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Title: All About Dogs
       A Book for Doggy People

Author: Charles Henry Lane

Illustrator: R. H. Moore

Release Date: April 14, 2014 [EBook #45377]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


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Book cover


A Book for Doggy People



Breeder, Exhibitor, Judge

Pellissier & Allen, Ph. Sc.
Chas. H. Lane Pellissier & Allen, Ph. Sc. Chas. H. Lane


Breeder, Exhibitor, Judge



A variety of dogs. A variety of dogs.


Copyright by

Riggs Printing Co.

To his fellow lovers
and admirers of Dogs throughout the World,
is respectfully Dedicated by the Author, in the earnest
hope that it may be the means of stimulating and
increasing their appreciation of the most
faithful, devoted and reliable
of the Human Race.


Frontispiece. Photogravure of the Author.

Variety.Name of Animal.Name of Owner.Page.
StaghoundRubyH. M. Queen Victoria7-8
FoxhoundMarksmanPytchley Hunt11-12
HarrierTravellerAldenham Kennels17-18
Beagle (large)Ch. RingwoodF. Warde21-22
Beagle (pocket)Little 'UnF. B. Lord21-22
BloodhoundCh. NestorMark Beaufoy, M. P.25-26
OtterhoundCh. SafetyDumfries. Otter Hunt29-30
Great DaneCh. Hannibal of RedgraveMrs. H. L. Horsfall37-38
PointerCh. Devonshire DanMiss Reston41-42
Setter (Eng.)Ch. RockJames Fletcher47-48
Setter (Gor.)Ch. MarquisThomas Jacobs51-52
Setter (Ir.)Ch. GarryowenJ. J. Giltrap55-56
Retriever (flat ct.)Ch. Right AwayS. E. Shirley59-60
Retriever (curly ct.)Ch. Tiverton Best LadSaml. Darbey63-64
Spaniel (Ir. W.)Ch. ShaunCol. the Hon. W. le Poer Trench67-68
Spaniel (Clumber)Sandringham BustlerH. R. H. the Prince of Wales, K. G.71-72
Spaniel (Sussex)Ch. Bridford GiddieMoses Woolland73-74
Spaniel (Black)Ch. Bridford Brill'tMoses Woolland77-78
Spaniel (Cocker)Ch. Ted OboJ. Farrow83-84
Basset (smooth)Ch. Louis le BeauMrs. M. Tottie85-86
Basset (rough)BeautyH. R. H. Prince of Wales, K. G.89-90
DachshundCh. WiseacreE. S. Woodiwiss91-92
GreyhoundCh. Real JamS. Woodiwiss97-98
DeerhoundCh. Selwood DhouranRobt. Hood Wright101-102
Wolfhound (Ir.)Ch. SheelahCapt. Graham103-104
BorzoisCh. AlexH. R. H. the Princess of Wales107-108
WhippetCh. EnterpriseH. Vickers111-112
Fox Ter (sm old type)Belgrave JoeLuke Turner115-116
Fox Ter (sm mod type)Ch. Claude DuvalGeorge Raper119-120
Fox Ter (wr old type)Ch. LoryAuthor121-122
Fox Ter (wr mod type)Ch. Roper's Nut-crackSir H. de Trafford, Bt.123-124
DandieCh. Blacket-House YetMrs. Rayner127-128
Skye (drop eared)Ch. Ballochmy le BashfulSir C. Alexander, Bt.131-132
Skye (prick eared)Ch. of Ch. DuchessMrs. W. J. Hughes135-136
Scottish TerCh. Killdee.H. J. Ludlow137-138
St. Bernard (rough)Ch. Sir BedivereSamuel Smith145-146
St. Bernard (smooth)Ch. GuideJ. F. Smith149-150
Newfoundland (black)Ch. Wolf of BadenochMrs. Ingleton151-152
Newfoundland (black and white)Ch. Kettering WonderLady Tollemache153-154
MastiffCh. BeaufortW. K. Taunton157-158
Dalmatian (blk. sptd)Ch. BerolinaE. T. Parker159-160
Dalmatian (liv. sptd)Ch. FauntleroyW. B. Herman163-164
Collie (rough)LochielH. R. H. the Princess of Wales167-168
Collie (smooth)Ch. Lady NellieAuthor171-172
Old Eng. Shp. DogCh. Cupid's DartF. W. Wilmot175-176
Bull Dog (large)Ch. BlackberrySaml. Woodiwiss181-182
Bull Dog (medium)Ch. Barney BarnatoG. R. Sims185-186
Bull Dog (small)Ch. Lady RozelleAuthor189-190
Bull TerrierCh. Sherbourne Q'nW. J. Pegg191-192
Boston TerrierTurpinMiss J. Tozier195-196
Irish TerrierCh. Ted MaloneMrs. Butcher197-198
Airedale TerrierCh. Dumbarton LassA. E. Jennings201-202
Bedlington TerrierCh. Clyde BoyR. H. Smith203-204
Welsh TerrierCh. Brynhir BurnerW. S. Glynn207-208
Black & Tan TerrierCh. Starkie BenLt.-Col. C. S. Dean209-210
White Eng. TerrierCh. EclipseJ. Walsh213-214
Poodle (corded)Ch. ModelMad'me Dagois221-222
Poodle (curly)Ch. RufusMrs. Robt. Long223-224
Pomeranian (large)Ch. König of RozelleMiss Hamilton227-228
Pomeranian (med)MarcoH. M. Queen Victoria229-230
Pomeranian (sm med)Ch. BrilliantJno. Duckworth233-234
Pomeranian (toy)Ch. of Ch. & Pr. TinaMiss Ada de Pass237-238
Pug (fawn)Ch. YorkMrs. Grelliche239-240
Pug (black)Ch. & Pr. Duke BeiraMiss C. F. A. Jenkinson243-244
SchipperkeCh. Zwarte Piot.I. N. Woodiwiss247-248
King Charles SpanielCh. LaureateHon. Mrs. McL. Morrison249-250
Blenheim SpanielCh. RolloMrs. Forder253-254
Prince Charles SpanlCh. Victor WildH. Taylor255-256
Ruby SpanielCh. JasperMrs. Woodgate259-260
Japanese SpanielCh. of Ch. Dai ButzuMrs. Addis261-262
Sm. Toy TerrierCh. Mascotte ModelMrs. Monk265-266
Yorksh. Toy TerrierCh. Ashton QueenMdes Walton & Beard267-268
Maltese TerrierCh. PixieJohn Jacobs271-272
Griffon BruxellesMarquis de CarabasCount H. de Bylandt273-274
Toy Bull DogRabot de BeaubourgMonsieur Petit277-278
Toy Bull TerrierLilyAuthor279-280
Italian GreyhoundCh. Larkfield LeveretP. Turner281-282
Norwegian ElkhoundJaegerLady Cathcart287-288
Afghan GreyhoundShahzadaJ. Whitbread289-290
Thibet Sheep DogSiringH. R. H. the Prince of Wales, K. G.293-294
EsquimauxCh. Arctic KingMrs. H. C. Brooke295-296
Chow ChowCh. Chow 8thMrs. Faber299-300
DingoCh. MyallMrs. H. C. Brooke301-302
Chinese Crested DogChinese EmperorW. K. Taunton305-306
Lapland Sledge DogPerlaH. R. H. Prince of Wales, K. G.309-310
Dogue de BordeauxCh. Sans PeurMrs. H. C. Brooke...

[Pg i]


I.A Few Words About Dogs in General1
II.Staghounds, Foxhounds, Harriers, Beagles9
III.Bloodhounds, Otterhounds, Great Danes27
IV.Pointers, Setters, Retrievers43
V.Sporting Spaniels, Basset Hounds, Dachshunds69
VI.Greyhounds, Scottish Deerhounds, Irish Wolfhounds, Borzois, Whippets99
VII.Fox, Dandie Dinmonts, Skyes, Scottish117


VIII.St. Bernards, Newfoundlands, Mastiffs, Dalmatians147
IX.Sheep Dogs:—Rough Collies, Smooth Collies, Old English169
X.Bull Dogs, Bull Terriers, Boston Terriers179
XI.Terriers,—Irish, Airedale, Bedlington, Black and Tan, Old English199
[Pg ii]


XII.Poodles, Pomeranians, Pugs, Schipperkes219
XIII. Toy Spaniels,—King Charles, Prince Charles, Ruby, Blenheim, Japanese245
XIV.Terriers,—Toy, Smooth Black and Tan, Yorkshire, Maltese, Griffons Bruxelles263
XV.Toy Bull Dogs, Toy Bull Terriers, Italian Greyhounds275


XVI.Something About Foreign Dogs291
XVII.Humours and Vagaries of the Show Rings311
XVIII. to XXIII.Anecdotes About Dogs, Personal and Selected322
XXIV.A Few Words About General Management and Some Simple Maladies, to Which Dogs are Subject and Their Treatment389

Part I


I.A Few Words About Dogs in General1
II.Staghounds, Foxhounds, Harriers, Beagles9
III.Bloodhounds, Otterhounds, Great Danes27
IV.Pointers, Setters, Retrievers43
V.Sporting Spaniels, Basset Hounds, Dachshunds69
VI.Greyhounds, Scottish Deerhounds, Irish Wolfhounds, Borzois, Whippets99
VII.Fox, Dandie Dinmonts, Skyes, Scottish117

[Pg iii]


I am told, it is indispensable there should be a Preface to this little work; but I am quite at a loss what to put in it. What I had to say on the subject upon which it treats, I have said in the book, and I am not aware of any thing I wish to add or withdraw. I can only hope the perusal of the book may afford as much pleasure to my readers as the writing it has given me, in recalling pleasant memories of many friends, both two and four-footed, some of whom have long since "joined the majority." As recording the impressions of one who has had considerable practical experience with many varieties of the canine race, and been brought into constant contact with the best specimens, I think my book is somewhat out of the usual run of doggy books. While in no wise seeking to produce a scientific treatise, nor yet a natural history, in the ordinary acceptation of the term, my wish has been so to write on the subject as to stir up in the minds of any of my readers, unacquainted with the many charms possessed by dogs, a desire to adopt some kind of dog as a companion and friend, and to confirm the affection and regard of my multitudinous dog-loving friends, so that they may be disposed to extend the borders of their[Pg iv] fancy, and possibly be interested and amused by some of the humours and vagaries of the Show Rings or the Doggy Anecdotes. These, when they are not within my personal knowledge, I have endeavoured to verify, so as to avoid the "Fairy Tales" we sometimes read under the title of "Doggy Stories." Before closing these remarks, I must express my deep gratitude, to my friend Mr. R. H. Moore, who has given my book the inestimable advantage of his talented pencil, in portraying so many excellent, and truthful portraits of the "Lights of the Canine World," including more than sixty "Champions," of their respective varieties. I am not aware that such a number of Canine Celebrities has ever before been gathered together in one volume, and they represent some of the best pictures of dogs I have ever seen, even of Mr. Moore's, and, I think most dog lovers will acknowledge that he is particularly happy in hitting off the expressions, and catching the actual likeness of his subjects, most kindly taking up the matter for me, when very much pressed with other commissions, not only giving me the benefit of his valuable advice in the selection of the most distinguished, and typical, specimens for the different varieties procurable, but entered into the work with the utmost ardour, and zeal; I feel therefore more indebted to him than I can express, for enabling me to present to the Public such an interesting and, I hope, instructive Picture Gallery of Dogs of the present day. With these few words I commend my little book to the troublous waters of public favour.[Pg v]


I suppose, if we take the whole of the Animal Kingdom, in any way associated with man, either as companion, or helper, there is none to compare, in popularity, with the subject of these notes; but yet I have often found in conversation, even with lovers of animals, very mistaken notions about dogs, their varieties, characteristics and peculiarities. I think there are more known and acknowledged varieties of dog, than of any other of the animals, we are at all familiar with, and the ways, sizes, appearance and characteristics differ so greatly that it is hardly possible, one would imagine, to find any person to whom some kind of a dog would not appeal. I wish, if possible, to say something to stir up in the minds of some not hitherto keeping a dog, the desire to do so, and whether merely as a guard or companion or with a view to trying to breed some good specimens, and, occasionally, to send to some of the Exhibitions of Dogs, which have so increased in number and quality during the last twenty years, that I have frequently heard it stated, that taking out Saturdays and Sundays, there is a Dog Show being held somewhere or other on every ordinary day in the year![Pg vi]

I would strongly advise the obtaining a well-bred dog, of whatever variety is selected, as, not only is it more satisfactory to have about you the best procurable type of any breed you may fancy, whether dogs or anything else, but if you want to part with either the originals, or any of their progeny, it is usually much easier to find purchasers and at much better prices for what is called "pedigree stock," that is of which the parentage for one or more generations is known, than when no particulars or references can be given.

There are fashions in dogs, the same as in other things, and I can remember a great many "crazes" for different breeds of dog. Fox Terriers, which are smart, lively, game little fellows, well able to adapt themselves to almost any circumstances, have had a long term of favour, and are still largely kept, perhaps as largely as any breed of their size; another element in their favour, is their not having much coat, and so not bringing in much mud upon them, even in dirty weather, if kept in the house. This, of course, has been rather against Skye Terriers, which are otherwise capital dogs for the house, full of life and spirit, but, to be kept in any order, they must be occasionally brushed, or their coats, which should be hard and straight, somewhat of the texture and straightness of a horse's tail, will get matted, and be a disfigurement, instead of an ornament.

A great movement has existed, for sometime, in favour of the Irish Terrier, who should be almost unbroken in reddish-brown colour, I mean with little or no shading, what is called self colour. This is a "good all[Pg vii] round" breed, able to follow a horse, a trap, be a good guard or companion, take care of himself in his "walks abroad," or have a turn at anything which comes in his way in the vermin line.

Two more breeds I can strongly recommend to any in doubt as to a suitable dog to take up as household guard or companion. These are the Scottish Terrier, often called the Die-hard, or Aberdeen-Terrier, a rather cobby, short legged breed, with a pointed head, ears standing straight up, short back, and gaily carried tail, colour generally, nearly black, grizzled, or brindled. I believe I brought, in 1868, the first of the breed ever seen in England (at any rate I had not seen one before), from a place called Uig, in the island of Skye, and quite a character he was, and I could give many instances of his great sagacity, and very quaint ways, during the many years he lived with me. I regret to say he has long gone to the "happy hunting grounds." I shall say something more of him amongst the "Anecdotes of Dogs," further on.

The other breed I referred to is the Dandie Dinmont Terrier, immortalized by Sir Walter Scott. For intelligence, pluck, faithfulness, and general adaptability to the ways, and wishes, of his owner, I do not know any breed to surpass it. In many cases, I have known a strain of Dandies kept up for generations, in families, and the affection between the dogs, and their owners, is so great, that no money would bring about a parting, and I have often seen pedigrees and genealogical trees of well known strains of Dandies, taking them back a[Pg viii] dozen generations, and prized very highly by their owners or breeders.

Whatever the decision come to by an intending keeper of a dog, if it is to be an inmate of the house, and is one of the smaller breeds, a box or basket should be provided in some place free from draughts, and after sprinkling either a little sawdust impregnated with disinfectant, or the disinfectant itself, put in some straw for a bed, this is better and less likely to harbour insect life, than hay, or any kind of rug, or mat.

But if the dog is to be kept out of doors, obtain one of the improved kennels, with the entrance at the side, which affords a shelter from the wind, rain, and snow, and have a chain constructed with two or, preferably, three swivels in it, that it cannot become twisted up. Many a dog has been injured and even killed by neglect of these little matters.

Of course, if convenience can be found, it is much better not to tie up a dog at all. No dog of mine, (and I have had hundreds during the last twenty-five years, of almost every known breed) ever catches sight of a collar or chain, except at a show, and, contrary to the popular idea which I have often heard expressed by sympathisers with the dogs on the show benches, dogs accustomed to exhibition work delight in it, and the sight of a dog's travelling box or basket, or the rattle of a chain, with the show label on it, is sufficient to cause the wildest excitement amongst my dogs at any time, each dog hoping it may be his good fortune to go to the show, which they look upon as great entertainment.[Pg ix]

I will undertake to say, that, if a dozen boxes or baskets are placed in the yard, with the lids open, and as many dogs let out of their kennels, you shall find an occupant in every box, within five minutes, and that each shall choose the box he usually travels in! It is far better to enclose your dog, or dogs, in one of the many forms of loose boxes, or kennels, now procurable of so many firms who cater for dogs' requirements, something in the way of a kennel, or sleeping box, with railed in run attached. One of the neatest and best, at anything like the price, (ninety shillings, if my memory serves me,) I have seen, is made by Mr. William Calway, Sharpness, Gloucestershire, who has made quite a leading article in his trade, of this kind of work.

Another matter to be attended to is, to give the dog plenty of exercise, unless the weather positively prevents it. Many people seem to fancy, if a dog is taken into the air, in a carriage, or other conveyance, that this is sufficient, but, it is not so, and the generality of dogs are all the better, for at least two hours' walking exercise every day, during which time, they will nearly, or quite, double the distance traversed by their master or mistress, and perhaps get a drink, pick up some grass, or otherwise amuse themselves!

As regards water, dogs do not drink so much as many people suppose, and it is better to keep a supply, of course frequently changed, in the yard outside the kennel, or sleeping box. Dogs, as a rule, like a drink when going out or returning from exercise, more[Pg x] than they do in their own quarters, and if it be kept there, particularly when two or more inmates are together, it is almost sure to be upset, and make the place look bad, besides being uncomfortable.

A very important matter is the feeding of the dogs. In these days, when so many firms are producing biscuits, on purpose to cater for the wants of the vast doggy community, there is no difficulty in getting some of them, but, I have found, in a long experience with dogs, that, although almost all breeds will eat dog biscuits—some even take them when given whole, and chop them up like bones, even dry—it is better, in most cases, to break them up, about the size of walnuts, and soak them the day previously to use, in hot water, or broth, or even cold water. If boiled vegetables, potatoes, cabbage, or some such, be mixed with them afterwards, it is not only more palatable, but better for the dogs, than the biscuit alone, and occasionally, say once in a week or ten days, a little flour of brimstone, in the proportion of about a teaspoonful for a fair-sized dog, should be mixed with the food.

We know, ourselves, that whatever our food, the most tempting that money could buy, we should tire of it, if always the same, and it is precisely the same with animals, so that, the more it is varied, the better, even if the change is slight, and all who have had much to do with dogs, will know that some dogs, and even some breeds of dogs, are very fanciful and capricious in their appetites, and not always disposed to do well.

When dogs are "off their feed," a sheep's head, boiled, and then broken up, and the bones, meat, and[Pg xi] broth mixed with their ordinary food, will generally "fetch" the most dainty feeder; other dogs are very keen on oatmeal porridge, made as for human beings, but, of course, with no sugar, which I may say should never be given, in any form, to dogs, as it is an unnatural and injurious food for them, although they are usually quite willing to eat a lump of sugar at almost any time, but they are much better without it. Milk (unskimmed, otherwise it is likely to upset their stomachs), is also a capital thing for dogs in low condition, or out of sorts. It is best given cold, or lukewarm, after being boiled, as in its natural state it is thought liable to cause worms, but, of course, this is not always the case. I have also found "bovril" useful as a "pick-me-up," or appetizer, for animals on the sick list or those who are "bad doers."

[Pg 1]



A Few Words About Dogs in General

In these days of progress, when the tendency of everyone, and everything, seems to be to go ahead and try to outdo all that has been done by everyone else, in fact, as we so often see it termed, "to beat the record," I think I am stating only the actual fact, that, in the history of the world, dogs were never so highly thought of as they are now, nor were they ever so catered for, in a variety of ways, nor so generally popular.

And when we consider the many varieties of the species, differing as much as is possible in the members of one family, and the appearance, habits, dispositions, uses and characteristics, just as various, it is not to be wondered at that they enjoy such an amount of public favour, as it must be a strangely constituted human being to whom no breed of dog is acceptable![Pg 2]

The numerous packs of stag and foxhounds, harriers, beagles, and other hounds, kept throughout the United Kingdom, not only are the means of providing an immense amount of sport for our countrymen, but are, also, directly and indirectly the cause of the great improvements which have been effected in the breed of our horses, particularly those suited for hunters and cover hacks, and, therefore, the cause, also, of the circulation of a vast amount of money in our own country every year, especially amongst farmers, millers, saddlers, hay and corn dealers, trainers, keepers, kennelmen, grooms, helpers and a large number of others, more or less connected with hunting and its surroundings.

To take another branch of the same subject, just consider what a large body of men are interested and employed in the breeding, rearing, and training of the vast number of high class greyhounds, which are kept in some parts of the country, not only for the competitions in the important national events, but, even for private owners, who make a hobby of an occasional trial with their dogs. Then again, the great army of keepers, kennelmen, and gillies, kept throughout the kingdom, to look after and, in some cases, to breed, and break, the deerhounds, pointers, setters, retrievers, and spaniels, which add so much to the pleasure of a true sportsman's daily work amongst game of all kinds, from deer-stalking to shooting black-cock, grouse, partridges, pheasants, etc. (although many persons now-a-days seem to go on the principle of getting a big total of the days, or weeks' "shoot," and care little for the[Pg 3] real pleasure of seeing the dogs "work," and do credit, or otherwise, to care and attention devoted to their training), obtain employment, and I have found them, as a rule, a highly respectable class of men, often generations of the same family being in the service of one family, and most jealous of the reputation of the master, his dogs, and covers.

To take some of our other utility dogs, those of my readers who have visited the cattle market of any large sized town or city, cannot have failed to notice the dogs which attend the professional drovers there, many of them rough looking enough, in all conscience, but, as for intelligence, why, they are brimful of it, and willing and able to do wonders with the cattle and sheep in the open, or on the road afterwards, understanding the few words said to them, and eager to carry out their orders, and although sometimes erring through excess of zeal, the reverse is seldom the case, and I am pleased to say (as I have known and conversed with many of the men who are acquainted with my love for animals, and know what numbers I have bred and owned), that the greater part of them value their dogs, and appreciate their services, so much so, that what might be considered really big offers, have frequently been refused by them. One of them said to me, "What good, sir, for me to take a ten pound note for 'Bess,' I couldn't do nothing without she, and 'twould take me a doose of a time to make another larn to do like she can, with the beasts, and that, let alone her being such a 'pal,' and my missus, she do think a deal of Bess, to be sure sir."

I have no doubt, that a great many varieties of dog[Pg 4] have been pressed into the service of the many and some highly accomplished troupes of performing dogs, which the great increase of music halls throughout the kingdom as well as the continent have brought forward. I have at different times seen Great Danes, Scotch Deer Hounds, Dalmatians, Poodles, and many members of some of the Terrier and Spaniel families and hosts of undoubted mongrels taking part in these entertainments, as well as occasionally Greyhounds and Collies, but these were, I think, exclusively engaged in jumping competitions, when a sort of steeplechase was arranged. These come under the category of "utility dogs," as they assist their owners in gaining a living, and the same may be said of the blind men's dogs, which are a great multitude, and enjoy freedom from taxation, on the ground of their value to their helpless owners.

Another interesting class of utility dogs are those we see at so many of our railway stations and other public places with a small box hanging under their chins, in which may be placed any donations the charitable are disposed to give to the "Railway Servants' Benevolent Association," or some other charitable object, and from the way the animals run up to passengers, to be noticed, and wait, patiently, while a coin is found, and placed in their boxes, gives one the idea they know what is going on, and that the credit of a "good haul" at the end of the day, will be in some measure reflected on the carrier of the collecting box! I have often been surprised to see mentioned, in the newspapers, the large sums a single dog has been[Pg 5] the means of gathering, in this way, for some good object, and, for aught I know, there may have been dogs hard at work, during 1898-9, for "The Prince of Wales's Hospital Fund," or other charitable objects!

One use to which dogs were formerly put, as "Turnspits," and another as beasts of burden, I am pleased to say are no longer allowed by law. I have often, when a child, seen them employed in the latter capacity in the West of England, drawing small, usually two-wheeled carts, with not only the usual market stock and trade utensils, but sometimes the owner, in shape of a burly man or woman seated on the top, and not unfrequently racing along country roads with the owners of similar vehicles, often with two or three dogs to each, harnessed in tandem fashion, the noise and excitement of the cavalcade being very great, and announcing their approach long before their coming in sight. I am very pleased that both these abuses of dogs have been abolished here, although as beasts of burden they are still extensively employed on the continent of Europe, and, I am bound to say, I have not seen them ill treated, badly fed, or seeming neglected.

Of course, we know that in the Arctic regions dogs, as carriers, are actual necessaries, and that locomotion, difficult and dangerous enough there under any circumstances, would be simply impossible without the aid of the Esquimaux dogs, of which I have seen a good deal, and handled many. They have a dense double coat, are very wolf-like in expression and shape of head, with small, pointed ears, oblique, sly-looking eyes, rather long, arched necks, and tails with char[Pg 6]acteristic curl and carriage. I do not consider them very sociable, but they would, I dare say, be all right with persons they knew well. I fancy they are a breed that has never been "made much of," (particularly in their native lands,) by their owners, but usually get what is popularly known as "more kicks than halfpence," and when "off duty," have often to go on short commons, or do a little cadging on their own account, and being thrown on their own resources, we know (on the authority of the late immortal "Mr. Weller, Senr." evidenced in the case of his well known son "Sam!") has a great tendency to sharpen the wits, and it is the same with the Esquimaux dogs, who always struck me as very suspicious of attentions from strangers, however well intentioned they may be.

[Pg 7]

[Pg 8]

[Pg 9]


Dogs Used in Sport



The Staghound.—This is not a hound that will require a long dissertation from me. There are but few packs in England which hunt the deer at all, and still less that hunt the wild deer; these are commonly supposed to be the same as were formerly called "Southern Hounds," and as the large tracts of land formerly waste and forest have been gradually brought under cultivation, the places most available for stag hunting have disappeared. They were celebrated for "tongue," and made plenty of music as they followed the windings of the deer, but they were not even moderately fast hounds, and it is a fact, that no very fleet hounds can be musical. Devon, which has always been a great country for sport, has, for many years, kept up a pack of Staghounds, besides others, as we find "Nimrod" states "although the going in that county is about the worst in the world, more hounds are kept in Devon than in any three counties in England. In 1849, Devon possessed eight established packs of Foxhounds, three of other hounds, the Staghounds, and many a 'Parish Pack' kept by subscription." The general run of Staghounds appear, both in shape, style[Pg 10] and colour, like large Foxhounds, and are commonly supposed to be formed from drafts from the Foxhounds too large for those packs. The modern Staghound is about twenty-four inches high, or more; they are seldom so level in colour, shape, or kennel likeness, as you see in first-class packs of Foxhounds and Harriers. The Royal Buckhounds are an exception; they are kept in sound condition, and the best matching pack in the kingdom, of the prevailing hound colours, including every marking, except the blue mottle, thought to be indicative of the "Harrier cross." The various colours need not be set out here, nor is it necessary, in a breed so seldom shown, to give the points of excellence more fully than to say that great muscular strength, plenty of bone, courage, excellent scenting powers, and speed, are indispensable, as the quarry hunted is usually in as fine condition as a race-horse, and nearly as fast, often has been out before on a similar occasion, knows the country well, and means giving his pursuers what is vulgarly termed "a run for their money!" Still, it must be admitted, unlike the packs of all nations in the middle ages, the Staghounds of our times are well disciplined and steady, and the stag is more fairly hunted than he was, even in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, so often described, (although I am bound to say I am not included amongst her admirers) as "Good Queen Bess!"


The Foxhound.—I do not propose to go very deeply into the history of this well-known and highly popular breed, or enter into its supposed origin, about which [Pg 11][Pg 12] [Pg 13]there is so much difference of opinion. When one remembers the great number of packs of Foxhounds in the United Kingdom, supported either by private enterprise (like that of the late lamented Duke of Beaufort, K. G., who, for such a number of years, bore the burden of providing sport, over a large area, in the West of England, four and five days a week throughout the hunting seasons; in later years so ably seconded in his efforts by his son, the present Duke,) or by subscription, we cannot fail to recognise the fact, that this breed of dog has done much to keep sportsmen in touch with each other in our land, been the means of circulating a vast amount of money in a great many directions, and had a very important influence on the breeding of Hunters and Coverhacks, for which the United Kingdom holds such a high reputation. Beckford, who has been considered one of the highest authorities on hunting, says:—"Without taking upon me to describe what requisites may be necessary to form a good Prime Minister, I will describe some of those which are essentially necessary towards making a perfect Huntsman; qualities which, I will venture to say, would not disgrace more brilliant situations, such as clear head, nice observation, quick apprehension, undaunted courage, strength of constitution, activity of body, a good ear, and a melodious voice." In speaking of the Foxhound, he goes on to say, "If he is not of perfect symmetry, he will neither run fast, or bear much work," and describes him as follows:—"Let his legs be straight as arrows, his feet round, and not too large; his chest deep, and back broad; his head small,[Pg 14] his neck thin; his tail thick and brushy; if he carries it well, so much the better. Such young hounds, as are out at the elbow, or weak from the knee to the foot, should never be taken into the pack. I find that I have mentioned a "small head" as one of the necessary points about a hound, you will please to understand it, as relative to beauty only, for as to goodness, I believe large headed hounds are in no way inferior. As to colour, there is much diversity of taste; very often the head and ears are of a brilliant red, or fallow, with a white mouth and lips, and a streak of white, technically known as a "blaze," down the head, a white collar and chest, more or less black markings in blotches, or a saddle on the body, and part of tail, white legs and belly. The rich colour on head has a pleasing effect, and if the cheeks are tan-marked, and there is the white "blaze" before mentioned, it gives a light character to the head, or, if orange is mixed with, and under, the black markings, such would form "almost a perfect combination of true hound colouring." I may, fitly, conclude my few remarks on this interesting breed with the following description of the desired points: The head should be light, airy, sensible, and, at the same time, full of dignity; it should have a certain amount of chops, and the forehead slightly wrinkled. The neck should be long and clean; the least looseness, or throatiness, is fatal to appearance. Where it joins the head, it should be fine, gradually widening to the shoulders. A long neck is most important, in the breed, as helping the scent, whereas, a short neck, not only would impede action, but pace, also. The ears[Pg 15] should be close to the sides of the head and be set on low. The shoulders, long, and sloping gracefully. Chest deep, and not too narrow. The elbows well let down, in a line with the body. The forelegs well clothed with muscle, "straight as darts," strong in bone from elbows to feet. The ankles, or pasterns, must neither turn in, or out, nor stand back and should be strong and large. The least tendency in the feet "turning out," is most destructive to endurance and pace, if any deviation from the straight line, they should rather turn in. In shape, they should be round, not flat, or fleshy. The divisions, between the toes, should be apparent. The soles, firm, hard, and very enduring. The back must be straight, wide, and muscular. The loins strong, square and wide, with deep, not flat, back-ribs. The hindquarters, very strong and muscular, with wide appearance from behind, long as well as large. Straight hocks, rather out than in, with strong, short bone from hock to heel. The stern should be gaily carried, should end in a fine point, little feathered, but not actually smooth, strong at root, gradually tapering to tips. Black, white and hound-tan, is perhaps the best colour. When the black is very prominent, and the tanned markings slight, the hounds are said to be "black and white." When the colours are mixed, they are said to be "pied." Hare, badger, red, tan, and yellow-pies, are the best, in that order of merit. The coat should be dense, although smooth and glossy. The well-shaped foxhound seems, owing to his well-proportioned frame, much smaller than he really is. When thoroughly and closely examined, his[Pg 16] beauty and fitness for the work he has to perform, and the immense amount of speed, strength, courage, and endurance, he so often requires, will be fully appreciated by the observant spectator, even if he cannot be strictly classed amongst "Sportsmen."


The Harrier.—While I am writing these lines, I have not the statistics before me, but I am certainly under the impression there are not so many packs of Harriers in the country as there formerly were. The name of "Heirers," or Harriers is known to have been given to hounds used for hare hunting in the time of King Henry V., but they were also, occasionally used for hunting deer! Before this, the same hound was known as the Brachetis, or Bercelettus, the diminutive from the word "Brache." The breed, in a more or less coarse form, has, undoubtedly existed for "ages," and it is thought by many, that it is more likely Foxhounds were derived from it, than that it was the other way about. The same colours are found amongst Harriers as with his larger and more numerous comrades, but usually, for some reason, not disclosed, more of the "pied," (particularly the hare-pied, yellow and white, shaded with black or grey on the back or saddle) and the sort of dapple, or freckle, generally termed "blue mottle," is thought to be peculiar to Harrier blood, and that, when it makes its appearance amongst any other of the hounds, it shows a cross of "Harrier blood," somewhere in the strain! This colour is often accompanied with hound-tan markings on head, and black patches on body, although the latter do not con[Pg 17][Pg 18][Pg 19]duce to the beauty of the specimen. Some of the packs of Welsh Harriers, which for scenting and working qualities, are very hard to beat, are so versatile, that it is said they will "hunt anything with a hairy skin," unless they are broken from it when young, and I have heard of a pack, in the Principality, which regularly hunts hares, until Fox hunting begins, when the "Green Coats" are exchanged for "Pink," and they take up the pursuit of Reynard, as to the manner born! The height of the Harrier is a matter of taste. "Stonehenge" puts it at under twenty inches; probably the average is about eighteen inches. A well-known sportsman in Dorsetshire, in 1871, speaks of the pack belonging to the late Mr. T. B. Evans, of Chettle, near Blandford, which he considered the best he had ever seen, and consisted of bitches fifteen and a half inches, combining the blood of the packs of Messrs. Wicksted, Hurrell, Boughley, and Sir Vincent Corbet. He goes on to say, "The education of this pack is marvellous; rabbits are frequently left to feed in the kennel, and occasionally, I am told, coupled to any reprobates of the pack, to shame them from molesting them! I have hunted with these hounds, and have had the very great pleasure of seeing them handled by that supreme master of his art. I have seen these hounds pass by rabbits, as Pointers would go through a poultry yard. I have watched them as they spread, like a fan, when they were picking out a cold scent, the worthy master sitting quietly on his cob, and when they recovered it, seen them stream away, with voices "like a Peal of Bells," and as close together as a flock of pigeons![Pg 20] I have observed how they followed all the hare's doublings, and with the true Harrier instinct, cast back, when in perplexity, never "babbling," skirting, or puzzling over other stains, but, carrying on the line, until they pulled down their game, sometimes even, after a forty-five minutes burst. Many sportsmen complain in the present day that Harriers are becoming too fast to do their work properly, and that, this has arisen from crosses with Foxhounds, the original variety, being thought to date back to the old "Southern Hound," more remarkable for their great powers of scent, and hunting quality, than for pace.


