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Title: The Every Day Book of History and Chronology
  Embracing the Anniversaries of Memorable Persons and Events in Every Period and State of the World, from the Creation to the Present Time
Author: Joel Munsell
Release Date: October 24, 2013 [eBook #44028]
[Most recently updated: June 28, 2023]
Language: English
Produced by: Marilynda Fraser-Cunliffe, Lisa Reigel, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team
*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE EVERY DAY BOOK OF HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY ***

Transcriber's Note: A list of corrections follows the text.

 


 

 

 

[i]

THE

EVERY DAY BOOK

OF

HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY:

EMBRACING THE

Anniversaries of Memorable Persons and Events,

IN

EVERY PERIOD AND STATE OF THE WORLD,

FROM THE CREATION TO THE PRESENT TIME.

BY JOEL MUNSELL.

"What hath this day done? What hath it deserved?"

NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON & CO., 346 BROADWAY.
1858.


[ii]


CONTENTS

Preface. July.
January. August.
February. September.
March. October.
April. November.
May. December.
June.
Index to Names of Persons.
Index to Battles, Sieges and Other Military Operations.
General Index.

[iii]

PREFACE.

The object of this work, as will be seen, is to bring together the great events of each day of the year, in all ages, as far as their dates can be ascertained, and to arrange them chronologically. It has been necessary to observe brevity in its compilation, in order to reduce it within a proper compass. Hence notices of the most eminent men are often confined to two or three lines, while individuals of less note have occasionally received more attention, on account of the absence of ready reference to them in books.

The dates are in accordance, it is believed, with the best authorities. Great care has been taken to make them so, and nothing has been inserted for which there was not at least some authority. Occasionally authors have been found to disagree in days, months, and even years, and it has been necessary to reconcile, as well as possible, such discrepancies. Much of this confusion arises from the change in the calendar; some authors following the old, others the new style, without informing us which they adhere to. The protestant countries did not all adopt the new style till 1777, about two centuries after the catholic authorities had reformed the calendar. The Russians still use the Julian era, and are now consequently twelve days behind the true time. With these difficulties in the way, no ordinary vigilance ensures an entire freedom from error in a work like this. The dates here, however, are made to conform to the new style as far as practicable. In some cases where different dates have been given, and it has been found impossible to determine the true one, the article has been inserted under different days with cross references. Repetitions have crept in however, which could only be discovered in preparing the index. Errors of this kind are perpetuated by a succession of authors [iv]following a wrong date, and are exceedingly difficult to detect, or when suspected, not easily traced to their origin. When dates have been taken from computations of time other than the Christian era, it should be understood that the corresponding day has been made to conform to our own era, and consequently perfect accuracy can not be claimed for them.

It has been said that geography and chronology are the eyes of history; in aiding to promote one of these sciences, the reader will not fail to discover how great and varied is the amount of facts brought together, rendering the work of use to persons of every age and calling. A reference to the index will show more clearly the extent of the work.


[9]

EVERY DAY BOOK

OF

HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY.


JANUARY.

JANUARY 1.

154 B. C. It was fixed that the Roman consuls should always enter upon their office on this day, and the years were named after them. On this occasion they went in solemn procession to the Capitol to sacrifice to Jupiter Capitolinus; after which the senate held a solemn session. Those who had discharged the office of consul enjoyed the pre-eminence of rank over the other senators. They were annually elected by the people till the time of Tiberius, who ordered that they should be chosen by the senate. The last consul after whom the year was named, was Barsilius, in the year 541, in the reign of Justinianus.

38. B. C. The Spanish era, or era of the Cæsars, commenced, being the year following the conquest of Spain by Augustus. It was much used in Africa, Spain and the south of France; but was abolished by one kingdom after another during the fourteenth century, and by Portugal 1555.

404. Telemachus, or St. Almachus, whose story is the foundation of Fenelon's famed work Telemaque, suffered martyrdom at Rome.

1109. The Festival of Fools was instituted at Paris, and continued prosperous for 240 years. This, with the Lords of Misrule, and the Abbots of Unreason, was doubtless designed to ridicule the Druidic saturnalia.

1308. William Tell, the Swiss patriot, associated himself on this day with a band of his countrymen against the tyranny of their oppressors.

1349. Edward III, king of England, defeated the French before Calais with great slaughter.

1504. Birthday of Casper Cruciger, an extensive and multifarious scholar, and a follower of Luther. He died 1548.

1515. Louis XII of France, surnamed the father of the people, died. Notwithstanding the faults of his education, which had been purposely neglected, he became a wise and politic monarch, who had the welfare and improvement of his country in mind. Though extensively engaged in wars, he avoided burdening the people with taxes—was economical, just and magnanimous.

1513. Juan Diaz de Solis, coasting the southern continent, discovered the mouth of a river on this day, which in consequence he called Rio Janeiro.

1516. Juan Diaz de Solis again entered the Rio de Solis which he had discovered three years previous. In attempting a descent on the country he was slain by the natives, who in sight of the ship cut his body in pieces, and roasted and devoured it. He was reputed the ablest navigator in the world.

1523. Knights of Malta driven from the island of Rhodes by the Turks.

1537. James V of Scotland married Magdalen, daughter of Francis I of France.

1617. Henry Goltzius, a distinguished Dutch painter and engraver, died. His father was a painter on glass, and gave his son instructions in the art; but it was his own genius and application that raised him to the rank he ultimately held among the best artists of the time.

1618. Charter of the first New Netherland company expired by its own limitation.

1618. Birthday of Bartholomew Esteban Murillo, the greatest of all the Spanish painters. He was employed by the churches and convents of Seville a great number of years, which were enriched by the masterly productions of his pencil, and procured for himself an independent fortune. Having been invited to Cadiz, he there executed his grand picture of St. Catharine; but just as he was about to finish it he was dreadfully wounded on the scaffolding, and died at Seville, 1682.

1630. Thomas Hobson, the celebrated [10]carrier of Cambridge, England, died. One of the most general proverbial expressions in England originated with him. He let to students and others horses, and his practice was to secure equal portions of rest as well as work for each horse. Hence when applied to for any, none but that which had its due proportion of rest could be let. "This or none" was the answer. Hence the phrase "Hobson's choice; this or none."

1644. Michob Ader, calling himself the Wandering Jew, appeared at Paris, where he created an extraordinary sensation among all ranks. He pretended to have lived sixteen hundred years, and that he had traveled through all regions of the world. He was visited by the literati of the city, and no one could accost him in a language that he was ignorant of; he was also familiar with the history of persons and events from the time of Christ, so that he was never confounded by intricate or cross-questions; but replied readily and without embarrassment. The learned looked upon him as a counterfeit, or madman, yet they took their leave of him bewildered and astonished.

1651. Charles II crowned king of Scotland at Scone.

1661. A parliament met in Scotland.

1700. The Russians began their new year.

1715. William Wycherley died, aged 81, an eminent English dramatic writer and comic poet.

1727. Claude Adrian Helvetius died; a celebrated Dutch physician, who, having obtained celebrity by introducing the use of ipecacuanha in dysentery, was made inspector general of military hospitals, and died at London.

1729. Great fog in London, persons lost their way in St. James' park, and many fell into the canal.

1730. Samuel Sewall, chief justice of the supreme court of Massachusetts died.

1731. Edward Cave printed the first number of the well known Gentleman's Magazine.

1748. Birthday of Godfrey Augustus Burger, a celebrated German poet, and the writer of that whimsical satire, Munchausen's Travels.

1748. John Bernouilli, a Swiss mathematician, died. He was born at Basil in Switzerland, and educated for a merchant, but afterwards studied medicine, and finally devoted his attention to mathematics with great success. He was the contemporary of Leibnitz and De L'Hopital, and of Newton. His labors in the science were indefatigable, and his works contain an immense mass of discovery. But the details of his private life exhibit an unusual degree of acerbity and disingenuousness.

1752. The new style commenced this day in England by act of parliament. (See March 25.)

1757. Calcutta surrendered to the British under Admiral Watson, Colonel Clive and Captain Coote.

1761. Great hurricane in the East Indies, destroying a part of the British fleet; of the crews of three of the ships lost but 14 were saved out of 1100.

1776. Norfolk Burnt. Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia, having abandoned the town and retired on board his ships, became distressed for provisions; and on the arrival of the Liverpool man of war, the inhabitants refusing to supply his majesty's ships, the place was reduced to ashes. The provincials themselves destroyed the houses and plantations near the water, to deprive the ships of every resource of supply.

1781. Revolt of the Pennsylvania line at Morristown, N. J. They had enlisted for three years, and that term having expired they wished to be discharged.

1787. Arthur Middleton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was a native of South Carolina, born 1743, and educated in England; and at the age of twenty-two made the tour of Europe. On the breaking out of the war he engaged warmly on the side of the colonies. In 1779 he distinguished himself in the defence of Charleston against the British, who afterwards ravaged his plantation and rifled his mansion, by which he suffered an immense loss of property; and in the following year he was taken prisoner. On the termination of the contest he returned to his native seat, and spent the remainder of his life in elegant and philosophical ease—a model of private wealth and public virtue; a firm patriot and an enlightened philanthropist.

1793. A beginning was made upon the Pennsylvania state canal, at Conewago falls; seventeen rocks being blasted—one for each stockholder of the canal company.

1794. The French convention abolished flogging in the army and navy and substituted other punishments more congenial with the spirit of the times.

1794. Thomas Paine and Anacharsis Cloots arrested by order of Robespierre and sent to prison in Paris.

1797. Zemaun Shah made his triumphal entry into Lahore, the capital of the Sikhs, where he formed an army of 100,000 men with a view of marching upon Delhi.

1798. Athenæum at Liverpool was opened.

[11]1799. The French drove the king of Naples from his capital and forced him to take refuge on board of a British man of war, in which he sailed to Palermo.

1801. Union of Great Britain with Ireland.

1801. Ceres discovered by Piazzi, the astronomer, at Palermo.

1804. The numerous army which France had sent against the negroes of Hayti being compelled by disasters to fly to St. Domingo, the general and chiefs of the Haytian army entered into a solemn compact, in the name of the people of Hayti; renouncing all dependence on France, and appointed Dessalines, the oldest general, governor for life, with very extensive powers.

1806. The French republican calendar abolished, and the Christian era and reformed calendar restored.

1806. The elector of Wurtemberg proclaimed king of Swabia, and the elector of Bavaria king of Bavaria.

1807. Curacoa surrendered to the British under Sir Charles Brisbane.

1810. There had died in Philadelphia during the year ending this day 2004 persons; the population including the Liberties was about 100,000.

1810. Married at East Haddam, Conn., nine young ladies, being all that were marriageable at that time in the town.

1811. Tortosa in Valencia surrendered to the French under Suchet, who took nearly 8000 prisoners, 177 cannons, and a large quantity of provisions.

1811. Hamburgh formally annexed to France.

1811. Spanish cortes forbid the people obeying any act of Ferdinand XII, while a prisoner of Bonaparte.

1813. Jean Mourtrie, a Frenchman, died at the age of 115. He was a tilemaker, and continued his occupation to the age of 109. He was a pattern of honor and integrity; his gaiety made the young fond of his society; and his mild and even temper and kind disposition gained him the love of all who knew him.

1814. Great fog in London, which had commenced on the 27th of December, was now at its greatest density, extending seventy miles from the metropolis. Many persons lost their lives by falling into the river, and canals, and other places.

1814. The allied army entered France.

1814. American dragoons under Capt. Stone advanced on Buffalo, accompanied by Lieuts. Riddle, Totman and Frazer, of the United States regiment; the militia retiring, Totman was killed, and Riddle narrowly escaped being captured.

1815. William Creech, bookseller and twice lord provost of Edinburgh, died. He was a spirited writer.

1815. The British under Gen. Packenham opened a battery of two 18 pounders on the Americans at New Orleans; it was silenced the same day. The Americans had a boat loaded with military stores sunk; 34 men killed and wounded, and two caissons blown up by rockets. Gen. Thomas joined Gen. Jackson same day with 660 men from Baton Rouge.

1816. William Hillhouse died, aged 88; for more than 50 years a member of the council and legislature of Connecticut.

1817. Martin Henry Klaproth, a German chemist and philosopher, died. He was born at Wernigerode 1743 and followed the profession of an apothecary till 1788, when he became chemist to the Academy of Sciences at Berlin.

1817. The new Bank of the United States opened at Carpenter's hall, Philadelphia; Wm. Jones president, Jonathan Smith cashier.

1818. William Harrod, an eccentric bookseller in Leicestershire, died.

1823. The French language abolished in the law courts of Holland, where it had long been in use, and was prevalent in society.

1825. Great Britain acknowledged the independence of the South American republics.

1835. Charles Lamb died. He was the author of the beautiful stories of Elia, which are universally admired. His exquisite humor, fancy, feeling and wit, have given an endurable character to his essays. The bettering of the condition of mankind was his great aim, and he was in the esteem of every philanthropist.

1835. First daily paper in Buffalo, New York.

1837. Samuel Hulse died at Chelsea Hospital, England, of which he had been governor since 1820, aged 90. He entered the British army in the year 1761, and at the time of his death had been upwards of three quarters of a century in the military service, and was then field marshal.

1837. Saphet in the Holy Land nearly destroyed by an earthquake. It is said that this and a subsequent shock were both predicted by a Walachian almanac maker.

1848. Girard college opened with appropriate ceremonies at Philadelphia.

1848. The state of Maryland repudiated repudiation, and resumed payment of interest on her debt at the Chesapeake bank, Baltimore.

1852. Frederick Philips Robinson, an American officer, died, aged 89; he had been scarcely less than 75 years in the military ranks.

1854. Great fire at Constantinople destroyed 400 houses; among which were [12]those of the Greek patriarch, and the patriarch of Jerusalem.

JANUARY 2.

17. Titus Livius died at Padua. His history of Rome, to which he devoted twenty years, rendered him so celebrated, that a Spaniard is said to have gone from Cadiz to Rome for the purpose merely of seeing him. His history was written in 140 books, of which only 35 are extant. Five of these were discovered at Worms 1731, and some fragments are said to have been since found at Herculaneum. Few particulars of his life are known, but his fame was great even while he lived, and his history has made him immortal.

17. Publius Ovidus Naso, the Roman poet, died in exile at Tomos (a town on the inhospitable coast of the Black sea), aged 60. He exhibited an unconquerable predilection for poetry, and the ease and the enjoyments of life, which his fortune placed within his power. He traveled in Greece and Asia which added to his accomplishments; his works were adapted to the public taste, and he was esteemed by the learned: Horace and Virgil were his friends, and he was a welcome visitor at the court of Augustus. Until his fiftieth year he appears to have lived almost solely for poetry and pleasure. He might have hoped to pass the remaining years of his life in peace, under the shadow of his laurels, but he was suddenly banished by Augustus, for some unknown cause. His Metamorphoses, and Art of Love are often republished in our language. He painted nature with a masterly hand, and his genius imparted elegance to vulgarity; but impurity defiles the sweetness of his numbers, and his finest productions are sullied with licentiousness.

1547. Conspiracy of Genoa, headed by John Lewis Fiesco; his being drowned in the night, occasioned the failure of the scheme, in the very moment of success.

1604. The Jesuits reinstated in France.

1731. A reprieve sent to a prisoner at Newgate on condition he would suffer Mr. Chiselden to make an experiment on the tympanum of his ear. The experiment was never performed.

1741. John Barber, printer to the city of London, and the first printer that rose to the rank of mayor, died.

1757. Calcutta retaken by the English and permitted to be fortified by the subah.

1758. The Whitefield methodists observed this day in thanksgiving for the victories of the king of Prussia in favor of England.

1759. The French surprised and captured Frankfort on the Maine.

1766. James Edward Francis Stuart, the Pretender, died. He was the eldest son of James II, born at London 1688. He was five months old when his father was dethroned, and the royal family fled to France. His elder sister Anne afterwards came to the throne, and some effort was made to secure his own succession; but it does not appear that he entered into the project with much spirit.

1771. Lewis Cæsar, count d'Estrees, marshal of France, and minister of state, died aged 76. He distinguished himself in the war against Spain, and afterwards in 1741, wherein his bravery was conspicuous and his services meritorious. In 1756 he was placed at the head of the French forces in Germany, but was superceded by Richelieu through intrigue.

1774. The coffin of Edward I opened by a deputation from the society of antiquarians, after it had been buried 467 years. In a coffin of yellow stone they found the royal body in perfect preservation, enclosed in two wrappers; one of them was gold tissue, strongly waxed and fresh; the other and outermost considerably decayed. The corpse was habited in a rich mantle of purple lined with white and adorned with ornaments of gilt metal, studded with red and blue stones and pearls. Two similar ornaments lay on the hands. The mantle was fastened on the right shoulder by a magnificent fibula of the same metal, with the same stones and pearls. His face had over it a silken covering, so fine, and so closely fitted to it, as to preserve the features entire. Round his temples was a gilt coronet of fleur de lys. In his hands, which were also entire, were two sceptres of gilt metal; that in the right surmounted by a cross fleure, that in the left by three clusters of oak leaves, and a dove on a globe. The feet enveloped in the mantle and other coverings were sound and the toes distinct. Its length was 6 feet 2 inches.

1777. Cannonading at Trenton; the British repulsed in their attempt to cross Sanpink creek bridge. In the night Gen. Washington retired leaving his fires burning.

1780. The Dutch admiral, Count Byland, refusing to permit the British admiral, Fielding, to search his convoy, an action ensued, and the Dutch ships, two of the line and two frigates, surrendered; after detaining seven of the convoy, the Dutch admiral had permission to proceed; but he refused without the whole of his charge, and therefore sailed into Spithead.

1788. Georgia ratified the Constitution of the United States, without amendment, being the fourth state to do so.

[13]1795. Josiah Wedgewood, the inventor of the scale that bears his name in the thermometer for determining the different degrees of metallic heat, died at his residence in England.

1801. John Gasper Christian Lavater died. He was born at Zurich, in Switzerland, where his father was a physician of skill and reputation. In 1763 he traveled in Germany; in 1767 appeared as a poet; and in 1769 as a preacher of much popularity. All his activity was devoted to religion until he undertook his work on physiognomy. This great work in 4 vols. quarto, in which he had collected the features of distinguished persons from all parts of the world, made him known throughout Europe. He published several other works, and became so popular that his journeys resembled triumphs. On the capture of Zurich by Massena, he received a shot while assisting the wounded in the street, which although he lived more than a year, and wrote several works, was the cause of his death.

1809. Two French ships of war and eleven victualers, proceeding to Barcelona, were captured in the port of Caldagues by the British under Lord Cochrane.

1809. Penguin island, at the cape of Good Hope, sank, and is now only known to mariners by name.

1810. Orders were received from Paris by Murat, king of Naples, to seize and immediately dispose of all American vessels and cargoes.

1814. Dantzic surrendered to the duke of Wurtemberg.

1815. The prince regent of England extended the military order of Bath, and divided it into three classes, namely: 1. Knights grand crosses; 2. Knights commanders; 3. Companions.

1816. Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau, a French chemist, died. He was born at Dijon 1737, and distinguished himself in 1773 by the invention of the method of purifying the air by means of chlorine. He was an upright, able, eloquent and business man; and founded a school at Dijon for the study of his favorite science, chemistry. He was a member of the national assembly and convention at the time of the revolution, and assisted to establish the polytechnic school.

1827. John Mason Good, an English physician, poet and philological writer, died. At the age of 15 he was apprenticed to a surgeon; in 1793 removed to London, and by talent and perseverance, succeeded in establishing both a literary and professional fame. He was a voluminous writer, and the extent and variety of his works evince the greatest industry, and a retentive and orderly mind. He acquired thirteen European and Asiatic languages, and at the time of his death had just completed a translation of the Psalms.

1829. Forty men and thirty horses destroyed by an explosion of fire damp in a mine near Lyons, France.

1831. Berthold George Niebuhr the historian, died. He was the son of Niebuhr the traveler, born at Copenhagen 1777, and finished his education at Edinburgh. He traveled much and received great attention wherever he went. In 1810 he delivered his lectures on Roman history at Berlin; and in 1815, on the death of his father, planned and published his biography. In 1827 he published the first volume of a remodeled edition of his Roman history; the second volume appeared a few months before his death, leaving the third unpublished.

1835. Robert Hindmarsh, the most distinguished among those who supported the religious views of Emanuel Swedenborg, died at Gravesend.

1837. John Cuffee, a negro slave, died at Norfolk, Va., at the remarkable age of about 120 years. He was a native of Africa, was sold as a slave in the island of Barbadoes, and brought to Norfolk about 1740.

1850. George Blatterman, professor of modern languages in the Virginia university, died at Charlottesville.

1853. A new and stringent law against the liberty of the press was published in Spain.

1857. Andrew Ure, author of the Dictionary of Arts, died at London, aged 89.

JANUARY 3.

456. B. C. Myronides the Athenian general defeated the Bœotians at Enophyta.

106. B. C. Birthday of Marcus Tullius Cicero, the Roman orator.

1641. Jeremiah Horrox, an English astronomer, died. He seems to have been the first to observe the transit of Venus over the sun's disc, from which he deduced many useful observations, though not aware of the full importance of that phenomenon.

1661. Secretary Pepys seeing the comedy of the Beggars' Bush performed at Lincoln Inn Fields, says: "And here the first time that ever I saw women upon the stage."

1670. George Monk, duke of Albemarle, died. He entered the British army at an early age; and in 1639 was engaged in the unfortunate expedition of Charles I against the Scots. He was confined three years in the Tower under the parliament, during which he wrote a work on military and political affairs; but finally accepted a commission in the republican army [14]against the Irish, the Scotch and the Dutch. But at the death of the Protector he employed his influence to reinstate the Stuarts. In 1666 he was again employed against the son of his old antagonist Tromp, in which the English fleet was much damaged, and both claimed the victory.

1717. Lambert Boss, an eminent Dutch philologist, died. He was born in Friesland 1670; studied under his father who was a clergyman, became private tutor in a family of rank, and subsequently professor of Greek in the university of Franeker. He was an indefatigable student, and regretted every moment which could not be devoted to his favorite pursuit. The number and character of his works mark his industry.

1724. Philip V of Spain abdicated the throne in favor of his son Louis; but he dying the same year, Philip resumed the crown again.

1730. The Turks began to learn the art of war and fortification after the European model, from Count Bonneval of France, who became a Musselman.

1777. Battle of Princeton, N. J., between the British and a division of the American army, under General Washington. The British lost 100 men, and 300 more who had taken refuge in the college, were forced to surrender.

1795. Josiah Wedgewood died. His father was a Staffordshire potter, to whose business he succeeded, and soon distinguished himself by his discoveries and improvements, insomuch that in a few years England, instead of importing the finer earthen wares, was enabled to supply her neighbors. He was a scientific, as well as an active and enterprising man—and benevolent withal.

1797. Three of the large stones in the antique pile at Stonehenge in England fell, the smallest of which weighed 20 tons. They were loosed, it was supposed, by the severe frost of that season.

1805. Charles Townley, an English antiquarian, died. He employed his liberal fortune in the collection of rare manuscripts and relics of ancient art, and died at the age of 68, bequeathing his collection of antiquities to the British Museum.

1805. Alexander Wedderburn, lord of Rosslyn, died. He distinguished himself as a lawyer, and was appointed solicitor general in 1771, in which office he is remarkable for having insulted Franklin in arguing on American affairs before the privy council. He joined the administration under Pitt, in 1793, and succeeded Lord Thurlow as chancellor; from which office he retired in 1801, with the title of Earl of Rosslyn. He is the author of a work on the management of prisons.

1815. British frigate Junon, Capt. C. Upton, captured the American privateer Guerrier, of 4 guns and 60 men, from Portsmouth, N. H.

1844. Levi Hedge, author of a treatise on logic and editor of an improved abridgment of Dr. Brown's Lectures on the Philosophy of Mind, died at Cambridge, England.

1847. John Shepherd, a soldier of the revolution, died at Royalton, Ohio, aged 119.

1853. The Pantheon in Paris reopened as the church of St. Genevieve.

JANUARY 4.

100. Titus, disciple of St. Paul, died at Crete.

1569. Burial of Roger Ascham, at St. Sepulchre's, London. He was a man of learning, and author of numerous works, among others, The Schoolmaster.

1649. Some barrels of gunpowder exploded and destroyed 60 houses in Tower street, London. A child in its cradle was found alive and unhurt on the roof of Barking church.

1689. Col. Henry Sloughter appointed governor of New York.

1698. The palace, except the banqueting house, of White-hall palace, in England, destroyed by fire.

1707. Louis William I, marquis of Baden-Baden, died. He was born at Paris 1655, where his mother wished to educate him; but his father and grandfather stole him away at the age of three months, that he might pass his childhood among the people whom he was destined to govern. He served his first campaign under Montellucco against Turenne. He was in Vienna when that city was besieged by the Turks, and subsequently commanded against the Turks in the Danube. He was one of the greatest generals of his time; made 26 campaigns, commanded at 25 sieges, fought at 13 battles, yet was never really defeated.

1753. The first number of The World appeared, conducted by Coleman, Bonnell Thornton, Chesterfield, and others.

1762. England declared war against Spain.

1773. The town meeting of Petersham, Mass., adopted a kind of manifesto of grievances, drafted by Josiah Quincy and signed by Sylvanus How.

1775. A circular letter from the British secretary of state was addressed to the governor of the several colonies, forbidding the election of delegates to the congress proposed to be held in May. The order was disregarded, and the country [15]has not been without its annual sessions of congress since 1774.

1778. The British, under Col. Campbell, landed at the mouth of Savannah river, Ga., and defeated the Americans under Gen. Robert Howe. They took the city of Savannah, together with 38 officers, 415 privates, 48 cannons, 23 mortars, the fort, ammunition and stores, the shipping in the river, and a large quantity of provisions.

1781. British ship Courageux, Capt. Phipps, captured in one hour the French frigate Minerva 32 guns. Minerva had 50 killed, 23 wounded; Courageux 10 killed, 7 wounded.

1784. Treaty signed between the United States and Great Britain; by which the latter relinquished her right to the sovereignty of the revolted colonies.

1789. Thomas Nelson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was born at York, Va., 1738. His father was an opulent merchant and sent him to England for an education. He returned 1761, and in 1774 had become a statesman of some note. Three years afterwards he was appointed brigadier general and commander in chief of the Virginia forces, and in 1781 succeeded Jefferson as governor of the state. His services elicited the public thanks of Washington.

1793. The Alien bill passed in the British parliament. During the debate on this measure the great Burke threw upon the floor a Sheffield dagger to enforce his oratory.

1795. The French crossed the Waal near Bommel, and took possession of Tiel. They also captured Rosas and 540 of the garrison.

1796. Message from Gen. Washington to congress, accompanied by the French flag presented by the committee of public safety, which was deposited among the archives.

1804. Charlotte Lenox, the popular author of the Female Quixotte, &c., died.

1814. John George Jacobi, a German poet, died. He was the son of a wealthy merchant; studied theology; became professor of theology and eloquence at Halle, where he published a periodical for the ladies called the Iris. He was afterwards connected with several periodicals. His works are published in 7 vols.

1825. Ferdinand IV of Naples died. The life of this prince is remarkable for the uncommon length of his reign, and its many vicissitudes, embracing a period of 65 years, and being closely connected with all the great events of Europe during the last half century. He was born 1751, and came to the throne at the age of eight. The first thirty years of his reign were attended with peace and happiness; but in 1798 the country was invaded by Bonaparte, before whom Ferdinand fled to Sicily: and afterwards in 1820 the Carbonari effected a revolution which again banished the royal family. The interposition of the Austrians, however, restored the ancient order of things, which continued till the death of the king, four years after.

1827. James Chambers, an eccentric poet, died in misery at a farm-house in Stratbroke, England. From the age of 16 to 70 he wandered about the country, gaining a precarious subsistence by selling his own effusions, of which he had a number printed in a cheap form. His compositions were mostly suggested to him by his muse, during the stillness of the night while reposing in some friendly barn or hay-loft. When so inspired, he would arise and commit the effusion to paper. He continued through life in hopeless poverty, and was a lonely man and a wanderer, who had neither act nor part in the common ways of the world.

1835. Thermometer 40 deg. below zero, at Lebanon, N. Y., the mercury becoming solid. It was severely cold throughout the United States.

1843. Steven Thompson Mason, formerly governor of Michigan, died at New York, aged 31.

1845. Benjamin Russell, chiefly known as the conductor of the Columbian Centinel, died at Boston.

1849. Samuel Jenkins, a negro died at Lancaster, aged 115. He drove his master's provision wagon over the Alleganies in Braddock's expedition, and was supposed to be the last survivor of that expedition.

1849. The town of Moultan in India, after a long siege was taken by the British, but with great loss.

1852. Eliot Walburton, an author of considerable note, perished in the Amazon steamship, on his way from Southampton to the West Indies.

1853. Mr. Ingersoll, the American envoy to England, was feted by the chamber of commerce at Liverpool.

1854. Albion college, Michigan, destroyed by fire.

1856. Jean Pierre David, a celebrated French sculptor, died at Paris, aged 65.

JANUARY 5.

62. B. C. Lucius Sergius Catiline, the Roman conspirator, killed in Etruria. The history of his life unfolds a series of most revolting crimes; but there is reason to believe that some of them are unreal. Murder, rapine and conflagration, were the[16]first pleasures of his life. Pompey, Crassus and Cæsar favored his schemes with a view to their own aggrandizement. Only two Romans remained determined to uphold their falling country—Cato and Cicero. The speeches of the latter in the Roman senate on the crisis of affairs are imperishable monuments of eloquence and patriotism, and produced the overthrow of the conspirators. Five of them were put to death, and Catiline being surrounded by the army under Petreius resolved to die sword in hand. The battle was fought with desperation, and the insurgents fell, with their leader at their head.

1066. Edward the Confessor, king of England, died. He was called to the throne 1041. He was not the immediate heir, but his claim was supported of Godwin, earl of Kent, whose daughter Editha he married. He was a weak and superstitious prince, and acquired the title of Saint or Confessor, by abstaining from nuptial connection with his queen. He was the first English monarch who undertook to cure the king's-evil by touching the patient. With him ended the Saxon line of kings.

1477. Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, killed in battle on this or the following day. This prince, the son of Philip the Good and Isabella of Portugal, early displayed a violent, impetuous and ambitious disposition; and in after life was constantly embroiled in unjust and cruel warfare, in which he performed many daring exploits. But having turned his arms against the Swiss, the fortune of war turned against him; and being deserted by his allies, with his usual temerity risked a battle with only 4000 men against a vastly superior force, was defeated and killed by the thrust of a lance in the 44th year of his age. His body covered with blood and mire, and his head imbedded in the ice, was not found till two days after the battle, when it was so disfigured that his own brother did not recognize it. With him expired the feudal government of Burgundy.

1531. The electoral college assembled at Rome and elected Ferdinand, brother of Charles V, king of the Romans. He was crowned a few days after at Aix-la-Chapelle.

1536. Catharine of Arragon, the repudiated queen of Henry VIII, died. She was the youngest daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, born 1483. She was first married to Arthur, prince of Wales, who died five months after; and the king unwilling to return her dowry caused her to be contracted to his remaining son, Henry. The prince, at the age of 15, made a public protest against this proceeding, but finally consented to the match. Notwithstanding the inequality of their ages and the capricious disposition of the king, they had been married 20 years when the division took place. This separation led to a divorce from the pope also, and was the cause of mighty effects.

1559. Catharine de Medicis died. She was born at Florence 1519; married, 1533, the dauphin, afterwards Henry II, of France. She was three times regent of France, and during her administration made a conspicuous figure in the annals of Europe by her political genius. By her was begun the palace of the Tuilleries; but the lasting monument of her fame and iniquity is the massacre of St. Bartholomew's, which was brought about by her intrigues, when more than 50,000 protestants were massacred in one day.

1621. Paul Van Somer died in London. He was born at Antwerp, 1576, and arrived at great proficiency as a painter. His pencil was chiefly employed on portraits of royal and eminent personages, and is said to have equalled Vandyke.

1636. De Vries, who had recently arrived from Holland in the capacity of a patroon, sent his colonists over to Staten island from fort Amsterdam, to commence the colony and buildings.

1675. Turenne defeated the imperialists at Turkheim.

1705. Second volcanic opening of the peak of Teneriffe, in the ravine of Almerchiga, a league from Icore. It closed on the 13th of the same month.

1722. Bell, the Traveler, arrived at Moscow on the return from China. (See July 14, 1719.) The account of this journey, and of what he saw and learned at Pekin, is the most valuable part of his book, and one of the best and most interesting relations ever written by any traveler.

1724. Czartan Petrarch died, aged 184, at a village near Temeswar, in Hungary. He was born in the year 1539; and at the time the Turks took Temeswar from the Christians he was employed in keeping his father's cattle. A few days before his death he had walked with the help of a stick to the post house to ask charity of the travelers. His hair and beard were of a greenish-white color, like mouldy bread; and he had a few of his teeth remaining, and enjoyed a little eyesight. His son, who was ninety-seven years of age, declared that his father had married at an extreme age, for the third time, and that he was born in this last marriage. He had descendants in the fifth generation, with whom he sometimes sported, carrying them in his arms. His son, though ninety-seven, was still fresh and vigorous. The [17]commandant of Temeswar on learning of his sickness, caused his portrait to be painted, and it was nearly finished when he expired.

1757. Damiens attempted the assassination of Louis XV, for which he was condemned to the most cruel tortures, and finally quartered by four horses. (See March 28.)

1764. A comet was first seen at Tewkesbury, England, near two small stars in the hand of Bootes.

1776. The New Hampshire provincial convention resolved to change the form of government.

1781. Arnold invaded Virginia with 1500 British troops; he marched to Richmond, destroyed the public stores and buildings, the rope-walk, and much private property.

1781. The British ship Warwick, Capt. Elphinstone, captured the Dutch ship Rotterdam, 50 guns and 300 men; the first material capture during that war.

1782. Trincomalee in the island of Ceylon, taken by the British under admiral Sir Edward Hughes.

1783. Onore, situated between Panian and Bombay, taken by assault by the British Gen. Matthews; the garrison and many of the inhabitants were cruelly slaughtered.

1795. The French attacked the British Gen. Dundas at Geldermalsem, and compelled him to fall back to Buren; and afterwards the whole force of Gen. Walmoden to cross the Leck.

1795. The British ships Bellona and Alarm captured the French ship Le Dumas of 20 guns, off Deseada.

1796. Samuel Huntington, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was born at Windham, Ct., 1732; his father being a farmer could allow him only a common school education; but his own assiduity made up the deficiency, so that at the age of 22 he commenced the study of the law with borrowed books; in 1764 he was sent to the general assembly; 1765 appointed king's attorney; 1774 raised to the bench of the supreme court; 1775 sent a delegate to the general congress of the colonies, and in 1779 succeeded John Jay as president of congress. At the time of his death he was governor of Connecticut.

1797. British ship Polyphemus, Capt. Lumesdaine, captured the French ship L'Uranie, 38 guns, off Ireland.

1798. A bill passed the house in congress paying Kosciusko $12,800; and the four daughters of count de Grasse $400 each per annum for five years.

1799. Treaty of defensive alliance between England and Turkey.

1806. Breslaw surrendered to the French under Vandamme; Lieut. Gen. De Thile, Maj. Gen. Krafti and 5500 Prussians taken.

1807. British sloop Nautilus, Capt. Palmer, lost on a rock near Peri, in the archipelago of the Seven islands. The captain refused to leave the vessel, and was lost in his 26th year.

1809. The British rear guard under Sir John Moore attacked by the French van guard under Soult. Gen. Colbert, aged 30, was mortally wounded, and the French were compelled to fall back.

1812. The French Gen. Leval was compelled to abandon the siege of Tariffa, defended by the British, Col. Skerritt.

1814. Gluckstadt surrendered to the British.

1814. British ships Bacchante and Saracen captured the fortress of Cattaro after a cannonade of ten days.

1827. Frederick, duke of York, died. He was the second son of George III, born in 1763; 1787 took his seat in the house of peers; 1789 fought a duel, firing his pistol in the air; 1791 married the eldest daughter of the king of Prussia, from whom he afterwards separated; 1793 went to Flanders at the head of the British army, and in the end showed himself unequal to the station; 1809 was called to account by the house of commons for the follies committed in the army through the influence of a female favorite; 1818 was appointed the keeper of his father, with a salary of £10,000. Although enjoying princely salaries and pensions he died universally lamented by his tailors and other creditors to the amount of some hundred thousands of pounds.

1841. James Abraham Hillhouse, an eminent American poet, died at New Haven, Ct., aged 51.

1845. The national debt of England amounted at this time to £794,193,645.

1849. The discovery of the magnetic clock by Dr. Locke of Ohio, announced to the secretary of the navy by Lieutenant Maury of the National observatory.

1852. Eugene Levesque died at Paris, aged 81; author of travels in America.

1852. Benjamin La Rochi died at Paris, aged 54; French translator of Shakespeare.

1852. Baron Kemenyi, a Hungarian chief, eminent for his patriotism and exploits in the struggle with Austria and Russia, died aged 53.

1853. Charles W. Morgan, an American commodore, died, aged 63. He was a nephew of Gen. Morgan of the revolution, and distinguished himself in the action between the Constitution and the Guerriere.

1853. Revolution in Mexico; Gen. Arista resigned, and Cevallos elected president ad interim.

[18]1854. The steamer San Francisco, which had withstood a heavy gale, was foundered at sea. Of 700 persons on board 247 had been washed overboard before assistance arrived.

1855. Gen. Castilla defeated Pres. Echenique and entered Lima in triumph.

1855. The entire Victoria bridge across the St. Lawrence, carried away by the ice.

JANUARY 6.

1402. Birthday of Joan of Arc.

1540. Henry VIII married Anne, daughter of John, duke of Cleves. This was his fourth wife. He had asked her hand in marriage after having seen a portrait of her by Holbein; and becoming disgusted with her in six months bestowed upon her the epithet of Flanders mare, and sent her home. She retired, not much disconcerted, to her own country, where she died 1557.

1649. Anne of Austria, queen regent of France, obliged to fly from Paris to St. Germain.

1698. Birthday of Metastasio, the celebrated Italian poet.

1711. Christopher Bateman, a noted English bookseller, died. He suffered none to open a book in his shop till it was bought.

1724. The bishop of London preached a sermon against masquerades, which produced a decree that no more than six masquerades, the number already subscribed for, should be held.

1725. Pope Benedict XIII, in great state and measured ceremony, opened with a golden hammer the holy gates of the four great churches which had been shut 25 years, for obtaining indulgences, &c.

1734. John Dennis, an English dramatist and critic, died. He was the son of a saddler, born in London 1657, and liberally educated. His first play appeared in 1697, and was followed by many dramatic pieces and poems which were sufficiently worthless to procure their author an imperishable notoriety in the Dunciad, where Pope has gibbeted him. He squandered a fortune which had been left him by an uncle, and not being able to subsist by his pamphlets and criticisms for the magazines, depended upon his friends for a living; and even those whom he had made his enemies joined in the benefit for him at the Haymarket theatre, after he had become blind and partially insane. One of his plays, which was condemned, is famous for a new kind of thunder introduced in it; a few nights after its representation, the players made use of the contrivance in Macbeth, when the author rose in the pit and with an oath claimed it as his thunder. His thunder is said to be that still used in the theatres.

1738. Jean Baptist Labat, a missionary and traveler, died. He was born at Paris 1663, and became a Dominican priest in Norway, where he taught mathematics and philosophy also. In 1693 he embarked for Martinique as a missionary; and during several voyages in service of the mission, visited all the Antilles. When the English attacked the island of Guadaloupe, he rendered his country important services as an engineer. He afterwards traveled much in Europe, and published his travels. His voyage to the West Indies has been translated into several languages, and is a truly scientific work.

1763. Unsuccessful and very disastrous attack by two English ships on Buenos Ayres. The commodore and nearly 300 of the crew were drowned.

1766. The wild man Peter taken in the Hartz forest and presented to George II, was brought from Cheshunt and shewn to George III and his queen. Like Shakespeare's Caliban, he could bring wood and water but not articulate any language.

1777. The American army, under Gen. Washington, went into winter quarters at Morristown, N. J.

1781. Arnold detached Lieut. Col. Simcoe, from Richmond to Westham, Va., who destroyed the cannon foundry and a quantity of public stores which had been removed from Richmond.

1785. The Halsewell, East Indiaman, Capt. Richard Pearce, wrecked on the island of Purbeck; of 240 persons but 74 were saved.

1794. The duke of Brunswick resigned his command as generalissimo of the coalition against France.

1795. French frigate La Pique, 33 guns, captured off Marigalante by the British frigate Blanche, Capt. Faulkner, who was shot through the heart; also 7 of his crew killed and 21 wounded. La Pique had 76 killed, 113 wounded, and 30 were lost when her mast went overboard.

1810. James Richard Dacres died of a fall from his horse. He was vice-admiral of the Red, and father of the Capt. Dacres captured by Hull.

1813. Alexander issued his ukase at Wilna, directing the foundation stone of a new church to be instantly laid in Moscow, dedicated to Christ our Savior, as a perpetual monument to future generations of the deliverance of Russia from the French, and the devotion of his people.

1816. Francis Norodsky, a Polish gentleman, died at Warsaw, aged 125. The Polish government allowed him a pension of 3000 florins, which the emperor Alexander continued till his death.

[19]1817. General Thomas died, at Milledgeville, Georgia, of cancer in the mouth.

1823. The siege of Missolonghi raised. Mavrocordato, the commander in chief, had thrown himself into the town on the 5th of November with 380 men, and 22 Suliots under Marco Botzaris, and though almost destitute of artillery and ammunition, defended it against the Turkish forces. On the 23d November it was relieved by sea, and the enemy were repulsed in several assaults, when they finally abandoned the walls.

1831. Died at Geneva, Rodolphe Kreutzer, a distinguished violinist and musical composer.

1836. Abraham van Vechten died at Albany, aged 75. He was a highly respected man, an eminent lawyer, and one of the fathers of the New York bar.

1839. A tremendous gale or hurricane in the west of England, which did great damage at Liverpool.

1840. Madame D'Arblay, the well known novelist, Miss Burney, died at Bath. Lord Chancellor Thurlow said her Cecilia was worth all the books in his library.

1841. Great freshet in the Hudson river and tributaries.

1849. George Sinnet, a native of Germany, the last survivor of Gen. Wolfe's army, died at Brighton, Nova Scotia, aged 120.

1854. Russians defeated at Citale, near Kalafat, with a loss of 2500 men.

JANUARY 7.

1328. Edward II of England deposed by parliament, and his son, Edward III, proclaimed king.

1558. Calais, in France, retaken by the French after a short siege of one week, having been in the possession of the English 200 years, during which it had become a thriving place, and the seat of a considerable trade in wool.

1610. Galilei discovered the satellites of Jupiter.

1657. Theophilus Eaton, first governor of the colony at New Haven, died. Before coming to America he was employed by the king as an agent at the court of Denmark. He was one of the original patentees of Massachusetts. On the settlement of New Haven he was chosen governor, for which office his integrity, dignity and wisdom peculiarly fitted him, and which he filled till his death.

1681. The commons of England resolved that till a bill be passed, excluding the duke of York from the throne, no supplies could be granted without danger to the state.

1692. The philosophical Robert Boyle died leaving a sum of money for a monthly sermon against atheism.

1715. Francois de Salignac de la Motte Fenelon, died. He preached his first sermon at the age of 15; and he was distinguished for learning and piety. The celebrated romance, Telemaque, was published against his will by the treachery of his servant, and involved him in difficulties with the king, who considered it a satire upon his reign. During the revolution of 1793 his coffin was dug up to furnish lead for bullets. In 1819 a monument was erected to his memory by public subscription, and in 1826 a statue by the sculptor David was placed at Cambray. The age in which he lived could not appreciate his worth.

1740. A rock fell on a large number of young people while at play on the first Monday of the year, at Kirkaldy, Scotland.

1758. Allan Ramsay, a Scottish poet and author of the Gentle Shepherd, died.

1767. Thomas Clap, an American mathematician and natural philosopher, died. He graduated at Harvard college, and by singular industry made great acquisitions in almost every branch of learning. In 1739 he was elected president of Yale college, and continued in that office till the year before his death. He constructed the first orrery in America.

1779. Lafayette embarked at Boston, in the frigate Alliance, for France.

1779. The Mirror, appeared at Edinburgh, to which Mackenzie the novelist was a principal contributor.

1782. The Bank of North America opened for business in Philadelphia. It was the first bank regularly established in America.

1785. Mr. Blanchard, the æronaut, accompanied by Mr. Jeffries, an American gentleman, made the bold attempt to cross the British channel, from Dover to Calais, in a balloon filled with inflammable air, then beginning to be used. They left the English coast at 10 o'clock, and at half-past two, reached the French side, a distance of twenty-three miles.

1798. The French army under General Menard, entered Switzerland with a design to revolutionize the cantons after the model of the French republic.

1806. Paulinus, better known as John Philip Werdin, died at Rome. He was one of the first Europeans who acquired a knowledge of the Sanscrit language.

1807. British order in council prohibiting neutrals from trading from one port of France or her allies to another, or to any other where Great Britain was refused that privilege.

[20]1811. Ship Rapid, of Boston, Capt. Dorr, with $280,000 on board, totally lost off the coast of New Holland; captain and crew saved.

1812. Joseph Dennie, an American editor, died. He was born at Boston 1768, and educated for the bar; but his literary taste and habits interfered with his profession, which he resigned and established at Boston a weekly paper called The Tablet; and subsequently edited the Farmer's Museum at Walpole, in which he published a series of popular essays under the signature of The Lay Preacher. He was afterwards editor of the Port Folio at Philadelphia, where his superior endowments would have procured him an independence, but for some unfortunate propensities which deprived him of health and happiness.

1817. First paper in Chautauque co., N. Y.

1822. Liberia in Africa colonized under the direction of Dr. Ayres. Cape Montserado with a large tract of adjoining country was purchased of the natives by the American colonization society, and a settlement commenced by 28 colonists; in six years the number had increased to 1200 under the care of Ashmun.

1830. Thomas Lawrence, a distinguished English portrait painter, died. By industry and force of talent he rose in his profession, till on the death of Sir Joshua Reynolds he was made painter to the king, and in 1815 was knighted. His income for the last twenty years of his life was from 10,000 to 20,000 pounds; but he died poor, owing to his purchasing the best productions at the most extravagant prices.

1841. Louis Edward Bignon, Napoleon Bonaparte's historian, died.

1843. Mrs. Wingate, died at Stratham, N. H., aged nearly 101 years.

1850. John H. Kyan, a native of England, and inventor of Kyanized wood, died at New York.

1850. Samuel Miller, an eminent American theologian and sometime president of Princeton college, died, aged 91.

JANUARY 8.

1167. Edgar, king of Scotland, died, and was succeeded by his younger brother, Alexander I.

1536. Catharine of Arragon, died; queen of Henry VIII and mother of Mary, queen of England.

1642. Galileo Galilei, the astronomer, died, aged 78.

1676. French Admiral Duquesne defeated the Dutch and Spanish fleets under De Ruyter, who had both legs shattered.

1704. Laurentio Bellini, a Florentine anatomist, died, aged 61. He was held in great estimation by prince and pontiff. His theory and practice are out of date now, and his works also, in consequence of the vast improvements in medicine and surgery since his day.

1775. John Baskerville, an English printer and type founder, of rare celebrity, died. As a philanthropist he was also well known to large circles.

1777. British evacuated Elizabethtown, N. J.; Gen. Maxwell fell on their rear, and took 70 prisoners and a schooner loaded with baggage.

1780. British Admiral Rodney captured 22 sail of Spanish ships. One of these, the Guipuscaio, of 64 guns, was named the Prince William, from a son of George III who was in the action.

1784. Whitestown, N. Y., settled about this time.

1795. French ship Esperance, 22 guns, captured off Cape Henry by British ship Argonaut, Capt. Ball.

1796. Samuel Huntingdon, governor of Connecticut, and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, died aged 64.

1796. French took by surprise the British camp at Mount William, island of St. Vincent, West Indies. British lost 54 killed, Brig. Gen. Strutt and 109 wounded, and 200 missing.

1799. French privateer cutter La Rancune, from St. Maloes, captured, by the British cutter Pigmy, Capt. Shepheard, who at the same time recaptured two British brigs, prizes to La Rancune.

1815. Battle of New Orleans. The city was attacked by the British under Packenham, consisting of 15,000 disciplined troops, and was defended by 6000 militia and volunteers, under Gen. Jackson, prepared to die in its defence. The result was a brilliant victory over the British. Packenham was killed, and 5,000 men surrendered—the rest fled to their vessels. The loss of the Americans was trifling, 13 killed and wounded, that of the British 2,600.

1815. Total loss of the Americans in this war up to the last battle, 1344 killed, 2673 wounded, 651 missing, 1351 taken prisoners.

1817. Two shocks of earthquake at Charleston, S. C, and at Savannah, Ga.

1825. Eli Whitney, inventor of the cotton gin, died.

1848. The lives of thirty persons lost by the bursting of the boilers of the steamer Blue Ridge on the Ohio river. The boilers had been in use nine years.

1849. The pope threatened all who should take part in electing a new assembly, with excommunication.

[21]1850. First ship in the United States dry dock at Brooklyn.

1853. Charles Humphrey Atherton, an eminent New Hampshire lawyer, died, aged 79.

1854. William Carr Berresford, a distinguished British field officer and nobleman, died, aged 85.

1854. Metropolitan hall and Lafarge hotel, two of the finest buildings in New York destroyed by fire.

JANUARY 9.

1514. Anne of Bretagne, queen of France died, aged 37.

1584. William Carter, a daring London printer, hanged, boweled, and quartered at Tyburn, for printing lewd pamphlets, popish and others, and particularly a Treatise on Schisme.

1596. Francis Drake, the English navigator, died. He served with distinction under his relative Sir J. Hawkins; and having lost all his property in an action with the Spaniards, he conceived an inveterate hatred against them. He signalized himself in the destruction of the Spanish Armada; and finally died on the coast of America in a war against the Spanish settlements. He made the first voyage round the world. To him is attributed the introduction of the potatoe into Europe. The day of his death is differently stated.

1621. The Plymouth colonists commenced the erection of their projected town, which they built in two rows of houses for greater security. The same street still exists, leading to the water side.

1658. Birthday of Nicholas Couston, a famous French sculptor, from whose labors the art of statuary received a noble impulse. He died at Paris 1733.

