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Title: A Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges
Author: George M. Lane
Editor: Morris H. Morgan

Release Date: January 20, 2014 [eBook #44653]
[Most recently updated: December 18, 2022]

Language: English

Produced by: Louise Hope, Andrew Wainwright, Alicia Williams and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at


Typographical errors are shown with mouse-hover popups, and are listed again at the end of the e-text. Some apparent errors are “ghosts” of the first edition; see endnote. In the Index, missing or incorrect punctuation has been silently regularized.

Table of Contents
Sections 1-179: Sounds
Sections 180-396: Formation
Sections 397-712: Inflection of Nouns
Sections 713-1022: Inflection of Verbs
Sections 1023-1713: Sentences
Sections 1714-2299: Complex Sentences
Sections 2300-2745: Appendix
Index of Subjects
Index of Latin Words








Copyright, 1898, 1903, by Gardiner M. Lane and Louisa Van Rensselaer.

All rights reserved.



George Martin Lane died on the thirtieth of June, 1897. His Latin Grammar, in the preparation of which he had been engaged, during the intervals of teaching in Harvard University, for nearly thirty years, was at that time approaching completion. The first two hundred and ninety-one pages had been stereotyped; the pages immediately following, on the Relative Sentence and the Conjunctive Particle Sentence through quod and quia (pages 292-302), together with the chapter on the Infinitive (pages 374-386), were ready for stereotyping; of the remainder of the book, pages 303-373 and 387-436 were in the form of a first draught; finally, he had received a few weeks before his death, but had never examined, the manuscript of the chapter on Versification (pages 442-485), written at his invitation by his former pupil, Dr. Herman W. Hayley, now of Wesleyan University.

It was found that my dear and honoured master had left a written request that his work should be completed by me, in consultation with his colleagues, Professors Frederic De Forest Allen and Clement Lawrence Smith. A month had scarcely passed when scholars everywhere had another heavy loss to mourn in the sudden death of Professor Allen. Almost immediately afterwards, Professor Smith left this country, to take charge for a year of the American School of Classical Studies in Rome, but not before we had agreed that circumstances required the early publication of the book, notwithstanding his absence. I was thus deprived of two eminent counsellors, whose knowledge and experience would have been of inestimable assistance.

About one hundred and twenty pages (303-373 and 387-436), exclusive of Versification, were yet to receive their final form. Professor Lane had determined the order in which the topics contained in these pages should be treated, and no change has been made in that order. Most of the main principles of syntax, vi too, have been left exactly as they were expressed in his draught. This draught was written some years ago, and, although he had corrected and annotated it from time to time, there is no doubt that in writing it out afresh he would have made many alterations and improvements which are not indicated in his notes. Consequently, he is not to be held responsible for errors and omissions in the pages which had not received his final approval. Yet I conceived it my duty to preserve, so far as possible, the very language of his corrected draught; and this, in the statement of almost all the main principles, I have been able to do. Some modifications and some radical alterations were inevitable; in particular, the treatment of quamvis, quando, quin, the Supine, and Numerals seemed to call for much amplification and rearrangement. I have also deemed it necessary to add some seventy sections* under various heads, and Dr. Hayley has been good enough to write sections 2458-2510, which precede his chapter on Versification. But, in general, my principal function has been: first, to provide additional Latin examples of the principles which Professor Lane had formulated; secondly, to enter, under the various principles, historical statements regarding the usage in the Latin writers, drawn from the best authorities at my disposal.

Professor Lane’s own method was far from that of a compiler. He took nothing for granted without thorough investigation, however well established it might seem, and he followed the dictum of no man, however widely accepted as an authority. For example, his many pupils and correspondents will remember how untiring he was in his efforts to arrive at accuracy in even the minutest points of inflection. Thus, for the List of Verbs (§§ 922-1022), he made entirely new collections, and admitted no form among the ‘principal parts’ unless actually found represented in the authors. In the details of syntax, he was equally indefatigable; the sections on the Locative Proper (1331-1341), for instance, contain the result of an immense amount of painful vii research. He devoted much anxious thought to the definitions and the titles of the various constructions: thus, the distinction between the Present of Vivid Narration (1590) and the Annalistic Present (1591) seems obvious now that it is stated; but to reach it many pages of examples were collected and compared. He held that examples printed in the grammar to illustrate syntactical principles should never be manufactured; they should be accurately quoted from the authors, without other alteration than the omission of words by which the construction under illustration was not affected. He was careful, also, not to use an example in which there was any serious doubt as to the text in that part which covered the principle illustrated by the example. To ‘Hidden Quantity’ he had given much attention, and many of the results of his studies in this subject were published, in 1889, in the School Dictionary by his friend Dr. Lewis. Since that time he had found reason to change his views with regard to some words, and these changes are embodied in the present book, in which he marked every vowel which he believed to be long in quantity.

The order in which the divisions and subdivisions of grammar are here presented will not seem strange to those who are acquainted with the recent grammars published by Germans. It is the scientific order of presentation, whatever order a teacher may think fit to follow in his actual practice. The table of contents has been made so full as to serve as a systematic exposition of the scheme, and to make needless any further words upon it here. In the Appendix Professor Lane would have inserted, out of deference to custom, a chapter on the Arrangement of Words; but the draught of it which he left was too fragmentary for publication. Since the proper preparation of the chapter would have greatly delayed the publication of the book, it was thought best to omit it altogether, at least for the present. This topic, in fact, like some others in the Appendix, belongs rather to a treatise on Latin Composition than to a Latin Grammar.

For the indexes, and for much valuable help in proof reading, I heartily thank Dr. J. W. Walden, another of Professor Lane’s pupils.

In the course of his work, Professor Lane frequently consulted his colleagues and other distinguished scholars both in this country and in Europe. He gratefully welcomed their advice, and carefully viii considered and often adopted their suggestions. Had he lived to write a preface, he would doubtless have thanked by name those to whom he considered himself as under particular obligation, whether from direct correspondence or through the use of their published works; but it is obvious that the information in my possession will not allow me to attempt this pleasant duty. Of Professor Lane’s pupils, also, not a few, while in residence as advanced students at the University, were from time to time engaged in the collection of material which he used in the grammar. They, like his other helpers, must now be content with the thought of the courteous acknowledgment which they would have received from him.


Harvard University,
Cambridge, May, 1898.

* The sections which I have added are as follows: 1866, 1873, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1887, 1890, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1907, 1909, 1913, 1922, 1927, 1935, 1964, 1975, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1989, 1990, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2068, 2086, 2088, 2097, 2111, 2122, 2152, 2155, 2255, 2264, 2267, 2271, 2273, 2275, 2276, 2277, 2281, 2289, 2292, 2345, 2357, 2400, 2406, 2407, 2408, 2409, 2410, 2411, 2412, 2413, 2414, 2740-2745.



In this Revised Edition many changes and corrections in details have been introduced throughout the book, but no alterations have been made in the treatment of broad general principles, except in the chapter on Sound (§§ 16-179). This has been very largely rewritten and extended from nineteen to thirty-one pages by my friend, Professor Hanns Oertel, of Yale University, who has also been kind enough to make the changes in the chapters on Formation and Inflection rendered necessary by his rewriting of the sections on Sound. In this rewriting Mr. Oertel has proceeded upon the ideas that in a school grammar, even an advanced one, phonology should play a subordinate part; that nothing should be introduced that cannot be illustrated from such Latin and Greek as are available to the student; and that those points should be emphasized which assist in the analyzing of compounds and in the understanding of word-formation and inflection. With these ideas, which necessarily prevent the introduction of some important topics treated in works on phonetics, I am in entire sympathy.

My thanks are due to not a few scholars and reviewers who have pointed out passages in the first edition which in their opinion called for changes. Some of their suggestions I have adopted; with others I have found myself unable to agree.

M. H. M.

Harvard University,
Cambridge, May, 1903.




Parts of Latin Grammar, 1.


Parts of Speech, 2-15.

(A.) SOUND, 16-179.

Alphabet, 16-30.

Sources of our Pronunciation, 31.

Vowels, 32-46.

Long and Short, 33-36. Pronunciation, 37-42. Classification, 43-46.

Diphthongs, 47-50.

Nature and Kinds, 47, 48. Pronunciation, 49, 50.

Consonants, 51-81.

Pronunciation, 51-72. Classification, 73-81.

Syllabic and Unsyllabic Function, 82, 83.

Accent, 84-98.

Nature, 84. Marks of Accent, 85. The Classical Accent, 86-88. Earlier Recessive Accent, 89-91. Proclitics and Enclitics, 92-94.

Change of Sound, 95-174.

Vowel Change: Of Diphthongs, 95-101; 108. Of Simple Vowels, 102-107. Loss, 110-113. Hiatus, 114-116. Synizesis, 117. Contraction, 118. Elision, 119. Combination into Diphthongs, 120. Lengthening, 121-123. Shortening, 124-132. Transfer of Quantity, 133. Variation, 134. Quantitative Vowel Gradation, 135. Qualitative Vowel Changes, 136-143. Assimilation, 144. Qualitative Vowel Gradation, 145.

Consonant Change: Disappearance or Change of Single Consonants, 146-161. Change in Consonant Groups, 162-179. Assimilation, 163-166. Consonantal Glides, 167. Disappearance, 168-171. Development of Anaptyctical Vowel, 172. Dissimilation, 173. Changes within Compounds, 174.

Syllables, 175-179.

Defined, 175, 176. Length of Syllables, 177, 178. Loss, 179.


(B.) FORMATION, 180-396.

Definitions, 180-198.

Roots, 183-189. Present Stems as Roots, 190-194. Stems, 195-197. Primitives and Denominatives, 198.

Formation of the Noun, 199-364.

Without a Formative Suffix, 199. Formative Suffixes, 200-203. Formation of the Substantive: Primitives, 204-245. Denominatives, 246-279. Formation of the Adjective: Primitives, 280-297. Denominatives, 298-341. Comparison, 342-364.

Formation of Denominative Verbs, 365-375.

Composition, 376-396.

Of Nouns, 379-390. Of Verbs, 391-396.

(C.) INFLECTION, 397-1022.

Definition, 397.


General Principles, 398-431.

Case Endings, 398. The Stem, 399-401. Gender, 402-413. Number, 414-418. Case, 419-431.

The Substantive, 432-607.

Stems in -ā- (The First Declension), 432-445. Stems in -o- (The Second Declension), 446-466. Consonant Stems (The Third Declension), 467-512. Stems in -i- (The Third Declension), 513-569. Gender of Consonant Stems and -i- Stems, 570-584. Stems in -u- (The Fourth Declension), 585-595. Stems in -ē- (The Fifth Declension), 596-607.

The Adjective, 608-643.

Stems in -o- and -ā-, 613-620. Consonant Stems, 621-626. Stems in -i-, 627-636. Numeral Adjectives, 637-643.

The Pronoun, 644-695.

Personal and Reflexive, 644-651. Personal and Reflexive Possessive, 652-655. Other Pronouns, 656-659. Demonstrative, 660-670. Determinative, 671-675. Pronoun of Identity, 676-678. Intensive, 679-680. Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite, 681-694. Correlative Pronouns, 695.

The Adverb, Conjunction, and Preposition, 696-712.

Nouns as Adverbs, 696-698. Accusative, 699-702. Ablative, 703-707. Locative, 708-709. Other Endings, 710. Correlative Adverbs, 711. Sentences as Adverbs, 712.


General Principles, 713-742.

The Stem, 714-720. The Person Ending, 721-731. Nouns of the Verb, 732. Principal Parts, 733-735. Designation of the Verb, 736-737. Theme, 738-740. Classes of Verbs, 741-742.

Primitive Verbs, 743-791.

Root Verbs, 743-744. Inflection of sum, 745-750. possum, 751-753. , 754-757. bibō, serō, sistō, 758. inquam, 759-761. , 762-767. queō xiii and nequeō, 768. edō, 769-771. volō, nōlō, mālō, 772-779. ferō, 780-781. Verbs in -ere (The Third Conjugation), regō, 782-783. Verbs in -iō, -ere, 784-791. capiō, 784-785. āiō, 786-787. fiō, 788-790. Others in -iō, -ere, 791.

Denominative Verbs, 792-797.

Verbs in -āre (The First Conjugation), laudō, 792-793. Verbs in -ēre (The Second Conjugation), moneō, 794-795. Verbs in -īre (The Fourth Conjugation), audiō, 796-797.

Deponent Verbs, 798-801.

Periphrastic Forms, 802-804.

Defective Verbs, 805-817.

Redundant Verbs, 818-823.

Formation of Stems, 824-919.

Variable Vowel, 824-827. The Present System: Present Indicative Stem, 828-840. Present Subjunctive, 841-843. Imperative, 844-846. Imperfect Indicative, 847-848. Imperfect Subjunctive, 849-850. Future, 851-853. The Perfect System: Perfect Indicative Stem, 854-875. Perfect Subjunctive, 876-878. Perfect Imperative, 879. Pluperfect Indicative, 880. Pluperfect Subjunctive, 881. Future Perfect, 882-884. Short or Old forms of the Perfect System, 885-893. Nouns of the Verb: The Infinitive, 894-898. Gerundive and Gerund, 899. Supine, 900. Present Participle, 901-903. Future Participle, 904-905. Perfect Participle, 906-919.

List of Verbs arranged according to the Principal Parts, 920-1022.


Definitions, 1023-1061.

The Simple Sentence, 1023-1025. The Subject, 1026-1034. The Predicate, 1035-1036. Enlargements of the Subject, 1038-1047. Enlargements of the Predicate, 1048-1054. Combination of Sentences, 1055. The Compound Sentence, 1056-1057. The Complex Sentence, 1058-1061.

Agreement, 1062-1098.

Of the Verb, 1062-1076. Of the Substantive, 1077-1081. Of the Adjective, 1082-1098.


(A.) USE OF THE NOUN, 1099-1468.

Number and Gender, 1099-1110.

Case, 1111-1437.

Nominative, 1113-1123. Nominative of Title, 1114-1116. Of Exclamation, 1117. Vocative Nominative and Vocative Proper, 1118-1123.

Accusative, 1124-1174. Of the Object, 1132-1139. Emphasizing or Defining, 1140-1146. Of the Part Concerned, 1147. Of the Thing Put xiv On, 1148. Of Exclamation, 1149-1150. Of Space and Time, 1151-1156. Of the Aim of Motion, 1157-1166. Two Accusatives Combined, 1167-1174.

Dative, 1175-1225. I. The Complementary Dative: (1.) The Essential Complement: With Verbs, 1180-1199. With Adjectives, 1200-1204. (2.) The Optional Complement: Of the person or thing interested, 1205-1210. The Emotional Dative, 1211. The Dative of the Possessor, 1212-1216. Of Relation, 1217-1218. II. The Predicative Dative: Of Tendency or Result, 1219-1222. Of Purpose or Intention, 1223-1225.

Genitive, 1226-1295. I. With Substantives: In General, 1227-1231. Of the Subject, Cause, Origin, or Owner, 1232-1238. Of Quality, 1239-1240. Partitive, 1241-1254. Of Definition, 1255-1259. Objective, 1260-1262. II. With Adjectives, 1263-1270. III. With Verbs: Of Valuing, 1271-1275. With rēfert and interest, 1276-1279. With Judicial Verbs, 1280-1282. With Impersonals of Mental Distress, 1283-1286. With Verbs of Memory, 1287-1291. Of Participation and Mastery, 1292. Of Fulness and Want, 1293-1294. IV. The Genitive of Exclamation, 1295.

Ablative, 1296-1400. I. The Ablative Proper: Of Separation and Want, and of Departure, 1302-1311. Of Source, Stuff, or Material, 1312-1315. Of Cause, Influence, or Motive, 1316-1319. Of Comparison, 1320-1330. II. The Locative Ablative: The Locative Proper, 1331-1341. The Ablative used as Locative: Of Place in, on, or at which, 1342-1349. Of Time at which or within which, 1350-1355. III. The Instrumental Ablative: (1.) The Ablative of Attendance: Of Accompaniment, 1356-1357. Of Manner, 1358-1361. Ablative Absolute, 1362-1374. Ablative of Quality, 1375. Of the Route Taken, 1376. (2.) The Instrumental Proper: Of Instrument or Means, 1377-1384. Of Specification, 1385. Of Fulness, 1386-1387. Of Measure, Exchange, and Price, 1388-1392. Of the Amount of Difference, 1393-1399. Two or more Ablatives Combined, 1400.

Use of Cases with Prepositions, 1401-1437.

In General, 1401-1409. With the Accusative, 1410-1416. With the Ablative, 1417-1421. With the Accusative or the Ablative, 1422-1425. Combination of Substantives by a Preposition, 1426-1428. Repetition or Omission of a Preposition, 1429-1430. Two Prepositions with one Substantive, 1431-1432. Position of Prepositions, 1433-1437.

Use of Adverbs, 1438-1453.

Use of Degrees of Comparison, 1454-1468.

(B.) USE OF THE VERB, 1469-1635.

Voice, 1469-1492.

Active, 1469-1471. Passive, 1472-1485. Deponents, 1486-1492.

Mood, 1493-1586.

The Indicative, 1493-1533. In Declarations, 1493-1498. In Questions, 1499-1533. Yes or No Questions, 1502-1510. Positive and Negative Answers, 1511-1514. Alternative Questions, 1515-1525. Pronoun Questions, 1526-1530. Some Applications of Questions, 1531-1533.

The Infinitive of Intimation, 1534-1539.


The Subjunctive, 1540-1570. The Subjunctive in Declarations: I. Of Desire: Of Wish, 1540-1546. Of Exhortation, Direction, Statement of Propriety, 1547-1552. Of Willingness, Assumption, Concession, 1553. II. Of Action Conceivable, 1554-1562. The Subjunctive in Questions, 1563-1570.

The Imperative, 1571-1586. Of Command, 1571-1580. Of Prohibition, 1581-1586.

Tense, 1587-1635.

Of the Indicative, 1587-1633. Present, 1587-1593. Imperfect, 1594-1601. Perfect, 1602-1613. Pluperfect, 1614-1618. Future, 1619-1625. Future Perfect, 1626-1632. The Future Active Participle with sum, 1633.

Of the Subjunctive, 1634-1635.


Without a Connective, 1637-1642.

With a Connective, 1643-1692.

Conjunctions, 1643. Copulative, 1644-1666. Disjunctive, 1667-1675. Adversative, 1676-1686. Other Words as Connectives, 1687-1692.

The Intermediate Coordinate Sentence, 1693-1713.

The Subordinate Idea unindicated by the Mood, 1695-1704. The Subordinate Idea indicated by the Subjunctive, 1705-1713.


Definitions and Classifications, 1714-1716. Primary and Secondary Tenses, 1717. Virtual Futures, 1718.

Mood of the Subordinate Sentence, 1720-1731.

The Indicative, 1721. The Subjunctive: In Indirect Discourse, and in cases of Attraction, 1722-1729. Of Repeated Action, 1730. As in the Simple Sentence, 1731.

Tense of the Subordinate Sentence, 1732-1772.

Of the Indicative, 1732-1739. Of the Subjunctive, 1740-1772. Sequence of Tenses, 1745-1772. Tense subordinate to an Indicative, 1746-1761. Tense subordinate to a Subjunctive, 1762-1765. Tense subordinate to a Noun of the Verb, 1766-1769. Subjunctive due to another Subjunctive or to an Infinitive, 1770-1772.

The Indirect Question, 1773-1791.

In General, 1773-1774. Yes or No Questions, 1775-1777. Alternative Questions, 1778-1784. Pronoun Questions, 1785. Original Subjunctives, 1786. Indicative Questions apparently Indirect, 1787-1791.

The Relative Sentence, 1792-1837.

Agreement of the Relative, 1801-1811. Moods in the Relative Sentence, 1812-1830. Relative Sentences of Purpose, 1817. Of Characteristic or Result, 1818-1823. Of Cause or Concession, 1824-1830. Correlative Sentences, 1831. Relative Sentences Combined, 1832-1834. The Relative introducing a main Sentence, 1835-1837.


The Conjunctive Particle Sentence, 1838-2122.

Introduced by quod, 1838-1855. quia, 1856-1858. quom or cum, 1859-1881. quoniam, 1882-1884. quotiēns, quotiēnscumque, 1885-1887. quam, 1888-1898. quamquam, 1899-1902. quamvīs, 1903-1907. tamquam, 1908-1910. antequam, priusquam, 1911-1922. postquam, ubī̆, ut, cum prīmum, simul atque, 1923-1934. ut, 1935-1970. ubī̆, 1971. quō, 1972-1976. quōminus, 1977-1979. quīn, 1980-1990. dum, dōnec, quoad, quamdiū, 1991-2009. quandō, 2010-2014. , 2015-2115. etsī, tametsī, etiamsī, 2116. quasi, tamquam sī, ut or velut sī, 2117-2122.

Connection of Separate Sentences or Periods, 2123-2159.

Without a Connective, 2124-2127. With a Connective, 2128-2158. Affirmative Coordination, 2159.

Nouns of the Verb, 2160-2299.

The Infinitive, 2160-2236. Definitions, 2160-2163. The Infinitive of Purpose, 2164-2165. With Adjectives, 2166. The Infinitive as Object: The Complementary Infinitive, 2168-2171. The Accusative with the Infinitive, 2172-2206. The Infinitive as Subject, 2207-2215. The Infinitive of Exclamation, 2216. Tenses of the Infinitive, 2218. Present, 2219-2222. Perfect, 2223-2231. Future, 2232-2236.

The Gerundive and Gerund, 2237-2268. Definitions, 2237-2242. Nominative, 2243-2249. Accusative, 2250-2253. Dative, 2254-2257. Genitive, 2258-2264. Ablative, 2265-2268.

The Supine, 2269-2277. Definitions, 2269. Supine in -um, 2270-2273. Supine in , 2274-2277.

The Participle, 2278-2299. Definition, 2278. Time of the Participle, 2279-2281. The Attributive Participle, 2282-2286. The Substantive Participle, 2287-2292. The Appositive Participle, 2293-2296. The Predicative Participle, 2297-2299.

APPENDIX, 2300-2745.

Some Occasional Peculiarities of Verbs, 2300-2307.

The Conative Use, 2301-2303. The Causative Use, 2304. The Potential Use, 2305. The Obligatory Use, 2306. The Permissive Use, 2307.

Indirect Discourse, 2308-2334.

Definitions, 2308-2311. Mood, 2312-2320. Tense, 2321-2324. Pronoun, 2325. Conditional Periods in Indirect Discourse, 2326-2334.

Use of Pronouns, 2335-2403.

Personal, 2335. Reflexive, 2336-2343. Equivalents for a Reciprocal Pronoun, 2344-2345. Possessive, 2346. Demonstrative, 2347-2364. Determinative, 2365-2370. Pronoun of Identity, 2371-2373. Intensive, 2374-2384. Interrogative, 2385-2386. Relative, 2387. Indefinite, 2388-2403.

Numerals, 2404-2428.

Classification, 2404. List of Numerals, 2405. Notation, 2406-2411. Some forms of Numerals, 2412-2418. Some uses of Numerals, 2419-2422 Other Numerals, 2423. Fractions, 2424-2428.


Prosody, 2429-2739.

Rules of Quantity, 2429-2472. In Classical Latin, 2429-2457. Position, 2458. Hidden Quantity, 2459-2463. Peculiarities of Quantity in Old Latin, 2464-2469. Iambic Shortening, 2470-2472.

Figures of Prosody, 2473-2510. Hiatus, 2473-2480. Elision, 2481-2492. Ecthlipsis, 2493-2496. Semi-Hiatus or Semi-Elision, 2497. Synaloepha, 2498. Synizesis, 2499. Synaeresis, 2500. Dialysis, 2501. Diaeresis, 2502. Hardening, 2503. Softening, 2504. Diastolé, 2505-2506. Systolé, 2507. Syncopé, 2508. Tmesis, 2509. Synapheia, 2510.

Versification, 2511-2739. Definitions, 2511-2548. Numeri Italici, 2549. The Saturnian, 2550-2554. Dactylic Rhythms, 2555-2580. Iambic Rhythms, 2581-2627. Trochaic Rhythms, 2628-2649. Logaoedic Rhythms, 2650-2074. Dactylo-Trochaic Rhythms, 2675-2681. Anapaestic Rhythms, 2682-2690. Cretic Rhythms, 2691-2697. Bacchiac Rhythms, 2698-2706. Choriambic Rhythms, 2707. Ionic Rhythms, 2708-2717. Lyric Metres of Horace, 2718-2737. Lyric Strophes of Catullus, 2738. Index of Horatian Odes and their metres, 2739.

Abbreviations used in citing the Authors, 2740-2745.

Index of Subjects.

Index of Latin Words.



1. Latin Grammar has two parts. I. The first part treats of words: (A.) their sound; (B.) their formation; (C.) their inflection. II. The second part shows how words are joined together in sentences.



2. The principal kinds of words or Parts of Speech are Nouns, Verbs, and Conjunctions.

3. I. Nouns are Substantive or Adjective.

4. (A.) Nouns Substantive, otherwise called Substantives, are divided, as to meaning, into Concrete and Abstract.

5. (1.) Concrete Substantives denote persons or things. Concrete Substantives are subdivided into Proper Names, which denote individual persons or things: as, Cicerō, Cicero; Rōma, Rome; and Common Names, otherwise called Appellatives, which denote one or more of a class: as, homo, man; taurus, bull.

6. Appellatives which denote a collection of single things are called Collectives: as, turba, crowd; exercitus, army. Appellatives which denote stuff, quantity, material, things not counted, but having measure or weight, are called Material Substantives: as, vīnum, wine; ferrum, iron; faba, horsebeans.

7. (2.) Abstract Substantives denote qualities, states, conditions: as, rubor, redness; aequitās, fairness; sōlitūdō, loneliness.

8. (B.) Nouns Adjective, otherwise called Adjectives, attached to substantives, describe persons or things: as, ruber, red; aequus, fair; sōlus, alone.

9. Pronouns are words of universal application which serve as substitutes for nouns.

Thus, taurus, bull, names, and ruber, red, describes, particular things; but ego, I, is universally applicable to any speaker, and meus, mine, to anything belonging to any speaker.


10. Adverbs are mostly cases of nouns used to denote manner, place, time or degree: as, subitō, suddenly; forās, out of doors; diū, long; valdē, mightily, very.

11. Prepositions are adverbs which are used to modify as prefixes the meaning of verbs, or to define more nicely the meaning of cases: as, vocō, I call, ēvocō, I call out; ex urbe, from town.

12. II. Verbs are words which denote action, including existence or condition: as, regit, he guides; est, he is; latet, he is hid.

13. III. Conjunctions connect sentences, nouns, or verbs: as, et, and; sed, but.

14. Interjections are cries which express feeling, and are not usually a part of the sentence: as, ā, ah; heu, alas.

15. There is no Article in Latin: thus, mēnsa may denote table, a table, or the table.



16. In Cicero’s time, the sounds of the Latin language were denoted by twenty-one letters (DN. 2, 93).

Character Name pronounced
A a ah
B be bay
C ce kay
D de day
E e eh
F ef ef
G ge gay
H ha hah
I i ee
K ka kah
L el el
M em em
N en en
O o o
P pe pay
Q qu koo
R er air
S es ess
T te tay
V u oo
X ix eex

The names given above are those employed by Roman grammarians. The sound indicated by -ay is only approximate; the true sound is that of the French ê in fête; see 39. The names of the letters are indeclinable; for their gender, see 412.

17. Two other letters were also in use to represent Greek sounds in Greek words; these were always called by their Greek names, and were placed at the end of the alphabet; they are Y, named ü (42), and Z, named zēta (71).


18. Origin of the Alphabet. The Latin alphabet, which originally consisted of capitals only, was adapted from the alphabet of Chalcidian colonies in Italy.

19. Spelling. The signs for the Greek sounds denoted by φ and χ, and perhaps also that for θ, these three sounds being unknown in Latin, were used as numerals (2407). In words borrowed from the Greek the Romans at first represented θ by t, φ by p, and χ by c: as, tūs, incense, for θύος; Poenī, Punians, for Φοίνικες; calx, chalk, for χάλιξ. Occasionally also the Latin mute was doubled: as, struppus, strap, for στρόφος. Later, about the middle of the second century B.C., th, ph, and ch begin to be used: as, cothurnus, boot, for κόθορνος; amphora, jar, for ἀμφόρα; Achaea for Ἀχαιά. In some instances these aspirates were next introduced even into words purely Latin: as, chommodus, affable, for commodus, an affectation ridiculed by Catullus (Cat. 84) and disapproved by Quintilian (1, 5, 20). But pulcher, pretty, is the usual spelling for pulcer (formed by the suffix -cro- from the stem of the verb poliō, I polish). Even Cicero (O. 160) aspirated the c in this word as a concession to popular usage, as he did the t in Cethēgus, Karthāgō, and the p in triumphus, while he retained the unaspirated explosive in the proper names Orcīvius, name of a ‘gens,’ Matō, Otō, Caepiō, and in sepulcrum, tomb; corōna, crown; and lacrima, tear. In a similar manner Greek ρ was at first transcribed by r: as, rumpia, a kind of weapon, for ῥομφαία; but later by rh: as, rhētor, rhetorician, for ῥητωρ.

20. The letters C (first written <) and K were at an early period used promiscuously, and C stood for both unvoiced k and voiced g: as, VIRCO, virgō, virgin. Afterwards K dropped out of general use except in the abbreviations K. or Kal. for kalendae, first of the month, and K. for the proper name Kaesō (Quint. 1, 7, 10). About 300 B.C. the sign < or C was used for the unvoiced k alone, while a separate sign, which became G, was set apart for the voiced g. But C continued to be used for g in the abbreviations C for Gāius, for Gāia, and Cn. for Gnaeus. Occasionally q is written for c, almost always before the vowels o and u: as, qum for cum, with; qolunt for colunt, they cultivate; peqūnia, money. But ordinarily q is found before unsyllabic (consonantal) u (v) only (22).

21. Before the introduction of Y and Z (17), u was used for the Greek υ: as, Burrus, later Pyrrhus (Cic. O. 160); and s, or, as a medial, ss, for ζ: as, sōna, belt, later zōna; massa, lump, for μᾶζα; malacissō, I soften, for μαλακίζω. By a blunder, y was occasionally introduced in words of Latin origin: as, lacryma, tear, for lacrima, which was wrongly supposed to be derived from Greek δάκρυ.

22. The characters I and V represent not only the two vowels i and u, but also their cognate semivowels (52) and (83), called commonly consonant i and u, but with less ambiguity unsyllabic i and u (8283). They are equivalent to the English y and w respectively.

23. In words like maior, simple i was commonly written for the sound of i̭i̭ (153, 2; 8283). But Cicero in such cases wrote ii: as, aiiō, I say, Maiia, Troiia (Quint. 1, 4, 11). In the same way Lucretius spelled Graiiugenārum, of Greek-born men, and EIIVS, of him, CVIIVS, whose, occur in inscriptions. Sometimes the same sound is represented by a taller letter, ‘i longa,’ especially in the imperial age: as, maIor, greater. There are also cases in which the two designations were confounded, a double i being written, and one or the other letter made taller: as, eiIvs or eIivs, of him.

24. The tall i, I longa, was used not only to represent unsyllabic i (22), but, beginning with Sulla’s time, also for long vowel i (29, 2, b): as, sIgna, signs; qvInqve, five. It also represents sometimes double i: as, vIs for viīs, in the roads. At the beginning of words it occurs without reference to quantity for both short and long i, and, by mistake, I is elsewhere found for short i.


25. The emperor Claudius (A.D. 41-54) introduced a separate sign for unsyllabic u (22), restricting the sign v to the vowel u (Quint. 1, 7, 26; Ta. 11, 14); but it did not become current.

26. In schoolbooks and most texts of the authors, the vowel u is printed U, u, and the consonant V, v. A character, J, j, was introduced in the 17th century, to indicate the consonant i. But this character is no longer usual in editions of the authors or in schoolbooks.

27. The distinction between u and v is not always made very consistently: q has regularly, and g and s have sometimes, an aftersound of w, best represented by v; but the usual practice is to write u, as in the following disyllables: quōrum, of whom; anguis, snake; suāvis, sweet. qu is always counted as a single sound (177). See also 2504.

28. For the intermediate sound (103) between i and u, as in the first syllable of lubet, libet, it pleases, and in the second syllable of optimus, optumus, best (Quint. 1, 4, 8; 7, 21), the emperor Claudius invented a separate character. It failed of acceptance, as did also the sign which he attempted to introduce for ps.

29. The same characters were ordinarily used to denote both long and short vowels. But at different periods long vowels were sometimes indicated in inscriptions thus:

(1.) Long a, e, or u was sometimes doubled: as, AARA, altar; PAASTORES, shepherds; LEEGE, by law; IVVS, right. This doubling, which was never frequent, seems to have been introduced into Latin from the Oscan by the poet Accius. It occurs most frequently in inscriptions about the year 150 B.C., but sporadically much later: as, CONVENTVVS, of the assembly; ARBITRATVV, by the decree; and in other stems in -u- (593).

(2.) Long i was often denoted (a.) By the spelling ei (after the pronunciation of this diphthong had been changed to ī98): as, DAREI, be given; REDIEIT, hath come back; INTERIEISTI, hast died. Some Roman grammarians prescribed this spelling for every long i; others tried to regulate the use of ei for ī by special rules. At the end of the republic, the spelling EI had given way to uniform I. (b.) Since the time of Sulla, by a taller letter (‘i longa’): as, fIxa, fastened (2324).

(3.) A mark called an apex ([three apices]) was often put over a long vowel: as, FE͆CIT, made; HORTE͆NSIVS; DVV͆MVIRATVS, duumvirate. The apex was written ´ in the imperial age; the form -, which occurs in an inscription, was adopted by the grammarians, and is still in use to mark the long vowels. It may be mentioned that inscriptions which employ the apex are by no means consistent in its use, and that late inscriptions have it over short and long vowels, apparently for decorative purposes. Quintilian 1, 7, 2 prescribes it only for cases which otherwise might be ambiguous: as, MÁLVS (mālus), mast, to distinguish it from MALVS (malus), bad.

30. In schoolbooks, a long vowel is indicated by a horizontal line over it: as, āra, altar; mēnsis, month; ōrdō, series. A short vowel is sometimes indicated by a curved mark: as, pĕr, through; dŭx, leader; but this mark is unnecessary if long vowels are systematically marked. Usually the quantity of the vowels in each word is definitely fixed; but in a few cases the same vowel may be now short, now long, as in English the ee of been is pronounced long by some (bean), short by others (bin). Thus (2446) mihi, ibi were sometimes pyrrhics (⏖, 2522), sometimes iambi (⏑-, 2521). See for other cases 134, 2443, 2452, 2453. Such vowels of variable quantity are termed common and marked ⏓ or ⏒: as mihī̆, to me (2514).


31. The pronunciation of Latin sounds may be approximately determined: (a) from the description of the native grammarians and incidental allusions in other Latin authors; (b) from variations in spelling; (c) from the Greek transliteration of Latin words; (d) from the Latin transliteration of foreign words; (e) from the development of the sounds in languages derived from the Latin.


32. Vowels are sounds which are produced by the vibrations of the vocal chords (this may be easily felt by placing a finger on the throat at the Adam’s apple) and without any audible friction or any obstruction anywhere in the passage above the vocal chords. The difference in the sound of the vowels is due to the different shape which the position of the tongue and the lips gives in each case to the cavity of the mouth. During the pronunciation of pure vowels no air escapes through the nose.

33. The simple vowels, a, e, i, o, u (y), are either long or short. The sound of a long vowel is considered to be twice the length of that of a short.

34. That a long vowel is equal to two shorts is a rule of metrical theory (see 2515). In actual pronunciation, there were undoubtedly various degrees of length, as in English: e.g., sea, seize (long), cease (half-long).


The quantity of vowels must in general be learned by observation; but some convenient helps for the memory may be found in 2429; and the quantity of many vowels may be ascertained by the general principles given in 35 and 36. Except in the case of Hidden Quantity (2459), the quantity of vowels is in general ascertained from verse. But some information may also be gleaned from such rhetorical prose as exhibits well defined habits in the rhythmical endings selected for sentences (clausulae, Cic. O. 191-226).


35. A vowel is short:

(1.) Before another vowel or h (124): as, eōs, ēvehō; compare taceō with tacēre. For exceptions in classical Latin, see 127; for exceptions in early Latin see 126.

(2.) Before nt and nd (128) if not the result of contraction: as, calendae, centum; compare amant, amandus, with amāre.

(3.) Before final t and m, and, in words of more than one syllable, before final r and l (132): compare amat, amem, with amās and amēs.



36. All vowels are long which are:

(1) Weakened from a diphthong (96-101; 108), or which are the result of contraction (118): as, concīdō from caedō; cōgō from co-agō.

(2) Lengthened by compensation (121): as, quīnī for *quincnī.

(3) Before nf, ns, often before nc followed by a consonant, and, in some cases, before gn (122).


37. The following English sounds come nearest to the Latin pronunciation of the vowels:

38. Long vowels. ā had the sound of a in father; ē that of a in fate (but see 39); ī that of i in machine; ō that of o in tone; ū that of u in rule.

39. It must be noted, however, that all English long vowels, save a as in father, are more or less diphthongal, that is, they become gradually closer (46); a in fate ends in a vanishing sound of ee (not heard in the ê of French fête), and o in no ends in the sound of oo. Similarly the long e sound in he becomes closer and ends in a sound similar to the y in year. In Latin all long vowels had one sustained sound.

40. Short vowels. a sounded approximately like the English a in the first syllable of aha; e, i, o, and u sounded like e in step, i in pit, o in obey, and u in pull respectively.

41. Latin short a did not differ, except in quantity, from long ā; it never had the ‘flat’ sound of English a in pat. In the case of the other vowels, i, e, o, and u, the long vowels were closer (46) than the short ones. This is the same difference which the English shows in keen (long and close) and kin (short and open); pool (long and close) and pull (short and open). For this reason, open i is sometimes represented by e in inscriptions: as, ANEMA for anima, soul; and vea was the rustic pronunciation for via, road (Varro, R. R. 1, 2, 14).

42. Y, which was a sound borrowed from the Greek (17), sounded like German ü. The sound, which is missing in English, is formed with the tongue in position for i (in kin) and the lips rounded as for oo (in moon).


43. Vowels are divided according to the position of the tongue. Latin i and e are called front vowels, because the front part of the tongue is elevated. This elevation is greater for i than for e. Latin o and u are called back vowels, because they require an elevation of the rear part of the tongue. This elevation is greater for u than for o. Latin a holds an intermediate position, no part of the tongue being raised, while the front part is depressed.

44. In the formation of i and e, the tongue approaches the hard palate; hence these two vowels are also called palatal vowels. Similarly, o and u are called velar or guttural vowels, because in their formation the tongue approaches the soft palate (vēlum palātī).


45. o and u require a rounding of the lips (labia); hence they are called labial vowels. The same is true for y.

46. Comparing the vowels in English keen and kin, it will be noted that the passage between the tongue and the hard palate is narrower in the former than in the latter case. The ee in keen is therefore said to be a narrow or close vowel, while the i in kin is wide or open. See 41.


47. Two unlike (43-46) vowels pronounced under one stress and as one syllable form a Diphthong. All diphthongs are long.

In all diphthongs the transition from one vowel to the other is gradual. A diphthong is, therefore, not formed simply by pronouncing two vowels in succession, but the vocal organs pass through all the intermediate positions and consequently the sound is constantly changing.

48. In their origin diphthongs are of two kinds: (a.) primitive diphthongs: as in foedus, treaty; aurum, gold; or (b.) secondary diphthongs, the result of vowels meeting in formation, composition, or inflection: see 120.

49. The diphthongs which occur in classical Latin are au, ae, oe, and the rare ui and eu.

au sounded like ou in house. ae had the sound of short Latin a rapidly combined with the sound of e in English men. But it is the common practice now to give to ae the sound of ay or ai in ay, aisle, although the difference between Latin ae and the earlier ai from which it descended is thus obliterated. oe had the sound of short Latin o rapidly followed by the sound of e in English men. But it is now customary not to distinguish between Latin oe and oi, and to give to both the sound of oi in boil. ui is pronounced by combining Latin short u and i (4041) with the stress on the i like French oui; eu by combining Latin short e and u with stress on the u.

50. Besides these, the following diphthongs occur in the older inscriptions: ai pronounced as ai in aisle; ei as ei in eight; oi as oi in boil; and ou which sounded very much like the final o in no, go, which is really a diphthong (see 39).


51. Consonants are formed by stopping the breath somewhere in the cavity of the mouth or by squeezing it through a narrow channel or aperture.

52. Semivowels. There is no sharp line of demarcation between consonants and vowels. Some vowels in unsyllabic function (8283) notably i () and u () (corresponding to English y and w), though usually classed as consonants, are so closely related to the vowels that they are termed semivowels (2504). To these may be added also the liquids l and r. Contact of the semivowels i and u with their corresponding vowels i and u is avoided in classical times. See for -vu- 107, c; for -quu- 157; and for -i̭i- 104, c (on obi̭iciō); 458 (Bōī for *Bōi̭ī). See 153, 3.


53. Most of the consonants are pronounced as in English. The following points must be noticed:

54. b before a surd, as s or t, has the sound of p. The spelling b is here simply etymological: as, abs, pronounced aps (the b retained in spelling because of ab); urbs, pronounced urps (the b retained because of the oblique cases urbis, urbī, etc.); obterō, pronounced opterō (Quint. 1, 7, 7), where the spelling of the preposition ob was kept (164).

55. c has always the sound of English k.

56. d before the surd s is pronounced t; the spelling d is preserved for etymological reasons only: as, adsum, pronounced atsum.

57. g always has the sound of English g in go, never that of g in gentle. gu, when it makes one syllable with the following vowel, is pronounced like English gw: as, sanguine like sanguine.

58. h has a weak sound as h in British English (Southern), and by some was not counted as a consonant. Consequently the same uncertainty existed as to initial h. The omission of initial h is recognized in classical Latin for ānser (originally *hānser). Elsewhere the omission of initial h in spelling, as ostia for hostia, is rare until the third century A.D.

Very rarely h is written between two vowels to denote that each should be pronounced separately (like our diaeresis in coëxtensive): as, ahēneus, bronze, with separate (116 a); but aes, bronze, with diphthongal ae.

59. Unsyllabic (22) or consonant i has the sound of English y in year.

60. There were two varieties of l. One was like the English l, guttural in character, because in its pronunciation not only the blade (front part) of the tongue touched the gums, but in addition to this the rear part of the tongue was elevated toward the soft palate. The other l was purely dental, and formed without such back elevation. This second variety appeared in the combination ll, or whenever l was followed by the front vowels (43) e or i, or when it was final. Elsewhere l was guttural.

61. From the earliest times final m in unaccented syllables had a faint sound or was even inaudible (Quint. 9, 4, 39). Consequently it is often omitted in writing in the older inscriptions both before an initial vowel or consonant: as, POCOLO for pōcolom; OINO for oinom (ūnum), and the grammarian Verrius Flaccus proposed to write only half an M for final m before a vowel. In prosody, therefore, final m did not prevent elision (2493). The same is seen in prose in cases like animadvertō, I pay heed to, from animum advertō, I turn my mind toward (395); vēnīre, to be sold for vēnum īre, to go to sale (1165). But in monosyllables where m closes the accented syllable, it did not vanish (2494, 2495), and this difference in the treatment of final m is reflected in the Romance languages.

62. n stands for two sounds. It represents the dental nasal, as n in English now. But before the gutturals k, c, g, q, and the compound x (= cs), it represents the guttural nasal which is written ng in English sing, wrong. This second n is sometimes called n adulterīnum or ‘spurious n,’ thus: nc (in avunculus) as in uncle; ng (in angulus) as in angle; ngu (in sanguine) as in sanguine; nqu (in inquit) as inkw in inkwiper; nx (in pīnxit) as in lynx.


63. Dental n before s had a reduced sound, and is therefore sometimes omitted in writing: as, CESOR for cēnsor; COSOL for cōnsul, in older inscriptions; and fōrmōsus by the side of fōrmōnsus; vīcēsimus by the side of vīcēnsimus, Cicero omitted the n in the adjective suffix -ēnsis: as, forēsia, of the forum; hortēsia, garden plants.

64. q, in classical Latin, appears only in the combination qu, sounded like English qu or kw (27). r was trilled.

65. s, in classical Latin was always unvoiced (surd, 75) like English s in so, sin, never voiced (sonant, 75) as English s in ease. su, when it makes one syllable with the following vowel, is like sw in sweet (27).

66. In old Latin, final s after a short vowel and before a consonant seems to have been reduced in sound or to have disappeared altogether. In the older inscriptions it is often omitted in the ending of the nominative singular -us, and in the pre-Ciceronian poets final s often does not make position (2468). But such omission was considered vulgar in Cicero’s time (Cic. O. 161; Quint. 9, 4, 38).

67. In the archaic period Latin s stood also for the voiced sibilant (English s in ease, z in zeal), as in ASA, altar (154).

68. t is always sounded as in time, never as in nation. The pronunciation of ci and ti with the c and t as sibilants (as in English cinder, nation) is very late.

69. v is like the English w.

70. x is a compound consonant, standing for cs, and so sounded, never as English gs or gz.

71. z, being a Greek sound, should have retained its Greek pronunciation. This differed in the different dialects; in the Attic of the fourth century B.C. it was approximately that of English z in zeal, while its earlier value was zd. The Romans had great difficulty in pronouncing this sound (Quint. 12, 10, 27 f.), but the grammarian Velius Longus expressly states that it should not be pronounced as a compound sound (zd).

72. About 100 B.C. the combinations ch, ph, and th were introduced in Greek words to represent χ, φ, and θ; as Philippus, for the older PILIPVS. Somewhat later these combinations were in general use in some Latin words (19). ch is thought to have been pronounced like kh in blockhead, ph as in uphill, and th as in hothouse. But in practice ch is usually sounded as in the German machen or ich, ph as in graphic, and th as in pathos.


73. Explosives. Consonants which are formed by stopping the breath in the oral cavity and then suddenly removing the obstruction are called explosives. They cannot be prolonged in sound. They are: c, k, q, g; t, d; p, b. These are often called mutes.

74. Continuants. Consonants which may be prolonged in sound are called continuants. They are: unsyllabic (83) i (59) and u (66); l (60), r; l, s, f; n (62), m.


75. Voiced and Unvoiced. If during the emission of breath the vocal chords vibrate (32), the consonant is said to be voiced or sonant: g; d; b; n (62), m; l (60), r; unsyllabic (83) i (59) and u (69); otherwise it is said to be unvoiced or surd: c, k, q; t; p; h, s, f.

76. Nasals. In the majority of consonants, the breath escapes through the cavity of the mouth, and the cavity of the nose is closed in the rear by means of the raised soft palate. Those consonants in which the breath escapes through the nose, while the oral cavity is closed, are called nasals: as, n, m, n adulterīnum (see 62).

77. Classification according to place of formation. Consonants are further divided according to the place where the breath is stopped or squeezed. (1.) If the breath is stopped by the lips, as in p, b, m, or squeezed through the lips, as in v (English w), we speak of labials. (2.) If the breath is forced through an opening between the upper teeth and the lower lip, as in f, we speak of a labiodental. (3.) Sounds which are produced by the point of the tongue touching the upper gums and teeth, as t, d, n, r, or by the formation of a narrow median channel in the same place, like s, or of a lateral channel, like l (60), are called dentals. (4.) Palatals are formed by an elevation of the front part of the tongue against the forward section of the palate, like i consonant (English y). (5.) If the back of the tongue touches or approaches the rear part of the palate as in k, q, c, g, n adulterīnum (English ng in sing), and l (60), we speak of gutturals (velars); see 44.

78. Spirants. Sounds which are produced by friction of the breath are called spirants: as, s, f, and h.

79. Sibilants. On account of its hissing sound, s is called a sibilant. English s, z, th are sibilants.

80. Doubling of Consonants. In English, double consonants as the tt, nn, pp, mm in motto, Anna, tapping, grammar, are sounded exactly like the corresponding single consonants in cot, pan, tap, ram. In Latin, on the other hand, double consonants (geminātae) were pronounced as they are in modern Italian. In the case of explosives (73), as in mitto, after the tongue had come in contact with the roof of the mouth (= first t) a short pause ensued before the explosion took place (= second t). In the case of continuants (74), as in summus, Apollo, the mm or ll was sounded appreciably longer than a single m or l, and at the beginning of the second half of the long continuant there was a slight increase of force.

81. Consonants were not doubled in writing till after 200 B.C.: as, FVISE for fuisse, to have been, and for more than a century afterward the usage is variable: as, in the same inscription, ESSENT, they might be, by the side of SVPERASES, thou mayest have conquered; but it must not be inferred that they were pronounced as single consonants.


82. Whenever two or more sounds are combined in a syllable, one of them excels in acoustic prominence: as, a in English pat; n in the group pnd in opnd (opened); l in the group tld in bottld (bottled); and s in the group pst. This sound is said to have syllabic function or to be syllabic; in the examples given, a, n, l, and s are respectively syllabic. All the other members of each group are termed unsyllabic.


83. Vowels are almost always used in syllabic function. When, in rare cases, they are unsyllabic, this fact is usually indicated in phonetic works by an inverted half-circle, ̭, placed under the vowel; so in the case of diphthongs to indicate the subordinate member: as ai̭, oḙ, ṷi (49). Latin omnia and English glorious, when pronounced as words of two syllables, would be written omni̭a (2503), glori̭ous. When sounds other than vowels have, in rare cases, syllabic function, this fact is noted in phonetic works by a point, . , or circle, ˳ , under the letter: as, Latin *agṛs, *agr̥s (111, b), English opṇd, opn̥d.


84. The relative force with which the different syllables of a word are uttered varies. Such variation in emphasis is called stress accentuation.

The degrees of stress are really infinite, but for practical purposes it is sufficient to distinguish between (1.) the strongest stress (chief accent); (2.) a weaker stress (secondary accent); and (3.) absence of stress (atonic syllable). In the English contradict, the last syllable has the chief accent, a secondary accent falls on the first, and the second syllable is unstressed.

85. It is not customary to indicate the place of accents in Latin by special signs. When, for special reasons, signs are used, ´ denotes the chief accent, ` the secondary accent, while the unstressed syllables are left unmarked.


86. In classical Latin the place of the chief accent may be determined by the following rules.

(1.) Words of two syllables have the accent on the penult (175): as,

hómo; ā́cer.

(2.) Words of more than two syllables have the accent on the penult when that syllable is long (177); otherwise on the antepenult: as,

palū́ster, onústus (177); mulíebris, génetrīx (178); árborēs, árbutus, gladíolus.

87. A short penult retains the accent in the genitive and vocative with a single ī from stems in -io- (456, 459): as, genitive, cōnsílī; impérī; genitive or vocative, Vergílī; Valérī; Mercúrī. For calefácis, &c., see 394.

88. In a few words which have lost a syllable the accent is retained on the last syllable; such are (1.) compounds of the imperatives dīc and dūc (113): as, ēdū́c; (2.) nominatives of proper names in -ās and -īs for -ātis and -ītis: as, Arpīnā́s, for Arpīnā́tis; Laenā́s; Maecēnā́s; Quirī́s; Samnī́s; also nostrā́s, vostrā́s; (3.) words compounded with the abbreviated (113) enclitics -c for -ce and -n for -ne: as, illī́c; tantṓn; audīstī́n (for the shortening of the final syllable: as, vidén, dost see?, see 129); (4.) audī́t, contracted from audīvit (154, 893). The Latin grammarians prescribe the circumflex (90) for all these long syllables.


89. In the preliterary period of the Latin language, the accent tended to go as far from the end of the word as possible (recessive accent). Thus, while the classical accentuation is inimī́cus, the older period accented ínimīcus. In literary Latin this early recessive accent has survived, only in Plautus’s accentuation of words of the form ⏑ ⏑ ⏑ ⏓ (proceleusmatic or fourth paeon, see 2521), in which he stresses the first syllable: as, fácilius (classical facílius); vóluerat (classical volúerat). But in many instances the early recessive accent may be traced in literary Latin by the phonetic changes which it produced (102 ff.).

90. Musical element. The native Latin grammarians slight the stress accentuation and pay much attention instead to the variations in pitch. But they are so greatly dependent on their Greek models that they are unsafe guides in this matter. It is, however, probable that a stressed vowel was uttered on a higher key (acute) than an unstressed vowel (grave), and that in certain syllables the long, accented vowel showed a rise and fall (circumflex): as, illîc (88).

91. The force of the Latin stress accent must have varied at different periods and in different localities, as it now varies in the Romance countries. The early recessive accent seems to have been fairly emphatic; but the stress in classical Latin was probably weak and the difference between accented and unaccented syllables was much less marked than it is in English.


92. Proclitics are unaccented words which are pronounced as a part of the following word; they are: (1.) The relative and indefinite pronouns and their derivatives; (2.) Prepositions.

(a.) Thus, quō diē, pronounced quōdíē; quī vīxit, quīvī́xit; genus unde Latīnum, génus undeLatī́num. Similarly quamdíū, as long as; iamdíū, this long time. A distinction is thus made between the interrogative quālis (1526), which is accented, and the relative quālis (1831) which is proclitic (Quint. 1, 5, 26); cf. the English who, which is accented when interrogative, and proclitic when relative. (b.circum lītora, pronounced circumlī́tora; ab ōrīs, pronounced abōrīs (Quint. 1, 5, 27); in inscriptions and manuscripts prepositions are often united in writing with the following word. Phrases like extemplō, suddenly, invicem (94), in turn, are commonly written and accented as one word. But the preposition is accented when it is followed by a monosyllabic unemphatic (and therefore enclitic) personal pronoun: as, ín mē; ábs tē (but abs tḗ, if is emphatic). All prepositions used as adverbs (1402) have an independent accent.

93. Enclitics are words which have no accent of their own, but are pronounced as a part of the word preceding. This increase of the number of syllables produced certain accentual changes, all the details of which are not clear. When the enclitic was monosyllabic the place of the accent seems to have been determined as in 86; thus vídēs, but vidḗsne; Látiō, but Latiṓque. Again, when by the addition of a monosyllabic enclitic the accent falls on the fourth syllable from the end, a secondary (8485) accent was probably placed on the penult: as, perī́cula, but perī́culàque. The Roman grammarians agree, however, in demanding that everywhere the syllable preceding the enclitics -que, -ne, -ve, and -ce should be accented. In deinde and subinde there is authority for placing the accent on the first syllable.


Enclitics are: (1.) Unemphatic personal and indefinite pronouns: as, in mē, pronounced, ínmē; dā mihi, dā́mihi; sīc tibi, sī́ctibi; sī quis, sī́quis; nē quid, nḗquid. (2.) Verbs when used as auxiliaries: as, possum for pót(e) sum (752); quī́ libet (2401); vidḗlicet, īlicet, scīlicet (712); quámvīs (1903); the forms of esse in compound tenses (719), so that est is frequently combined, even in writing, with the preceding past participle (747). (3.) The particles -ne (-n), -ve, and -ce (-c): as, satísne or shortened satín; Hyrcānīsve Arabī́sve; istī́ce or shortened istîc (90), adhûc (90). (4.) The copulative conjunction -que: as, Latiṓque, līmináque. (5.) The preposition cum when it follows (1435) its case. (6.) The particle quidem: as, sī quidem, síquidem (131). (7.) Other enclitics are: -met (650): as, egómet; -dem: as, ibídem; -nam: as, ubínam; -dum (1573): as, agédum; -inde: as, déinde, próinde (which are disyllabic in verse), and súbinde; -tum; as, etiámtum; -per: as, parúmper; the vocative when it was closely joined to the preceding word, e.g. an imperative: as, dī́c puer (106).

94. Two words expressing what is really one single idea are often bound together by one accent, one of them acting the part of either a proclitic or enclitic.

Thus, with the earlier recessive accent (89), Iū́piter (133; 389; originally a vocative which came to be used as nominative; for the change of pater to piter see 104); ínvicem, in turn; dḗnuō for dḗ nóvō (106); with the later, classical accent, lēgislā́tor, paterfamíliās, orbisterrā́rum, extémplō, imprī́mīs. When unemphatic ille and iste preceded their noun and had practically the value of our definite article they formed a unit with the following noun and thus the accent might fall on their last syllable: as, illé pater, isté canis. This use is particularly common in vulgar and late Latin (see 112).



95. Of the six original diphthongs au, ou, eu, and ai, oi, ei, the only one which preserved its original sound in the classical period is au. Of the rest only ae (for older ai) and, in a few words, oe (for older oi) remained diphthongs; all the others had become monophthongs.

96. Change of ai. ai is common in inscriptions: as, AIDILIS, PRAITOR. Toward the end of the republic the two elements of the diphthong had been partially assimilated to ae (49): as, aedīlis (Quint. 1, 7, 18). This is its pronunciation in the classical period. Between 130 and 100 B.C. ai is displaced by ae in public documents; but the old-fashioned ai was often retained in private inscriptions. Still later the two elements completely converged to ē. In provincial Latin ē is found as early as 200 B.C.: as, CESVLA for CAESVLLA; in Rome itself the pronunciation ‘Cēcilius’ for Caecilius, and ‘prētor’ for praetor was derided as boorish; but by 71 A.D. ae was verging toward ē even in the court language: the coins of Vespasian have IVDEA as well as IVDAEA. In the 3d and 4th century A.D. ē became the prevalent sound.


97. Change of au. The diphthong au, which was preserved in educated speech, was changed to ō in rustic and colloquial pronunciation (see the anecdote related by Suetonius, Vesp. 22): as, cōpō, innkeeper, for caupō; plōstrum for plaustrum (barge), cart: Clōdius for Claudius. Some of these gained literary currency: as, cōdex, book, caudex, block; fōcāle, neckcloth, faucēs, throat. The form sōdēs (1572) for si̭ audēs = sī audēs (Cic. O. 154) is a colloquialism.