Beagles.—This is another breed which is yearly gaining in popularity and is really a miniature hound, of which there are two varieties, rough and smooth, differing only in texture of coat, and these are subdivided again into different heights, ranging from under sixteen and over twelve inches to under twelve and over ten inches, which latter are often called "Pocket Beagles." The skull should be fairly long and wide, slightly domed, with well defined "stop;" short and tapering muzzle; open nostrils and largish nose; thin long ears hanging folded; soft large eyes. No dewlap, but muscular neck, rather long, deep chest, for size; muscular thighs; well boned and straight forelegs; round, cat-like feet; stern carried gaily. Regular colours of Foxhounds, whom they resemble in many ways, coat flat, dense, and close. These are quite picturesque little creatures, and I have known them kept as pets and companions, but, of course, they are supposed to be used for their work as[Pg 22][Pg 21] [Pg 23]Sporting Dogs only, great numbers of them being kept in different parts of the country, and hunted as packs, most of their followers being on foot, and often accompanied by some of the sportswomen of their districts, as their pace is not so impetuous as that of their larger brethren. Frequently they call forth a considerable following in the parts they travel over, and many cricketers and others ("Dr. W. G." amongst others), who desire to keep "in condition" during the "off season," habitually attend the nearest meets of Beagles as an agreeable form of "training."[Pg 24]

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Dogs Used in Sport (Continued)

bloodhounds—otter hounds—great danes


I have adopted the above title, instead of the more usual term of "Sporting Dogs," so as to be able to include breeds about which there is a difference of opinion as to whether they are strictly "Sporting Dogs" or not, and propose in this chapter to say a few words about Bloodhounds, Otter Hounds and Great Danes, taking them in that order. Many of my readers, as well as I, can remember the time, within the last thirty years, when Bloodhounds were few and far between, and the entries of this handsome and aristocratic-looking breed were at a low ebb, even at the best shows. This is no longer the case, thanks to the enterprise and zeal of a few well-known breeders, of whom stands in the very front rank, my friend Mr. Edwin Brough, of Scarborough, who gained some of his knowledge and experience at the feet of my old friend, Mr. Edwin Nichols, of West Kensington, who, as a breeder as well as exhibitor of Bloodhounds, Mastiffs and Newfoundlands, was the most successful I have ever known and, in my opinion, quite unsurpassed as a judge of those breeds and one of the most entertaining companions I have ever[Pg 28] met. Seldom when I came across him at any Dog Show, which was very often in the days I was an extensive exhibitor, but that he kept up the company to a late hour with his entertaining stories of men and dogs! I much regret that, owing to advancing years, he has discontinued his attendance at the gatherings, at which he had such troops of friends and where he, under the title of "Papa-Nichols," was so universally popular. It is a tradition that the Bloodhound is identical with the Sleuth, or Slouth, Hound (from the word "Slouth" probably meaning "scent,") and that he is of a very ancient breed in these Islands, used for tracking "Moss Troopers" and other wrong doers in the olden days; the earliest record of them occurs in King Henry III.'s time, when they were used in tracking offenders. The most usual colours are shades of rich tan with more or less dark markings on body and head, which latter is long, lean and "peaked," the face thin and narrow, the skin loose and puckered; long folded and pendulous ears; broad nose, expanded nostrils; long thin, flabby and pendulous flews; deep and voluminous dewlap; sunken, bloodshot eyes, and flexible, active stern, thick at root, tapering to a point. The Hound strikes you as not over large, but with great character, quality and much dignity, well knit; plenty of bone; symmetrical, straight legs; wide across the back, full in body, and back ribs; and game in temperament; with fine, deep sloping shoulders, and enormously powerful hind quarters. The points associated with the Bloodhound, are as follows:—Skull, long, narrow and very much peaked, square, deep muzzle; ears,[Pg 30][Pg 29] [Pg 31]thin, long, set on rather low, hanging in shapely folds close against the face; eyes, deep set, dark colour and lustrous, lids, triangular shaped, showing the red haw; flews, long, thin, and pendulous, the upper overhanging the lower lips; neck, rather long and slightly arched towards base of skull, plenty of dewlaps; wrinkled skin of face, very loose and abundant; short, close lying coat, thin skin; sloping and deep shoulders, broad, muscular loins, well let down brisket, powerful thighs and second thighs; strong, straight legs; feet round, with well bent hocks, stern tapering and carried gaily. Colours: black and tan, tawny and red and tan. General appearance that of a high class, aristocratic and very dignified animal, who looks as if he considered himself fit company for an emperor, and would not care to associate with any but those belonging to the "upper circles."


Otter Hounds.—I should like just to say a few words about this picturesque breed, made familiar to us by the paintings of Landseer, Ansdell, Noble, and Frederick Tayler, and of which I had some beautiful specimens before me at the National Dog Show at Birmingham, in November 1898. The colours are, usually, dark and light browns and tans, mixed with grizzle, the general appearance somewhat like rough-coated Bloodhounds, with just a dash of an overgrown Dandie about them; very rugged and unsophisticated they look, but quite charming to an artistic eye, and convey the idea that, when they know what they are wanted to do, they will not hesitate to do it, whatever it may be. Any animals[Pg 32] that have to contend with such a wily, active, and resourceful foe as the Otter, either on land, or where he is still more "at home," in water, have to be pretty "spry" if they would give a good account of him. Of course, these hounds are usually kept in packs, and do not, as a rule, enjoy much human company, except connected with their training for their work, and the exercise of it, but would be an ornament to any establishment, and, if I mistake not, were prime favourites of his Royal Highness, the lamented Prince Consort, whose ability as a sportsman, and taste as a connoisseur of all relating to art and things beautiful, are well known to his many admirers. I remember seeing the engraving of a beautiful picture, I presume in the possession of H. M. the Queen, either by Richard Ansdell, R. A., or the late Frederick Tayler, R. W. S., showing his Royal Highness in a rough, wide bottomed boat, crossing a Highland loch, with a pack of these beautiful hounds, some in the boat, some on the bank, and some in the water, either just starting for, or just returning from, an Otter hunt, and it impressed me very much. I may say, that it is very usual to have some Dandies, Skyes, or other Scottish terriers, associated with a pack of Otter Hounds, to assist in dislodging the quarry, when it takes refuge amongst the boulders and rocks, so often met in the haunts of the graceful Otter. The packs of these dogs are chiefly in Dumfrieshire, Cumberland, Devon, and some parts of Wales, both North and South.

I have come across such a detailed account of the Otter, and rules for hunting it, in a book more than[Pg 33] three hundred years old, but which show the writer to be well informed on the subject, and a man of such keen observation, that I venture to quote it in the quaint, original language, hoping it may be interesting to some of the "sportsmen" amongst my readers:—"The Otter is a beast well-knowne—she feedeth on fishe, and lyeth neareunto Ryvers, Brookes, Pooles, and Fishpondes, or Weares. Hir lying in, commonly, is under the roots of trees, and, sometymes, I have seene them lying in a hollowe Tree, foure, or five, foote, above the grounde. Even as a Foxe, Polcat, Wylde Cat, or Badgerd, will destroye a Warren, so wyll the Otter destroye all the Fishe in your Pondes, if she once have founde the waye to them. She dyveth, and hunteth, under the water, after a wonderfull mannere, so that, no Fishe can escape hir, unlesse they be verie great, and swyfte. A lytter of Otteres, will destroye you, all the Fishe, in a Ryver, in two myles lengthe. There is great cunninge, in the Hunting of them, as shalle be saide in the next Chaptere; and also, it is possible, to take them, under the Water, and by the Ryver's syde, both in trappes, and in snares, as you may take a Hare, with hare-pypes, or such lyke gynnes. Theye byte sore, and venomouslye, and defende themselves stoutlye. I wyll not speake much more of their nature, but, onely, that they are footed lyke a Goose. I meane, they have a webbe betweene theyr clawes, and have no heeles, but, onely, a rounde balle, under theyr soale, of theyr foote, and theyr tracke is called the 'Marke' of an Otter, as we saye the 'Slot' of an Harte. An Otter, abydeth not muche,[Pg 34] nor longe, in one place, but, if she be befrayde, or finde any faulte (as they are verie perfectlye of smellinge, and hearinge,) they wyll forsake theyr couche, and shifte a myle, or two, up, or doune, a Ryver. The lyke, wyll she do, if she have once destroyed the store of Fishe, and finde no plentie of feedinge. From a Ponde-Garden, or goode store of Fish-Pondes, she wyl not, lytely, be removed, as long as there is store of fishe in them; for therein, fishes are takene, with more ease, than in the Ryveres, or greatere wateres, but, inough of theyr natures. When, a Huntsman, woulde hunt the Otter, he shoulde, first, sende foure Servantes, or Varlets, with Bloodehoundes, or suche Houndes as wyl drawe in the game, and lette hym sende them, two up the Ryver, and two doune the Ryver, the one couple of them, on that one syde, and the other on that other syde of the water. And so, you shalle be sure to finde, if there be an Otter in the quarter, for, an Otter, cannot longe abide in the water, but muste come forthe, in the nyghte, to feede on grasse, and herbes, by the waters syde. If, any of theyr Houndes, finde of an Otter, lette the Huntsman looke, in the softe groundes, and moyst places, to see, which way he bente the heade, up, or doune, the Ryver. And, if he finde not the Otter, quicklye, he may then judge, that he is gonne to couche, somewhere, further offe from the water; for an Otter, wyl, sometymes, seeke hys feede, a myle, or lyttle lesse, from hys couche, and place of reste. Commonlye, he will rather go up the Ryver, than doune, for, goyng up the Streame, the Streame bryngeth him sente of the Fishes, that are above hym, and bearynge hys nose into[Pg 35] the wynde, he shall the soonere finde any faulte, that is above hym. Also, you shoulde make an Assemblye, for the Otter, as you do for the Harte, and it is a note, to be observed, that all such chaces, as you drawe after, before you finde them, lodge them, or harbor them, you shoulde make a solemne Assemblye, to heare all reportes, before you undertake to hunte them, and then, he whyche have founde of an Otter, or so drawen towardes hys couche, that he can undertake to brynge you unto hym, shall cause hys Houndes to be uncouplede, a bowshotte, or twyane, before he come to the place, where, he thynketh, that the Otter lyeth. Because, they may caste aboute a whyle, until they have cooled theyr baulinge and hainsicke-toyes, which all Houndes do, lykely, use at the fyrst uncouplinge. Then, the Varlets of the Kennell, shall seeke, by the Ryversyde, and beate the bankes, with theyr Houndes, untill some of them chance upon the Otter. Remember, alwayes, to set out, some upwardes, and some doune, the Streames, and everye man hys Otter Speare, or forked staffe, in hys hande, and, if they misse, them, shall they runne up, or doune, the Streame, as they see the Otter bende, until they may, at laste, give hym a blowe. For, if the Houndes, be good Otter-Houndes, and perfectlye enterede, they wyl come chauntinge, and traylinge, alongst by the Ryversyde, and will beate, every tree-roote, every holme, every osier-bedde, and tufte of bullrushes; yea, sometymes, also, they wyl take the Ryver, and beate it, lyke a Water-Spaniell, so that, it shalle not be possible for the Otter to escape, but that eyther, the Houndes shall lyte upon hym, or[Pg 36] els, some of the Hunts men shalle stryke hym, and, thusse, you maye have excellente sporte, and pastyme, in hunting of the Otter, if the Houndes be goode and that the Ryveres be not over greate. Where the Ryveres be greate, some use to have a lyne, thrwen overthwart the Ryvere, the whyche, two of the Huntsmen shalle holde, by eche ende, one on the one syde of the Ryvere, and the othere, on that othere. And, lette them holde the lyne so slacke, that it may, alwayes, be underneathe the watere. And, if the Otter come dyvynge, under the watere, he shalle, of necesstie, touche theyr lyne, and so, they shall feele, and knowe, whyche waye he is passed, the whyche shalle make hym be taken the soonere. An Otter's Skynne, is very good furre, and his grease, wyll make a medycyne, to make fishes turn uppe theyr bellies, as if they weare deade. A goode Otter Hounde may prove an excellente good Bucke Hounde, if he be not olde, before he be enterred." Another writer, of about twenty-five years since, in speaking of the Otterhound, says: "He is bred to stand wet or rheumatism, to hunt by eye, as well as scent, to mark the 'bubbles' when his quarry is 'down,' and join in the chase, in the Otter's element. Failing that, he has to stoop to the scent again. He must be undistracted by whoops and halloos of the attending multitude, observing the huntsman only, and answering his horn and cheer. With many a blank day and disappointment, he must resolutely hunt and face a 'water demon.' The points of the breed are laid down as follows:—The head should, in shape, be something between that of the Bloodhound and Fox-[Pg 39] [Pg 38][Pg 37]hound. It should show much of the gravity, and dignity of the former, but rather flatter and harder in character; forehead long and narrow; eyes rather sunken, shewing the 'haw,' but large and dark in colour; nostrils large and roomy, nose itself, black, and a good size, with rough-haired muzzle and full, hanging lips; ears coated with coarse hair, without feathering at edges, but very large, thin, and pendulous; neck fairly throaty, muscular, and of a good length; chest more deep than wide; rather loose back ribs, but strong, deep, long and straight; feet large, not close, and well webbed between toes; muscular thighs; powerful sloping shoulders, with elbows well let down; tail carried in a sloping position, fairly coated with hair, decreasing towards the end; coat not short, but dense, hard and wiry, very weather resisting in character; colours may be black, dull white and creamy tan, or black and tan, black and white, grizzled pied, buff, or shades of brown, or brownish tan."


Great Danes.—I suppose, at the present time, it will be generally admitted that the largest, and best, kennel of this breed is in the hands of one of the handsomest, and most graceful, of the many enthusiastic ladies interested in the kennel-world, and that one of the most charming sights at many of our largest shows is to see a team of these beautiful dogs, accompanied by their fair owner, and from the crowds of the public I have noticed outside the rings, on such occasions, I have no doubt they were appreciative spectators. The points of the breed, as stated by a well known breeder[Pg 40] and exhibitor, are:—The head, which should be carried high, rather long, and not too broad; muzzle broad, strong, and blunt; eyes small, with sharp expression; neck long and arched, free from any dewlaps; chest moderately broad; brisket deep, loin slightly arched; shoulders sloping, elbows well under; belly well tucked up; legs straight, and muscular, second thighs, long and strong; feet rather large, well arched and close; ears dropped at the tips and carried as in Black and Tan Terriers, small as possible in proportion to size of animal; coat hard, short, and dense; tail strong at base ending in fine tapering point, carried rather low, not much below curve of hindquarters. General appearance, that of an upstanding, determined animal, with whom it would be best to avoid a difference of opinion if possible, but one who would, doubtless, be all right, when you knew him, and he knew you![Pg 41]

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Dogs Used in Sport (Continued)



The Pointer.—Although this variety of dog has not, in the general way, enjoyed the advantage of constant human society, to anything like the extent possessed by some others, there is little doubt numbers of the family have developed considerable intelligence, particularly in connection with their work. The late Mr. Forster of Manchester, relates that a Pointer belonging to him, when out with his master, would, if he missed a bird, go up to him, seize hold of and shake his gaiter, as if to remonstrate with him for not making better use of the game he had found for him. And the late Revd. T. Pearce, no mean authority on most breeds of "sporting dogs," said in speaking of Pointers, "I have no prejudice for the Setter, over the Pointer, although I have had ten Setters to one Pointer. If the ground I shoot over suits the Pointer, the Pointer suits me, but I do not think he is quite so well adapted for the gun as the Setter, provided the Setter is of equal talent and adequately broken. But, it would be hard to find anything more perfect than some Pointers I have shot over myself, or more thoroughly intelligent, industrious and[Pg 44] sensible. One of them, 'old Jesse' a chance dog I had of Mr. Meir, for Snipe shooting, was a fine example indeed. As his pedigree was not ascertained, he was not used for breeding purposes, but was a fine specimen of some Yorkshire strain, large size, and liver and white in colour. If I missed him in driving off to my Snipe grounds, he would track my pony and gig like a sleuth hound, and many a time have I found him close behind my wheels, when I have, for miles, looked back for him in vain. One bright winter morning I sat on a gate waiting for one Capt. Hull, my companion, and looking up a long stretch of road, I observed 'old Jesse' coming along with a young dog of mine which he had evidently invited to join in the fun, and so I let the young dog work on Snipe, a game he was never on before. It was a sight to see how 'old Jesse' tried to teach him the trade. I had two pieces of Snipe bog two miles apart, and one bad scenting day he missed my track and went to the wrong place, so that it was past one o'clock when I reached the place to which he had gone. On getting there, which I generally shot first, I saw 'old Jesse' standing stiffly on a Snipe. How long he had been 'pointing' I cannot say. Frequently, as I walked up to his point, I have flushed Snipe, and shot them, before I reached him, but this made no difference to him, nor did it in the least interfere with his steadiness. Once, on the occasion I have mentioned of his being accompanied by the young dog, he snarled at the youngster for flushing a Jack Snipe, and when he repeated the fault, went up and worried him severely. As two of us shot together, he[Pg 45] got into the habit of coming to my room in the morning, to see if I was dressed for shooting, and if I was not, he would go to my companion's chamber and accompany him, or track him through the streets, if he had gone on, and I do not remember that he ever failed to find him. 'Julie,' a liver and white Pointer bitch, was another of my Pointers which showed great sagacity and firmness. We have frequently lost her, for a considerable time, in a high cover on a celebrated piece of ground called Keysworth, in Dorsetshire, belonging to my friend, Mr. Drax, and at last we have seen the 'sting' of her fine stern above the rushes, for she always held it higher than her head. She was one of the most intelligent dogs I ever possessed, and would retrieve any game alive. Though only in her second season, she was the animal always sent out with young hands, and if they ran to pick up their game, she would bark at them reproachfully. I never had a Pointer before, that seemed to enter so keenly into the sport, or to appreciate, as she did, the real and proper style of beating for game."

The points of this well known sportsman (Pointer) are:—Skull rather wide between the ears, with a pronounced drop at the "stop," the occipital protuberance being also well defined, the muzzle being long and bent at the nose, which is rather dark liver, or else flesh coloured, eyes dark or light according to colours of markings, ears rather fine, set on low and hanging flat to the sides of the head; neck gracefully arched and quite free from overlaps, shoulders sloping, chest moderately wide, and extremely deep, body powerful and[Pg 46] well ribbed up at the loin, forelegs dead straight, set well in under the dog, heavy in bone, the feet being round and compact, hind quarters powerful, the stifle being a little turned out and the hocks well let down, tail rather short and tapering to the tip, coat moderately fine. Colours: liver and white, lemon and white, black, or black and liver ticked.



The English Setter.—The elegant family known by the above title, are divided into three branches, called respectively English, Gordon and Irish; each have their body of supporters, and many very beautiful specimens of them all are to be seen at our best shows. Perhaps Birmingham lays itself out most for the sporting dog classes, but now, when there are so many large exhibitions held in various parts of the United Kingdom, the same dogs are more often seen at the various places. The following descriptions of each of the three branches of the family, are taken from notes communicated by a well known gentleman in the doggy world, to a work on dogs published some seventy-five years since. "The head of the English Setter should not be so heavy as the Pointer's, nor so wide across the ears. There should be at least four inches from the inner corner of the eye to the point of the nose. In many first class dogs, there is half an inch more. The nasal bone should be rather depressed in the centre and slightly raised at the nostrils. The nose and nostrils large,[Pg 48][Pg 47] [Pg 49]the nose dark liver coloured or black, moist and shining. The jaws should be level and the teeth exactly level in front, as nothing detracts more from appearance than the 'snipe nose.' There should not be that fullness of lip, allowable in the Pointer, but, at the angles of the mouth, the lips should be rather pendulous. The ears, which are usually about six inches in length, should be set low on the head, larger where they are attached, than at the tips, which should be round, not pointed. They should never be pricked, or carried forward, even when the dog points. The eyes should be large and sparkling, not protruding, as in the King Charles Spaniel, but well set and full of intelligence. The neck, long, thin, slightly arched at crest, and clean cut where it joins the head, this last a most important point. The shoulders should be well set back, the blades long, the muscles well-developed throughout. Ribs not so widely sprung as the Pointer's. The back ribs deep and fairly near to the hip bone. The chest deep and moderately wide. The loins broad and arched slightly and the hips wide. The hind quarters square, strongly made and the stifles well bent. Cat-like feet are preferable to the 'hare' or 'spoon' foot. The round foot, with toes well arched, distributes the power of the toes more evenly, and is best suited for every description of shooting ground, in fact, the Foxhound foot, and leg with it. The feet should be straight, neither turned in or out. The toes should be well furnished with hair, which, in the best breeds, forms a tuft between the toes and protects the sole, being replenished as fast as it wears away. The pas[Pg 50]terns should be nearly upright and large, knees large, forelegs upright, and in a standing position, the legs should be like good forelegs in a Horse, the feet slightly in advance of straight, the hocks strong, set a little in, if any deviation from a straight line. The stern of a Setter, like that of a Spaniel, should be carried as much as possible in a line with the backbone. The undulating sweep upwards, if exaggerated, would become a serious fault. A Setter's stern cannot well be too straight, and it should never be too long or it cannot be carried handsomely. The stern looks better when the 'feather' commences near the root of the tail and goes off gradually to nothing at the tip. A tail blunt, or clubbed, is very objectionable. The coat should be of the finest silky texture, moderately waved, but devoid of curl. There may be an inclination in the coat to part down the back. Colours in order of merit: 1. Blue mottle, or Belton greys, which stand work and are better than; 2. Orange and white and lemon and white; 3. black and white; 4. pure white; 5. pure black; 6. fawn or yellow; 7. liver colour or liver and white, which last too often indicates a cross with the Pointer or Water Spaniel.


"The Gordon Setter.—The points of excellence in the Gordon, closely resemble those of the English Setter, but, I may observe, that the great features of true Gordon blood are, that they can go much longer without water than the generality of Setters, and that they show more variety in their attitude on 'the point.' The length of their shoulders, their large bone, and[Pg 52][Pg 51] [Pg 53]their development of muscle, enable them to race, and to keep it up. The colour of the Gordon is a great point. The black should be raven black, with a blue, or plum bloom, on the bright lights. The tan a rich red, of burnt sienna, colour. It should be, by no means, yellow or tabby, or mixed with black or fawn, but rich, deep, a sort of bright new mahogany. The cheeks, lips, throat, feet, back of the forelegs to the elbow, front of the hind legs up to the hips, belly, inside of thighs, vent, underside of flag, inside of ears, should all be brilliant red, and there should be a large brilliant spot of tan over each eye. There is no objection to a white short frill, although the absence of all white is a good thing. White toes behind, are less objectionable than white toes in front, and several of the very best Gordons have even had a white foot, or feet, but this is not to be desired if it can be avoided. The origin of the breed is not well known. The late Duke of Gordon, at any rate, brought it up to its present excellence. There is a suspicion it came originally from Ireland, and the fact that nearly all the best Gordon bitches have had in every litter, one or more deep red, or orange, whelps, leads one to believe there has been an Irish cross. The Gordon Setter's stern is shorter than that of the English Setter, but 'sting like.' Failing this, breeders find they have that greatest trouble to the Gordon breeder, the 'teapot tail,' or a long stern with a curl at the end, badly carried in action. He is a long, low, Setter, his gallop noiseless, and he is remarkably quick in his turn, from the power of his shoulders and loins, length of his neck and general[Pg 54] muscular development, a trifle heavier in his head, shorter in his stern, rather deeper in his 'brisket,' more bony and muscular than the English Setter, with a remarkably gay temperament. 'Always busy,' he is quite the beau ideal of a sportsman's favourite, but he has his failings. He is more frequently 'gunshy,' more often the victim of distemper, than the English, and, occasionally, so headstrong as to be totally irreclaimable, these may be the faults of education, and generally are so, but undeniably they are more often the results of inbreeding or injudicious crossing.


"The Irish Setter.—The head of the Irish Setter should be long, narrow, yet wide in the forehead, arched or peaked cranium behind. A short, bullet head, a wide flat one, or one running to a point at the snout, are very common, and very bad. The lips should be deep or moderately so. The ears should be long, reaching at the end of the hair, to the nose, pendulous and as if lying in a fold, set well back and low on the head; they should never be set high, short in length, or half diamond shaped, their feather should be moderate. The eyes of rich hazel or rich brown, well set, full, kind, sensible and loving, the iris mahogany colour, should never be gooseberry, black, or prominent and staring. The nose mahogany, dark flesh, or blackish mahogany, never black or pink. Even dark flesh is not so much admired, though it may be with a good clear hazel eye. The whiskers should be red. The forelegs straight, moderately feathered, the feet close and small, not round like a hounds, or splayed. The[Pg 56][Pg 55] [Pg 57]hams straight, flat and muscular, and feathered well with buff coloured hair, the hind quarters, altogether square and active in make. The chest should be wide when the dog is sitting on his haunches, and the head held back and full; too wide a chest is apt to give a waddling and slow gait. The chest ribs cannot be too deep. The loins, for speed, should be long, moderately wide, and the belly well tucked up. The tail should be well covered with coarse hair, curling along the tops, and hanging moderately, though bushy, from beneath; carried on a horizontal line with the back, not cocked or curled. In the field, or excitement, carried low, stiff and beating the hind legs. The coat should be rather coarse, smooth or wavy, not curly, hair of moderate length, on the upper parts of the body, the root half tawny, the tip half deep sienna, a sort of blood red, but never showing black on the ears, back, head, or tail. The legs and under parts deep or pale tawny. White should not appear anywhere except in the centre of the forehead and the centre of the breast."

It maybe interesting to some of my readers (amongst whom I hope will be included fanciers of every breed, as well as some who have been hitherto fanciers of no breed at all), if I set out here the show points of Setters, taking them in their usual order, as "English," "Gordon," and "Irish."

The English Setter.—The head should be long and rather narrow, the skull slightly domed and not very broad at base, muzzle long, square and clean, not too pointed at end; nose moderately large, with wide nos[Pg 58]trils, ears fine, set on low and lying close to sides of head; eyes, soft, bright and intelligent, not light in colour. Neck very muscular and of fair length; shoulders clean and sloping, chest not wide but deep; back strong and muscular; ribs well sprung and deep; powerful, broad loin; thighs fairly long and muscular; stifles well let down and bent; forelegs well feathered and straight, pasterns short, straight and firm; stern medium length, well set on, almost in line with back, not carried gaily or curled; feet close and compact, slightly feathered between toes. Coat free from any curl, soft, wavy and silky. Colours: blue and white ticked, white with black markings and white with liver markings most favoured, but almost any others allowed except red, and black and tan.

The Gordon or Black and Tan Setters are supposed to have been so called from their original connection with Gordon Castle Kennels. There are, however, said to be many good specimens not in any way related to that particular strain, the colour of which was tricolour, black, tan and white. This variety is heavier than their English or Irish brethren, and shows more of the Hound and less of the Spaniel. The head is stronger, with deeper and broader muzzle and heavier lips, the ears are also somewhat longer, and the eyes often show the haw; the black should be as jet and absolutely free from white. The tan on cheeks and over eyes and on feet and pasterns should be rich and bright and clearly defined, and the feathering on forelegs and thighs should also be tan.[Pg 60][Pg 59]

[Pg 61]

The Irish Setters are higher on the leg than their English cousins, although, in most respects, the conformation of body is precisely the same in both breeds. Head long and narrow, muzzle square, lips moderately deep, ears fine, set low and lying well back, giving a domed appearance to the skull; "stop" well defined, eyes rich hazel or dark brown, soft and expressive. Chest deep and ribs well sprung; shoulders clean and sloping; loin somewhat arched, broad and muscular. Coat, lustrous and rather plentiful, rich, dark red, with a golden tinge, no white allowable, except a star on head or chest.


The Retriever.—This breed is practically divided into two varieties, one called The Flat, Smooth, or Wavy-coated, and the other the Curly; both, as a rule, are black, but as far as my experience of them goes, more specimens "other than black" are seen amongst "the Curlies" than the others, but I think, undoubtedly, blacks, of either variety, are the handsomest. Both breeds have been brought to a great point of perfection. In the Flat-coated, Mr. S. E. Shirley and Colonel Cornwall-Legh, and in the Curly-coated, Earl Melville and Mr. S. Darbey, can show teams to make a sportsman "tear his hair;" often and often, one of these varieties has taken the coveted prize for the "best sporting dog in the show," and they are remarkable amongst the many charming breeds of sporting dogs bred and established in this country, for their very "matching character," so that, a high bred lot of either variety have a wonderful family likeness, and on the many occasions when I have had to take part in[Pg 62] making the awards for the sporting and non-sporting teams, it has been a great pleasure to me to see grouped together, in different parts of an immense ring, teams of the various breeds, often containing the best known specimens of them, quite priceless, and which no money could buy, but most interesting to the lovers of beautiful, and in many cases, perfect specimens of animals.

Show Points of Wavy, Flat, or Smooth Retrievers.Head long and skull fairly wide; ears small and lying close to head; eyes brown or hazel and showing great intelligence; jaws long, and sufficiently strong to carry a Hare; muzzle fairly large, with full open nostrils; teeth level and sound; neck fairly long; chest deep and somewhat narrow; shoulders clean and strong, set obliquely; ribs deep, and well sprung; body long, with muscular loins; forelegs straight and strong; quarters muscular; stifles fairly bent; feet sound, and well arched; coat long, and straight, and of good quality; black, without any trace of white, is the fashionable colour, but classes for "other than black," are sometimes well filled. White and liver coloured specimens are sometimes met with, but seldom shown. General appearance is that of a strong, upstanding, intelligent dog, of a decidedly sporting character, but quite prepared to take on any class of work required of him as a "general utility dog."


The Curly-coated Retriever.—There has been much discussion as to the origin of this variety, which, like[Pg 64][Pg 63] [Pg 65]that of its "Flatcoated" comrade, does not go back, it is thought, before the commencement of this century. Some think the old "water dog" we see depicted in the sporting pictures of our ancestors (and which looked like a cross of indifferent Poodle, with an inferior old English sheep dog, without much of the good points of either variety!), others claim the Irish Water Spaniel, and others again, the Poodle, to have been one of its parents in a cross with the Labrador dog, in the same way as its flat-coated cousin is supposed to have been produced by a cross between a Setter and a Labrador dog. I do not propose to enter into this controversy at all, personally I have had more to do with the Irish Water Spaniels (of which my brothers and I have had a great many amongst us since we were lads), and Poodles, of which I have had a good many and handled and judged hundreds, and I think I can see traces of the Irish Water Spaniel and the Poodle in the modern Curly-coated Retriever, but more of the former than the latter. I think, undoubtedly, the Curlies are the hardest to breed approaching perfection, but they are wonderfully "fetching," when up to the mark. The absence of curl, too much hair on face, and the openness of coat, are the faults I most often notice, and some fail in the tail not being as it should be, covered from root to end with small, tight curls, as on body. The sort of curls on the body may be described as like those on a nigger's head.

The Points for Show of the Curly Retriever are not much at variance with those for the Flat-coated. But[Pg 66] the latter is often the larger dog. The head, should be not so wide, with strong jaws, and muzzle more inclined to be snipey; the coat, a perfect mass of short, tight curls on the body, legs and tail, but only short, smooth hair on the face—the stern, quite straight and carried without any curve in it, substantial at root, lessening in size by degrees to its point.[Pg 67]

[Pg 68]

[Pg 69]


Dogs Used in Sport (Continued)

sporting spaniels—basset hounds—dachshounds

A good many I have known, make much and think highly of some of the breeds of Spaniels. These are noted for their affectionate disposition and docility. The least often seen, and therefore not much known, are the Irish and the English Water Spaniels. The former should be dark liver coloured, covered with curls, except on the tail, which should be nearly bare of hair, and on the head a considerable tuft of hair, called the top-knot, hanging down over the eyes and face, so as to almost hide the former. There is something very comical, and quite "Hibernian," about the look of this breed, and they always appear to be open for any amount of fun, but they are also grand workers, and for duck-shooting, and retrieving in general, they are above the average in achievements, as they are above most of their fellows in size. The English Variety is also a capital all-round useful dog, generally roan or dark coloured in ground, with sometimes spots or markings on head and body, also covered with curls, and looks best with tail moderately docked. He gives you the idea of a "business dog," and is very lively and ready for work of almost any sporting kind, and can[Pg 70] stand a deal of it. Another of the family I am very partial to and have sometimes met with and kept as a companion, is the Clumber. I think this is the most aristocratic-looking of the sporting varieties of the breed, and should be a creamy white, with patches of lemon or light orange-tan, about the head and body. Either the tactics of the sportsmen of the present day are too rapid, or for some other cause, but there certainly are not so many of the breed to be seen now as there were some fifteen or twenty years since, but I am glad to see the present Duke of Newcastle is keeping up the breed at Clumber, where it is supposed to have been originally produced, and that there are still a few kennels in the country, where they are breeding some of these beautiful dogs, for I contend that a Clumber, in good form and well-groomed (when his coat will have quite a bloom on it), is one of the handsomest dogs a sportsman can wish to accompany him, and although his build and formation are not suited for a high rate of speed, he can get over a good deal of ground in the course of the day, and render some useful service to his owner and his friends. In that celebrated book, "The Master of the Game," preserved in the British Museum, and attributed to a royal author, being supposed to be written by a son of King Edward III. (who died in 1402), the Spaniel is spoken of as "Saynolfe," no doubt a term intended for "Spaynolfe," and is described as one of the hounds used for hawking, and called a Spaynel, "because the nature of him cometh from Spain, notwithstanding they are to be found in other countries," and such hounds, the[Pg 72][Pg 71] [Pg 75][Pg 74][Pg 73]author declares, have many good customs and evil. He insists that a good hound for hawking should have a large head and body, and that he should be of a "fair hewe," white or tawne, and not too "jough," that is, hairy or rough, but, his tail should be "rough," or feathered; he goes on to describe the proper temperament, as a sportsman of the present age would speak of a modern Clumber, leaving out one of its greatest merits, its silence, or muteness, in work, however excited, so much to be desired. A great deal of sport may be had over a brace of Clumbers, which are as much as a sportsman can do with, particularly with a Retriever to look after the "killed and wounded."