1757. Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, a French author of great repute, died. He was born at Rouen 1657; his mother was the sister of Corneille. Although his works are now obsolete in consequence of the advancement of science, no learned man exerted a more decided influence on the age in which he lived than Fontenelle.

1766. Thomas Birch, an English historian and biographer, died. He was of quaker parentage, and by unwearied industry educated himself. His literary labors were prodigious, which early rising and a strict economy of time enabled him to perform. He bequeathed his library to the British museum; it contained an incredible number of MSS. in his own handwriting.

1770. Catharine Talbot, authoress of Reflections on the Seven Days of the Week, and a contributor to the Rambler, died.

1779. John Reinhold Foster, author of Northern Voyages, and who circumnavigated the globe with Cook, died in his 70th year.

1788. Connecticut, the fifth state which adopted the constitution of the United States without amendments.

1792. Treaty of peace signed at Jassy between Russia and Turkey.

1793. Mr. Blanchard, the French æronaut, made the first balloon ascension in the United States, at Philadelphia, in the presence of General Washington.

1795. Thiel in Holland taken by the French under Macdonald.

1799. The habeas corpus act suspended in Great Britain.

1805. Noble Wimberly Jones, a revolutionary character, died. He came to America under Gen. Oglethorpe, and at the breaking out of the war was a practicing physician in Savannah. He was elected to the Georgia legislature a number of years and then resumed his practice again, at the solicitation of many of his former patients.

1809. Congress passed laws to enforce the embargo.

1810. The Diocesan court of the officiality of Paris pronounced a nullity of marriage between Bonaparte and Josephine.

1811. The Spanish cortes published a manifesto declaring their determination not to enter into a treaty with Bonaparte until his troops should have entirely evacuated the Peninsula.

1811. The whole militia of New Orleans ordered into immediate service by Gov. Claiborne to suppress a negro insurrection.

1812. Valentia in Spain surrendered to the French under Suchet, with 374 cannons, 18000 troops and stores of all kinds.

1813. British manifesto against the United States.

1815. Truce between Gen. Jackson and Gen. Lambert to bury the dead of the battle of the previous day.

1815. The British began the bombardment of the American fort St. Philip, defended by Major Overton, which was kept up daily until the 17th.

1816. A society instituted at Trenton, N. J., for forming a colony of blacks.

1818. Old John died. During eighty years, from the premiership of Walpole to that of Liverpool, he acted as messenger in the Royal printing office, London. He styled himself King's messenger.

1827. Elizabeth Ogilvy Benger, an English authoress, died. In her 13th year she wrote a poem, and afterwards attempted the drama. Her reputation is [22]based upon her Historical Biographies, which were originally published in 10 vols.

1828. Francis de Neufchateau, a French statesman, died. He was born 1750, and in his 13th year published a volume of poems, which indicated more for the future than was realized. He took part in the affairs of the revolution, but was condemned for his moderation. Napoleon took him into favor; his pursuits were chiefly literary, however.

1843. Great fire at Port-au-Prince; 600 houses burnt and property to an immense amount destroyed. The blacks who inhabited the mountains rushed down and completed the work of destruction, by firing and plundering such houses as the fire had not reached, and committing every sort of excess.

1854. The Astor library in New York opened to the public.

JANUARY 10.

1640. Maurice Abbot, a distinguished London merchant, died. He acquired great consequence by his own efforts in commercial affairs, and was employed in 1624 in establishing the settlement of Virginia. At the time of his death he was mayor of London.

1645. William Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, beheaded on Tower hill, aged 70. Sentenced to be hung for political misdemeanors, he was pardoned by the king; but parliament overruled the pardon, and substituted the privilege of being beheaded instead of hanging. He acquired so great an ascendency over Charles as to lead him, by the facility of his temper, into a conduct which proved fatal to that prince, and by which he lost his kingdom, and met the same fate four years after at Whitehall.

1661. A proclamation issued by the king of England prohibiting conventicles for religious meetings.

1661. The fifth monarchy men, headed by Venner, a wine cooper, arose to proclaim "King Jesus against all the powers of the earth." But King Charles's power was found too strong for them.

1754. Edward Cave died, an English printer and founder of the Gentleman's Magazine. When his indentures expired as a printer's apprentice, he was employed in the post office, and occupied his leisure in writing for the newspapers. In 1731 was first published the Magazine, and it has continued to this day, more than a century, amid the crowd of magazines which have perished around it; and is one of the most successful and lucrative periodicals that history has upon record.

1756. Francois, marquis de Beauharnois, died at Paris. He was a member of the national assembly, and took part in the king's favor; subsequently joined the army under Conde; and was banished by Napoleon in 1807. The heroic wife of Lavalette was his daughter.

1757. The British under Admiral Watson took by assault, Houghley, situated about thirty miles above Calcutta.

1761. Edward Boscawen, the English admiral, died. He was born 1711, and entered the navy at an early age. He acquired honorable distinction under Vernon, and afterwards signalized himself in many important contests with the French, in which he had the singular fortune to take the French commander, M. Hoquait, a prisoner three times, viz. in 1744, 1747 and 1755. On his return to England in 1759, after destroying the Toulon fleet in the Mediterranean, he was rewarded with a pension of £3000 a year.

1763. Casper Abel, a voluminous German historian and antiquary, died.

1765. Stamp Act passed the British Parliament. How little did that body anticipate the consequences that were to follow their decision on that subject.

1776. The New Hampshire convention dissolved itself and assumed legislative powers, chose twelve counselors as an executive branch, and delegates to Congress, which were recognized.

1782. George Costard died. A classical, mathematical and oriental scholar, whose reputation as an author is chiefly derived from a History of Astronomy, highly appreciated in Europe.

1791. Vermont, the last of the thirteen original states which composed the Union, adopted the constitution and took her place in the confederacy.

1795. The French frigate Iphigenie, 32 guns, captured by the Spanish fleet off Catalonia.

1797. French sloop Atalante, 16 guns, captured off Scilly by the British frigate Phœbe, 36 guns, Capt. Barlow.

1800. The first soup establishment for the poor was opened at Spitalfields, London.

1806. The Dutch surrendered the cape of Good Hope to the British.

1808. Phillips Cosby, British admiral of the Red, died aged 78.

1809. Samana taken by the British, together with two privateers, and four vessels laden with coffee.

1812. London involved for several hours in impenetrable darkness. The sky, where any light pervaded it, showed the aspect of bronze. It was the effect of a cloud of smoke, which, from the peculiar state of the atmosphere, did not pass [23]off. Were it not for the peculiar mobility of the atmosphere, this city of a hundred thousand chimneys would be scarcely habitable in winter.

1815. The British under Gen. Lambert having abandoned the enterprise on New Orleans began to re-embark their artillery and munitions, preparatory to a general retreat.

1816. The schooner Eliza cast away near Newport; the captain and crew saved by Com. Perry, who with part of the crew of the frigate Java, went five miles in a boat to their relief.

1824. Thomas Edward Bowditch, the African traveler, died. He went to Africa at the age of 21, and engaged in a series of expeditions into the country. In 1822 he went out from England with a view of devoting himself to the exploration of the African continent. He had only arrived at the mouth of the Gambia when a disease occasioned by fatigue and anxiety of mind put an end to his existence.

1833. Adrien Marie Legendre, so well known as a profound mathematician, died at Paris. His life work on geometry is much used.

1840. The uniform penny postage commenced in England; the number of letters despatched from London on this day being 112,000; the average, for January, 1839, being 30,000.

1840. Battle between the Russian and Khivian cavalry; the latter commanded by the khan in person were completely routed and pursued to the city of Khiva.

1848. Miss Caroline Herschel, member of the Royal astronomical society, London, died at Hanover.

1855. Mary Russel Mitford died, aged 68; a distinguished English authoress.

1856. Thomas H. Perkins, a wealthy and liberal Boston merchant, died aged 89. His was the first American firm engaged in the China trade.

JANUARY 11.

395. Theodosius the Great, emperor of Rome, died. He was born about the year 346, and on coming to the throne distinguished himself by his orthodoxy, and his zeal against heresy and paganism. His public and private virtues, which procured him the name of The Great, will scarcely excuse the fierceness of his intolerance, or the barbarity of his anger and revenge.

1569. The first English lottery drawn at London. It continued day and evening four months. The prizes were money, plate and merchandise. It had been advertised two years at the time it took place.

1698. Peter, the czar of Russia, arrived in England and wrought as a mechanic in the dockyard at Deptford, as well as in the workshops of various mechanics, with view of carrying the English arts into his own country. He was well received by William III.

1751. A globular bottle of glass was made at Leith measuring 40 by 42 inches, the largest ever made in Britain.

1753. Sir Hans Sloane, the eminent English naturalist, died, aged 93. He was born at Killileagh in Ireland; studied medicine in London, and settled there in the practice of his profession. He was the second learned man whom science tempted to America. His museum, composed of the rarest productions of nature, he bequeathed to the public, on condition of the payment of £20,000 annually to his family, and was the foundation of the British Museum.

1775. The first provincial congress of South Carolina met at Charleston.

1778. Charles Linne (or Linnæus), the Swedish botanist, died, aged 71. In his twenty-fourth year he conceived the idea of a new arrangement of plants, or a sexual system of botany. In 1732 the Academy of Sciences at Upsal appropriated 50 Swedish dollars to send him on a tour through Lapland, and with this small sum he made a journey of more than 3500 miles, unaccompanied, traversing the Lapland desert, and enduring many hardships. A series of offices and honors were conferred upon him, till in 1753 he was created a Knight of the Polar Star, an honor never before conferred on a literary man; and in 1761 he was elevated to the rank of nobility.

1778. A collection amounting to £3815 was made for the 924 American prisoners in England. Dr. Franklin, at Paris, applied to the British ambassador for an exchange of prisoners, but his lordship was pleased to return only the following answer: "no application received from rebels unless they come to implore his majesty's pardon."

1782. Ostenburg, near Trincomalee, in the island of Ceylon, taken from the Dutch by the British Admiral Hughes.

1795. The French, under Pichegru, crossed the Waal on the ice at different points.

1800. William Newcome, archbishop of Armagh, died, aged 79. He rose gradually in the church to the primacy of Ireland; was a worthy man, and author of a great number of theological works.

1801. Cimarosa, the celebrated Italian musician, died.

1803. The Hindostan, East Indiaman, lost on the Culvers, off Margate, in a dreadful storm.

[24]1805. Letters of marque and reprisal issued by Great Britain against Spain.

1807. Breig in Silesia surrendered to the French and Bavarians; 3 generals, 1400 Prussians, and considerable magazines were captured.

1810. In the night the mercury in three thermometers froze at Moscow and withdrew into the ball. At Iraish it was observed at -44½° of Fahrenheit immediately before it froze.

1811. Marie Joseph de Chenier, a French poet, died. By flattering the passions of the people he soon gained great popularity, and during the revolution was one of the most violent democrats.

1815. Cumberland island, Georgia, taken possession of by Capt. Barrie of the British ship Dragon. Same day British sloop of war, Barbadoes, Capt. Fleming captured privateer schooner Fox, of 7 guns and 72 men from Wilmington.

1817. Timothy Dwight, president of Yale college, died, aged 65. He entered Yale college at the age of 13, and became a tutor at 19. His health becoming impaired, by the advice of his physicians he traveled, walking 2000 and riding 3000 miles in the course of a year. It had the effect to restore his constitution completely. His published works consist of theology, poetry and travels. His biography is interesting; he was an uncommon character.

1829. Gregorio Funes, a patriot of La Plata, died at Buenos Ayres. He was actively engaged in the South American revolution from its commencement. He was also an author.

1839. Alexander Coffin, the last survivor of the original proprietors who settled the city of Hudson in 1784, died, aged 99. He was highly respected for his talents, integrity and usefulness.

1839. Earthquake at Martinique, which did great damage, particularly at Fort Royal, where only 18 houses were left standing, of 1700, and 900 hundred sufferers were dug out of the ruins.

1843. Francis S. Key, district attorney of the United States and author of the national song, the Star Spangled Banner, died in Baltimore.

1853. Russia, Austria and Prussia, after considerable delay, finally acknowledge Napoleon III as emperor of France.

1853. The caloric ship Ericsson made her trial trip from New York to the Potomac.

JANUARY 12.

400. B. C. Xenophon, with the 10,000, forced a passage through the defiles of Armenia.

1519. Maximilian I, emperor of Germany, died. He was elected king of the Romans 1486, and ascended the imperial throne 1493. Under him the Turks were checked in their enterprises against Germany, and repelled from his hereditary territories.

1598. The Marquis De la Roche received from Henry IV a commission to conquer Canada. He sailed from France with a colony of convicts from the prisons. He landed them on the Isle of Sable, and sailed for Acadie, from whence he returned to France. The survivors of the colony, twelve in number, were taken off seven years afterwards, and presented to the king in their sealskin clothes and long beards. He gave them fifty crowns each and pardoned their offences.

1640. An engagement of four days' duration near the Island Tamaraca, Brazils, between the Dutch and Portuguese, in which the latter were defeated and the Dutch admiral killed.

1678. A remarkable darkness at noon in England.

1777. General Mercer died of the wounds of the battle of Princeton.

1781. The states general of Holland issued letters of marque and reprisal against England.

1793. Arthur Lee, a distinguished American statesman, died at Urbana, Va. The long and faithful services which he rendered his country during his arduous struggles for independence, in the alternate character of ambassador and statesman, are universally known and acknowledged.

1794. John George Adam Forster died, aged 40. He was of Scotch descent, born in Prussia, studied at St. Petersburg, taught German and French in England, accompanied Cook in his voyage round the world, accepted the professorship of natural history at Hesse Cassel, was appointed historiographer of a Russian expedition round the world; this project being frustrated by the Turkish war, he went to Germany, and residing at Mentz when the French took that city 1792, was sent by the republicans to request a union of that city with France. During his absence the Prussians retook the city, by which he lost all his property, including his books and papers, and died soon after. The Germans number him among their classical writers.

1795. In consequence of a great thaw, the communication of the main army of the French under Pichegru and the four divisions that crossed the Waal the day before on the ice, was totally interrupted during two days.

1795. Mr. Pitt recommended in the British parliament that a premium be given by government to large families.

[25]1805. British frigate Doris, Capt. Campbell, lost on the Diamond rock, Quiberon bay. The crew saved themselves and blew up the frigate.

1805. The thermometer at Danbury, Ct., stood at 19° below zero; being the coldest weather known there since 1780.

1807. A fatal explosion at Leyden, in Holland. A vessel containing 40,000 pounds of powder, moored before the house of Prof. Rau, exploded with a tremendous crash. Upwards of 200 houses were overthrown, besides churches and public buildings, 150 persons killed and 2000 wounded.

1809. Cayenne surrendered by the French, to the British and the Portuguese under Capt. Yeo.

1815. National fast in the United States.

JANUARY 13.

857. Ethelwulf, son of Egbert, sometimes styled the first king of England, died. In his reign the tax called Peter's pence was levied.

1399. The Tartars, under Tamerlane, pillaged the imperial city of Delhi, and two days after wantonly massacred the entire Indian population.

1400. Richard II of England murdered. He came to the throne at the age of 11, and after a turbulent reign of 22 years, was deposed and imprisoned.

1404. It was enacted at this short parliament of Henry's that no chemist shall use his craft to multiply gold or silver.

1560. John de Lasci, a learned Pole, died.

1618. Galileo discovered the fourth satellite of Jupiter.

1669. John Bochius, a Dutch poet, died. He excelled in Latin, and is called the Virgil of the Low Countries.

1691. George Fox, founder of the sect of quakers, died, aged 67. His father was a poor weaver, and George was apprenticed to a shoemaker; but he left his employment and wandered about the country in a leather doublet, and finally set up as a teacher. He visited different countries, and had the satisfaction to see his tenets taking deep root in his life time.

1705. A house in London where fireworks were manufactured, blew up, and destroyed 120 houses, and killed 50 persons.

1711. The last No. of the Tatler appeared (No. 271).

1715. Great fire in Thames street, London; many lives lost.

1716. Elizabeth Patch died at Salem; the first female born in the old colony of Massachusetts.

1717. Maria Sybilla Merian, the distinguished painter, and writer on entomology, died at Amsterdam.

1738. The famous convention of Pardo signed.

1759. Execution of the conspirators against the life of the king of Portugal. The whole family of the Marquis Tavora was executed, and the name suppressed for ever.

1797. British ships Indefatigable, 44 guns, and Amazon, 42 guns, had a night action of six hours, in the bay of Audierne, with the French 74 gun ship Les Droits des Hommes, 1600 men; the latter was driven on shore, and the crew made prisoners; Gen. Renier and 750 men were lost in the action. The Amazon was also lost in the action.

1798. Lieut. Lord Camelford shot Lieut. Charles Peterson, at English harbor, Antigua, for disobedience of orders, was afterwards tried and acquitted.

1798. The Swiss cantons armed against France.

1809. The French under Marshal Victor defeated the Spanish under Castanos at Cuenca.

1811. The British merchant ship Cumberland, Captain Barrat, beat off 4 French privateers, and took 170 men who had boarded her.

1814. British and Prussians repulsed in an attack on Antwerp; part of the suburbs were burnt.

1814. The emperor of Russia and king of Prussia crossed the Rhine to invade France; the emperor of Austria, who had arrived the evening before at Cassel, went out to meet them, and they entered Basil, in Switzerland.

1814. General thanksgiving throughout Great Britain for the successes gained over Bonaparte.

1814. Capt. Barrie of the British ship Dragon, took the fort on Point Peter and the tower of St. Mary's, in Georgia; they afterwards destroyed the fort.

1817. The ship Georgianna, of Norfolk, experienced a tremendous shock in the Gulf stream supposed to be by earthquake; the day was calm.

1822. Johann Gottlieb Schneider, a German philologist and naturalist, died, aged 72; a voluminous author.

1836. Karl Chr. Traug. Tauchnitz, an eminent German printer, died, aged 75. At the age of 35 he commenced business for himself with a single press; but his establishment soon became very extensive, including a letter foundry and book store. He was most indefatigable in improving and perfecting whatever he undertook, as his publications attest. His founts of oriental type were unsurpassed in Germany.

1838. Chancellor Eldon died.

[26]1840. Steam boat Lexington burnt, on her passage from New York to Stonington. Of 145 persons on board, only four escaped with their lives. Among the sufferers were many highly esteemed and valuable members of society.

1848. A severe battle took place at Chillianwallah between the British and Sikh forces without decisive results.

1854 An earthquake at Finana in Spain, crumbling down the Alcazaba, an ancient Moorish castle, prostrating houses and causing chasms in the streets, and loss of lives.

JANUARY 14.

1526. Treaty of Madrid between the emperor Charles V, and Francis I of France, by which the latter obtained his liberty.

1604. The episcopal divines and puritans held a conference at Hampton court in the presence of King James.

1611. Edward Bruce, a Scottish statesman, died. He occupied some of the highest offices under the government, and his services were important in establishing the peaceable accession of James to the English throne.

1622. Pietro Sarpi, better known as Father Paul of Venice, died, aged 90. He employed the latter part of his life in writing a history of the council of Trent, in which he has developed the intrigues connected with the transactions of that famous assembly, with a degree of boldness and veracity, which renders the work one of the most interesting and important productions of the class to which it belongs.

1634. Of seven sailors left at Spitzbergen in the fall of 1633, by the Dutch fishermen, for the purpose of wintering there, the first of the number died. The journal which they kept relates that they sought in vain for green herbs, bears and foxes, in that desolate region. In November the scurvy appeared among them. Their journal ended February 26, and they were all found dead on the return of their countrymen in spring. (See April 16.)

1696. Marie de Rabutin Sevigne, a French woman of quality, died, aged 70. Her Letters (11 vols. 8vo.) are models of epistolary style, and have been translated into English.

1738. The famous convention of Pardo signed.

1739. The pope issued an edict against the assemblies of freemasons, under penalty of the rack and condemnation to the galleys.

1742. Edmund Halley the astronomer, died, aged 86. He devoted himself to mathematics with great success, and spent much time abroad in astronomical observations and experiments. His astronomical pursuits tended greatly by their results to improve the art of navigation.

1753. George Berkley, bishop of Cloyne in Ireland, died, aged 85. He appeared as an author before his twentieth year. He devoted seven years and a considerable part of his fortune in an effort to establish a college at Bermuda, for the education of Indian preachers, which miscarried. He published several philosophical, mathematical and theological works, and is said to have been acquainted with almost every branch of human knowledge.

1781. French took the island of Nevis.

1783. Cervetto, an Italian of extraordinary musical genius, died at London, aged 103. He was a member of the orchestra of Drury lane theatre.

1784. Congress ratified the definitive treaty of peace.

1792. Joseph Jackson, a celebrated English type founder, died. While an apprentice his master had carefully kept from his view the mode of making punches, but by boring a hole through the door he got an occasional glimpse of the art, and succeeded.

1795. Intense frost in Holland, which enabled the remainder of the French army to cross the Waal.

1795. The French were repulsed in an attack on all the posts of the allies, from Arnhem to Amerongen. In the night the allies retreated to Amersfoort, leaving 300 sick behind them.

1797. Battle of Rivoli in Italy. The contest was continued three days, and decided the fate of Mantua. The French under Joubert were victorious over the Austrians.

1798. Five English gentlemen who had been sent to investigate the title of Vizier Ally, were by his orders assassinated at Benares in India.

1801. Robert Orme died, aged 73; historiographer to the East India company.

1801. An embargo laid in England on all Russian, Swedish and Danish ships. More than 100 Swedish and Danish vessels were immediately seized.

1809. Formal treaty of peace, friendship and alliance between Great Britain and Spain.

1813. An engagement off Pernambuco between the United States privateer schooner Comet, Capt. Boyle, 14 guns and 120 men, and three British vessels of 24 guns, convoyed by a Portuguese ship of 32 guns and 165 men. The Portuguese were beaten off, and the British vessels captured. She also captured three other vessels on the passage.

[27]1814. Treaty of peace signed at Kiel between Denmark and England.

1814. Charles Bossut, a French mathematician, died, aged 84. He studied under D'Alembert, and rose to eminence. On the breaking out of the French revolution he lost the offices he had acquired, and subsisted by his writings. He was a contributer to the Encyclopedie.

1815. Com. Decatur, sailed from New York in the frigate President.

1822. The Grand Duke Constantine declined, by letter to his brother Alexander, the succession to the throne of all the Russias.

1831. Henry Mackenzie, the novelist, died, aged 86. He studied the law, at the same time cultivating elegant literature. His first effort was a tragedy, which was favorably received; his first novel appeared in 1771, in which he was eminently successful. Scott entitles him the Scottish Addison.

1834. William Polk, a revolutionary officer, died. He held the rank of colonel at the close of the war, and was the last surviving field officer of the North Carolina line. He was among the small band of patriots who declared independence in Mecklenburg county, N. C., May 20th, 1775.

1838. Navy island evacuated by the Canadians, &c., under Mackenzie and Van Rensselaer, 510 in number. The arms belonging to the United States were surrendered, as also the cannon belonging to the state of New York.

1852. T. Hudson Turner died, aged 37; one of the ablest of the British archæologists.

1854. Joshua Bates, a distinguished New England clergyman, died, aged 77. He was twenty-three years president of Middlebury college.

JANUARY 15.

69. Sergius Galba, the Roman emperor, assassinated, at the age of 72. He was the successor of Nero, and reigned but three months.

936. Rodolph, king of France, died, in the 14th year of his reign, and was succeeded by Lewis the Stranger.

1549. The liturgy of the English church established by parliament. All the divine offices were to be performed according to the new liturgy, and infringements were to be punished by forfeitures and imprisonments, and for the third offence imprisonment for life. Visitors were appointed to see that it was received throughout England. From this time we may date the era of the Puritans.

1655. Daniel Heinsius, a Dutch philologist, died. He made great progress as a student, under Scaliger, and was appointed to a professorship at Leyden. He was also successful as a Greek and Latin poet.

1559. Queen Elizabeth, crowned at Westminster, by the bishop of Carlisle, who was the only person that could be prevailed upon to perform the ceremony.

1672. John Cosin, bishop of Durham, died; a lover of literature and prodigal in his expenditures on book-binding. He ordered that all his books should be rubbed once a fortnight to prevent their moulding.

1693. An army of six or seven hundred French and Indians set out from Montreal to invade the Mohawk castles. (See Feb. 6.)

1730. Gov. Montgomerie granted the city of New York a new charter. Although that city had been put under the government of a mayor in 1665, it was not regularly incorporated until 1686.

1773. At Duff house, the residence of the countess dowager of Fife, the first masquerade ever seen in Scotland was exhibited.

1777. Vermont declared itself a free and independent state. It had been settled as a part of New Hampshire, but was claimed as a part of New York, and so decided to be by the British crown. But by the dissolution of the bonds which had held America in subjection to the crown of Britain, they considered themselves free from New York, to which the most of them had never voluntarily submitted; and being, as they said, reduced to "a state of nature," they assumed the right to form such connections as were agreeable to themselves. Accordingly they formed a plan of government and a code of laws, and petitioned congress to receive them into the Union.

1778. Nootka sound and the Sandwich islands discovered by Captain Cook.

1780. First exportation of woolen goods from Ireland to a foreign market.

1780. Unsuccessful attack by the Americans under Lord Stirling on the British at Long island.

1781. The traitor Arnold succeeded in burning some stores at Smithfield.

1783. William Alexander, Lord Stirling, an officer in the revolutionary army, died at Albany, aged 57. He was of Scotch descent, and from early youth a mathematician. Throughout the war he acted an important part, and was warmly attached to Washington. He left behind him the reputation of a brave, discerning and intrepid officer, and an honest and learned man. He was generally styled Lord Stirling, and was considered the rightful heir to the title and estates of that earldom in Scotland.

[28]1794. A desperate engagement off the island of Corsica between three Sardinian ships and two Barbary xebecs. One of the xebecs was captured, but the other, rather than surrender, was blown up; upon which the prisoners taken, Turks and Algerines, 92 in number, were put to death.

1795. The French attacked the British outposts at Rhenen.

1795. The French national convention liberated Gen. Miranda and Capt. Lacrosse from prison.

1799. A revolution at Lucca in Italy, without bloodshed. Titles and exclusive privileges were abolished, the sovereignty of the people proclaimed, and a contribution of two millions of livres levied on the nobility alone, which was immediately presented to the French general Serrurier.

1805. Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil Du Perron, the French orientalist, died, aged 74. He studied theology, but afterwards devoted himself with ardor to the study of the eastern languages. In 1754 he embarked for India, and with difficulty succeeded in finding some priests to instruct him in the sacred language of the Parsees. He returned to Paris in 1762 with a number of manuscripts, and proceeded to arrange them for publication. During the revolution he shut himself up with his books; but continued labors and an abstemious diet exhausted his constitution. He was a learned and excellent man.

1807. Battle between the forces under Christophe and Petion for the governorship of Hayti, which had been assumed by Christophe as the oldest general, on the death of Dessalines; but Petion had been subsequently duly elected. Christophe was defeated after a fierce encounter. A separation of the republic followed. Petion instituted a pure republic, while Christophe founded a monarchy.

1810. Masquerades and masked balls prohibited in the city of New York.

1815. The United States frigate President, Com. Decatur, captured by four British vessels, after a sharp action, and a chase of 18 hours. Loss of the Americans 22 killed, 59 wounded; British loss 11 killed, 14 wounded.

1825. Robert Goodloe Harper, an American statesman, died. He was born in Virginia, of poor parentage; acquired the rudiments of a classical education; served a campaign in the revolutionary army; after which he entered Princeton college. He subsequently settled in South Carolina, in the practice of the law, and acquired great reputation as a professional man and a politician.

1827. Jean Denis Lanjuinais died. He was a staunch defender of liberal principles, and opposed first the arrogant pretensions of the privileged class, although himself one of their number: afterwards he arrayed himself against the intrigues of Mirabeau, the violence of the mountain party, and the usurpations of Bonaparte, in the face of destruction. The object of his wishes was constitutional liberty. He escaped the axe of the revolution, and was even promoted to office by Napoleon.

1834. The city of Leira, in Portugal, taken by Count de Saldanha, and the garrison, of Miguelites about 1500 in number, made prisoners.

1836. Charles Lewis, one of the most eminent book binders in Europe, died. The splendidly bound books in the duke of Sussex's library are of his workmanship.

1842. Joseph Hopkinson died. His speeches in congress on the Seminole war were much admired. He was author of the song, Hail Columbia.

1844. The Fontaine Moliere, a monument to the great French dramatist, at Paris, inaugurated. It combines a public fountain with a monument, and stands opposite the house in which Moliere died.

1849. Reporters excluded from an adjourned meeting of a convention of the southern states.

JANUARY 16.

1543. An act of the English parliament was passed forbidding women, apprentices, &c., &c., to read the New Testament in English.

1556. Charles V of Germany, (Don Carlos I of Spain) resigned the crown of Spain to his son Philip, after a reign of 40 years. Of all his vast possessions he only reserved to himself an annual pension. It was under him that Cortez conquered Mexico.

1580. An act of the English parliament inflicting a penalty of 20 pounds for absenting from church.

1599. Edmund Spencer, the English poet, died, aged 46. His first poem, the Shepherd's Calendar, appeared in 1576. He went to Ireland as private secretary to the lord lieutenant, and commenced the Faery Queen while in that country. The rebellion took place with such fury that he was obliged to leave the country in so great confusion, that an infant child was left behind, and burnt with his house. The unfortunate poet died soon after his arrival in England, in consequence of these misfortunes.

1643. Parliament of England forbid free commerce, and ordered no wagon or carriage to go to Oxford without a license.

[29]1668. The earl of Shrewsbury slain in a duel by the duke of Buckingham, who had lived in open adultery with Shrewsbury's wife. It is said that she, in the habit of a page, held Buckingham's horse when he was fighting with her husband.

1706. Articles of union between England and Scotland ratified by the Scottish parliament 110 to 69.

1715. Robert Nelson died, an English gentleman of fortune, which he employed in works of benevolence and charity. Few works on devotional subjects were more popular than his.

1748. The bottle conjuror imposed on a great multitude at the Haymarket theatre, by announcing that he would jump into a quart bottle.

1760. Pondicherry, defended by the French under General Lally, taken by the English under Colonel Coote.

1772. A revolution in Denmark which terminated in the imprisonment of the royal family, and finally the banishment of the queen, sister to George III of England.

1780. The Spanish fleet of 11 sail, under Langara, destroyed off St. Vincent by the British fleet of 19 sail, under Rodney. Langara was dangerously wounded and taken prisoner. One of the Spanish ships with 600 men on board was blown up, and all perished. The British lost 32 killed and 102 wounded.

1790. The bean-fed friars ejected from their convents by an augean labor of the French revolution.

1794. Edward Gibbon, the historian, died, aged 57. During his visit to Rome in 1764, he formed the plan of writing the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. In 1774 he obtained a seat in parliament, and two years after appeared the first quarto volume of his history. A disorder which he had endured twenty three years terminated in a mortification.

1795. Retreat of the British from Utrecht, in Holland, upon which the inhabitants capitulated to the French.

1796. The first theatre at Botany bay opened by the convicts at Sydney cove.

1809. Battle of Corunna in Spain, between the French and English, and death of Sir John Moore, who fell mortally wounded by a cannon shot, at the moment of victory achieved by the troops under his command. His men buried him in his cloak, and the French, in testimony of his gallantry, erected a monument over his remains. He was unmarried and in his 47th year.

1812. The king of Sicily, on account of ill-health, abdicated the throne in favor of his son, until he should recover. It is remarkable that Great Britain, Spain, Portugal and Sweden were governed by regents or viceroys at the same time.

1813. Lewis Barney died at Champlain, New York, aged 105. He had 24 children by one wife.

1815. Henry Thornton, founder of the Sierra Leone company, and a writer on the credit of Great Britain, died.

1816. The bridge at the falls of the Schuylkill fell with the great body of snow upon it.

1816. John Wright, the first constable of Cumberland county, Virginia, died, aged 107.

1817. Alexander James Dallas, an eminent lawyer of Philadelphia, died. He filled the office of secretary of state in Pennsylvania many years; and also that of secretary of the treasury of the United States a short time previous to his death.

1838. Dorothy Torrey died at Windsor, Conn., aged 107.

1843. State lunatic asylum, at Utica, New York, went into operation.

1854. Alden Partridge died at Norwich, Vt.; nearly fifty years engaged in military instruction, and some time principal of West Point academy.

JANUARY 17.

86. B. C. Caius Marius, the Roman consul, died. He was the son of a farmer in indigent circumstances; but by his talents and energy raised himself to the highest dignity of the greatest state in the world.

395. The Emperor Theodosius died at Milan, soliciting his heirs faithfully to execute his will.

1009. Abd-el-Malek, a Moorish prince, crucified by his conqueror.

1380. An act of parliament passed, by which foreign ecclesiastics were incapacitated from holding benefices in England.

1467. John Castriotto, (or Scanderbeg) prince of Albania, died. His father placed him as a hostage with the sultan of Turkey, by whom he was educated in the Mohammedan faith, and at the age of 18 placed at the head of a body of troops. He afterwards deserted to the Christians, and on ascending the throne of his fathers renounced the Mohammedan faith. He obtained repeated victories over the Turks. After his death, when Albania submitted to the Moslem dominion, the Turks dug up his bones which they wore to transfer his courage to themselves.

1524. Verrazano sailed from a desolate rock near Madeira, with fifty men and provisions for eight months, arms, munitions and other naval stores, on his voyage westwardly, expecting to reach Cathay.

[30]1546. Martin Luther preached his final sermon at Wittemberg.

1556. Philip Nerli, the Florentine historian, died.

1684. Wentworth Dillon, earl of Roscommon, died at Rome. The early part of his life was spent in dissipation, but he afterwards conducted with more discretion, and became distinguished among the wits of the day. Johnson calls him the most correct writer of English verse before Dryden.

1694. A powder magazine of 218 barrels exploded at Dublin, doing much damage.

1701. Roger Morris, an English chaplain, died, aged 73. He was a diligent collector of ecclesiastical manuscripts relating to the history of the English church, whereof, says Strype, "he left vast heaps behind him."

1705. John Ray, an English naturalist, died. He was the son of a blacksmith; received a liberal education at Cambridge, and devoted himself to science and literature. His publications were numerous.

1706. Birthday of Benjamin Franklin.

1733. George Byng, an English admiral, died. He entered the navy at the age of 15, and gradually rose to the highest honors and distinctions.

1746. Battle of Falkirk, in which the forces of the Pretender were victorious over the royal army.

1750. The singular ceremony of the Greek church of consecrating the water in memory of Christ's baptism, performed at St. Petersburg.

1766. Frederick V, king of Denmark and Norway, died.

1781. Battle of the Cowpens, in South Carolina, and defeat of 1100 British under Tarleton, by an inferior force of Americans under Morgan. British loss 100 killed and wounded, and 500 prisoners; 800 muskets, 2 field pieces, 35 baggage wagons, and 100 dragoon horses fell into the hands of the conquerors. The loss of the Americans was 12 killed and 60 wounded.

1783. Action between the British frigate Magicienne and the French frigate Sybille. The latter lost her masts, and was captured a few days after by the Hussar.

1789. John Ledyard, the traveler, died. He was born at Groton, Conn., 1751; entered Dartmouth college at the age of 19, but for some reproof resolved to escape: accordingly he felled a tree on the bank of the Connecticut, of which he constructed a canoe, and descended the river 140 miles to Hartford: studied theology a while, and then enlisted as a common sailor for a voyage to Gibraltar; accompanied Capt. Cook in one of his voyages, of which he published an account. Not meeting with assistance to prosecute any of the daring enterprises he proposed, he finally determined to make the tour of the globe from London east, on foot; and had proceeded as far as Yakutsk in Siberia, when he was arrested by order of the queen as a French spy and hurried back to the frontiers of Poland. He returned to London, he says, "disappointed, ragged, pennyless, but with a whole heart." He had scarcely taken lodgings when Sir Joseph Banks proposed an African expedition. He accepted the offer and proceeded as far as Cairo, where he was attacked by a disease which carried him off.

1789. Charles IV proclaimed king of Spain.

1791. Lord Dungarvon, an Irish peer, was tried at the Old Bailey, London, for stealing three and a half guineas from a poor woman in town, but was acquitted.

1792. George Horne, bishop of Norwich, died. His Sermons and Commentary on the Psalms, are well known.

1795. The stadtholder, William V, obtained permission from the States General to withdraw from Holland.

1800. The church at Chelmsford, England, fell; it was first built in 1424.

1804. Charles Nisbet died, aged 67. He was a Scotch clergyman, and the first president of Dickinson college in Pennsylvania.

1806. An iris or lunar rainbow was seen for one hour (9¼ to 10¼) at Wakefield in Yorkshire, England.

1810. Masquerades and masked balls prohibited by the authorities in the city of Philadelphia.

1811. The Mexican patriots under Hidalgo totally defeated near Guadalaxara by the Spaniards under Calleja.

1813. Capture of the United States brig Vixen, 12 guns, Capt. Henley, by the British frigate Narcissus.

1815. The king of Spain issued an edict against freemasonry.

1817. At Philadelphia and Albany the singular phenomena of snow, clear weather, rain, snow, thunder and lightning, hail and snow, was observed in succession.

1836. Two engagements in the mountains of Arlaban, between the forces of the queen of Spain under Gen. Cordova and the Carlists, in which the latter were defeated.

1841. Rezin P. Bowie died at New Orleans, aged 48; "well known in the southwest by his many deeds of valor in its early history, among the Mexicans and savages."

1851. Spencer Compton, marquis of Northampton, died, aged 61. He was president of the Royal society; was associated with Wilberforce in the anti-slavery [31]cause, and with Macintosh as a criminal law reformer.

1854. Two rail road bridges and crossings at Erie, Pa., destroyed by a mob of women, who were afterwards escorted through the town with banners, headed by a band of music.

1856. Zadock Thompson died, aged 59; author of several historical works relating to Vermont, and a naturalist.

JANUARY 18.

1486. Henry VII married the princess Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Edward IV. Thus uniting the houses of York and Lancaster, blending the Roses.

1534. Lima, the present capital of Peru, founded by Pizarro; thirty years before a single town was founded within the limits of the United States, St. Augustine, Florida, being founded 1565.

1546. The council of Trent assembled and agreed upon a confession of faith.

1561. The first English tragedy performed, at Whitehall, before the queen. It was entitled Gorboduc, from the name of a supposed ancient British king, and was written by Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton. It consists of five acts, each preceded by a dumb show, prefiguring what is to occur; the first four acts close by choruses in rhyme, and the fifth by a didactic speech of nearly two hundred lines. Sir Philip Sydney pronounced it "full of stately speeches and well-sounding phrases, climbing to the height of Seneca his stile, and full of notable morality, which it doth most delightfully teach."

1701. Frederick III of Brandenburgh crowned first king of Prussia, by the title of Frederick I.

1703. Thomas Hyde died. He was an Oriental interpreter during the reigns of Charles II, James II, and William III.

1713. Arcangelo Corelli, an Italian composer, died. He became so great a master in the science of music, that his countrymen bestowed on him the cognomen of Il Divino.

1718. Samuel Garth, an English poet and physician, died. He settled in London where by his professional skill he soon acquired a very extensive practice; and by his wit and conversational powers distinguished himself among the literati of the day.

1739. Samuel Bernard, one of the richest and most celebrated financiers of Europe, died at Paris. His funeral procession equaled that of a prince in point of magnificence and in the train of distinguished attendants.

1775. John Baskerville, an eminent English printer, died. He was a man fertile in invention, and effected improvements in the art which could scarcely have been expected from the exertions of a single individual.

1777. Battle of Kingsbridge, N. Y., between the Americans under Gen. Heath and the Hessians.

1782. Dumiter Raduly died at Haromszeck, at the remarkable age of 140.

1793. George Gordon, an English nobleman, after five years' imprisonment, appeared to give bail; but the attorney-general refused to accept of it. He was therefore remanded.

1795. The French under Salm took Utrecht in Holland, and Gen. Van Damme took Arnhem; the prince of Orange and his family escaping to England.

1797. Francis Lightfoot Lee, an American statesman, died at his residence in Virginia, aged 63.

1804. Goree taken by the French from the English.

1806. Eugene Napoleon Beauharnais married to Augusta Amelia, daughter of the king of Bavaria.

1810. Lyon Levy, a jeweler, threw himself from the monument in London.

1811. Gen. Junot wounded in the face by a musket ball, while reconnoitering the British lines.

1813. Battle at Frenchtown in Michigan, between the United States troops and the British and Indians, when the latter were defeated. American loss, 12 killed, 55 wounded.

1815. The British decamped from before Fort St. Philip, on the Mississippi, which they had bombarded from the 9th. About 12 o'clock at night they took to their boats, leaving 80 of their wounded, 14 pieces heavy artillery, and a great quantity of shot.

1815. Stanislaus, chevalier de Bouffleurs, died at Paris, aged 78. He was the son of the marchioness de Bouffleurs, mistress of Stanislaus, king of Poland. He distinguished himself in the army, which however he left to give his attention to literature. He was considered one of the most ingenious men of his time, and was noted for the elegance of his manners and conversation. The epitaph on his tomb, written by himself, is characteristic of him: Mes amis, croyez vous que je dors?

1816. Thanksgiving throughout England on the restoration of peace.

1819. John Willson, died in London, aged 52. He sometime held the chief command at Ceylon, and subsequently administered the government of Upper Canada.

1826. Ommeganck, one of the most celebrated Dutch landscape painters, died at [32]Antwerp. His pieces are distinguished for good taste, and for freshness and warmth of coloring.

1829. John George Henry Hassel, a distinguished German geographer and statistical writer, died at Weimar.

1834. Nathaniel Ames died at Providence. He was the son of Fisher Ames, and a seaman by profession. He is the author of Mariners' Sketches, Nautical Reminiscences, and Old Sailor's Yarns.

1848. John Deidrich Peterson died at Markham, Canada. He was the pioneer pastor of that town.

1854. Judah Touro died at New Orleans, aged 78; bequeathing nearly two millions of dollars to the public institutions of that city.

1854. William Walker proclaimed the republic of Sonora.

JANUARY 19.

1472. Birthday of Copernicus, at Thorn in Prussia.

1514. Vasco Nunez de Balboa returned to his colony at Darien, after having made the discovery of the Pacific ocean. His expedition occupied four months and a half; his triumph was complete. The whole population poured down to the shore to meet him, to hail him as the author of their fortunes, as less a man than a gift of heaven, to guide them into the possession of glories and riches incalculable. The expedition had been undertaken in consequence of the extravagant representations by the Indians, of a people who lived on the borders of that ocean, six suns distant, who owned large ships, and whose eating and drinking vessels were of pure gold. They referred to the Peruvians.

1535. Date of the probate of the will of the famed early English printer, Wynkyn de Worde.

1547. Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, a soldier, scholar and poet, beheaded on Tower hill for treason. In his youth he made the tour of Europe, and at Florence signalized his courage and romantic spirit, by publishing, in the style of a knight-errant, a challenge to all comers, Christians, Jews, Saracens, Turks and Cannibals, in defence of the surpassing beauty of his mistress, the fair Geraldine; and was victorious at the tournament instituted by the grand duke on the occasion. He served in the army sent against Scotland in 1542, and in 1544 accompanied the troops with which the king invaded France. For his services he was promoted, but being defeated in an attempt to seize a convoy, he was superseded. This unmerited disgrace was the beginning of his ruin. He is said to have aspired to the hand of the Princess Mary, and on some frivolous charges was tried by a common jury, by whom he was obsequiously found guilty of treason. Thus perished a man "no less valiant than learned, and of excellent hopes," aged 27.

1565. James Laynez, one of the founders of the Society of Jesus, died. He was born in Castile, 1512. His intimacy with Loyola was formed in Paris, where they matured the plan of the society. Loyola was chosen the first general, and in 1558 was succeeded by Laynez.

1576. Hans Sachs, the famous German master-singer, died. He was born at Nuremberg 1494; his occupation that of a shoemaker. At the age of 14 he began to write poetry, and made verses and shoes, plays and pumps, with equal assiduity, to the age of 77, when he took an inventory of his literary stock in trade. It consisted of 4200 songs, 508 comedies, and other pieces, in all 6048, making 32 folio volumes written by his own hand. From these a selection was published in 5 volumes folio. His poems are distinguished for naïveté, feeling, and striking description.

1643. Battle of Liscard, in Cornwall, England.

1657. Miles Syndercombe and others convicted of plotting the death of Oliver Cromwell.

1706. Charles Sackville, earl of Dorset and Middlesex, died. He was an accomplished scholar and a good speaker, but declined all public employment, being wholly engrossed in gallantry and pleasure. He was the patron of poets and men of wit: his own productions are those of a man of wit, vigorous, gay and airy. He served in the Dutch war of 1665 as a volunteer, and on the night before an engagement, composed the celebrated song, beginning, "To all you ladies now at hand."

1728. William Congreve, the English dramatist, died. He was educated for the bar, but like many others similarly situated, gave up the law for the pursuit of polite literature, in which he was eminently successful. His first work, The Incognita, was written at a very early age, and he produced his first comedy at the age of 21.

1730. Peter II of Russia died of the small pox. He was the grandson of Peter the Great, and ascended the throne by the will of Catharine, when but 13 years old.

1757. Thomas Ruddiman, a celebrated Scottish printer and grammarian, and who excelled in many learned treatises, died.

1776. Great eruption of mount Vesuvius.

1777. Hugh Mercer, an officer of the revolution, died. He was a Scotchman by birth, and was in the memorable battle of Culloden. Soon after, he emigrated to [33]America, and was engaged with Washington in the Indian wars of 1755. He joined the patriots of the revolution, and distinguished himself at Trenton and Princeton; was wounded in the latter engagement, of which he died. His funeral was attended by 30,000 people.

1778. Francis Furgler, the New Jersey recluse, died. During 25 years, without fire, he lived in a cell in the form of an oven, about four miles from Burlington.

1782. The emperor Joseph pardoned all those who kept out of his dominions on account of religion, provided they returned within a year; he also abolished several religious orders, and absolved the monks and nuns from their vows, and at the same time disclaimed all subordination to the pope in secular affairs.

1795. Insurrection in the island of Granada.

1795. The French under Devinther took Amersfoort in Holland, and the advance of the French army entered Amsterdam.

1796. The brass coffin, containing the bones of Columbus and the chains with which he had been loaded at Cuba, were removed from St. Domingo to Havana, by the direction of his descendants. They are now preserved in a silver urn on the left of the altar of the cathedral.

1806. James Jackson, an officer of the revolution, died. He came from England only two years before the war, and although but 19 years of age in 1776, he displayed great intrepidity at the attack upon Savannah. He continued in the service throughout the war, and in 1782 was presented by the legislature with a house and lot in Savannah. He held various civil offices in the state, and at the time of his death was a senator in congress.

1809. The French entered Corunna.

1812. Ciudad Rodrigo, a town and fortress in Spain, eight miles from the Portuguese line, garrisoned by 1700 Frenchmen, taken by storm by the British under Wellington, after a siege of 11 days.

1817. Riot and rebellion of the students of Princeton college.

1819. Charles IV, king of Spain, died. He was born at Naples 1740, and came to the throne of Spain 1788. Too imbecile to govern, he was always ruled by his wife and ministers. He was dethroned by Napoleon 1808, and died a pensioner at Naples of a relapse of the gout.

1836. John Butler, "the celebrated huntsman," died, in Wake county, N. C. He was supposed to be at least 110 years of age, and left a wife surviving equally as old.

1840. The United States exploring expedition under Lieut. Wilkes reported the discovery of a new antarctic continent on this day. A subsequent British expedition sailed over its site without being able to discern any vestige of it. It is supposed to have been a series of icebergs.

1843. Thos. W. White, editor of the Southern Literary Messenger, died at Richmond.

1847. Peter R. Livingston, a prominent man in the counsels and politics of the state of New York, died at Rhinebeck.

1848. Isaac D'Israeli, author of the Curiosities of Literature, died aged 82.

1853. C. B. Adams, an eminent American naturalist, and professor in Amherst college, died.

1854. George McFeely, died at Carlisle, Pa., aged 73. He distinguished himself on the Niagara frontier in 1813.

JANUARY 20.

1265. The earl of Leicester having defeated Henry III, summoned a new parliament, in which the commons were first represented.

1546. Frederick, elector palatine, established without any acts of violence, the protestant religion.

1662. Three women condemned at Hartford, Conn., as witches, one of whom was hanged.

1706. Humphrey Hody died, an eminent English writer. A dissertation on the resurrection of the body asserted is one of his most useful works.

1745. Charles VII of Germany died at Munich, aged 48.

1764. Mr. Wilkes was expelled from the British house of commons for writing the North Briton No. 45. This famed individual was subsequently outlawed; disregarded his outlawery; was three times elected for Middlesex, and his election as often voted void by the commons, though returned by large majorities.

1770. Lord Chancellor Yorke committed suicide in the 48th year of his age. He was a distinguished English politician, and his death is ascribed to remorse for neglecting a promise he had made to his brother to accept of no office from court.

1776. Gen. Schuyler disarmed the Highlanders at Johnstown, N. Y., and took six hostages.

1777. Gen. Dickinson, with 400 militia and 50 Pennsylvania riflemen, defeated a British foraging party, took 9 prisoners, 100 horses, 40 wagons and a number of cattle.

1779. Benedict Arnold condemned to be reprimanded by the commander-in-chief, for misdemeanor at Philadelphia.

1779. David Garrick, the actor, died. He formed a new era in the English stage, [34]a reform both in the conduct and license of the drama, which was honorable to the genius that had the power to effect it.

1781. A revolt of 160 of the Jersey line at Morristown. It was suppressed and two of the ringleaders executed.

1783. The Independence of the United States acknowledged by Great Britain.

1788. George Joachim Zollikofer, a Swiss divine, died. He was born 1730, and became one of the most eminent preachers of the last century. His sermons have been published in 15 vols.

1788. Australia first colonized, nearly three centuries after the discovery of the Ladrones by Magellan, which constitute a part of it. Governor Philip arrived with a number of convicts from England, and established a colony at Port Jackson in preference to Botany Bay.

1790. John Howard, the philanthropist, died at Cherson in Russia, aged 63. He had taken up his residence at this settlement on the Baltic sea; a malignant fever prevailing there, he was prompted by humanity to visit a patient laboring under the contagion, when he received the infection, and died in consequence.

1790. Lafayette, in the assembly of the states general supported the motion for the abolition of titles of nobility, from which period he renounced his own, and never afterwards resumed it.