98. Change of ei. ei as a genuine diphthong is common in old inscriptions: as, SEI; SEIVE; ADEITVR; DEIXERVNT; FEIDA. In classical Latin it has passed into ī: thus, , if; sīve, either; adītur, is approached; dīxērunt, they said; fīda, faithful. An intermediate stage between the old diphthong ei and the classical ī was a very close (46) ē: as, PLOIRVME (465) for plūrimī; IOVRE (501, 507) for iūrī. For the orthographical use of ei as a spelling for the long ī-sound, see 29.

99. Change of oi. The development of oi was parallel to that of ai. It first passed into oe: as, COIRAVERVNT and COERAVERVNT, they cared; OITILE, useful, and OETI, to use; LOIDOS and LOEDOS, play,—all in old Latin. In classical Latin it has further been changed in accented syllables to ū: as, cūrāvērunt, ūtile, ūtī, lūdus. But oe was retained in classical Latin (1.) when a secondary diphthong (48), the result of contraction (120), and (2.) in a few words like foedus, treaty, perhaps as an archaizing, legal term; foedus, ugly; poena, penalty, perhaps through the influence of Greek ποινή (in the verb pūnīre, to punish, the regular ū appears); proelium, skirmish; foetor, stench; and moenia, walls, perhaps because there was a word mūnia, services. The connection of nōn, not, with noenum (455; 1444; 699) is difficult because of the unusual development of oe to o, for which the Praenestine form CORAVERONT is the only parallel.

100. Change of ou. ou, found in inscriptions down to about 90 B.C., passed, in classical Latin, into ū: as, POVBLICOM, NOVNTIATA, IOVDEX; later pūblicum, public, nūntiāta, notified, iūdex, judge.

101. Change of eu. Primitive (48) eu appears in classical Latin only in the interjections eu, heu, ē̆heu, heus. Every other original eu had, even in old Latin, passed into ou and developed like the latter: as, *neumen (Greek νεῦμα) became first *noumen, then (100) nūmen. With the exceptions noted above, the diphthong eu, as it appears in Latin, is always of secondary origin (48), the result of the two vowels e and u meeting in composition: as, neu, neither, from nē-ve; neutiquam, from and utiquam (124).


102. The vowel of an unstressed (atonic) syllable is often weakened, changing its quantity or quality or both. This is especially the case in syllables immediately preceded by the chief accent (posttonic syllables). The following changes took place at an early period when Latin still possessed the old, recessive accent (89).


103. (a.) Atonic medial e before a single consonant was weakened (with the exceptions given under b.) to i: as, cólligō, collect, from legō; óbsideō, besiege, from sedeō; cértāminis, of the contest, from certāmen (224); flāminis, from flāmen (470). And so probably hic (664) arose from *hec or *hoc (105, g) when used as proclitic (92). Before the labials p, b, f, and m this weakened sound was intermediate between i and u (28), and both spellings occur: as, quadripēs and quadrupēs, four-footed; alimentum, nourishment; monumentum, monument. The choice of i or u was probably governed by the quality of the stressed vowel in the preceding syllable: viz., u after o and u, and i after a, e, and i. But such distinction is only imperfectly maintained in classical Latin.


(b.) But before two consonants, before r, before vowels, and after i, atonic e does not change: as, lévāmentum (224), but lévāminis, of consolation; óbsessus (but óbsideō), possessed; sócietās, society, from the stem socie- (but nóvitās from the stem nove-); géneris, of the kind; ádeunt, they approach.

104. (c.) Atonic medial a, except in the cases mentioned below under (d.), (e.), and (f.), was first weakened to e and then underwent the same changes as atonic medial e (103): as (before single consonants), cṓnficiō, accomplish, from faciō; ī́nsiliō, jump in, from saliō (1019); rédditus, restored, from datus; trícipitem, three-headed, from *trícapitem (caput), Cic. O. 159; occiput, back of the head, and sinciput, jole (478). In compounds of iaciō (940), -iaciō is weakened in early Latin to -ieciō (as, conieciō, 940), but later to -iciō (as, subiciō). This last form may be due to syncope (111, a) of the radical a. The spelling -iiciō (as, subiiciō) is late and faulty (52). It does not occur in republican inscriptions and owes its origin to a confusion of the two forms conieciō and coniciō. (On the quantity of the vowel of the prepositions in these compounds of iaciō, see 122 e); (before p, b, f, m) áccipiō, accept, and óccupō, occupy, from capiō; cóntubernālis, room-mate, from taberna; ábripiō, to snatch away, from rapiō; (before two consonants) pépercī, I have spared, from parcō; áccentus, accent, from cantus; (before r) péperī, I brought forth, from pariō.

(d.) But an a in the preceding syllable may protect the atonic a: as, ádagiō, ádagium, proverb, but prṓdigium, miracle (144).

(e.) Atonic medial a before the guttural nasal (62) n followed by g changed to i (138): as, áttingō, touch, from tangō.

(f.) Atonic medial a before l followed by any consonant save l changed to u (both l and u being guttural, 6044): as, éxsultāre, to leap up, from saltāre; but féfellī, I deceived, from fallō.

105. (g.) Atonic medial o, when followed by a single consonant, first changed to e and then underwent all further changes of medial atonic e: as, hóminis, from *homon-is (485); ímāginis, for *imāgonis, 226 (nominative imāgō, 485); cúpīdinis, for *cupīdonis, 225, (nominative cupīdō, 485); vírginis, for *virgonis (nominative virgō, 470); ī́licō, from *in-slocō, on the spot (169, 4).

(h.) Before two consonants or before guttural l (60) atonic medial o changed to u: as, éuntis, from *éontis (Greek ἴοντος); sēdulō, from sē dolō (1417). But a preceding v or u protects o (107, c).

(i.) Before r, atonic medial o was retained: as, témporis, of time; except when u in the preceding syllable induced a change to u: as, fúlguris, of lightning (for the -r in the nominative singular fulgur instead of -s, see 154).

106. (k.) Medial -av-, -ov-, and -iv- in posttonic syllables were weakened to u: as, dḗnuō from dḗnovō (94); ábluō from ablavō. The form puer, boy, arose from the older POVER in enclitic vocatives (93, 7) and was thence transferred to the nominative like piter in Iūpiter (94).


107. (a.) In final syllables unaccented original e before s and t was weakened to i: as, salūtis, of safety, from older salūtes (507).

(b.) Final i became e: as, ante for *anti (Greek ἀντί and anti-cipāre); nominative singular mare, from the stem mari- (526).

(c.) In final syllables o before consonants changed to u except when preceded by u or v: as, fīlius, son, for old Latin fīlios (452); ferunt, they carry, for older feront; femur, thigh, nomin. sg. from the stem femor- (489); genus, kind, for *genos, Greek γένος; but vīvont, they live; salvom, safe. Not long before the beginning of our era o here also changed to u and appears to have coalesced with the preceding v (Quint. 1, 7, 26): as, in inscriptions: INGENVS (nomin. sg.) for ingenuos; SERVM, slave (acc. sg.), for servom; NOVM for novom, something new; 16 so also boum, oxen (gen. pl.), for bovom (494). But inasmuch as the majority of forms in the paradigms of these words retained their v, it was restored in most cases, by analogy, to the forms which had lost it: as, servum for serum, because of servī, servō, etc.; vīvunt for vīunt, because of vīvō, vīvis, vīvit, etc.

(d.) When the stems fac- (facere, do), cap- (capere, take) appear as second members of compounds, their a changes in final syllables to e: as, artifex, artisan; auceps, bird-catcher. After the analogy of these words, compounds with dīcere and īre have e in the nom. sg.: as, iūdex, iūdicis, judge (from iūs and dīcere); comes, companion (from com, with, and īre); see 136, 2.


108. Diphthongs, whether medial or final, are treated alike in atonic syllables.

(a.) Atonic ei, oi, and ai (ae) became ī: as, lupī, wolves (nom. pl.), for *lupoi (Gr. λύκοι); bellī, in war (loc. sg., 460, 1338), for *bellei (Greek οἴκει) or *belloi (Greek οἴκοι); éxīstimō, I consider, from aestimō; cóncīdō, I strike down, from caedō; Cicero, O. 159, mentions inīcum, unfair, for *ínaecum, and concīsum for *cóncaesum; so also, probably, hīc, this, arose from hoic (662) when used as a proclitic (92).

(b.) Atonic ou and au became ū: as, ínclūdō, I include, from claudō; áccūsāre, to accuse, from causa.

109. There are not a few cases in which the atonic vowel does not conform to the rules given above (102-108). These are usually compounds which show the vowel of the simple verb. Some of these were formed at a time when the early recessive accent was no longer in force and consequently there was no cause for weakening; in others the vowel of the simple verb was by analogy substituted for the weakened vowel of the compound: as, appetō, I strive after, from petō, which ought to have i like colligō, collect, from legō; intermedius, intermediate, but dīmidius, half; dēfraudāre, to cheat, by the side of dēfrūdāre from fraudāre; instead of the common redarguō, I refute, Scipio Africanus minor Pauli filius (185-129 B.C.) said rederguō, and pertīsum for pertaesum, but both Cicero (O. 159) and Lucilius discountenance pertīsum as the sign of a pedantic prig. In a few cases the reverse process took place, and the weakened vowel which arose in the compound was transferred to the simple verb: as, clūdō, I close (958), for claudō, which owes its ū to compounds like occlūdō. For a case where the vowel of the preceding syllable acted as a stay to the expected change, see 104, d.


110. Only vowels which are short and atonic may be lost. The loss of a medial vowel is called Syncope; of an initial vowel, Aphaeresis; of a final vowel Apocope.

111. Syncope. (a.) Loss of a posttonic vowel, entailing the loss of a syllable, occurs in ardus (Lucil.; for ă see 128) for the common āridus, dry; caldus by the side of calidus, warm (Quint. 1, 6, 19); reppulī, I pushed back, and rettulī, I carried back, stand for *répepulī and *rétetulī (861); pergō, I proceed, stands for *perregō from regō (cf. cor-rigō, ē-rigō, where the e is weakened, 103, and porrigō, porgō, where it is either weakened or lost), hence it forms its perfect perrēxī (953): pōnō, I place, is for *posnō (170, 2) from *po-sinō (112), hence it forms its past participle positus (972); for iūrgō, I blame. Plautus has iūrigō; *ūsūripō (from ūsus and rapere) yields ūsurpō, I utilize; *gāvideō, hence gāvīsus (801), gives gaudeo, I rejoice, converting āṷ to aṷ before the following d (128); in a similar way auceps, bird-catcher, is formed from *aviceps (avis, bird, 17 and capere, catch); claudere, lock, from *clāvidere (clāvis, key); aetās, age, for áevitās (262); praecō, herald, for *práevicō (105, g) prae-vocō (211); also with change of ou to ū (100), prūdēns, prudent, for *proudēns from providēns, foreseeing; nūper, lately, from *noviper; nūntius, messenger, from *noventius (333); iūcundus, joyful, from iuvicundus (Cic. Fin. 2, 14). But forms like pōclum, cup, saeclum, age, do not belong here, as they are original and not derived by syncope from pōculum, saeculum; cf. 172.

(b.) Where, through the loss of a vowel, l or r would come to stand between two consonants, or where they would be final and preceded by a consonant, l and r become syllabic (83) and the syllable is thus maintained. Syllabic l is represented by ul, syllabic r by er (172, 3). The development of such intercalary vowels as u before l and e before r is called Anaptyxis (172). Thus, *sacri-dōts (cf. sacri-legium) became first *sacr̥dōts by syncope, then sacerdōs, priest, by anaptyxis; *ācribus (cf. ācri-mōnia, pungency) first became *ācr̥bus then ācerbus, pungent; *agrilos (267, cf. agri-cola, farmer) became first *agr̥los, then *agerlos, and finally, by assimilation of the r to l (166, 7), agellus, small field; from *dis-ficilter (adverb from dis- and facilis) arose *difficl̥ter and difficulter, with difficulty. The nominative sg. of the following words is to be explained thus. ager (451) was originally *agros (cf. Greek ἄγρος), which changed successively to *agr̥s, *agers, and ager (for the loss of -s see 171, 1 and 3). Similarly *ācris, passing through the stages of *ācr̥s, *ācers, became ācer (627), and *famlos by way of *faml̥s, *famuls, became famul (455), to which later the common ending of nouns of the o-declension was added, giving famulus.

112. Aphaeresis. Aphaeresis hardly occurs in literary Latin. In the pronoun iste the initial i is sometimes dropped (667); this loss implies an accented ultima (94). A trace of prehistoric aphaeresis is found in the prefix po- for *apo (Greek ἀπό) in pōnō, I place, for po-s(i)nō (111, a).

113. Apocope. Under the same conditions under which a medial vowel was syncopated, the final vowel of a word which stood in close union with the following word, as a preposition with its noun, was lost. In this way *peri (Greek περί) became per; *apo (Greek ἀπό) became ap, ab (164, 2); *eti (Greek ἔτι) became et. Similarly the final -e of the enclitics -ce, -ne, not, and -ne interrogative was lost: *sī-ce became sīc, so; *quī-ne, quīn, why not; habēsne, haben, hast thou; the imperatives dīc, say, dūc, lead, and fac, do, stand for earlier dīce, dūce, face (846); the shortened form em for eme (imperative of emere, take) has been turned into an interjection (1149). In the same way nec arose by the side of neque; ac by the side of atque (158). Final -e has also been dropped in the nominative sg. of a number of polysyllabic neuter stems in -āli and -āri (546): as, animal, animal, for *animāle, exemplar, pattern, for *exemplāre. See 536, 537. It must, however, be remembered that in most of the cases given the loss of a final vowel would also result from elision (119) before the initial vowel of the following word.


114. Hiatus. A succession of two vowel sounds not making a diphthong is called Hiatus.

When in the formation of words by means of suffixes or prefixes or through the loss of an intervening consonant, two vowels come into contact within a word we speak of internal hiatus; the term external hiatus comprises those cases where, in connected discourse, the final vowel of one word comes into contact with the initial vowel of the following word. For the latter kind, see 2474.


115. The treatment of vowels in internal hiatus is four-fold: (1.) The hiatus may remain; (2.) the two vowels may be fused into one (Contraction); (3.) one of the two vowels may be dropped (Elision); and (4.) the two vowels may be combined into a diphthong.

116. Hiatus is maintained (a.) between two adjacent vowels the second of which is long and accented (according to the classical accentuation): as, coḗgi, I forced, and coā́ctus, forced (937); but cōgō (118, 3). For coepi, instead of coḗpī, I began, see 120.

(b.) In many prepositional compounds when the members were still felt to be independent: as, praeesse (the contracted form praesse is found in inscriptions); dēerunt, they will be wanting, by the side of dērunt; coalēscō, grow together (the contracted form cōlēscō appears in Varro); cooptāre, coöpt, cooperiō, I cover up (by the side of rare cōptāre, cōperīre); coïtus, meeting, by the side of coetus (120).

(c.) A comparatively large number of vowel combinations remain unchanged: as ea and in eam, her, and meā, by my (fem. sing.); ia and in māria, seas, viātōris, of the traveller; ua and in bēlua, monster, suā, through her (fem. sg.); in quiēs, quiet; in luēs, pestilence; in meī, of me; in tuī, of thee; in meō, by my (masc. sing.).

117. Synizesis. In these combinations the first vowel is sometimes made unsyllabic (83). This is called synizesis (2499) and is not rare in poets, being often the only means of adapting a word to the requirements of certain metres. Thus, fortuītus (- ⏑ - ⏓) must appear in a hexameter as fortvītus (fortṷītus). See 2499, 2503.

118. Contraction. (1.) Two like vowels may unite in one long vowel; rapidity of utterance was favourable to such fusion. In compounds, the desire to keep the members distinct often prevented it. So always nēmō, nobody, for *neemō from *ne-hemō, no man (for the loss of h, see 58, 150; for e in *hemō, see 144); and by the side of the open forms, nīl from nihil, nothing; vēmēns from vehemēns, rapid (connected with the verb vehō); rarely dērunt, they will be wanting, and dēsse, to be wanting, for dēerunt, dēesse; dēlēram, I had destroyed, from *dēlēeram for dēlēveram (for the loss of v, see 153), see 890; passūm, of paces, for passuum (591).

(2.) A diphthong absorbs the following vowel: as, praetor, older praitor, praetor, from *prai-itor, who goes before; inscriptions show praerunt for praeerunt, they will be before; for praebēre, to furnish, the open form praehibēre occurs in Plautus (1004).

(3.) If two unlike vowels are contracted at all, they usually unite in the long sound of the first vowel. Thus, o and a yield ō: as, cōgō, I force, from co-agō; cōgitō, I think, from co-agitō. Similarly Varro has cōlēscat, it may combine, for co-alēscat. o and e yield ō: as, prōmō, bring out, cōmō, put up, for pro-emō, co-emō (953). ē and a yield ē: as, dēgō, I pass away, from dē-agō (937). i and e in the termination of the vocative of -io- stems probably contracted to ; as fīlī from *fīlie, 459. But in denominative (365) and other verbs of the first conjugation ā and ō contract into ō: as, amō, I love, from *amā-ō (cf. Greek τιμά·ω); and ā and ē into ē: as, amēs, thou mayest love, for *amā-ēs.


119. Elision. Only rarely the first of two successive vowels is dropped: as, nūllus, no, for *ne-ūllus; likewise the final vowel of the first member of nominal compounds: as, multangulus, with many corners, for *multi-angulus (cf. multi-cavus, with many holes); flexanimus, heart-rending, for *flexi-animus (cf. flexi-pēs, with bent feet).

120. Combination into diphthongs. The union of two successive vowels into a diphthong is equally rare: o and i are combined to oi, oe, in coetus, meeting, by the side of the open form coïtus (116, b); the perfect coepī (812), I began, owes its diphthong oe to forms in which the e was short and unaccented, such as the rare present forms coepiō for có-ĕpiō (813); for coḗpi (813, 863) would have remained unchanged (116, a). neuter, with the accent on the e, was pronounced as three syllables, later eu became diphthongal; neutiquam with synizesis (117) of e. e and ī̆ sometimes contract to e͡i in rēi (601, 602) and in de͡inde, dēin in the classic poets.


121. Compensative lengthening. When certain groups of consonants are simplified by the dropping of a consonant, its time is absorbed by a preceding short vowel, which thereby becomes long. This is called Compensation. In many cases compensative lengthening is due to the loss of a preliterary sonant s (170, 2): as,

cānus, gray, from *casnus (cf. cas-cus, very old). See for other cases of this lengthening, 170, 5, quīnī, for *quincnī; 170, 6, īgnōscō, for *in-gnōscō.

122. Induced lengthening. Before certain groups of consonants short vowels have a tendency to become long: as,

(a.) The prefixes in- and con- before s or f lengthened their vowels in classical Latin (Cic. O. 159): as, īnsānus, mad; īnfēlīx, unhappy; cōnsuēvit, he grew used to; cōnfēcit, he accomplished. Elsewhere also the vowel before ns and nf appears to have been lengthened: as, fōns, fountain; pēnsus, weighty (Gell. 9, 6); forēnsis, forensic; cēnsor, censor; mēnsa, table; mēnsis, mouth; Valēns; Clēmēns; the o of īnsons, guiltless, however, is marked as short by the grammarian Probus.

(b.) A similar lengthening of the vowel before nc followed by t or s appears: as, ūnctus, anointed, from unguō (Gell. 9, 6); iūnctus, joined, from iungō (954), coniūnx, spouse, genit. coniugis (472); quīnctus, fifth, whence quīntus (170, 4) and quīnque, five, derive their ī; sānctus, hallowed.

(c.) Spellings like sIgnvm, sign (well supported in inscriptions), and dIgne, worthily (less well supported) show that i was at times lengthened before gn. The grammarian Priscian demands this lengthening for all vowels preceding the ending -gnus, -gna, -gnum.

(d.) A lengthened vowel before r followed by a consonant is also certain for some words like ōrdō, order; fōrma, shape.

(e.) Some speakers appear to have lengthened the vowel of prepositions like con-, sub-, ob-, in the compounds of iaciō (104, c); as ōbicit. This practice, which is disapproved by Gellius (417), probably arose from the transfer by analogy of the quantity of the first syllable in forms like conieciant (940) to that of the shortened form. In the same way the occasional spelling CÓNIV́NX, spouse, for coniūnx, may owe its long ō to the analogy of cōiunx, CÓIVGI (170, 6).


(f.) Many verb stems ending in -g have a long vowel in the past participle before the suffix -to-: as, tēctus, covered, from tego (916); tāctus, touched, from tangō (925); pāctus, fixed, from pangō (925); fīctus, moulded, from fingō (954); pīctus, painted, from pingō. The evidence for ā in maximus is very scanty: one case of A with the apex (29, 3) in a faulty inscription.

(g.) Of the induced lengthenings enumerated above, only those given in (a.) (b.) (f.) seem to have been universal in classical Latin. The rest appear to have been local peculiarities, which, while making inroads upon the literary language, never gained full recognition.

123. (1.) Analogical lengthening. In noun stems in -o the stem vowel is lengthened in the genitive plural -ōrum (449, 462), by analogy to the stems in (435): as, servōrum, of slaves, like mēnsārum, of tables. For other cases see 122, e.

(2.) Metrical lengthening. On the lengthening of a vowel (or a syllable) under the influence of verse-ictus, see 2505.


124. A vowel originally long is regularly shortened in classical Latin before another vowel, even though an h intervene: as,

taceō, I am silent, from the stem tacē- (365); seorsum, apart, deorsum, downward, from sē(v)orsum, dē(v)orsum (153).

125. In simple words a diphthong occurs before a vowel only in one or two proper names: as, Gnaeus, Annaeus, in which it remains long, and in Greek words. But the diphthong ae of the prefix prae is sometimes shortened before a vowel: as, pra͝eacūtus; pra͝eeunt; pra͝ehibeō; hence prehendō for *prae-hendō. Sometimes it coalesces with a following vowel: as, pra͡e͡optāvīstī.

126. An increased tendency to shorten a long vowel before another vowel can be traced in the history of the language: thus, classical fuī, I was, for Plautus’s fūī (750); clueō, I am called, for Plautus’s clūeō; perfect pluit, it rained, for Varro’s plūit (cf. plūvit, 823, 947); pius, pious, for Ennius’s pīus; see also 765.

127. But even in classical Latin there are cases where a vowel before another vowel remains long: thus,

(1.) Regularly, the ī of fīō, I am made, except before -er-, as in fierem (788, 789).

(2.) In dīus, godly, for dīvus (153), and the old ablatives dīū, dīō, open sky (used only in the expression sub dīū, sub dīō, i.e. sub dīvō).

(3.) In the ending ēī of the genitive and dative sg. of stems in -ē- (601) when an i precedes: as, diēī, of a day, aciēī, of the battle line, but reī, of the thing, for older rēī.

(4.) It may be mentioned here that rēī is said to occur in verse 6 times (Plaut. G. 2, Lucr. G. 2, D. 2); reī 9 times (Plaut. G. 2, Ter. G. 4, D. 1, Juv. G. 1, Sulp. Apoll. G. 1); re͞i 27 times (Plaut. G. 2, D. 3, Enn. D. 1, Ter. G. 9, D. 8, Lucil. G. 1, D. 1, Lucr. G. 2). fidēī G. 3 times (Plaut., Enn., Lucr.); fideī 11 times (Enn. D. 1, Man. G. 2, D. 1, Sil. G. 4, D. 1, Juv. G. 2); fidēi 5 times (Ter. G. 1, D. 3, Hor. 1). ēī 35 times (Plaut. 18, Ter. 8, Lucr. 9); some 17 times (Plaut. 12, Ter. 2, German. 1, Ter. Maur. 2); ēi 23 times (Plaut. 11, Ter. 8, Lucil. 3, Cat. 1).


(5.) Gāius retains its ā before the vowel i: thus, Gāius (trisyllabic).

(6.) In the pronominal genitives in -ī̆us (618), the quantity of i varied. The older dramatists use ī; later, ī was shortened, but variations in its quantity seem to have continued until long after the end of the republic; Cicero, DO. 3, 183, measures illius; Quintilian 1, 5, 18 ūnīus; the grammarian Priscian prescribes -īus for all except alterius, which should always have i, and utrius, in which the i is common (30). In verse the i is often short, except in neutrīus; utriusque has always short i.

(7.) The penult is long in the endings -āī, -āīs, -ōī, -ōīs, and -ēī, -ēīs, from stems in -āio-, -ōio-, and -ēio- (458) or -iā- (437): as, Gāī, Bōī, Pōmpēī, plēbēī: Gāīs, Bōīs, Pompēīs, plēbēīs, Bāīs; aulāī, pictāī.

(8.) Dī̆ana has ĭ as often as ī. ohē has ŏ̄; ē̆heu has ĕ in comedy, otherwise ē.

(9.) In many Greek words a long vowel comes before another vowel; as, āēr, Aenēās, Mēdēa. But early importations from Greek followed the general rule and shortened the vowel: as, platĕa (πλατεῖα), balinĕum, balnĕum (βαλανεῖον).

128. A long vowel preceding unsyllabic or followed by a consonant is shortened: as, gaudeō for *gāudeō (cf. gāvīsus, 111); claudo for clāudō (cf. clāṷis, 111).

Similarly a long vowel (unless long by contraction: as, nūntius, 111, a, cōntiō) preceding a liquid or nasal followed by a consonant is shortened: as, syncopated ardus from āridus (111), habentem, from the stem habē-. For cases of induced lengthening of the vowel before n followed by certain consonants, see 122.

129. Iambic shortening. The law of iambic shortening (2470) produced a number of important changes: thus,

(1.) In old dramatic verse iambic words (⏑ –) often shorten the long vowel. The poets after Plautus and Terence preserve the long vowel.

(a.) Nouns; G. eri, boni, preti. D. cani, ero, malo. L. domi, heri. Ab. levi, manu, domo, bona, fide. Plural: N. fores, viri. D., Ab. bonis. Ac. foris, viros, bonas. (b.) Verbs: eo, volo, ago; ero, dabo; vides; loces; voles; dedi, dedin; roga, veni; later poets sometimes retain cave, vale, and vide. The vowel may also be shortened when -n (1503) is added and s is dropped before -n (170, 2): rogan, abin; viden is also retained by later poets.

(2.) In a few pyrrhic words (⏑ ⏑) in -i, which were originally iambic (⏑ –), the poets in all periods retained final at pleasure: these are,

mihī̆, tibī̆, sibī̆; ibī̆, ubī̆; also alicubī̆. The i of bi is always short in nēcubi and sīcubi, and usually in ubinam, ubivīs, and ubicumque; ibidem is used by the dramatists, ibīdem in hexameter. ubīque has always ī.

130. The following instances show that this law operated in prose speech also:

(1.) In iambic words of the ā- declension (432) the final of the nominative singular was shortened; hence *equā became equa, mare. From these iambic words short final -a spread so that all stems in -ā- shorten the final ā of the nom. sg. (434).

(2.) The final -a in the nominative plural of neuter nouns of the o- declension (446), which appears in trīgintā, thirty, was likewise shortened, first in iambic words like iuga, yokes, bona, goods, then everywhere (461).

(3.) This law explains the short final vowel in homo (2442) by the side of sermō (2437, c) and similar cases, like the adverbs modo, cito (2442), bene, male (2440). In the same way arose the short final o of the first person in conjugation (2443): as, volo, dabo, dīxero by the side of scrībō; so also viden for vidēn (129, 1; 170, 2).


(4.) Of imperatives only puta, used adverbially (2438, c), ave, have (805; Quint. i, 6, 21; but Martial scans havē) as a salutation and cave, used as an auxiliary (1711), show the short final vowel in classical Latin. Elsewhere the long vowel has been restored, as amā, monē (845).

(5.) According to this rule calēfaciō, malēdīcō changed to calefaciō, maledīcō.

131. A long final vowel is shortened when an enclitic is added to the word: as siquidem from ; quoque from quō.

132. A long vowel is regularly shortened, in the classical period, before final -t and -m and, in words of more than one syllable, also before final r and l.

Thus, soror, sister, for Plautus’s sorōr, from the stem sorōr- (487); ūtar, I may use, for Plautus’s ūtār (cf. ūtāris); bacchanal for Plautus’s bacchanāl; animal, exemplar from the stems animāl- (530) and exemplār- (537); but the long vowel is retained in the monosyllables fūr, thief, sōl, sun; pōnēbat, he placed, for Plautus’s pōnēbāt (cf. pōnēbās); iūbet, he commanded, for Plautus’s iūbēt; eram, I was, but erās; rēxerim, I may have ruled, but rēxerīs (877); -um in the genitive plural of -o- stems is for -ūm (462); mēnsam, table, for *mēnsām from the stem mensā-; rem, from rē- (rēs), spem from spē- (spēs).


133. (1.) In a few cases the length of the vowel has been transferred to the following consonant, the length of which is then indicated by doubling it (81): as, littera for lītera, LEITERAS; Iuppiter for Iūpiter; parricīda for pāri-cīda, murder of a member of the same clan (*pāro-, member of a clan, Doric πᾶός, a relative); cuppa for cūpa, barrel. The legal formula sī pāret, if it appear, was vulgarly pronounced sī parret (Festus).

(2.) Since the doubled unsyllabic i () between vowels (23166, 9; 153, 2) is commonly written single, the vowel preceding it is often erroneously marked long: as, āiō wrongly for aiō, i.e. ai̭i̭ō, I say; māior wrongly for maior, i.e. mai̭i̭or, greater; pēior wrongly for peior, i.e. pei̭i̭or, worse; ēius, of him, cūius, of whom, hūius, of him, all wrongly for eius, cuius, huius i.e. ei̭i̭us, cui̭i̭us, huii̭us (153, 2). In all these words the first syllable was long but not the vowel.


134. (1.) In some foreign proper names and in a very few Latin words the quantity of a vowel varied. Vergil has Sȳchaeus and Sychaeus within six verses; also Āsia and Asia, Lavīnium and Lāvīnius; so also glōmus (Lucr.), glomus (Hor.); cōturnīx (Plaut., Lucr.), coturnīx (Ov.).

(2.) Sometimes such variations in vowel quantity are only apparent: thus, the occasional long final of the active infinitive (darē, prōmerē) has probably a different origin from the usual . For metrical lengthening, see 2505.


135. The same stem often shows a long vowel in some of its forms and a short vowel in others. In most cases these variations of quantity were not developed on Latin soil but inherited from a much earlier period. Such old inherited differences in vowel quantity are called quantitative vowel gradation.


(1.) Instances of this are prō for *prōd (149; cf. prōdesse) and pro- (Greek πρό); and ne- in nescius; the couples regō, I rule, and rēxī; vehō, I draw, vēxī; veniō, I come, vēnī, where the long vowel is characteristic of the perfect stem (862); vocō, I call, and vōx, voice; regō, I rule, and rēx, ruler; legō, I read, and lēx, bill; sedeō, I sit, and sēdēs, seat; fidēs, confidence, and fīdō, I trust; dux (cf. ducis), leader, and dūcō, I lead, where verb and noun are differentiated by the quantity of the root vowel; and many others.

(2.) Sometimes the reduction of the vowel in certain forms amounts to complete loss, as in the adverbial ending -is- in magis (346, 363) compared with the comparative suffix -ios, -iōs (Nom. -ior, Genit. -iōris); in the oblique cases of the stem carōn- (nomin. sg. carō, 497), where the suffix becomes -n- (545), genitive car-n-is; in the suffix -ter, which becomes -tr- in all cases but the nom. sg. (pater, patris, etc., 470, 487); in the feminine -tr-ī-c- to the suffix -tor-; but the nom. sing. Caecīlis (465) for Caecīlios is probably due to syncope.


136. (1.) i before an r which goes back to an earlier voiced s (154) was changed to e: as, cineris, of ashes, for *cinisis, from the stem cinis (491); Faleriī, for *Falisiī, cf. Falis-cus; (formed like Etrūria, for *Etrūsia, cf. Etrūs-cī).

(2.) In the nominative singular of compounds like iūdex, judge (from iūs and dīcere), comes, companion (from com, with, and īre, go), the i of the second member of the compounds is changed to e (470) after the analogy of words like artifex, artisan, etc. (107, d).

137. e before -gn- became i: as, īlignus, from the stem īlec- (cf. īlex).

138. e before the guttural nasal (62) followed by a guttural mute was changed to i: as, septingentī, from septem; singulī, from the stem sem- in semel (for the assimilation of m see 164, 3); obtingō (925), I attain, for *óbtengō (104, c) from *ob-tangō (104, e).

139. A similar change took place in the group -enl- which became first -inl- and then -ill-: as, *signilum, diminutive of sīgnum (for ī, see 122, c), first changed by syncope (111) from *signilum to *sign̥lum, then to *sigenlum (172, 3), then to *siginlum, and finally to sigillum.

140. o before nc became u: as, homunculus, manikin for *homonculus, from the stem homon- (485); nūncupāre, name, for *nōn-cupāre (nōn- for nōm- (164, 3) = syncopated nōmen); hunc, him, for *honc, from hom-ce (662).

141. o before l followed by any consonant save l was changed to u: as, cultus, tilled, for *coltus, from colere; multa, fine, for old Latin molta. But o before ll is retained: as, collis, hill.

142. e before guttural l (60) was changed to o: as, solvō, I undo, from *seluō (se-, as in se-cordia, luō = Greek λύω); culmen, top, for *celmen, from *cellō in ex-cellō; volō, I wish, for *velō; but e is preserved before dental l (60): as in velle, velim (773). Before l followed by any consonant save l this o changes to u (141): as, vult.

143. In a number of words, notably in voster, your, vorsus, turned, vortex, eddy, and votāre, forbid, the forms with o were replaced, about the second century B.C. by forms with e: as, vester, versus, vertex, vetāre (Quint. 1, 7, 25).



144. In a few cases a vowel is influenced by the vowel of a neighbouring syllable: as,

nisi, unless, for *nesi; iīs, for eīs, to them (671, 674); diī, diīs, gods, for deī, deīs (450); nihil, nothing, for *nehil; homō, man, for *hemō (cf. nēmō, from ne-hemō, 118); see also 104, d; 105, i.


145. The same stem often shows different vowels in different forms. In most of these cases this difference was inherited from a very early period and continued in the Latin. Such old inherited variation of the quality of the stem-vowel is called qualitative vowel gradation. The qualitative variations may be accompanied by quantitative changes (135).

Often the verb and the noun are thus distinguished by different vowels: as, tegō, I cover, and toga, a garment, toga; precor, I beg, and procus, suitor, cf. English to sing and a song, to bind, and a bond. The different tenses of some verbs show a like gradation: as, capiō, I take, cēpī; faciō, I make, fēcī, cf. English I sing, I sang; I bring, I brought. The same occurs in derivation: as doceō, I teach, by the side of decet; noceō, I harm, by the side of nex (nec-s). The two vowels which occur most frequently in such gradation are e and o: as in stems in -o-, domine, dominus (for dominos); as variable vowel (824); genos (genus, 107, c) in the nom. sg. by the side of *genes- in the oblique cases (gen. generis for *genesis, 154); honōs by the side of hones- in hones-tus; modus, measure, for *modos (originally a neuter -s- stem like genus (487, 491), but transferred later to the -o- declension), by the side of modes- in modes-tus, seemly. See 187.


146. In a number of words which belong more or less clearly to the stem of the pronoun quo- (681), cu- (157), the initial c has disappeared before u: as,

uter, which of the two, ubĭ, where, unde, whence (711). For the conjunction ut, utī, that, connection with this pronominal stem is much more doubtful. The c- appears in the compounds with and nē̆: as, sī-cubī (cf. sī-quidem, sī-quandō), sī-cunde, nē-cubi, ne-cunde, ne-cuter.

147. d varies in a few words with l: as old Latin dacruma, tear, for later lacrima; dingua, tongue, for later lingua; odor, smell, by the side of oleō, I smell.

148. Very rarely, before labials, final d of the preposition ad varies with r: as, old Latin arfuērunt, they were present, for later adfuērunt (2257); arvorsum, against, for advorsum. The only instances of this in classical Latin are arbiter, umpire, and arcēssō (970), I summon, which shows r before a guttural.

149. (1.) Final d after a long vowel disappeared in classical Latin: thus, in the ablative singular of -ā- and -o- stems (426), and in the ablative-accusative forms mēd, tēd, sēd (648). The prepositions prō and (1417) originally ended in -d which is still seen in prōdesse, be of advantage, prōd-īre, go forth; sēd-itiō, a going-apart, sedition. According to the grammarians, the negative haud preserved its d before vowels, but lost it before consonants (1450).


(2.) Late inscriptions confuse final -d and -t: as FECID (729), ALIVT for aliud. But in very old Latin -d in the third person singular seems to be the remnant of a secondary ending (cf. the Greek distinction of primary -ται and secondary -το).

150. In a number of words f varies dialectically with h. In some of these f appears to have been original, in others h: as, old Latin fordeum, barley, for classical hordeum; old Latin haba, bean, for classical faba. The word fīlum, thread, appears as *hīlum in nihil, nothing, for *ne-hīlum.

151. h being a weak sound (58) was often lost between two like vowels, especially in rapid utterance: as, nīl, nothing, prēndere, take, vēmēns, rapid, by the side of nihil, prehendere, vehemēns; and always nēmō, nobody, for *ne-hemō, no man.

152. In some words h between two vowels is not original, but goes back to a guttural aspirate gh. Before consonants this guttural appears: as, vehō, I draw, vectus (953) from a stem vegh-, trahō, I drag, tractus (953) from a stem tragh-.

153. (1.) v not infrequently disappeared between two like vowels: as, dītior, richer, for dīvitior; sīs (Cic. O. 154), for sī vīs (774); lātrīna, for lavatrīna; fīnīsse, for fīnīvisse; dēlēram, for dēlēveram; and later also in perfect forms in which the preceding and following vowel differed: as, amāsse, for amāvisse. The abbreviated forms of the perfects in -vī (890) were common in Cicero’s (O. 157) and Quintilian’s (1, 6, 17) time. v also disappeared before o in deorsum, seorsum.

(2.) Old and original unsyllabic i (82; 83) disappeared everywhere between vowels. Wherever unsyllabic i appears between vowels it represents double i̭i̭, and is the result of the assimilation of g to (166, 9), or d to (166, 9), or of the combination of two ’s: as in ei-i̭us, quoi̭-i̭us (eius, quoius = cuius, 688). See 23; 166, 9. In all these cases the first joined to the preceding vowel (83) formed with it a diphthong, and the syllable is thus long (133, 2).

(3.) The combinations of unsyllabic (83) with the vowel u and of unsyllabic with the vowel i were avoided in classical Latin; see 52.

(4.) In composition, unsyllabic (82) after a consonant became syllabic in quoniam, since, for quomi̭am (164, 5), and etiam, also, for eti̭am (both compounds with iam).

154. In early Latin s between two vowels was voiced (75), and in the fourth century B.C. this voiced s changed into r. According to Cicero (Fam. 9, 21, 2) L. Papīrius Crassus, consul in 336 B.C., changed his family name Papīsius to Papīrius. Old inscriptions show frequently s for r: as, ASA, altar, AVSELII. This change of intervocalic s to r plays an important part in declension, conjugation, and derivation: as,

Nominative iūs, right, genitive iūris; spērō, I hope, derived from spēs; nefārius, wicked, from nefās; gerō, I carry, from a stem ges- which appears in ges-sī, ges-tus (953); erō, I shall be, from the stem es- in esse; the subjunctive ending -sem in es-sem appears as -rem after vowels: as, stārem; the infinitive ending (894, 895) -se in es-se appears as -re after vowels: as, legere, for *legese, to read, stāre, for *stāse, to stand. Where all oblique cases show -r- and only the nominative singular -s, the latter is sometimes changed to -r by analogy: as, arbor, tree, honor, honour, for original arbōs, honōs, by analogy to the oblique cases arboris, arborī, honōris, honōrī, etc. (487, 488). The final -s of the prefix dis- follows this rule: as, dir-imō, I take apart, for *dis-emō; but an initial s- of the second member of a compound remains unchanged: as, dē-sinō, I stop.


155. Wherever intervocalic s is found in classical Latin it is not original, but the result (a.) of earlier -ns-: as, formōsus, handsome, for formōnsus (63); (b.) of earlier -ss- (170, 7): as, ūsus for *ūssus, use (159); causa, thing, for caussa (Quint. 1, 7, 20); or (c.) it occurs in borrowed words like asinus, ass. (d.) There are a few words in which an r in a neighbouring syllable seems to have prevented the change: as miser, miserable (173).

156. Before the o described in 142 qu changed to c: as, incola, inhabitant, for *inquola, from *inquela; the stem quel- appears in in-quil-īnus, lodger.

157. As v before u (107, c), so qu was not tolerated before u, but changed to c.

Hence when, about the beginning of our era, the o of quom, when, sequontur, they followed, changed to u (107, c), they became cum, secuntur; thus equos but ecus, horse (452); reliquom but RELICVM, the rest; loquor, I speak, but locūtus (978). Much later, in the second century of our era, the grammarians restored the qu before u by analogy to those forms in the paradigm in which qu came before other vowels: as, sequuntur for secuntur by analogy to sequor, sequeris, sequitur, sequimur, sequimini, etc.; equus, equum, for ecus, ecum, by analogy to equī, equō, eque, equōrum, equīs, equōs.

158. qu before consonants or when final changed to c: as, relictus from the stem liqu-, leave (present, linquō, 938); ac, and, for *atc, by apocope from atque; nec, nor, by apocope from neque. See also *torctus (170, 3), quīnctus (170, 4).

159. When in the process of early word formation a t was followed by another t, the combination tt, unless followed by r, changed to ss: as, obsessus, besieged, sat upon, for *obsettus, from *obsed-tus (cf. sedeō). After long vowels, nasals, and liquids this double ss was simplified to s (170, 7): as, ūsus from *ūt-tus, used (cf. ūtor); scānsus, climbed, from *scant-tus for *scandtus (cf. scandō).

In this way arose a suffix -sus (906, 912) for the past participle of verbs ending in a dental, and this spread to other verbs (912): as mānsus, stayed, from maneō (1000), pulsus, pushed, from pellō (932). The regular participles of these two verbs still appear in the derivative verbs mantāre and pultāre, which presuppose the past participles *mantus and *pultus (371). If the double tt was followed by r it changed to st: as, assestrīx from *assettrīx, while *assettor changed to assessor.

160. But wherever the combination tt arose in historical times it remained unchanged: as, attineō; cette, syncopated for cé-d(i)te, i.e. the particle ce (93, 3) which is here proclitic, and the imperative date, give.

161. Initial dv (dṷ) changed to b, unless the v () was converted into the corresponding vowel: as, bis, twice, for *dṷis (cf. duo); bidēns for *dṷidens, by the side of old Latin duidēns with vocalic u; bonus, good, for dṷonus, by the side of trisyllabic duonus; bellum, war, for *dṷellum, by the side of duellum with vocalic u; bēs, two thirds, for *dṷēs (2427). Cicero (O. 153) notes that the change of duellum to bellum affected even the proper name Duellius (name of the admiral who won the naval victory over the Carthaginians in 260 B.C.) which was changed to Bellius. Plautus always scans dṷellum disyllabic with synizesis (2503).



162. Many groups of consonants undergo changes in order to facilitate their pronunciation in rapid speech. These changes involve (a.) Assimilation of consonants; (b.) the development of consonantal glides; (c.) the loss of one member of the group; and (d.) the development of a vowel between the consonants.


163. Of two successive consonants belonging to different syllables (175), the first is, as a rule, assimilated to the second (regressive assimilation), rarely the second to the first (progressive assimilation). A consonant may be assimilated, either entirely or partially, to another consonant.

Assimilation is very common in prepositions prefixed to a verb.

164. Partial assimilation. (1.) A voiced mute before an unvoiced consonant became unvoiced: as, rēx, king, for *rēgs (cf. rēgis); rēxī, I guided, for *rēgsī (cf. regō); rēctus, guided, for *rēgtus; scrīpsī, I wrote, for *scrībsī (cf. scribō); scrīptus, written, for *scribtus; trāxī, I dragged, for *trāghsī; tractus, dragged, for *traghtus (152). The spelling did not always conform to this pronunciation: as, urbs, city, pronounced urps (54) but spelled with b by analogy to the oblique cases urbis, urbem, etc.; obtineō, I get, pronounced optineō.

(2.) An unvoiced mute before a voiced consonant became voiced. The prepositions ob, ab, sub, for *op, *ap, *sup, owe their final b to their frequent position before voiced mutes: as, obdūcō, abdīcō, sub dīvō. The forms *op (still preserved in op-eriō, I close, 1019) *ap (preserved in ap-erio, I open, 1019; cf. Greek ἀπό) and *sup (preserved in the adjective supīnus, supine) were then crowded out by ob, ab, and sub.

(3.) Nasals changed their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, dental n before the labials p and b became labial m: as, imbibō, I drink in, impendeō, I hang over. Labial m before the gutturals c and g became guttural n (62): as, prīnceps, leader, singulī, severally (the original labials appear in prīmus, semel (138)); hunc for *homce (662). Labial m before the dentals t, d, s became dental n: as, cōnsecrō, I consecrate, from com (cum) and sacrō; tantus, so great, from tam; quondam, once, from quom; tandem, at length, from tam. But sometimes the etymological spelling was retained: as, quamdiū, as long as. But m does not change to n before t or s in the inflection of verbs and nouns, where mt, ms develop into mpt, mps (167): as, sūmptus, sūmpsī, from sūmō.

(4.) p and b before n changed to m: as, somnus, sleep, for *sop-nus (cf. sopor); omnis, all, for *op-nis (cf. opēs); Samnium, for *Sabnium (cf. Sabīnī).

(5.) m before unsyllabic i () became n: as, quoniam (with vocalic i; 153, 4), since, for *quoni̭am from quom iam (1882); coniungō, I join together, for *comiungō.

(6.) c between n and l, and before m, changed to g: as, angulus, corner, with anaptyctical (172) vowel u for *anglus, from *anclus (cf. ancus); segmentum, section, from the stem sec- in secāre.

165. It appears that at a very early period the neighbourhood of a nasal changed an unvoiced mute into a voiced one: as, ē-mungō, I clean out, by the side of mūcus; pangō, I fix, by the side of pāc- in pāx, peace (gen. pāc-is).


166. Entire assimilation. (1.) One mute is assimilated to another: thus p or b to c: as, suc-currō, I assist; t or d to c: as, sic-cus, dry (cf. sit-is, thirst), accipiō, I accept; d to g: as, agglūtinō, I glue on; t or d to qu: as, quicquam, anything; t or d to p: as, appellō, I call; quippe, why? (1690).

(2.) A mute is assimilated to a spirant: thus, p to f in officīna, workshop, for *opficīna, syncopated form of *opificīna; d to f: as, afferō, I bring hither; when t is thus assimilated to s the result is ss after a short vowel, and s after a long vowel (170, 7) or when final (171); as, in the -s- perfects, concussī, I shook, for *concutsī (concutiō, 961); messuī, I mowed, for *metsuī (metō, 835); suāsī, I advised, for *suātsī (suādeō, 1000); clausī, I shut, for *clautsī (claudō, 958); haesī, I stuck, for haes-sī (868) from haerēre, stem haes- (154); in the same way possum, I can, for *potsum (cf. pot-est, 752); prōsum, I am of advantage, for *prōtsum (cf. prōd-esse); legēns, reading, for *legents (from the stem legent-, cf. genitive legent-is). An s is never assimilated to a following t: as, haustus, drained (1014), from the stem haus-, present hauriō (154). Forms like the rare hausūrus (Verg.) are made after the analogy of dental stems.

(3.) One spirant, s, is assimilated to another, f: as, difficilis, difficult, differō, I am unlike, from dis and facilis, ferō.

(4.) A mute is assimilated to a nasal: thus d to m in mamma, woman’s breast, from the stem mad- (cf. madeō, 1006); rāmus, branch, rāmentum, splinter, from the stem rād- (cf. rādō, 958) with simplification of the double m after the long vowel. d to n in mercēnārius, hireling, from the stem mercēd-, reward, (for mercennarius, see 133, 1); p to m in summus, highest, from the stem sup- (cf. super). A progressive assimilation of nd to nn belongs to the Oscan dialect, and occurs only very rarely in Latin: as, tennitur (Ter.), distennite (Plaut.) See 924; 950.

(5.) One nasal, n, is assimilated to another, m: as immōtus, unmoved. But an m before n is never assimilated: as, amnis, river.

(6.) Mutes or nasals are assimilated to liquids; thus n to l: as, homullus, manikin, for *homon-lus (cf. homun-culus); ūllus (274); d to l: as, sella, seat, for *sed-la from the stem sed- (cf. sedeō); caelum, chisel, from the stem caed- (cf. caedō) with simplification of the double l after the diphthong (170, 7); n to r: as, irruō, I rush in; and with progressive assimilation n to a preceding l: as, tollō, I lift, for *tolnō (833); fallō, I cheat (932); pellō, I push (932). But no assimilation is to be assumed for parricīda, which does not stand for patricīda (133, 1).

(7.) One liquid, r, is assimilated to another, l: as, pelliciō, I lead astray (956), for *per-liciō; agellus, small field, for *agerlos; pūllus, clean, from *pūrlos (cf. pūrus, clean).

(8.) A spirant, s, is assimilated to a preceding liquid in velle, wish, for *velse, ferre, carry, for *ferse (the infinitive ending -se appears in es-se, 895); facillimus, easiest, for *facilsimus (345); sacerrimus, holiest, for *sacersimus (344). But where ls and rs are not original but the result of lightening (170, 310) they remain unchanged: as, arsī, I burnt, for *artsī from the stem ard- (cf. ardeō, 1000); alsī, I felt cold, for *alcsī from the stem alg- (cf. algeō, 1000).

(9.) g and d were assimilated to a following unsyllabic i () the result being (153, 2) ii (i̭i̭); thus peiior, worse, for *ped-i̭or, from the stem ped- (532), whence also the superlative pessimus for *petsimus (166, 2); maiior, greater, for *mag-i̭or (the stem mag- appears in magis); aiiō, I say, for *ag-i̭ō (the stem ag- appears in ad-ag-ium, prōd-ig-ium, 219). These forms were pronounced by Cicero with doubled (23), and traces of the spelling with double ii are still found (23), though in common practice only one i is written (153, 2). On the confusion of syllabic quantity with vowel quantity in these words, see 133, 2.


167. Pronunciation of two successive consonants is sometimes facilitated by the insertion of a consonant which serves as a glide. Such insertion is not frequent.


In inflection a p was thus developed between m and s, between m and l, and between m and t (elsewhere mt changed to nt, see 164, 3): as, sūmpsī, I took, sūmptus, taken, from sūmere for *sūmsī, *sūmtus; and in the corresponding forms of cōmō, dēmō, prōmō (953); exemplum, pattern, for *exemlum from the stem em-, take (cf. eximere, 103, a).


168. A word may be lightened by the disappearance of an initial, a medial, or a final consonant.

Disappearance of an initial consonant is sometimes called Aphaeresis, of a medial, Syncope, of a final, Apocope.

169. Initial disappearance. (1.) Initial tl changed to l: as, lātus, borne, for *tlātus from tollō (187, 917).

(2.) Initial gn changed to n: as, nātus, born, for earlier GNATVS from the stem gen-, gnā (187); nōscō, I find out, for gnōscō, GNOSCIER (897); nārus, knowing, for the more frequent gnārus, nāvus, active, for gnāvus. Cf. the compounds cō-gnātus, cō-gnōscō, ī-gnārus, ī-gnāvus (170, 6) which preserve the g. But Gnaeus retained its G.

(3.) Initial d when followed by consonant i (), disappeared: as, Iovis, Iūpiter, for *Di̭ovis, *Di̭ūpiter. Where the i was vocalic, d was retained: as, dīus.

(4.) Initial stl- first changed to sl and then to l: as, Old Latin stlocus, place, stlīs, law-suit (Quint. 1, 4, 16), STLOC, SLIS, classical locus, līs; also lātus, wide, for *stlātus. That a form *slocus existed is proved by īlicō (698, 703) from *in-slocō, on the spot (170, 2).

170. Medial Disappearance. (1.) c, g, p, and b disappear before s followed by an unvoiced consonant: as, sescentī, six hundred, for *sexcentī from sex; illūstris, resplendent, for *illūcstris from lūceō; discō, I learn, from *dicscō for *di-tc-scō (834), a reduplicated present from the root dec- (cf. decet) like gignō (from the root gen-), and sīdō (for *si-sd-ō, 170, 2, from the root sed-, 829). Sometimes prepositions follow this rule: as, asportō, I carry off, for *absportō, suscipiō, I undertake, for *subscipiō (subs formed from sub like abs from ab; sub-cipiō gives succipiō); occasionally also ecferō, for exferō, I carry out. But more frequently prepositional compounds remain unchanged: as, obscūrus, dark; abscēdō, I withdraw. In some words the lost consonant has been restored by analogy: as, sextus, sixth, for *sestus (cf. Sēstius) after sex; textor, weaver, for *testor after texō.

(2.) s before voiced consonants was voiced (75) and is dropped. If a consonant precedes the s this is dropped also. In either case the preceding vowel is lengthened. Voiced s alone is dropped: as, prīmus, first, for *prīs-mus (cf. prīs-cus); cānus, gray, for *casnus (cf. cas-cus); adverb pōne, behind, for *posne (cf. pos, 1410); dīlābī, glide apart, for *dislābi; īdem, the same, for ISDEM (678); iūdex, judge, for iūsdex; trēdecim, thirteen, for *trēsdecim. And with subsequent shortening of the final syllable (130, 3) abin, goest thou? for abisn(e); viden, seest thou? for vidēsn(e). Voiced s with the preceding consonant is dropped: as, trādūcō, I lead across, trānō, I swim across, for trānsdūcō, trānsnō; but in these prepositional compounds the -ns was often retained: as, trānsmittō, I send across; sēnī, six each, for *secsnī; sēmēnstris, every six months, for secsmēnstris; sēvirī, the Board of Six, for secsvirī; āla, wing, for *acsla (cf. ax-illa, Cic. O. 153); māvolō (779) for magsvolō from magisvolō, 396; tōles (plural), goiter, for *tōnsles (cf. tōnsillae, tonsils); pīlum, pestle, for *pīnslum from pīnsere, crush; two consonants and voiced s are dropped in scāla, stair, for *scand-sla (cf. scandō).


(3.) c falls away when it stands between a liquid and t, s, m, or n: as, ultus, avenged, for *ulctus from ulc-iscor (980); mulsī for *mulcsī from both mulgeō, I milk, and mulceō, I stroke; similarly other stems in -c and -g (1000, 1014); quernus, oaken, for *quercnus from quercus; tortus, turned, for *torctus from torqueō (for the change of qu to c, see 158); for fortis, brave, forctis is found in old Latin.

(4.) c drops out when it stands between n and t: as, quīntus, fifth, for older quīnctus (2412), from quīnque (for the change of qu to c, see 158; for the long ī in quīnque, see 122, b). But verbs having stems in -nc or -ng retain the c in their past participles: as, vīnctus, bound, from vincīre (1014); iūnctus, joined, from iungere (954). In pāstus (965) c has dropped out between s and t.

(5.) The group -ncn- was simplified to simple -n-, and the preceding vowel was lengthened: as, quīnī, five each, for *quīnc-nī (317); cō-nīveō, wink and blink, for con-cnīveō.

(6.) n before gn was dropped and the preceding vowel lengthened: as, ī-gnōscō, I forgive, for *in-gnōscō, cō-gnōscō, I know, for *con-gnōscō. In this manner (170, 5; 6) arises a form cō- by the side of con- (122, e): as, cō-nectō, cō-nubium, cō-ligātus (Gell. 2, 17, 8).

(7.) In the imperial age, ss after long vowels and diphthongs was regularly changed to s: as, clausī, I closed; ūsus, used (166, 2); but always ēsse, to eat (769); ll changed to l after diphthongs: as, caelum, chisel (166, 6); also when preceded by ī and followed by i: as, vīlla, country-place, but vīlicus (adject.); mille, thousand, but mīlia (642). Elsewhere ll was retained after long vowels: as, pūllus (166, 7), clean; rāllum, ploughshare, from rādō with suffix -lo- (209). In Cicero’s time (Quint. 1, 7, 20) the spelling was still caussa (155, b), matter; cāssus (930), fallen; divīssiō (cf. 912), division. Vergil also, according to Quintilian, retained the doubled consonants, and the best manuscripts of both Vergil and Plautus frequently show ll and ss for later l and s, as do inscriptions: as, PROMEISSERIT, he might have promised (49 B.C.); ACCVSSASSE, to have accused.

(8.) After a long vowel d was dropped before consonant u (v): as, svāvis, sweet, for *svādvis from svād- (cf. svādeō).

(9.) r before st was dropped: as, tostus, roasted (1004) for *torstus from the stem tors- (cf. torreo with assimilated -rs-, 166, 8).

(10.) -rts- changed to -rs: as, arsī, I burnt, for *artsī (1000). -rcsc- changed to -sc-: as, poscō, I demand, for *porcscō (834).

(11.) In ipse, self, for *is-pse, an s has disappeared before -ps-

(12.) (12.) d (t) disappears between r and c: as, cor-culum for cord(i)-culum (275).

171. Final Disappearance. (1.) A word never ends in a doubled consonant: as, es for *es-s, thou art, which Plautus and Terence still scan as a long syllable; and the following cases of assimilation: ter for *terr from *ters (cf. terr-uncius, a quarter of an ās, a farthing, 1272, for *ters-uncius, 166, 8); fār, spelt, for *farr, from *fars (489); fel, gall, for *fell, from *fels (482); in mīles, soldier, for *mīless from *mīlets (cf. Gen. mīlitis, 477) the final syllable is still long in Plautus. hoc, this, for *hocc from *hod-c(e)(the neuter *hod from the stem ho-, as istud, illud (107, c) from isto-, illo-) counts as a long syllable even in classical poetry.

