The Project Gutenberg EBook of A History of the Ninth Regiment, Illinois
Volunteer Infantry, by Marion Morrison

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Title: A History of the Ninth Regiment, Illinois Volunteer Infantry

Author: Marion Morrison

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Language: English

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A HISTORY
OF THE
NINTH REGIMENT
ILLINOIS VOLUNTEER INFANTRY.

BY THE CHAPLAIN,
MARION MORRISON.

MONMOUTH, ILLS.:
JOHN S. CLARK, PRINTER.
1864.


PREFACE.

In this sketch of the military career of the 9th Ill. Vol. Inft., my object has been, to present the facts connected with its organization, and its connection with the various battle-scenes through which it has passed. I have entered upon the compilation of these facts with some degree of hesitation. I have thrown it into the present shape, only on the earnest solicitation of a number of the officers and men of the Regiment. Originally nothing more was contemplated than a newspaper sketch. It was thought that even the prominent facts in the Regiment's history, could not be given in such an article, without making it so long that publishers would not wish to insert it in their papers, or the readers of such papers be willing to read it.

It has been the writer's aim, not only to give the facts connected with the various battles in which the Regiment has been engaged, but to narrate many incidents on marches and scouts, both of a general and individual character. Often these incidents will throw more light upon the real workings of soldier life, than accounts of great battles.

I am indebted for most of the facts connected with the marches and battles of the Regiment, to the kindness of Adjutant Klock. Most of the incidents I have gathered from the officers and men in the Regiment. Much dependence had to be put in these, since the writer has only been with the Regiment from the first of September, 1863.

It was felt to be due the Regiment, that a sketch of this kind be prepared. It has never had a correspondent to herald its deeds of daring in the news of the day, as many other regiments have. Hence, although it has performed a great amount of hard and very valuable service, still it has but seldom been noticed in the papers. Let justice be done. Nothing more.

If I can but succeed in putting together the substantial facts in the History of this Regiment, so that they can be preserved by the boys, in a convenient form for reference, and afford material to aid the future historian in making up the history of this war, I will have accomplished the object I have in view.


CHAPTER I.

Cause of the Rebellion—Measures taken by the leaders to deceive the masses—James Buchanan—Lincoln's journey to Washington, and entering upon his duties—Call for 75,000 Volunteers—Organization of 9th Ill.—Roster of officers—Six Regiments organized in Illinois—Nature of "Three months' service"—Kentucky neutrality—Scouting—Incidents—When mustered out—Reorganization.

Every lover of his country will remember, with peculiar emotions, the events of the Winter and Spring of 1861. On the election of Abraham Lincoln to the position of President of the United States, in the autumn of 1860, the Southern portion of our once peaceful and happy country were indignant at the result. They had so long been accustomed to have everything their own way, so far as President-making was concerned, that they could not endure the thought of being superceded in their favorite work. For years they had elected Presidents who were either Southern men, or Northern men whose views agreed with their own on the great question at issue with them—Slavery. Now that a Northern man was elected to the Presidency, who, it was known, would use his constitutional powers to check the spread of that ruinous system, they were determined not to suffer it. Loud talkings of secession from the Union, spread rapidly throughout the South.

The leaders in this wicked rebellion did not allow the mass of the people to know the exact position which the newly elected President had taken, and the policy he would pursue with reference to the slavery question. If they had, we would never have heard of the rebellion now raging in our land. Their watchword was, that whenever he would enter upon the duties of his office, he would at once take measures to have the slaves set free throughout the entire South; that slaves would everywhere be stirred up to insurrection. Thus the leaders aroused the minds of the masses, and prepared them for the terrible ruin into which they were about to plunge them.

During the Fall after the election of the present President, it was my privilege to meet with a citizen of Mississippi, who was visiting Illinois on matters of business. He had spent two or three weeks in6 Springfield and vicinity, attending to that business. Speaking of the state of feeling existing in his State, and contrasting that with the feelings manifested in Illinois, he said, "I would give half I am worth, if the people of the South could only see and know what I have seen and learned since I have been in Illinois." He had had an interview with the President elect; had made the acquaintance of many of his prominent friends; and had become fully satisfied that he, together with the mass of the people South, was entirely mistaken as to the position which the incoming administration would occupy on the question of slavery. "Why, sir, if my fellow citizens could only see things as I now see them, there would be no difficulty. If they could only be convinced that the incoming Administration would not interfere with the system of slavery as it exists in the slave States, but were only opposed to its further extension, there would be no further difficulty. But," says he, "I cannot hope to see that state of feeling now produced. If I should go home and tell them what I have seen and what I have heard, my life would be in danger. I would be denounced as an abolitionist. My friends dissuaded me from making the journey to this State. 'If you go to Illinois you will be mobbed.' I feared the result myself, but my business was urgent. I am agreeably surprised to find that here a man can express his opinions on this vexed question, with perfect safety." This Southern man expressed himself thus, on the eve of this rebellion, with tears in his eyes.

But time passed. The leaders in this rebellion were making Herculean efforts to be prepared for the crisis. James Buchanan occupied the Presidential chair. He was just the instrument they needed in that position. His heart was with them. Most of the Cabinet he had gathered around him, were notorious traitors, and ready to resort to any means to carry out their wicked ends. Hence they robbed the government of its treasures, its arms, and its fortifications. During the Winter, one State after another passed acts of secession, and he looked quietly on, but made no demonstration towards stopping it. Armed forces were gathering in the various seceding States. Fort Sumter was still in possession of the government. Fortifications were erected in Charleston harbor to reduce it. Its few inmates were in a starving condition. No supplies were sent them.

The term of office of James Buchanan expires. The President elect enters upon his journey from Springfield, Illinois, to Washington, D. C. He leaves his home, feeling fully aware of the great work before him. He is satisfied that without Divine aid he will be unable to meet the crisis. Hence, on taking his departure, while standing upon the steps7 of the cars, he asks the friends he was leaving behind, to seek that aid on his behalf. A plot is laid for his assassination, in the City of Baltimore. But that Providence, whose aid he desired, revealed the plot, and he is enabled to reach Washington, on an extra train and at an hour unexpected. At the proper time he is duly initiated into his office. He looks around and sees the sad condition of the affairs of State. He firmly grasps the helm, however. Although the ship of state is in a leaky condition; although many a plank was torn off; although many were still in it ready to strike other leaks; although but little money with which to repair it; still he takes firm hold. He gathers around him, as counselors and co-workers, those in whom he could place confidence. Every exertion which could possibly be made, is made, to set things "to rights" again.

It is not long until Fort Sumter is fired upon by the enemies of their country. The roar of the cannon, whose balls shattered the walls of that Fort, echoed throughout the land and aroused an indignant people to arms. In the meantime the President calls for 75,000 volunteers to enter the service for three months. He has been blamed for calling for so few, and for so short a time. That call, however, doubtless saved the capital of our nation, which was then sorely beleagured.

In compliance with this call, the State of Illinois furnished six regiments for the "three months' service." That call was made on the 15th day of April, 1861. The county of St. Clair promptly sent six companies; the county of Madison three companies, and the county of Montgomery one company. They rendezvoused at Springfield, Illinois, on the 23d day of April, 1861, and were organized and mustered into the service on the 25th of the same month. It was the third regiment organized in Illinois, and was numbered as the 9th Regt. Ill. Vol. Inft.

The roster of officers of companies, as reported, is as follows:

Company A. Aug. Mersy, Captain.
" Jacob Kercher, 1st Lieutenant.
" Birt Affleck, 2d Lieutenant.
Company B. Rodolphus Beckier, Captain.
" —— Ledergarber, 1st Lieutenant.
" H. Clay Hay, 2d Lieutenant.
Company C. I. F. Tiedeman, Captain.
" —— Conner, 1st Lieutenant.
" Hamilton Lieber, 2d Lieutenant.
Company D. Alexander G. Hawes, Captain.
" —— Cox, 1st Lieutenant.
" —— Roman, 2d Lieutenant.
Company E.8 —— Catine, Captain.
" —— Scheitlier, 1st Lieutenant.
" —— Scheminger, 2d Lieutenant.
Company F. Van Cleve, Captain.
" Loren Webb, 1st Lieutenant.
" Geo. Adams, 2d Lieutenant.
Company G. —— Tucker, Captain.
" —— Davis, 1st Lieutenant.
" —— Ash, 2d Lieutenant.
Company H. Jesse J. Phillips, Captain.
" John W. Kitchell, 1st Lieutenant.
" Wm. F. Armstrong, 2d Lieutenant.
Company I. Jos. G. Robinson, Captain.
" Thos. J. Newsham, 1st Lieutenant.
" —— Gerly, 2d Lieutenant.
Company K. John H. Kuhn, Captain.
" —— Shutterer, 1st Lieutenant.
" Emil Adam, 2d Lieutenant.

An election for field officers was held on the organization of the Regiment, which resulted in the choice of—

ELEAZER A. PAINE, Colonel.
August Mersy, Lt. Colonel.
Jesse J. Phillips, Major.

The following were appointed staff officers:

Dr. Bell, of Springfield, Surgeon.
Dr. S. M. Hamilton, of Monmouth, Assistant Surgeon.
John W. Kitchell, Adjutant.
—— Davis, Quarter Master.
J. J. Ferree, Chaplain.

No sooner was the Regiment fully organized, than it was called to duty. The Rebels were evidently making their arrangements to take possession of, and occupy Cairo, Ill. They saw at once, if they could do this, they would be able to cut off all communication between the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. They would thus occupy a position from which they would be able, not only to command these rivers, but to make inroads into the State of Illinois. They contemplated making their battle-grounds on Northern soil. It did not at all enter into their original plans, to wage this war upon the sacred soil of the South. Their soldiers were promised the privilege of sacking Northern cities, and overrunning Northern States. But promptly the government took9 possession of Cairo, and thus saved Illinois from the invasion of the enemy. While the Border Free States of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana and Iowa have suffered from Rebel raids, more or less, Illinois has thus far escaped.

To carry out this design of occupying Cairo, ere the enemy got possession of it, orders were issued on the 30th of April, 1861, to the 9th Regt. Ill. Inft., to report at Cairo, Ill. It arrived at that point May 1st, 1861, at 9 A. M. It was the third Regiment on the ground at Cairo.

The first six regiments from Illinois, that were organized under that call of the President, were:

7th Regiment, Colonel Cooke Commanding.
8th " " Oglesby "
9th " " Paine "
10th " " Prentiss "
11th " " Wallace "
12th " " McArthur "

These regiments were distributed as follows: The 7th Regiment was ordered to Alton, Ill.; the 8th, 9th and 10th to Cairo, Ill.; the 11th to Villa Ridge, Ill.; the 12th to Casey's Station, on the O. & M. R. R.

At an election which was held for a Brig. General to take the command of the above regiments, B. M. Prentiss was elected. His "Head Quarters" were at Cairo, Ill.

After the Regiment arrived at Cairo, Ill., Lieut. Conner, of Co. C, resigned. Sergt. W. C. Kneffner, of Co. D, was elected as 1st Lieut. of Co. C, and commissioned by the Governor. Jacob Kircher was commissioned as Captain of Co. A, and J. W. Kitchell as Captain of Co. H.

After the election of J. W. Kitchell as Captain of Co. H, 1st Lieut. Thos. J. Newsham was appointed Adjutant of the Regiment.

The Regiment remained on duty at Cairo during the term of service for which they were called out.

Many of the soldiers, supposing that they would be furnished with clothing by the government, took very little clothing with them, and that of the most ordinary kind, thinking that when they should draw clothing they could not take care of what they took with them. The result was, that many of them had no change of clothing for the three months they were in the service. They had no regular uniform. Some of the companies were clothed with such a uniform as they had selected and supplied for themselves. When the Regiment arrived in Cairo, no provision was made for them in the way of tents. War was a new thing then, and the Quartermaster and Commissary stores were10 not always ready to be drawn upon at a moment's warning. The supply of rations was, at times, very irregular. The men had not been accustomed to making themselves comfortable in camp; consequently they sometimes found it pretty hard living. After they had been there a few days, it was determined to go into camp on the edge of the Mississippi river, between the town and the river. The camping ground was covered with very large trees of drift-wood. These must be cleared off. No details for fatigue duty were made; but Col. Paine, taking hold along with the rest, said "Come, boys, we must red these logs off, and clear up this ground." And at it they went, and after a time they had the logs all cleared away, the stumps burnt out, and a pretty respectable camping ground prepared. Much hard service was endured during these three months. Although no fighting was necessary, yet some of the soldiers who were with the Regiment then, and are with it still, speak of those three months as the hardest part of their military life. The duty consisted principally in working on the fortifications, and guard duty. This was very onerous.

To make it harder on the boys, they were poorly provided with food and clothing. Little or no provision was made for blankets. Many of them, if they got their shirts washed, had to take them off and go without while it was being done. If they did this, they were immediately attacked by a powerful and numerous enemy, in the shape of mosquitoes. While the rebels like to attack and surprise our boys, when clothed with new uniforms, this numerous army prefer to make the attack when our soldiers are entirely stripped of their coats and their shirts.

During the time the Regiment was in camp at Cairo, Kentucky was pursuing that policy which proved so ruinous to her. She was attempting to enforce a strict neutrality with reference to the war. Parties were organized. No efforts were made to prevent disloyal men from organizing companies, and committing hostilities. The State was soon filled with rebels against the government. Several scouting parties were sent from Cairo into Kentucky for the purpose of scattering those parties and watching their movements. In most of these, the 9th Ill. Inft., was represented by detachments.

In July, an expedition which was under command of Col. J. J. Morgan of the 10th Ill., and which consisted of twelve companies, and one section of artillery, was sent to Indian Creek, Mo., to break up an organization of Rebels encamped at that place. The expedition was made up of detachments from each of the regiments in camp at Cairo at that time. The 9th Ill. was represented by Companies C and H.

11The Rebels prowled about in Missouri and Kentucky, and there were frequent rumors of attacks to be made upon Cairo. But the three months rolled past without any attack.

There are some incidents that occurred during this period, worthy of notice here. One of them occurred with our present highly esteemed Surgeon, Dr. Guilick. He was then a private in the Regiment. One day he was stationed to guard a powder magazine. It was an important post. The Dr. had served in the army in Germany. He knew a picket should never leave his post until relieved from duty. The rule for picket, is two hours on duty and four off, during the twenty-four. The first two hours passed away, no relief came. Two hours more passed. He supposed that surely at that change he would be relieved. Still no relief came. Another two hours passed. Still no relief. Relief-hour after relief-hour passed. But no relief for the Dr. He began to feel the need of his dinner, but no relief came, and he stuck to his powder. That article was an important item in warfare, and he was determined to guard it. Night was drawing near; still no relief. Its quiet hours passed by, and still no relief came. The morning dawned, and there it beheld the Dr. tramping faithfully his beat, wondering, I suppose, if there was no relief. The twenty-four hours rolled round, and the Dr. was there still, having had nothing to eat and nothing to drink. Another thing which caused the time to pass heavily with him, like almost all Germans, in fact almost all soldiers, he was very fond of his pipe. But there was the powder he was guarding, and it was not safe to have fire near it. At the end of the twenty-four hours he was relieved. Our worthy Dr. has been with the Regiment ever since. He is still faithful to his post. He still carries out his tenacity in sticking to his post until relieved. There is only one thing, so far as I know, that will cause the Dr. to abandon his proper post. When the Regiment is engaged in battle, unless there is immediate need for him in the rear to care for the wounded, he will leave his post, as a non-combatant, and seeking some position in the advance, he is seen deliberately firing away at the enemy with his revolver. If there is a man wounded he hastens to the rear to attend to him. That done, and he is off again to his firing-post.

Another incident. I think it occurred during the three months' service. At any rate it was during some scout. The camp was in an old cornfield, on a hill-side. The only place the boys could well lay was in the hollows between the corn rows. Col. Phillips (then Major) made his bed between two corn rows. He laid one gum blanket underneath him, and another over him. As it was beginning to rain, he12 covered his face with his gum blanket, gathering it carefully under his head. During the night it rained heavily; but the Major slept on. When he awoke in the morning and attempted to uncover his head, the first attempt to remove the blanket failed. By a more determined effort he succeeded. But oh, horrible! The water had run down the furrow, sweeping the mud before it. It had been piled up against his head, the blanket keeping him dry. But instantly on raising the blanket, rush came mud and water over his face and head! If he had only had sense enough to commence uncovering at the other end, he might have crept out snug and dry, although the water had been pouring down on both sides of him. The Col. has since manifested much skill in fighting a retreat with his regiment. But it seems he had not yet learned the art of retreating, for he seemed determined in spite of all opposition, to go it, head foremost. But he conquered, and had the consolation of knowing that his severest wounds were in the face; and although naturally very careful of his good-looking face, I doubt not he would rather be wounded there than in the back. Save a brave man always from being wounded in the back.

Still another incident. Rats had become very abundant in town and around the camps. In fact, rats, fleas and mosquitoes were the principal enemies with which our boys had then to contend. The side walks in town were made of plank. Under these was a beautiful place for the rats to run and play. Sergeant Williford (now Captain) was Sergeant of the guard in the town one night. That he might have something to do, by which he could while away the dull hours of the night, he armed himself with an old cavalry sabre and took his position at a point where there was a break in the side-walk, there to watch the movements of the enemy. They had to pass through this opening, and as one after another made his appearance, each met a death blow from the Sergeant's sabre. He has now no knowledge of the multitude of the slain, as he ceased to count the dead. I know not but that the grand strategy by which he here deceived the enemy and the multitudes slain on that night, were the beginning of his rise which has resulted in his present commanding position.

The Regiment was mustered out of the service on the 25th day of July, 1861. Because of the aspect of affairs in Missouri, but a small number of troops could be sent to Cairo, Ill., to take the place of the six regiments from Illinois, whose term of service was about to expire. Consequently an application was made by Gen. Prentiss to the Commander-in-chief, for permission to re-organize those six regiments in the field. This permission was granted; the re-organization of the several13 regiments was perfected, and the regiments recruited. The application made to the authorities for this permission was telegraphed, and granted in a dispatch from General Scott.


CHAPTER II.
FROM THE RE-ORGANIZATION TO TIME OF LEAVING PADUCAH.

Re-organization—Roster of officers—Drill at Cairo—Change to Paducah—Promotions and assignments to duty—Attack on Saratoga—Reconnoisance towards Columbus by 1st Brigade—Commissions—Reconnoisance towards Fort Henry—Regiment paid—Incidents.

As will be seen from the preceding chapter, the 9th Ill. Inft. was mustered out of the service on the 25th of July, 1861, and an order dispatched from Gen. Scott granting permission to re-organize it. It was consequently organized for the three years' service, at Cairo, Ill., and mustered into the service for three years, unless sooner discharged, on the 28th day of July, 1861. The Regiment reported for duty on the same day to Brig. General B. M. Prentiss, commanding the forces at Cairo, Ill.

The field, staff, and line officers were "mustered in" as follows:

Colonel—E. A. Paine, July 26th, 1861.
Lieut. Col.—Aug. Mersy, " " "
Major.—Jesse J. Phillips, " " "
Surgeon.—S. M. Hamilton, " " "
Assistant Surgeon.—Emil Guelick, " " "
Adjutant.—Thos. J. Newsham, " " "
Regt. Quartermaster.—Wm. G. Pinckard, Aug. 26th, 1861.
Chaplain.—James J. Ferree, July 26th, "
Co. A. Captain, John H. Kuhn, " " "
" 1st Lieutenant, Emil Adam, " " "
" 2d Lieutenant, E. J. Weyrich, " " "
Co. B. Captain, Wm. C. Kneffner, " " "
" 1st Lieutenant, Hamilton Lieber, " " "
" 2d Lieutenant, Fred. Vogler, " " "
Co. C. Captain, D. F. Tiedeman, " " "
" 1st Lieutenant, Oscar Rollmann, " " "
" 2d Lieutenant, Chas. Schevir, " " "
Co. D. Captain, Rodolph Beckier, " " "
" 1st Lieutenant, Edward Krebbs, Aug. 10th, "
" 2d Lieutenant, Wm. Bohlen, " " "
Co. E. Captain, Alex. G. Hawes, July 26th, 1861.14
" 1st Lieutenant, Wm. D. Craig, Aug. 6th, "
" 2d Lieutenant, R. B. Patterson, July 26th, "
Co. F. Captain, Loren Webb, " " "
" 1st Lieutenant, Wm. Britt, " " "
" 2d Lieutenant, Geo. W. Williford, " " "
Co. G. Captain, Edgar M. Lowe, " " "
" 1st Lieutenant, John S. Sutten, " " "
" 2d Lieutenant, Isaac Clements, " " "
Co. H. Captain, Wm. F. Armstrong, " " "
" 1st Lieutenant, Cy. H. Gillmore, " " "
" 2d Lieutenant, Alfred Cowgill, " " "
Co. I. Captain, Jas. G. Robinson, " " "
" 1st Lieutenant, Wm. Purviance, July 31st, "
" 2d Lieutenant. S. T. Hughes, " " "
Co. K. Captain. Geo. B. Poor, July 26th, "
" 1st Lieutenant, John L. A. Reeves, " " "
" 2d Lieutenant, Jas. C. McClery, " " "

After the re-organization of the Regiment, it remained at Cairo, Ill., until September 5th, 1861. During this time they were principally engaged in doing guard duty and drilling. The great matter was to have men well drilled. War was a new occupation to most of them. They were men who had been spending their lives quietly at home on their farms, behind their counters, in their offices, and among their tools in the work-shop. The peaceful walks of life were those they were accustomed to tread. When their country was threatened by those who would destroy it, at the call of that country, they left those peaceful walks and rushed to its defence. It was new work, and they must be trained for it. Much patient drill must be passed through. The officers themselves, many of them, must learn what a military life is, and how to do its work. The men must, day after day, endure the patient drill. They must learn the picket's duty, and how to perform it. They must learn that while on picket each picket is, for the time being, commander-in-chief of his post. When he cries "Halt," his order is law. No Captain; no Colonel; no General, dare disobey it, unless he has his pass or can give the "countersign." A Corporal in Co. E, once narrated to me his first experience in picket duty. He was handling his gun rather awkwardly. The officer of the guard came along and reproved him for his awkwardness. "Let me have your gun, sir, until I show you how to hold it." Anxious to learn every part of a soldier's duty, in all the simplicity of his heart, he15 handed his gun over to the officer. "Now, sir, what are you going to do for your gun? Suppose I was the enemy, what kind of a fix would you be in?" He at once saw the embarrassment of his position. "Did you ever stand picket before?" "No, sir." "On that account you are excusable; but on no other. Never give up your gun again; no officer, no General has any right to it." It was a wholesome lesson. He profited by it. From that time forward, no man ever got his gun when on picket.

On the 5th day of September, 1861, the Regiment left Cairo, Ill., embarked on a steamer and moved up the Ohio River to Paducah, Ky. Here it occupied the advance position on the Columbus road.

Col. E. A. Paine was promoted to be Brigadier General, September 3d, and Lieut. Col. August Mersy being absent, Major Jesse J. Phillips assumed command of the Regiment.

On the 8th day of September, 1861, Brig. Gen. C. F. Smith relieved Brig. Gen. Paine of the command at Paducah, and Lieut. Col. Mersy returned and relieved Major Phillips of the command of the Regiment.

Adjutant Newsham was detached as Acting Assistant Adjutant General, and Quartermaster Pinckard as Acting Assistant Quartermaster.

About the 20th of September, Brig. Gen. Paine was assigned to the command of the 1st Brigade. This Brigade consisted of the following regiments: 9th Ill. Inft., 12th Ill. Inft., 40th Ill. Inft., 41st Ill. Inft., Buel's Battery, and Thielmann's Independent Cavalry Battalion. Lieut. Adam, of Co. A, 9th Regt., was detached as Act. Assist. Adj. Gen. of the 1st Brigade.

On the 3d day of October, 1861, Adjutant Nusham was promoted to be Captain and Assistant Adjutant General, and assigned to duty on Gen. Smith's staff.

By this time the boys were getting anxious for a fight. To use a common expression, they were "spoiling for a fight." They felt that now they were ready to fight with and conquer the whole South. On October 15th, 1861, a portion of the Regiment had an opportunity to try their pluck. Major Phillips, with Companies B, H, and I, filled to their maximum by details from other companies, with Lieut. Patterson as aid to commanding officer, moved up the Cumberland River above Eddyville, where they disembarked. It was ascertained that a detachment of 300 rebel cavalry were in camp at Saratoga. Major Phillips moved upon them, surprised and completely routed them; killing from 10 to 15, wounding from 25 to 30, and capturing 20. Major Phillips' detachment had Capt. Kneffner slightly wounded, and Corporal Greblig of Co. B, and private Gatewood of Co. K, severely wounded. It returned16 to camp on the 16th of October, bringing in the prisoners and a large amount of captured property.

First Lieutenant John L. A. Reeves, of Co. K, resigned, and his resignation was accepted October 2d, 1861.