I have also, occasionally, seen a specimen of the Sussex Spaniel, which are rare dogs for work, made a house pet of. They should be rich copper colour, and are very showy and distinguished looking in appearance, strong and muscular in build, more active than you would give them credit for, by their looks, and possessed of much intelligence and affection for their friends, good guards, and well able to take their own parts in any row, seldom coming off worst, even with larger antagonists. They have been brought to great perfection of late years. I should say there are some as good as any ever seen, to be met with at the present day, and especially at the well known Bridford Kennels in Devon. I think they are rather growing in public favour, to the reverse being the case; I often see what I may call "the Field Spaniel proper," the old glossy black, kept as a companion; the very long backed, and short-legged type, now in favour, don't strike one as[Pg 76] being able to stand so much hard work, in the covers, as the more old fashioned sort, but they are, many of them, very beautiful dogs, and of high quality, and, what is also of importance to breeders, they command very high prices. I heard of an instance, not very long since, when a buyer was found for five or six specimens of the Black Field Spaniel, at £1,100, and another gave £400 for a single dog. I know all the three parties, that is, the seller and the two buyers, in these transactions, and believe them to be bonâ fide and true, in substance and fact, so that Spaniel breeding evidently can be made to pay. Although I sometimes see some of the old liver and white, roan, blue and black Spaniels about, I certainly think they are not so popular as they were some years since. As a rule they are tractable, good tempered, "born sportsmen," particularly fond of a ramble amongst country lanes and hedgerows, and capital companions for all, attaching themselves readily to ladies and children, and making themselves "at home" as members of the household, though always ready for their own proper work, outside, when called upon.


Sporting Spaniel Points.—I will here give the show points of the several Sporting Spaniels, commencing with the Clumber. The points of this breed are as follows:—He should be long, low, and heavy, weight varies, but averages about forty to forty-five pounds. Colour, white, of a creamy shade, with orange or lemon markings; actual liver colour, or the very pale lemon, once made a point of, are now objected to by some[Pg 78][Pg 77] [Pg 79]breeders of the present day. Height should not be over eighteen or twenty inches. Legs, both short and strong, in fact, so much so that, with his deep, well-coated body, he shows little "daylight" below him, as he stands or walks. Head, large, long, coloured to a line under the eyes, and showing a "blaze" up the face. Eyes, rather small for size of head, sunken, pensive, and thoughtful. Nose, dark flesh, or liver, coloured. Ears, large and much feathered, below, where the fleshy part of the ear ends. Neck, long, strong, and muscular. Back, straight and long. Chest, wide, also the shoulders, and substantial, likewise the forearm, which is very heavy for his size. Hocks, and hind quarters, large, bony, and very muscular. Loins, not arched, but straight. Ribs, round and prominent, back-ribs, in particular, very deep. Stern, set on low, looks best "docked," as is usually the case, with a little hair hanging at the fag end. Coat should be not too full in quantity, but very straight, silky, shining, and soft, in texture. The appearance and general character being that of a high class, dignified specimen of the sporting dog, well able to do all that can be reasonably required of him, but with no idea of being dictated to, hurried, or "put out of the way," by any one.


The Irish Water Spaniel.—The head of the Irish Water Spaniel is rather large, forehead prominent, face perfectly smooth from eyes down, ears from twenty-four to twenty-six inches long from end to end; head should be crowned with a well-defined top-knot, not straggling across, like the common Water Dog, but[Pg 80] coming down in a peak on the forehead. The body should be covered with small, crisp curls, which often become draggled in the moulting season; the tail, should be round and "rat-like," without feather, rather short than the reverse, and as stiff as a ramrod. Colour, pure puce-shaded liver, without any white. Height, about from twenty-two to twenty-two and a half inches, seldom more when pure bred.

English Water Spaniel.—The following description of this breed, which is a very great favourite of mine, and I regret to say seems to be growing more scarce, year by year, is from the pen of my old friend, Mr. A. W. Langdale, who was counted an authority on Spaniels generally:—"Young breeders and judges should have before them this fact, that Colour should be a secondary matter with the English Water Spaniel, and the latter should never pass over a liver and white dog, in favour of a whole coloured liver, provided the liver and white is a well-made specimen of his breed. The weight, again, should not exceed forty pounds, and his height nineteen inches, his ears may be fairly long, and covered all over with curl; also the body, not the close curl of his Irish brother, but one somewhat looser, and more straggly; his head is broad and long, with piercing eyes, his legs are well feathered behind, as well as in front, and there is no doubt that the feather, which in a ticked dog, comes out from each and every liver spot in front of the forelegs, has much to do with his power of endurance in water. They may be called 'natural retrievers,' as no dog is easier taught."[Pg 81]


The Sussex Spaniel.—He should be of a deep golden liver colour, and should weigh about thirty-four pounds. His head should be long and heavy, his eye large, and languishing, his forehead projecting over the eye, the muzzle square, the lips rather pendulous, his mouth large, and his underjaw rather recedes from the upper jaw. His ears should be large and well furnished with silky hair, they should be small, or narrow, where they spring from the head, and large, or lobe shaped, at the base; they should be set low down, and hang close to the cheeks. The nostrils should be large, the nose large and liver-coloured. The neck should be strong and muscular, with the crest a little arched. The chest, should be wide, the shoulders well thrown back, the body, long, and round. The legs should be short and strong, well flewed to the foot, before and behind. The feet, which are nearly always good in a Spaniel, should be round, well arched, and abundantly furnished with feather. The loin should be very strong, the back ribs very deep and round; the tail, docked to about nine inches, and well-feathered, should be set low, and have a downward action. The proper carriage of the tail marks the Spaniel's purity, as much as anything. The coat should be waved, not curled, and as already said, of a golden liver colour.


The Black Spaniel.—The following description of the points required in this popular variety, are laid down by my friend, Mr. T. Jacobs, of Newton Abbot, who is, as far as I know, about the most successful breeder and exhibitor of them, during the last twenty-[Pg 82]five years, he says:—"My standard is as follows: Pleasing temper I always look to first, never breed from a bad tempered sporting dog, every sportsman knows what a nuisance they are. A long body, short legs, with plenty of bone and feather, a perfectly smooth, satin-like coat, with no inclination to wave, or curl, moderately long. Ears, covered with long, silky hair, not ringlets, well set, low down, and hung close to the cheeks, small, or narrow, where they spring from the head, and large and lobe shaped, at the base, well furnished with hair on the inside leather. A long head, not 'snipey,' or heavy, like the Clumber; dark, pleasing eye, a yellow eye indicates bad temper, and should be avoided. Level mouth, not 'pig-jawed,' or under hung, but I prefer the former fault to the latter, which prevails, I am sorry to see, in some of our present show dogs. Breeders should avoid them as stock dogs. A long neck, slightly arched, well clothed with muscle. Strong across the loins. Ribs well sprung, and barrel-shaped. Belly, well clothed with long hair and not tucked up, like the Greyhound, a common fault. Broad chest, well clothed with muscle and feather. Feet, round and cat-like, with a plentiful supply of hair between the toes. Many have argued with me, that mating black with liver colour, would throw the black puppies rusty, or bad black, but, being a pigeon breeder for many years, and knowing that by mating duns and blacks, you procure a better black than by breeding two blacks together, I thought if this held good with Pigeons, why should it not do with dogs? I therefore mated my Spaniels, as before described, the result is,[Pg 84][Pg 83] [Pg 87][Pg 86][Pg 85]I have never seen one bad black, and have bred more than a dozen litters in that way."


Some Other Sporting Spaniels.—The heads of small Spaniels should resemble those of small Setters, and have no tuft on them. The ears should be moderately long, and lie close to the cheek. Very short ears indicate a cross. The legs should be strong, well feathered and short; the feet round; and each toe should be protected with hair, a plentiful supply of which on, and between the toes, is important. The chest should be rather broad. The elbows, not so oblique as in the Setter. The body, should be long, and somewhat round, and barrel-like, with less depth of the fore rib than in the Setter. The tail, should come out on a line with the backbone. The colours may be almost anything, black, black and white, liver, liver and white, lemon, lemon and white, roan, blue, or grey mottled.


Bassets.—Amongst those breeds which have been taken up a good deal as pets and companions in comparatively recent years, have been the Bassets, both Smooth and Rough-coated. This breed, which has been in fewer hands than most, also enjoys the advantage of royal patronage, both their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales, being successful breeders and exhibitors of them. They are heavy looking, usually hound marked, in colour, that is, white with black and light brown, and hound-tanned markings on body, which is very long shaped on short, strong legs,[Pg 88] large, pendulous ears and head, and in expression much like what we used to see in pictures of the "old English Hound." They have a high-class and distinguished look about them, and give you the impression of character and breeding. They have not been used extensively for sporting purposes in this country, to my knowledge.


Dachshunds.—Another of the breeds I have seen kept as pets, is the Dachshund, or Badger Dog, as the name implies. I think they are rarely, or ever, used for Badgers in this country, and for the safety of the greater part of those I have seen here, I think it is much better that is so, as any one familiar with the Badger, or the "old Gentleman in Grey," as he is frequently called, will know that he is a formidable opponent to tackle, muscular, active, low to the ground, with a very tough, harsh coat, and long, powerful jaws, and weighing from over twenty to over thirty pounds, so that it requires activity, strength and indomitable pluck for a small dog to attempt to overcome such an animal, possessing so many natural advantages. I think Dachshunds are not so generally kept as pets as they were some years since, but my experience of them is favourable, having found them amiable and docile in disposition, cleanly in habits, and bright and lively in temperament. They are very long, and low, in build, head and ears hound shaped, forelegs curved with an outward turn, to facilitate digging operations, tail carried rather gaily, coat fine in texture, skin loose, colours most in favour, rich chestnut red, black and tan, chocolate, and other shades of brown,[Pg 90][Pg 89] [Pg 93][Pg 92][Pg 91]and of late, what is called "dappled," which seems to be a ground of one shade of brown, splashed with irregular blotches of another darker shade of same colour. Of course there are constantly springing up new patrons and patronesses for all kinds of dogs, but I have noticed that almost every one of the persons who were the most enthusiastic supporters, and breeders of Dachshunds, when they were first brought forward, many years since, have now ceased to keep them, although they nearly all keep some other breeds, so that, as in my own case, I think it is not one of the varieties which takes a lasting hold on its votaries, whether from the fact that it is essentially one of the foreign made breeds, and the effect of the strong preference, which now prevails for the encouragement of everything of British and Colonial origin and manufacture, I do not know, but I can call to mind at least ten of the largest breeders of Dachshunds in this country, who, I believe, have not at present one specimen amongst the lot.


Points of the Basset Hound.—The following description of the points desired in this breed by my friend, the late lamented Sir Everett Millais, Bart., who was quite an enthusiast in his support of it, may be interesting to those of my readers who admire (and who, that has seen them, can fail to do so?) these very beautiful dogs:—"The Basset, for its size, has perhaps more bone than nearly any other dog. The skull, should be peaked, like that of the Bloodhound, with the same dignity, and expression; nose, black, and well[Pg 94] flewed. For the size of the Hound, I think the teeth are extremely small. However, as they are not intended to destroy life, perhaps this is the reason. The ears, should hang, like the Bloodhounds, and are like the softest velvet. The eyes are deep brown, and brimful of affection and intelligence. They are pretty deeply set, and should show a considerable 'haw.' A Basset, is one of those Hounds, incapable of having a 'wicked eye.' The neck, is long, but of great power, and in the Basset à jambes torses, the flews extend very nearly down to the chest. The chest, is more expansive in the Basset, than even in the Bull Dog, and should, in the Basset à jambes torses, be not more than two inches from the ground. In the case of the Basset à jambes demi-torses, and jambes droites, being generally lighter, their chests do not of course come so low. The shoulders, are of great power and terminate in the crooked feet of the Basset, which appear to be a mass of joints. The back and ribs, are strong, and the former of great length, the stern, is gaily carried, like that of Hounds in general, and when the Hound is on the scent of game, this portion of his body gets extremely animated, and tells me, in my own Hounds, when they have struck a fresh, or cold, scent, and I even know when the foremost Hound will give tongue! The hindquarters, are very strong and muscular, the muscles standing rigidly out, down to the hocks. The skin, is soft in the smooth haired dogs, and like that of any other Hound, but in the rough variety, it is identical with that of the Otter Hound. Colour, of course, is a matter of fancy, although I infinitely prefer the 'tri[Pg 95]colour,' which has a tan head, and black and white body."

Points of the Dachshund.—The following are set down by my friend, Mr. A. O. Mudie, so well-known as a successful breeder, exhibitor and judge of this quaint-looking breed, and who has had a long experience amongst them:—Head, long and narrow, peak well developed. Jaw, strong, and level. Ears, set on low, long, broad, and soft. Chest, deep, and narrow; breastbone prominent. Forelegs, very short, and strong in bone, well-crooked, but standing equally on all parts of the foot. Skin, thick, and supple. Coat, short and strong. Loins, well arched, strong and muscular. Any colour. Long, low, and graceful, and not cloddy."[Pg 96]

[Pg 97]

[Pg 98]

[Pg 99]


Dogs Used in Sport (Continued)

greyhounds—scottish deerhounds—irish wolfhounds—borzois—whippets


Greyhounds.—This is certainly, whether quite in his present form and appearance or not, one of the most ancient breeds, and believed to have been kept by our forefathers in the earliest part of the Christian era. It is said to have been introduced into this country in the days of Elfric, Duke of Mercia, and manuscript paintings exist of a Saxon chief, his huntsman and a brace of Greyhounds in the ninth century. Although not generally credited with much more intelligence than to view a hare and run after it until he catches it, or it gets away, I mention later on in this book, some tales of his sagacity which I believe are well authenticated, and will now give a detailed description of the breed:—

Points of the Greyhound.—Head, narrow and fine, with sufficient muscle; nose should be straight (not curved, many, otherwise good, are spoiled by "Roman noses"); nasal sinuses not developed; eyes full and bright, full of life; semi-erect, small, well shaped ears; neck long, slightly curved; chest capacious, plenty of "lung power," deep rather than wide; shoulders deep,[Pg 100] narrow at top, like racehorses' shoulders in their position; forelegs straight, well set on, well muscled; forearms, long, strong and muscular; feet compact, and not too long; well arched ribs; wide, large and muscular hips; long, strong, slightly arched back; hocks and knees placed low; coat glossy as satin (many good "performers" however, have been the reverse of this); Colours: white, red, brindle, blue and white, fawn, black, red and fawn, etc., quite a matter of taste. It is thought, by some people, that more great winners have been produced from the blacks, and black and whites, than from any other colours. As far as show winners are concerned, and I have had scores of the breed before me, I am inclined to think brindles, blacks and fawns have been the most often the winning colours.


The Scotch Deerhound.—Although I have often seen these graceful animals (as we know was the case with Sir Walter Scott), made inmates of the house, there is a rugged, moorland, and, withal, business-like look about them which gives you the idea they would be more at home in the open air, on the heather, or the mountain side, for choice, than in the most luxurious house dwelling. It is some time since I had any of them, but I was very partial to the breed, and used to exhibit for some time, and well remember the grace and activity often displayed by some of my specimens. I always go and have a look at them at the shows. I am not quite convinced they are making much progress, just now, although undoubtedly there are good specimens. There are so many new breeds being brought[Pg 101] [Pg 105][Pg 104][Pg 103][Pg 102]out and "pushed" forward, some of the older ones are apt to be neglected.

The Points of Scotch Deerhound.—The points of this breed are stated by a well known breeder and exhibitor as follows:—Head, long and narrow, tapering gradually from the ears, knee flat; nose, black, occasionally a blue black, and pointed, lips level, ears small, set on high and carried in a fold, soft, silky, and free from long hairs; neck long but strong, nape very prominent, shoulders sloping, toes close and arched, chest deep, body long, but well ribbed up; loins arched with great breadth across hips, stifle well bent, thighs long; tail set on low, curved but not coated, coat rough and harsh on body, mane on neck and slight fringe on inside of legs, thighs, and tail. Colours: all shades from dark blue or black brindled, to light grey brindled, fallow, fawn, dun and drab. White markings often seen on chest and feet, but most objectionable.


The Irish Wolf Hound.—I think nearly all persons who take any interest in this grand old breed, stated to have been well known to and greatly prized by "the Romans," in old times, are aware that no one of the present generation has devoted more time and trouble, in diving into the history of the breed in the past, and doing his utmost, both by experimental breeding, and stirring up a similar ardour in others, to revive at least some of the past glories of the breed, in the present and future, than Captain George Graham, of Dursley, and I[Pg 106] venture to make some quotations from an excellent and interesting article of his on the subject, as being the highest authority procurable: "The form of the old Irish Wolfhound should be that of a tall, heavy Scotch Deerhound, much more massive, and very majestic looking, active and fast, perhaps less so than our present breed of Deerhounds; neck thick in comparison to his form, and very muscular, body and frame lengthy. Head, long but narrow, coming to a comparative point towards the nose, which is rather large; and head gradually getting broader from the same evenly up to the back of the skull, not sharp up to the eyes and then suddenly broad and humpy. Coat, rough, hard and long all over the body, head, legs and tail. Hair on head, long, but rather softer than on body, standing out boldly over eyes, beard under jaws, very marked and wiry. Colours: black, grey, brindle, red, and fawn, though white dogs were esteemed in former times. Ears, small in proportion to size of head, and erect, as in Smooth Greyhounds. If dark in colour, to be preferred. The tail, should be carried with an upward curve only, and not be curled as is the case with many Greyhounds. Size. We may safely deduce that the height of these dogs varied from thirty-two to thirty-four inches, and even thirty-five in the dogs, and from twenty-nine to thirty-one in the bitches. The other dimensions would naturally be about as follows for well shaped and true formed dogs. Girth of chest. Dogs thirty-eight to forty-four inches; bitches thirty-two to thirty-four inches. Weight. Dogs one-hundred and fifteen to one hundred and forty pounds;[Pg 108][Pg 107] [Pg 109]bitches ninety to one hundred and fifteen pounds. Girth of forearm. Dogs ten to twelve inches; bitches eight and one-half to ten inches. Length of head. Dogs twelve and one-half to fourteen inches; bitches eleven to twelve inches. Most modern authors, and all practical lovers of the canine race whom the writer has consulted, are agreed that the foregoing is the correct type of dog beyond question."

Show Points of the Irish Wolf Hound.—Skull, long but rather narrow in proportion to the animal's height and weight, very gradually tapering to the nose, which should be large; ears small; eyes dark hazel; neck of fair length and very muscular; shoulders sloping, chest rather wide and very deep; body long and very powerful, though free from any suspicion of clumsiness; forelegs, straight, and heavy in bone; feet, compact, and of a good size and well padded; hindquarters, very muscular, with bent stifles and hocks; tail carried rather upward in similar form; coat, profuse, hard, and weather resisting; brindle, black, or fawn are the most usual colours, though whites are known. Size, as tall as possible.


The Borzois.—I will next deal with the Borzois, the name of the Russian Wolf Hounds, which have become so much more numerous of late years, and are being patronised not only by many of the nobility and gentry, but even by H. R. H. the Princess of Wales. The portrait of a champion from H. R. H. kennels illustrates this variety. I remember H. R. H. the Prince of Wales exhibited some specimens of this[Pg 110] breed a good many years ago, at Warwick, on one of the many occasions of my judging there, and if I remember rightly Lady Charles Innes Ker was also an exhibitor of the breed at the same show, but those shown by the latter, although what would at the present day, be considered small and weedy specimens, were more, in colour, coat and type, like those now imported from Russia, while those then shown by H. R. H. the Prince (although, I think, stated to be a present to him from the then Emperor of Russia,) were pale cream, or freestone, colour, with harsher coats, and more altogether on the style of very light coloured Scotch Deerhounds. I may say, however, that for elegance, elasticity, beauty of form, and movement, there is no breed to surpass the Borzois and I have no doubt they will continue to increase in popularity. The points most sought after in the breed are:—narrow, domed, and long skulls, long, powerful jaws, with rather arched noses, soft and intelligent expression; very powerful, slightly arched and longish sides, on sloping shoulders, deep but rather narrow chests; backs rising in a gradual curve at loins, very muscular, but appearance of being rather "tucked up;" forelegs straight, strong and well under body; feet close and well padded; hindquarters immensely muscular and powerful, backs well let down, tail carried low, in a graceful curve; coat profuse and silky looking, colours usually white with lemon, grey or red markings, but self-coloured specimens are often seen; the general appearance is that of a high bred, distinguished looking, graceful animal, something the shape[Pg 112][Pg 111] [Pg 113]and size of a Scotch Deerhound, but differing from it in many respects. As I judged this breed long before there was any club or classes provided for it, I have always taken much interest in it, and been pleased to see how rapidly it has come into public favour.


The Whippet.—Although their size and elegance of shape would make them eligible, I think, the Whippet, or "Running Dog," as he is sometimes called, is not often kept strictly as a pet or companion, but more often as a means of a little speculation on its fleetness of foot. No doubt most of my readers will be aware, it is a small sized Greyhound, rather long in head, wide between the eyes, flat at top, jaw powerful but clean, level teeth, bright eyes, small rose ears, long, arched neck, no throatiness, muscular, oblique shoulders, deep chest, strong loins, arched back, rather long and broad. Legs straight, short and muscular thighs, feet round and well split up, tail tapering and long, with good carriage. Coat fine and close, colours, white, brindle, fawn, blue, red, black, and mixtures of each. Of late years there has been greatly revived interest taken in these dogs, and considerable prizes have been offered for their competition. I have noticed also a marked increase in the entries at shows providing classes for them, and on several occasions, at the larger shows, I have had good classes containing many beautiful specimens of this breed, which is so largely kept by colliers and others of the working classes in the "Black Country."[Pg 114]

[Pg 115]

[Pg 116]

[Pg 117]


Terriers Used in Sport

fox—dandie dinmonts—skyes—scottish


Fox Terriers.—As this breed is associated with my first prize, when a schoolboy, now, some years since, but when dog shows were much rarer than "Black Swans," were supposed to be, I have always taken much interest in it, and have had many good specimens of both the Smooth, and Wirehaired, varieties into which the breed is divided. They are both very good and both have hosts of admirers. Some of the fanciers now exhibiting, will remember, with me, the time when no classes were provided for the "Wirehairs," and you had (as I have often done) to show them as "Broken-haired Terriers," and often meet in your class nearly all the members of that heterogeneous family, such as Dandies, Skyes, Bedlingtons, Scottish (Airedales did not exist then), Irish, and old English, enough to try the temper of judge and exhibitors, and making the decision quite a matter of the specimen best shower and shown. But since those days, Fox Terriers have enjoyed a long term of popularity, and so far from the "Wirehaired" section being ignored, I have seen at some shows more entries in it than that of their Smooth brethren, and the figures given for high class specimens,[Pg 118] are certainly not far behind, even if they are not before, them. Of course, hundreds, in fact the great majority of the Fox Terriers in the country, have never seen a Fox, and probably never will, in the course of their natural life, and (as I said of many of the Dachshunds we see about, and the "Badgers," so I say of very many of the Fox Terriers to be met with everywhere) so much the better for them, as a Fox, in his earth, which is where a Terrier is wanted to deal with him, is not a "milk and water" animal to tackle, as a rule, and it requires strength, perseverance, pluck and ability on the part of his assailants. I think the following description of the necessary points required, as expressed by my friend Mr. Francis Redmond, well known to many of my readers as a very successful breeder, exhibitor, and judge of the breed, will fitly conclude my brief notice:—"The points of greatest importance in the Fox Terrier are: Head, ears, legs and feet, neck, and shoulders, back, loin and hindquarters, smartness, activity, size, and 'Terrier character.' Head. The skull should be flat and moderately narrow, broader between the ears and gradually tapering to the eyes, free from wrinkle. But little slope, or indentation, should be visible, except in profile. The jaw should be clean cut, rather long, powerful and muscular, with little or any fullness or bulging out at the cheeks. There is a very slight falling away below the eyes, but this must be very gradual, and not to such an extent as to give a snipey, or wedgy, appearance. The lips should be fairly tight, without any superfluous skin. The nose must be quite black.[Pg 120][Pg 119] [Pg 125][Pg 124][Pg 123][Pg 122][Pg 121]The eyes should be small, not set too wide apart, neither too much sunk, or protruding, dark-rimmed, full of life, and intelligence. The teeth, strong, and level, incisors just closing over the under ones. The ears, to which great importance is attached, V shaped, rather small, fairly thick and carried forward, flat, and close to the cheek. The neck should be of fair length, clean and muscular, well set, with shoulders tapering gradually to head. The shoulders, fine at the points, long and sloping, chest deep, narrow rather than broad. Shoulders and chest have of late received much attention by judges; heavy shoulders and broad chests are no good for these dogs' work. Back and loin. Back should be straight and strong, the ribs well sprung, loin strong, wide and square, back ribs deep. Loin may be slightly arched, but with no approach to 'wheel back.' Hindquarters must be very strong, wide seen from behind, thighs with plenty of muscle, long as well as large, stifles slightly bent, hocks straight. Bone, short and strong from hock to heel. Stern set on rather high, carried gaily, not carried above a 'right angle' with back; if anything, a trifle coarse. Legs and feet. Point of extreme value, to which greatest attention should be given. Elbows well let down, in straight line with body. Forelegs, however viewed, 'straight as gun barrels,' with upright, powerful, pasterns; strong in bone, clothed with muscle from elbow to foot, giving a most solid, unbroken appearance; feet, round, and cat-like, very compact, toes short and only moderately arched, soles hard as adamant; foot should neither turn in or out, if any deviation, should turn in; no dew[Pg 126]-claws behind. The Coat should be smooth, harsh in texture, very close and abundant, a jacket to protect wearer from all weathers. Colours: white should predominate. Brindle, fallow, liver, or red, markings are objectionable. Size. The Fox Terrier must neither be leggy or too near the ground, neither must he be cloddy, but should have plenty of 'liberty,' and galloping power, with good bone and substance; fair speed and endurance being essentially requisite for his legitimate calling. Seventeen pounds in hard working condition is a fair average weight, but this may vary a pound or so either way. Make, shape, good shoulders and chest, being far better criterions, in this respect, than actual weight.—"


The above applies to "Smooth," but is also an excellent standard for "Wirehaired Fox Terriers," which are judged on same lines, except coat, which in the latter, should be about two inches long, and very dense, and wiry, not shaggy, or woolly, on any account.


Dandies.—A very sterling and genuine breed is the Dandie Dinmont Terrier, which was, I think, first brought to public notice by the writings of Sir Walter Scott, and as I have bred, owned, exhibited and judged more of them than most people, I may be allowed to say they are highly intelligent (according to my experience, much more so than any breed of Terrier, and I believe I have kept most of them), devoted to their owners "born sportsmen," being always open for anything in the way of "sport" on land or in water, full of dash and spirit, have a quaint and pic[Pg 129][Pg 128][Pg 127]turesque appearance, and make ideal companions for either sex. Of course they are Scottish by birth and origin, but, the more they are seen and known, the better they will be liked, and they have been so much introduced into England, and good specimens bought up, that, at one time, even if not now, there were more good ones in England than could be met with in any part of Scotland. There are only supposed to be two colours allowed in Dandies, "Pepper," which is a sort of pepper and salt, composed of light and dark bluish greys, with topknots of silvery white, and "Mustard," which is a kind of pale yellowish fawn, darker on the neck and back than below, and also with a light silvery topknot. A Dandie of high class, of either colour, shown in good coat and form, is a very beautiful little dog, and fit company for the highest in the land, and, as I said of the last breed I mentioned, may be seen in the possession of all classes. I am not quite certain whether Her Majesty the Queen continues to keep the breed. I do not remember seeing any at Windsor, but I know that in the lifetime of the late lamented Prince Consort, there were Dandies and Skyes amongst the royal pets. Where a person desires to keep but one dog, and wishes to make a friend and companion of it, I do not think that they could improve upon a Dandie, as they make incomparable house dogs. I am speaking from a long and intimate experience of them, as I have bred, owned, shown and judged hundreds of them, and I have rarely found any, who have kept them, but speak in the highest terms of their many charming qualities, and continue to take an interest in the breed, perhaps, long after[Pg 130] they have any specimens of it left, and in many cases, several generations of the same families have kept them on. In build they are low to the ground, with long bodies, short legs, possessed of great strength and endurance, and certainly one of the most muscular breeds of its size with which I am acquainted, their quaint, dignified bearing, and deep bark are marked characteristics. The following are the points of the breed, as set out by me for publication, very many years since, and I am not aware they have ever been altered:—Head apparently large in proportion to size, skull fairly wide and covered with top-knot of silky, light hair, muzzle deep and moderately broad, jaws of great strength, teeth level, ears not thick or wide, and feathered to a point, eyes dark hazel, very lustrous and intelligent (dark markings round the eyes very desirable in Pepper Dandies), chest deep, forelegs as straight as compatible with lowness, and, as well as in loins and hindquarters, showing great bone and muscle, tail carried rather gaily, weight under twenty-four pounds, bitches under twenty-two pounds. Colours, pepper or mustard.


Skyes.—Perhaps it will be in order here to mention their fellow countrymen, the Skyes, also admirably adapted as companions and house dogs, the main advantages Dandies can claim over them being, in carrying less coat, and being rather more active. Although blacks, and fawns with black points, are occasionally seen, the predominant colours of Skyes are, undoubtedly, various shades of grey, from light silver to dark[Pg 132][Pg 131] [Pg 133]iron and steel. The breed is divided into two varieties, principally distinguished by the carriage of their ears, and known as "Dropeared" and "Prickeared;" in the former, the ears being rather large and pendulous to the sides of the head, and in the latter, the ears are carried as by the Pomeranians; each variety has its admirers, and some, as I have done, keep both sorts, but I think there are many more prick-eared to be seen, than drop-eared. These dogs are more active, intelligent and courageous than would be supposed from their appearance, and form strong attachments to their owners. Owing to the unsatisfactory management of one, and the dissolution of the other, of the clubs, founded many years since in Scotland, and England, for the encouragement of this breed (which is another of those either still, or formerly, favoured by royal patronage, both at Windsor and Sandringham), things have not been going on swimmingly, for some years past, in the Skye world, but I know there are a few zealous breeders still "pegging away" with their kennels, and I am in hopes the interests and fortunes of the breed will be again revived, and some more specimens brought forward, as good, or better, than any seen in the past. The greatest fault I find with nearly all the best specimens brought out of late years, is their size, as in my opinion, and I have probably seen all the best brought out during the last twenty-five years, their weight should not exceed twenty-five pounds, even with dogs, and with bitches two or three pounds less, with preference for small, good ones, long, low, hard in coat, strong in bone, and muzzle, and not toys. With proper care and attention,[Pg 134] a Skye may be made a most beautiful animal, as is proved by one of the inmates of a well known kennel, on one occasion, actually pulling off, and on another, getting placed "Reserve," for the highest possible honour at a first class London show, where all the competitors were champions of their several varieties.


The points in Skyes are usually considered to be as follows: Head long with powerful jaws and level teeth. Skull wide in front, narrowing between ears and tapering gradually towards muzzle, with little falling in between or behind the eyes. Eyes, close set, medium size, dark hazel. Muzzle always black. Ears pendant, or pricked, in the former full and well feathered, lying close to face in front, and in the latter standing bolt upright, with a little feathering at the tip, standing towards each other at inner edges from peak to skull. Body, preeminently long and low, shoulders broad, chest deep, ribs oval shaped, and well sprung, giving flattish appearance to sides. Hindquarters and flanks full and well developed. Level back. Neck long and slightly crested; tail, when raised, a prolongation of the incline of the back, gracefully feathered on lower side, and not rising higher or curling over back. Legs, short, straight and muscular, without dew claws. Feet rather large and pointing forward. Under coat, short, close, soft and woolly. Over coat, hard, straight, flat and crisp, averaging five and one-half inches long. Hair on head shorter, softer, and veiling forehead and eyes; on ears, overhanging, inside falling down and mingling with side locks, not heavily, but surrounding the ear like a fringe, and[Pg 136][Pg 135] [Pg 139][Pg 138][Pg 137]allowing the shape to appear. Colours: dark or light blue, grey, or steel, or fawn with black points. Weight not exceeding twenty-four pounds, a few pounds less, better than any higher, as so many good specimens are spoilt by being coarse, at least, this is my opinion, after considerable practical experience of the breed, and being one of its staunchest admirers.