(2.) No Latin word can end in two explosives: thus, final t is dropped in lac, milk (478); final d in cor, heart (476).

(3.) When final s was preceded by r or l, it was assimilated to these liquids, and final rr and ll were then simplified to r and l. See the examples under (1). Wherever final -rs and -ls appear they are not original but the result of the disappearance of an intervening consonant: as, puls, pottage, for *pults (533); pars, part, for *parts (533); all with syncope (111) of the vowel i in the nominative sg.


(4.) Original final ns was changed to s and the preceding vowel was lengthened: as, sanguīs, blood (2452), for *sanguins from the stem sanguin- (486). Wherever final -ns appears it is not original but the result of the disappearance of an intervening consonant: as, ferēns, carrying, for *ferents, from the stem ferent-; frōns, foliage, for *fronds, from the stem frond-.

(5.) A dental mute before final s is dropped: as, hērēs, heir, for *hērēds (475); virtūs, virtue, for *virtūts (477); nox, night, for *nocts (533); a labial or guttural mute is retained: as, fornāx (x = cs), furnace, from the stem fornāc- (531); lēx, law, from the stem leg- (472); urbs, city, from the stem urb- (480); ops from the stem op-, help (480).


172. Certain consonant groups, notably those containing a liquid, are sometimes eased by the insertion of a vowel which develops between the consonants. This is called Anaptyxis (Greek ἀναπτύσσειν, unfold). It is the opposite of syncope of vowels (110, 111).

(1.) The suffix -clo- (242), changed to -culo-, being thus no longer distinguishable from the diminutive suffix -culo- (267): as, pōculum, cup, for pōclum (Plaut.); vehiculum, carriage, for vehiclum (Plaut.). But -clo- is more common in Plautus than -culo-, especially after long vowels. The suffixes -blo- (245), and -bli- (294) always show the anaptyctical vowel. Its colour depends on the nature of the l (60): as, stabulum, resting-place; stabilis, steady. The group -ngl- also changes to -ngul-: as, angulus (164, 6).

(2.) In words borrowed from the Greek an unfamiliar sequence of consonants was so lightened; as, mina, mina, for *mna (μνᾶ); and in Old Latin drachuma (Plaut.) for later drachma, drachma (δραχμή); techina, trick, from Greek τέχνη; Tecumēssa for Tecmēssa (Τέκμησσα).

(3.) Before syllabic (83) l and r a vowel is developed (111, b): as, íncertus, uncertain, for *íncr̥tus; fácultās, capability, for fácl̥tās. Likewise before syllabic n (139).


173. (1.) To avoid the repetition of the same liquid in successive syllables l is sometimes changed to r: as, caeruleus, sky-blue, for *caeluleus, from caelum; Parīlia, by the side of Palīlia, from Palēs; the suffix -clo- appears as -cro- after an l: as, lavācrum, bath, simulācrum, image (241); the suffix -āli- under like conditions changes to -āri-; as, molāre, of a mill (313), but augurāle, of an augur.

(2.) In a few cases repetition is avoided by dropping the sound once: as, praestīgiae, jugglery, for praestrīgiae. This also applies to the spirant s followed by a consonant, a combination which is not tolerated in successive syllables: as in the reduplicated perfects stetī, for *stestī; spopondī, for *spospondī (859), where the second syllable, and in quisquiliae, sweepings, for *squisquiliae, where the first syllable was lightened.


174. The final syllable of the first member of compounds (181) sometimes undergoes certain changes by analogy to other compounds:

(1.) The final of ā-stems, by analogy to the more frequent -o-stems, usually changed to -o, which in atonic syllables became -i (105): as, āli-ger, winged, for *ālo-ger from ālā-.

(2.) Stems in -on- substitute -o- for -on- by analogy to the -o-stems: as, homi-cída, murderer, for *homo-cīda (105) from homon- (Nom. homō).

(3.) Some stems in -s substitute -o- by analogy to the -o-stems: as, foedi-fragus, treaty-breaking, for *foedo-fragus from the stem foedos- (Nom. foedus, Gen. foederis; 154).


175. A word has as many syllables as it has separate vowels or diphthongs. The last syllable is called the Ultima; the last syllable but one is called the Penult; the last syllable but two is called the Antepenult.

176. The quantity of single sounds (e.g. the quantity of a vowel) must be carefully distinguished from the quantity of the group of sounds or the syllable of which the single sound forms a part.


177. A syllable is long if its vowel is long, or if its vowel is followed by two consonants or by x or z: as,

dūcēbās; volvunt. In dūcēbās both the vowels and the syllables are long; in volvunt the vowels are short, but the syllables are long; in cases like the last the syllables (not the vowels) are said to be long by position. h does not count as a consonant (58) and qu (or qv27) has the value of a single consonant only: thus, in adhūc and aqua the first syllable is short.

178. In prose or old dramatic verse a syllable with a short vowel before a mute or f followed by l or r is not long: as tenebrae. In other verse, however, such syllables are sometimes regarded as long. In compounds such syllables are long in any verse: as obruit.


179. The first of two successive syllables which begin with the same sound is sometimes lost. This is called Haplology.

Thus, sēmodius for sēmimodius, half a bushel; calamitōsus for *calamitātōsus, from the stem calamitāt- (262) and suffix -oso- (336); voluntārius, for voluntātārius (262, 309); cōnsuētūdō, for cōnsuētitūdō (264). See also 255; 379.


180. Formation is the process by which stems are formed from roots or from other stems.

181. A word containing a single stem is called a Simple word: as, magnus, great, stem magno-; animus, soul, stem animo-. A word containing two or more stems is called a Compound word: as, magnanimus, great-souled, stem magnanimo-.

182. Most inflected words consist of two parts: a stem, which is usually a modified root (195), and an inflection ending: thus, in ductōrī, for a leader, the root is duc-, lead, the stem is ductōr-, leader, and is the inflection ending, meaning for.


183. A Root is a monosyllable which gives the fundamental meaning to a word or group of words.


184. A root is not a real word; it is neither a noun, naming something, nor a verb, denoting action. Thus iug-, yoke, does not mean a yoke nor I yoke; it merely suggests something about yoking. The root becomes a real word only when an inflection ending is added, or, more commonly, both a formative suffix and an inflection ending: as, iug-u-m, a yoke.

185. Roots are common to Latin and its cognate languages, such as the Sanskrit and the Greek. When a root is named in this book, the specific Latin form of the root is meant. This often differs somewhat from the form of the root which is assumed as applicable to all the cognate languages.

186. Almost all roots are noun and verb roots; that is, roots with a meaning which may be embodied either in a noun or in a verb, or in both. Besides these there is a small class, less than a dozen in number, of pronoun roots. There are many words which cannot be traced back to their roots.

187. A root sometimes has two or more forms: as, fīd- (for feid-), foed-, fid-, trust; gen-, gn-, sire; tol, tl, bear; see 135, 145.

Thus, fīd- is found in fīd-us, trusty, fīd-ūcia, confidence, fīd-ūciō, I pledge, fīd-ūciārius, in trust, fīd-ere, put trust in, fīd-ēns, courageous, fīd-entia, courage; foed- in foed-us, pledge of faith, foed-erātus, bound by a pledge of faith; fid- in fid-ēs, faith, fid-ēlis, faithful, fid-ēliter, faithfully, fid-ēlitās, faithfulness, per-fid-us, faithless, per-fid-ia, faithlessness, per-fid-iōsus, full of faithlessness, per-fid-iōsē, faithlessly. gen- in gen-itor, sire, gn- in gi-gn-ere, beget, gn-ā- in gnā-tus, son.

188. A root ending in a vowel is called a Vowel Root: as, da-, give; a root ending in a consonant is called a Consonant Root: as, rup-, break. Roots are conveniently indicated by the sign √: as, √teg-, to be read ‘root teg-.’

189. A root or a part of a root is sometimes doubled in forming a word; this is called Reduplication: as, mur-mur, murmur; tur-tur, turtle-dove; po-pul-us, people; ul-ul-āre, yell.


190. Many nouns are formed from the present stems of verbs, which take the place of roots. Stems thus used are mostly those of verbs in -āre and -īre.

Thus, from ōrā-, stem of ōrāre, speak, are formed ōrā-tor, speaker, and ōrā-tiō, speech; from audī-, stem of audīre, hear, are formed audī-tor, hearer, and audī-tiō, hearing.

191. Verbs in -ēre, and those in -āre and -īre in which the ā or ī is confined to the present system (868, 874) usually have parallel nouns formed directly from a root: as,

doc-tor, teacher, doc-umentum, lesson, doc-ilis, teachable (√doc-, docēre); sec-tor, cutter (√sec-, secāre); dom-itor, tamer, dom-inus, master, dom-itus, tamed (√dom-, domāre); sarc-ina, package (√sarc-, sarcīre).

192. But a noun is sometimes exceptionally formed from the present stem of a verb in -ēre: as, monē-ta, mint (monēre); acē-tum, vinegar (acēre); virē-tum, a green (virēre); suādē-la, persuasion (suādēre); habē-na, rein (habēre); egē-nus, needy (egēre); verē-cundus, shamefast (verērī); valē-tūdō, health (valēre).


193. Verbs in -ere, and particularly such as have a present in -nō, -scō, -tō or -iō (832), usually have their parallel nouns formed directly from a root: as,

vic-tor, conqueror (√vic-, vincere); incrē-mentum, growth (√crē-, crēscere); pul-sus, a push (√pol-, pellere).

194. Sometimes, however, nouns are formed from such verb stems, and not from roots: as, lecti-stern-ium, a couch-spreading (sternere, √ster-, strā-); vinc-ibilis, conquerable (vincere, √vīc-); pāsc-uum, pasture (pāscere, √pā-); pect-en, comb (pectere, √pec-); fall-āx, deceitful (fallere, √fal-).


195. A Stem is that part of a word which contains its meaning, and is either a root alone or more commonly a root with an addition called a Formative Suffix.

Thus, in the word ducis, leader’s, the stem, which is identical with the root duc-, means leader; a root thus serving as a stem is called a Root Stem; in ductōris, leader’s, the stem is formed by the formative suffix -tōr-, denoting the agent, attached to the √duc-.

196. New stems are formed by adding a suffix to a stem. Thus, from ōrātōr-, speaker, is formed by the addition of the suffix -io-, a new stem ōrātōr-io-, N. ōrātōrius, speaker’s.

197. The noun has usually only one form of the stem. The verb has different stems to indicate mood and tense; these stems are all based on two principal tense stems, the present and the perfect active.


198. I. A stem or word formed directly from a root or a verb stem is called a Primitive. II. A stem or word formed from a noun stem is called a Denominative.

(a.) Primitives: from √rēg-, reg-, guide: rēx, stem rēg-, king; rēgnum, stem rēg-no-, kingdom; rēctus, stem rēc-to-, guided; regere, stem reg-e-, guide. From ōrā-, stem of ōrāre, speak: ōrātor, stem ōrā-tōr-, speaker; ōrātiō, stem ōrā-tiōn-, speech.

(b.) Denominatives: from noun stem rēg-, king: rēgīna, stem rēg-īnā, queen; rēgius, stem rēg-io-, rēgālis, stem rēg-āli-, royal. From ōrātiōn-, speech: ōrātiūncula, stem ōrātiūn-culā-, little speech. From rēg-no-, kingdom: rēgnāre, stem rēgnā-, to rule. From iūs, law: iūrāre, swear, stem iūrā (154).



199. Some roots are used as noun stems: as, duc-, N. dux, leader (√duc-, lead); rēg-, N. rēx, king (√rēg-, guide); particularly at the end of a compound: as, con-iug-, N. coniūnx, yoke-fellow, spouse (com-, √jug-, yoke); tubi-cin-, N. tubicen, trumpeter (tubā-, √can-, play).



200. Simple formative suffixes are vowels: as, -ā-, -o-, -i-, -u-; also -io-, -uo-, (-vo-); or such little syllables as -mo-, -min-; -ro-, -lo-; -ōn-; -no-, -ni-, -nu-; -to-, -ti-, -tu-; -ter-, -tōr-; -unt- (-nt-); -es- (-er-), -ōr-; these syllables sometimes have slight modifications of form. Compound suffixes consist of one or more simple suffixes attached to a simple suffix: as, -tōr-io-, -ti-mo-, &c., &c.

201. The following are examples of noun stems formed from roots or verb stems by simple suffixes added:

Stem. Nominative. From.
fug-ā- fuga, flight fug-, fly
fīd-o- fīdus, trusty fīd-, trust
ac-u- acus, pin ac-, point
od-io- odium, hate od-, hate
pluv-iā- pluvia, rain plov-, wet
ar-vo- arvom, tilth ar-, till
al-vo- alvos, belly al-, nurture
sal-vo- salvos, safe sal-, safe
fā-mā- fāma, tale fā-, tell
teg-min- tegmen, cover teg-, cover
sel-lā- sella, seat sed-, sit
err-ōn- errō, stroller errā-, stroll
som-no- somnus, sleep sop-, sleep
plē-no- plēnus, full plē-, fill
rēg-no- rēgnum, realm rēg-, guide
da-to- datus, given da-, give
lec-to- lectus, bed leg-, lie
gen-ti- gēns, race gen-, beget
sta-tu- status, stand sta-, stand
rēc-tōr- rēctor, ruler rēg-, guide
e-unt-, iēns, going i-, go
rege-nt- regēns, guiding rege-, guide
gen-er- genus, race gen-, beget
fur-ōr- furor, madness fur-, rave

202. Formative suffixes are often preceded by a vowel, which in many instances is a stem vowel, real or presumed; in others, the vowel has come to be regarded as a part of the suffix itself.

Thus, -lo-: fīlio-lo-, N. fīlio-lu-s, little son (fīlio-); hortu-lu-s, little garden (horto-, 105, h); but -ulo-: rēg-ulu-s, petty king (rēg-); ger-ulu-s, porter (√ges-, bear), -ci-: pugnā-ci-, N. pugnā-x, full of fight (pugnā-re); but -āci-: fer-āx, productive (√fer-, bear), -to-: laudā-to-, N. laudā-tu-s, praised (laudā-re); but -āto-: dent-ātus, toothed (denti-). -tu-: equitā-tu-, N. equitā-tu-s, cavalry (equitā-re); but -ātu-: sen-ātu-s, senate (sen-). -lā-: suādē-lā-, N. suādē-la, persuasion (suādē-re, 192); but -ēlā-: loqu-ēla, talk (√loqu-, speak). -tāt-: cīvi-tāt-, N. cīvi-tā-s, citizenship (cīvi-); but -itāt-: auctōr-itā-s, authority (auctōr-). -cio-: aedīli-cio-, N. aedīli-ciu-s, of an aedile (aedīli-); but -icio-: patr-iciu-s, patrician (patr-). -timo-: fīni-timo-, N. fīni-timu-s, bordering (fīni-); but -itimo-: lēg-itimu-s, of the law (lēg-).

203. There are many formative suffixes of nouns. The commonest only can be named, and these may be conveniently grouped as below, by their meanings. Compound suffixes are arranged with reference to the last element of the suffix: thus, under the adjective suffix -io- (304) will be found -c-io-, -īc-io-, -tōr-io-, and -ār-io-. In many instances it is difficult to distinguish between simple and compound suffixes.




204. The suffixes -tōr-, -o-, -ā-, -lo-, and -ōn-, are used to denote the Agent: as,

Stem. Nominative. From.
lēc-tōr- lēctor, reader lēg-, read
scrīb-ā- scrība, writer scrīb-, write
fig-ulo- figulus, potter fig-, mould
err-ōn- errō, stroller errā-re, stroll

(1.) -tōr- (N. -tor).

205. -tōr-, N. -tor, or -sōr-, N. -sor (159, 202), is the commonest suffix of the agent; the feminine is -trī-ci-, N. -trī-x. -tōr- is sometimes used in a present sense, of action repeated or occurring at any time, and sometimes in a past sense.

206. (a.) -tōr- (-sōr-), in the present sense, often denotes one who makes a regular business of the action of the root or verb.

ōrā-tōr-, N. ōrā-tor, spokesman, speaker (ōrā-re); lēc-tor, reader (√leg-, read). Workmen and tradesmen: arā-tor, ploughman, pās-tor, shepherd, pīc-tor, painter, sū-tor, shoemaker. Semi-professional: captā-tor, legacy-hunter, dēlā-tor, professional informer. Government officials: cēn-sor, appraiser, censor, imperā-tor, commander, prae-tor, (leader), praetor, dictā-tor, līc-tor. Of the law: āc-tor, manager, accūsā-tor, accuser, spōn-sor, bondsman, tū-tor, guardian. From presumed verb stems (202): sen-ātor, senator (sen-); viā-tor, wayfarer (viā-); fundi-tor, slinger (fundā-). -tro-, N. -ter, has the meaning of -tōr-: as, aus-tro-, N. aus-ter (scorcher), south-wester (√aus-, burn).

207. In the present sense -tōr- (-sōr-) is also used to indicate permanent character, quality, capability, tendency, likelihood: as, bellā-tor, a man of war, warlike; dēlīberā-tor, a man of caution; cessā-tor, a loiterer; dērī-sor, a mocker, ironical; cōnsūmp-tor, apt to destroy, destructive; aedificā-tor, building-mad.

208. (b.) -tōr- (-sōr-), in a perfect sense, is used particularly in old Latin, or to denote an agent who has acquired a permanent name by a single conspicuous action. In this sense it usually has a genitive of the object, or a possessive pronoun: thus,

castīgā-tor meus, my mentor, or the man who has upbraided me; olīvae inven-tor, the deviser of the olive (Aristaeus); reper-tor vītis, the author of the vine (Bacchus); patriae līberā-tōrēs, the emancipators of the nation.

(2.) -o- (N. -u-s), -ā- (N. -a); -lo- (N. -lu-s); -ōn- (N. ).

209. -o- and -ā- stems may denote vocation or class; many are compounds. -o-, N. -u-s: coqu-o-, N. coqu-o-s or coc-u-s, cook (√coqu-, cook); causidic-u-s, pleader (causā-, √dic-, speak). -ā-, N. -a: scrīb-ā-, N. scrīb-a, clerk (√scrīb-, write); agricol-a, husbandman (agro-, √col-, till).


210. -u-lo-, N. -u-lu-s (202): ger-ulo-, N. ger-ulu-s, bearer (√ges-, bear); fig-ulu-s, potter (√fig-, shape, mould).

211. -ōn-, N. -ō-: err-ōn-, N. err-ō, stroller (errā-re); especially in compounds: praed-ō, robber (praedā-rī); praec-ō for *praevocō, herald (prae-vocā-re); combib-ō, fellow-drinker (com-, √bib-, drink).


212. The suffixes -ā-, -io-, -iā-; -min-; -i-ōn-, -ti-ōn-; -lā-; -mā-, -nā-; -tā-, -tu-; -er-, -or-, -ōr-, are used to denote the Action: as,

Stem. Nominative. From.
od-io- odium, hate od-, hate
āc-tiōn- āctiō, action āg-, do
ques-tu- questus, complaint ques-, complain
fur-ōr- furor, rage fur-, rave

213. Words denoting action (1470) in a substantive form have a wide range of meaning; they may denote, according to the connection, action intransitive, transitive, or passive, complete or incomplete; if the verb denotes condition or state, the word of action often comes very near to denominatives of quality; furthermore the idea of action is often lost, and passes over to result, concrete effect, means or instrument, or place.

(1.) -ā- (N. -a); -io- (N. -iu-m); -iā- (N. -ia), -iē- (N. -iē-s).

214. -ā-, N. -a, is rare in words of action: fug-ā-, N. fug-a, flight (√fug-, fly); most words are concrete: mol-a, mill (√mol-, grind); tog-a, covering (√teg-, cover).

215. -ūr-ā-, N. -ūr-a, is rare: fig-ūrā-, N. fig-ūra, shape (√fig-, shape).

216. -tūr-ā-, N. -tūr-a, or -sūr-ā-, N. -sūr-a (159, 202), akin to the agent in -tōr- (-sōr-): armā-tūrā-, N. armā-tūra, equipment (armā-re); pīc-tūra, painting, i.e., act of painting or picture (√pig-, paint). Words parallel with official personal names (206) denote office: cēn-sūra, taxing, censor’s office (cf. cēnsōr-); prae-tūra, praetorship (cf. praetōr-).

217. -io-, N. -iu-m, sometimes denotes the effect or the object. The line cannot always be drawn very sharply between these stems in -io- (many of which may be formed through a presumed noun stem), and denominatives in -io- (249).

218. (a.) -io- is rarely suffixed to simple roots or verb stems: od-io-, N. od-iu-m, hate, hateful thing, hateful conduct (√od-, hate); some words become concrete: lab-iu-m, lip (√lab-, lick).

219. (b.) Most primitives in -io- are compounds: as, adag-iu-m, proverb (ad, √ag-, speak); ingen-iu-m, disposition (in, √gen-, beget); dīscid-iu-m, separation, exscid-iu-m, destruction (dī-, ex, √scid-, cleave); incend-iu-m, conflagration (in, √cand-, light); obsequ-iu-m, compliance (ob-, √sequ-, follow); conloqu-iu-m, parley (com-, √loqu-, talk); obsid-iu-m, siege (ob, √sed-, sit).


220. -t-io-, N. -t-iu-m: spa-tio-, N. spa-tiu-m, stretch (√spa-, span, stretch); sōlsti-tiu-m, sun-stand, solstice (sōl-, √sta-, stand); ini-tiu-m, a beginning (in, √i-, go).

221. -iā-, N. -ia: fur-iā-, N. fur-iae, plural, ravings, madness (√fur-, rave); pluvia, rain (√pluv-, rain). Most stems in -iā- are compounds, used in the plural only, often with concrete or passive meaning: dēlic-iae, allurements, pet (, √lac-, allure); excub-iae, patrol (ex, √cub-, lie).

222. -iē-, N. -iē-s, a variation of -iā-, usually denotes result (604): ser-iē-, N. ser-iē-s, row (√ser-, string); spec-iē-s, sight, looks (√spec-, spy, see); pernic-iē-s, destruction (per, √nec-, murder).

223. -t-iē-, N. -t-iē-s: permi-tiē-, N. permi-tiē-s, wasting away (per, √mi-, less).

(2.) -min- (103) (N. -men); -din-, -gin- (105, g) (N. -dō, -gō).

224. -min-, N. -men (202), usually active, occasionally passive, is very common; it sometimes denotes the means, instrument, or effect.

certā-min-, N. certā-men, contest (certā-re); crī-men, charge (√cer-, crī-, sift); spec-imen, what is inspected, sample (√spec-, spy, see); lū-men, light (√lūc-, light); flū-men, flood, stream (√flugṷ-, flow); ag-men, what is led, train (√ag-, lead). Words in -min- often mean nearly the same as those in -mento- (239): as, levā-men, levā-mentu-m, lightening; teg-umen, teg-umentu-m, covering.

225. ē-din-, -ī-din- (202): -ē-din-, N. -ē-dō: grav-ēdin-, N. grav-ēdō, (heaviness), catarrh (√grav-, heavy), -ī-din-, N. -ī-dō: cup-īdin-, N. cup-īdō, desire (√cup-, desire); lib-idō, whim (√lib-, yearn).

226. -ā-gin-, -ī-gin- (202): -ā-gin-, N. -ā-gō: vorā-gin-, N. vorā-gō, gulf (vorā-re); imā-gō, representation (*imā-, cf. imitārī). -ī-gin-, N. -ī-gō: orī-gin-, N. orī-gō, source (orī-rī); cāl-īgō, darkness (√cāl-, hide). A few denominatives have -ū-gin-, N. -ū-gō: aer-ūgin-, N. aer-ūgō, copper rust (aer-).

(3.) -i-ōn- (N. -i-ō); -ti-ōn- or -si-ōn- (N. -ti-ō or -si-ō).

227. -i-ōn-, N. -i-ō: opīn-iōn-, N. opīn-iō, notion (opīnā-rī); condic-iō, agreement (com-, √dic-, say); contāg-iō, touch (com-, √tag-, touch). Some words are concrete: leg-iō, pick, legion (√leg-, pick). A few are denominatives: commūn-iō, mutual participation (commūni-).

228. -ti-ōn-, N. -ti-ō, or -si-ōn-, N. -si-ō (159, 202), is very common, and may denote action either intransitive, transitive, or passive, or the manner or possibility of action.

cōgitā-tiōn-, N. cōgitā-tiō, a thinking, a thought (cōgitā-re); exīstimā-tiō, judging, reputation (exīstimā-re); coven-tiō, commonly cōn-tiō, meeting, speech (com-, √ven-, come); dēpul-siō, warding off (dē-, √pol-, push); oppugnā-tiō, besieging, method of besieging (oppugnā-re); occultā-tiō, hiding, chance to hide, possibility of hiding (occultā-re). Some words denote the place where: sta-tiō, a stand (√sta-, stand); some become collectives or concretes: salūtā-tiō, greeting, levee, guests at a levee (salūtā-re); mūnī-tiō, fortification, i.e., act of fortifying or works (mūnī-re).


(4.) -ē-lā- (N. -ē-la), -tē-lā- (N. -tē-la).

229. -ē-lā-, N. -ē-la (202): suādē-lā-, N. suādē-la, persuasion (suādē-rē): loqu-ēla, talk (√loqu-, talk); quer-ēla or quer-ēlla, complaint (√ques-, complain). Some words are concrete: candē-la, candle (candē-re).

230. -tē-lā-, N. -tē-la-: conrup-tēlā-, N. conrup-tēla, a seduction (com-, √rup-, spoil, ruin); tū-tēla, protection (√tū-, watch, protect).

(5.) -mā- (N. -ma), -nā- (N. -na); -trī-nā- (N. -trī-na).

231. -mā- and -nā- are rare, and denote result or something concrete. -mā-, N. -ma: fā-mā-, N. fā-ma, tale (√fā-, tell); -nā, N. -na: ur-na, pitcher (√urc- in urc-eus, pitcher, 170, 3); with original suffix -sna (170, 2): lū-na, moon (√lūc-, light); scāla, stairs (√scand-, mount).

232. -inā-, N. -ina: ang-inā-, N. ang-ina, choking (√ang-, choke); pāg-ina, page (√pāg-, fasten); sarc-ina, package (√sarc-, patch). -īnā-, N. -īna (202): ru-īnā-, N. ru-īna, downfall (√ru-, tumble); -īnā- is very common in denominatives: pisc-īna, fish-pond (pisci-).

233. -trī-nā-, N. -trī-na, akin to the agent in -tōr-: doc-trīnā-, N. doc-trīna, teaching, either the act of teaching or what is taught (√doc-, teach); sū-trīna, shoemaking, shoemaker’s trade, shoemaker’s shop (√sū-, sew).

(6.) -tā- or -sā- (N. -ta or -sa); -tu- or -su- (N. -tu-s or -su-s).

234. -tā-, N. -ta, or -sā-, N. -sa (159), is rare, and sometimes denotes result, or something concrete: as, no-tā-, N. no-ta, mark (√gno-, know); por-ta (passage), gate (√por-, fare); fos-sa, ditch (√fod-, dig); repul-sa, repulse (re-, √pol-, push); offēn-sa, offence (ob, √fend-, strike).

235. -tu-, N. -tu-s, or -su-, N. -su-s (159, 202), denotes the action and its results: ques-tu-, N. ques-tu-s, complaint (√ques-, complain); gem-itus, groan (√gem-, groan). Stems in -ā-tu-, N. -ā-tu-s, sometimes denote office or officials: cōnsul-ātu-, N. cōnsul-ātu-s, being consul, consulship (cōnsul-); sen-ātu-s, senate (sen-). -tu- is seldom passive: vī-su-s, active, sight, passive, looks (√vīd-, see); apparā-tu-s, preparation, either a getting ready, or what is got ready (apparā-re). The supine (2269) is the accusative or ablative of substantives in -tu- (-su-). Most words in -tu- (-su-) are defective in case, and are chiefly used in the ablative (430).

(7.) -er- for -es- (N. -us); -ōr- (N. -or).

236. Neuter stems in -er- (for -es-), or in -or- (for -os-), N. -us, denote result, or have a concrete meaning: gen-er-, N. gen-us, birth, race (√gen-, beget); op-er-, N. op-us, work (√op-, work); frīg-or-, N. frīg-us, cold (√frīg-, cold). -ēs with lengthened ē is sometimes used in the nominative of gender words: as, nūb-ēs, cloud (√nūb-, veil); sēd-ēs, seat (√sēd-); vāt-ēs, bard. -n-er-, -n-or-, N. -n-us: vol-ner-, N. vol-nus, wound (√vol-, tear); fac-inor-, N. fac-inus, deed (√fac-, do, 202).

237. -ōr- (for an older form -ōs-, 154), N. -ōs, commonly -or, masculine, denotes a state. Many substantives in -ōr- have a parallel verb, usually in -ēre (368), and an adjective in -ido- (287).


od-ōr-, N. od-ōs or od-or, smell (√od-, smell, cf. olē-re); pall-or, paleness (cf. pallē-re); cal-or, warmth (cf. calē-re); ūm-or, moisture (cf. ūmē-re); am-or, love (cf. amā-re); ang-or, choking, anguish (√ang-, choke).


238. The suffixes -men-to-, -tro-, -cro- or -culo-, -lo-, -bro- or -bulo-, are used to denote the Instrument or Means: as,

Stem. Nominative. From.
ōrnā-mento- ōrnāmentum, embellishment ōrnā-re, embellish
arā-tro- arātrum, plough arā-re, plough
pō-culo- pōculum, drinking-cup pō-, drink
pā-bulo- pābulum, fodder pā-, feed

239. -men-to-, N. -men-tu-m (202), is one of the commonest suffixes; it sometimes denotes result of action, rarely action itself.

pig-mento-, N. pig-mentu-m, paint (√pīg-, paint); experī-mentu-m, test (experī-rī); ōrnā-mentu-m, ornament (ōrnā-re); frag-mentu-m, fragment (√frag-, break); cae-mentu-m, quarried stone (√caed-, cut); incrē-mentu-m, growth (in, √crē-, grow); al-imentu-m, nourishment (√al-, nurture); doc-umentu-m, lesson (√doc-, teach). See also -min- (224). -men-tā-, N. -men-ta, F., is rare: ful-menta, prop (√fulc-, prop); rā-menta, scraping (√rād-, scrape).

240. -tro-, N. -tru-m (202): arā-tro-, N. arā-tru-m, plough (arā-re); fer-etru-m, bier (√fer-, bear); rōs-tru-m, beak (√rōd-, peck). Sometimes -stro-: mōn-stru-m, warning (√mon-, mind); lu-stra, plural, fen, jungle (√lu-, wash); lū-stru-m, purification (√lou-, wash). -trā-, N. -tra, F.: mulc-trā-, N. mulc-tra (also mulc-tru-m, Ne.), milking-pail (√mulg-, milk). -es-trā-: fen-estra, window.

241. -cro-, N. -cru-m, used when an l precedes: ful-cro-, N. ful-cru-m, couch-leg (√fulc-, prop). -cro- sometimes denotes the place where: ambulā-cru-m, promenade (ambulā-re); sometimes the effect: simulā-cru-m, likeness (simulā-re).

242. -culo-, N. -culu-m (202): pō-culo-, N. pō-culu-m, cup (√pō-, drink); fer-culu-m, tray (√fer-, bear). -culo- sometimes denotes the place where: cub-iculu-m, sleeping-room (√cub-, lie); cēnā-culu-m, originally dining-room, usually garret (cēnā-re).

243. -u-lo-, N. -u-lu-m- (202): chiefly after c or g: vinc-ulo-, N. vinc-ulu-m, bond (√vinc-, bind); cing-ulu-m, girdle (√cing-, gird). -u-lā-, N. -u-la, F., rēg-ula, rule (√rēg-, guide).

244. -bro-, N. -bru-m (202): crī-bro-, N. crī-bru-m, sieve (√cer-, crī-, sift); lā-bru-m, wash-basin (√lav-, wash). -brā-, N. -bra, F.: dolā-bra, chisel, mattock (dolā-re); late-bra, hiding-place (√lat-, hide).

245. -bulo-, N. -bulu-m (202): pā-bulo-, N. pā-bulu-m, fodder (√pā-, keep); vēnā-bulu-m, hunting-spear (vēnā-rī); pat-ibulu-m, pillory (√pat-, stretch). -bulo- sometimes denotes the place where: sta-bulu-m, standing-place, stall (√sta-, stand). -bulā-, N. -bula, F., rare: sū-bula, awl (√su-, sew); ta-bula, board (√ta-, stretch); fā-bula, talk (√fā-, talk).




246. The suffixes -io-, -iā-; -tā-, -tāt-, -tūt-, -tū-din-, are used to denote the Quality: as,

Stem. Nominative. From.
conlēg-io- conlēgium, colleagueship conlēgā-, N. conlēga, colleague
audāc-iā- audācia, boldness audāci-, N. audāx, bold
cīvi-tāt- cīvitās, citizenship cīvi-, N. cīvis, citizen
magni-tūdin- magnitūdō, greatness magno-, N. magnus, great

247. These abstracts are feminine, and come chiefly from adjectives or participles, except those in -io-, which are neuters, and come mostly from substantives. Sometimes the same stem takes two or more of these suffixes: as, clāri-tāt- or clāri-tūdin-, brightness (clāro-); iuven-tūt-, in poetry iuven-tāt- or iuven-tā-, youth (iuven-).

(1.) -io- (N. -iu-m), -iā- (N. -ia), -iē- (N. -iēs).

248. -iē- sometimes occurs as collateral form to -iā- (604); -io- or -iā- is sometimes attached to other suffixes: thus, -t-io-, -t-iā- (-t-iē-); -mōn-io-, -mōn-iā-; -cin-io-.

249. -io-, N. -iu-m, chiefly used in compounds, denotes belonging to, with a very wide range of meaning; many of these words are clearly neuter adjectives in -io- (305). Suffixed to personal names -io- often denotes the condition, action, or employment, which gives rise to the name; this meaning sometimes passes over to that of result, relation of persons, collection of persons, or place.

250. (a.) From simple noun stems: sen-io-, N. sen-iu-m, feeble old age (sen-); somn-iu-m, dream (somno-); sāv-iu-m, love-kiss (suāvi-); silent-iu-m, silence (silenti-); crepund-ia, plural, rattle (*crepundo-); mendāc-iu-m, lie (mendāci-); sōlāc-iu-m, comfort (*sōlāci-, comforting).

251. (b.) Direct compounds (377): aequinoct-iu-m, equinox (aequo-, nocti-); contubern-iu-m, companionship (com-, tabernā-); prīvilēg-iu-m, special enactment (prīvo-, lēg-).

252. (c.) Indirect compounds (377), chiefly from personal names: cōnsil-iu-m, deliberating together, faculty of deliberation, conclusion, advice, deliberative body (cōnsul-); auspic-iu-m, taking auspices, auspices taken (auspic-); rēmig-iu-m, rowing, oars, oarsmen (rēmig-); conlēg-iu-m, colleagueship, corporation (conlēgā-); aedific-iu-m, building (*aedific-, builder); perfug-iu-m, asylum (perfugā-).

253. -t-io- N. -t-iu-m, rare: servi-tio-, N. servi-tiu-m, slavery, slaves (servo-); calvi-tiu-m, baldness (calvo-).

254. -mōn-io-, N. -mōn-iu-m (202): testi-mōnio-, N. testi-mōniu-m, evidence (testi-); mātr-imōniu-m, marriage (mātr-); patr-imōniu-m, patrimony (patr-).


255. -cin-io-, N. -cin-iu-m, rare: latrō-cinio-, N. latrō-ciniu-m, robbery (latrōn-); patrō-ciniu-m, protection (patrōno-).

256. -iā-, N. -ia, is very common indeed, forming abstracts from nouns, mostly adjectives or present participles.

audāc-iā-, N. audāc-ia, boldness (audāci-); miser-ia, wretchedness (misero-); abundant-ia, plenty (abundanti-); scient-ia, knowledge (scienti-); mīlit-ia, warfare (mīlit-); victōr-ia, victory (victōr-); māter-ia, timber (māter-); custōd-ia, guard (custōd-).

257. -iē-, N. -iē-s: pauper-iē-, N. pauper-iē-s, moderate means (pauper-). Most stems in -iē- are primitive (222).

258. -t-iā-, N. -t-ia, is suffixed to a few adjective stems, chiefly in -o-: iūsti-tiā-, N. iūsti-tia, justice (iūsto-); mali-tia, wickedness (malo-); pudīci-tia, shamefastness (pudīco-); trīsti-tia, sadness (trīsti-).

259. -t-iē-, N. -t-iē-s, particularly as a collateral form of -t-iā- in the N., Ac., and Ab. singular (604): molli-tiē-, N. molli-tiē-s, softness (molli-).

260. -mōn-iā-, N. -mōn-ia (202): ācri-mōniā-, N. ācri-mōnia, sharpness (ācri-); parsi-mōnia, economy (parso-). Analogously from roots, quer-imōnia, complaint (√ques-, complain); al-imōnia, nurture (√al-, nurture).

(2.) -tā- (N. -ta), -tāt- (N. -tā-s), -tūt- (N. -tū-s), -tū-din- (N. -tū-dō).

261. -tā-, N. -ta: chiefly poetic: iuven-tā-, N. iuven-ta, youth (iuven-); senec-ta, age (sen-ec-).

262. -tāt-, N. -tā-s (202), is one of the very commonest suffixes.

pie-tāt-, N. pie-tā-s, dutifulness (pio-, 105); fēlīci-tā-s, happiness (fēlīci-); cīvi-tā-s, citizenship, the community (cīvi-); facili-tā-s, easiness, facul-tā-s, ability (facili-); cāri-tā-s, dearness (cāro-); auctōr-itā-s, authority (auctōr-); līber-tā-s, freedom (lībro-, 111, b); maies-tā-s, grandeur (maiōs-); volun-tā-s, wish (*volunti-, 179); venus-tā-s, grace (venusto-, 179); ae-tā-s, age (aevo-, 111, a); tempes-tā-s, kind of time, weather (tempes-).

263. -tūt-, N. -tū-s, only in iuven-tūt-, N. iuven-tū-s, youth (iuven-), senec-tū-s, age (senec-), servi-tū-s, slavery (servo-), and vir-tū-s, manhood (viro-, 111).

264. -tū-din-, N. -tū-dō, suffixed to adjective stems: magni-tūdin-, N. magni-tūdō, greatness (magno-); forti-túdō, courage (forti-); and to a few participles: cōnsuē-tūdō, custom (cōnsuēto-, 179); sollici-tūdō, anxiety (sollicito-); analogously valē-tūdō, health (*valēto-, valēre).


265. The suffixes -ārio-, -ōn-, -iōn-, -li-, -no-, and some others, are used to denote the Person concerned or occupied with a thing: as,

Stem. Nominative. From.
sīc-ārio- sīcārius, assassin sīcā-, N. sīca, dagger
āle-ōn- āleō, gambler āleā-, N. ālea, die
lūd-iōn- lūdiō, player lūdo-, N. lūdus, play
aedī-li- aedīlis, aedile aedi-, N. aedis, house
tribū-no- tribūnus, tribune tribu-, N tribus, tribe


266. Neuters with the suffixes -tōrio-, -ārio-, -īli-, -to-, or -ēto- are often used to denote the Place: as,

Stem. Nominative. From.
audī-tōrio- audī-tōrium, lecture-room audītōr-, N. audītor, hearer
aer-ārio- aerārium, treasury aer-, N. aes, money
ov-īli- ovīle, sheepfold ovi-, N. ovis, sheep
murt-ēto- murtēta, myrtlegroves murto-, N. murtus, myrtle


267. The suffixes -lo-, -lā-, or -cu-lo-, -cu-lā-, are used to form substantives with a Diminutive meaning. Diminutives may denote:

268. (1.) Actual smallness: as, secūricula, a little hatchet; ventulus, a bit of wind; spēcula, a ray of hope.

269. (2.) Imputed smallness: implying, (a.) admiration, affection, or compassion; (b.) contempt or irony. This diminutive, which usually serves to add point to sentences themselves of a playful, patronizing, or slurring character, is very hard to translate; little and small are often inadequate; old or poor will sometimes do; but usually recourse must be had to free translations adapted to the particular context: as,

ōrātiuncula, a gem of a speech, an attempt at a speech; mātercula, an anxious mother, poor mamma, dear mamma; lectulus, one’s own little bed; ānellus aureolus, a gay gold ring; Graeculī, our Greek cousins, the good people in Greece; Graeculus, a regular Greek, your gentleman from Greece; muliercula, a pretty girl, a lady gay, one of the gentler sex, a mere woman, an unprotected female, a maiden all forlorn; lacrimula, a wee tear, a crocodile tear; volpēcula, Master Reynard, dan Russel; tōnstrīcula, a common barber girl; popellus, rabble; nummulī, filthy lucre; mercēdula, an apology for pay; ratiuncula, a first rate reason; caupōnula, a low tavern.

270. Some diminutives have entirely lost the diminutive meaning: as, puella, girl, not necessarily little girl; others have changed their original meaning: as, avunculus, uncle, originally grandpapa; anguīlla, eel, originally little snake. Some words are only found in the diminutive form: as, stēlla, star (*ster-). Diminutives usually have the gender of their primitives; exceptions are rare: as, rāna, frog, F., rānunculus, tadpole, M.

(1.) -lo- (N., M. -lu-s, Ne. -lu-m), -lā- (N. -la).

271. Stems in -o-, -ā-, or a mute (-g-, -c-, -d-, or -t-), take -lo- or -lā-, which is usually preceded by -u- (202).

hortu-lo-, N. hortu-lu-s, little garden (horto-); oppidu-lu-m, hamlet (oppido-); serru-lā-, N. serru-la, little saw (serrā-); rēg-ulu-s, chieftain (rēg-); vōc-ula, a bit of a voice (vōc-); calc-ulu-s, pebble (calci-); nepōt-ulu-s, a grandson dear (nepōt-); aetāt-ula, tender age (aetāt-).


272. Stems in -eo-, -io-, or -vo-, retain -o- before -lo-; stems in -eā-, -iā-, or -vā-, also have -o- before -lā-.

alveo-lo-, N. alveo-lu-s, little tray (alveo-); gladio-lu-s, little sword (gladio-); servo-lu-s, little slave (servo-); nauseo-lā-, N. nauseo-la, a slight squeamishness (nauseā-); bēstio-la, little animal (bēstiā-); fīlio-la, little daughter (fīliā-).

273. Stems in -lo-, -ro-, -no-, and -lā-, -rā-, -nā-, commonly drop the stem vowel and assimilate -r- or -n- to -l-: thus: -el-lo-, -el-lā- (111, b; 166, 6, 7).

catel-lo-, for *catululo-, N. catel-lu-s, puppy (catulo-); agel-lu-s, little field (agro-); asel-lu-s, donkey (asino-); fābel-lā-, N. fābel-la, short story (fābulā-); umbel-la, sunshade (umbrā-); pāgel-la, short page (pāginā-). A few words are not thus changed: pueru-lo-, N. pueru-lu-s, poor boy (puero-), as well as puel-lu-s.

274. Another vowel than e (172, 3) appears in: Hispāl-lu-s (Hispāno-), Messāl-la (Messānā-), proper names; corōl-la, chaplet (corōnā-); ūl-lu-s, the least one, any at all (ūno-); Sūl-la (Sūrā-), proper name; lapil-lu-s, for *lapid-lu-s, pebble (lapid-). Also homul-lu-s, son of the dust (homon-).

(2.) -cu-lo- (N., M. -cu-lu-s, Ne. -cu-lu-m), -cu-lā- (N. -cu-la).

275. Stems in a continuous sound (-l-, -n-, -r-, or -s-), or in -i-, -u-, or -ē-, usually take -cu-lo- or -cu-lā-.

sermūn-culo-, N. sermūn-culu-s, small-talk (sermōn-); virgun-culā-, N. virgun-cula, little maid (virgon-); homun-culu-s, son of earth (homon-); arbus-cula, tiny tree (arbos-); cor-culu-m, heart of hearts (cord-, 170, 12); igni-culu-s, spark (igni-); ani-cula, grandam (anu-); diē-cula, brief day (diē-); analogously, volpē-cula (vixen), little fox (*volpē-). Rarely with ī: canī-cula, little dog (can-).

276. -un-culo-, N. -un-culu-s: av-unculo-, N. av-unculu-s, uncle (avo-); rān-unculu-s, tadpole (rānā-). -un-culā-, N. -un-cula: dom-unculā-, N. dom-uncula, little house (domo-).

277. Diminutives are sometimes formed from other diminutives: cistel-lu-la, casket (cistel-la, cistu-la, cistā-).

278. A few other suffixes have a diminutive meaning: as, -ciōn-, -leo-, -astro-, -ttā-: homun-ciō, manikin, child of dust (homon-); acu-leu-s, sting (acu-); Antōni-aster, regular little Antony; pīn-aster, bastard pine; Iūli-tta, Juliet (Iūliā-); Pōlli-tta, little Polla (Pōllā-).


279. Patronymics, or proper names which denote descent from a father or ancestor, have stems in -dā- (N. -dē-s), F. -d- (N. -s). These are chiefly Greek names used in poetry.

Prīami-dā-, N. Prīami-dē-s, scion of Priam’s house; Tantali-d-, N. Tantali-s, daughter of Tantalus. Pēlī-dē-s (Pēleu-s); Aenea-dē-s (Aenēā-); Thestia-dē-s (Thestio-); Lāertia-dē-s (Lāertā-); Scīpia-dā-s (Scīpiōn-). F. sometimes -īnē or -ōnē: Neptūnīnē (Neptūno-); Acrisiōnē (Acrisio-).



280. Primitive adjectives may usually be divided into active and passive; but the same suffix often has either an active or a passive meaning. Under primitive adjectives belong the participles; but these will be mentioned in connection with the verb.


281. The suffixes -o-, -uo-, -ci-, -lo-, and -do-, are used to form adjectives with an Active meaning: as,

Stem. Nominative. From.
vag-o- vagus, wandering vag-, wander
contig-uo- contiguus, touching com-, √tag-, touch
minā-ci- mināx, threatening minā-rī, threaten
cali-do- calidus, warm cal-, warm

(1.) -o- (N. -u-s); -uo- (N. -uu-s).

282. -o- (N. -u-s): such words express nature or capacity: vag-o-, N. vag-u-s, roaming (√vag-, roam); vīv-u-s, living (√vīv-, live); many are compounds: as, male-dic-u-s, abusive (male, √dic-, say); pro-fug-u-s, flying on (prō-, √fug-, fly). Passive: fīd-u-s, trustworthy (√fīd-, trust).

283. -uo-, N. -uu-s: adsid-uo-, N. adsid-uu-s, unremitting (ad, √sed-, sit); contig-uu-s, touching (com-, √tag-, touch); perpet-uu-s, uninterrupted (per, √pet-, go). Some words are passive: as, sal-vu-s, safe (√sal-, save); vac-uu-s, empty (√vac-, empty); relic-uo-s, left behind (re-, √liqu-, leave), later reliquos, relicus, reliquus (157).

(2.) -ci- (N. -x); -lo- (N. -lu-s); -do- (N. -du-s).

284. -ā-ci-, N. -ā-x (202), denotes capacity, habit, or inclination, often implying censure: pugnā-ci-, N. pugnā-x, full of fight (pugnā-re); minā-x, threatening (minā-ri); fer-āx, productive (√fer-, bear); dic-āx, full of mother-wit, quick at a joke (√dic-, say); rap-āx, apt to snatch (√rap-, snatch).

285. -u-lo-, N. -u-lu-s (202), denotes simple action: as, pat-ulo-, N. pat-ulu-s, spreading (√pat-, spread); or inclination: as, bib-ulu-s, apt to drink (√bib-, drink).

286. The suffixes -undo- (-endo-), -bundo-, and -cundo- form a group and are possibly related to the suffix in -do-.

287. -do-, N. -du-s (202), denotes a state, and usually has a parallel verb in -ēre (368): cali-do-, N. cali-du-s warm (cf. calē-re); calli-du-s, knowing (cf. callē-re); niti-du-s, shining (cf. nitē-re); rarely in -ere: cup-idu-s, desirous (cf. cupe-re); flui-du-s, liquid (cf. flue-re); rapi-du-s, hurried (cf. rape-re). -i-do- becomes -i-di- in viri-di-s, green (cf. virē-re). -do- sometimes occurs in denominatives: herbi-du-s, grassy (herbā-).


288. -undo- (-endo-), N. -undu-s, (-endu-s) is the suffix of the gerundive, which was originally neither active nor passive (2238). In a few words from reflexives, which have become adjectives, it has a reflexive or active meaning: lāb-undo-, N. lāb-undu-s, gliding, slipping (lābī); ori-undu-s, arising (orīrī); sec-undu-s, following (sequī); volv-endu-s, rolling (volvī). See 899.

289. -bundo-, N. -bundu-s (202), has the meaning of an exaggerated present participle: freme-bundo-, N. freme-bundu-s, muttering away (√frem-, roar); treme-bundu-s, all in a flutter (√trem-, quiver); fur-ibundu-s, hot with rage (√fur-, rave); cōntiōnā-bundu-s, speaking a speech (cōntiōnā-rī); minitā-bundu-s, breathing out threatenings (minitā-rī); vītā-bundu-s, forever dodging (vītā-re).

290. -cundo-, N. -cundu-s, denotes permanent quality: fā-cundo-, N. fā-cundu-s, eloquent (√fā-, speak); īrā-cundu-s, choleric (īrā-scī); iū-cundu-s, pleasant, interesting (√iuv-, help).


291. The suffixes -li-, -ti-li-, -bili-, -tīvo-, -no-, and -mino-, are used to form adjectives with a Passive meaning: as,

Stem. Nominative. From.
fac-ili- facilis, easy to do fac-, do
duc-tili- ductilis, ductile duc-, draw
amā-bili- amābilis, lovable amā-re, love
mag-no- magnus, great mag-, increase

(1.) -li-, (N. -li-s); -ti-li-, -bili- (N. -ti-li-s, -bili-s).

292. -i-li-, N. -i-li-s (202), denotes passive capability: fac-ili-, N. fac-ili-s, easy to do (√fac-, do); frag-ili-s, breakable, frail (√frag-, break); hab-ili-s, manageable, handy (√hab-, hold); nūb-ili-s, marriageable (√nūb-, veil).

293. -ti-li-, N. -ti-li-s, or -si-li-, N. -si-li-s (159), denotes capability or quality: as, duc-tili, N. duc-tili-s, capable of being drawn out, ductile (√duc-, draw); fis-sili-s, cleavable (√fid-, split); rā-sili-s, scraped (√rād-, scrape). Rarely active: as, fer-tili-s, productive (√fer-, bear).

294. -bili-, N. -bili-s (202), denotes passive capability like -i-li-, but is far more common: horr-ibili-s, exciting a shudder (cf. horrē-re); amā-bili-s, lovable (amā-re); flē-bili-s, lamentable (√flē-, weep). Rarely active: as, sta-bili-s, that can stand (√sta-, stand); penetrā-bili-s, piercing (penetrā-re). -ti-bili- (159), passive, rare: flexibili-s, flexible (√flec-, bend, 960).

295. -tīvo-, N. -tīvu-s, denotes the way a thing originated: as, cap-tīvu-s, captive (√cap-, take); sta-tīvu-s, set (√sta-, set).

(2.) -no- (N. -nu-s); -mino- (N. -minu-s).

296. -no-, N. -nu-s, an old passive participle suffix, denotes result: mag-nu-s (enlarged), great (√mag-, great); plē-nus, full (√plē-, fill). Neuter as substantive: dō-nu-m, gift (√dō-, give). Sometimes active: egē-nu-s, needy (egē-re, 192).


297. The suffix -mino- (for -meno-, 103, a) in its weakest form (135, 2) is found in a few substantives: as, alu-mnu-s, nursling (√al-, nurse). The endings -minī (730) and -minō (731) are apparently case forms of the same suffix. -minō would seem to be an ablative; -minī may be a nominative plural.


298. Denominative adjectives may be divided into such as denote: I. Material or Resemblance. II. Appurtenance: implying sometimes possession, often fitness, conformity, character, or origin. III. Supply. IV. Diminutives. V. Comparatives and Superlatives; a few of these are primitive.


299. The suffixes -eo- and -n-eo- are used to form adjectives denoting Material or Resemblance: as,

Stem. Nominative. From.
aur-eo- aureus, golden auro-, N. aurum, gold
ahē-neo- ahēneus, bronze (58) aes-, N. aes, bronze

300. -eo-, N. -eu-s: aur-eo-, N. aur-eu-s, golden, all gold, as good as gold (auro-); ferr-eu-s, iron (ferro-); pulver-eu-s, all dust (pulver-); virgin-eu-s, girlish (virgin-).

301. -n-eo-, N. -n-eu-s: ahē-neu-s, bronze (ahē-, 58; aes-); quer-neu-s, oaken (quercu-). -no- is usually poetical: as, ebur-nu-s, ivory (ebur-); quer-nu-s, oaken (quercu-). -ā-neo-, N. -ā-neu-s: miscell-āneu-s, mixed (miscello-).


302. The suffixes -o-, -io-, -vo-; -timo-, -li-, -no-; -bri-, -cri-, -tri-; -co-, -ti-, -si-, are used to form adjectives denoting Belonging to: as,

Stem. Nominative. From.
rēg-io- rēgius, kingly rēg-, N. rēx, king
mari-timo- maritimus, of the sea mari-, N. mare, sea
rēg-āli- rēgālis, of a king rēg-, N. rēx, king
can-īno- canīnus, of a dog can-, N. canis, dog
mulie-bri- muliebris, womanly mulier-, N. mulier, woman
cīvi-co- cīvicus, citizen’s cīvi-, N. cīvis, citizen

(1.) -o- (N. -u-s), -io- (N. -iu-s), -vo- (N. -vu-s).

303. -o-, N. -u-s: decōr-o-, N. decōr-u-s, becoming (decōr-); canōr-u-s, melodious (canōr-); pervius, passable (via-).

304. -io- is one of the commonest suffixes, and is often added to other suffixes; thus: -c-io-, -īc-io-; -tōr-io- (-sōr-io-); -ār-io-.


305. -io-, N. -iu-s: rēg-io-, N. rēg-iu-s, of or like a king (rēg-); patr-iu-s, of a father (patr-). Here belong many gentile names: as, Sēst-iu-s (Sexto-). These are used with substantives as adjectives: as, lēx Cornēl-ia, lēx Iūl-ia. Furthermore patrial adjectives: as, Corinth-iu-s, Corinthian (Corintho-). In some, consonant -io- is used: plēbē-iu-s, of the commons (plēbē-). -io- is rare in primitives: exim-iu-s, select (ex, √em-, take).

306. -c-io-, N. -c-iu-s (202): aedīli-cio, N. aedīli-ciu-s, of an aedile (aedīli-); patr-iciu-s, of the fathers (patr-); later-iciu-s, of brick (later-).

307. -īc-io-, N. -īc-iu-s: nov-īcio-, N. nov-īciu-s, new, new-comer (novo-); nātāl-īciu-s, birthday’s (nātāli-); caement-īciu-s, rubble (caemento-). Usually suffixed to perfect participles to denote the quality derived from the past act: conduct-īciu-s, hired (conducto-); trālāt-īciu-s, transferred (trālāto-).

308. -tōr-io-, N. -tōr-iu-s, or -sōr-io-, N. -sōr-iu-s, from the agent (205) in -tōr- (-sōr-), is the commonest ending with -io-: imperā-tōrio-, N. imperā-tōriu-s, of a commander (imperātōr-). The neuter, as substantive, denotes the place where (266): audī-tōriu-m, lecture-room (audītōr-); dēvor-sōriu-m, inn (dēvorsōr-).

309. -ār-io-, N. -ār-iu-s, very common, is chiefly added to substantives: as, agr-ārio-, N. agr-āriu-s, of land (agro-). Often as substantive: not-āriu-s (265), stenographer (notā-); aer-āriu-m (266), treastury (aer-); sēmin-āriu-m, nursery (sēmin-); bell-āria, plural, goodies, bonbons (bello-).

310. -ī-vo-, N. -ī-vu-s (202): tempest-īvu-s, seasonable (tempestāt-, 126); aest-īvu-s, summer’s (aestāt-). See 179.

(2.) -timo- (N. -timu-s); -li- (N. -li-s); -no- (N. -nu-s).

311. -timo-, N. -timu-s (202), for an older -tumo- (28): mari-timo-, N. mari-timu-s, of the sea (mari-); fīni-timu-s, of the border (fīni-); lēg-itimu-s, lawful (lēg-).

312. -li- N. -li-s: humi-li-, N. humi-li-s, lowly (humo-); but almost always in denominatives -li- is preceded by a long vowel (202), usually -ā- or -ī-, thus: -ā-li- (-ā-ri-), -ī-li; -ē-li-, -ū-li-.

313. -ā-li-, N. -ā-li-s: rēg-āli-, N. rēg-āli-s, kingly (rēg-); decemvir-āli-s, of a decemvir (decemviro-); fāt-āli-s, fated (fāto-); t-āli-s, such (stem to-, that); qu-āli-s, as (quo-), -ā-ri-, N. -ā-ri-s, is used for -āli- if an l precedes (173): as, mol-āri-, N. mol-āri-s, of a mill (molā-); mīlit-āri-s, of a soldier (mīlit-). Neuters in -āli- and -āri- often become substantives (600): fōc-āle, neckcloth (fauci-); anim-al, breathing thing (animā-); calc-ar, spur (calci-).

314. -ī-li-, N. -ī-li-s: cīv-īli-, N. cīv-īli-s, of a citizen (cīvi-); puer-ili-s, boyish (puero-). The neuter, as substantive, sometimes denotes the place where (266): ov-īle, sheepfold (ovi-).