On the 6th day of November, 1861, the 1st Brigade, Brig. General Paine commanding, moved on the Columbus road to Mayfield Creek, and bivouacked for the night. The next day they moved forward to Milburn, Ky., 31 miles from Paducah, and 11 miles from Columbus, bivouacked there for the night, and commenced the return march by daylight on the 8th. Reached camp at Paducah by 2 P. M., of the 9th. This was about the first heavy marching the boys had undergone. It was very fatiguing. There was a disposition to straggle. To prevent it, in the 9th, a rear guard was appointed, which compelled all to keep their places. This, some of the boys who were very tired, no doubt thought to be cruel. But the result was, the 9th Regiment came into camp in Paducah in splendid order, while the 40th and 41st Ill. Regiments seemed to have lost their organization altogether on the return march, and came straggling into camp in small squads, during the entire days of the 9th and 10th. Gen. Smith issued an order highly commending the 9th for their orderly conduct, and condemning those Regiments which returned in such disorder. This pleased our boys so much, that they almost forgot their heavy marching, and there was no more complaining about rigid discipline.

On the 9th of September, 1861, Capt. John H. Kuhn was appointed Provost Marshal of Paducah, and his Co. (A) was detached to act as Provost Guard.

December 2nd, 1861, commissions arrived as follows: For Lieut. Col. Aug. Mersy to be Colonel; Major Jesse J. Phillips to be Lieutenant Colonel; Capt. John H. Kuhn to be Major; 1st Lieut. Emil Adam to be Captain, and 2d Lieut. E. J. Weyrich to be 1st Lieutenant of Co. A. On the 5th of December, Sergeant Scheel, of Co. F, received a commission as 2d Lieutenant of Co. A, but was assigned to duty in Co. D, 2d Lieut. Bohlen of that Co. having been transferred to Co. A.

Capt. Geo. B. Poor, of Co. K, resigned, and his resignation was accepted on the 10th of December. First Lieutenant E. J. Weyrich, of Co. A, resigned on the 25th of December.

Capt. Armstrong, of Co. H, was appointed Provost Marshal, to relieve Major Kuhn, and his Co. (H) relieved Co. A, as Provost Guard, on the 6th of December, 1861.

On the 15th of January, 1862, the entire force at Paducah, except the 40th Ill., moved towards Viola, 13 miles, and bivouacked for the17 night at Hickory Creek. Brig. Gen. C. F. Smith commanded the Division in person. Col. McArthur, of the 12th Ill. Inft., was in command of the 1st Brigade, and Brig. Gen. Lew. Wallace, of the 2d Brigade. The Division was about 5,000 strong. On the 15th, moved to Mayfield Creek, 28 miles from Paducah. On the 17th, the command marched 23 miles to Clark's River, and bivouacked for the night on its banks. On the 18th and 19th, owing to rain and mud, the command moved a very short distance. It reached Calloway Landing, on the Tennessee River, 20 miles below Fort Henry, on the 22d of January. Finding no enemy in that vicinity, and none nearer than Fort Henry, the command returned to camp at Paducah, Ky., arriving there January 25th, 1862. It had marched altogether, during the reconnoisance, 125 miles. The most that was accomplished, was accustoming the men to hard marches.

Second Lieutenant Wm. Bohlen, resigned, and his resignation was accepted on the 31st day of January, 1862. On the same day a commission arrived for private Henry H. Klock, of Co. F, to be 1st Lieutenant and Adjutant, to rank from October 3d, 1861, the date of Adjutant Newsham's promotion.

Major I. N. Cook paid the Regiment up to January 1st, 1862. It had been previously paid by Major C. P. E. Johnston, to September 1st, 1861.

During the time the Regiment was in camp at Paducah, some incidents of interest occurred. All were longing for an adventure of some kind. The routine of camp life was becoming wearisome. One day Major Phillips, of the 9th Ill. Inft., and Major McDonald, of the 8th Mo. Inft., rode outside the pickets. After they had rode out two or three miles, Major McDonald remembered that he had an old acquaintance living ten or twelve miles out that road. It was proposed and agreed upon, that they would ride out and see him. Before reaching there, they passed where the enemy had their picket fires the night before. Things looked suspicious. A rebel soldier was seen riding up to a neighboring house. They proposed to go and take him. But their friend with whom they stopped, insisted on their not doing it, saying that if any fuss occurred there, they would burn his house at once, as they were threatening him anyhow, because of his Union sentiments. Dinner was ready in a short time, and they must stay for dinner. Major Phillips, always disposed to watch rebs. closely, proposed to stand picket while the rest were eating. He then hurriedly drank a cup of coffee, and they mounted their horses and started for camp. In a short time they saw two cavalry men riding before them. Taking18 them to be rebels, they gave them chase. Major Phillips, mounted on a splendid horse, soon came close on them. Suddenly they checked up, wheeled around, and drew their sabres. Before our Major could check his horse, he was close upon them. With pistol drawn, he inquired what command they belonged to. The reply was, "Thielman's Cavalry." The Major mistook it for Tilman's (Rebel) Cavalry. He inquired the second time. The same reply came, and he labored under the same mistake. By this time Major McDonald came fairly up, and they demanded the surrender of the two men, and they surrendered. At this point, they saw a short distance from them, about 25 men coming towards them. They felt that they were in a close place. Says Major McDonald to Phillips, "What shall we do with these two men? shoot them?" "No; we will take them with us, and if they don't keep up, then we will shoot them," was the reply. Says Major Phillips, "I would give a horse to be in Paducah." "Paducah!" says one of the prisoners; "we belong there, too. We are Willson's Dragoons." The mistake arose from the fact that the Rebels had a band of cavalry, known as Tilman's Cavalry, while the Federals had a battalion of cavalry, known as Thielman's Cavalry. The prisoners being Germans, the one was mistaken for the other. This matter explained, their prisoners were released, and they returned to camp. Having reached camp, Major Phillips reported to Gen. Smith, when the following interview took place. I give the substance:

"General." "Well, Major." "General, having permission to go outside of the pickets to-day, I gained some valuable information, which I thought the good of the service required that I should report to you." "How many men had you, Major?" "General," (afraid to confess there were but two,) "Major McDonald was in command of the expedition." "How many men had Major McDonald?" "I was with him." "But, sir, how many men did you have?" Finding the truth must come, he replied, "The Major commanded me, and I commanded him." "Well, sir, you both deserve to be punished, and if you had shot those two men, I should have had you both cashiered. But as it is, I will let it pass. What is the valuable information you have gained?" "I learn, at a certain point, a Rebel company is to be organized on to-morrow." "Well, sir, as you are fond of adventure, you will take a detachment of forty men, and proceed to that point and disperse or capture them." But as the next day was very rainy, the expedition was abandoned.

Another incident. Major Phillips and Captain Kuhn rode outside the pickets late in the evening. After getting outside the pickets, they saw some fresh wagon-tracks. Captain Kuhn, who was then acting19 Provost Marshal, said that there were two wagons, loaded, that went out, of which he was suspicious, but that with his instructions he could not examine them. They concluded to follow them. They had gone but a short distance until the road forked, and there were fresh tracks on each road. The Major took one road, and the Captain took the other. The Major soon came in sight of them, and pushing on, came up with them. On inquiring what they were loaded with, he was told that they were some groceries for a store in the country. Things looking suspicious, he procured an ax and broke open some of the boxes, and found that it was a regular lot of military stores. By this time Captain Kuhn came up, and after a little consultation, they concluded to let them go on, and told them that all was right, they could go on. They returned immediately to town. They had gone out about five miles. On their return, the Major again presented himself to General Smith. "General." "Well, Major." "General, Captain Kuhn and myself rode outside of the pickets, this evening. After getting out a short distance, we saw wagon-tracks, which were suspicious. We followed them a few miles and came up with them, and I am satisfied they are loaded with goods to supply a rebel camp. We did not bring them in, from the fact that the Captain's instructions, as Provost Marshal, would not justify him in doing it." "Another of your fool-hardy dashes, Major." "Yes, General; but I thought the good of the service demanded it." "Well, sir, how many men will you have to bring those wagons in to-night?" "Five men, General." "Adjutant, make a detail for five men, to report here immediately for duty." The men came, and the Major started on his expedition. He overtook the wagons, which had been driving on all night, and brought them back to Paducah, and turned them over to the Quartermaster.

Still another incident. Citizens were frequently coming into town. There was not much difficulty in getting in, but they could not go out again without a pass. One young fellow from Kentucky, having, as he supposed, some of the noble blood in him, said he would not apply for a pass. He said the "niggers" had to have passes, and he was not going to put himself on an equality with "niggers." So he refused to apply for a pass. After staying in town a few days, he made an attempt or two to run the pickets, and as a consequence, was put in the guardhouse. After staying in town a month or two, the young nobleman was compelled to put himself on an equality with the "niggers," and apply for a pass.

Still another. When out on a scout, at a time when every house would be guarded as the troops were passing, and not a chicken or goose20 must be touched, the Quartermaster went into a house to purchase some chickens for his mess. The woman refused to sell any. "Well," says he, "we must have something to eat. If you won't sell your chickens, we will steal your geese." "If I sell you some chickens, sir, will you swear that you won't steal my geese?" He promised he would. Two or three chickens were caught for him, and then the old lady got upon a chair and reached down an old Bible for him to swear on, that he would not steal her geese. I guess he swore for her, but not very reverendly.

One more incident. Perhaps on the same scout as the above, it was suspected that Company K had stolen a goose. Col. Mersy got wind of it. He addresses Lieut. Col. Phillips as follows: "Col. Phillips, I tink Co. K steal one coose. You take de charge de right wing, while I goes to see." The Col. rode off to Co. K, but could find no goose. He returned to the command, thinking, I suppose, that Co. K was "all right on the goose."

That day is now passed in the army. As our army now marches along, the boys weary and suffering for water, there is not a guard stationed at every well to prevent their quenching their thirst. When they are hungry, if chickens and geese are convenient, they are not interfered with if they try to catch them. Often have I seen our boys coming in from a scout, many of them having a chicken or a goose swinging at each side of their saddle.


CHAPTER III.
FROM PADUCAH TO PITTSBURG LANDING.

Preparations for opening the Cumberland, Tennessee and Mississippi Rivers—Fort Henry taken—Fort Donelson taken—Part taken by 9th Ills., number killed and wounded—List of killed and wounded—Trip to Nashville and back—Incidents.

At the opening of the year 1862, it was becoming evident that to crush the "hideous monster" rebellion, would require a great effort on the part of the government. While our armies were being raised and disciplined, the rebels were planting themselves firmly at many points in the South-west, as well as the East. Columbus, Island No. 10, Memphis, Vicksburg, Port Hudson, and other points on the Mississippi River, were being strongly fortified. Fort Henry and Fort Donelson were fortified, and commanded the entrance of the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers. General Fremont had urged the early occupation21 of these points, before the enemy should fortify them. But for some reason, (I suppose a good one on the part of the government,) the enemy were allowed to make these points strong-holds. Magnificent preparations were making, however, to take possession of these rivers, by the government, as great national thoroughfares. Gunboats, floating batteries &c., were being built with that view. These were brought to bear, early in 1862, on the work of opening the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers, and dislodging the enemy of their strong-holds on these rivers. A heavy land force must of course co-operate with the fleet. In this work, the 9th Ill. Inft. was destined to act a conspicuous part. The material for the greater portion of its history is found in the part it has taken in subduing the rebellion in Tennessee, Mississippi and Alabama. At Cairo and at Paducah its work of discipline had been carried on until it was well prepared for meeting the enemy on the field. It left Paducah, a large and well-drilled Regiment.

On the evening of February 4th, 1862, Companies A, B, C, D and E, under command of Col. Mersy, struck tents at Paducah, and embarked on board the steamer "Wilson," with camp and garrison equipage. This wing of the Regiment moved up the Tennessee River the same night, and reported to Brig. Gen. John A. McClernand at Brown's Landing. The remainder of the Regiment, (except Co. H, Provost Guard,) under command of Lieut. Col. Phillips, came up on the steamer "B," on the evening of the 5th February. The two wings of the Regiment formed a junction on the left bank of the Tennessee River, five miles below Fort Henry, on the night of the 5th. They moved up the river towards Fort Heiman, on the 6th, reaching and occupying the Fort the same night. Brig. Gen. Smith's Division had left Paducah, and passed up the river to this point. They did not reach here in time to participate in the engagement. Fort Henry was reduced by the gunboats alone, none of the infantry taking part in the engagement.

When Fort Henry surrendered, the enemy quartered at Fort Heiman evacuated the place, leaving behind them all their camp and garrison equipage.

Brig. Gen. Smith's Division was ordered to move across the river and garrison Fort Henry, on the 7th. But the heavy rains had swollen the Tennessee River to such an extent that it was impossible to reach the boats, in order to cross. Hence, a Division already on that side of the river was assigned to that duty.

It was the high stage of water, and the consequent difficulty of landing, that prevented the land forces from co-operating with the gunboats in the attack against Fort Henry. Had they been permitted to co-operate22 as designed, they would have been able to cut off the retreat of the enemy, and capture the whole force. This would have prevented the reinforcement at Fort Donelson, and made the engagement there less sanguinary. But perhaps the victory would not have been any more complete than it was.

The enemy that had evacuated Forts Henry and Heiman fell back and strengthened Fort Donelson. The next thing in the programme, was to reduce Fort Donelson. The gunboats consequently were to descend the Tennessee River and ascend the Cumberland, while the land forces would march across the country, only twelve miles, and attack in the rear. In accordance with this plan, Gen. Smith's Division, still camped on the opposite side of the river, on the 12th of February, 1862, crossed the river with two days' rations, and no transportation, and moved towards Fort Donelson and bivouacked for the night about four miles from that place. At 11 o'clock at night, moved forward again, two and a half miles further, and bivouacked. At 11, A. M., of the 13th, moved forward to support McAllister's Battery, remaining here until 2, P. M. At this hour, McArthur's entire Brigade, (the one to which the 9th Ill. belonged,) were ordered to the left of McClernand's Division, to prevent a flank movement of the enemy on his left. The Brigade remained here until night, when it moved one-half mile further to the right. Company A, Capt. Adam commanding, was detached at this place, to support a battery, and Lieut. R. B. Patterson, of Co. E, was ordered with Co. A.

On the evening of the 13th, from having been warm and pleasant when they left camp, the weather changed and became extremely cold. Rain, sleet and snow fell alternately during the night. No fires were allowed. Hence, they suffered much from cold.

At midnight, a heavy volley of musketry was fired in front of Col. McArthur's Brigade. We were immediately ordered into line, and moved three-quarters of a mile further to the right, occupying a position in Gen. McClernand's Division and reporting to him.

The Brigade was moved again on the 14th, to the extreme right of our line, reaching that point after dark. The 41st Ill. occupied the extreme right, and the 9th Ill. next. At daylight of the 15th, the enemy made a furious attack on this part of Gen. McClernand's line. The 9th and 41st Ill. Regiments moved forward one hundred yards, to a high ridge, from which they held the rebel columns in check. The 9th moved forward to the ridge in echelon, the 41st in line of battle. At the second onslaught of the enemy, the 41st broke and fell back, and the 12th Ill. promptly occupied their place. The 9th Regiment23 held its position for two and a half hours, when all its supports on the right and left giving way, and its ammunition being exhausted, it fell back, slowly and in good order. The enemy did not press our front, but moved rapidly on our right flank. So rapid was their movement in this direction, that twice we were compelled to halt and make demonstrations to prevent their charging us. About 11 o'clock, A. M., the Regiment passed through the second line of battle, received a new supply of ammunition, and moved to the left and rejoined Gen. Smith's Division, to which they properly belonged.

On the morning of the 16th, the 9th Regiment was ordered forward to complete the work so gallantly begun by the 2d Iowa Inft. on the previous day. That Regiment had charged the rebel breastworks, and in part taken possession of them. To make another charge, and completely drive them out, was the work assigned to the 9th for this day. But before the final order to charge was given, the enemy surrendered unconditionally. The 9th Ill. Inft. and the 2d Iowa Inft. were granted the honor of first marching into the outer works of the enemy. On entering the works, the 9th Ill. took charge of the following rebel regiments: The 14th Mississippi, 32d, 14th and 18th Tennessee, and 2d Kentucky, in all about 2,000 men.

The 9th Ill. went into the fight, on the 15th, with about 600 men reported for duty. Its loss during the action was, 35 killed on the field, 160 wounded, and 6 taken prisoners. Most of those taken prisoners were wounded and unable to fall back with the Regiment. Companies A and H were not engaged in the fight. Company H had been left as Provost Guard at Paducah, and Company A, as mentioned above, had been detached on the night of the 13th to support a battery, and had not rejoined the Regiment at the time it was engaged.

Among the wounded, were the following officers: Capt. Robinson of Co. I, and Capt. Beckier of Co. D, both slightly; 1st Lieuts. Lieber of Co. B, Britt of Co. F, and Sutton of Co. G. These were all severely wounded. Lieut. Lieber lost his left arm, and Lieut. Sutton was disabled for life.

The following is a list of the killed and wounded in the various companies:

Company A.—Supporting a battery, lost none.

Company B.Killed, Corp. Lugenbuehler. Corp. Dettweiler, Benkers, Jacob Eierkuss, Henry Gonnermann, Henry Hurick, Christian Koch, Albert Newmann, Leech. In all 9 killed. Wounded.—First Lieut. Hamilton Lieber, Privates Adolph Aldo, Peter Bauer, John Berger, Charles Daehner, Albert Donner, Michael Fath, Joseph Gantner,24 Paul Geist, Sergt. Louis Grieser, Privates Jul. Hoffmann, John Krieger, Charles Lobe, Frederick Menne, Louis Messerschmitt, Hermann Moser, Josep Oberfell, Simon Pohn, Corp. John Schab, William Schlott, Sergt. John Schmidt, Henry Schneider, Anton Schwarzkopf, Frederick Lensel, Henry Weber, Daniel Werner, Christian Wickermann, Joseph Cropp. In all 28 wounded.

Company C.Killed, Lorence Bersig and Heinrich Hillmann.—2. Wounded, Henry Arndt, George Fichter, John Graus, Christopher Klein, John Pietz, Adam Reesh, John Riedel, Adam Lammons, Henry Schmidt, William Vogt, Peter Weis, William Miller, and Corp. Charles King. In all 13 wounded.

Company D.—Company D had 20 men wounded, including the Captain. The most of them were slight wounds, which did not disable the men. Three only were dangerously wounded.

Company E.Killed, Privates Cassius C. Atchinson and Jas. Dyer.—2. Wounded, Corps. John A. Gilmore and Frank M. Tillotson, Privates John Beatty, John A. J. Bragg, Russell W. Cool, Wm. Evans, Michael Farley, John Fletcher, Dennis C. Frothingham, Jas. B. Gilmore, Simon Hagar, Joseph B. Jones, Wm. T. Kelley, John Kemberlin, F. M. Moore, Francis J. Murphy, Geo. Snyder, John Till, Wm. G. Triplett, David M. Durham, Geo. M. Gilmore. In all 21 wounded.

Company F.Killed, Privates David N. Ashton and Constant Roland.—2 killed. Wounded, 1st Lieut. Wm. Britt, Sergts. Thos. C. Kidd and Andrew J. Webster, Corp. Andrew J. White, Privates Geo. M. Campbell, E. Carrey, John W. Dye, Wm. M. Ellis, James Getty, James Hicks, Nathan Lynch, Geo. McIrish, Eli J. Singleton, Richa Lumpkins, Thos. J. Wallace, Frank Wagner, John Rank, Joseph L. Garrett, Harlow Bassett. In all 19 wounded. This is not a complete list. There were 23 wounded. The records of the company have been destroyed.

Company G.Killed, Benjamin Jacob, Emsley Walker, James Willhelm. In all 3 killed. Wounded, 1st Lieut. John S. Sutton, N. G. Brown, Wm. B. Dubois, Thos. J. Pleasant, Jas. Canton, Jas. E. Mason, Jacob Willhelm, John J. White, John A. Stotlan, William J. Higlai, C. C. Akin, Jos. H. Watley, John Collin, Jas. M. Brown, and Wm. R. Gore. In all 15 wounded.

Company H.—Absent at Paducah as Provost Guard.

Company I.Killed, James N. Johnson, Augustus Cluge, G. W. Kinder, Charles Loymer, David Lain, Alonzo Livingston, Hugh McMahen, John McKinney, Charles McDermot, Geo. M. More, Joseph P.25 Stevenson, David Williams. In all 12 killed. Wounded, Capt. Joseph G. Robinson, 2d Lieut. S. T. Hughs, Sergts. Geo. Woodbury and W. Jarvis, Corps. R. R. Swain, John G. Irwin and F. A. Courmon, Privates Wm. Baird, John Baird, D. G. Breyfogle, Jas. G. Ballard, Zachariah Burgess, Aaron C. Bordon, Jos. Crews, G. W. Clark, Charles Dayton, Emanuel Davis, John Ellett, Henry Fitzsimmons, Theodore Fisher, H. Fuller, John Graham, James Hawratty, William Helms, David Johnson, David Kyle, Geo. Lent, Geo. Lawson, Sam'l Morehead, James Mitchel, Chas. S. Patton, Samuel Read, John R. Vanhooser, William Willson. In all 34 wounded.

Company K.Killed, Corp. Walter Walsh, Privates Reuben M. Anderson, And. J. Burton, Charles Casebeer, John Emery, Johna. Hazlewood, David Newcomb, Jas. Patterson. In all 8 killed. Wounded, Sergts. A. J. Snider and John Barbour, Corps. Chas. N. Brown, Geo. Lincoln and Samuel W. Sloan, Privates Jas. Broadie, Jos. N. Condon, Simon P. Casey, Wm. A. Daily, Frank F. Cogles, John Gibson, Albert W. Kimball, Aaron Lipe, John Mallory, Albert Mitchell, John Seivers, Wm. Thompson and H. C. Ulen. In all 18 wounded.

The desperate struggle in which our Regiment was engaged, and the persistence with which the boys fought, may be seen from the list of killed and wounded as presented above. Only about 600 went into the fight. Of these, 195 were killed and wounded; just about every third man.

The boys had, it will be remembered, when they left Fort Heiman on the morning of the 12th of February, only two days' rations. They received nothing more until the evening of the 15th, after they had been engaged in the severe battle of that forenoon. Thus their two days' rations had to last them four days. Many of the officers, who had entrusted their haversacks to their servants, became separated from those servants, and were almost without anything to eat for the last forty-eight hours. There was no chance for foraging there. Often now, our Regiment will go out on a scout with three days' rations, and live very well on it for six or eight days. Such was the battle of Fort Donelson, and the part the 9th took in it.

The Regiment remained at Fort Donelson until the 22d of February, when the Brigade proceeded up the Cumberland River to Fort Sevier near Clarksville, where they disembarked and went into camp on the 25th.

Major Kuhn, formerly Provost Marshal of Paducah, and Co. H of the 9th Regiment, his Provost Guard, reported to the Regiment for duty on the 23d. The Regiment remained in camp here until the 27th, when it embarked on board the steamer "Woodford," and proceeded up26 the river to Nashville, Tenn., arriving there on the morning of the 28th. Here it remained until March 1st, when it returned to camp at Fort Sevier.

When our forces advanced up the Cumberland River to Clarksville and Nashville, they found no enemy to oppose them. After the rebels surrendered Fort Donelson, they seemed to be seized with terror. The rebel Governor and Legislature fled from Nashville in terror, taking with them whatever they could of State property. The writer, being then in Illinois, well remembers the public rejoicing there was over the result of this victory. There seemed to be a feeling prevailing in the North that the "backbone" of the Rebellion was broken, and that we would soon have peace. But two years have passed away, (I write this sketch on the 16th of February, the anniversary of Fort Donelson's surrender,) and, although we have several times since that been cheered with the promise that the "backbone" of the Rebellion was broken, still it lives. It is said a snake's tail does not die until sunset, even though its back may be broken and its head mashed. Perhaps, as the rebs. had, at first, a snake for their emblem, this may be the reason it is so long dying. Maybe it is only the tail of it that now remains alive. When, however, sunset will come, and its tail cease to live, is difficult to determine. May it be soon.

Some incidents occurred during this period, worthy of note. During the time the Regiment was engaged in battle at Fort Donelson, James Getty, of Co. F, aged about 60 years, was observed by Lieut. Williford of his Co., to decline laying down to load. He stood, loaded his gun, and fired as deliberately as if he had been shooting at a target for a wager. The Lieut. told him he had better lay down to load, or he would get shot. His reply was, "I reckon I know my business," and again raised his gun and deliberately lowered it upon his selected rebel. Soon the Lieut. saw him tumble over, and supposing he was killed, went to him. But he jumped up, and said he guessed he was not much hurt. He was shot in the shoulder, but he gathered up his musket and went to firing again. It was not long until another ball struck his pocket-book. He had some silver in it. The ball struck a silver half dollar, and mashed it up, driving it against his thigh, bruising it very much. Two or three buckshot were lodged in him. Still he stood firing away at the enemy. I might also say in this connection, that this same man, at the battle of Shiloh, when the Regiment ran out of ammunition and had to fall back for a new supply, fell in with some other Regiment; procured a supply of ammunition from some one, and went to fighting again. When that Regiment in turn fell back, he27 happened in with some other one, and there fought. In this way he spent the whole of that terrible Sabbath day. When he ceased fighting with any company, he was careful to go to the commander of it, and get a certificate, stating that he had been fighting with it. When he returned to his company in the evening, he had certificates from several Captains and one Colonel. He preserved these certificates, so that he might show, when he returned to his Regiment, that he had not been straggling, but fighting. He went into the fight on the next day, and was shot in the head. From this wound he recovered, but was afterwards discharged on account of it.