Scottish Terriers.—One of the misfortunes of being a "general lover of animals," is that you can never tell which sort you like best, there are so many breeds, I have bred and exhibited, and I think all breeds I have judged, and I am identified with so many, which are presumed to be my "prime favourites," but, it is a positive fact, although I have never before mentioned it, that, some of the breeds, in which, I have had the largest entries, for years and years, were taken up by me, so warmly, because, I thought them in "low water," and in danger of extinction without they were encouraged, that they were not at all favourites of mine. But I do not intend to disclose preference for any particular variety, beyond what my friends may know, or others may gather from the contents of this book, but this I will say of the Scottish Terrier, that if I was not the first, as mentioned hereafter in my "Doggy Anecdotes," in this work, to introduce him into this country, more than twenty-five years since, I must have been one of the earliest, as I never saw one here until long after arrival of my "Fraochen" (whose life-like picture, coming through the underwood with a Rabbit in his mouth, hangs by me while I[Pg 140] pen these lines!). As I said of the Dandie, and might say of the Irish Terrier, that where a man, or woman, for that matter, as they are capital specimens for either sex, wants to keep only one dog, they cannot better one of those three breeds. They are as true as steel, devoted as "pals," and faithful as dogs! The great uniformity of type, and character, now seen in the large classes of these game and picturesque-looking little fellows, at the larger shows, proves the amount of care and attention which has been devoted to them by breeders, within the last quarter of a century. The usual colours are, shades of black, dark grey and grizzle, and sometimes stone colour. My friend, the late Capt. Keen, made an effort to introduce whites, but I do not think it came to much. Although, I am glad to say, the enthusiasm for the breed in "North-Britain," has not abated, not a few good specimens, and to my certain knowledge (for I have the pleasure of numbering them amongst my friends), not a few keen fanciers of "Scottish Terriers," exist on this side of "the border," and it is always my wish, with them, when they meet, as with every other kind of "stock," in rivalry, "may the best win, and the loser do his best to turn the tables next time." With these few remarks on a breed on which much more could be said, if space and time permitted, I will give: The Points of the Scottish Terrier.—Skull of good length, rather inclined to be curved in shape, covered with short hair, and showing a drop between the eyes; muzzle, very powerful, and not too pointed; nose, large and black; teeth, extremely large; eyes, dark, small, piercing in expression, and[Pg 141] very bright; ears, very small, sharp at the corners, and carried erect; neck, short, and powerful; chest, rather wide, and very deep; body, only moderately long, and very powerful at the loins; forelegs, straight, short, and heavy in bone, with small, compact feet, well padded with hair between the toes; hindquarters very muscular and the hocks well bent; tail of fair length and carried rather gaily; coat, very harsh, and weather resisting; colours, dark grey, black, brindle, red or wheaten. Much white marking being very objectionable.[Pg 142]

[Pg 143]

[Pg 144]

Part II


VIII.St. Bernards, Newfoundlands, Mastiffs, Dalmatians147
IX.Sheep Dogs:—Rough Collies, Smooth Collies, Old English169
X.Bull Dogs, Bull Terriers, Boston Terriers179
XI.Terriers,—Irish, Airedale, Bedlington, Black and Tan, Old English199

[Pg 145]

[Pg 146]

[Pg 147]


Dogs Used in Work

st. bernards—newfoundlands—mastiffs—dalmations


St. Bernards.—Although apparently so much removed from the breeds, I have been deeply associated with for the last twenty-five years, I am bound to say I have always been a great admirer of St. Bernards, and can well remember many years ago, at a show held at Laycock's Dairy Yard, Islington, being struck with admiration at the team shown there by Mr. Cumming Macdona (at that time, and for some years later, "a name to conjure with" in the St. Bernard world), and afterwards I was a great admirer of my friend Mr. Gresham's Hector and Abbess (two of the best I had seen in possession of one owner) and many more, too numerous to mention. I am inclined to think the breed is not quite as popular as it was some years since, and that the entries at most of our best shows are neither as large, nor as good, as they were. The points desired are as follows:—The head very massive and large, showing great depth from eye to lower jaw; the face rather short; muzzle wide, deep, and cut off square; the lips should hang down well and be rather loose; the "stop" well defined, but not too abrupt; the skull massive and[Pg 148] well rounded, eyes dark in colour, of medium size, rather deeply set, the lower eyelid drooping slightly, so as to show a little of the red haw; ears rather small, lying well to the cheek, and very slightly feathered in the Rough variety; nose black in colour, wide and deep; legs very straight, with great bone and muscle, hocks and stifle well bent; feet large and compact; body rather long, broad, straight and ribs well rounded. The coat of the Smooth or Short-coated variety, should be very close, thick and slightly brokenhaired. In the Rough variety the coat should be dense and flat, of medium length, not woolly, rather longer on the neck, thighs and tail. Colour and markings: orange, orange and tawny, and all shades of brindle, and red; the markings should be as follows:—White muzzle, white blaze up face, the white being shaded with black, also black shadings on the ears, white collar round neck, white chest, legs and tip of tail. The body may be white with patches of any of above colours.


Newfoundlands.—There are few of the non-sporting breeds which have received more notice in the newspapers than the Newfoundland dog, being so often associated with saving of life on the sea coasts, or on the banks of some of our rivers, and I think there are few, if any, dogs so really and naturally fond of the water, and being possessed of strength and courage, they are often able to render valuable aid. At one time I feared they were becoming almost extinct, and I think the many and very beautiful specimens we now see at our shows, are mainly due to my old friend, Mr. Edwin[Pg 150][Pg 149] [Pg 155][Pg 154][Pg 153][Pg 152][Pg 151]Nichols, of Kensington, who took up the breed very warmly some years ago, and became one of the most shining lights in the Newfoundland world. I remember, his ideas of the points to be sought after were as follows:—Head to be broad and massive, with a flat skull and somewhat square muzzle; ears small, in proportion to size of the animal, and lying close to the head; coat straight, dense and capable of resisting water; tail carried gaily, but not curled over the back. Colours: black, black and white, or bronze. Average weights, one hundred pounds for dogs and eighty-five pounds for bitches. General appearance that of a dignified, thoughtful, and thoroughly reliable guard, companion, or friend, with a great deal of character.


The Mastiff.—This, which is usually considered one of the National breeds of this kingdom, is a splendid fellow, stylish and imperious in manner and bearing, and fit to be the associate of the very highest in the land. I don't think I can do better than quote the opinion of Mr. M. B. Wynn, whom I well remember as a frequent exhibitor, breeder and judge of this variety, some years ago. He says:—"What I consider a true type of the British Mastiff. Head, this is the most important feature, it should be broad between ears, and broad between the eyes. The "stop" should extend up the face to a considerable length; forehead wrinkled and flat; cheeks very prominent; muzzle broad, blunt and heavy, and as deep as possible; profile square, and the under jaw, if any thing, to be undershot; eyes small and to be deeply set, with a deal of loose skin down the[Pg 156] sides of the face; ears small and either half erect, or wholly pendant, and thin to the touch. Body: Chest deep and thick through, broad between forelegs; loin, broad, flat, heavy; body long. Stern: Many good breeders prefer a long one, but I do not care for it to reach much below the hock. Legs, broad, round, massive, straight. Height: this is a much disputed point. The taller the better, provided the weight corresponds in proportion. A dog standing twenty-eight inches high, ought to weigh in good condition one hundred and twenty-five pounds, and for every inch in height above that (i. e., twenty-eight inches) the weight ought to increase from eight to ten pounds. But over thirty inches, a still greater increase, in proportion. Many good dogs are only twenty-eight and twenty-nine inches high, but from thirty-one to thirty-three are to be desired. Height should ever be accompanied with massive build and length, and should proceed from the shoulder to the elbow, rather than from the elbow to the foot. I mean the height of the dog should be derived from the depth of the chest, rather than from "over-legginess," as this must tend to develop the weight, more or less, of the whole animal. Colour, after all, is the last requisite, since you may breed in a few generations, any colour you please. The purest fawns have descended from the most decided brindles, and from time to time, the white face, especially, has and will occur, and generally in the finest specimens, and those which most closely resemble the paintings of their progenitors. I am an advocate for fineness of coat, but not at the expense of other more characteristic features.[Pg 158][Pg 157]

[Pg 161]

[Pg 160]

[Pg 159]

Points of the Mastiff.—The show points of this breed have been set out as follows:—Head large and massive, skull flatly rounded, muzzle square, broad and deep, teeth level, eyes dark brown or hazel coloured and wide apart in setting; front legs straight, muscular and with great bone; chest deep; loins strong and wide. Size of secondary importance, so long as symmetry is retained. Colours: brindled, or apricot fawn, in both cases noses, muzzles and ears black. General appearance that of a massive, dignified and fine looking animal, well suited as a guard or reliable companion.


The Dalmatian.—This is a breed I have bred and kept for many years and I have had the pleasure of judging some of the largest classes of them ever seen, if I remember rightly, having nearly sixty entries on one occasion, at the Crystal Palace, and large classes at the Royal Agricultural Hall, Earl's Court, Birmingham and other places. At one time they got down to a very low ebb, in numbers, but I think they are now coming forward again, as I had a very good lot before me at the last show of the Kennel Club. I think they have more of the Pointer type than that of any other breed about them although I have used them entirely as companions and guards, and there is no doubt they have a natural talent as carriage dogs, and are very fond of horses; I know they are exclusively used in Italy and other parts of the Continent of Europe for sporting purposes, and they are often included in troupes of performing dogs, in some of which I have seen very accomplished specimens, seeming to adapt themselves to[Pg 162] the work, particularly of a humorous character, with much spirit and to be easily trained. Of course, as show dogs, their markings are of great importance. I have for some time been trying to bring forward more specimens of the liver, as well as the black, spotted variety, which is now so seldom seen. Prince 4th, and his handsome son, Champion Fauntleroy, a capital portrait of whom illustrates this variety, and the bitch Doncaster Beauty, are the three best of that colour, I have seen for many years, while Fawdry's Captain and Leaho, my Lurth and Leah, and Wilson's Acrobat and Parker's Coming Still, and Champion Berolina (formerly Wilson's), as well as Hartley's Treasure, are the best of the black spotted variety seen for a very long time. I have found them very docile and affectionate as well as more intelligent than many people suppose, from seeing them running behind a carriage.


Points of the Show Dalmatian.—The points of this breed are, longish head, flat skull, with moderate stop; long and powerful muzzle; medium sized eyes, dark for black spotted, and light for the liver spotted variety; ears rather small, white with black or liver markings, carried close to head; nose black or liver, according to markings on body; neck arched and fairly long, without throatiness; very deep but not wide chest; powerful back and well ribbed body; muscular loins and straight legs, compact, well padded feet; slightly curved, tapering tail, with markings on it same colour as on body, carried rather gaily with an upward curve; coat dense, harsh and short. Ground colour, white,[Pg 164][Pg 163] [Pg 165]pure, with spots on body, ears and tail, size of a shilling or larger, clear and distinct, not mixed or blurred, colour of spots to be rather intense black, or a rich liver. Weight from fifty to fifty-five pounds. General appearance to be that of a showy, stylish, powerful and upstanding dog (too many of even the good specimens shown, are too small, in my opinion), much of the Pointer type, but higher on leg and altogether larger. They should have a close, fine coat, which if kept in proper order, should have almost such a shiny appearance as you see on a well groomed horse, they are very lively, cleanly, affectionate, and much more intelligent animals, than is generally supposed, and as they are exceedingly active, and fond of exercise, to those persons who like a cheerful comrade, willing and able, besides being an excellent guard, to accompany them on their journeys on foot, on horseback, or when driving, or even on bicycle, when the travelling is at a moderate pace, I think a Dalmatian would be suitable.[Pg 166]

[Pg 167]

[Pg 168]

[Pg 169]


Dogs Used in Work (Continued)

sheep-dogs—rough collies—smooth collies—old english sheep-dogs


The Rough-coated Collie is a very beautiful and interesting breed, of a highly nervous temperament, very intelligent, and capable of much training for the performance of his natural work with the flocks. Those who have seen him, at the Sheepdog trials, which are frequently held in various parts of the country, but more particularly in Wales, can testify to the patience, care, judgment and discretion, shown by many of the competitors, who, in these cases, have usually three strange sheep to conduct a long distance, over a course marked out by flags on small posts stuck in the ground at intervals, and put them into a small pen, usually made of three hurdles, at the end of the course, no one being allowed to accompany the dogs during the trial, but merely to give directions from a distance, by voice or gestures. I am inclined to think the Scotch Collie is, at the present time, nearly the most popular breed of dog in the United Kingdom, and a really first class specimen, good in head, ears, eyes, shape, size, coat, colour and brush, is very valuable. This is another breed favoured in high places, Her Majesty The Queen,[Pg 170] the Princess of Wales (one of whose specimens illustrates this variety), the Countess of Warwick, and many more distinguished persons too numerous to particularize, being amongst those who have extended their patronage to this favourite breed of dog. The points to be desired in this breed, are as follows:—Long head, skull not too wide or round, obliquely set eyes, dark and expressive, small ears, set rather far back and high, raised semi-erect, technically known as half-pricked, when excited, with points slightly forward and hanging down; frame sinewy, active and well knit; deep but wide in chest; straight forelegs, feathered at back, with well bent hocks, strong compact feet; dense undercoat of warm, woolly hair, with coat of hard hair over, intensely full over the shoulders, neck and chest, tail carried in a graceful curve and not over back, profusely feathered on lower side, colours usually shades of black, sable grey, blue and red, with or without white; size from forty-five to sixty-five for dogs, and for bitches something less. The general appearance of a strong, active and very intelligent dog, eager and ready to obey his master's orders.


I must not omit to mention the Smooth Collie, another variety. I have long bred and kept it. It also is distinguished for its great activity. I remember, in particular, one merle bitch of this breed I had who would run up a rough stone wall ten feet high, like a cat, and jump down the other side, and I have frequently seen her take a run and go over the large wooden doors leading into my stable yard; she was a marvel, but I have had many others, who have[Pg 172][Pg 171] [Pg 173]surprised me by their athletic performances. Some of the most intelligent work of any breed of sheep dog has been done by Smooth Collies. A black and light brown bitch, of what I may call Bloodhound colour, which I had some years since (her portrait illustrates this variety), had again and again beaten all competitors and taken gold and silver medals at Sheep Dog trials in England and Wales, and was superior in intelligence to most "two-legged animals" of any variety. If in charge of a flock of sheep, on a narrow road, or lane, and they got jammed, she would either jump the wall or hedge, at side, and run down to head them, or run over their backs to the front, and drive them back to clear the course, and she knew what was said to her almost before it was uttered. The appearance of this breed is much like that of the Rough, or Scotch Collie, except that the coat is short and sleek, ears pricked and without feathering on them or the legs; and the tail, with only a slight fringe of hair on its lower side. The favoured colours are merle (which is a sort of mottled grey, black and blue), black and white, tricolour, and what I have before mentioned as Bloodhound colour, being black on the back, and light tan-coloured brown all the rest of the body, and it is considered an advantage, rather than otherwise, for one or both of the eyes to be "wall," or china, coloured. Having used them for work, as companions, guards, and as house pets, I can speak very highly of Smooth Collies, which, I think, are more kept in the north of England and in Wales, particularly the South, than in any other parts of the[Pg 174] country, but I also think that if they were more known, they would be more kept, as they have many advantages in their favour, and, like other short-coated breeds, their change of coat is hardly perceptible, whereas we know how very unsightly is any long-coated breed of dog when "out of coat." The points of this breed are the same as in the Rough-coated variety, except in coat.

Bobtail Sheep Dogs.—Another very favourite breed with many is the Old English, also called the Short-tailed, more commonly known as "Bobtailed" Sheep Dogs, and, except for being rather large, and carrying a heavy coat, both of which are objections in a house, they are very agreeable companions, as they are very warm, in fact devoted, in their affections, capital guards, quick to learn and carry out their owner's wishes, well able to take care of themselves in any difference with any other breed of dogs, and so marvellously active, and muscular, that I have seen a "Bobtail" win prizes in open jumping competition with all other breeds. To look at them no one would have the slightest idea of their lively and active character. I have had a great deal to do with them, having kept and bred them for many years, and almost my earliest remembrance of any kind of dog, is connected with a shaggy old customer of this breed called "Billie," belonging to a very old friend of mine, at a Somersetshire farm, with whom I was on the closest terms of friendship, and whose companionship used to impart a strong "doggy" odour to my garments on the occa[Pg 177] [Pg 176][Pg 175]sions of my visiting him. I am very pleased to say, that this breed, which had been much neglected on account of the influx of Scotch Collies, and was even in danger of becoming almost extinct, has been very much taken up the last few years, and even in London you now often see very decent specimens accompanying fashionable ladies and carriages. It may not be generally known, but I have proved it by actual practice with a great many of my own specimens, that a "Bobtail" is a capital dog to follow carriage, trap, or a rider on horseback. I have come many miles, on the darkest nights, across country roads and lanes, with a couple following me, and never knew an instance where they missed me, or failed to turn up at the end of the journey, and the same in the crowded streets of a large city I often visit. It is supposed to be one of the oldest breeds of dog we have, and in one of Shakespeare's old English comedies, which was lately mounted in unusually first class style, and with many novel realistic effects, by a popular and well known manager at a West End theatre, a quaint old shepherd appeared on the stage accompanied by a rugged Bobtail, who made herself quite at home in her novel surroundings, and gave a great finish to the scene. The Bobtail in question was lent by me, and is the sister of a well known "Champion" belonging to one of the most successful exhibitors and spirited buyers of Sheep dogs in the United Kingdom. The points of this breed, as show specimens, are:—Head square and large, eyes rather small and dark, but wall or marble eyes are considered an advantage when obtainable, particularly[Pg 178] in light coloured specimens, body should be large and powerful, without coarseness, sloping rather to front; legs straight, very strong and muscular, well covered with hair down to toes, hindquarters high and heavy, ears small for size of animal, neatly set on side of head, densely coated with a harsh, straight and broken coat, of weather-resisting character, colours very various, but shades of blue, particularly that known as pigeon blue, mixed with white, especially on head, chest and forelegs, most desired, weight forty-five to fifty-five pounds.

Champion Cupid's Dart, whose portrait is here given, is one of the best of the breed at present before the public.


[Pg 179]


Dogs Used in Work (Continued)

bull dogs—bull terriers—boston terriers


Amongst the most popular breeds of late years, has been one that would not be generally expected to be found in that capacity, although it is a very old and national breed. Perhaps I should say that, in reference to all the companionable breeds I have mentioned in these articles, I mean more especially kept by ladies, as when one speaks of such dogs, one naturally thinks of animals not chained to a dog box, or shut up in a kennel outside, but brought into the house, and, literally "treated as one of the family." I refer to the Bull Dog, and having owned and had to do with a great many of these, I can testify to their usual good temper and placidity of disposition, in spite of the many unfavourable comments we frequently hear about them. Indeed, it is a rare thing to meet with a bad tempered Bull dog, and the majority of them will submit to great liberties being taken, even by smaller dogs, rather than attempt to take their own part, and have little idea of fighting in the style practised by some other breeds. But if they once make up their minds to go for any person, or animal, they are difficult to dislodge when they have taken hold. The[Pg 180] sizes are very various, the dogs running from under forty pounds to over fifty-five pounds, and the bitches from under thirty-five to under fifty pounds, and of late years a class of "Toy Bull dogs" have been brought out, which I mention elsewhere. The head large, small ears, rather prominent eyes, very short nose, chin rather turned up and generally pugilistic look of the face, with the body rather heavy in front, swung between legs placed widely apart, back short and curved, technically called "roached," with mean hindquarters and a short tail, with a downward turn in it if not "screwed," are familiar features of the breed to most people knowing anything of it, and the colours are white, white and brindle, white and Hound tan, white and black, brindle, brindle and white, brindle and fallow, fawn with black muzzle, fawn and white, red, red and white, red and black, black, and black and white. Of course the brindles, reds, and fawns run into different shades of each, but I think the foregoing contain nearly all the colours allowed by the Bull Dog Clubs. It is a fascinating breed, and when once it has been taken up, is seldom altogether dropped, and I have known several generations of the same family keeping up the strain. I should say the mortality amongst Bull Dogs is as great as, or probably greater than, in any other breed of dog, particularly before they are a year old. Whether their being so much inbred, to preserve certain characteristics, or being so short faced as to interfere with their organs of respiration, are the causes, I will not pretend to say, but if you ask any breeder, he will tell you what[Pg 182][Pg 181] [Pg 183]considerable losses he suffers every year. Another difficulty which would not be suspected, is that many of them are such bad "doers," that is, do not seem to have any appetite for their food. I remember congratulating an enthusiast of the breed on the condition of his favourite, a large brindle and white, at least fifty pounds weight. "Yes," he said, "he is looking well, but for the last fortnight he has been living entirely on veal cutlets." I thought he would be an expensive boarder on such fare, but from my experience of the breed and its owners, I doubt very much if any other kind of dog is so much pampered. They are naturally slow and lazy in their movements, do not, as a rule, take much exercise, or go much into the open air, so have not much healthy appetite, but as a thin Bull Dog is an abomination, their "condition" must be kept up.


Bull Terrier.—The Bull Terrier, formerly so much used in combats with others of the same variety, (now happily things of the past, except "on the quiet" at some of the less reputable public houses in out of the way spots), has always been a prime favourite with the younger members of the sporting fraternity, on account of his undaunted courage, activity, lively disposition, and neat "business-like" appearance. He has been much affected by the stoppage of "cropping the ears," and they are only now beginning to produce specimens with small, well-carried, drop ears, which take off much of the fierce expression they formerly wore, and make them more presentable to the general public. For my own part, and I have[Pg 184] had many good specimens in my time, I do not care for them being too big. I think twenty-five pounds quite heavy enough, even for a dog, but I have often seen them at shows nearly or quite double that weight, when to my mind, they become coarse and unwieldy, whereas such a breed should be active, bright and lively, as well as shapely and stylish in appearance. In colour he should be pure white, although I have seen and owned many otherwise nearly perfect specimens, with markings, usually lemon or brindled, on some part of head or body. The following are the points laid down by Mr. S. E. Shirley, President of the Kennel Club, who used to own some grand specimens:—The head should be long; the forehead flat, the eyes small, round, keen, and as dark as possible, any approach to a light or hazel coloured eye, being very objectionable; the jaws should be quite level, strong and muscular; the muzzle fine and tapering from the eyes; the nose quite black; the neck, long and well set into strong, sloping shoulders; the chest wide and deep; the legs very straight, strong and powerful; the feet small and round; the back strong and short; the tail, which is or should be a great point in the Bull Terrier, should be moderately fine, at the root, gradually tapering to the point, it should be set on rather low, and carried in a gay, jaunty manner, neither high nor low, not "hooped," or with the slightest inclination to twist or "screw."


The Boston Terrier.—By the kindness of a correspondent on the "other side of the water," who has taken the trouble to supply some authentic details of[Pg 186][Pg 185] [Pg 187]this breed of which so little is known amongst Englishmen, but which are sure to be of much interest to the many fanciers and admirers of the variety, I have much pleasure in giving the actual words of my correspondent in the following description and standard of show points of the Boston Terrier.

"Concerning the earlier dogs of the breed.—How did the breed originate? It resulted from a cross between the English Bull dog and the English Terrier, and these two have been considerably inbred. Accidental peculiarities of the first dogs used as sires are partly responsible for the present type. About 30 years ago Mr. Robert C. Hooper, of Boston, Mass., U. S. A., came into possession of a dog named Judge who was imported from England. This dog known as Hooper's Judge was destined to be the ancestor of the true modern Boston Terrier. He was a cross between an English Bull dog and an English Terrier, leaning in type rather more toward the Bull dog. Judge was bred to Gyp, or Kate, a white bitch, owned by Ed. Burnett, of Southboro, Mass. She weighed twenty pounds, had a fine three-quarter tail low stationed, stocky-build, showing strength in her make-up, good head, being short and blocky. From Judge and Gyp descended Well's Eph. Eph was mated to Tobin's Kate, weighing twenty pounds, short head, golden brindle in colour, and straight three-quarter tail. From Well's Eph and Tobin's Kate came Barnard's Tom, the first dog with a screw tail. This dog Tom was a great improvement over his sire and grandsire, beside[Pg 188] being the first to show the fine quality that is present in a good specimen of the modern Boston Terrier—Tom was the best Boston Terrier of his day, so, of course, was much used in stud. The above gives very briefly the main facts concerning the older dogs of this breed. To correct an idea that has become somewhat prevalent, it can here be stated that the dog is in no sense a fighting dog. While he is plucky as might be expected from his ancestry, he is not quarrelsome or aggressive—is very loyal to his master, obedient, affectionate and of sweet nature, quick in motion and very intelligent."

Show points and standard of the Boston Terrier, furnished by an enthusiastic American fancier of the breed.

General Appearance.—The general appearance of the Boston Terrier is that of a smooth, short-coated, compactly built dog of medium stature. The head should indicate a high degree of intelligence, and should be in proportion to the dog's size, the body rather short and well knit, the limbs strong and finely turned, no feature being so prominent that the dog appears badly proportioned. The dog conveys an idea of determination, strength and activity—style of a high order, carriage easy and graceful.

Skull—Broad and flat without prominent cheeks, and forehead free from wrinkles.

Stop—Well defined but indenture not too deep.

Eyes—Wide apart, large and round, neither sunken nor too prominent, dark in colour and soft—the out[Pg 193] [Pg 192][Pg 191] [Pg 190][Pg 189]side corner on a line with the cheeks as viewed from the front.

Ears—Small and thin, as near corners of the skull as possible.

Muzzle—Short, square, wide and deep, without wrinkles; nose black and wide, with a well defined straight line between nostrils. The jaws broad and square with short, regular teeth; the chops wide and deep, not pendulous, completely covering the teeth when the mouth is closed.

Neck—Of fair length, without throatiness, and slightly arched.

Body—Deep and broad at chest, well ribbed up. Back short, not roached. Loins and quarters strong.

Elbows—Standing neither in nor out.

Fore legs—Wide apart, straight and well muscled.

Hind legs—Straight, quite long from stifle to hock, which should turn neither in nor out, short and straight from hock to pastern, thighs well muscled, hocks not too prominent.

Feet—Small, turned neither in nor out. Toes compact and arched.

Tail—Set on low, fine tapering or screw—devoid of fringe or coarse hair, not carried above the horizontal.

Colour—Any colour, brindle, evenly marked with white, strongly preferred.

Markings—White muzzle, blaze on face, collar, chest and feet.

Coat—Fine in texture, short and bright and not hard.

Weight—Light-weight class, under twenty-three[Pg 194] pounds, but not less than thirteen pounds. Heavy-weight class, twenty-three to thirty pounds, inclusive.

Disqualifications—Cocked tail or any artificial means to deceive the judge.


Skull, 12; ears, 2; eyes, 5; stop, 2; muzzle, 12; neck, 5; body, 15; elbows, 2; forelegs, 4; hindlegs, 4; feet, 2; tail, 10; colour, 8; markings, 4; coat, 3; general appearance, style, 10.

Total, 100.[Pg 195]

[Pg 196]

[Pg 197]

[Pg 198]

[Pg 199]


Dogs Used in Work (Continued)

terriers—irish—airedale—bedlington—black and tan—smooth english


The Irish Terrier.—There is scarcely any breed of any of the many varieties of the Terrier, which has grown more in popularity during the last twenty years, than this. And I believe it has done so strictly on its merits; of course, somewhat helped by the ardour and zeal of his excitable and genial fellow-countrymen, who have done all in their power to help on one of their "national breeds." From the points hereafter given, my readers will get a good description of the breed. I may say that my experience of it, personally, was chiefly in some I bought of my friend, Mr. W. Graham, of Belfast, (so much known and liked in English as well as Irish doggy circles, and the breeder and exhibitor of some of the best specimens of the breed ever seen). The only reason we "parted company," was their talent for "boxing." If I had a dozen or more dogs out peaceably enjoying themselves in a paddock, the moment "the Irishmen" were let out, there were "ructions," and they could not content themselves with just a friendly bout amongst themselves, or with some of the Dandies, Skyes, or others, near their own size and weight, but must needs go and pick a quarrel with some[Pg 200] of the Collies, Bobtails or other larger dogs, and I feared they would be killed, so got rid of them, though they were all right with all of us, and indeed great favourites. The following description of the breed is by my friend, Mr. L. I. Barnett, so well known as Secretary of the English Section of the Irish Terrier Club, and a frequent judge:—

Points of the Irish Terrier.—"Head long, rather narrow; punishing jaw; eyes, small and dark; ears fairly small, not set on too high; legs straight, and strong; feet, round, and thick, with good heels; chest narrow, with good depth of brisket; back strong, and straight, with tail set on rather high; loins strong; neck, strong, and muscular; coat very hard, and straight, shorter on head; colour yellow-red, darker on ears; expression, 'wicked,' but intelligent."


Airedales.—Another breed I see occasionally kept is the Airedale Terrier, which are seldom less than forty pounds weight, and often much more. As guards, or companions, they are admirable, and follow a trap well, and can look after their own welfare, but although they have been immensely improved since they were first brought out, in the North of England, as "The Waterside Terrier," there is, to my mind, a coarse and common look about them, that seems to keep them more associated with a breed suitable to accompany his master's trap or cart, or to mount guard over premises liable to be attacked by burglars, and its size always seems to me much to its disadvantage, in[Pg 202][Pg 201] [Pg 205][Pg 204][Pg 203]doing any of the work which usually falls to the members of the different varieties of "Terriers." The long shaped head, small ears, dark hazel eyes, strong, well-knit body, with docked tail, and the colour grizzled black above, and light tan below, will be familiar to most readers of these words. I have known many beautiful Airedales, some of them (except in size) nearly perfect in their Terrier character, and on the occasions I have judged the breed I have had excellent entries of good quality, and I know now many who keep them, and prefer them to any other breed of dog. I am bound, however, to say I have never been very much taken up with them, as I object to their size as being too big to be classed amongst Terriers for the work of that variety.


The Bedlington.—This breed, which first appeared at Darlington Dog show in 1866, had existed in the extreme north of England, for nearly or quite fifty years before that, and has always been more bred and kept in the north than in any other part of the country, although I have occasionally seen good specimens elsewhere. The following extract from a letter published in "The Field" in March, 1869, from a staunch supporter of the breed, will be of interest to some of my readers. "The Bedlington Terrier is fast, and whether on land, or in water, is equally at home; in appetite, these dogs are dainty, and they seldom fatten; but experience has shown them to be wiry, enduring, and, in courage, equal to the bull dog. They will face almost anything, and I know of a dog which will extinguish a[Pg 206] candle or lighted paper at his master's bidding! To these other good qualities may be added, their marked intelligence, and hostility to vermin of all kinds. They will encounter the otter, fox, badger, with the greatest determination. The points of the Bedlington Terrier, which is a very lively member, as a rule, are as follows: Skull narrow and domed, and adorned with a silky top-knot; jaws very strong and punishing and lips tight; nose large and either black or liver-coloured, according to shade of the coat, eyes small and rather deeply sunk, their colour following that of body, ears fine, filbert shaped, tipped with soft silky hair and carried flat against the sides of the head, neck long and shoulders sloping, body rather narrow at the chest, but deep at this point, ribs flat, slightly arched at the loins, which should be powerful, legs straight, feet of fair size, hindquarters graceful looking and not too heavy, tail tapering almost all the way from base, carried in a curve like a Turkish Sword; coat much as a Dandie's, linty, composed of a mixture of hard and soft hair. Colours blue liver or sandy, or mixtures of above with tanned markings, pure self colours preferred and any white objectionable. General appearance that of a particularly alert and active dog of immense energy and courage, and quite prepared to take his own part, with any dog of any breed.


The Welsh Terrier.—Another handy sized breed for pet or companion and a smart guard is the Welsh Terrier, which is practically a wire-haired black and tan terrier, not over twenty pounds, and[Pg 208][Pg 207] [Pg 211][Pg 210][Pg 209]often less, in weight, head flat and wider at base, eyes set rather wide, muzzle longish, and a bit stronger than usually seen in Fox Terriers, ears small, with forward carriage, neck clean and not short, muscular thighs and well-boned, straight, fore-legs, coat (black, or grizzle and tan, in colour) wiry, hard and dense, should have no white spots, or markings. They are very smart, showy dogs and usually very keen on anything in the vermin, or sporting line, and are being bred very true to type by some of their patrons, many of whom are very enthusiastic in their praise.

The Old English Terrier.—A breed closely resembling these are the Old English Terriers, usually rather larger and more grizzled in colour than their Welsh brethren, and very suitable, being something like a small Airedale in appearance, as companions or house guards. The considerable interest taken in Airedales and Welsh Terriers, (both of which have one or more specialist clubs to look after their interests and push them forward) has been rather prejudicial to the Old English Terriers, which have been somewhat neglected, but I should like to see someone take them up, as there is much of "general utility" about them, and they should not be allowed to die out.


The Black and Tan Terrier.—Another well-known breed is the Manchester or Black and Tan Terrier, which, some years since, enjoyed considerable popularity, and I think the main cause of its decline, was its getting into the hands of some un[Pg 212]scrupulous members of the community, who dyed, faked, and "rang the changes," as it was called, with them, to such an extent, that respectable people were afraid to have anything to do with them. I have no doubt that the cropping edict has also been against them, as formerly, if a dog had large, or ugly ears, their appearance was often improved in the cropping, but now, unless the ears are naturally small, good specimens have little chance in the keen competition of these dogs. I need hardly describe them as fine-coated, rather snake-headed dogs with bright eyes of dark colour, and marked with tan, which should be clear in shade on the legs, thighs, feet, and other parts. They are well adapted as pets and companions, being smart, lively and intelligent in their manners and cleanly and vigilant in their habits. The points of the Manchester or Black and Tan Terrier are rather elaborate and run as follows: Head long and narrow, flat from the back to the nose and with no humps at sides or cheek, muzzle long and tapering, but not weak, eyes small and oval shaped, black and bright. The correct carriage of the ears is a debatable point since cropping has been abolished, but probably the drop ear is correct; neck light and graceful, shoulders sloping, chest rather narrow but deep and the body slightly arched with good back ribs; forelegs quite straight with well arched toes and jet black toenails, powerful hindquarters with hocks well let down, tail very fine and carried almost straight, coat short, yet close. Colour: Lustrous blue black, with rich mahogany tan markings along the jaws, under the throat, over the eyes, on the cheeks, inside the ears, on[Pg 214][Pg 213] [Pg 215]each side of breast, on the inside of the hind legs, under the vent and on the forelegs up to above the pastern joint. The toes, however, have black lines called "pencilling," running up them and there is a black spot called the thumb mark just along the pastern joint in front of the limb. The general appearance is that of a high class and well-bred, smart and neat-looking dog well suited for any work, coming into the sphere of a terrier, and a fit companion or guard for either sex, or any rank of life. He can adapt himself to the cottage, or the palace, and look well in either.