315. -ē-li, N. -ē-li-s: fidē-li-, N. fidē-li-s, faithful (fidē-); crūd-ēli-s, cruel (crūdo-); patru-ēli-s, cousin (patruo-). -ū-li-, N. -ū-li-s: tribū-li-, N. tribū-li-s, tribesman (tribu-).


316. The old participle suffix -no- (296) is sometimes added at once to noun stems, sometimes to other suffixes: thus, -ā-no-, -ī-no-; -ti-no-, -tī-no-; -er-no-, -ur-no-.

317. -no-, N. -nu-s, is added to stems formed with the comparative suffix -ero- or -tero- (347), denoting place: super-no-, N. super-nu-s, above; inter-nu-s, internal (inter); exter-nu-s, outside; so, also, alter-nu-s, every other (altero-); and to a very few substantives: as, pater-nu-s, fatherly (patr-); frāter-nu-s, brotherly (frātr-); vēr-nu-s, of spring (vēr-). Also to cardinals, making distributives: as, bī-nī, two by two (for *dṷīnī, duo-, 161).

318. -ā-no-, N. -ā-nu-s (202): arcā-no-, N. arc-ānu-s, secret (arcā-); Rōma-nu-s, of Rome (Rōmā-); mont-ānu-s, of a mountain (monti-); oppid-ānu-s, of a town (oppido-). -i-āno-: Cicerōn-iāno-, N. Cicerōn-iānu-s, Cicero’s. Rarely -ā-neo-: mediterrā-neu-s, midland (medio-, terrā-).

319. -ī-no-, N. -ī-nu-s (202): mar-īno-, N. mar-īnu-s, of the sea; repent-īnu-s, sudden (repenti-); oftenest added to names of living beings: as, can-īnu-s, of a dog (can-); dīv-īnu-s, of a god (dīvo-); -ē-no-: lani-ēnu-s, ali-ēnu-s. Also to proper names: as, Plaut-īno-, N. Plaut-īnu-s, of Plautus (Plauto-); Alp-īnu-s, Alpine (Alpi-).

320. -ti-no-, N. -ti-nu-s, is used in some adjectives of time: crās-tinu-s, to-morrow’s (crās-); diū-tinu-s, lasting (diū); prīs-tinu-s, of aforetime (prī-, prae).

321. -tī-no-, N. -tī-nu-s, is used in a few words of place and time: intes-tīno-, N. intes-tinu-s, inward (intus); vesper-tīnu-s, at eventide (vespero-).

322. From words like frāter-nus (from *fratr(i)-nus, 111, b), pater-nus, exter-nus, inter-nus, arose a new suffix -terno-: as, hes-ternus, from the stem hes- (cf. her-ī, 154), and -erno- in hodiernus. From the adverb *noctur (νυκτωρ) was derived noctur-nus, by analogy to which diurnus was formed. Elsewhere the -ur of -urnus and the -tur- of -turnus belong to the stem: as, ebur-nus; tacitur-nus, from the agent *taci-tor (205).

(3.) -bri-, -cri-, -tri- (N. -ber or -bri-s, &c.).

323. -bri-, N. -ber or -bri-s: salū-bri-, N. salū-ber, healthy (salūt-); mulie-bri-s, womanly (mulier-).

324. -cri-, N. -cer or -cri-s (202): volu-cri-, N. volu-cer, winged (*volo-, flying); medio-cri-s, middling (medio-).

325. -tri-, N. -ter or -tri-s: eques-tri-, N. eques-ter, of horsemen (equit-, 152); sēmēs-tri-s, of six months (sex, mēns-). -es-tri- is used in a few words: camp-ester, of fields (campo-); silv-estri-s, of woods (silvā-).

(4.) -co- (N. -cu-s); -ti-, -si- (N. -s, -si-s).

326. -co- is often suffixed to -ti-, sometimes to -es-ti-; thus: -ti-co-, -es-ti-co-.

327. -co-, N. -cu-s: cīvi-co-, N. cīvi-cu-s, of a citizen (cīvi-); belli-cu-s, of war (bello-); vīli-cu-s, bailiff (vīllā-). -ā-co-, -ī-co-, -ū-co- (202): merā-cu-s, amī-cu-s, antī-cu-s, aprī-cu-s, postī-cu-s, pudī-cu-s, cadū-cu-s. -ti-co-, N. -ti-cu-s: rūs-tico-, N. rūs-ticu-s, of the country (rūs-). -es-ti-co-, N. -es-ti-cu-s: dom-esticu-s, of a house (domo-, domu-).


328. -ti- or -si- denotes belonging to a place; usually -ā-ti-, -ī-ti-, -es-ti-, -en-ti-; -ēn-si-, or -i-ēn-si-.

329. -ti-, N. -s: Tībur-ti-, N. Tībur-s, Tiburtine (Tībur-). -ā-ti-: quoi-āti-, N. quoi-ā-s, what countryman? (quoio-); Anti-ā-s, of Antium (Antio-); optim-ātēs, good men and true (optimo-). -ī-ti-: Samn-īti-, N. Samn-ī-s, Samnian (Samnio-). -en-ti-: Vēi-enti-, N. Vēi-ēn-s, of Vei (Vēio-). -es-ti-, N. -es-ti-s: agr-esti-, N. agr-esti-s, of the fields (agro-); cael-esti-s, heavenly (caelo-).

330. -ēn-si-, N. -ēn-si-s (202), from appellatives of place or proper names of place: castr-ēnsi-, N. castr-ēnsi-s, of a camp (castro-); circ-ēnsi-s, of the circus (circo-); Hispāni-ēnsi-s (temporarily) of Spain. -i-ēnsi-: Karthāgin-iēnsi-s, of Carthage (Karthāgin-).


331. The suffixes -to- or -ōso- are used to form adjectives denoting Supplied or Furnished with: as,

Stem. Nominative. From.
barbā-to- barbātus, bearded barbā-, N. barba, beard
ann-ōso- annōsus, full of years anno-, N. annus, year

(1.) -to- (N. -tu-s); -len-to- (N. -len-tu-s).

332. -to-, the perfect participle suffix, is sometimes added at once to a noun stem, sometimes to other suffixes, thus: -āto-, -īto-, -ēto-, -ūto-, -ento-, -lento-.

333. -to-, N. -tu-s: onus-to-, N. onus-tu-s, loaded (onus-); vetus-tu-s, full of years (*vetus-, year); iūs-tu-s, just (iūs-); hones-tu-s, honourable (*hones-); fūnes-tu-s, deadly (fūnes-). -ā-to-: barbā-tu-s, bearded (barbā-); dent-ātu-s, toothed (denti-); -ī-to-: aurī-tu-s, long-eared (auri-); -ū-to-: cornū-tu-s, horned (cornu-). -en-to-, N. -en-tu-s: cru-ento-, N. cru-entu-s, all gore (*cruenti-, *cruēre). As substantive, arg-entu-m (white metal), silver; flu-enta, plural, streams (fluenti-).

334. The neuter of stems in -to-, as a substantive, denotes the place where something, generally a plant, is found (266): arbus-tu-m, vineyard (arbos-); commonly preceded by -ē-, forming -ē-to- (202), usually plural: dūm-ēta, thorn-thickets (dūmo-); murt-ēta, myrtle-groves (murto-).

335. -len-to-, N. -len-tu-s (202): vīno-lento-, N. vīno-lentu-s, drunken (vīno-); sanguin-olentu-s, all blood (sanguin-); lūcu-lentu-s, bright (lūci-28); pulver-ulentu-s, dusty (pulver-). A shorter form -lenti- is rare: vi-olenti-, N. vi-olēn-s, violent (vi-); op-ulēn-s, rich (op-).

(2.) -ōso- (N. -ōsu-s).

336. -ōso- (sometimes -ōnso-, -ōsso-), N. -ōsu-s, full of, is very common indeed, -ōso- is sometimes attached to other suffixes, thus: -c-ōso-, -ul-ōso-, -ūc-ul-ōso-.


337. -ōso-, N. -ōsu-s: ann-ōso-, N. ann-ōsu-s, full of years; fōrm-ōnsu-s, fōrm-ōssu-s or fōrm-ōsu-s, shapely (fōrmā-); perīcul-ōsu-s, with danger fraught (perīculo-); mōr-ōsu-s, priggish, cross (mōr-); calamit-ōsu-s, full of damage (calamitāt-, 179); superstiti-ōsu-s, superstitious (superstitiōn-, 179); frūctu-ōsu-s, fruitful (frūctu-, 116, c); mont-uōsu-s, full of mountains (monti-, 202); cūri-ōsu-s, full of care (cūrā-); labōr-iōsu-s, toilsome (labōr-, 202).

338. -c-ōso-, N. -c-ōsu-s: belli-cōso-, N. belli-cōsu-s, warlike (bello-, bellico-). -ul-ōso-, N. -ul-ōsu-s: formīd-ulōso-, N. formid-ulōsu-s, terrible (formīdin-, 179). -ūc-ul-ōso-, N. -ūc-ul-ōsu-s: met-ū-culoso-, N. met-ū-culōsu-s, skittish (metu-).


339. Diminutives are formed from adjectives, as from substantives (267).

-lo-, N. -lu-s: aureo-lo-, N. aureo-lu-s, all gold, of precious gold, of red red gold, good as gold (aureo-); ebrio-lu-s, tipsy (ebrio-); parvo-lu-s, or parvu-lu-s, smallish (parvo-); frīgidu-lu-s, chilly (frigido-); vet-ulus, little old (vet-); tenellu-lu-s, soft and sweet (tenello-, tenero-); pulchel-lus, sweet pretty (pulchro-); bel-lu-s, bonny (bono-); novel-lu-s, newborn (*novolo-, novo-). -culo-, N. -culu-s: pauper-culo-, N. pauper-culu-s, poorish (pauper-); levi-culu-s, somewhat vain (levi-).

340. A peculiar class of diminutives is formed by adding -culo- to the comparative stem -ius- (346): as, nitidius-culo-, N. nitidius-culu-s, a trifle sleeker (nitidius-); longius-culu-s, a bit longer (longius-).

341. Adverbs sometimes have a diminutive form: as, bellē, charmingly; paullulum, a little bit; meliusculē, a bit better (340).


342. Comparatives and superlatives are usually formed from the stem of the positive: as, dignior, worthier, dignissimus, worthiest, from digno-, stem of dignus. A few are formed directly from roots: thus, maior, greater, and maximus, greatest, are formed from the √mag-, and not from magno-, stem of magnus.

(1.) COMPARATIVE -ior, SUPERLATIVE -issimus.

343. The nominative of comparative adjectives ends usually in -ior, and that of superlatives in -issimus: thus,

Comparative. Superlative.
Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
-ior -ior -ius -issimus -issima -issimum
Positive. Comparative. Superlative.
altus, high, altior, higher, altissimus, highest.
trīstis, sad, trīstior, sadder, trīstissimus, saddest.

(2.) SUPERLATIVE -rimus.

344. Adjectives with the nominative in -er have the nominative of the superlative like the nominative of the positive with -rimus added (350): as,

Positive. Comparative. Superlative.
pauper, poor, pauperior, poorer, pauperrimus, poorest.
ācer, sharp, ācrior, sharper, ācerrimus, sharpest.

mātūrrimus occurs once (Tac.), for mātūrissimus, positive mātūrus, ripe.

(3.) SUPERLATIVE -limus.


humilis, difficilis, and facilis,

similis, dissimilis, and gracilis,

have the nominative of the superlative in -limus, following l of the stem (350): as,

Positive. Comparative. Superlative.
humilis, lowly, humilior, lowlier, humillimus, lowliest.


346. The comparative suffix is -iōs-, which becomes in the singular, nominative masculine and feminine, -ior (154; 132), neuter nominative and accusative, -ius (107, c); in all other cases -iōr- (154).

347. Other comparative suffixes are -ro- or -ero-, and -tro- or -tero-, used in a few words, principally designating place: as, sup-erī, the upper ones, īnferī, the nether ones; ex-terī, outsiders, posterī, after-generations; alter, the other; uter, whether? which of the two? (for *quo-ter, 146); dexter, right.

348. Some words designating place have a doubled comparative suffix, -er-iōr-, or -ter-iōr-: as, sup-er-ior, upper, īnferior, lower. ci-ter-ior, hither, dēterior (lower), worse, exterior, outer, interior, inner, posterior, hinder, after, ulterior, further, dexterior, more to the right, -is-tro- is used in two words which have become substantives: min-is-ter (inferior), servant, and magister (superior), master.


349. The common superlative suffix is -issimo-, nominative -issimus, with older -issumo-, nominative -issumus (28).

350. Stems which end in -ro-, -ri-, or -li- (344, 345) take the suffix -issimo- (cf. -simo-, 351) with syncope of its initial i (111) and assimilation of the final l or r (166, 8).

351. The suffix -timo- is further used in a few root superlatives: ci-timus, dextimus, extimus, intimus, optimus, postumus, and ultimus; and -simo- in maximus, pessimus, and proximus.

352. The suffix -mo- or -imo- is used in sum-mo-, N. summus, highest (sub); min-imo-, N. minimus, least; prīmus, first, septimus, seventh, decimus, tenth. -mo- or -imo- is attached to -is- (135, 2) in plūrimus for *plō-is-imo-s (fullest), most (99); and to -rē- or -trē-, possibly an adverbial form (705), in suprēmus, extrēmus, and postrēmus.



353. Some positives have a comparative or superlative, or both, from a different form of the stem: such are,

frūgī, thrifty, frūgālior, frūgālissimus.
nēquam, naughty, nēquior, nēquissimus.
iuvenis, young, iūnior, (nātū minimus).
senex, old, senior, (nātū maximus).
magnus, great, maior, maximus (351).
beneficus, kindly, beneficentior, beneficentissimus.
honōrificus, complimentary, honōrificentior, honōrificentissimus.
magnificus, grand, magnificentior, magnificentissimus.

354. iuvenior, younger, is late (Sen., Plin., Tac.). benevolēns, kindly, benevolentior, benevolentissimus, and maledīcēns, abusive, maledīcentior (once each, Plaut.), maledīcentissimus, have usually as positive benevolus and maledicus respectively.

355. Some positives have a comparative or superlative, or both, from a wholly different stem: such are,

bonus, good, melior, optimus (351).
malus, bad, peior, pessimus (351).
multus, much, plūs (sing. Ne. only), plūrimus (352).
parvus, little, minor, minimus (352).

parvus has rarely parvissimus.

356. Four comparatives in -erior or -terior, denoting place (348), have two forms of the superlative; the nominative masculine singular of the positive is not in common use:

exterior, extimus (351), or extrēmus (352), outermost.
īnferior, īnfimus, or īmus, lowest.
posterior, postumus (351), lastborn, or postrēmus (352), last.
superior, summus (352), or suprēmus (352), highest.

357. Six, denoting place, have the positive only as an adverb or preposition:

cis, this side, citerior (348), citimus (351), hitherest.
, down, dēterior (348), dēterrimus, lowest, worst.
in, in, interior (348), intimus, inmost.
prae, before, prior, prīmus (352), first.
prope, near, propior, proximus (351), nearest.
uls, beyond, ulterior (348), ultimus (351), furthest.

ōcior, swifter, ōcissimus, has no positive.

358. These have a superlative, but no comparative: bellus, pretty, falsus, false, inclutus, famed, invictus, unconquered, invītus, unwilling, meritus, deserving, novus, new; vetus, veterrimus, old, sacer, sacerrimus, sacred, vafer, vaferrimus, sly; malevolus, malevolentissimus (twice, Cic.), spiteful; maleficus, maleficentissimus (once, Suet.), wicked, mūnificus, mūnificentissimus (inscrr.; Cic. once), generous, mīrificus, mīrificissimus (twice, Acc., Ter.), strange. Plautus has ipsissumus, his very self.


359. Most primitives in -ilis and -bilis (292, 294), have a comparative, but no superlative; but these have a superlative: facilis and difficilis (345), easy and hard, ūtilis, useful; also fertilis, productive, amābilis, lovable, mōbilis, movable, nōbilis, well known.

360. Many adjectives have no suffixes of comparison, and supply the place of these by magis, more, and maximē, most: as, mīrus, strange, magis mīrus, maximē mīrus. Many adjectives, from their meaning, do not admit of comparison.


361. Adverbs derived from adjectives have as their comparative the accusative singular neuter of the comparative adjective; the superlative is formed like that of the adjective, but ends in : as,

altē, on high, altius, altissimē.
ācriter, sharply, ācrius, ācerrimē.
facile, easily, facilius, facillimē.

362. An older superlative ending, -ēd for , occurs in an inscription of 186 B.C.: FACILVMED, i.e. facillimē. A few adverbs have superlatives in or -um: as, meritissimō, most deservedly; prīmō, at first, prīmum, first; postrēmō, at last, postrēmum, for the last time.

363. If the comparison of the adjective has peculiarities, they are retained in the adverb likewise: as, bene, well, melius, optimē; male, ill, peius, pessimē; multum, much, plūs, plūrimum; mātūrē, betimes, mātūrius, mātūrissimē (Cic., Plin.), or mātūrrimē (Cic., Caes., Sall., Tac.). ōcius, swifter, no positive, ōcissimē. minus, less, is formed by the nominal suffix -es- (236), from √min- (minuō); for magis, more, see 135, 2. In poetry magis sometimes becomes mage, as if neuter of an adjective in -i-.

364. A few adverbs not derived from adjectives are compared: as, diū, long, diūtius, diūtissimē; saepe, often, saepius, saepissimē; nūper, lately, no comparative, nūperrimē; secus, otherwise, sētius, the less; temperī, betimes, temperius, earlier, no superlative.


365. Denominative verb stems have present infinitives in -āre, -ēre, or -īre (-ārī, -ērī, or -īrī), and are formed from noun stems of all endings: as,

Verb. From Noun.
fugā-re, rout fugā-, N. fuga
locā-re, place loco-, N. locus
nōminā-re, name nōmin-, N. nōmen
levā-re, lighten levi-, N. levis
sinuā-re, bend sinu-, N. sinus
albē-re, be white albo-, N. albus
miserē-rī, pity misero-, N. miser
flōrē-re, blossom flōr-, N. flōs
sordē-re, be dirty sordi-, N. sordēs
pūnī-re, punish poenā-, N. poena
condī-re, season condo-, N. condus
custōdī-re, guard custōd-, N. custōs
vestī-re, dress vesti-, N. vestis
gestī-re, flutter gestu-, N. gestus

366. These present verb stems are formed by adding the suffix -i̭o-, -i̭e- to the noun stem: as *fugā-i̭ō, I flee; the between two vowels was dropped (153, 2) and the final vowel of noun stem was often contracted with the ending (118, 3). The noun stem ending is often slightly modified.

367. In a half a dozen denominatives from stems in -u- the u of the noun stem remains without modification, and is not contracted with the variable vowel (116, c): these are, acuere, sharpen (acu-), metuere, fear, statuere, set, tribuere, assign; arguere, make clear, bātuere, beat.

368. Verbs in -āre are by far the most numerous class of denominatives; they are usually transitive; but deponents often express condition, sometimes occupation: as, dominārī, lord it, play the lord; aquārī, get oneself water. Most verbs in -īre also are transitive; those in -ēre usually denote a state: as, calēre, be warm; but some are causative: as, monēre, remind.

369. Many denominative verbs in -āre contain a noun suffix which is not actually found in the noun itself; such suffixes are: -co-, -cin-, -lo-, -er-, -ro-, -to-, &c.: as,

-co-: albi-cāre, be white (*albi-co-); velli-cāre, pluck (*velli-co-, plucker). -cin-: latrō-cinārī, be a robber (latrōn-); sermō-cinārī, discourse (sermōn-). -lo-: grātu-lārī, give one joy (*grātu-lo-); vi-olāre, harm (*vi-olo-); heiu-lāri, cryheia’ (*heiu-lo-). -er-: mod-erārī, check (*mod-es-, 236). -ro-: tole-rāre, endure (*tole-ro-); flag-rāre, blaze (*flag-ro-). -to-: dēbili-tāre, lame (*dēbili-to-); dubi-tāre, doubt (*dubi-to-).

370. Many denominatives in -āre are indirect compounds (377), often from compound noun stems which are not actually found. So, particularly, when the first part is a preposition, or the second is from the root fac-, make, ag-, drive, do, or cap-, take: as,

opi-tul-ārī, bear help (opitulo-); suf-fōc-āre, suffocate (*suf-fōc-o-, fauci-); aedi-fic-āre (housebuild), build (*aedific- or *aedifico-, housebuilder); sīgni-fic-āre, give token (*sīgnifico-); fūm-ig-āre, make smoke (*fūmigo-, smoker, fūmo-, √ag-); nāv-ig-āre, sail, and rēm-ig-āre, row (nāvi-, ship, and rēmo-, oar); mīt-ig-āre, make mild (mīti-); iūr-ig-āre, commonly iūr-g-āre, quarrel (iūr-); pūr-ig-āre, commonly pūr-g-āre, clean (pūro-); gnār-ig-āre, tell (gnāro-, narrāre, 169, 2; 133, 1); anti-cip-āre, take beforehand (*anticipo-, ante, √cap-); oc-cup-āre, seize (*occupo-); re-cup-er-āre, get back (*recupero-).

371. Many verbs in -tāre (-sāre), or -tārī (-sārī), express frequent, intense, or sometimes attempted action. These are called Frequentatives or Intensives; they are formed from perfect participle stems; but stems in -ā-to- become -i-to-: as,

cant-āre, sing (canto-); cess-āre, loiter (cesso-); amplex-ārī, embrace (amplexo-); habit-āre, live (habito-); pollicit-āri, make overtures (pollicito-); dormīt-āre, be sleepy (dormīto-); neg-itāre, keep denying (for *negā-tāre, with suffix -i-tāre, 910).

372. Some frequentatives in -tāre are formed from the present stem of a verb in -ere; the formative vowel before -tāre becomes i: as,

agi-tāre, shake (age-re); flui-tāre, float (flue-re); nōsci-tāre, recognize (nōsce-re); quaeri-tāre, keep seeking (quaere-re); scīsci-tārī, enquire (scīsce-re); vēndi-tāre, try to sell (vēnde-re).


373. A few frequentatives add -tā- to the perfect participle stem: as,

ācti-tāre, act often (ācto-); facti-tāre, do repeatedly (facto-); lēcti-tāre, read again and again (lēcto-); ūncti-tāre, anoint often (ūncto-). From a frequentative another frequentative is sometimes derived: as, dict-āre, dictate, dicti-tāre, keep asserting (dicto-).

374. Some verbs are found only as frequentatives: as, gust-āre, taste (*gusto-, √gus-, taste); put-āre, think (puto-, √pu-, clean); aegrōt-āre, be ill (aegrōto-).

375. A few verbs in -uriō, -urīre, express desire; such are called Desideratives: as, ēss-urīre or ēs-urīre, want to eat (edere, ēsse). A few in -ssō, -ssere, express earnest action; such are called Meditatives: as, lacē-ssō, lacē-ssere, provoke.


376. In compounds, the fundamental word is usually the second, which has its meaning qualified by the first.

377. A Direct Compound is one formed directly from two parts: as, con-iug-, N. coniūnx, yoke-fellow (com-, together, √iug-, yoke); con-iungere, join together (com-, iungere); an Indirect Compound is one formed by the addition of a suffix to a direct compound: as, iūdic-io-, N. iūudicium, trial (iūdic-): iūdicā-re, judge (iūdic-).

378. A Real Compound is a word whose stem is formed from two stems, or an inseparable prefix and a stem, fused into one stem; an Apparent Compound is formed by the juxtaposition of an inflected word with another inflected word, a preposition, or an adverb.




379. If the first part is a noun, its stem is taken: as, Ahēno-barbus, Redbeard, Barbarossa; usually with weakening of a stem vowel (103-105): as, aurifex, jeweller (auro-). On other changes of the final vowel in the first member of compounds, see 174. Sometimes with disappearance of a syllable (179); as, *venēni-ficus, venē-ficus, poisoner (venēno-); or of a vowel (111): as, man-ceps, contractor (manu-); particularly before a vowel (119): as, magn-animus, great-souled (magno-). Consonant stems are often extended by i before a consonant: as, mōri-gerus, complaisant (mōr-).

380. Stems in -s-, including those in -er-, -or- and -ōr- (236), are sometimes compounded as above (379): as, nemori-vagus, woodranger; honōri-ficus, complimentary; but usually they drop the suffix and take i: as, opi-fex, work-man (oper-); foedi-fragus, truce-breaker (foeder-); volni-ficus, wounding (volner-); mūni-ficus, generous (mūner-); terri-ficus, awe-inspiring (terrōr-); horri-fer, dreadful, horri-sonus, awful-sounding (horrōr-).


381. The second part, which often has weakening of the vowel (102), is sometimes a bare root used as a stem (199), oftener a root with a formative suffix; or a noun stem, sometimes with its stem ending modified: as, iū-dic-, N. iūdex, juror (√dic-, declare); causi-dic-o-, N. causidicus, pleader (209); in-gen-io-, N. ingenium, disposition (√gen-, beget, 219); con-tāg-iōn-, N. contāgiō, touching together (√tag-, touch, 227); im-berb-i-, N. imberbis, beardless (barbā-).


382. Determinatives are compounds in which the second part keeps its original meaning, though determined or modified by the first part. The meaning of a determinative may often be best expressed by two words.

383. (1.) The first part of a determinative may be an adjective, an adverb, a preposition, or an inseparable prefix; the second part is a noun: as,

lāti-fundium, i.e. lātī fundī, broad acres; prīvi-lēgium, i.e. prīva lēx, special act; alti-sonāns, i.e. altē sonāns, high-sounding; con-discipulus, i.e. cum alterō discipulus, fellow-pupil; per-magnus, i.e. valdē magnus, very great; in-dignus, i.e. nōn dignus, unworthy.

384. (2.) The first part of a determinative may represent the oblique case of a noun, generally a substantive; the second part is a noun or verb stem. These compounds are called Objectives: as,

Accusative of direct object (1132), armi-ger, i.e. quī arma gerit, armour-bearer; dative of indirect object (1208), man-tēle, i.e. manibus tēla, handkerchief, napkin; genitive (1227), sōl-stitium, i.e. sōlis statiō, solstice; ablative instrumental (1300), tubi-cen, i.e. quī tubā canit, trumpeter; locative (1331), Troiu-gena, i.e. Troiae nātus, Troy-born; ablative locative (1350), nocti-vagus, night-wandering; monti-vagus, mountain-ranging.

385. Possessives are adjective compounds in which the meaning of the second part is changed. The second part of a possessive is always formed from a substantive, qualified by the noun, adverb, or inseparable prefix of the first part, and the whole expresses an attribute which something has: as,

longi-manus, longarms, long-armed; miseri-cors, tender-hearted; bi-linguis, two-tongued; magn-animus, greatheart, great-hearted; im-berbis, beardless.


386. Apparent Compounds are formed:

387. (1.) By two nouns combined, one with an unchanging case ending, the other with full inflections: as, aquae-ductus, aqueduct; senātūs-cōnsultum, decree of the senate; pater-familiās, father of a family; vērī-similis, like the truth; in these words, aquae, senātūs, familiās, and vērī are genitives, and remain genitives, while the other part of the compound is declinable.


388. (2.) By a substantive with an adjective habitually agreeing with it, both parts being declined: as, rēs pūblica, the common-weal; rēs gestae, exploits; iūs iūrandum, oath; pecūniae repetundae, money claim.

389. (3.) By nouns, chiefly substantives, in the same case placed loosely side by side and making one idea. The two words may be used: (a.) Copulatively: as, ūsus-frūctus, use and enjoyment; pactum-conventum, bargain and covenant; duo-decim, two and ten, twelve; or (b.) Appositively: one word explaining the other (1045): as, Iuppiter, Jove the Father (94133); Mārspiter, Mars the Father, for Mārs pater.

390. (4.) From an original combination of an oblique case with a preposition: as, prōcōnsul, proconsul, from prō cōnsule, for a consul; ēgregius, select, from ē grege, out of the herd; dēlīrus, astray, mad, from dē līrā, out of the furrow.



391. Real Compounds are direct compounds of a verb with a preposition; the root vowel or diphthong of the verb is often weakened (102): as,

per-agere, put through, accomplish; ab-igere, drive away; ex-quīrere, seek out. The prefix, which was originally a separate adverb modifying the verb, is in poetry sometimes separated from the verb by another word; the disyllabic prepositions in particular often remain as juxtaposed adverbs (396).

392. Some prepositions are inseparable, that is, used only in composition: ambi-, round, an-, up, dis-, in two, apart, por-, towards, red-, re-, back, sēd-, sē-, by oneself, away: as, amb-īre, go round to; an-hēlāre, breathe up; dis-pellere, drive apart; por-rigere, stretch forth; red-dere, give back; sē-iungere, separate.


393. Apparent Compounds are formed by the juxtaposition of:

394. (1.) A verb with a verb: faciō and fīō are added to present stems, mostly of intransitive verbs in -ēre; the -e- of the first verb is sometimes long, and sometimes short (130, 5): as, calē̆-facere, make warm (calēre); excandē̆-facere, make blaze (candēre); madē̆-facere, make wet (madēre). In these apparent compounds, the accent of faciō remains the same as in the simple verb: as, calē̆fácis.

395. (2.) A substantive with a verb: as, anim-advertere, pay heed to, animum advertere; vēnum-dare, or vēndere, sell, vēnum dare; vēn-īre, be sold, vēnum īre; lucrī-facere, make gain, lucrī facere; manū-mittere, set free.

396. (3.) An adverb with a verb: as, circum-dare, put round; satis-facere, satis-dare, give satisfaction; intro-īre, go inside; mālle, prefer, for magis velle (170, 2); nōlō, be unwilling, for ne volō; ne-scīre, hau-scīre, not know.



397. Inflection is the change which nouns, pronouns, and verbs undergo, to indicate their relation in a sentence.

The inflection of a noun or pronoun is often called Declension, and that of a verb, Conjugation.


398. The noun or pronoun is inflected by attaching case endings to the stem.

The endings, which are called case endings for brevity, indicate number as well as case, and serve also to distinguish gender words from neuters in the nominative and accusative singular of some stems, and of all plurals. These endings are nearly the same for stems of all kinds.


399. The stem contains the meaning of the noun. Noun stems are arranged in the following order: (1.) stems in -ā-, in -o-, in a consonant, or in -i-; these are substantive, including proper names, or adjective; (2.) stems in -u- or -ē-; these are substantive only, and include no proper names.

400. In some instances, a final stem vowel is retained before a case ending which begins with a vowel: as, urbi-um, ācri-a, cornu-a, portu-ī, portu-um (116, c); in others the stem vowel blends inseparably with the vowel of the case ending: as, mēnsīs, dominīs (108, a).

401. Some nouns have more than one form of the stem: as,

sēdēs (476); femur, iecur (489); vās, mēnsis (492); vīrus, volgus (493); iter, nix, senex, &c. (500); vīs (518); caedēs (523); famēs, plēbēs (524); domus (594); angiportus, &c. (595). Many nouns have a consonant stem in the singular, and an -i- stem in the plural: see 516; most substantives in -iē- or -tiē- have a collateral form in -iā- or -tiā- (604). Some adjectives have two different stems: as, hilarus, hilara, hilarum, and hilaris, hilare; exanimus and exanimis.


402. There are two genders, Masculine and Feminine. Masculine and feminine nouns are called Gender nouns. Nouns without gender are called Neuter.

403. Gender is, properly speaking, the distinction of sex. In Latin, a great many things without life have gender in grammar, and are masculine or feminine.


404. Some classes of substantives may be brought under general heads of signification, as below, like the names of rivers and winds (405), which are usually of the masculine gender, or of plants (407), which are usually of the feminine. When the gender cannot be determined thus, it must be learned from the special rules for the several stems and their nominatives.



405. Names of male beings, rivers, winds, and mountains, are masculine: as,

Caesar, Gāius, Sūlla, men’s names; pater, father; erus, master; scrība, scrivener; Tiberis, the Tiber; Aquilō, a Norther; Lūcrētilis, Mt. Lucretilis.

406. The river names: Allia, Dūria, Sagra, Lēthē, and Styx are feminine. Also the mountain names Alpēs, plural, the Alps, and some Greek names of mountains in -a or : as, Aetna, Mt. Etna; Rhodopē, a Thracian range. A few are neuter, as Sōracte.


407. Names of female beings, plants, flowers, shrubs, and trees, are feminine: as,

Gāia, Glycerium, women’s names; mālus, apple-tree; quercus, oak; īlex, holm-oak; abiēs, fir.

408. Masculine are: bōlētus, mushroom, carduus, thistle, dūmī, plural, brambles, intibus, endive, iuncus, rush, oleaster, bastard olive, rubus, bramble, rumex, sorrel, scirpus, bulrush, and rarely fīcus, fig. Also some of Greek origin: as, acanthus, amāracus, asparagus, and crocus. Neuter are: apium, parsley, balsamum, balsam-tree, rōbur, heart of oak, and some names with stems in -er- (573).


409. Mobile Nouns have different forms to distinguish sex: as, Iūlius, a man, Julius, Iūlia, a woman, Julia; cervus, stag, cerva, hind; socer, father-in-law, socrus, mother-in-law; victor, conqueror, victrīx, conqueress. Adjectives ‘of three endings’ (611), belong to this class.

410. Some nouns have one ending, but are applicable to either sex. Such are said, to be of Common Gender: as, adulēscēns, young man or young woman; dux, leader; īnfāns, baby, child; and many other consonant stems or stems in -i-, denoting persons. Adjectives ‘of two endings’ or ‘of one ending’ (611), belong to this class.

411. Epicenes have one ending and one grammatical gender, though applicable to animals of either sex. Thus, aquila, eagle, is feminine, though it may denote a he-eagle as well as a she-eagle; anatēs, ducks, feminine, includes drakes.


412. Infinitives, words and expressions quoted or explained, and letters of the alphabet, are neuter: as,


vīvere ipsum, mere living; istūc ‘taceō,’ your ‘I won’t mention;’ longum vale, a long goodbye; o Graecum, Greek O. But the letters have sometimes a feminine adjective, agreeing with littera understood.


413. Some substantives have different genders in the two numbers; the different gender is sometimes indicated by a difference of stem: as, epulum, neuter, epulae, feminine, feast. See balneum, frēnum, jocus, locus, margarīta, ostrea, rāstrum, in the dictionary.


414. There are two numbers, the Singular used of one, the Plural of more than one.

415. ambō, both, and duo, two, nominative and accusative masculine and neuter, are the only remnants of an old Dual number, denoting two.

416. Some substantives, from their meaning, have no plural.

Such are: proper names: as, Cicerō, Cicero; Rōma, Rome; material and abstract substantives: as, oleum, oil, vīnum, wine, iūstitia, justice; and gerunds: as, regendī, of guiding. For the occasional use of the plural, 1105-1110.

417. Some substantives, from their meaning, have no singular.

Such are: names of persons of a class: as, maiōrēs, ancestors; superī, the beings above; mānēs, ghosts; of feasts, sacrifices, days: as, Sāturnālia, festival of Saturn; kalendae, first of the month; of things made of parts or consisting of a series of acts: as, arma, arms; artūs, joints; quadrīgae, four-in-hand; exsequiae, funeral rites; of some places: as, Faleriī; Vēī; Pompēī; Athēnae, Athens; Alpēs, the Alps.

418. Some substantives have different meanings in the two numbers: as,

aedis, temple, aedēs, house; auxilium, aid, auxilia, auxiliaries; carcer, jail, carcerēs, race-barriers; Castrum, Castle, castra, camp; comitium, meeting-place, comitia, election; cōpia, abundance, cōpiae, troops; facultās, ability, facultātēs, wealth; fīnis, end, fīnēs, boundaries; grātia, favour, grātiae, thanks; impedīmentum, hindrance, impedīmenta, baggage; littera, letter (of the alphabet), litterae, epistle; rōstrum, beak, rōstra, speakers stand. See also aqua, bonum, fortūna, lūdus, opera, pars, in the dictionary.


419. Nouns have five cases, the Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Ablative.

The nominative represents a noun as subject, the accusative as object; the genitive denotes the relation of of, the dative of to or for, and the ablative of from, with, in, or by. But the meanings of the cases are best learnt from reading. All cases but the nominative and vocative (420) are called Oblique Cases.


420. Town names and a few appellatives have also a case denoting the place where, called the Locative. Masculine stems in -o- and some Greek stems with other endings have still another form used in addressing a person or thing, called the Vocative.

421. The stem of a noun is best seen in the genitive; in the genitive plural it is preserved without change, except that o of -o- stems is lengthened (123). In dictionaries the stem ending is indicated by the genitive singular, thus: -ae, , -is, -ūs (-ĕī), indicate respectively stems in -ā-, -o-, a consonant or -i-, -u-, and -ē-, as follows:

Genitive Singular. Genitive Plural. Stems in.
-ae, mēnsae, table -ārum, mēnsā-rum -ā-, mēnsā-, N. mēnsa
, dominī, master -ōrum, dominō-rum -o-, domino-, N. dominus
-is, rēgis, king -cons. um, rēg-um -consonant, rēg-, N. rēx
-is, cīvis, citizen -ium, cīvi-um -i-, cīvi-, N. cīvis
-ūs, portus, port -uum, portu-um -u-, portu-, N. portus
(ĕ̄ī, rĕ̄ī), thing (-ērum, rē-rum) , rē-, N. rēs

422. Gender nominatives usually add -s to the stem: as, servo-s or servu-s, slave, rēx (164, 1), cīvi-s, portu-s, rē-s. But stems in -ā- or in a continuous consonant (-l-, -n-, -r-, or -s-) have no -s: as, mēnsa, cōnsul, consul, flāmen, special priest, pater, father, flōs, flower.

423. Neuters have the nominative and accusative alike; in the singular the stem is used: as nōmen, name; or a shortened stem: as, exemplar, pattern; but stems in -o- take -m: as, aevo-m or aevu-m, age. In the plural -a is always used: as, rēgna, kingdoms, nōmina, cornua, horns. For -s in adjectives ‘of one ending,’ see 612.

424. Gender accusatives singular add -m to the stem: as, mēnsa-m, servo-m or servu-m, nāvi-m, ship, portu-m, die-m. The consonant stems have the ending -em: as, rēg-em; most substantive stems in -i- and all adjectives also drop -i- and take -em: as, nāv-em, trīst-em, sad. In the plural, gender stems add -s before which the vowel is long: as, mēnsā-s, servō-s, rēgē-s, nāvī-s or nāvē-s, portū-s, rē-s.

425. The ablative singular usually ends in the long vowel of the stem: as, mēnsā, dominō, nāvī, portū, . The ablative of consonant stems usually has -e (rarely -ī-, see 502): as, patre, father; and that of substantive -i- stems has -e more commonly than : as, nāve.

426. The ablative singular of -ā- and -o- stems ended anciently in -ād and -ōd respectively: as, PRAIDAD, PREIVATOD; that of consonant stems in -īd: as, AIRID, COVENTIONID. But -d is almost entirely confined to inscriptions and disappeared early (149).

427. The genitive plural adds -rum to -ā-, -o-, and -ē- stems: as, mēnsā-rum, dominō-rum, rē-rum; and -um to consonant stems, -i- stems, and -u- stems: as, rēg-um, cīvi-um, portu-um.

428. The dative and ablative plural are always alike: stems in -ā- and -o- take -is, which blends with the stem vowel (400): as, mēnsīs, dominīs; other stems have -bus, before which consonant stems are extended by i: as, rēgi-bus, nāvi-bus, portu-bus or porti-bus, rē-bus.


429. Some pronouns and a few adjectives have some peculiar case endings; see 618-694.

430. Many nouns are defective in case.

Thus, many monosyllables have no genitive plural: as, aes, copper, cor, heart, cōs, whetstone, dōs, dowry, ōs, face, pāx, peace, pix, pitch, rōs, dew, sāl, salt, lūx, light; many words have no genitive, dative, or ablative plural: as, hiemps, winter; especially neuters: as, fār, spelt, fel, gall, mel, honey, pūs, matter, rūs, country, tūs, frankincense. Many words in -tu- (-su-) have only the ablative (235). For -ē- stems, see 600. Other words more or less defective are exlēx, exspēs, fās and nefās, īnfitiās, inquiēs, īnstar, luēs, nēmō, opis and vicis genitives, pondō and sponte ablatives, secus, vīs. Many adjectives ‘of one ending’ want the nominative and accusative neuter plural and genitive plural.

431. Some adjectives are altogether indeclinable: as, frūgī, thrifty, an old dative; nēquam, naughty, an old accusative; quot, how many; tot, so many; and most numerals (637). These adjectives are attached to any case of a substantive without varying their own forms.


The First Declension.

Genitive singular -ae, genitive plural -ā-rum.

432. Stems in -ā- include substantives and adjectives; both substantives and adjectives are feminine.

433. Names of males are masculine (405): as, scrība, writer; also Hadria, the Adriatic, and rarely damma, deer, and talpa, mole.

434. The nominative of stems in -ā- ends in the shortened stem vowel -a.

435. Stems in -ā- are declined as follows:

mēnsa, table, mēnsā-, F. Stem and case endings
Nom. mēnsa table, a (or the) table -a
Gen. mēnsae a table’s, of a table -ae
Dat. mēnsae to or for a table -ae
Acc. mēnsam a table -am
Abl. mēnsā from, with, or by a table
Nom. mēnsae tables (or the) tables -ae
Gen. mēnsārum tables’, of tables -ārum
Dat. mēnsīs to or for tables -īs
Acc. mēnsās tables -ās
Abl. mēnsīs from, with, or by tables -īs


436. -ā- of the stem was shortened in the nominative and accusative singular at an early period (130, 132). A few apparent examples of the nominative in , found in the oldest writers, seem due to metrical causes: as, aquilā́ (Enn.). But occurs in Greek proper names (445). A couple of old masculine nominatives in -ās are quoted (422): pāricīdās, murderer, and hosticapās, taker of enemies. In the accusative singular -ām occurs once: inimīcitiā́m (Enn.).

437. The genitive sometimes ends (1.) in -āī in poetry: as, aulāī, of the hall; pīctāī, embroidered; (2.) in -ās: as, molās, of a mill. This genitive is rare, but was always kept up in the word familiās with pater or māter, sometimes with fīlius or fīlia: pater familiās, the goodman, māter familiās, the housewife. But pater familiae, or in the plural patrēs familiārum, is equally common.

438. Town names and a few appellatives have a locative case in -ae: as, Rōmae, at Rome, in Rome; mīlitiae, in war, in the field, in the army.


439. Compounds ending with -cola, inhabiting, and -gena, born, and patronymics, sometimes have the genitive plural in -ū̆m in poetry: as, caelicolū̆m, of occupants of heaven; Graiugenū̆m, of Greek-born men; Aeneadū̆m, of Aeneas’s sons; also names of peoples: as, Lapithū̆m, of the Lapithae. With these last -ū̆m occurs even in prose: as, Crotōniātū̆m, of the Crotona people. Others in -ŭm are drachmŭm, amphorū̆m.

440. In the dative and ablative plural, -eis sometimes occurs (443): as, tueis ingrātieis, against your will (Plaut.). Nouns in -ia have rarely a single ī: as, pecūnīs, by moneys (Cic.); taenīs, with fillets (Verg.); nōnīs Iūnīs, on the fifth of June (Cic.). See 24.

441. In the dative and ablative plural, words in -āia, or plural -āiae, have -āīs, and those in -ēia have -ēīs (127, 7): as KAL. MAIS, on the calends of May (inscr.); Bāīs, at Bajae (Hor.); plēbēīs, plebeian.

442. The dative and ablative plural sometimes end in -ābus, particularly in deābus, goddesses, and fīliābus, daughters, to distinguish them from deīs, gods, and fīliīs, sons. ambae, both, and duae, two, regularly have ambābus and duābus.

443. Other case forms are found in inscriptions, as follows:

G. -ai, which may be monosyllabic or disyllabic in pronunciation: PVLCHRAI; LAVERNAI; -āēs, after 80 B.C., chiefly in proper names, mostly Greek: HERAES; rarely in appellatives: DOMINAES; -ēs: MINERVES; , VESTA; COIRA, i.e. Cūrae. D. -ai, in all periods (96): FILIAI; : FORTVNA; (96): FORTVNE. Ac. -a (61): TAVRASIA; MAGNA SAPIENTIA. Ab. -ād (426): PRAIDAD. Loc. -ai: ROMAI. Plural: N. -ai (96): TABELAI DATAI; , rare: MATRONA; , rare and provincial (96): MVSTE, i.e. mystae. D. and Ab. -eis, very often (98): SCRIBEIS; D. -ās, once: DEVAS CORNISCAS, i.e. dīvīs Cornīscīs. Ab. -ēs once (98): NVGES, i.e. nūgīs.


444. Greek appellatives always take a Latin form in the dative singular and in the plural, and usually throughout: thus, poēta, M., poet, and aula, F., court, are declined like mēnsa. Masculines have sometimes a nominative -ēs and accusative -ēn: as, anagnōstēs, reader, anagnōstēn; rarely an ablative : as, sophistē, sophist. Greek feminines in sometimes have Greek forms in late writers: as, N. grammaticē, philology, G. grammaticēs, Ac. grammaticēn, Ab. grammaticē (Quintil.).


445. Greek proper names sometimes have the following forms. Nominative masculine -ās, -ēs: as, Prūsiās, Atrīdēs; feminine : as, Gelā, Phaedrā; : as, Circē. Genitive feminine -ēs: as, Circēs. Accusative masculine -ān, -dēn: as, Aenēān, Pēlīdēn; feminine -ēn: as, Circēn. Ablative feminine : as, Tīsiphonē. Vocative or -a: as, Atrīdā, Atrīda, Thyesta; -tē: as, Boōtē; -dē: as, Aeacidē.


The Second Declension.

Genitive singular , genitive plural -ō-rum.

446. Stems in -o- include substantives and adjectives, masculine or neuter.

447. Most names of plants in -us are feminine (407); also the following: alvos or alvus, belly, colus, distaff, domus, house, humus, ground, vannus, fan.

448. The nominative of masculines ends, including the stem vowel, in -o-s, or usually -u-s; some end in -r; neuters end in -o-m, or usually -u-m.

449. (1.) Stems in -o- with the nominative in -us or -um are declined as follows:

dominus, master,
domino-, M.
rēgnum, kingdom,
rēgno-, Ne.
Stem and
case endings
Singular M. Ne.
Nom. dominus, a (or the) master rēgnum -us -um
Gen. dominī, a master’s rēgnī
Dat. dominō, to or for a master rēgnō
Acc. dominum, a master rēgnum -um -um
Abl. dominō, from, with, or by a master rēgnō
Voc. domine, master -e
Nom. dominī, (the) masters rēgna -a
Gen. dominōrum, of masters rēgnōrum -ōrum -ōrum
Dat. dominīs, to or for masters rēgnīs -īs -īs
Acc. dominōs, masters rēgna -ōs -a
Abl. dominīs, from, with, or by masters rēgnīs -īs -īs

450. deus, god, is declined as follows: N. deus, G. deī, D. and Ab. deō, Ac. deum. Plural: N. deī, di͡i, commonly , G. deōrum or deŭm, D. and Ab. deīs, di͡is, commonly dīs, Ac. deōs.


451. (2.) Stems in -o- with the nominative in -r or in -āius, -ēius, or -ōius are declined as follows:

puer, boy,
puero-, M.
ager, field,
agro-, M.
Pompēius, Pompey,
Pompēio-, M.
Nom. puer, a (or the) boy ager Pompēius
Gen. puerī, a boy’s, of a boy agrī Pompēī
Dat. puerō, to or for a boy agrō Pompēiō
Acc. puerum, a boy agrum Pompēium
Abl. puerō, from, with, or by a boy agrō Pompēiō
Voc. Pompēī, Pompe͡i
Nom. puerī, (the) boys agrī Pompēī
Gen. puerōrum, boys’, of boys agrōrum Pompēiōrum
Dat. puerīs, to or for boys agrīs Pompēīs
Acc. puerōs, boys agrōs Pompēiōs
Abl. puerīs, from, with, or by boys agrīs Pompēīs


452. -us and -um were originally -os and -om. But -us was used in the earliest times, -um somewhat later, and both became prevalent between 218 and 55 B.C. (107, c). After u or v, however, the -os and -om were retained till toward 50 A.D. (107, c); also after qu; but -cus and -cum often displaced -quos and -quom (157): as, equos, equom, or ecus, ecum, horse; antīquos, antīquom, or antīcus, antīcum, ancient. In the vocative -e was always used, and is retained by Plautus in puere, thou boy.

453. Words in -rus with a long penult, as, sevērus, stern, and the following substantives with a short penult are declined like domimus (449):

erus, master

iūniperus, juniper

numerus, number

umerus, shoulder

uterus, womb

For adjective stems in -ro- with nominative -rus, see 615.

454. Masculine stems in -ro- preceded by a short vowel or a mute, except those above (453), drop -os in the nominative, and have no vocative: as, stem puero-, N. puer, boy (111, b). Most masculines in -ro- have a vowel before r only in the nominative -er (111, b): as agro-, N. ager. But in compounds ending in -fer and -ger, carrying, having, and the following, the vowel before -r is a part of the stem, and is found in all the cases:

adulter, Līber, paramour, Liber

gener, socer, son-in-law, father-in-law

puer, vir, boy, man

līberī, vesper, children, evening

For Mulciber, Hibēr, and Celtibē̆r, see the dictionary; for adjective stems in -ro- with nominative -r, see 616. Once socerus (Pl.).


455. nihilum, nothing, usually drops -um in the nominative and accusative, becoming nihil or nīl, and similarly nōn, not, may be for noenum, naught (99). famul is used for famulus, slave, by Ennius and Lucretius, once each (111, b).

456. Substantives ending in -ius or -ium (but never adjectives), have commonly a single in the genitive singular: as,

Vergilius, G. Vergílī (87); fīlius, son, G. fīlī; cōnūbium, marriage, G. cōnūbī.

457. Vergil has once a genitive -iī, fluviī, river’s. Propertius has -iī two or three times; with Ovid, Seneca, and later writers, -iī is common: as, gladiī, of a sword; even in proper names, which were the last to take -iī: as, Tarquiniī; but family names almost always retain a single . Locatives have -iī: as, Iconiī (Cic.).

458. Proper names ending in -āius, -ēius, or -ōius have -āī, -ēī, or -ōī in the genitive and vocative singular and nominative plural, and -āīs, -ēīs, or -ōīs in the dative and ablative plural (127, 7): as,

Gāius, G., V., and N. Pl. Gāī, D. and Ab. Pl. Gāīs; Pompēī, Pompēīs; Bōī, Bōīs. In verse -ēī of the vocative is sometimes made one syllable (120): as, Pompe͡i; Volte͡i (Hor.).

459. Latin proper names in -ius have the vocative in only: as,

Vergilius, V. Vergílī; Mercurius, V. Mercúrī (87). So, also, fīlius, fīlī, son; genius, genī, good angel; volturius, volturī, vulture; meus, , my.

460. Town names and a few appellatives have a locative case in : as, Ephesī, in Ephesus; humī, on the ground; bellī, in war.


461. In the nominative plural masculine, -ei sometimes occurs (465): as, nātei geminei, twins born (Plaut.); -eis or -īs is rare (465): as, Sardeis, Sardians; oculīs, eyes; not infrequently hīsce, these here (Plaut.); masculine stems in -io- have rarely a single : as, fīlī, sons. For -āī, -ēī, or -ōī, see 458. The nominative and accusative plural of neuters ended anciently in (130, 2). But was shortened at an early period.

462. In the common genitive plural -ōrum, the -o- of the stem is lengthened (123). A genitive plural in -ū̆m (or, after v, in -ŏ̄m) is common from dīvos, dīvus, and deus, god; from dēnārius, denar, modius, peck, nummus, money, sēstertius, sesterce, and talentum, talent, with numerals; and from cardinals and distributives (641): as, dīvŏ̄m, divū̆m, deū̆m; mīlle sēstertiŭm; ducentū̆m; bīnŭm. The u was originally long (132); but it was shortened before 100 A.D.

463. Other masculine substantives have occasionally this genitive: as, līberū̆m, of children; particularly in set phrases and in verse: as, centuria fabrū̆m, century of mechanics; Graiū̆m, of Greeks. With neuter substantives, as oppidū̆m, for oppidōrum, of towns, and with adjectives it is rare.

464. In the dative and ablative plural, -eis is rare (98): as, Epidamnieis (Plaut.). Stems in -io- have rarely a single ī: as, fīlīs, for sons. For -āīs, -ēīs, or -ōīs, see 458. ambō, both, and duo, two, have ambōbus and duōbus (640).


465. Other case forms are found in inscriptions as follows:

N. -os, -om, with o retained (107, c): FILIOS, TRIBVNOS; POCOLOM; in proper names -o (66): CORNELIO; -u, rare: LECTV; -is, or -i, for -ius (135, 2): CAECILIS; CLAVDI; neuter -o (61): POCOLO. G. oldest form : VRBANI; -ei, from 146 B.C. to Augustus: POPVLEI; CONLEGEI; -iī from stems in -io- not before Tiberius: COLLEGII. Ac. -om (107c): VOLCANOM; -o (61): OPTVMO VIRO; -u: GREMIV. Ab. -od, not after 186 B.C. (426): POPLICOD, PREIVATOD. Plural: N. -ei, always common (98): VIREI; FILEI; -ēs, -eis, -īs (461): ATILIES; COQVES; LEIBEREIS, i.e. līnerī; MAGISTREIS; MAGISTRIS; , rare: PLOIRVME, i.e. plūrumī. G. -ōm or (61) ROMANOM; ROMANO; -ōro (61): DVONORO. D. and Ab. -eis, the only form down to about 130 B.C. (98): ANTIQVEIS; PROXSVMEIS; -ēs, twice: CAVATVRINES.


466. Greek stems in -o- are generally declined like Latin nouns, but in the singular sometimes have -os in the nominative, -on in the nominative or accusative neuter, rarely in the genitive, or in the feminine ablative. Plural, nominative sometimes -oe, masculine or feminine, and genitive, chiefly in book-titles, -ōn: as,

Nominative Īlios; Īlion or Īlium. Genitive Menandrū, of Menander. Ablative feminine adjective lectīcā octōphorō, in a sedan with eight bearers. Plural: nominative Adelphoe, the Brothers; canēphoroe, basket-bearers, feminine. Genitive Geōrgicōn liber, book of Husbandry. For Androgeōs, Athŏ̄s and Panthūs, see the dictionary.


The Third Declension.

Genitive singular -is, genitive plural -um.

467. Consonant stems are mostly substantive, and include both gender words and neuters.

Comparatives and a few other words are adjective. For the gender of substantives, see 570.

468. The nominative of consonant stems ends in -s (or -x); or in -n (), -l, -r, or -s of the stem, rarely in -c or -t.

469. Most consonant stems have one syllable less in the nominative than in the genitive.

Such words are called Imparisyllabic words or Imparisyllables: as, nominative rēx, king, one syllable; genitive rēgis, of a king, two syllables.

470. Many consonant stems have a double form: one form used in the nominative singular (neuters have this form in the accusative also), another form in the other cases: as,


iūdex, juror, stem of nominative iūdec- (136, 2), of other cases iūdic-; flāmen (103, a), special priest, flāmin- (103, a); virgō, maid, virgin- (105, g); auceps (107, d), fowler, aucup- (104, c); ebur (107, c), ivory, ebor-; genus, race, gener- (145; 107, c); trīstius (346), sadder, trīstiōr- (346); corpus (107, c), body, corpor- (105, i); pater (135, 2), father, patr-. In such instances the stem of the oblique cases is taken for brevity to represent both forms of the stem.


471. (1.) Stems in a guttural mute, -g- or -c-, are declined as follows:

rēx, king,
rēg-, M.
dux, leader,
duc-, M.
iūdex, juror,
iūdic-, M., F.
Nom. rēx, a (or the) king dux iūdex -s (-x)
Gen. rēgis, a king’s, of a king ducis iūdicis -is
Dat. rēgī, to or for a king ducī iūdicī
Acc. rēgem, a king ducem iūdicem -em
Abl. rēge, from, with, or by a king duce iūdice -e
Nom. rēgēs, (the) kings ducēs iūdicēs -ēs
Gen. rēgum, kings’, of kings ducum iūdicum -um
Dat. rēgibus, to or for kings ducibus iūdicibus -ibus
Acc. rēgēs, kings ducēs iūdicēs -ēs
Abl. rēgibus, from, with, or by kings ducibus iūdicibus -ibus

In the nominative and accusative, neuters have no case ending in the singular, and -a in the plural. In the other cases they have the same case endings as gender stems.

472. (a.) Examples of stems in -g-, with nominative -x, genitive -gis, are:

-ex, -egis grex, M., (F.), herd; aquilex, M., spring-hunter, hydraulic engineer.
-ēx, -ēgis rēx, M., king; interrēx, regent; lēx, F., law; and N. and Ac. exlēx, exlēgem, beyond the law, adjective.
-ex, -igis rēmex, M., oarsman.
-ī̆x, -ī̆gis strī̆x, F., screech-owl.
-ūnx, -ūgis coniūnx (122, e) or coniux, M., F., spouse.
-ūx, -ūgis frūx, F., fruit.