Another incident. Surgeon Gulick (then Assistant Surgeon) was taken prisoner by the "Texan Rangers," while attending to his duties in the hospital. He insisted, that being Surgeon, he should not be retained as a prisoner; that there were a large number of wounded men under his charge, and no one to care for them but himself. The rebels persisted, however, in taking him. They told him that they had some wounded men, and he must come and attend to them. One of them was leading his horse along, taking him back to where their wounded were. He was in the rear of a rebel Regiment. The man who led his horse was shot. The Doctor does not say by whom he was shot. He put spurs to his horse to make his escape. He had to ride through a rebel Regiment. A perfect shower of musket balls followed him. To increase his danger, our own soldiers supposing him to belong to a party of rebels making a charge, fired upon him from the front. He was riding Surgeon Hamilton's horse. Strapped to his saddle was a buffalo robe. He had often joked with Dr. Hamilton about having that tied on there as a protection when he would be making his escape from the enemy. Five balls passed into this robe, and were lodged among its folds. The Doctor made his escape; but thinks he would never attempt to make another such.

Still another incident, with which the Doctor was connected. After the battle at Fort Donelson, he was placed on board a steamer with 275 wounded men, and shoved out into the river, without any medicine, without anything for the men to eat, with no instruments but carpenter tools, and in that condition remained for three days. If he attempted to take off a limb, he had to use a common cook's knife for a dissecting knife, and a carpenter's saw to sever the bone. He had no bandages with which to wrap up the wounds, except he take the only shirt they had. This truly was a trying position in which to place a good surgeon.

Still another. The present color-bearer received a shot in the arm. The ball was lodged there. The Doctor cut the ball out, but he would28 not wait to have a bandage put on it, but snatched his musket and rushed to the fight again.

One more incident. At the battle of Fort Donelson a soldier of Co. K found in the knapsack of a Southern soldier, who had been killed in battle, the picture of a beautiful young lady. He carefully preserved it. At the battle of Shiloh, this soldier was killed. On examining his knapsack, to make the proper inventory of his goods, the Orderly of his company found this picture. He remembered the circumstance of its being found. He carefully preserved it. It was a great favorite with the boys in the company, and received the name of "The Daughter of Co. K." When the Regiment was on the march from Corinth to Athens, in November, 1863, it passed through the town of Pulaski, Tenn. As Lieut. Oats, of Co. K, was riding along the streets of Pulaski, he saw a young lady standing at the door of one of the residences of the town, whom he at once recognized as the original of the picture in possession of Co. K. Speaking of the matter to others in the company, they all agreed that this was the original. The Lieutenant learned afterwards, to a certainty, that it was the same. The picture still remained in his possession, until near the last of January, 1864. At the time Gen. Roddy's forces made a dash upon our camp, when the Regiment was nearly all out, the officers, as well as men, lost everything that was in their tents. Among other things, the picture of "The Daughter of Co. K," was taken. Its loss is much regretted by the boys.


CHAPTER IV.
FROM BATTLE OF SHILOH TO BATTLE AT CORINTH.

Trip up the Tennessee River—Remain on boat—Battle of Shiloh—Losses in this battle—Losses in 9th Regt. Ill. Inft.—List of killed and wounded—Advance upon Corinth—Pursuit—Officers commissioned—Garrison Rienzi.

Having ascended the Cumberland River, and ascertained that the enemy had evacuated all the prominent points on it, Gen. Grant now marshals his forces for a trip up the Tennessee River, hoping from it to reach Corinth, where the enemy were strongly fortifying themselves and collecting in great number.

The 9th Ill. Inft. was destined to take part in this expedition. Hence, it struck tents at Fort Sevier on the 6th March, 1862, and embarked, with camp and garrison equipage, on board the steamers "Lady Pike" and "Commercial." It moved down the Cumberland29 River on the morning of the 7th, and passed Fort Donelson on the 8th, reaching Paducah the same evening. It moved up the Tennessee on 10th March, and joined Gen. Grant's flotilla six miles above Fort Henry.

The trip up the Tennessee River, with this great army, is described by the boys, as grand beyond all description. There were, I believe, ninety-five steamboats loaded with soldiers. The weather was beautiful and pleasant. Bands of music were playing. Everything that was calculated to charm was there. Doubtless very many of this great multitude did not realize that in a short time so many of them must fall in the deadly conflict. The terrors to come were forgotten in the joys and grandeur of the hour.

This fleet, containing a grand army, reached Savannah, Tenn., on the 12th of March, 1862. Here the boats remained tied up until the 18th of March, when we moved up to Pittsburg Landing, disembarked and went into camp, one-quarter of a mile from the river, on the 19th. On the 23d, our camp was moved one-half mile further back from the river. At this point the 81st Ohio, and the 13th and 14th Missouri Infantry, were attached to the Brigade. The two latter were afterwards exchanged for the 22d Ohio and 66th Illinois Infantry.

On the 1st of April Col. Mersy was ordered to the command of the Brigade, in the place of Col. McArthur, who had been placed under arrest.

On the morning of the 6th, at daylight, the enemy made a furious attack on Gen. Prentiss' Division. The enemy moved forward in echelon by Divisions, point foremost, the evident intention being to break, by a furious attack, the centre of our line. But in this they did not succeed. Gen. Prentiss was compelled, however, to fall back a short distance to his supports. Here he gallantly maintained his position for a long time.

But my object in this sketch, is not to give an account of this terrible battle, but of the part the 9th Illinois took in it.

Our Division was held in reserve, and consequently did not reach the field of action until after noon. Col. McArthur had been released from arrest, and resumed command of his Brigade. Brig. Gen. W. H. L. Wallace relieved Major General Smith of the command of our Division, the latter being too unwell to do duty on the field. We were moved to the left of Prentiss' Division. On the way the Regiment met with hundreds of stragglers hastening in confusion to the sheltering cover of the river bank for protection. About fifty of these were pressed into our Regiment. Nearly all of them were killed or wounded during the day.

The Regiment held its place in the line for two hours, against a vastly30 superior force of the enemy. The 41st Ill. Inft. was on our right, and the 12th Ill. Inft. on our left. The latter Regiment fell back three hundred yards, after being exposed to the fire of the enemy for over an hour. Thus our left flank was exposed to a flank movement of the enemy. Of this they soon took advantage, and poured a murderous fire down the ravine which we occupied. After holding this position until a new line was formed, three hundred yards in the rear, the Regiment fell back hastily behind it. It was not long, however, until this line was broken by the terrible assault of the overwhelming forces of the enemy. A new line, of immense strength, was finally formed one-half mile from the landing. All the available artillery was gathered to this point; the victorious advance of the enemy was checked, and their masses for the first time during the day recoiled before the murderous discharges of grape and canister from one hundred iron throats.

Gen. Prentiss' Division not falling back soon enough to this new line, were completely surrounded, and compelled to surrender to the enemy. The Division numbered about 3,000 men.

After the repulse of the enemy at this point, no further attack was made, and night soon closed the conflict of the day. During the night the gunboats kept up a constant firing of 64-pound shells among the enemy, and finally compelled them to fall back six hundred yards. This gave our forces a fine chance to operate in the morning. During the night also, some 20,000 fresh troops from Buell's army were ferried across the river. Maj. Gen. Wallace's Division, from Crumpt's Landing, came up on the left flank of the enemy. So that on the morning of the 7th we had 20,000 fresh troops on the front of the enemy, our gunboats on their right, and Gen. Wallace's Division of 6,000 fresh troops on their left flank. The contest was not long. The enemy soon gave way. Then began a retreat which finally, at 3, P. M., became a perfect rout, as they fled in wild dismay toward their works at Corinth. The miserable condition of the roads prevented pursuit for more than half of the distance. Hence, we succeeded in capturing only 1,000 prisoners.

The entire Union loss in this engagement was, 1,700 killed, 9,000 wounded, and 3,800 taken prisoners. The rebel loss was about 2,300 killed, 12,000 wounded, and 1,000 taken prisoners. Total Union loss, 14,500. Total rebel loss, 15,800.

Here, in this one battle, were 4,000 American citizens left dead upon the battle-field, and 21,000 more wounded. By whom was this terrible destruction of life? Had some savage foe invaded our once happy and peaceful land? Ah, no! It was the hand of brother against brother; fellow-citizen against fellow-citizen! It arose on the one hand,31 from a determination to rivet tighter and tighter the chains of human bondage, even at the cost of the overthrow of that government under which our country has been so highly prospered; and on the other hand, from a determination that so good a government should not be overthrown to support any such unhallowed cause. Oh, the sadness of human strife, and especially when it arises from a family quarrel!

The loss of the 9th Ill. Inft. in this battle, was 61 killed on the field and 287 wounded. Among the killed, was Lieut. F. Vogler, of Co. B. Among the wounded, were Col. Mersy, Lieut. Col. Phillips, Adjutant Klock, Assistant Surgeon Gulick, Captains Adam, Kneffner, Beckier, Hawes, Webb, Armstrong and Robinson, and Lieutenants Rollmann, Scheel, Williford, Clements, Purviance, McCleery, (mortally,) Lowe and Krebs. Lieut. Krebs was severely wounded and taken prisoner.

The following is a list of the killed and wounded in the various companies, during this battle:

Company A.Killed, Sergt. Peter Schoppert, Corp. Joseph Brown, Privates George Andrea, Henry Glink, Ambrose Lamber and William Herrman. In all, 6 killed. Wounded, Capt. Emil Adam, Lieut. Oscar Rolmann, Sergt. Andrew Bastian, Corps. Anton Hund, Anton Schwertner and Henry Burmeister, Privates Friedrich Bremenkamp, Henry Brenner, John Baner, Erasmus Fries, Nickolaus Frank, Anton Gaulocher, (afterward died,) Ferdinand Hoas, Wm. Holl, Michael Hortweck, James Loehr, Charles Miller, Henry Mueller, August Meyer, Jacob Nickolaus, George Schaefer, Jacob Wehrli, Martin Weis, Jacob Duttenhoefer, Adam Schalter, Benidiekt Stranbinger, William Stahl, George Winter, Christian Rose, Nickolaus Vonburg, Friedrich Koch, Theodore Bachlg, Henry Tahncke, Chas. Ribke, Michael Braun and Andreas Sehuehman. In all, 36 wounded.

Company B.Killed, Lieut. F. E. Vogler, Sergt. John Schmidt, Privates Edward Dettmar, Albert Kineoke, Conrad Maul, John Mesh, Frank Scheffer and Henry Weber. In all, 8 killed. Wounded, Sergt. John Mallmann, Privates Lorenz Ackermann, Joseph Ammon, Mathias Arnold, Jacob Bauer, Morand Barrmann, George Betz, Gustar Blank, Joss. Cropp, Albert Donner, Frederick Entz, Amald Gerig, Charles Grin, Conrad Hellmuth, Gerhard Janssen, Valentin Kadel, August Lopold, Louis Linne, Paul Martin, Ignaz Menne, Sabastian Pfister, John Raffel, Peter Reppel, George Salz, Henry Schmidt, Jacob Spiess, Philipp Spiess, Corp. Hermann Suemnicht, Jacob Sulzer, Daniel Werner, Christ. Wickermann, Ferdinand Wisshack, Corp. Augustus Wurmb. In all, 33 wounded.

Company C.Killed, Wm. Klingenberg, John Lamprecht, George32 Lehr, Michael Lehr, Friedrich Lippert, Geo. Luther, Henry Riditer, Sergt. Chas. Hahle, Christian Schenk, Wm. Slorch and August Wichard. In all, 11 killed. Wounded, First Lieut. Oscar Rollmann, A. Arramus, Anton Becker, Henry Behm, Andrew Benci, Philipp Erbe, Chas. Friedrich, Wm. Gaebe, Jacob Haberkorn, John A. Helferich, Frank Helferich, Jacob Herpin, Christian Keith, Christian Macdel, Frank Moser, Andrew Nadber, Jacob Randall, Antoo Saebert, Charles Schenk, Fred. Scheve, Henry Schemph, Peter Schneider, Nicklaus Schouelber, John Spaule, John Salzmann, Freiderich Slaab, Henry Vishsel. In all, 27 wounded.

Company D.Killed, Jacob Becker, Charles Geesel, Henry Geesel, Adam Loebig, Christian Kahn, Adam Kertz, Jacob Kieps, Philip Laner, Albert Scheleberg, Schelz Tert, Wm. Vogelpohl and Henry Vohs. In all, 12 killed. Wounded, Capt. Beckier, Lieuts. Krebs and Scheal, John Baehr, Herman Bange, Isiter Bayett, Joseph Beck, Rudolph Bekier, Wm. Beeverson, Jos. Ersenhauer, Anlon Garllhoeffner, Fred. Havermann, Conrath Heidmann, Chas. Huber, Edward Krebs, William Lieser, Chas. Miller, George Metzker, C. Moeninger, C. Roth Roffy, Fried. Scheel, Os. Stocker, Bernhard Vogel, and Tweibert Henry. In all, 34 wounded.

Company E.Killed, Sergt. Silas Bunker, Privates John Anson, Frank M. Moore, Wm. D. Nevius, James McKenzie, John C. Cadie. In all, 6 killed. Wounded, Corps. Jas. G. Carnahan, Joseph R. Cox, and Philip Anderson, Privates Jas. M. Blake, Matthew Bromley, Geo. H. Campbell, Chas. Dryden, Michael Furlong, Daniel Hubbard, John W. Hay, Jos. B. Jones, Jas. Mahone, Geo. Meyer, Francis J. Murphy, Jesse Mack, John N. Shoemaker, Thos. Stalkal, Neal Vestal, Sergt. Lewis C. Bornman, Musician Samuel Williams, Wagoner Wm. Minor, Wm. Mock. In all, 22 wounded.

Company F.Killed, Sergt. And. J. Webster, Corps. Joshua Gear and Frank Pothast, Privates Demean McCulloch, John Chantick, Toliver Foster, Thos. Cox, Joseph Koontz, Geo. McLeish, Charles Hills, John W. Snofpr, Private of the 71st Ohio, name not known. In all, 13 killed. Wounded, Capt. Webb, Lieut. Geo. Williford, Sergts. Jos. C. Gales and R. N. Heinberger, Corp. And. J. White, Privates John B. Choenewith, Jas. Rodgers, James Duncan, N. B. Winters, John McCarter, John Stutfouth, John H. Lauchly, James Getty, Jos. L. Miller, James Hobbs, Wm. T. Miller, John H. Collins, M. N. Fisher, Harlow Bassett, Jas. M. Hickman, And. Grudin, Henry Grundin, R. Pimpkins, Geo. W. Warren, John M. Ticknor, Marcus Burns. In all, 26 wounded.

33Company G.Killed, David Jones, Alpheus Bascum, Jas. Walker, Thos. J. Ouly and Wm. H. Bascom. In all, 5 killed. Wounded, Lieut. Clemens, N. G. Poraine, John B. Russell, E. B. Rhoads, Wm. Hampton, John J. White, (afterwards died,) John W. Brown, Wm. L. Brown, N. G. Brown, Henry Brown, John J. Zippy, John J. Stripling, Wm. R. Bradley, Wm. Addison, Lewis R. Applegate Robert Marshall, Daniel Ryan, Thos. Stotlar, A. B. Suttin, W. S. White, John McCord, Lewis Wise, Jun., Allen Edwards, S. P. Hartsell, Charles W. Miller, Bennet Strotlar. In all, 26 wounded.

Company H.Killed, Sergt. Francis D. Hubbel, Will. R. Haller, Daniel C White, Thos. Wright. In all, 4 killed. Wounded, Captain W. F. Armstrong, Sergts. Daniel Pentzer and Jacob Miller, Privates Nickolaus Keller, Alonzo F. McEwen, Paul Roberts, Jas. W. Osborn, Sidney B. Phillips, John Arny, Wm. Boldeman, Dennis Bahon, Chas. Biernbrier, Wm. S. Cheeney, Wm. A. Cottingham, Ira G. Dart, John Droesch, Thos. Fry, Will. H. Ilsley, Wm. Keep, John B. Livingood, John F. Moore, Patrick Mogneham, Layfayette Mason, Jas. S. McGuillion, Edward Nail, George Ralph, Francis M. Stickel, Almon D. Simmons, Jos. E. Taulber, Moses H. Turner, Patrick Whalen, Erasmus Gaw, Jas. A. Clotpelter, George H. Dry, John Salzmann, and Daniel C. Carriker. In all, 36 wounded.

Company I.Killed, Nathan Abbot, John Bass, Reegon Edward, John N. Larance and Frederick Swartz. In all, 5 killed. Wounded, Captain Jos. G. Robinson, 1st Lieutenant Wm. H. Purviance, Sergt. W. W. Jarvis, Corp. G. W. Stice, Privates John Baird, Norman Barber, Isaiah Bery, G. W. Clark, Thomas C Gillham, Wm. Helms, Thomas Hauskins, John Jaka, S. B. Jarvis, Chas. C. Lewis, Albert Mills, Geo. McKinley, Chas. A. Redman, John Wilson and Henry Wormyer. In all, 19 wounded.

Company K.Killed, George Sloan, Wm. Foster, Jas. L. Kriddler, Thos. Walton. In all, 4 killed. Wounded, John Richmond, Samuel W. Sloan, Geo. W. Burton, Sen., Geo. W. Burton, Jun., John Burke, Chas. W. Boles, Henderson Cogdall, John L. Creed, John Clifford, Wm. A. Carding, Frank F. Cogles, John Horn, Thos. J. Hagler, Laro May, Sam'l L. Miller, Robert E. Ramsey, Jonathan Stone, and Chas. L. Tomlinson. In all, 18 wounded.

The terrible conflict which was endured by the 9th Ill. Inft., in this battle, will be seen from the number of killed and wounded. There was present for duty when the Regiment went into the engagement, 570 men. Of these 348 were killed and wounded, and ten were captured. One commissioned officer was killed, and 19 wounded. Only four34 commissioned officers were left unhurt. I heard one of the soldiers who was present at the time, say, that when they ceased fighting on Sabbath evening, there were 70 men in line for duty, out of the whole Regiment. It is said that Col. Mersy, when the Regiment was first drawn up in line after the battle was over, shed tears, saying, "Vel, vel; dis is all dat is left of my little Nint!" It must have been a sad sight to see a Regiment, which numbered over 1,000 men when at Paducah a few month's previous, cut down to this small number. But such is war.

Such was the battle of Shiloh, and such the part taken in it by the 9th Ill. Inft. The writer well remembers the feeling which prevailed in the North with reference to it. There was rejoicing over it as a victory. Still it was regarded as a dearly bought victory. There was a very decided feeling that somebody was at fault. That the rebels had completely surprised our army. That our pickets were out but a very short distance. Hence, the surprise. Gen. Grant, as chief in command, was faulted. It was charged that he was drunk at the time. That he had disobeyed orders, and landed his men on the wrong side of the river, etc. I heard a citizen of Chicago, not a month ago, say that if Gen. Grant had made his appearance in Chicago immediately after the battle of Shiloh, he would have been mobbed, such was the feeling of indignation.

It is not my province here to write a defense of Gen. Grant. Nor is it needed. His own brilliant career since that, has set him right in the minds of the people. A man who has captured more prisoners and more guns than the world-renowned warrior, Napoleon Bonaparte, certainly does not need, at this day, a written defense of his military career. Suffice it to say, the officers and men who fought under him, even at Shiloh, become restless if a word is said against him.

Immediately after this battle, Gen. Halleck, who had charge of the South-Western Department of the army, with his "Head Quarters" at St. Louis, left that place for the field of strife and took command of the army in person. Expectation was high in the North. It was thought that now surely the rebels will be "pushed to the wall." Never since the war broke out, has there been such intense anxiety in the North-west, as that which filled the public mind during the time which intervened between the battle of Shiloh and the evacuation of Corinth. Many hearts were sad over friends who fell at Shiloh. Every days' news was anxiously awaited, expecting it to bring an account of another terrible conflict. The suspense was long and painful. When the news finally came that Corinth was ours, but that the enemy had35 evacuated it, there was a feeling of sadness ran through the public mind. They were not prepared for that. They were prepared to hear of many slain in the effort to take Corinth, but not to hear that the enemy had fled and was out of reach.

The 9th Ill. Inft. remained in camp on the battle-ground of Shiloh, exposed to all the sickening influences of the nearness of so many dead animals, as well as offensive odor arising from the shallow and imperfect burial, which necessarily had to be given to so great a multitude of dead. In conversation with a citizen from Illinois, who visited the battle-ground a week or ten days after the battle, I learned from him that the offensive smell of the dead was almost insufferable. That, together with the diet upon which the soldiers had to live, produced disease to an alarming extent. Here the Regiment remained in camp until the 29th of April, over three weeks. On that day it removed, with camp and garrison equipage, towards Corinth ten miles, and bivouacked. It moved forward again on the 30th, five miles further, and went into camp. Here the Regiment had muster and inspection by Col. Mersy commanding.

Here Brig. Gen. R. J. Oglesby took command of our Brigade, in place of Col. McArthur who was severely wounded in the late battle, Brig. Gen. T. A. Davies took command of our Division, in place of Gen. W. H. L. Wallace who was mortally wounded.

On the first of May, moved camp five miles further towards Corinth, and remained there until the 4th of May. On that day removed to Monterey, Miss., and went into camp a little West of that town, and remained there until the 8th of May, when another forward movement was made, to within seven miles of Corinth, finding no enemy.

The country here is very poor and broken, and water very scarce and unfit for use. A great many of the men were sick with the Diarrhea and Typhoid Fever. The Regiment remained here until the 14th of May, when it moved two miles further in the direction of Corinth.

The Division moved forward again on the 16th, about one mile, and formed a line, with Brig. Gen. Hurlbut's Division on our right. On the 17th, moved forward again one mile, and one-half mile on the 19th. This brought our line within two and a-half miles of Corinth, and within range of 32-pounder rifled guns. None were fired, however, and the plain inference was, that the enemy had none. On the 21st of May, our line advanced 400 yards, and again on the 29th 400 yards more. The pressure now became so heavy, that the enemy evacuated Corinth, and moved Southward toward Okolona.

Thus it will be seen, our army was just one month moving from36 Pittsburg Landing to Corinth, a distance of about thirty miles. Just one mile per day. And this after having remained 22 days in camp, before leaving the battle-ground. This, too, in pursuit of a fleeing enemy. It will be difficult ever to convince the country that this great delay was necessary. And yet many military men, who were present, regard it as a master-piece of Generalship. The country through which this vast army must pass, was entirely uncultivated. No army could have subsisted in it, even for a few days. Had our army advanced rapidly, they were exposed to a flank movement which would have thrown the enemy between them and the river, and cut off, as a natural consequence, our supplies. That done, and our whole army would have been at the mercy of the enemy. There was certainly great caution. But it was thought it was all needed.

When an advance was made, after halting, in an incredibly short time, breast-works were thrown up to prepare for an attack. It is amusing, even now, to hear the boys laughing at their expertness with the spade. They all turned out to be pretty good Irishmen, so far as the use of the spade is concerned.

Immediately upon the evacuation of Corinth, Gen. Davies' Division, to which the 9th Ill. Inft. belonged, was ordered, with Gen. Pope's army, in pursuit of the fleeing enemy. The rapidity with which that pursuit was prosecuted, will be seen from the following record of our daily marches. Is it to be wondered at that they were not overtaken? On the first day we moved out five miles, and bivouacked for the night near Farmington. Moved forward again on the 31st, three miles, and went into camp on the Mobile and Ohio Railroad. Here we remained in camp until the 5th of June.

The following events occurred while in camp here: On the 1st of June the Regiment was paid for the months of January, February, March and April, 1862.

On the 2d of June commissions arrived as follows: First Lieut. James C. McClery, to be Captain Co. K; 2d Lieut. G. G. Low, to be 1st Lieut. Co. K; and Sergt. James Oats, to be 2d Lieut. Co. K. Sergeant Mallmann, to be 2d Lieut. Co. B; and Sergt. Gottlab, to be 2d Lieut. Co. A.

On the 5th of June we again moved forward, eight miles, and went into camp. On the 6th, moved forward and went into camp near Boonville, Miss. Here we remained until the 12th of June. General Davies, commander of the Division, being absent on sick-leave, General Oglesby was in command of the Division; Col. Mersy of the Brigade, and Major Kuhn of the Regiment.

37On the 12th of June, the Regiment moved on its return towards Corinth, fifteen miles, and went into camp. On the 13th, moved again and occupied its old camping ground two and a-half miles south of Corinth.

On the 17th of June, Col. Wright, of the 22d Ohio, being senior Colonel, relieved Col. Mersy of the command of the Brigade, and Col. Mersy went home on sick-leave.