1795. The French under Pichegru entered Amsterdam, and Geertruidenberg capitulated to Gen. Bonneau.

1795. A great fire occurred at Bergen in Norway, when 60 houses and a great many stores were burnt.

1796. Pichegru attacked Kaiserslautern, but was repulsed with the loss of 2000 men and several cannon. Austrian loss about 700 killed and wounded.

1798. The frigate Crescent sailed from Portsmouth, N. H., as a present from the United States to the dey of Algiers; she also carried out presents to the amount of $300,000.

1800. Thomas Mifflin, an officer of the revolution, died. He was a member of the first congress, and for many years governor of Pennsylvania.

1813. Christopher Martin Wieland, a German author of great repute, died aged 80. He was the father of 14 children, and 42 quarto volumes of books by the sale of which last he was enabled to purchase an estate. He was knighted by Alexander of Russia, and by Napoleon.

1817. The weather had been so moderate that up to this time no ice had been seen on the Delaware at Philadelphia.

1817. James Anthony, of Hanover co., Va., died, aged 104.

1823. The British government received advice that a Bengalee newspaper had been issued, edited by a learned Hindoo. Its title was Sungband Cowmuddy, or the Moon of Intelligence.

1835. The city of Mocha taken by the Egyptians under Achmet Pacha; by which the whole of Arabia was rendered subject to Mehemet Ali, pacha of Egypt.

1836. Xavier Saubert, the celebrated fire-king, being engaged in making some experiments in chemistry, with phosphoric ether, it exploded and scattered his body into a thousand pieces.

1836. Treaty of peace and commerce signed between the United States and the republic of Venezuela.

1839. The army of the confederation of Bolivia and Peru, commanded by Santa Cruz in person, was entirely defeated and destroyed, at Yungay, with a loss of 2,600 killed and 3,400 prisoners. Santa Cruz immediately resigned his office.

1843. A report fully approving of the conduct of Com. McKenzie and his officers on board the United States brig of war Somers, was brought in by the court appointed for that purpose.

1848. Christian VIII, king of Denmark, died in the 62d year of his age and 9th of his reign. A constitution was offered the same day by his successor.

1854. A tornado in Ohio half a mile in width demolished every thing it encountered, and almost entirely destroyed the town of Brandon.

This day in the calendar of Hesiod, is most propitious for the birth of men.

JANUARY 21.

988. Adalbero, archbishop of Rheims, died. He assisted in placing Hugh Capet on the throne of France.

1582. Ferdinand Alvarez de Toledo, duke of Alva, a Spanish general and minister of state, died, aged 74. It is said of him that during nearly sixty years of warfare against different enemies, he never lost a battle, and was never taken by surprise. He was undoubtedly the ablest general of his age; had a proud mien, a noble aspect and a strong frame; slept little, labored and wrote much. But pride, severity and cruelty tarnished his renown, so that he became odious even to his own countrymen.

1609. Joseph Justus Scaliger died, aged 69. His education commenced early, and he was one of the most indefatigable students through a long life, that was ever known. So entirely immersed was he in his studies, that he passed whole days in his chamber without eating or drinking, and paid very little attention to the common [35]affairs of life. He may be called the founder of the science of chronology.

1647. The plague broke out at Edinburgh. A writer of the time says, that the last plague they had raged so violently that the fortieth person lived not of those who dwelt there four years before, but that it was peopled with new faces.

1666. Shah Jehan, a Mogul emperor, died, aged 74. He was the son and successor of Jehangir, but did not inherit much of the talent and spirit of that powerful ruler. During a severe illness the government was usurped by his son, and on his recovery he was removed from Delhi to Agra, where he died, probably by poison.

1692. King William and his court issued a proclamation against vice and profaneness.

1702. The affirmation allowed by Queen Anne to the quakers in England, extended to those of Pennsylvania.

1707. Aurungzebe, (ornament of the throne,) died; the last powerful and energetic sovereign that ruled over the Mogul empire of Hindostan. From his 20th year, military duties devolved upon him; he raised a body of troops, and obtained the government of the Deccan. He invited his old friends the fakirs, or religious mendicants, to a feast, and compelled them to put on new and decent clothing. The gold and silver pieces which he found on burning their old garments, was of great service to him in prosecuting the war against his elder brother for the sovereignty. He stirred up dissensions among his brothers, by which they were put out of his way, shut up his father in his harem, and in 1659 ascended the throne. Notwithstanding his cruelty he governed with much wisdom, and consulted the welfare of his people. Two of his sons endeavoring to form a party in their own favor, he caused to be put to death by slow poison. In the midst of his activity he died at Ahmednagar, and with his death terminated the brilliant epoch of the Moguls.

1721. Francis Pagi died, author of a chronological history of the popes.

1733. Bernard de Mandeville, an English author, died. He was born at Dort in Holland, and went to England to practice medicine. Meeting with poor encouragement, he turned author; but his topics, though professedly intended for the promotion of the public morals, introduced him to the notice of the grand jury. His pen procured the means of subsistence, but acquired for him an unenviable notoriety.

1750. John Bland, the renowned writing master, died at his academy in London.

1759. Battle of Wandewash, in India. The French under Lally defeated with the loss of 800 killed and wounded, by the British under Col. Coote, who lost 262 do.

1769. The first letter of Junius appeared in Woodfall's Public Advertiser; and the last number was also published on this day, 1772.

1773. Alexis Piron, a French dramatist, died. His first effusions were satires, which procured him so many enemies that even in the latter part of his life he could not get admission into the Academy. He revenged himself by calling them les invalides du bel esprit, and composing his own humorous epitaph:

Ci-git Piron, qui ne fut rien,
Pas même académicien.

1774. Mustapha III, emperor of Turkey, died, and was succeeded by his brother Abdul Hamet.

1775. Pugatchef, the daring chief of the Tartars, defeated by the Russians, into whose hands he fell and was put to death.

1780. Admiral Rodney of the English fleet arrived with his prizes and transports for the relief of Gibraltar; the garrison was short of provisions.

1782. Grand fete in Paris on the birth of the dauphin.

1793. Louis XVI beheaded at Paris, aged 38. He had reigned 17 years and 7 months, and is now represented as an amiable and benevolent man, anxious to make his subjects happy; who in turn treated him in the vilest manner, and executed him as a tyrant and a traitor. His behavior on many trying occasions vindicated him effectually of timidity, and showed that the unwillingness to shed blood by which he was particularly distinguished, arose from benevolence, and not from pusillanimity. Upon the scaffold he exhibited a firmness that became a noble spirit.

1814. Jacques Bernardin Henry de St. Pierre, a French philosophical writer, died, at his estate near Paris. He is best known as the author of Paul and Virginia, which appeared in 1788, and passed through fifty editions in one year. It has been generally translated in Europe.

1815. Matthias Claudius, a German poet, died. His prose and poetry are said to bear a peculiar stamp of humor, frankness and cordiality, and many of his songs, set to music by the first composers, have become a part of the national melodies. He filled several public offices.

1816. Day of general mourning in France, on account of the death of Louis XVI, twenty-three years after his execution.

1820. Ambroise Marie Francis Joseph Palisot de Beauvais, a French naturalist, died. He came to America in the pursuit of science, and while at Philadelphia learnt that he had been proscribed by the [36]revolutionists as an emigrant. He supported himself as a teacher of music and languages until the arrival of the French minister, who afforded Palisot the means of prosecuting inquiries into the natural history of America. He was employed to arrange Peale's collection. On returning to France with his rich collections, he was admitted into the Institute, in the place of Adanson.

1824. Charles Macarthy killed. He commanded at the Cape-Coast against the Ashantees. Whilst making preparations to repel these savages in 1821, the king sent his compliments to him, and said he hoped to have his head as an ornament to their great war drum. Subsequently Sir Charles marched against the enemy with a mixed force of Europeans and blacks; the latter ran away, and the whites being defeated and their commander captured, the ferocious menace was realized. The trophy however was afterwards recovered.

1839. Great conflagration at Constantinople, in which the grand vizier's palace, called the Sublime Porte, including the ministerial and administration offices, was destroyed. Loss estimated at 20,000,000 piasters.

1847. Major James Morton, died at High Hill, Virginia, aged 90. In the revolutionary war he acquired the cognomen of Solid Column, by which soubriquet he was recognized by La Fayette in 1824, at Richmond.

1854. The magnificent British vessel Tayleur on its voyage to Melbourne, wrecked on the Irish coast, and 370 persons lost.

JANUARY 22.

The Catagogia, an erotic and bacchanalian festival celebrated at Ephesus by its licentious devotees, about the first century.

97. Timothy, to whom St. Paul addressed several epistles, is said to have been killed at Paris (Ephesus).

1265. First English parliament constituted of members from counties, &c., as at present, met.

1528. Henry VIII and Francis I declared war against Charles V of Germany.

1552. The duke of Somerset beheaded on pretence of inciting others to imprison Dudley, the duke of Northumberland. He was a distinguished writer of that age.

1561. Birthday of Francis Bacon, the English philosopher.

1562. The two houses of convocation subscribed the 39 articles of the English church.

1575. Queen Elizabeth granted to Thomas Tallis and William Birde an exclusive patent for printing music, for the term of twenty-one years.

1683. Anthony Ashley Cooper, first earl of Shaftsbury, died. The career of this able, but dubious and versatile statesman was cast in a stormy period, and his acts have been severely reprehended. Yet much of it is to be attributed to the odium excited by opposing party feelings. His vices appear to have been redeemed by corresponding virtues, and had he appeared in a different age, it is likely he would have developed a different character.

1689. The British parliament having met under the name of a convention, declared that the king, James II, had abdicated the throne. William and Mary succeeded him.

1696. Birthday of James Brucker, a German scholar, remembered by his Critical History of Philosophy, 6 vols. 4to. He gives an account of every school, from the Hebrew, Chaldaic and Egyptian, down to the Huron in America.

1749. Matthew Concanen, some time attorney-general of Jamaica, and a dramatic writer, died.

1788. Birthday of Lord Byron.

1795. The French under Macdonald entered Naarden, Holland.

1800. George Stevens died, best known as the editor of Shakspeare, though to the versatility and richness of his talent there are numerous testimonials. His literary collections were extremely curious, and as regards the days that are gone, of great value.

1809. Naval action off Guadaloupe between the British frigate Cleopatra and sloop of war Hazard, and the French frigate Topaz, 40 guns. The engagement lasted 45 minutes, and resulted in the capture of the Topaz, which was laden with provisions to relieve the garrison at Cayenne.

1810. The French forced the passage of the Sierra Morena, in Spain.

1812. Madame Reichard ascended in a balloon to a great height at Kœnigsberg in Prussia. The balloon was totally destroyed by a hurricane, and the aeronaut precipitated to the earth, yet escaped with life.

1813. Second battle of Frenchtown in Michigan. The van of Gen. Harrison's army, about 750 men, was attacked at day break by 2000 British and Indians under Proctor and Tecumseh. Notwithstanding the superiority of the latter in numbers, the Americans fought with desperation six hours, when they surrendered. British loss, as stated by Proctor, 24 killed, 128 wounded; the loss of the Indians is supposed to have been greater. American loss, 200 killed, 522 prisoners, 27 escaped. Proctor was promoted.

[37]1815. The remains of Louis XVI and his queen taken up from the burial ground, and deposited with much solemnity in the royal church of St. Denis.

1815. American commodore Patterson captured a British transport schooner, and took 63 prisoners. His own force was 53.

1815. United States privateer schooner Tomahawk 9 guns and 84 men, captured by the British ship Bulwark.

1818. Caspar Wistar died, a distinguished physician of Philadelphia. He was of German parentage, and a member of the society of Friends; became eminent as an anatomist, and corresponded with Cuvier and other eminent naturalists of Europe. He held scientific meetings at his own house, and was an active contributer to knowledge of all kinds. He died of a slow fever, caught by attending a poor family in a close apartment.

1822. John Julius Angerstein died, celebrated as the founder of the British national gallery, which was purchased by the government after his death for £40,000, (Cyclopedia Americana says £60,000) and was first exhibited in May, 1824. He was born at St. Petersburg, 1735.

1830. Great fire at Pera, Constantinople, extinguished by the exertions of the crew of an English ship.

1834. Great earthquake in South-America; the cities of Popayan and Pasto almost entirely destroyed, and many lives lost.

1835. Andrew Wallace died at New York, aged 105. He emigrated from Scotland in 1752, enlisted in the American army in 1776, and continued in it till 1813, when he was honorably discharged, on account of his disability, having suffered a stroke of paralysis.

1840. John Frederick Blumenbach died at Göttingen, aged 88. He was long a distinguished professor at the university, and a very eminent naturalist. His collection of skulls was said to be the richest in the world. The 50th year of his professorship was celebrated in 1826.

1849. John C. Calhoun's draft of an address to the people of the United States adopted in preference to Berrien's, and the Southern convention adjourned sine die.

1854. Patrick O'Donahoe died at Brooklyn, N. Y.; one of the Irish exiles who escaped from Van Diemen's Land.

JANUARY 23.

1401. Tamerlane introduced his troops into the city of Damascus, in violation of a truce; and after levying an enormous contribution in gold, massacred the inhabitants, and reduced the city to ashes, in revenge of the murder of the grandson of Mahomet, seven centuries before, by the Syrians.

1516. Ferdinand V of Spain died. He inherited the crowns of Aragon and Sicily, and united to them the kingdom of Castile by marriage. In 1492 he added to these the kingdom of Granada, the last possession of the Moors, by conquest; at the same time Columbus was discovering for him the new world. By force and treachery he acquired the kingdom of Naples, and by similar means Navarre was also added to his dominions. Thus the whole of Spain was united under him; so that he may be considered as the restorer if not the founder of the Spanish monarchy. He was the most powerful monarch of his time; but his conduct was characterized by a total want of faith, and a recklessness of principle of which he made no scruple of boasting. He was the founder of that fearful tribunal, the Inquisition.

1570. Earl Murray, regent of Scotland, shot by Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh. The latter, after the battle of Langside hill, had been condemned to death as a rebel, and pardoned. A part of his estate, however, was bestowed upon one of the regent's favorites, who seized Hamilton's house and turned his wife out into the fields naked in a cold night, by which she became deranged. This injury induced him to seek revenge on the regent, after which he escaped to France.

1722. Henri De Boulainvilliers, count of St. Saire in Normandy, died. Having finished his studies he entered the army, which however, he soon left to devote his attention to literature. A marked antipathy to revelation pervades his writings, and exhibits itself in singular contrast with a superstitious reverence for judicial astrology, and the mystic sciences, which he cultivated with much diligence.

1733. O. S. Birthday of Benjamin Lincoln, a revolutionary general, at Hingham, Mass. Great reliance was placed in his abilities by Washington, and many important commissions entrusted to him. In 1781 he was appointed secretary of war, which office he held three years, and then retired to his farm. He died 1810.

1761. Action between the British frigate Minerva, 22 guns, Capt. Hood, and French ship Warwick, 34 guns, M. de Bellair, near cape Pinas, which resulted in the capture of the latter. French loss 14 killed, 32 wounded; British loss 14 killed, 33 wounded, 3 of whom died.

1765. The British under Capt. Byron colonized the Falkland islands.

1766. William Caslon, an eminent English type founder, died. He was induced to attempt letter-cutting by a friend, and [38]such was the perfection to which he carried the art, that the beauty of his type exceeded all others of the day, and was sought for from other countries on the continent. He was employed to cut characters for several languages of Asia.

1772. Mrs. Clum died near Litchfield, England, aged 138. She had lived 103 years in one house.

1775. The Pennsylvania convention declared their determination, in case the arbitrary laws of England were attempted to be executed by force, to repel the same by the most determined resistance.

1780. The British ship Culloden of 74 guns lost off Long island.

1789. Frances Brooke died, an English lady, remarkable for her literary accomplishments. Her works consist of novels, periodicals, tragedies, musical dramas, and translations.

1789. John Cleland died; author of the notoriously immoral romance, Fanny Hill.

1790. The mutineers of the ship Bounty having arrived at Pitcairn's island, and landed all their effects, set fire to the vessel and destroyed every vestige that could lead to the discovery of their retreat. The island was then divided into nine equal portions between them, and the natives were reduced to the condition of slaves. (See Oct. 3.)

1795. John Sullivan, a distinguished general in the revolutionary army, died. He was of Irish descent, and before the revolution practiced law in New Hampshire. He was among the first to take an active part in the contest; resigned his seat in the first congress to enter the army; was conspicuous at several engagements; and terminated his military career in laying waste the country of the Six Nations, in order to put a stop to their depredations. After the peace he filled several important state offices.

1795. The French took possession of the Hague and Helvoetsluis, made 800 Englishmen prisoners, and liberated 600 Frenchmen.

1799. The French under Championnet entered Naples.

1800. A convention signed between Gen. Kleber and the grand vizier for the evacuation of Egypt by the French troops.

1800. Edward Rutledge, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was a member of the first congress and acted a conspicuous part during the war. While the British beleaguered Charleston, his native city, he commanded a company of troops, and was taken prisoner. On the restoration of peace he returned to the practice of law, and a short time previous to his death was elected governor of the state of South Carolina.

1802. Humboldt and his companions ascended Chimborazo to the height of 18,576 feet above the surface of the sea. The blood started from their eyes, lips and gums, and they became almost torpid with cold. A narrow deep valley prevented them from reaching the summit, which was 1344 feet higher.

1806. William Pitt, second son of the earl of Chatham, died. He was born 1759, and at the age of 23 became chancellor of the exchequer and the next year prime minister. It was during the early part of his career that the American war was concluded. Notwithstanding the emoluments of his offices were great, so far from acquiring wealth, he died involved. Parliament decreed him a public funeral, and £40,000 to pay his debts.

1813. George Clymer, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, died. By the death of his parents he was left an orphan at the age of 7 years; but he was taken care of by his uncle, who left him a large fortune, with which to continue the business of a merchant in Philadelphia. His services to the country during the revolution, in raising supplies and devising ways and means to continue the struggle, were of incalculable importance.

1813. Horrible massacre of the United States prisoners taken by the British and Indians at the battle of Frenchtown the day before. The houses in which the helpless wounded lay were set on fire, and those who were too feeble to continue the march were shot or tomahawked on the road. It is morally certain that the British generals Proctor and Elliott were culpable for this wanton sacrifice of human life to satiate the revenge of the savages.

1813. Robert Jamison died in South Carolina, aged 104. His eyesight, which had failed him some years previous to his decease, returned again just before his death in all its strength.

1815. Thanksgiving day in New Orleans, and a solemn Te Deum on account of Jackson's victory.

1820. Edward, duke of Kent, died. He was the fourth son of George III. In 1802 he was appointed governor of Gibraltar, but his rigid discipline produced a mutiny, and he was recalled. The present queen of England is his daughter.

1824. Stephen Acour Kover, an Armenian writer of distinction, died, aged 84.

1833. Banastre Tarleton died, aged 78. He commanded the British cavalry in the Carolinas, in the revolution.

1841. Sarah Ann Davis sentenced at Philadelphia for murder; the first capital conviction of a female in Philadelphia.

1844. William Gaston died at Raleigh, the capital of his native state. The [39]prudence and energy of his mother made a disposition, naturally volatile and irritable, become a pattern of patience and perseverance. His speeches when a member of congress were highly finished.

1853. Junius Smith died, aged 74; having devoted a considerable portion of his life to the establishment of transatlantic steam-navigation, and the naturalization of the teaplant in the United States.

1854. Alexander De Bodisco died at Georgetown. He was seventeen years Russian minister at Washington, and was very popular with the American people.

1855. There was an earthquake in a part of New Zealand, by which the surface of the earth was raised between three and four feet, and the shellfish attached to the rocks died.

JANUARY 24.

41. Caius Caligula, the Roman emperor, assassinated. He commenced his reign with every promise of becoming a good monarch. But at the end of eight months he was attacked with a fever, which appears to have left a frenzy upon his mind, for his disposition was totally reversed. After committing the most atrocious acts of cruelty and folly, he was assassinated by a tribune as he came out of the amphitheatre, in the 29th year of his age, and the 4th of his reign.

76. Birthday of Publius Ælius Adrian, the Roman emperor. He was a renowned general and great traveler; who, on a visit to Britain, built the famous wall or rampart, which still retains his name, extending from the mouth of the Tyne to the Solway frith, 80 miles, to prevent the incursions of the Caledonians into England.

1559. Christian II, king of Denmark, died. His history affords a series of cruelties and usurpations almost without a parallel, from 1515, when he ascended the throne, until 1523, when he was deposed. The remainder of his life was passed in imprisonment.

1709. George Rooke, an English admiral, died. He took the fortress of Gibraltar, by surprise, 1704; since which it has continued in the hands of the British, and is considered impregnable.

1712. Birthday of Frederick the Great of Prussia.

1727. Philip de Vendome, a French general, died. He distinguished himself in the army of Louis XIV.

1762. James Ralph, a voluminous writer of poetry, politics and history, died. He was an American by birth, but went over to England about 1729. He wrote a history of England, commencing with the Stuarts.

1781. The British garrison at Georgetown, South Carolina, surprised and taken by General Lee.

1793. The French minister, M. Chauvelin, ordered to quit England before the 1st of February.

1795. Lord Hood sailed from England, on an expedition against Corsica.

1797. At a dinner complimentary to Charles J. Fox, the chairman, the duke of Norfolk, gave as a toast, "Our sovereign's health, the majesty of the people;" for which offence he lost all his offices.

1812. Daniel McDonald died at Canajoharie, aged 102. He was a native of Ireland, born in the reign of Queen Anne, and had seen four monarchs on the English throne. He took an early and active part in the revolutionary war; and was possessed of a most remarkable degree of activity, both of body and mind, until the morning he expired.

1834. William Donnison, an officer of the revolution, died. He was appointed adjutant and inspector-general of the Massachusetts militia by Gov. Hancock in 1788, which office he held until 1813.

1838. Joseph Gouge, a revolutionary soldier, died, aged 109.

1838. Defeat of the Indians at Loche-Hatchee by the United States troops under Gen. Jessup; loss of the latter, 7 killed and 32 wounded.

1841. Matthias Denman, an enterprising western pioneer, and in early life one of the first owners of the land on which Cincinnati now stands, died at Springfield, N. J., aged 91.

1851. G. L. P. Spontini died in Italy; a celebrated dramatic composer, in the line of opera.

1857. Dr. Medhurst, English missionary to China, died, aged 71. He was also a noted linguist, and author of a work on China, a Chinese dictionary, and a Japanese and English vocabulary.

JANUARY 25.

275. Lucius Domitius Aurelianus, emperor of Rome, assassinated. He was the son of a peasant; his mother a priestess of the Temple of the Sun. He enlisted as a common soldier, and rose from that humble station to the highest military offices during the reigns of Valerian and Claudius, the latter of whom, on his death bed, recommended Aurelian to the choice of the troops. He delivered Italy from the barbarians, and conquered the famous Zenobia queen of Palmyra. He had planned an expedition against Persia, and was [40]waiting in Thrace for an opportunity to cross the straits when he fell a victim to a conspiracy.

1327. Edward II of England, then a prisoner in Kenilworth castle, compelled to resign his crown in favor of his son, Edward III.

1533. Henry VIII privately married to Ann Boleyn in a garret at Whitehall.

1640. Robert Burton, an English divine, died. He is known principally by his Anatomy of Melancholy, a rare book, which it is said he wrote to divert his own thoughts from that feeling.

1692. The Indians, accompanied by some French, attacked the town of York in Maine, killed 50 and carried away 100 of the inhabitants, and destroyed the town.

1717. The episcopal clergy of Scotland, who had before been fined for not praying for King George by name were forced to abscond or fly their country.

1726. William de Lisle, a distinguished geographer, died at Paris. His maps are still of great authority.

1730. A fire which broke out in the archduchess's apartments at Brussels, consumed the palace, with the national records and state papers.

1745. Action in the Straits of Banca, (Sumatra) between the British ships Debtford and Preston, Com. Barnet, and three French company ships, in which the latter were captured.

1759. Birthday of Robert Burns.

1782. De Grasse attacked the van of the British fleet under Admiral Hood. The French were drawn from their anchorage ground, and by a masterly manœuvre the British succeeded in obtaining it.

1786. Charles Price, one of the most successful counterfeiters ever known, committed suicide in prison, London. He had continued to practice forgeries on the Bank of England to an incredible amount during six years, contriving all the while to elude the most cunning devices of the police to detect him, although the notes were traced in every quarter to have proceeded from one man, always disguised and always inaccessible.

1787. Battle with the insurgents under Shays, at Springfield, Mass., who retreated with the loss of 3 killed.

1791. George Selwyn, a noted English wit, died, aged 72.

1804. Jean Jacques Dessalines declared emperor of Hayti.

1807. Battle at Mohringen, in Prussian Poland, in which Bernadotte defeated the Russians under Pahlin and Salitzin, who lost 1200 killed and 300 prisoners.

1813. Concordat signed at Versailles, by which Napoleon allowed the pope to exercise the pontificate in France and Italy, in the same manner as his predecessors.

1834. Castle of St. Louis at Quebec, the residence of the British governor-general, destroyed by fire.

1836. General Paez gained a victory over the rebels at Venezuela near Porto Cabello.

1838. Earthquake in the eastern part of Europe. Seven severe shocks occurred during a few days, by which 300 houses were thrown down in the city of Bucharest, and 60 persons killed.

1841. The shock of an earthquake was felt in the city of New York and vicinity to such a degree as to excite considerable alarm.

1843. Edward Drummund, private secretary to Sir Robert Peel, was assassinated in the streets of London. For nearly 20 years he discharged duties second to those of a cabinet minister, because less conspicuous.

1845. Abigail Leonard died at Raynham, Mass., 101 years old. She was the fifth in descent from John Alden, who first landed from the Mayflower on the Plymouth rock.

1849. The usual convention of the two houses of congress declared that the people had elected Zachary Taylor their president and Millard Fillmore vice-president.

JANUARY 26.

477. Subterranean thunders were heard simultaneously from the Black to the Red sea, and the earth was convulsed without intermission for the space of six months after. In many places the air seemed to be on fire. Towns and large tracts of ground were swallowed up in Phrygia, during this convulsion, the particulars of which would seem incredible, were they not corroborated by contemporary historians.

1564. The pope confirmed by a bull the decrees of the Council of Trent.

1630. Henry Briggs, an English mathematician, died.

1679. Keel of the Griffin, the first vessel in the western waters, laid 6 miles west of Niagara falls, by La Salle.

1679. The invaluable library of Elias Ashmole destroyed by fire at his chambers in London, together with his collection of coins and other curious antiquities.

1681. Two Cameronian women hanged at Edinburgh for calling the king and bishops "perjured, bloody men."

1699. Peace of Carlowitz concluded between Leopold I of Austria, and Mustapha II sultan of Turkey, after fifteen years of hostility.

[41]1721. Peter Daniel Huet, a celebrated French critic and classical scholar died. He was engaged twenty years in publishing an edition of the Latin classics, which extended to 62 vols.

1730. A leaden pot containing a human heart preserved in spirits dug up at Waverly in Surrey, England, supposed to have been there 700 years.

1733. A negro for an assault upon a white woman was burnt alive in New Jersey.

1737. All the prisoners for debt in White Chapel jail, England, were discharged by the executors of the will of the late Mr. Wright who paid their debts.

1769. John White, printer and publisher of the Newcastle Courant, died, aged 81. At his decease he was the oldest master printer in England.

1779. Arnold sentenced by court martial to be reprimanded by Gen. Washington.

1782. De Grasse with the French fleet, 29 sail, attacked the British under Hood, 22 sail, but was repulsed with the loss of 1000 killed and wounded. British loss trifling.

1787. The assembly of notables met at Paris, having been called together to assist the king, Louis XVI, and M. Calonne, to raise a revenue to meet the exigencies of the times. M. Calonne presented his new plan of reform and taxation, imposing a share of the burden upon the privileged classes: but as the assembly was composed of these classes they could not make up their minds to impose taxes upon themselves which had hitherto been borne by the lower classes. The assembly was called to help the king and his minister out of a dilemma, but plunged them deeper in trouble, and accelerated the revolution.

1793. The stadtholderate of Holland abolished, and the Batavian republic under the protection of France established.

1793. The senate of Venice acknowledged the French republic.

1795. The French national convention declared Marseilles in a state of siege.

1795. The assembly of the states of Holland met and chose Peter Paulus their president for the term of fifteen days.

1814. The Russians under Blücher passed the Marne and marched upon Troyes. Bonaparte at the same time entered Vitry.

1820. Henry Andrews, a self-taught English mathematician, died. For more than forty years he produced an almanac for a company of stationers under the name of Francis Moore, physician, and astonished the simple and ignorant by his marvelous predictions. His prophecies were as much laughed at by himself as by the worshipful company of stationers for whom he annually manufactured them in order to render their almanacs salable among the ignorant, with whom a lucky hit covered a multitude of blunders. A few years before his death he predicted that the people would soon know better than to be influenced by the prophecies which his employers required him to write. He did not live to see the publication of the British Almanac, which effected the downfall of Poor Robin (the title of one of his almanacs), which ceased to exist in 1828.

1823. Edward Jenner died, aged 74, celebrated for having introduced the practice of vaccination as a preventative of the small pox. He was the youngest son of a clergyman, born in England 1749. He commenced his investigations concerning the cow pox about the year 1776, and twenty years afterwards the practice was introduced into London hospitals. The success of this discovery procured him honorary titles, and a grant from parliament of £20,000.

1838. John O'Neil died at Havre de Grace, Md., distinguished for the resistance which he made at that place, to the British under admiral Cockburn, during the last war.

1839. Stephen Van Rensselaer died at Albany. He was born in the city of New York 1764, and graduated at Cambridge, Mass. He was the fifth in descent from Kilian Van Rensselaer, the original proprietor and patentee of the colony of Rensselaerwyck, a territory 48 miles long and 24 broad. He filled several offices, civil and military; was a man of great wealth, and distinguished for his magnificent charities and Christian virtues.

1839. Tremendous gale and heavy rain in the United States. The river at Philadelphia rose 17 feet above low water mark, and at Kenebec 13 feet above high water mark. New York and Albany were considerably flowed.

1850. Francis Jeffrey, a Scottish jurist, celebrated by his long connection with the Edinburgh Review, died, aged 77.

1853. Sylvester Judd died, aged 40; a unitarian clergyman at Augusta, Me., author of several works which found many admirers.

JANUARY 27.

438. St. John Chrysostom, one of the Fathers and archbishop of Constantinople, died.

1673. Jerome Lallemant, superior of the Jesuits in Canada, died, aged 80; leaving behind him a high reputation in his [42]order. He furnished seven of the Relaçons.

1676. The Narragansetts, in retreating from their country in Rhode island, drove off from one of the inhabitants of Warwick, 15 horses, 50 oxen and 200 sheep.

1696. The Royal Sovereign burnt by accident. She was the first great ship built in England, and became one of the best men of war in the world. For sixty years she was so formidable to her enemies that none of the most daring of them willingly ventured an engagement. The levies of money for building this noble vessel caused the rebellion.

1733. Thomas Woolston, an English divine, died in prison. He imbibed a fondness for allegorical interpretations of scripture from reading some of the early writers—particularly Origen. His speculations finally led to an indictment for blasphemy, and being unable to pay the fine imposed, he was retained in prison. He was a learned man, but held notions peculiar to himself, which was a high offence in those days.

1760. The ice carried away one of the dykes of the Rhine, in consequence of which the neighboring country was inundated.

1783. The British under Gen. Mathews took possession of Bednapore and Candapore, without firing a gun, and the whole country, except Mangalore, yielded in consequence.

1795. Pichegru made a requisition upon the Dutch for the French army of 200,000 quintals of corn, 5,000,000 rations of hay, 5,000,000 measures of oats, 200,000 rations of straw, 150,000 pairs of shoes, 20,000 pairs of boots, 20,000 cloth coats and waistcoats, 40,000 pairs of stocking breeches, 150,000 pairs of linen pants, 200,000 shirts, 50,000 hats, to be furnished within a month, and 12,000 oxen to be furnished within two months.

1800. King John's castle, at Old Ford near Bow, in England, was blown down by a storm. It was built in 1203 and afforded the king a sleeping place after signing the magna charta.

1807. Burr's conspiracy communicated to congress.

1807. Bonaparte confiscated the possessions of Ernest Frederick Anthony, hereditary prince of Saxe Coburg, for holding a commission in the Russian service.

1807. Action between the British ship Caroline and the Spanish ship St. Raphael, which resulted in the capture of the latter, bound from Lima to Manilla, with 500,000 Spanish dollars, 1,700 quintals of copper, and a valuable cargo.

1814. Camp Defiance attacked by the Indians at day break. The United States troops and friendly Indians were commanded by Gen. Floyd, who repulsed the assailants with great slaughter.

1823. Charles Hutton, an eminent English mathematician, died. He was born 1737; his father, a viewer of mines, intended him for the same employment; but he rose by his own energy and application to a high degree of fame and fortune.

1832. Augustin Daniels, count de Billiard, died, a French statesman and soldier. He fought at Jemappes, was with Bonaparte through the Egyptian campaign; at Austerlitz; in all the great battles in Prussia; at Moskwa; and lost an arm at Leipsic. He made himself useful under Louis XVIII and Louis Philippe.

1832. Andrew Bell, founder of the Bell or Madras system of education, died. It has been made a subject of dispute whether Bell or Lancaster is the progenitor of the monitorial or mutual system of instruction. In 1796 Dr. Bell returned from Madras, and submitted his system to the public. It has since been widely diffused over the civilized world.

1836. Frederick David Schaeffer died, pastor of the German Lutheran church in Philadelphia. He was born and educated in Germany, but came to this country in early life. He was a man of learning, and distinguished for his knowledge of languages.

1840. Isaac Chauncey, a distinguished American commodore, died at Washington.

1841. McLeod arrested within the limits of the state of New York. Though engaged in burning the steamboat Caroline in 1837, yet being a British subject and that government having assumed the responsibility of that act, his arrest threatened a rupture of the peace between the two nations.

1850. William Atkins Coleman, for more than thirty years connected with the literature of New York, died.

1856. Charles Morris, a commodore in the United States navy, died, aged 71. He was the acknowledged chief of the navy in administrative wisdom and in varied professional attainments; had displayed great heroism and intrepidity in the capture of the Philadelphia and Guerriere; in the latter action he was shot through the body by a musket ball.

JANUARY 28.

814. Charlemagne, or Charles I of France, died. He was an illustrious sovereign, as well in the cabinet as in the [43]field; and though he could not write his name, was the patron of men of letters and the restorer of learning. He wanted the virtue of humanity.

1547. Henry VIII of England having grown so unwieldy and corpulent that he was raised up and let down the stairs by a machine, after an illness of some weeks, sank under his disease, and died in the 38th year of his reign, and the 56th of his age. He repudiated his first wife 20 years after marriage, and in the course of about ten years espoused five others. Henry's reign was one of the most remarkable in the annals of the kingdom. He made himself so much feared, that no English king had fewer checks to his power. No hand less strong than his could have snapped the chain which bound the nation to papacy, and have resisted successfully the power and influence of the pope.

1588. Thomas Carn died in London, aged 207; an instance of longevity exceeding any other on modern record, but well authenticated in the parish register of St. Leonard, Shoreditch. An old man died at Ekaterinoslaf, Russia, in 1813, between 200 and 205 years of age; and Don John Taveira de Lima died in Portugal, 1738, aged 198.

1596. Francis Drake, the first Englishman that circumnavigated the world, died on board his own ship. (See Jan. 9.)

1612. Thomas Bodley died. He was actively employed during the last fifteen years of his life in collecting manuscripts and books for the library at Oxford which bears his name, and which by his perseverance came to be one of the most celebrated in Europe.

1687. John Hevelius died, an eminent German astronomer.

1725. Peter the Great, of Russia, died, aged 53. He devoted his life time to civilize his subjects, and raise the nation from barbarism and ignorance, to politeness, knowledge and power. He spared no pains or fatigue to obtain knowledge which he thought would be beneficial to his subjects.

1732. The protestants of Saltzburg being driven out of their country, settled by invitation of the king of Prussia in Brandenburg.

1738. The first stone of Westminster bridge over the Thames laid.

1782. John Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville, the French geographer, died. He was esteemed as well for the gentleness and simplicity of his manners, as for his extensive knowledge. He labored at his maps fifteen hours a day for fifty years.

1782. James Murray, a very eminent historical writer, and pastor, died at New Castle upon Tyne, England.

1790. The Jews of Spain, Portugal and Avignon admitted to the privileges of French citizens.

1794. John Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf died at Leipsic. He acquired great celebrity as a printer and type founder. His foundry contained punches and matrices for 400 alphabets. He improved the printing press, and discovered a new method for facilitating the process of melting and casting. From his foundry types were sent to Russia, Sweden, Poland, and even America. With the interruption of only five or six hours for sleep, his whole life was devoted to study and useful employment.

1796. Prince of Wales, regent of England, attacked in his carriage by the populace.

1797. Battle of Unroomster, in India; Zemaun Shah attacked the Seicks at 8 o'clock in the morning, by opening his shutah renauls, or wall pieces mounted on camels, and a heavy fire was kept up until 2 o'clock, when the Seicks gave a signal for a general charge, and agreeable to their mode in close combat, flung away their turbans, let loose their hair, put their beards in their mouths, and dashed into the midst of the Huddalah army. The two armies continued engaged in close combat four hours, when Zemaun's troops gave way, and were pursued to the very gates of Lahore. The loss of the Seicks was 15,000; that of the Shah 20,000 killed.

1803. Madame Clairon, a French actress, died. She evinced when very young a predilection for the stage, and adopting the theatrical profession, soon became the first tragic performer of her age, and long remained without a rival. She published Mémoires et Réflexions sur la Déclamation Théatrale.

1804. Joseph Nicholas d'Azara, a Spanish diplomatist, died, aged 73. He became acquainted with Napoleon in 1796, who conceived great admiration of him. He was an ardent admirer of the arts and sciences, and collected an elegant library and a rich collection of paintings and antiques, which however he lost in the political changes of the times.

1816. Richard Joachim Henry Von Moellendorf, a Prussian general, died. He commanded the Prussian troops employed in 1793 in the disgraceful dismemberment of Poland, on which occasion he did every thing consistent with his commission to alleviate the misfortunes of the Poles.

1818. Nathan Birdseye died at Stratford, Conn., aged 103. His funeral was attended by 100 of his descendants; the whole number of which was 258.

1836. William Scott, Baron Stowell, died. He filled the office of judge of the [44]court of admiralty in England, thirty years with distinguished ability. He is represented to have been the charm and ornament of every society of which he formed a part; and his unbounded charities acquired for him universal regard and esteem.

1841. William Hogg died at Brownsville, Pa., aged 86, leaving an estate of one million dollars to his heirs. Fifty years previous to his death, he crossed the Alleganies with a pack of goods on his back, which was his whole property, and opened a small store soon after at Brownsville, the first in that region of country.

1842. The first stone of the Anglican cathedral at Jerusalem laid, at a depth of 35 feet from the surface. It stands upon mount Zion, and the state of the rubbish which had accumulated since the time of David, rendered it necessary to excavate to the depth of 42 feet to the natural rock.

1854. Lewis W. Chamberlayne, a Virginia physician, died; one of the founders of the Richmond medical college, of which he was a distinguished professor.

1854. A ball-cartridge manufactory at Ravenswood, L. I., blew up killing 20 workmen and destroying 50,000 ball-cartridges.

1854. The steamer Georgia, from Montgomery, Ala., having 200 passengers and 1000 bales of cotton on board, took fire at New Orleans, and 60 passengers lost their lives.

1855. The Panama railroad being completed, the first train passed over it this day.

JANUARY 29.

164 B. C. Antiochus Epiphanes, the great enemy of the Jews, died.

1559. Thomas Pope, the founder of Trinity college, Dublin, died.

1597. Anthony Shirley, commanding a British squadron, landed at Jamaica, and marched six miles to the principal town, which submitted to his mercy.

1720. John Adams, a celebrated English preacher, died.

1728. Dean Swift's Stella died at Dublin.

1743. Andrew Hercule de Fleury, cardinal and prime minister of Louis XV, died, aged 90. He was 73 years of age when he was placed at the head of the ministry, at which time the state was in a miserable condition. He healed the wounds of his country, and without bloodshed or cruelty established and increased the internal happiness of France, and its national glory.

1762. From Christmas to this day the weather was severely cold in England. The ice on the Thames it is said was over five feet thick!

1780. The coldest day for 25 years at Philadelphia.

1812. Desperate attempt by a black man, a negro, to fire the British privateer Speedwell. He was killed after 7 shots had been fired at him.

1814. Battle of Brienne, in which the French under Napoleon gained an inconsiderable victory over the allies under Blücher, who narrowly escaped being taken prisoner. It was at this place that Bonaparte acquired the rudiments of that skill in the military art with which he had almost prostrated the world.

1820. George III died. It was during his reign that the discontents in America burst into an open flame, and an empire was lost to the British throne. In 1810 he retired from the government, and the interval which elapsed from that time until his death was a period of insanity. He died in the 82d year of his age and the 59th of his reign.

1824. Louisa Maria Caroline, countess of Albany, died at Florence, aged 72. She was the daughter of a German prince, and married Charles Stuart, the English pretender, whence she derived the title of countess of Albany. They resided at Rome, and had a little court, and were addressed as king and queen. The connection, however, was an unhappy one, and to escape from the barbarity of her husband she retired to a convent, and afterwards went to France. On the death of Charles, 1788, she returned to Italy. She was then secretly married to Alfieri, the poet; the French court conferred on her an annuity of 60,000 livres. Alfieri confesses that to her he owed his inspiration, and that without her friendship he should never have achieved anything excellent. Their ashes repose under a common monument in the church of Santa Croce, between the tombs of Machiavelli and Michael Angelo.

1829. Paul Francis Jean Nicholas de Barras, a French revolutionist, died. As a member of the national convention, he voted for the king's death; and subsequently, having offended Robespierre, he headed the force that captured the tyrant. As commander-in-chief of the troops of the convention, he entrusted Bonaparte with the post in which he first distinguished himself, on the 5th Oct., 1795. His political career ended 1799, when he received a passport to his estate from Napoleon, then first consul.

1829. Timothy Pickering, an American soldier and statesman, died. In public life he was distinguished for energy, ability and disinterestedness; as a soldier he was brave and patriotic; and his writings [45]bear ample testimony to his talents and information. He was one of the leaders of the federal party.

1834. Duel at Paris between Gen. Bugeaud and M. Dulong, members of the chamber of deputies; Dulong was killed.

1855. Nicholas ordered the formation of a general militia of the Russian empire.

JANUARY 30.

422 B. C. A census of the inhabitants of Athens was taken, and reported the number of males to be 20,000.

405 B. C. Sophocles died at Athens.

1560. A phenomenon observed at London, called the burning spears, being one of the earliest records of that appearance now well known by the name of aurora borealis.

1601. Scipio Ammirati, an Italian historian, died. He wrote a history of Florence, published in 2 vols, folio.

1606. Everard Digby hanged, drawn and quartered at the west end of St. Paul's church, London. He was concerned in the gunpowder plot, having offered £1500 towards defraying the expenses of that dreadful affair. He also entertained Fawkes, who was to have executed it in his house, and was taken in open rebellion with other papists after the plot was detected and had miscarried.

1644. William Chillingworth died; celebrated for his skill as a religious controversialist, and a defender of protestantism against popery.

1647. King Charles I delivered up to parliament by the Scots for £200,000. Some think it unworthy of the nation.

1649. Charles I beheaded. He was born in Scotland 1600, and succeeded to the British throne 1625. His reign was signalized by a struggle with his parliaments, in procuring supplies, which finally ended in his execution. He was tried for treason against the people, and condemned with only three days' grace.

1660. William Oughtred, an English divine and mathematician, died, it is said, in consequence of excess of joy at the restoration of Charles II, whom he called Christ's anointed.

1661. The heads of Oliver Cromwell, John Bradshaw, and Henry Ireton set on poles at Westminster hall, and their bodies buried under the gallows at Tyburn, where their disinterred bodies had been hung.

1678. The expense of the equestrian statue of Charles I at Charing Cross, London, was defrayed with part of £70,000, voted for his funeral celebration.

1691. Pope Alexander III died, after a reign of only 15 months.

1735. George Granville, viscount Lansdowne, an eminent English poet, died. Having vainly endeavored to get employment in arms for the defence of James II, to whose cause he was warmly attached, he retired to private life, enjoying the company of his muse, which he employed in celebrating the reigning beauties of the age, in imitation of Waller.

1757. Calcutta retaken by Col. Clive.

1766. James Bartholomew Beccaria, an Italian physician and professor of natural philosophy, died. His writings are highly esteemed.

1766. Susanna Maria Cibber died. She was not only considered the best actress in England, but supposed by many to excel the celebrated Madame Clairon, of Paris, her contemporary.

1805. John Robinson, a celebrated Edinburgh mathematician, died.

1809. Assault upon Saragossa in Spain by the French under Junot, Lannes and Mortier. The Spaniards made a most desperate resistance; a corps of women even being formed for its defence. The houses were taken one by one; they were compelled to undermine upwards of 600 in order to get possession of them.

1810. Several meteoric stones fell in Caswell county, North Carolina.

1826. The mails were first carried over the Menai suspension bridge, which connects the island of Anglesey with the Welch shore.

1833. Joseph Bluydenburge died at Smithtown, L. I., aged 101, retaining the vigor of perfect health to the last week of his life.

1834. Attempt to assassinate the president of the United States, Andrew Jackson, made by Richard Lawrence.

1834. Rudolph Ackerman, who so much improved lithography, and the first to use gas-light in England, died.

1837. Explosion of the magazine of the French garrison at Bona in Algiers, containing 12,000 pounds of powder and 1 million musket cartridges. The commandant with 108 men were killed, and 102 wounded.

1837. The town of Jaffa in Palestine destroyed by an earthquake. Of 15,000 inhabitants, only 2,000 escaped burial in the ruins.

1837. Adam Azelius, the last remaining pupil of Linnæus, died; celebrated for his travels in Asia and Africa.

1841. The town of Mayaguez, Porto Rico, consisting of about 600 buildings, was consumed by fire. Loss estimated at from two to four millions of dollars.

1852. The king of Naples by decree confiscated the property of Neapolitan emigrants.

[46]1855. Herman Knickerbacker died, aged 75; known as the prince of Schaghticoke, being the third in descent from the original settler there.

JANUARY 31.

1000 B. C. It is usual to fix the finishing of the temple of Hercules at Tyre on this day, and the death of Anchises, 183 years earlier.

1574. Birthday of Ben Jonson.

1578. Battle of Gemblours, in the Netherlands, by which the Spanish recovered their superiority in the Walloon provinces which were zealously catholic.

1606. Guido Fawkes executed. He was an officer in the Spanish service, concerned in the gunpowder plot, and discovered in the vault below the House of Lords, prepared to fire the train which was to involve the enemies of the catholic religion in one common ruin.

1616. Jacob Le Maire, a Dutchman, discovered cape Horn, the southern extremity of the American continent.

1686. In Norway, Courland and Pomerania, there fell a great quantity of a membraneous substance, friable, and blackish, somewhat like burnt paper. Baron Grotthus analyzed a portion of this substance, which has been preserved in a cabinet of natural history, and it is found to consist of silex, iron, lime, carbon, magnesia, a trace of chrome and sulphur, but not a particle of nickel.

1692. Massacre of Glencoe, Scotland. King William, whose chief virtue was not humanity, signed and countersigned the warrant, which was transmitted to the secretary for Scotland, who particularly charged the ministers of destruction to take no prisoners. The population was barbarously massacred, and the spot disemboweled of every social appearance.

1718. Ashton Lever died at Manchester, England. He was a collector of specimens in natural history, and possessed one of the finest museums in the world.

1750. The Student, a paper of much merit, issued at Oxford, England, appeared this day.

1754. The 1st number of the Connoisseur appeared, conducted by Coleman, Bonnell Thornton, Chesterfield and others.

1775. Capt. Cooke discovered Southern Thule, soon after Sandwich land which from the vast quantities of ice seen he conjectured might be a continent.

1737. The attorney general stated to the Irish parliament that an insurrection existed in the county of Kerry, the people having taken an oath to obey the laws of Captain Right (a fictitious name), and to starve the clergy.

1788. Charles Stuart, the pretender to the throne of England, died at Rome. He was the grandson of James II, born at Rome 1720. In 1745 he landed in Scotland, with only seven companions, and marched south gaining strength and carrying every thing before him till he arrived within 100 miles of London. Here his career was arrested, and the battle of Culloden decided his fate. He wandered about the wilds of Scotland five months, often without food, and the price of £30,000 set upon his head. He finally escaped in a French vessel, and ended his days in dissipation.

1795. The assembly of the states of Holland passed at the Hague the first public instrument in the shape of a declaration of rights.

1801. Sale of fine wheaten bread prohibited in London and that of brown substituted.

1813. Samuel M'Keehan, surgeon's mate in the Ohio militia, ordered by General Harrison, with a flag of truce, and money for supplies, for the wounded prisoners taken January 22d, put up for the night in a cave at the foot of the Miami, leaving his horse and cabriole at the entrance, and the flag stuck up; about midnight a party of Indians fired on them, wounded the doctor in the foot, killed and scalped his companion, Mr. Lamont, and stripped him, they took the money, horse, blankets, &c., and compelled the doctor to travel 20 miles that night on foot.

1826. François D'Etienne Lantier, a dramatic writer of no small celebrity in France, died at Marseilles.

1828. Alexander Ypsilanti, a Greek patriot, died at Vienna, aged 36. He attempted the liberty of his country, but was discountenanced by the emperors of Russia and Austria, and imprisoned by the latter seven years. His early death is attributed to his incarceration.

1833. Otho, prince of Bavaria, arrived at Napoli di Romania as the first king of restored Greece; at which time he had not attained his 18th year.

1838. Osceola, the celebrated Seminole chief, died at Charleston, S. C., aged 35. From a vagabond child he became the master-spirit of a long and desperate war. He was a subtil and sagacious savage, who established gradually and surely a resistless ascendancy over his adopted tribe, by the daring of his deeds, the constancy of his hostility to the whites, and the profound craft of his policy.

1839. James Byles died at Oyster bay, N. Y., aged 118. He was a native of France, came to this country while a boy, [47]was a soldier under Wolfe, and in the battle of Quebec.

1843. Was living at Caraccas, South America, Maria de la Cruz Carvallo, aged 144. Her hair, which had been white with age, returned to black at the age of 133; and her sight, which was entirely lost at the age of 118, returned, at the age of 138, so that she could thread a needle.