473. (b.) Examples of stems in -c-, with nominative -x, genitive -cis, are:

-ax, -acis fax, F., torch, no G. Pl. in good writers (430).
-āx, -ācis pāx, F., peace, Pl. only N. and Ac. pācēs; līmāx, F., snail.
-ex, -ecis faenisex, M., haycutter; nex, F., murder; precī, D., F., prayer, no N., usually plural.
-ēx, -ēcis vervēx, M., wether; allēx, F., fish-pickle, also allēc, Ne.
-ex, -icis Masculines mostly: apex, point; cārex, F., rush; caudex or cōdex, block, book; cīmex, bug; cortex, M., F., bark; culex, gnat; forfex, M., F., shears; frutex, shrub; īlex, F., holm-oak; illex, M., F., seducer; imbrex, tile; latex, fluid; mūrex, purple-shell; obice, Ab., M., F., bar, no N.; paelex, F., concubine, pollex, thumb; pūlex, flea; pūmex, pumice-slone; rāmex, blood-vessel; rumex, sorrel; silex, M., F., flint; sōrex, shrew-mouse; vortex or vertex, whirl; vītex, F., a shrub. Also some compounds: as, iūdex, juror; artifex, artisan; auspex, bird-viewer.
-ix, -icis Feminines mostly: appendix, addition; calix, M., cup; filix, fern; fulix, gull; fornix, M., arch; larix, larch; pix, pitch, no G. Pl. (430); salix, willow; vārix, swollen vein; vicis, G., change, no N., D., or G. Pl. (430).
-īx, -īcis Feminines: cervīx, neck; cicātrīx, scar; cornīx, crow; cŏ̄turnīx (62), quail; lōdīx, blanket; rādīx, root; struīx, heap. Also coxendīx, hip, later coxendix, coxendicis.
-ōx, -ōcis vōx, F., voice.
-ux, -ucis crux, F., cross; dux, M., F., leader; nux, F., nut-tree, nut; trādux, M., vinelayer.

474. (2.) Stems in a dental mute, -d- or -t-, are declined as follows:

Examples custōs, keeper,
custōd-, M.
aetās, age,
aetāt-, F.
virtūs, virtue,
virtūt-, F.
mīles, soldier,
mīlit-, M.
Nom. custōs aetās virtūs mīles
Gen. custōdis aetātis virtūtis mīlitis
Dat. custōdī aetātī virtūtī mīlitī
Acc. custōdem aetātem virtūtem mīlitem
Abl. custōde aetāte virtūte mīlite
Nom. custōdēs aetātēs virtūtēs mīlitēs
Gen. custōdum aetātum virtūtum mīlitum
Dat. custōdibus aetātibus virtūtibus mīlitibus
Acc. custōdēs aetātēs virtūtēs mīlitēs
Abl. custōdibus aetātibus virtūtibus mīlitibus

475. (a.) Examples of stems in -d-, with nominative -s, genitive -dis, are:

-as, -adis vas, M., F., personal surety, no G. Pl. (430).
-aes, -aedis praes, M., bondsman.
-es, -idis obses, M., F., hostage; praeses, M., F., overseer. *dēses, slothful, adjective.
-ēs, -edis pēs, M., foot.
-ēs, -ēdis hērēs, M., F., heir; exhērēs, disinherited, adjective; mercēs, F., reward.
-is, -idis Feminines: capis, cup; cassis, helmet; cuspis, spear-point; prōmulsis, appetizer; lapis, M., stone.
-ōs, -ōdis custōs, M., F., guard.
-aus, -audis laus, F., praise.
-us, -udis pecus, F., beast, head of cattle.
-ūs, -ūdis Feminines: incūs, anvil; palūs, swamp, nominative once in Horace palus, as from an -o- stem; subscūs, dovetail.

476. sēdēs, F., seat, has an -s- stem, namely -ēs (236), in the nominative, and sēd- in the other cases (401); G. Pl. sēdum, once sēdium (Vell. Pat.). The only example of a neuter stem in -d-, with nominative -r, genitive -dis, is cor (171, 2), heart, cordis, no G. Pl. (430).

477. (b.) Examples of stems in -t-, with nominative -s, genitive -tis, are:

-as, -atis anas, F., duck; G. Pl. also anitum (Cic.), and Ac. Pl. anitēs (Plaut.).
-ās, -ātis aetās, F., age; also numerous other feminines in -tās (262).
-es, -etis interpres, M., F., go-between; seges, F., crop; teges, F., mat.
-es, -itis Masculines mostly: ames, net-pole; antistes, M., F., overseer; caespes, sod; comes, M., F., companion; eques, horseman; fōmes, tinder; gurges, whirlpool; hospes, M., F., guest-friend; līmes, path; merges, F., sheaf; mīles, M., F., soldier; palmes, vine-sprout; pedes, man afoot, infantry; poples, hough; stīpes, trunk; termes, bough; trāmes, by-path; dīves, rich; sōspes, safe; superstes, surviving; caelite, Ab., occupant of heaven, no N., adjectives.
-ēs, -etis abiēs, F., fir; ariēs, M., ram; pariēs, M., wall.
-ēs, -ētis Feminines: quiēs and requiēs, rest, no D., Ac. often requiem, Ab. usually requiē (603); inquiēs, unrest, N. only.
-os, -otis compos, master of, adjective.
-ōs, -ōtis nepōs, M., grandson, profligate; sacerdōs, M., priest; cōs, F., whetstone, no G. Pl. (130); dōs, F., dowry, no G. Pl. in good writers (430); dōtum once (Val. Max.), and dōtium in the jurists.
-ūs, -ūtis Feminines: iuventūs, youth; salūs, existence; senectūs, old age; servitūs, slavery, all singular only; and virtūs, virtue, with a plural.

478. vātēs, bard, has an -s- stem, namely -ēs (236), in the nominative, and vāt- in the other cases (401); G. Pl. vātum, but thrice vātium (Cic.). The only example of a neuter stem in -t-, with nominative -t, genitive -tis, is caput, head, capitis, and its compounds occiput, back of the head and sinciput, jole. lac, Ne., milk, lactis, has in old and late Latin nominative and accusative lacte, lact once in Varro (171, 2); acc. lactem occurs in Petronius once and later.

479. (3.) Stems in a labial mute, -b- or -p-, are declined as follows:

mūniceps, burgess, stem mūnicip-, M., F.

Singular: N. mūniceps, G. mūnicipis, D. mūnicipī, Ac. mūnicipem, Ab. mūnicipe. Plural: N. mūnicipēs, G. mūnicipum, D. mūnicipibus, Ac. mūnicipēs, Ab. mūnicipibus.

480. Examples of stems in -b- or -p-, with nominative -s, genitive -bis or -pis, are:

-ebs, -ibis caelebs, unmarried, adjective, the only stem in -b-.
——, -apis dapis, G., F., feast, N. and D. S., and G. Pl. not used (430).
-eps, -ipis adeps or adips, M., F., fat, no G. Pl; forceps, M., F., pincers; mūniceps, burgher. particeps, sharing, and prīnceps, first, adjectives.
-eps, -upis auceps, fowler; manceps, contractor, mancupis or mancipis.
——, -ipis stipis, G., F., small change, no N.
-ops, -opis Ops, F., old Opis (Plaut.), goddess of power; opis, G., F., help, no N., D. once only, Pl. opēs, means (418).


481. (1.) Stems in -l- and -n- are declined as follows:

cōnsul, consul,
cōnsul-, M.
leō, lion,
leōn-, M.
imāgō, likeness,
imāgin-, F.
nōmen, name,
nōmin-, Ne.
Nom. cōnsul leō imāgō nōmen
Gen. cōnsulis leōnis imāginis nōminis
Dat. cōnsulī leōnī imāginī nōminī
Acc. cōnsulem leōnem imāginem nōmen
Abl. cōnsule leōne imāgine nōmine
Nom. cōnsulēs leōnēs imāginēs nōmina
Gen. cōnsulum leōnum imāginum nōminum
Dat. cōnsulibus leōnibus imāginibus nōminibus
Acc. cōnsulēs leōnēs imāginēs nōmina
Abl. cōnsulibus leōnibus imāginibus nōminibus

482. Examples of stems in -l-, with nominative -l, genitive -lis, are:

-āl, -alis sāl, M., salt, sometimes Ne. in the singular; no G. Pl. (430).
-el, -ellis fel (171, 1), Ne., gall; mel, Ne., honey; plural only fella, mella.
-il, -ilis mūgil, M., mullet; pūgil, M., boxer; vigil, M., watchman.
-ōl, -ōlis sōl, M., sun, no G. Pl. (430).
-ul, -ulis cōnsul, consul; praesul, head dancer; exsul, exile.

483. (a.) Examples of stems in -n-, with nominative -en, genitive -inis, are:

flāmen, M., priest; pecten, M., comb; tībīcen, M., piper; tubicen, M., trumpeter; sanguen, Ne., blood. Many neuters in -men (224): as, certāmen, contest.

484. (b.) Examples of stems in -n-, with nominative , genitive -ōnis, are:

Many masculine concretes: as, pugiō, dagger; words of the agent (211): as, praedō, robber; and family names: as, Cicerō. Feminine abstracts in -iō (227), and many in -tiō or -siō (228): as, opīniō, notion; cōgitātiō, thought.

485. (c.) Examples of stems in -n-, with nominative , genitive -inis, are:

Masculines: Apollō; cardō, hinge; ōrdō, rank; turbō, whirlwind. homo, M., F., human being; nēmō, nobody; for G. and Ab., nūllī̆us and nūllō are generally used; margō, M., F., brink. Feminines: grandō, hail; harundō, reed; hirundō, swallow; hirūdō, leech; testūdō, tortoise; virgō, maiden. Many in -dō, -dinis (225), -gō, -ginis (226), and -tūdō, -tūdinis (264): as, cupīdō, also M., desire; imāgō, likeness; sōlitūdō, loneliness.

486. sanguī̆s, M., blood, stem sanguin-, takes -s in the nominative (171, 4). canis, M., F., dog, stem can-, and īuvenis, M., F., young person, stem iuven-, have the nominative formed like that of -i- stems. For senex, old man, see 500.

487. (2.) Stems in -r- and -s- are declined as follows:

pater, father,
patr-, M.
dolor, pain,
dolōr-, M.
flōs, flower,
flōr-, M.
genus, race,
gener-, Ne.
Nom. pater dolor flōs genus
Gen. patris dolōris flōris generis
Dat. patrī dolōrī flōrī generī
Acc. patrem dolōrem flōrem genus
Abl. patre dolōre flōre genere
Nom. patrēs dolōrēs flōrēs genera
Gen. patrum dolōrum flōrum generum
Dat. patribus dolōribus flōribus generibus
Acc. patrēs dolōrēs flōrēs genera
Abl. patribus dolōribus flōribus generibus

488. Many stems in -r- ended originally in -s-, which became -r- between two vowels, and in some words in the nominative also (154): as, flōs, M., flower, G. *flōsis, flōris; honōs, M., honour, G. honōris, N. honor.

489. (a.) Examples of stems in -r-, with nominative -r, genitive -ris, are:

-ar, -aris baccar, Ne., a plant; iūbar, Ne., rarely M., bright sky, no Pl.
-ār, -aris lār, M., household god; G. Pl. larum; two or three times larium.
-ār, -arris fār (171, 1), Ne., spelt; Pl. only N. and Ac. farra.
-er, -eris Masculines: acipēnser, sturgeon; agger, mound; ānser, rarely F., goose; asser, pole; carcer, jail; later, brick; mulier, F., woman; passer, sparrow; vōmer, ploughshare. Neuters: cadāver, corpse; tūber, swelling; ūber, breast; verberis, G., lash, no N., generally Pl.; acer, maple, and some other plant names: see 573. pauper, poor, adjective.
-ter, -tris accipiter, M., hawk; frāter, M., brother; māter, F., mother; pater, M., father.
-ēr, -ēris vēr, Ne.; no Pl.
-or, -oris aequor, Ne., sea; marmor, Ne., marble; arbor, F., tree.
-or, -ōris olor, M., swan; soror, F., sister; uxor, F., wife. Many masculines in -or for -ōs (237): as, odor, smell; and in -tor, -tōris (205): as, amātor, lover. Also gender comparatives of adjectives: as, trīstior (346), M., F., sadder.
-ur, -oris Neuters: ebur, ivory; Pl. only ebora; rōbur, heart of oak; Pl. rōbora common, rōborum and rōboribus twice each. Also femur, thigh, femoris or feminis, and iecur, liver, iecoris, iecineris, or iocineris.
-ur, -uris augur, M., F., augur; furfur, M., bran; turtur, M., F., turtle-dove; voltur or vultur, M., vulture. Neuters: fulgur, lightning; guttur, rarely M., throat; murmur, murmur; sulpur, sulphur. cicur, tame, adjective.
-ūr, -ūris fūr, M., thief.

490. volucris, F., bird, stem volucr-, has its nominative formed like that of -i- stems.

491. (b.) Examples of stems in -s-, or -r- for -s-, with nominative -s, genitive -ris, are:

-aes, -aeris aes, Ne., copper, bronze; in the Pl. only aera and aerum are usual.
-ēs, -eris Cerēs. pūbēs, mangrown; impūbēs, immature, adjectives; for the last more commonly impūbis, like brevis (630).
-is, -eris cinis, M., ashes; cucumis, M., cucumber, also with -i- stem; pulvis, M., dust; vōmis, M., ploughshare.
-ōs, -oris arbōs, F., tree.
-ōs, -ōris Masculines: flōs, flower; mōs, custom; rōs, dew, no G. Pl. (430); lepōs, grace; honōs or honor, honour, and some old Latin words for later -or: as, odōs or odor, smell (489). ōs, Ne., mouth, face, no G. Pl. (430).
75 -us, -eris Neuters: acus, husk; foedus, treaty; fūnus, funeral; genus, race; glŏ̄mus (134), clew; holus, green stuff; latus, side; mūnus, gift; onus, burden; opus, work; pondus, weight; raudus or rūdus, piece of copper; scelus, crime; sīdus, constellation; ulcus, sore; vellus, fleece; vīscus, bowel, usually plural; volnus or vulnus, wound. Also Venus, F., and vetus, old, adjective.
-us, -oris Neuters: corpus, body; decus, grace; dēdecus, disgrace; facinus, deed; faenus, interest; frīgus, cold; lītus, shore; nemus, grove; pectus, breast; pecus, flock; penus, store; pignus, pledge; stercus, dung; tempus, time; tergus, back. Also lepus, M., hare.
-us, -ōris Neuter comparatives of adjectives: as, trīstius (346), sadder.
-ūs, -ūris Neuters: crūs, leg; iūs, right, Pl. iūra, G. Pl. twice only (Plaut.; Cato), no D. or Ab. Pl.; iūs, broth, pūs, pus, rūs, country, tūs, frankincense, Pl. only N. and Ac. iūra, &c. tellūs, F., earth.

492. vās, Ne., vessel, utensil, retains the s between two vowels: G. vāsis, D. vāsī, Ab. vāse, plural N. and Ac. vāsa; the G. vāsōrum, and D. and Ab. vāsis, are formed from an -o- stem, vāso- (401). mēnsis, M., month, mēnsis, has its nominative formed like that of -i- stems; G. Pl. mēnsum, sometimes mēnsuum or mēnsium. os (171, 1) Ne., bone, ossis, has no G. Pl. in good writers (430): ossium late.

493. The two neuters vīrus, gall, poison, and volgus or vulgus, the crowd, have -o- stems, except in the nominative and accusative (401), and no plural: thus, N. and Ac. volgus, G. volgī, D. and Ab. volgō. A masculine accusative volgum is sometimes found. The Greek neuter pelagus, the deep, has also G. pelagī, D. and Ab. pelagō, Pl. N. and Ac. pelagē (508).

III. STEMS IN -u- OR -v-.

494. Four substantives with stems in -ū- or -v-, grūs, F., crane, gruis; sūs, M., F., sow, swine, suis; bōs, M., F., ox, cow, bovis; and nix, F., snow, nivis, follow the consonant declension; also the genitive Iovis, and the other oblique cases of Iuppiter (500). But sūs has in the plural dative and ablative suibus, sūbus, or subus; bōs has in the plural genitive boum or bovum, rarely bovom (107, c), and in the dative and ablative bōbus, or oftener būbus; nix has no genitive plural in good writers (430): nivium late, once nivum.


495. (1.) The nominative singular of gender stems in a mute is formed by adding -s to the stem (422): as,

rēg-, king, N. rēx (164, 1); duc-, leader, N. dux (135, 1); custōd-, guard, N. custōs (171, 5); aetāt-, age, N. aetās (171, 5); caelib-, unmarried, N. caelebs (54); mūnicip-, burgher, N. mūniceps. hiem-, winter, the only stem in -m-, N. hiemps (167) or hiems, also takes -s.

496. (2.) Stems in a continuous consonant, -l-, -n-, -r-, or -s-, and neuters have no nominative suffix (422, 423): as,

cōnsul-, consul, N. cōnsul; flāmin-, special priest, N. flāmen; agger-, mound, N. agger; iūr- for iūs-, right, N. iūs.

For cor, heart, see 476; lacte, lac, milk, 478; sanguī̆s, blood, 486; -s in neuter adjectives, 612.


497. (a.) Stems in -ōn- drop -n- in the nominative; stems in -in- for -on- drop -n-, and end in : as,

leōn-, lion, N. leō; imāgin- for imāgon-, likeness, N. imāgō.

498. (b.) Stems of one syllable in -r- for -s- usually retain -s in the nominative: as, flōr- for flōs-, M., flower, N. flōs; iūr- for iūs-, Ne., right, N. iūs. Some of more than one syllable also retain -s: see 491; but in others -s is changed to -r, and in masculines a preceding ō is shortened: as, odōs, smell, odor. lepōs, grace, retains -ōs.

499. (c.) Four stems in -er- for -is- have the nominative singular in -is: cinis, ashes, cineris; cucumis, cucumber, cucumeris or cucumis; pulvī̆s, dust, pulveris; and vōmis, oftener vōmer, ploughshare, vōmeris.

500. The following have the nominative singular formed from a different stem from that of the other cases (401):

iter, journey, itineris, stems iter-, itiner-; Iuppiter (389) Iovis; supellēx, furniture, supellēctilis (545); senex, old man, man of forty or more, senis, stems senec-, sen-. For sēdēs, seat, see 476; vātēs, bard, 478. canis, dog, N. also canēs (Plaut. Enn., Lucil.), iuvenis, young or middle-aged person (486), volucris, bird (490), and mēnsis, month (492), have their nominatives formed like those of -i- stems.

501. An old dative in is sometimes retained in set phrases (507): as, aerē, money; iūrē, right. See 98.

502. Substantives have rarely an ablative in or -ei like -i- stems: as, capitī (Catull.), head, for capite; dōtei (Plaut.), dowry, for dōte. Substantives used as adjectives have sometimes : as artificī manū, with artist hand; but often -e: as, ālite lāpsū, with winged glide. For in old Latin there is no certain evidence.

503. Adjectives in the comparative degree have sometimes an ablative in : as, meliōrī, better, for meliōre. Adjectives ‘of one ending’ with consonant stems (624) have always -e, except vetus, old, which has sometimes veterī.

504. Town names and a few appellatives have a locative case in : as, Karthāginī, at Carthage; rūrī, a-field, in the country.


505. The nominative and accusative plural masculine and feminine have rarely -īs, like stems in -i-: as sacerdōtīs, priests; meliōrīs, better. For in neuters in old Latin, see 130, 2.

506. The genitive plural of stems in -tāt- (262) is sometimes -ium, like that of -ī- stems: as, cīvitātium, communities; voluptātium, pleasures (Cic.); but chiefly in or after the Augustan age. mēnsis, month, has mēnsum, but often mēnsuum, sometimes mēnsium. āles, bird, has sometimes ālituum in hexameter verse. For the dative and ablative -būs, see 2505.

507. Other case forms are found in inscriptions, as follows:

N. MVNICIPES; for -ōs (66): MAIO, i.e. maiōs or maior. G. -es, as early as 218 B.C.: SALVTES; -us, from 186 to 100 B.C.: NOMINVS; -u (66): CAESARV. D. -ei: VIRTVTEI, soon after 290 B.C.; HEREDEI, 45 B.C.; , disappeared sooner than -ei except in set phrases (501), but is equally old: IVNONE; IOVRE. Ac. -e (61): APICE. Ab. -īd (426): CONVENTIONID, i.e. cōntiōne; -ei: VIRTVTEI; : HEREDI. Plural: N. -īs: IOVDICIS. G. -om: POVMILIONOM; -ium: MVNICIPIVM. D. -ebus: TEMPESTATEBVS. Ac. -īs: MVNICIPIS.



508. Greek appellatives of the consonant declension occasionally retain Greek case endings: as, lampas, torch, G. lampados, Ac. lampada. Plural: N. lampades, Ac. lampadas. āēr, air, has usually the accusative āera, and aethēr, upper air, always has aethera. In the plural nominative and accusative, cētus, swimming monster, melos, strain of music, and pelagus (493), the deep, have : as, cētē. Genitive -ōn, rare: as, epigrammatōn, epigrams. Dative and ablative -matīs from words in -ma, -matis: as, poēmatīs, poems (401).

509. Greek proper names of the consonant declension are usually declined like Latin ones in old Latin and prose. From Vergil and Propertius on, Greek case endings grow more and more frequent, especially in poetry; they are best learned for every name from the dictionary; the commonest forms are:

Genitive -os: as, Pān, Pānos; -ūs, with nominative : as, Mantō, Mantūs. Dative -i, rare: as, Mīnōidi. Accusative -a, common with names of persons in poetry, not in prose, more common with those of places, and even in prose: as, Acheronta; always Pāna; , with feminines in , -ūs: as, Dīdō. Vocative: Pallās, Pallā; in old Latin the nominative is commonly used instead of the vocative. Plural: Nominative -es: as, Arcades. Dative -sin, rare: as, Lēmniasin. Accusative -as, very common: as, Lelegas; in prose, Macedonas; also in words not Greek: as, Allobrogas (Caes.).

510. Names in -eus, like Orpheus, are usually declined like -o- stems (449). They have less frequently Greek forms: as, G. Orpheos, D. Orphei or Orphī, Ac. Orphea. Accusative rarely -ēa: as, Ī̆lonēa.

511. Some names in -ēs have the genitive in -is or and the accusative in -em or -ēn (401): as, Sōcratēs, G. Sōcratis or Sōcratī, Ac. usually Sōcratem, also Sōcratēn. Achillēs and Ulixēs have in the genitive -eī, -e͡i, or . Names in -clēs have rarely the accusative -clea: as, Periclea.

512. Some names in -is have forms either from a stem in -id-, or from one in -i-: as, Paris, G. Paridis, D. Paridī, Ac. Paridem, Parim or Parin, V. Pari.


The Third Declension.

Genitive singular -is, genitive plural -i-um.

513. Stems in -i- include both substantives and adjectives, gender words and neuters.

For the gender of substantives, see 570.

514. The nominative of gender stems in -i- ends usually in -s (or -x), sometimes in -l or -r; that of neuter substantives has no suffix, and ends usually in -e, sometimes in -l or -r.

515. Most stems in -i- have as many syllables in the nominative as in the genitive.


Such words are called Parisyllabic words, or Parisyllables: as, nominative cīvis, citizen, two syllables; genitive cīvis, of a citizen, also two syllables.

516. Stems in -i- are declined in the main like consonant stems, but have -im in the accusative of some substantives, and in the ablative of adjectives, of some gender substantives, and of neuters; in the plural they have -ium in the genitive, -īs often in the accusative of gender words, and -ia in the nominative and accusative neuter.


517. (1.) Parisyllabic gender stems in -i- with the nominative in -is are declined as follows:

tussis, cough,
tussi-, F.
turris, tower,
turri-, F.
amnis, river,
amni-, M.
hostis, enemy,
hosti-, M., F.
Stem and
case endings
Nom. tussis turris amnis hostis -is
Gen. tussis turris amnis hostis -is
Dat. tussī turrī amnī hostī
Acc. tussim turrim, -em amnem hostem -im, -em
Abl. tussī turrī, -e amne, hoste , -e
Nom. tussēs turrēs amnēs hostēs -ēs
Gen. turrium amnium hostium -ium
Dat. turribus amnibus hostibus -ibus
Acc. tussīs, -ēs turrīs, -ēs amnīs, -ēs hostīs, -ēs -īs, -ēs
Abl. turribus amnibus hostibus -ibus

518. (a.) Like the singular of tussis are declined parisyllabic names of rivers and places, like Tiberis, Hispalis. Also cucumis, M., cucumber (but see 491), and the defectives sitis, F., thirst, Ac. sitim, Ab. sitī, no plural; and vīs, F., power, Ac. vim, Ab. . Plural (401): N. vīrēs, G. vīrium, D. and Ab. vīribus, Ac. vīrīs or vīrēs. (The D. is only found twice; a N. and Ac. Pl. vīs is very rare.)

519. (b.) The following feminines are declined like turris, with -im or -em in the accusative, and or -e in the ablative:

clāvis, key

febris, fever

nāvis, vessel

puppis, stern

sēmentis, planting

strigilis, skin-scraper

So also in the oblique cases, Liger, the Liger. Arar, the Arar, has in the accusative -im, in the ablative -e or .

520. secūris, axe, messis, crop, and restis, rope, also have -im or -em in the accusative, but only secūrī, messe, and reste in the ablative. canālis, conduit, has only -em in the accusative, and only in the ablative.


521. (c.) The following are declined like amnis, with -em in the accusative, and or -e in the ablative:

avis, bird

bīlis, bile

cīvis, citizen

classis, fleet

fūstis, club

ignis, fire

522. (d.) Most parisyllabic stems in -i-, with the nominative in -is, are declined like hostis: as,

ēnsis, M., glaive; piscis, M., fish; aedis, F., temple, Pl. house (418); vītis, F., vine; and a great many others. Also gender forms of adjectives in -i- ‘of two endings’ (630), except the ablative singular, which ends in .

523. (2.) Parisyllables in -i- with the nominative in -ēs have their other cases like those of hostis: such are:

caedēs, bloodshed; cautēs, rock; clādēs, disaster; indolēs, native disposition, no Pl.; lābēs, fall; mōlēs, pile; nūbēs, cloud; prōlēs, offspring, no Pl.; pūbēs, young population, no Pl.; rūpēs, crag; saepēs, hedge; strāgēs, slaughter; subolēs, offspring; tābēs, wasting, no Pl., feminines; and some others. Masculine: verrēs, boar; volpēs or vulpēs, fox.

524. famēs, hunger, has G. twice famī (Cato, Lucil.), Ab. always famē (603), no Pl.; plēbēs, commons, N. also plēbs or plēps, has G. plēbe͡i (603), plēbī or plēbis, no Pl.

525. (3.) A few stems in -bri-, -cri-, or -tri-, are declined as follows:

imber, shower, stem imbri-, M.

Singular: N. imber, G. imbris, D. imbrī, Ac. imbrem, Ab. imbrī, oftener imbre. Plural: N. imbrēs, G. imbrium, D. imbribus, Ac. imbrīs or imbrēs, Ab. imbribus. So also lunter or linter, F. (M.), tub, boat, ūter, M., leather bag, and venter, M., belly, but with only -e in the Ab.; and the masculine of adjectives in -bri-, -cri-, -tri-, N. -er (628); these last have in the Ab. always .

526. (4.) Parisyllabic neuters in -i- with the nominative in -e are declined as follows:

sedīle, seat,
sedīli-, Ne.
mare, sea,
mari-, Ne.
Stem and
case endings
Singular Plural Singular Plural S. Pl.
Nom. sedīle sedīlia mare maria -e -ia
Gen. sedīlis sedīlium maris -is -ium
Dat. sedīlī sedīlibus marī -ibus
Acc. sedīle sedīlia mare maria -e -ia
Abl. sedīlī sedīlibus marī -ibus

527. mare has rarely the ablative mare in verse: in the plural only the nominative and accusative are usual; but a genitive marum is once quoted (Naev.), and the ablative maribus is once used by Caesar.


528. Examples of parisyllabic neuters in -i-, with the nominative in -e, genitive -is, are:

ancīle, sacred shield; aplustre, ancient; conclāve, suite of rooms; īnsīgne, ensign; praesaepe, stall; rēte, net, Ab. rēte. Also the neuter of adjectives in -i- ‘of two endings’ (630), and some words in -īle, -āle, -āre, originally adjectives (313, 314): as, būbīle, ox-stall; fōcāle, neckcloth; cocleāre, spoon.


529. Sometimes a plural stem in -i- is combined, in the singular, with a stem in a mute, in -l, or -r, or rarely in -s. These mixed stems thus become imparisyllables. Gender stems of this class are like consonant stems in the singular, except the ablative of adjectives, which has usually .

530. Imparisyllabic stems in -i- are declined as follows:

arx, citadel,
arci-, F.
pars, part,
parti-, F.
urbs, city,
urbi-, F.
animal, animal
animāli-, Ne.
Nom. arx pars urbs animal
Gen. arcis partis urbis animālis
Dat. arcī partī urbī animālī
Acc. arcem partem urbem animal
Abl. arce parte urbe animālī
Nom. arcēs partēs urbēs animālia
Gen. arcium partium urbium animālium
Dat. arcibus partibus urbibus animālibus
Acc. arcīs, -ēs partīs, -ēs urbīs, -ēs animālia
Abl. arcibus partibus urbibus animālibus

531. Examples of stems in -ci-, with nominative -x, genitive -cis, are:

-āx, -ācis fornāx, F., furnace. Many adjectives (284): as, audāx, daring.
-aex, -aecis faex, F., dregs, no G. Pl. (430).
-ex, -icis supplex, suppliant, Ab. , sometimes -e, G. Pl. supplicum. Adjectives: duplex, twofold; multiplex, manifold; quadruplex, fourfold; septemplex, sevenfold; simplex, simple; triplex, threefold. The foregoing have Ab. : as, duplicī; duplice once (Hor.), septemplice twice (Ov.; Stat.); G. Pl. -ium, Ne. Pl. N. and Ac. -ia.
-īx, -īcis fēlīx, happy; pernīx, nimble, adjectives. Also many feminines of the agent in -trīx (205): as, victrīx, victorious; these sometimes have a Ne. Pl. N. and Ac.: as, victrīcia; in the G. Pl. they have -ium, or, as substantives, -um: as, nūtrīcum, nurses.
81 -lx, -lcis calx, F. (M.), heel; calx, M., F., limestone, no G. Pl. (430); falx, F., sickle.
-nx, -ncis lanx, F., platter, no G. Pl. (430); deūnx, M., eleven twelfths; quīncunx, M., five twelfths.
-ox, -ocis praecox, over-ripe, older stem praecoqui-: as, G. praecoquis; rarely with -o- stem (401): as, praecoquam.
-ōx, -ōcis celōx, F., clipper. atrōx, savage; ferōx, wild; vēlōx, swift, adjectives.
-rx, -rcis arx, F., citadel, G. Pl. rare and late; merx, F., ware, N. in old Latin sometimes mercēs or mers.
-ux, -ucis Adjectives: trux, savage, Ab. or -e, G. Pl. -ium; redux, returning, Ab. or -e (558); no G. Pl. and no Ne. N. or Ac. (430).
-aux, —— fauce, F., Ab., throat, N. faux once only and late, generally Pl.
-ūx, -ūcis lūx, F. (581), light, Ab. sometimes , no G. Pl. (430).

532. (a.) Examples of stems in -di-, with nominative -s, genitive -dis, are:

-ēs, -edis Compounds of pēs, foot: compede, F., Ab., fetter, no N., G. Pl. compedium; adjectives: as, ālipēs, wing-footed, bipēs, two-legged, quadrupēs, four-footed, &c., Ab. , Pl. G. -um only (563), Ne. N. and Ac. -ia, rare and late.
-ns, -ndis Feminines: frōns, foliage; glāns, acorn; iūglāns, walnut.
-rs, -rdis concors, like-minded, adjective, and other compounds of cor, Ab. (559) Ne. Pl. N. and Ac. -ia, G. Pl. not usual: discordium, at variance, and vēcordium, frantic, once each.
-aus, -audis fraus, F., deceit, G. Pl. fraudium, later fraudum.

533. (b.) Examples of stems in -ti-, with nominative -s (-x), genitive -tis, are:

-ās, -ātis Arpīnās, of Arpinum, and adjectives from other town names; optimātēs, good men and true, G. Pl. -ium, less often -um; penātēs, gods of the household store.
-es, -etis Adjectives: hebes, dull; teres, cylindrical, Ab. (559), no G. Pl., Ne. Pl. hebetia, teretia, late and rare; perpes, lasting through, Ab. perpetī, late only; praepes, swift-winged, Ab. or -e, G. Pl. -um, no Ne. Pl. N. or Ac.
-ēs, -ētis locuplēs, rich, adjective, Ab. usually -e of a person, often of a thing, G. Pl. locuplētium, sometimes locuplētum, Ne. Pl. locuplētia once.
-īs, -ītis līs, contention; dīs, rich, adjective, Ab. always (559), Pl. G. -ium, once -um (Sen.), Ne. N. and Ac. -ia. Quirīs, Samnīs.
-ls, -ltis puls, pottage, no G. Pl. (430).
82 -ns, -ntis Masculines: dēns, tooth: fōns, fountain; pōns, bridge; mōns, mountain, N. once montis (Enn.); factors of twelve: sextāns, one sixth; quadrāns, triēns, dōdrāns, dēxtāns. Feminines: frōns, forehead; gēns, clan; mēns, mind. Present participles: as, regēns, guiding. Many adjectives: as, ingēns, gigantic, Ab. (559); Vēiēns, of Vei; compounds of mēns: as, āmēns, out of one’s head; of dēns: as, tridēns, Ab. , as substantive usually -e.
-eps, -ipitis Adjective compounds of caput, head: anceps (543), two-headed, once older ancipēs (Plaut.); biceps, two-headed; triceps, three-headed; praeceps, head-first, old praecipēs (Plaut.; Enn.), Ab. (559), no G. Pl., Ne. Pl. N. and Ac. -ia.
-rs, -rtis Feminines: ars, art; cohors, cohort; fors, chance; mors, death; pars, part; sors, lot, N. twice sortis (Plaut.; Ter.). Adjectives: cōnsors, sharing, exsors, not sharing, no G. Pl.; expers, without part; iners, unskilled, sollers, all-skilled, Ne. Pl. N. and Ac. -ia.
-x, -ctis nox, F., night; Ab. also noctū (401); an old adverb form is nox, nights.

534. (a.) Stems in -bi-, with nominative -bs (149), genitive -bis, are:

trabs, F., beam, older N. trabēs (Enn.); plēbs, F., commons, N. sometimes plēps, for the older plēbēs (603), no Pl.; urbs, F., city.

535. (b.) Stems in -pi-, with nominative -ps, genitive -pis, are:

inops, poor, adjective, Ab. (559), G. Pl. -um, no Ne. Pl. N. or Ac. (430); stirps, F. (M.), trunk.

536. Examples of stems in -li-, with nominative -l, genitive -lis, are:

-al, -ālis Neuters, originally adjective (546): animal, animal; bacchānal, shrine or feast of Bacchus; cervīcal, bolster; puteal, well-curb; toral, valance; tribūnal, tribunal; vectīgal, indirect tax. Only N. or Ac.: cubital, elbow-cushion; minūtal, minced-fish; capital, capitālia, death, capital crime.
-il, -ilis vigil, wide-awake, adjective, Ab. , as substantive -e (561), G. Pl. vigilum (563), no Ne. Pl. N. or Ac. (430).

537. (a.) Examples of stems in -ri-, with nominative -r, genitive -ris, are:

-ar, -āris Neuters, originally adjective (546): calcar, spur; columbar, dove-cote; exemplar, pattern; lacūnar, panel-ceiling; pulvīnar, couch; subligar, tights; torcular, wine-press.
-ār, -aris Adjectives: pār, equal; dispār, impār, unequal, for Ab., see 561; G. Pl. -ium, Ne. Pl. N. and Ac. -ia; compār, co-mate, as substantive has G. Pl. -um.
-er, -eris Adjectives: dēgener, degenerate, Ab. (559), no Ne. Pl. N. or Ac. (430); ūber, fruitful, Ab. , late -e, Ne. Pl. ūbera once only (Acc.).
83 -or, -oris Adjectives: memor, remembering; immemor, forgetful, Ab. (559), G. Pl. memorum (636) once only (Verg.), no Ne. Pl. N. or Ac. (430).
-or, -ōris Adjective compounds of color: as, concolor, of like shade, discolor, of different shade, both with Ab. only; versicolor, pied, Ab. , rarely -e, Ne. Pl. N. and Ac. -ia; the G. Pl. of these words is not usual, but versicōlorum once.

538. (b.) Stems in -ri-, with nominative -s of the stem, genitive -ris, are glīs, F., dormouse, glīris; mās, M., male, maris; mūs, F., mouse, mūris.

539. The only imparisyllabic stem in -si- is ās (171, 1), M., unit, an as, G. assis, with its compounds bēs, two thirds, G. bessis, and sēmis, half an as, half, G. sēmissis.


540. (1.) The nominative singular of gender stems in -i- is usually formed by adding -s to the stem (422). But many gender substantives have the nominative in -ēs (236, 401): as,

amni-, river, N. amnis; aedi-, temple, N. aedis; brevi-, short, N. brevis. With N. -ēs: nūbi-, cloud, N. nūbēs; for other examples, see 523.

541. Some substantives form the nominative in both these ways: as, vallēs and vallis, valley, equally common; aedis, temple, later aedēs; for caedēs, slaughter, clādēs, disaster, and mōlēs, pile, caedis, &c., occur exceptionally.

542. A few stems in -bri-, -cri-, or -tri-, drop -i- in the nominative. The endings brs, crs, trs, then change to -ber, -cer, -ter (111, b): as, imbrī-, shower, N. imber (525).

543. Of gender imparisyllables, some have lost -i- of the stem before -s in the nominative; others have originally a consonant stem in the nominative (529-535).

Thus, monti-, mountain, and sorti-, lot, have N. mōns and sors for an older montis and sortis; but dēns, tooth, and regēns, ruling, have as original stems dent- and regent-. Adjectives in -cipiti- have N. -ceps (533).

544. A few adjective stems in -li- or -ri- drop -i- in the nominative without taking -s (536, 537): as, vigili-, wide-awake, N. vigil; pari-, equal, N. pār; so also Arar and Liger. Three substantives in -ri- for -si- likewise drop -i-, and end in the original -s (538): glīri- for glīsi-, dormouse, N. glīs; mās, male; mūs, mouse.

545. For carō, F., flesh, carnis (Ab. , usually -e, no G. Pl.) see 135, 2. supellēx, F., furniture, supellēctilis (Ab.  or -e, no Pl.), has the nominative formed from a different stem from that of the other cases (401).

546. (2) Neuter stems in -i- have no nominative suffix, and end in -e for -i- of the stem (107, b): as,

mari-, sea, N. mare; brevi-, short, N. breve. In some words, originally neuter adjectives in -āle and -āre, the -e is dropped and the ā shortened: as, animāle, living thing, animal (536); exemplāre (Lucr.), pattern, exemplar (537). Some neuter adjectives end in -l or -r (536, 537); and some ‘of one ending’ end in -s (612).


547. The accusative singular of gender substantives usually has -em, like consonant stems (424); but a few substantives with the nominative in -is have -im only, and some have either -im or -em.

548. (a.) Accusatives in -im

Are sitim, tussim, vim, thirst, cough, strength
And būrim, cucumim. ploughtail, cucumber

549. The accusative in -im is found in many adverbs (700): as, partim, in part; in some adverbial expressions: as, adamussim, examussim, to a T, adfatim, to satiety, ad ravim, to hoarseness; in some names of rivers and cities: as, Tiberim, Hispalim; and in some Greek words (565).

550. (b.) Six have the accusative commonly in -im, sometimes in -em:

febrim, -em, fever

pelvim, -em, basin

puppim, -em, stern

restim, -em, rope

secūrim, -em, axe

turrim, -em, tower

551. Six have the accusative commonly in -em, sometimes in -im:

bipennem, -im, two-edged axe

clāvem, -im, key

messem, -im, crop

nāvem, -im, ship

sēmentem, -im, planting

strigilem, -im, skin-scraper

552. In the ablative, gender substantives have usually -e, and neuters and adjectives have : as,

hoste, enemy; marī, sea; ācrī, sharp, brevī, short, audācī, daring.

553. (1.) Of gender substantives with the nominative in -is, a few have only in the ablative, and many have either or -e.

554. (a.) These ablatives have only :

secūrī, sitī, tussī, , axe, thirst, cough, strength
canālī, cucumī, conduit, cucumber

Some names of rivers and cities have only : as, Tiberī, Hispalī. The locative also ends in : as, Neāpolī, at Neapolis.

555. (b.) These ablatives of gender substantives with the nominative in -is have or -e:

amne, , river

ave, , bird

bīle, , bile

cīvī, -e, citizen

classe, , fleet

clāvī, -e, key

febrī, -e, fever

fūstī, -e, club

ignī, -e, fire

nāvī, -e, ship

orbī, -e, circle

puppī, -e, stern

sēmentī, -e, planting

strigilī, -e, skin-scraper

turrī, -e, tower

556. A few other words in -is have occasionally an ablative in : as, anguis, snake, collis, hill, fīnis, end, postis, post, unguis, nail, &c. sors, lot, imber, shower, and lūx, light, have also -e or ; supellēx, furniture, has supellēctilī or -e; Arar has -e or ; Liger, or -e.

557. Neuter names of towns with the nominative in -e have -e in the ablative: as, Praeneste. rēte, net, has only rēte; mare, sea, has rarely mare (527).

558. (2.) Adjectives ‘of two endings’ with stems in -i- (630) often have -e in the ablative when they are used as substantives, and sometimes in verse, when a short vowel is needed: as,


adfīnī, -e, connection by marriage; aedīle, , aedile; familiārī, -e, friend. But some, even as substantives, have : as, aequālī, of the same age, cōnsulārī, ex-consul, gentīlī, tribesman. Adjectives of place in -ēnsis (330) usually have , but sometimes -e: as, Tarquiniēnse. Proper names have usually -e: as, Iuvenāle.

559. Adjectives ‘of one ending’ with stems in -i- (632), have commonly in the ablative. The following ablatives have only :

āmentī, frenzied, ancipitī, two-headed, praecipitī, head-first, concolōrī, of like hue, concordī, harmonious, discordī, at variance, sōcordī, imperceptive, dēgenerī, degenerate, dītī, rich, teretī, rounded, ingentī, huge, inopī, without means, memorī, remembering, immemorī, forgetful.

560. Present participles, when used as adjectives, have in the ablative, otherwise -e: as,

ā sapientī virō, by a wise man; adulēscente, youth, substantive; Rōmulō rēgnante, in the reign of Romulus, ablative absolute (1362).

561. Other adjectives ‘of one ending’ occasionally have -e in the ablative when used as substantives or as epithets of persons, or in verse when a short syllable is needed: as,

cōnsortī, sharing, parī, equal, vigilī, wide-awake, fēlīcī, happy, as adjectives; but cōnsorte, &c., as substantives; in prose, imparī, disparī, unequal; in verse, impare, dispare. Proper names have -e: as, Fēlīce.


562. In the plural, gender nominatives have -ēs, rarely -īs or -eīs, and gender accusatives have -īs or -ēs indifferently, sometimes -eis; after about 50 A.D., -ēs was the prevalent ending for both cases. Neuters add -a to the stem, making -ia; for -iā́ in old Latin, cf. 2505.

563. In the genitive plural, present participles, some substantive stems in -nt(i)-, and some adjectives ‘of two endings’ (631) have occasionally -um: as,

amantum, lovers; rudentum, rigging; agrestum, country folk; caelestum, heaven’s tenantry. apis, bee, has commonly -um; caedēs, slaughter, and fraus, deceit, have rarely -um. For -um in some adjectives ‘of one ending,’ see 636; for -bū́s in the dative and ablative in old Latin, see 2505.

564. Other case forms are found in inscriptions, as follows:

N. without -is: VECTIGAL, i.e. vectīgālis, adjective; -e for -is (6641): MILITARE, i.e. mīlitāris, adjective; -ēs (540): AIDILES, i.e. aedīlis; CIVES, i.e. cīvis. G. -us, from 186 to 100 B.C.: PARTVS, i.e. partis. D. -ei: VRBEI. Ac. -i (61): PARTI, i.e. partem; -e: AIDE, i.e. aedem. Ab. -ei: FONTEI; -e: SERVILE, i.e. servīlī. Plural: N. -ēs: FINES; -eis: FINEIS; -īs: FINIS.


565. Greek stems in -i- are usually declined like Latin ones, with the accusative in -im, and ablative in . But the accusative sometimes has -n: as, poēsin, poetry, Charybdin; similarly Capyn; and a vocative occurs: as, Charybdi. The plural genitive Metamorphōseōn, and as ablative Metamorphōsesin, occur as titles of books.



566. Parisyllables with nominatives in -is, -ēs, or -e, and a few in -er; and imparisyllables with nominatives in -al, and in -ar for -āre, have stems in -i-.

But canis, iuvenis (486), volucris (490), mēnsis (492), sēdēs (476), and vātēs (478), have consonant stems.

567. Under -i- stems may also conveniently be grouped the following classes, which have usually a consonant form in the singular, and an -i- form in the plural:

568. (a.) Imparisyllabic adjectives with the genitive in -is, except comparatives and the dozen with consonant stems (624), and imparisyllables with a nominative in -s or -x preceded by any consonant except p. But cōniūnx (472) and caelebs (480) have consonant stems.

569. (b.) The following monosyllables: ās, unit, an as, faex, dregs, fraus, deceit, glīs, dormouse, līs, strife, lūx, light, mās, male, mūs, mouse, nox, night, stirps, trunk, vīs, strength. Also fauce, throat, and compede, fetter, both Ab., no N., and fornāx, furnace.


570. The gender of many of these substantives is determined by their meaning (404-412); that of participles used as substantives follows the gender of the substantive understood; Greek substantives follow the Greek gender. The gender of other words may be conveniently arranged for the memory according to the nominative endings as follows.


571. Imparisyllables in -es or -ēs and substantives in -er, , -or, and -ōs are masculine: as,

caespes, sod; pēs, foot; agger, mound; sermō, speech; pallor, paleness; flōs, flower.

572. These imparisyllables in -es or -ēs are feminine: merges, sheaf, seges, crop, teges, mat; requiēs and quiēs, rest; compedēs, plural, fetters; mercēs, reward. aes, copper, bronze, is neuter.

573. These substantives in -er are neuter: cadāver, corpse, iter, way, tūber, swelling, truffle, ūber, udder, verberis, lash, genitive, no nominative; also names of plants in -er: as, acer, maple, cicer, chickpea, papāver, poppy, piper, pepper, siler, osier, siser, skirret, sūber, corktree. linter, tub, boat, is feminine, once masculine. vēr, spring, is neuter.

574. Substantives in , with genitive -inis (485), are feminine; as, imāgō, imāginis, likeness; also carō, carnis, flesh, and words of action in -iō and -tiō (227, 228). But cardō, hinge, ōrdō, rank, and turbō, whirlwind, are masculine. margō, brink, and cupīdō, desire, are sometimes masculine.

575. These substantives in -or are neuter: ador, spelt, aequor, sea, marmor, marble, cor, heart. arbor, tree, is feminine.

576. These substantives in -ōs are feminine: cōs, whetstone, arbōs, tree, dōs, dowry. ōs, ōris, mouth, face, is neuter, also os, ossis, bone.



577. Parisyllables in -ēs, and substantives in -ās, -aus, -is, -s preceded by a consonant, and -x, are feminine: as,

nūbēs, cloud; aetās, age; laus, praise; nāvis, ship; urbs, city; pāx, peace.

578. ās, assis, penny, is masculine. vās, vessel, utensil, and the defectives fās, right, and nefās, wrong, are neuter.

579. Substantives in -nis are masculine; also twenty-nine others in -is, as follows:

axis, callis, caulis, anguis, axle, path, cabbage, snake
fascis, fūstis, lapis, sanguī̆s, bundle, club, stone, blood
piscis, postis, pulvī̆s, ēnsis, fish, post, dust, glaive
torquis, torris, unguis, mēnsis, twisted collar, firebrand, nail, month
vectis, vermis, vōmis, collis, lever, worm, ploughshare, hill
glīs, canālis, also follis, dormouse, conduit, ball
cassēs, sentēs, veprēs, orbis, nets, brambles, thorns, plurals, circle
cucumis, and sometimes corbis. cucumber, basket

būrim, ploughtail, accusative only, is also masculine. A few of the above are sometimes feminine: as, amnis, anguis, callis, canālis, cinis, fīnis, fūnis, torquis, veprēs, &c.

580. Four in -s preceded by a consonant are masculine: dēns, tooth, fōns, fountain, pōns, bridge, mōns, mountain; also factors of twelve: sextāns, one sixth, quadrāns, triēns, dōdrāns, dēxtāns; rudēns, rope, once. adeps, fat, and forceps, pincers, are masculine or feminine. stirps, stock, is sometimes masculine.

581. calix, cup, fornix, arch, and trādux, vinelayer, are masculine; also substantives in -ūnx and -ex; except nex, murder, and precī, prayer, dative, no nominative, which are feminine; also rarely grex, herd. cortex, bark, forfex, scissors, silex, flint, and obice, barrier, ablative, no nominative, are either masculine or feminine. calx, heel, and calx, lime, are sometimes masculine, also lūx, light, in the ablative in old Latin.


582. Substantives in -c, -e, -l, -n, -t, in -ar, -ur, -us, and -ūs, are neuter: as,

lac, milk; mare, sea; animal, animal; carmen, song; caput, head; calcar, spur; fulgur, lightning; corpus, body; iūs, right.

583. sōl, sun, pecten, comb, liēn, spleen, rēnēs, kidneys, plural, and furfur, bran, are masculine. So usually sāl, salt, but sometimes neuter in the singular. fār, spelt, is neuter.

584. pecus, beast, is feminine; also tellūs, earth, and the substantives in -ūs which have -ūdis (475) or -ūtis (477) in the genitive: as, palūs, marsh; iuventūs, youth.


The Fourth Declension.

Genitive singular -ūs, genitive plural -u-um.

585. Stems in -u- are substantive only, and mostly masculine.

586. There are only three neuters in common use, cornū, horn, genū, knee, and verū, a spit. But some cases of other neuters are used: as, ablative pecū, flock; plural nominative and accusative artua, limbs (Plaut.); OSSVA, bones (inscr.).

587. The nominative of stems in -u- ends, including the stem vowel, in -u-s in gender words, and in lengthened of the stem in neuters.

588. Most substantives in -u- are masculines in -tu- or -su-, often defective in case (235). The following words are feminine: acus, pin, needle, domus, house, manus, hand, porticus, colonnade; tribus, tribe; and the plurals īdūs, ides, and quīnquātrūs, feast of Minerva; rarely penus, store, and specus, cave.

589. Stems in -u- are declined as follows:

flūctus, wave,
flūctu-, M.
cornū, horn,
cornu-, Ne.
Stem and
case endings
Singular M. Ne.
Nom. flūctus, a (or the) wave cornū -us
Gen. flūctūs, a wave’s, of a wave cornūs -ūs -ūs
Dat. flūctuī, , to or for a wave cornū -uī,
Acc. flūctum, a wave cornū -um
Abl. flūctū, from, with, or by a wave cornū
Nom. flūctūs, (the) waves cornua -ūs -ua
Gen. flūctuum, waves’, of waves cornuum -uum -uum
Dat. flūctibus, to or for waves cornibus -ibus -ibus
Acc. flūctūs, waves cornua -ūs -ua
Abl. flūctibus, from, with, or by waves cornibus -ibus -ibus


590. In the genitive, the uncontracted form -uis sometimes occurs: as, anuis, old woman (Ter.). A genitive in -tī is rather common: as, adventī, arrival; ōrnātī, embellishment (Ter.); senātī, senate. In the dative, is regularly found for -uī in neuters and often in gender words.



591. In the genitive plural, a shorter form in -um is occasionally found: as, passum, steps (Plaut., Mart.); currum, chariots (Verg.); EXERCITVM. The quantity of the u and the origin of this ending are uncertain.

592. In the dative and ablative plural, the following retain -u-bus: acus, pin, needle, arcus, bow, partus, birth, tribus, tribe. The following have -u-bus or -i-bus (28): artūs, plural, joints, lacus, lake, portus, haven, specus, cave, genū, knee, verū, a spit. All other words have -i-bus only.

593. Other case forms are found in inscriptions, as follows:

G. -uos: SENATVOS; (66) SENATV; -uus, in the imperial age (29, 1): EXERCITVVS. D. -uei (29, 2): SENATVEI. Ac. -u (61): MANV. Ab. -uu (29, 1): ARBITRATVV; -uō, once, by some thought to be for -ūd (426); MAGISTRATVO. Plural: N. -uus (29, 1): MAGISTRATVVS.

594. domus, house, F., has stems of two forms, domu- and domo- (401); it is declined as follows: N. domus, G. domūs, rarely domī, D. domuī or domō, Ac. domum, Ab. domō or domū, Locative domī, rarely domuī. Plural: N. domūs, G. domuum, later domōrum, D. and Ab. domibus, Ac. domōs, less commonly domūs.

595. Some other substantives have an -u- stem in some of their cases, and an -o- stem in others: see angiportus, arcus, caestus, colus, cornū, cornus, cupressus, fīcus, fretus, gelus, laurus, murtus, penus, pīnus, quercus, rīctus, tonitrus, in the dictionary.


The Fifth Declension.

Genitive singular -ē̆ī, genitive plural -ē-rum.

596. Stems in -ē- are substantive only, and feminine.

597. diēs, day, is always masculine in the plural, and commonly in the singular; but the feminine is common when diēs denotes length of time or a set day. merīdiēs, midday, is masculine and singular only.

598. The nominative of stems in -ē- ends, including the stem vowel, in -ē-s.

599. Stems in -ē- are of two classes:

600. (1.) Stems of the first class have one or two syllables; there are four of them: rēs, thing, spēs, hope, diēs, day, and fidēs, faith.

Of this class, rēs and diēs have a plural throughout; spēs has only the nominative and accusative plural, and fidēs has no plural.


601. Stems in -ē- of the first class are declined as follows:

rēs, thing,
rē-, F.
diēs, day,
diē-, M.
Stem and
case endings
Nom. rēs, a (or the) thing diēs -es
Gen. rĕ̄i, re͡i, a thing’s, of a thing diēī, die͡i -ē̆ī, -ēī, -e͡i
Dat. rĕ̄i, re͡i, to or for a thing diēī, die͡i -ē̆ī, -ēī, -e͡i
Acc. rem, a thing diem -em
Abl. , from, with, or by a thing diē
Nom. rēs, (the) things diēs -ēs
Gen. rērum, things’, of things diērum -ērum
Dat. rēbus, to or for things diēbus -ēbus
Acc. rēs, things diēs -ēs
Abl. rēbus, from, with, or by things diēbus -ēbus

602. fidēs is declined like rēs; it has once a genitive fidēs (Plaut.). For rēī, reī, or re͡i, and fidēī, fideī, or fide͡i, see 127, 4. diēs has rarely a genitive diēs (Enn.) or diī (Verg.). spēs has only the genitive and dative spe͡i in verse. A genitive or dative in is sometimes found: as, , diē, fidē.

603. A few cases of other words sometimes follow this class (401): as, plēbēs (524), commons, G. plēbe͡i or plēbī; famēs (524), hunger, Ab. always famē; requiēs (477), rest, G. requiē (Sall.), Ac. requiem, Ab. requiē; tābēs (523), waste, Ab. tābē, *contāgēs, contact, Ab. contāgē (Lucr.), &c.

604. (2.) Stems of the second class are formed by the suffix -iē- or -tiē-, and have three or more syllables.

This class, which is parallel to stems in -iā-, has usually no genitive, dative, or plural. Many stems, especially those in -tiē-, have also a collateral form in -iā-, and the genitive and dative, when used at all, are commonly from a stem in -iā-.

605. Stems in -ē- of the second class are declined as follows:

lūxuriēs, extravagance, stem lūxuriē-, F.

Nom. lūxuriēs, Acc. lūxuriem, Abl. lūxuriē.

606. A few examples of the genitive of these stems are found: as, perniciī, perniciēs, or perniciē, ruin (Cic.); rabiēs, fury (Lucr.); aciē, edge of battle (Sall., Caes., auct. B. Afr.), faciē, make (Plaut., Lucil.), speciē, looks (Caes.); aciēī (auct. B. Afr.). And a very few of the dative: as, aciēī twice (Caes.); perniciēī, perniciī (Nep.); perniciē (Liv.).

607. ēluviēs, offscouring, wash, has the nominative of the plural, and glaciēs, ice, has the accusative of the plural. Five words only have the nominative and accusative plural:

seriēs, aciēs, row, edge,

speciēs, faciēs, look, make,

effigiēs, likeness.


608. Adjectives are declined like substantives, and it has been shown already how their cases are formed. But they differ from substantives in having different forms in some of their cases to denote different genders; it is convenient therefore to put their complete declension together.

609. Adjective stems end in -o- and -ā-, in a consonant, or in -i-.

610. An accusative plural of a stem in -u-, anguimanūs, with a serpent for a hand, is once used (Lucr.). There are no adjective stems in -ē-.

611. Adjectives are often conveniently said to be ‘of three endings,’ ‘of two endings,’ or ‘of one ending.’

By the ‘ending’ is meant the ending of the nominative singular: thus, bonus, bona, bonum, good, and ācer, ācris, ācre, sharp, are ‘of three endings’ (409); brevis, breve, short, is ‘of two endings’ (410); and audāx, bold, is ‘of one ending’ (410).

612. Adjectives ‘of one ending’ which form a gender nominative in -s, retain the -s irrationally in the nominative and accusative neuter singular: as, N. M. and F. audāx, N. and Ac. Ne. also audāx.

STEMS IN -o- AND -ā-.