The Regiment remained in camp here until August 16th, 1862. During this time the following changes occurred: Captain Webb resigned, and his resignation was accepted July 15th, 1862. Lieutenant Purviance, of Co. I, was discharged August 16th, for inability from wounds received in action at Shiloh.

On the 16th of August, in compliance with orders from Gen. Davies, Division commander, the Regiment moved, with camp and garrison equipage, to Rienzi, and reported for duty to Brig. Gen. Granger, commanding at that place, by whom it was assigned to Col. Schaeffer, commanding 2d Brigade.

Regimental Quartermaster, W. G. Pinckard, was promoted to be Captain and Assistant Quartermaster, to rank from April 30th, 1862.

There are some incidents during the period covered by this chapter worthy of note. During the battle of Shiloh, Lieut. Col. Phillips was wounded. It occurred late on Sabbath evening. He says the only time he had ever been scared since he has been in the army, was when they were carrying him off the battle-field wounded. The thought occurred to him, that now there was almost six feet exposed to the fire of the enemy instead of one foot, forgetting for the time, that while his body occupied an additional space horizontally, it did not occupy so much perpendicularly, as when he was on his horse.


CHAPTER V.38
FROM THE ATTACK ON CORINTH, OCT. 3D, 1862, UNTIL REGIMENT WAS MOUNTED.

Rebels prepare to attack Corinth—Order of battle—Result of the attack on the 3d of October—New line of battle at "White House"—Line at "Battery Robinett"—Slaughter on the 4th of October—Extracts from a Rebel prisoner's journal—List of killed and wounded—Outpost duty.

The Rebel leaders were not satisfied that our forces should occupy Corinth, uninterruptedly. Hence, in the Fall of 1862 active preparations were made by them to attack that place. A heavy force, under Generals Price and VanDorn, was fitted up for this purpose. The time was drawing near when our boys must endure another of those terrible struggles, two of which they had already passed through.

As I have said, the Regiment had been doing outpost duty at Rienzi, from the 16th of August until the last of September. On the 20th of September, Col. Schaeffer's Brigade, with which our Regiment had been temporarily united, moved Northward, leaving the 9th Ill. and the 59th Indiana, to hold the place. On the 1st of October the 9th Ill. moved toward Corinth, and bivouacked for the night seven miles South of our old camp near Corinth. Moved again, on the 2d of October, and came to the old familiar camp, at noon. Here we occupied our old position again, reporting to General Oglesby, who commanded the Brigade.

On the morning of October 3d, 1862, the Regiment was marched out in its proper position for the terrible conflict, The following order will show the position it occupied during the fight. It was moved out two miles North-west of Corinth, to the old rifle-pits of the rebels. Our Brigade was on the left of the 2d Division. The 6th Division was on our left. On the right of the 6th Division, was the 3d Brigade of the 2d Division, (Col. Baldwin commanding,) which had been temporarily attached to that Division. Gen. McArthur commanded the 6th Division; Gen. Davies the 2d Division, and Gen. Hamilton the Ohio Division. This latter Division was held in reserve. Immediately on our right was the 1st Brigade of the 2d Division. Such was the position our Brigade occupied at the opening of this terrible conflict.

The enemy made their first attack upon Gen. McArthur's Division, which was placed immediately upon our left. After a short resistance,39 Col. Baldwin's Brigade, placed on the right of that Division, gave way and fell back in confusion. This uncovered and exposed to the enemy our left flank. Soon the enemy came through the large gap thus made, and attacked us simultaneously in the front and rear. The 81st Ohio, placed upon the left of our Brigade, gave way and moved in confusion and disorder to the right and rear, followed very soon by the 12th Ill., and then the 9th moved in the same manner.

In attempting to check the too hasty advance of the Rebels, the 9th Ill. lost Capt. Britt, killed, and the two Captains Lowe, and Lieutenants Hughes and Uleu, together with 53 enlisted men, captured.

Gen. Hackleman's Brigade covered our retreat, and we fell back and formed a new line at the "White House." The Brigades occupied the same order in this line as in the former one. Here the advance of the enemy was checked, until darkness put a stop to the conflict for this day.

During the night our line was drawn back to Battery "Robinett." Just before daylight, on the morning of the 4th of October, the enemy cheered by their success of yesterday; opened from a four-gun battery, on the town, compelling our wounded to leave for safer quarters. A General Hospital was established one mile out on the M. & C. R. R. where all the wounded were removed. Before they could all be removed, one or two of them had been killed by the rebel shells in the Tishomingo House. At daylight, the action became general all along our lines. The Rebel columns made desperate charges, and were as often repulsed.

General Oglesby, commanding our Brigade, was wounded the day previous, and Col. Mersy assumed command of the Brigade. Major Kuhn, of our Regiment, was also disabled, and Captain Hawes assumed command of the Regiment during the fight on the 4th of October.

The slaughter of the enemy, in the efforts to capture "Battery Robinett," was terrific. A true picture of the ground, taken ere the dead were removed, shows the ground to be literally covered with the dead, often lying one upon another.

The struggle lasted until about 10 A. M., when the Rebel line was broken, and their whole army retreated in confusion and disorder. Thus ended another of those terrible conflicts which have marked the history of this war. The conflict was fierce and determined on both sides. Our forces were under the command of Gen. Rosecrans. Those of the enemy were under Generals Price and VanDorn. It was regarded a matter of vital importance, at that time, for our forces to hold that place. The importance which the Rebels attached to the work of re-taking it, and the desperate struggle they made in order to do it, will be seen40 from some extracts which I will here make from the journal of a Rebel prisoner, Lieut. Labruzan, of the 42d Regt. Ala. A copy of his notes, taken as the battle progressed, and after he was captured, was obtained by some of the boys in our Regiment, and I have thus secured access to it. The following extract will show the position the enemy occupied on the day before the battle commenced:

"Thursday, Oct. 2d.—The bridge finished about 10 o'clock, when we took up the line of march. We marched right in front, which brought our Regt. near the head of the column. Generals VanDorn and Villipigue were ahead about two or three miles. The army here is fully 25,000 men under command of Gen. VanDorn, who outranks Gen. Price. Brig. Gen. Moore commanded our Brigade of five Regiments. Our Division is commanded by Brig. Gen. Manny."

I omit here a portion of his notes as to the march during the day, and the manner in which he spent the night of the 2d October. It would be interesting to give the whole of this extract from his journal, but it would occupy too much space. It would enable us to view that great battle from a rebel stand-point. Of the first day of the fight, he writes thus:

"Friday, Oct. 3d.—Reveille by the bugle at 4 A. M. Were marching by 4 . Crossed into Mississippi at 7 A. M. Marched just on the border for some miles. At 6  heard some artillery firing. Three miles ahead, skirmishing, which was kept up until after we crossed the M. & C. R. R., which was at 9  A. M. Saw a Regiment skirmishing in a field just below us. The artillery kept up a constant fire about three times a minute. Our Brigade, under Gen. Moore, marching into the woods, formed, a line of battle, our right resting on the Railroad. We had not waited more than fifteen minutes, when heavy skirmishing was heard about a half mile in front, with steady and increasing cannonading. Two men from each company were detailed to attend to the wounded, &c. We left blankets and knapsacks here. About 10 o'clock our Brigade marched forward through a corn-field, and formed into a line within a half mile of the enemy. Heavy firing just in front. Saw a Major who was wounded."

He proceeds, thus to speak of the fight of the 3d; but I will not follow him further, on that day. Let us hear him describe the scene of the 4th:

"Saturday, Oct. 4th.—An awful day. At 4 o'clock, before day, our Brigade was ordered to the left about one-fourth of a mile, and halted, throwing out lines of skirmishers, which kept up a constant fire. A Battery in front of the right of our Regiment opened briskly, and the enemy replied the same. The cannonading was heavy for an hour and a half. Our Regiment lay down close, and stood it nobly. The shell flew thick and fast, cutting off large limbs and filling the air with fragments. Many burst within 20 feet, and the pieces popped within 2 or 3 feet. It was extremely unpleasant, and I prayed for forgiveness of41 my sins, and made up my mind to go through. Col. Sawier called for volunteers to assist the 2d Texas skirmishers. I volunteered, and took my company. Captain Perkins and Lieutenant Wumson being taken sick directly after the severe bombardment, I had the Co. all the time. I went skirmishing at 7 , and returned at 9  o'clock. We got behind trees and logs, and the way the bullets did fly, was unpleasant to see. I think 20 must have passed within a few feet of me, humming prettily. Shells tore off large limbs and splinters. Struck my tree several times. We could only move from tree to tree, and bending low to the ground, while moving. Oh, how anxiously I watched for the bursting of the shells when the heavy roar of the cannon proclaimed their coming. At 9  o'clock I had my skirmishers relieved, by Captain Rouse's Company. Sent my men to their places, and went behind a log with Major Furges. At 10 o'clock, suddenly the fight fairly opened, with heavy volleys of musketry and the double thundering cannon. This was on the right. In a few minutes the left went into action in splendid style. At 10  o'clock, Col. Rogers came up by us, only saving "Alabama forces." Our Regiment, with the Brigade rose, unmindful of the shell or shot, and moved forward, marching about 250 yards and rising the crest of a hill. The whole of Corinth, with its enormous fortifications, burst upon our view. The U. S. flag was floating over the forts and in town. We were now met by a perfect storm of grape, cannister, cannon balls and Minnie balls. Oh, God! I have never seen the like! The men fell like grass, even here. Giving one tremendous cheer, we dashed to the bottom of the hill on which the fortifications are situated. Here we found every foot of ground covered with large trees and brush, cut down to impede our progress. Looking to the right and left, I saw several Brigades charging at the same time. What a sight was there. I saw men running at full speed, stop suddenly and fall upon their faces, with their brains scattered all around. Others, with legs and arms cut off, shrieking with agony. They fell behind, beside, and within a few feet of me. I gave myself to God, and got ahead of my company. The ground was literally strewed with mangled corpses. One ball passed through my pants, and they cut twigs right by me. It seemed, by holding out my hand I could have caught a dozen. They buzzed and hissed by me in all directions, but I still pushed forward. I seemed to be moving right in the mouth of cannon, for the air was filled with hurling grape and cannister. Ahead was one continuous blaze. I rushed to the ditch of the fort, right between some large cannon. I grappled into it, and half way up the sloping wall. The enemy were only three or four feet from me on the other side, but could not shoot us for fear of having their heads blown off. Our men were in the same predicament. Only 5 or 6 were on the wall, and 30 or 40 in and around the ditch. Catesby on the wall by my side. A man within two feet of me, put his head cautiously up, to shoot into the fort. But he suddenly dropped his musket, and his brains were dashed in a stream over my fine coat, which I had in my arms, and on my shirt sleeves. Several were killed here, on top one another, and rolled down the embankment in ghastly heaps. This was done by a Regiment42 of Yankees coming about 40 yards on our left, after finding us entirely cut off, and firing into us. Several of our men cried "put down the flag," and it was lowered, or shot into the ditch. Oh, we were butchered like dogs, as we were not supported. Some one placed a white handkerchief on Sergeant Buck's musket, and he took it to a port hole. But the Yankees snatched it off and took him prisoner. The men fell 10 at a time. The ditch being full, and finding we had no chance, the survivors tried to save themselves as best they could. I was so far up, I could not get off quickly. I do not recollect of seeing Catesby after this, but think he got off before. I trust in God he has. I and Capt. Foster started together, and the air was literally filled with hissing balls. I got about 20 steps, as quick as I could, about a dozen being killed in that distance. I fell down and scrambled behind a large stump. Just then, I saw poor Foster throw up his hands, and saying "Oh, my God!" jumped about two feet from the ground, falling on his face. The top of his head seemed to cave in, and the blood spouted straight up several feet. I could see men fall as they attempted to run, some with their heads to pieces, and others with the blood streaming from their backs. It was horrible. One poor fellow being almost on me, told me his name, and asked me to take his pocket-book if I escaped and give it to his mother, and tell her that he died a brave man. I asked him if he was a Christian, and told him to pray, which he did, with the cannon thundering a deadly accompaniment. Poor fellow. I forgot his request in the excitement. His legs were literally cut to pieces. As our men returned, the enemy poured in their fire, and I was hardly 30 feet from the mouth of the cannon. Minnie balls filled the stump I was behind, and the shells bursted within three feet of me. One was so near it stunned me, and burned my face with powder. The grape-shot hewed large pieces off my stump, gradually wearing it away. I endured the horrors of death here for half an hour, and endeavored to resign myself and prayed. Our troops formed in line in the woods, and advanced a second time to the charge with cheers. They began firing when about half way, and I had to endure it all. I was feigning death. I was right between our own and the enemies fire. In the first charge our men did not fire a gun, but charged across the ditch, and to the very mouth of the cannon, with the bayonet. So also the second charge, but they fired. Thank God, I am unhurt, and I think it was a merciful Providence. Our troops charged by, when I seized a rifle and endeavored to fire it several times, but could not, for the cap was bad. Our boys were shot down like hogs, and could not stand it, and fell back each man for himself. Then the same scene was enacted as before. This time the Yankees charged after them, and as I had no chance at all, and all around me were surrendering, I was compelled to do so, as a rascal threatened to shoot me. I had to give up my sword to him. He demanded my watch also. Took it; but I appealed to an officer, and got it back. I had no means of defending myself for the first time in many years. I cried to see our brave men slaughtered so, and thought where Catesby might be. I have never felt so in all my life. It is now said that our Brigade43 was never ordered to charge such a place, and that it was a mistake. If so, it was a sad one. Being brought behind the works we found three Regiments drawn up in line, and all of them were fighting our 42d Alabama alone. I helped to carry a wounded man to the Depot, with Lieutenants Marshall, Contra and Preston, they being the only unhurt officers who were prisoners from our Regiment. We and the privates were soon marched to a large house, having a partition for the officers. The men, about 400, in next room. I heard firing again, but I fear we can do nothing. We are treated very politely—more so than I had expected."

Perhaps the reader is now ready to ask what this long extract from a secesh officer's journal, has to do with the history of the 9th Ill. Inft. Well, it is not very intimately connected with it. But it has been preserved by the boys in the Regiment, and all agree that it gives a very correct account of that terrible battle. It has, however, this connection with our history: It shows the desperate nature of that struggle, in which our boys took so active a part. It shows that they had a foe to contend with, full of courage and who fought with desperation.

It was truly a terrible battle. One officer who was on the ground, told me that he at one time thought the rebels would succeed in driving us out.

The loss sustained by the 9th Regt. Ill. Inft. in this terrible conflict, was 20 killed and 82 wounded. Captain Britt was among the killed. The following officers were among the wounded: Major Kuhn, Adjt. Klock, Captains Kneffner and Robinson, and Lieutenants Rollmann, Williford, Clements and Cowgill. There were 57 captured, including Captains E. M. and G. G. Low, and Lieutenants S. T. Hughs and B. L. Ulen.

The following is a list of the killed and wounded, in the various companies:

Company A.Killed, Charles Gibrich—1. Wounded, William Kortkamp—1.

Company B.Killed, Joseph Cropp and Jacob Sulzer.—2. Wounded, Captain Kneffner, Anton Weenstroth, Sergeant John Eichenberger, Corporal Louis Fisher, Paul Geist, Ed. Hoffmann, George Jenne, Nicholaus Meyer, Jos. Noelsner, George Salz, Daniel Werner, Sergeant Augustus Wurmb. In all, 12 wounded.

Company C.Killed, Corporal John Fangemann, and Frederich Hugenberg.—2. Wounded, 1st Lieutenant Oscar Rollman, 2d Lieut. Charles Sheve, Privates John Miller, Peter Schneider, John Frietz, Christian Jackob, Christian Maedel, Henry Behm, and Jacob Herpein. In all, 9 wounded.

44Company D.Killed, Jacob Berthold, Hy. Borchording, John Smith, Christ Truting, Louis Truttman. In all, 5 killed. A number were slightly wounded—names not given.

Company E.Wounded, Corporal Francis J. Murphy, Privates William T. Grimley, Jack L. Stevens, James F. Williams, James Malone, John Lill, John Beatty, William P. Kelley, Neal Vestal. In all, 9 wounded.

Company F.Killed, Captain William Britt, Privates John O. Foeshee, and Fred. Weggourd. In all, 3 killed. Wounded, Sergt. W. C. Hawly, Corp. James Fiske, Private William Miller. In all, 3 wounded.

Company G.Killed, Alferd Bartley and John McCord. In all, 2 killed. Wounded, Lieutenant I. Clements, Henry Brown, James A. Peragin, William J. Heglar, Robert Marshall, N. G. Brown. In all, 6 wounded.

Company H.Killed, Sam'l Giesinger, John B. Livingood, Sebastian Swendeman. In all, 3 killed. Wounded, 1st Lieutenant C. H. Gilmore, 2d Lieutenant A. Cowgill, James Brady, William S. Boone, Dennis Bahon, Charles Biernbrier, William A. Cottingham, Robert Finley, Israel Haller, Charles H. Newcomb, George W. Quails, Wm. Reckord, Francis M. Stickle, O. W. Boutwell, Venice C. Haller, Ambrose J. Shelton, Jos. W. Warren. In all, 17 wounded.

Company I.Wounded, Thomas Pat, William Baird, John Jaka, James Lang, Jos. E. Stringer. In all, 5 wounded.

Company K.Killed, James Ulen.—1. Wounded, George Myers, Levi Gibbs, Henry Stanger, John Burke, Charles W. Boles, Jos N. Coneden, Peter Hall, Sam'l C. Ulen, Frank M. Winsted. In all, 9 wounded.

The enemy driven from Corinth, our Regiment was again thrown out on the front, a position it had been occupying for some time before the battle. On the 8th of October, it moved South to Danville, Miss., and on the next day the left wing, Companies K, I, H, G, and F, moved on to Rienzi. Col. Mersy took command of all the troops at Rienzi, and Lieut. Col. Phillips, who had now rejoined the Regiment, after his severe wound at Shiloh, of the forces at Danville. The Regiment, with other troops of the 2d Brigade, performed outpost duty at the above named places until the 28th of November, 1862, when they returned and went into camp at Corinth, Miss.

On the 12th of December, the Regiment moved Southward again, going within five miles of Tupelo, Miss., and returned to camp at Corinth on the 19th of the same month; Col. Mersy being in command45 of the 2d Brigade, and Lieut. Col. Phillips in command of the Regiment.

On the 2d day of January, 1863, we moved three and a half miles East of Monterey, and bivouacked for the night, and returned to camp the next day; Gen. Forrest and his command having escaped across the river. The Regiment remained in camp until March, not having much duty, except guard duty.

During the period embraced in this chapter, some interesting incidents occurred. As I mentioned above, the two Captains Low, and Lieutenant Hughs, together with a considerable number of privates, were taken prisoners. I have given extensive extracts from the journal of a Rebel prisoner, showing the horrors of the battle-field. It may not be amiss to refer to some things connected with the prison-life of some of our boys, who were captured in this battle at Corinth.

The scene, as described by Captain G. G. Low, to the writer, beggars description. The horrors of their retreat was terrible. The Captain thinks if Napoleon's retreat from Moscow was much more terrible, he does not know how it was endured at all. But I shall here allow the Captain to speak for himself, by giving extracts from a written statement, which he kindly furnished me, of his prison-life:

"On the morning of the 3d of October, 1862, our Regiment received orders to move early in the morning. We had moved up the day before from Rienzi, to within 2  miles of Corinth. As we approached Corinth, we could occasionally hear the boom of distant cannon. Conjecture was rife as to what it meant, so little did we expect an action. We passed through Corinth, and to the outer works on the West of it. Sometime before we obtained our position behind the rifle-pits, three had been heavy fighting on our left. We took our position here, feeling confident we could hold it against a vastly superior force. The enemy were gradually approaching from the front, and our line was being engaged, when I noticed a panic in my company. I was on the extreme left of our Regiment. Many of my men broke out of the ditch and started back. I ordered every man back to his place. They told me the 12th Ill. and 81st Ohio were running. I told them it mattered not; we would stay there until we were ordered away. I saw a change of front was necessary, and expected to hear the order to change front to rear, on first company. But it did not come. Soon after, I heard the order to move by the right flank; but it was too late. Already the enemy were in our rear. I saw it would be death for my men to attempt to leave their position, and I surrendered with seventeen of my command.

"We were moved back about three-fourths of a mile. I found that Captain C. M. Lowe and Lieutenant L. T. Hughes of our Regiment, were captured. We were placed under guard at or near a house. Here a woman abused us very much. She insisted that Captain Lowe was the mean Yankee that was there the night before and stole her46 chickens. The Captain assured her that he had never been there before, and that she must be mistaken. She was certain he was the man, and had it not been for the guard, she would have pitched into him rough-shod. I think she was as hard a specimen of the fair-sex as I have ever seen in the Sunny South; and I have seen many that outraged decency and forever disgraced the name of woman.

"After the excitement of the battle was over, or rather of the scenes through which we passed that day, we had time to reflect. Here we were, prisoners of war, held by a motley set of human beings that, as far as outward appearances were concerned, would be a disgrace to barbarians. I wondered, "Is this the boasted chivalry of the South, sent out to fight the hated poor men of the North, the 'mud-sills' and 'greasy mechanics?'" When I saw my poor boys, dressed in their blue uniform, contrasted with these rag-a-muffins, I felt proud of them.

"The "Rebs" had great stories to tell us. Bragg had captured Louisville and all Buell's army. Lee had captured Little Mac. and 40,000 prisoners. Governor Gamble, of Missouri, had turned over 40,000 troops, well armed and equipped, to the Southern Confederacy; and they had come with 70,000 men to capture Corinth, and drive Grant out of West Tennessee, and the war would be over in a few days. All were jubilant.

"At night, we moved in the woods about a mile, and were consoled with a lot of wounded of both armies. About 9 o'clock at night, the news came back that they had captured Corinth, and we would be moved up there in the morning. About this time, Col. Prevene, of a South Carolina Regiment, came to see us, (he was a Mason,) and took Capt. Lowe and myself outside the lines and had a long talk with us. He assured us that Corinth was not taken, and that it would not be; and further, that Gen. VanDorn was (to use his own language) a d—d fool for attacking the place. To-night we had nothing to eat, except a cup of coffee that a Rebel Lieutenant made for us. I furnished the coffee. We passed a restless night.

"The morning of the 4th dawned, and was ushered in with the boom of heavy cannon. This assured us that the place was not taken, but that they had approached very near it, as we could hear the guns of the forts. The cannonading and musketry was incessant from daylight until about 1 P. M. At that time, orders came to move us back to the rear. We took up our line of march to Dixie. Although we were prisoners in the hands of the enemy, yet we were jubilant. We knew they had been repulsed; that the stars and stripes had again been triumphant; and though we had a prison-life, and even starvation staring us in the face, yet there was not a man despondent. We were then suffering for something to eat, but we knew the "rebs." were suffering even more than we were; for they had nothing to eat when they attacked Corinth, and their only hope for something, was the capture of the place. In this they had failed. The retreat soon became a rout. Neither tongue nor pen can describe the sufferings during that memorable retreat. Wagons, with six mules attached, were filled with the wounded and dying, and the cowardly drivers whipping their mules47 at every jump. The groans of the dying and the curses of the wounded were enough to make the knees of terror tremble. One would think, that if human suffering would expiate the crime of treason, all this army should be forgiven; for they suffered from hunger, thirst, fatigue, and all the ills that follow a defeated, routed, broken and disheartened army. I could not help feeling sorry for the panic stricken wretches.

"At night, we camped about twelve miles from Corinth, on a little branch. I had coffee enough to make us a cup apiece. This, and a few crumbs of crackers, was all we had for twelve of us—eight Federal officers and four Rebel officers." (It will be remembered they had had nothing to eat the day before, and very little on the preceding day.) "We camped near a house, and there was a rooster, the only chicken left on the premises. We offered five dollars for it. The woman would not let us have it.

"On the morning of the 5th of October, we again moved, escorted by a company of the Rebel Jackson's cavalry, under command of Capt. Douglass. Let me mention here, that Capt. D. did all in his power to make his prisoners comfortable. While we were being marched back on the afternoon of the 4th, an aid of Gen. VanDorn's rode up and told him to move the prisoners faster. He said, 'If I move them faster they will fall down from exhaustion.' The aid replied, 'Let them fall, and be d—d. Shoot them if you cannot get them along.' But the Captain took his own gait, and treated all kindly. As we marched along this forenoon we saw a great number of their wounded on all sides of the road. About 1 o'clock we came in sight of Hatchie Bridge. We halted for a few moments, and soon we heard fighting in front of us. We were taken back about one mile, and halted in a hollow. We had been there but a few moments, when rifle shells came whistling in such close proximity that we had to retire further back. Soon we saw the Rebel mass come running back in, if possible, greater confusion than the day before. They thought the whole Rebel army would be captured. They took up the Hatchie about ten miles and crossed us, and we halted about 12 o'clock that night, near Ruckersville, Miss. Here they killed a beef weighing about 300 pounds, for the 300 prisoners and their guards, in all over 400. We had had nothing to eat that day but raw corn. We ate the beef without salt.