The White English Terrier—I may here mention what is doubtless a branch of the same variety or closely allied to it, the White English Terrier, which, but for its colour, being all pure white, is just built on the same lines, and is suitable for the same purposes, as his black and tan cousin. Some years since when the lighter weights of bull terriers were more popular than at present, I think they were largely crossed with White English, so as to get down their size, and some I have had, and many I have seen, have undoubtedly had some of the Bull Terrier blood in them, which could be traced in their skulls, showing rather more fullness than the breed should indicate, and their dispositions being rather more warlike than was always convenient to their owners, or agreeable to their kennel companions. I contend that a thoroughbred White English Terrier is quite a superior dog and fit company for anyone. I know some of the best at the present time are owned by ladies.[Pg 216]

[Pg 217]

[Pg 218]

Part III


performing and toy breeds
XII.Poodles, Pomeranians, Pugs, Schipperkes219
XIII. Toy Spaniels,—King Charles, Prince Charles, Ruby, Blenheim, Japanese245
XIV.Terriers,—Toy, Smooth Black and Tan, Yorkshire, Maltese, Griffons Bruxelles263
XV.Toy Bull Dogs, Toy Bull Terriers, Italian Greyhounds275

[Pg 219]


Performing and Toy Breeds



Poodles.—One of the most intelligent breeds in existence, that of the Poodle, lends itself especially to becoming a pet or companion, soon becoming warmly attached to its owner, very quick at learning what is required of it, and very smart and vigilant as a guard. Although, in ordinary life, we principally see the curly variety, at all the leading shows, we see specimens of the "corded variety" both white and black in colour, and with coats quite fearful and wonderful to behold, hanging in festoons of cords or tags, in some cases of such length as to sweep the ground as they walk along, which must be a considerable inconvenience to the dogs, as well as their owners. There has been much correspondence and discussion on the subject, but I think, after a lengthened acquaintance with the breed, and having seen and handled nearly all the best specimens brought forward during the last twenty-five years, there is no doubt there are two varieties, corded and curly, and although they have been sometimes interbred, there are corded specimens which would be corded under any circumstances, and there are curly ones that could not be turned into corded, how[Pg 220] ever long their coats were left alone. I speak from my own experience, as I have had Poodles which were never anything else but curly, whether clipped or unclipped, and others with coats that would soon become corded if not attended to. I know this is not a general opinion, but it is my impression of the breed. It used to be supposed there were only two colours for Poodles, black and white, but of late years we have seen some very beautiful specimens black and white, red, brown, slate colour, and grey, and different shades of those colours, and so many new breeders and exhibitors of these dogs have appeared in this country and abroad, that I think they may be said to be in more favour than ever, and at most of the larger shows command large entries and attract a great deal of attention from the public, I am told. I had the record entry of eighty specimens at the Ladies' KA Show at Ranelagh Park, 1896. Of course, any breed which requires exceptional care in its preparation, and which so soon gives evidence of any neglect (as in the case of an unshaven and untrimmed Poodle), will always have a limited number of active adherents, but irrespective of their value for sporting purposes (in the same way as the English and Irish Water Spaniels and the Retrievers), all who have kept any of them will know they are full of merit, good tempered as a rule, born humourists, fond of children, grand swimmers, excellent guards, and very affectionate and faithful to their owners and friends. A very high authority, both as a breeder, exhibitor and judge, has set out the points of a correct Poodle as follows:—head long, straight and fine; skull rather nar[Pg 225] [Pg 224][Pg 223] [Pg 222][Pg 221]row and peaked at back, very slight "stop;" long, strong and fine jaw, not full in cheek; teeth white and level; lips black and rather tight fitting; gums and roof of mouth black; nose sharp and black; eyes very dark brown, full of fire and intelligence, nearly almond shaped, leather of ears long and wide, hanging close to face; well proportioned neck of fair length and strength; strong muscular shoulders, sloping well to back; deep and moderately wide chest; short, strong, slightly curved back; broad muscular loins; ribs well sprung and braced up; small round feet, toes well arched, pads thick and hard; well set, straight legs, with plenty of bone and muscle; hind legs very muscular and well bent, hocks well let down; tail not curled over back, but carried rather gaily and set on high; coat profuse and of good texture, not silky; if corded, hanging in tight, even cords; if curled, in strong, thick curls, of even length, without knots or cords. Colours should be self, whites and blacks seem to be the most popular. The general appearance is that of a very active, intelligent and elegant looking dog, stepping out well and carrying himself proudly.


Pomeranians.—Another breed, which has made gigantic strides in public favour of late years, is the Pomeranian, which may be best described, as a miniature copy of the Rough-coated Collie, as it resembles it in nearly every respect, except the carriage of ears and tail, the former being pricked and carried bolt upright, and the latter curled over the side and back of the body. The colours are[Pg 226] very varied, starting with white, black, brown, blue, almost every shade of those colours can be met with, besides parti-colours, and the sizes run from nearly thirty pounds to three pounds in weight. Other things being equal, the smaller the size, the more valuable they are, and high class specimens frequently change hands at prices ranging from £10 to £200, so that it has lately been one of the most profitable breeds to produce, as good specimens have been commanding fair prices, and plenty of buyers were found for anything out of the common at almost any price. Browns have been greatly in favour, latterly even more so than blacks, and next to them come whites, but hitherto, there has been a difficulty in obtaining very small whites, and if this is overcome (and many of the leading breeders are doing their best), I think the toy whites will be greatly sought after; some of the little blacks and browns are very beautiful, and I have known very long figures, £100 and over, refused for them by their owners! Being very lively, cheerful and affectionate, and exceedingly sharp and active as guards, this breed is admirably adapted as a pet or companion, and they make very sharp house dogs. It is not desirable to chain them up, as the rubbing of the collar and chain is almost certain to interfere with the set of the crest and frill which in this breed (as in Collies), form such attractive features in their appearance. Pomeranians are seemingly popular with all classes, from Royalty downward. Her Majesty the Queen has a large kennel of them at Windsor, which I had the honour of an invitation to inspect, and can testify to the great interest taken in the[Pg 228][Pg 227] [Pg 231][Pg 230][Pg 229]breed, and the number of specimens kept, with every care and consideration shown for their happiness and comfort. Her Majesty's collection, when I saw them, some time since, consisted almost entirely of what I should call "off colours" that is, not white, black, brown or blue, but shades and mixtures of those and other colours, some exceedingly pretty, and although somewhat larger in size, being mostly "small-medium," and not so fine in head as many of the dogs now shown, are so good in other respects, that they have often successfully competed with well-known specimens, when Her Majesty has entered any at the Royal Agricultural Hall and Crystal Palace Shows. A great many are also kept by persons in the higher, middle and lower ranks of life, both in this country and the continent of Europe (where, no doubt, the breed originated), and it is a common occurrence, when a popular judge is officiating at one of the larger shows, to see over fifty entries of Pomeranians in the various classes. I have frequently had one hundred, and sometimes even more entries to judge, at the larger shows, and a puzzling job to undertake, on a dull day, in a failing light, is to tackle a class of from twenty to twenty-five black specimens, and try to find out the respective merits of each when there are probably ten or a dozen really good ones amongst the lot, though, to an outsider, they all look much alike. Small, good specimens fetch very long prices, and the breed is exceedingly popular.


The illustrations of this variety are Miss Hamilton's White Dog, the most successful winner of his colour ever shown, H. M., the Queen's Red Dog, a beautiful[Pg 232] specimen of the colour and the constant companion of Her Gracious Majesty; Mr. J. Duckworth's Fawn Dog, one of the best headed and coated specimens shown for some time; Miss A. de Pass's Toy Brown, a most perfect and charming specimen, who has taken more prizes than any of her size and colour.


The points are as follows: In general build, and coat more especially, the Pomeranians should somewhat resemble the Rough-coated Collie, with the difference that his head should be shorter, ears smaller and carried perfectly erect; and his tail curled up from the root tightly over his back, or lying flat on his back. He must be a compact little dog, well proportioned in build, standing on straight limbs, and possessing a profuse coat of long and perfectly straight silky or glossy hair all over his body, forming a mane, round his neck, of longer hair, with the forelegs feathered, and the thighs more heavily feathered. He must be sharp and intelligent in expression, and exhibit great activity and buoyancy of disposition, and should not exceed twenty pounds in weight, the smaller specimens being preferable. At the larger shows they are generally divided into over eight pounds and under eight pounds. Colours, white, black, brown, blue and sable, and any combination of those colours. At the present time there is a feeling rather in favour of the shades of brown, but there are many very beautiful specimens of all the colours mentioned above.


Pugs.—One of the really old-fashioned pets and companions is the Pug, of which I have for the last thirty[Pg 234][Pg 233] [Pg 235]years generally had some specimens about my house, and usually, when I have judged the breed, have been favoured with record entries. I remember on one occasion, when I had a very heavy day at an important London show, and had taken an immense amount of trouble, in the open, on a broiling day in June or July, when the whole of my exhibitors were of the fair sex, and ranged from the highest in the kennel-world, Her Royal Highness, the Princess of Wales, to those who would not be ashamed to be included amongst "the working classes," I thought, "I shall catch it pretty warmly over this job." I hardly supposed it within the bounds of possibility for any living "mere man," to give satisfaction to such a large number of the other sex, especially when their own particular pets were concerned, so that I was certainly gratified to have a letter, some weeks after, from the Hon. Secretary of the show (whose daughter was an exhibitor and by no means a novice in Pugs either), stating that I had "achieved the unique feat of pleasing every one, as not a single complaint or grumble had been heard or received by the committee from the large body of Pug exhibitors." I mention this, not for the purpose of self-glorification, but to show that, although generally judges are supposed to meet with obloquy and abuse, often not deserved, they do, sometimes, receive kindly recognition of their endeavours, to pick out the best specimens brought under their notice! A good Pug should have a large skull, in proportion to size, well-defined stop, with high forehead, square face, wide-apart eyes, dark and large, round[Pg 236] and rather prominent; thin, small ears, carried well forward, a desideratum is a black thumb mark in middle of skull, the mask and ears should be black. Heavy wrinkles about head and face; muscular, thick neck, with skin loose; square, thick, cobby body; deep loins; well rounded ribs; dark trace down back very desirable; also a dark mole on each cheek; muscular hindquarters; firm thighs; strong, short, straight fore legs; well arched, firm, round feet, with black toe nails if possible; tail tightly curled on hips, double turn much desired; coat, except on tail, where it is longer and harsher, should be glossy, soft and short. A very smart, showy and active dog, often an arrant coward, but with a great appearance of dignity, and even ferocity, which is not without its impression on the public. My experience of the breed is that they are, as a rule, very affectionate, and devoted to their owners, "good-doers" and nearly always ready for anything in the way of eating and drinking, great lovers of comfort, and very jealous of any other members of the doggy community being made as much of as themselves. They are very lively, bustling companions, and very popular with those who have kept them. I omitted to say, that the colours are silver fawn and apricot fawn, and of late years, there is also a black variety, the points of which are really the same as in the fawns, but partly concealed by the colour. I think, as a rule, the blacks run more leggy, and many of them heavier than the fawns, but I have had some beautiful specimens of both colours before me many times, and I like a good one,[Pg 238][Pg 237] [Pg 241][Pg 240][Pg 239]of any size, although, if you can get true Pug qualities, in a small one, it is all the better.

Two of the best-known illustrate this variety.


Schipperkes.—The Schipperke is rather a new breed in this country, and much kept as a pet and companion by its supporters. It was, I think, imported originally from Belgium, where, I understand, though I do not remember seeing many there, it has long been used by the Bargees as a protection on board their boats for their persons and property on their long journeys through the canals. In appearance it is something like a medium or rather small-sized black Pomeranian, out of coat and without any tail, the texture of the coat dense and harsh, soft on the ears, smooth on the head, front of hocks and forelegs, but forming a mane or frill, round neck and shoulders; size should not exceed twenty pounds, and all the better if it is less; eyes small, slightly oval, and dark brown in colour; they make very sharp little watch dogs, are always on the move, and anxious to know the ins and outs of what comes in their way, very excitable and lively in temperament, the former being expressed by raising their mane referred to, barking sharply and running and jumping about; they are good and game vermin killers, as a general rule.[Pg 242]

[Pg 243]

[Pg 244]

[Pg 245]


Performing and Toy Breeds (Continued)

toy spaniels—king charles—prince charles—blenheim—ruby—japanese


I now come to another group of undoubted pets and companions, I mean the Toy Spaniels, and a charming lot they are. I will briefly notice them in their usually accepted order, taking our old friend, the King Charles, first. I am afraid I shall be thought "laudator temporis acti," and old-fashioned, but hardened "all-round dog lover" as I am, and have been, ever since I knew one end of a dog from another, I must say, I dearly love a good "King Charles," and, as I always go through the classes for them, at all the big shows, even when I have nothing, judicially, to do with them, I am grieved to see such small entries of these beautiful dogs, and so few good enough to "fill the eye" of a critical fancier. It is not so much of the size, or colours I complain, as the coats, which are so, very often, curly, a bad fault, in my opinion, and many of them are "smutty" and dark in their tan. Of course there are notable exceptions, but I greatly fear that other dog breeds, which have been warmly "pushed" of late years, in every possible way, and, generally, by interested parties, have disheartened the breeders of some of the Toy[Pg 246] Spaniels, or, we should see more good ones coming out! The points of the breed to be desired are large round skull, with well defined "stop," large, lustrous eyes, short, turned-up muzzle, long pendulous ears, well-feathered; fairly long neck, short and compact back, short straight fore-legs, feet large, soft, profuse coat, quite straight, without tendency to curl, colour glossy, unbroken black, and rich mahogany tan. Weight not to exceed twelve pounds, as much less as possible, with quality.


The Blenheim Spaniel.—The next of this charming group to be considered, is the Blenheim Spaniel, with which, its having been the favourite breed of my dear mother, and her mother, I have been more associated than with some of the others; the points of a perfect specimen are almost entirely the same as in the King Charles, except that the colours are red and white, with more of the latter than the former, and it is very desirable to have a distinct mark of red about the size of a shilling or florin, on the upper part of the skull, which is termed "the spot" and is a recognised peculiarity of this variety.


The Prince Charles Spaniel.—Another variety is known as the Prince Charles, and the points of this again are the same as of the King Charles, except in colour, which is white with a good deal of black and tan markings. When evenly marked, and well formed in other ways, they are very attractive little fellows. I have noticed a tendency, particularly with these,[Pg 248][Pg 247] [Pg 251][Pg 250][Pg 249]to get specimens too large; in my opinion, they should be under the maximum weight allowed (twelve pounds) as the intention is, they should be not too heavy for a lady to pick up, and carry her little companion, when out with it, if so disposed. So that, from six to ten pounds would be a more suitable weight, and such as you may see in numbers of Yorkshire Terriers, Griffons, Pomeranians and Japanese Spaniels, some of the keenest rivals of the native Toy Spaniels. In fact many of all those varieties can be obtained well under five pounds weight, or even less if desired.


The Ruby Toy Spaniel.—Another very beautiful variety, is the Ruby Spaniel, something the colour of its larger cousin, the Sussex Spaniel, but richer, and brighter in tone. I am afraid these are not being so much bred as they were some years since, but all true dog lovers, would regret their becoming extinct, on account of their great beauty and aristocratic appearance; to be correct, the colour should be quite free from white, as rich and bright as possible, and the points same as King Charles and without legginess, which seems to affect these more than the other varieties; I suppose, there is little doubt the native breeds of Toy Spaniels have been much interbred, and I have been told by breeders they have had in one litter a specimen of all four breeds. I cannot vouch for the truth of this, as it has not happened within my own experience, but if true, it confirms the idea of how much they have been interbred.[Pg 252]


The Japanese Spaniel.—The last of the Toy Spaniel family to be noticed is the Japanese Spaniel, and, at the present time, I think, it enjoys the most popularity, and is kept by ladies of high rank, as well as by their humbler fellow-creatures. In point of colour, they most resemble the Prince Charlies, and they are sometimes, but not often, seen almost the colours of a Blenheim. They are not so high, or domed in skull, but much wider, both in head and face, with very short nose, fairly large, pendulous ears, large, dark, full eyes, rather short on legs, cobby in body, and with tail curled over back, something in the way of the Maltese Terrier. They have a very quaint, old-fashioned look about them, even when puppies, and, unless they have been bred in this country, or, until they get acclimatized, are certainly delicate, and the mortality amongst the imported specimens has been very great. It is now sometime since I had any of the breed, and, at that time, larger specimens were in vogue than now appear at our shows; but no doubt, as ladies' pets, they are better, not exceeding eight or nine pounds. I may mention, to prove how these pretty little creatures have come forward of late years, I was present at a large London show, where a Japanese Spaniel, belonging to a friend of mine, a well-known lady-exhibitor, was awarded the first prize (a seventy-guinea silver cup in which the winner might have been hidden!) as the "Champion of champions," in a class composed of all the specimens of all kinds of dogs, that had been awarded a championship at that show, and the gratified owner had the honour of receiving the splendid prize from H. R. H. the Princess of[Pg 254] [Pg 253] [Pg 257][Pg 256] [Pg 255]Wales, who was also an exhibitor at the show, and is, we all know, a keen admirer of dogs in general.

The portrait of this beautiful specimen illustrates this variety.[Pg 258]

[Pg 260]

[Pg 259]

[Pg 262]

[Pg 261]

[Pg 263]


Performing and Toy Breeds (Continued)

toy terriers—smooth black and tan—yorkshire—maltese—griffons bruxelles


To take these in the above order, I propose to say a few words about each. I regret to say that, really first-rate specimens of the Toy Black and Tans are few and far between, there are many of the right size, and colour, but, so many fail in head, which should be like that of a true terrier of the "Manchester" type, in miniature, but the majority are too round and short in skull, and the other "points" of the breeds are the same. I need not say that a good specimen is a beautiful little creature and a charming pet for a lady, and very smart and showy. I have little doubt that the edict against cropping has had a prejudicial effect on them, as well as their larger brethren, and that having to wear such ears, as they have been born with, gives no chance for the skill of the "cropper" to improve their appearance, and, a great many of the breed appear to have what are known as "Bat," or "Tulip," ears, which look out of proportion to their size. I am in hopes that breeders may succeed (as has been done with the "Manchesters") in breeding more specimens with small drop ears, of the orthodox type, when, no doubt,[Pg 264] a revival of interest will be taken in this somewhat neglected variety. One of the best seen for years illustrates this variety. Occasionally more or less good specimens of the White English Smooth Terrier, in miniature, are seen, and when correct in points, they are very pretty.


Yorkshire Toy Terrier.—I will now speak of another very beautiful breed of dogs, well suited as ladies' pets. Yorkshire Terriers, sometimes not exceeding three pounds in weight, colour slate blue on back and sides, also part of head, the rest a golden tan; when in form, the coat sweeps the ground, and is soft and bright in texture, and colour; of course, such a breed cannot be kept "up to the mark" without some care, and trouble, but a good specimen, turned out in correct form, is "quite a picture," and provokes any amount of admiration particularly amongst the fair sex, and I have known any sum from £5 to £250 to be paid for really tip-toppers, to be kept as companions, for which they are well suited, and I can, from my own experience, testify to their affectionate and engaging qualities. Of course their coats must be kept to a reasonable length, often brushed out, and they would not be suitable inmates for a kennel, being essentially a breed for indoors.

The best specimen living illustrates this variety.


Maltese Terriers.—Another of the Pet Dogs, proper, is the lovely little Maltese Terrier, whose praises I have been singing for years, and I am delighted to see they[Pg 266][Pg 265] [Pg 269][Pg 268][Pg 267]are slowly coming back into favour. Those of my readers who remember the Team shown, many years since, by the late Lady Giffard, will, I think, confirm my opinion, that a more beautiful lot of ladies' pet dogs could not be seen. To those not acquainted with the breed, I may say, they resemble very small drop-eared Skye Terriers, with pure white long coats, often sweeping the ground, and almost like floss silk in texture, with short backs and tails curled over them, dark, piercing eyes and black noses. They are very smart, corky little fellows. I admire them greatly, and have done my best for some years past to revive interest in them, and am glad to see better entries at shows which provide classes and judges to suit them. This is thought to be one of the oldest of the Toy breeds, having been highly prized by the ladies of ancient Greece, and other nations of that historic period. Head should be much like that of a drop-eared Skye in miniature. Coat long, straight and silky, often sweeping the ground, quite free from curl, or wooliness. Nose and roof of mouth black, ears moderately long, well feathered, with hair mingling on neck. Tail short, well feathered, and curled tightly over back. Colour, pure white, without markings, or even tints of any other colour. Weight five to six pounds, the smaller the better, other points being equal.

By the kindness of my old friend, Mr. J. Jacobs, the best known breeder of Maltese, I have been able to give a portrait of his beautiful little champion.


Griffons Bruxelles.—One of the most recent of all the breeds suitable as pets and companions and which[Pg 270] has been very much "boomed" the last few years, is the above named, somewhere about the size, and a little the shape of a Yorkshire Toy Terrier, if you can imagine one with a short harsh coat instead of a long silky one, and with a chin prominent as possible, without showing the teeth, in fact, "under-jawed;" round nearly black eyes; lashes, and lids dark, short black nose, with hair around it and the eyes; prick ears carried straight up as darts, feet longish; tail docked rather short; head round and covered with harsh hair, not woolly or silky; longer round eyes, nose, lips (which should have a "moustache" over them,) and cheeks; colour preferred, chestnut red, wiry rough, and plentiful coat, but not long. Weight for the larger variety nine pounds maximum; for the smaller five pounds maximum. These are cobby in build, active, intelligent, hardy little fellows, very quaint, comical, and self-important in their ways, which makes them attractive, even to persons not taking much interest in dogs in general; they are now being pushed forward very much and have a club of their own, so they seem likely to, what is called "catch on!"

I have secured the portrait of a grand little specimen of this variety belonging to the well known judge, Count H. de Bylandt.[Pg 272][Pg 271]

[Pg 274]

[Pg 273]

[Pg 275]


Performing and Toy Breeds (Continued)

toy bull dogs—toy bull terriers—italian greyhounds


Toy Bull Dogs.—Have been much taken up of late, and strange though it may seem, for an offshoot, or miniature variety of an old English breed, the larger number of the best that have appeared at the shows, so far, have come from France! I have seen many specimens with good heads and bodies, but comparatively few with the correct type of ear, the majority having what I described in speaking of Smooth Toy Terriers, as "Bat or Tulip" ears, which give rather a silly, vacant, expression to the face. However, the breed is being so eagerly patronised by people in the higher ranks, and good specimens easily command such high prices, that there is little reason to doubt, breeders will succeed in producing more specimens, with the correct type of ear, when we shall see a great improvement in the number and quality of the entries at all those shows which provide classes for these quaint little animals, which should be kept down to a twenty-pound limit at most, if they are to retain their title to be classified amongst the "Toys."[Pg 276]


Toy Bull Terriers.—The Toy Bull Terriers which have been a good deal encouraged of late years, should be counterparts of the larger breed, but too many of them fail in head properties, and are both too short in face and too round in skull, very often, they have a small patch of brindle or other colour on some part of their head or body, although they are preferred pure white, if possible. For many years I kept some of these, and bred them as small as two and a half pounds, but even at that weight their courage did not seem less, and the smallest I ever had was killed by her reckless attack on an antagonist far beyond her powers. I have known several others without the slightest consideration of their size and weight, rush upon foes that could actually have swallowed them, without the least hesitation, or any show of fear.


Italian Greyhounds.—Another very graceful and elegant breed is the Italian Greyhound, which some years ago was much more kept as a pet than of late; it is more slightly built and shorter in head than the Whippet, and the colours most often seen are golden fawns and creams, but I have had some before me, and well shaped ones too, red, red and white, and blue fawn, the last named being the best of the "off colours." The coat should be very fine, soft and glossy, the best size is not exceeding eight or eight and a half pounds, in weight. They are exceedingly graceful, elegant little creatures, but rightly or wrongly (as this is one of the few breeds of dogs, I have not bred or kept,) give me the impression of being delicate and requiring care and[Pg 278] #[Pg 277] [Pg 283][Pg 282] [Pg 281][Pg 280] [Pg 279]attention. The breed seems mostly in the hands of three or four persons, but I am pleased to say, there are still some excellent specimens of both sexes to be seen, so that I am in hopes there is no immediate fear of its extinction, as this is one of the breeds that would not look out of place in company with the highest in the land.

The portrait of a good and typical specimen, from Mrs. P. Turner's well-known kennel, illustrates this variety.[Pg 284]

[Pg 285]

[Pg 286]

Part IV


XVI.Something About Foreign Dogs291
XVII.Humours and Vagaries of the Show Rings311
XVIII. to XXIII.Anecdotes About Dogs, Personal and Selected322
XXIV.A Few Words About General Management and Some Simple Maladies, to Which Dogs are Subject and Their Treatment389


Something About Foreign Dogs

I think, perhaps, it will be best for me to say something about these, although my friend, Mr. Edwin Brough, was wont to call them by the generic term of "Wild Beasts," particularly those belonging to our mutual friend, Mr. W. K. Taunton, who for very many years had one of the best collections of rare breeds of foreign dogs, I should say, to be met with in Europe, comprising specimens from the Arctic Regions, China, Australia, India, Africa and other distant parts of the world. I have often had specimens of his before me at different shows, particularly those held in the London District, and remember paying a visit, by invitation, some years since to his kennels in Essex and being very much interested in the many typical specimens I saw there. I should consider Mr. Taunton not only a first-rate judge of bloodhounds and mastiffs, but (although one of the most unassuming men I know) far and away, the ablest and best judge of "Foreign Dogs" in this country, or probably in any other. He has bred and owned more than most other judges have even seen!


The Norwegian Elk-Hound.—One of the kinds most [Pg 292]often kept is the Norwegian Elk-Hound, which much resembles the Esquimaux, but differs in character of coat, ears and tail. He should be active in build, though strongly made, particularly in the shoulders; fairly long wedge-shaped head; rather strong and blunt shaped jaws; thick coat, with plenty of undercoat, in varying shades of dark and light grey, back parts being darker and under parts lighter and sometimes slightly tanned; good round feet, with legs strong, firm and straight, ears much larger and differently carried from the Esquimaux, both upright and pointed; tail profusely covered with hair, and carried with a double twist to the side, rather inclined to be wolf-like in expression, with dark brown eyes.


The Persian Greyhound is another of the "Foreigners" sometimes met with, and is a very elegant creature if shown in good form, about the size of a medium-sized greyhound, with soft feathery fringe on head and ears, thighs, tail and elsewhere, which gives a very unique appearance to it, the colours most often seen are shades of fawn, or drab, and from the extra hair upon it they seem to be shorter and stronger in head than the British greyhounds. There is a variety called the Afghan Greyhounds, which greatly resemble the Persians even in colours, except that all the specimens I have had before me of the latter have been considerably less, more like large Whippets in size. I am not prepared to say whether there is any, or if so what, connection [Pg 294][Pg 293]between the two breeds. [Pg 296][Pg 295] [Pg 297]

The African Sand Dog is another breed occasionally seen; it is remarkable for being almost entirely without hair, usually a sort of blue black in colour, and sometimes having a tuft of coarse bristle-like hair on the top of the head, and a similar tuft of the same colour and character at the end of the tail. In shape and appearance they slightly resemble a fat, and rather coarse, both in head and body, black and tan terrier; they, no doubt, have their admirers, or they would not continue to be imported and kept, but they are essentially one of the breeds that may be described as "not everybody's money."


Thibet Sheep Dogs.—A breed I have not often seen, but which is really a handsome and noble looking one is the Great Thibet Sheep Dog, of which I remember H. R. H. the Prince of Wales had a good specimen at Sandringham some years since, which I can only describe as having a Collie-like body with a thick under and over coat, but not so profuse as with our collies, and a head combining the expression of Newfoundland, Mastiff and Bloodhound, large, pendulous ears, heavy lips and jaws, and great dignity, and even ferocity in appearance. From the rough life they live, with very rough people, I have heard from those who have travelled in Thibet, these dogs are very awkward customers to tackle, and often make things very unpleasant for travellers and strangers, but I have no doubt they would make excellent guards, and have a very distinguished [Pg 298]appearance as companions.

Afghan Sheep Dog.—Another eastern breed is the Afghan Sheep Dog, which, in the specimens I have seen greatly resembles our own breed of English Short-tailed Sheep Dog, and like him, is covered all over with a dense, shaggy coat. It seemed to me, they were somewhat more woolly in texture and corded in character than the coats of our dogs, and also they were leggier and more tucked up, so that, although they stand as high, or higher, I should say they would weigh considerably less on the average than our own "Bobtails." Their colours appear to be usually white, with brown or black markings, more or less profusely scattered over the bodies.


Esquimaux.—The Esquimaux is another of the foreign breeds occasionally seen here, rather larger and heavier than the Chow, and longer in head and neck, generally some shade of grey or black and white in colour with a harsh outer, but dense warm under coat, rather long and arched in neck, eyes obliquely set, small for size of dog, and very sly and wolf-like in expression, with pricked ears carried rather forward and tail curled over back. In the general way, they are not very fascinating to strangers, and may be spoken of in the same terms as the hero of a popular comic song who was said to be "all right, when you know him, but you've got to know him, first!" No doubt, the number of expeditions to the Arctic regions of late years, and the keen public interest taken in all their details, has had the effect of [Pg 303] [Pg 302][Pg 301] [Pg 300][Pg 299] bringing these dogs, so important to all Arctic explorers, more to the front. There is a quaint, independent air about them I rather like. I have very frequently had to judge them in classes of "foreign dogs from the Arctic and Northern regions," and should not describe them as very genial, or sociable, in manner, although somewhat unique and interesting in appearance.


Chow.—Another breed which is not without its supporters, many of whom are amongst the ranks of the aristocracy, is the Chow, which, as the name implies, is a native of China, and much resembles a large, coarse Pomeranian, with a short thick head and rather blunt prick ears, the colours are almost invariably shades of red, black, or slate blue, though I have seen some variations on these. Chows often are as large as small collies, and possess very warm dense coats, somewhat in the Esquimaux style, and carry their tails much the same way, and are remarkable for having nearly inky black tongues. Like many of these foreign breeds, they are hardly yet naturalised in this country, but they are handsome, distinguished-looking dogs and not unlikely to become more popular, as they become more understood. At present they are in very few hands, and are more often met with at shows in the "any other variety" or "Foreign, any variety," classes, than in a class or classes to themselves, but at some of the larger shows, I have frequently had good entries of them, containing many beautiful specimens [Pg 304]of the breed.


The points of Chows are as follows: Skull flat and wide, muzzle substantial under the eyes, of fair length and rather blunt at the nose, tongue and lips black, eyes dark and small, ears very small, pointed, carried erect and forward; neck powerful and slightly arched, shoulders muscular and nicely sloped, chest wide and deep, body short and powerful with strong loins; fore-legs strong and straight with small round feet, hindquarters rather square with hindquarters well let down, tail tightly curled over back, coat very profuse, flat and rather coarse in texture. Colours most usually black or red; yellow, blue and white, if strictly self colours, are correct. Weight, dogs forty to fifty pounds; bitches a little less.


The Dingo.—Another colonial breed, the Dingo or Wild Dog of Australia, many of us have heard of but few seen. As I happen to have a brother, a clergyman, in that country, whose parish is forty miles square, taking him the best part of each week to visit his parishioners on horseback or in buggy, also three nephews, sons of another brother, likewise a clergyman in England, all situated in different parts of the same colony, I have heard a great deal of the doings of the "Dingoes." They are very particular in their attentions to the poultry, lambs, and sometimes sheep, so that they do not bear a good name in that country! They are a [Pg 306][Pg 305]good deal like jackals, but rather larger in size, and [Pg 307]coats sleeker, and tails less feathered, less mane on shoulders, and perhaps somewhat finer in head, quite a sly, wolf-like expression, not often very safe to handle; colours usually shades of yellow, or sandy, but I have seen them shades of brown, and grey mixed, rather fox-like in bark; they are usually kept as curiosities of the canine race, frequently muzzled or "caged," but as they get more used to civilised life, they may develop more interesting qualities than they have yet been credited with.


The Chinese Crested Dog.—I think I will bring this brief notice of some of the "outlandish" breeds to a close, with a mention of what I think is rather a rare sort, the Chinese Crested Dog, as, although I have judged Foreign Dogs at all the leading shows during a great many years, I have had very few true specimens of this scarce breed brought before me. I am pleased to have been able to secure a good portrait of the best I have ever seen, by the courtesy of its owner. I have generally found them with a smooth mottled skin quite devoid of hair, except a crest, or tuft of stiffish hair on the forehead or above it, usually nearly white or whitey brown in colour, and a tuft of similar colour and character at the end of the tail. Round skull, well defined "stop," and rather short, mean face, in shape and style of body something like a coarse strong Italian greyhound, and nearly always giving you the idea of being pinched with the cold. From what little I have [Pg 308]seen of them, I should consider them, rather delicate, and unsuited for our climate, except under favourable circumstances. I imagine they are merely kept as companions and pets, as I never heard of any of them being turned to account for any useful purpose. I am aware there are several other breeds I might have included in this chapter, such as the Samoyede Sledge dogs, (a capital portrait of this breed is here given) the Pyrennean Sheep Dog; the Leonberg Dog, The Dogue de Bordeaux, a capital portrait of a very fine specimen of which is also given, and which has a great deal the character of a high-class Bull Mastiff about it, and has been largely used on the Continent in fighting the bear and other large game; and others, but I think I have said enough to comply with its [Pg 309]title of "Something About Foreign Dogs!"


[Pg 310]


[Pg 311]


Humours and Vagaries of the Show-Rings

I remember meeting a friend, many years since, whose wife was rather a fine woman, who had been younger and better looking, but still "fancied herself" a good deal, and had a decent Pug, which she made a point of taking to any shows held in their neighbourhood, and as I knew he had entered the Pug in two or three classes at a local show where a reverend gentleman, at that time very well known as an "all round judge," at many shows throughout the kingdom, was officiating, I said, "Well, old fellow, and how did your wife get on with her Pug?" "Oh, very badly," said he, "there was a smart looking girl, with pink roses in her hat, had a dog in the ring, and the judge couldn't look at anything else, although our Pug was ever so much better!"