613. Most adjectives with stems in -o- and -ā- are declined as follows:

M. bonus, F. bona, Ne. bonum, good
bono-, bonā-.
Singular. Plural.
  Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. bonus bona bonum boni bonae bona
Gen. bonī bonae bonī bonōrum bonārum bonōrum
Dat. bonō bonae bonō bonīs bonīs bonīs
Acc. bonum bonam bonum bonōs bonās bona
Abl. bonō bonā bonō bonīs bonīs bonīs
Voc. bone

614. Stems in -io- and -iā- have no consonant i in cases ending in -i or -īs (153, 3): as plēbēius, plebeian, G. S. M. and Ne., and N. Pl. M. plēbēī, D. and Ab. Pl. plēbēīs.

615. Stems in -ro- preceded by a long vowel retain -us in the nominative singular masculine and are declined like bonus (453): as, sevērus, stern; also

ferus, merus, wild, unmixed

mōrigerus, complaisant

praeposterus, reversed

properus, hasty

prōsperus, lucky

triquetrus, three-cornered


616. (1.) Some stems in -ro- preceded by a short vowel end in -r in the nominative singular masculine and have no vocative (454); they are declined as follows:

M. līber, F. lībera, Ne. līberum, free,
lībero-, līberā-.
Singular. Plural.
  Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. līber lībera līberum līberī līberae lībera
Gen. līberī līberae līberī līberōrum līberārum līberōrum
Dat. līberō līberae līberō līberīs līberīs līberīs
Acc. līberum līberam līberum līberōs līberās lībera
Abl. līberō līberā līberō līberīs līberīs līberīs

Such are: compounds, chiefly poetical, ending in -fer and -ger, bearing, carrying, having: as, caelifer, heaven-upholding; corniger, horned; also the following:

(alter, 618), asper, other, rough

lacer, līber, torn, free

gibber, miser, hump-backed, forlorn

satur, sēmifer, full, half-beast

tener, Trēver, tender, Treveran

dexter, right, has dextera, dexterum, or dextra, dextrum, G. dexterī, or dextrī, &c. sinister, left, has usually sinistra, &c., rarely sinisteram (Plaut., Ter.). asper has a plural accusative asprōs (Stat.), and ablative asprīs (Verg.).

617. (2.) Other stems in -ro- have a vowel before r only in the nominative singular masculine -er (454); they are declined as follows:

M. aeger, F. aegra, Ne. aegrum, ill,
aegro-, aegrā-.
Singular. Plural.
  Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. aeger aegra aegrum aegrī aegrae aegra
Gen. aegrī aegrae aegrī aegrōrum aegrārum aegrōrum
Dat. aegrō aegrae aegrō aegrīs aegrīs aegrīs
Acc. aegrum aegram aegrum aegrōs aegrās aegra
Abl. aegrō aegrā aegrō aegrīs aegrīs aegrīs

618. Nine adjectives or adjective pronouns have the pronoun form -ī̆us in the genitive singular and in the dative singular, for masculine, feminine, and neuter alike; they are the following:

alius, another

sōlus, alone

tōtus, whole

ūnus, one

ūllus, any at all

nūllus, no

alter, the other

uter, which of the two

neuter, neither


619. Of the above words, those with the nominative in -us are declined like ūnus (638). But alius has N. and Ac. Ne. aliud (659); for the G., alterī̆us is mostly used, except in the combination alīus modī, of another sort; the N. M. is rarely alis, Ne. alid, D. rarely alī. alter is declined like līber (616), except in the genitive singular alterī̆us (127, 6) and dative alterī. For uter and its derivatives, see 693.

620. The ordinary genitive and dative of -o- and -ā- stems, from some of the above words, is sometimes found: G. and D. aliae, sōlae, alterae, D. aliō, alterae, &c.



621. The only consonant stems of two endings are comparatives (346); they are declined as follows:

M. and F. trīstior, Ne. trīstius, sadder,
trīstiōr-, trīstius-.
Singular. Plural.
  Masc. and Fem. Neut. Masc. and Fem. Neut.
Nom. trīstior trīstius trīstiōrēs trīstiōra
Gen. trīstiōris trīstiōris trīstiōrum trīstiōrum
Dat. trīstiōrī trīstiōrī trīstiōribus trīstiōribus
Acc. trīstiōrem trīstius trīstiōres trīstiōra
Abl. trīstiōre trīstiōre trīstiōribus trīstiōribus

622. The ablative rarely has for -e: as, meliōrī (503); the accusative plural masculine and feminine rarely have -īs: as, meliōrīs (505).

623. plūs, more, has in the singular only Ne. N. and Ac. plūs, G. plūris, and Ab. plūre. Plural: N. M. and F. plūrēs, Ne. plūra, G. plūrium, D. and Ab. plūribus, Ac. M. and F. plūrēs or plūrīs, Ne. plūra. complūrēs, a good many, plural only, has N. M. and F. complūrēs, Ne. N. and Ac. complūria or complūra, G. complūrium, D. and Ab. complūribus, Ac. M. and F. complūrēs or complūrīs.


624. A dozen adjectives ‘of one ending,’ mostly words applying to persons, with consonant stems throughout, have no nominative or accusative neuter plural; they are:

caelebs, compos, unmarried, master of

*dēses, dīves, lazy, rich

particeps, prīnceps, sharing, first

pūbēs, impūbēs, mangrown, immature

sōspes, superstes, safe, surviving

pauper, cicur, poor, tame


625. When these adjectives have a neuter, it is the same as the gender forms, except in the accusative singular; they are declined as follows:

M. F. and Ne. dīves, rich, stem dīvit-.

Singular: N. dīves, G. dīvitis, D. dīvitī, Ac. M. and F. dīvitem, Ne. dīves, Ab. dīvite. Plural: N. and Ac. M. and F. dīvitēs, G. dīvitum, D. and Ab. dīvitibus.

626. The plural caelitēs, heavenly, occupants of heaven, is also declined like the plural of dīves; the singular Ab. caelite occurs a couple of times. vetus, old, G. veteris, is also declined like dīves, but has a Ne. Pl. N. and Ac. vetera; the Ab. S. is regularly vetere, but veterī is sometimes used.



627. A dozen adjectives with stems in -bri-, -cri-, or -tri-, have a distinctive form in -er for the masculine nominative singular; they are:

celeber, thronged

salūber, healthy

ācer, keen

alacer, lively

volucer, winged

campester, of a plain

equester, cavalry-

palūster, of a swamp

pedester, foot-

puter, rotten

silvester, woody

terrester, land-

So also celer, swift. The names of months, September, Octōber, November, December, are also adjectives with stems in -bri-, but are not used in the neuter. Other adjectives with stems in -bri-, -cri-, or -tri-, have no distinctive form for the masculine nominative singular: as, muliebris, mediocris, inlūstris.

628. These adjectives are declined as follows:

M. ācer, F. ācris, Ne. ācre, sharp
Singular. Plural.
  Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. ācer ācris ācre ācres ācres ācria
Gen. ācris ācris ācris ācrium ācrium ācrium
Dat. ācrī ācrī ācrī ācribus ācribus ācribus
Acc. ācrem ācrem ācrem ācrīs, -ēs acrīs, -ēs ācria
Abl. ācrī ācrī ācrī ācribus ācribus ācribus

629. In all cases but the masculine nominative singular these adjectives are just like those in -i- ‘of two endings’ (630). But the ablative always has , never -e, and the genitive plural always has -ium, never -um. In celer the second e belongs to the stem: M. celer, F. celeris, Ne. celere; the genitive plural, which is celerum, is found only as a substantive. Most of these adjectives have now and then a masculine in -is, like adjectives ‘of two endings’ (630), and in old Latin the nominative -er is rarely feminine.



630. Adjectives ‘of two endings’ with stems in -i- are declined as follows:

M. and F. brevis, Ne. breve, short
Singular. Plural.
  Masc. and Fem. Neut. Masc. and Fem. Neut.
Nom. brevis breve brevēs brevia
Gen. brevis brevis brevium brevium
Dat. brevī brevī brevibus brevibus
Acc. brevem breve brevīs, -ēs brevia
Abl. brevī brevī brevibus brevibus

631. The ablative is sometimes -e when these adjectives are used substantively or in verse (558). The genitive plural is rarely -um for -ium (563).


632. Most adjectives ‘of one ending’ have a consonant form of the stem in the singular, except usually in the ablative (633), and an -i- stem in the plural; they are declined as follows:

M. F. and Ne. audāx, bold,
M. F. Ne. regēns, ruling,
Singular Masc. & Fem. Neut. Masc. & Fem. Neut.
Nom. audāx audāx regēns regēns
Gen. audācis audācis regentis regentis
Dat. audācī audācī regentī regentī
Acc. audācem audāx regentem regēns
Abl. audācī audācī regente, regente,
Plural Masc. & Fem. Neut. Masc. & Fem. Neut.
Nom. audācēs audācia regentēs regentia
Gen. audācium audācium regentium regentium
Dat. audācibus audācibus regentibus regentibus
Acc. audācīs, -ēs audācia regentīs, -ēs regentia
Abl. audācibus audācibus regentibus regentibus

633. Present participles have in the ablative, when they are used as adjectives, otherwise -e (560). For or -e in other words, see 559, 561. For -ium or -um in the genitive plural, 563.


634. Most adjectives ‘of one ending’ in -i- are declined as above (632); some of them have peculiarities in some of their cases, as follows:

635. (1.) trux (531), savage, has Ab. or -e, G. Pl. -ium, no Ne. Pl. N. or Ac. redux (531), returning, has Ab. or -e, no G. Pl. or Ne. Pl. N. or Ac. hebes, dull, teres, cylindrical (533), and compounds of caput, head, as anceps, (533), two-headed, have Ab. , no G. Pl.; a Ne. Pl. N. or Ac. -ia is rare. For locuplēs, rich, see 533.

636. (2.) The following have in the ablative, but -um of consonant stems in the genitive plural, and no nominative or accusative neuter plural: inops (535), without means, vigil (536), wide-awake, memor (537), remembering, dēgener, degenerate, ūber (537), prolific, has Ab. , twice -e, Ne. Pl. once -a (Acc.). Compounds of pēs, as, bipēs (532), two-legged, have a late and rare Ne. Pl. N. and Ac. -ia.


637. Of the cardinals, ūnus, duo, trēs, and the hundreds except centum are declined. The other cardinals are not declined.

638. ūnus, one, is declined as follows:

Singular. Plural.
Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. ūnus ūna ūnum ūnī ūnae ūna
Gen. ūnīus ūnīus ūnīus ūnōrum ūnārum ūnōrum
Dat. ūnī ūnī ūnī ūnīs ūnīs ūnīs
Acc. ūnum ūnam ūnum ūnōs ūnās ūna
Abl. ūnō ūnā ūnō ūnīs ūnīs ūnīs
Voc. ūne

In verse, the genitive singular is often ūnius.

639. duo, two, and trēs, three, are declined as follows:

Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. & Fem. Neut.
Nom. duo duae duo trēs tria
Gen. duōrum duārum duōrum trium trium
Dat. duōbus duābus duōbus tribus tribus
Acc. duo or duōs duās duo trēs or trīs tria
Abl. duōbus duābus duōbus tribus tribus

640. In dramatic verse, du͡o, &c., is common. In the genitive plural, duo sometimes has duū̆m (462). ambō, both, is declined like duo, but has in the nominative and accusative, and only ambōrum and ambārum in the genitive plural. For the forms duo, ambō, see 415; duōbus, duābus, 464, 442.

641. Hundreds are declined like the plural of bonus (613): as, ducentī, ducentae, ducenta, two hundred, G. ducentōrum or ducentū̆m (462), &c.


642. The adjective mīlle, thousand, is not declined. The substantive has in the singular only N. Ac. Ab. mīlle, or Ab. mīllī; plural: N. and Ac. mīllia (mīlia), G. mīllium (mīlium), D. and Ab. mīllibus (mīlibus).

643. Ordinals, as prīmus, first, and distributives, as bīnī, two each, are declined like bonus (613). But distributives seldom have a singular, and often have the genitive plural -ū̆m (462): as, bīnū̆m.


644. The pronoun of the first person, ego, I, of the second person, , thou, and the reflexive pronoun, suī, , himself, herself, itself, themselves, are declined as follows:

ego, I tu, thou sui, self
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. Sing. & Plur.
Nom. ego nōs vōs
Gen. meī nostrum, -trī tuī vestrū̆m, -trī suī
Dat. mihī̆, mi nōbīs tibī̆ vōbīs sibī̆
Acc. nōs vōs
Abl. nōbīs vōbīs

645. The nominatives ego and , and the accusatives , and , have no case ending. The last vowel of ego is rarely long in Plautus, long or short in Lucilius. The nominative ego has a different stem from that of its other cases, and the plurals of ego and have a different stem from that of the singular.

646. meī, tuī, and suī, which are often monosyllables in old verse, were originally the genitive of the neuter possessives, used substantively. An old genitive mīs is quoted, and tīs occurs rarely in Plautus.

647. The relation of the ending -bīs in vōbīs to -bī̆ in tibī̆ may be due to analogy with illīs, illī. nōbīs is formed after vōbīs.

648. In old Latin, the ablative is mēd, tēd, sēd (426), which forms are also used irrationally for the accusative. But by Terence’s time the -d was no longer used (143).

649. Older forms for vestrū̆m and vestrī are vostrūm and vostrī. The genitive plural was originally a genitive of the possessive: that in being the neuter singular, that in -ū̆m the masculine or feminine plural. In old Latin, nostrōrum, nostrārum, vostrōrum, vostrārum also occur.

650. Emphasis is given (1.) by reduplication (189): Ac. and Ab. mēmē, tētē, rare; sēsē, very common. (2.) by -te added to the N. of : tūte. (3.) by -met added to any case but the genitive plural: as, egomet; but has only tūtemet or tūtimet.


651. In inscriptions, the datives MIHEI, TIBEI, and SIBEI occur, so written in verse sometimes even when the last syllable is short; and MIHE, TIBE. Plural: D. and Ab. VOBEIS. Ac. ENOS in an old hymn; SEESE (29, 1).


652. The possessives of ego, , and suī, are meus, mine, tuus, thine, and suus, his, her, its, their (own), declined like bonus (613), except that meus has in the vocative singular masculine (459); those of nōs and vōs are noster, our, and voster, later vester, your, declined like aeger (617).

653. Old forms are tuos, tuom, and suos, suom (452). In old verse me͡us, me͡i, &c., tu͡os, tu͡i, &c., su͡os, su͡i, &c., often occur. sōs for suōs, sās for suās, and sīs for suīs, are old and rare.

654. Other case forms are found in inscriptions, as follows:


655. Emphasis is given (1.) by -met added to suō, suā, suōs, and to mea and sua, neuter plural: as, suōmet; (2.) by -pte, which is oftenest found with the ablative: as, suōpte.


656. Some pronouns have a peculiar genitive singular in -ī̆us and dative singular in , for masculine, feminine, and neuter alike.

These are: iste, ille, ipse, uter, and their derivatives. Some other words of a pronoun character also have this form of the genitive and dative: see 618.

657. In verse, the -ī- of the genitive is often shortened, and always in utriusque; but neutrīus is not found with short i. In dramatic verse, the genitive singular of iste, ille, or ipse, is often two syllables.

658. hīc, is, quī or quis, and their derivatives have the genitive singular in -ius, thus: huius, eius, and quoius or cuius; in dramatic verse, these genitives are often one syllable. Their datives are huic for hoice, ē̆ī or e͡i, and quoi or cui.

659. Six words have a peculiar neuter nominative and accusative singular in -d: id, illud, istud, quid, quod, aliud, and derivatives. In manuscripts, -t is sometimes found for -d: as, it, illut, istut, &c.; sometimes also in inscriptions of the empire. In hoc for *hod-ce and in istuc and illuc for *istud-ce, *illud-ce, the d has vanished (166, 1; 171, 1).


660. The demonstrative pronouns are hīc, this, this near me; iste, istic, that, that near you; and ille, illic, yonder, that.


661. The demonstrative pronoun hīc, this, this near me, is declined as follows:

Singular. Plural.
Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. hīc haec hoc hae haec
Gen. huius huius huius hōrum hārum hōrum
Dat. huic huic huic hīs hīs hīs
Acc. hunc hanc hoc hōs hās haec
Abl. hōc hāc hōc hīs hīs hīs

662. The stem of hīc is ho-, hā-; to most of its cases a demonstrative -c for -ce is attached. The masculine and feminine nominative singular and nominative and accusative neuter plural take an -i-: hīc for *ho-i-ce (108, a); haec for ha-i-ce (96). hunc, hanc, are for *hom-ce, *ham-ce. For the quantity of the first syllable of huius, see 153, 2; of hoc, 171, 1.

663. Old forms with the full ending -ce are rare except after -s: Plural Ne. Acc. haece (Enn.); G. F. hārumce (Cato); also G. hōrunc, hārunc (Pl., T.); hōsce, D. and Ab. hīsce (Pl., T.). After 100 B.C., the full form -ce is not found, except occasionally after -s: huiusce, hōsce, hāsce, hīsce. Before -ne interrogative it is retained in the weakened form -ci-: as, hīcine. But hīcne, hocne, huicne, &c., are found, though rarely.

664. The nominative hic or hicine found in the dramatists and rarely later is probably for *ho-c, *he-c (103, a). A nominative plural feminine haec is found in writers of all ages. Other and rare forms are: Pl. N. M. hīsce (461), D. or Ab. hībus.

665. Other case forms of hīc are found in inscriptions, as follows:

N. M. HEC, HIC. G. HOIVS, HVIIVS (23), HVIVS, HOIVSCE, HOIVSQVE, HVIVSQVE. D. HOICE, HOIC, HOI, HVIC, HVI. Ac. M. HONC, HOC; F. HANCE; Ne. HOCE, HVC. Ab. M. and Ne. HOCE; F. HACE, oftener than HAC in republican inscriptions; HAACE (29, 1). Loc. HEICE, HEIC. Plural: N. M. HEISCE, HEIS, or HEI, HISCE or HIS; HI, not before Augustus; Ne. N. and Ac. HAICE, HAECE. G. HORVNC. D. and Ab. HEISCE, HIBVS. Ac. F. HASCE.

666. The demonstrative pronouns iste, that, that near you, and ille, yonder, are declined alike, as follows:

Singular. Plural.
Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. ille illa illud illī illae illa
Gen. illī̆us illī̆us illī̆us illōrum illārum illōrum
Dat. illī illī illī illīs illīs illīs
Acc. illum illam illud illōs illās illa
Abl. illō illā illō illīs illīs illīs

667. The first syllable of iste and ille is often short in the dramatists. Old forms of iste are: N. istus, G. istī, in istīmodī, D. F. istae. The initial i of iste and of istic (669), is sometimes not written: as, sta rēs (Cic.), stūc perīculum (Ter.). Old forms of ille are: N. olus (81); ollus or olle, &c.: as, D. S. or N. Pl. ollī, D. Pl. ollīs. G. illī, in illīmodī, D. F. illae. The dramatists have eccistam, eccilla, eccillud, eccillum, eccillam, for ecce istam, &c., and ellum, ellam, for em illum, &c.

668. Other case forms of ille are found in inscriptions, as follows:

D. F. ILLAE. Plural: N. M. ILLEI. G. OLORVM (81). D. and Ab. OLLEIS, ILLEIS.

669. istic and illic, compounded of iste, ille, and -ce or -c, are declined alike, as follows:

Singular. Plural.
Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. illic illaec illuc illīc illaec illaec
Acc. illunc illanc illuc illōsce illāsce illaec
Abl. illōc illāc illōc illīsce illīsce illīsce

670. Rare forms are: N. and Ac. Ne. istoc, illoc, G. illīusce, D. illīc, Ab. F. istāce, illāce. Plural: N. M. illīsce (461), illīc, Ac. illōsce, illāsce. Before -ne interrogative, -ce becomes -ci-: N. illicine, istucine, Ac. illancine, Ab. istōcine, istācinē. Pl. Ac. istōscine.


671. The determinative pronoun is, that, the aforesaid, the one, is declined as follows:

Singular. Plural.
Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. is ea id , , or ī eae ea
Gen. eius eius eius eōrum eārum eōrum
Dat. ē̆ī ē̆ī ē̆ī eīs, iīs, or īs eīs, iīs, or īs eīs, iīs, or īs
Acc. eum eam id eōs eās ea
Abl. eīs, iīs, or īs eīs, iīs, or īs eīs, iīs, or īs

672. is and id (659) are formed from a stem -i-, and the other parts from a stem eo-, eā-. The genitive is sometimes written in Cicero and Plautus eiius; for the quantity of the first syllable of eius, see 153, 2; for ĕ̄i, see 127, 3, and 127, 4.


673. In old verse, the genitive singular rarely has the first syllable short. Old and rare forms are: D. F. eae, Ac. M. im or em. Pl. D, and Ab. ī̆bus, F. eābus (442). In dramatic verse, e͡um, e͡am, e͡i, e͡o, e͡a, and e͡i, e͡orum, e͡arum, e͡os, e͡as, e͡is, are often found; also eccum, eccam, eccōs, eccās, ecca, for ecce eum, &c.

674. Other case forms of is are found in inscriptions, as follows:

N. EIS, 124 B.C. G. EIVS, EIIVS, EIIVS or EIIVS (23). D. EIEI, 123 B.C.; EEI, IEI; EI, 123 B.C., and common in all periods. Plural: N. EEIS, EIS, IEIS, till about 50 B.C.; EEI, EI, IEI. D. and Ab. EEIS, EIEIS, IEIS, IS; after the republic, IIS, IIS.

675. A rare and old pronoun equivalent to is is sum, sam, accusative singular, sōs, accusative plural, and sīs, dative plural.


676. The pronoun of identity, īdem, the same, is declined as follows:

Singular. Plural.
Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. īdem eadem idem eīdem or īdem eaedem eadem
Gen. eiusdem eiusdem eiusdem eōrundem eārundem eōrundem
Dat. eīdem eīdem eīdem

eīsdem or īsdem

eīsdem or īsdem

eīsdem or īsdem

Acc. eundem eandem idem eōsdem eāsdem eadem
Abl. eōdem eādem eōdem

eīsdem or īsdem

eīsdem or īsdem

eīsdem or īsdem

677. In manuscripts and editions, the plural nominative masculine is often written iīdem, and the dative and ablative iīsdem. The singular nominative masculine is rarely eisdem or isdem (Plaut., Enn.), eidem (Cic., Varr.), neuter īdem (Plaut.). In verse, eundem, e͡andem, e͡idem, e͡odem, e͡adem, and e͡idem, e͡aedem, e͡orundem, e͡osdem, e͡asdem, are often found.

678. Other case forms of īdem are found in inscriptions, as follows:

N. M. EISDEM, 123 B.C., ISDEM, 59 B.C., both common till Caesar’s time; EIDEM; Ne. EIDEM, 71 B.C. D. IDEM. Plural: N. M. EISDEM, ISDEM, EIDEM, till Caesar’s time; IIDEM, once only. D. and Ab. ISDEM, very rarely IISDEM.


679. The intensive pronoun ipse, himself, stems ipso-, ipsā-, is declined like ille (666), but has the nominative and accusative neuter singular ipsum.

680. In dramatic verse, ipse has rarely the first syllable short, and often has the older form ipsus. Plautus has these forms: N. F. eapse, Ac. eumpse, eampse, Ab. eōpse, eāpse, equivalent to ipsa, &c. So reāpse for rē ipsā.


(1.) quī AND quis.

681. The stem qui-, or quo-, quā-, is used in three ways: as a relative, who, which; as an interrogative, who? which? what? as an indefinite, any.

682. (a.) The relative quī, who, which, is declined as follows:

Singular. Plural.
Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. quī quae quod quī quae quae
Gen. cuius cuius cuius quōrum quārum quōrum
Dat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus
Acc. quem quam quod quōs quās quae
Abl. quō quā quō quibus quibus quibus

683. (b.) The interrogative adjective quī, quae, quod, which? what? is declined like the relative quī (682).

684. The interrogative substantive has in the nominative singular quis, quid, who? what? the rest is like quī (682).

In old Latin, quis is both masculine and feminine, but a separate feminine form quae is used three or four times.

685. quis interrogative is sometimes used adjectively with appellatives: as, quis senātor? what senator? And quī is sometimes used substantively: as, quī prīmus Ameriam nūntiat? who is the first to bring the tidings to Ameria?

686. (c.) The indefinite quis or quī, one, any, has the following forms:

quis and quid masculine and neuter substantives, quī and quod adjectives; feminine singular nominative and neuter plural nominative and accusative commonly qua, also quae. The rest is like quī (682).

687. quis, quem, quid, and quibus come from the stem qui-; the other parts come from quo-, quā-. quae stands for an older quai (690). For quid and quod, see 659.

688. Old forms of the genitive singular are quoius, and of the dative quoiei, quoiī, or quoi, also in derivatives of quī or quis. A genitive plural quōiūm is old and rare. The dative and ablative plural is sometimes quīs from quo-, quā-. A nominative plural interrogative and indefinite quēs is rare (Pacuv.).

689. The ablative or locative is sometimes quī, from the stem qui-: as an interrogative, how? as a relative, wherewith, whereby, masculine, feminine, or neuter, in old Latin sometimes with a plural antecedent; especially referring to an indefinite person, and with cum attached, quīcum; and as an indefinite, somehow.


690. Other case forms of quī or quis and their derivatives are found in inscriptions, as follows:

N. QVEI, prevalent in republican inscriptions; also QVI; once QVE. G. QVOIVS, regularly in republican inscriptions; cviivs, cviivs, cviivs (23), once QVIVS (20). D. QVOIEI, QVOI; once F. QVAI. Ab. QVEI. Plural: N. M. QVEI, but after 120 B.C., occasionally QVI; QVES, indefinite; F. and Ne. QVAI. G. QVOIVM.


691. The derivatives of quī and quis have commonly quis and quid as substantives, and quī and quod as adjectives. Forms requiring special mention are named below:

692. quisquis, whoever, whatever, everybody who, everything which, an indefinite relative, has only these forms in common use: N. M. quisquis, sometimes F. in old Latin, Ne. N. and Ac. quicquid or quidquid, Ab. M. and Ne. as adjective quōquō.

Rare forms are: N. M. quīquī, Ac. quemquem, once Ab. F. quāquā, as adverb quīquī, once D. quibusquibus. A short form of the genitive occurs in quoiquoimodī or cuicuimodī, of whatsoever sort.

aliquis or aliquī, aliqua, once aliquae (Lucr.), aliquid or aliquod, some one, some; Ab. M. sometimes, Ne. often aliquī (689). Pl. Ne. N. and Ac. only aliqua; D. and Ab. sometimes aliquīs (668).

ecquis or ecquī, ecqua or ecquae, ecquid or ecquod, any? Besides the nominative only these forms are found: D. eccui, Ac. ecquem, ecquam, ecquid, Ab. M. and Ne. ecquō. Pl. N. ecquī, Ac. M. ecquōs, F. ecquās.

quīcumque, quaecumque, quodcumque, whoever, whichever, everybody who, everything which. The cumque is sometimes separated from quī by an intervening word. An older form is quīquomque, &c.

quīdam, quaedam, quiddam or quoddam, a, a certain, some one, so and so; Ac. quendam, quandam. Pl. G. quōrundam, quārundam.

quīlibet, quaelibet, quidlibet or quodlibet, any you please.

quisnam, rarely quīnam, quaenam, quidnam or quodnam, who ever? who in the world? Sometimes nam quis, &c.

quispiam, quaepiam, quippiam, quidpiam or quodpiam, any, any one; Ab. also quīpiam (689), sometimes as adverb, in any way.

quisquam, quicquam or quidquam, anybody at all, anything at all, generally a substantive, less frequently an adjective, any at all. There is no distinctive feminine form, and quisquam and quemquam are rarely, and in old Latin, used as a feminine adjective. Ab. also quīquam (689), sometimes as adverb, in any way at all. No plural.

quisque, quaeque, quicque, quidque or quodque, each. Sometimes ūnus is prefixed: ūnusquisque; both parts are declined. quisque and quemque are sometimes feminine. Ab. S. quīque (689) rare, Ab. Pl. quīsque (688) once (Lucr.).

quīvīs, quaevīs, quidvīs or quodvīs, which you will; Ab. also quīvīs (689).


(2.) uter.

693. uter, utra, utrum, whether? which of the two? has the genitive singular utrīus, and the dative singular utrī.

The rest is like aeger (617). uter is sometimes relative, whichsoever, or indefinite, either of the two.


694. The derivatives of uter are declined like uter; they are:

neuter, neither of the two, genitive neutrīus, always with ī (657). When used as a grammatical term, neuter, the genitive is always neutrī: as, generis neutrī, of neither gender.

utercumque, utracumque, utrumcumque, whichever of the two, either of the two.

uterlibet, whichever you please.

uterque, whichsoever, both. G. always utriusque (657).

utervīs, whichever you wish.

alteruter, F. altera utra, Ne. alterutrum or alterum utrum, one or the other, G. alterīus utrīus, once late alterutrīus, D. alterutrī, Ac. M. alterutrum or alterum utrum, F. alterutram once (Plin.) or alteram utram, Ab. alterutrō or alterō utrō, F. alterā utrā. No Pl., except D. alterutrīs once (Plin.).


695. Pronouns often correspond with each other in meaning and form; some of the commonest correlatives are the following:

Kind. Interrogative. Indefinite. Demonstrative,
Determinative, &c.

quis, quī, who?

quis, quī,
hīc, iste, ille
is, quisque

uter, which of the two?

uterque uter, quī

quot, how many? (431)

aliquot tot quot

quantus, how large? (613)

tantus quantus

quālis, of what sort? (630)

quālislibet tālis quālis

696. Adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions are chiefly noun or pronoun cases which have become fixed in a specific form and with a specific meaning. Many of these words were still felt to be live cases, even in the developed period of the language; with others the consciousness of their noun character was lost.

697. Three cases are used adverbially: the accusative, the ablative, and the locative.

698. The rather indeterminate meaning of the accusative and the ablative is sometimes more exactly defined by a preposition. The preposition may either accompany its usual case: as, adamussim, admodum, īlicō; or it may be loosely prefixed, with more of the nature of an adverb than of a preposition, to a case with which it is not ordinarily used: as, examussim, intereā. Sometimes it stands after the noun: as, parumper, a little while. Besides the three cases named above, other forms occur, some of which are undoubtedly old case endings, though they can no longer be recognized as such: see 710.

(1.) Accusative.

(a.) Accusative of Substantives.

699. domum, homeward, home; rūs, afield; forās, out of doors (*forā-); vicem, instead; partim, in part; old noenum or noenu, common nōn, for ne-oenum, i.e. ūnum, not one, naught, not; admodum, to a degree, very; adamussim, examussim, to a T; adfatim, to satiety; invicem, in turn, each other.

700. Many adverbs in -tim and -sim denote manner (549): as, cautim, warily, statim, at once, sēnsim, perceptibly, gradually; ōstiātim, door by door, virītim, man by man, fūrtim, stealthily.

(b.) Accusative of Adjectives and Pronouns.

701. Neuters: all comparative adverbs in -ius (361): as, doctius, more learnedly; so minus, less, magis, more (363). prīmum, first, secundum, secondly, &c.; tum, then (to-, that): commodum, just in time; minimum, at least, potissimum, in preference, postrēmum, at last, summum, at most; versum, toward, rursum, russum, rūsum, back; facile, easily, impūne, scotfree, recēns, lately, semel, once (simili-), simul, together (simili-). Plural: cētera, for the rest; quia, because (qui-); in old Latin frūstra, in vain (fraud-).

702. Feminines: bifāriam, twofold; cōram, face to face (com- or co-, *ōrā-); tam, so (tā-, that); quam, as, how. Plural: aliās, on other occasions.


(2.) Ablative.

(a.) Ablative of Substantives.

703. domō, from home, rūre, from the country; hodiē, to-day (ho-, diē-), volgō, publicly, vespere, by twilight, noctū, by nights, nights, lūce, by light, tempore, in times, betimes; sponte, voluntarily, forte, by chance; quotannīs, yearly; grātiīs or grātīs, for nothing, ingrātiīs or ingrātīs, against one’s will; īlicō, on the spot (169, 4; 170, 2), forīs, out of doors (*forā-).

(b.) Ablative of Adjectives and Pronouns.

704. Many adverbs in are formed from adjectives of time: as, perpetuō, to the end, crēbrō, frequently, rārō, seldom, repentīnō, suddenly, sērō, late, prīmō, at first. Many denote manner: as, arcānō, privily, sēriō, in earnest. Some are formed from participles: as, auspicātō, with auspices taken; compositō, by agreement. A plural is rare: alternīs, alternately.

705. Instead of , neuter ablatives commonly have : as, longē, far, doctē, wisely. So also superlatives: facillimē, most easily, anciently FACILVMED (362). Consonant stems have -e: as, repente, suddenly.

706. From pronouns some end in (689): as, quī, how? indefinite, quī, somehow; atquī, but somehow; quī-quam, in any way at all.

707. Feminines: many in : ūnā, together; circā, around; contrā, against (com-, 347); extrā, outside (ex, 347); in classical Latin, frūstrā, in vain (fraud-). So, especially, adverbs denoting the ‘route by which:’ hāc, this way; rēctā, straightway.

(3.) Locative.

708. In , from names of towns and a few other words: Karthāginī, at Carthage; Rōmae, for Rōmāī, at Rome; domī, at home; illī, commonly illī-c, there (illo-), istī, commonly istī-c, where you are, hī-c, here (ho-); old sei, common , at that, in that case, so, if; sīc, so (, -ce).

709. In -bī̆, from some pronouns: ibī̆, there (i-); ubī̆ (for *quobī̆, 146), where; alicubī̆, somewhere; sī-cubi, if anywhere, nē-cubi, lest anywhere.

Other Endings.

710. Besides the above, other endings are also found in words of this class: as,

-s in abs, from, ex, out of; similarly us-que, in every case, ever, us-quam, anywhere at all. -tus has the meaning of an ablative: as, intus, from within, within; antīquitus, from old times, anciently; funditus, from the bottom, entirely. denotes the ‘place to which’ in adverbs from pronoun stems: as, , thither; quō, whither; illō, or illūc, for illoi-ce, thither, after hūc; hōc, commonly hūc, perhaps for hoi-ce (99) hither. -im denotes the ‘place from which:’ as, istim, commonly istinc, from where you are; illim, commonly illinc, from yonder; hinc, hence; exim, thereupon; also -de: as, unde, whence (quo-, 146), sī-cunde, if from any place, nē-cunde, lest from anywhere. -ter: as comparative (347): praeter, further, beyond, inter, between; denoting manner: ācriter, sharply; amanter, affectionately; rarely from -o- stems: as, firmiter, steadfastly.


711. Adverbs derived from pronoun stems often correspond with each other in meaning and form; some of the commonest correlatives are the following:

Interrogative. Indefinite. Demonstrative,
Determinative, &c.

ubī̆, where?

hīc, istīc, illīc
ibī̆, ibī̆dem

quō, whither?

hūc, istūc, illūc
eō, eōdem

quorsum, whitherward?

aliquōvorsum horsum, istorsum quorsum

unde, whence?

hinc, istinc, illinc
inde, indidem

quandō, when?

nunc, tum, tunc

quom or cum

quotiēns, how often?

aliquotiēns totiēns quotiēns

quā, by what way?

hāc, istāc, illāc
eā, eādem

utī or ut, how?

aliquā ita, sīc

utī or ut (146)

Degree quam, how? aliquam tam quam

712. Some adverbs are condensed sentences: as,

īlicet, you may go, straightway (īre licet); scīlicet, you may know, obviously, of course (scīre licet); vidē̆licet, you can see, plainly (vidēre licet); nūdiustertius, now is the third day, day before yesterday (num dius, i.e. diēs, tertius); forsitan, maybe (fors sit an); mīrum quantum, strange how much, astonishingly; nesciō quō pactō, nesciō quōmodo, somehow or other, unfortunately.



713. The verb is inflected by attaching person endings to the several stems.


714. The stem contains the meaning of the verb, and also denotes the mode (mood) and the time (tense) of the action as viewed by the speaker.

715. There are three Moods, Indicative, Subjunctive, and Imperative.

716. There are six Tenses in the indicative, three of the present system, Present, Imperfect, and Future; and three of the perfect system, Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect. The subjunctive lacks the futures; the imperative has only the present.

717. The meanings of the moods and tenses are best learnt from reading. No satisfactory translation can be given in the paradigms, especially of the subjunctive, which requires a variety of translations for its various uses.

718. The verb has two principal stems: I. The Present stem, which is the base of the present system; II. The Perfect stem, which is the base of the perfect active system.

719. The perfect system has no passive; its place is supplied by the perfect participle with a form of sum, am, or less frequently of fuī, am become.

720. Many verbs have only the present system: as, maereō, mourn; some have only the perfect system: as, meminī, remember. Some verbs have a present and perfect system made up of two separate roots or stems: as, present indicative ferō, carry, perfect indicative tulī, and perfect participle lātus; present possum, can, perfect potuī.


721. The person ending limits the meaning of the stem by pointing out the person of the subject. There are three Persons, the First, used of the speaker, the Second, of what is spoken to, and the Third, of what is spoken of. The person ending furthermore indicates number and voice.

722. There are two Numbers: the Singular, used of one, and the Plural, used of more than one.

723. There are two Voices: the Active, indicating that the subject acts, and the Passive, indicating that the subject acts on himself, or more commonly is acted on by another.


724. Only transitive verbs have all persons of the passive. Intransitive verbs have in the passive only the third person singular, used impersonally; the participle in this construction is neuter.

725. Some verbs have only the passive person endings, but with a reflexive or an active meaning; such are called Deponents: see 798.

726. The person endings are as follows:

Voice. Active. Passive.
Mood. Ind. & Sub. Imperative. Ind. & Sub. Imperative.
Number. Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
First person. -m -mus not used not used -r -mur not used not used
Second person. -s -tis none, -tō -te, -tōte -ris, -re [-minī] -re, -tor [-minī]
Third person. -t -nt -tō -ntō -tur -ntur -tor -ntor

727. In the perfect indicative active, the second person singular ends in -tī, and the third person plural in -runt for an older -ront, or in -re. -re is most used in poetry and history, and by Cato and Sallust; -runt by Cicero, and almost always by Caesar.

728. In the indicative -m is not used in the present (except in sum, am, and inquam, quoth I), in the perfect or future perfect, or in the future in -bō. -s is not used in es for ess, thou art, and in ēs, eatest (171, 1).

729. In inscriptions, -d sometimes stands for -t (149, 2) in the third person singular, and sometimes -t is not used: as, FECID, made, for fēcit; DEDE, gave, for dedēt or dedit. And other forms of the third person plural of the indicative active are sometimes used: as, Pisaurian DEDROT, DEDRO (with syncope, 111) for dederunt, gave; EMERV, bought, for ēmērunt; once DEDERI, probably for dedēre (856).

730. In the passive second person singular, Terence has always, Plautus commonly -re; later it is unusual in the present indicative, except in deponents; but in other tenses -re is preferred, especially in the future -bere, by Cicero, -ris by Livy and Tacitus. The second person plural passive is wanting; its place is supplied by a single participial form in -minī, which is used without reference to gender, for gender words and neuters alike (297).

731. Deponents have rarely -mino, in the imperative singular: as, second person, prōgredimino, step forward thou (Plaut.); in laws, as third person: FRVIMINO, let him enjoy; or -tō and -ntō for -tor and -ntor: as, ūtitō, let him use; ūtuntō, let them use. In a real passive, -ntō is rare: as, CENSENTO, let them be rated.


732. The verb is accompanied by some nouns, which are conveniently, though not quite accurately, reckoned parts of the verb; they are:

Three Infinitives, Present Active and Passive, and Perfect Active, sometimes called the Infinitive Mood. For the future active and passive and the perfect passive, compound forms are used.

The Gerund and the Gerundive.

Two Supines.

Three Participles, Present and Future Active, and Perfect Passive.


733. The several verb stems can readily be found, when once the principal parts are known; these are given in the dictionary.

734. The Principal Parts of a verb are the Present Indicative Active, Present Infinitive Active, Perfect Indicative Active, and Perfect Participle: as,

Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic. Perf. Part.
regō, rule regere rēxī rēctus
laudō, praise laudāre laudāvī laudātus
moneō, advise monēre monuī monitus
audiō, hear audīre audīvī auditus

735. The Principal Parts of deponents are the Present Indicative, Present Infinitive, and Perfect Participle: as,

Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Part.
queror, complain querī questus
mīror, wonder mīrārī mīrātus
vereor, fear verērī veritus
partior, share partīrī partītus

736. A verb is usually named by the present indicative active first person singular: as, regō; laudō, moneō, audiō; or by the present infinitive active: as, regere; laudāre, monēre, audīre. Deponents are named by the corresponding passive forms: as, queror; mīror, vereor, partior; or querī; mīrārī, verērī, partīrī.

737. For convenience, verbs with -ere in the present infinitive active are called Verbs in -ere; those with -āre, -ēre, or -īre, Verbs in -āre, -ēre, or -īre, respectively. In like manner deponents are designated as Verbs in ; or Verbs in -ārī, -ērī, or -īrī, respectively.


738. The several stems of the verb come from a form called the Theme. In primitives, the theme is a root; in denominatives, the theme is a noun stem.

Thus, reg- in reg-ō is a root; while vesti- in vesti-ō, dress, is a noun stem. The noun stem is sometimes modified in form. Oftentimes the noun stem is only presumed: as, audi- in audi-ō.

739. Some verbs have a denominative theme in the present system, and a primitive theme in the perfect system, others have the reverse.

740. Most verbs with an infinitive of more than two syllables in -āre, -ēre, or -īre, or, if deponent, in -ārī, -ērī, or -īrī, are denominative; most other verbs are primitive.

Thus, laudāre, monēre, audīre; mīrārī, verērī, partīrī, are denominative; while esse, dare, ()lēre, regere, querī, are primitive. A few verbs, however, which have the appearance of denominatives, are thought to be primitive in their origin.


741. Verbs are divided into two classes, according to the form of the present system: I. Root verbs, and verbs in -ere, mostly primitive; II. Verbs in -āre, -ēre, or -īre, mostly denominative.

742. Verbs are sometimes arranged without regard to difference of kind, in the alphabetical order of the vowel before -s of the second person singular of the present indicative active, ā, ē, i, ī: thus, laudās, monēs, regis, audīs, sometimes called the first, second, third, and fourth conjugation respectively.

I. Primitive Verbs.

743. A few of the oldest and commonest verbs of everyday life have a bare root as stem in the present indicative or in parts of it; and some of them have other peculiarities; such are called Root Verbs, or by some, irregular (744-781). Most primitives are verbs in -ere, like regō (782).


Irregular Verbs.

(a.) With a Prevalent Bare Root.

744. Primitives with the bare root as present indicative stem in almost all their forms are sum, am, , give, put, and compounds; and with the root doubled, bibō, drink, serō, sow, and sistō, set.


(1.) sum, am (es-, s-).

745. sum, am, is used only in the present system (720). The perfect system is supplied by forms of fuī (fu-).

Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic. Perf. Part.
sum esse (fuī) ——
Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.
sum, I am sumus, we are
es, thou art estis, you are
est, he is sunt, they are
Imperfect Tense.
eram, I was erāmus, we were
erās, thou wert erātis, you were
erat, he was erant, they were
Future Tense.
erō, I shall be erimus, we shall be
eris, thou wilt be eritis, you will be
erit, he will be erunt, they will be
Perfect Tense.

fuī, I have been, or was

fuimus, we have been, or were

fuistī, thou hast been, or wert

fuistis, you have been, or were

fuit, he has been, or was

fuērunt or -re, they have been, or were

Pluperfect Tense.
fueram, I had been fuerāmus, we had been
fuerās, thou hadst been fuerātis, you had been
fuerat, he had been fuerant, they had been
Future Perfect Tense.
fuerō, I shall have been fuerimus, we shall have been
fueris, thou wilt have been fueritis, you will have been
fuerit, he will have been fuerint, they will have been
Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.
sim, may I be sīmus, let us be
sīs, mayst thou be

sītis, be you, may you be

sit, let him be, may he be

sint, let them be, may they be

Imperfect Tense.
essem, I should be essēmus, we should be
essēs, thou wouldst be essētis, you would be
esset, he would be essent, they would be
Perfect Tense.
fuerim, I may have been fuerīmus, we may have been
fuerīs, thou mayst have been fuerītis, you may have been
fuerit, he may have been fuerīnt, they may have been
Pluperfect Tense.
fuissem, I should have been

fuissēmus, we should have been

fuissēs, thou wouldst have been

fuissētis, you would have been

fuisset, he would have been

fuissent, they would have been


es or estō, be thou, thou shalt be

este or estōte, be you, you shall be

estō, he shall be suntō, they shall be
Pres. esse, to be Pres. See 749
Perf. fuisse, to have been Perf. ——
Fut. futūrus esse, to be going to be Fut. futūrus, going to be

746. For the first person sum, Varro mentions esum as an archaic form. This e was probably prefixed by analogy with the other forms; for the -m, and for es, see 728. For sim, &c., and siem, &c., see 841. In the imperfect eram, &c., and the future erō, &c., s has become r (154).


747. The indicative and imperative es is for older ess (171, 1), and is regularly used long by Plautus and Terence. The e of es and est is not pronounced after a vowel or -m, and is often omitted in writing: as experrēcta es, pronounced experrēctas; epistula est, pronounced epistulast; cōnsilium est, pronounced cōnsiliumst. In the dramatists, -s preceded by a vowel, which is usually short, unites with a following es or est: thus, tū servos es becomes tū servos; similis est, similist; virtūs est, virtūst; rēs est, rēst.

748. Old forms are: SONT (inscr. about 120 B.C.); with suffix -scō (834), escit (for *esscit), gets to be, will be, escunt; present subjunctive, siem, siēs, siet, and sient (841), common in inscriptions down to 100 B.C., and in old verse; also in compounds; imperative estōd rare.

749. The present participle is used only as an adjective. It has two forms: sontem (accusative, no nominative), which has entirely lost its original meaning of being, actual, the real man, and has only the secondary meaning of guilty, and īnsōns, innocent; and -sēns in absēns, away, praesēns, at hand, dī cōnsentēs, gods collective; also once INSENTIBVS. sum has no gerund or gerundive.

750. A subjunctive present fuam, fuās, fuat, and fuant occurs in old Latin; and an imperfect forem, forēs, foret, and forent, in all periods. The present infinitive fore, to get to be, become, has a future meaning. Old forms in the perfect system are FVVEIT (29, 1), FVET; fūit, fūimus, fūerim, fūerit, fūerint, fūisset (Plaut., Enn.). fuī has no perfect participle or supine.


possum, can.

Principal parts: possum, posse; (potuī, see 875.)
Singular. Plural.
Pres. possum, potes, potest possumus, potestis, possunt
Imp. poteram, poterās, poterat poterāmus, poterātis, poterant
Fut. poterō, poteris, poterit poterimus, poteritis, poterunt
Pres. possim, possīs, possit possīmus, possītis, possint
Imp. possem, possēs, posset possēmus, possētis, possent
Pres. posse ——

752. possum is formed from pote, able, and sum, juxtaposed (166, 2; 396). The separate forms potis sum, &c., or pote sum, &c., are also used, and sometimes even potis or pote alone takes the place of a verb; in either case potis and pote are indeclinable, and are applied to gender words and neuters both.

753. t is retained before a vowel, except in possem, &c., for potessem, &c., and in posse; t before s changes to s (166, 2). Old forms are: possiem, &c., (748), potessem, potisset, potesse. Rare forms are POTESTO (inscr. 58 B.C.), and passives, as potestur, &c., with a passive infinitive (1484). possum has no participles; the perfect system, potuī, &c., is like fuī, &c. (745).


(2.) , give, put (dā-, da-).

754. There are two verbs , one meaning give, and one meaning put. The meaning put is oftenest used in compounds; the simple verb has been crowded out by pōnō. The present system of is as follows:

Principal parts: , dare, dedī, datus.
Singular. Plural.
Pres. , dās, dat damus, datis, dant

dabam, dabās, dabat

dabāmus, dabātis, dabant

Fut. dabō, dabis, dabit

dabimus, dabitis, dabunt

Pres. dem, dēs, det dēmus, dētis, dent

darem, darēs, daret

darēmus, darētis, darent

or datō, datō

date or datōte, dantō

Pres. dare dāns
Gen. dandī, &c.
Singular. Plural.

——, daris or -re, datur

damur, daminī, dantur


dabar, dabāre or -ris, dabātur

dabāmur, dabāminī, dabantur


dabor, dabere or -ris, dabitur

dabimur, dabiminī, dabuntur


——, dēre or -ris, dētur

——, dēminī, dentur


darer, darēre or -ris, darētur

darēmur, darēminī, darentur


dare or dator, dator

daminī, dantor
Pres. darī dandus

755. In the present system a is short throughout in the first syllable, except in dās and . For dedī, datus, and supines datum, datū, see 859 and 900.

756. Old forms: danunt of uncertain origin (833) for dant. From another form of the root come duis, duit; interduō, concrēduō, perfect concrēduī; subjunctive duim, duīs (duās), duit and duint (841), and compounds, used especially in law language, and in praying and cursing; crēduam, crēduās or crēduīs, crēduat or crēduit.

757. Real compounds of have a present system like regō (782); in the perfect and the perfect participle, e and a become i: as, abdō, put away, abdere, abdidī, abditus; crēdō, put trust in. perdō, fordo, destroy, and vēndō, put for sale, have gerundives perdendus, vēndundus, and perfect participles perditus, vēnditus; the rest of the passive is supplied by forms of pereō and vēneō. reddō, give back, has future reddibō 3 times (Plaut.). In the apparent compounds with circum, pessum, satis, and vēnum, remains without change, as in 754.

(3.) bibō, serō, and sistō.

758. bibō, drink, serō, sow (for *si-sō, 154), and sistō, set, form their present stem by reduplication of the root (189). The vowel before the person endings is the root vowel, which becomes variable, like a formative vowel (824). These verbs have the present system like regō (782).

(b.) With the Bare Root in Parts.

inquam, , and queō.

759. inquam, , and queō have the bare root as present stem, in almost all their parts; in a few parts only the root is extended by a formative vowel (829).

(1.) inquam, say I, quoth I.

760. inquam, say I, is chiefly used in quoting a person’s direct words; and, from its meaning, is naturally very defective. The only parts in common use are the following:

Singular. Plural.

inquam, inquis, inquit

——, ——, inquiunt


——, inquiēs, inquiet

——, ——, ——

761. Rare forms are: subjunctive inquiat (Cornif.), indicative imperfect inquiēbat (Cic.), used twice each; indicative present inquimus (Hor.), perfect inquiī (Catull.), inquīstī (Cic.), once each; imperative inque, 4 times (Plaut. 2, Ter. 2), inquitō, 3 times (Plaut.). For inquam, see 728.



(2.) , go (ī- for ei-, i-)

Principal parts: , īre, , itum.
Singular. Plural.
Pres. , īs, it īmus, ītis, eunt
Imp. ībam, ībās, ībat

ībāmus, ībātis, ībant

Fut. ībō, ībis, ībit

ībimus, ībitis, ībunt


, īstī, iīt or īt

iimus, īstis, iērunt or -re


ieram, ierās, ierat

ierāmus, ierātis, ierant

F. P. ierō, ieris, ierit

ierimus, ieritis, ierint

Pres. eam, eās, eat eāmus, eātis, eant
Imp. īrem, īrēs, īret

īrēmus, īrētis, īrent


ierim, ierīs, ierit

ierīmus, ierītis, ierint


īssem, īssēs, īsset

īssēmus, īssētis, īssent

ī or ītō, ītō

īte or ītōte, euntō

Pres. īre iēns, Gen. euntis
Perf. īsse itum
Fut. itūrus esse itūrus
Gen. eundī
Dat. eundō
Acc. eundum ——
Abl. eundō ——

763. The passive is only used impersonally, and has a neuter gerundive eundum and participle itum; but transitive compounds, as adeō, go up to, have a complete passive: as, adeor, adīris, &c. ambiō, go round, canvass, follows denominatives in -īre (796), but has once or twice the imperfect ambībat, ambībant, ambībātur (Liv., Tac., Plin. Ep.), and once the future ambībunt (Plin.); future perfect ambīssit, ambīssint, once each (prol. Plaut.).

764. The ī is weakened from ei (98): as, eis, eit, eite, abeis, abei (Plaut.); EITVR, ABEI, ADEITVR (inscr. 130 B.C.), VENEIRE (49 B.C.), PRAETEREIS. Before o, u, or a, the root becomes e. For u in euntis, see 902.

765. Old forms are: īerō (Plaut.), īī, īerant (Ter.), once each (126); in an inscription of 186 B.C., ADIESET, ADIESENT, ADIESE, and of 146 B.C., REDIEIT (29, 2; 132); INTERIEISTI. A future in -iet, as trānsiet (Sen.), is late and rare.


766. A double i is found in iissēs and iisset once each (Ciris, Nepos), also sometimes in compounds of these forms: as rediissēs, interiisset. Compounds sometimes have it also in the perfect infinitive and in the second person singular of the perfect indicative: as, abiisse, abiistī; also in rediistis once (Stat.). In the first person of the perfect indicative a single long ī is found rarely in late writers in the singular: as, adī (Val. Fl.).

767. A few examples are found of a perfect system with v, as īvī, &c. This form is confined almost exclusively to poetry and late prose.

(a) Examples of simple forms with v are: īvisse (Plaut.), īvit (Cato), īvī (Varro), īverat (Catull.). (b) Compound forms: exīvī (Plaut.), obīvit (Verg.), subīvit (Stat.); trānsīvisse (Claud. ap. Tac.), inīvimus, trānsīvī, trānsīvimus (Curt.), trānsīvit, trānsīverant (Sen.), exīvit (Gell.). Apparent compounds (396): īntrō īvit (C. Gracch., Piso, Gell.).

(3.) queō, can.

768. queō, can, and nequeō, can’t, have the perfect quīvī, the rest like (762); but they have no imperative, gerundive, or future participle, and the present participle is rare. queō is commonly used with a negative, and some parts only so. Passive forms are rare, and only used with a passive infinitive (1484).

edō; volō (nōlō, mālō) and ferō.

(1.) edō, eat (ed-, ēd-).

769. edō, eat, has a present system with a formative vowel like regō throughout (782); but in some parts of the present, and of the imperfect subjunctive, parallel root forms are usually found, with d of the root changed to s, and the vowel lengthened (135), as may be seen in the following:

Principal parts: edō, ēsse, ēdī, ēsus.
Singular. Plural.

edō, ēs or edis, ēst or edit

edimus, ēstis or editis, edunt


edim, edīs, edit
or edam, edās, edat

edīmus, edītis, edint
or edāmus, edātis, edant


ēssem, ēssēs, ēsset
or ederem, ederēs, ederet

ēssēmus, ——, ēssent
or ederēmus, ederētis, ederent

ēs or ede, ēstō or editō ēste or edite
Pres. ēsse edēns

770. For ēs, see 728; for edim, &c., 841. In the passive, the indicative present ēstur is used, and imperfect subjunctive ēssētur. The perfect participle ēsus is for an older ēssus (170, 7). Supines ēssum, ēssū (Plaut.).

771. comedō, eat up, has also the following root forms: comēs, comēst, comēstis; comēstō; comēsse; comēssēs, comēsset, comēssēmus. The present subjunctive has also comedim, comedīs, comedint. The participle perfect is comēssus, comēsus, or comēstus, future comēssūrus. exedō, eat out, has exēst and exēsse; subjunctive exedint. adedō, eat at, has adēst.

772. volō (nōlō, mālō) and ferō have the bare root in some parts only of the present system; in other parts the root extended by a formative vowel, like regō (782). volō (nōlō, mālō) lack some forms, as will be seen below.


(2.) volō, will, wish, want, am willing (vol-, vel-).

Principal parts: volō, velle, voluī, ——.
Singular. Plural.

volō, vīs, volt or vult

volumus, voltis or vultis, volunt


volēbam, volēbās, volēbat

volēbāmus, volēbātis, volēbant


volam, volēs, volet

volēmus, volētis, volent


voluī, voluistī, voluit

voluimus, voluistis, voluērunt or -re


volueram, voluerās, voluerat

voluerāmus, voluerātis, voluerant

F. P.

voluerō, volueris, voluerit

voluerimus, volueritis, voluerint


velim, velīs, velit

velīmus, velītis, velint


vellem, vellēs, vellet

vellēmus, vellētis, vellent


voluerim, voluerīs, voluerit

voluerīmus, voluerītis, voluerint


voluissem, voluissēs, voluisset

voluissēmus, voluissētis, voluissent

Pres. velle volēns
Perf. voluisse

774. volo for volō is rare (2443). volt and voltis became vult and vultis about the time of Augustus (141). For volumus, see 142; velim, &c., 841; vellem, &c., velle, 166, 8. sīs, an thou wilt, is common for sī vīs (Plaut., Ter., Cic., Liv.). sultis, an ‘t please you, is used by Plautus for sī voltis.


775. nōlō, won’t, is formed from ne-, not, and volō, juxtaposed, and mālō, like better, abbreviated from māvolō for *magsvolo (779, 170, 2).

776. nōlō, won’t, don’t want, object, am not willing.

Principal parts: nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, ——.
Singular. Plural.

nōlō, nōn vīs, nōn volt or vult

nōlumus, nōn voltis or vultis, nōlunt


nōlēbam, nōlēbās, nōlēbat

nōlēbāmus, nōlēbātis, nōlēbant


——, nōlēs, nōlet

nōlēmus, nōlētis, nōlent


nōlim, nōlīs, nōlit

nōlīmus, nōlītis, nōlint


nōllem, nōllēs, nōllet

nōllēmus, nōllētis, nōllent

nōlī or nōlītō, nōlītō nōlīte or nōlītōte, nōluntō
Pres. nōlle ——

777. nevīs and nevolt, from ne-, not, are found in Plautus. nōlō has usually no participles, but oblique cases of nōlēns are used a few times by post-Augustan writers (Cels., Luc., Quintil., Ta., Juv., Mart., Plin.). The perfect system, nōluī, &c., is like that of volō (772).