1854. The rail road track at Erie, Pa., torn up the second time by a mob.

1855. The western rail roads blocked with snow, and travel almost wholly obstructed for several days. No communication was had between St. Louis and Chicago for eleven days. Seventeen locomotives were frozen in or buried by the snow on the Chicago and Mississippi rail road.


[48]

FEBRUARY.

FEBRUARY 1.

107. St. Ignatius died, or was murdered.

1461. Battle of Mortimer's Cross, in which Edward, duke of York (afterwards Edward IV), revenged his father's death by a signal victory over the royalists, commanded by Jasper, earl of Pembroke.

1642. Edward Finch died. He was vicar of Christ church, London, from which he was expelled for preaching in a surplice and associating with women.

1681. John Edward Nidhard, an Austrian jesuit, died. He was appointed inquisitor-general and minister of Spain.

1684. Robert Leighton, a Scotch prelate, died. He for a number of years employed his talents and influence in a vain endeavor to bring about a reconciliation between the presbyterians and episcopalians. As a preacher he was admired beyond all his contemporaries, and his works have not yet lost their popularity.

1686. Francis Blondel died; eminent for his knowledge of geometry and belles-lettres; was professor of mathematics and architecture, and tutor to the dauphin of France.

1702. Marshal Villeroy, general of the French and Spanish armies in Italy, surprised in his bed at Cremona, and taken prisoner by the imperialists under Prince Eugene.

1708. Captain Rogers discovered Alexander Selkirk on the island of Juan Fernandez, where he had lived alone four years and four months.

1718. Daniel Francis Voisin, chancellor of France, died. He was eminent for his talents, integrity and virtue.

1733. Frederick Augustus, elector of Saxony and king of Poland, died. His court was one of the most splendid and polished in Europe, and he filled with dignity his station among the European powers. In his character generous ideas were united with despotic feelings; a taste for pleasure with the cares of ambition; and the restlessness of a warlike spirit with the effeminacy of a luxurious life. Instances of his prodigious strength are recorded, which appear almost incredible.

1775. The new congress of Massachusetts met at Cambridge and chose John Hancock their president.

1781. Lord Cornwallis with the British army, passed the Catawba at M'Cowan's ford. His passage was disputed by Wm. Davidson, lieut. col., commandant of the North Carolina line, and brigadier general of militia, with 300 militia. Davidson was overpowered, and killed by a ball in the breast. Cornwallis had his horse killed under him.

1789. The first president of the United States elected.

1793. War declared against England and Holland by the French.

1796. A stone was thrown at the carriage of George III, king of England, as he was returning from Drury lane theatre. It hit the queen in the face.

1800. Battle between the United States frigate Constellation, Capt. Truxton, and the French frigate La Vengeance of 54 guns. The action lasted from 8 o'clock in the morning until after noon, when the Vengeance was completely silenced; but taking advantage of a squall made her escape to Curacao, where she arrived in a shattered condition, having lost 160 men killed and wounded.

1801. Daniel Nicholas Chodowiecki, a German painter and engraver, died. He practiced miniature painting with great assiduity to support his mother. His first trials at engraving excited the astonishment of connoisseurs; and at length scarce a book appeared in Prussia for which he did not engrave at least a vignette. He was universally esteemed for his integrity.

1804. J. Packer died at Spinningfield, England, aged 33, weighing 29 stone.

1813. American privateer schooner Hazard, Capt. Le Chartier, of 3 guns and 38 men, captured the British merchant ship Albion of 12 guns and 15 men; on the 23d she was re-captured by the British cutter Caledonia of 8 guns and 38 men; on the 26th the Hazard fell in with and took both of them; but succeeded in bringing the Albion only into St. Mary's. The Hazard had her first lieutenant and 6 men wounded, but she was much shattered. Great part [49]of the Caledonia's crew were killed or wounded.

1814. Bonaparte defeated by the allied army near Chaumenil.

1814. A destructive eruption of Albay in Luconia, one of the Phillipines.

1815. Eruption of the volcano of Albay, in the province of Camarines, on the southern part of one of the Phillipine islands, in the Indian ocean; by this awful catastrophe five populous towns were entirely destroyed and more than 1200 of the inhabitants perished.

1824. Henry Bate Dudley died. He was born in England 1745, educated for the pulpit, and succeeded to his father's benefice. He established the Morning Post, and subsequently several other papers, and manifested his literary abilities by the production of several successful comedies. He obtained a baronetcy, and at the time of his decease was a magistrate for eleven counties.

1824. John Lempriere died, author of the Biographical Dictionary. He was an English prelate, and an excellent classical scholar.

1833. Elizabeth Moore died, in Pitt county, North Carolina, aged 101.

1837. A memorial was presented to congress, signed by 56 authors of Great Britain, praying that body to secure to them the exclusive right to their respective writings in the United States.

1837. Edward Donovan died, near London, a celebrated author on natural history.

1837. Simpson, in the service of the Hudson Bay company, reached Athabasca, having completed since the first of December a journey of 1277 statute miles, the preliminary step of the expedition.

1845. Samuel McGwinn, known as the Caithness Veteran, died at Andover, New-Hampshire, aged 110.

1851. Mary Wolstonecraft, widow of Percy Bysshe Shelley, died, aged 53; known in authorship by her Travels and Frankenstein.

1852. Ohio state house burnt, and a large mass of valuable papers perished with it.

1854. Silvio Pellico died near Turin in Italy. In 1820 he was seized by the Austrians as a carbonaro, while employed as a tutor, and confined in the fortress of Spielberg ten years. On his release he was employed as librarian by the Marchesa Barolo until his death.

1854. The splendid Parliament house at Quebec, with the government library and philosophical apparatus, were destroyed by fire.

1855. The United States surveying steamer Water Witch, ascending the Paraguay in violation of the ordinance that no man of war should enter that river, was fired at from the fort, and one man killed. The Water Witch returned the fire and backed down the stream.

1856. Ivan Fedorowitch Paskiewitsch, vice-roy of Poland, died, aged 74. He distinguished himself in all the wars of the Russian empire, beginning with that of the invasion of 1812.

FEBRUARY 2.

1141. Battle of Lincoln, and defeat of Stephen, king of England, by the earl of Gloucester. The king, whose valor deserved a better fortune, was taken prisoner, loaded with irons, and Matilda proclaimed queen.

1421. Henry V entered London from the complete conquest of France, which had been accomplished in about five years, and was received by the people amidst such pageants and popular rejoicings as that capital had never witnessed.

1461. Battle of Mortimer's Cross near Ludlow, where the king's forces were defeated, Owen Tudor taken and beheaded.

1529. Balthazar Castiglione, an Italian nobleman and poet, died. He was also so well skilled in painting, sculpture and architecture, that it is said Raphael and Michael Angelo, though incomparable artists, never thought their works perfect unless they had his approbation.

1626. Charles I of England crowned at Westminster. He wore the white rather than the purple robe, and to prevent the increase of the plague omitted the usual ceremony of riding in state.

1643. Prince Rupert took Cirencester for Charles, by storm; 200 slain.

1653. New York city incorporated.

1682. John Pautre died; an eminent French designer and engraver. His works were published in 3 vols. folio, and contained more than 1000 engravings.

1688. Abraham du Quesne died. He was a native of Normandie in France, and distinguished himself in the navy by a series of valorous and successful engagements.

1705. A new eruption of the peak of Teneriffe, forming the third volcanic mouth.

1723. Richard Sare, an eminent printer, died. A sermon preached at his death was well received and went through many editions.

1745. A conspiracy of 900 negroes to murder their masters in Jamaica was discovered by a negress to her mistress, because the plotters would not save a child she had nursed.

1752. The contributors to the Pennsylvania [50]hospital, having rented a house, admitted their first patients.

1768. Arthur Onslow died. He was 33 years speaker in the English house of commons and the third of his family that had been nominated to that office.

1771. John Lockman, an English dramatic writer, died.

1787. Gen. Arthur St. Clair elected president of the American congress.

1788. James Stuart died; sometimes called Athenian Stuart, a very celebrated traveler and delineator of Athenian architecture.

1794. The French convention decreed it treason for any officer to surrender his ship to a force less than double his own!

1797. Mantua surrendered to the French, who now became entire masters of the pope's dominions; whereupon Napoleon dictates to his holiness those pious terms of pacification signed ten days after.

1798. The Federal street theatre, in Boston, entirely destroyed by fire.

1799. Thomas Paine, often called the Literary Merchant, died. Few mercantile men become literary men.

1799. Elizabeth Woodcock, an English woman, returning home from market in one of the most stormy nights ever known in England, was overwhelmed in a snow drift, where she remained eight days without sustenance. When discovered her mental faculties were unimpaired, but she had lost the use of her feet, and died some months after.

1801. The first imperial parliament of Great Britain assembled in London.

1804. George Walton died, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. He was a native of Virginia, served an apprenticeship to a carpenter, removed to Georgia and studied law. He was foremost among the patriots of that state who assembled to devise measures of resistance to the acts of parliament in relation to American taxations.

1806. Miranda sailed from New York on his expedition to revolutionize South-America.

1806. Thomas Banks died. He was bred a wood carver, to which he served an apprenticeship. But having taken several premiums for models of sculpture he turned his attention to that art, and was sent to Rome to study at the academy's expense. From Italy he repaired to Russia, where he stayed two years; but not meeting with any adequate encouragement, he returned to his own country. A colossal statue of Achilles mourning the loss of Briseis is his masterpiece. He closed a life of arduous exertion, at the age of 70; and there are monuments, both in Russia and England that will long attest his skill.

1807. Battle of Bergfried near the lower Vistula. Bonaparte defeated the Russians after a severe and sanguinary contest, in which Soult, Augereau, &c., distinguished themselves very highly. The French took four pieces of cannon and 1700 prisoners. Same day, the French general Guyot captured the whole of the Russian magazines at Guttstadt.

1808. The French subverted the papal government at Rome.

1814. Bonaparte defeated at Brienne with the loss of 173 cannons and 4000 men.

1817. The Scottish regalia, which had been deposited in a chest in 1707, (see March 26) was examined by a deputation. The doors were removed, and the floor was found covered with 6 inches of dust. No keys being found, the oaken chest was forced open, and found to contain the ancient crown, scepter and sword of state, as they had been deposited 111 years previous.

1820. Benjamin Trumbull died, aged 92, author of a History of Connecticut.

1831. A. Bonpland, the celebrated traveler, permitted to leave Paraguay, where he had been detained about nine years, by the dictator Francia.

1834. Richard Lander, the enterprising traveler and discoverer of the course of the Niger, died at Fernando Po, in Africa, of wounds received from the natives. All his papers were lost. The British government allowed his wife and daughter a pension of £150.

1834. Lorenzo Dow died, aged 57; an eccentric traveling preacher. He was born in Connecticut and had a good elementary education; but in his youth acquired vicious habits which however he overcame at about the age of 14. At an early age he believed himself called to preach, and in obeying the impulse he commenced a career which has probably never been equaled; and in spite of acute bodily disease performed an amount of labor in traveling and preaching never before known. Before he had completed his twenty-fifth year, he once rode 1500 miles and held 184 meetings in ten weeks and two days; and about a year afterwards, traveled 4000 miles in the southern states, constantly preaching, in seven months, and finished his tour without stockings, shoes, or outer garment, and almost without a horse. For several years after he traveled from seven to ten thousand miles and held six or seven hundred meetings annually. It is thought that during the thirty-eight years of his public life he must have traveled two hundred thousand miles, including three voyages to England and Ireland. During these flying journeys he [51]constantly refused donations and contributions, except for immediate want; and his traveling expenses exceeded his receipts more than one half, the first eighteen years. Afterwards, however, his books became a source of profit to him, and finally he became the maker and vender of a family medicine! which was a matter of speculation purely. He was twice married; his second wife survived him. He was familiar to every body throughout the United States, for there were few places however obscure which he had not visited.

1839. Deborah Logan died at Stanton, Pa. She was a member of the Pennsylvania historical society, and more intimately acquainted with the early history of that state, than any other person living.

1840. Olinthus Gregori, an English mathematician, died, aged 67. He was more than thirty years professor of mathematics in the royal military academy at Woolwich, and had the whole of the general superintendence of the almanacs published by the stationers' company, which had been for a long period conducted by Dr. Hutton. He published mathematics, biography and religion.

1841. William Bartlett, an eminent and wealthy merchant of Newburyport, and a munificent benefactor to the theological seminary at Andover, died, aged 93.

1851. Joanna Baillie, a Scottish dramatic authoress, died, aged 85.

1852. A priest, aged 63, attacked the queen of Spain with a dagger, as she was returning from church; for which he was executed.

1855. G. Fletcher, an English Wesleyan preacher, died, aged 108. Until within six months of his decease he preserved an astonishing activity of mind and body, often preaching without fatigue three times a day.

1856. The house of representatives at Washington elected a speaker after a contest of nine weeks.

FEBRUARY 3.

1014. Sweyn, king of Denmark, died.

1399. John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, died. He was the son of Edward III; was a prince of distinguished valor and prudence, and a patron of the poet Chaucer.

1497. "Johannes Cabotus Venetus et Sebastianus illius filius," commissioned by Henry VII of England to take six ships of 200 tons burden from any port in the kingdom for the purpose of making a western voyage of discovery. This expedition was got ready by the beginning of May, and consisted of two caravals freighted by the merchants of London and Bristol, and some smaller craft.

1619. By letters patent dated this day, James I granted Ben Jonson a pension of 100 marks during life, "in consideration of the good and acceptable service heretofore done and hereafter to be done by the said B. J."

1649. Charles II proclaimed king by the Scots.

1660. Charles X of Sweden died. He ascended the throne 1654, and was a prudent though a warlike monarch.

1698. Ernest Augustus, duke of Hanover, bishop of Osnabruck, and father of George I of England, died.

1700. Filippo Acciaguoli, an Italian dramatic poet and composer, died. He effected many improvements in the machinery and internal arrangements of theatres.

1730. Elizabeth Thomas, an English poetess, died. She is known by the name of Corinne.

1761. Richard Nash, commonly called Beau Nash, died, aged 87. He was the most accomplished gentleman in England.

1779. The American Gen. Moultrie defeated 200 British at Port Royal island, South Carolina, and drove them off that island. Moultrie had 1 lieutenant and 7 privates killed and 22 wounded. The British lost most of their officers.

1779. Mutiny suppressed on board the United States frigate Alliance, bound to France with M. de Lafayette and several French gentlemen of distinction on board. Half the crew were concerned in it, and measures were taken to quell it but a few hours before it was to have been carried into effect. Great inhumanity was meditated towards the officers and the French. This was the first organized mutiny ever known in the American service. The mutineers were 36 in number.

1781. The Americans, closely pursued by the British after the battle of the Cowpens, crossed the Yadkin and secured their boats on the north side, when a sudden rise of the river arrested the pursuit of the enemy. In this retreat the Americans endured extreme hardships with admirable fortitude, and their remarkable escape confirmed them in the belief that their cause was favored of heaven.

1781. St. Eustatia, one of the West-India islands, taken by the British under Rodney. The plunder amounted to above £3,000,000, besides 6 Dutch armed frigates and 150 vessels, many of them richly laden. The British kept the Dutch colors hoisted, by which means several Dutch, French and American vessels were decoyed and captured.

[52]1782. Demerary and Essequibo surrendered by capitulation from the French.

1783. The ratification of the preliminary articles of peace exchanged at Paris.

1786. Gaspard Risbeck, a German author, died.

1794. George III and Queen Charlotte went to Hay Market theatre, which attracted so great a crowd, that more than 15 persons were trampled to death.

1794. The French convention received the deputies from St. Domingo, one of whom was a black, one a mulatto, and one a white; and at the same time decreed that all men of color whom a tyrannical force had made slaves, were still free and equally citizens with whites.

1795. A tableaux of the victories of the French from Sept. 8th, 1793, to this date, presented to the convention by Carnot, gives the following result: 27 victories, 6 of which were gained in pitched battles; 120 combats of less importance; 80,000 enemies killed, and 91,000 taken prisoners; 117 important fortresses, 36 of which were taken after a close blockade; 230 forts; 38,000 pieces of artillery; 17,000 muskets; 19,000 pounds of powder, and 90 stands of colors.

1797. Faenza in Italy carried by assault by the French under Victor, afterwards duke of Belluno.

1800. Four British ships, carrying in all 106 guns, captured off Seven islands, after a close action of 2 hours 10 minutes, the French frigate Pallas of 42 guns and 350 men. British loss, 10 killed, 34 wounded.

1807. Montevideo taken by storm by the British.

1808. The Neapolitan garrison of Reggio surrendered to the French.

1809. The French national ship l'Iris, 24 guns, captured by the British ship, l'Amiable.

1809. The Spanish junta in Seville issued orders to their troops to give no quarter to the French found in Spain.

1810. British ship Valiant of 74 guns captured the French frigate Cannoniere, 14 guns, with a cargo worth $800,000.

1810. The French destroyed the quicksilver mines at El Almoden del Azoque, near Seville.

1810. Guadaloupe surrendered to the British.

1813. The Spanish cortez abolished the inquisition.

1814. Bonaparte entered Troyes. Same day the Russians and Prussians bombarded Vitry, defended by the French under Gen. Montmartre.

1831. The duke of Nemours elected king of Belgium.

1832. George Crabbe died; one of the most popular of the modern British poets.

1832. Charles Victor de Bonstetten died, aged 87; a distinguished Swiss moralist, politician, metaphysician, geologist and traveler.

1836. Marie Letitia Bonaparte, mother of Napoleon, died. She was born at Ajaccio 1750; her maiden name Romolini; was one of the most beautiful women of Corsica; married, in the midst of civil discord, Charles Bonaparte, an officer who fought with Paoli; was left a widow 1785, having borne 13 children, of whom 5 sons and 3 daughters survived their father, and became celebrated. Madame Bonaparte was a woman of great force and energy of character.

1844. Continued cold weather in the northern parts of the United States. Long Island sound was frozen over a few miles above New York, and a canal, seven miles in length, was cut through the ice at Boston to allow the British steamer to go to sea.

1852. Battle of Santos Lugares, near Buenos Ayres, between the army of Urquiza, 30,000 men and 50 cannon, and Rosas, 25,000 men and 90 cannon. Rosas was defeated, and took refuge on board an English steamer. The city was saved from pillage by ships of war of all nations then in the harbor.

1856. Thermometer at 30° below zero in Kansas; and the cold extended over the United States, in some parts to a degree unknown before.

FEBRUARY 4.

211. Lucius Septimus Severus, emperor of Rome, died at York, England. His sons, Geta and Caracalla, were by this event recalled from Scotland, where they were debating with Fingal over heath and mountain, her ancient stubborn independence.

836. Egbert, the last king of the Saxon heptarchy, and the first of England, died.

856. Magnentius Maurus Rabanus, a learned German divine, died. His works on theology are numerous.

1194. Richard, Coeur de Lion, released from his imprisonment.

1536. The parliament of England abolished every thing relative to the pope's power in their realm.

1555. John Rogers, prebendary of St. Paul's, and the protomartyr, burned at Smithfield.

1607. James Menochius died; a civilian of Pavia, of distinguished abilities.

1644. A very large comet which had terrified the straight-bodied folks of New England with its prodigious length of tail, disappeared on this day, to their great relief.

[53]1648. George Abbot, an English statesman and religious author, died. He was one of the judges who sat at the trial of Charles I, and signed his death warrant.

1660. Gen. Monk, famous as the restorer of Charles II, marched into London and recommended a government moderately presbyterian.

1665. The first number of the London Gazette appeared, published by Sir Roger l'Estrange.

1687. Francis de Crequi, marshal of France, died. He was distinguished for his military enterprises and heroic courage.

1692. Goree taken from the French by the English under Gen. Booker.

1693. Earthquake of Sicily, which swallowed up Catania and 1800 citizens.

1746. Robert Blair, a Scottish clergyman and poet, died. The only production of his, which we possess, is The Grave, a poem, striking and vigorous.

1749. John James Heidegger died at London. He was born in Switzerland, and came to England, where by his taste and judgment in operatic amusements, he was appointed to the management of the opera house and the masquerades. He was the ugliest featured man in the kingdom, but good-humored, benevolent and charitable.

1756. A mummy disinterred near Auvergne in France.

1762. Samuel Davies, an American divine, died, aged 36. He labored some years as a presbyterian pastor in Virginia, where the act of uniformity was enforced with great rigor, and was the founder of the first presbytery in that state. His sermons have passed through many editions on both sides of the Atlantic.

1774. Charles Marie de la Condamine died. He was possessed of a daring spirit, which led him to enter the army. But the restoration of peace cut off his hopes of promotion, and he traveled in Turkey and Asia. On his return to Paris, the academy were making arrangements to send a deputation to the equator for scientific purposes. The very desire of being connected with so perilous an undertaking made him an astronomer. The fatigues and hardships which he encountered in South-America, were heightened by the discord and jealousy which arose among his companions. He died while undergoing an operation for the removal of a malady contracted in Peru. He bore an excellent character, and left many valuable works.

1779. John Hamilton Mortimer, an eminent English historical painter, died.

1783. Cessation of hostilities with Great Britain, and final conclusion of the seven years' war of the revolution, which freed the American colonies from the claims of the mother country, and gave a new nation to the world.

1787. Jacob Wismer died, aged 103. He was a German by birth, came to America in Queen Anne's reign, and settled in Pennsylvania; here he married his third wife, with whom he lived 67 years, and left 170 descendants.

1790. Louis XVI took the oath to maintain the new constitution.

1793. An embargo laid on all French vessels in Great-Britain.

1794. The legislature of Massachusetts having repealed the law against theatrical amusements, the Federal street theatre was opened as a regular, lawful theatre, with Gustavus Vasa and Modern Antiques.

1796. British ship Aurora, one of Admiral Christian's fleet, having 160 men on board, who had kept her afloat three weeks by manual labor, was rescued by Capt. Hodges of the American ship Sedgley. The troops were principally Germans and offered Capt. Hodges 1000 guineas for his exertions in saving their lives, which he nobly refused.

1797. Earthquake at Quito, which threw down many valuable edifices, and destroyed several neighboring towns and plantations. A great number of persons were swallowed up.

1800. William Tasker died, aged 60. He was 30 years rector of a church, but deprived of its income by unmerited persecutions and litigations, until near the close of his life. The works which he published added to his reputation with the learned, but contributed nothing to his support, and he continued to struggle against poverty and oppression.

1804. Christian Joseph Jagemann, librarian to the duchess Amalia of Weimar, died. He was destined for the cloister, but escaped from the monastery, and became a distinguished writer on the fine arts and literature of Italy.

1804. The boats of the British ship Centaur cut out of Martinique the French corvette Le Curieux.

1805. The British sloop of war Arrow, 28 guns, and bomb vessel Acheron, 8 guns, having a fleet of merchantmen in convoy, were captured by two French frigates, but most of the convoy escaped.

1806. Gen. Philemon Dickinson, who was in the battle of Monmouth, died at Trenton, New Jersey, aged 69.

1808. First legislative proceedings in relation to the New York canals.

1811. Jonathan Lambert, of Salem, Massachusetts, took possession of the uninhabited island of Tristan d'Acunha, south of St. Helena. The British took possession of it in 1817, and fortified it.

1812. Peniscola, in Valencia, surrendered to the French under Suchet.

1813. The United States frigate Constellation [54]chased into Norfolk, Virginia, by a British squadron.

1814. The ice formed on the Thames at London, above the bridges, and a fair was held upon it during eight days.

1817. Lewis Pennock died at West Marlborough, Pennsylvania, aged 92; 11 of his survivors, within a mile, arrived at 83½ years.

1834. John O'Keefe, a British dramatic author, died at Southampton, England, aged 68.

1835. Wade Hampton died at Columbia, S. C., aged 81. He distinguished himself in the war of the revolution under Sumpter and Marion; and during the last war commanded a brigade on the northern frontier. He was reputed the most extensive planter in the United States; one of the wealthiest men in the whole southern country; and perhaps no other man in this country ever amassed so large a fortune by agriculture.

1836. William Gell died at Naples. He was a classical antiquary, the illustrator of the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii, and author of various works on classical antiquity. He was admired alike for the depth and versatility of his erudition, the benevolence of his heart, and the suavity of his manners.

1850. Seventy-five persons killed by a steam explosion in Hague street, New York.

1854. Eight steamboats destroyed by fire at New Orleans, and 37 persons perished in the flames.

1856. Fort Nicholas at Sebastopol blown up by the allies, with the aid of 106,000 pounds of powder.

This day in the calendar of Hesiod, is auspicious for marriages and the repairing of ships; but a day of troubles.

FEBRUARY 5.

46 B. C. Marcus Cato killed himself, at the age of 48. He was a lover of philosophy, in which he rigidly followed the doctrines of the stoics. He was a soldier, and his first campaign was against Spartacus; afterwards he led 1000 foot into Asia, where he was ridiculed for the small number of his attendants, but was wholly unmoved by it. He sided with Cicero against Catiline, and opposed Cæsar in the senate on that occasion. He endeavored to bring about a reconciliation between Cæsar and Pompey, but finding it in vain, sided with the latter. When Pompey was slain he fled to Utica, and Cæsar pursuing him, he advised his friends to be gone, and his son to trust to Cæsar's clemency; then lay down upon his bed, read Plato on the immortality of the soul twice over, and rose and thrust his own sword through his body.

41 B. C. Augustus, by a vote of the senate, in full assembly, their brows crowned with laurel, saluted with the title of Father of his Country.

1444. An eruption of Vulcano, one of the Lipari islands, which changed the entire face of the local navigation. Aristotle records a dreadful explosion, which is supposed to have formed the island as it stood in the time of Pliny.

1552. James Meyer, a Flemish historian, died, aged 61.

1556. A truce for five years was concluded between Charles V, emperor of Germany, and Henry II of France.

1617. Prospero Alpini, a famous Venitian physician and botanist, died, aged 64.

1626. Three new committees, viz., one on religion, one on grievances, one on secret affairs, were appointed in the parliament of Charles I.

1664. Christian Aagaard died, a distinguished Danish poet of the 17th century, aged 48.

1674. A parhelion or mock sun observed near Marienburg in western Prussia. It appeared in the horizon beneath the material sun, of a red color.

1679. Joost Van Vondel, a Dutch poet of considerable eminence, died, aged 91.

1684. Philip de Montault, duke of Noailles, died. He renounced the protestant faith, and rose to a high rank in the army.

1684. About the beginning of December commenced a frost at London, which continued till this day. Coaches were run, oxen roasted, bulls baited, &c., on the Thames.

1693. The Mohawk castles burned by the French.

1718. Adrian Reland died; a learned orientalist and professor at Utrecht.

1721. James, earl of Stanhope, died. He distinguished himself in the field and in the cabinet, under George I.

1729. John Truchet died at Paris. He was distinguished for his knowledge of geometry and hydraulics.

1751. The coffin and remains of a farmer were interred at Stevenage, England. He died in 1721, bequeathing an estate worth £400 a year to his two brothers, to be enjoyed by them during 30 years, at the expiration of which time he expected to return to life, when the estate was to be given up to him again. In order to his convenience on his reappearance, he ordered his coffin to be placed on a beam in the barn, with the key enclosed, that he might liberate himself. Four days grace being allowed him for his resurrection, beyond the time specified in the will, and not then presenting himself, his bones were [55]consigned to the earth and his estate forfeited.

1757. Battle of Plassy, in Hindostan, in which the British under Col. Clive achieved an important victory.

1776. Georgia adopted a new government.

1780. The first shock of the earthquakes in Sicily and the two Calabrias, was felt at Scylla on the same day. In the night a tremendous wave swept from the coast 2473 inhabitants, with the prince of the place. The work of destruction and terror continued for almost four months, accompanied by incessant rains and bursts of thunder. Of 375 villages in Calabria, 320 were destroyed. It is estimated that 35,521 persons lost their lives in 33 towns only.

1782. The garrison at Minorca, 2692 men under Gen. Murray, surrendered to the French and Spanish, 16,000, under the Duc de Crillon.

1788. Massachusetts adopted the federal constitution, proposing some amendments. This was the sixth state in the list (ratified on the 6th, q. v.)

1790. William Cullen, a celebrated Scottish physician and medical writer, died, aged 77. He settled at Glasgow, and was for some time a professor of the university there, which he left on an invitation to Edinburgh. He successfully combatted the specious doctrines of Boerhaave, depending on the humoral pathology; founding his own views on an enlarged view of the principles of Hoffman.

1791. John Beard, an eminent and popular English theatrical vocalist, died. He ultimately became joint proprietor and acting manager of Covent Garden theatre, and continued on the stage till the loss of his hearing forced him to leave it.

1792. John Eardly Wilmot, an English miscellaneous writer, died.

1795. Report of the committee of the assembly of the states of Holland, respecting the state of the bank of Amsterdam, by which it appeared that the bank had been for 50 years receiving as securities for large sums advanced by it, a very considerable number of bonds instead of specie.

1795. The royal assent was given to the bill for suspending the habeas corpus in Great Britain.

1796. Negombo, in the East Indies, captured by the British under Admiral Elphinstone.

1797. The post of Corne, at the bridge head of Hueningen, was surrendered to the Austrians by the French general, Sisce, Gen. Abbatucci having died a few days before. Two days were allowed to withdraw the garrison and every movable appertaining to the place.

1799. Lewis Galvani, an Italian philosopher, died, aged 62. His favorite studies were anatomy and physiology. In his pursuits he was led fortuitously to the discovery of a new branch of science, called Galvanism. His manners are said to have been most unostentatious and retiring, and his mind of a melancholy turn.

1802. The French and Spanish troops landed at Hayti and captured forts Dauphin, Bizoton and St. Joseph. Christophe, the black general, set the town on fire and massacred many of the white inhabitants.

1805. The East Indiaman, earl of Abergavenny, wrecked on the shambles off the bill of Portland, and sunk in twelve fathoms of water. Of 402 persons on board, only 139 were saved. Her cargo was valued at £200,000, exclusive of 275,000 ounces in dollars.

1807. Pascal de Paoli, a celebrated Corsican general, died near London. While endeavoring to rescue his native island from the tyranny of the Genoese government, and defending its liberties against Gallic encroachments and invasion, being overpowered by the French, he retired with a few of his followers to England, where in a few years he ended his illustrious career.

1807. The French under Soult, Davoust and Ney, surrounded and cut to pieces a Russian column of 9000 men, took 1000 prisoners and 16 cannon.

1809. British ship Loire, Capt. Schomberg, captured the French national ship Hebe, 20 guns, with 600 barrels of flour.

1810. The French under Sebastiani and Milhaud defeated the Spaniards and took Malaga with its immense stores, 171 cannon, &c. The same day two French frigates of 40 guns each, full of troops, destroyed off Guadaloupe.

1811. Royal assent given by commission to the act appointing a regent of Great Britain, in the person of the prince of Wales.

1813. British Admiral Warren declared the ports and harbors of the bay of Chesapeake to be in a state of blockade.

1814. Seventeen British officers put in close confinement at Chilicothe, on the principle of retaliation.

1814. The advance of Gen. De York made a successful charge upon the rear of Macdonald's army at La Chaussee, between Vitry and Chalons, took 3 cannon, and 100 Frenchmen prisoners.

1815. British ship Grannicus, Capt. Wise, captured the American privateer brig George Little, 8 guns, 58 men.

1816. Richard, Viscount Fitzwilliam, died, leaving to the university of Cambridge his splendid library and £60,000 for the erection of a museum for its reception [56]and exhibition. In his collection there are more than 10,000 proof prints of the first artists, a very extensive library of rare and costly works, among which are nearly 300 Roman missals, finely illuminated. There is also a very curious collection of the best ancient music, containing the original Virginal book of Queen Elizabeth, and many works of Handel in the handwriting of that great master.

1818. Charles XIII of Sweden died. He was the second son of Adolphus Frederick, and appointed at his birth high admiral of Sweden. His education was directed chiefly to naval tactics, but the revolutions of the time called him finally to the throne, where he conducted with great prudence, and gained the confidence of the people.

1822. Ali, pacha of Yanina, generally called Ali Pacha, killed. He was a bold and crafty rebel against the Porte; an intelligent and active governor of his province; as a warrior, decided and able; as a man, a very fiend. His early life was unfortunate, but his extraordinary strength of mind, which shrank from no danger or crime, united to great address, raised him to princely independence. His enormities at length attracted the wrath of the sultan. Finding it vain to withstand so powerful a foe, he sued for pardon, gave up his fortress, and was treacherously cut down, with six of his companions.

1823. Yates county, New York, erected.

1823. Juan Antonio Llorente died. He was induced by Bonaparte, who placed in his hands the papers of the inquisition, to write a history of that tribunal. When the fortunes of the Bonapartes declined, he was banished from his country, and lived in France in indigence, supporting himself by teaching Spanish in the boarding schools; but the university at last forbid him that means of support. The rage of his enemies was raised to the highest pitch by the publication of his Portraits Politiques des Papes, and the old man was ordered in the middle of winter to leave Paris in three days, and France in the shortest possible time. He was not allowed to rest one day, and died exhausted, a victim to the persecutions of the 19th century, a few days after his arrival in Madrid.

1824. Henry Callisen, a German physician and surgeon, died. He was the son of a poor clergyman; educated himself; served in the army and in the fleet; afterwards in the hospitals in Copenhagen; and finally accepted a professorship in the university.

1831. The Russian army of 160,000 men enter Poland at several points, Count Diebitsch commander-in-chief.

1835. Tremendous eruptions of volcanoes, attended with destructive earthquakes, occurred in Central America, sinking several towns and villages, and destroying a large part of St. Miguel and St. Salvador.

1837. James Cervetto the younger died, aged 90. He first brought the violincello into favor in England. He excelled his father as a musician, was leader of the orchestra of Drury lane theatre in the time of Garrick, and 72 years member of the royal society of musicians.

1839. Asahel Stearns, professor of law at Cambridge, died, aged 64. He published a learned and accurate work on real actions, and was one of the revisers of the statutes of Massachusetts.

1841. The Pennsylvania bank of the United States, after having, from the time of the resumption of specie payments on the 15th January, paid out an amount little if at all short of six millions of dollars in coin or specie funds, again suspended specie payments. The exhibition of its affairs, which soon followed, were so unfavorable as to cause great surprise. The suspension was followed by that of nearly all the banks south and west of New York and New England.

1851. John Pye Smith died, aged 77; a religious controversial author of note, and nearly half a century principal of a dissenting college in England.

1853. The Sloo treaty signed at Mexico, for opening a communication across the isthmus of Tehuantepec.

1854. James B. Cooper, an American naval officer, died, aged 94. He was a member of Lee's legion in the war of the Revolution, and served in the navy during the war of 1812.

A day of dire calamity, says Hesiod, in which certain Greek ladies, called "the Furies," make their round, "about, about, about."

FEBRUARY 6.

129 B. C. Three ambassadors from John Hyrcanus, the Jewish pontiff, were received at Rome, when the senate decreed a renewal of the league of amity and assistance with that "good and friendly people," and dismissed the delegates with presents.

1554. John Wyatt and a number of others executed for an insurrection and riot, on account of Queen Mary's marriage with Philip II of Spain.

1593. James Amyott, grand almoner of France, died; a writer on various subjects, but chiefly known as the translator of Plutarch's Lives and Morals.

1623. Juan Mariana, a Spanish historian, died. He wrote several works, [57]theological and historical; the most considerable of which is his History of Spain.

1649. The Rump parliament voted the house of peers to be useless and dangerous, and accordingly that branch of the legislature and the office of king, were abolished by two brief resolutions.

1685. Charles II, king of England, died. At the time of the death of his father he was a refugee at the Hague, on which he immediately assumed the royal title. In 1660 he entered London amidst the universal acclamations of the people. He was a confirmed sensualist and voluptuary, says Lardner, and owing to the example of him and his court, his reign was the era of the most dissolute manners that ever prevailed in England. His career was terminated by a fit of apoplexy, at the age of 55. It was during this reign that the great plague and the great fire of London occurred. He was the twenty-sixth king of England.

1693. A party of about 700 French and Indians fell upon the Mohawk villages near Schenectady, and took about 300 prisoners in the English interest, without doing much other damage. They were pursued by Col. Schuyler with a party from Albany, and several skirmishes ensued. The French escaped by crossing the north branch of the Hudson, on a cake of ice. They lost in this enterprise 80 men killed, and were reduced to great want before they got home.

1696. A plot to assassinate William III of England, was discovered.

1736. Earthquake in New England.

1738. Joseph Mitchell, a Scotch dramatic poet, died.

1740. Clement XII (Laurence Corsini), pope of Rome, died. He was very popular, and corrected many abuses in the church.

1755. Maurice Johnson, a noted English antiquary, died.

1756. Birthday of Aaron Burr, at Newark, N. J. His father was the Rev. William Burr, second president of New Jersey college at Princeton, and his mother a daughter of the celebrated Jonathan Edwards, third president of that institution. His wife is well known.

1777. Great Britain granted letters of marque and reprisal against America.

1778. The French avowed the independence of the United States, by concluding a treaty of defensive alliance with them.

1778. New York acceded to the confederation.

1783. Launcelot Brown died. He invented a new system of horticulture, and carried ornamental gardening to a high degree of perfection. Many delightful places of resort in England will stand for ages as memorials of his superior taste and abilities.

1783. The first ship which displayed the thirteen stripes in any British port, was recorded at the London custom house. She was loaded with 587 butts whale oil, belonged to the island of Nantucket, and was manned wholly with American seamen.

1788. Massachusetts adopted the constitution of the United States, being the 6th state which ratified that instrument. The vote stood 187 to 168.

1792. The city of Morocco, which had shut its gates against the emperor Muley Yazid, was attacked by his forces and carried. The greatest excesses were committed by the soldiery, against friends as well as foes, and the Jews were as usual given up to be plundered. (See 12th and 16th.)

1796. The state of Vermont adopted its constitution.

1798. The bank of England subscribed £200,000 to assist government to repel the threatened invasion. By the assistance of manufacturers, &c., this sum was increased to £1,500,000.

1799. British ship Arago, Capt. Bowen, captured off Mahon, at midnight, the Spanish frigate Santa Teresa, 42 guns and 350 men.

1800. The duke of Orleans (Louis Phillip, afterwards king,) asked pardon of Louis XVIII, and swore that he was ready to shed the last drop of his blood in his service. He was graciously received.

1803. Giambattista Casti, a Florentine historian, died, aged 82. His works are full of wit and originality, and some of them have been translated into English.

1804. Joseph Priestly died. He was the son of a Calvinistic clothier, in whose rigid principles he was educated. His heresy ripened into unitarianism. His publications had already made him extensively known, when in 1766 he became acquainted with Franklin, by whom he was encouraged to compose a work on electricity. This was followed by several scientific works, till in 1794, on the anniversary of the capture of the Bastile, the mob at Birmingham, where he then resided, proceeded to his house, which, with his library, manuscripts and apparatus, fell a prey to the flames. Finally, goaded by party enmity, he sought an asylum in the United States, and took up his residence at Northumberland, Pa. Here his devotion to his favorite pursuits brought on a disease, which hastened the end of his existence, in the 71st year of his age. His works amount to about 70 volumes, octavo.

1806. Action between the British fleet under Admiral Duckworth, and the French under Lessiegues, off St. Domingo, which resulted in the destruction of the latter, consisting of four large ships of war.

[58]1807. The French under Murat, defeated the Prussians under Hoff, in Prussian Poland.

1811. The prince regent of Great Britain took the oath prescribed by the regency act, and was installed.

1813. The United States government ordered all alien enemies to report themselves to the marshals of the districts in which they resided.

1814. Lord Castlereagh, with other diplomatic characters, met at Chartillon-sur-Seine, for the negotiation of peace.

1815. Full pardon granted to the Barratarian pirates by the president of the United States, in consequence of their fidelity and courage in the defence of New Orleans.

1832. The crew of the United States frigate Potomac, made an attack upon Qualla Battoo, in Sumatra. The town was destroyed and 150 Malays killed; loss of the Potomac 2 killed, 14 wounded.

1833. Pierre-Andre Latreille, a French naturalist, died at Paris. He particularly distinguished himself in entomology.

1834. The celebrated and enterprising traveler, Lander, died of a shot wound in Africa.

1853. President Cavallos resigned, and Gen. Lombardini chosen president of Mexico with dictatorial powers.

1853. The insurrection of Mazzini at Milan, which was unsuccessful.

1853. William Peter, British consul at Philadelphia, died. He translated the Prometheus of Æschylus, was an accomplished scholar and talented poet.

FEBRUARY 7.

1451. B. C. The Jews place the death of Moses on this day.

1642. William Bedell, bishop of Kilmore, died; one of the most exemplary prelates of the 17th century. He was so greatly respected even by the papists, that when the Irish rebellion of 1641 broke out, his was for some time the only English house in the county that stood unviolated. But refusing to submit to the orders of the council of state, interfering with his religious duties, he was thrown into prison, and his death was occasioned by the rigors of confinement. He translated the old testament into Irish.

1674. Margaret Lucas, dutchess of Newcastle, died; authoress of plays, poems, letters, essays, and philosophical fancies, filling 12 folio volumes, and the biography of her husband, William Cavendish, earl of Newcastle. She was a very singular character, and has been both ridiculed and extolled by the best English authors.

1693. Paul Pelisson Fontanier died. He gave a history of the French academy from its establishment.

1778. Daniel Boone, the first settler of Kentucky, taken by the French and Indians near the Blue licks. This was the second time he had fallen into the hands of the Indians. He made his escape about ten days after, and reached home in safety.

1788. The settlement at Botany bay abandoned, and this day the regular form of government was adopted, under Gov. Arthur Philip, and settlement made at Sydney cove, Port Jackson, New South Wales.

1791. Saratoga and Rensselaer counties in New York, erected.

1792. Athanase Auger, a celebrated linguist, died. He was born at Paris, 1734, and became a clergymen. His studies of the Greek and Roman writers were indefatigable; the study of Cicero and of Roman history occupied the last thirty years of his life. His translations, &c., were published in 30 vols. Learning proved its worth in his character and life.

1796. The British admiral, Sir Francis Geary, died, aged 86.

1799. John Hedwig died; a German botanist, whose researches respecting the cryptogamia class of plants have established his name.

1807. Schweidnitz in Silesia surrendered to the French general Vandamme.

1810. British General Picton tried for ordering Louisa Calderon to be put to the torture. He was killed at the battle of Waterloo.

1812. Earthquake at Philadelphia; duration 30 seconds. It was also observed in various parts of the United States to a less extent.

1813. Capt. Forsythe with 200 volunteers from Ogdensburgh, crossed at Morristown to Elizabethtown, surprised the British guard and took 52 prisoners, 140 guns and some munitions, and liberated from jail 16 British deserters.

1821. The Caxton printing office, on Copperas-hill, Liverpool, the property of Henry Fisher, totally destroyed by fire. It was the largest periodical warehouse in Great Britain.

1823. Anne Radcliffe died. She was born in London, 1764, and married at the age of 23, William Radcliffe, editor of the British Chronicle. The Romance of the Forest, her third novel, gave her much celebrity, and the Mysteries of Udolpho placed her at the head of a department of fiction then rising into esteem. These works still maintain their place among the more modern and fashionable productions of the kind.

[59]1828. Henry Neele, an ingenious English poet and novelist, died by his own hand, in a fit of insanity, supposed to have originated from too intense an application to study. He was the son of an engraver, and educated for the bar. His literary remains were published after his death.

1834. Cadwallader D. Colden, so favorably known as a philanthropist and scholar, died at Jersey city.

1837. Gustavus Adolphus IV, ex-king of Sweden, died. He came to the throne at the age of 14, on the assassination of his father, 1792; but on account of his violent and impolitic conduct, he was deposed in 1809, and his heirs excluded from the throne. He afterwards traveled in different countries of Europe under different names, and died at St. Gall in Switzerland. The latter years of his life were spent in poverty; he was badly clothed and fed, and possessed only an annuity of £300.

1837. The royal palace at Naples took fire and was partially destroyed. The library and the magnificent collection of paintings belonging to the king were burnt.

1839. Karl August Nicander, a recent Swedish poet of no small celebrity, died.

FEBRUARY 8.

293 B. C. Papirius Cursor dedicated a temple to Quirinus, on which he placed a sun-dial, the first ever seen in Rome.

291 B. C. Esculapius, the Sanitary god, as it was fabled, was enshrined as a serpent on an island in the Tiber. As a physician he used the probe, cathartics, bandages, &c., hence the respect.

1250. Robert, count of Artois, killed. He was brother to Louis IX of France, refused the empire of Germany offered him by the pope, and accompanied his brother to the Holy Land, where he conducted himself with great valor. He fell in the battle of Massourah.

1574. Geoffrey Vallee, a French writer, author of Béatitude des Chrétiens, which drew upon him the censure of the inquisition, burnt at Paris.

1587. Mary Stuart, queen of Scots, beheaded in the great hall of Fotheringay castle, at the age of 44. She was the daughter of James V, of Scotland. The misfortunes which it was the destiny of this beautiful and accomplished woman to undergo are well known. After an imprisonment of 19 years in England, she was brought to the scaffold on a conviction of conspiracy against the queen, Elizabeth.

1594. Edmund Bonnefoy, a writer on oriental law, died at Geneva in Switzerland, at the age of 38. He was appointed professor in the university of Valence, in France, where he narrowly escaped assassination at the massacre of St. Bartholomews. He bore an excellent character, independent of his talents and learning.

1637. Ferdinand II of Germany, an enterprising monarch, died.

1664. Moses Amyrault, an eminent French divine, died. He was a man of such remarkable benevolence, that he bestowed the whole of his salary upon the poor, without distinguishing between catholics and protestants.

1674. A resolution was adopted by the house of commons in England, that a standing army is a grievance; that the king should have no other guard than the militia.

1690. A party of about 300 French and Indians made an assault on Schenectady about 12 o'clock at night. The inhabitants were taken by surprise, and 60 men, women and children massacred, and the town destroyed. They took 27 prisoners, the remainder of the inhabitants fled to Albany, nearly naked through a deep snow, of whom 25 lost their limbs from the severity of the frost.

1716. Earthquake in Peru.

1724. Peter I, emperor of Russia, died.

1727. George Sewell died; an English dramatic poet, physician and miscellaneous writer.

1750. An earthquake in London.

1750. Aaron Hill, a celebrated dramatic and miscellaneous writer in the time of Garrick, died.

1752. Gasper de Real died at Paris, author of a valuable work on government.

1772. The princess dowager of Wales died in her 53d year. She is said to have given the peculiar tone to the first years of her son's administration by her laconic exhortation "George be king."

1779. Moses Allen, chaplain to the Georgia brigade, was drowned in attempting to escape from a British prison ship. He was a native of Northampton, Mass.; his age 31.

1807. Battle of Preussish Eylau, between the French army of 90,000 under Bonaparte, and 60,000 Russians under Benningsen. The battle commenced at the dawn of day. At noon a storm arose, which drifted the snow in the eyes of the Russians. The contest ended at 10 o'clock at night, when each army, after 14 hours hard fighting, occupied the same position as in the morning. Twelve of Napoleon's eagles were in the hands of Benningsen, and the field between was strewed with 50,000 dead, dying and wounded. The Russians finally retreated, leaving 15,000 prisoners in the hands of the French.

1815. The congress of Vienna determined to abolish slavery.

[60]1817. Francis Horner died, aged 39. He was distinguished alike for his spirited report of the bullion committee, and his rich contributions to the Edinburgh Review.

1819. John David Ackerblad died; a Swedish scholar, who distinguished himself by his researches in Runic, Phœnician, Coptic and Hieroglyphic literature.

1820. Charles Justus Gruner, a Prussian police officer, died. He was an active opponent of Napoleon during the whole of his career, and was finally imprisoned to appease the French. After the second fall of Bonaparte he was made Prussian director of the police for Paris and the environs, in which capacity he counteracted with great decision and dexterity, the cunning of Fouche, who employed every means to retain the works of art which had been collected at Paris. He wrote several valuable works on subjects connected with politics and the police.

1820. Robert Cowley, an African, died at Richmond, Va., aged 125. He had been for many years door-keeper to the Capitol of Virginia, which office was bestowed upon him as a reward for revolutionary services.

1827. William Mitford, an eminent historical and philosophical writer, died. He is best known as the author of a popular history of Greece.

1842. Great earthquake at the Windward islands. Point Petre, in Guadaloupe, totally destroyed, and 10,000 lives lost. It extended over 46 degrees of latitude.

1851. Nicholas van Sittart, a British statesman, died, aged 85.

1856. M. Chacornac discovered the thirty-ninth asteroid.

FEBRUARY 9.

1450. Agnes Sorel died. She was the mistress of Charles VII, of France, distinguished for her beauty, strength of mind, and the influence she possessed over the king, whom she incited to deeds of glory.

1547. Henry VIII was succeeded on the throne of England by his only son, Edward VI, in the ninth year of his age, who was crowned with great state at Westminster.

1555. John Hooper bishop of Gloucester, burnt. He was a dissenter in the time of Mary, and refusing to recant his opinions, was burnt in the city of Gloucester, and suffered death with admirable constancy.

1555. Rowland Taylor burnt at Hadleigh, in England, for resisting the establishment of papal worship in his church. Great efforts were made to induce him to recant, which he firmly rejected, and proceeded on his way to the stake with great courage and apparent unconcern. During the burning he stood without crying or moving, till one of the executioners struck him on the head with a halberd, when his corpse fell down into the fire.

1577. Philibert de Lorme, an eminent French architect and antiquary, died. He left several works on architecture greatly esteemed.

1636. Philemon Holland died at Coventry, England. He was a laborious translator of the Greek and Latin authors.

1660. The gates and portcullis, of London destroyed by Monk, who soon discovered his error.

1670. Frederick III, of Denmark, died. He succeeded his father, Christian IV, and improved the condition of his people by making them more independent of the nobles; the crown he also made hereditary.

1671. A speech on the enormous subsidies granted to Charles II, by Lord Lucas; though delivered in the king's presence, it was published, and burned by the common hangman.

1674. The city of New York surrendered to the British by the Dutch governor, Anthony Colve.

1674. Treaty of peace between England and the States General.

1675. The French fleet, under the duke of Vivonne, of 9 men-of-war and several fire ships, defeated the Spanish blockading fleet at Messina, and entered that port in triumph.

1680. J. Claude Dablon, a Jesuit missionary in Canada, died. He contributed the two last volumes of the Relacions, which were sent to Europe; valuable for the geographical information they contain.