As I happened to hear, casually, that another reverend judge, who had been not only a very successful breeder and exhibitor, but one of our ablest judges, particularly of the non-sporting breeds, was about to decline further judging, I considered, especially at that time, when there were few judges of ability and standing, that he could be ill spared, so I wrote to [Pg 312]ask him, if I obtained a strong expression of opinion from some of the leading exhibitors in his section, whether he would reconsider the matter, and he wrote me a very courteous letter, agreeing to do so. I then had a fac-simile letter, of my writing, prepared, and sent a copy to all the leading breeders and exhibitors of non-sporting dogs, and I do not think I had one refusal. I doubt if any judge ever had such a requisition, and the result was, that for many years, the public had the benefit of his valuable services, until, I regret to say, ill health compelled him to give up all such matters, but he retained his popularity to the last, and his retirement was universally regretted. I have often met him since as a looker on at shows, and we have occasionally corresponded.

As I have mentioned in the earlier pages of this work, for many years I was a very keen breeder and exhibitor of Dandies, and kept a great many of them at one time, perhaps the strongest kennel of the breed in the kingdom, and won scores of prizes, etc. I remember, on one occasion, when I had a team of dogs at a show in Gloucestershire, I had one of my best Dandies entered either in a "Rough Terrier Class," or a class composed of "Winners of so many Prizes" (in those days, all sorts of peculiar classes and conditions were introduced into the schedules), and there
were two judges to officiate, neither of whom, I very much expect, had ever had a Dandie before him previously. I was, at first, much amused to see how they were puzzled over him, and I could see them taking counsel together (I may say, they were men of the [Pg 313]highest class, as straight as gun barrels, and both deservedly respected and esteemed by the whole kennel world, one amongst sporting, the other among non-sporting classes, but as I hope and believe they are both still living I will not mention their names, although I have told the tale to one of them to his intense amusement and delight). But afterwards, I began to fear they would, from not being sure what manner of animal I had in tow, pass me over, or worse still, give some inferior notice to my dog, who was a noted champion, and about the best specimen of the breed at that time. After a while they came back to me and made a more detailed examination of my dog, asked me his number, and awarded him First Prize and Special, to my great relief, as I had been thinking what a fool I had been to enter a "Champion," to have such a chance of a "knock-back" at a county show!

Sometime after that, I was taking a short exhibiting tour, with a team of my dogs, following three or four shows, held close together, and not more than one or two days each in duration. Amongst others I had an excellent Dandie Bitch with me, who had never been "out of the money," and was in excellent form at the time. I showed her at one place (Reading, I fancy,) and took first under the Rev. W. I. Mellor. The next show was, I think, Swindon; there I met almost the same lot of Dandies, this time under the late Mr. W. Lort, who, after he had looked through the class, came up to me and said, "I am sorry to say, Mr. Lane, I cannot give you more than 'Very Highly Commended,' for your Bitch." I replied, "In that case, sir, I shall be [Pg 314]greatly obliged by your passing her over altogether; she took first prize yesterday in the same company under Mr. Mellor, who is reckoned one of our leading Dandie judges, and I am going to show her under him to-morrow at Henley (I think it was) where I have every hope she will do the same, so that I should not like her to take 'V. H. C.' for the first time in her life in between." So the bitch was passed over and duly won another first prize the next day.

The first time I had the honor of judging any dogs belonging to members of the Royal Family was many years since at Warwick, where, I believe, H. R. H. the Prince of Wales exhibited, for the first time, Skyes, and foreign dogs. He may have shown others, also, but those were the classes with which I was concerned. I remember the Committee and Chairman of the show were, quite properly, much impressed with the honour of the Royal patronage to their show at that time, nearly or quite the best held out of London and admirably managed by a well organised and most capable and courteous committee of "real workers," whom it was always a pleasure to meet. As I judged, or showed, at all their shows, I can speak from experience; and I may further say that I consider it a positive calamity for the kennel world when these shows came to an end. For, not only were they most delightful gatherings, of the "Flower of the Fancy," both dogs, and people, but, held in well adapted buildings and premises, near the quaint old Midland Town, almost under the shadow of the historic castle and under the active patronage of the late Earl of Warwick, and the present Earl, [Pg 315]then Lord Brooke (both able and devoted "Dog Fanciers") and his beautiful wife, who always used to grace the shows by her presence, and took a keen interest in many of the animals shown, besides being an exhibitor in some of the classes. The Chairman intimated to me that the inmates of the Royal Kennel should stand well in the Prize List. I told him "every dog entered would be judged by me strictly on its merits, and if it was afterwards found the Royal Dogs were amongst the Prize Winners, none would be more pleased than I should, but I could not say or do more than that, and I was sure H. R. H. would wish his dogs to stand, or fall, on their merits alone!" Since then I have very often had the honour of judging dogs from the Royal Kennels, both Sandringham and Windsor.

I remember it so happened that the first time Her Majesty the Queen exhibited any dogs, nearly all Her Majesty's entries came into my classes at a Great London show. Soon after my entering the building I went to have a look at my classes, and shortly afterwards, the secretary came up to me and said, "Do you know you have the great honour of being the first man to judge any dogs from Her Majesty's kennels?" I said, "I have heard so." He then said, "Well, I am most anxious they should all be in the prize list, as I consider it a high honour that Her Majesty has allowed them to be entered." I said, "That is all right enough, but although I will not admit Her Majesty has a more loyal or devoted subject than myself, I am here in a public [Pg 316]capacity as a judge, and if Her Majesty's dogs are entered, in competition with Her Majesty's subjects' dogs, they can only be judged 'on their merits,' and from what I can see on the benches as the Royal dogs have been pointed out to me by your keepers I don't think many of them will be 'in the money,' as the classes are very large and good." He said, "That will never do; what can be done?" I said, "Will you leave it to me?" He said, "Yes, entirely." I said, "Then I will have all the dogs of the same colour and type as those from the Royal kennels, formed into a separate class," (which luckily, was feasible,) "and judged together." This was done and I hope caused general satisfaction, which would not have been the case had any partiality been shown, nor would such have been approved by Her Majesty, I am perfectly sure, if the circumstances came to be known at the palace.

On one occasion when I had been judging a number of classes at a large London show, after I had done, one of the fair exhibitors came up to me and said, "You don't seem to like my dogs." I said, "If you will tell me the numbers of your dogs I will refer to my judging book, and see what notes I made of them." She gave the numbers, and I read out the notes on each. But this did not satisfy her, and she said, "Ah! I am only a poor widow, if I were only a rich heiress, like ——, I suppose it would be different, she can win any number of prizes with her dogs." I replied, "You have no right to speak in that way to me, neither you nor any other exhibitor can say I have ever [Pg 317]made any distinction between rich and poor. I have always sought to judge the dogs alone, irrespective of their owners; if the dogs of the person you mention have won it is because they were, in my opinion, the best." She said no more, nor did I, but I presume she thought I spoke the truth, as I have often noticed her as an exhibitor in my classes, at various shows since, and it is not reasonable to suppose she would continue to show under me, if she thought I favoured any one!

Indeed, there are so many "lookers-on" round every ring, nowadays who understand the various breeds, and are prepared to criticise the awards, that judges are "put upon their mettle," particularly with some of the popular breeds, where the competition is often very keen, and the entries large.

Some years since, at a large show in Wales I had a large and good class of Bedlington Terriers, but there was one dog that stood out, head and shoulders above the rest; it chanced that I began my examination of each specimen in the class, which I always endeavour to make, and a short note of the result in my book, at the dog standing next to him in the ring, and therefore he was the last to be looked at, and merely going over him enough to see that his coat, condition, topknot, legs, eyes, teeth and ears, were satisfactory, I sent them for a run round, marked my book and dismissed the class; while I was waiting for the next lot of dogs a very melancholy-looking man crept up to me and said, "Would you kindly tell me, sir, what you gave my dog?" I asked his number, and when he told me, said, "First and special for best in the show;" he [Pg 318]threw his hat up in the air, and roared out, "Well, I'm blessed, I knowed he knowed 'em, he didn't hardly want to look at my dog, he didn't, he could see he were the best with half an eye, he could," and, from being a solemn and sad-looking person, he became the most jovial-looking fellow you could wish to see. I did not know his name, and do not know it now, but he amused me very much at the time!

I do not remember where it occurred, but I was judging rather a good class of Scottish Terriers somewhere in the provinces, and a keeper brought in a dog I liked the look of, and after going over the classes I marked him first, and told the keeper to take him away and bench him, which I suppose he did. You can imagine my surprise when shortly after, the same dog made his appearance in the ring again, this time led by a man I knew well as rather an extensive exhibitor, at that time, and he began "making the most of his dog" before me. But as I had quite done with him, and had still some of my awards in the class to make, I did not want that, so I said, "I should take away that dog, and bench him if I were you, as he has been judged and sent out sometime since." The exhibitor in question, whom his worst enemy would not describe as either shy or timid, was unusually rapid in his departure from that ring, and I have since heard the story from others, to whom I suppose he told it, but I have never told it until now!

I have had such a long and varied experience of judging, that although I have often and often had classes large enough and strong enough to make one "pull [Pg 319]one's self together," I never remember being really "nonplussed," but once, and that was when I was judging some years ago at the People's Palace, situated in the East End of London. I presume, the "drawers up" of the schedule had not been previously experienced in such work, as amongst others, they had provided a "Variety Class for London Exhibitors," and, if obtaining entries is a criterion of success, it was very successful, as they obtained no less than 145 entries. I do not know, but I should think, it was the largest class ever seen at any show! And when I saw the tens and scores of dogs pouring into my ring, I wondered what was to become of them, as it was a good walk merely to go round them, and they formed a small dog show by themselves, and I noticed about five or six well-known "Champions" amongst them, as it included most of the known breeds of dogs. After referring to my judging book, many pages in which were of course taken up, I found I had three prizes to divide amongst this crowd, so I went to the committee, and explained the matter to them. They behaved very well indeed, they said, "We will leave the matter entirely to you, do whatever you please in it." I went back, divided the class into over thirty pounds and under thirty pounds, cleared out all that was no good, and weeded down the remainder, and eventually gave two equal firsts, two equal seconds, and two equal thirds in each division, making twelve prizes and two "reserves" in all, which was a lot better than attempting to award three prizes amongst close on 150 dogs. I think the exhibitors were pleased, and felt I had done the best in my power to get them and myself [Pg 320]out of an awkward position.

Many of my readers will remember Mr. George Helliwell, better known to his intimates as "Yorkshire George," and his long connection with the late Mr. Fletcher's successful kennel of sporting dogs. It was always a safe "draw" to touch on the merits of the Fox Terrier "Rattler," who won many of his numerous honours, when in George's care, and he was never tired, and would be nearly moved to tears in recounting his virtues and triumphs. I remember one occasion, when he was officiating as a judge, in which capacity he was in great request, and highly qualified. After he had judged a class, one of the exhibitors, who was not satisfied with what he had awarded to his dog, went up and asked him why he had not given him more, saying his dog "had a wonderful pedigree," and thought he ought to have beaten all there. George said, in his own peculiar way, slapping his inquirer gently on the back, "If tha' tak my advice, lad, the next toime ther' goes to show, thou'll tak thy dog's pedigree wi thee, and leave dog at 'oom!" I fear my writing of the matter does not properly convey the intense humour of the incident, and the "broad Yorkshire dialect" in which the advice was given! But "George's" many friends will picture it for themselves.

I saw in the papers lately the death of Mr. Frank Adcock, and it brought to my mind not only his craze for Giant Bull Dogs, which is well known to "the Fancy" of his day, but also his Great Dane "Satan," most appropriately named, as he rightly or wrongly enjoyed the reputation of being the [Pg 321]most savage member of the canine race ever benched at shows. I remember him as a very large, I think, dark Harlequin-coloured specimen of the breed, always muzzled, even on the bench, and it usually required two, and sometimes four, keepers to deal with him, and on one occasion, I think it was a show at Bristol Drill Hall, many years since, when he was being removed from the benches to be sent back to his owner, he, although still muzzled, overpowered his attendants, and worried and tore most of the clothes from one of them, well known to exhibitors as "Teddy Morgan," who gave me a blood-curdling account of his experiences of the affair. He said he fully thought "Satan" would have killed him then and there, and spoke of the nonchalant and airy manner in which his owner treated the matter, when he, afterwards recounted his perils and troubles to him, with all the embellishments of which he was capable, adding, "Mr. Adcock, he guv me a 'quid' (20 s.) sir, and said he were glad it were me, and not some raw cove what didn't understand [Pg 322]dogs!"


Anecdotes About Dogs, Personal and Selected

I have generally found persons, whether doggy or not, interested in anecdotes about dogs, particularly those displaying their intelligence, fidelity and courage. Some of the following are within my own knowledge, all are related as being believed to be true. I have selected those I fancied might be interesting out of a great many I have collected, but some of them may have appeared elsewhere.

We were telling of the extraordinary ways dogs will find their way home, alone, when a farmer in my district named Churchill said, "Yes, you see that Sheep dog," pointing to a large merle, rather old-fashioned type of Collie, called by his master "Ben." "Well," he said, "I was down at my daughter's in the lower part of Somersetshire, and had taken Ben there with me, by rail, and while we were all in the garden in the evening, I went into the house for something or other, and Ben missed me. He at once jumped the fence and set off on the return journey just as darkness was coming on, but he could not have wasted much time about it, as my servants told me he was back at my farm, more than forty miles distant, [Pg 323]very early the next morning, and they kept looking out for me, as we were generally not far away from each other. I had that dog from a puppy, and I knew he had never seen that road before, it was dark soon after he started, yet he must have travelled at the rate of five or six miles an hour all the way, and at a time when there would be few people or conveyances about to help him."

I had a very similar experience with a dog of another breed. I had been travelling in the island of Skye, and bought from a game-keeper at a romantic looking village called Uig, a young dog, which he called a Short-Haired Skye Terrier, but which was, really, what is now known as a Scottish, or Aberdeen Terrier, called by the Gaelic name of "Fraochen," which I believe means heather, and was very appropriate in his case, for he was just that sort of brindle grizzled colour, that if he was in the heather (as I noticed many times while he was with me,) you could hardly distinguish him from it.

After going about with us to various places, I brought him to my mother's house at Clifton in Gloucestershire, where I was making a short stay, and the following day I went out for a drive over the Durdham Downs, through Westbury, Henbury, etc., to a village, about ten or twelve miles from Clifton, and (as I have since thought very foolishly,) I allowed, "Fraochen," to follow the trap, and several times during the journey, there I noticed him running by the side, or in front, but when we had accomplished the journey and were about to return by a different route, I missed him, and it then struck me, what a fool I had been, to take out a young [Pg 324]dog, not only along a strange road, but in a country which he had never before seen, and quite a contrast to his native home in Skye. I of course gave him up as lost, which I much regretted, as his cool, independent manner and quaint, jaunty air had greatly endeared him to me, during the time we had been acquainted. However, when I returned to Clifton, I had to pass one place, near where some of the houses of the Clifton college masters now stand, where four roads meet, by one of which I must come to reach my mother's house. On the space in the centre, and commanding a view of these four, sat "Fraochen," waiting our approach. How he managed to get over the ten or twelve miles of quite unknown country, (as I found that he, like ourselves, came back by a different route from the one we went by,) I do not know, but I asked several travellers we met, if they had noticed a dog coming towards them along the road, and most of them answered they did, and that he was "running like steam," or he "wasn't wasting much time about it," etc.

He lived with me until his death from old age, many years afterwards but was quite a character in many ways. One of his peculiarities was, if he was out with my wife, with whom he was a prime favourite, without me, he considered her under his special protection, no matter how many or how large any of the other dogs out at same time might be, and if he was on, ever so far in front, and he met any rough-looking or suspicious character of the tramp species, he would immediately return and walk close to [Pg 325]my wife's side, so as to come between her and the objectionable person, and continue that position so long as he was anywhere near.

We were talking of the speed of Greyhounds, which has been said to be equal to that of the fleetest horse, and a singular circumstance which occurred at Doncaster, in Yorkshire, sometime since, proved that it was not much inferior. A mare cantering over the Doncaster course, her competitor having been withdrawn, was joined by a Greyhound bitch, when she had proceeded about a mile, she seemed determined to race with the mare, which the jockey on the latter humoured, and gradually increased his pace, until at the distance, they put themselves at their full speed. The mare beat her antagonist only by a short head.

The race horse is perhaps from his superior strength and length of stride, generally able to outrun the Greyhound on level ground, but the latter would have the pull over him in a hilly country, or over ground at all rough or uneven.

The Greyhound is said to be deficient in attachment to his master and in general intelligence. There is some truth in the imputation, but he has, in fact, far less even than the hound, the opportunity of forming individual attachments and no other exercise of the mind is required of him, than to follow the game which starts up before him and catch it, if he can. If, however, he is closely watched, he will be found to have all the intellect his situation requires.

[Pg 326]In illustration of this, I remember reading in a very old doggy book, an account of two greyhounds said to be as arrant thieves as ever lived. They would now and then steal into the cooking house, belonging to the kennels, lift up the boiler lid with their noses or paws, and if any portion of the joints or pieces of meat rose above the water, suddenly seize them and before there was time for them to suffer much from the heat, fling it out on the stone floor and eat it at their leisure, when it had grown cold. In order to prevent this, the top of the boiler was secured by an iron rod, passing under its handle and tied to the handle of the boiler on each side; and not many days passed before they found out they could gnaw the cords around it, displace the rod and fish out the meat as before. Small chains were then substituted for the cords and the meat was cooked in safety for nearly a week, when they found that by rearing on their hind legs and applying their united strength towards the upper part of the boiler, they could lift it off the fire and roll it on the floor, so getting at the soup or broth, although the meat was not in their reach. The keeper who looked after them expressed himself heartily glad when they were gone, for he said he was often afraid to go into the kennel, wondering what they would be up to next, and felt sure they were demons, and not dogs at all.

A singular story is told of King Richard II. of England, and a dog of this breed. It is given in the quaint language of Froissart. "A Greyhound called Mithe, who always wayted upon ye Kynge, and wolde know no man els. For when so ever ye Kynge did ryde, [Pg 327]he that kept ye Greyhounde dyd lette hym lose, and he wolde streyht runne to ye Kynge and faun uppon hym and leape with his fore fete upon ye shoulders of ye Kynge. It came to passe that onne daye as ye Kynge and ye Erle of Darbye talked togyther in ye yarde of ye Courte ye Greyhounde who was wonte to leape uppon ye Kynge, left ye Kynge and came to ye Erle of Darbye, Duke of Lancastre, and made to hym the same friendlye continuance, and chere as he was wonte to do to ye Kynge. The Duke, who knew not ye dogge, nor whence he came, demanded of ye Kynge what ye Greyhounde wolde do. Cousin, quoth ye Kynge, it is a great good token to you, but an evyl and a gruesome signe to me. How know ye that, quod ye Duke. I know it fulle wele, quod ye Kynge. Ye Greyhounde acknowledgethe and acceptethe you, here this daye as ye ryteful Kynge of Englande, as ye shal be, without doubte, and I shal be streyghtwaye deposed; the Greyhounde hathe thys knowledge, naturally, there fore take hym to you, he wil followe you and forsake me. Ye Duke wel understoode those wordes and cheryshed ye Greyhounde, who wolde never after followe Kynge Richarde, but continued to follow at all tymes ye Duke of Lancastre."

The owner of the dog an English Water Spaniel, tells the following anecdote, which is stated to be absolutely true: "I was once on the seacoast, when a small, ill-made and leaky fishing boat was cast on shore, on a dangerous reef of rocks. Three men and a boy of ten years, constituted the crew, the men swam to land, but were so bruised and knocked about against the rocks that they were unable to render any assistance to the [Pg 328]poor boy, and no one was found to venture out to help him. I heard the noise and went to the spot with my dog, I spoke to him and in he went, more like a seal or other marine animal, than a dog, and after several vain attempts succeeded in mounting the wreck and laid hold of the boy's clothes, who screamed and clung to the ropes, etc., being much frightened at being thus dragged into the water, as the waves were dashing over the rocks. In the excitement and anxiety of the moment I thought the dog had missed his hold, and stripped off most of my clothes to render what assistance I could. I was just in the act of springing in, having selected the time when the receding waves gave the best chance, when I caught sight of old Bagsman, as my dog was called, with the struggling boy, whose head was uppermost. I rushed to where they must land and received both as they reached the shore.

Some time after I was out with the same dog, wild fowl shooting. We had both been hard at work and I left him behind me, while I went to a neighbouring town to get a supply of gunpowder. A man in a drunken frolic had pushed off in a boat with a girl in it, the tide running out, carried the boat quickly away, and the man being unable to swim, became frightened and jumped overboard. Bagsman was near the spot, heard the splash, jumped in, swam to the man, caught hold of him and brought him twenty or thirty yards towards shore, when the drunken fellow clasped the dog tightly round the body, and they both went down together. The girl was saved by a boat going to her assistance. The body [Pg 329]of the man was recovered about an hour afterward with that of the dog, tightly clasped in his arms, thus dragging both to the bottom."

The sagacity of the Poodle is well known, and their aptitude to learn tricks. Mr. Wilkie, of Ladiethorn, in Northumberland, had one he had instructed to go through all the apparent agonies of death. He would fall on his side, stretch himself out and move his hind legs as if he were in great pain; he would next simulate the convulsive throbs of departing life, and then stretch out his limbs, and thus seem as if he had expired; in this position he would remain motionless, until he heard his master's command to rise.

Jesse, in his "Gleanings in Natural History," gives another illustration of the intelligence of this breed. A friend of his had one that was not always under proper command. To keep him in better order he purchased a small whip, with which he, once or twice, corrected him during a walk. On his return the whip was put on a table in the hall, but the next morning it was missing. Soon afterwards it was found concealed in an outhouse, and again used in correcting the dog. Once more it would have been lost, but on a strict watch being kept upon the suspected dog, he was seen to take it away from the hall table in order to once more hide it away.

There are endless stories told of the life saving qualities of Newfoundland dogs. I will here mention two of them. A German was travelling one evening on foot through the Dyke country in Holland, accompanied by a large specimen of this breed, [Pg 330]walking on a high bank which formed one side of a dyke, his foot slipped and he was precipitated into the water, and being unable to swim soon lost his senses. When he recovered consciousness, he found himself in a cottage on the other side of the dyke, surrounded by peasants, who had been using the means for the recovery of drowned persons. The account given him by one of them was, that returning home from work he observed, some distance off, a large dog in the water, swimming and dragging, and sometimes pushing along something that he seemed to have great difficulty in supporting, but which he at length succeeded in getting into a small creek on the opposite side. When the animal had pulled what he had hitherto supported, as far out of the water as he was able, the peasant was able to discover that it was the body of a man, whose face and hands the dog was industriously licking. He hastened to a bridge across the dyke, and having obtained assistance, the body was conveyed to a neighbouring house, where proper means soon restored the drowning man to life. Two very considerable bruises, with the marks of teeth, appeared one on his shoulder and the other on his poll, hence it was presumed the faithful beast had first seized his master by the shoulder and swam with him in this manner for sometime, but that his sagacity had prompted him to quit this hold and to shift it to the nape of the neck, by which he had been enabled to support the head out of the water and in this way he had conveyed him, nearly a quarter of a mile, before he had brought him to the creek where the banks were low and accessible.

[Pg 331]Another story runs as follows: A vessel was driven on the beach at Lydd in Kent. The surf was rolling furiously. Eight poor fellows were crying for help, but no boat could be got off for their assistance. At length a gentleman came down to the beach accompanied by a fine Newfoundland dog, he directed the attention of the animal to the vessel and put a short stick into his mouth. The intelligent and courageous fellow at once understood his meaning, sprang into the sea, and fought his way through the waves. He could not, however, on account of the high seas running, get close enough to the vessel to deliver that with which he was charged, but the crew understood what was meant, made fast a rope to another piece of wood and threw it towards him. The noble beast dropped his own piece of wood, and seized that which had been cast to him, and then, with a degree of strength and determination scarcely credible, for he was again and again lost sight of in the roaring sea, he dragged it through the surge and delivered it to his master. A line of communication was thus formed, and every man on board was rescued.

Referring to some of the breeds peculiar to northern climes the following is told: A man named Chabert had a beautiful Siberian dog, who would draw him in a light carriage twenty miles a day. He asked £200 for him, and sold him for nearly that amount, for he was a most beautiful specimen of his breed, and as docile as he was beautiful. Between the sale and the delivery, the dog had an accident and broke his leg. Chabert, to whom the [Pg 332]money was an object of immense importance, was in despair. He took the dog at night to a leading veterinary surgeon. He formally introduced them to each other, he talked to the dog, pointed to his leg, limped round the room, then requested the surgeon to apply some bandages, etc., round the leg and then seemed to walk sound and well, he patted the dog on the head, who was looking alternately at him and the surgeon, desired the surgeon to pat him and offer him his hand to lick, and then holding up his finger to the dog and gently shaking his head, quitted the room and the house. The dog immediately laid himself down, and submitted to a reduction of the fracture and the bandaging of the limb, without a motion, except once or twice, licking the hand of the operator. He was quite docile, and remained in a manner motionless, day after day, until at the expiration of a month, the limb was sound. Not a trace of the fracture was to be detected and the purchaser knew nothing of it.

Many years ago, the following scene took place in a street adjoining Hanover Square. It was an exhibition of a highly interesting character, worthy to be recorded. The then editor of the "Lancet" having heard that a French gentleman, Mr. Leonard, who had for some time been engaged in instructing two dogs in various performances, that required the exercise, not merely of the natural instincts of the animals and the power of imitation, but of a higher intellect and degrees of reflection and judgment far greater than is commonly developed in dogs, was [Pg 333]then residing in London, obtained an introduction, and was obligingly favoured by Mr. Leonard, with an appointment to witness the performance of his extraordinary pupils, and he thus describes the interview:

Two fine dogs of the Spanish breed were introduced by Mr. Leonard, with the customary French politeness, the largest by the name of Philax, the other as Brac (or Spot), the former had been in training three, the latter two years. They were in vigourous health, and having bowed gracefully, took their seats on the hearth rug side by side. Mr. Leonard then gave a lively description of the means he had employed to develop the brain power of these animals, how from being fond of the chase and anxious to possess the best trained dogs, he had employed the usual course of training, how the conviction had been impressed on his mind, that by gentle usage and steady perseverance in making the animal repeat over and over again, what was wanted, not only would he be capable of performing the act required, but the part of the brain which was brought into mental activity by the effort, would become more fully developed and a permanent increase of power obtained.

After this introduction, Mr. Leonard spoke to his dogs in French in his usual tone, ordering one to walk, the other to lie down, to run, gallop, halt, crouch, etc., which they did as promptly and correctly as the most docile children. Then he put them through the usual exercises of the circus rings, which they performed as well as the best trained ponies at any high class circus. He then placed [Pg 334]six cards of different colours on the floor, and sitting with his back to the dogs, directed one to pick up the blue card, and the other the white one, etc., etc., varying his orders rapidly, and speaking in such a manner that unless the dogs had a perfect knowledge of the words used, they could not have carried out his commands. For example, he said, "Philax, take the red card and give it to Brac," and "Brac, take the white card and give it to Philax." The dogs instantly did this and exchanged cards with each other. He then said, "Philax, put your card on the green," and "Brac, put yours on the blue," and this was immediately done. Pieces of bread and meat were placed on the floor, also figured cards and varied directions and instructions were given to the dogs, so as severely to test their memories, obedience and intelligence. They brought the bread, meat, or cards, as commanded, but did not attempt to eat any of the two former, unless ordered to do so. Philax was then desired to fetch a piece of meat and give it to Brac, and then Brac was told to give it back to Philax, who was to return it to its place. Philax was next told he might bring a piece of bread and eat it, but before he had time to swallow it, his master forbade him and desired him to show he had obeyed orders, and the dog instantly protruded the crust between his lips. While some of these feats were being performed, Mr. Leonard loudly cracked a whip occasionally, to prove that the animals were so completely under discipline that they would give no heed to any noises or interruptions.

After many other performances Mr. Leonard invited [Pg 335]Mr. Blanc, a gentleman present, to play a game of dominoes with one of his dogs, which he consented to do. The younger dog, Brac, seated himself on a chair at the table and Messrs. Leonard and Blanc seated themselves opposite. Six dominoes were placed on their edges, in the usual way, before the dog and the same number before Mr. Blanc. The dog having amongst its numbers a double number, took it up in its mouth and dropped it in the centre of the table, Mr. Blanc added a single number to one side of it, the dog at once played another correctly, and so on, till all the pieces were used up. A fresh lot of six dominoes were then served out to each competitor and Mr. Blanc (just to test the dog) intentionally put a wrong number in the course of the game. The dog looked surprised and excited, stared hard at Mr. Blanc, growled, and finally barked loudly. Finding no notice taken of his remonstrances, he then pushed away the wrong domino, with his nose, and put a right number, from amongst his own, in its place. Mr. Blanc afterwards continued the play correctly and the game was won by the dog. Not the slightest hint or information appeared to be given by Mr. Leonard to the dog. This method of playing a game of dominoes must have been entirely the result of his individual observation and judgment. The performance was strictly private throughout, the owner of the dogs was a gentleman of independent fortune, and had taken up the instruction of his dogs merely as a curious and amusing investigation as to the cultivated intelligence of animals.

Plutarch relates that, at the Theatre of Marcellus, [Pg 336]a dog was exhibited before the Emperor Vespasian so well taught, as to perform the figures and steps of every (then) known kind of dance. He afterwards feigned illness in a most singular manner, so as to strike the spectators with astonishment. He first exhibited various symptoms of pain, then fell down as if dead, afterwards seemed to revive, gradually, as if waking from a profound sleep and then frisked and sported about, giving meanwhile various demonstrations of joy and delight.

It is surprising the antipathy which sometimes exists between inmates of the same kennels, I have had several instances of it in the course of a long experience with most breeds. I remember some years ago I had a Skye Terrier bitch, called "Wasp," and a Pepper Dandie bitch, known as "Hornet," which we generally characterised as "The Insects," and very stinging insects they were, if they happened to meet. One day when I was driving in the dog cart to the railway station, at that time about a six-mile drive to the nearest town to where I was living, and as we were going along, I thought I heard a humming sound, and said to my kennelman who was with me, "Jump down, Hale, I believe those Insects are at it!" and I was right. They had eaten through the sides of their baskets, and got at each other, through the holes, and were fairly enjoying themselves on the journey. We managed to keep them apart the rest of the way to the show they were bound for. I cannot recall what the place was, but I well remember that "Hornet," who although quite a little creature, was a perfect [Pg 337]demon with others of her own race, though sweet tempered, and most engaging with human beings, broke three chains I bought there, two of them new ones, in order to get again at "Wasp," before they left the show to return home. Their portraits appear in one of my pictures with pony, my children and [Pg 338]dogs, and are very like them.


Anecdotes About Dogs (Continued)

In these days, when so much has been attempted and done, in connection with expeditions to the Arctic regions, the following account by the late Captain Parry, R. N. in the Journal of his second voyage, may be interesting as giving a lively and accurate description of the manner in which Esquimaux Dogs are managed in the sleighing operations in those inclement climes.

"When drawing a sledge," says he, "the dogs have a simple harness of reindeer or seal skin, going round the neck of one bight and another for each of the fore legs, with a single thong leading over the back, and attached to the sledge, as a trace.

"Though they appear, at first sight, to be huddled together without any regard to regularity, there is, in fact, considerable attention paid to their arrangement, particularly in the selection of a dog of peculiar spirit and sagacity, who is allowed by a longer trace, to precede all the rest, as Leader, and to whom, in turning to the right or left, the driver usually addresses himself.

"This choice is made without regard to age or sex, [Pg 339]and the rest of the dogs take precedency according to their training or sagacity, the least effective being put nearest the sledge.

"The leader is, usually, from eighteen to twenty feet from the fore part of the sledge and the hindmost dog about half that distance, so that, when ten or twelve are running together several are nearly abreast of each other.

"The driver sits quite low on the front part of the sledge, with his feet overhanging the snow on one side, and having in his hand a whip, of which the handle is plaited a little way down to stiffen it, and give it a spring, on which much of its use depends, and that which composes the lash is chewed by the women to make it flexible in frosty weather.

"The men acquire, from their youth, considerable expertness in the use of this whip. The lash is left to trail along the ground by the side of the sledge, and with it they can inflict a very severe blow upon any one of the dogs at pleasure.

"Though the dogs are kept in training solely and entirely by the fear of the whip, and, indeed without it would soon have their own way, its immediate effect is always detrimental to the draught of the sledge, for not only does the individual that is struck draw back and slacken his pace, but generally turns upon his next neighbour, and this passing on to the next occasions a general divergency, accompanied by the usual yelping and showing of teeth. The dogs then come together again by degrees, and the pace of the sledge is quickened; but even [Pg 340]at the best of times, by this rude mode of draught, (and be it remembered the only one, in these inclement parts of the world,) the traces of one-third of the dogs form an angle of thirty or forty degrees on each side of the direction in which the sledge is advancing.

"Another great inconvenience attending the Esquimaux method of putting dogs to, besides that of not employing their strength to the best advantage, is the constant entanglement of the traces by the dogs repeatedly doubling under from side to side to avoid the whip, so that, after running a few miles, the traces always require to be taken off and cleared.

"In directing the sledge, the whip plays no very essential part, the driver for this purpose using certain words, as the carters do with us, to make the dogs turn more to the right or left. To these, a good leader attends with admirable precision, especially if his own name be repeated, at the same time looking behind over his shoulder with great earnestness, as if listening to the directions of the driver.

"On a beaten track, or where even a single foot, or sledge mark is visible, or occasionally discernible, there is not the slightest trouble in guiding the dogs; for even in the darkest night, and in the heaviest snow drifts, there is little or no danger of them losing their road, the leader keeping his nose near the ground, and directing the rest with wonderful sagacity.