778. mālō, like better, choose rather.

Principal parts: mālō, mālle, māluī, ——.
Singular. Plural.

mālō, māvīs, māvolt or māvult

mālumus, māvoltis or māvultis, mālunt


mālēbam, mālēbās, mālēbat

mālēbāmus, mālēbātis, mālēbant


——, mālēs, mālet

mālēmus, mālētis, mālent


mālim, mālīs, mālit

mālīmus, mālītis, mālint


māllem, māllēs, māllet

māllēmus, māllētis, māllent

Pres. mālle ——

779. Old forms are māvolō, māvolunt; māvolet; māvelim, māvelīs, māvelit; māvellem. The perfect system, māluī, &c., is like that of volō (772).


(3.) ferō, carry (fer-).

780. ferō, carry, is used only in the present system (720). The other parts are supplied by forms of tollō, lift (tol-, tlā-). The present system of ferō is as follows:

Principal parts: ferō, ferre; (tulī, lātus).
Singular. Plural.
Pres. ferō, fers, fert

ferimus, fertis, ferunt


ferēbam, ferēbās, ferēbat

ferēbāmus, ferēbātis, ferēbant


feram, ferēs, feret

ferēmus, ferētis, ferent


feram, ferās, ferat

ferāmus, ferātis, ferant


ferrem, ferrēs, ferret

ferrēmus, ferrētis, ferrent

fer or fertō, fertō ferte or fertōte, feruntō
Pres. ferre ferēns
Gen. ferendī, &c.
Singular. Plural.

feror, ferris or -re, fertur

ferimur, feriminī, feruntur


ferēbar, ferēbāre or -ris, ferēbātur

ferēbāmur, ferēbāminī, ferēbantur


ferar, ferēre or -ris, ferētur

ferēmur, ferēminī, ferentur


ferar, ferāre or -ris, ferātur

ferāmur, ferāminī, ferantur


ferrer, ferrēre or -ris, ferrētur

ferrēmur, ferrēminī, ferrentur

ferre or fertor, fertor feriminī, feruntor
Pres. ferrī ferendus

781. For tulī, see 860; the full form tetulī, &c., is found in old Latin, and TOLI, &c., in inscriptions; the compound with re- is rettulī for *retetulī (861). For the participle lātus, see 169, 1.

(B.) VERBS IN -ere.

The Third Conjugation.


regō, rule.

Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic. Perf. Part.
regō regere rēxī rēctus
Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.

regō, I rule, or am ruling

regimus, we rule, or are ruling

regis, thou rulest, or art ruling

regitis, you rule, or are ruling

regit, he rules, or is ruling

regunt, they rule, or are ruling

Imperfect Tense.

regēbam, I was ruling, or I ruled

regēbāmus, we were ruling, or we ruled

regēbās, thou wert ruling, or thou ruledst

regēbātis, you were ruling, or you ruled

regēbat, he was ruling, or he ruled

regēbant, they were ruling, or they ruled

Future Tense.
regam, I shall rule regēmus, we shall rule
regēs, thou wilt rule regētis, you will rule
reget, he will rule regent, they will rule
Perfect Tense.

rēxī, I have ruled, or I ruled

rēximus, we have ruled, or we ruled

rēxistī, thou hast ruled, or thou ruledst

rēxistis, you have ruled, or you ruled

rēxit, he has ruled, or he ruled

rēxērunt or -re, they have ruled, or they ruled

Pluperfect Tense.
rēxeram, I had ruled rēxerāmus, we had ruled
rēxerās, thou hadst ruled rēxerātis, you had ruled
rēxerat, he had ruled rēxerant, they had ruled
Future Perfect Tense.
rēxerō, I shall have ruled

rēxerimus, we shall have ruled

rēxeris, thou wilt have ruled

rēxeritis, you will have ruled

rēxerit, he will have ruled

rēxerint, they will have ruled

Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.
regam, may I rule regāmus, let us rule
regās, mayst thou rule regātis, may you rule
regat, let him rule regant, let them rule
Imperfect Tense.
regerem, I should rule regerēmus, we should rule
regerēs, thou wouldst rule regerētis, you would rule
regeret, he would rule regerent, they would rule
Perfect Tense.
rēxerim, I may have ruled rēxerīmus, we may have ruled

rēxerīs, thou mayst have ruled

rēxerītis, you may have ruled
rēxerit, he may have ruled rēxerint, they may have ruled
Pluperfect Tense.
rēxissem, I should have ruled

rēxissēmus, we should have ruled

rēxissēs, thou wouldst have ruled

rēxissētis, you would have ruled

rēxisset, he would have ruled

rēxissent, they would have ruled


rege or regitō, rule, thou shalt rule

regite or regitōte, rule, you shall rule

regitō, he shall rule reguntō, they shall rule
Pres. regere, to rule Pres. regēns, ruling

Perf. rēxisse, to have ruled

Fut. rēctūrus esse, to be going to rule Fut. rēctūrus, going to rule

Gen. regendī, of ruling

Dat. regendō, for ruling

Acc. regendum, ruling

Acc. *rēctum, to rule, not used

Abl. regendō, by ruling

Abl. *rēctū, in ruling, not used

VERBS IN -ere.

The Third Conjugation.


regor, am ruled.

Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.
regor, I am ruled regimur, we are ruled
regeris or -re, thou art ruled regiminī, you are ruled
regitur, he is ruled reguntur, they are ruled
Imperfect Tense.
regēbar, I was ruled regēbāmur, we were ruled
regēbāre or -ris, thou wert ruled regēbāminī, you were ruled
regēbātur, he was ruled regēbantur, they were ruled
Future Tense.
regar, I shall be ruled regēmur, we shall be ruled
regēre or -ris, thou wilt be ruled regēminī, you will be ruled
regētur, he will be ruled regentur, they will be ruled
Perfect Tense.
rēctus sum, I have been, or was ruled rēctī sumus, we have been, or were ruled
rēctus es, thou hast been, or wert ruled rēctī estis, you have been, or were ruled
rēctus est, he has been, or was ruled rēctī sunt, they have been, or were ruled
Pluperfect Tense.
rēctus eram, I had been ruled rēctī erāmus, we had been ruled
rēctus erās, thou hadst been ruled rēctī erātis, you had been ruled
rēctus erat, he had been ruled rēctī erant, they had been ruled
Future Perfect Tense.
rēctus erō, I shall have been ruled rēctī erimus, we shall have been ruled
rēctus eris, thou wilt have been ruled rēctī eritis, you will have been ruled
rēctus erit, he will have been ruled rēctī erunt, they will have been ruled
Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.
regar, may I be ruled regāmur, may we be ruled
regāre or -ris, mayst thou be ruled regāminī, may you be ruled
regātur, let him be ruled regantur, let them be ruled
Imperfect Tense.
regerer, I should be ruled regerēmur, we should be ruled
regerēre or -ris, thou wouldst be ruled regerēminī, you would be ruled
regerētur, he would be ruled regerentur, they would be ruled
Perfect Tense.
rēctus sim, I may have been ruled rēctī sīmus, we may have been ruled
rēctus sīs, thou mayst have been ruled rēctī sītis, you may have been ruled
rēctus sit, he may have been ruled rēctī sint, they may have been ruled
Pluperfect Tense.
rēctus essem, I should have been ruled rēctī essēmus, we should have been ruled
rēctus essēs, thou wouldst have been ruled rēctī essētis, you would have been ruled
rēctus esset, he would have been ruled rēctī essent, they would have been ruled
regere or regitor, be ruled, thou shalt be ruled regiminī, be ruled
regitor, he shall be ruled reguntor, they shall be ruled
Pres. regī, to be ruled regendus, to be ruled
Perf. rēctus esse, to have been ruled PERFECT PARTICIPLE.

Fut. *rēctum īrī, to be going to be ruled,
not used (2273)

rēctus, ruled
VERBS IN -iō, -ere.

784. Verbs in -iō, -ere, as capiō, capere, take (cap-), drop an i in some forms of the present and imperfect. The present system is as follows:

Singular. Plural.

capiō, capis, capit

capimus, capitis, capiunt


capiēbam, capiēbās, capiēbat

capiēbāmus, capiēbātis, capiēbant


capiam, capiēs, capiet

capiēmus, capiētis, capient


capiam, capiās, capiat

capiāmus, capiātis, capiant


caperem, caperēs, caperet

caperēmus, caperētis, caperent

cape or capitō, capitō capite or capitōte, capiuntō
Pres. capere capiēns
Gen. capiendī, &c.
Singular. Plural.

capior, caperis or -re, capitur

capimur, capiminī, capiuntur


capiēbar, capiēbāre or -ris, capiēbātur

capiēbāmur, capiēbāminī, capiēbantur


capiar, capiēre or -ris, capiētur

capiēmur, capiēminī, capientur


capiar, capiāre or -ris, capiātur

capiāmur, capiāminī, capiantur


caperer, caperēre or -ris, caperētur

caperēmur, caperēminī, caperentur

capere or capitor, capitor capiminī, capiuntor
Pres. capi capiendus

785. There are a dozen verbs in -īō, -ere, like capiō, and three deponents in -ior, , all formed from consonant roots with a short vowel: see 836. aiō, say, and fīō, grow, become, have certain peculiarities arising from the blending of the root with the suffix.

(1.) aiō, say, say ay, avouch (ag-).

786. aiō, say, is defective, and has only these parts in common use:

Singular. Plural.
Ind. Pres. aiō, ais, ait

——, ——, aiunt

Ind. Imp.

aiēbam, aiēbās, aiēbat

aiēbāmus, aiēbātis, aiēbant

Subj. Pres.

——, aiās, aiāt

——, ——, ——

787. For aiō, sometimes written aiiō (23), see 153, 2. Old forms are: present ais, aīs, a͡is, or with -n interrogative āin, a͡in; aīt, ait, or a͡it; imperfect a͡ibam, a͡ibās, a͡ibat, and a͡ibant; imperative once only, (Naev.). A participle aientibus, affirmative, occurs once (Cic.).

(2.) fīō, become, am made.

788. fīō, become, and factus sum supplement each other: in the present system, the passive of faciō, make, except the gerundive, faciendus, is not used, fīō, &c., taking its place; in the perfect system, only factus sum, &c., is used.

Singular. Plural.
Ind. Pres. fīō, fīs, fit

——, ——, fīunt

Ind. Imp.

fīēbam, fīēbās, fīēbat

fīēbāmus, fīēbātis, fīēbant

Ind. Fut. fīam, fīēs, fīet

fīēmus, fīētis, fīent

Subj. Pres. fīam, fīās, fīat

fīāmus, fīātis, fīant

Subj. Imp.

fierem, fierēs, fieret

fierēmus, fierētis, fierent

Imper. fīte
Infin. Pres. fierī

Part. Pres. ——

789. In fīō, &c., ī represents an older ei, seen in FEIENT (inscr. 45 B.C.). The infinitive fierī for fierei owes its passive ending to analogy; the active form fiere occurs twice (Enn., Laev.). The vowel before -er- in fierem, &c., and fierī, is sometimes long in the dramatists, where a cretic (- ⏑ -) is required, but otherwise always short.

790. -fīō is used in apparent compounds (394): as, patē̆fit. In real compounds commonly -ficior: as, cōnficior; but sometimes -fīō: as, cōnfit, cōnfīunt, cōnfīat, cōnfieret, cōnfierent, cōnfī̆erī; dēfit, dēfīet, dēfīat, dēfierī; effit, effīant, ecfīerī; īnfit; interfīat, interfīerī; superfit, superfīat.

791. Some verbs in -iō, -ere (or -ior, ), have occasionally the form of verbs in -īre (or -īrī), in some parts of the present system, oftenest before an r, and particularly in the passive infinitive: as,

fodīrī, 3 times (Cato, Col. 2), circumfodīrī (Col.), ecfodīrī (Plaut.); adgredīrī (adgredīrier), 4 times (Plaut.), prōgredīrī (Plaut.); morīrī 6 times (Plaut. 4, Pomp., Ov.), ēmorīrī twice (Plaut., Ter.); orīrī, always; parīre, twice (Plaut., Enn.); usually potīrī (potīrier). Also cupīret (Lucr.); adgredīre, adgredībor, adgredīmur (Plaut.); morīmur (Enn.); orīris (Varr., Sen.), adorītur (Lucil., Lucr.), orīrētur (Cic., Nep., Sall., Liv.), adorīrētur (Liv., Suet.); parībis (Pomp.), PARIRET (inscr.); potīris (Manil.), potītur (Lucil., Ov.), &c., &c.

II. Denominative Verbs.

(1.) VERBS IN -āre.

The First Conjugation.


laudō, praise.

Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic. Perf. Part.
laudō laudāre laudāvī laudātus
Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.

laudō, I praise, or am praising

laudāmus, we praise, or are praising

laudās, thou praisest, or art praising

laudātis, you praise, or are praising

laudat, he praises, or is praising

laudant, they praise, or are praising

Imperfect Tense.

laudābam, I was praising, or I praised

laudābāmus, we were praising, or we praised

laudābās, thou wert praising, or thou praisedst

laudābātis, you were praising, or you praised

laudābat, he was praising, or he praised

laudābant, they were praising, or they praised

Future Tense.
laudābō, I shall praise laudābimus, we shall praise
laudābis, thou wilt praise laudābitis, you will praise
laudābit, he will praise laudābunt, they will praise
Perfect Tense.

laudāvī, I have praised, or I praised

laudāvimus, we have praised, or we praised

laudāvistī, thou hast praised, or thou praisedst

laudāvistis, you have praised, or you praised

laudāvit, he has praised, or he praised

laudāvērunt or -re, they have praised, or they praised

Pluperfect Tense.
laudāveram, I had praised laudāverāmus, we had praised

laudāverās, thou hadst praised

laudāverātis, you had praised
laudāverat, he had praised laudāverant, they had praised
Future Perfect Tense.

laudāverō, I shall have praised

laudāverimus, we shall have praised

laudāveris, thou wilt have praised

laudāveritis, you will have praised

laudāverit, he will have praised

laudāverint, they will have praised

Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.
laudem, may I praise laudēmus, let us praise
laudēs, mayst thou praise laudētis, may you praise
laudet, let him praise laudent, let them praise
Imperfect Tense.
laudārem, I should praise laudārēmus, we should praise
laudārēs, thou wouldst praise laudārētis, you would praise
laudāret, he would praise laudārent, they would praise
Perfect Tense.

laudāverim, I may have praised

laudāverīmus, we may have praised

laudāverīs, thou mayst have praised

laudāverītis, you may have praised

laudāverit, he may have praised

laudāverint, they may have praised

Pluperfect Tense.

laudāvissem, I should have praised

laudāvissēmus, we should have praised

laudāvissēs, thou wouldst have praised

laudāvissētis, you would have praised

laudāvisset, he would have praised

laudāvissent, they would have praised


laudā or laudātō, praise, thou shalt praise

laudāte or laudātōte, praise, you shall praise

laudātō, he shall praise laudantō, they shall praise
Pres. laudāre, to praise Pres. laudāns, praising
Perf. laudāvisse, to have praised

Fut. laudātūrus esse, to be going to praise

Fut. laudātūrus, going to praise


Gen. laudandī, of praising

Dat. laudandō, for praising

Acc. laudandum, praising

Acc. laudātum, to praise

Abl. laudandō, by praising

Abl. *laudātū, in praising, not used

VERBS IN -āre.

The First Conjugation.


laudor, am praised.

Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.
laudor, I am praised laudāmur, we are praised

laudāris or -re, thou art praised

laudāminī, you are praised
laudātur, he is praised laudantur, they are praised
Imperfect Tense.
laudābar, I was praised laudābāmur, we were praised

laudābāre or -ris, thou wert praised

laudābāminī, you were praised
laudābātur, he was praised

laudābantur, they were praised

Future Tense.
laudābor, I shall be praised

laudābimur, we shall be praised

laudābere or -ris, thou wilt be praised

laudābiminī, you will be praised

laudābitur, he will be praised

laudābuntur, they will be praised

Perfect Tense.

laudātus sum, I have been, or was praised

laudātī sumus, we have been, or were praised

laudātus es, thou hast been, or wert praised

laudātī estis, you have been, or were praised

laudātus est, he has been, or was praised

laudātī sunt, they have been, or were praised

Pluperfect Tense.

laudātus eram, I had been praised

laudātī erāmus, we had been praised

laudātus erās, thou hadst been praised

laudātī erātis, you had been praised

laudātus erat, he had been praised

laudātī erant, they had been praised

Future Perfect Tense.

laudātus erō, I shall have been praised

laudātī erimus, we shall have been praised

laudātus eris, thou wilt have been praised

laudātī eritis, you will have been praised

laudātus erit, he will have been praised

laudātī erunt, they will have been praised

Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.
lauder, may I be praised laudēmur, may we be praised

laudēre or -ris, mayst thou be praised

laudēminī, may you be praised
laudētur, let him be praised

laudentur, let them be praised

Imperfect Tense.
laudārer, I should be praised

laudārēmur, we should be praised

laudārēre or -ris, thou wouldst be praised

laudārēminī, you would be praised

laudārētur, he would be praised

laudārentur, they would be praised

Perfect Tense.

laudātus sim, I may have been praised

laudātī sīmus, we may have been praised

laudātus sīs, thou mayst have been praised

laudātī sītis, you may have been praised

laudātus sit, he may have been praised

laudātī sint, they may have been praised

Pluperfect Tense.

laudātus essem, I should have been praised

laudātī essēmus, we should have been praised

laudātus essēs, thou wouldst have been praised

laudātī essētis, you would have been praised

laudātus esset, he would have been praised

laudātī essent, they would have been praised


laudāre or laudātor, be praised, thou shalt be praised

laudāminī, be praised
laudātor, he shall be praised

laudantor, they shall be praised

Pres. laudārī, to be praised laudandus, to be praised

Perf. laudātus esse, to have been praised


Fut. *laudātum īrī, to be going to be praised,
not used (2273)

laudātus, praised

(2.) VERBS IN -ēre.

The Second Conjugation.


moneō, advise.

Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic. Perf. Part.
moneō monēre monuī monitus
Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.

moneō, I advise, or am advising

monēmus, we advise, or are advising

monēs, thou advisest, or art advising

monētis, you advise, or are advising

monet, he advises, or is advising

monent, they advise, or are advising

Imperfect Tense.

monēbam, I was advising, or I advised

monēbāmus, we were advising, or we advised

monēbās, thou wert advising, or thou advisedst

monēbātis, you were advising, or you advised

monēbat, he was advising, or he advised

monēbant, they were advising, or they advised

Future Tense.
monēbō, I shall advise monēbimus, we shall advise
monēbis, thou wilt advise monēbitis, you will advise
monēbit, he will advise monēbunt, they will advise
Perfect Tense.

monuī, I have advised, or I advised

monuimus, we have advised, or we advised

monuistī, thou hast advised, or thou advisedst

monuistis, you have advised, or you advised

monuit, he has advised, or he advised

monuērunt or -re, they have advised, or they advised

Pluperfect Tense.
monueram, I had advised monuerāmus, we had advised
monuerās, thou hadst advised monuerātis, you had advised
monuerat, he had advised monuerant, they had advised
Future Perfect Tense.
monuerō, I shall have advised

monuerimus, we shall have advised

monueris, thou wilt have advised

monueritis, you will have advised

monuerit, he will have advised

monuerint, they will have advised

Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.
moneam, may I advise moneāmus, let us advise
moneās, mayst thou advise moneātis, may you advise
moneat, let him advise moneant, let them advise
Imperfect Tense.
monērem, I should advise monērēmus, we should advise
monērēs, thou wouldst advise monērētis, you would advise
monēret, he would advise monērent, they would advise
Perfect Tense.
monuerim, I may have advised

monuerīmus, we may have advised

monuerīs, thou mayst have advised

monuerītis, you may have advised

monuerit, he may have advised

monuerint, they may have advised

Pluperfect Tense.

monuissem, I should have advised

monuissēmus, we should have advised

monuissēs, thou wouldst have advised

monuissētis, you would have advised

monuisset, he would have advised

monuissent, they would have advised


monē or monētō, advise, thou shalt advise

monēte or monētōte, advise, you shall advise

monētō, he shall advise monentō, they shall advise
Pres. monēre, to advise Pres. monēns, advising
Perf. monuisse, to have advised

Fut. monitūrus esse, to be going to advise

Fut. monitūrus, going to advise


Gen. monendī, of advising

Dat. monendō, for advising

Acc. monendum, advising

Acc. *monitum, to advise, not used

Abl. monendō, by advising

Abl. monitū, in advising

VERBS IN -ēre.

The Second Conjugation.


moneor, am advised.

Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.
moneor, I am advised monēmur, we are advised

monēris or -re, thou art advised

monēminī, you are advised
monētur, he is advised monentur, they are advised
Imperfect Tense.
monēbar, I was advised monēbāmur, we were advised

monēbāre or -ris, thou wert advised

monēbāminī, you were advised
monēbātur, he was advised monēbantur, they were advised
Future Tense.
monēbor, I shall be advised

monēbimur, we shall be advised

monēbere or -ris, thou wilt be advised

monēbiminī, you will be advised

monēbitur, he will be advised

monēbuntur, they will be advised

Perfect Tense.

monitus sum, I have been, or was advised

monitī sumus, we have been, or were advised

monitus es, thou hast been, or wert advised

monitī estis, you have been, or were advised

monitus est, he has been, or was advised

monitī sunt, they have been, or were advised

Pluperfect Tense.

monitus eram, I had been advised

monitī erāmus, we had been advised

monitus erās, thou hadst been advised

monitī erātis, you had been advised

monitus erat, he had been advised

monitī erant, they had been advised

Future Perfect Tense.

monitus erō, I shall have been advised

monitī erimus, we shall have been advised

monitus eris, thou wilt have been advised

monitī eritis, you will have been advised

monitus erit, he will have been advised

monitī erunt, they will have been advised

Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.
monear, may I be advised moneāmur, may we be advised

moneāre or -ris, mayst thou be advised

moneāminī, may you be advised
moneātur, let him be advised

moneantur, let them be advised

Imperfect Tense.
monērer, I should be advised

monērēmur, we should be advised

monērēre or -ris, thou wouldst be advised

monērēminī, you would be advised

monērētur, he would be advised

monērentur, they would be advised

Perfect Tense.

monitus sim, I may have been advised

monitī sīmus, we may have been advised

monitus sīs, thou mayst have been advised

monitī sītis, you may have been advised

monitus sit, he may have been advised

monitī sint, they may have been advised

Pluperfect Tense.

monitus essem, I should have been advised

monitī essēmus, we should have been advised

monitus essēs, thou wouldst have been advised

monitī essētis, you would have been advised

monitus esset, he would have been advised

monitī essent, they would have been advised


monēre or monētor, be advised, thou shalt be advised

monēminī, be advised
monētor, he shall be advised

monentor, they shall be advised

Pres. monērī, to be advised monendus, to be advised

Perf. monitus esse, to have been advised


Fut. *monitum īrī, to be going to be advised,
not used (2273)

monitus, advised

(3.) VERBS IN -īre.

The Fourth Conjugation.


audiō, hear.

Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic. Perf. Part.
audiō audīre audīvī audītus
Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.

audiō, I hear, or am hearing

audīmus, we hear, or are hearing

audīs, thou hearest, or art hearing

audītis, you hear, or are hearing

audit, he hears, or is hearing

audiunt, they hear, or are hearing

Imperfect Tense.

audiēbam, I was hearing, or I heard

audiēbāmus, we were hearing, or we heard

audiēbās, thou wert hearing, or thou heardst

audiēbātis, you were hearing, or you heard

audiēbat, he was hearing, or he heard

audiēbant, they were hearing, or they heard

Future Tense.
audiam, I shall hear audiēmus, we shall hear
audiēs, thou wilt hear audiētis, you will hear
audiet, he will hear audient, they will hear
Perfect Tense.

audīvī, I have heard, or I heard

audīvimus, we have heard, or we heard

audīvistī, thou hast heard, or thou heardst

audīvistis, you have heard, or you heard

audīvit, he has heard, or he heard

audīvērunt or -re, they have heard, or they heard

Pluperfect Tense.
audīveram, I had heard audīverāmus, we had heard
audīverās, thou hadst heard audīverātis, you had heard
audīverat, he had heard audīverant, they had heard
Future Perfect Tense.
audīverō, I shall have heard

audīverimus, we shall have heard

audīveris, thou wilt have heard

audīveritis, you will have heard

audīverit, he will have heard

audīverint, they will have heard

Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.
audiam, may I hear audiāmus, let us hear
audiās, mayst thou hear audiātis, may you hear
audiat, let him hear audiant, let them hear
Imperfect Tense.
audīrem, I should hear audīrēmus, we should hear
audīrēs, thou wouldst hear audīrētis, you would hear
audīret, he would hear audīrent, they would hear
Perfect Tense.
audīverim, I may have heard

audīverīmus, we may have heard

audīverīs, thou mayst have heard

audīverītis, you may have heard

audīverit, he may have heard

audīverint, they may have heard

Pluperfect Tense.

audīvissem, I should have heard

audīvissēmus, we should have heard

audīvissēs, thou wouldst have heard

audīvissētis, you would have heard

audīvisset, he would have heard

audīvissent, they would have heard


audī or audītō, hear, thou shalt hear

audīte or audītōte, hear, you shall hear

audītō, he shall hear audiuntō, they shall hear
Pres. audīre, to hear Pres. audiēns, hearing
Perf. audīvisse, to have heard

Fut. audītūrus esse, to be going to hear

Fut. audītūrus, going to hear


Gen. audiendī, of hearing

Dat. audiendō, for hearing

Acc. audiendum, hearing

Acc. audītum, to hear

Abl. audiendō, by hearing

Abl. audītū, in hearing

VERBS IN -īre.

The Fourth Conjugation.


audior, am heard.

Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.
audior, I am heard audīmur, we are heard

audīris or -re, thou art heard

audīminī, you are heard
audītur, he is heard audiuntur, they are heard
Imperfect Tense.
audiēbar, I was heard audiēbāmur, we were heard

audiēbāre or -ris, thou wert heard

audiēbāminī, you were heard
audiēbātur, he was heard audiēbantur, they were heard
Future Tense.
audiar, I shall be heard audiēmur, we shall be heard

audiēre or -ris, thou wilt be heard

audiēminī, you will be heard
audiētur, he will be heard audientur, they will be heard
Perfect Tense.

audītus sum, I have been, or was heard

audītī sumus, we have been, or were heard

audītus es, thou hast been, or wert heard

audītī estis, you have been, or were heard

audītus est, he has been, or was heard

audītī sunt, they have been, or were heard

Pluperfect Tense.

audītus eram, I had been heard

audītī erāmus, we had been heard

audītus erās, thou hadst been heard

audītī erātis, you had been heard

audītus erat, he had been heard

audītī erant, they had been heard

Future Perfect Tense.

audītus erō, I shall have been heard

audītī erimus, we shall have been heard

audītus eris, thou wilt have been heard

audītī eritis, you will have been heard

audītus erit, he will have been heard

audītī erunt, they will have been heard

Present Tense.
Singular. Plural.
audiar, may I be heard audiāmur, may we be heard

audiāre or -ris, mayst thou be heard

audiāminī, may you be heard
audiātur, let him be heard audiantur, let them be heard
Imperfect Tense.
audīrer, I should be heard audīrēmur, we should be heard

audīrēre or -ris, thou wouldst be heard

audīrēminī, you would be heard

audīrētur, he would be heard

audīrentur, they would be heard

Perfect Tense.

audītus sim, I may have been heard

audītī sīmus, we may have been heard

audītus sīs, thou mayst have been heard

audītī sītis, you may have been heard

audītus sit, he may have been heard

audītī sint, they may have been heard

Pluperfect Tense.

audītus essem, I should have been heard

audītī essēmus, we should have been heard

audītus essēs, thou wouldst have been heard

audītī essētis, you would have been heard

audītus esset, he would have been heard

audītī essent, they would have been heard


audīre or audītor, be heard, thou shalt be heard

audīminī, be heard
audītor, he shall be heard

audiuntor, they shall be heard

Pres. audīrī, to be heard audiendus, to be heard
Perf. audītus esse, to have been heard PERFECT PARTICIPLE.

Fut. audītum īrī, to be going to be heard (2273)

audītus, heard

798. Deponents, that is, verbs with passive person endings and a reflexive or an active meaning (725), have these active noun forms: participles, the future infinitive, the gerund, and the supines. The perfect participle is usually active, but sometimes passive; the gerundive always passive. The following is a synopsis of deponents:

queror, complain, querī, questus

mīror, wonder, mīrārī, mīrātus

vereor, fear, verērī, veritus

partior, share, partīrī, partītus

I. II. (1.) -ārī (2.) -ērī (3.) -īrī
Pres. queror mīror vereor partior
Imp. querēbar mīrābar verēbar partiēbar
Fut. querar mīrābor verēbor partiar
Perf. questus sum mīrātus sum veritus sum partītus sum
Plup. questus eram mīrātus eram veritus eram partītus eram
F. P. questus erō mīrātus erō veritus erō partītus erō
Pres. querar mīrer verear partiar
Imp. quererer mīrārer verērer partīrer
Perf. questus sim mīrātus sim veritus sim partītus sim
Plup. questus essem mīrātus essem veritus essem partītus essem
querere mīrāre verēre partīre
Pres. querēns mīrāns verēns partiēns
Perf. questus mīrātus veritus partītus
Fut. questūrus mīrātūrus veritūrus partītūrus
Pres. querī mīrārī verērī partīrī
Perf. questus esse mīrātus esse veritus esse partītus esse
Fut. questūrus esse mīrātūrus esse veritūrus esse partītūrus esse
Gen. querendī, &c. mīrandī, &c. verendī, &c. partiendī, &c.
querendus mīrandus verendus partiendus
Acc. questum *mīrātum *veritum *partītum
Abl. *questū mīrātū *veritū *partītū

799. Three deponents in -ior, , gradior, walk, morior, die, and patior, suffer, and their compounds, have a present system like the passive of capiō (784). But adgredior and prōgredior and morior and ēmorior have sometimes the forms of verbs in -īrī; for these, and for orior, arise, orīrī, ortus, and potior, become master of, potīrī, potītus, see 791. By far the largest number of deponents are verbs in -ārī, like mīror, mīrārī (368).

800. Some verbs waver between active and passive person endings: as, adsentiō, agree, adsentīre, and adsentior, adsentīrī; populō, ravage, populāre, and populor, populārī: see 1481.

801. A few verbs are deponent in the present system only: as, dēvortor, turn in, perfect dēvortī; revortor, turn back, perfect revortī, but with active perfect participle revorsus. Four are deponent in the perfect system only: fīdō, trust, fīdere, fīsus, and the compounds, cōnfīdō, diffīdō; and audeō, dare, audēre, ausus, gaudeō, feel glad, gaudēre, gāvīsus, and soleō, am used, solēre, solitus. Most impersonals in -ēre have both an active and a deponent form in the perfect system: see 815, 816.


802. (1.) The future active participle with a form of sum is used to denote an intended or future action: as,

rēctūrus sum, I am going to rule, intend to rule.

Singular. Plural.

rēctūrus sum, es, est

rēctūrī sumus, estis, sunt


rēctūrus eram, erās, erat

rēctūrī erāmus, erātis, erant


rēctūrus erō, eris, erit

rēctūrī erimus, eritis, erunt


rēctūrus fuī, fuistī, fuit

rēctūrī fuimus, fuistis, fuērunt


rēctūrus fueram, fuerās, fuerat

rēctūrī fuerāmus, fuerātis, fuerant


rēctūrus sim, sīs, sit

rēctūrī sīmus, sītis, sint


rēctūrus essem, essēs, esset

rēctūrī essēmus, essētis, essent


rēctūrus fuerim, fuerīs, fuerit

rēctūrī fuerīmus, fuerītis, fuerint


rēctūrus fuissem, fuissēs, fuisset

rēctūrī fuissēmus, fuissētis, fuissent

Pres. rēctūrus esse
Perf. rēctūrus fuisse

803. A future perfect is hardly ever used: as, fuerit victūrus (Sen.). In the imperfect subjunctive, forem, forēs, foret, and forent are sometimes used (Nep., Sall., Liv., Vell.).


804. (2.) The gerundive with a form of sum is used to denote action which requires to be done: as,

regendus sum, I am to be ruled, must be ruled.

Singular. Plural.

regendus sum, es, est

regendī sumus, estis, sunt


regendus eram, erās, erat

regendī erāmus, erātis, erant


regendus erō, eris, erit

regendī erimus, eritis, erunt


regendus fuī, fuistī, fuit

regendī fuimus, fuistis, fuērunt


regendus fueram, fuerās, fuerat

regendī fuerāmus, fuerātis, fuerant


regendus sim, sīs, sit

regendī sīmus, sītis, sint


regendus essem, essēs, esset

regendī essēmus, essētis, essent


regendus fuerim, fuerīs, fuerit

regendī fuerīmus, fuerītis, fuerint


regendus fuissem, fuissēs, fuisset

regendī fuissēmus, fuissētis, fuissent

Pres. regendus esse
Perf. regendus fuisse

805. (1.) Some verbs have only a few forms: as,

inquam, quoth I (760); aiō, avouch (786). See also apage, avaunt, get thee behind me, cedo, give, tell, fārī, to lift up one’s voice, havē̆ or avē̆ and salvē, all hail, ovat, triumphs, and quaesō, prithee, in the dictionary.

806. (2.) Many verbs have only the present system; such are:

807. (a.) sum, am (745); ferō, carry (780); fīō, grow, become (788).

808. (b.) Some verbs in -ere: angō, throttle, bītō, go, clangō, sound, claudō or claudeō, hobble, fatīscō, gape, glīscō, wax, glūbō, peel, hīscō, gape, temnō, scorn, vādō, go, vergō, slope. Also many inceptives (834): as, dītēscō, get rich, dulcēscō, get sweet, &c., &c.

809. (c.) Some verbs in -ēre: albeō, am white, aveō, long, calveō, am bald, cāneō, am gray, clueō, am called, hight, flāveō, am yellow, hebeō, am blunt, immineō, threaten, lacteō, suck, līveō, look dark, maereō, mourn, polleō, am strong, renīdeō, am radiant, squāleō, am scaly, ūmeō, am wet.

810. (d.) Some verbs in -īre: balbūtiō, sputter, feriō, strike, ganniō, yelp, ineptiō, am a fool, superbiō, am stuck up, tussiō, cough. Also most desideratives (375).


811. Many verbs are not attended by a perfect participle, and lack in consequence the perfect passive system, or, if deponent, the perfect active system.

812. (3.) Some verbs have only the perfect system: so particularly coepī, have begun, began (120); and with a present meaning, ōdī, have come to hate, hate; and meminī, have called to mind, remember. The following is a synopsis of these three verbs:

Active. Passive. Active. Active.
Perf. coepī coeptus sum


Plup. coeperam coeptus eram ōderam memineram
F. P. coeperō coeptus erō ōderō meminerō
Perf. coeperim coeptus sim ōderim meminerim
Plup. coepissem coeptus essem ōdissem meminissem
Perf. —— —— —— mementō, mementōte
Perf. coepisse coeptus esse ōdisse meminisse
Perf.   coeptus —— ——
Fut. coeptūrus   ōsūrus ——

813. A few forms of the present system of coepī occur in old writers: as, coepiō (Plaut.), coepiam (Caec., Cato), coepiat (Plaut.), coeperet (Ter.), and coepere (Plaut.); perfect once coēpit (Lucr.). ōsus sum or fuī (Plaut., C. Gracch., Gell.), exōsus sum (Verg., Sen., Curt., Gell.), and perōsus sum (Suet., Col., Quint.), are sometimes used as deponents. meminī is the only verb which has a perfect imperative active. ōdī and meminī have no passive.

814. coeptūrus is rather rare and late (Liv. 2, Plin., Suet.), once as future infinitive (Quint.); and ōsūrus is very rare (Cic., Gell.). exōsus and perōsus, as active participles, hating bitterly, are not uncommon in writers of the empire; the simple ōsus is not used as a participle.

815. (4.) Impersonal verbs have usually only the third person singular, and the infinitive present and perfect: as,

(a.) pluit, it rains, tonat, it thunders, and other verbs denoting the operations of nature. (b.) Also a few verbs in -ēre denoting feeling: as, miseret (or miserētur, miserēscit), it distresses, miseritum est; paenitet, it repents, paenituit; piget, it grieves, piguit or pigitum est; pudet, it shames, puduit or puditum est; taedet, it is a bore, taesum est.


816. Some other verbs, less correctly called impersonal, with an infinitive or a sentence as subject, are likewise defective: as,

lubet or libet, it suits, lubitum or libitum est, lubuit or libuit; licet, it is allowed, licuit or licitum est; oportet, it is proper, oportuit; rē fert or rēfert, it concerns, rē ferre or rēferre, rē tulit or rētulit. For the impersonal use of the third person singular passive, as pugnātur, there is fighting, pugnandum est, there must be fighting, see 724.

817. Of the impersonals in -ēre, some have other forms besides the third person singular and the infinitives: as,

paenitēns, repenting, paenitendus, to be regretted, late; pigendus, irksome; pudēns, modest, pudendus, shameful, puditūrum, going to shame; lubēns or libēns, with willing mind, gladly, very common indeed; imperative LICETO, be it allowed (inscrr. 133-111 B.C.), licēns, unrestrained, licitus, allowable; gerunds pudendum, pudendō, pigendum.


818. (1.) Some verbs have more than one form of the present stem: thus,

819. (a.) Verbs in -ere have rarely forms of verbs in -ēre in the present system: as, abnueō, nod no, abnuēbunt (Enn.), for abnuō, abnuent; congruēre, to agree (Ter.), for congruere. For verbs in -iō, -ere (or -ior, ), with forms of verbs in -īre (or -īrī), see 791. Once pīnsībant (Enn.).

820. (b.) Some verbs in -āre have occasionally a present stem like verbs in -ere: as, lavis, washest, lavit, &c., for lavās, lavat, &c.; sonit, sounds, sonunt, for sonat, sonant. Others have occasionally a present stem like verbs in -ēre: as, dēnseō, thicken, dēnsērī, for dēnsō, dēnsārī.

821. (c.) Some verbs in -ēre have occasionally a present stem like verbs in -ere: as, fervit, boils, fervont, for fervet, fervent. See also fulgeō, oleō, scateō, strīdeō, tergeō, tueor in the dictionary. cieō, set a going, sometimes has a present stem in -īre, particularly in compounds: as, cīmus, ciunt, for ciēmus, cient.

822. (d.) Some verbs in -īre have occasionally a present stem like verbs in -ere: as, ēvenunt, turn out, for ēveniunt; ēvenat, ēvenant, for ēveniat, ēveniant, and advenat, pervenat, for adveniat, perveniat (Plaut.).

823. (2.) Some verbs have more than one form of the perfect stem: as,

, go, old īī (765), common , rarely īvī (767); pluit, it rains, pluit, sometimes plūvit. See also pangō, parcō, clepō, vollō or vellō, intellegō, pōnō, nectō, and adnectō, saliō and īnsiliō, applicō, explicō and implicō, dīmicō and necō in the dictionary. Some compound verbs have a form of the perfect which is different from that of the simple verb: as, canō, make music, cecinī, concinuī, occinuī; pungō, punch, pupugī, compunxī, expunxī; legō, pick up, lēgī, dīlēxī, intellēxī, neglēxī; emō, take, buy, ēmī (adēmī, exēmī), cōmpsī, dēmpsī, prōmpsī, sūmpsī.


824. The final vowel of a tense stem is said to be variable when it is -o- in some of the forms, and -u-, -e-, or -i- in others.

825. The sign for the variable vowel is -o|e-: thus, rego|e-, which may be read ‘rego- or rege-,’ represents rego- or regu-, rege- or regi-, as seen in rego-r or regu-nt, rege-re or regi-t.

826. The variable vowel occurs in the present of verbs in -ere, except in the subjunctive, in the future in -bō or -bor, and in the future perfect, as may be seen in the paradigms. It is usually short; but in the active, o is long: as, regō, laudābō, laudāverō; and poets rarely lengthen i in the second and third person singular of the present. For the future perfect, see 882.

827. In old Latin, the stem vowel of the third person plural of the present was o: as, COSENTIONT; o was long retained after v, u, or qu (107, c): as, vīvont, ruont, sequontur; or, if o was not retained, qu became c: as, secuntur.



I. Primitives.


828. A root without addition is used as the present stem, in the present tense or parts of the present tense, in root verbs (744-781): as,

es-t, is; da-t, gives; inqui-t, quoth he; i-t, goes; nequi-t, can’t; ēs-t, eats; vol-t, will; fer-t, carries. With reduplicated root (189): bibi-t, drinks; seri-t, sows; sisti-t, sets.

(B.) VERBS IN -ere.

829. (1.) The present stem of many verbs in -ere is formed by adding a variable vowel -o|e-, which appears in the first person singular active as , to a root ending in a consonant or in two consonants: as,

Present Stem. Verb. From Theme.
rego|e- regō, guide reg-
verto|e- vertō, turn vert-

Other examples are: tegō, cover, petō, make for; mergō, dip, serpō, creep; pendō, weigh; dīcō, say, fīdō, trust, scrībō, write, with long ī for ei (98); dūcō, lead, with long ū for eu, ou (100); lūdō, play, with long ū for oi, oe (99); laedō, hit, claudō, shut; rādō, scrape, cēdō, move along, fīgō, fix, rōdō, gnaw, glūbō, peel. *furō, rave; agō, drive, alō, nurture. gignō, beget, (gen-, gn-), has reduplication, and sīdō, settle, light (sed-, sd-), is also the result of an ancient reduplication (189).

830. In some present stems an original consonant has been modified: as, gerō, carry (ges-), ūrō, burn (154); trahō, draw (tragh-), vehō, cart (152); or has disappeared: as, fluō, flow (flūgu-).

831. Some roots in a mute have a nasal before the mute in the present stem: as, frangō, break (frag-). Other examples are: iungō, join, linquō, leave, pangō, fix, pingō, paint; findō, cleave, fundō, pour; -cumbō, lie, lambō, lick, rumpō, break (164, 3). The nasal sometimes runs over into the perfect or perfect participle, or both.

832. (2.) The present stem of many verbs in -ere is formed by adding a suffix ending in a variable vowel -o|e-, which appears in the first person singular active as , to a root: thus, -nō, -scō, -tō, -iō: as,

Present Stem. Verb. From Theme.
lino|e- linō, besmear li-
crēsco|e- crēscō, grow crē-
pecto|e- pectō, comb pec-
capio|e- capiō, take cap-

833. (a.) -nō is added to roots in a vowel, or in a continuous sound, -m-, -r-, or -l-.

So regularly linō, besmear, sinō, let; temnō, scorn, cernō, sift, spernō, spurn, only. The third persons plural danunt (Naev., Plaut.) for dant, prōdīnunt, redīnunt (Enn.) for prōdeunt, redeunt hardly belong here; their formation is obscure. In a few verbs, -n is assimilated (166, 6): as, tollō, lift. Sometimes the doubled l runs into the perfect (855): as, vellī, fefellī. minuō, lessen, and sternuō, sneeze, have a longer suffix -nuo|e-.

834. (b.) -scō, usually meaning ‘begin to,’ forms presents called Inceptives or Inchoatives.

-scō is attached: first, to roots: as, nāscor, am born, nōscō, learn, pāscō, feed, scīscō, resolve; consonant roots have ī, less commonly ē, before the suffix: as, tremīscō or tremēscō, fall a-trembling, nancīscor, get (831); but discō, learn (170, 1), and poscō, demand (17010), are shortened; see 168. Secondly, to a form of the present stem of denominative verbs, especially of those in -ēre: as, clārēscō, brighten; the stem is often assumed only, as in inveterāscō, grow old, mātūrēscō, get ripe. Many inceptives are used only in composition: as, extimēscō, get scared, obdormīscō, drop asleep.

835. (c.) -tō occurs in the following presents from guttural roots: flectō, turn, nectō, string, pectō, comb, plector, am struck, amplector, hug, complector, clasp. From a lingual root vid-, comes vīsō, go to see, call on (153). From vowel roots: bētō or bītō, go, and metō, mow.


836. (d.) -iō is usually added to consonant roots with a short vowel; the following have presents formed by this suffix:

capiō, take, cupiō, want, faciō, make, fodiō, dig, fugiō, run away, iaciō, throw, pariō, bring forth, quatiō, shake, rapiō, seize, sapiō, have sense, and their compounds; the compounds of *laciō, lure, and speciō or spiciō, spy, and the deponents gradior, step, morior, die, and patior, suffer, and their compounds. For occasional forms like those of verbs in -īre (or -īrī), see 791. For aiō, see 786; for fīō, 788.

837. A few present stems are formed by adding a variable vowel -o|e-, for an older -io|e-, to a vowel root: as,

ruō, tumble down, rui-s, rui-t, rui-mus, rui-tis, ruu-nt (114). Vowel roots in -ā-, -ē-, or -ī- have a present stem like that of denominatives: as, stō, stand, stā-s, sta-t, stā-mus, stā-tis, sta-nt; fleō, weep, flē-s, fle-t, flē-mus, flē-tis, fle-nt; neō, spin, has once neu-nt for ne-nt (Tib.); sciō, know, scī-s, sci-t, scī-mus, scī-tis, sciu-nt.

838. Most present stems formed by adding the suffix -iō to a root ending in -l-, -r-, or -n-, and all formed by adding -iō to a long syllable, have the form of denominatives in -īre in the present system: as, saliō, leap, salīre, aperiō, open, aperīre, veniō, come, venīre; farciō, cram, farcīre.

II. Denominatives.

839. The present stem of denominatives is formed by attaching a variable vowel -o|e-, for an older -io|e-, to a theme consisting of a noun stem: as,

Uncontracted Present Stem. Verb. From Theme.
cēnao|e- cēnō, dine cēnā-
flōreo|e- flōreō, blossom flōre-
vestio|e- vestiō, dress vesti-
acuo|e- acuō, point acu-

The noun stem ending is often slightly modified in forming the theme: thus, laud- becomes laudā- in laudō for *laudā-ō, and flōr- becomes flōre- in flōre-ō.

840. In many of the forms, the final vowel of the theme is contracted with the variable vowel: as,

plantō, plantās (118, 3) for *plantāi̭ō, *plantāi̭es (153, 2); monēs for *monēi̭es (118, 1), audīs for *audīi̭es (118, 3). The long ā, ē, or ī, is regularly shortened in some of the forms: as, scit, arat, habet, for Plautine scīt, arāt, habēt. In a few forms no contraction occurs: as, moneō, audiō, audiu-nt, audie-ntis, &c., audie-ndus, &c. (114). Denominatives from stems in -u-, as acuō, are not contracted, and so have the forms of verbs in -ere (367).


841. The suffix of the present subjunctive of sum, am, is -ī-, which becomes -i- before -m, -t, and -nt: si-m, sī-s, si-t, sī-mus, sī-tis, si-nt (35, 2, 3). So also in the singular and in the third person plural, dui-m, &c. (756), and edi-m, &c. (769), and in all the persons, veli-m, &c. (nōli-m, &c., māli-m, &c.). An old suffix is -iē- (-ie-), in sie-m, siē-s, sie-t, and sie-nt.


842. (1.) The present subjunctive stem of verbs in -ere, -ēre, and -īre, ends in -ā-, which becomes -a- in some of the persons; this suffix replaces the variable vowel of the indicative: as,

rega-m, regā-s, rega-t, regā-mus, regā-tis, rega-nt; capia-m, capiā-s, &c.; monea-m, moneā-s, &c.; audia-m, audiā-s, &c. ea-m, quea-m, fera-m, and the old fua-m (750), also have the formative subjunctive vowel.

843. (2.) The present subjunctive stem of verbs in -āre ends in -ē-, which becomes -e- in some of the persons: as,

laude-m, laudē-s, laude-t, laudē-mus, laudē-tis, laude-nt. , give, also has de-m, dē-s, &c.


844. Root verbs have a root as imperative stem (745-780): as, es, &c., fer, &c. But the imperative of nōlō has a stem in -ī-, like verbs in -īre: thus, nōlī, nōlī-tō, nōlī-te, nōlī-tōte.

845. The imperative stem of verbs in -ere, and of verbs in -āre, -ēre, and -īre, is the same as that of the indicative: as,

rege, regi-tō, regu-ntō, rege-re; cape, capi-tō, capiu-ntō; ; laudā, &c.; monē, &c.; audī, &c.

846. The second person singular imperative active of dīcō, dūcō, and faciō, is usually dīc, dūc, and fac, respectively, though the full forms, dīce, &c., are also used, and are commoner in old Latin. Compounds of dūcō may have the short form: as, ēdūc. ingerō has once inger (Catull.). sciō has regularly the singular scī-tō, plural scī-tōte, rarely scī-te.


847. The imperfect indicative stem ends in -bā-, which becomes -ba- in some of the persons: as,

daba-m, dabā-s, daba-t, dabā-mus, dabā-tis, daba-nt; ība-m; quība-m. In verbs in -ere and -ēre, the suffix is preceded by a form ending in -ē-: as, regēba-m; monēba-m; so also volēba-m (nōlēba-m, mālēba-m), and ferēba-m; in verbs in -iō, -ere, and in -iō, -īre, by a form ending in -iē-: as, capiēba-m; audiēba-m; in verbs in -āre, by one ending in -ā-: as, laudāba-m. In verse, verbs in -īre sometimes have -ī- before the suffix (Plaut., Ter., Catull., Lucr., Verg., &c.): as, audība-t. āiō, say, has sometimes a͡iba-m, &c. (787).

848. The suffix of the imperfect indicative of sum, am, is -ā-, which becomes -a- before -m, -t, and -nt (35, 2, 3)the s becomes r between the vowels (154): era-m, erā-s, era-t, erā-mus, erā-tis, era-nt.


849. The imperfect subjunctive stem ends in -rē-, which becomes -re- in some of the persons: as,


dare-m, darē-s, dare-t, darē-mus, darē-tis, dare-nt; īre-m, fore-m, ferre-m. In verbs in -ere, the -rē- is preceded by a form ending in -e-: as, regere-m, capere-m; in verbs in -āre, -ēre, and -īre, by one ending in -ā-, -ē-, or -ī-, respectively: as, laudāre-m, monēre-m, audīre-m.

850. The suffix of the imperfect subjunctive of sum, am, is -sē-, which becomes -se- in some of the persons; esse-m, essē-s, esse-t, essē-mus, essē-tis, esse-nt; so also ēssē-s, &c. (769). volō, wish, nōlō, won’t, and mālō, prefer, have velle-m, nōlle-m, and mālle-m respectively (166, 8). 


851. The future stem of sum, am, is ero|e-: erō, eri-s, eri-t, eri-mus, eri-tis, eru-nt. has dabō, has ībō, and queō has quībō.

852. (1.) The future stem of verbs in -ere and -īre ends in -a- in the first person singular, otherwise in -ē-, which becomes -e- in some of the persons: as,

rega-m, regē-s, rege-t, regē-mus, regē-tis, rege-nt; capia-m, capiē-s, &c.; audia-m, audiē-s, &c. The first person singular is not a future form, but the subjunctive present, used with a future meaning (842); forms in -em occur in manuscripts of Plautus: as, faciem, sinem. Verbs in -īre sometimes have -bo|e-, chiefly in the dramatists: as, scībō, opperībo-r (Plaut., Ter.), lēnību-nt (Prop.); rarely verbs in -ere (819): as, exsūgēbō (Plaut.). For reddibō, instead of the usual reddam, see 757.

853. (2.) The future stem of verbs in -āre and -ēre ends in -bo|e-, which is preceded by a form ending in long -ā- or -ē- respectively: as,

laudābō, laudābi-s, laudābi-t, laudābi-mus, laudābi-tis, laudābu-nt. monēbō, monēbi-s, &c.



854. There are two kinds of perfect stems: (A.) Some verbs have as perfect stem a root, generally with some modification, but without a suffix (858-866). (B.) Some perfects are formed with a suffix, -s-, or -v- or -u- (867-875).

855. Some perfects of primitives are formed not from a root, but from the present stem without the formative vowel, treated as a root: as, prehendī, seized, from prehend- (866); poposcī, asked, fefellī, deceived (858); iūnxī, joined (867).

856. The first person of the perfect ends in , sometimes written ei (29, 2). -t, -stī, sometimes written -stei (29, 2), -stis, and -mus are preceded by short i; -re is always, and -runt is usually, preceded by long ē: as,

rēxī, rēxi-stī, rēxi-t, rēxi-mus, rēxi-stis, rēxē-runt (rēxe-runt), or rēxē-re.


857. Sometimes -t is preceded by long ī: as, iīt, petiīt, REDIEIT (29, 2). -runt is sometimes preceded by short e (Plaut., Ter., Lucr., Hor., Ov., Verg., Phaedr.). This is the original form; -ē- is by analogy to -ēre.


858. (1.) Some verbs in -ere form their perfect stem by prefixing to the root its initial consonant with the following vowel, which, if a, is usually represented by e; this is called the Reduplicated Perfect, and the first syllable is called the Reduplication: as,

Perfect Stem. Verb. From Theme.
pu-pug- pungō, punch pug-
pe-pig- pangō, fix pag-

Other examples are: cadō, fall, cecidī (cad-, 104, c); pariō, bring forth, peperī (par-, 104, c); pellō, push, pepulī (pol-, 105, h); poscō, demand, poposcī (855); fallō, deceive, fefellī (855, 104, c); see also 923-932. caedō, cut, has cecīdī (108, a); and a few old forms are quoted from verbs having an o or an u in the root with e in the reduplication: as, memordī, pepugī.

859. Four verbs with vowel roots also have a reduplicated perfect stem: , give, put, dare, dedī; bibō, drink, bibere, bibī; stō, stand, stāre, stetī, and sistō, set, sistere, -stitī, rarely stitī. Also four verbs in -ēre: mordeō, bite, momordī, pendeō, hang, pependī, spondeō, promise, spopondī, tondeō, clip, -totondī. In the root syllable of spopondī, promised, stetī, stood, stitī, set, and the old scicidī, clove, an s is dropped (173, 2).

860. In compounds the reduplication is commonly dropped: as,

cecidī, fell, compound concidī, tumbled down. Compounds of cucurrī, ran, sometimes retain the reduplication: as, prōcucurrī. Compounds of bibī, drank, didicī, learned, poposcī, asked, stitī, set, stetī, stood, and dedī, gave, put, retain it, the last two weakening e to i: as, restitī, staid back. abscondidī, hid away, usually becomes abscondī; in apparent compounds, e is usually retained: as, circum stetī, stood round, vēnum dedī, put for sale. The reduplication is also lost in the simple verbs tulī, carried, old tetulī, and in scindō, split, scidī, which last is rare as a simple verb.

861. Some compounds with re- drop only the vowel of the reduplication (111, a): as, reccidī, fell back; rettulī, brought back (see also 781); repperī, found; rettudī, beat back. Some perfects occur only in composition: as, percellō, knock down, perculī; cōntundō, smash to pieces, contudī; diffindō, split apart, diffidī; but fidī also occurs a couple of times as a simple verb.

862. (2.) Some verbs in -ere have a perfect stem consisting of a consonant root with a long vowel (135, 1): as,

Perfect Stem. Verb. From Theme.
ēd- edō, eat ed-
lēg- legō, pick up, read leg-

Other examples are: fodiō, dig, fōdī; fundō, pour, fūdī; linquō, leave, līquī; see 936-946. Three verbs in -ēre also have this form, sedeō, sit, sēdī, strīdeō, grate, strīdī, videō, see, vīdī; and one in -īre, veniō, come, vēnī.


863. The following verbs in -ere with a in the present stem, have long ē in the perfect stem (145):

agō, do, ēgī, frangō, break, frēgī, pangō, fix, rarely pēgī, but always compēgī, impēgī, oppēgī; capiō, take, cēpī, faciō, make, fēcī, iaciō, throw, iēcī. So also the old co-ēpī, began, common coepī.

864. Two verbs in -āre and some in -ēre have a perfect stem consisting of a root which ends in -v- and has a long vowel: iuvō, help, iuvāre, iūvī, lavō, wash, lavāre or lavere, lāvī; caveō, look out, cavēre, cāvī; see 996.

865. Verbs in -uō, -uere, both primitives and denominatives, have usually a perfect stem in short u of the theme (124): as, luō, pay, luī; acuō, sharpen, acuī: see 947, 948. Forms with long ū are old and rare (126): as, fūī, adnūī, cōnstitūī, īnstitūī. fluō, flow, and struō, pile, have flūxī and strūxi (830).

866. (3.) Some verbs in -ere from roots ending in two consonants have a perfect stem consisting of the root: as,

Perfect Stem. Verb. From Theme.
mand- mandō, chew mand-
pand- pandō, open pand-

Other examples are: vortō or vertō, turn, vortī or vertī; scandō, climb, -scendī; prehendō, seize, prehendī (855); vollō or vellō, pluck, vollī or vellī; see 949-951. Similarly ferveō, boil, fervere or fervēre, has fervī or ferbuī (823), and prandeō, lunch, prandēre, has prandī.

(B.) PERFECT STEM IN -s-, OR IN -v- OR -u-.


867. Many verbs in -ere form their perfect stem by adding the suffix -s- to a root, which generally ends in a mute: as,

Perfect Stem. Verb. From Theme.
carp-s- carpō, pluck carp-
scalp-s- scalpō, dig scalp-
ges-s- gerō, bear ges-
dīx- dīcō, say dīc-

Other examples are: dūcō, lead, dūxī (100); fingō, mould, fīnxī (855); lūdō, play, lūsī (166, 2); scrībō, write, scrīpsī (164, 1); struō, pile, strūxī (164, 1); vīvō, live, vīxī (98). Some verbs with a short vowel in the present, have a long vowel in the perfect: as, regō, guide, rēxī (135); intellegō, understand, intellēxī (823); tegō, cover, tēxī; iungō, join, iūnxī (855). And some verbs with a long vowel in the present, have a short vowel in the perfect: as, ūrō, burn, ussī (830). See 952-961.