1734. Peter Poliniere died at Coulonces in France. He was a mathematician, philosopher and chemist, and the first who read lectures on those sciences at Paris.

1751. Henry Francis d'Aguesseau, a French statesman, died. At the early age of 21 he was appointed to the office of advocate-general, ten years after solicitor general, and finally, in 1717, succeeded to the chancellorship. He retired from this office 1750, at the age of 82, when an annuity of about $25,000 was settled upon him. Voltaire pronounced him the most learned magistrate that France ever produced. His published speeches and pleadings form 13 quarto volumes.

1752. Frederick Hasselquist, a Swedish botanist and natural historian, died at Smyrna.

1765. The peruke makers, distressed that people wore their own hair, and that foreigners were employed, petitioned the king for redress. But the populace, not seeing the consistency of being compelled to take [61]off their hair while the peruke makers wore their own, rose upon them, and cut it off.

1767. Hubert Drouais died; a painter of Normandy, who by pencil raised himself from obscurity to fame and opulence.

1773. John Gregory, an eminent physician of Edinburgh, died. He taught that the medical art, to be generally admired and respected, needed only to be better known; and that the affectation of concealment retarded its progress, rendered it a suspicious art, and tended to draw ridicule and disgrace on its profession. His writings are spirited and elegant; among them A Father's Legacy to his Daughter is well known and appreciated.

1778. Two clergymen having preached in a chapel in Clerkenwell street, London, without leave of the bishop, were prosecuted, and the chapel shut by a writ of monition.

1779. William Boyce died; an eminent English musician and composer, chiefly of sacred pieces.

1782. Benjamin Martin died in London; one of the most celebrated mathematicians and opticians of the age in which he lived.

1795. Ferdinand III of Austria recognized the French republic, and made peace with it. This was the first power that acknowledged the new dynasty.

1795. The first parliament opened in Corsica, then subject to England.

1795. Treaty of peace signed between France and Tuscany.

1799. A naval action between the United States frigate Constellation, 36 guns, Capt. Truxton, and the French frigate Insurgent, 48 guns and 410 men. The engagement resulted in the capture of the Frenchman in one hour and a quarter. French loss, 29 killed, 44 wounded; American, 1 killed, 2 wounded. This was the first opportunity offered to an American frigate to engage an enemy of superior force.

1799. British ship Dedalus, captured the French frigate La Prudente in 57 minutes. French lost 27 killed, 22 wounded; British had 2 killed, 12 wounded.

1801. Definite treaty of Luneville signed.

1810. The French occupied Zafra in Estramadura.

1811. Nevil Maskelyne died at London, aged 79. This eminent mathematician and astronomer ardently devoted a long life to science, and mariners owe to his discoveries the method of finding the longitude at sea by lunar observations.

1815. Claudius Buchanan died. In scriptural erudition he had very few superiors. Deeply versed in oriental literature, he conceived the plan of giving every man to read the scriptures in his own tongue, and died while superintending an edition of the Bible in the Syriac language.

1834. Benjamin B. Wisner, a distinguished Calvinistic clergyman, of Boston, and for several years secretary to the A. B. C. F. M. died.

1845. Job Palmer, one of the fathers of the city of Charleston, S. C., and a worthy of the revolution, died, aged nearly 98.

1849. On account of revolutionary movements the grand duke of Tuscany fled from Florence. The glorious Roman republic proclaimed.

FEBRUARY 10.

1024. Abdurrahman IV, sultan of Cordova, dethroned by a relative and put to death. He was a patron of science, which he cultivated with success, and a poet.

1306. John Comyn murdered by Robert Bruce in the convent of the minorite friars. They were rival nobles, who had recently settled their differences, and agreed upon a revolt from the dominion of England. Comyn had treacherously revealed the matter to Edward. Bruce hastened to accuse him of it, and after some altercation struck him with his dagger, and he was immediately despatched by Bruce's attendants.

1402. Walleran, count of St. Pol, issued against Henry IV, of England, his famous cartel of defiance.

1519. Hernando Cortez sailed from Cuba for the conquest of Mexico. His armament consisted of 11 ships, 508 soldiers and 109 mariners. This force was divided into 16 cavalry, 13 musketeers, 10 brass field pieces, 4 falconets, and 32 crossbows. This miniature army was destined to oppose more than 500,000 warriors before it reached the capital of the great Montezuma.

1539. John Stephen Duranti killed. He was the first president of the parliament of Toulouse; and made himself conspicuous by his efforts to preserve that city from the plague of 1538. He was killed by a mob.

1567. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, murdered, aged 21. The house in which he lay sick was blown up, it is supposed with the privity of his wife, Mary queen of Scots, by her favorite, the earl of Bothwell. Darnley had murdered Rizzio, the queen's musician, before her own eyes, whose blood was thus avenged. Mary perished on the scaffold, and Bothwell was taken by the Norwegians, and died insane after ten years' imprisonment.

1640. De Vries commenced a plantation about four miles above the fort at New Amsterdam, and complains that the director of the West India company had failed to send him people for his colony on Staten island, as had been agreed upon.

1658. Gerard Langbaine, an English [62]writer, died. He acquired literary celebrity by his edition of Longinus.

1676. Attack on Lancaster, Mass., by the Indians under Pocanoket. The village contained 60 families; most of the houses that were not garrisoned were burnt; and the house of the clergyman, although defended by a competent number of inhabitants, was fired by the Indians, the women and children carried away, and the men either killed on the spot or reserved for further misery. Mrs. Rowlandson and her children, the family of the clergyman, were afterwards redeemed. The town was saved from entire ruin by the appearance of a company of 40 men from Marlborough.

1676. Alexei Michaelowitz, czar of Russia, died. He was father of Peter the Great; distinguished for his wars, his munificence, and his improvements in the state.

1680. A great comet, which had alarmed the inhabitants of New England since the 18th November, disappeared. It was also observed in Europe, and Henault says that it was the largest which had ever been seen, and struck terror into the minds of the people of France. It was by the observation of this comet that Newton ascertained the parabolic form of the trajectory of comets, and demonstrated their orbits. This discovery contributed to the removal of those terrors with which the phenomenon had always been attended, in all ages, and among all nations, who viewed it as the presage of some direful event.

1686. William Dugdale, an eminent English antiquary and historian, died.

1689. Isaac Vossius, a German scholar, died. He is the author of various learned works in German, and edited several Latin and Greek works. In 1670 he visited England, was admitted to the degree of LL. D., and presented to a canonry at Windsor by Charles II, who afterwards took occasion to say that he was a strange divine, for he believed every thing but the Bible.

1711. Richard Duke died. He was a poet of some credit in the last century, and by Dr. Johnson included among the classics.

1743. British sloop Squirrel captured the Spanish ship Pierre Joseph, with 195,000 pieces of eight on board and a valuable cargo of cochineal, indigo, &c.

1747. Thomas Chubb died. He was bred a glover, but when he arrived at the age of manhood, devoted great attention to the sciences and divinity, and gained great celebrity by a work on the latter subject.

1755. Charles de Secondat, Baron Montesquieu, an illustrious Frenchman, died. His Spirit of Laws has immortalized his name.

1763. Treaty of peace signed at Paris between France, Spain and Great Britain, by which the latter retained possession of Canada and Florida, besides many important islands in the West Indias, and along the coast, which had been recently captured by the British.

1773. James Forthon died at Grenada, one of the West India islands, aged 127.

1775. Lord North, the prime minister, introduced a bill to restrain the trade and commerce of the New England states, which finally passed by a large majority on the 30th.

1783. James Nares, a celebrated English musical composer, died. His anthems manifest great power of genius, and with his other works will perpetuate his name, and ever rank him with the first of his profession.

1786. John Cadwallader, an officer of the revolution, died, aged 44. He commanded the Pennsylvania troops, and was in several important engagements as a volunteer; he enjoyed the confidence and esteem of Washington.

1786. Cardinal De Solis died, aged 110. He was a native of Andalusia in Spain, and at the time of his death was in the enjoyment of every faculty but strength and quickness of hearing.

1787. Charles Chauncey, a Boston divine, died. He was eminent for learning, independence and attachment to the civil and religious liberty of his country. His productions are numerous.

1790. The celebrated chess-player Phillodor won two games which he played with skilled players while he was blind folded. The moves being made by his directions.

1794. The British under Admiral Jarvis took Pigeon island, Martinique.

1795. The English garrison at Bergen-op-Zoom disarmed and sent prisoners to France. The French also took Groningen the same day.

1795. The tower of Martello in Corsica taken by the British under Admiral Hood.

1797. The French pillaged Loretto, a fortified town in Italy. The soldiers entered the cathedral which contains the holy house, in which it is said the Virgin Mary lived at Nazareth, and laid their republican hands upon the madonna, the famous Lady of Loretto, which they found standing upon an altar, in a niche of silver, surrounded by numerous gold and silver lamps, and adorned with jewels. She was sent to Paris.

1799. Bonaparte set out from Cairo on his disastrous expedition to Syria.

[63]1802. Port au Paix in Hayti taken by the French. The blacks set it on fire and blew up two forts.

1803. Jean Francois de la Harpe, an eminent French orator, critic, poet and dramatic writer, died.

1804. His catholic majesty, Charles IV, renounced his protest against the alienation by France of Louisiana to the United States.

1807. Bill for abolishing the British slave trade passed the house of lords.

1808. Russia declared war against Sweden.

1809. Portugal invaded by the French under Soult.

1809. George Zoega, a celebrated Danish antiquary, died.

1818. Thomas Morris, a British officer, died, aged 74. He fought by the side of Montgomery in Canada during the French war, was taken by the Indians, and narrowly escaped burning at the stake. On quitting the army he published an account of his captivity, and in the retirement of a small cottage passed some years in the pursuits of literature.

1841. Union of Upper and Lower Canada; Lord Sydenham taking the oath of office as governor of the united provinces.

1852. Gold medal presented to Henry Clay at Washington by New York friends.

1854. Gen. Herrera, ex-president of the republic of Mexico, died. He was one of the veterans of the war of independence, and as a statesman, had given proofs of the loftiest patriotism and disinterestedness.

1856. President Rivas decreed the annexation of the whole Mosquito territory to Nicaragua.

FEBRUARY 11.

641. Heraclius, emperor of the East, died. He was the son of a governor of Africa, conspired against Phocas, whom he beheaded, and ascended the throne of Constantinople.

1225. Henry III subscribed the great charter of English liberties, which was witnessed by 13 bishops, 20 abbots, and 32 earls and barons.

1451. Amurath II, emperor of the Ottomans, died. He was the first Turk who used cannon in battle.

1502. Elizabeth of York, queen of Henry VII, died in childbirth, in the tower of London, on her birth day, aged 36. She married Henry in 1486, by which the antagonist houses of York and Lancaster were united.

1503. James Tyrell supposed to be one of the murderers of Edward V, executed as a traitor. He is said to have confessed his agency in the death of both the young princes.

1543. An alliance was formed between Henry VIII of England, and the emperor Charles V.

1573. Drake the navigator was conducted by the Symerons to a tree notched with steps, which served them for a watch tower, and from the summit of which he had a view of the two oceans, one of which no English vessel had ever yet navigated.

1650. Rene Descartes, a celebrated French philosopher and mathematician, died, aged 54. His superior intellect early manifested itself. He embraced the military profession, and served in various countries, the better to make observations and form satisfactory conclusions on scientific subjects. He finally settled in Holland, where during the last 20 years of his life, the greater part of his works were written. It is said of him that he extended the limits of geometry as far beyond the place where he found them, as Sir Isaac Newton did after him.

1659. Francis Osborne died; an English writer of great abilities.

1733. John Perry, a celebrated English engineer, died. He was patronized by czar Peter of Russia, of which country he wrote a history.

1761. A usurer fined at Guildhall, London, £300 for having exacted six guineas to discount £100 for six weeks.

1763. Peter Carlet de Mariveaux, a French romancer, died. The great characteristic of his works, is to convey a useful moral under the veil of wit and sentiment.

1763. William Shenstone died, aged 50. His father was a gentleman farmer, who cultivated a moderate estate, called the Leasowes, which were rendered celebrated by the taste of the son. Having finished his studies, and come into possession of the paternal property, he gave himself up to rural embellishments and the cultivation of poetry. He wrote for fame, which was not awarded him by his cotemporaries and he died broken hearted. "He was a lamp that spent its oil in blazing." His principal poem is The Schoolmistress.

1771. Jean de Beaurain died; a French negotiator and geographer. He was made geographer to Louis XV at the age of 25.

1771. John Burton, a learned English divine, died, leaving some ingenious writings, collected under the title of Opuscula Miscellanea.

1780. The British under Sir Henry Clinton landed in St. John's Island, about 30 miles from Charleston, S. C.

1793. Great Britain issued letters of marque and reprisal against France.

[64]1797. Francis Lightfoot Lee, one of the signers of the declaration of independence, and a brave officer in the American revolution, died at Richmond, Va., aged 63.

1807. Revolution in St. Domingo, in which a profusion of blood was shed.

1810. The spire and part of the tower of St. Nicholas' church at Liverpool, fell through the roof and killed several in the church.

1811. Battle of Laffesat, in which the Prussians defeated the Turks, after a sanguinary contest.

1814. Battle of Montmirail between the French under Bonaparte, and the Russians under D'Yorck.

1815. Fort Boyer, Mobile, with a garrison of 375, surrendered to 5,000 British under Lambert, with a fleet of 13 ships of the line and 25 smaller vessels. Col. Lawrence received a wound, and seeing that it was useless to contend against such odds, struck his flag. British loss 31; American 10.

1821. Adam Walker died. He was apprenticed to a weaver; but ultimately became a lecturer on philosophy, which he adopted as a profession, and traveled in England for the purpose of lecturing on that science.

1827. Jose Maria Abrantes, a Portuguese nobleman died in exile. He was the friend of Don Miguel, of infamous memory.

1828. De Witt Clinton died at his residence in Albany, aged 59. He was born in the town of Little Britain, Orange county, N. Y., 1769, and educated for the bar. He was at an early age elected to a seat in the legislature, and continued to hold offices of honor and emolument until the day of his death, at which time he was governor of the state of New York. It is to his perseverance in a great measure, that we owe the construction of the Erie canal. As a public character he is entitled to durable renown, and no one was ever more ambitious of a reputation for science and literature.

1837. John Latham, an eminent English naturalist and ornithologist, died, aged 97. He was one of the founders of the Linnean society, and commenced the publication of his last work at the age of 82.

1844. Henry Kifer, a soldier of the revolution, died at North Woodbury, Pa., aged 110½ years.

1856. Caroline Lee Hentz, a well known American novelist, died.

FEBRUARY 12.

590. Pelagius II, pope of Rome, died. In his time a plague raged at Rome of so strange a nature, that persons seized with it died sneezing and gaping.

1401. William Sawtry, a Lollard, condemned and burned to death at London for heresy.

1448. A general poll tax of 6d. with 6s. 8d. on every merchant stranger, and 20d. on their clerks, granted by parliament to Henry VI.

1542. Catharine Howard, fifth wife of Henry VIII, beheaded. The execution of this ungrateful woman excited no commiseration, as she had been the principal instrument in the accusations against Anne Boleyn, her predecessor.

1554. Jane Grey beheaded, at the age of 17. She was the daughter of Mary, youngest sister of Henry VIII, and a woman of uncommon beauty, talents and learning, for her years, to which she added great amiability of disposition, and fortitude of mind. Her disastrous fate created an extraordinary interest in her favor, which has continued unabated. "Good Christian people, you come here to see me die; not for any thing I have offended, for I will deliver to my God a soul as pure from trespass, as innocence from injustice."

1589. Blanche Perry died, chief gentlewoman to Queen Elizabeth, and a great lover of antiquities, besides a very tasteful writer.

1640. William Alexander, Lord Stirling, died; a dramatic poet and statesman in the time of James and Charles I. His poetry, for purity and elegance, is far beyond the generality of the productions of the age in which he lived.

1660. General Monk, now reconciled to the citizens of London, drew up his forces in Finsbury fields, makes an apology which is the signal of rejoicing. Burning lamps the principal pastime.

1689. The parliament of England chose William and Mary king and queen.

1706. Battle of Fraustadt, in Prussia, in which the Saxons and Muscovites under Gen. Schullemberg, were defeated by the Swedes under Marshall Renschild.

1733. The colony of Savannah commenced, under Gen. Oglethorpe. This was the first settlement in Georgia.

1744. The elector of Bavaria chosen emperor of Germany under the title of Charles VII.

1746. Birthday of Thaddeus Kosciusko, the Polish warrior.

1757. Peace concluded between the English and Sourajah Dowlah.

1771. Adolphus Frederick II, king of Denmark, died. He was the founder of the academy of belles-lettres at Torneo.

1782. The British surrendered the island of St. Christophers to the French, under the marquis de Bouille.

[65]1787. Joseph Roger Boscovich, an Italian mathematician, died at Milan. He was also an elegant poet.

1789. Gabriel Brotier died at Paris; an illustrious and amiable Frenchman, and one of the most distinguished ornaments of the belles-lettres in that country.

1792. Battle on the plain of Morocco, between Yezid and Ishem, two brothers, contesting for the throne. The forces of the latter, about 30,000, were defeated by about half the number under the former. Both commanders were badly wounded. Ishem lost 1,300 killed, and 800 prisoners, who were all put to death by being nailed to the walls and floors and left without food.

1793. John Manley died, aged 60. He was appointed by Washington a captain in the navy, was very successful in his captures, but was finally taken prisoner by the British and confined in the Mill prison.

1797. Anthony d'Auvergne died at Lyons. He was director of the opera at Paris, and an eminent composer.

1799. Lazarus Spallanzani, an Italian writer, died. He is considered as one of the greatest naturalists of that age.

1802. A messenger from England to lord Cornwallis was attacked by two wolves near Boulogne, which tore off the lips of his horses.

1804. Immanuel Kant, a Prussian metaphysician, died. He was the son of a harness maker in the suburbs of Koningsberg. He continued by persevering industry to obtain a good education, and at the age of 22 successfully attacked the doctrines of the most eminent metaphysicians of the day. He was an original and profound thinker, as his numerous works attest: and his philosophy has been taught in all the German universities except some Catholic ones.

1807. Battle of Marienwerder, in Polish Prussia, in which the Prussians were defeated by the French under Lefebre.

1808. Remarkable duel at Bonnau, in Austria, between the Bavarian general Von Wrede, and a former Swedish minister, Von Duben. It was occasioned by the latter having cast reflections upon the Bavarian troops in 1805, in his dispatches to the Swedish government, and was fought in presence of a vast number of people.

1810. Badajos in Spain summoned to surrender by the French marshal, Mortier. The governor returned the summons unopened.

1814. Battle of Chateau Thierry, between the French and Russians, in which the general of the latter, Fredenrich, was taken prisoner.

1814. General Wilkinson burned his barracks at French Mills.

1817. Battle of Chacabuco, in Chili, in which the patriots under San Martin and O'Higgins, gained a decisive victory over the Spaniards under Maroto. This, with the victory of Maypu, which occurred afterwards, achieved the independence of the country.

1826. Deodatus Bye, died. He edited Cruden's Concordance, Diversions of Purley, &c. Some fugitive pieces in the Gentleman's Magazine bear his signature.

1831. Great solar eclipse (annular), visible in most parts of the United States.

1832. The cholera made its appearance in London.

1834. Frederick Schliermacher, a celebrated Prussian divine, died. He was professor of theology at Halle, and distinguished for the energy of his character and the extent of his acquirements.

1837. Edward Turner, professor of chemistry, London, died, aged 40. He was an eminent chemist, a popular and much esteemed professor, and a very exemplary and benevolent character.

1840. Astley Paston Cooper, a highly distinguished English surgeon, died at London, aged 72. He was one of the first operators of his time, and carried on a practice unexampled for extent and emolument in the annals of surgery. His income from his practice was nearly one hundred thousand dollars per annum. In one instance he received a fee of one thousand guineas for an operation for the stone.

1855. The island of Cuba declared by the captain-general to be in a state of siege, and the coasts and circumjacent waters in blockade.

FEBRUARY 13.

This day was kept by the Jews as a fast, instituted by Esther in memorial of the day appointed by Haman for the extirpation of her countrymen. The same day was afterwards decreed as a feast for the death of Nicanor, the Syrian captain, who was slain at Bethhoron, B. C. 161.

1098. London bridge carried away by a flood and tax imposed to erect another.

1570. Benvenuto Cellini, a Florentine sculptor, engraver and goldsmith, died. His works in gold and silver are sold now at immense prices. In his autobiography, which has been translated, he claims to have aimed the balls which killed the constable of Bourbon, and the prince of Orange, at the siege of Rome.

1579. John Fowler, an eminent English printer, died at Louvain, in Belgium, where he had a press and issued various controversial treatises, leveled at protestantism. [66]He was well skilled in languages, a tolerable poet and orator, a theologist not to be contemned, and well versed in criticism, and polite literature.

1585. Alphonsus Salmeron, of Toledo, died. He wrote commentaries on the scriptures, was a zealous follower of Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits and distinguished for his learning.

1602. Alexander Nowell, an English divine, died. His Catechism, published 1572, was in extensive use and much admired.

1662. Elizabeth, queen of Bohemia, and eldest daughter of James I, of England, died and was buried in Henry VII's chapel.

1689. Revolution in England; William, prince of Orange, and the princess Mary, a daughter of the abdicating monarch, were proclaimed, by the lords and commons, sovereigns of England. (Holmes says 16th.)

1694. The highland massacre at Glencoe, in Scotland.

1699. The government of England sent an order to the play-houses that nothing should be enacted contrary to religion or good manners.

1726. William Watton died; an English divine, critic, historian, and miscellaneous writer of great learning.

1727. The British under Col. Campbell precipitately evacuated Augusta, Georgia, in the night.

1727. The Spaniards under the marquis de la Torras, commenced the siege of Gibraltar. This was the twelfth siege, and proved unsuccessful.

1727. Cotton Mather died at Boston, aged 65. He was the most learned man in America, and one of the most superstitious. His achievements in one year were 72 sermons, 60 fasts, 20 vigils and 14 books. His publications amounted to 382, some of them being of large dimensions. The Magnalia is his chef d'œuvre. He lived in the age of witchcraft, and fell in with the delusion, hand, heart and pen.

1752. Samuel Croxall, an English author and translator of good repute, died.

1781. A troop of Tarleton's dragoons, under Capt. Miller, were cut to pieces by Lieut. Col. Lee: the captain and all were taken, except two; 18 were killed. Lee had ordered his Lieut. Lewis, to give no quarters, on account of Miller's having refused quarter to Lee's bugler, an unarmed boy, whom they had overtaken and sabred. Lee halted his men at a farm, was suddenly come upon by the advance of Cornwallis, but escaped by a sudden and bold movement.

1784. Jeremiah Miles died; an eminent English divine and antiquary. He was ardently engaged in the Chattertonian controversy, and the author of the supposed Rowley's poems.

1787. Charles Gravier, count de Vergennes, a French statesman, died. As secretary of state for foreign affairs to Louis XVI, he assisted the Americans in their struggle for independence.

1789. Ethan Allen, an officer in the revolutionary army, died. He took Ticonderoga and Crown-Point; was himself captured near Montreal, sent to England, and after experiencing much cruelty, exchanged. He sustained the character of an infidel, and in his writings ridiculed the scriptures.

1790. The French convention abolished monastic establishments, and confiscated their lands. (See Jan. 16.)

1794. The French convention ratified the treaty of peace with the grand duke of Tuscany.

1794. The canal of Merthyr Tydvil, in Wales, opened, another great improvement.

1798. Christian Fredrick Schwartz, an eminent German missionary to Hindostan, died. His labors were of nearly half a century's duration, and had a great influence over the affairs of the country.

1801. British frigate Success, 40 guns, captured by a French squadron.

1805. Action between the British ship St. Fiorenza and the French frigate Psyche, 36 guns, and the prize ship Thetis, which resulted in the capture of the two latter. French loss 57 killed and 70 wounded; British 12 k., 36 w.

1814. General Wilkinson burned his boats in Salmon river, and broke up cantonment at French mills; Gen. Brown went to Sacketts harbor, and Gen. Macomb to Plattsburg; the snow being 2 feet 10 inches deep.

1817. George Rogers Clarke died; an officer in the service of Virginia against the Indians in the revolutionary war, where he distinguished himself greatly, and was for some time the protector of the people of the frontiers of Virginia and Pennsylvania against the inroads of the tribes.

1817. The elegant sword voted by the state of New York to Com. McDonough, was presented to him at Hartford.

1820. Charles Ferdinand duc de Berri, assassinated. He was the youngest son of Charles X., a man of talents and intrepidity, and popular with the army. His assassin was actuated to the deed by a desire to exterminate the Bourbon family, which he had vowed to accomplish, and had begun with the duke, in whom the line was to be perpetuated. (See July 7, Louvel.)

1833. Stanislaus Poniatowski died at [67]Florence. He was a nephew of Stanislaus Augustus, the last king of Poland. Having defended the interests of his country with manly eloquence in the diet of Poland, he retired to Florence, and was noted as a liberated patron of the arts and literature. This prince was the first who set the example of a useful and glorious reform by emancipating the serfs of his extensive domains.

1840. Wilhelm Willink, a friend of Washington and of the United States, died at Amsterdam, aged 91. He furnished the first loan to the colonies after their revolt from the British dominion.

1843. Gen. Robert Porterfield died at Augusta county, Va., aged 90. He served in the Revolutionary army.

1843. Isaac Hull, a distinguished American commodore, died, aged 68.

FEBRUARY 14.

1543. The parliament of Paris caused the Institutiones Religionis Christianæ of Calvin, to be publicly burned at Paris.

1554. Brett the commander of the London train bands with 58 others, hanged for joining with sir Thos. Wyatt and his Kentish men, who tried to resist the Spanish influence.

1623. The floor of Black friars' church broke down while the people were at mass, killing 100.

1668. Louis XIV took Dole, in Franche Compte.

1696. English assassination plot to favor the interests of James II, discovered by Pendergrass.

1713. Anthony Ashley Cooper, earl of Shaftsbury, and author of the Characteristics, died. He was grandson of the earl who figured so conspicuously in the reign of Charles II; and possessed a spirit of liberty which displayed itself in his political character throughout his life, and by which he uniformly directed his conduct on all occasions.

1713. William Harrison, an elegant English poet, died.

1737. Charles Talbot, an eminent English statesman and chancellor, died.

1756. Three hundred recruits sailed from New York for the army, under the command of Gov. Shirley, quartered at Albany; the river being free of ice.

1760. Isaac Hawkins Browne died. One of the most popular productions of this ingenious poet, is his Pipe of Tobacco, in imitation of Cibber, Ambrose, Philips, Thompson, Young, Pope and Swift, who were all living.

1762. Martinique and the other Caribee islands delivered up to the British under Monkton and Rodney, by the French governor, M. de la Touche. The entire reduction of Martinique was effected with the loss of 107 killed and 150 wounded. The French lost 1000 of their best men. Before its reduction the island could raise 10,000 white inhabitants fit to bear arms and 40,000 negroes.

1764. Peter Restaut died; an advocate at Paris, distinguished for his learning and integrity.

1764. Mr. Williams a printer was put in the pillory for republishing the North Briton, No. 45, at London. But the spectators made a contribution for him of over 200 guineas.

1779. James Cook, the English navigator, killed by the natives of Owhyhee. He was born 1728, of indigent parentage; entered the royal navy in 1755; had the command of a vessel sent against Quebec 1759, after the capture of which he assisted at the taking of Newfoundland. After making several voyages for scientific purposes, he sailed in 1776 on his grand enterprise for the discovery of a northwest passage, during which he met his fate.

1779. Battle of Cherokee Ford, in which Col. Pickens attacked and defeated a body of tories, killed 39 of them and their leader, Col. Boyd, and took about 70 prisoners. Of the last 5 only were executed. Pickens lost 9 killed.

1780. William Blackstone died. He was born in London, 1723, and was called to the bar 1746. In 1765 he published the first volume of his Commentaries on the laws of England, a production by which his name will descend to all posterity. His private character is said to have been exceedingly mild and amiable, and he was throughout life assiduously addicted to business.

1780. A Russian manifesto announced the coalition called the "armed neutrality," formed on the basis that free trade makes free goods.

1781. The American army under Gen. Greene, which had continued to retreat since the battle of the Cowpens, crossed the Dan, leaving the whole of North Carolina in the hands of the enemy. So close was the pursuit, that the van of the British reached the river, as the rear of the continentals had crossed, after a march of 40 miles that day.

1782. The island of Nevis surrendered to the French, under count de Grasse.

1785. Kienlong, emperor of China, made a feast for the ancients of his kingdom. Those who had attained 100 years, received 50 bushels of rice and 2 pieces of silk; those who had reached 90 years, received 30 bushels rice and 2 pieces of inferior silk, and others in the same proportion, [68]down to 50 years. Presents, to a large amount, were also made to the poor throughout the empire. He likewise exempted all the people from taxes that year, which was the 50th of his reign. On the occasion of the feast, 3000 aged men of quality sat down to it, and the emperor sat at the head of the table to do the honors.

1793. Brass Crosby died. He rose from a humble attorney to be lord mayor of London. Being implicated in some difficulties with the printers, in 1771, and stoutly avowing his partialities, he was sent to the tower, notwithstanding the dignity of his office; but his liberation was attended with great marks of respect and attention from the citizens.

1797. Action between the Spanish fleet of 27 sail and 12 frigates, admiral Langara, off St. Vincent, and the British under Admiral Jervis, 15 ships and 6 frigates. Four of the Spanish ships were captured, (two of 112 guns each) and the remainder completely defeated. British loss, 300 killed and wounded; Spanish loss 603.

1808. John Dickinson, an American political writer, died. He practiced law in Philadelphia until 1765; was deputed to attend the first congress at New York, and prepared the draft of the bold resolutions of that congress. He opposed the Declaration of Independence, believing that compromise was still practicable; but soon after entered into it with ardor. His public services were eminent.

1814. Battle of Vauchamp, between the French and Russians, in which the latter were defeated. At 8 in the evening Marmont attacked and defeated the Russians at Etoges, who lost 9 cannon and 1300 men killed.

1831. Insurrection at Paris in consequence of an attempt by the priests to celebrate a funeral mass for the duke de Berri. Several churches were destroyed or injured.

1831. Guerrero, ex-president of Mexico, shot.

1834. John Shore, Lord Teignmouth, died, aged 82. He went to India in his youth, in the service of the East India company and succeeded Lord Cornwallis as governor, there. He returned to England 1798; and on the formation of the British and Foreign Bible society, he was chosen the first president, and held the office during life.

1843. Mr. John Martin, aged 105, died at Augusta, Georgia. He came with a company of salt buyers to Georgia, under the direction of Oglethorpe.

1852. Dr. Rae, the arctic explorer, arrived at St. Paul, Minnesota, having returned from a search for Sir John Franklin, without discovering any trace of that ill-fated adventurer.

FEBRUARY 15.

Feast of Supercalia at Rome, in honor of the god Pan, the defender from wolves.

1564. Birthday of Galileo Galilei, at Pisa, in Italy.

1600. Joseph d'Acosta, the Spanish historian, died. He was born in Leon, 1539, and became remarkably efficient in literature and science at an early age. In 1571 he was despatched as a missionary to South America, where he remained till 1588. During his residence at Peru he wrote the Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias, which has been translated into nearly all the European languages, and is valuable for its information on the early condition of the continent.

1632. Dudley Carleton, an English statesman and political writer, died.

1664. John Twynne was convicted of high treason and executed. His offence was printing the matter called libelous written by Milton and others.

1682. Claude de la Colombiere, a famous Jesuit, died. He became very popular as a preacher before James II, of England, and was the inventor of "The Solemnity of the Heart of Jesus."

1694. Bradford paid for printing the first book in the city of New York.

1708. John Phillips, an elegant English poet, died, aged 32.

1730. Thomas Bray, an English divine, died. He made himself eminent by his unwearied attention to the practice of benevolence; many charitable societies and good designs in London are formed on plans which he projected.

1732. Francis Atterbury died. He was the son of a parish rector, educated for the ministry, and made himself conspicuous by his eloquence as a preacher. His ambition was gratified by preferments, honors and emoluments, till, in the reign of Anne, 1713, he reached the seat of the bishop of Rochester, the acme of his greatness. On the accession of George I, his prospects began to wane; and being suspected of some treasonable acts, he was condemned to perpetual exile. He settled in Paris, and died there. His literary fame rests on his sermons, and his correspondence with Pope.

1763. Peace of Hubertsburg concluded at the electoral palace of that name, which concluded the seven years' war between Austria, Prussia and Poland.

1765. Charles Andrew Vanloo, a highly distinguished French painter, died.

1766. John Hellot, a French philosophical writer, and distinguished chemist, died.

1781. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, one of the most distinguished German authors, [69]died. He contributed more than any other individual to the regeneration of German literature, and was remarkable for the versatility of his genius.

1782. Battle off Fort St. George, East Indies, between the British under Admiral Hughes, and the French under Admiral Suffrein.

1784. Scipio Bexon died at Paris. He assisted Buffon in his natural history, and was also an author in his own name.

1788. George Ann Bellamy, an English actress of the time of Garrick, died at Edinburgh, aged 55. She drew the attention of the town for a number of seasons, particularly when she played Juliet with Garrick at Drury-Lane, against Mrs. Cibber and Barry at Covent Garden. She published her own memoirs in 6 vols.

1794. John Fenn, a learned antiquary, died. He greatly distinguished himself by his application to the study of natural history and antiquities; and made a large collection of curious original letters, written during the fifteenth century, which were published in 4 vols. quarto.

1796. The British under Admiral Elphinstone, captured Colombo in the East Indies, which is at present the seat of the British government in the island of Ceylon.

1798. Rome declared a republic.

1801. Concordat between Bonaparte and Pius VII, for the reestablishment of religion in France, signed at Paris.

1804. A squadron of the East India company ships under Capt. Dance, convoying the China fleet, beat off in the China seas, the French ship Marengo, 80 guns, Admiral Linois, 2 heavy frigates, a corvette of 28 guns, and a Dutch brig of 18 guns.

1806. Joseph Bonaparte entered Naples, upon the capitulation of the garrison, and was soon after chosen king.

1808. The king of Prussia renounced all connection, political and commercial, with Great Britain, in compliance with the treaty of Tilsit.

1810. Birthday of Louis XV, of France, under whose reign the corruption of morals and principles spread to an alarming extent among all classes, and were followed by a general poverty, national humiliation, and ruined finances, which prepared the way for the explosion that took place under his unfortunate successor.

1813. Battle of Pietra Nera, on the coast of Calabria, between the French and the Sicilians.

1814. Battle of Montmirail in France, between the French under Bonaparte and the Russians under Blucher, in which the former gained a small advantage after a hard contest.

1815. British sloop of war Barbados, captured the United States letter of marque brigantine Vidette, 3 guns, 30 men.

1817. Cold day throughout the United States; thermometer 8° below zero in Philadelphia, and 20° at Salem, Mass. Heavily laden teams crossed from Boston to Fort Independence.

1817. A wagon loaded with specie for the bank of Pennsylvania, overturned near Pittsburgh, and Thomas Wilson was killed by a box of coin falling upon him.

1818. Frederick Louis, prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, a general in the Prussian service, died. He acquired distinction in the almost constant scene of war in Europe, from 1793 to 1806, and contributed greatly by his superior skill and valor to several important victories.

1820. William Ellery, one of the signers, expired in his chair while reading Cicero, aged 92. He was born at Newport, R. I.; graduated at Harvard in his 20th year; and practiced law at Newport until he was sent to the first congress. His house at Newport was burnt by the British. He had filled the office of collector of the customs since the term of Washington.

1826. Scipione Breislak, an Italian geologist, died at Milan, universally regretted, both for his scientific merit and his personal qualities. His rich collection of minerals passed into the hands of the Borromeo family.

1832. The legislature of Maryland appropriated $200,000 for the removal of free blacks over the age of 18; and enacted penalties against the settlement of colored persons in that state.

1835. Nathan Dane died at Beverly, Mass., aged 82. He was the framer of the celebrated ordinance of congress of 1787, for the government of the territory of the United States northwest of the Ohio river, an admirable code of constitutional law, by which the principles of free government, to the exclusion of slavery, were extended to an immense region, and its political and moral interests secured on a permanent basis.

1836. John Gillies, historiographer to the king for Scotland, died, aged 90; author of a popular history of Greece, besides many other valuable works.

1836. Margaret Burgeois died, on Prince Edward Island, aged 110.

1836. Fieschi and his accomplices, Pepin and Moray, who attempted to take the life of the French king by the explosion of an infernal machine, executed at Paris.

1840. Harriett Campbell, a Scottish author of distinguished talents, died at Montrieux in Switzerland, aged 34.

1843. Nathaniel Chipman, some time justice of the supreme court of Massachusetts and a senator of the United States, died in the 91st year of his age. He was a vigorous writer.

[70]

FEBRUARY 16.

309. Pamphilius, presbyter of Cæsarea, died. He was of an eminent family, of great wealth and extensive learning, and ardently devoted to the scriptures. He collected a library of 30,000 volumes, solely for the promotion of religion. Traces of this library still remain at Paris and elsewhere.

1009. Abdurrahman, hajib, or chamberlain, of Hisham, king of Cordova, beheaded. He was entrusted with the civil and military powers of government, but aspiring to the throne itself, was destroyed by the people.

1279. Alonzo III of Portugal, died. From an exile in poverty he was raised to the throne by the pope, who had deposed his brother for attacking the immunities of the church.

1497. Birthday of Philip Melancthon, at Britten, in the palatinate of the Rhine His proper name was Schwartzerd (black-earth), but according to the custom of the learned of that time, he changed it into the Greek term for the same word, melancthon.

1510. The Portuguese under Alphonso Albuquerque entered Goa in Hindostan.

1532. Richard Rouse, the bishop of Rochester's cook, poisoned the soup and caused the death of several persons. An act was immediately passed making poisoning treason, and the punishment boiling to death. Rouse was boiled.

1560. John Du Bellay, bishop of Paris, died. He was engaged as a negotiator between Henry VIII and the pope, with respect to the divorce of the former.

1639. Teixeira having ascended the Amazon and arrived at Quito, reembarked on his return this day, in a fleet of 45 canoes, with 70 soldiers, and 1200 native rowers.

1656. Spain declared war against England.

1736. Owing to an unprecedented tide, the council at Westminster hall, London, were carried out in boats to their coaches.

1741. George Raphael Donner, an Austrian sculptor, died. His works, to be seen in many Austrian churches and palaces, are masterpieces.

1749. Great riot at the Hay Market, London, occasioned by the failure of a conjurer to leap, as he promised, into a quart bottle.

1754. Richard Mead died, aged 81. He studied at the German universities at the same time its Bœrhaave, with whom he was intimate, and distinguished himself as a practitioner on his return to England. He introduced inoculation for small pox about the year 1720; his preliminary experiments were made upon condemned criminals. He did not live to see the great improvement by vaccination, introduced by Jenner.

1760. The Cherokees under Ocunnastota attacked Fort Prince George in Virginia, garrisoned by the British and Americans. The Indians were repulsed, and 20 hostages residing in the fort, and who attempted to rise on the garrison, were put to death.

1770. Bruce, the traveler, entered Gondar, the capital of Abyssinia, and was introduced into the palace of the emperor.

1784. Peter Macquer, a physician and chemist of great reputation, died at Paris.

1791. Herkimer and Otsego counties, N. Y., erected.

1792. Muley Yezid, emperor of Morocco, died of wounds received in battle on the 12th; when an end was put to a scene of slaughter which had continued since the 6th, such as the city had seldom known. It was computed that 20,000 of every age and sex, were destroyed.

1794. Tioga county in New York erected.

1795. The stadtholdership abolished in Holland. The stadtholder, Prince William of Orange, was then in England.

1796. John Romilly died at Paris. He was an ingenious mechanic and clockmaker at Geneva, and author of the articles on clockmaking in the Encyclopedie.

1796. Amboyna, the Dutch metropolis of the Moluccas, taken by the British under Admiral Rainer.

1798. Stephen Charles Lomenie de Brienne, archbishop and minister of state of France under Louie XVI, died. He early associated himself with the instigators of the revolution; but while he attempted to reduce the power and wealth of the monasteries, he was liberal in assisting those who were in need. Failing to keep pace with the ultra party, he was thrown into prison, where he died of ill treatment.

1802. Toussaint L'Overture and Christophe, black generals of St. Domingo, declared rebels by the French general, Le Clerc.

1804. United States frigate Philadelphia burnt in the harbor of Tripoli. This splendid action was achieved in 15 minutes by 70 volunteers under Lieut. Stephen Decatur, in the ketch Intrepid, with the loss of 1 killed. Decatur was promoted, and a sword and thanks voted him.

1807. Battles of Rossega and Ostrolenka, between the French and Russians, in which the former were victorious in both instances.

[71]1810. St. Martins surrendered to the British.

1812. Battle of Cartama in Spain; the French under Gen. Maransin defeated by the Spaniards, under Ballasteros.

1813. An elegant sword and thanks voted to Decatur and Biddle, by the legislature of Pennsylvania, for their distinguished gallantry and skill. They were presented to those officers at New London, on board their respective ships.

1826. Lindley Murray, the grammarian, died in England, aged 81. He was born in Pennsylvania, of quaker parentage, and studied law; but during the revolutionary war he turned merchant, and before its close acquired sufficient property to retire upon. He visited England for the benefit of his health, where he finally settled, about a mile from the city of York, and employed his leisure in the production of those works of education, which acquired such popularity as to have maintained their places more than forty years.

1826. The Liberia Herald appeared at Monrovia, the first paper printed in Africa. It was edited by Charles L. Force, from Boston, and like the early newspapers of New England, was printed on one side only.

1829. Francis Joseph Gossec, an eminent music composer, died, aged 96. He was first attached to the cathedral at Antwerp; but in 1751 went to Paris, where he passed the remainder of his life, and acquired a reputation seldom surpassed.

1839. James Boaden, an English dramatic author and biographer, died, aged 70.

1843. Great land slide at Troy, N. Y.; 18 persons killed.

1852. Homeopathic college at Cleveland, Ohio, mobbed, and the windows and interior of the building destroyed, in consequence of the discovery of the remains of subjects which had been taken from the burial ground there.

1852. State lunatic asylum at Lexington, Ky., destroyed by fire, in which one of the inmates perished.

1853. George Manners died, aged 75; many years British consul at Boston, and author of several dramas of merit, and other poetical works.

1853. William Gibbs McNeil died, aged 51; a military officer, who, during the Dorr excitement in Rhode Island, commanded the state troops, acting throughout with great prudence and judgment.

1853. The steamer Independence from San Juan del Sud to San Francisco, wrecked on Margaretta island, and also took fire, by which 140 lives were lost.

1854. The boiler of the Kate Kearney bursted at Louisville, Ky., killing and wounding a great number of people.

1856. John Stoddard, an English author, died, aged 84. He for many years contributed leading articles to The Times newspaper, and was some time chief-justice of Malta.

1857. Elisha K. Kane, the arctic explorer, died at Havana, Cuba.

FEBRUARY 17.

364. Flavius Claud Jovianus, the Roman emperor, died at Dadastana, aged 33. He was elected by the army, on the death of Julian, and accepted the throne upon the assurance that the soldiers would embrace Christianity. He was suffocated in his bed by the fumes of a fire which had been made to dry the chamber, after a reign of only eight months.

1461. Battle of St. Albans, 21 miles from London, between the Lancastrians headed by the queen, Margaret, and the Yorkists under the earl of Warwick. The latter were defeated.

1564. Michael Angelo Buonarotti, the painter and architect, died at Rome, aged 89. He was of an illustrious family; studied painting and sculpture; and for a great number of years was employed by the popes in decorating the most superb edifices of Rome. At the age of 60 he was induced to attempt the Last Judgment, which is his master-piece. In architecture, St. Peter's and the Capitol are monuments of his ability. As a sculptor and poet also he is entitled to no mean place in the niche of fame. He was one of those favorites of nature, who combine in their single persons the excellence of many highly gifted men.

1571. An earthquake in Herefordshire, England, removed a hill containing 26 acres to a considerable distance, overturning every thing before it and continuing in motion several days.

1600. Giordano Bruno, an Italian philosopher, burnt at Rome. He entered the order of the Dominicans, but his satires upon the lives of the monks drew upon him their persecutions, and he fled to the Calvinists. These in turn were excited against him by his paradoxes. After visiting Paris, London and Wurtemberg, he returned again to Italy, and fell into the hands of the inquisition, by whom he was condemned to be burnt, and suffered death, which he might have averted by a recantation, with the greatest fortitude. His philosophical writings, which have become very rare, display a classical cultivation of mind, a deep insight into the spirit of ancient philosophy, wit and satire, as well as a profound knowledge of mathematics and natural philosophy. With all his talent and erudition he was a pantheist.

[72]1621. The Plymouth colonists met for the purpose of settling military affairs, and chose Miles Standish their captain.

1673. Jean Baptiste Poquelin de Moliere died. At Narbonne, where the French theatre at that time began to flourish, through the talents of the great Corneille, he imbibed a strong passion for the stage. He became a distinguished comedian and dramatic writer, and died within four hours after personating a character in his play of the Hypochondriac.

1680. Denzil, Lord Hollis, an eminent English patriot, died. He nobly maintained and defended the rights and privileges of the house of commons, of which he was a member, against the arbitrary measures of Charles I and his favorites. He was also a political writer.

1710. George Bull, an eminent English writer and preacher, died.

1720. John Hughes, an English poet and dramatist, died. He was a contributor to the Tatler, Spectator and Guardian. His last production, the Siege of Damascus, was performed with splendid success on the very night the author died suddenly. He was eulogized by Pope.

1735. Nicolo Fortiguerra died, an Italian prelate, and one of their best poets of the early part of the last century.

1739. George Whitfield, the celebrated Methodist, preached from a field pulpit to coalliers in Kingswood, near Bristol.

1758. John Watkins died at Bristol, England, aged 78. He was heir to a considerable estate, which being denied possession of, he made a vow never to shave till he enjoyed it; and kept his promise to the day of his death. He went by the name of Black John; after his death there was found upwards of 200 weight of half pence and silver, besides a quantity of gold, which he had amassed as a public beggar.

1759. Thomas Siddal, a gardener at Chester, England, dug up a potatoe weighing 17 lbs. 4 oz., measuring 38 inches in circumference, and 47½ in length.

1772. Convention between Frederick II of Prussia and Catharine II of Russia signed, for the partition of Poland. This was afterwards acceded to by Austria, and ratified by the Polish diet.

1773. An appearance similar to the aurora borealis first witnessed in the southern hemisphere, by Mr. Forster, who accompanied Capt. Cook.

1782. Action between the British fleet, Admiral Hughes, and the French fleet, M. de Suffrein, in which the British suffered severely.

1794. Fornelli in Corsica attacked and carried by the British under Lord Hood.

1796. James Macpherson, the Scottish poet, died; distinguished for his translations and imitations of Gaelic poems, the principal of which is Fingal.

1797. The Spanish Admiral Apodaca compelled to burn several large battle ships in the gulf of Paria, to prevent their falling into the hands of the British fleet under Harvey.

1804. Gen. Moreau arrested at Paris, on an accusation of being concerned in the conspiracy of Pichegru and Georges.

1805. Action between the British frigate Cleopatra, 32 guns, and the French frigate Ville de Milan, pierced for 52 but mounting 26 guns. The Cleopatra was captured, with the loss of 20 killed and 38 wounded.

1810. Amboyna, the capital of the Moluccas, surrendered to the British, together with 49 merchant vessels in the harbor. It was not the first time it had fallen into the hands of the British.

1810. Rome annexed to France; the city to rank as the second in the French empire.

1814. Battle of Nangis, between Napoleon and the Russians under Count Witgenstein; same day, the Russians under Pahlen attacked the French at Marmont under Georges.

1814. The castle of Jaca in Arragon capitulated to the Spanish chief Francisco Espoz y Mina, who took 84 brass cannon.

1818. Henry Obookiah, a Sandwich islander, died at Cornwall, Ct., aged 26. He was a member of the foreign mission school and has been made the subject of a memoir.

1827. John Henry Pestalozzi, one of the most distinguished men of modern times for his efforts in the cause of education, died at Brugg. He was born at Zurich, in Switzerland; and devoted his life and property to the education of poor children. His system is not the best in use.

1828. Henry Gottlob Tschirner died, aged 50; an eminent German theologian.

1835. Five volcanoes burst forth simultaneously in Central-America, attended with tremendous earthquakes, which sunk three large towns, besides many villages. The air was so obscure with smoke, that the inhabitants were obliged to grope their way with torches for eight days. The lava in some places ran the distance of 60 leagues, destroying every thing in its course. In Alancho they thought the day of judgment had come, and more than 300 marriages took place among people who had previously lived in a state of concubinage.

1836. Cornplanter, (Garyan-wah-gah,) a celebrated Indian chief, died at the Seneca Reservation, aged about 100. At an early period of the revolutionary war he [73]took an active part on the side of the Americans, and ever after manifested great friendship for the whites. He and his associate Red-Jacket, were for many years the counsellors and protectors of the interests of their nation.

1839. William Adam, a Scottish statesman, died. As member of parliament he opposed conciliatory measures with the refractory American colonies.

1840. Joseph Chitty, a very eminent special pleader and author of many laborious and learned works in the profession of the law, died in London, aged 65.

1843. In British India 2,800 British troops defeated 22,000 Beloochees.

1862. William Thompson, a distinguished naturalist, died, aged 46. He published the Birds of Ireland, and had undertaken to write the natural history of that country.

1852. Eruption of Mount Loa, Sandwich islands, which continued a long time undiminished.

1855. The Russians under Osten Sacken attacked Eupatoria, defended by the Turks under Omar Pasha, and were repulsed with loss.

1856. John Braham, a celebrated English vocalist, died, aged 82. He was the son of a German Jew, and his proper name was Abraham. He made his first appearance at Covent garden in 1787.

FEBRUARY 18.

3102. B. C. According to the tables of Trivalore, the great Hindostan epoch, Callyhougham, began at sunrise this day; that is, A. M. 902, and before the death of Adam!

1478. George, duke of Clarence, executed by drowning in a butt of Malmsey wine. He was the brother of Edward IV, against whom he had been induced to take up arms. He had the privilege of choosing the mode of his death.

