberg. This spelling has been left as found.

Page numbers are not continuous, since illustrations have been moved to paragraph breaks, leaving empty pages.

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of Scapa and a Camera, by C. W. Burrows


***** This file should be named 45583-h.htm or *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:

Produced by sp1nd, Chris Jordan and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at (This file was
produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive)

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties.  Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark.  Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission.  If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy.  You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research.  They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks.  Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial



To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License available with this file or online at

Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United

1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or

1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (,
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.


1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal

defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS', WITH NO OTHER

1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.

Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need are critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation information page at

Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at 809
North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887.  Email
contact links and up to date contact information can be found at the
Foundation's web site and official page at

For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director

Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including checks, online payments and credit card donations.
To donate, please visit:

Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic

Professor Michael S. Hart was the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For forty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.