868. Some verbs in -ēre also have a perfect in -s-: as algeō, am cold, alsī (170, 3); haereō, stick, haesī (166, 2): see 999, 1000. Also some in -īre: as, sarciō, patch, sarsī (170, 3): see 1014, 1015.



869. (1.) Some verbs in -ere, with vowel roots, and almost all verbs in -āre or -īre, form their perfect stem by adding the suffix -v- to a theme ending in a long vowel: as,

Perfect Stem. Verb. From Theme.
crē-v- crēscō, grow crē-
laudā-v- laudō, praise laudā-
audī-v- audiō, hear audī-

For other verbs in -ere with a perfect stem in -v-, and particularly terō, cernō, spernō, and sternō, see 962-970.

870. A few verbs in -ere have a perfect stem in -v- attached to a presumed theme in long ī: as, cupiō, want, cupīvī; petō, aim at, petīvī; quaerō, inquire, quaesīvī; arcēssō, fetch, arcēssīvī; see 966-970.

871. A few verbs in -ēre also have a perfect stem in -v-: as, fleō, weep, flēre, flēvī; see 1001-1003. And three verbs in -ēscere have a perfect stem in -v- attached to a presumed theme in long ē: -olēscō, grow, -olēvī; quiēscō, get quiet, quiēvī; suēscō, get used, suēvī.

872. One verb in -āscere has a perfect stem in -v- attached to a presumed theme in long ā: advesperāscit, it gets dusk, advesperāvit.

873. (2.) Many verbs in -ere form their perfect stem by adding the suffix -u- to a consonant root: as,

Perfect Stem. Verb. From Theme.
al-u- alō, nurture al-
gen-u- gignō, beget gen-

Other examples are: colō, cultivate, coluī; cōnsulō, consult, cōnsuluī; -cumbō, lie, -cubuī; fremō, roar, fremuī; ēliciō, draw out, ēlicuī; molō, grind, moluī; rapiō, snatch, rapuī; serō, string, -seruī; stertō, snore, -stertuī; strepō, make a racket, strepuī; texō, weave, texuī; volō, will, voluī; compescō, check, compescuī (855); see 971-976.

874. Some verbs in -āre also have a perfect stem in -u-: as, crepō, rattle, crepāre, crepuī (993); and many in -ēre: as, moneō, warn, monēre, monuī: see 1004-1006; also four in -īre: as, saliō, leap, salīre, saluī (1019).

875. The perfect potuī to the present possum (751) is from a lost present *poteō, *potēre (922). pōnere (for *po-sinere, 112; 170, 2) forms an old perfect posīvī (964), later posuī, as if pos- were the stem.


876. The perfect subjunctive stem ends in -erī-, for which -eri- is sometimes used (35, 2, 3): as,

rēxeri-m, rēxerī-s, rēxeri-t, rēxerī-mus, rēxerī-tis, rēxeri-nt.


877. In the perfect subjunctive, long ī is found before the person endings -s, -mus, and -tis, some 25 times, as follows: -īs, 18 times (Plaut. 3, Pac., Enn., Ter., Hor., Tib., Sen., inscr., once each, Ov. 8), -īmus, 4 times (Plaut. 3, Ter. 1), -ītis, 3 times (Plaut. 2, Enn. 1).

878. In the perfect subjunctive, short i is found, as in the future perfect, some 9 times, thus: -is, 8 times (Plaut. in anapests 3, Verg. 2, Hor. 3), -imus once (Verg.). But before -tis, short i is not found.


879. One verb only, meminī, remember, has a perfect imperative; in this imperative, the person endings are not preceded by a vowel, thus: memen-tō, memen-tōte.


880. The pluperfect indicative stem ends in -erā-, which becomes -era- in some of the persons: as,

rēxera-m, rēxerā-s, rēxera-t, rēxerā-mus, rēxerā-tis, rēxera-nt.


881. The pluperfect subjunctive stem ends in -issē-, which becomes -isse- in some of the persons: as,

rēxisse-m, rēxissē-s, rēxisse-t, rēxissē-mus, rēxissē-tis, rēxisse-nt.


882. The future perfect stem ends in -erō- and -eri-: as,

rēxerō, rēxeri-s, rēxeri-t, rēxeri-mus, rēxeri-tis, rēxeri-nt.

883. In the future perfect, short i is found before the person endings -s, -mus, and -tis, some 40 times, as follows: -is, 29 times (Plaut. 2, Cic. 1, Catull. 1, Verg. 7, Hor. 12, Ov. 4, Germ. 1, Juv. 1); -imus, 3 times (Plaut., Ter., Lucr.); -itis, 8 times (Enn. 1, Plaut. 5, Ov. 2).

884. In the future perfect, long ī is found, as in the perfect subjunctive, some 33 times, thus: -īs, 28 times (Plaut. 3, Hor. 5, Ov. 15, Prop., Stat., Mart., Priap., inscr., once each), -īmus, once (Catull.), -ītis, 4 times (Ov. 3, Priap. 1).


885. (1.) Some shorter forms in the perfect system are principally found in old Latin.

886. (a.) Shorter forms in the perfect indicative, the pluperfect subjunctive, and the infinitive, most of them from perfects in -s- (867), occur chiefly in verse: thus,

Perfect indicative, second person singular, common: as, dīxtī (Plaut., Ter., Cic.); plural, rare: as, accestis (Verg.). Pluperfect subjunctive singular, not very common: as, exstīnxem (Verg.), intellēxēs (Plaut.), vīxet (Verg.); plural, once only, ērēpsēmus (Hor.). Infinitive, dīxe (Plaut.), cōnsūmpse (Lucr.).


887. (b.) A perfect subjunctive stem in -sī- or in -ssī-, and a future perfect indicative stem in -so|e- or in -sso|e-, occur chiefly in old laws and prayers, and in dramatic verse: as,

Perfect subjunctive: faxim, faxīs, FAXSEIS (inscr. 145 B.C.), faxit, faxīmus, faxītis, faxint; ausim, ausīs, ausit; locāssim, amāssīs, servāssit, amāssint, prohibēssīs, prohibēssit, cohibēssit, licēssit.

Future perfect indicative: faxō, faxis, faxit, faxitis, capsō, recepsō, iussō, occīsit, capsimus; levāssō, invītāssitis, mulcāssitis, exoculāssitis, prohibēssis, prohibēssint. Denominatives in -āre have also, in old Latin, a future perfect infinitive: as, impetrāssere.

888. Passive inflections, as future perfect faxitur, turbāssitur, deponent MERCASSITVR (inscr. 111 B.C.), are very rare; and, indeed, with the exception of faxō and ausim, even the active forms had become antiquated by 150 B.C. Denominatives in -īre never have the above formations. But ambiō, canvass, is thought to have a future perfect ambīssit twice (Plaut. prol.).

889. (2.) Shortened forms from perfect stems formed by the suffix -v- (869) are very common in all periods.

890. (a.) In tenses formed from perfect stems in -āv-, -ēv-, and -ōv-, v is often dropped before -is-, -ēr-, or -er-, and the vowels thus brought together are contracted (153, 1): as,

laudāvistī, laudāstī; laudāvistis, laudāstis; laudāvērunt, laudārunt (but the form in -re, as laudāvēre, is never contracted); laudāverim, laudārim, &c.; laudāveram, laudāram, &c.; laudāvissem, laudāssem, &c.; laudāverō, laudārō, &c.; laudāvisse, laudāsse.

-plēvistī, -plēstī; -plēvistis, -plēstis; -plēvērunt, -plērunt; plēverim, -plērim, &c.; -plēveram, -plēram, &c.; -plēvissem, -plēssem, &c.; -plēverō, -plērō, &c.; -plēvisse, -plēsse.

nōvistī, nōstī; nōvistis, nōstis; nōvērunt, nōrunt; nōverim, nōrim, &c.; nōveram, nōram, &c.; nōvissem, nōssem, &c.; nōverō always retains the v, but cōgnōrō, &c.; nōvisse, nōsse.

891. The verbs in which v belongs to the root (864), are not thus shortened, except moveō, mostly in compounds. From iuvō, iuerint (Catull.), adiuerō (Enn.), once each, and twice adiuerit (Plaut., Ter.) are unnecessary emendations.

892. Contractions in the perfect before -t and -mus are rare: as, inrītāt, disturbāt; suēmus or su͡emus (Lucr.), nōmus (Enn.), cōnsu͡emus (Prop.).

893. (b.) In tenses formed from perfect stems in -īv-, v is often dropped before -is-, -ēr-, or -er-; but contraction is common only in the forms which have -is-: as,

audīvistī, audīstī; audīvistis, audīstis; audīvērunt, audiērunt; audīverim, audierim, &c.; audīveram, audieram, &c.; audīvissem, audīssem, &c.; audīverō, audierō, &c.; audīvisse, audīsse. Sometimes audiī, audiit, audīt. Intermediate between the long and the short forms are audīerās and audīerit, once each (Ter.). In the perfect subjunctive, sinō has sīverīs (Plaut., Cato), sīrīs (Plaut., Cato, Liv.), sīreis (Pac.), or seirīs (Plaut.), sīrit (Plaut., Liv.), sīrītis (Plaut.), sīverint (Plaut., Curt.), sierint (Cic., Curt.), or sīrint (Plaut.). dēsinō is thought to have dēsīmus in the perfect indicative a couple of times (Sen., Plin. Ep.).



894. The active infinitive has the ending -re in the present, and -isse in the perfect: as,

dare; regere, capere; laudāre, monēre, audīre. rēxisse; laudāvisse or laudāsse, monuisse, audīvisse or audīsse.

895. For -rē in old Latin, see 134, 2. The infinitive of fīō, become, ends in -rī, fī̆erī, with a passive ending (789); twice fīere (Enn. Laev.). An older form for -re is -se, found in esse, to be, ēsse, to eat, and their compounds. For velle, to wish (mālle, nōlle), see 166, 8. In the perfect, , go, sometimes has -iisse in compounds (766), and in poetry, petō, go to, has rarely petiisse.

896. The present infinitive passive of verbs in -ere has the ending ; that of other verbs has -rī: as,

regī, capī; laudārī, monērī, audīrī. ferō, carry, has ferrī. The length of the ī is sometimes indicated by the spelling ei (29, 2): as, DAREI.

897. A longer form in -ier for , and -rier for -rī, is common in old laws and dramatic verse, and occurs sometimes in other poetry: as, FIGIER, to be posted, GNOSCIER, to be read (inscr. 186 B.C.); dīcier, to be said, cūrārier, to be looked after (Plaut.); dominārier, to be lord paramount (Verg.).

898. The place of the perfect passive, future active, and future passive infinitive is supplied by a circumlocution, as seen in the paradigms. For the future perfect -āssere, see 887.


899. The gerundive stem is formed by adding -ndo-, nominative -ndus, -nda, -ndum, to the present stem: as,

dandus, stem dando-; regendus, capiendus; laudandus, monendus, audiendus. Verbs in -ere and -īre often have -undus, when not preceded by u or v, especially in formal style: as, capiundus; , go, always has eundum, and orior, rise, oriundus. For the adjective use, see 288. The gerund is like the oblique cases of the neuter singular. For -bundus, see 289; -cundus, 290.


900. The supine stem is formed by the suffix -tu-, which is often changed to -su- (912).

This suffix is attached to a root or to a form of the present stem after the manner of the perfect participle (906): as, nūntiātum, to report, nūntiātū, in reporting, stem nūntiātu-. Many of the commonest verbs have no supine: as, sum, , ferō; regō, emō, tegō; amō, dēleō, doceō, &c., &c.


901. The present participle stem is formed by adding -nt- or -nti-, nominative -ns, to the present stem: as,

dāns, giving, stems dant-, danti-; regēns, capiēns; laudāns, monēns, audiēns.


902. The adjective sontem (accusative, no nominative), which was originally the participle of sum, has o before the suffix, and absēns and praesēns have e; the participle of has ē in the nominative singular, otherwise u, iēns, euntis, &c. n rarely drops before -s (63): as, LIBES (inscr.), exsultās (Enn.), animās (Lucr.).

903. Some adjectives which were originally present participles have no verb: as, clēmēns, merciful, ēlegāns, choice, ēvidēns, clear, frequēns, thick, petulāns, wanton, recēns, fresh, repēns, sudden, &c., &c. For potēns, powerful, see 922.


904. The future participle suffix is -tūro-, nominative -tūrus, -tūra, -tūrum, which is often changed to -sūro-, nominative -sūrus, -sūra, -sūrum (912).

This suffix is added to a theme after the manner of the perfect participle (906): as, rēctūrus, going to guide; laudātūrus, going to praise.

905. Some future participles have a different formation from that of the perfect participle: as, mortuus, dead, moritūrus; see also in the dictionary arguō, fruor, orior, ruō, secō. And some verbs have two forms of the future participle: as, āgnōscō, īgnōscō, hauriō, iuvō, pariō. Some verbs which have no perfect participle have a future participle: as, acquiēscō, appāreō, ardeō, caleō, careō, doleō, ēsuriō, fugiō, haereō, incidō, iaceō, -nuō, parcō, rauciō, recidō, sonō, stō, valeō.


906. The perfect participle suffix is -to-, nominative -tus, -ta, -tum, which is often changed to -so-, nominative -sus, -sa, -sum (912).

907. The perfect participle was originally active as well as passive, and some participles have retained the active meaning: as,

adultus, grown up; ēmersus, rising out from; exōsus, perōsus, hating bitterly; placitus, engaging; iūrātus, sworn, coniūrātus, conspiring; prānsus, having lunched, cēnātus, having dined, pōtus, drunk, &c. The perfect participles of deponents are usually active, but sometimes passive: as, meditātus, having studied, or studied. Many verbs are not accompanied by a perfect participle (811), particularly verbs in -ēre, with a parallel adjective in -idus (287). Intransitive verbs have usually only the neuter. A perfect active participle meminēns is said to have been used twice (Plaut., Laev.).

908. The perfect participle is formed in one of two separate ways:

909. (1.) From a theme consisting of a root; in this way the participles of most verbs in -ere and -ēre are formed: as,

gestus, carried, aptus, fit, solūtus, loosed (142), iūnctus, joined (831), sparsus, sprinkled (170, 3); doctus, taught.

910. In some consonant root participles of verbs in -ere, -āre, or -ēre, which have the suffix -u- in the perfect stem (873), the -to- is preceded by a short i: as, genitus, born (971-976); domitus, tamed (993); monitus, warned (1003, 1004, 1009). In old Latin, e occurs: as, MERETA (41); e is retained in vegetus, sprightly. One participle has -tuo-: mortuus, dead.


911. Some verbs in -āre have participles from consonant roots: as, frictus, rubbed, fricō, fricāre; see 993. Also some in -īre: as, fartus, stuffed (170, 3), farciō, farcīre; fultus, propped, fulciō, fulcīre; see 1011-1015, and 1017, 1019, 1020.

912. Roots in -d- and -t- change -to- to -so-, before which the dentals change to s (159). After long vowels, nasals, and liquids the double ss is simplified to s: as, fossus, dug, but dīvīsus, divided; vorsus or versus, turned. The suffix -so- is also found with some roots in -l-, -m-, or -r- and a few others: as, pulsus (159).

913. (2.) From a theme in long ā or in long ī; in this way participles are regularly formed from denominatives in -āre or -īre respectively: as,

laudātus, praised; audītus, heard.

914. A few perfect participles of verbs in -ere are formed from a presumed theme in long ī, or long ē, or from one in long ū: as, petītus, aimed at; exolētus, grown out; see 967-970; tribūtus, assigned; see 947, 948.

915. (1.) Many perfect participles formed from consonant roots have a short root vowel (135, 1): as,

adspectus, beheld; captus, taken; coctus, cooked; commentus, devising; cultus, tilled; dictus, said, verb dīcō; ductus, led, dūcō; factus, made; fossus, dug; gestus, carried; inlectus, allured; questus, complaining; raptus, seized; tersus, neat; textus, woven; vorsus, turned.

916. (2.) Some perfect participles formed from consonant roots have a long root vowel, sometimes even when the vowel of the parallel present stem is short (135, 1; 122, f): as,

fīxus, fastened, verb fīgō; -flīctus, dashed, -flīgō; pāstus, fed, pāscō; pollūctus, offered up, pollūceō; scrīptus, written, scrībō; -cāsus, fallen, cadō. Also āctus, driven, agō; vīsus, seen, videō; frūctus, enjoying, fruor; lēctus, culled, legō; pīctus, painted, pingō; rēctus, ruled, regō; ēsus, eaten, edō; strūctus, piled, struō; tēctus, covered, tegō; ūnctus, anointed, unguō; frāctus, broken, frangō; pāctus, fixed, pangō. Furthermore, iūnctus, joined, iungō; sānctus, hallowed, sanciō (831); also, fūnctus, having performed, fungor.

917. (1.) Most perfect participles formed from vowel roots have a long root vowel: as,

lātus, borne (169, 1); nātus, born; -plētus, filled; trītus, worn; nōtus, known; sūtus, sewed. So also an isolated rūtus, in the law phrase rūta caesa, or rūta et caesa, diggings and cuttings, i.e. minerals and timber.

918. (2.) Ten perfect participles formed from vowel roots have a short root vowel; they are:

citus, datus, hurried, given

itum, ratus, gone, thinking

-rutus, satus, fallen, planted

situs, status, lying, set

litus, quitus, besmeared, been able

919. As citus, so always percitus and incitus (once incītus, doubtful); usually concitus, rarely concītus; excitus and excītus equally common; always accītus. ambītus always has long ī (763). āgnitus, recognized, cōgnitus, known, and the adjectives inclutus or inclitus, of high renown, and putus, clean, have a short root vowel. For dēfrūtum, dēfrutum, see 134, 1.


920. I. The principal parts of root verbs and of verbs in -ere are formed in a variety of ways and are best learned separately for every verb (922-986).

921. II. The principal parts of verbs in -āre, -ēre, and -īre, are usually formed as follows:

laudō, praise laudāre laudāvī laudātus
moneō, advise monēre monuī monitus
audiō, hear audīre audīvī audītus

For other formations, see 989-1022.

I. Primitive Verbs.


922. Root verbs have their principal parts as follows:

sum, am esse —— ——
——, become, get, am fore fuī ——

For fuam, &c., forem, &c., fore, see 750. fuī, &c., serves as the perfect system of sum.

pos-sum, can pos-se —— ——
——, can —— potuī ——

potuī, &c., serves as the perfect system of possum. Of the present system of potuī, only potēns, powerful, is used, and only as an adjective.

, give, put dare dedī datus

For compounds, see 757.

bibō, drink bibere bibī pōtus

So the compounds, with the reduplication preserved in the perfect system (860).

serō, sow serere sēvī satus

Compounds have i for a in the perfect participle: as, cōn-situs.

sistō, set sistere -stitī, rarely stitī status
inquam, quoth I —— inquiī once ——
, go īre , very rarely īvī itum, -itus
queō, can quīre quīvī quitus
ne-queō, can’t ne-quīre ne-quīvī ne-quitus
edō, eat ēsse ēdī ēsus
volō, will, wish, want velle voluī ——
nōlō, won’t nōlle nōluī ——
mālō, like better mālle māluī ——
ferō, carry ferre (tulī) (lātus)

For tulī, old tetulī, and lātus, see 780; for the perfect of re-ferō, 861.


(B.) VERBS IN -ere.


923. (1 a.) The following verbs in -ere have a reduplicated perfect stem (858), and the perfect participle, when used, in -tus:

924. (a.) With the present stem in -o|e- (829).

canō, make music canere cecinī (cantātus)

For con-cinō, oc-cinō, and prae-cinō, see 971 and 823.

tendō, stretch tendere tetendī tentus

For tennitur (Ter.), dis-tennite (Plaut.), see 166, 4; late participle tēnsus. Compounds have -tendī (860) and -tentus. But sometimes ex-tēnsus, and in late writers, dē-tēnsus, dis-tēnsus, os-tēnsus, and re-tēnsus.

925. (b.) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by -o|e- (831).

pangō, fix pangere pepigī, agreed pāctus

In meaning, the perfect pepigī corresponds to pacīscor; pānxit, made, set in verse (Enn.), pānxerit, set (Col.), pēgit (Pac.), pēgerit (Cic.), fixed, once each. For com-pingō and im-pingō, see 938.

pungō, punch pungere pupugī pūnctus

For com-pungō and ex-pungō, see 954 and 823.

tangō, touch tangere tetigī tāctus

In old Latin: tagō (Turp.), tagit, tagam (Pac.). Compounds have i for a in the present system: as, con-tingō, con-tingere, con-tigī (860), con-tāctus; in old Latin: at-tigās (Plaut., Ter., Acc., Pac.), at-tigat (Pac.), at-tigātis (Plaut., Pac.).

926. (c.) With the present stem in -lo|e- (833).

tollō, take off tollere (sus-tulī) (sub-lātus)

As the perfect and perfect participle of tollō are appropriated by ferō, tollō takes those of sus-tollō. The original perfect is tetulī (860).

927. (d.) With the present stem in -sco|e- (834).

discō, learn discere didicī ——
poscō, demand poscere poposcī ——

For poposcī, see 855. For -didicī and -poposcī, see 860.

928. (e.) With the present stem in -io|e- (836).

pariō, bring forth parere peperī partus

For forms in -īre, see 791. com-periō, 1012; re-periō, 1011.

929. (1 b.) The following verbs in -ere have a reduplicated perfect stem (858), and the perfect participle, when used, is -sus (912).

930. (a.) With the present stem in -o|e- (829). 

cadō, fall cadere cecidī -cāsus

Compounds have i for a in the present system: as, oc-cidō, oc-cidere, oc-cidī (860), oc-cāsus. Rarely e in the present and perfect systems (Enn., Lucr., Varr.): as, ac-cedere, ac-cedisset (109). For the perfect of re-cidō, see 861.

caedō, fell, cut caedere cecīdī caesus

Compounds have ī for ae: as, ac-cīdō, ac-cīdere, ac-cīdī (860), ac-cīsus.

parcō, spare parcere pepercī ——

pepercī, &c. (regularly in Cic., Caes., Hor., Ov., Mart.; Nep. once; also Plaut. twice, Ter. once). Old parsī, &c. (Plaut. 8, Cato, Ter., Nov., Nep., once each); once parcuit (Naev.). Compounds: com-perce (Plaut.), con-parsit (Ter.), in-perce, im-percitō, re-percis (Plaut.), re-parcent (Lucr.).

pendō, weigh, pay pendere pependī pēnsus

931. (b.) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by -o|e- (831).

tundō, pound tundere tutudī not used tūnsus

For the perfect of re-tundō, see 861; other compounds have the perfect -tudī (861), but once con-tūdit (Enn.). Perfect participle, tūsus (Plin., Mart.); compounds: con-tūnsus (Plin.), con-tūsus (Cato, Varr., Caes., Lucr., Sal., Verg., &c.); ob-tūnsus (Plaut., Verg., Liv., Sen.), op-tūsus, ob-tūsus (Lucr., Sen., Quintil., Tac.); per-tūssus (Plaut.), per-tūsus (Cato, Lucr., Liv., Sen., &c.); re-tūnsus (Plaut., Verg.), re-tūsus (Cic., Lucr., Hor.); sub-tūsus (Tib.).

932. (c.) With the present stem in -ro|e-, or -lo|e- (833).

currō, run currere cucurrī cursum

For perfect of compounds, see 860.

fallō, cheat fallere fefellī falsus

Compound re-fellō, re-fellere, re-fellī (860), ——.

pellō, push pellere pepulī pulsus

For the perfect of re-pellō, see 861. Other compounds have -pulī (860).

933. (1 c.) The following verbs in -ere are without the reduplication (861):

934. (a.) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by -o|e- (831).

findō, split apart findere -fidī, rarely fidī fissus
scindō, rend scindere -scidī, rarely scidī scissus

935. (b.) With the present stem in -lo|e- (833).

per-cellō, knock down per-cellere per-culī per-culsus

936. (2 a.) The following verbs in -ere have a perfect stem consisting of a consonant root with a long vowel (862), and the perfect participle, when used, in -tus:

937. (a.) With the present stem in -o|e- (829).

agō, drive agere ēgī āctus

Real compounds have i for a in the present system: as, ab-igō, ab-igere, ab-ēgī, ab-āctus; but per-agō retains a. cōgō and dēgō are contracted: cōgō, cōgere, co-ēgī, co-āctus; dēgō, dēgere, ——, ——.

emō, take, buy emere ēmī emptus

co-emō retains e in the present system, and usually inter-emō and per-emō; other compounds have -imō. For cōmō, dēmō, prōmō, and sūmō, see 952.

——, strike —— īcī ictus

Forms of the present system are īcit (Plaut., Lucr.), īcitur (Plin.), īcimur (Lucr.).

legō, pick up, read legere lēgī lēctus

Compounds with ad, inter, nec-, per, prae, and re-, have -legō in the present system, others -ligō. For dī-ligō, intel-legō, neg-legō, see 952.


938. (b.) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by -o|e- (831).

com-pingō, fix together com-pingere com-pēgī com-pāctus

A compound of pangō (925, 823).

frangō, smash frangere frēgī frāctus

Compounds have i for a in the present system: as, cōn-fringō, cōn-fringere, cōn-frēgī, cōn-frāctus.

im-pingō, drive in im-pingere im-pēgī im-pāctus

A compound of pangō (925, 823). So also op-pēgī.

linquō, leave linquere līquī -lictus
rumpō, burst rumpere rūpī ruptus

So the compounds. But Plautus has con-rumptus and dir-rumptus.

vincō, conquer vincere vīcī victus

939. (c.) With the present stem in -sco|e- (834).

pavēscō, get afraid pavēscere ex-pāvī ——

940. (d.) With the present stem in -io|e- (836).

capiō, take capere cēpī captus

Compounds have i for a in the present system and e in the perfect participle: as, in-cipiō, in-cipere, in-cēpī, in-ceptus. In the present system, e is rare: as, re-cepit (Lucr.); u is frequent in old Latin.

coepiō, begin rare coepere once coepī coeptus

See 812-814.

faciō, make facere fēcī factus

For fac, see 846; for passive, 788. Compounds have i for a in the present system and e in the perfect participle: as, ef-ficiō, ef-ficere, ef-fēcī, ef-fectus.

fugiō, run away fugere fūgī ——
iaciō, throw iacere iēcī iactus

Compounds have -iciō (104, c), -icere, -iēcī, -iectus: as, ē-iciō, ē-icere, ē-iēcī, ē-iectus. In old Latin the present system has rarely -ieciō; -iecere. dis-siciō is sometimes used (Lucr., Verg.) for dis-iciō.

941. (2 b.) The following verbs in -ere have a perfect stem consisting of a consonant root with a long vowel (862), and the perfect participle, when used, in -sus (912).

942. (a.) With the present stem in -o|e- (829).

cūdō, hammer cūdere -cūdī -cūsus

943. (b.) With reduplication and -o|e- in the present stem (829).

sīdō, settle sīdere sīdī, -sīdī, -sēdī -sessus

944. (c.) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by -o|e- (831).

fundō, pour fundere fūdī fūsus

945. (d.) With the present stem in -so|e- for -to|e- (835).

vīsō, go to see vīsere vīsī ——

946. (e.) With the present stem in -io|e- (836).

fodiō, dig fodere fōdī fossus

For forms in -īre, see 791.


947. (2 c.) The following verbs in -ere (367) with the present stem in -o|e- (837, 840), have the perfect stem in -u- or in -v- of the theme (865), and the perfect participle, when used, in -tus:

acuō, sharpen acuere acuī acūtus adjective
arguō, make clear arguere arguī argūtus rare
con-gruō, agree con-gruere con-gruī ——
ex-uō, doff ex-uere ex-uī ex-ūtus
im-buō, give a smack of im-buere im-buī im-būtus
ind-uō, don ind-uere ind-uī ind-ūtus
in-gruō, impend in-gruere in-gruī ——
luō, pay, atone for luere luī -lūtus, washed
metuō, fear metuere metuī metūtus once
-nuō, nod -nuere -nuī ——
pluit, it rains pluere pluit, plūvit ——
ruō, tumble down ruere ruī -rutus
so-lvō, loose so-lvere so-lvī so-lūtus
spuō, spit spuere -spuī ——
statuō, set statuere statuī statūtus

Compounds have i for a throughout: as, cōn-stituō, cōn-stituere, &c.

volvō, roll volvere volvī volūtus
suō, sew suere -suī sūtus
tribuō, assign tribuere tribuī tribūtus

948. Two verbs in -ere with the present stem in -nuo|e- (833), have the perfect stem in -nu- (865), and the perfect participle, when used, in -tus:

minuō, lessen minuere minuī minūtus
sternuō, sneeze sternuere sternuī ——

949. (3.) The following verbs in -ere have a perfect stem consisting of a root ending in two consonants (866), and the perfect participle in -sus (912):

950. (a.) With the present stem in -o|e- (829); most have a nasal (831).

-cendō, light -cendere -cendī -cēnsus
-fendō, hit -fendere -fendī -fēnsus
mandō, chew mandere mandī once mānsus
pandō, open pandere pandī passus, pānsus

For dis-pennite (Plaut.), see 166, 4. dis-pandō, dis-pendō, has perfect participle dis-pessus (Plaut., Lucr.), dis-pānsus (Lucr., Plin., Suet.).

pre-hendō, seize pre-hendere pre-hendī pre-hēnsus

Rarely prae-hendō; but very often prēndō, prēndere, prēndī, prēnsus.

scandō, climb scandere -scendī -scēnsus

Compounds have e for a throughout: as, dē-scendō, dē-scendere, &c.

vorrō, verrō, sweep vorrere, verrere -vorrī, -verrī vorsus, versus
vortō, vertō, turn vortere, vertere vortī, vertī vorsus, versus

951. (b.) With the present stem in -lo|e- (833).

vollō, vellō, tear vollere, vellere vollī, vellī volsus, vulsus

Late perfect vulsī (Sen., Luc.); -vulsī (Laber., Col., Sen., Luc.).


(B.) PERFECT STEM IN -s-, OR IN -v- OR -u-.


952. (1 a.) The following verbs in -ere have the perfect stem in -s- (867), and the perfect participle, when used, in -tus:

953. (a.) With the present stem in -o|e- (829).

carpō, nibble, pluck carpere carpsī carptus

Compounds have e for a: as, dē-cerpō, dē-cerpere, dē-cerpsī, dē-cerptus.

com-būrō, burn up com-būrere com-bussī com-būstus
cōmō, put up cōmere cōmpsī cōmptus

Compound of com- and emō (937, 823). See also dēmō, prōmō, sūmō.

coquō, cook coquere coxī coctus
dēmō, take away dēmere dēmpsī dēmptus
dīcō, say dīcere dīxī dictus

For dīc, see 846.

dī-ligō, esteem dī-ligere dī-lēxī dī-lēctus

Compound of dis- and legō (937, 823). See also intel-legō and neg-legō.

dūcō lead dūcere dūxī ductus

For dūc, ē-dūc, see 846.

-flīgō, smash -flīgere -flīxī -flīctus

Of the simple verb, flīgit occurs (L. Andr.), flīgēbant (Lucr.), and flīgī (L. Andr., Acc.).

gerō, carry gerere gessī gestus
intel-legō, understand intel-legere intel-lēxī intel-lēctus
neg-legō, disregard neg-legere neg-lēxī neg-lēctus

In the perfect system very rarely intel-lēgī and neg-lēgī (862, 823).

nūbō, veil, marry (a man) nūbere nūpsī nūpta
prōmō, take out prōmere prōmpsī prōmptus
regō, guide, rule regere rēxī rēctus

In the present system, con-rigō and ē-rigō; commonly por-rigō, sometimes porgō; rarely sur-rigō, commonly surgō; always pergō.

rēpō, creep rēpere rēpsi ——
scalpō, dig scalpere scalpsī scalptus
scrībō, write scrībere scrīpsī scrīptus
sculpō, carve sculpere sculpsī sculptus
struō, build up struere strūxī strūctus
sūgō, suck sūgere sūxī suctus
sūmō, take up sūmere sūmpsī sūmptus
tegō, cover tegere tēxī tēctus
trahō, drag trahere trāxī tractus
ūrō, burn ūrere ussī ustus
vehō, cart vehere vēxī vectus
vīvō, live vīvere vīxī ——

954. (b.) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by -o|e- (831).

cingō, gird cingere cīnxī cīnctus
com-pungō, prick over com-pungere com-pūnxī com-pūnctus

A compound of pungō (925, 823).

ē-mungō, clean out ē-mungere ē-mūnxī ē-mūnctus
ex-pungō, prick out ex-pungere ex-pūnxī ex-pūnctus

A compound of pungō (925, 823).

fingō, mould fingere fīnxī fīctus
iungō, join iungere iūnxī iūnctus
pingō, paint pingere pīnxī pīctus
plangō, beat plangere plānxī plānctus
stinguō, poke, poke out stinguere -stīnxī -stīnctus
stringō, peel, graze stringere strīnxī strīctus
tingō, wet tingere tīnxī tīnctus
unguō, anoint unguere ūnxī ūnctus

Sometimes ungō, ungere, &c., in the present system.

955. (c.) With the present stem in -no|e- (833).

temnō, scorn temnere (con-tempsī) (con-temptus)

956. (d.) With the present stem in -io|e- (836).

ad-liciō, lure ad-licere ad-lexī ——
in-liciō, inveigle in-licere in-lexī in-lectus
pel-liciō, lead astray pel-licere pel-lexī pel-lectus
-spiciō, spy -spicere -spēxī -spectus

Forms of the simple verb are old and rare: as, specitur, spicit, spece (Plaut.), specimus (Varr.), spiciunt (Cato), spēxit (Naev., Enn.).

957. (1 b.) The following verbs in -ere have the perfect stem in -s- (867), and the perfect participle, when used, in -sus (912):

958. (a.) With the present stem in -o|e- (829).

cēdō, move along cēdere cessī cessus
claudō, shut claudere clausī clausus

Sometimes clūdō, clūdere, clūsī, clūsus. Compounds have ū for au throughout.

dī-vidō, separate dī-videre dī-vīsī dī-vīsus
fīgō, pin fīgere fīxī fīxus, twice fīctus
fluō, flow fluere flūxī fluxus adjective
laedō, hurt laedere laesī laesus

Compounds have ī for ae throughout: as, in-līdō, in-līdere, &c.

lūdō, play lūdere lūsī lūsus
mittō, send mittere mīsī missus
mergō, dip, duck mergere mersī mersus
plaudō, clap plaudere plausī plausus

Also ap-plaudō, ap-plaudere, &c. Other compounds have usually ō for au throughout: as, ex-plōdō, &c.; but ex-plaudō (Lucr.).

premō, squeeze premere pressī pressus

Compounds have i for e in the present system: as, com-primō, &c.

rādō, scrape rādere rāsī rāsus
rōdō, gnaw rōdere rōsī rōsus
spargō, scatter spargere sparsī sparsus

Compounds usually have e for a throughout: as, cōn-spergō, &c.

trūdō, shove trūdere trūsī trūsus
vādō, go vādere -vāsī -vāsus

959. (b.) With the present stem in -sco|e- (834).

algēscō, get cold algēscere alsī ——
ardēscō, flame out ardēscere arsī (ex-arsī) ——
lūcēscō, grow light lūcēscere -lūxī ——

Sometimes in the present system lūcīscō, lūcīscere, &c.

frīgēscō, grow cold frīgēscere -frīxī ——
vīvēscō, get alive vīvēscere (re-vīxī) ——

In composition, also re-vīvīscō, re-vīvīscere.

960. (c.) With the present stem in -to|e- (835).

flectō, turn flectere flexī flexus
nectō, bind together nectere nexī, nexuī nexus

Perfect system rare: nexit (Lucil., Acc.); nexuit, ad-nexuerant (Sall.).

pectō, comb pectere pexī once pexus

961. (d.) With the present stem in -io|e- (836).

quatiō, shake quatere -cussī quassus

Compounds drop the a (111, a): as, in-cutiō, in-cutere, in-cussī, in-cussus.


962. (2 a.) The following verbs in -ere have the perfect stem in -v-, preceded by a long vowel of the root (869), and the perfect participle, when used, in -tus:

963. (a.) With the present stem in -o|e- (829).

terō, rub terere trīvī trītus

Perfect infinitive once in pentameter verse (823) at-teruisse (Tib.).

964. (b.) With the present stem in -no|e- (833).

cernō, sift, separate, see cernere crēvī, decided certus, -crētus
linō, besmear linere lēvī, rarely līvī litus

In the present system some forms in -īre are used by late writers.

sinō, leave, let sinere sīvī situs

Perfect system forms of sinō and dē-sinō in -v- are: sīvī (Plaut., Ter., Cic.); dē-sīvit (Sen.), sīvistis (Cic.), once each; sīverīs (Plaut., Cato), dē-sīverit (Cato, Gell.), sīverint (Plaut., Curt.), sīvisset (Cic., Liv.). Much oftener without -v-: as, dē-siī (Sen.), sīstī (Plaut., Cic.); dē-sīstī often, siit once (Ter.), dē-siit (Varr., Sen., &c.), dē-sīt (Mart., &c.), dē-siimus (Lent.), dē-sīmus (893), sīstis; dē-siērunt (Cic., Liv.); dē-sierat, dē-sierit (Cic.); dē-sīssem, &c., sīsset, sīssent, dē-sīsse. For sīrīs, &c., see 893; for pōnō, 972.

spernō, spurn spernere sprēvī sprētus
sternō, strew sternere strāvī strātus

965. (c.) With the present stem in -sco|e- (834).

crēscō, grow crēscere crēvī crētus
nōscō, get to know nōscere nōvī nōtus adjective

Compounds: ī-gnōscō, ī-gnōvī, ī-gnōtum; ā-gnōscō, ā-gnōvī, ā-gnitus; cō-gnōscō, cō-gnōvī, cō-gnitus; dī-nōscō, dī-nōvī, rarely dī-gnōscō, dī-gnōvī, ——; inter-nōscō, inter-nōvī, ——. Old passive infinitive GNOSCIER (inscr. 186 B.C.).

pāscō, feed pāscere pāvī pāstus
scīscō, enact scīscere scīvī scītus

966. (2 b.) The following verbs in -ere have the perfect stem in -v-, preceded by the long vowel of a presumed denominative stem (870), and the perfect participle, when used, in -tus:

967. (a.) With the present stem in -o|e- (829).

petō, aim at petere petīvī petītus

In the perfect, sometimes petiī (Cic., Ov., Liv., Val. Fl., Plin. Ep.), PETIEI (inscr.), petī late (Sen., Stat.); petiit (Cic., Hor., Tac., Suet.), petīt (Verg., Ov., Phaedr., Sen., Luc., Suet.), petiisse (Verg., Hor., Ov., Val. Fl., Stat.).

quaerō, inquire quaerere quaesīvī quaesītus

Compounds sometimes retain ae in old Latin, but usually have ī for ae throughout: as, con-quīrō, con-quīrere, &c.

968. (b.) With the present stem in -sco|e- (834).

ab-olēscō, vanish away ab-olēscere ab-olēvī ——
ad-olēscō, grow up ad-olēscere ad-olēvī ad-ultus
con-cupīscō, hanker for con-cupīscere con-cupīvī con-cupītus
-dormīscō, fall asleep -dormīscere -dormīvī ——
ex-olēscō, grow out ex-olēscere ex-olēvī ex-olētus
in-veterāscō, get set in-veterāscere in-veterāvī ——
obs-olēscō, get worn out obs-olēscere obs-olēvī obs-olētus adj.
quiēscō, get still quiēscere quiēvī quiētus adjective
re-sipīscō, come to re-sipīscere re-sipīvī ——
suēscō, get used suēscere suēvī suētus
vesperāscit, gets dusk vesperāscere vesperāvit ——

969. (c.) With the present stem in -io|e- (836).

cupiō, want cupere cupīvī cupītus

Once with a form in -īre (791), cupīret (Lucr.).

sapiō, have a smack sapere sapīvī ——

Compounds have i for a: as, re-sipiō, &c.

970. (d.) With the present stem in -sso|e- (375).

ar-cēssō, send for ar-cēssere ar-cēssīvī ar-cēssītus

Sometimes ac-cersō, &c.; infinitive rarely ar-cēssīrī or ac-cersīrī.

capēssō, undertake capēssere capēssīvī ——
facēssō, do, make off facēssere facēssīvī facēssītus

Perfect system rare: facēssierīs or facēsserīs (Cic.), facēssīsset (Tac.).

in-cēssō, attack in-cēssere in-cēssīvī ——
lacēssō, provoke lacēssere lacēssīvī lacēssītus


971. (3.) The following verbs in -ere have the perfect stem in -u- (873), and the perfect participle, when used, in -tus; in some participles -tus is preceded by a short i, thus, -itus (910):

972. (a.) With the present stem in -o|e- (829).

alō, bring up alere aluī altus, rarely alitus
colō, till, stay round, court colere coluī cultus
con-cinō, chime with con-cinere con-cinuī ——

A compound of canō (924, 823). See also oc-cinō and prae-cinō.

cōn-sulō, consult cōn-sulere cōn-suluī cōn-sultus
depsō, knead depsere depsuī depstus
fremō, growl fremere fremuī ——
gemō, groan gemere gemuī ——
molō, grind molere moluī molitus
oc-cinō, sing ominously oc-cinere oc-cinuī ——

Once with reduplication, oc-cecinerit (Liv.).

oc-culō, hide oc-culere oc-culuī oc-cultus
pīsō, pīnsō, bray pīsere, pīnsere pīnsuī, pīsīvī pistus

Once (818, 847) pīnsībant (Enn.). Perfect once pīnsuī (Pomp.), once (823, 893) pīsiērunt (Varr.). Perfect participle often pīnsītus (Col.), once pīnsus (Vitr.).

pōnō, place pōnere po-suī po-situs

A compound of po- and sinō (964). Perfect in old Latin po-sīvī (893); po-suī is first used by Ennius (875). Perfect participle in verse sometimes, po-stus, -po-stus; inf. inposīsse (Plaut.).

prae-cinō, play before prae-cinere prae-cinuī ——
serō, string serere -seruī sertus
stertō, snore stertere (dē-stertuī) ——
strepō, make a racket strepere strepuī ——
texō, weave texere texuī textus
tremō, quake tremere tremuī ——
vomō, throw up vomere vomuī ——

973. (b.) With reduplication and -o|e- in the present stem (829).

gignō, beget gignere genuī genitus

Present sometimes also without reduplication, genit, &c. (Varr., Lucr.).

974. (c.) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by -o|e- (831).

ac-cumbō, lie by ac-cumbere ac-cubuī ac-cubitus

So also in-cumbō; dis-cumbō has dis-cubuī, dis-cubitum. Compounds with , ob, prō, re-, and sub, have -cubuī, ——.

975. (d.) With the present stem in -io|e- (836).

ē-liciō, coax out ē-licere ē-licuī ē-licitus
rapiō, seize rapere rapuī raptus

Compounds have i for a in the present and perfect systems, and e in the perfect participle: as, ē-ripiō, ē-ripere, ē-ripuī, ē-reptus. Old Latin has u in dē-rupier and in sub-rupiō, sub-rupere, sub-rupuī, sub-ruptus; shortened forms are: surpuit, surpuerit (Plaut.), surpit (Plaut. prol.), surpere (Lucr.), surpite, surpuerat (Hor.). For sub-repsit (Plaut.), see 887.


976. (e.) With the present stem in -sco|e- (835); for com-pēscuī, see 855.

acēscō, get sour acēscere -acuī ——
alēscō, grow up alēscere (co-aluī) (co-alitus)
ārēscō, dry up ārēscere -āruī ——
calēscō, get warm calēscere -caluī ——
candēscō, get white candēscere -canduī ——
cānēscō, get grey cānēscere cānuī ——
clārēscō, get bright clārēscere clāruī ——
com-pescō, check com-pescere com-pescuī ——
con-ticēscō, get all still con-ticēscere con-ticuī ——

Also in the present system, con-ticīscō, con-ticīscere, &c.

crēbrēscō, get common crēbrēscere -crēbruī ——
crūdēscō, wax bad crūdēscere (re-crūduī) ——
-dolēscō, get pained -dolēscere -doluī ——
dūrēscō, get hard dūrēscere dūruī ——
ē-vīlēscō, get cheap ē-vīlēscere ē-vīluī ——
fervēscō, boil up fervēscere -ferbuī, -fervī ——
flōrēscō, blossom out flōrēscere -flōruī ——
horrēscō, bristle up horrēscere -horruī ——
languēscō, get weak languēscere languī ——
latēscō, hide away latēscere -lituī ——
liquēscō, melt liquēscere (dē-licuī) ——
madēscō, get moist madēscere maduī ——
marcēscō, pine away marcēscere (ē-marcuī) ——
mātūrēscō, ripen mātūrēscere mātūruī ——
nigrēscō, get black nigrēscere nigruī ——
nōtēscō, get known nōtēscere nōtuī ——
ob-mūtēscō, get still ob-mūtēscere ob-mūtuī ——
ob-surdēscō, get deaf ob-surdēscere ob-surduī ——
oc-callēscō, get hard oc-callēscere oc-calluī ——
pallēscō, grow pale pallēscere palluī ——
pūtēscō, get soaked pūtēscere pūtuī ——
rigēscō, stiffen up rigēscere riguī ——
rubēscō, redden rubēscere rubuī ——
sānēscō, get well sānēscere -sānuī ——
senēscō, grow old senēscere -senuī ——
stupēscō, get dazed stupēscere (ob-stupuī) ——

Also op-stipēscō or ob-stipēscō, op-stipuī or ob-stipuī.

tābēscō, waste away tābēscere tābuī ——
tepēscō, get lukewarm tepēscere tepuī ——
-timēscō, get scared -timēscere -timuī ——
torpēscō, get numb torpēscere torpuī ——
tremēscō, quake tremēscere (con-tremuī) ——

Also in the present system, con-tremīscō, con-tremīscere, &c.

tumēscō, swell up tumēscere -tumuī ——
valēscō, get strong valēscere -valuī ——
vānēscō, wane vānēscere (ē-vānuī) ——


977. (1.) The following deponents in have the perfect participle in -tus, except morior, which has -tuus:

978. (a.) With the present stem in -o|e- (829).

fruor, enjoy fruī frūctus
loquor, speak loquī locūtus
queror, complain querī questus
sequor, follow sequī secūtus

979. (b.) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by -o|e- (831).

fungor, get quit fungī fūnctus

980. (c.) With the present stem in -sco|e- (834).

apīscor, lay hold of apīscī aptus

Compounds have i and e for a: as, ad-ipīscor, ad-ipīscī, ad-eptus.

com-minīscor, devise com-minīscī com-mentus
ex-pergīscor, stretch myself, wake ex-pergīscī ex-per-rēctus

Perfect participle rarely ex-pergitus (Lucil., Lucr.).

nancīscor, get nancīscī nactus, nānctus
nāscor, am born nāscī nātus
ob-līvīscor, forget ob-līvīscī ob-lītus
pacīscor, bargain pacīscī pactus

Compounds: dē-pecīscor, dē-pecīscī, dē-pectus; com-pectus.

pro-ficīscor, start on pro-ficīscī pro-fectus
ulcīscor, avenge ulcīscī ultus

981. (d.) With the present stem in -io|e- (836).

morior, die morī mortuus
orior, rise orīrī ortus
potior, master potīrī potītus

For forms in -īrī of these three verbs, see 791. For potīrī, twice potī (Enn., Pac.).

982. (2.) The following deponents in have the perfect participle in -sus (912):

983. (a.) With the present stem in -o|e- (829).

lābor, tumble down lābī lapsus
nītor, rest on nītī nīsus, nīxus
ūtor, use ūtī ūsus

984. (b.) With the present stem in -sco|e- (834).

dē-fetīscor, get tired out dē-fetīscī dē-fessus

985. (c.) With the present stem in -to|e- (835).

am-plector, hug round am-plectī am-plexus
com-plector, hug up com-plectī com-plexus

986. (d.) With the present stem in -io|e- (836).

gradior, step gradī gressus
patior, suffer patī passus

Compounds of these two verbs have e for a: as, ad-gredior, per-petior, per-pessus; for forms of -gredior in -īrī, see 791.

II. Denominative Verbs.

987. Most verbs in -āre, -ēre, and -īre (or in -ārī, -ērī, and -īrī), are denominatives.

988. Some primitives from vowel roots have the form of denominatives in the present system, or throughout; and some verbs with a denominative present system have the perfect and perfect participle formed directly from a root.

(1.) VERBS IN -āre.


989. (1.) The following verb in -āre has a reduplicated perfect stem (859):

stō, stand stāre stetī ——

For -stitī, see 860. The compound prae-stō has rarely the perfect participle prae-stātus (Brut., Plin.), and prae-stitus (Liv.).

990. (2.) The following verbs in -āre have a perfect stem consisting of a root which ends in -v- and has a long vowel (864), and the perfect participle in -tus:

iuvō, help iuvāre iūvī iūtus once

In the perfect system, iuverint, adiuverō, and adiuverit occur once each in Catull., Enn., Plaut., and Ter.; see 891. Perfect participle usual only in the compound ad-iūtus.

lavō, bathe lavāre lāvī lautus

Forms in -ere are very common in the present tense (820): lavis (Plaut., Hor.), lavit (Plaut., Lucr., Catull., Verg., Hor.), lavimus (Hor.), lavitur (Val. Fl.), lavitō (Cato), lavere often, lavī (Pomp.). Perfect participle often lōtus in writers of the empire; supine, lautum, lavātum.

(B.) PERFECT STEM IN -v- OR -u-.


991. (1 a.) Two verbs in -āre have the perfect stem in -v- (869), and the perfect participle, when used, in -tus, both preceded by a long -ā- of the root:

flō, blow flāre flāvī flātus
, swim nāre nāvī ——

992. (1 b.) Most verbs in -āre have the perfect stem in -v- (869), and the perfect participle in -tus, both preceded by a form of the present stem in long -ā-: as,

laudō, praise laudāre laudāvī laudātus
līberō, free līberāre līberāvī līberātus
nōminō, name nōmināre nōmināvī nōminātus
spērō, hope spērāre spērāvī spērātus


993. (2.) The following verbs in -āre have the perfect stem in -u (874), and the perfect participle, when used, in -tus; in some participles, -tus is preceded by a short i, thus, -itus (910):

crepō, rattle crepāre crepuī (in-crepitus)

Forms of the perfect system in -v- (823) are: in-crepāvit (Plaut.), dis-crepāvit (Varr.), in-crepārit (Suet.).

cubō, lie cubāre cubuī ——

Forms of the perfect system in -v- (823) are: ex-cubāverant (Caes.), cubāris (Prop.), in-cubāvēre (Plin.), cubāsse (Quintil.). Compound perfect participle in-cubitus (Plin.).

domō, tame domāre domuī domitus
ē-necō, murder ē-necāre ē-necuī ē-nectus

The simple verb has necāvī, necātus; twice necuit (Enn., Phaedr.). ē-necō sometimes has i for e in the present and perfect system; once (823) ē-nicāvit, and once (887) ē-nicāssō (Plaut.); perfect participle also ē-necātus (Plin.).

fricō, rub down fricāre fricuī frictus

Perfect participle also fricātus (Vitr.), cōn-fricātus (Varr., Plin.), dē-fricātus (Catull., Col., Plin.), īn-fricātus (Col., Plin.), per-fricātus (Vitr., Plin.).

micō, quiver micāre micuī ——

So the compounds; except dī-micō, dī-micāvī, dī-micātum; twice in pentameter verse (823) dī-micuisse (Ov.).

-plicō, fold -plicāre -plicuī -plicitus

A few forms of the present system of the simple verb occur. In the perfect and perfect participle usually -plicāvī, -plicātus; but sometimes ap-plicuī (Cic. once, Tib., Ov., Liv., Sen., &c.); com-plicuī (Sen.), ex-plicuī (Verg., Hor., Liv., Sen., &c.), im-plicuī (Verg., Tib., Ov., Sen., &c.); ap-plicitus (Col., Quintil., Plin. Ep.), ex-plicitus (Caes., Sen., Plin. Ep.), im-plicitus (Plaut., Cic., Liv.); once re-plictus (Stat.).

secō, cut secāre secuī sectus

The compound with ex sometimes has i for e; once (823) exicāveris (Cato).

sonō, sound sonāre sonuī ——

Also (820) sonit, sonunt (Enn., Acc.), sonere (Acc., Lucr.); re-sonunt (Enn.). Perfect (823) re-sonārint (Hor.), re-sonāvit (Man.), sonātūrus (Hor.).

tonō, thunder tonāre tonuī (at-tonitus)

Once (820) tonimus (Varr.). Perfect participle once in-tonātus (Hor.).

vetō, forbid vetāre vetuī vetitus

In old Latin, votō, &c. (143). Perfect once (823) vetāvit (Pers.).


994. There are many deponents in -ārī, with the perfect participle in -ātus: as,

hortor, exhort hortārī hortātus

For the primitive fārī, speak, and compounds, see the dictionary.


(2.) VERBS IN -ēre.


995. (1.) The following verbs in -ēre have a reduplicated perfect stem (859), and the perfect participle, when used, in -sus (912):

mordeō, bite mordēre momordī morsus

The compound prae-mordeō has once (823) prae-morsisset (Plaut.).

pendeō, am hung pendēre pependī ——

The compound prō-pendeō has the perfect participle prō-pēnsus.

spondeō, covenant spondēre spopondī spōnsus

For dē-spondī and re-spondī, see 860; rarely dē-spopondī (Plaut.).

tondeō, shear tondēre -totondī, -tondī tōnsus

For dē-tondunt (Varr.), see 821. Perfect only in the compounds at-tondī and dē-tondī (860); once dē-totonderat (Varr.), and perhaps dē-totondit (Enn.).

996. (2 a.) The following verbs in -ēre have a perfect stem consisting of a root which ends in -v- and has a long vowel (864), and the perfect participle, when used, in -tus:

caveō, look out cavēre cāvī cautus
faveō, am friendly favēre fāvī ——
foveō, warm, cherish fovēre fōvī fōtus
moveō, move movēre mōvī mōtus

For short forms in the perfect system, particularly in compounds, see 891.

voveō, vow vovēre vōvī vōtus

997. (2 b.) Three verbs in -ēre have a perfect stem consisting of a consonant root with a long vowel (864), and the perfect participle in -sus (912):

sedeō, sit sedēre sēdī -sessus

Real compounds have i for e in the present system: as, ob-sideō, &c. Compounds with dis-, prae, and re- have no perfect participle.

strīdeō, grate strīdēre strīdī ——

Often with a present system in -ere (821).

videō, see vidēre vīdī vīsus

998. (3.) The following verbs in -ēre have a perfect stem ending in two consonants (866), and the perfect participle, when used, in -sus (912):

ferveō, boil fervēre fervī, ferbuī ——

Sometimes with forms in -ere (821) in verse. The perfect system is rare.

prandeō, lunch prandēre prandī prānsus

(B.) PERFECT STEM IN -s-, OR IN -v- OR -u-.


999. (1 a.) The following verbs in -ēre have the perfect stem in -s- (868), and the perfect participle, when used, in -tus:

augeō, increase augēre auxī auctus
in-dulgeō, am kind in-dulgēre in-dulsī ——
lūceō, beam lūcēre lūxī ——
lūgeō, mourn lūgēre lūxī ——
torqueō, twist torquēre torsī tortus

1000. (1 b.) The following verbs in -ēre have the perfect stem in -s- (868), and the perfect participle, when used, in -sus (912):

algeō, feel cold algēre alsī ——
ardeō, blaze ardēre arsī ——
cō-nīveō, wink and blink cō-nīvēre cō-nīxī, cō-nīvī ——

The perfects cō-nīxī (Turp.), cō-nīvī (Crass.), occur once each.

fulgeō, flash fulgēre fulsī ——

Forms of the present in -ere (821) occur in verse: fulgit (Pomp., Lucil., Lucr.), fulgere (Pac., Acc., Lucil., Lucr., Verg.); ef-fulgere (Verg., Claud.).

haereō, stick haerēre haesī ——
iubeō, order iubēre iussī iussus

In old Latin, IOVBEO, after IOVSI (IVSI); later iussī, iussus, after iubeō.

maneō, stay manēre mānsī mānsum
mulceō, stroke mulcēre mulsī mulsus adjective

Perfect participle per-mulsus rare (Cornif., Varr.).

mulgeō, milk mulgēre mulsī mulsus once
rīdeō, laugh rīdēre rīsī -rīsus
suādeō, advise suādēre suāsī suāsus
tergeō, wipe tergēre tersī tersus

For forms in -ere in the present, as tergit, &c. (Varr., Prop., Stat., Col.), see 821.

turgeō, am swelling turgēre tursī once ——

Of the perfect system, turserat (Enn.).

urgeō, push urgēre ursī ——



1001. (1 a.) The following verbs in -ēre have the perfect stem in -v- (869), and the perfect participle in -tus, both preceded by a long -ē- of the root:

dē-leō, wipe out dē-lēre dē-lēvī dē-lētus
fleō, weep flēre flēvī flētus
neō, spin nēre nēvī ——

For neunt (Tib.), see 837.

-pleō, fill -plēre -plēvī -plētus

1002. (1 b.) The following verb in -ēre has the perfect stem in -v- (869), preceded by long -ī-, and the perfect participle in -tus, preceded by short -i- of the root:

cieō, set a going ciēre cīvī citus

Somewhat defective; also with a form in -īre (821). For the perfect participle of compounds, see 919.

1003. (1 c.) The following verb in -ēre has the perfect stem in -v- (869), and the perfect participle in -itus (910):