"Where, however, there is no beaten track, the best driver amongst them, makes a terribly circuitous course, as all the Esquimaux roads plainly show; these [Pg 341]generally occupying an extent of six miles, when with a horse and sledge the journey would scarcely have amounted to five!

"On rough ground, as on hummocks of ice, the sledge would be frequently overturned, or altogether stopped, if the driver did not repeatedly get off and by lifting or drawing it on one side, steer clear of those accidents. At all times, indeed, except on a smooth and well made road, he is pretty constantly employed, thus, with his feet, which, together with his never ceasing vociferations and frequent use of the whip, renders the driving of one of these vehicles by no means an easy or a pleasant task.

"When the driver wishes to stop the sledge, he calls out 'Wo, woa,' exactly as our carters do, but the attention paid to this command depends altogether on his ability to enforce it. If the weight is small and the journey homeward, the dogs are not to be thus delayed, the driver is obliged therefore to dig his heels into the snow, to obstruct their progress, and having thus succeeded in stopping them, he stands up with one leg before the foremost cross-piece of the sledge, till by means of gently laying his whip over each dog's head, he has made them all lie down. Even then, he takes care not to quit his position; so that, should the dogs set off, he is thrown upon the sledge instead of being left behind by them.

"With heavy loads, the dogs draw best with one of their own people, especially a woman, walking a little way ahead, and in this case they are sometimes enticed to mend their pace by holding a mitten to the mouth [Pg 342]and then making the motion of cutting it with a knife and throwing it on the snow, when the dogs, mistaking it for meat, hasten forward to pick it up. The women also entice them from the huts in a similar manner. The rate at which they travel depends of course on the weight they have to draw and the roads on which the journey is performed.

"When the latter is level and very hard and smooth constituting in other parts of North America what is called 'good sleighing,' six or seven dogs will draw from eight to ten hundredweight at the rate of seven or eight miles an hour, for several hours together, and will easily, under these circumstances, perform a journey of from fifty to sixty miles a day. On untrodden snow, five and twenty, or thirty miles would be a good journey in a day.

"The same number of well-fed dogs with five or six hundredweight behind them, that of the sledge included, are almost unmanageable, and will, on a smooth road, run any way they please at the rate of ten miles an hour. The work performed, however, by a greater number of dogs is, by no means, in proportion to this, owing to the imperfect mode already described of utilising the strength of these sturdy creatures and to the more frequent snarling and fighting occasioned by the increase in numbers of the draught team or teams."

I have no doubt all owners of kennels have noticed the sudden antipathies taken by dogs sometimes to their own comrades and companions. I remember several instances, amongst my dogs; one [Pg 343]was between two remarkably quiet and unassuming Bull Bitches, Louisa and Lucretia, who lived together in a roomy kennel for a long time, but one night there was such a great noise amongst all the dogs that I felt sure there must be something serious going on, so I got up and dressed sufficiently to go down, and found that although the barking and yelling was being done by the Sheep Dogs, Terriers, etc., the "business" lay entirely between the two ladies mentioned, who were simply locked together, and I had a nasty job to get and keep them apart, as it really wants two persons to deal with two determined "boxers," but at last, I got one outside, and the other inside the loose box, and then managed all right.

Another case I had was the two well-known champions, Rob Roy and Laird, two of the best Dandies going at the time they were about. Neither of them had any idea what fear was, but each hated the other with the most deadly hatred, and even to hear the bark of the one, would set the other screaming to get at him, and yet they were both docile with people, and mostly with other dogs, but Laird had a particular dislike to any dog, running in front of a vehicle and barking at the horse, and this aversion was the cause of his sudden death. Cedar Lodge, Downend, Glo., where I then lived, was the corner of one of four roads, with a large lawn on the two front sides of it, and it was Laird's delight to sit on the top of a low wall, there, and watch the passers by; one morning, early, he was thus engaged, when a crank axle cart came rumbling [Pg 344]along, accompanied by a good-sized dog, barking in front of the horse; this was too much for Laird, who sprang from the wall into the road and pinned the dog, and before the man could pull up his horse, the wheels of the cart had gone over the fighting dogs in the road with fatal effects on one of the combatants, as Laird, without a whimper, though he must have been seriously injured, walked slowly into the house, lay down in his own box, and died then and there!

Another case of sudden antipathy I remember was between two Skye Bitches of mine, Laura and Lucy (winners of some fifty prizes at all the best shows, while they were about), I bought, on the dispersal of Mrs. Jacobson's kennel, after her lamented death. She was a genuine fancier, and sportswoman, and all her dogs were sure to be "workers," and thoroughly game. One of them was drop-eared, and the other prick-eared, and for a long time they were the best of friends, and not only lived together in one kennel, but used to go to shows often considerable distances, such as Edinburgh, Darlington, and other places in a long low wicker basket, which just suited them without any partition or division in it. But one day they had some difference of opinion, the cause of which I do not know, but there were "ructions," and they never could be trusted together again without the certainty of "war to the knife."

James Hogg, well known as the Ettrick shepherd, declares in his "Shepherd's Calendar" that dogs know what is said on subjects in which they are interested. [Pg 345]A farmer had a dog that for three or four years in the latter part of his life, met him at the foot of his farm, about a mile and a half from his house, on his way home. If he was away half a day, a week, or a fortnight, it was all the same, she met him at that spot, there was never an instance known of her going to meet him, on a wrong day, and she could only know when he was coming back, by hearing it mentioned in the family.

I have had many dogs who knew Sunday perfectly well, whether by hearing the church bells, or other indications of the day, I do not know, but although wild to go if they saw me going out at any other time, on that day, they would take no notice nor make any attempt to follow me.

In the same way I have had many thin-coated dogs such as Bull and English Terriers, Smooth Toys and Pugs, who would not go out willingly in wet weather, but Sheep Dogs, Dalmatians, Deerhounds, Dandies, Scottish, Skyes and Wirehaired Fox Terriers, take no notice of it, beyond occasionally shaking themselves, to get rid of some of the water.

Another of Hogg's tales is as follows: "One of my Sheep dogs, named Hector, was very keen in picking up what was said before him." One day Hogg said to his mother, "I am going to Bowerhope to-morrow for a fortnight, but I will not take Hector with me, for he is constantly quarrelling with the rest of the dogs." Hector was present and must have overheard the conversation, as next morning he was missing, and when Hogg reached Bowerhope, Hector [Pg 346]was sitting on a hillock, waiting his arrival, he had swum across a flooded river to reach the spot.

Retrievers have the reputation, either rightly or wrongly, of being quarrelsome with other dogs, and so are more often kept as guards or for sporting work, than as companions or pets, but the following are recorded of their sagacity. The inmates of a house in High street in a well-known city were aroused by the loud barking of a dog on the premises. He was a large Black Retriever, Jack, much attached to his master and family. The cause of alarm was soon seen to be a fire raging furiously next door, the smoke from which had aroused the dog. In a short time the house was emptied, all the inmates escaping before it caught fire, which appeared inevitable. Jack was often used to be left in charge of the house when the family were temporarily absent, and although not tied up, no persuasion or even coaxing would induce him to desert his post, so much so that it was four hours after he had given the first alarm of fire, that he allowed one of the family to persuade him to leave the building, which was then almost "gutted." In a marvellous manner, he had escaped injury from the fire, or falling walls, rafters, etc., but the shock to the system from the inhalation of smoke, etc., was so severe, that it caused inflammation of the lungs, and he died the next day, after suffering with coughing, etc., really a martyr to what he looked upon as his duty, and though occasionally [Pg 347]taking a little water, refusing all food.


Anecdotes About Dogs (Continued)

Another instance of sagacity occurred at Bristol, when a nursemaid wheeling a perambulator with a baby in it, down Spring Hill, which those of my readers who know the locality, will remember, is one of the steepest in that hilly part of the country, was seized with a fit, and loosened her hold. In an instant the little vehicle, with its living occupant, was darting down towards a flight of steps in the hill and apparently to certain destruction. Just before its arrival at the steps, the leathern apron of the perambulator was seized by a Retriever dog, who happened to witness the occurrence, and saw the danger of it, the vehicle was stopped and the child saved from an untimely death.

The natural love of fun and inclination for being taught almost anything of the Irish Water Spaniel is well known, so that I think the following account by Mr. Lindhoe, R.E., at one time a keen fancier and exhibitor, of his Rake and Blaeney, may be interesting to my readers.

He writes: "Rake is a very clever dog and can be taught almost any trick. He is very tender-mouthed and can dive and bring up an egg, unbroken, [Pg 348]from a depth of twelve feet or more. It is very amusing also to see him take sixpence out of a bucket of water, as he sometimes has his head under nearly two minutes before picking it up. I taught him a very clever trick which used to cause much amusement at the shows. Whenever he was disturbed by any one poking at him with a stick to make him rouse up and show himself, he would rise gently, put his fore paws on the shoulders of the disturber of his rest, and before it was guessed what idea he had in view, seize and take off the man's hat and deposit it in the pan of water, or on the straw in his pen. Blaeney also is wonderfully clever, and a splendid hand at sport on land or in water. After a game of croquet is finished, she invariably brings in the hoops, mallets, balls, etc., and places them in their proper box in the hall. Once when I was engaged in separating four large Mastiffs who were fighting, she came to my rescue, and considering the best way of rendering assistance, seized the most stubborn of the combatants by the tail and held on till the fight was stopped. She would retrieve very long distances and often surprised people by seizing some stick or other article, which had been put down on purpose for her to fetch, and they had unknowingly picked up. I have frequently known both these dogs jump into the water from a distance of nearly thirty feet."

I remember, on a recent occasion, when I had promised to judge at one of our largest London shows, having the impression the show opened on the Tuesday, I went up on the Monday, and did not discover my mistake until I got to the hotel I usually patronised for any [Pg 349]show in that part of the metropolis, but as I have always any amount of places and people to see, I own I did not trouble about the matter, and had nearly forgotten it until at the show I met a gentleman also hailing from the same part of England and a well-known light in the Beagle world, who said: "I did an unusual thing this time, came up a day too soon, and I shall get a pretty 'roasting' over it." I replied: "I also did the same for the first time, in a long experience of Dog shows, but do not expect any 'roasting.'" He said, "Oh, but my wife will know it, if no one else does, and she will never forget it." I answered, "Neither my wife, nor any one else, will know it, from me, as I don't believe (any more than the late Mr. Sam Weller) in telling matters against myself." But as I see the gentleman referred to has followed the example of the late Mr. Silas Wegg (in Our Mutual Friend) and "dropped into poetry," in the pages of a well known fancier's paper, it may amuse some of our mutual friends if I quote the lines here:


Two L's went up, a Lordly Lane.
To visit Cruft, his Show
And scorning both the wind, and rain,
Were early, "on the go."
They both hail from the Sunny West,
And, both, their locks, are grey,
But spite of this, may I be blessed,
They, both, mistook the day!
The one, a Judge, of well-known fame,
But not, a Judge, of days,
The other, but, a Judge of Game,
In all its gamey ways.
[Pg 350]
So eager were they for the fray,
To be in time, for Sport,
They both arrived, upon the day,
The day, before, they ought!

Many of the older exhibitors will remember the late Mr. I. H. Murchison, F. R. G. S., whose large and successful kennel of St. Bernards, Dandies, and Fox Terriers, was for so many years in the front rank at all the leading shows? As I was much mixed up in the two last named varieties, I used constantly to be in his company, and that of his son, also a keen and capable fancier. I remember on one occasion meeting him at a show, I forget where it was, now, I think in the London district, but amongst the dogs he had there was a young and very promising Fox Terrier, called "Cracknel," with which he had carried all before him, and he showed me a letter he had received from a gentleman then, as now, in the front rank of Fox Terrier breeders, and exhibitors, offering him £270 for the dog, and he said, since receipt of the letter, the writer had offered to make it "even money" (£300), at that time, quite a fancy price for a specimen of that breed. He said, "What would you advise me to do about it?" I said, "Why take it, without hesitation, it is a tempting price, the life of all dogs is uncertain, and show dogs, especially, and it will do your kennel more good to have sold a dog from it, at such a figure, than anything you can gain, in any other way." However, he refused the offer, and Cracknel not long afterwards rushed into a hayfield after a rabbit, or rat, and so cut himself [Pg 351]with a scythe hidden in the long grass that he had to be sewn up and was long in the veterinary surgeon's care and was never in the front rank again!

I have known many such cases of good offers being refused to the prejudice of the dog's owners. I remember a well-known lady exhibitor coming up to me at a show with a telegram she had just received from America, offering her £150 for a prize winning pug she had, and asking my advice. I strongly advised her to take it, as it was far more than the market value of the dog, but, in the end, she sent back a refusal. Other dogs came forward, and put her dog into the rear rank, and she afterwards sold it for, I think, about £20.

Mr. Edwin Nichols, of whom I have spoken in relation to several large breeds, was one of the first men to get large prices for his dogs, as it must be quite twenty years or more since he received so he told me, £900 for two dogs, one of them being the well known Mastiff, "Turk," one of the grandest specimens of his day, and the other a high class Bloodhound.

And to show what a fine judge he was as to the strains to breed, I remember an instance he gave me from his extensive experience. He met a friend one day to whom he had sold a Bloodhound bitch puppy, who said, "Mr. Nichols, I wish you would take back that puppy I had from you, it is always doing mischief in the garden, etc., and I wish to get rid of it." Mr. Nichols said, "I really don't want it, I have a lot of dogs of all ages, and I am more a seller than a buyer at [Pg 352]present." To make a long story short, he eventually took back the young bitch for £10, afterward mating her to one of his best dogs, and he told me that he sold that litter, which produced two if not three champions, for over one thousand pounds. I say, that a man who could do such a thing, proved himself a consummate judge, and I have not the slightest doubt of the truth of the story, and, when he named the dogs in the litter to me, I knew what grand specimens of the breed they [Pg 353]were.


Anecdotes About Dogs (Continued)

I have mentioned the "Warwick Shows" of days gone by, and what charming re-unions they were. I think the incident which follows must have been at the first of them, for although I had known Mr. Nichols by sight and name, I did not think I was known to him. I remember I had reached Warwick in the afternoon, engaged a bed at the Globe Hotel (where they told me mine was a double bedded room, and I stipulated that the other bed should not be occupied without my consent), and went to the show, and meeting with many friends there, it was late when I got back. I then found Mr. Nichols waiting to see who I was, as it seemed the other bed in my room was the only one unoccupied in the town. I had not left my name, and the hotel people's description did not enlighten him, but he said, "Whoever it is, if he knows anything about dogs, or doggy men, he will know me!" and so it proved. We had, as always afterwards whenever we met, a long talk on subjects congenial to us both, and he secured the "last bed of Warwick!"

Amongst the many weaknesses to which I plead [Pg 354]guilty, is a devoted admiration of the works of the late Charles Dickens, some of which came out in their green coloured numbers, while I was a schoolboy, and it was the delight of my brothers and self, to sit and listen to them being read out to us by our dear mother, who had a gift in that direction. I hope my readers will pardon my giving here, a very short doggy story, from Pickwick Papers, in the pithy, disjointed sentences of "Mr. Alfred Jingle," as I wish to give something, however slight, about nearly every breed, and the anecdotes about Pointers are not very numerous. "Ah! you should keep dogs, fine animals, sagacious creatures. Dog of my own once, Pointer, surprising instinct, out shooting one day, entering enclosure, whistled, dog stopped, whistled again, Ponto! no go; stock still, called him, 'Ponto, Ponto,' no go, stock still, wouldn't move, dog transfixed, staring at a board, looked up, saw an inscription, 'Gamekeeper has orders to shoot all dogs found in this enclosure,' wouldn't pass it, wonderful dog, valuable dog that, very. 'Singular circumstance that,' said Mr. Pickwick, 'Will you allow me to make a note of it?' 'Certainly, sir, certainly, hundred more anecdotes of the same animal.'"

At the risk of its being considered "a chestnut," I will here recount the story of the dogs of Oldacre, so well told by the late William Howitt, in his "Boys' Country Book" (one of the prime favourites of my boyhood). "This story brings to my recollection, those two noble dogs at Oldacre, two grand Setters that Squire Mills used always to have at his heels, [Pg 355]whether it was shooting season or not, just one the picture of the other, as like as pin to pin or pear to pear!

Well, Squire Mills had an estate in Oxfordshire, a hundred miles off at least; and there he used to go twice a year to receive his rents, and he never went, while he had those dogs, without taking one of them with him. When the dog was tired he let him go up into his chaise and ride, and when he was tired of riding, the dog leaped out and jogged along again till he was tired again.

Squire Mills always stopped at the Mitre Inn at Oxford, and it so happened, on one occasion, that as his Setter followed him up the stable yard, a great mastiff, which was chained to a kennel, suddenly rushed out, seized on the Setter, and before he could be beaten off, had very severely worried him. Squire Mills was very angry, and the innkeeper made many apologies, but that did not cure the dog's wounds, and the Squire, who said he would rather have given five pounds than the dog had been so used, set off homeward in no very good humour.

The dog, which seemed very much hurt, lay whining and appearing very uneasy, in the bottom of the chaise, all the way home, and when they got there the keeper was ordered to pay every attention to him, and do all that he could for him. But the dog lay in his kennel for more than a week, and seemed in a very poor way, indeed. He would not eat, and the keeper was very doubtful what would be the upshot of it, when, one morning he was very much surprised to find, both he [Pg 356]and his fellow dog missing.

All inquiries were made, but nothing could be heard of them and it was concluded they were stolen. The squire immediately offered five and twenty guineas for the discovery of the thief; but no thief was heard of, or the dogs either, till a week afterwards, when they again entered the yard, but two such poor jaded, worn-down creatures as never were seen.

They were, apparently, starved to the very point of death, covered with dust, and in fact, in such a condition that notwithstanding all that could be done, they both died in the course of a few days. On examining them after death, they appeared to have been shot at, various shot-corns being found in their skins.

Nothing, however, came to light about it; and on the next rent day the Squire made his journey into Oxfordshire without either of his favourite dogs.

As he passed the kennel of the Mastiff in the Inn Yard, at Oxford, he could not help looking, with resentment, towards it, when to his surprise, instead of the Mastiff, which had been there many years, he saw quite another dog. "And so you have parted with that savage brute of a Mastiff that worried my setter the last time I was here," he said to the Ostler. "Ay," replied the Ostler, "there's a curious thing about that, sir, the dog was worried, dead on the spot, at the door of his own kennel, and if I am not mistaken, your setter helped to do it too." "My setter," said the Squire, "what do you mean?" "I mean, sir," said the man, "that about a week or so after you [Pg 357]was here last, when your dog got so towsled by old Sampson, the Mastiff, we heard all of a sudden a terrible noise of dogs fighting in the yard, and on running out, saw two great dogs fiercely at work with old Sampson. They had got him down, and seemed tearing him into very atoms. Our master made no more to do, but in he ran, snatched down the gun, and fired at the dogs, but it was too late, they were just going over the yard wall together, and I dare say, got off without the peppering master meant for them. But there, however, was old Sampson, as dead as the stones he lay upon!" "And you thought," said the Squire, "that one of the dogs resembled my setter?" "Nay," said the Ostler, "both of them. One was the very picture of the other, and if they were not your setters, they were no dogs at all!" "It is very wonderful," said the Squire, "but I have not a doubt but that you are quite right in your belief, and this accounts for what, till this moment, has very much puzzled me. My dog was so resentful of the injury and insult that he received from your Mastiff, that he without doubt communicated his grievances to his brother dog, and prevailed on him to set out on a pilgrimage of revenge. The dogs disappeared for a week or more together, they came back wounded, and in that miserable plight, that they never recovered it. The dogs, let me tell you, are both dead, and I would not have taken a hundred pounds for them." The Ostler and all the people about the inn were wonderfully surprised at the story, and a wonderful [Pg 358]circumstance it was, to be sure. My grandfather, who told the story, added, "It is just as true as you sit there, I had it word for word, nay, I have had it, word for word, twenty times, from Squire Mills himself."

Of course in a long career of dog showing and judging I have come into contact with all classes of exhibitors, and I am bound to say, as a general rule, have met with the greatest courtesy and had many a kind turn done me at different times, nor was I ever, but once, the subject of any of the practical jokes which used to be, more than they are now, so very frequent, and sometimes very rough, and unpleasant in their nature.

The one exception was when I was stopping at Sydenham, on the occasion of a Crystal Palace show, and when I rose in the morning to go up and see my dogs before breakfast, my boots could nowhere be found, but as I knew there was a very lively team stopping at the same hotel, I felt certain it was their doing, and resolved to checkmate them by going to see the dogs all the same and saying nothing about it, so as I always carried in my bag a pair of Indian leather moccasins, I put them on, and went over to the Palace, where I presently met one of the squad I suspected of "lifting my boots," he said, "What funny shoes you have on, Mr. Lane." I said, "Yes, they are a little out of the common, but, the fact is, some of the jokers at my hotel, have taken a fancy to my boots and probably supposed I should be kept a prisoner in the hotel all day, and so I put on these," he said, "You don't mean to say, your boots [Pg 359]were taken. They've taken the wrong man's; no one had the slightest idea of playing any prank on you," and when I returned, I found my boots in my room.

I came across, in an old French work, the following curious, if true, method of fishing, in which the services of a Poodle, or Terrier were called into action. The enthusiastic sportsman who fears neither storms nor sunstroke (coup de soleil) makes his appearance at the Riverside without either fishing rod, lines, worms, flies or bait, of any description, but having under his left arm a double-barrelled gun, in his right hand, a large cabbage and following at his heels a clever Poodle or Terrier dog. The fisherman, or huntsman, I scarcely know which to call him, now duly reconnoitres the river, fixes upon some tree, the large and lower branches of which hang out over the water, ascends with his gun and cabbage, and having taken up his position upon one of the large projecting branches, closely examines the surface of the stream beneath him.

He has, usually, not been long on his perch, before he perceives a stately pike, or other member of the finny tribe, paddling up the river, he instantly breaks a leaf off the cabbage, and when the fish has approached sufficiently near, throws it into the water, the frightened fish immediately disappears, but shortly after rises, and grateful to the kind and unknown friend who has provided this admirable parasol, swims towards it, and after pushing it about for a while with his nose, finally places himself comfortably under its protecting and congenial shade.

The sportsman in the tree, watching the animated [Pg 360]movements of the cabbage leaf, immediately fires, when the dog, whose sagacity is quite equal to that of his master, plunges into the water, and if the fish is either dead or severely wounded, seldom fails to bring the scaly morsel to land; thus as long as the heavens are bright and blue, the water keeps warm on the surface and the larger fish prefer to swim in the sun, the sport continues so long as the climbing and staying powers of the sportsman hold out. Sometimes the dog and fish have a very sharp struggle, and then the fun is great indeed unless, by chance, the sportsman should unfortunately miss his footing in the tree, in the midst of his amusement and drop head foremost into the water with his double-barrelled gun and what is left of his cabbage.

I think it may be interesting here to quote the eulogistic terms in which Mr. Burchell, the well-known African traveller, wrote of his dogs, as he had a considerable experience of the breed in the course of his long and perilous journeys in that (at the time he was there) almost unknown country.

"Our pack of dogs," says he, "consisted of five and twenty, of various sorts and sizes. This great variety, though not altogether intentional, as I was obliged to take any that could be procured and were at all likely to answer my purposes, was often of the greater service to me, as I observed, some gave notice of danger, or their suspicions of it, in one way, and others in quite a different manner. Some were more disposed to keep watch against men, others against wild beasts of prey, and others for animals and birds of sport; some [Pg 361]discovered an enemy by their quickness of hearing, others by that of scent; some were useful for speed in pursuing game, some for their vigilance and barking, and others for their courage in holding ferocious animals at bay. So large a pack indeed was not maintained without adding greatly to our care and trouble, in supplying them with meat and water, for it was sometimes difficult to procure for them enough of the latter; but, their services were invaluable, often contributing to our safety, and always to our ease, by their constant vigilance, as we felt confident that no danger could approach us at night without its being announced by their barking.

"No circumstances could render the value and fidelity of these animals so conspicuous and sensible as a journey through regions which abounding in wild beasts of almost every class, gave us continual opportunities of witnessing the strong contrast between the ferocious beasts of prey, many of which fly at the approach of man and these kind, but not always duly appreciated, companions of the human race. Many times when we have been travelling over plains where the wild creatures of all kinds have fled directly we appeared in sight, have I turned my eyes towards my dogs, in admiration of their devotion and attachment and have felt a grateful affection towards them for preferring our society to the wild liberty of other quadrupeds.

"Often in the middle of the night when all my people have been fast asleep round the fire, have I stood to contemplate these faithful animals lying by [Pg 362]their side, and have learned to esteem them for their social inclination to mankind. When wandering over pathless deserts, oppressed with vexation and distress at the conduct of my own men I have turned to them, as my only friends and felt how much inferior to them was man when actuated only by selfish views.

"The familiarity which exists between these animals and our own race, is so common to almost every country of the globe, that any remark upon it must seem superfluous, but I cannot avoid believing that it is the universality of the fact which prevents the greater part of mankind from duly reflecting on the subject. While almost every other quadruped fears man as its most formidable enemy, here is one which regards him as a friend.

"We must not mistake the nature of the case, it is not because we train him to our use and have made choice of him in preference to other animals, but because this particular species feels a natural desire to be useful to man and from spontaneous impulse attaches itself to him. Were it not so we should see in various countries an equal familiarity with various other quadrupeds according to the habits, tastes, or caprices of different nations. But, everywhere, it is the dog only takes delight in associating with us, in sharing our abodes, and is even jealous that our attention should be bestowed on him alone, it is he who knows us personally, watches for us, and warns us of danger.

"It is impossible for the naturalist, when taking a survey of the whole animal creation not to feel a conviction that this friendship between two creatures so different [Pg 363]from each other, must be the result of the laws of nature; nor can the humane and feeling mind avoid the belief that kindness to those animals, from which he derives continued and essential assistance is part of his moral duty." These words of such an experienced naturalist as Mr. Burchell, are as true to-day as when they were written by him more than fifty years ago, but I am bound to say I think dogs are more valuable, and more thought of now, than ever they were since the world began.

Mr. Bell tells a short story of the intelligence displayed by a Bloodhound belonging to a friend of his, a Mr. Boyle. He says, "To make trial whether a young hound was well instructed, Mr. Boyle desired one of his servants to walk to a town four miles off, and then to a market town three miles from thence. The dog, without seeing the man he was to pursue, followed him by the scent to the above mentioned places, notwithstanding the multitude of market people that went along the same road and of travellers that had occasion to come, and when the Bloodhound came to the market town he passed through the streets, without taking notice of any of the people there, and ceased not till he had gone to the house, where the man he sought rested himself and where he found him in an upper room to the wonder of those who had accompanied him in this pursuit." In the face of the Bloodhound trials last year, and again this spring, in which my friend Mr. Brough has been so much interested, I thought some of my readers might like to see this short account of the doings of a young hound, more [Pg 364]than half a century ago.

To illustrate the occasional trials of exhibitors, I recollect starting off early with a team of dogs for one of the first general shows held at Oxford, I think all my dogs were in boxes or baskets but one, a tricolour Collie, whose name I forget, and he was on the chain, and put by the railway people into one of those vile receptacles they call dog boxes, narrow, dark, low and often dirty. On arrival at Didcot (which I had before connected in my mind with Banbury cakes, and was quite surprised to find a "one-eyed" sort of straggling village of contemptible size,) a porter opened one end of the dog den and called the Collie, he, however, showed no intention of responding to the call, and retreated to the other end of the den and growled at the porter, and one of the other porters went around to the further side of the coach and opened the other door of the den, and the dog, taking advantage of this chance of freedom, bolted out, crossed the line, went through a hedge and found himself at once in the open country. I had taken no part in the affair, and declined all responsibility, but told the officials I should sue the company for the value of the dog, lost through their carelessness. They begged me to accompany some of their men in search of the dog, as he might be easier caught if he saw someone he knew amongst those after him.

Soon after it began to rain, and from soon after eleven a. m. till after six p. m. we tramped the country in search of the wandering dog, whom we afterwards saw in the distance, but in that district the fields are [Pg 365]very large, and often as we laboriously got into a field through a hedge or over hurdles, etc., we had the mortification of seeing the dog disappear through or over the hedge on the opposite side, and very wearisome work it was.

At length I decided to go on to Oxford, with the rest of my dogs, and left the matter of the lost dog with the railway company, who, I was informed, offered a reward for his recovery, and about a month afterwards I had a letter asking me to call at one of their stations where they thought a dog lately found answered the description of mine. This turned out to be correct and I took home the dog, making a small claim for expenses I had been put to in the matter. The dog was not in bad condition, and still wore the collar and chain on him when lost, but it is strange how that dog managed to live for a month in such a sparsely inhabited district as that round about Didcot, at any rate at that time, which is [Pg 366]about fifteen years ago.


Anecdotes About Dogs (Continued)

I have been asked to reproduce a humourous "skit," which appeared in "The Daily Mail" 9th of July, 1897, from the pen of a well-known contributor to that paper. It was headed "A Ladies' Dog Show," and ran as follows: "Seven gentle ladies were yesterday to be observed walking gravely in a circle in Regents Park. They each led a Black Pug by a chain. They walked round and round a ruddy old gentleman with keen blue eyes, a shepherd's smock, and a slouched straw hat. Three partridge feathers stuck out jauntily from the side of the hat. The ladies cast appealing looks at the shepherd, who stared hard at the insignificant little wretches of dogs, one of whom barked all the while, but he did not heed it. The march became quicker; the ladies looked more appealing than ever. A crowd gathered around and observed the strange proceedings with wonder. What was it? they asked. A new system of Pantheistic worship? or a side show from a menagerie? The shepherd put up his hand and the ladies stopped, dead. He threw down his glittering pencil to attract the notice of one of the glossy little Pugs. The Pug snapped. He caught it by the head, and stared [Pg 367]hard in its ridiculous little face. The dog chastened by the keen blue eyes, ceased to yelp. The proud proprietor at the other end of the chain, looked as anxious as a criminal in the dock. The other ladies made the most of this moment of respite. They patted their dogs and kissed them, and told them to be good little duckies of doggies, and mamma would be so pleased! One tempted her charge with a biscuit, another with half a crown. The coin was held up above the dog's nose. Doggie jumped, and scrambled and yelped just like any of its human acquaintances. The shepherd looked at each dog in turn, and wrote something in a book, and then seven ladies and seven dogs left the ring. One lady looked pleased, another fairly satisfied and the rest as if somebody had blundered. The Pugs were all indifferent. But the secret was out, there were no mysterious rites of an Esoteric creed. It was a dog show, that of the 'Ladies' Kennel Association.' They have survived their internecine troubles, and have more members than they had before that dramatic split at the Holborn restaurant and boast of more entries at this show than ever they had before. Between seven hundred and eight hundred dogs are staged. At a Ladies' Show it is to be expected that some of the conventionalities will be overthrown. There are, for instance, no men prowling about, with cloth caps, buckskin leggings, and wisps of straw, telling you that their Terrier killed fifty rats in thirty seconds or that 'the Brindled Bull was own sister to the best dawg that was ever bred.' The exhibitors are ladies, elegantly dressed, who sit and listen to the band with their Pugs and Spaniels, [Pg 368]on their knees. It is the same with the dogs, there are no sporting dogs, to speak of, though the number is increasing year by year and not half a score of Bull Dogs. Such as there are, a little aristocracy of bone and jowl lie at rest in a distant corner of the tent not deigning to notice the Poodles around. Near them are a few Airedale Terriers. One of them, which would be in its element in a rattling street fight, stretched to the top of its pen, looked over at the 'curled darlings' on the other side, deliberately yawned and turned over again to sleep. There is a whole tent full of Toy Spaniels and other exquisites in upholstered pens. They have ribbons round their necks, and bells and go about two to the pound. The Poodles are curled and shaven and shorn, and decked out with top-knots of coloured ribbons. One which lay asleep was described as a 'Rag and a Bone, and a Hank of Worsted,' Two Poodle puppies, not yet shorn, looked refreshingly unkempt by the side of these ultra-respectable Uncles and Aunts. A litter of Dachshunds resembled lion cubs asleep. The foreign class which is both strong and varied, provided an amusing contrast. In one pen was a huge shaggy 'Balu,' in the next a shivering little 'Mousie Chihuahua,' whatever that may be! 'Balu' could have taken 'Mousie' among his hors d'œuvres before dinner. Chows with big heads and wee twinkling eyes. Borzois trying to twist their legs into geometrical figures; an Esquimo asleep; a vicious Dingo in a cage. St. Bernards which made the tent quiver, when they barked and Bloodhounds sleeping serenely, there being no murderers about, these were the Giants of the show. [Pg 369]If not as numerous, certainly they were a more weighty section than the Toy Spaniels. The Princess of Wales was among the exhibitors. If anyone wants to see a good collection of 'Japs' and 'Poms' and 'Skyes' and 'Dachs' and 'Charlies,' so the ladies tenderly call them, at Regents Park, he will find them."

The following related by the late Hon. Grantley Berkeley, strongly illustrative of the sagacity and thinking powers of dogs, may be interesting to some of my readers: "I had a dog called 'Wolf,' at Teffont Mane House, in Wiltshire, and when I fed my tame pheasants and partridges I always took him with me. This dog had seen my caution when I approached the birds and always obeyed my signal to lie down by the gun till I had done feeding them. When the game began to get to an age to stray, a considerable number used to come upon the lawn in front of the windows.

"One afternoon the lawn being, to all appearances, clear of birds, I sent Wolf to hunt a rabbit out of a circular flower bed, for me to shoot. The dog obeyed the sign, but no sooner had he entered the laurels, than he made a sort of snap with his jaws, a thing he always did when he was not pleased, and returned to my heels with rather a sheepish look. The sign to hunt having been repeated the same thing occurred and on his returning to me with a peculiar expression in his face, I went to the laurels to ascertain what hindered his obedience.