"On the morning of the 6th, we started towards Ripley, without anything else to eat. Arriving at that place late in the afternoon, they gave us a very little to eat, perhaps rations enough for fifty men. On the following morning we moved in the direction of Holly Springs, Miss. The day was very hot and the roads dusty. Add to this, the suffering from hunger, and it would be hard to describe the amount of suffering the men endured. We camped at night near a Mr. Robinson's. (To-day we had to march about nine miles out of the way, on account of some one destroying a bridge in the rear of the retreating army.) The officers got a very good supper at Mr. R.'s, by paying one dollar each, in Greenbacks. He would not take anything else. The men got but little to eat.

"On the morning of the 7th, the officers hired a team to take them48 to Holly Springs, for which they paid $20. We arrived there at 11 o'clock at night. Here we were taken to Col. Roddy's Head Quarters, He said he was surprised that we, being North-western men, were fighting Southern men. Captain Lowe told him that we were not in a condition to resent an insult, and did not wish to be insulted. This ended the conversation.

"The next evening we started by Railroad, under guard, for Jackson, Miss., arriving there about 10 A. M., on the 9th of October. Here we were taken before General Thillman, and paroled for that city and Vicksburg. We had good rooms at the best hotel in Jackson. On the morning of the 10th we took cars for Vicksburg. On this trip We had no guard, except one Rebel Captain. We arrived at Vicksburg about 1 o'clock, and were quartered at the 'Washington Hotel.' We were limited to certain streets. Otherwise we had our liberty. Our fare at the hotel was corn bread, corn coffee, fresh beef and molasses. The ladies were allowed wheat-bread, and when the darkies could do so without being detected by their master, they would supply us with that luxury. On the whole, we were treated pretty well by the 'Rebs.' We found them generally dispirited; but said they thought they never could be conquered, &c.

"On the 18th of October, we were paroled, and started up the river to meet our flag of truce boat. The sight of the old flag and hard bread created great joy among our men. Hard treatment, under a flag of treason, had endeared the old flag to them. A scanty supply of corn bread, and beef without salt, made 'hard tack' look and taste like the best food cooked. On the morning of the 19th of October, 1862, we took our course up the river for 'God's country.'"

A little incident narrated by Private Neal Vestal, of Co. E, who was taken prisoner at the same time with Captain Lowe, is worth noting. When the Rebs. were attacked by General Hurlbut, at the Hatchie on the 5th of October, and a panic was arising, a Rebel Captain passing by Neal, he inquired, good naturedly, "Well, Captain, what are you going to do with us now?" His reply was, "If I had my way, I would shoot you." At which Neal replied, "I bet six bits that man was not in the fight." At this response went up all along the line, "That is true!"


CHAPTER VI.49
FROM THE MOUNTING OF THE REGIMENT TO LEAVING POCAHONTAS.

Regiment mounted—Scout to Tuscumbia, with its five engagements—Scout to Florence, with two engagements—Move camp to Pocahontas—Scout to New Albany, destroying the town—Mud Creek scout and battle—Scout to Jackson, and battle—Scout to Ripley—Scout to Trenton, Tenn.—Scout to Grenada—Raid to Grenada—Commissions and promotions—Battles of Salem, Graham's Mills and Wyatt's—List of killed and wounded—Incidents.

Our Government, by the beginning of 1863, began to see the necessity of having a larger mounted force. It was proposed that many of the Infantry Regiments should be mounted for scouting purposes. Lieut. Col. Phillips made application to have the 9th Ill. Inft. mounted. He was told that it could be mounted on mules, but not on horses. He replied that he would prefer the mules, as they would endure more hard usage and require less care. Hence, on the 15th of March, 1863, Lieut. Col. Phillips, commanding Regiment, received orders to mount his command, on mules, for scouting purposes. The Regiment was all mounted by the 20th of March.

Col. Mersy was in command of the 2d Brigade, and Lieut. Col. Phillips of the Regiment. This arrangement still continues, to the present date.

Sergeant George Rhuland, of Company A, was commissioned as 1st Lieutenant of said company. He ranks from March 20th, 1863, the date of the receipt of his commission.

The Regiment was paid on the 26th of August, by Major Phelps, for the months of May and June.

On the 14th of April, the Regiment received orders to be ready to move by daylight the next morning. The order was afterwards changed to moving in half an hour. We were soon on the way towards Glendale, where the rebels had made a dash on a small body of the 64th Ill. Vols. We reached Glendale a little too late, as Col. Cornyn had driven the enemy and started in pursuit. The Regiment hastened forward and found him at Yellow Stone Creek. We were delayed one and a-half hours in crossing this very muddy stream. Hence, we bivouacked for the night two miles beyond. Moved forward rapidly, on the 15th, and bivouacked within four miles of Big Bear Creek, on the opposite bank of which, we were informed, there was a large body50 of the enemy. We awaited here, on the 16th, the arrival of the Infantry force from Corinth. All having arrived, we moved rapidly, early on the morning of the 17th. After "shelling the woods" for a short time with our rifled pieces, the following mounted forces, viz: 10th Missouri Cavalry, battalion of the 15th Illinois Cavalry, and the 9th Illinois Mounted Infantry, dashed rapidly across the creek. Captain Richardson was throwing shell over our heads at an imaginary force across the creek. As he did not stop soon enough, a number of his shell flew among our men, but fortunately no one was hurt. As soon as all the mounted force was over, and one section of Tamrath's Battery, we moved forward on the Tuscumbia road.

At Dickson's we ran upon the enemy's videttes, driving them back to "Buzzard Roost" or "Cherokee Bluffs," where they made a stand, and the place being naturally strong, our shell could not dislodge them. Consequently, the 9th Ill. Mounted Infantry was dismounted, and deployed as skirmishers. They advanced rapidly to within one hundred yards of the bluff, and then the right wing swung around on the left flank of the enemy, compelling them to leave the bluff very rapidly, and in great disorder. About 25 of the Rebels were killed, wounded and captured. Our loss was five slightly wounded, none disabled. The weather being intensely hot, the horses in the section of battery with us, became too much exhausted to move further. Their ammunition was also about exhausted. The two guns were consequently left at this place to await the arrival of the main force. Lieutenant Krebs, with Co. D, was left to support the guns, in case of an attack. There were also seven men of Co. I left here to guard the prisoners.

Immediately after crossing the creek, one company of the 10th Mo., and one of the 9th Ill., were ordered to move two miles out on our left flank, and break up a camp of the enemy said to be in that direction. Lieutenant Patterson, with Co. E of our Regiment, was ordered on that expedition. This detachment drove the rebels from their camp, toward their main body on the Tuscumbia road. This body of the enemy, 250 strong, came upon the two guns of Tamrath's Battery that we had left at Cherokee Bluffs, and before the guns could get to us, they, and all of Co. D, except three men, and the seven men of Co. I, were captured. We moved rapidly back, and succeeded in recapturing one of the guns in "Lundy's Lane."

Col. Cameron, of the 1st Alabama Regiment, (loyal,) was killed here in the charge. The Rebels fled to the timber on our left, beyond the reach of our muskets, and too far off for the effective firing of the "Mountain howitzers."

51Col. Cornyn now ordered us to fall back and rejoin the main body, as we numbered only 1200, all told, while the enemy were not less than 2500 strong. Scarcely, however, had we left "Lundy's Lane," before the enemy filed out of the timber and formed a line across the open field, threatening our rear. The advance of the Infantry force being now only one mile back, we turned about and confronted our foe. The 9th Ill. Inft. dismounted, and moved around to the left flank of the enemy's line, while the cavalry charged their front. They broke and fled beyond a high ridge, and we advanced rapidly and took possession of the ridge. In the meantime, Col. Bane's Brigade, and Welker's Battery came rapidly on the field, unobserved and unknown to the Rebels. This Brigade was immediately posted as follows: The 50th Ill. behind a high grading of the Railroad and to the left of the open field, on which the Rebels had formed their line previous to being driven back by our Cavalry; the 7th Ill. Inft. were moved in the timber, around to the right of the field, and a little further advanced than the 50th; the 57th Ill. were held in reserve. The Cavalry received orders to fall back rapidly, and in apparent confusion, as soon as the enemy should appear on the ridge.

This disposition being made of the forces, the 9th Ill. Inft. fell back 100 yards, to a fence overgrown with bushes, and lay concealed behind it. The Rebels advanced with loud shouts, and planted a 12-pound Howitzer on the ridge. Our Cavalry hastily retreated, and the enemy believing victory certain, dashed gallantly ahead, when the 50th and 7th Ill. Regiments opened on them a deadly fire. About the same time, a body of the enemy appeared on the left of the Railroad on the ridge. They were opened upon by the 9th Ill. The contest was not long. In less than ten minutes, the whole body of the Rebels were in rapid retreat towards Cane Creek.

The loss of the enemy was, according to their own statement, 17 killed, 50 wounded, and 23 taken prisoners. The 9th Ill. lost 5 wounded and 59 captured (Co. D.) The entire Union loss was 3 killed, 10 wounded, and 75 captured.

Night now coming on, we bivouacked near the battle-field. On the 18th, after a reconnoisance in front, and finding the enemy in strong position near Cane Creek, our whole force fell back to Bear Creek, and went into camp.

On the 19th, Companies E and F were sent, as escort to a train, to Eastport Landing. The rest of the Regiment, with the whole mounted force, moved circuitously to "Buzzard Roost," and found the enemy, under Roddy, occupying the same position as on the 17th at Cherokee52 Bluff. Our Regiment was again deployed as skirmishers, in the same manner as before. After fifteen minutes skirmishing, we drove the enemy from his position, killing, wounding and capturing 13 of them, and losing none.

We then returned to camp at Bear Creek, taking with us a drove of cattle and sheep. On the 20th of April, the 7th Kansas Cavalry joined us, and on the nest day the Ohio Brigade, Col. Fuller commanding. Our entire column moved forward on the morning of the 23d, and crossed Cane Creek without opposition; the Rebels having fallen back to Little Bear Creek. Here General Dodge offered battle, but they declined, and we bivouacked for the night. We moved forward again on the 24th, the enemy continually falling back, not even making a feeble resistance at Little Bear Creek, although the position was a very strong one.

On nearing the town of Tuscumbia, the enemy, under Forrest, left on the Decatur road. Col. Cornyn was ordered forward after them, with the 10th Mo. Cavalry, the 7th Kansas Cavalry, and the 1st Alabama Cavalry. Lieut. Col. Phillips, with two companies of Cavalry, two companies of 9th Ill. Inft., viz: A and B, and two guns of Tamrath's Battery, was ordered to move up to Florence, and capture the town. He proceeded to that place with his command. Arriving on the bank of the river, opposite the town, and observing a small force of cavalry in Florence, he called to them to send him over a boat, as he desired to send over a flag of truce. They replied, telling him to go to that place, where I suppose but few, if any, desire to go. The Col. did not feel disposed, at least to obey their orders, and thinking he had that with which he could enforce obedience to his, he placed his two rifled guns in position, and made a second demand for a boat. To this he received the same reply, as before. Immediately he opened upon them with his two guns, throwing shell into the town. The cavalry on the other side broke and ran. As they passed up the street, a shell was thrown among them, killing one horse. In a very short time, white flags were hung out all over the town. In the meantime, a small raft had been constructed, on which a flag of truce was sent over, and the Mayor of the town made a formal surrender. The object of demanding the surrender was, not that we might hold the place, but that we might ascertain whether the enemy had any considerable force there. The desired information being gained, the Col. evacuated it, and returned to the main force again.

The remainder of our Regiment, and the battalion of the 15th Ill. Cavalry, were ordered to move forward, within supporting distance of53 Col. Cornyn. We moved forward until near night, and not being able to reach him, we returned to Tuscumbia, and bivouacked. At 10 o'clock that night, we received orders to move out rapidly and join Col. Cornyn, as he feared the enemy would come upon him, too strong, at daylight, his forces being very much exhausted. We reached him, beyond Leighton, by 2:30 A. M., on the 25th, and at daylight the whole force returned to Tuscumbia.

Our Regiment turned over 200 mules to Col. Streight, on the 26th, to complete the mounting of his force, thus dismounting Companies C, D, E, G, H and K, of our Regiment.

On the morning of the 27th April, we again moved forward, toward Decatur, to attract the attention of Forrest, until Col. Streight had moved entirely around his left flank towards Atlanta. We found the enemy posted at Town Creek, four miles beyond Leighton. Some picket skirmishing took place before night. We bivouacked near the Creek. Early on the morning of the 28th, the Rebels having discovered the position of the dismounted companies of our Regiment, opened upon us with schrapnel, compelling us to fall back hurriedly out of their range. The artillery kept up a constant firing all day, and after noon a part of the 81st Ohio and the mounted companies of the 9th Ill., crossed over, at the Railroad bridge, and drove the enemy from their position.

Col. Streight having now completely passed the enemy, our entire column moved on the return march, on the morning of the 29th April. Bivouacked for the night near Little Bear Creek. Reached Big Bear on the 30th, and were compelled to remain in camp there until the evening of the 1st of May, when a bridge having been constructed, we crossed over and proceeded up the Railroad to our old place of camping, four miles from Big Bear Creek. From there we proceeded on the main traveled road to Burnsville, reaching that place sometime after night, and bivouacked. On the morning of the 2d May, Lieut. Col. Phillips, with the four mounted companies, viz: A, B, I and F, was ordered to report to Col. Cornyn, commanding cavalry force, for an expedition to Tupelo. The rest of the Regiment moved forward, at 10 A. M., and reached Corinth by 2 P. M.

During this trip the Regiment was out from camp 18 days, and had five engagements with the enemy—two on the 17th of April, one on the 19th, one on the 27th, and one on the 4th of May. The great object of this expedition, was to divert the attention of the enemy until Col. Streight, who was fitting up an expedition for a grand raid into Georgia, should have time to complete the mounting of his men, and get well started on his way.

54Lieut. Col. Phillips, with the four mounted companies of our Regiment, having been ordered on an expedition to Tupelo, separated from the remaining companies at Burnsville, on the 2d of May, and proceeded to Tupelo. Had a skirmish with the enemy there, and rejoined the Regiment at camp, May 7th.

Quartermaster Korn died of disease May 6th, 1863. Dr. Guelick and Captain Hawes were detailed on the 7th of May, the former to Fort Henry, and the latter to Memphis. Dr. Wm. A. Allen, 2d Assistant Surgeon, appointed by the Governor of Illinois, reported for duty on the 12th, and was mustered into the service, to rank from that date.

On the 13th of May, the Regiment moved into the barracks formerly occupied by the 39th Ohio, one mile south-east from Corinth.

On the 15th of May, Brig. Gen. Thomas, Adjutant General U. S. Army, addressed the soldiers at Corinth, announcing and advocating the policy of the Government in regard to freeing and arming the negroes. His remarks met with a hearty approval by nine-tenths of the soldiers at the military post of Corinth.

May 26th, our Regiment being again all mounted, we were ordered to report to Col. Cornyn, commander of Cavalry Brigade, at 10 A. M. Moved immediately thereafter, on the Corinth and Hamburg road, toward Hamburg Landing. We reached that place and began to cross the Tennessee River about dark, the 9th Ill. crossing over first. Our Regiment all got over by 2 A. M., of the. 27th, and the remainder of the force by noon of the same day. At 1 P. M., the entire column moved forward on the road towards Florence, taking the most easterly route. Halted, for rest and feed, two hours at 1 o'clock, A. M., of the 28th, and then moved forward again eight miles North-east from Florence. A detachment of the 7th Kansas Cavalry destroyed two large woolen factories, four miles from the city. We drove in the videttes of the enemy, and when we were within one hundred yards of the town, they opened on us with a battery of two guns, throwing schrapnel with great accuracy, compelling us to move from the road, by the left flank, into the timber, to avoid the deadly missiles. Col. Cornyn moved his howitzers rapidly forward, and soon silenced the Rebel guns.

The 9th Ill. was now dismounted and thrown forward as skirmishers. The 1st Battalion, (Cos. A, B and C,) Lieutenant Ruhland commanding, moving forward in column, as reserve. The opposition of the enemy did not amount to much, and we soon had possession of the town. Our loss was two wounded, and two captured. The enemy lost from ten to twelve killed and wounded, and sixty to eighty captured. After searching the town, and destroying all the stores of value to the enemy,55 we began out return march, taking the most westerly route, so as to destroy three large cotton mills and two more large woolen mills, all of which we succeeded in doing without loss to us. At 12 o'clock, midnight, we bivouacked until morning. The enemy disputed our entire advance from Florence to the place of bivouack, and then ceased to molest us. We reached the crossing opposite Hamburg, at 2 A. M., of the 30th May, when we bivouacked until morning.

During the day the enemy appeared in force in our rear, before we had even our baggage across, and as Col. Cornyn had moved down to Savannah to relieve the 10th Ill., Lieut. Col. Phillips assumed command, and moved out one-half mile from the river and offered battle, when the Rebels hastily fell back. We succeeded in all getting over by 2 A. M. of the 31st, without further molestation. In the skirmish the opposite side of the river, none of our men were hurt. The enemy lost several in wounded and captured, none are known to have been killed. At 7 A. M., the 31st, the entire column moved toward Corinth, and we reached camp there at 1 P. M.

During this expedition, the Regiment was out six days, and engaged in two skirmishes with the enemy. The object of the expedition seemed to be the destruction of public property and stores which would be of advantage to the enemy.

After leaving Hamburg Landing at 1 P. M., of the 27th May, the boys were in their saddles, or pack-saddles, as they then were, for about thirty-six hours almost constantly, except the few hours they were in Florence searching the houses for arms, and destroying stores that might be serviceable to the enemy. At 12 o'clock, on the night of the 28th, they halted, until early in the morning, when they were off on the march again. The result of this raid was 64 prisoners captured, over 200 negroes brought in, a large number of mules and horses captured, about $3,000,000 worth of Factory property destroyed.

On the 3d of June, 1863, the Regiment received orders to be ready to move on the next morning, at 8 o'clock, with camp and garrison equipage. Moved on the 4th, in accordance with the above order, in a North-west direction. Passed through Cherwalla, and bivouacked for the night about ten miles west of it. The Tuscumbia and Hatchie Rivers had to be bridged, in order to cross the artillery and infantry. The entire Brigade were moving with us. These streams were bridged, the forces crossed, and we arrived at Pocahontas by 4 P. M., on the 5th of June, and bivouacked in the town for the night. On the 7th, the Regiment moved into camp one-fourth mile north of the town.

On the 8th of June, Lieut. Col. Phillips, with Companies A, B, E,56 F, G and I, moved south on a scout, and returned on the 9th, at 1 P. M., bringing in a drove of cattle and sheep. The remaining companies of the Regiment went as an escort to a train of wagons, as far as the bridge on Tuscumbia Creek.

On the 11th of June, Capt. Kneffner, with Companies A, C, E, H and I, moved North-west on a scout, and returned in the evening, having marched 40 miles, bringing in three prisoners.

The Regiment, accompanied by one section of Tamrath's Battery, moved south on the Ripley road, on the 12th of June, at 1 P. M., and bivouacked for the night within ten miles of Ripley. Moved forward early on the morning of the 13th, and took possession of Ripley without opposition. The town was searched, but nothing of a contraband nature was found, except a number of negroes, who were confiscated for the use of the Government. Moved on in the direction of New Albany. At Orizabo, the flankers on our left encountered a few Rebel soldiers, and after driving them off, burned the place, as it contained Rebel stores and was a place of rendezvous for them. While stopping to feed, about four miles south of Ripley, a family moving to Ripley came along. Their wagons and carriage were searched, and a Rebel mail was found in the old lady's carpet-sack. Their horses and mules were all confiscated, except one old team of mules which they were allowed to keep.

The Regiment then proceeded to New Albany, reaching that place about 4 P. M. Finding the town nearly deserted by citizens, and used as a general Headquarters for guerrillas, and a supplying point for them, it was entirely destroyed, after any stores of value that could be carried away were taken.

We then moved back toward Ripley, on a different route from the one by which we had entered, going three miles and bivouacking for the night.

At 1 o'clock, A. M., June 14th, Lieutenant Krebs and escort came into our bivouack from Pocahontas, with orders from Col. Mersy, for us to return as rapidly as possible to camp at Pocahontas, as the enemy were planning to capture us. We moved at 2 A. M. Reached Ripley at breakfast time, and camp at Pocahontas at 8 P. M. At daylight this morning, the enemy, 1500 strong, reached our last night's bivouack. But fortunately we were safe out of their reach. It was fortunate for us, for our force numbered but 300 men with two pieces of artillery.

The Regiment was out three days on this expedition. It captured, and brought in, about 25 Rebel soldiers, 50 contrabands, and 100 head of horses and mules. It marched over one hundred miles.

On the 17th of June, the Regiment again, moved southward, at 857 P. M., with six days rations. The night was rainy and intensely dark. One section of Tamrath's Battery was with us, under Lieut. Bruner. Marched all night in the dark and rain. It was such bad traveling, that we only moved twelve miles by sunrise of the 18th. Halted and fed at old "Secession Hopkins'," where the Regiment had already fed four times. Reached Ripley at 1 P. M., and found no enemy, but were told that 1,500 Rebels were moving around, to get between us and Pocahontas. We moved back two miles, and halted to feed. Here we were joined by 125 men of the 5th Ohio Cavalry, Major Smith commanding, and 180 of the 18th Missouri Mounted Infantry, commanded by Lieut. Col. Sheldon. Our whole force now numbered a little over 600: 5th Ohio Cavalry 125, 18th Missouri Mounted Infantry 180, Section of Battery 50, 9th Ill. Mounted Inft. 275. Total, 630.

Lieut. Col. Phillips, senior officer present, assumed command of the whole force. We moved back five miles and bivouacked for the night. Finding no enemy, we moved forward again by daylight of the 19th. Passed through Ripley at 8 A. M., and New Albany at 2 P. M. Captured Lieut. Col. McCarly of the 23d Mississippi, below Ripley. Drove in the videttes of the enemy at New Albany, and moved forward on the Pontotoc road. When within six miles of the latter place, Lieut. Col. Phillips having gone as far as his orders permitted him, moved five miles West, and then moved North towards Rockford. Marched until after midnight of the 19th, having to cross a terrible swamp, called the Octohatchie. We bivouacked for the night on a ridge between Octohatchie and Mud Creek. Moved forward again at 7 A. M., of the 20th, 5th Ohio occupying the rear, and 18th Missouri the advance. While we were preparing a crossing of Mud Creek, the enemy, 3,000 strong, under Gen. Ruggles, made a furious attack upon the rear guard, but were most gallantly met and checked by the 5th Ohio Cavalry. Six companies of the 9th Ill. Inft. were dismounted, and deployed as skirmishers. They, and the 5th Ohio Cavalry, held the enemy in check for two and a-half hours, until the artillery had crossed the several most wretched fords of Mud Creek. One of the caissons getting stuck in the mud, we were compelled to leave one-half of it there, and as it completely blocked up the crossing, we had to destroy the five baggage wagons that were behind it, to prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy; everything we could possibly save, being brought over the ford. We fell back rapidly, and got possession of Rocky Ford, before the Rebels got around, and succeeded in crossing before they could molest us.

Our loss in this engagement, was 5 killed and 18 wounded. The58 loss of the enemy could not be definitely ascertained, but was not less than 200 in killed, wounded and missing.

The place where this battle was fought, was a dense cane-brake. Men could not see each other more than a few feet. Our men could hear every command given by the Rebel officers, but could not see the enemy.

After getting safely out of that terrible bottom, and crossing the Tallahatchie at Rocky Ford, we moved through Salem, on the 21st, and reached camp at Pocahontas, at noon of the 22d June. The Regiment was out six days, during this trip. Had to endure some very hard marching. Marched almost constantly, day and night.

On the 23d of June, 2d Assistant Surgeon Dr. Allen, was ordered to report at LaGrange, Tenn., by Surgeon Gay, Medical Director left wing 16th Army Corps, and left for that place on the 24th.

On the 6th of July, Companies A, C, E, F, G, H and I, under the command of Lieut. Col. Phillips, moved North-west on a scout, and returned on the 7th at noon, not having found any force of the enemy.

On the 8th of July, the entire Regiment moved Northward, with three days rations, 35 miles, and returned on the 9th without finding any force of the enemy. Brought in a number of citizens as prisoners, with all the horses and mules, of any value, that could be found. Rabid secessionists followed after, pleading for their animals. Col. Phillips would tell them that he was a kind-hearted man, had a number of prisoners, and did not wish to have them walk. Hence, he must have their horses and mules. He expressed sorrow for the necessity. It is a question whether that sorrow was very deep down, however, as he has no mercy on Rebels, and takes all the horses and mules from them, that he can place his hands upon, without much trouble of conscience.