1519. Cortez sailed from cape St. Antonio where he had stopped to complete his preparations. When all were brought together the vessels were found to be 11 in number; one of them of 100 tons burden, and three others from 70 to 80 tons; the remainder were caravels and open brigantines. His forces now amounted to 110 mariners, 553 soldiers, including 32 crossbowmen, and 13 arquebusiers, besides 200 Indians of the island, and a few Indian women for menial offices. He was provided with 10 heavy guns, 4 lighter pieces, called falconets, and a good supply of ammunition. He had besides 16 horses.

1546. Martin Luther, the reformer, died at Wittemberg. He was born at Eisleben in Saxony, 1483. His father was a miner, and Martin, to support himself at school, sung songs at the doors of the citizens. Yet this humble individual was destined to shake the papal throne to its foundations. His translation of the Bible, completed in 1534, was a labor of 13 years, amidst dangers and difficulties of every kind.

1639. Thomas Carew died; one of the wits of the court of Charles II. In the midst of a life of affluence and gaiety he found time to cultivate his taste for polite literature; and finally became a repentant devotee. He has been coupled with Waller as an improver of English versification, and was esteemed by Jonson and Davenant.

1645. Richard Baker, an English historian, died. Having become security for the debts of some of his wife's relatives, he was thereby reduced to poverty, and thrown into the Fleet prison. During this imprisonment, and as a means of subsistence, he wrote his Chronicle of the Kings of England, and various other works, mostly devotional. He died in prison, where he had spent the last twenty years of his life, at the age of 77.

1652. Gregorio Allegri, an eminent musical composer, died at Rome. His compositions, the chief of which is the Miserere, are still performed in the pontifical chapel.

1653. Naval action off Portland, England, between the British, under Blake, Dean and Monk, and the Dutch under Van Tromp and De Ruyter. The latter was defeated, with the loss of 2000 killed, 1500 prisoners, and 11 ships of war, besides a number of other vessels, principally merchantmen.

1654. John Lewis Guez de Balzac, historiographer of France, died. He acquired great celebrity by his publications.

1662. An unprecedented storm in severity passed over England, chiefly felt at London.

1672. John Labadie died at Altona; a celebrated French enthusiast.

1694. Several ships of war, &c., lost in a storm east of Gibraltar. The Sussex on board of which was Sir Francis Wheeler, the admiral, foundered with the whole of her crew.

1695. William Phipps died at London, aged 45. He was born at Pemaquid, Maine; was apprenticed to a ship carpenter, and afterwards went to sea. Hearing of a Spanish wreck near Bahama, he gave such an account of it in England that he was fitted out in 1683 to search for it, but was unsuccessful. The duke of Albemarle fitted him out a second time, and he returned with a treasure of £300,000, of which his share was 16,000. He was subsequently sent over as governor of [74]Massachusetts, but his administration was short and unpopular.

1702. Thomas Hyde, an eminent English divine and orientalist, died. He published a work on the religion of the ancient Persians, which threw many new lights on the most curious and interesting subjects.

1709. Sir Edward Seymour died. He had been a member of every parliament since 1661.

1710. Philip Verheyen, a medical author, died at Louvain, in Belgium, where he was professor of anatomy.

1712. Louis, duke of Burgundy, died, aged 30. He was educated under Fenelon, and as heir to the throne and counsellor of state, France expected to enjoy a long rest from her troubles, under this administration. He died suddenly of a disease which had taken away his wife and eldest son only a few days before.

1719. George Henry Goertz, a Swedish statesman, beheaded. He joined Charles XII on his return from Turkey, and was placed at the head of affairs. The desperate state of Sweden gave full employment to his extraordinary talents; but on the fall of the king he was sacrificed to the hatred of the nobility and condemned without a trial.

1724. George Wheeler, an English traveler and antiquary died. He visited Greece and Asia, for the purpose of copying inscriptions and to describe antiquities, in company with Dr. Spon, an account of which was published in 6 vols. folio. The work is highly valued for its authenticity and antiquities.

1730. Charles Beckingham, an English dramatic writer, died. His pieces were received with much applause.

1750. George Bernard Bilfinger, professor of philosophy at Petersburg, and afterwards at Tubingen, died at Stutgard. He was eminent as an author.

1758. Joseph Isaac Berruyer, a French Jesuit, died; author of some theological works.

1772. John Hartwig Ernst, count Bernstorff, died at Hamburg. He settled in Denmark, where he became prime minister, and in this office devoted the whole energies of his powerful mind to the improvement of his adopted country. He set the example of manumitting the peasantry, who were in a state of bondage and gave the fourth part of his income to the poor. He is represented as a model of intelligence, wisdom and benevolence.

1777. Col. Nielson of New Jersey, with a party of American militia, defeated the British Major Stockton, killed 4 and took him and 59 of his men prisoners.

1778. Joseph Marie Terray, minister of state of France, died. He was a man of great integrity and patriotism; and on retiring from office, carried with him the gratitude of his country.

1791. Vermont admitted into the Union. (see March 4).

1793. Action between British ship Juno, Capt. Hood, and the French privateer schooner, L'Entreprenant, Capt. Vaniere. The latter was taken, together with a prize which she had captured. Vaniere shot himself.

1795. British squadron under Warren captured near the isle of Aix, 8 French vessels, and destroyed 10 brigs and a lugger, laden with provisions and clothing for the French fleet and army.

1797. Trinidad, another of the West India isles, surrendered to the English under Sir R. Abercromby.

1800. Action off Malta, between the British squadron under Nelson, and Le Genereux, a French 74, and a frigate which resulted in the capture of the two latter.

1800. Louis Le Frotte, the Vendean chief, with 7 of his officers, shot by order of the French convention. They all refused to have their eyes covered.

1808. Austrian declaration of non-intercourse with England.

1811. French port of Tametivi, in Madagascar, surrendered to a British force.

1812. The prince regent of England, afterwards George IV, invested with full legal powers.

1814. Battle of Montereau, in France; Chateau, who commanded the French, was repulsed and mortally wounded; but Gen. Gerard, the second in command, sustained the combat until 2 P. M., when being reinforced by Bonaparte, the Russians were in turn discomfited.

1815. The king of Candy, in Ceylon, surrendered to the British under Gen. Brownrigg.

1815. Treaty of peace between the United States and Great Britain ratified by President Madison.

1834. William Wirt died, aged 62. He early became acquainted with Jefferson, Madison and Monroe, and filled several important offices under them with distinguished reputation. As a public and professional man, he was ranked among the first of his time.

1843. The Ameers of the punjaf in India wholly defeated by the British troops under Sir Charles Napier.

1851. Victor Falck, a distinguished French ornithologist, died at Stockholm.

1852. Christopher Anderson died, aged 73; known by his Annals of the English Bible.

1853. An attempt made to assassinate the emperor of Austria by a Hungarian named Lebenyi, who was executed.

[75]1856. Heinrich Heine, the celebrated German poet, died at Paris.

FEBRUARY 19.

198. Decius Claudius Albinus, a Roman who assumed the imperial purple in opposition to Severus, was slain in battle on the river Rhone.

1401. William Sautre, an English clergyman, was burned for heresy, by the clergy, with the permission of Henry IV. This is said to have been the first execution in England on account of religion. (Timperley says March 10.)

1549. A bill passed the English parliament allowing clergymen to marry, on the ground that it was a less evil than compulsory chastity.

1553. Erasmus Reinhold died; an eminent German astronomer and mathematician, and professor at Wittemberg.

1567. Miles Coverdale, bishop of Exeter, buried. He was ejected from his see by queen Mary, and thrown into prison, from which he was liberated by Elizabeth. He assisted Tindal in the English version of the Bible, 1537.

1592. Edward Coke chosen speaker of parliament.

1597. Thomas Bentham, an English bishop, died; celebrated for his knowledge of the Chaldee and Hebrew tongues.

1619. Lucilio Vanini, a learned Italian, burnt. He early devoted himself with ardor to letters, studying philosophy, law, theology and astrology, at Rome and Padua. He traveled throughout every country of Europe, occupying himself with instruction; but wherever he appeared, he became obnoxious to suspicion on account of his religious views. In 1617 he went to Toulouse, where he was accused of atheism and sorcery, and condemned to the flames. He was drawn to the place of execution, when after his tongue was torn out, he was strangled, and burnt at the age of 34. His punishment appears to have been entirely undeserved, and has given him more celebrity than his writings.

1622. Henry Savile died, a learned English divine, historian and critic; Greek tutor to Queen Elizabeth.

1638. Insurrection of the Edinburgh presbyterians, who threw off their allegiance, and entered into a covenant or association against the government, which they compelled all people to subscribe; several Scotch bishops were forced to fly to England.

1644. The Scots, consisting of 18,000 foot, 2,000 horse, and above 500 dragoons, passed the Tweed at Berwick in behalf of the parliament.

1671. Charles Chauncey, president of Harvard college, died, aged 80. He was a nonconformist divine, who emigrated to America; a learned and venerated man.

1697. Francis Bernard, an English physician, died; eminent for his learning, and his valuable collection of books.

1717. Peter Anthony Motteux, died in London on his birthday (supposed to have been murdered). He was a French refugee, settled in England, where he became an eminent dramatic writer, and translated Don Quixotte.

1734. Battle of Gaustalla between the French and the imperialists under count Konigsegg; the latter of whom were defeated with the loss of 5,000 men including the prince of Wirtemberg.

1743. La Guaira, in South America, attacked by the British under Knowles. He captured one ship, and blew up a magazine but did not succeed in his principal object, which was the total destruction of the shipping. Spanish loss 700.

1767. Francis Boissier de Sauvages, a French physician and botanist, died. His reputation was so great that he was called the Boerhaave of Languedoc.

1778. Capt. James Willing took possession of Natches in the name of the U. S.

1788. Thomas Cushing, of Massachusetts died. He was early engaged in political life, and in 1763 appointed speaker of the council where, by his moderate and conciliatory conduct he was enabled to effect a great deal of good as a mediator between the contending parties. On the breaking out of disturbances he was sent to the first congress, and continued to fill some office till his death, when he was lieutenant governor.

1790. Marquis De Favras executed. His judges were intimidated by the mob shouting during the trial, a la lanterne.

1792. Matthew Tait died at Auchinleck, aged 123.

1793. Lieuts. Gibbs and Mountesy with 21 men of the Lowestoffe frigate seized the tower of Martelli in Corsica, and hoisted the British flag for the first time in that island.

1794. French frigate La Fortunee burnt to prevent her falling into the hands of Lord Hood.

1797. James Dodsley the renowned and rich London bookseller died. He sold 18,000 copies of Burke's Reflections on the French Revolution.

1798. The Irish rebellion, as the discontents were called, commenced.

1799. Jean Charles Borda, a French mathematician, died. He made many improvements in hydraulics, and his experiments for the advancement of science were numerous and successful.

1801. Action off Gibraltar between the British frigate Phebe 36 guns, and the French frigate L'Africaine, 44 guns and 715 men. The Frenchman lost 200 men [76]killed and 143 wounded, and was captured. British loss 1 killed and 12 wounded.

1802. Nicholas Joseph Selis, a distinguished French poet, died.

1806. Elizabeth Carter, an English poetess, died, aged 89. She acquired nine foreign languages; but the reputation of this learned lady was established by a complete translation from the Greek of the works of Epictetus, with notes.

1807. Admiral Duckworth, with 8 ships of the line and 4 frigates, together with fire ships and gun boats, effected the daring pass of the Dardanelles, without loss, and appeared before Constantinople, which until then had never seen an enemy's fleet. The Turks fired stone shot from their batteries upon the fleet, some of them weighing upwards of 800 pounds. The Turkish squadron, consisting of a 64 gun ship, 4 frigates, 3 corvettes, a brig and 2 gun boats, were burnt.

1811. Duke of Albuquerque, ambassador to England from the regency of Spain, died at London.

1816. Wm. Reese died in Dublin district, Md., aged 108.

1816. A bridge of wire, 400 feet in length, for foot passengers having been constructed over the Schuylkill, was passed for the first time.

1821. Florida ceded to the United States by Spain.

1837. Thomas Burgess, bishop of Salisbury, died. He was the son of a grocer, and rose by his own merits. He was a man of extensive learning, and a voluminous author; was instrumental in founding the royal society of literature; and St. David's college founded by him for the education of Welsh ministers, is an enduring monument of his benevolence. To this institution, he bequeathed the whole of his extensive library.

1843. Michael J. Quinn, well known to general readers as the author of A Visit to Spain, &c., died at Boulogne-sur-mer, France.

1844. Gilbert, a servant of Washington at the great battle of the Monongahela, died at Stanton, Va., aged 112. He was also with the general at the surrender of Cornwallis, and was accustomed on holidays to appear in regimentals during his life, to the great edification of the boys.

1852. William Ware, an eminent unitarian scholar and divine, died at Cambridge, Mass., aged 54.

1856. The ship John Rutledge from Liverpool to New York encountered an iceberg and sunk. Of five boats which left the ship, only one was picked up, with but one living man on board, the survivor of thirteen who had died one by one of cold and starvation.

FEBRUARY 20.

1413. Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, died. He was consecrated bishop of Ely at the age of 21, and became infamous by the severity of his conduct towards the reformers.

1437. James I, of Scotland, murdered, at the age of 44. He fell a martyr to his attempts to abolish the anarchy and disorder which prevailed throughout his kingdom. He was the first of the Stuarts, and stands on the catalogue of royal authors. (Is also dated 21st.)

1494. Matteo Marie Boiardo, count of Scandiano, died. In his Orlando Innamorato he immortalized his own peasants and the charms of the scenery at Scandiano in the persons of his heroes and the beauties of nature.

1571. Lewis Castelvetro, an Italian critic, died. He was famous for his parts, but more famous for spleen and ill nature. He distinguished himself chiefly by his Commentary upon Aristotle's Poetics, where, Rapin assures us, he always made it a rule to find something to except against in the text.

1579. Nicholas Bacon, an English statesman, died. He was appointed lord keeper of the great seal on the accession of Elizabeth, and was an able and judicious counsellor of that queen during 20 years.

1579. Drake, after many profitable captures in the Pacific, arrived at Lima, where he plundered all the ships in the harbor, in one of which was found a chest full of reals of silver, and a good store of silks and linen cloth.

1648. Thomas Damme buried at Minshull, England, "being of the age of seven score and fourteen" (154 years).

1725. A party of 40 New Hampshire volunteers on an excursion for hunting Indians, discovered a party of ten encamped for the night round a fire. Advancing cautiously at midnight, the enemy were found asleep and the whole shot. They were marching from Canada well furnished with new guns and ammunition, and a number of spare blankets, moccasins and snow shoes, for the accommodation of the prisoners they expected to take, and were within two miles of the frontiers. The party entered Dover in triumph, with the ten scalps stretched on hoops and elevated on poles; and received a bounty of £100 for each scalp, at Boston, out of the public treasury.

1736. A bill was introduced into the British parliament, placing a duty of 20 shillings a gallon on spirituous liquors, and £50 license for selling them, in order to prevent their excessive use; but was defeated so far as to tolerate punch at a [77]low rate, the merchants of Bristol and Liverpool fearing the lessening of consumption on rum and other things distilled from molasses.

1737. Elizabeth Rowe died; an English lady distinguished for her piety and literary talents.

1745. British ship Chester, Capt. Geary, captured the French ship Elephant with $24,000 on board.

1749. Usher Gahagan, executed at Tyburn. He was a gentleman by birth, and a scholar; he edited a beautiful edition of the classics, and translated Pope's Messiah and Temple of Fame into Latin verse. His crime was that of clipping coin!

1762. Tobias Mayer, a distinguished mathematician, died at Gottingen. His lunar and solar tables, as well as his original suggestions on the repeating circle are of much value.

1771. John James de Mairan, a French philosopher, died. He succeeded Fontenelle as secretary to the academy of sciences, and is the author of a Treatise on Phosphoric Light, &c.

1772. The royal marriage act of England was passed. This was another of those attempts to perpetuate regal domination.

1778. Laura Bassi died; she was honored with the degree of doctor of philosophy, for the great mental acquirements displayed in her lectures on that subject, and was distinguished as possessing every amiable virtue.

1780. British under General Clinton invaded South Carolina.

1781. Robert Morris appointed by congress superintendent of finance.

1790. Joseph II, emperor of Germany, died. He was an able and benevolent monarch, who devoted his attention closely to the affairs of the kingdom, and introduced many useful institutions.

1790. At Blackwall, England, while excavations were being made for a wet dock several hazel trees, with nuts, were found deeply imbedded below several strata of sand and clay.

1797. Treaty of Tolentino between Bonaparte and the pope.

1799. El Arish, and subsequently Gaza, with most towns in western Palestine, were taken by the French.

1799. Leopold II, died; grand duke of Tuscany 25 years, and elected emperor of Germany, 1790. He evinced great abilities.

1802. John Moore, a distinguished Scottish physician, and popular author, died. He wrote on the society and manners of different countries in Europe, which his acute discernment and lively imagination enabled him to describe with great accuracy and pleasantry.

1803. British evacuated Egypt.

1808. Gerard Lake died. He was made a peer of Great Britain for his successes as a general in India.

1809. Richard Gough, a learned and eminent English antiquary, died.

1809. Saragossa surrendered to the French. The garrison was reduced to 12,000 men, who, when they marched out of the city, had more the appearance of spectres than of human beings. During this second siege 54,000 perished, of whom one fourth were soldiers.

1810. Andrew Hofer, the leader of the Tyrolese insurrection, executed. He was a brave patriot, and met his fate with heroic firmness.

1811. Battle of San Christoval in Spain, in which general Mendizabal was defeated with the loss of about 12,000 killed and prisoners, by the French under Soult, whose loss was stated at 400 only.

1811. Francis II, of Germany, issued an edict, fixing the current value of bank paper at one fifth of its nominal value.

1817. Samuel Meredith died at his seat in Wayne county, Pa.; first treasurer of the United States under the federal constitution, which office he resigned in 1801.

1820. Arthur Young died; a distinguished English author on agriculture.

1822. John Stewart, commonly called walking John, died in London; to gratify the "amor videndi," he had perambulated much of the globe.

1835. A tremendous earthquake in Chili. The city of Conception, containing 25,000 inhabitants, was reduced to a heap of ruins, not a single house left standing; many other towns and villages were demolished. At first the sea retired and left the vessels in the harbor aground; but it soon rushed violently back 30 feet above its level.

1836. Mary Crawford, died at Castine, Me., aged 100 years and six months; widow of Dr. Wm. Crawford, chaplain and surgeon at Fort Point during the revolution.

1841. James G. Brooks died; known in early life as an American poet, and later as an editor of several newspapers.

1843. Peter Augustus Jay, well known in the state of New York as a statesman and historian, died.

1846. The first legislature of Texas under the U. S. met at Austin. Gen. Henderson was elected the first governor.

1849. Newton M. Curtiss, author of a number of popular novels, died at Charlton, N. Y., aged 34.

1854. Elliott Cresson, president of the Pennsylvania colonization society, died, leaving $127,000 to charitable institutions.

[78]1854. The most violent snow storm that had occurred since 1831, commenced at Washington, and extended over the Middle and New England states.

1855. Joseph Hume, the English statesman died, aged 78. He was a member of the house of commons 37 years.

FEBRUARY 21.

1340. The king of England assumed the title of the king of France, quartering his arms with the motto, "Dieu et mon Droit."

1513. Giuliano Della Rovera, (pope Julius II,) died. He was originally a fisherman. He built St. Peter's at Rome, to procure means for which he ordered the sale of indulgences, which was one of the immediate causes of the reformation; so that it may be said without paradox, that St. Peter's is the great monument of protestantism. He is considered one of the most immoral of the popes, though a generous patron of the polite arts.

1595. Robert Southwell, called sometimes the English Jesuit, died. He was esteemed no inferior poet in his day.

1633. Order of the privy council to stay several ships in the Thames, ready to sail for New England with passengers and provisions. The jealousy of the government was early directed towards the infant colony of Massachusetts. It was observed by one of the kings, that the wheat of the population was sifting across the Atlantic. These orders were ineffectual, for great numbers continued to emigrate, and scarce a vessel arrived in the colony that was not crowded with passengers.

1660. The secluded members of the long parliament again took their seats and voted Monk to be general of the English, Scotch and Irish forces.

1668. John Thurloe, secretary of state to the two Cromwells, died. He was a man of very amiable character, and exercised all possible moderation towards persons of every party.

1676. Two or three hundred Indians principally Narragansetts, surprised the town of Medfield, Mass., killed 18 men, women and children, and burnt half of the town.

1682. The following appears in the minutes of the governor and council of Virginia: "John Buckner called before the Ld. Culpepper and his counsel for printing the laws of 1680, without his excellency's license, and he and the printer ordered to enter into bond in £100 not to print anything hereafter until his majesty's pleasure shall be known."

1684. Charles Spon, an ingenious and learned French physician, died at Lyons. He wrote Latin verse with ease and elegance, and corresponded with most of the learned men of Europe.

1717. Peter Alix, a French protestant of eminent piety and learning, died. He resided in England, where he was greatly esteemed and honored.

1730. Benedict XIII, pope of Rome, died. He was a Dominican of Venice, and before his elevation bishop of Benevento, where his palace was destroyed by an earthquake, and he narrowly escaped. He filled the pontifical office six years, and sustained an excellent character.

1746. Le Bourbon and La Charite, French ships, captured by Com. Knowles in a heavy gale. The military chest belonging to the French vessels contained £5,000.

1759. Action between the British frigate Vestal, Capt. Hood, and the French frigate Bellona, which resulted in the capture of the latter, with the loss of 42 killed. British loss 2 killed and 22 wounded.

1760. The neighborhood of Mt. Vesuvius overflowed by burning lava.

1760. Commodore Thourot arrived in the bay of Carrickfergus with a 43 gun ship and two sloops of war, and having landed 800 men, attacked the town, which, with the castle, he carried after a smart action. The French embarked a few days after, and meeting with a British squadron, an action ensued in which Thourot and 300 of his men were killed.

1792. Jacob Schnebbelie died at London. From the profession of a Swiss confectioner, he rose to be one of the best draughtsmen in England, but too intense application to his studies hastened his death.

1796. Field Marshal Clairfait, the Austrian general, resigned, and was succeeded by the Archduke Charles, for whom a new rank was created, that of field-marshal-general, being the highest military rank in the empire.

1799. Gilbert Wakefield was fined £100 and condemned to two years confinement, for his pamphlet against the bishop of Landaff.

1805. Dominica attacked by a French squadron, which was repulsed by the British under Gen. Provost.

1810. Action between the British ship Horatio, and French frigate Necessity, 21 guns, which last was captured in one hour.

1812. Action between the British ship Victorious, Capt. Talbot, and the Venitian ship Rivoli, 74 guns. The latter was captured, after an engagement of 5 hours, with the loss of 400 killed and wounded; British loss 42 k. 99 w.

[79]1813. Ogdensburgh, N. Y., taken by the British.

1814. The British, about 2000 in number, under Col. Scott, crossed over to the French mills, burnt the arsenal at Malone, N. Y., pillaged the town and carried off some provisions. The enemy retreated in great haste, and lost 200 men by desertion. Gen. Wilkinson endeavored to come up with him, but was prevented by the weather.

1818. David Humphreys, an officer of the revolution, died. He was a native of Connecticut, and successively aid to generals Putnam, Greene and Washington. He is also known as a poet of very fair pretensions.

1824. Eugene de Beauharnais, duke of Leuchtenberg, died. He was the son of Josephine Tacher de la Pagerie, afterwards wife of Napoleon. He distinguished himself in the army, and was made viceroy of Italy, the government of which he managed with great prudence. With the fall of Napoleon he lost his titles and offices, but was in a measure indemnified by the articles of Fontainbleau, the congress of Vienna, and the duke of Bavaria. Under a simple exterior prince Eugene concealed a noble character and great talents.

1831. Robert Hall died at Bristol, England; a very eminent man and a celebrated preacher.

1838. Anthony Isaac Sylvestre de Sacy died, aged 80; renowned principally for his extensive critical knowledge, particularly in oriental languages and literature; esteemed, in this department of learning, the first scholar of his age.

1839. Charles Rossi, a celebrated sculptor, died at London, aged 77.

1840. William Frend, died in London, aged 84; a writer on algebra, taxation and various other subjects.

1845. Sydney Smith, canon of St. Paul's in London, and well known to Pennsylvania repudiators, died in London.

1855. Charles Roger Dod, assistant editor of The Times newspaper, died aged 62.

1856. The students of South Carolina college, armed with rifles, surrendered to the governor of the state and a posse of armed citizens.

FEBRUARY 22.

1371. David II of Scotland died. He was the son of Robert Bruce, was taken prisoner by the English in 1346 and detained in the tower 10 years.

1609. Ferdinand I, grand duke of Tuscany, died. He was eminent for the wisdom and energy of his government.

1630. The first day of public thanksgiving in Massachusetts. The day had been appointed, for a general fast. No ship had arrived in a great length of time, and their stock of provisions was nearly exhausted. At this critical moment a vessel arrived from England laden with provisions; and they immediately changed the day of public fasting into one of public feasting. And it is quite probable that the day was observed with something more than an outward show of thanksgiving on that occasion.

1644. Charles I, having summoned a royal parliament, they met this day at Oxford to the number of 44 lords and 118 commoners; the session was opened with a speech from the king.

1674. Jean Chapelain, died. He attracted the notice of Cardinal Richelieu by a preface which he wrote for the Adonis of Marini. Chapelain was talented and learned, obsequious and discreet, and these made his fortune, for he could be of service to the cardinal, who had the weakness to set up for a bel esprit. He became one of the first members of the Academie Francaise, received a large pension, and became the oracle of the poets of the time, and was universally esteemed. It would have been better if he himself had not set up for a poet. In 1630 he commenced an epic, La Pucelle. It was announced twenty years before its appearance, and the public expectation was greatly disappointed; it soon became an object of ridicule.

1717. Great snow in New England; 6 feet deep in Boston. It commenced on the 20th, on which day Dr. Brattle was buried, and many who attended his funeral were unable to get home for several days.

1731. Frederick Ruysch, an eminent Dutch anatomist, died.

1732. Birthday of George Washington. He was the third son of Augustus Washington, and was born at Bridges Creek, Va.

1744. Partial action off Toulon between the combined French and Spanish fleets under M. De Court, and the British fleet under admirals Matthews and Rowley. The Poder, a Spanish 60 gun ship, was burnt. British loss 92 killed, 185 wounded.

1746. William Couston, director of the French academy of painting and sculpture, died.

1766. British stamp act repealed.

1770. A mob, principally boys, attacked the house of Mr. Richardson, Boston, owing to his having attempted to remove the mark set against the house of one Lille, who had contravened the non-importation law. Richardson fired upon the mob and killed Christopher Snider, a boy 11 years [80]of age, who was recorded in the public prints as the first martyr to American liberty.

1780. An ox roasted on the ice at Philadelphia, the ice being 17 inches thick.

1782. The island of Montserrat surrendered to the French, under Count De Grasse.

1787. The assembly of notables of France assembled.

1797. The French made a descent on Wales.

1806. James Barry, an Irish painter, died. He was patronized by Burke. His greatest effort is a series of allegorical pictures in possession of the Society of arts, London.

1809. Louis, count of Cobentzel, died at Vienna. He was born at Brussels 1753. He entered into the military service of Austria at an early age, and was employed as an embassador to the court of Copenhagen before he had attained his twentieth year; and was continued in that capacity at some one of the European courts during the whole of his life.

1810. Charles Brockden Brown, an American novelist, died aged 39. He holds a distinguished rank among American authors.

1810. The island of St. Eustatia surrendered by the Dutch to the British.

1811. The British ships Cerberus and Active captured 22 vessels from Otranto, with provisions and troops.

1812. Ogdensburg, New York, attacked by the British and Indians under Frazer and McDonnell. Forsythe was compelled to evacuate it. The British took 12 cannons, 1400 stands of arms, 300 tents, some provisions, and all the vessels and boats. American loss 27; British loss 64 killed and wounded.

1814. Blucher defeated by the French under Boyer; the former set the bridge and town of Mery on fire and fled.

1816. Adam Ferguson, an eminent Scottish writer, died. He was sent to America as secretary to the mission in 1778 to effect a reconciliation between the two countries.

1835. Jane Jarmon died near Wadesborough, N. C., aged 105.

1836. Joice Heth died at New York; a blind negro woman, who had been carried about the country as a show, under the pretence that she was 162 years of age and had been the nurse of General Washington. On a post mortem examination it was found that she could not have been more than 80 years old.

1841. A land slide in the commune of Gregano in Italy, by which 113 persons lost their lives. The town of Reggio, in Calabria, nearly destroyed by an earthquake.

1855. The San Francisco bankers suspended payment, causing a panic.

FEBRUARY 23.

303. The soldiers of Diocletian demolished the principal church of Nicomedia, and committed the sacred volumes to the flames.

1447. Gabriel Condoimero (Pope Eugenius IV), died. He was elected to the papal throne 1431, afterwards unjustly deposed, and again restored.

1545. Francis de Bourbon, Count Enghien, killed. He was a celebrated general in the service of Francis I, and was killed by accident.

1555. Thomas Wyat beheaded. He took the lead in an unsuccessful insurrection against the "bloody Queen Mary."

1589. Andrew Dudith, a Hungarian divine, died. He was employed by Ferdinand II, in important affairs of state, wrote on physic, poetry, &c., and was a highly esteemed character.

1603. Andreas Cæsaralpinus, an Italian philosopher and physician, died at Rome.

1619. Bartholomew Ziegenbalg, a celebrated German missionary, died. He was sent to India by the king of Denmark, but meeting with some opposition from the Danish authorities there, he placed himself under the countenance of the British East India company, published a dictionary of the Malabar language, and was fulfilling the object of his mission with great zeal and success, when he was suddenly interrupted by death at the age of 36.

1679. Thomas Goodwin, a theological writer of the puritan school, died, aged 80. He was one of the members of the assembly of divines at Westminster, and attended Cromwell on his death bed.

1717. Magnus Steinbock, an illustrious Swede, died at Frederickshaven. He distinguished himself by his valor under Charles XII, and in the absence of the king from Sweden, he managed the affairs of the government with uncommon wisdom and moderation.

1750. A brilliant borealis appeared at Cork, about seven in the evening. The tide at the same time rose far above its ordinary height.

1766. Stanislaus I, king of Poland and elector of Saxony, died. He was an author, and a good ruler, though an unfortunate one.

1775. The daily consumption of pulque, the fermented juice of the maguei, in the city of Mexico, according to the custom house record, was 6000 arrobas (150,000 lbs.), and the daily consumption of tobacco for smoking, was reckoned at 1250 [81]crowns. The population then exceeded 200,000.

1779. St. Vincents surrendered with considerable stores, to the Americans under Col. Clarke. British taken, 79.

1780. Action between the British ship Resolution, 74 guns, and French ship La Prothee, 64 guns, which resulted in the capture of the latter.

1792. Joshua Reynolds, the English painter, died in London, aged 69. He rapidly acquired opulence by his profession, and on the institution of the royal academy, was elected president. The lectures which he delivered before this society have become a standard work.

1796. Nicholas Stofflet, the celebrated Vendean chief, shot at Angers. At the beginning of the French revolution he was a private soldier, but became one of the most intrepid and daring chiefs of the royal army of La Vendee, and had been in no less than 150 actions, 10 of them pitched battles; and in more than 100 of them he proved victorious. He met his fate with characteristic fortitude.

1796. Bonaparte appointed commander-in-chief of the army of Italy.

1798. Rockland county N. Y., erected.

1798. The pope withdrew from Rome to Sienna, having been deprived of his temporal possessions by the French.

1800. Joseph Warton, an English prelate, died. He was also an ingenious poet and critical writer.

1805. British frigate Leander, fell in with and captured the Ville de Milan, and her prize the Cleopatra, captured a few days previous. (See 17th.)

1814. The blacks under Christophe, took by assault fort Sabourin, in St. Domingo.

1821. The counties of Monroe and Livingston N. Y., erected.

1822. Benavides executed; an outlaw and pirate, who for several years proved the scourge of the southern part of Chili, where he perpetrated the most horrid cruelties upon every age and sex that fell in his way. In 1818 he had been condemned to be shot, and was supposed to have been killed; but although shockingly wounded and left for dead, he recovered and became a fiend incarnate.

1827. Walter Scott disclosed himself publicly for the first time as the Great Unknown, at a dinner of the Edinburgh theatrical fund, himself in the chair.

1831. Gertrude Elizabeth Maria, a favorite German vocalist, celebrated the anniversary of her 83d year at Reval, where Goethe offered her a poetical tribute.

1836. Battle of fort Alamo in Texas, in which the Mexican army of 4000, who made the assault, were repulsed.

1840. James Maury died at New York, aged 95. He was the first consul from the United States to Liverpool, to which office he was appointed by Washington, and which he held for nearly half a century.

1847. Battle of Buena Vista in which the Mexican army, numbering more than four to one of the Americans, was completely defeated. Many of the American officers were slain.

1848. John Quincy Adams, ex-president of the United States, died in the Capitol at Washington. It may well be questioned whether any statesman in the world was better informed.

1851. Joanna Baillie, the Scottish poetress, died, aged 89. She was born at Bothwell, near the Clyde, and lived in seclusion with her maiden sister.

1854. The steamer from Stonington arrived at New York, having been detained in the sound by ice during three days.

1856. A freshet commenced in the Ohio, which caused great destruction of property, among which were several steam boats.

FEBRUARY 24.

303. Diocletian issued the first general edict of persecution against the Christians, by which all their religious edifices in the empire were to be leveled to their foundations, and the church property confiscated and sold to the highest bidder. This abominable decree was instantly torn from its column by a Christian of rank, who for his audacity was burnt or rather roasted, by a slow fire.

1383. John Wickliffe presented seven articles to parliament containing his doctrines.

1468. John Gutenberg, the inventor of printing, died. In connection with Faust he contributed greatly to the improvement of the art, then in a very rude state.

1495. Jem, son of Bayazid I the Osman sultan, died. He was defeated by his brother in a contest for the throne, and took refuge with the knights of St. John at Rhodes, who sent him to France, where he was kept in confinement several years, and then delivered up to the pope, Alexander VI, by whom he was poisoned.

1525. Battle of Pavia in Italy. The imperialists under Bourbon, Pescara and Lannoy defeated the French and captured their king, Francis I, whom they sent prisoner to Madrid. The king fought with heroic valor, killing 7 men with his own hand.

1540. Charles V of Germany entered Ghent, which had been in a state of insurrection; 26 of the principal citizens were put to death. He was born at this place on this day 1500.

[82]1541. Pedro de Valdivia, having been sent by Pizarro with 200 Spaniards and a numerous body of Peruvians to Chili for the purpose of settling such provinces as he should conquer, succeeded in overcoming the resistance of the natives and founded the city of Santiago.

1563. Francis of Lorraine, duke of Guise, assassinated. He distinguished himself in the wars with Charles V and the English; and in the reigns of Henry II and Francis II of France, completely governed the kingdom. After the death of Francis, he espoused the side of the catholics in the civil wars.

1587. Thomas Cavendish passed the straits of Magellan.

1645. A treaty of peace, which was begun at Uxbridge on the 30th January, between the commissioners of Charles I, and those of the parliament, was broken off.

1665. A Dutch impostor whipped thro' the streets of London; possibly only a little eccentric.

1665. Deerfield, Mass., purchased of the Indians. The deed, which is still extant, was given "for the use and behoof of Major Eleazar Lusher, Ensign Daniel Fisher, and other English at Dedham, their associates and successors," by Chauk alias Chague, the sachem of Pocomptuck, and his brother Wassahoale, and witnessed by Wequonnock. It reserves to the Indians the right of fishing in the rivers, hunting wild animals, and gathering nuts. It is capable of proof, that the early settlers in New England, as well as New York, made it a matter of course to purchase the lands upon which they settled, in nearly all instances, and at prices which were considered a fair equivalent at the time by the Indians. It may be mentioned as a matter of curiosity, that the salary of the first minister settled at this place was £60, to be paid in wheat at 3s. 6d., peas at 2s. 6d., corn at 2s. per bushel, and salted pork at 2½d. per pound.

1667. Thomas Adams died. He was born at Wem in England; went to London, where he established himself in business as a draper; and in 1645 rose to the high honor of lord mayor of that city.

1676. Attack on Medfield, Mass., by a party of about 300 Indians. The loss of Lancaster, a short time previous, had put the neighboring towns on their guard, and Medfield had obtained a small garrison of soldiers for greater security, although within 22 miles of Boston. The Indians during the night had secreted themselves, according to custom, under the fences and behind trees about the villages, so that the people were shot down as they came out of their doors and their houses immediately set on fire. The soldiers being lodged in different parts of the town, could not get together until about 50 buildings were on fire. Some were killed as they attempted to pass to their neighbors for shelter, and in some instances, the husband flying with one child and the wife with another, one of them fell into the hands of the savages or was killed, while the other escaped. Two or three discharges of a field piece put the whole horde to flight, who as they passed the river fired the bridge to prevent pursuit. Loss 18 killed, and many wounded and carried away for torture. (Holmes says Feb. 21.)

1684. Birthday of Handel, the music composer, at Halle.

1684. Boundary line between New York and Connecticut partially run.

1716. The earls of Derwentwater and Kenmuir beheaded on Tower hill, for treason in favoring the cause of the Pretender.

1721. John Sheffield, duke of Buckingham, died; a celebrated general, critic and poet.

1724. A great storm attended with an uncommon tide, was experienced in New England. The tide in some places rose ten feet higher than it was ever known before, and rendered many of the streets of Boston navigable.

1740. Providential delivery from death of a society of monks at Palermo.

1752. Isaac Wood, an English painter, died. His principal pieces are in oil and black lead upon vellum.

1758. Battle of Hoya in Westphalia, between the allies and French.

1762. Tremendous hurricane and fall of snow in England. Nearly 50 persons perished in the fields, and several whales were driven on the Essex and Kentish coasts.

1766. Stanislaus, the last duke of Lorrain and Bar, as an independent Duchy, died in consequence of burns from his robes de chambre having accidentally caught fire.

1777. William Dodd, an English divine, convicted of forgery, and sentenced to be hanged.

1777. Joseph, king of Portugal, died. He was of the house of Braganza, ascended the throne in 1750; his reign was turbulent and unfortunate.

1781. Edward Capell died; known as the editor of an edition of Shakspeare in 10 vols., and 4 large quarto vols. of "Notes and various readings of Shakspeare."

1785. Charles Bonaparte, father of Napoleon, died, leaving his family in straightened circumstances.

1797. Resumption of hostilities in Italy between the French and Austrians.

1799. George Christopher Lichtenberg, a famous German writer, died. His commentary on Hogarth is said of itself to immortalize his fame.

[83]1809. Drury-lane theatre burnt. It had been previously burnt, and rebuilt 1671 by Sir Christopher Wren at a cost of £200,000.

1810. Henry Cavendish, an English philosopher, died. He made the important discovery of the composition of water. Of diffident and retiring manners, he devoted his days to experiments and improvements in the arts and sciences. It has been said that he was the richest among the learned, and the most learned among the rich men of his time. He left a fortune of £5,000,000.

1813. Action between United States sloop Hornet, Capt. Lawrence, and British man-of-war brig Peacock, Capt. Peake, off Demarara. The action commenced at half past 5 P. M. and continued 15 minutes, when the Peacock showed signals of distress. Exertions were made to keep the vessel afloat till the prisoners could be got off, but she sunk carrying down 13 of her crew and 3 Americans. The loss of the crew of the Peacock could not be ascertained; but the captain was killed in the latter part of the engagement, and the vessel was literally cut to pieces. The Hornet lost 1 killed and 4 wounded; and the vessel received trifling damage, except in her rigging.

1815. Robert Fulton died, aged 50. He was born at Little Britain, Pa., and early discovered a genius for painting and mechanics; and he subsequently studied painting in London, under Benjamin West. He also resided several years in Paris; after which he returned to America, and presented to the world the phenomenon of the steam boat.

1821. John Keats, an English poet, died, aged 25. He was of humble origin, but was possessed of a fine genius. His productions were made the subject of severe and unmerited criticism by Gifford, who had leaped from a cobbler's bench into an editor's stool, and presided over the pages of the Quarterly Review. These gross attacks preyed upon his mind and hastened his death.

1821. Iturbide issued his proclamation, called the plan of Iguala, for the pacification of the state of Mexico. It contemplated the independence of Mexico, and still to preserve its union with Spain.

1826. Richard Dale, an American naval officer, died. He was born in Virginia, 1756, and at the age of 12 went to sea. During the war of the revolution he was captured, and imprisoned, but found means to escape, and joined the celebrated Paul Jones. Under Jones he distinguished himself in the sanguinary and desperate engagement between the Bon Homme Richard and the British frigate Serapis, and was the first who reached the deck of the latter when she was boarded and taken. In 1802 he settled in Philadelphia, where he passed the remainder of his days.

1828. Jacob Brown, who acted so prominent a part in the war of 1812 between England and the United States, and for some time commander-in-chief of the United States army, died at Washington.

1838. Carl Heinrich Ludwig Politz, died at Leipsic. He was professor in the university, and an eminent writer on statistics, history and politics.

1843. John Owens, a soldier of the old French war and also of the American revolution, died, aged 107.

1848. Revolution at Paris.

1852. David Kennison, the last of the Boston tea party, died at Chicago, aged 117.

1854. Robert Armstrong died, aged 64; proprietor of the Washington Union newspaper.

1854. At Niagara falls two men fell from the suspension bridge, a distance of 240 feet and were dashed to pieces.

FEBRUARY 25.

52 B. C. Pompey elected sole consul of Rome.

1030. Adalbero, a French ecclesiastic, died. He has left a character suited to bold and unscrupulous intrigue.

1464. The Lancasterians defeated by the Yorkists at Heagley Moor, the white rose triumphing over the red.

1523. William Lily, an English grammarian, died at London of the plague. He is highly praised by Erasmus, who revised the syntax of his grammar, for his uncommon erudition in the languages, and admirable skill in the instruction of youth.

1601. Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, executed. He obtained the favor of the queen, Elizabeth, and distinguished himself on many occasions. But having committed some indiscretions which required reprimanding, his pride was wounded, which led him to open rebellion. His fate has formed the subject of four tragedies.

1634. Albert, count Wallenstein, generalissimo of the Austrian army during the thirty years war, assassinated.

1643. A barbarous massacre in the night of the Indians who were encamped at Pavonia, opposite the Dutch fort of New Amsterdam, instigated by Gov. Kieft. About 80 Indians lost their lives, and many enormities were enacted by the Dutch.

1676. The Indiana assaulted the town of Weymouth, Mass., and burned several houses and barns. This was a disastrous [84]year with the colonists. The Indians had risen in their utmost power, with the determination of utterly extirpating the English, and almost every day witnessed the smoke of town or cluster of dwellings on fire.

1703. Daniel de Foe prosecuted as the author of a book entitled, The shortest way with the dissenters, and his book burned by the hangman.

1712. Nicholas Catinat, an illustrious French general under Louis XIV, died.

1713. Frederick I, of Prussia, died. He was elector of Brandenburg, and ambitious of raising his duchy into a kingdom. To accomplish this object, he joined Leopold, emperor of Germany, in a war against several states.

1723. Christopher Wren, the English architect, died, aged 91. He built St. Paul's and fifty other churches and monuments, which had been destroyed by the great fire of 1666.

1724. Pope Innocent XIII died.

1754. Richard Mead, an eminent English physician and patron of learning, died, aged 81. His library sold for about $75,000. His income from his profession was about $25,000 a year.

1761. Joseph Francis Desmahis, a French author of great celebrity, died.

1768. Mangalore, a seaport belonging to Hyder Ally, taken by the British.

1776. Battle of Trenton. The American army under Washington crossed the Delaware in the night during a violent storm of snow and rain, and attacked the British on the north and west parts of the town. A detachment had been ordered to cross the river and secure a bridge to prevent the escape of the enemy; but owing to the extreme difficulty of crossing, this part of the plan failed, and about 500 escaped. British loss 20 killed, 1000 prisoners; American loss 2 killed, 2 frozen, 5 wounded.

1779. The splendid bridge at Puerto Santo, in Spain, fell and killed a great number of persons while the priests were in the act of consecrating it.

1781. Battle near Haw river in North Carolina, between the Americans under Pickens and Lee, and a considerable body of royalists under Col. Pyle. The latter were cut to pieces, without the loss of a man by the former.

1781. The French and Spanish fleets encountered a furious storm off cape Francois in the West-Indies. Several ships sunk or foundered, and about 2200 men perished.

1782. Denmark acknowledged the independence of the United States.

1798. The French under Brune entered the canton of Berne in Switzerland.

1799. El Arish in Egypt surrendered to the French under Bonaparte.

1805. William Buchan, an eminent Scottish physician, died near London. He was educated for the pulpit, but made choice of the medical profession, which he pursued during a long life. In 1771 he published his Domestic Medicine; it has been attended with a degree of success scarcely equaled by any other book in our language, and is translated into every European tongue.

1807. Battle of Peterswalde, between the French and Russians, in which the latter were defeated, with the loss of their general, Baron De Korff, his staff and 400 men prisoners.

1814. Action between the British frigate Erotas and French frigate Clorinde, 44 guns. The captain of the Erotas and 4 men were wounded and 22 killed. The Clorinde was captured the next day by the British ships Dryades and Achades, her loss supposed to have been 120 men.

1816. A number of sailors belonging to the American squadron in the Mediterranean, having been permitted to go on shore at Port Mahon, were attacked by the Spanish guard and several killed and wounded.

1816. Frederick William Bulow, count von Dennewitz, a Prussian general, died. He is famous for his victories in the last French and German war, the art of which he had learnt scientifically in early youth. He was also devoted to literature and the fine arts, and esteemed as a citizen and a man.

1817. Schooner Ocean of New York sunk at sea. Isaac Roget, a merchant of high standing in New York, was convicted in conjunction with others, of having loaded her at Havre de Grace with 97 boxes of stones, with a view to defraud the insurance officers of $58,000.

1819. Francesco Manuel, a Portuguese poet, died. His opinions being rather too liberal for the times, he was summoned to appear before the inquisition, but instead of obeying the mandate he resisted the officer sent to arrest him, and fled to Paris, where he resided till his death. It has been said of him that no poet or writer since the time of Camoens had done so much for the language.

1822. William Pinckney, a distinguished American statesman, died. It is said that he possessed almost unequaled legal science and eloquence.

1829. A violent hurricane in the island of Barbadoes, by which the whole of the eastern end of the island was devastated, and great damage done to the shipping.

1831. The Poles defeated near the walls of Warsaw by the Russians, with the loss of 5000 men. Russian loss 4,500.

1841. Philip P. Barbour, an eminent [85]American statesman and judge, died at Washington, aged 60.

1841. The Bogue forts and the city of Canton captured by the British. The number of Chinese killed and wounded was very great; 1000 were captured. Canton was almost deserted by its inhabitants.

1850. Tau Kwang, emperor of China, died, aged 69.

1856. Peace congress met at Paris, and agreed upon an armistice till the 31st of March.

FEBRUARY 26.

747 B. C. The era of Narbonassar (a king of Babylon) called also the Egyptian year, began on the first day of the month Thoth, corresponding with this day in the Julian calendar. The years are vague, containing 365 days without intercalation, so that in the year 31 B. C. the beginning of the year fell on the 29th August, and at the end of 1460 years it ran through all the Julian months.

The Mexican year began also on the 26th February. It is also certain that the Mexican calendar conformed greatly with the Egyptian.

387. In consequence of a sermon preached by John Chrysostom on drunkenness and blasphemy, a sedition broke out at Antioch. The statues of Theodosius and the imperial family were thrown from their pedestals and demolished by the tumultuous citizens.

398. John Chrysostom, or the preacher with the golden mouth, elected archbishop of Constantinople.

1426. John de Brogni died; originally a swine herd in Savoy; he distinguished himself for learning, virtue and piety, and was raised to the dignity of cardinal.

1512. Robert Fabyan, an English historian, died. He was brought up to a trade, became a merchant, and an alderman of London. His Chronicle was burnt by Wolsey.

1553. Four English noblemen, namely, Ralph Vane, Miles Partridge, Michael Stanhope and Thomas Arundel, were executed as accomplices to the duke of Somerset.

1611. Anthony Possevin, a Jesuit, died at Ferrara. He was distinguished as a preacher, and employed by the pope in embassies to different countries.

1616. Galileo appeared before Cardinal Bellarmine to renounce his heretical opinions; and having declared that he abandoned the doctrine of the earth's motion, and would neither defend nor teach it, in his conversation or his writings, he was dismissed from the bar of the inquisition.

1638. Claude Meziriac, a Jesuit, died; known as a poet in several languages.

1686. Godfrey, count d'Estrades, died.

1696. Charles Scarborough, an eminent English physician and mathematician, died. He succeeded Dr. Harvey as lecturer on anatomy and surgery.

1723. Thomas d'Urfey, an English poet, died. He was a man of sparkling talents, but his poetic and dramatic pieces are now forgotten. His Pills to Purge Melancholy is yet upon the shelves of many English libraries.

1726. Emanuel Maximilian, elector of Bavaria, died. He distinguished himself under the emperor Leopold, was placed at the head of the Hungarian army, and made governor of the Low Countries by the king of Spain.

1729. The British parliament resolved that it was an indignity and a breach of privilege for any one to publish the debates or report the proceedings of the house.

1767. Hyder Ally and the nizam of Deccan defeated by the British at Errour, near Trincomalee, in Ceylon.

1769. William Duncombe, an English dramatic author, died. He translated Horace.

1770. Joseph Tartini died at Padua; an Italian musician, distinguished for his extraordinary performances on the violin.

1774. John Tice died at Hagley, England, aged 125.

1775. Gen. Gage despatched 140 soldiers under Col. Leslie to seize the military stores collected at Salem. The people foiled the expedition by drawing up a bridge and causing other delays till it was too late to effect any thing, and they returned bootless.

1789. The Cayugas sold their lands to the state of New York.

1802. Alexander Geddes died at Paddington, England. He was a catholic and is represented as a man of profound research in biblical literature, and employed himself many years in a new translation of the Bible, which he did not live to finish.

1807. Battle of Braunsberg in Prussian Poland, in which a division of 10,000 Russians were overthrown by the French, who took 2,000 prisoners and 16 cannon.

1810. John Dalrymple, a Scottish author, died, aged 84. He was for many years baron of the exchequer in Scotland.

1813. Robert R. Livingston, an American statesman, died. He was one of the committee which drew up the Declaration of Independence. He was afterwards chancellor of the state of New York, and minister to France. He assisted Fulton with means to carry his experiments into effect, [86]which gave to this country the honor of the first successful steam boat.