"To my great pleasure I found about a dozen young pheasants, into whose presence he was fearful of intruding, [Pg 370]so I lay down on the lawn close to the pheasants, and letting him see how pleased I was, caressed him for full five minutes, and then when I retired, did so in a most marked and stealthy manner, which he, close at my heels, immediately adopted. Now suppose some thoughtless or inconsiderate master with such a dog as this had upon his refusal to hunt, beaten or kicked him for disobedience, which would really have deserved the punishment, the sensible dog, or the silly man?

"On taking up my residence at Beacon Lodge, and, for years after, Wolf was still in or out of the house, my constant companion and closely observant of all I did or desired. When first the wild white rabbits began to appear at Beacon, I never shot them, but very frequently killed the brown ones by their side. In hunting any outlying place, if by chance there was a white rabbit, I used to stop Wolf from hunting it up to my gun, and by observation the dog convinced himself that a rabbit so coloured was on no account to be molested. When the whites had become more common, one evening I went out to kill some rabbits for the table, or to give away, and seeing a very fine young white one, I shot it. The rabbit lay dead on the contrary side of a fence, and Wolf had not seen it killed, but at a sign from me, flew over to pick up whatever might be there. The rabbit lay kicking with its hinder legs, and Wolf seeing the motion in the grass, dashed up, but instantly made the snap with his jaws, dropped his stern and came back with a sheepish look, as if to tell me I had done wrong. I praised and made much of him, [Pg 371]and taking him with me up to the rabbit encouraged him to pick it up and to give it to me, and ever after he would pick up any coloured rabbit that might be killed.

"Wolf's dinner hour was at my dessert time, the last thing the retiring servants had to do was to place his plate upon the hearthrug. Occasionally they neglected to do this, and then he had seen me ring the bell, to rectify the omission. For some years before his death, when his dinner was due, and had not been brought in, after looking at me with a wistful expression of countenance, he would go up and kiss the bell handle, and then come to me, look up in my face, and push my arm with his nose. Of course, up came his dinner, with a ring from the bell, denoting double quick time."

More than forty years since, there was a London street dog which took a great fancy to following the fire engines. Whenever there was a fire there would the dog be seen running in and out among the throng apparently making himself as busy as possible. This strange conduct of the animal, of course, attracted the attention of the firemen, and after a time they used to feed and take notice of him, occasionally giving him a ride on the engine. At last, so well was the dog known that he came to be called the Fireman's Dog. He owned no master, but stopped a day or two with any of the firemen he took a fancy to. He was always on the alert, directly the fire alarm was given, and used frequently to run by the side of the horses for miles together. At last the dog on one of the journeys, was run over and killed, when the firemen had his body stuffed and set up in a [Pg 372]glass case in the principal office of the Metropolitan fire brigade, Watling street, London. There it remained for some years, and numbers of people called to see him in his glass case.

In 1853 the Superintendent of the Fire Station, Chandos street, Covent Garden, was for some neglect of duty degraded to the rank of an ordinary fireman. This disgrace so preyed on the poor fellow's mind, that one winter's night he threw himself over Waterloo Bridge and was drowned. He left a widow and children totally unprovided for, and in order to procure a sum for their relief, the glass case containing the stuffed figure of the Fireman's Dog was disposed of by way of lottery. A raffle took place at a tavern in Chandos street, when upwards of a hundred pounds was realised. The dog was won by the tavern-keeper, and in his parlour it may still be seen. Thus you see that long after death the dog has been found useful to his masters in time of need.

The following account of a dog, for many years known as "The Brighton Coach Dog," is cut from an old newspaper of the time. "For a long period a dog invariably accompanied the only coach which in 1851 ran between London and Brighton. On the 24th June, in that year, he was placed on the back of the coach to prevent his barking at the horses, when he jumped off at Henfield and fell between the wheels, one of which, passing over his back, killed him. The animal belonged to an ostler at the Newcastle Place stables, Edgeware Road, London; he went to the yard when a puppy and the man took care of him.

[Pg 373]"Being brought up amongst horses, he was never happy unless with them at home, or travelling about. His chief delight was to travel up and down with the Brighton coach. He had been known to travel, during the last spring of his life, for eight successive days to and from Brighton, Sundays intervening.

"The distance from London to Brighton by way of Leatherhead, Dorking, Horsham and Henfield, the road which the stage coach traversed is seventy-four miles. It was with great difficulty he could be kept on the coach, always preferring to run by the side of it and it was his being placed on the top of the coach, from feelings of humanity on the part of Clarke, the coachman, which cost him his life.

"On one occasion the guard placed him inside the coach, when there were no passengers, but in a few minutes he was surprised to see him running beside the coach, having jumped clean through the glass window.

"During the early part of the summer he went with a strange coach to Tunbridge Wells, not liking his berth he did not return to London by the same conveyance, but found his way across the country from Tunbridge Wells to Brighton and went up to London with his favourite team.

"He was well known by many on the road from London to Brighton, and in some places on the journey met with hospitable treatment. At the time of his death he was about five years old. Clarke informed us that he would kill a goose on his travels by the roadside, throw it over his back like a fox, and run for miles, and he offered to lay a wager that the dog would [Pg 374]accompany the coach between Brighton and London daily for a month, Sundays excepted, and kill a goose by the roadside each day of his travels, provided birds were put within his reach. His skin was preserved, and has been stuffed. The 'Brighton Coach Dog' may be seen in the attitude of life in the bar parlour of a tavern in the Edgeware Road."

I do not think I mentioned, when speaking of my kennels, and dogs, that for many years, an old Great Western Railway coach formed part of them, it was composed of a first-class, second-class, third-class compartments, and a luggage van, as a general rule, we had a pair of dogs, male and female, in each division, and used the luggage van for biscuits.

As some of my readers may like to try the same experiment, I may say that there is no difficulty in the way, there are usually railway coaches of different sizes (I believe, you can also purchase horse boxes and trucks, which often serve the purpose of cow and poultry and cart and trap sheds) for sale at Swindon, where I bought mine for five pounds.

Of course, it was merely the body, without any of the iron under part, but with the windows, doors, seats, ventilators, etc., no cushions or upholstery of any kind, but the only expense I had to incur was to get the village smith to fix some small iron bars on the outside of each window frame, to enable us to open the windows to give plenty of air, without the fear of the inmates getting out. The company delivered free to their nearest station, which in my case was within two miles from my place, and I [Pg 375]there had a trolly and pair of horses, and the coach run on to it and lashed firmly to the trolly and it was brought without much difficulty as the weight was only about thirty-five hundredweight, although it looked a heavy affair.

There was more time and trouble in fixing it in its place in my yard, than in the journey there. And some years afterwards when I changed my residence, I got the village smith to fix an axle and a couple of low strong wheels at each end of the coach, and one of the neighbouring farmers easily took it along the road to my new dwelling place, with a couple of his cart horses, to the great amusement and delight of the rural population, who insisted that each of the divisions was filled with some of my dogs, which were well known in the district as being frequent prize winners.

The following is related on the authority of an old newspaper called the "Boston Traveller," published in the United States of America: A gentleman stopping at an hotel in Boston, privately hid his pocket handkerchief behind the sofa cushion in the coffee room and left the hotel accompanied by his dog, after walking for some distance, he suddenly stopped and said to his dog, "I have left my handkerchief at the hotel, go back and fetch it for me," giving no particular directions about it. The dog immediately returned at full speed, and entered the room his master had just left. He went directly to the sofa, but the handkerchief was gone. He jumped upon tables and counters, but it was nowhere to be seen. It turned out that a [Pg 376]friend of his master's had discovered it and supposing it had been left by mistake, had taken care of it for the owner. But "Tiger" was not to be foiled. He flew about the room, apparently much excited, in quest of the "lost or stolen." Soon, however, he was upon the track, he scented it to the gentleman's coat pocket. What was to be done? The dog had no means of asking for it, by word of mouth, and was not accustomed to picking pockets, and besides the gentleman was ignorant of his business with him. But Tiger's sagacity did not suffer him to remain long in suspense. He seized the skirt containing the prize and furiously tearing it from the coat, hastily made off with it, much to the surprise of the owner. Tiger then overtook his master, and restored the lost property. Both the owner of the dog and the gentleman who had lost the tail of his coat, applauded the dog for his sagacity.

In the southeast window of St. Mary's church, Lambeth, there is the full length figure of a pedlar with his pack, his staff and dog. This is the portrait of the unknown man who gave "Pedlar's Acre" to the parish of Lambeth. The story is worth telling. In the year 1504, a poor pedlar passing over a piece of waste ground near the river sat down to rest on the trunk of a tree. While seated here, he noticed that his dog acted very strangely, busying himself with scratching the earth with his feet and barking, and smelling about, every now and then running up to his master and looking him earnestly in the face and trying to drag him from his seat. The pedlar did not at first pay much attention to the dog, but its repeated barking and running [Pg 377]to and fro compelled him, at last, to see what the animal wanted. Going to where the dog had been scratching he was surprised to find something shining below. Digging on the spot he discovered a large sum of money with part of which he purchased the land originally known as Pedlar's Acre, but now called the Belvidere Road, in Lambeth.

Maitland, the historian of London, (1739 edition, page 791) tells the story as I have given it with the addition that the pedlar left the piece of land to the parish on condition that his portrait and that of his dog should be perpetually preserved in painted glass in one of the windows of the church. I cannot say whether this be true or not, but such is the legend, and there is the painted window with the portrait of the man and dog, as evidence still remaining.

The following story about a Mastiff appeared in the Glasgow Chronicle: Early one Sunday morning some thieves attempted to enter the premises of Messrs. McLeod and Pollock, Argyle street, Glasgow, jewellers, by breaking through the sky-light. The building was one story high and it was comparatively easy to get on to the roof. About two o'clock a. m. Mr. McLeod, who resided in the back of the premises, was awakened by the action of his watch dog. The animal did not bark, but jumped upon the bed and continued scratching with his forepaws until his master rose up. The dog then uttered a low growl and looked towards the roof, as if anxious to draw his master's attention to that particular quarter. Immediately afterwards a small piece of glass fell on the floor, and on [Pg 378]Mr. McLeod looking up he could see a man furtively moving on the roof; the police were informed and effected an arrest of the intruding burglar, through the warning given by the dog and before he had time to [Pg 379]conceal himself or make good his retreat.


Anecdotes About Dogs (Continued)

In Mr. St. John's "Highland Sports," there is the following characteristic anecdote of a shepherd's dog: "A shepherd, a neighbour of mine, to prove the quickness of his dog, who was lying before the fire in the farmhouse kitchen where we were talking, one day, said to me in the middle of a conversation about quite a different matter, 'I'm thinking, sir, the cow's got into the potatoes,' though he purposely laid no stress on these words, and said them in a quiet, unconcerned tone of voice, the dog, who appeared to be asleep, immediately jumped up, leaped through the open window and scrambled up the turf roof of the house, from which he could see the potato field. Not seeing her there, he then ran into the farm yard, and finding her there, all right, came back to the house. After a time the shepherd said the same words again, and the dog repeated his look out, but on the false alarm being given a third time, the dog got up and wagging his tail, looked his master full in the face with such a comical expression of inquiry, that we could not refrain from laughing heartily, on which with a slight growl [Pg 380]he laid himself down again to sleep in his accustomed place on the hearth rug, with an offended air, as if determined not to be made a fool of again."

Most people who know anything about dogs, or doggy people, know Mr. George Raper, one of the most popular and capable all-round judges we have, but they do not all know what a very lively and active man he is. In my long experience as an exhibitor, I have often found myself in his company in different parts of the country, and usually he has had some good story to tell, or amusing thing to do. I remember, on one occasion, when we and a number more were staying at an hotel in South Wales, I forget now whether it was Haverfordwest, Pembroke or Tenby, but I think it was one of those three, how he astonished an old gentleman (not the least doggy or sporting in his appearance), by his agility. We were talking in the bar parlour of the hotel about vaulting, and in the room there was the ordinary high and wide pewter covered counter, or bar. I said, "I suppose you would not attempt to negotiate such an article as that?" Mr. Raper said, "I should have a good try at it," and without saying more, he stepped back, placed his hand on the centre of the counter, vaulted over, and then vaulted back again; the old gentleman, who was sitting down quietly having some refreshment, jumped up and said, "Bless my heart and soul, sir, I never saw such a thing done in my life!" which made us all laugh heartily.

Captain Brown, in his "Popular Natural History," tells the following story of those formerly much to be [Pg 381]pitied animals, the dogs utilized as "Turnspits." "The Duke de Leancourt had for the work in his kitchen two Turnspits, which took their turns, regularly, every other day in the wheel (something after the style of the revolving cages for squirrels and mice). One of them not liking his employment, hid himself on the day it was his turn to work, when they tried to force his companion to mount the wheel in his stead, he cried, and wagging his tail, intimated to those in authority to follow him. He at once conducted them to an upstairs lumber room, where he dislodged the idle dog, and gave him a good thrashing on the spot."

In Mr. Baker's "Rifle and Hound in Ceylon," he says: "I was once shooting at Illepecadewè, which is a lonely, miserable spot, when I met with a very sagacious and independent sportsman in a most unexpected manner. I was shooting with a friend and we had separated for a few hundred paces. Presently I came upon a lot of Pea fowl and killed one of them with my rifle. The shot was no sooner fired than I heard another shot in the jungle, in the direction taken by my friend. My rifle was still unloaded when a spotted doe bounded out of the jungle, followed by a white Pariah dog in full chase. Who would have dreamt of meeting with a dog at a distance of more than three or four miles from any houses! I whistled to the dog, and to my surprise he came to me, the deer having, meanwhile, run clean out of sight in an incredibly short space of time. He was a knowing looking brute, and evidently out hunting on his own account. [Pg 382]Just at this moment, my friend called out to me that he had wounded a buck, and had found the blood-stained track. I picked a blade of grass from the spot, which was tinged with blood, and holding it to the dog's nose, he eagerly followed me to the track, upon which I dropped it.

"He went off in a moment, but running mute I was obliged to follow, and after a run of over half a mile, I lost sight of him. In following the track of the wounded buck I heard the distant barking of a dog, by which I knew he had brought him to bay, and I was soon at the spot. The buck had taken up a position in a small glade, and was charging furiously at the dog, but he was a great deal too knowing to court the danger and kept well out of the way. I shot the buck, and tying a piece of jungle rope to the dog's neck, gave him to a gunbearer to lead as I hoped he might be again useful in hunting up a wounded deer. I had not proceeded more than half a mile when we arrived at the edge of a small sluggish stream, covered in most places with rushes and waterlilies.

"We waded through this about up to our hips, but the gunbearer, who had the dog with him, could not prevail upon our mute companion to follow; he pulled violently back and shrank and showed every sign of terror as he approached the water. I had now got over and was on the opposite bank, but as nothing could induce the dog to voluntarily come near the river, I told the gunbearer to drag him across by force. This he accordingly did, and the dog swam with frantic exertions across the [Pg 383]river and managed to slip his head out of the jungle rope by which he was held. The moment he arrived on terra firma, he rushed up a steep bank and looked attentively down into the water beneath. We now gave him credit for his sagacity in refusing to cross the dangerous passage.

"The reeds bowed down to the right and left as a huge crocodile of about eighteen feet in length moved slowly from his shallow bed into a deep hole. The dog turned to the right about and ran off as fast as his legs would carry him. No calling or whistling would induce him to return and I never saw him again. How he knew that a large crocodile lay concealed in the river I do not know, he probably had a previous unpleasant experience of those creatures, and seemed determined to profit by the lesson he had learnt. Making use of the experience I had gained in wild sports in the country, I came out well armed, according to my ideas of weapons for the chase. I had four double-barrelled rifles made specially to my order and my own pattern, my hunting knives and boar spear heads were also made to my own design and I arrived in Ceylon with a fine pack of Foxhounds, and 'Bran,' a favourite greyhound of wonderful speed and strength. The usual drawbacks and discomforts attending upon a new settlement having been overcome, Newera Ellia formed a pleasant place of residence. I soon, however, discovered that Foxhounds were not at all adapted to a country so enclosed by forest, some of the hounds were lost, others I parted with, and their progeny, crossed with Pointers, Bloodhounds and other [Pg 384]breeds, have proved a useful stamp for Elk hunting.

"It is difficult to form a pack for this sport which shall be perfect in all respects. Sometimes a splendid hound in character may be more like a butcher's dog in appearance, but the pack cannot afford to part with him if he has really proved his value in work. The casualties from Leopards, Wild Boars, Elks and lost dogs are so great that the pack is with extreme difficulty kept up by breeding.

"It must be borne in mind that the place of a lost dog cannot be easily supplied in Ceylon! Newera Ellia is one of the few places in the island where the climate is suited to the constitution of a dog. In the low and hot climates they lead a short and miserable life, which is soon ended by the inevitable liver complaint; thus, if a supply for the pack cannot be kept up by breeding, hounds must be procured from England from time to time, and this, it is needless to say, is attended with much risk and great expense."

On one of the last occasions I exhibited my dogs at Maidstone show, in Kent, I was rather amused by a conversation I had with the secretary there. He said, "whenever I see you, sir, I think of your Dog." I asked what dog he referred to? He said, "one of your Dandies, I think he was a champion, (I forget whether it was Champion Rob Roy, or Champion Laird, but think it must have been the former). You had to leave before the end of the show, which was very unusual with you, sir, and you asked me to see your dogs packed; I was out in the building where all [Pg 385]the boxes and baskets were, when I heard a crackling noise, and, looking towards the place, saw a dog's head, and directly afterwards his body, come out of one of the hampers, and saw the dog walk across the building, and search amongst the packages, when he had found the one he wanted, he lifted up the lid with his nose, jumped in and lay down; I at once went over to see what name and number was on the package, and found that one of your dogs had been put, by an oversight, into a wrong basket, and as he found out it was not the proper one, he ate his way out, searched for and found his correct travelling basket, and lay down in it, ready to be sent home. I thought this was so smart and intelligent of the dog that I have never forgotten it, and have often mentioned it to my friends, who are interested in dogs."

The following about the dog, which appeared in the "Arcana of Science" in 1829, just seventy years ago, may be interesting to some of my readers at the present day: "The dog is the only animal that dreams, he and the elephant the only animals that understand looks and expressions; the elephant is the only four-footed animal that feels ennui; the dog the only quadruped which has been brought to speak. Professor Leibnitz, in Saxony, bore witness to a hound, he had heard speak thirty words distinctly."

I am inclined to doubt the speaking faculty of the dog, though I have certainly seen many animals that could do almost everything, but speak.

Buffon, the eminent French naturalist, says of the dog, "More docile than man, more obedient [Pg 386]than any other animal, he is not only instructed in a short time, but also conforms to the manners and dispositions of those who have authority over him. He takes his tone from the house he inhabits, like the rest of the domestic staff, he is disdainful among the great and churlish among the clowns. Always assiduous in serving his master, and only friendly to his friends; he is indifferent to all others and declares himself openly against such as are dependent like himself. He knows a beggar by his voice, by his clothes or his gestures and challenges his approach. When, at night, or other occasions, the protection of the house is entrusted to his care, he seems proud of the charge, he continues a vigilant sentinel, he goes his rounds, scents strangers at a distance and gives them warning he is upon duty. If they attempt to break in upon his territory, he becomes more fierce, flies at them, threatens, fights, and either conquers alone or alarms those who have most at interest in coming to his assistance, however, when he has conquered, he quickly reposes, and abstains from what he has prevented others from abusing, giving thus, at once, a lesson of courage, temperance and fidelity."

I think it was in May, 1881, I sustained one of my severest losses in connection with dogs. I was at that time owner of a very well-known and high class, all white, medium-sized Bull Bitch, which I called "Lady Rozelle" (her portrait appears in one of the illustrations to this book, as well as that of my Smooth Collie Bitch, "Lady Nellie," even more celebrated in her own line) and had taken a great [Pg 387]number of prizes at all the leading shows. I was anxious to take just one more, the gold medal of the Bull Dog Club. She had already taken both the bronze and silver medals, and I then intended her to rest on her laurels, as I have always endeavoured to let any of my great prize winners end their days in peace and comfort, free from the fatigue and excitement of shows and never like to see animals which have done good service for their owners, hacked about in Variety and Selling classes, all over the country. The weather when I travelled to Aldridge's, St. Martin's Lane, where the Bull Dog Club's show was to be held, was very warm and sultry, and on arrival at Paddington, I had her box put on the roof of a cab and run over to the show, but on its being opened there, as it happened, by my old friend, Mr. J. W. Berrie, then, as now, the president of the Bull Dog Club, I think everyone present was horrified to find my beautiful bitch actually stone dead, and from the appearance of the body, should think the heat must have brought on an apoplectic seizure and death must have been very sudden. Of course, as is usual in such cases, I had someone at the time anxious to purchase her at, what was then thought, a very long price, £250.

Dogs have played important parts in the superstitions of ages now happily passed away. When the dog howled at the gate, it used to be alleged that one of the family was to die. Old women suspected of being witches because they were infirm and stricken with poverty were supposed to always have either a cat or dog, said to be their "Familiar" [Pg 388]and through whom they could be enabled to commune with the Spirit of Darkness. To meet a black dog on a dark or stormy night was deemed a very unlucky sign; dogs were said to be possessed by evil spirits, and to haunt the wicked and in more than one story the evil one himself has been stated to have taken the form of the faithful friend and companion of man. I will conclude these anecdotes about dogs with the following excellent advice given by the late well-known sportsman, the Hon. Grantley Berkeley, in the pages of "The Field," more than forty years since: "Before you chastise a dog, be not only sure that he is in fault, but also ascertain that he himself understands in what respect he has done wrong. Take care not to punish him so severely that terror and pain combined obliterate the why and the wherefore from the sufferer's recollection, if you do, you cowe the dog, without amending his manners. To teach tricks to dogs, (in the general way, and, unless they are dogs belonging to those whose living is to be earned by the employment of performing dogs,) either with cards, numbers, or letters, is infinitely beneath a sportsman, as well as insulting to the useful and thinking capabilities of the canine [Pg 389]race!"


A Few Words About General Management and Some Simple Maladies, to Which Dogs are Subject, and Their Treatment

These few practical directions and suggestions are not intended to take the place of the veterinary surgeon, whose skill and experience are often of the greatest value in dealing with cases of a serious nature, but just to give inexperienced persons some idea what to do, in case of emergency; as, in all cases of illness or accidents to animals, immediate treatment is often most important.

I may say that a "bond of sympathy" should exist between an owner or keeper, and his dogs, and when this is the case, it will be much easier to deal with them, either in health or sickness, but particularly the latter.

I believe more trouble is caused by mismanagement than any other cause, and that if only proper attention be paid to the three cardinal points of "cleanliness, food and exercise," there will not be much the matter with the inmates of the kennel.

I have, for a great number of years, kept a small lot of dogs, varying in number from fifteen to fifty, but [Pg 390]although accidents will be constantly occurring with live stock of all kinds, I have had wonderfully little illness, amongst my dogs, except the ordinary ailments so generally expected, and I attribute this mainly to endeavouring to enforce cleanliness and plenty of exercise, and providing food varying in character and quantity to suit the appetites of the inmates.

I may say, while on the subject of food, that although in winter, or very cold weather, it is well it should be given "with the chill off," it is better not to let it be warm, in a general way, as it is thought unnatural for dogs, and tends to weaken their digestive powers.

Also except in cases of packs of hounds, where it is unavoidable, (but they are generally accompanied by some of the kennel men, and attendants to avoid undue "differences of opinion,") it is best, not to feed two or more dogs together, as often the stronger member will overpower the weaker, and perhaps consume more than his or her share; you will notice this, even amongst puppies.

An owner, or keeper will soon get to know the right amount to give each, and give just as much as will be finished at the time, when the pan should be removed, or washed out, and filled with water, if benched alone, not otherwise, or it may be upset in the course of play, etc.

Except in cases of bitches with families or puppies by themselves when two or more meals may be given, it is usual to feed once a day either morning or evening [Pg 391]as most convenient, giving each as much as they will eat, with appetite, the oftener varied the better, as I said in the "Introduction."

Unless any difficulty occurs, at the birth of the puppies, when skilled assistance should be obtained, the less the bitch is disturbed the better, but a few days afterwards it is well to examine the litter, and destroy any deformed or faulty ones, and if she has more than she can reasonably bring up, to put some of them under a "foster mother," which are frequently advertised in the papers dealing with dogs and doggy matters, if not procurable in your own district, in such case, it is best not to take away all the foster litter at once, but introduce the new-comers (in the absence of the "Foster,") amongst her remaining puppies, and mix them up, together, so that they will smell alike, and gradually weed out those not desired to be kept.

After three weeks old, the puppies should be given bread and milk, which will help the mothers in their nursing, and about this time if a breed which requires their tails to be shortened, a part may be taken off, with a strong pair of scissors, not too sharp, feeling for a joint, before making the cut, and if carefully done, it causes but momentary pain, and soon heals up.

At six weeks old, they may be removed from the mother, altogether, and if she seems at all troubled with milk, occasionally squeeze out any milk, with the finger and thumb, and dress the teats with vinegar and water, which generally prevents swelling or inflammation, and helps to dry off the milk.

[Pg 392]I need not say that the stories sometimes heard about dogs having a "worm under the tongue," which must be taken out, are all humbug, and should not be credited.

Sometimes dogs' claws, when not sufficiently exercised, grow too long and require to be shortened, but this is easily done with a sharp pair of "nippers."

Putting a piece of stone sulphur in the water is no good, as being a mineral, it does not dissolve, and you might just as well put a lump of coal in! But, as I said before, a little "Flowers of Brimstone," according to the size of the animal, either mixed in milk, or with its food, is beneficial and has a cooling effect, and I sometimes add a small quantity of magnesia, with the same object.

Above everything, see that the place where the dog lives is dry, warm in winter and free from draughts.

I think dogs kept in a house as pets are more liable to disease, than those kept in kennels, from often having no regular meals or rules, but constantly being fed by many people, and so getting more than they require of food, but much less of exercise.

Chicken and game bones are not desirable for dogs, as they break into sharp splinters which when swallowed may cause injury to the intestines, but other bones are occasionally very good for dogs, and much enjoyed by them; and when at liberty they will take grass, which, as with cats, is very useful for their digestion.

Most dogs are troubled with fleas, and some with ticks and other small insects, particularly in the [Pg 393]summer. I have found an occasional washing, with a weak solution of "Jeye's Purifier," (procurable of any chemist, or stores, with full directions on the bottles), makes a great improvement in this respect, and if the breed of the animal is small, or it is one kept indoors, it may have an occasional combing with a small tooth comb, having a basin of boiling water at hand, to put the "results" in.

In all treatment of a sick dog, remember you are dealing with a highly sensitive and nervous patient, be very gentle, avoid roughness, or anything likely to alarm him; in giving any liquid medicine, do not open his mouth, but placing him between your knees with his face looking in same direction as your own, gently raise his jaw, and pulling his lips away from his teeth, on one side of his mouth, to form a cup, or funnel, very slowly pour from bottle or spoon, the quantity he is to have, into it. Keep his head raised for a minute or two, and if he does not swallow the dose, insert a spoon between his front teeth, this will have the effect of drawing off his attention from the medicine, and he will, usually, swallow at once. If the dose is a pill, bolus, or anything solid, hold his head the same way as before mentioned, but with the left hand under lower jaw, press firmly on each side with thumb and finger at the junction of upper and lower jaws. This will usually cause him to open his mouth, when the dose should be put into the mouth, as far back as possible, over the tongue (or he will spit it out) and close the jaws somewhat sharply, and in most cases the deed is done. If any trouble arises with the [Pg 394]action of his front paws, this may be got over by wrapping him round with a shawl, or coarse apron. When once you have got into the way of it, you will be surprised how simple it is. I am quite sure a practised owner or kennelsman, would dose a dozen dogs, while a novice was making a bungle over one!

Distemper carries off scores of dogs every year, but it is quite a mistake to suppose all dogs must have it. I have had, probably, more without than with it, the worst of it is that it varies so in different cases, so that the same treatment does not do for all; sometimes the brain, at others, the stomach, at others, the lungs, are most affected; it is of an inflammatory and very debilitating character, and frequently accompanied by severe convulsions and fits, which are very alarming and distressing. Generally, there is discharge from nose and eyes, but not invariably. I am doubtful if there is any positive and unfailing cure for the complaint, although so many claim to be, so much depends on the form the disease takes, the treatment given, and the constitution of the patient. The symptoms comprise great depression, debility, want of life and appetite, and great languor; as medicine, two or three grains of calomel in milk may be given; if possible, get the patient to drink it which he sometimes will, being feverish from the nature of the disease; sometimes a small dose of "James's Powders," administered in same way, has a good effect. For food, anything light and nourishing, such as thickish gruel, or good broth, or bovril, may be given. The old adage, that prevention is better than [Pg 395]cure holds good here, and young dogs not fed too highly, and occasionally dosed with Epsom salts or jalap, when their bowels are out of order, or their eyes look unnatural, not given much meat while young, and kept from going into the water at too early an age, will often ward off this scourge of the race.

Dogs are sometimes troubled with Skin affections such as mange and eczema, both are thought to have their origin in errors in feeding and particularly in the former, from want of due attention to cleanliness. I have found the following, which we have always kept ready for use, to apply a little if required, a certain cure, if persevered with. Equal quantities of train oil and paraffin and a tablespoonful of black sulphur to each quart of the mixture applied freely to the affected parts, every other day with a piece of sponge. If the attack is very slight, a little sulphur ointment made by mixing sufficient Flowers of Sulphur, with hog's lard, to make a fairly firm ointment, and rub on this two or three times a week, where the cause arises. A small dose of Epsom salts will be beneficial.

Canker in the ear is troublesome, particularly with the breeds having large ears, a little alum and water is advised as a wash for the ears, into which it should be poured, and the flaps closed over and rubbed gently; but I have personally found a little "Hippacea" (procurable at most chemists), which is a rather moist ointment, rubbed inside the affected parts, give much relief.

Fits are often caused, either by distemper or worms, [Pg 396]they are always alarming, particularly when they take place away from the kennels or home, in such case I either borrow from someone at hand, or send for, a hamper, or box, and get the patient home as soon as possible; as perfect quiet and repose are very important, merely sprinkling a little cold water on his face and placing him in some place, with plenty of straw, or shavings, where he cannot hurt himself by falling about, as he is quite unconscious for the time being and not accountable for his actions. When able to take medicine, give such treatment as the cause of the fits require, they are usually those I mentioned, but when caused by extreme debility, as with an overtaxed nursing mother, they are very serious. In any case of fits, where good professional advice can be obtained and the patient is a pet, or valuable, it is better not to attempt to deal with it without.

Asthma is supposed to arise from errors in feeding, but it is certain some breeds of dogs are more liable to it than others. Light nourishing diet, very moderate exercise, and a little opening medicine will certainly have a good effect, but it is a difficult complaint to get rid of when once it makes its appearance.

Diarrhoea sometimes occurs with dogs from inattention to dietary matters, but they more often suffer from the other extreme. A little Epsom salts in water, or thin gruel, will often work the desired end, but if the dog seems still in pain, ten or fifteen drops of tincture of opium may be given in water.

Eye affections are not uncommon with some breeds, [Pg 397]but the eye is such a tender and delicate organ to meddle with that I prefer to advise any of my readers, who may have a patient suffering in that way, to call in the best advice they can procure, than to give them any directions.

Wounds, whether incised or contused, are rather awkward for a novice to deal with, and if he does so, he had better muzzle the patient, both to prevent being bitten and to keep the bandage, plaster or poultice from being torn off; of course in the former case, the affected part must be gently washed with cold water, and the blood staunched with lint or otherwise, and if possible tightly bandaged, and closing the edges of the wound keep them together with sticking plaster, binding all round with lint.

In contused wounds apply and frequently change a bread poultice, large enough to take in all the injured parts and keep the patient as quiet as possible, and maintain his strength with light nourishing diet, of a more hearty character.

This is not a "Kennel Guide" (although I hope it may teach some of my readers something they did not know in a rough and ready way) and there are, in almost every district in the kingdom, as I know from actual experience, having met scores of them in the course of my doggy travels, highly qualified gentlemen, practising as veterinary surgeons, who have made a lifelong study of the diseases, and calamities, to which dogs, as well as their owners, are liable.

I think I have now said a little about all the many [Pg 398]breeds suitable, or likely to be kept as companions or pets, and sufficient for my book to form a vade-mecum, or guide, to anyone in doubt, as to what sort of dog to choose for the purpose, and this was the original idea which prompted the commencement of the work.

The illustrations herein are from life, the subjects being mostly typical specimens, and are introduced to show good types of some of the least common, or every day breeds. From the remarks often overheard at exhibitions and elsewhere, it has greatly surprised me how many persons have only a vague idea of all but the most ordinary varieties.

Thinking over matters and things even to compile a work of this kind, has brought back to mind many forgotten incidents concerning both people and animals, and I have derived much pleasure in the course of it. I am in hopes, if the book falls into the hands of any, who have hitherto known, or cared nothing for dogs of any kind, they may be sufficiently interested in my recital, of the charming qualities of so many different varieties, to take up one or more of them, and test the truth of my statements, which I may say are founded on fact, and a very lengthened and practical experience as a breeder, exhibitor and now for many years as a judge, during which time I believe I have kept most, and adjudicated on all, known varieties of dogs, and on most of the breeds very often indeed.

And considering the many thousands of dogs, which have come under my notice, I am bound to say, on the whole, I have not had much to complain of, in my treatment by the exhibitors, which have often included Her [Pg 399]Majesty the Queen, a well-known lover of animals, and other members of the Royal Family, as well as leading members of the nobility and gentry, and very many of the middle, lower and working classes.

And, I hope, the reason has been that as far as lay in my power, I have tried to serve all alike, that is, to regard the dogs, and not their owners or leaders, as the sole matter to be dealt with, and where exhibitors recognise this in a judge, as a rule, his classes are well filled.

I think, I have said enough, in this chapter, to justify its title, and, I hope, to form a fitting "wind-up," for my little work, as "All about Dogs."


Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson &. Co.
Edinburgh & London
[Pg 400]

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