On the 12th of July, the Regiment again moved in a North-west direction, with five days rations. Joined Col. Hatch's force from LaGrange, North of Bolivar, and the combined force moved to Jackson, and on the 13th engaged a Rebel force there, under Forrest, Newsom, and Biffle. Our Regiment was dismounted as skirmishers. After brisk firing for one-quarter of an hour, we dislodged them. The cavalry then moved over the river and took the flank of the skirmish line. The right wing of our Regiment were recalled from their position on the South side of the creek, and placed in reserve of the left wing. We then moved rapidly forward, until within a few hundred yards of their fortifications, when we made a charge upon their works and drove them out, by a charge from our skirmish line. We moved forward,59 thinking that they had left. But when in the suburbs of the North side of the town, the Rebel cavalry came charging down on us from the North-east and East parts of the town. We quickly formed in line facing them, and went into them with a fierceness that they could not long stand. In about fifteen minutes they were driven entirely from the field, and we advanced to their position. We captured a goodly number of horses and muskets they were compelled to leave. One Rebel Captain was found dead on the field. A prisoner who was captured, said he was a notorious guerrilla chieftain, and hated by their own men. Said there would not be much sorrow for his death. The fighting in all lasted about two and a-half hours.

We captured about 70 prisoners, 30 of whom were paroled, the remainder were brought into camp. Our loss was one killed and six wounded. The enemy's loss in killed and wounded, was about two hundred. The Regiment returned to camp about 1 P. M., of the 15th, having been out four days.

On the 18th, six companies, under command of Lieut. Col. Phillips, started on a scout about dark, after a party of guerrillas who had made a dash upon some of the Home Guards at Middleton, killing and taking prisoners several of them. They pursued them all night, in the direction of Bolivar, but could not find them. Returned to camp about noon the next day.

On the 20th of July, the Regiment moved South, accompanied by two guns of Tamrath's Battery. At Hopkins we were joined by the 11th Ill. Cavalry, commanded by Major Kerr. Moved on to within three miles of Ripley, and bivouacked at the forks of the Nubbin Ridge and Ruckersville road. Two companies of Cavalry and two companies of Mounted Infantry were sent towards Ripley to reconnoiter. Discovering no enemy, they soon returned. On the 21st, the command moved back seven miles to Ruckersville, and there awaited orders from Corinth. We moved forward again on the 22d, at 3 A. M. Halted at Ripley two hours. Captured two prisoners, and then moved back to camp at Pocahontas.

The Regiment moved North-west, at daylight on the 20th of July, with eight days rations. It joined Col. Hatch's command, North of Bolivar, at 8:30 P. M., of the same day. After the Regiment was formed, before marching, a brief prayer was offered by the writer, who was then present with the Regiment. Bivouacked for the night, ten miles North of Bolivar. On the 27th, Lieut. Col. Phillips was ordered to the command of a Brigade, consisting of the 9th Ill. Inft. and 3d Michigan Cavalry, and Captain G. G. Lowe took command of the60 Regiment. We joined Col. Prowitt's command at Lexington, Tenn., on the 28th. Passed through Clarksville, a Union town, to-day. Had captured a goodly number of mules and negroes, and about 100 prisoners up to this date. Among the latter were two Colonels. Passed through Huntingdon on the 29th. A strong Union town. While stopped here, two daughters of Col. Hawkins of the 2d West Tennessee Cavalry, (loyal,) paraded the streets, carrying the stars and stripes. This was cheering to our boys. We lay over most of the 29th at Macedonia. Moved to Trenton on the 31st. Passed through a very rough country, and in a poor state of cultivation. From Trenton we proceeded South, towards Jackson, passing through Jackson on the 1st of August, and reaching camp at Pocahontas on the 3d of August, about 8 P. M.

The Regiment was out, during this scout, nine days. Did not have any engagements with the enemy.

On the 6th of August, Companies A, C, D, E, G, H, I and K, under command of Lieut. Col. Phillips, moved North-west of Bolivar, and returned on the 7th, without finding any forces of the enemy.

On the 12th of August, at 10 P. M., the Regiment moved South, with six days rations. Marched all night, and halted at sunrise and fed. At 6 A. M., of the 13th, we were on the march again. Took the road through Salem, passing that place about 4 P. M., and bivouacking for the night six miles beyond it. Moved forward again at daylight on the 14th, crossing the Tallahatchie at Rocky Ford, and bivouacking for the night. Moved West on the Oxford road, early on the 15th, reaching that place at noon. Here we joined a Brigade from LaGrange. Lieut. Col. Phillips assumed command of the Brigade, and moved on six miles beyond Oxford, on the Coffeeville road, and bivouacked for the night. At daybreak, on the 16th, moved forward again. We were joined to-day, by a Brigade of Cavalry from Germantown and Collierville, under the command of Lieut. Col. M. R. M. Wallace, who being junior officer to Lieut. Col. Phillips, reported his command to him for orders. Lieut. Col. Phillips now assumed command of the whole force, consisting of two Brigades. Lieut. Col. Wallace had command of the 1st Brigade, and Major Coon of the 2d.

The whole force crossed the Tochamy River on a ferry boat, and reached Water Valley at 12 M. Here our advance captured a train of seven six-mule wagons, and a number of prisoners who were guarding the train. The 1st Brigade was so long delayed in crossing the river, that Major Coon, who had command of the 2d Brigade, did not leave Water Valley until 5 P. M. He then moved forward to within two61 miles of Coffeeville, and bivouacked for the remainder of the night. It was 2 A. M., of the 17th, when we reached that point.

A heavy storm of rain came on shortly after leaving Water Valley, and the night became intensely dark. The darkness made it very difficult to march at all. Often the mules, with their riders, would tumble into the ditches. The 1st Brigade, commanded by Lieut. Col. Wallace, moved only one mile from Water Valley, when the darkness became so intense, that movements were almost impossible. The Brigade was consequently ordered into bivouack for the night. On the morning of the 17th, Lieut. Col. Wallace joined the 2d Brigade at Coffeeville. The entire force now moved forward rapidly towards Grenada, the 11th Ill. Cavalry having the advance. When ten miles from Coffeeville, six or eight locomotives and 40 or 50 cars were captured, and a guard placed over them. When the advance were within four miles of Grenada, the Rebels fired the two large Railroad bridges over the Tallobusha, and before we could reach them, they were completely destroyed. The 11th Ill. Cavalry was ordered forward, as rapidly as possible, to prevent the unnecessary destruction of property; and the entire 2d Brigade moved forward at a brisk trot. When within one mile of town, the 11th Cavalry were checked by about 300 of the enemy. The 9th Ill. Inft. were dismounted and sent forward as skirmishers. Soon after, the 2d Iowa and 3d Michigan Cavalry went into the action. Orders were sent back to Lieut. Col. Wallace to hasten up his Brigade, and move forward with all possible dispatch. As soon as the Battery was placed in position, Col. Wallace was ordered to enter town, with his Brigade, by the lower ford. The enemy not replying to our Battery, Major Coon was ordered to charge across the ford, with the 2d Iowa Cavalry, and at the same time to ferry over a portion of the 9th Ill. Inft. as a support, in case the enemy pressed him too hard. This force crossed and took possession of the town, without further opposition.

The captures which we made, were as follows: 60 locomotives; 450 cars, of all kinds; considerable stores, and $8,000 in Confederate scrip.

As the enemy had burned the bridges across the Tallobusha, making it impossible to run off the rolling stock, the cars, locomotives, machine shops, depots, Commissary and Quartermaster buildings were fired, and destroyed.

At 7 P. M., reports having come in that the enemy were returning to attack us in force, our entire Division, except the Picket and Provost Guard, were ordered to recross the Tallobusha, and bivouack, ready to fall in at a moment's notice. One hour later, Col. Winslow, commanding a Brigade of Cavalry, from "Blackwater," entered the town62 from the South. He being the ranking officer, now assumed command of the whole force. His Brigade took possession of the place, and the whole force bivouacked for the night.

The entire loss of our Division in the fight, was one man killed and two wounded. The 9th Ill. Inft. had one man wounded.

The 1st Brigade was so far in the rear, at the beginning of the action, that it was not engaged, except Perkin's Battery of Mountain Howitzers.

The entire forces in Lieut. Col. Phillips' command, during this expedition, consisted of the following Regiments, viz: 9th Ill. Inft. (mounted) Captain Kneffner commanding, 300; 2d Iowa Cavalry, Captain —— commanding, 200; 11th Ill. Cavalry, Major Funk commanding, 150; 3d Michigan Cavalry, Major Hudson commanding, 200; Total, 2d Brigade, Major Coon commanding, 850. 9th Ill. Cavalry, —— —— commanding, 250; 3d Ill. Cavalry, Major Connor commanding, 200; 4th Ill. Cavalry, —— —— commanding, 300; Total, 1st Brigade, Lieut. Col. Wallace commanding, 750. Total in Division, Lieut. Col. Phillips commanding, 1,600.

The force of the enemy at Grenada, was between 1,500 and 2,500, and was under command of Col. Slemmer, Gen. Chalmers being, at the time, absent. Major Leath, Gen. Chalmers' Quartermaster, was captured in Grenada, and with him the Confederate scrip mentioned above.

During the action, Col. Winslow, with his Brigade, was in bivouack, within five miles of Grenada, and had he moved on the South rapidly at that time, we would have captured most of the enemy, and his entire Quartermaster train of over 100 wagons.

Lieut. Col. Phillips insisted on pursuing and capturing, at least, their wagon train. But Col. Winslow was in command and not willing. Lieut. Col. Phillips then requested permission to pursue with his command, but was refused. Having command, Col. Winslow ordered the destruction of property to cease. Hence, two locomotives, and about a dozen cars, were left on the North side of the Tallobusha, for the Rebels to run down produce from Water Valley and the country North of them.

The entire command remained in bivouack on the 18th, and moved on the return march, at 5 A. M., on the 19th, taking the Oakland road. Bivouacked for the night, just across the Tochamy River. We moved forward again at 5 A. M., of the 20th. Ferried over the Tallahatchie, and bivouacked for the night seven miles North of it. Moved again at 5 A. M., on the 21st. Col. Winslow and his command left us to-day, for Memphis. Fed near Looxahoma. Bivouacked for the night, near Bucksnort. Moved at the same hour on the 22d. Lieut. Col. Wallace63 with his command, turned to the left to-day, for his camp at Collierville. We passed through Holly Springs about 4 P. M., to-day, and bivouacked seven miles North-east of town. This is a nice town, on an elevated situation, with some very fine buildings in it. Guards were placed at each of the houses. Many ladies made their appearance, as our boys passed along the street. Some of them looked on smilingly, while others manifested scornful contempt, in their very looks. But what did our boys care for their scorn? They only smiled the more. The sight which the citizens beheld, as our forces passed, was no doubt to them a sore one. A long train of negroes, men, women and children were accompanying us. At last $1,000,000 worth of property, as slaves had formerly been rated, was leaving them. They had long been accustomed to regard these persons as the great source of their wealth. This war had been instigated for the purpose of riveting the chains of bondage more tightly upon these slaves. Many of them, perhaps, had been called upon to mourn the death of some dear friend, who had been slain in waging this war. They had thought thus to make more secure this species of their wealth. But now they were compelled to see it taking to itself legs and fleeing away.

Our boys arrived in camp at Pocahontas on the 24th of August, after having been out thirteen days. They left camp with six days rations. Where did the other seven days rations come from? I suppose none of the boys can tell! Perhaps, if the smoke-houses and hen-roosts of the citizens along the way could speak, they might tell. Or, may be, even the citizens themselves, if any one should take the trouble to travel along and enquire of them, could tell something about it.

The expedition was certainly a grand success. Some raids, about which much has been said and written, were of far less importance. It was a bold dash, of more than one hundred miles, into the midst of the enemy's country. Our forces met on their own chosen ground, at least an equal, and it is thought, a greatly superior force of the enemy; drove them from their position, after a smart skirmish; captured a large amount of their stores, with about fifty prisoners. About $8,000,000 worth of public property was destroyed. Destroyed because two long bridges on the Railroad had been burned by the enemy. About 500 head of horses and mules were captured. And at least 2,000 negroes were brought in with our forces; thus weakening the hands of our enemies, and obtaining that, by which to strengthen our own hands. These, as slaves were formerly valued, were worth at least $2,000,000. The entire Union loss was only one man killed and two wounded. Had there been a special correspondent with our forces, it would have been64 heralded in the newspapers with a flourish that might have resulted in a star on our worthy Lieut. Col. Phillips, who commanded the expedition. The material, at least, was there.

Charles Chevi, 2d Lieutenant of Company C, resigned, and his resignation was accepted, to take effect August 7th, 1863.

August 26th, the Regiment was paid by Major W. H. Johnston, for the months of March, April, May and June.

August 29th, Captains Kneffner and Robinson, and Lieuts. Rollmann and Cowgill, were ordered to report to Col. Alexander, at St. Louis, for duty in the Invalid Corps.

At the regular periodical muster and inspection, on the 31st of August, Captain G. G. Lowe acted as Inspecting and Mustering Officer.

September 3d, 1863, 1st Lieutenant George W. Williford, was commissioned and mustered as Captain of Company F.

September 4th, 1863, Rev. Marion Morrison reported for duty, with commission as Chaplain of the Regiment. He was mustered in as such, to date from the 4th.

On the 3d of August, 1863, 105 deserters, mostly from the 128th Ill. Inft., were assigned to duty in the 9th Ill. Vol. Inft., and were transferred to the various companies, so as to equalize the strength of those companies.

On the 6th of August, Lieutenant McClure, commanding detachment of the 128th Ill. Vol., reported his men, in compliance with orders from Headquarters 16th Army Corps, to the Regiment for duty. The detachment numbered 103 men, and were assigned, pro rata, to the several companies. Lieutenant Lenma, Adjutant of the 128th, was assigned to Company F, and Lieutenant Cooper to Company B, until further orders. In the order for consolidation, Lieutenant Lenma's name was dropped, (he having resigned,) and Lieutenant Cooper was transferred from Company B to Company F.

On the 16th of August, 1863, 1st Lieutenant Krebs received a commission as Captain of Company D, and Orderly Sergeant H. Weber as 1st Lieutenant Company D, and both were mustered in from that date.

When the writer reported to the Regiment for duty, on the 4th of September, as above noticed, the Regiment was in command of Captain G. G. Lowe, Lieut. Col. Phillips having been summoned to Memphis, as a witness before a court martial in the case of Lieut. Col. Bowen of the 10th Mo. Cavalry. Lieut. Col. Phillips was detained there for two or three weeks, and Captain Lowe continued in command of the Regiment, with credit to himself.

After joining the Regiment, arrangements were made for regular65 preaching services on each Sabbath, and prayer-meetings on Sabbath and Wednesday evenings. I would here say, that we have been able notwithstanding the great amount of scouting duty the Regiment has had to perform, to hold our regular services on almost every Sabbath, up to the present time, except the few weeks I was absent from the Regiment, on orders, in Illinois. The Regiment had been without a Chaplain for about 20 months. For several Sabbaths we held our services under the shades of the trees in front of the Colonel's quarters. Soon, however, some of the soldiers volunteered their services, and erected a comfortable chapel, 40 by 24 feet, in which to hold our meetings. We had occupied this but a few Sabbaths, when we moved from our old camp at Pocahontas.

During the first three weeks of September, from one to four companies were out scouting, almost daily. Gen. Chalmers was concentrating a force South of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, to make a dash upon that road, and cut off communication between Memphis and Corinth.

On the 27th of September, the Regiment, under command of Lieut. Col. Phillips, who had rejoined it, moved South toward New Albany. On arriving within six miles of that place, he found the enemy too strong for a further safe advance with the force he had, and returned to camp at Pocahontas on the 29th.

On the 2d of October, the Regiment moved North on a scout. Found and engaged a small force of the enemy, on Forked Deer River. In this engagement, Private Peterson, of Co. K, was killed. Finding no more force of the enemy, the Regiment returned to camp at Pocahontas on the 4th of October.

During the latter part of September and the first week in October, there was much talk that we would be removed, and take up the march somewhere. Gen. Sherman's forces from Vicksburg, were constantly passing towards Corinth, for two or three weeks. It was reported that they would take the place of the 16th Army Corps in occupying Memphis and Corinth and the Railroad between them; and that our Corps would move into an active campaign. Thus we were kept, as soldiers often are, in suspense from day to day. Not knowing what a day might bring forth. In the meantime Sherman's forces passed on towards Chattanooga, and we were still in our old quarters.

As the weather was now becoming too cold for the airy tents, which most of the Regiment occupied, the boys went to the timber, split boards, hauled poles, &c., and put themselves up comfortable quarters. Brick chimneys, left where houses had been burnt through the country,66 were torn down and brought into camp, and neat little chimneys built to their shanties. Thus the boys were preparing for comfortably spending the winter in their camp.

On the 4th of October, commissions arrived, as follows: 2d Lieut. John Mallmann, to be Captain of Company B; 2d Sergt. L. Grieser, to be 1st Lieut. Company B; 1st Lieut. I. Clements, to be Captain Company G; 2d Lieut. N. G. Perrine, to be 1st Lieut. Company G; 1st Lieut. S. T. Hughs, to be Captain of Company I; 2d Lieut. Wm. Paden, to be 1st Lieut. Company I; Com. Sergt. C. A. Spatee, to be Regimental Quartermaster. Of the above, the following were ordered on duty, in their new rank, viz: Grieser, Clements, Perrine and Spatee.

On the 6th of October, the Regiment, under command of Lieut. Col. Phillips, moved South towards Ripley, on the Jonesborough road, and bivouacked for the night at Ruckersville. Moved forward again at daylight on the 7th, and reached Ripley at 8:30 A. M., and at 9:30 moved North-west towards Salem. When within five miles of that place, an advance was sent out, which ascertained that the enemy were in Salem about 3,000 strong. It was determined by Lieut. Col. Phillips, to attack them on the morning of the 8th, although his force did not exceed 400 men. Hence, early in the morning, one company was sent rapidly forward, and drove in their pickets and developed their forces. This done and they fell back. Soon after, the Regiment moved forward in force. Arriving at the town, it was found that Col. McCrillis was there with his Regiment of cavalry, and that the Rebels had fallen back out of town. It was soon ascertained, however, that their falling back was not a retreat, but a pretense, and that they were preparing to attack us. Hence, the 9th Ill. Inft. was dismounted and deployed as skirmishers, and the two guns of Tamrath's Battery accompanying the Regiment, were placed in position, and opened upon the enemy. In a very short time the enemy made a vigorous effort to drive us, but failed. After engaging this vastly superior force for three hours, and our ammunition failing, we fell back on to the Railroad at LaGrange, and were reinforced. Five of our men were killed and twenty wounded in this engagement.

After reaching LaGrange, a dispatch was sent into camp, for all the men in camp fit for duty, to join the Regiment at that place. Reinforcements were now secured and preparations made for driving the enemy back, or cutting off his retreat. On the 11th of October, the Regiment, together with Col. Hatch's mounted force, moved South-west. Had an engagement with the enemy at Graham's Mills, and another at67 Wyatt's, defeating them in both engagements and driving them Southward, after severe skirmishing.

Our entire mounted force was commanded by Col. Hatch, the Brigade by Lieut. Col. Phillips, and the Regiment by Captain A. G. Hawes. In these two last engagements, the 9th Ill. lost one man killed and five wounded.

The following is a list of the killed and wounded in the various engagements, since the Regiment was mounted on the 20th of March, 1863.

Company A.—At Jackson, Tenn., Killed, Konrad Schaeffer; Wounded, Sergt. Michael Hartweek, Privates Charles Harris and George Heiler.—1 killed and 3 wounded.

Company B.—Cherokee Bluffs, Miss., Wounded, Gustar Blank; Mud Creek, Miss., John Snider; Salem, Miss., James Luston; Wyatt's, Miss., Killed, William Toliver; Wounded, 1st Lieut. Louis Grieser, Private Wm. Crum. In all, 1 killed and 5 wounded.

Company C.—Mud Creek, Miss., Killed, Sergt. Charles Ehrlich, Private George Valler, Wounded, Sergt. Wm. Heser, and Private Eilb Menson; Jackson, Tenn., Sergt. Engen A. Hauke; Salem, Miss., Corp. Wm. Striegal, and Private G. M. Smith; Athens, Ala., Samuel Spring. In all, 2 killed and 6 wounded.

Company D.—Salem, Miss., Killed, G. W. Hatfield, Wounded, Chrst. Lambe. One killed and one wounded.

Company E.—Mud Creek, Miss., Wounded, Charles B. Fleming, Wm. M. Gery and Ephraim J. Tyler; Salem, Miss., Jas. Stewart and Wm. Mock. In all, 5 wounded.

Company F.—Salem, Miss., Killed, Thos. Ellison.

Company G.—Mud Creek, Miss., Henry Brown and Jonathan Hampton; Salem, Miss., Wm. Cheneworth and Jas. M. Newton. In all, 4 wounded.

Company H.—Salem, Miss., Francis M. Strickle, Ahiron D. Simons, Benj. R. Felts; Florence, Ala., Wm. H. Neal. In all, 4 wounded.

Company I.—Mud Creek, Miss., Wounded, Lieut. S. T. Hughs, Chas. S. Patton; Grenada, Miss., S. P. Irwin; Jackson, Tenn., Oliver Hays; Salem, Miss., Killed, E. K. Richards, Wounded, Richard Jordon; Wyatt's, Miss., John Graham; Athens, Ala., M. D. Holcomb. In all, 1 killed and 7 wounded.

Company K.—Montezuma, Tenn., Killed, John M. Peterson; Salem, Miss., John Q. Martin, Wounded, Lieut. Ulen and Peter Hall. In all, 2 killed and 2 wounded.

A number of incidents of interest, occurred during the period covered by this chapter.

68When on a scout to Tupelo, the boys were feeding near the house of a citizen. A woman came to Col. Phillips to make complaints that one of her horses had been taken, and a negro man or two had left her and was following our forces away. The Col. very politely told her, (for he is always polite to the ladies, unless they cease to act the lady,) that he was sorry for her, but that it was his business to keep the Rebels out of that country, so that they might not molest peaceable citizens like her. In order to do this, he must have horses to mount his men. Hence, from military necessity he must take her horse. That more effectually to accomplish the work of clearing the Rebels out of the country, the Government had resolved to arm the negroes and make soldiers of them. Hence, he must take her negroes also. Finding she could accomplish nothing by her entreaties with the Col., she was returning to the house, when she saw that they were taking her corn to feed their animals. Some of the boys were also chasing her chickens, and they were rapidly decreasing in numbers. She now set up a terrible lamentation, and commenced praying that God would send the Yankees out of the country. In the warmth of her petitions, she used the following forcible language: "O, Lord, if you can't come yourself, just now, do send General Price with his great army, to drive these miserable Yankees out of the country." Until this petition was uttered, some of the boys felt a sympathy for her. But the utterance of it, seemed to drive away both their sympathy and their gravity. The Col. finally sent an orderly, telling her to go into the house and finish her prayers.

Another. When on a scout near Ripley, Miss., the Regiment were in camp, and, as usual, helping themselves to the contents of a corn-crib, that thereby they might strengthen their mules for the heavy duties laid upon them. A woman appeared, with the usual cry, that she was a "poor lone widow, with six orphan children," and requested the Col. to leave her corn enough to make her bread until she could raise more. The Col. assured her that they would leave her some corn. In a short time, one of the girls came out, with the cry, "O, Col., the soldiers are taking every bit of our corn, and we will all starve." The Col. gave orders to the Adjutant to have a guard placed at that woman's corn, and instruct it to see that some of that corn was left. The Adjutant detailed a guard. In the meantime, it had been ascertained that the family had a lot of wheat; and although it might be hard for a Southern family to live without corn bread, still it was supposed that if they had wheat-bread, they would not starve. Hence, as corn to feed upon was scarce, the Adjutant, in instructing the guard to see that some of that corn was left, gave him a knowing wink, which he well69 understood. Some of the corn was left. But it was simply a little shelled corn in the bottom of the crib. One of the girls having made a reconnoisance to the corn-crib, to see how things were getting along there, and made the discovery that it was all gone, came back running and crying, "Oh, mother, mother; they have taken every bit of our corn, and now we will have nothing to eat but wheat-bread. What will we do."

Still another. It was almost a daily, and often an hourly occurrence for citizens to visit the Col. at his Head Quarters, to endeavor to get back a horse or mule that had been captured. One day two ladies had visited him for that purpose. While they were engaged in reasoning the matter with him, dinner was announced. He invited them to go out and eat dinner with him. The invitation was accepted. The cook, or Doctor, or some one, expecting that they would be there for dinner, set a bottle of liquor on the table. After dinner was over, the Colonel politely invited them to take a drink. After some little hesitation, they each took their glass of liquor. The Colonel, always supplied with cigars, took his cigar-case from his pocket, and reached it to them. They each took a cigar, lit it at the cook's fire, and sat down and deliberately smoked it. In the North, to smoke in the presence of ladies is considered the greatest impoliteness. Not so in the South, however.

One more. When on the return from the raid to Grenada, Miss., the Regiment passed through Holly Springs. There was some apprehension that there might be a disposition on the part of some of the soldiers to fire the town, owing to treatment received from the citizens on a former occasion. Hence, a guard was placed at each house, until the forces should pass through. Surgeon Gulick desiring some water for sick men, started to go into a yard to get it, but the guard would not allow him to pass in. He handed his canteen to a colored man in the yard, requesting him to fill it with water. While he was doing it, a woman came from the house, much excited. Coming towards the Doctor, she inquired, "Is there a Mason here?"

Doctor.—"Why, madame, what do you wish?"