1815. Bonaparte escaped from the island of Elba, accompanied by 1000 of his old guards, who had followed him into exile.

1823. John Philip Kemble died; one of the most eminent tragedians of the British stage since the days of Garrick. He possessed talent and learning, and was an author.

1826. John Kay, caricaturist, engraver, barber, and miniature painter, died in Edinburgh. His small shop in Parliament close, was a great lounging place for the idlers of the town.

1827. William Kitchener, an English physician, died. He is distinguished for his experiments in cookery; he treated eating and drinking as the only serious business of life, and promulgated the laws of the culinary art, under the title of the Cook's Oracle, professedly founded on his own practice. He possessed an ample fortune, which enabled him to follow the bent of his eccentricities.

1831. John Bell, who gave direction and name to Bell's Weekly Messenger at London, died.

1833. Elizabeth Pearce died in Johnson county, North Carolina, aged 111.

1833. The spasmodic cholera appeared at Havana, and in about one month from that time had destroyed 7000 persons.

1834. Aloys Senefelder, inventor of lithography, died at Munich, aged 63.

1852. Thomas Moore, the celebrated Irish poet, died, aged 73.

1854. The gallery of the French opera house at New Orleans fell during the performance, carrying away the second tier, by which the occupants were precipitated into the parquette, killing 3, and badly wounding 56 persons.

1854. Three shocks of an earthquake at Manchester, Kentucky, by which the houses were violently shaken.

1855. Gen. Jackson's sword presented to congress by the heirs of Gen. Armstrong.

1855. Henry Pierpont Edwards, an American judge, died at New York, aged 46.

1856. At the breaking up of the ice on the Mississippi at St. Louis, 23 steam boats were wrecked.

FEBRUARY 27.

212. Geta, emperor of Rome, slain by his brother Caracalla, who was incited to the deed by jealousy.

1411. The charter of the university of St. Andrews, at Aberdeen in Scotland, granted.

1642. Tobias Crisp died; a controversial writer on divinity, and a great champion on antinomianism.

1697. John Berkley, baron of Stratton, died; a noted commander in the English fleet.

1706. John Evelyn, the English diarist, died. He is ranked among the greatest philosophers of England, who turned his pen readily to almost every topic. His Diary is a curious book, extending nearly from his childhood to his death, and contains much information not elsewhere to be found.

1735. John Arbuthnot, a Scottish physician, died. He was attached to the court of Queen Anne, was eminent in his profession, and distinguished as a wit in an age abounding with men of wit and learning.

1738. Henry Groove, an English divine, died. He belonged to the dissenters, and wrote several valuable theological treatises.

1746. Thomas Faunce died at Plymouth, aged 99. He knew the rock on which the pilgrims landed, and learning that it was covered in the construction of a wharf, was so affected that he wept. His tears, perhaps, saved it from oblivion.

1776. Battle of Moor's creek bridge, in which the tories and Highlanders under McDonald, were defeated with the loss of their bravest officers. They fled leaving 350 guns, 1500 rifles, 13 wagons, and 150 swords in the hands of the victors, as well as their general. This defeat depressed the spirits of the royalists in North Carolina, and prevented their making any farther efforts.

1794. Of the crews of 13 American vessels captured by the Algerines, four were redeemed, leaving 126 still in the hands of their captors as slaves. Two of these vessels were captured in 1785, and the rest in 1793. A great effort was made throughout the land to raise money for their redemption by charitable contributions.

1797. Bank of England suspended specie payments. Twenty years after it resumed on one and two pound notes.

1806. Action between the British ship Hydra, and French brig La Furet, off Cadiz, in which the latter was captured.

1814. Battle of Orthes, in France, between the British under Wellington and the French.

1817. Two shocks of an earthquake felt at Kingston, Upper Canada.

1829. Battle of Tarqui between the Colombian army of 5000, and the Peruvian of 8000, in which the latter were defeated with considerable loss. Articles for the cessation of hostilities were signed on the field of battle, and mutual differences referred to the arbitration of the United States government.

1844. Nicholas Biddle, celebrated as the [87]president of the United States bank for a number of years, died near Philadelphia, aged 58. He graduated at Princeton at the early age of 15, and was a man of great ability, of rarely equaled scholarship, and of the most polished and courtly manners. On the ruin of the bank he retired into private life, where however the creditors of the bank did not allow him undisturbed repose.

1853. Paul Frederick Augustus, reigning duke of Oldenburgh, died, aged 70.

FEBRUARY 28.

509 B. C. Battle of the Œsuvian fields, in which the Tarquins were vanquished and expelled from Rome, with the loss of more than 11,000 citizens on the side of the victors.

509 B. C. Lucius Junius Brutus, the avenger of the rape of Lucretia, and founder of the Roman republic, fell at the battle of the Œsuvian fields. So great was the fury of the encounter between him and his adversary, that their shields were mutually pierced, and each fell dead from his horse transfixed by the lance of his enemy.

628. Chosroes II, king of Persia, died. He carried his arms into Judea, Libya and Egypt, and made himself master of Carthage. He forced the Roman emperor Heraclius, to sue for peace; but his country was soon after penetrated by the Romans, his palace pillaged and burnt, and himself dethroned and cast into prison by his own son, after witnessing the massacre of 18 other sons.

1408. Battle of Bramham Moor.

1447. Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, murdered. He was the rival of Cardinal Beaufort, as the head of affairs in England, and was the friend and patron of learning. The cardinal lived to enjoy his triumph but six weeks.

1582. George Buchanan, a Scottish poet and historian, died. He occupied the last twelve years of his life in writing a history of his country in Latin.

1594. William Fleetwood, an English lawyer, died. He was recorder of the city of London in the reign of Elizabeth, and the author of several law treatises.

1604. John Whitgift, archbishop of Canterbury, died. He was unwearied in his efforts to make the puritans conform to the national church.

1610. The house of commons complained of the king's profusion, especially in the immense sums lavished on Scotch favorites.

1642. Charles I of England sent to the house of commons his reasons for refusing the militia bill; the house declared his advisers public enemies, and passed a vote of approval on the counties which had put themselves in a posture of defence.

1648. Christian IV of Denmark, died. He sustained the character of an able and wise sovereign.

1680. Decan and Hennessin were sent out from fort Crevecoeur on the Illinois, to trace the Mississippi to its source. They ascended the river to the 46th degree, where they were stopped by a fall, to which they gave the name of St. Anthony.

1703. John Baptist Thiers, died; a doctor of the Sorbonne, and professor of the belles lettres at Paris.

1734. Battle in Syria between the Turks, 45,000, and the Persians under Kouli Khan. The Turks were marching to succor Babylon, but were defeated with the loss of 20,000 killed on the field or taken prisoners. The victory cost the Persians 10,000 men.

1735. Large statute of George II set up in the royal hospital at Greenwich, Eng., at the expense of Sir John Jennings and sculptor Mr. Rysbrack.

1736. A proposal submitted to the house of commons in England, to levy a duty on distilled spirituous liquors, so as to prevent the ill consequence of the poorer classes drinking them to excess. It was stated that some signs where they were sold had the following inscription: "Drunk for a penny; dead drunk for two pence; clean straw for nothing!"

1757. Edward Moore died; an English fabulist and dramatic writer of considerable note.

1758. Action between the French fleet under Du Quesne and the British, under Saunders, near Carthagena. The British captured the Foudroyant, 80 guns, and Orphee, 64 guns; the Oriflamme, 50 guns, was driven on shore under the castle of Aiglos, coast of Spain.

1759. The pope permitted the Bible to be translated into all the languages of the Catholic states.

1760. Action between the French fleet under Thourot and the British, Capt. Elliot. Three French frigates were captured and Thourot killed. So great a terror had he created in the seaports of Great Britain, that his defeat was celebrated with the greatest rejoicings.

1771. Richard Grey, a learned English divine, died. He was a polemical and miscellaneous writer.

1781. William Stockton died; a signer of the Declaration of Independence from New Jersey.

1783. John Baptist d'Espagnac, a French general, died. He signalized himself in the campaign of Italy.

1795. Five hundred emigrant sleighs passed through the city of Albany between [88]sunrise and sunset, on their way to the Genesee country. It was estimated that as many as 1,200 sleighs, freighted with men, women, children and furniture, had passed up State street in the space of three days, destined for the Genesee valley, the far west of the emigrants of that day.

1799. Bonaparte reached the city of Gaza in Palestine.

1799. Action between the British frigate Sybille, and French ship La Forte, 50 guns. The later was captured in 1 hour 40 minutes. The British lost two of their highest officers.

1804. Pichegru, the conquerer of Holland, arrested at Paris by order of Bonaparte.

1815. Action between the United States frigate Constitution, 44 guns, Capt. Stewart, and British frigate Cyane and sloop Levant, 54 guns, Capt. Falcon; British loss, 40 killed, 80 wounded; Constitution lost 4 killed, 11 wounded. The Cyane and Levant were captured.

1823. William W. Van Ness, an eminent judge of the N. Y. supreme court, died.

1834. Modeste Malhiot, the Canadian giant, died. His height was 6 feet 4 inches, and his weight 619½ pounds.

1837. Adam Binkley, died in Davidson co., Pennsylvania, aged 138. He was an officer of the revolution and served throughout the war, at which time he had a wife and 11 children.

1843. A remarkable comet first observed in the northern states, which caused considerable controversy whether it was a comet or the zodiacal light. It was first seen at noon, and was distinctly observed with the naked eye from 7 to 9 o'clock in the evening during the month of March. Its train extended about 70° to 100°.

1851. The Spanish government of Manilla, totally destroyed the forts of the pirate Sultan of Sooloo.

1853. Doncaster church, England, built in 1070, destroyed by fire.

1854. Earthquake at Lexington, Ky., and surrounding country, attended by a loud roaring noise.

1854. American steamer Black Warrior, seized by the Cuban authorities at Havana.

1855. An earthquake at Broussa killed or wounded about 800 people, and was succeeded by a fire which destroyed nearly one-third of the houses.

FEBRUARY 29.

1631. The president and counsel for New England, made a grant to Robert Aldworth and Giles Elbridge of a hundred acres of land for every person whom they should transport to the province of Maine within seven years, who should continue there three years; and an absolute grant of 12,000 acres as their proper inheritance for ever, to be laid out near the river commonly called Pemaquid.

1704. Deerfield, in Massachusetts, burnt. Hertel de Rouville with 200 French and 140 Indians, after a tedious march through deep snow from Canada, made an attack upon this place, which was the northern frontier on Connecticut river. A watch had patrolled the streets until about two hours before day, when he incautiously fell asleep, and the snow was of such depth as to admit of an entrance over the pickets of the fort. The whole settlement was burnt with the exception of one house, which was standing until quite recently; 47 were slain, 112 carried into captivity, including among the latter, the Rev. John Williams and his family. Of the captives, 17 died or were killed on the march; 57 were redeemed, among whom were the minister and his family (his wife was killed soon after the capture), except one daughter who could not be persuaded to return; but adopted the manners and customs of the Indians, became a catholic, and married a savage. The bell taken from the church, it is said, still hangs in an Indian church at St. Regis.

1744. John Theophilus Desaguliers died. He was the son of a French protestant clergyman, who resided in England. Having been educated for the ministry, he settled in London; there he acquired a turn for natural philosophy, and was the first person who lectured on experimental philosophy in the metropolis. He was a man of rare ability, and his income enabled him to keep an equipage. His coachman, Erasmus King, from the force of example, became a kind of rival to the doctor; for he also undertook to read lectures, and exhibit experiments in natural philosophy. The terms of admission to the lyceum of the latter philosopher were in proportion to the humble station he had filled.

1793. The French convention passed a decree of accusation against Marat, and by so doing tore off the cloak of inviolability which covered its members, and constituted itself its own jury of accusation.

1808. Denmark declared war against Sweden.

1810. Battle of Vique, in Spain, in which the Spanish General O'Donnel attacked the French under Souham. The impetuosity of the charge made by the Spanish troops lost them the battle.

1844. Fatal explosion of the great gun, Peacemaker, on board the American war steamer, Princeton, by which several government officers lost their lives, and many persons were seriously injured.


[89]

MARCH.

MARCH 1.

509. B. C. Valerius Publicola pronounced a funeral oration over the body of Junius Brutus, which was the first institution of that generous tribute to the memory of the virtuous dead.

1554. In the household expenses of Queen Mary 15 shillings are given to a yeoman for bringing her majesty a leek on this day.

1562. The catholics under the duke of Guise fell upon a body of Calvinists at Bassi in France, who were singing the psalms of Marot in a barn. The latter were insulted, and induced to come to blows: when nearly 60 of these unhappy people were killed and 200 wounded. This unexpected event lightened the flame of civil war throughout the kingdom.

1564. Printing introduced again into Moscow. Some 12 years previous it had been used there, but the burning of the city by the Poles suspended it.

1625. John Robinson died; minister of the first English church in Holland, to which the first settlers of New England belonged. He fled to Holland with his congregation to avoid persecution, and at the time of his death was preparing to follow with the remainder of the brethren to America. He was distinguished for his learning, liberality and piety.

1645. Battle of Pontefract, in which Sir Marmaduke Langdale defeated the lord Fairfax.

1663. Adam Adami, a French ecclesiastic, statesman and historian, died.

1682. Thomas Herbert, an English author of Travels in Asia and Africa, died. He was engaged in the civil wars between the parliament and the royalists, and on the restoration was created a baronet.

1689. The odious hearth stone tax ordered to be taken off by William, prince of Orange.

1711. The Spectator, a daily critical, satirical and literary paper made its appearance in London, under the conduct of Addison and Steele principally, with the assistance of some of the master spirits of the day, and had a reputation which has never been equaled by any other periodical of the kind.

1733. That mysterious person, the oldest inhabitant, witnessed a great flood in the north of England, wholly unprecedented in his life time.

1766. Zabdiel Boylston, an American physician, died. He was the first to introduce inoculation for small-pox into New England. This mode of treating a virulent disease brought upon him the ridicule of his medical brethren; but he outlived these prejudices and realized a handsome fortune by his profession.

1774. Prince A. D. Kantemir, died; a Turk by birth, but subsequently a distinguished oriental scholar.

1781. Maryland ratified the articles of the confederation of the United States being the last state to do so.

1786. The first No. of the Observer appeared, conducted by Cumberland, the dramatist.

1791. The annual masquerade held at Rutland square rooms, Dublin, was the cause of a great riot and the death of many of the police.

1792. Leopold II of Germany, and I of Tuscany, died. He made the latter the happiest and best governed state of Italy. In 1790 he succeeded to the imperial crown, and was noted for the wisdom of his measures, his affability, strict justice and kindness to the poor.

1793. Battle of Aldenhoven, between the French under Dumourier, and 40,000 Austrians under Gen. Coburg. The French were defeated with the loss of 6,000 killed and 4,000 prisoners.

1799. Essex county, N. Y., erected.

1811. Massacre of the Mamelukes in Egypt by order of the pasha.

1814. Treaty of Chaumont, between Austria, Russia, Prussia and Great Britain, against Napoleon.

1815. Bonaparte landed at Frejus in France from Elba, and resumed the imperial crown.

1816. Ontario co., N. Y., erected.

1838. The Patriots of Canada, about 600 in number, under Nelson and Cote, surrendered to Gen. Wool of the United [90]States army, near Alburg Springs, Vt., and the frontier became tranquilized.

1845. Texas admitted into the Union as an independent State.

1854. The steam ship city of Glasgow left Liverpool for Philadelphia with more than 300 passengers, and was never more seen.

1855. Thomas Day, an eminent Connecticut jurist died, aged 78. He published 26 volumes of law reports, and his entire works number about 40 volumes.

1856. The colossal bronze statue of Beethoven, the gift of Charles C. Perkins, inaugurated at the music hall, Boston.

MARCH 2.

986. Lothaire, king of France, died of poison, said to have been administered by his wife Emma.

1492. The Jews banished from Spain by an edict of Ferdinand V. They numbered 800,000 souls.

1585. Dr. Parry executed for a design to assassinate Queen Elizabeth. She had formerly released him from imprisonment, on a charge of justifying Romanism.

1611. Bartholomew Leggat, convicted of the Arian heresy and delivered over to the secular power.

1617. Robert Abbott, bishop of Salisbury, died, aged 58. He was active and pains-taking in his office; a profound scholar, and an industrious author.

1619. Queen Anne, consort of James I, died at Hampton Court.

1622. John Marion Avantio, a learned Italian civilian, died at Padua.

1629. The speaker of the house of commons, in England, refusing for fear of the king's displeasure to put the question of reading the remonstrance against the king's usurpations, is held in his chair, the doors of the house shut, and the remonstrance read.

1711. Despreaux Nicholas Boileau, the French poet, died. He was born 1636, and in early youth gave indications of the future bent of his genius, by his fondness for the great poets of antiquity. His works are frequently republished in France, though some of his satires are little to the taste of the present day. Bruyere has said of him, that his verses will be read when the language is obsolete, and will be the last ruins of it!

1713. The first No. of the Guardian appeared, conducted by Steele during the temporary suspension of the Spectator.

1714. Peace proclaimed with Spain, and a special privilege granted to the English of supplying the West Indies with negro slaves at the rate of 4800 a year.

1714. Gibraltar and Minorca also ceded to the English.

1715. Emanuel Theodosius Boullion, a cardinal and ambassador of Louis XIV of France, died.

1729. Francesco Bianchini, an Italian antiquary and astronomer, died. He devoted his life to intense study, and in his character extensive learning was united with great modesty and amiability of manners. He was patronized by the pope, and received marks of respect from the Roman senate.

1738. Johnson and Garrick started from Litchfield for London as literary adventurers. The former had two pence half penny in his pocket, and the latter something less.

1767. James Drake, an English political and medical writer, died. He is chiefly known now by his System of Anatomy.

1768. The extensive copper mine in the isle of Anglesey was discovered.

1776. The Americans cannonaded Boston from Cobble hill and Lechmere point.

1786. John Jebb, an eminent English non-conformist divine and physician, died. His publications, theological, medical and political, gained great approbation.

1788. Solomon Gesner, a Swiss bookseller, poet and painter, died at Zurich. Of his writings the best known, in English, is the Death of Abel.

1791. John Wesley, founder of the methodists, died, aged 88. He was born at Epworth, England, and at the time of finishing his studies, was distinguished for his classical attainments, skill in dialectics, and talent for poetry. The origin of the sect called methodists is to be attributed to the circumstance of a club of kindred spirits, who used to meet on week days and read classics, and on Sundays divinity, but shortly their meetings became exclusively religious. This society consisted of fifteen members, who from the strictness of their manners and deportment, obtained the name of Methodists, an appellation which they sanctioned and retained. He visited America, and afterwards Germany, and on his return commenced the systematic labors by which he became the founder of a numerous religious sect. He joined with Whitfield in field preaching, but their opinions being at collision on some point, they finally separated. He continued his active labors till within a week of his death. His works on various subjects amount to upwards of thirty volumes octavo.

1793. Breda, a city of Holland, noted for its numerous sieges, was taken by the French.

1793. Congress passed a law making appropriations for purchasing two lots of [91]ground with buildings, and other materials and necessaries for a mint, $1,279·78; and for the salaries of its officers from July to Dec. 1792, $2,694·88.

1794. Great scarcity of provisions in Paris.

1797. Battle of Monte di Savaro, between the French and Austrians, in which the former under Joubert attacked and carried the posts of the latter.

1797. Horace Walpole, an English author, and son of Robert Walpole the statesman, died.

1799. Corfu, one of the Ionian islands, taken by the Turco Russian squadron.

1799. Manheim, a strong German city, taken by the French.

1801. Charles Albert Demoustier, a French poet, died. He was first a successful lawyer, but subsequently turned his attention to literature, and wrote comedies, operas and poems. His pieces are distinguished for spirit, delicacy and ease, and some of them have maintained a place upon the stage.

1802. Francis Russel, duke of Bedford, died, aged 37. He distinguished himself by his endeavors to improve every branch of agriculture, and was a worthy man.

1830. Great freshet at Vienna, in Austria; the Danube rose twenty-three feet, and the houses of 50,000 inhabitants were inundated.

1835. Francis I of Austria (II of Germany), died. His disposition was mild; his dress plain and homely; his manners gentle and familiar; and he was greatly beloved by his German subjects.

1835. Samuel Blackburn died; an officer of the revolution, an eminent lawyer and for many years a conspicuous member of the Virginia legislature. At his death he liberated his slaves, 46 in number, charging his estate with the expense of transporting them to Liberia.

1839. Zerah Colburn died at Norwich, Vt., aged 35. At the age of 6 years he attracted great attention in Europe and America by his marvelous powers of calculation. At that time he was unable to read or write, and ignorant of the name or properties of a single figure traced upon paper. Yet his talent for mental arithmetic was so extraordinary as to be wholly incredible, were it not supported by unquestionable evidence. This faculty he lost before he left England, which was in 1824; and on his return he became a methodist preacher, having acquired a respectable education while abroad.

1840. Henry William Matthew Albers, a celebrated astronomer, and practicing physician at Bremen, died, aged 81. He acquired a lasting reputation by the discovery of the planet Pallas, in 1802, and of Vesta, in 1807.

1841. First daily paper in Brooklyn published.

1843. Asa Packard, aged 84, died at Lancaster, Mass. He was a soldier of the revolution, and for nearly 70 years carried a musket bullet in his body.

1845. Judah Alden, a distinguished officer of the American revolutionary army, died at Duxbury, Mass.

1849. James Morier, the celebrated author of Hajji Baba, and other works, died.

1852. The town of St. Bartholomew, one of the Antilles, nearly destroyed by fire; 120 houses and stores having been burned in the space of four hours.

1852. Marmont, duke of Ragusa, died at Venice, aged 78. He was the last of Napoleon's marshals.

1855. Nicholas I, emperor of Russia, died, aged 59. He came to the throne in 1826, and his reign was devoted to strengthening the power and extending the domain of Russia.

1856. An earthquake in the island of Great Sangor, one of the Moluccas, by which 2,806 lives were lost.

MARCH 3.

1589. John Sturmius, a learned German grammarian and rhetorician, died. He was called the Cicero of Germany.

1633. George Herbert, an English divine and poet, died. Lord Bacon had so high an opinion of his judgment that he would not suffer his works to be published until they had been submitted to Herbert's examination.

1634. First colony arrived at Potomac for the settlement of Maryland, under Lord Baltimore. It consisted of 200 Catholics from England. The soil was purchased of the natives, and the foundation of the province was laid on the broad basis of security to property and of freedom in religion.

1703. Robert Hooke, an English mathematician and philosopher, died. He is noted for many useful inventions and improvements in mechanics; and his writings are numerous and valuable.

1722. Campegio Vitringa died; a learned author of Friesland, in the Netherlands.

1728. Camillo d'Hostun, count de Tallart, died. He was a brave general of the French, taken prisoner by the duke of Marlborough.

1760. Unsuccessful attack on the fort at Ninety-Six, by 200 Cherokee Indians.

1776. The Americana under Col. Bull burnt the British ship Inverness and six [92]other vessels, near Savannah, laden for England.

1779. Battle of Briar Creek, when the Americans were surprised by the British under Provost, and lost 150 killed and 162 prisoners.

1780. Joseph Highmore, an eminent English painter, died. He was also a writer of considerable merit.

1791. The church plate in France was sent to the mint for coinage.

1792. Robert Adam, a Scotch architect, died. In connection with his brother, he built some of the first mansions in London; but the work for which they are chiefly celebrated, is the elegant range called the Adelphi, a Greek word denoting the relationship of brothers.

1796. Civic festival at the Hague on occasion of the installation of the Batavian national assembly.

1799. The advance guards of the French army arrived before Jaffa (the ancient Joppa) in Syria, and invested the city.

1802. County of St. Lawrence, in New York, erected.

1808. Johann Christ Fabricius died, one of the most celebrated entomologists of the eighteenth century. He was born 1742 at Sleswic in Denmark; studied medicine; but was afterwards induced to make an especial study of entomology, a science at that time in its infancy. He adopted a new arrangement of the insect tribe by choosing for his divisions the modifications observable in the parts of the mouth.

1808. The French West India island Marigalante taken by the British. It was colonized by the French, 1647; twice taken by the Dutch, and twice before by the British, and restored to the French, 1763.

1810. The great Elm tree at Kensington, Philadelphia, under which William Penn held his first treaty with the Indians in 1682, was blown down.

1815. War declared between the United States and Algiers.

1817. Lescure died at Beaulieu in France, aged 118. He enjoyed, at the time of his death, the vigorous use of his intellect.

1843. Com. Porter, a gallant American naval officer, died at Constantinople, where he was minister from the United States to the Sublime Porte.

1845. Florida admitted into the Union as an independent state.

1846. Henry Purkitt, one of those who assisted in the destruction of the tea in Boston harbor, died, aged 91.

1855. Robert Mills died, a civil engineer and architect, under whom the Washington Post office, Treasury building and Patent office were erected.

MARCH 4.

1193. Saladin the Great died at Damascus.

1530. Charles V granted to the knights of St. John, who had recently been expelled from the island of Rhodes by the Turks, the ownership of all the castles, fortresses, and isles of Tripoli, Malta and Gozo. Malta at the time was a shelterless rock, and the inhabitants, 12,000 in number, in a wretched condition.

1583. Bernard Gilpin, an eminent English prelate, died. He came near falling a victim to the fury of Bonner, and was only saved from the stake by the death of the queen. His life was spent in well doing.

1629. Massachusetts patent confirmed by Charles I, by the name of "the governor and company of Massachusetts bay in New England," Matthew Cradock first governor.

1674. The governing charter of Dundalk, in the county of South Ireland, bears this date. This town was the Dundalgan of the Irish Ossianic poems, and is of great antiquity.

1681. The charter of Pennsylvania signed and sealed by Charles II, constituting William Penn and his heirs true and absolute proprietaries of the province, saving to the crown their allegiance and the sovereignty.

1744. John Anstis died; an English antiquary, and a very eminent writer on heraldic subjects.

1765. William Stukeley, an English antiquary, died. He wrote ably as a divine, physician, historian and antiquary; was profound in British antiquities; a good botanist; erudite in ancient coins; drew well, and understood mechanics. The footsteps of the Romans were traced by him, and the temples of the ancient Britons explored. His antiquarian researches acquired him the name of Arch Druid.

1776. The Americans took possession of Dorchester heights, which were so far completed by day light as to excite the astonishment of the British, and render their position in Boston extremely hazardous.

1776. New Providence taken from the British by the American Commodore Ezekiel Hopkins. The governor, together with considerable military stores, fell into the hands of the victors.

1778. American frigate Alfred, 20 guns, taken by the British ships Ariadne and Ceres.

1782. The house of commons resolved that it would "consider as enemies to his majesty and the country, all those who should advise or attempt the further prosecution of offensive war on the American continent."

[93]1789. The first congress of the United States assembled at New York.

1791. Vermont admitted into the Union. (See Feb. 18.)

1794. Henry de la Rochejaquelin, the hero of La Vendee, killed. The peasants of the neighborhood having risen in the royal cause, he placed himself at their head, with this laconic harangue, "Allons chercher l'ennemi; si je recule, tuez moi; si j'avance, suivez moi; si je meurs, vengez moi." After gaining sixteen victories, he fell in single combat with a republican soldier.

1797. One pound or 20 shilling notes first issued by the bank of England. They were designed to take the place of the specie drained from the vaults to pay the foreign contracts.

1806. Action between the British fleet, Com. Popham, and the French frigate La Voluntaire, 46 guns. The latter was captured with 360 men and 217 British prisoners.

1811. First report of canal commissioners in New York.

1811. The French under Massena retreated before Lord Wellington upon Santarem, in Portugal, leaving their killed and wounded behind.

1812. The charter of the first bank of the United States expired by its own limitation.

1814. Battle of Longwood, about 100 miles from Detroit, in which the United States troops defeated a superior British force. British loss 80; American loss 8.

1814. Battle of Troyes, between the French under Oudinot and the Allies under Schwarzenberg, in which the former were defeated, with the loss of 10 cannon and 3,000 prisoners.

1815. United States letter of marque brig Aspasia, 3 guns and 25 men, captured by the British ship Voluntaire.

1815. Frances Abington, a celebrated English actress, died. She was the original Lady Teazle.

1832. John Francis Champollion, the French archæologist, died at Paris, aged 42. Having devoted much attention to the study of Egyptian antiquities, he was, in 1826, appointed to superintend that department in the royal museum at Paris, and in 1828, went with an expedition of learned men to Egypt, at the expense of the king, Charles X. The results of this journey were regarded of so great importance in relation to the hieroglyphics, that his manuscripts on that subject were purchased by the French government at about $9,300.

1838. Carlists under Cabanero, entered Saragossa, but were driven out by the national guards with the loss of 120 killed and 700 prisoners.

1847. A telescopic comet was discovered at the Cambridge university at 7 P. M. by G. P. Pond, assistant observer, being the fourth first discovered in this country by this young gentleman.

1856. The free state legislature of Kansas assembled at Topeka.

MARCH 5.

13. B. C. Marcus Emilius Lepidus, one of the Roman triumvirs, with Augustus and Anthony, died at Cerceii.

493. Odoacer, chief of the Heruli, murdered. It was reserved for him, at the head of a tribe of barbarians almost unknown, to strike the decisive blow that overthrew the great mistress of the world—imperial Rome.

1223. Alonzo II of Portugal died. His career was begun by an attempt to deprive his sisters of their estates, and ended by robbing the church. The pope, however, interfered, and compelled him to promise to be civil to the ecclesiastics; but death overtook him before he had time to fulfill his engagements by making restitution.

1495. Henry VIII granted a patent to John Cabot and his three sons Lewis, Sebastian and Sanchius, empowering them to sail under the flag of England in quest of countries yet unoccupied by any Christian state, to take possession of them in the name of Henry, and plant the English banner on the walls of their castles and cities, and to maintain with the inhabitants a traffic exclusive of all competitors, and exempted from customs; under the condition of paying a fifth part of the free profit on every voyage to the crown. They embarked two years after.

1534. Antoni Allegri, an illustrious Italian painter, died. He lived at Parma, where without any instruction he executed some of the most perfect pictures in the world. He is better known as Corregio, from his birth place.

1546. Isabella Losa died; a native of Cordova in Spain, so illustrious for her acquirements that she was honored with the degree of D. D.

1605. Clement VIII (Hippolitus Aldobrandi), pope of Rome, died. He was a liberal minded and benevolent pontiff.

1660. Monk's parliament ordered the printing and setting up in churches the solemn league and covenant.

1686. James II forbade the bishops to preach on controverted points.

1695. Henry Wharton died; an English divine and historian of uncommon abilities.

1701. Robert, earl of Bellamont, governor of the province of New York, died, two years after his installment into that office.

[94]1708. William Beveridge, an English divine, and bishop of St. Asaph, died, leaving many learned and valuable works.

1710. John Holt died. He had been for more than 20 years lord chief justice of the king's bench court in England.

1737. The servants called footmen occasioned a riot at Drury lane theatre, London, alleging that they had been shut out of the gallery, to which they were entitled.

1744. At Huddersfield, Yorkshire, a Roman temple was discovered and an altar inscribed to Antonius Modestus of the sixth conquering legion.

1770. Boston massacre. This occurrence, which is variously stated, is supposed to have arisen as follows: a crowd surrounded a corporal's guard in the evening, and commenced pelting them with snow balls, which exasperated his majesty's legions to such a pitch of valor, that they turned their muskets upon the citizens. The leaden balls of the soldiers were more than a match for those of the people, and five men fell mortally wounded. Their names were Mattucks, Gray, Caldwell, Maverick, and Carr.

1773. Philip Francis died at Bath, England; distinguished as a translator of Horace and Demosthenes.

1775. Peter Laurence Buyrette du Belloi died; a French comedian and tragedian, who by his own pieces became extremely popular in his day.

1775. The citizens of New York held a town meeting, in which it is said the question of congress or no congress was carried in the affirmative by the aid of hoop poles obtained from a neighboring cooper's yard.

1778. Thomas Augustus Arne died; an English musician and opera writer. He received the degree of doctor of music.

1785. Joseph Reed died at Philadelphia, aged 43. He was one of Washington's aids in the revolutionary war, and subsequently an adjutant-general, member of congress, and governor of Pennsylvania.

1794. County of Onondaga, in New York, erected.

1798. An Algerine barque arrived at Baltimore, 85 days out, manned by Algerines; being the first that ever entered an American port.

1811. Battle of Barrosa in Portugal, between the French under Victor, and the English, Spanish and Portuguese allied army, under Graham. The French were defeated with the loss of 3,000; allied loss 2,742.

1827. Pierre Simon Laplace, the French mathematician, died. His principal work, which will render him an object of admiration to posterity, the Mechanique Celeste, has been translated by our countryman Nathaniel Bowditch, in a manner creditable alike to the author, to himself and the literature of his country.

1827. Alessandro Volta died. He was born at Como, Italy; devoted his attention to experiments in electricity, and made many important discoveries.

1829. Battle near the river Natonebi, in Asiatic Turkey, between the Turks and Russians, in which the former lost 1,000 and the latter 200 men.

1837. Oliver Elliot died at Mason, N. H., aged 103. He was a soldier of the French war of 1756, and of the revolutionary war.

1846. John Pickering, president of the American Oriental society, &c., &c., died at Boston.

1849. The emperor of Austria, after a series of decrees, promulgated a new constitution.

1853. Gervinus tried at Manheim for high treason, published in a work on the history of the nineteenth century, was found guilty of exciting to sedition, and sentenced to ten months imprisonment, and his book ordered to be destroyed.

1856. Covent garden theatre, London, burnt at the close of a masked hall.

MARCH 6.

13 B. C. Augustus Cæsar assumed the office of high priest, in which capacity he destroyed 2,000 books of prophecy, for want of authority!

1393. John Hawkwood, an Englishman, died at Florence. He was bred a tailor, but signalized himself so greatly in the wars in Italy, that he was promoted to the highest posts; and after his death the Florentines erected a block marble statue as an acknowledgment for the services he had done them.

1521. Magellan, in the service of the king of Spain, on his voyage round the world, discovered the Ladrone, or Marian islands, and may be considered as the first discoverer of that portion of the world called Australia. This opened the way for the subsequent discoveries made in that quarter.

1557. Lord Stourton hung at Salisbury in a halter of silk, to mark his dignity. His crime was the murder of two persons whom he had decoyed to his house.

1577. Remi Belleau, one of the seven poets called the Pleiades of France, died. He excelled as a pastoral writer.

1615. The yacht Halve Maan, 80 tons burden, in which Hudson entered the river which bears his name, was wrecked and destroyed on the island of Mauritius.

1716. Aurora Borealis first seen in [95]England, and was gazed upon with every degree of alarm till nearly three o'clock in the morning.

1754. Pelham, premier of England, died suddenly in the meridian of life. He was much opposed to the German alliances of the kingdom, but had not influence enough in the face of a hostile court to break them up.

1762. The ghost that had for so long a time alarmed the people of Cocklane, London, was detected.

1767. James Malfillastre, a French poet, died.

1781. Battle of Whitsell's mill, an important pass of Reedy fort creek, in which the British were worsted.

1784. Francis Xavier Hall, a Jesuit, professor of belles lettres and ecclesiastical law in several German universities, died.

1796. William Francis Raynal died. He was a French Jesuit, who distinguished himself as a historian of the European settlements in both Indias, and as a political writer.

1799. The French under Bonaparte took Jaffa by assault. The garrison consisted of 1,200 Turkish artillery and 2,500 Magrubins or Arnauts who were put to the sword.

1812. James Madison, an eminent American prelate, died, aged 63. His great attainments placed him in the presidential chair of William and Mary college at the early age of 28, and the reputation of the institution advanced under his charge.

1815. Lewis XVIII declared Napoleon Bonaparte a traitor and a rebel, for having entered by main force the department of the Var.

1815. A great riot around the British parliament house, on account of the corn bill. A great many lives lost.

1817. Insurrection at Pernambuco, Brazils, headed by Domingos Jose Martins. The insurgents took possession of the town, and the governor fled to Rio de Janeiro.

1822. Owing to a strong south-west wind the tide in the Thames near London bridge was so low, that several persons forded the river and picked up many valuable articles that had laid for years on the bottom of the river.

1825. Samuel Parr, an eminent English divine and critic, died. He was possessed of a prodigious memory, and in curious and elegant classical knowledge he seems to have been at the head of the English scholars of his day.

1838. Vilette Easton, a colored woman, died at Providence, Rhode Island, at the age of 110.

1854. The block of marble sent by the pope as a contribution to Washington's monument, was destroyed by unknown persons at night.

MARCH 7.

161. Antoninus Pius, emperor of Rome, died at Lorium, aged 23.

1274. Thomas Aquinas died. He was descended from the counts of Aquino, in Italy. There was a great contest for him between his family and the monks when he was a youth; but he eluded the vigilance of his keepers, became a theologian, and was called the evangelical doctor. His works have been often reprinted in 17 vols, folio.

1575. The general assembly of Scotland enacted that no comedies, nor tragedies, or such plays, shall be made on any history of canonical scriptures, nor on the Sabbath day.

1589. Walther Raleigh, having expended £40,000 in attempting the colonization of Virginia, without realizing the expected gain, made an assignment of his patent to Thomas Smith and others, with a donation of £100 for the benefit of the colony.

1661. Goffe and Whalley, the regicides, arrived at New Haven, where by the connivance of the deputy governor and clergyman, they effectually eluded discovery during the remainder of their lives.

1755. Thomas Wilson died; bishop of Sodor and Man, an excellent prelate and an eminent writer on theology.

1769. Samuel Derrick died; originally a linen draper in Dublin; subsequently a writer of pamphlets in London, and finally master of ceremonies at Bath and Tunbridge.

1771. Thomas Martin, an English antiquarian, died. He wrote a history of his own native town, and made a valuable collection of antiquities, &c.

1777. James Aitken, alias John the painter, was hanged on a gallows 60 feet in height for setting fire to the rope yard at Portsmouth. He confessed his having set fire to the vessels at Bristol quay and that he was stimulated to these acts by Silas Dean of the American congress.

1778. American frigate Randolph, Capt. Nicholas Biddle, 36 guns and 305 men, blown up about 9 at night, in an action of fifteen minutes with the British ship Yarmouth, 64 guns. Capt. Biddle perished, at the age of 27; only 4 of the crew were saved.

1781. A British soldier jumped over the pallisades at Gibraltar, and notwithstanding 1143 musket balls were fired at him, succeeded in reaching the Spanish lines, waving his hat.

1788. Clinton county, in New York, erected.

1794. Revolution at Warsaw. The Russians with Gen. Inglestrom and their [96]ambassador, driven out of the city by the Poles.

1794. The mulatto Gen. Bellegarde and his second, Pelocque, with 300 followers, surrendered to the British at St. Domingo. The chiefs were sent to the United States.

1795. The British squadron, Sir Edward Pellew, captured near the Penmarks, 8 French vessels, burnt 2 ships, 3 brigs and 2 sloops.

1801. The British expedition under Lord Keith, consisting of nearly 200 sail and an army of 15,330 men, arrived in Aboukir bay, Egypt.

1803, Francis Edgerton, duke of Bridgewater, died. He was the projector of the Medway canal in England.

1804. British and Foreign Bible society founded in London. A clergyman of Wales, whom the want of a Welsh Bible led to London, occasioned its establishment.

1808. The Portuguese royal family arrived in Brazil, fleeing before the arms of Napoleon to the colonies.

1809. Schenectady county, New York, taken from Albany.

1810. Cuthbert Collingwood, the English admiral, died in his ship off Minorca. He entered the British navy at an early age, and by his talents rose to the highest rank. His most distinguished service was the part he bore at the battle of Trafalgar. On the fall of Nelson in that conflict, the command devolved on him. The victory on that occasion was attributable to the nautical skill, prudence and courage of Collingwood; and his ship was the first to break through the French line.

1814. Battle of Craonne in France, in which the French under Victor and Ney defeated the allies, took 6 generals and about 6,000 prisoners.

1828. Richard Stockton, a son of the signer of the Declaration of American Independence of that name, died at Princeton, New Jersey. He was one of the foremost supporters of Washington's administration.

1844. Florida admitted into the Union. (Query 3d.)

MARCH 8.

1096. Walter the Pennyless departed from France with the van of the Crusaders.

1639. Dudley Digges, master of the rolls under Charles I, died. He was noted for his patriotism, and was the author of several literary performances.

1663. The great frost at Paris, which had endured three months, broke up on this day.

1702. William III of England, died. He was celebrated as a politician, and formidable as a general. (16th?)

1721. Pope Clement XI died, aged 72. He reigned over twenty years.

1748. The British squadron, Admiral Knowles, attacked and carried Port Louis, in St. Domingo, which he also destroyed. The French lost about 130 killed; British loss 20 killed and 50 wounded.

1750. An earthquake at London which shook the whole city. It occurred at half past five in the morning, awoke people from their sleep, threw some persons out of bed and rung the bells.

1757. Thomas Blackwell, an eminent Scottish writer, died. His modesty was such that he published his works anonymously.

1766. The bill repealing the American stamp act received the royal assent, and was passed.

1766. William Chambers, the architect, died. He was born in Sweden, but was brought over to England at two years of age. As an architect, the building of Somerset house will place his name with the best of the British schools. He was the author of several works, principally on architecture.

1775. An inhabitant of the town of Billerica, Mass., tarred and feathered by the British troops. The British were the first to introduce this practice, which, afterwards became a popular mode of punishing tories.

1793. The French national convention abolished imprisonment for debt, and decreed that all actually confined for debt in the republic should be set at liberty. From this law however were excepted all defaulters in public money.

1793. The city of Liege in Belgium, taken by the Austrians.

1796. A viscid and resinous substance fell near Bautzen, in Upper Lusatia, composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Several distinguished men of science examined specimens of it. It had the smell of the yellowish and very much dried gum of the juniper.

1796. Banda, an East India island, taken by the British under Admiral Rainer. A large quantity of spices and considerable money fell into the hands of the victors.

1799. Cayuga county, New York, erected.

1799. Massena took by assault the fortress of Luciensteig, cut out of the rock in the channel of the Rhine. This opened a passage through the Rhætian Alps.

1801. The British effected a landing in Egypt, at Aboukir bay, with the loss of 700 men. The French under Menou opposed their landing with great bravery.

1803. Francis Egerton, duke of Bridgewater, died. He is styled the father of canal navigation in England. He planned the Worsley canal, near Manchester, which [97]he completed with the assistance of Brindley. He died immensely rich.

1804. Goeree, an island of the Netherlands, which had fallen into the hands of the French a few weeks previous, was retaken by the British on this day.

1807. Sawrey Gilpin, an English painter, died. He excelled particularly in delineating animals. His masterpiece is a group of tigers.

1808. Third day's action between the British frigate St. Fiorenza and the French frigate Piedmontaise, 50 guns, off cape Comorin. The action lasted one hour and twenty minutes, when the French struck, having 48 killed and wounded. The British lost 17 killed besides their commander, Capt. Hardinge.

1814. Lord Wellington defeated the French and entered Bordeaux.

1814. Unsuccessful attack by the British under Gen. Skerret upon Bergen-op-Zoom. Of 4,500 British it is supposed that not more than 1,500 escaped.

1815. Action between the British ship Tiber, Capt. Dacres, and the American privateer Leo, 7 guns, 93 men, Capt. Hemes, which resulted in the capture of the latter.

1819. Regnault de St. Jean d'Angely, a French statesman under Bonaparte, died at his ancient seat, on the day following his return from exile, of gout in the stomach.

1844. Charles John Bernadotte, king of Sweden, died, aged 81. He rose from the humble rank of a sergeant in the army, to the highest rank under Bonaparte; and in 1810 founded a new dynasty in Sweden. Having fortunately joined the allied powers in 1812 against Napoleon, he survived the overthrow of the other newly erected dynasties, and transmitted the crown to his son, Oscar I.

MARCH 9.

1403. Bajazet I, sultan of Turkey, died. He was celebrated as a warrior, but his disposition was cruel and tyrannical. Being conquered by Tamerlane, and exposed by him in an iron cage, he dashed his head against the bars of his prison, and killed himself.

1405. Battle of Grosmont, in which Henry IV defeated the Welch under Griffith Glendowr.

1566. David Ricci (or Rizzio), an Italian musician, residing at the court of Mary, queen of Scots, assassinated in her presence. His skillful performance of the national melodies of Scotland, tended not a little to their general improvement with the higher classes.

1609. William Warner, an English poet, died; author of Albion's England.

1615. Francis Beaumont, an English dramatist buried. He was jointly concerned with Fletcher in the production of several excellent plays, and assisted Jonson in some of his. He died under 30 years of age.

1649. The duke of Hamilton, earl of Holland, and Lord Capel beheaded with others who were suspected of royalism. Bad faith is attributed to their judges.

1661. Julius Mazarin died; cardinal and prime minister of France under Louis XIV. His name is identified with the history of his time.

1678. Ghent surrendered to Louis XIV of France.

1679. A declaration forbidding pardon to be granted to any who killed another in a duel, issued by the council of England.

1694. Gaspard Sagittarius, a German historian, died. He was an able supporter of the doctrines of the reformation.

1735. Violent hurricane occurred at Kilverton in Norfolk rolling the lead of the roofs of houses and doing in the few minutes it lasted, incredible damage. A strong smell of sulphur followed.

1762. Joseph Calas, a merchant of Toulouse, executed on the wheel. He was unjustly condemned for the murder of his own son. His innocence was confirmed by a public arret, on this day the next year.

1770. William Guthries, a voluminous Scottish writer, died. He became celebrated as a bookmaker, and lent his name to the works of less popular authors.

1778. Great council at Johnstown between the Six nations and New York company.

1782. Mangalore, a seaport of Hindostan, surrendered to the British under General Matthews.

1783. Michael Etmuller, a German physician, died. His works have been published in 5 vols. folio.

1793. Congress passed the act to organize the militia; enacting the enrollment of every able bodied white male citizen between the ages of 18 and 45.

1795. The Fingal, or 118th regiment, mutinied at Birmingham, England.

1796. Charette, the famous Vendean chief, tried and shot at Nantes, aged about 33. He refused to have his eyes bandaged, and gave the signal to fire himself.

1801. Johann Christian Ackermann, a celebrated German physician and bibliographer, died, aged 45.

1810. London rendered impassable for several hours by a heavy rain.

1811. Battle of Pombal, in Portugal, in which the French were defeated with the loss of 470, by the British.

1812. John Henry's plot to dismember the Union disclosed to congress. Henry [98]received $50,000 public money for disclosing it, and sailed immediately for France.

1814. Battle of Laon, in which Napoleon was defeated by Marshal Blucher.

1822. Edward Daniel Clarke, professor of mineralogy at Cambridge and a celebrated traveler and tourist, died.

1823. John Henry Van Swinden, a Dutch philosopher, died. He was an author on various subjects, and a man of great erudition.

1825. Anna Letitia Barbauld, an English authoress of great reputation in her day, died. She was early taught the languages, and became distinguished for her learning. She retained great vigor of mind and body to the extreme age of 90.

1834. Snow fell at Rome, the first event of the kind on record in 240 years. (See March 25, 1595.)

1840. George Gleig died at Stirling, Scotland, aged 87; distinguished for more than half a century as a scholar, critic, metaphysician and theologian.

1847. Battle of Vera Cruz.

MARCH 10.

222. Heliogabalus, emperor of Rome, assassinated. He was a cruel, vindictive and licentious tyrant.

1333. Ladislaus III of Poland died. He oppressed the people till they revolted and placed Wenceslaus upon the throne. On the death of the latter he was reinstated and governed with justice and moderation.

1668. John Denham, a British poet, died. One of his poems, Cooper's Hill, is commended by the ablest critics.

1673. Henrietta Coligni, a French poetess of much celebrity, died.

1683. The first council and assembly of Pennsylvania met at Chester. The session occupied 22 days.

1686. James II granted a general pardon to many of his subjects, excepting among others the girls of Taunton who gave a Bible and sword to Monmouth. James never favored the Bible.

1726. The Lyford giant born; when five years of age he could lift one hundred weight with one hand.

1736. William Cosby, captain general and commander in chief of the province of New York, died, almost universally detested.

1774. William Browne, an English physician, died. The active part he took in the contest against the licentiates, occasioned his being introduced by Foote into his play of the Devil upon Two Sticks. He is distinguished by many lively essays in English, and Latin prose and verse.

1776. Elias Catherine Freron, a French litterateur, died. He was the constant subject of Voltaire's satire, who called him the tyrant, rather than the king of literature.

1776. The British soldiery, contrary to orders, plundered Boston.

1783, Anthony Loydi, a farmer of Amezquet, Spain, died, aged 114. He had never been sick until a few days before his death, always abstained from wine and tobacco, and retained his senses, his teeth and hair until he died.

1785. N. Sablier, an eminent French author, died at Paris.

1789. The city of London brilliantly illuminated on account of the convalescence of the king.

1792. John, earl of Bute, died. He was made prime minister of England, from which he voluntarily retired to enjoy a life of learned leisure.

1797. The city of Albany made the capital of the state of New York.

1797. Delaware county, in the state of New York, erected.

1812. Bonaparte issued a decree denationalizing all flags that should submit to the British orders in council.

1813. Action at night in Chesapeake bay between the United States schooner Adeline and the British schooner Lottery; the latter it is supposed was sunk.

1819. Frederick Henry Jacobi, a German philosophical writer, died.

1820. Benjamin West, the painter, died at London, aged 82. He was born at Springfield, Penn., 1738. The first indications of his genius were elicited at the age of seven years, by drawing the portrait of his sleeping sister in red and black ink. He began painting as a profession at the age of 18, and four years after went to England. He was subsequently induced by Sir Joshua Reynolds to take up his residence in London, where he acquired a reputation seldom attained, and at the time of his death was president of the Royal academy.

1826. John Pinkerton, an eminent and voluminous Scottish author, died at Paris, aged 68.

1829. The William and Anne, a British trading vessel, wrecked at the mouth of Columbia river, on the north-west coast of America, and the whole crew, 16 Europeans and 10 Sandwich islanders, murdered by the natives.

1833. Samuel Tucker, an American revolutionary commodore, died at Bremen, Maine. He was distinguished as a brave and able commander, and at the time of his death, was supposed to have been, next to Lafayette, the highest surviving officer of the revolution.

[99]1855. James Brown, an eminent book-publisher of Boston, Mass., died, aged 55. He not only was eminent in his profession, but possessed the taste and spirit of a scholar.