Mad. M.—"I am the widow of a Mason. I wish to know if there is a Mason here. I wish protection."

Doctor.—"Madame, you had better go into the house. You do not need protection. There is a guard around your house."

During this conversation, a chicken, from some cause ran through the fence into the street. A soldier started after it, to catch it. The Doctor's companion seized a long club, and quickly got over the fence and after the soldier. Unobserved, she came upon him, when about to catch the chicken, and struck him a heavy blow over the head. This70 he did not resist, as it was from a woman. But after the second blow, he supposed that "forbearance ceased to be a virtue," even if a woman was involved. The Doctor says he was scared when he saw her seize the club and climb the fence. He supposed she was coming at him.

Still another. At the same time and place with the last, a lady whose horse had been taken, came out to Col. Phillips, very pleasant, and announced herself as a daughter of Gen. Bradshaw; took the Colonel's horse by the bridle, and told him that she would be servant for him, and he had to submit to having her lead his horse up to her gate. She invited him to go in and have something to drink. He could not well refuse her invitation, even if he had desired to. Once in the house, she told him that she had both wine and whisky. Said she did not know how it was with our officers, but theirs all preferred the whisky. The Colonel told her that he would not be an exception, and so helped himself to a portion of the whisky.

Another one yet. During the raid on Florence, when the town was being searched, and contraband goods taken, tobacco and wine were both regarded as contrabands of war. Considerable quantities of both were found in the town. Dr. Allen tells of one soldier whom he saw with three boxes of tobacco on his mule before him. Having more than he could well carry, and meeting a citizen on the street, proposed to give him a box. Another, whom he met, had three or four boxes of bottles of wine on before him. Being rather overburdened, he made a present of one box to the Doctor, which he accepted, I suppose, as hospital stores.

Another on Dr. Gulick. I hope the good natured Doctor will pardon me for using his name so frequently in this connection. When on the return march from the raid to Grenada, Miss., as has been stated, there was a drove of about 2,000 negroes followed the returning column. They were of all ages, and both sexes. Old grey headed grandfathers and grandmothers were there. Men and women in the vigor of life were there. Prattling little boys and little girls were there. Suckling babes were there also. This great crowd of colored people were there, some of them pretty well clad, others almost naked. It is described as a sight sufficient to touch the heart of any one. Mothers were there, traveling on foot a journey of 75 to 100 miles, carrying their infant children. Two or three of these mothers, overcome with traveling to keep up with a mounted force, carrying their children, actually laid them down by the road side, and pressed on to liberty. "Can a mother forget her sucking child?" Some of these poor creatures seemed willing to leave their children behind, rather than be left themselves,71 hoping, perhaps, that some "good Samaritan" would care for them. The Doctor, kind-hearted man, finding one of these little ones, alighted and picked it up, and as some of the boys passed him, was dandling the child. He placed it in his ambulance, and when they halted, he found its mother. All praise to the Doctor for this humane act.

Another fact, closely connected with this rebellion, for the suppression of which our Regiment has so nobly contended. While in camp at Pocahontas, the writer took the pains to ascertain some facts with reference to the education of the citizens. When we had been in camp about three months, I called at the Provost Marshal's office, and ascertained that 1,520 citizens had taken the oath of allegiance, that they might make purchases of coffee, salt, &c. from our Commissary. Of the above number, just 300 could write their own names. The other 1,220 had to have their names written and make their mark. At another point where the Regiment was in camp, on the Tennessee River, out of 313 who took the oath in one day, only 13 could write their own names. The remaining 300 had to make their mark.

Now, looking at these facts, and if they are anything like an approximation even, to the state of society in the South, need we any longer wonder at this rebellion? A few well informed and designing leaders can go into a community, such as the above facts indicate, and influence its inhabitants to almost any course of action they may desire.


CHAPTER VII.
FROM THE TIME OF LEAVING POCAHONTAS TO THE PRESENT.

Orders to move camp—March to Eastport—Regiment detached for scouting duty—From Eastport to Pulaski—Pulaski to Athens—Scouting along the Tennessee—Going into quarters—Roddy's Raid—Scout below Florence.

As stated in the preceding chapter, there had been much said about our Regiment leaving camp and being thrown out into an active campaign; that that excitement had passed away, and the boys had prepared themselves with comfortable quarters in which to spend the winter.

When thus comfortably fixed for living during the winter, orders came for the Regiment to be ready to move on the morning of October 30th. Thus the comfortable little dwellings prepared by the boys; the chapel prepared for our religious services; the new hospital just finished, and such like comforts were all left behind. But such is the common lot of soldiers. They have a very uncertain life before them. They72 know not to-day, where they shall be on to-morrow. The order was to conduct a Battery to Corinth. Whence, from there, we knew not.

The morning of October 30th came, and with it heavy clouds, threatening rain. Baggage must be packed up. Tents must be struck. Wagons must be loaded. By about 8  A. M., all was ready, and we were on the march. About the time we started, it commenced raining, and rained heavily all day. This made it difficult for the Battery wagons to proceed rapidly. Came to Cypress Creek and bottom. The stream was very difficult to cross. There was a swampy bottom, of three miles, which we had to cross. The Battery did not get through it that night, but camped in the bottom. The right wing of the Regiment moved out to the ridge beyond, and there awaited the arrival of Battery and left wing. It being found they could not get through that night, all went into bivouack until morning. At an early hour on the morning of the 31st, the Regiment and Battery were on the move. We reached Corinth about 1 P. M., of the 31st. Here we were relieved as escort to the Battery. Went into camp in the barracks lately occupied by the 50th Ill. Regiment. Here we remained until the morning of the 3d of November.

On the 2d of November, we were mustered for pay. Received orders on the 2d, to move the next morning, as escort to a train, to Iuka. Orders were issued regulating the order of march. There was a train of about 200 wagons and ambulances. The advance was ordered to move at 4 A. M., and the rear at 6 A. M. The whole was under command of Lieut. Col. Phillips. Such was the promptness with which he had each part of the column to occupy its position, that when the rear moved, and he went to the telegraph office to dispatch to Gen. Dodge that all were moving, it lacked ten minutes of six o'clock. Moved on steadily until noon. Halted one hour to water and rest. At 5 P. M., we reached Iuka, a distance of 25 miles. It was regarded a very speedy trip for so long a train. We bivouacked for the night, near Iuka. On the morning of the 4th of November, we moved at 10 A. M., as escort to a train of 150 wagons, to the crossing of the Tennessee River at Eastport. We arrived at Eastport at 2 P. M.

Gen. Dodge's orders to Lieut. Col. Phillips, commanding the 9th Ill. Inft., was, that immediately upon his arrival at Eastport, he should leave the train, together with his own Regimental teams on this side, and ferry the Regiment across the river, so as to be ready to move as early as practicable on the following day. The Regiment was all across by about sundown, and bivouacked one-half mile from the river.

Our Regiment, Lieut. Col. Phillips commanding, was ordered on73 detached duty, and thus separated from the 2d Brigade, to which it properly belonged.

I might here state that the whole of the 2d Division of the 16th Army Corps, under command of Gen. Sweeney, Gen. Dodge being the department commander, had taken up the march from Corinth on the 2d and 3d of November, and was engaged in being ferried across the Tennessee River at Eastport.

Gen. Dodge's order, detaching the 9th Ill. Inft., assigned it to scouting and foraging for animals. The Division teams needed recruiting. Horses and mules must be procured in the country through which we were about to march, for this purpose. Gen. Sherman had lately marched his army through the same country, and it was very naturally supposed that animals would be scarce. Hence, a part of the order to our Regiment was to gather up all the horses, mules, cattle and sheep that could be found in the country. It was further ascertained that portions of Rebel cavalry had crossed North of the Tennessee River, to annoy our forces on their march. Hence, an additional duty assigned to the 9th Ill. was to make reconnoisances and watch the movements of the enemy.

On the night of the 4th, Lieut. Col. Phillips issued orders to be ready to move at 6 A. M., the next morning. He also issued orders detailing one non-commissioned officer and six men from each company for foraging purposes, and instructing the foragers to bring in all horses, mules, cattle and sheep that could be found on our route. All soldiers were forbidden to leave the ranks, except such as were detailed for that purpose.

On the morning of the 5th of October, the Regiment was on the march by daybreak. Took the Florence road, for about three miles. Turned North, and traveled about ten miles through a poor, rough, broken country. Halted to make inquiry as to the country. Found a good Union man, with a clever family. Had the old man to go with us, as a guide. The Regiment here separated and traveled two different roads. About noon the flankers of the right wing were fired on, near a house. A number of shots were fired. Several horses and some cattle were taken. Halted to feed, two hours. During that time the left wing came in. All having fed, we took up the march again. Proceeded in the direction of Florence. Bivouacked for the night, after dark, about 14 miles from Florence. It had rained almost constantly during the day. Was still raining some when we halted. There was a fair prospect for a disagreeable night for laying out. But it did not74 rain much during the night. We brought in two men as prisoners, and about forty head of horses and mules, with some cattle.

November 6th, the Regiment moved at sunrise, bearing South. At 2 P. M., we came into a rich country. Plantations large; abundance of negroes; stock was plenty, which was gathered up. At many of the plantations we would collect 20 or 25 mules. Halted two or three hours and gathered up stock and fed. We then moved five or six miles West, and bivouacked for the night near a house owned by a large planter. The woman applied for protection. No one was allowed to enter the house. Negroes came in from different plantations. Through them we gathered much information as to the whereabouts of stock. Did not leave camp until about 11 A. M., of the 7th November. Sent out companies in different directions, to forage for stock. Succeeded in gathering a large amount of it. We were here South of the road leading from Eastport to Florence. We had crossed that road on the afternoon of the 6th.

During both the days we were out, we could frequently hear of forces of the Rebel cavalry on the North side of the river. They were often very near us, but always kept out of our way.

November 7th, at 11 A. M., we took up our march to strike the Florence road, hoping to meet the Brigade. We met them, and reported 300 head of horses and mules, 250 head of cattle, and 200 head of sheep, which we brought in and turned over. We met the column about 2 P. M., and bivouacked near a large brick house, residence of Captain Boggs.

The Regiment was now ordered to draw five days rations, and scout on the left flank of the advancing column. The main column, consisting of the 2d Division, 16th Army Corps, proceeded in the direction of Pulaski, Tenn., leaving Florence about eight miles to the right. On the march Col. Mersy, commanding 2d Brigade, had orders to burn a large Cotton Factory, which was being run by orders from the Southern Confederacy. The factory, together with the raw cotton, was worth about $100,000. The whole establishment was consigned to the flames on the morning of the 10th of November.

When the 9th Ill. Inft. left the advancing column, on the morning of the 8th, it proceeded in the direction of Waynesboro, and bivouacked twelve miles North-east of Waynesboro, and twenty miles from Gravelly Springs. Moved forward again early on the morning of the 9th, and marched thirty-five miles, bivouacking near Lawrenceburg. We moved again on the morning of the 10th, traversing the country to see that no Rebel forces were there to molest the column. We passed through75 Mt. Pleasant. Bivouacked for the night five miles from Columbia, near the residence of Bishop (now Rebel General) Polk's residence. On the morning of the 11th, moved into Columbia, and proceeded in the direction of Pulaski, Tenn. Bivouacked two and a half miles from Pulaski. On the morning of the 12th, moved into Pulaski, and joined the column.

During this scout of four days, part of our business still being to collect stock, we brought in 500 head of horses and mules. Passed through some very fine and well improved country. There was no opposition met from the enemy, worth noting.

From the time of leaving camp at Pocahontas, up to our arrival at Pulaski, we supposed (at least the uninitiated) that our whole force was moving on in the direction of Chattanooga, and that was our destination. We expected soon to reach that place and take part in the great battle pending there. But on arriving at Pulaski, Gen. Dodge established his Head Quarters there, and his command were stationed along the Railroad running from Nashville to Decatur, to repair the road for use. The 2d Brigade, with the exception of the 9th Ill. Inft., went into camp at Pulaski. The 9th was still ordered on detached duty, and sent to establish a post at Athens, Alabama.

On the afternoon of the 12th of November, we moved South of Pulaski, along the line of the Railroad, and bivouacked nine miles from Pulaski, near where the Ohio Brigade were in bivouack. Here the men were ordered to draw five days rations, in their haversacks. They were also notified that our train and baggage would be left behind, and to make a change of clothing if they desired it.

On the morning of the 13th of November, we moved at daylight, Southward, leaving our wagons, baggage, and hospital to proceed with the Ohio Brigade to Prospect, where that Brigade was to be stationed. At Prospect, we forded the Elk River. When the advance reached the river, and were looking for a ford, some Rebel soldiers were seen on the opposite side, and fired upon. They interposed no obstacle to our crossing, however. After crossing the river, one battalion, under command of Captain Lowe, proceeded by a circuitous and Westerly route. The remainder of the Regiment proceeded by the direct route to Athens, Ala., arriving there before sunset. A few miles North of the town, one man of Company G, was taken prisoner when out foraging, by a few Rebel soldiers who were in the neighborhood. A small force of Rebel cavalry had occupied Athens on that day, but they speedily left on our arrival. The advance of our column came very rapidly into town, pursuing the party who had captured our man. They were76 pursued some distance through the town. On our arrival, Lieut. Col. Phillips, who was in command of the Regiment during the entire march, took possession of the town. Captain I. Clements was appointed as Provost Marshal, with his Company (G) as Provost Guard. Captain Lowe, with his battalion, reached Athens sometime after dark.

The Regiment went into bivouack in different parts of the town. Col. Phillips made his Head Quarters in the Court House.

On the morning of the 14th of November, the entire Regiment, under command of Lieut. Col. Phillips, moved South towards Decatur. Proceeded to the bank of the river opposite Decatur, and reconnoitered the position. Found the Rebels were occupying the town, and had a Battery of two guns. We moved back two miles, halted and fed. Parties were sent in different directions to reconnoiter. The entire Regiment returned to Athens the same evening, and bivouacked as on the previous night.

On the morning of the 15th of November, the Regiment moved out one mile North-east of town, and went into camp. Here we remained until the morning of the 18th, simply sending out single companies each day to reconnoiter.

One object of our expedition was to examine the condition of the Railroad and telegraph line. On leaving Pulaski, Lieut. Oats, with twelve men, was detailed for that purpose. He proceeded along the line of the Railroad from Pulaski to Decatur, examining carefully its condition. The writer was requested by Lieut. Col. Phillips to accompany him, and report the condition of the telegraph. We were often separated two or three miles from the main column.

On the evening of the 17th, a portion of the teams came down from Pulaski, with five days rations, and returned to Prospect the next morning.

On the morning of the 18th November, the entire Regiment moved West, in the direction of Florence. Crossed Elk River, fifteen miles West of Athens, and halted to feed. During the afternoon of this day, when near Rodgersville, the advance were fired upon by a squad of Rebels, who broke and ran. No one hurt. Two companies moved rapidly down to the Tennessee River, at Lamb's Ferry, hoping to capture the boat. But it was on the other side of the river. Moved West on the Florence road, and bivouacked for the night nine miles West of Rodgersville.

November 19th, we moved at daylight, Westward on the Florence road. At Shoal Creek bridge the advance encountered and chased some Rebels, who seemed to be guarding the bridge. Proceeded rapidly77 with two companies, to Bambridge Ferry, six miles above Florence, and captured the ferry-boat. The Rebels opened fire from the opposite side of the river. Our two companies were deployed as skirmishers, and returned the fire. A brisk fire was kept up for one hour, until the boat was destroyed, when we started on our return march. Re-crossed Shoal Creek. Halted and fed. Mounted and continued our return march. Bivouacked for the night West of Elk River.

We moved again early on the morning of the 20th of November, and returned to Athens about 12 M. Proceeded through town, on the Decatur road, about six miles, halted and fed. From this point four companies returned to Athens, and occupied our old camp. The remainder of the Regiment proceeded to Moorsville. Found a force occupying that place, and returned to camp at Athens on the 21st. On the afternoon of this day, we moved our camp South-west of town.

The country having been completely explored, and considering there was no immediate danger from the enemy, the Col. sent for our teams and baggage. They arrived on the evening of the 21st, and the boys were glad to have a change of clothing.

I would here say, that upon our first coming to Athens, it was not deemed prudent to remove any baggage here, except such as could be carried on our animals. Our Regiment was sent down here all alone, in the midst of an enemy's country. No one knew the exact strength of the enemy. It was fifteen miles to Prospect, where our nearest forces were. The Elk River intervened, and was often past fording. At that time there was no way of crossing it, except on a very small boat which would only carry one wagon. It was a hazardous position we occupied, at best. There was a heavy force of Rebels South of the Tennessee River. There were a number of ferries for crossing at different points. But having reconnoitered the country, and destroyed several of the enemy's ferries, it was thought our train might be brought down with safety.

From the time we left camp at Pocahontas, until our train was brought down, we had been out 23 days, and on the march nearly all the time. During this time, we had with us no tents or covering of any kind, except such as we carried on our animals. We would march all day, often making 40 and 45 miles, and then lay down on the ground at night, with no covering but our blankets. During this time, we marched over 400 miles.

When our train arrived, and our camping ground was determined we had no tents, which could be quickly spread for a shelter. Most of the boys were under the necessity, for several nights, of doing as78 they had done, sleeping in the open air. Soon lumber was procured, from the fence around the Fair Grounds and the buildings it contained, and unoccupied stables and fences, with which to build shanties. But we had no nails, and this country could furnish none. But where there were buildings and fences, there were nails, and the old nails were preserved, and thus the boys built their houses. After a time, they were quite comfortable in them. The work of building "New Athens" was, however much retarded by the fact that several companies of the Regiment were almost constantly out on scouting duty. But ere long their houses were finished, with comfortable fire-places attached.

As I have stated above, Lieut. Col. Phillips, with the 9th Ill. Inft., was detached, and sent to Athens to establish a post. It was a strange kind of post for two or three weeks. Much was said about "Col. Phillips' circulating post." After we were settled down in our camp, however, Col. Phillips formally assumed command of the post, with his Head Quarters in town, leaving Major Kuhn in command of the Regiment. Still the post, or its head, was rather circulatory; for whenever the Regiment was out on a scout of any considerable importance, the Col. was sure to go along.

It devolved upon our Regiment not only to hold its post at Athens, but to guard the crossings of the Tennessee River for a distance of not less than fifty miles in length. Consequently, there was a great amount of scouting duty to perform. Almost daily, the various crossings of the Tennessee River, between Decatur and Florence, were visited by portions of our Regiment, and the ferry-boats either destroyed or captured.

On the 28th of November, three companies, under command of Lieut. Col. Phillips, moved West at 11 P. M., on the Florence road, and crossed Elk River, in search of some Rebel cavalry said to have crossed the Tennessee River that evening. He came upon and captured a squad of fifteen of them. Not finding any more force, he was returning to camp the next morning with his prisoners, when he was met by a dispatch from Gen. Dodge, stating that a large body of Rebels had crossed about Florence, and ordering him to reconnoiter and watch their movements, and develop their strength. A squad of men were sent in with the prisoners, with orders for one company more to join him. He had gone out with only one days' rations. The company that joined him could not carry rations to him, for we were short in camp. Our teams had gone to Pulaski for rations. The Division teams from Columbia had not arrived with rations, as expected. Our teams were detained there several days. But the boys of the 9th are79 not likely to starve, when there is anything in the country around them to eat.

The first night they camped near the town of Rodgersville. The Col. sent orders to the different houses in town, requiring each to supply a certain number of rations of corn bread. Some demurred, saying they had nothing of which to make bread. A second order was sent that if it was not provided in such a length of time, he would burn their houses. This brought corn bread in abundance, but not of a very fine quality. The next night they camped near a good supply of sweet potatoes, to which they helped themselves. The following day they came across a store of Rebel commissaries, and were thus further provided. They were out four days. Came upon a body of Rebels, of whom they captured about thirty. When pursuing them, Col. Phillips was chasing his man, and made a sabre stroke at him, cutting him over the head. About that time, the Col.'s horse fell, and threw him on his face on the frozen ground. He captured his man, however.

On the 25th of January, 1864, Companies B, C, D, F, H, I and K, under command of Lieut. Col. Phillips, moved out on a reconnoisance West. This left but three companies in camp. Company A was doing picket duty. Company G was acting as Provost Guard, and stationed in town. This left Company E in camp alone. News of the weakness of our force was immediately carried over the river, and Gen. Roddy notified of it. Consequently, early on the morning of the 26th of January, about 4 A. M., our camp was attacked by Gen. Roddy, with 700 men and two pieces of artillery. The pickets on the West of our camp were fired upon. Company E moved out promptly to support the pickets, when they met the overwhelming force of the enemy. After a brief engagement, and finding the strength of the enemy, this company fell back into town, to co-operate with Company G. This gave the Rebels possession of our camp. They plundered it of all the baggage and valuables. Our men were pursued into the town, the Rebels occupying the Southern part of the town, and our boys the Northern part. The Rebels also placed their artillery in position, and began to shell the town. After a smart skirmish of about forty minutes, the enemy retreated, and returned towards the river. This they did, although they numbered ten to our one.

The loss of the 9th, in this engagement, was two men wounded, viz: Spring, of Company C, (since dead,) and Holcomb, of Company I. One man, not a soldier, but an employe of our Surgeon, was shot in the hospital yard, although entirely unarmed. The enemy admit a loss of six killed and eighteen wounded. Three of our boys pursued them,80 and fired upon them when a short distance from the river, killing one and wounding two. They returned to camp safely, except that they lost their horses.

The officers lost all their baggage and effects, except such as they had with them. So with the men.

On the 28th, seven companies, under command of Lieut. Col. Phillips, moved West on the Florence road. Bivouacked for the night, eight miles East of Florence.

Early on the 29th, moved into Florence, chasing some Rebel soldiers from the town. Passed on twelve miles West of Florence, to Pride's Ferry. Here we had a sight of some Rebels, but they made good their escape. We destroyed a factory and mill in this region. Captured a train of about twenty wagons with their teams.

Near this Ferry lives a man named Woods, who is living with a negro woman as his wife. To this Woman he had a large number of children, whom he was holding as slaves. He was holding about forty of his own children as slaves. The Regiment foraged heavily upon him. About 3 P. M., we started on the return march, and bivouacked four miles from Florence. In this region, large numbers of negroes came in, and followed the Regiment on its return march to Athens.

On the morning of the 30th, moved towards Athens, and bivouacked for the night, West of Elk River. On the 31st, reached camp at Athens.

The Regiment was out, during this expedition, four days. It brought in about 500 negroes, men, women and children; 150 head of horses and mules, and 100 head of cattle, besides a train of 20 wagons.

On the 15th of February, the Regiment, under command of Lieut. Col. Phillips, moved to the Tennessee River, at Lucas & Brown's Ferry. The Regiment remained in bivouac during that entire week. Their work was patroling the river for ten or fifteen miles above and below Decatur, capturing flat-boats and ferry-boats, constructing canoes, &c. The weather was very cold. They had no shelter. Had to work much about the water, and withal, it was a very hard week's duty. The Rebels were occupying the other side of the river, and there was almost constant firing at each other across the river. Lieut. Oats, of Co. K, was in a flat-boat with fifteen men, when he was fired upon by about twenty Rebels, at close range. One man of Co. I was severely wounded. The fire was returned, and it is thought, from the noise, several of the enemy were killed and wounded. The Lieutenant captured four Rebel prisoners.

The Regiment returned to camp on the 20th, leaving two companies81 to patrol the river and guard our boats. During the week of boat capturing, one flat-boat captured above Decatur "ran the blockade" past the town, with three of our boys in it. They lay down flat, and let it float. Many incidents of interest occurred during this week, but I have not room to note them here.

On the 22d of February, the 39th Regiment Ohio Infantry arrived at Athens, and went into camp. Col. Noyes, of the 39th Ohio, assumed command of the post, relieving Lieut. Col. Phillips, who again assumed command of the Regiment.

From the 20th of February, up to the 7th of March, two companies of the 9th Ill. was kept constantly at the Tennessee River, patroling it for several miles below Decatur. These companies were relieved every two days, by others. In the meantime several other regiments passed through Athens, on their way towards Decatur. These were the 63d Ohio, 27th Ohio, 43d Ohio, and 111th Illinois, with the 4th Michigan Battery.

The Railroad was completed about the last week of February, and the cars commenced running through from Nashville. Soon boats to construct a pontoon bridge at Decatur, commenced passing on the cars. Gen. Dodge, who commands the department, was below. Active preparations were being made for occupying Decatur. To do this, the Tennessee River must be crossed, in the face of an opposing foe. The enemy was occupying Decatur, and the South bank of the river at the various ferries below.

The Regiment was paid, by Major Gregory, on the 2d of March, 1864, for the months of November and December. It had been paid on the 16th of December, 1863, by Major Hinkley, for the months of September and October, 1863.

On the morning of the 7th of March, the 9th Ill., together with a detachment of 60 men of the 18th Mo., and two sections of a U. S. Battery, stationed at Athens, received marching orders, and moved at 10 A. M., on the Lucas Ferry road. Arriving within two miles of the river at 2 P. M., they halted and fed, remaining until near dark, when they moved on to the river under cover of darkness.

It was known that an attempt would be made to cross the Tennessee River that night or early the next morning, both at Lucas Ferry and Decatur. The flat-boats, canoes, &c., which the 9th Ill. had for the past two or three weeks been collecting at Lucas Ferry, would now be brought into use. At Decatur, the boats intended for the construction of the pontoon bridge, would be used for crossing. Gen. Dodge was at Decatur superintending the crossing in person. Lieut. Col. Phillips,82 of the 9th Ill., was in charge of the expedition at Lucas Ferry, which is three miles below Decatur.

The Regiment went into bivouac, after dark, about one hundred yards from the river. The flat-boats and canoes had been moved up the river one mile, so as to have the advantage of the current. Several pontoon boats had been floated down a stream running from the Railroad to a point within a mile or two of the Ferry. These had to be taken across on wagons to the river and up to the point from which the boats were to start. This occupied a portion of the men during the greater part of the night.

Details were made, of three men from each company, who could man a canoe, and four men from each company for boatmen. During the night there was a heavy rain, after which it cleared up, and the stars shone brightly. Before day, however, a very heavy fog settled over the water and surrounding country. This was favorable to our crossing, as a man could not be seen, on the water, only at a very short distance.

About 2 A. M., the artillery was placed in position on the river bank. The forces were ordered into line. The details for canoe men and boatmen received their orders. The advance were to pass over in canoes. They were placed under the command of Lieut. Rollmann, and were instructed to proceed directly across, as rapidly as possible. When they struck the opposite shore, they were to abandon their canoes, and hold the positions until the boats would get over.

The flat-boats and pontoons were placed under the command of Lieut Oats. All were marched up the river to the boats, and at 4:30 A. M., the boats and canoes were loaded and started over. When the advance was within about 30 yards of the shore, the enemy fired a few shots, and retired rapidly in the direction of Courtland. The entire command crossed over in one and a half hours, and reported at Decatur. During the day and night following, the animals and teams were crossed over. Capt. Lowe, who had the crossing of the animals in charge, was attacked by a party of Rebels, and one man was taken prisoner.

The Regiment moved East, on the Courtland road, at 9:30 A. M., March 9th, and reached Courtland at 4 P. M., without meeting any body of the enemy. We bivouacked for the night on the Moulton road, three miles South of Courtland.

On the morning of the 10th of March, we moved into Moulton. The enemy had left the place three hours before our arrival. They moved from Moulton at daylight, on the Russelville road. We captured, at Moulton, several prisoners, one flag, a quantity of ammunition, and hospital and commissary stores. From Moulton, we moved towards Decatur,83 reaching that place at sundown. There the Regiment was ordered into camp, to be quartered in houses in town.

On the morning of the 11th of March, Adjutant Klock was ordered to Athens with a squad of men, to have the camp and garrison equipage moved to Decatur, which is being done at present writing, March 12th, 1864.

How long we will remain in Decatur, or where we shall go next, or how we shall be employed during the remaining four months of our service, are all matters in the future, and, in any department of life, uncertain, but especially in military life.

There are some incidents of interest, which occurred during the period of this chapter.

The first day after crossing the Tennessee River, while making for a place to camp for the night, where we learned there was forage for our animals, it began to get dark before we reached the point. The Col. drew up before a house near the road, to make some inquiry. A man came to the gate. Inquiry was made as to the distance to the point we wished to reach. These inquiries were followed by others as to whether there were any soldiers in the neighborhood. The reply was that there were.

Col.—"Were they Yanks?"

Citizen.—"Yes."

Col.—"How many was there of them?"

Citizen.—"Oh, there was a great many of them. At least 1,000."

Col.—"Was that all? I can easily whip twice that number. But I guess, my friend, you must go along and show us the road to their camping ground."

The poor man, thinking that we were Rebel soldiers, called to one of the boys to bring him out his horse until he would go with those men. But when the boy went to the stable to get the horse, it was not there. Our foraging parties had visited the stable, and relieved him of his horse. He went into the house to get his coat. There, I think, he began to realize that he was sold. Some of our boys had been in to get "corn bread," and the old lady, I suppose, had noticed the blue uniform, and reported us as "Yanks." When he came out he did not seem near so willing to go along. But he went with us, and when we got into camp, he waked up to the fact that he was a "prisoner of war." He had been in the Rebel army, and was detailed as a blacksmith, to shoe the horses through the country, that they might be ready for government use. He was taken with us, as a prisoner. I saw him a week later, when on our march, still a prisoner.

84Another. On the next evening, an old negro man was with us when we bivouacked. He was a preacher, and quite an oracle among the darkies in that region of country. As we were gathered around our camp-fire, the old man was called up to be questioned by the Colonel. After giving all the information he could, he told us of his visions and spiritual communications. Says he, "I sees all dis trouble seben years ago. I sees you alls a comin down from the Norf. I sees dese two great armies, with dah uniforms on, and all dis fitin and killin one anoder." On being asked how he saw all this, he replied, "I sees it spiritually." He was asked if he saw which was going to whip, he said, "Lor, massa, yes; I sees de Norf a whippin."

Still another. During the march from Corinth to Pulaski, Colonel Mersy of the 9th, commanding Brigade, being in camp, sleeping near his camp-fire, which was made of Chestnut rails, noted for their popping propensities when burning, the fire flew out and set his clothes or blankets on fire. The Head Quarters guard seeing it, went and awoke him, telling him that he was on fire. His reply was, "Adjutant! Adjutant!" But the Adjutant was sound asleep, and did not answer his call. The Col. being scarcely awake, was soon asleep again. The guard awoke him a second time, and told him he was on fire. "I tink dat no my business; you wake de Adjutant." The Col., so full of military life, and wishing everything to go through its proper military channel, felt, in his half sleeping condition, that his Adjutant General must be honored with the permission of getting up and putting out the fire.

Another one, in which our good Colonel is concerned. During the march, just before going into camp, Rebel uniforms and other accoutrements of war, were found at a house near the road. The soldiers made a pretty general red up of the establishment. After we were in camp, the woman of the house came to Col. Mersy, with her complaint. She represented, among other things, that she had been a widow for fifteen years. Soon Surgeon Gulick, of the 9th, who was with the Col., heard him call, "Doctor! Doctor!" The Doctor having arrived and awaiting orders, the Col. addressed him: "Now, my dear Surgeon, you does tell me if dis widow has been not married dese fifteen year."

Another one, which illustrates something of the habits of Southern women. They nearly all use tobacco, in some shape. Some of them in the various forms, of smoking, chewing, and dipping. When the Regiment was on its march from Pulaski to Athens, the writer was with a squad of men, who were traveling along the Railroad examining its condition. Being separated from the column, the boys becoming hungry, and desiring something to eat, rode up to a house where there85 were three or four women standing at the door. One of them inquired if they could get something to eat. The corn bread was produced. He then asked for some butter, which was also produced. One of the girls, thinking, I suppose, that one favor deserved another, very smilingly addressed one of the soldiers, saying, "Could you give me a chew of tobacco?" "Oh, yes," says he, taking a large plug of tobacco from his pocket and handing it to her. She took a chew, and then reached it back, thanking him. "Oh," says he, "you may just keep that, I can get more." She thanked him very kindly. I suppose she thought she was pretty well paid for her corn bread and butter.

Another. Capt. Krebs, of Company D, with a squad of 25 men, was detailed to go with the telegraph repairer along the line between Huntsville and Decatur. At a station between those two points, a small town, there were two telegraph posts down, the line on each side being perfect for two or three miles. The Captain and operator rode up to some citizens who were on the street, and politely asked them if they could not have those two posts set by the next day, stating that it would save them the trouble of bringing their team and men several miles, and would be a very great accommodation. One old man replied, "We can't do it, sir. You have taken all our negroes from us, and we have nobody to work for us." The Captain insisted that it was but a small job, and it would save him a great amount of trouble, if they would do it. The old man persisted that they could not do it. The Captain then addressed them as follows: "Gentlemen, I will be here to-morrow evening, with fifty men to do that work. You will have supper provided for that number of men." Then turning to his command, he gave the order, "Two right, march!" and moved off. When he had gone a mile or two, a runner came up and handed him a note, saying that the citizens would have those posts set by to-morrow morning. The "supper for fifty men" had been a more powerful argument than the Captain's pleadings. I suppose it led them to conclude, that if they had no darkies to do it, they would condescend to do it themselves.

One more. Major Falconet, of the Rebel army, and who was stationed at Decatur for some time, it is said, had come to the conclusion to take to himself a wife. He had gone to Florence to get married. While on the floor, having the marriage ceremony performed, Lieut. Col. Phillips, with the 9th Ill., made a dash into Florence. Some one came into the room and cried out, "The Yanks are coming!" The brave Major left his fair companion, broke from the house, and over the garden fence, tearing down about twenty feet of it, dashed to his boat and was off. I suppose he did not fancy being captured just then.86 How his partly constituted bride felt, at his rapid exit, and whether he has ever returned for the completion of the ceremony, "deponent saith not."

Still another, showing something of the horrors of Slavery. During the recent scout to Courtland and Moulton, when in camp near the former place, the orders of Lieut. Col. Phillips were to be ready to move by daylight. The guard were instructed to wake them two hours before day. The orderlies were waked at the proper time. When Adjutant Klock had gotten up, he was informed by an orderly that there was a lady wishing to see the Colonel. The Colonel was called. In a half-sleeping condition, he told the Adjutant to see what she wished. The Adjutant went around to see her. He saw there a very decently, but plainly dressed lady. He asked her what she wished. He was perfectly amazed at her reply. She said her master was going to sell her, and she wished to know if she could not go with them. The Adjutant replied, that he would speak to the Colonel about it, and that he thought they could make arrangements for her to go with us. The Colonel having dropped asleep in the meantime, the matter was referred to Major Kuhn. He told her at once that she could go along. She accordingly came into Decatur with our Regiment. To Northern men, unaccustomed to the evils of the system of Slavery, such scenes are revolting. Here was a woman, so nearly white, that she was mistaken for a white woman. She was, in all probability, her master's daughter or sister.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES
OF THE
FIELD AND STAFF OFFICERS.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.89

I propose to add to this history of the Regiment, a Biographical Sketch of the present Field and Staff Officers.

COL. AUGUST MERSY.

Was born in Germany. He entered the military service, in 1838, as Cadet, in Karlsruhe, Grand Duchy of Baden. He graduated in 1840, as Lieutenant. He was promoted to the position of 1st Lieutenant, in 1842. In 1844, he was assigned the position of Adjutant and staff officer. In 1847, he was appointed Regimental Adjutant. A European Regiment consists of from 2,400 to 3,000 men. In this position he acted until 1849. At the outbreak of the Revolution, he consequently acted against that Revolution. In 1849, however, he joined the Revolutionary party, and was promoted to the position of Colonel. After joining the Revolutionary party, he acted for some time as Provisional Secretary of War. He soon, however, joined the army, and assumed command of the Second Brigade. Whether he had the rank of General, or only acted as such in commanding a Brigade, the writer is unable to say. He went with his Brigade, through all the battles and skirmishes of the year 1849. He was under the necessity of crossing the Rhine for Switzerland, and concluded to emigrate to America. He arrived in the United States, in November, 1849. Went West, and settled in Bellville, St. Clair County, Illinois. He was for some time Clerk, and afterwards Cashier, of the "Bank of Bellville." He also acted as Notary Public.

On the uprising of the rebellion, his war spirit was aroused. I think he had for some time previous had command of a volunteer military company. He enlisted, with his company, in the "Three months'" service. He enlisted as Captain of Company A, 9th Regiment Illinois Infantry, on the 19th of April, 1861. He was elected Lieutenant Colonel, April 26th, 1861. This position he held during the "Three months'" service. He was mustered out of the service, at the end of the three months, on the 25th of July, 1861, and again immediately mustered in, for three years, as Lieutenant Colonel of the 9th Illinois Infantry.

He was promoted to the position of Colonel, and received his commission as such, December 2d, 1861. As Colonel and commander of the Regiment, he passed through the terrible battles of Fort Donelson90 and Shiloh, and the "siege of Corinth." He was wounded twice at the battle of Shiloh; but notwithstanding his wounds, he persisted in keeping the command of his Regiment. During the battle of Shiloh, Col. McArthur, commanding our Brigade, was severely wounded, in the latter part of the action, and Col. Mersy assumed command of the Brigade.

During the battle of Corinth, he assumed command of the Brigade, General Oglesby having been wounded. Since that time, he has had command of the 2d Brigade, 2d Division, 16th Army Corps. During the Summer and Fall of 1863, he was stationed with his Brigade Head Quarters at Pocahontas, Tennessee. Since November 12th, 1863, his Brigade Head Quarters have been at Pulaski, Tennessee.

LIEUT. COL. JESSE J. PHILLIPS.

Was born in Montgomery County, Illinois, May 22d, 1837. He was appointed Route Agent on the Terre Haute, Alton and St. Louis Railroad, June 26th, 1856. Resigned in May, 1857.

He read law with the Hon. James M. Davis, of Hillsboro, Illinois. He was admitted to the bar in the Spring of 1860, and opened an office in Hillsboro, the county-seat of Montgomery County, Illinois. He was prosecuting his practice when the first call was made for volunteers to serve for three months.

In politics, he was a Breckenridge Democrat. Had stumped it, for Breckenridge, in 1860. He had had a strong desire to engage in a military life. When the call was made, he at once went to work to raise a Company. Raised his Company, and was elected Captain, April 17th, 1861. The Company was accepted and ordered to Springfield, Illinois, on the 23d of April, 1861.

On the organization of the 9th Regiment Volunteer Infantry, for the three months' service, he was elected as Major of the Regiment. He acted in the capacity of Major in the Regiment during the three months' service. At the expiration of that service, he was mustered out, and immediately mustered in again for three years, unless sooner discharged, retaining still the rank of Major.

He received a commission as Lieutenant Colonel in the 9th Regiment Illinois Infantry in December, 1861, which position he still occupies. He had charge of a detachment of the Regiment, which made a successful expedition from Paducah to Saratoga, Ky. This was the first fight in which our boys were engaged. He was with the Regiment as Lieutenant Colonel, through the battles of Fort Donelson and Shiloh.91 At Shiloh, he received a very severe wound from a schrapnel. He was wounded in the hand and leg. The wound in his hand was a very painful one. He was unfitted for the service by it, for several months. At the battle of Corinth, on the 3d and 4th of October, he had not yet been able to join his Regiment. He joined it soon afterward, although still suffering much from the pain caused by his wound.

During the Fall of 1862 and Winter of 1863, he was much of the time in command of the Regiment, Col. Mersy being called to the command of the Brigade. In March, 1863, he made application to have the Regiment mounted for scouting purposes. The Regiment was mounted on the 20th of March, 1863. During the year that the Regiment has been mounted, he has led it through 23 battles and skirmishes.

He has frequently been placed in command of a Brigade of mounted forces, and in one or two instances, of a Division. He had command of two Brigades of Cavalry and Mounted Infantry, with which he made a raid in August, 1863, to Grenada, Mississippi. It was one of the most successful raids of the war. From $8,000,000 to 10,000,000 worth of public property was destroyed; 2,000 negroes, and a large number of horses and mules were brought in. But little was said about it at the time. Many a less brilliant raid has brought forth a star.

He was in command of the post at Athens, Alabama, for two or three months during the past Winter. He has lately been assigned to the command of all the mounted forces at Decatur, Alabama. There is a great amount of dash and daring about the Colonel, and yet he always manages to get his boys out of any place, into which he leads them.

MAJOR JOHN H. KUHN.

Was born in St. Gallen, Switzerland, May 20th, 1833. Emigrated to the United States, and landed in New York, in June, 1849. He was, by occupation, a laborer. Hired with a farmer near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, during the first summer. He removed to East Tennessee, where he spent three years, part of the time in a glass factory in Knoxville, and part of the time boating on the Tennessee River. He moved to Alton, Illinois, in 1854. Was engaged for a time in the lumber business, and afterwards in a banking house. He had served for about six years in the State Militia, and entered the service of the United States, on the call for volunteers for three months. He enlisted with his company of "Alton Jagers," as their Captain, April 19th, 1861, and was attached to the 9th Illinois Infantry. He re-enlisted at the92 expiration of three months, for three years. Served, for some time, as Provost Marshal of Paducah, Kentucky. He received his commission as Major of the 9th Illinois Infantry, December 2d, 1861. He was detailed during some months in the Summer and Fall of 1863, in charge of convalescent camp in Memphis, Tennessee. Rejoined the Regiment at Athens, Alabama, November 21st, 1863. At present writing, he has command of his Regiment, Lieut. Col. Phillips being assigned to the command of the mounted forces at Decatur, Alabama.

SURGEON EMIL GULICK, M. D.

Was born in the city of Schleswig, Dutchdom Schleswig, on the 29th of November, 1828. After finishing his school education, he commenced the study of Chemistry in particular, but with it the other branches of the medical science. While quietly pursuing his studies, the sound of the drum rang through the land, calling all able-bodied citizens into the field to fight for the independence of the Dutchdoms from the Kingdom of Denmark. This call was in March, 1848. The Doctor was then in his 20th year. Obeying his country's call, he enlisted to do battle for liberty. He enlisted as a private. He was afterwards engaged as an Assistant in the Medical Department. He was connected with the army in these capacities until 1851. He emigrated to America in 1853. He re-commenced his Medical studies, and graduated in the St. Louis Medical College, in 1859. He commenced the practice of medicine during the same year, in Alton, Madison County, Illinois. When the Rebellion broke out, and there was a call for men to defend the government of his adoption, he offered himself for that purpose. He enlisted, in the three months' service, as a private, in Company K, 9th Regiment Volunteer Infantry, on the 26th day of April, 1861. He re-enlisted, at the expiration of three months, for three years, July 26th, 1861, and was promoted to the position of Assistant Surgeon of the 9th Illinois Volunteer Infantry. On the 28th of April, 1862, he was again promoted to the position of Surgeon. He has served in that position ever since. He has been almost constantly with his Regiment. He was on detached duty in the Hospital at Paducah, Kentucky, during the months of September and October, 1863.

ASSISTANT SURGEON W. D. CRAIG, M. D.

Was born in Montgomery County, Indiana, March 27th, 1828. He was raised on a farm. Was educated at Crawfordsville, Indiana. He93 moved to Illinois in 1849, and graduated at Rush Medical College, Chicago, Illinois, in the Spring of 1852. From that time, up to the Summer of 1861, he was engaged in the practice of Medicine. Was living in Aledo, the county-seat of Mercer County, Illinois, and engaged in the duties of his profession, at the time of his enlisting in the service of his country. He recruited a large portion of a Company in Mercer County. Was mustered into the service of the United States, as 1st Lieutenant Company E, 9th Regiment Volunteer Infantry, August 6th, 1861. Served in that capacity until May 12th, 1862. During the time he served as a line officer, he passed through the terrible struggles of Fort Donelson and Shiloh. He was slightly wounded at Shiloh, in the left shoulder, by a spent ball. He was assigned to the Medical Department of the Regiment, in the capacity of Assistant Surgeon, on the 12th of May, 1862. Continued with the Regiment in this capacity, until the last of December, 1863, when he was assigned to duty in Pulaski, Tennessee. During the past Winter, he has had charge of the U. S. General Hospital of the left wing, 16th Army Corpse, at Pulaski, Tennessee. He has under his charge there, about an average of two hundred patients, including a Small-Pox ward of from ten to fifteen patients.

SECOND ASSISTANT SURGEON W. A. ALLEN, M. D.

Was born in Jacksonville, Illinois, March 5th, 1830. Read Medicine with Dr. Haskall, Hillboro, Montgomery County, Illinois, 1850, 1851 and 1852. He graduated at St. Louis Medical College, in 1856, and commenced the practice of Medicine in Greenville, Bond County, Illinois, during the same year. Was engaged in pursuing his practice at that place, until January, 1863. He received a commission as 2d Assistant Surgeon in the 9th Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and entered upon his duties as such, January 16th, 1863. He was detailed, for some time, to take charge of the Medical Department of the Contrabands at LaGrange, and afterwards at Corinth. Has been constantly with his Regiment since the 1st of September, 1863, having been relieved from his duties in Corinth at that time.

HENRY H. KLOCK, LIEUTENANT AND ADJUTANT.

Was born in Manheim, Herkimer County, New York, November 27th, 1835. Received a common school education. Removed to Illinois in 1854. Was engaged in teaching public school in Madison94 County, Illinois, when he enlisted. Enlisted in the 9th Illinois Infantry, Company F, and was mustered in as a private, July 28th, 1861. Was detailed as Clerk in the Adjutant's office, from September 1861. Was commissioned as 1st Lieutenant and Adjutant January 31st, 1862, to rank from October 3d, 1861. Has been with the Regiment through most of its battles. Was wounded at Shiloh and Corinth. Is still acting as Adjutant for the Regiment, and is devoted to the duties of his office.

CHARLES A. SPATEE, REGIMENTAL QUARTERMASTER.

Was born in the Dukedom of Saxony, Altenburg, in the year 1836. He was trained for the profession of Architect. He emigrated to the United States in 1855. After his arrival in this country, he was engaged principally in working upon Railroads and Saw Mills, previous to his entering the service of his adopted country. He enlisted in the "Three months' service," as a private in the 10th Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry. He re-enlisted, for three years, as a private in the 9th Regiment Volunteer Infantry, Company K. He was afterwards promoted to the position of a Sergeant. In December, 1861, he was appointed Commissary Sergeant. He was commissioned as 1st Lieutenant and Regimental Quartermaster, October 4th, 1863. He continues to occupy this position at the present time. Lieutenant Spatee was not in the military service in the old country.

MARION MORRISON, CHAPLAIN.

Was born in Adams County, Ohio, June 2d, 1821. He was trained as a farmer, receiving a common school education. In the Spring of 1841, he commenced the study of Latin, preparatory to the ministry. In October, 1842, he entered the Freshman class in Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, and graduated August, 1846. He studied Theology, at the A. R. Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Oxford, Ohio, and was licensed to preach, by the A. R. Presbyterian Presbytery of Chillicothe, Ohio, in the Spring of 1849. He was ordained and installed Pastor of the A. R. Presbyterian Congregation of West Fork, Adams County, Ohio, in the Spring of 1850. Was elected Professor of Mathematics and Natural Science in "Monmouth College," June, 1856. Resigned the charge of his Congregation, and removed to Monmouth, Illinois, in the Summer of 1856, and entered upon his duties as Professor, September of the same year. He had the financial charge of "The95 Western United Presbyterian," published in Monmouth for several years. In June, 1861, he assumed the entire responsibility of that paper, financial and editorial, and soon after united it with "The Christian Instructor," published in Philadelphia. He continues an Associate Editor to the above paper. In the Summer of 1861, he resigned his position as Professor in Monmouth College, and was engaged as Financial Agent of the College, until July 30th, 1863, when he was commissioned as "Captain of Cavalry, and Chaplain of the 9th Illinois Volunteer Infantry." Was mustered into the service, and entered upon the duties of Chaplain, September 4th, 1863. Has been with his Regiment ever since, except during January, 1864, when he was sent to Illinois on orders. Rejoined his Regiment February 1st, 1864.


Transcriber's note:

The following corrections have been made:
p. 3 he object I have -> he changed to the
p. 8 Kitchell, 1st Lieutenant, -> second comma replaced with period
p. 8 South- -> hyphen replaced with period
p. 16 to be Colone -> Colone changed to Colonel
p. 20 If you wont sell -> wont changed to won't
p. 31 unhallowed cause -> period added after cause
p. 31 Lieut F. Vogler -> period added after Lieut
p. 32 Roffy -> comma added
p. 34 he was drank -> drank changed to drunk
p. 43 Kortkamp--1 -> period added after 1
p. 44 In all, 3 killled -> killled changed to killed
p. 45 did not come -> period added after come
p. 50 battallion of the 15th -> battallion changed to battalion
p. 52 broke and run -> run changed to ran
p. 53 of the 9th Ill, -> period added after Ill
p. 54 sout-east from Corinth -> sout-east changed to south-east
p. 55 entire column move -> move changed to moved
p. 56 at 1 P M. -> period added after P
p. 57 and succeded in -> succeded changed to succeeded
p. 60 Lient. Col. Phillips -> Lient. changed to Lieut.
p. 63 women and children, -> removed comma
p. 63 were compelled to see it, -> removed comma
p. 63 camp at Pocahontas, -> removed comma
p. 64 from Company B. to Company F -> removed period after B
p. 66 Regiment move forward -> move changed to moved
p. 67 Salem, Miss, -> period added after Miss
p. 67 Montazuma, Tenn., -> Montazuma changed to Montezuma
p. 71 exitement had passed away -> exitement changed to excitement
p. 76 onr arrival -> onr changed to our
p. 77 Col. Sent for our -> Sent changed to sent
p. 81 Tennesse River must be crossed -> Tennesse changed to Tennessee
p. 82 Severa pontoon -> Severa changed to Several
p. 89 in Karlsrhue -> Karlsrhue changed to Karlsruhe

Uncommon spelling like schrapnel or bivouack has been retained.

Inconsistent hyphenation and spelling has been retained unless one form predominated.






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