1855. Carlos, the claimant of the Spanish throne from the time of the death of Ferdinand in 1833, died at Trieste, where he was known as the conde de Molina.

1855. The college building at Princeton, N. J., known as Nassau hall, was destroyed by fire. It was built in 1756 and in the Revolutionary war was used for barracks, by both the British and Americans.

MARCH 11.

1302. The marriage of Romeo Montocchio with Juliet Capelletto was solemnized at the church of the Minorites, at Citadella. These were Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet.

1444. The university of Paris issued a circular addressed to all the French clergy, expressing the opinion of the church, that the feast of fools, about the calends of January, was a well imagined institution, connected with Christianity, and that those who attempted to suppress it should be curst and excommunicate.

1513. John Medici elected pope and assumed the title of Leo X. From his grave appearance it was often said he seemed never to have been a child.

1544. Birthday of Torquato Tasso, styled the prince of Italian poets.

1669. The memorable eruption of Mount Etna began at sunset.

1722. John Toland, a very famous English political, polemical and miscellaneous writer and antiquary, died at Putney.

1732. Peter Chirac, a French author and physician to the king, died.

1732. Kouli Khan, usurped the Persian throne.

1738. It was ascertained that 12,000 persons were convicted in London in a few months for selling gin without a license, and 3,000 paid a fine of £10 rather than be committed to the house of correction.

1744. Action off Toulon between part of the British fleet under Matthews and Lestock, and the combined French and Spanish fleets.

1797. Two discharged servants informed the police that Ladies Buckinghamshire, Luttrel and Stuart played faro, in consequence of which their ladyships were fined.

1800. The Royal institution of London for the promotion of the fine arts held their first sitting.

1808. Franklin, Chatauque, Cattaraugus and Niagara counties in the state of New York, erected.

1809. Hannah Cowley died, aged 66. She was born at Tiverton, England, and distinguished as a poetress, and a dramatic writer.

1811. Badajos in Spain surrendered to the French under Soult. About 9,000 prisoners were taken, 170 cannon, 80,000 quintals of gunpowder, a large quantity of infantry cartridges, and two complete bridge equipages.

1812. Philip James de Louhterbourg, a distinguished landscape painter, died at London. He was born at Strasburgh, 1740, and studied under Casanova. He gained considerable reputation by his paintings at Paris, after which he went over to England. Here he got up under the name of Eidophusikon, a novel and highly ingenious exhibition, displaying the changes of the elements and their phenomena, in a calm, a moonlight, a sunset and a storm at sea.

1813. Action off Surinam river between the United States privateer schooner Gen. Armstrong, 18 guns, and a British 24 gun frigate. The privateer sustained the attack 45 minutes within pistol shot, and succeeded in escaping with the loss of 6 killed and 16 wounded.

1848. Henry Wheaton, an American statesman, philanthropist and classic writer, died at Roxbury, Mass.

1856. President Rivas, of Nicaragua, declared war against Costa Rica.

MARCH 12.

1470. Battle of Erpingham, in England, and defeat of the rebels under Sir Robert Welles.

1507. Cæsar Borgia killed by a cannon shot before the castle of Biano. He was the natural son of Pope Alexander VI, and by him invested with the purple. He was a man of such conduct and character that Machiavel has thought fit to propose him, in his famous book, called The Prince, as a pattern to all princes who would act the part of wise and polite tyrants. He allowed no one to stand in his way to promotion from any scruples to removing them by the foulest means.

1578. Alexander Piccolomini died; author of dramatic and other pieces. He was the first who used the Italian language in philosophical subjects.

1581. William Fulke preached a sermon within the tower of London in the hearing of such obstinate papists as were there imprisoned.

1612. The third charter of Virginia granted, by which new privileges and immunities were given for the encouragement of the colony.

[100]1664. Charles II, of England, granted to his brother the duke of York, all Mattawacks, now Long Island; all Hudson's river, and all the lands from the west side of Connecticut river to the east side of Delaware bay, together with the royalties and rights of government.

1676. Action between the French fleet under Duquesne, and the Spanish and Dutch fleets under De Ruyter, who was mortally wounded.

1682. Chelsea hospital, England, founded.

1683. The first assembly of Pennsylvania was holden at Philadelphia, two years from the time that Penn obtained the charter.

1697. Ludovick Muggleton, a schismatic English tailor, died. He entertained notions peculiar to himself, and damned all who differed from him. He was pilloried and imprisoned, and his books burnt by the hangman.

1703. Aubrey de Vere died. His father was the valiant Robert de Vere, who married the daughter of a Friesland boor, named Beatrix Van Hemims. He was lord of the bed chamber to Charles I; was found so passive under Cromwell, that he escaped even the fine; conformed to the manners of the court of Charles II; went over from James II to William the conqueror; and was graceful in old age at the court of Queen Anne. He had been privy councilor to each of these sovereigns, and was hereditary lord chamberlain, senior knight of the garter, and premier earl of England.

1713. Steele commenced his paper The Guardian.

1716. Isaac Briand was fined £2000 by the court of aldermen, London, for marrying Miss Elizabeth Watson, an orphan of 13 years of age and a great fortune, without their consent.

1761. The shock of an earthquake felt in Massachusetts and the adjoining states, at half past two in the morning.

1768. Six students of Edmund hall, Oxford, were expelled the university for methodism. Their crime was praying, expounding the scriptures and singing psalms.

1772. Montgomery (originally Tyron) county, N. Y., erected.

1775. The earl of Effingham resigned his command in a regiment ordered to America. He refused to bear arms against his fellow subjects in the colonies.

1780. The British garrison at Mobile, Capt. Durnford, capitulated to the Spaniards under Don Bernardo de Galvez. The garrison consisted of 284 regulars, 54 inhabitants and 51 armed Indians.

1797. The French under Serrurier crossed the Piave, having defeated the Austrians who opposed their passage.

1801. The British fleet sailed from Aboukir bay, Egypt, and the army under Abercrombie, having effected their landing, took up their line of march for Alexandria.

1807. British order in council, interdicting all trade between port and port in France.

1809. Gustavus Adolphus IV, king of Sweden, dethroned, and the reigns of the government assumed by his uncle the duke of Sudermania, afterwards Charles XIII. (By some authorities, March 15.)

1811. The French under Massena attacked at Redinha, Portugal, by the duke of Wellington, and compelled to fall back.

1813. Warren county, N. Y., erected.

1814. The allied British and Portuguese, under Marshal Beresford, took possession of Bordeaux in France, in the name of Louis XVIII.

1819. Robert Watt, author of the Bibliotheca Britannica, died. His family were severe sufferers by the failure of Constable & Co., of Edinburgh.

1837. M. de Pradt, archbishop of Malines, died at Paris, aged 78. He bore a conspicuous part in the political history of France, was often employed in important missions, and was the author of many political publications.

1843. Littleton Hunt, aged 107, died at Guinett, Ga. When a soldier of the revolutionary army he was severely wounded at the battle of Eutaw springs.

1844. Edward R. Shubrick, a brave and accomplished American naval officer, died on board his ship, the Columbia, off the coast of Brazil, aged 50.

1846. Jonathan Elliot, a well known newspaper editor and political writer, died at Washington, D. C.

1854. Hugh Macpherson died, aged 86; for 61 years professor of Greek at the university of Aberdeen.

1857. Rail road accident on the Great Western railway in Canada, by which a great number of persons were killed at a bridge over the Des Jardins canal.

1857. John Johnson, an old revolutionary soldier, died in Alleghany township, Westmoreland county, Penn., aged 103. He served in the continental army during the whole of the revolutionary war; fought at the battles of the White plains, Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, Stony point, Guilford court house, and Yorktown where Lord Cornwallis capitulated and surrendered to Gen. Washington, in all the battles and skirmishes of Gen. Anthony Wayne; and at the storming of Stony point by Wayne, he formed one of the forlorn hope.

[101]

MARCH 13.

565. Belisarius, a distinguished Roman general, died. He is memorable for his signal and momentous victories, and for his misfortunes. He was degraded to beg alms at the gates of Constantinople by the ungrateful emperor Justinian, to whom he had rendered the most important services.

1470. Battle near Stamford, England, in which Edward IV gained an important victory over his adversaries.

1493. Columbus arrived at Palos, from his first voyage of discovery.

1519. Cortez, on his expedition for the conquest of Mexico, landed at the mouth of the river Tabasco, and prepared to attack the town of the same name, in which about 12,000 warriors had assembled. Calling upon St. Jago, he fell upon the Indians, who were repulsed.

1521. Magellan discovered the Phillipine islands, on one of which he was killed by the natives.

1573. Michael de l'Hospital, chancellor of France, died. He was distinguished for the ability, integrity and mildness of his administration, which was cast in the midst of turbulence and faction.

1604. Arnaud d'Ossat, a celebrated French cardinal and statesman, died. His Despatches is highly recommended to the ambassador who hopes to succeed in his object.

1614. Bartholomew Legat burnt at Smithfield for the heresy of Arianism, under the reign of James I.

1676. Attack on Groton, Mass., by a body of 400 Indians, who had concealed themselves as usual in every part of the town during the night, in order to shoot down the inhabitants as they issued from their doors. The town was gathered into five garrisons, as those houses were called which were palisaded and otherwise protected from assault. Every man went constantly armed; and thus on a moment's warning, two of the enemy having been accidentally discovered, pursuit was made until they were drawn into an ambush and compelled to retreat. Another ambush in the meantime fell upon the opposite part of the town, and the flames arose from every unprotected building. Having pillaged every thing that fell in their way, and cast every indignity upon the bodies of their victims, they gave the garrison two or three volleys and disappeared. About 40 dwellings were burnt, with their outhouses; the town soon after broke up, and the inhabitants scattered to other settlements of greater safety.

1695. John de la Fontaine, the French poet, died. His compositions are characterized by a faithfulness to nature, and are totally unaffected.

1695. Peter Mignard, an eminent French painter, died. He was director and chancellor of the royal academy of painting.

1717. John Bell, the traveler, arrived at Ispahan, the residence of the Persian court, being in the retinue of the Russian ambassador, in the quality of physician. They were nearly two years on their journey from St. Petersburgh.

1726. Michael Bernard Valentin, a German botanist and professor of medicine at Giessen, died. He was an author on both sciences.

1775. George III gave his assent to the act restraining the commerce of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and South Carolina.

1778. Charles le Beau, an eminent French scholar, died. He was professor of belles lettres at Paris, and author of a history of the lower empire, in 22 vols.

1779. Kerim Khan, king of Persia, died a natural death, an extraordinary circumstance in the modern history of that country. He was of the family of an obscure tribe of robbers, the Zunds of Kirdistan.

1781. Herschel discovered the planet which bears his name, then the most distant of all the known planets, its revolution round the sun occupying a period of not less than 83 of our years. He had devoted 18 months in surveying the heavens star by star, with a seven feet reflector when he made the discovery of this primary planet.

1798. The body of a hair dresser at Newport, England, was buried in the highway; reason assigned, his gluttonous eating, whereof he died.

1799. A fire broke out at Constantinople which destroyed 1300 houses, including the hotels of the British minister, and Austrian internuncio, and several other magnificent edifices.

1801. Battle near Lake Maadie in Egypt, between the British and French forces, in which the former were the greatest sufferers, losing 143 killed and 946 wounded.

1808. Christian VII of Denmark, died. He may be said to have been virtually dead for many years.

1813. Edward Long died. During a residence in the West Indies he collected materials for his History of Jamaica, in 3 vols. quarto. It contains a large mass of valuable information, and many spirited delineations of colonial scenery and manners. He returned to England and spent the remainder of his long life in literary pursuits.

1815. The allied powers engaged to aid Louis XVIII and declared Bonaparte to [102]be without the pale of social and civil relations.

1815. General Jackson having received the ratification of the treaty of peace, revoked his order relative to martial law, ordered a final cessation of hostilities, and granted a general pardon for all military offences. The British took with them 199 negroes.

1824. Sophia Lee, an English dramatic writer and poetess, died, aged 74. The profits of her comedy of the Chapter of Accidents, were of great benefit to herself and sisters.

1835. A remarkable eruption of Vesuvius took place.

1845. John Frederick Daniel, who contributed so much to lighting the cities of Europe with gas, died of apoplexy while attending a meeting of the royal society, in London.

1848. Ambrose Spencer died at Lyons, Wayne co., N. Y.; one of those jurists who gave such a preeminence to the supreme court of the state of New York.

1852. Ninety-five Americans who were engaged in the Lopez expedition against Cuba, and captured and sent to Spain, arrived in New York, having been pardoned by the queen and sent home.

1853. The funeral of Madame Raspail, at Paris was the occasion of a formidable socialist demonstration; 40,000 persons marching in procession to Pere la Chaise.

1854. A convention signed between England, France and Turkey, against Russia.

1855. The floor of the new town hall, at Meredith, N. H., gave way, while 800 persons were present attending an election; 300 were precipitated below, several killed and a large number had their bones broken.

MARCH 14.

1262. Hugo de St. Caro, a Dominican, died. He deserves to be placed in the first rank of sacred critics and patrons of literature. The Dominicans are indebted to him for their celebrated Correctorium Bibliorium, and the first concordance of the Bible, that is of the Latin Vulgate; a comment on the old and new testament, and for the division of the Bible into chapters. He undertook to procure a union of the Greek and Roman churches.

1369. Peter the Cruel, king of Castile, killed. He manifested the most wanton inhumanity in his private and public life, by which he became odious to the people, and was killed by his brother.

1471. Edward IV of England returned from exile, and landed at Ravenspur; in his bonnet he wore an ostrich feather as prince of Wales; and his Fleming followers carried hand-guns, which is the first account of them in England.

1519. Fernando Cortez, having taken possession of the Indian town of Tabasco on the day of his landing in the country of Mexico, now marched out with his troops to a plain, where he was attacked by an immense body of Indians, who wounded above seventy of his soldiers at the first discharge of their weapons. The Spanish artillery did great execution, but when the cavalry came to the charge, the Indians, imagining the horse and rider to be one, were extremely terrified, and fled to the woods and marshes, leaving the field to the Spaniards.

1640. Manasses de Pas died; a French general, distinguished for his valor. His abilities were equally displayed in the cabinet, as ambassador to the courts of Sweden and Germany. He died of the wounds he received at the siege of Thionville.

1644. Roger Williams having been sent to England as agent for Rhode Island and Providence, obtained of the earl of Warwick a patent for the incorporation of the towns of Providence, Newport and Portsmouth, with the power of governing themselves, but subject to the laws of England.

1660. William Ledra, a quaker, hanged by the puritans of Massachusetts, on conviction of having returned from banishment, to which he had been condemned for his faith.

1676. Attack on Northampton, Mass., by a body of Narraganset Indians, of Philip's party. The town had been fortified by palisades, set up a little while before for their better security against the savages. The Indians broke through these in three places, and succeeded in killing six persons and firing a few dwellings; but a company of soldiers being at that time quartered in the town, the enemy were speedily repulsed with the loss of many of their lives.

1710. Michael Begon, a French avocat, died. He also distinguished himself in the marines, and as governor of the French West India islands.

1712. Mary, countess of Falconberg, daughter of Oliver Cromwell, died. She possessed great beauty, spirit and activity; and on the deposition of her brother, exerted herself for the restoration of Charles II.

1745. Fort Augustus blown up by the forces of the pretender to the crown of England.

1754. Peter Claude Nivelle de la Chausse, an admired French poet, died. Though favored by fortune, he preferred [103]the honors of literature to all other distinctions, and acquired celebrity by his dramatic pieces, which possess great merit.

1757. John Byng shot at Portsmouth. He served under his father admiral George Byng, and rose to the same rank himself. His attempt to relieve Fort St. Philip in Minorca proving abortive, when blockaded by a French fleet under La Glassionere, and his hesitation in engaging the enemy when a bold attack might perhaps have gained him the victory, excited the clamor of the nation against him, and he was doomed to meet the penalty of cowardice.

1758. General Wade died. In 1715, he commanded against the forces of the pretender to the throne, and remained in Scotland as commander-in-chief after the war was ended. It was during this period that he cut the celebrated military road through the highlands, which facilitated the improvement and civilization of the country more than all the measures resorted to before the reign of George I. It was he who introduced the bill into parliament which disarmed and changed the dress of the highlanders.

1793. Battle of Tirlemont, in which the prince of Saxe Coburg defeated the French under Dumourier, who lost 33 cannon and 3,000 men.

1795. Action off Genoa between the British and French fleets, in which the latter were defeated, with the loss of the Caira, 80 guns, 3,000 men, and the Censeur, 74 guns, 1,000 men.

1799. William Melmoth died. He distinguished himself as the translator of the Epistles of Pliny and Cicero, and was the author of poems, letters and memoirs.

1800. Daines Barrington, an English lawyer, antiquary, and miscellaneous writer, died. He abandoned his offices, which he discharged with great dignity, to devote himself to literary pursuits, which he loved. His writings are numerous.

1803. Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, died. He was born at Quedlinburg, 1724; studied the languages, became familiar with the classic writers, and formed the resolution of writing a great epic poem. In 1745 he studied theology at Jena, where he commenced in solitude the first canto of The Messiah. This work he finished about 1790. It procured him great celebrity in the north of Europe, so that he was received with great respect and veneration wherever he went. His funeral was attended by the principal men of Hamburg, in 126 carriages.

1813. Delaware river blockaded by the British ships Poictiers, Belvidere, &c.

1813. On this and the preceding day snow and hail of a red color, with much red dust and red rain fell over all Tuscany.

1823. General Dumourier, a name that fills some interesting pages of modern history, died in his 85th year, at Turville park, near London.

1835. Treaty with the Cherokee Indians, by which they ceded all their lands east of the Mississippi, and agreed to retire to a territory guarantied to them in Arkansas, in consideration of the sum of $5,262,251.

1836. John Mayne, a Scotch poet, died near London, at an advanced age. His chief poem is The Siller Gun, four cantos.

1854. Steam boat Reindeer burst a flue at Cannelton, Indiana, by which 50 persons were killed.

1855. The new suspension bridge at Niagara falls crossed for the first time by a locomotive and train of cars.

MARCH 15.

44 B. C. Caius Julius Cæsar, the Roman general, assassinated in the senate house. He perished at 5 o'clock in the afternoon by 23 wounds. As a soldier, he was unquestionably the greatest except one in the history of mankind; his character as a citizen is variously stated by different factions. He is said to have fought 500 battles, conquered 300 nations, taken 800 cities, defeated 3,000,000 men, and slain 1,000,000 on the field of battle.

35. Longinus, the penitent, who is said to have pierced the side of Christ, was killed at Cappadocia, probably in this year.

1079. A reformation in the Persian calendar effected by a general assembly of the Eastern astronomers. It is called the Gelalean era, but is only a renovation of that of Zoroaster, which had been neglected after the fall of the Magian empire.

1527. Pope Clement VII concluded a treaty with Lannoy, viceroy of Naples, which the duke of Bourbon disregarded, and marched for Rome.

1573. Michael de l'Hospital died. Few French statesmen were more liberal than him. He narrowly escaped the Bartholomew massacre, and his daughter, who had embraced the reformed religion was saved by the widow duchess of Guise, who concealed her.

1617. Thomas Egerton, an eminent and learned English lawyer, died. He was chancellor under James I.

1655. Theodore Mayerne, an eminent physician, died. He was born in Switzerland, studied in France, and settled in England in the service of James I, where he died.

1660. Dr. Wren, bishop of Ely, released after fifteen years' imprisonment.

[104]1665. James, duke of York, established at Gunfleet the first regular system of naval warfare in England.

1672. The famed act of indulgence, passed by Charles II, containing a clause for liberty of conscience.

1743. John Baptist Molinier died; a distinguished preacher and theological writer of Toulouse.

1754. Denys Francis Secousse, a learned Frenchman, died. He was one of the first pupils of Rollin, and left the bar for the study of literature.

1781. Battle of Guilford court house, in North Carolina, in which 4,400 Americans, principally militia, under Gen. Greene, were defeated by 2,400 British regulars under Cornwallis. Loss of the Americans 400 killed; British loss 532 killed.

1784. Thomas Franklin, an English scholar and divine, died. He was possessed of no inconsiderable share of learning and poetical abilities, and was long a favorite in the literary world; translated Sophocles, Phalaris, Lucian and Voltaire, and is the author of a comedy and two tragedies, which were received with great applause.

1798. Chenango co., N. Y., erected; and the following year (1799) Oneida was formed.

1804. The Duke d'Enghien seized by a party of French cavalry and hurried away to Paris, where he was tried in the night by a military tribunal, and condemned on vague and unsubstantial charges of carrying on a correspondence with the enemies of the republic, and shot immediately.

1809. Gustavus Adolphus IV, king of Sweden, arrested and deprived of his functions of government. (By some authorities, March 12.)

1818. Hector McNeil, a most deservedly popular poet of Scotland, died. Scotland's Scaith or the Waes of War, met with the unprecedented sale of 10,000 copies in one month.

1820. Maine entered the confederacy of the United States.

1823. John Jervis, earl of St. Vincent, an English admiral died, aged 90. He entered the navy at the age of 10, and gradually arose to the highest rank, and was raised to the peerage. His courage, skill and activity rendered him an admirable officer.

1838. The city of Bahia, in Brazil, taken from the rebels or insurgents, by the imperial troops, with loss of blood on both sides. The rebels fired the city; about 3000 of them were taken prisoners.

1839. Battle of Tuspan; the Mexican government troops, (Centralists) under Gen. Cos, defeated at Tuspan by the Federalists under Gen. Mexia, with a loss of 300 killed and several hundred prisoners.

1840. James Riley, an American sea captain, died at sea, aged 63. He is well known as the author of Riley's Narrative, which contains an account of his captivity and sufferings in Northern Africa.

1856. The steam ferry boat, New Jersey, while crossing the Delaware from Philadelphia to Camden, took fire and a large number of persons perished.

MARCH 16.

404 B. C. Athens was taken by Lysander and the tyranny of the 30 commenced.

37. Claudius Drusus Nero Tiberius, emperor of Rome, died. On his accession to the throne, he gave promise of a wise and happy reign, but soon became unrestrained in his conduct, and after a reign of 23 years, died in odium with the people.

455. Flavius Placidus Valentinian, emperor of Rome, assassinated. He was a profligate and licentious ruler.

1190. The Jews of York lawlessly massacred for their wealth by the citizens.

1286. Alexander III king of Scotland, killed. He succeeded his father, Alexander II, at the age of eight years. An enterprising and virtuous ruler; he introduced many good regulations of government, and under his sway the country seems to have enjoyed a tranquility to which she had long been a stranger. As he was riding in a dark night between Bruntisland and Ringhorn, on the banks of the frith of Forth, he was thrown with his horse over a precipice and killed on the spot.

1532. John Bourchier died at Calais in France, of which he was the English governor. He translated Froissart's Chronicle into English.

1621. The Plymouth colonists received the first Indian visit to their town. This was Samoset, sagamore of a country lying five days' journey from thence, called Patuxet. He informed the English that all the inhabitants had died of an extraordinary plague about four years before, and that there was neither man, woman or child remaining. Of course there was no one to dispute their possession.

1649. An army of 1000 Iroquois armed with guns fell upon the Huron village at the eastern extremity of the lake, and nearly massacred the entire population. The Hurons defended themselves bravely, but were forced to yield before the fire arms and superior numbers of the Iroquois, who lost more than a hundred of their best warriors. The French missionaries, Brebeuf and Lallemant, who labored with [105]the Hurons, were taken, and suffered death by torture.

1660. The long parliament dissolved by its own act.

1675. Under a pair of stairs in the tower of London two bodies were found, supposed to be those of Edward V and his brother, whom their uncle Richard III murdered nearly two hundred years before.

1680. The first assembly of New Hampshire met at Portsmouth; John Cutts first president.

1689. The Habeas corpus act suspended for the first time in England.

1691. Jacob Leisler, who had exercised the office of governor of New York nearly two years by the election of the freeholders and the consent of the British ministry, was barbarously executed by some malcontents, as a traitor.

1738. Captain Jenkins, the master of a Scottish ship, exhibited his ear in a piece of cotton, which he affirmed had been torn off by a guarda costa. This is alluded to by Burke as the fable of Capt. Jenkins.

1751. James Madison, fourth president of the United States, born.

1781. Action off cape Henry between the British fleet, admiral Arbuthnot, and French fleet under d'Estouches. Both sides claimed the victory. British loss, 30 killed and 73 wounded.

1781. French surrendered the island of St. Bartholomews to the British.

1782. Action off cape Spartel, between British frigate Success and Spanish frigate Santo Catalina, 34 guns. The latter was captured, having 25 killed. British loss 1.

1792. Gustavus III, king of Sweden, shot by Count Ankerstroem at a masquerade.

1795. Clausel, adjutant general of the army of the Eastern Pyrennes, presented to the national convention 25 pairs of colors and a standard taken from the Spaniards at Figuieres.

1797. Battle of Cainin in Italy. The French under Murat passed the Tagliamento and attacked the Austrians, who were driven from the village, where the archduke had established his head quarters.

1799. John Dussaulx died. He distinguished himself in the war of Hanover under Richelieu, after which he devoted himself to literary pursuits. He took part in the French revolution, and was among the 73 proscribed deputies.

1799. A portion of the pavement in front of the Royal exchange, London, suddenly sank and a well of water was discovered which had not been used in 600 years.

1802. A military institution established by government at West Point, which was the origin of the present academy there.

1808. Joseph Bonomi, an Italian artist, died at London. He was distinguished particularly by his architectural knowledge and genius, was an associate of the royal academy, and patronized by Sir Joshua Reynolds.

1810. On a pane of glass at an inn near London, under this date, is the following inscription. "Thomas Mount Jones dined here, ate six pounds bacon, and drank nineteen pots beer." It is a question for discussion, whether in this frail memorial, the love of distinction and desire for fame were not as great as the love of brutal gluttony.

1813. Captain Berresford of the British ship Poictiers, 74 guns, demanded of the inhabitants of Lewistown, Delaware, 25 oxen and vegetables and hay, otherwise he threatened to destroy the town. The demand was refused.

1817. William Thompson, an industrious Scottish writer and compiler, died. He possessed ability, but his writings bear the marks of haste and want of care.

1838. Nathaniel Bowditch died at Boston, aged 65. His father and ancestors in several generations were by profession shipmasters. Notwithstanding the very limited advantages of his education, and his laborious employment through life for the support of his family, yet by his extraordinary genius and economy of time, he made great acquisitions in learning and science, gained most of the languages, and made himself the most eminent mathematician and astronomer that America has produced. He published the Practical Navigator, a standard book; but the great work on which his fame will rest, is the copious and profound commentary upon the Mechanique Celeste of La Place, of which he made the first entire translation, and published at his own expense in 4 vols. quarto; saying that he preferred spending a thousand dollars a year in that way to keeping a carriage.

1853. Anthony Dumond Stanley, an American mathematician, died, aged 42. Profoundly versed in the science, he had begun a series of works which would have placed his name high on the scroll of fame.

MARCH 17.

49 B. C. Pompey abandoned Italy, and took the sea with his legions, at Brundusium.

45 B. C. Battle of Munda, in Spain, between the armies of Cæsar and Pompey, which decided the fate of the Roman republic. These men did not consider the Roman empire sufficiently large for two of them.

180. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, [106]surnamed the philosopher, died on an expedition against the Marcomanni. He was so extremely popular with his Roman subjects, that they placed him among the gods, and kept his statue in their houses.

464. St. Patrick, the tutelar saint of Ireland, died. He was carried away with many of his father's vassals by pirates, from whom he made his escape to Gaul and Italy. He received a commission from Pope Celestine to convert the Irish to Christianity, in which mission he was eminently successful.

807. A large spot noticed upon the sun's disc, which continued there eight days.

1072. Adalbert, archbishop of Bremen, died. He became very powerful in Denmark, and even obliged the king to divorce his wife Gutha, because she was somewhat allied to him. Though intriguing and violent, he possessed some good qualities, and formed many wise regulations in civil and ecclesiastical affairs.

1562. Diego Esquivel Alava, a learned Spanish bishop, died. He was at the Council of Trent, and published a work on councils.

1565. Alexander Ales, a Scottish theologian, died. He first opposed the tenets of Luther, but afterwards embraced them, and suffered persecution. He wrote commentaries on some of the books of the old and new testament.

1632. Treaty of St. Germain, by which Canada and Nova Scotia were restored to the French. The capture of Quebec was unknown at the time peace was re-established, or perhaps those territories would not have been so generally given up.

1634. Thomas Randolph, an English poet, died. He was the friend of Jonson, and his works have been several times reprinted.

1640. Philip Massinger, an English dramatic poet, died. Some of his comedies still keep the stage. He was courted by the wits and learned men of his time.

1657. An offensive and defensive league concluded between France and England.

1676. Warwick, R. I., destroyed by the Indians. Only one house was left unburnt.

1677. Valenciennes, in France, taken by assault by the army under Louis XIV, in person.

1681. The members of the English parliament from London came to Oxford, the place of their meeting, armed and with ribbons on their hats inscribed with "No popery, no slavery."

1695. Augustin Lubin, an Augustine friar, died. He was geographer to the French king, and author of various works.

1715. Gilbert Burnet, bishop of Salisbury, died. He was a zealous promoter of the revolution in England, which placed the present family on the throne, and of which he wrote the history.

1740. Mrs. Stevens received £5,000 from the English parliament for making public her medicine for the stone.

1741. John Baptist Rousseau, an eminent French poet, died. He possessed a fine genius, but an unhappy temper embittered his life by stimulating him to abuse those whose friendship would have procured him a place above dependence.

1767. Birthday of Andrew Jackson, seventh president of the United States.

1776. Boston evacuated by the British. By four in the morning the king's troops, with those Americans who were attached to the royal cause, began to embark, and before ten all of them were under sail. As the rear embarked, General Washington marched into the city, where he was joyfully received as a deliverer. The British left 250 cannon and 25,000 bushels of wheat.

1781. Johannes Evald died: the most distinguished poetical genius of Denmark, in the eighteenth century. Being left to his own reading by his tutor, his imagination was captivated with Tom Jones and Robinson Crusoe. Proposing to himself the latter hero for a model, he eloped at the age of thirteen with a view of proceeding to Batavia, but was overtaken, and his project frustrated. He next conceived the scheme of entering the Prussian army, and enlisted at Magdeburg; but being received only as a foot soldier, instead of a hussar, he deserted to the Austrians. On quitting the army he devoted himself to the study of theology, but having suddenly become violently enamored with a young lady, who regardless of his passion, bestowed her hand on another, a permanent melancholy settled upon his mind, and under this influence he took up his pen. His first work Fortune's Temple, a vision, at once stamped his reputation. In 1772 he executed his literary chef-d'œuvre, Balder's Död, a drama of extraordinary poetical beauty, and greatly superior to anything which had then appeared in the Danish language. His after life was embittered by poverty and sickness; and it was under the hospitable roof of Madame Skou that he breathed his last, after having been confined to his bed or armchair two years, and almost deprived of the use of his limbs.

1782. Daniel Bernouilli, a German philosopher, died. He studied medicine as a profession, but was at the same time engaged with mathematics. At the age of twenty-four, he was offered the presidency of an academy at Genoa, but gave the preference to an invitation from St. Petersburgh. He returned to Basle in 1733, [107]where he spent the remainder of his days, so much respected by the inhabitants, that to bow to Daniel Bernouilli, when met in the street, was one of the first lessons which every father gave his children.

1790. The government of France issued assignats to the amount of 170,000,000 francs. This system of assignats, while it gave more strength to the public, yet was the source of more private suffering than any other measure during the French revolution.

1793. Battle of Neerwinden, or Linden, between the French under Dumourier, and the Austrians under Coburg and Clarifayt. Dumourier was obliged to retreat.

1794. French sloop Avenger, 16 guns, taken by Admiral Jervis's squadron off Martinique.

1795. A number of the Parisians complained to the national convention of the scarcity of bread in Paris.

1798. Thomas Jackson, an English actor, died. His epitaph is ingenious: "Sacred to the memory of Thomas Jackson, comedian, who was engaged 21st December, 1741, to play a comic cast of characters in the great theatre, the world; for many of which he was prompted by nature to excel. The season being ended, his benefit over, the charges all paid, his account closed, he made his exit in the tragedy of Death on the 17th of March, 1798, in assurance of being called once more to rehearsal, where he hopes to find his forfeits all cleared, his cast of parts bettered, and his situation made agreeable by him who paid the great stock debt, for the love of performers in general."

1799. The French army arrived before St. Jean d'Acre, and to their no small chagrin and astonishment, beheld the town prepared for a siege, and the English colors flying in the harbor.

1800. The British ship Queen Charlotte, 110 guns, destroyed by an explosion off Leghorn. More than 800 persons perished with her.

1806. William Rowley, an eminent British physician, died. He was a man of great skill and experience in his profession, and his benevolence and humanity were conspicuous; yet was he one of the most obstinate opponents to the introduction of vaccination as a preventive of small pox that ever impeded the might of his authority to that experiment.

1808. Rupture of the negotiation at Washington between the British minister and the American government.

1811. Charles IV, of Sweden, resigned the government of his kingdom in favor of his adopted son, Bernadotte.

1828. James Edward Smith, an eminent English naturalist and physician, died. He was one of the founders of the Linnean society, and published several valuable works on natural history and botany.

1843. George Turner, aged 93, died at Philadelphia. He was a native of England, but joining the American revolutionary army, he distinguished himself in many severe actions and endeared himself to Gen. Washington.

1849. William II, king of Holland, died.

1855. The French and Russians at Sebastopol contended fiercely for the rifle pits which the latter had established between the French advance and the Mamelon.

MARCH 18.

251. St. Cyril, archbishop of Jerusalem, died.

979. Edward the Martyr, died. He was the son of Edgar, and succeeded his father as king of England at the age of 15. The young king paid little attention to any thing but the chase; and hunting one day, he got separated from his attendants, and repaired to Corfe castle, where his step-mother, Elfrida, resided. Having procured a draught of liquor, he was drinking it on horseback, when one of Elfrida's servants gave him a deep stab behind. He immediately spurred his horse, but fainting from loss of blood, was dragged in the stirrup till he died. The pity caused by his innocence and misfortune induced the people to regard him as a martyr.

1350. In the national roll of accounts for glazing St. Stephen's chapel, Westminster, Edward III ordained that the wages for artists be from 5d. per day to one shilling, except for John Barnaby, his wages should be twopence.

1552. Maurice of Saxony took up arms against the emperor Charles V.

1629. Charles James, prince of Great Britain, born, baptized and died.

1629. Charles I, of England, issued a proclamation that he would account it presumption in any one to prescribe a time for him to call a parliament.

1635. Patrick Forbes, a Scotch prelate, died. He was a great and a good man; a benefactor particularly to Aberdeen university, of which he revived the professorship of law, physic and divinity.

1696. Bonaventure Baron, professor of divinity at Rome, died. He was a native of Ireland, but spent 60 years of his life in Rome; and was a learned and voluminous writer.

1718. Mary Wortley Montague made the first experiment of inoculation for small pox upon her own son at Belgrade, in Turkey. It was tried in England upon criminals, with complete success, about nine years after. This disease first made its appearance at Mecca, where it is stated [108]to have destroyed the invading Ethiopian army, and thus terminated in 360, what is denominated the war of the elephant.

1728. George Stanhope, an able English divine, died. His theological works were numerous and popular.

1741. Conflagration of the chapel and buildings in the fort at New York, which was followed immediately by the negro plot.

1745. Robert Walpole died, aged 69. He became heir to the family estate by the death of his elder brother, and in the jovial life of a country gentleman, soon lost his early inclination to literature. In 1700 he was returned to parliament, and warmly espousing the whig interest, rose to a high promotion in the offices of the government, and in 1742, was created earl of Oxford, on his resignation of the premiership. He is the reputed author of the saying that "all men have their price."

1754. The first theatre established in the city of New York, closed with the Beggar's Opera and the Devil to Pay, when the following notice appeared in the prints, which managers now-a-days have little occasion to repeat: "Lewis Hallam, comedian, intending for Philadelphia, begs the favor of those who have any demands against him to bring in their accounts and receive their money."

1766. Stamp act repealed by the British government, reserving however, the right to make laws binding on the colonies in all cases whatsoever. News of this repeal excited great joy in America, where it was celebrated by the ringing of bells, fireworks and festivals.

1768. Laurence Sterne, an eccentric English author and divine, died. His romance of Tristram Shandy and the Sentimental Journey, are well known.

1775. British Gen. Gage seized 13,425 musket cartridges and 3000 pounds of ball, all of it private property, stored on Boston Neck.

1776. The British troops having evacuated Boston, Sir Archibald Campbell, unaware of this movement, on entering the harbor with 1700 men, was made prisoner by Washington.

1780. Congress resolved to call in by taxes in one year and burn all the continental money emitted prior to that time, and to issue ten million dollars new money, redeemable in specie within six years.

1781. Anne Robert James Turgot, an eminent French statesman, died. He studied divinity, but his talents recommending him to the notice of the government, he was appointed to a civil office, where he displayed so great ability that he was appointed comptroller of the finances. His measures were grand, liberal and useful: but being ridiculed by the profligate and the vicious, who rioted on the miseries of the people, he retired from public life.

1796. Steuben county erected in south western New York.

1797. Palma Nuova, a frontier town in Italy, evacuated by the archduke Charles, who had wrested it from the Venitians only ten days before. The French under Bernadotte and Serrurier, on entering it found 30,000 rations of bread, and a million quintals of flour.

1805. Bonaparte assumed the title of king of Italy.

1814. John Vint, editor of the Isle of Man Gazette, and a distinguished philanthropist, died.

1817. An earthquake in Spain, Portugal, and Sicily, destroyed whole villages.

1817. Charles Combe died; an eminent English physician and critic, and highly distinguished as a medalist.

1836. Abate Fea, a celebrated archæologist, died at Rome, aged 88. He is known as the translator of Winckelman.

1839. The Chinese imperial commissioner, Lin, issued a proclamation at Canton, ordering the foreign opium dealers to deliver up all the opium in their possession, to have it burnt and destroyed, and forbidding its importation to all eternity, under pain of death.

1840. Dr. Parish, favorably known to the medical world, died in Philadelphia.

1846. First steam boat arrived at Austin, Texas.

1846. William M. Crane, of the United States navy, died by his own hand.

1848. The emperor of Austria published by proclamation, at Milan, abolition of censorship, and a convention of the states. But the people wanting more, troubles began.

1854. A terrible gale at Albany, N. Y.; fifty houses unroofed, many chimneys and walls blown down, and great damage done.

1856. Henry Pottingen, lieutenant general in the East India company's service, died aged 67. He distinguished himself in the Afghanistan war, and settled the opium difficulty with the Chinese.

1856. The Cunard steamer Curlew, from Halifax, ran on a reef north of the Bermudas, and was lost, with a part of her mail.

MARCH 19.

720. B. C. The first eclipse of the moon on record (by Ptolemy) happened on this day.

478. B. C. The history of Herodotus terminates with the siege of Sestos.

235. Alexander Severus, emperor of Rome, murdered by his soldiers. He was [109]a Phœnician by birth, led an exemplary life, and governed ably both in peace and war.

717. Chilperic, king of France, surprised in his camp, in the forest of Arden, by the duke of Austrasia, afterwards Charles Martel.

1355. Pressing for seamen to man the English navy, commenced in the reign of Edward III.

1521. Insurrection and massacre in the island of Majorca, in the Mediterranean sea.

1584. Iwan IV, Vassilivitz, first czar of Muscovy, died. He was denominated by the Russians the terrible, and by foreigners the tyrant.

1621. The complaint against lord Bacon for corruption, drawn up by Sir Edward Coke and others, presented to the house of lords. The chancellor was sick, but addressed a letter to his peers, requesting them not to prejudge his case from "any number of petitions against a judge that makes two thousand decrees and orders in a year; but that he may answer them according to the rules of justice, severally and respectively."

1626. Peter Coton, a French Jesuit, died. He was confessor to Henry IV, whose confidence he possessed, and it was a common expression that the king was good but that he had cotton in his ears. He was distinguished for eloquence and zeal.

1628. Patent for Massachusetts sold to Sir Henry Roswell, Sir John Young and "four other associates in the vicinity of Dorchester, England."

1631. The original patent of Connecticut made by Robert, earl of Warwick, to William, Viscount Say and Seal, Robert lord Brook and their associates.

1643. Battle of Hopton-Heath, between the forces of Charles I, and those of the parliament, in which the latter were defeated with the loss of a great part of their artillery.

1643. Spencer Compton, the friend of Charles I, killed at the battle of Hopton-Heath. He was the only son of William, first earl of Northampton; and refusing to accept quarter, was despatched by the parliament forces.

1687. Daniel Gookin died; for many years superintendent of the Indians in Massachusetts, whose interests he watched with so much zeal as to draw upon himself the abuse of the populace, whose outrages he constantly opposed. He published some historical collections of the Indians in New England.

1688. John Denham, one of the minor British poets, died. He was born at Dublin, in 1615, and first became known in 1641 by his tragedy of The Sophy. In 1643 appeared his first addition of Cooper's Hill, a justly celebrated poem, of which Dryden says, for majesty of style is, and ever will be, the standard of good writing.

1691. Col. Henry Stoughter published his commission from the Duke of York, appointing him governor of the province of New York.

1711. Thomas Ken, chaplain to Charles II of England, died. He survived several reigns, and in all, his firmness and consistency, added to his piety and learning, procured him respect and patronage.

1719. An extraordinary meteor seen from all parts of Great Britain about 8 o'clock in the evening. Its light exceeded that of the sun at noon-day. It exploded over the sea near the coast of Britany, at an altitude it is supposed of about 30 miles. It broke like a skyrocket into sparks of red fire, and was succeeded by a tremendous report.

1736. Nicholas Hawksmoor, died; an English architect of fame, pupil of Sir C. Wren.

1755. A cluster of houses in the village of Bergemoletto, near Piedmont, Italy, was overwhelmed by two vast bodies of snow that fell from the neighboring mountain. Three women, the only occupants of the houses at the time of the catastrophy, were dug out alive seven days after.

1759. Nicholas Verdier, a French anatomist, died. His character as an author and a man, are entitled to respect.

1781. Cornwallis retreated from Guilford court house, where he had defeated Greene on the 15th; leaving at the quaker meeting house all the wounded Americans he had taken, and about 70 wounded British officers.

1786. Hugh Pelliser, an English admiral, died. He was at the storming of Quebec; and at the battle of Ushant, 1778, on which occasion a dispute between him and admiral Keppel saved the French fleet from destruction.

1788. Francis Joseph Desbillons, a French Jesuit, died. He devoted many years to study, and at the abolition of his order published his Fables, and some other works, and left in manuscript a history of the Latin tongue.

1796. Stephen Storace, an English music composer, died. His productions are confined to the drama, and are remarkable for their spirit.

1797. Gradisca, a strong town in Austria, capitulated to the French under Bernadotte and Serrurier; 3,000 prisoners, 60 cannon and 8 standards fell into the hands of the French.

1801. Novalis, (the literary name assumed by Frederick Von Hardenberg,) died. He belonged to the religious society of Hernhutters.

[110]1808. Charles IV, abdicated the throne of Spain in favor of his son Ferdinand VII.

1809. Gustavus Adolphus IV, the deposed king of Sweden, signed a formal deed of abdication. He assumed the title of count Gottorp.

1812. Constitution of the Cortez signed and proclaimed in Spain.

1814. Simon Snyder, governor of Pennsylvania, rejected the bill establishing 40 banks. It however became a law, two-thirds of the legislature having agreed to it.

1814. Rheims, in France, taken by the Russians.

1842. First newspaper at Flushing, Long Island.

1853. Nankin taken by the rebels; the Tartar garrison of 20,000 men massacred, except 100, who effected an escape.

1853. Battle of Donabew, Burmah; the British under Gen. Cheape defeated Mea Toon.

1855. An explosion took place in the Midlothian coal pits in Virginia; of fifty persons in the pits 35 were killed and 10 wounded beyond recovery.

MARCH 20.

268. Publius Gallienus, emperor of Rome, assassinated at Milan.

1413. Henry IV of England, died. He usurped the throne 1399, and thereby excited the civil war between the houses of York and Lancaster, called the war of the roses.

1516. Baptist Spagnoli, a general of the Carmelites, died. He was a native of Mantua in Italy, and distinguished himself by the sound and virtuous regulations which he attempted to introduce among the corrupted members of his order. His works have been published in 4 vols.

1549. Thomas Seymour, lord high admiral of England, attainted and beheaded without being heard. His offence was alleged to be equal if not superior in power to his brother the protector.

1586. Richard Maitland, lord of session in Scotland, died. He reported the decisions of that court till he became blind at about the age of 60; when he commenced writing and collecting Scottish poetry. He sustained the character of "a maist unspotted and blameless judge, and valiant, grave and worthy knight;" but it is in his character of a writer and collector of Scottish poetry that he is now chiefly remembered.

1643. John Kirchman, a learned German, died at Lubeck.

1677. George Digby, an English nobleman of great ability, died. During the civil wars he espoused the cause of Charles I; but though romantically brave, was always an unsuccessful commander.

1687. Samuel Parker, an English prelate, died. He was educated a puritan, but for the reward of place, it is believed, became an anti-puritan and was made bishop of Oxford. He wrote a history of his own times, which appeared in Latin and English.

1727. Isaac Newton, the celebrated philosopher and mathematician, died, aged 84. He was so small and weak at the time of his birth, that his life was despaired of; and in his youth, his mother, finding him of no service in the management of the farm, sent him to finish his studies. From the success of his pursuits in after life, he has been styled the creator of natural philosophy. The last few years of his existence were spent in utter neglect of those studies which had engrossed fifty years of his life.

1730. Adrienne la Couvreur, a French actress, died. She is one of the few of her profession whose reputation has survived the age in which they lived.

1737. Nicholas Hooker, gentleman, died at Conway, North Wales; celebrated as being the forty-first child of his father; and being himself the father of twenty-seven children. His tombstone, attesting the above facts, is to be found in the churchyard adjoining Conway castle.

1741. Peter Burman the elder died. He was professor of history and eloquence at the university of Leyden, and published editions of many of the Latin classics.

1744. France declared war against England.

1750. The first No. of the Rambler, by Dr. Johnson, appeared.

1750. Frederick, prince of Wales, and father of George III, died suddenly in his 45th year. He died in the arms of his violin player, who was playing for his amusement.

1767. Firmin Abauzit, a learned French writer, died. He became distinguished for his superior progress in every branch of polite learning, but particularly in mathematics and natural history; and was consulted in difficult questions by the most learned men of the age.

1775. Daniel Boone, employed, in forming a settlement in the then wilderness of Kentucky, was attacked by the Indians, near where Boonsborough now stands, and two of his men killed and two wounded.

1780. Action between the French fleet, admiral Piquet, and 3 British ships, off Monte Christie. The action continued till the next day, when the French suffered so much that they were compelled to lie by and repair.

1792. The French government adopted [111]the instrument since known as the guillotine; it had been in use in various countries several centuries before.

1793. William Murray, lord Mansfield, died. He was eminent as a lawyer, and dignified as a judge; as an elegant scholar, of highly cultivated and vigorous intellect, he shone in the constellation of great men which arose in the reign of queen Anne; in eloquence and beauty of diction he outrivaled his predecessors, and has not been excelled by any successor in the high office he held.

1797. Battle of Larvis, between the Austrians and the French under Joubert, in which the former were defeated, after an obstinate battle. Austrian loss 2,000 k., 4,000 taken.

1799. Bonaparte opened the siege of St. Jean d'Acre, in Palestine.

1799. Battle of Pfullendorf, in Germany, in which the French under Jourdan sustained the attack of the Austrians under the archduke, who had the advantage in point of numbers and artillery, having no less than 300 pieces.

1800. Battle of Heliopolis, Egypt, in which the French under Kleber defeated the Turks under the grand vizier.

1801. The British, under admiral Duckworth, took the island of St. Bartholomews, in the West Indies. It was again restored on the dissolution of the armed neutrality.

1809. The populace rose and plundered the French in the Havana.

1811. Massena gave up the command of his army to Marmont, and retired into France.

1811. Birthday of Napoleon, duke de Reichstadt, son of the emperor of France. He was christened emperor of Rome.

1812. John Horne Tooke, an English politician, died. He was educated for the ministry, with a great predilection for politics. In 1771 he induced the printers of two newspapers to publish the debates of the house of commons in violation of their rules, which led to proceedings that finally resulted in the defeat of the house, and the practice of those publications ever since. He was a warm opponent of the American war, and was prosecuted for sedition, for the wording of a resolution by which the Constitutional society voted £100 to the relief of the widows and children of the Americans who fell at the battle of Lexington, and was sentenced to a year's imprisonment and a fine of £200. In 1786, appeared his Diversions of Purley, which raised him to a high rank as a philologist. His political life ended with the dissolution of parliament, in 1802, and the remainder of his days were spent in the society of his friends.

1814. Battle of Arcis, in which the prince of Wirtemberg defeated the French and captured that place.

1815. Bonaparte ascended the throne of France on his return from Elba.

1831. The Austrian troops entered Bologna, and in a few days overrun the revolted part of Italy.

1831. Insurrection of the slaves at Antigua. Suppressed on the 25th.

1843. Charles G. Corliss was shot dead in a street near Broadway, New York, by a woman who escaped.

1844. Peter B. Porter died, aged 71. His name is connected with most of the important events in the history of western New York; and as an officer in the army during the last war with great Britain he rendered important services to his country. He was some time secretary of war of the United States.

1849. Newton M. Curtiss, author of a number of novels, died, aged 34. He some time printed a political paper at Ballston, before his talent as a writer of fiction was developed. His subjects were mostly of Indian and revolutionary scenes and incidents.

1853. The French fleet sailed for the Turkish waters, to act against the Russians, if necessary.

1854. Two shocks of an earthquake at Macon, Ga.

1856. David Conner, a United States commodore, died. He entered the service in 1809, and was wounded in the action between the Hornet and Penguin.

1856. A party of 500 Costa Ricans attacked Col. Schlessinger who commanded 400 of Walker's men, at the hacienda Santa Rosa, and entirely defeated them. Mora had 16 killed and 25 wounded; of Gen. Walker's men 90 were killed and several perished in the woods. The action lasted but 14 minutes. The Costa Ricans shot 19 prisoners.

MARCH 21.

1140. A remarkable eclipse of the sun in England, which caused total darkness.

1491. The new epoch and sacred year of the Jews established, corresponding with the first day of Abib, (Nisan) the day of Pharaoh's overthrow.

1512. Juan Ponce de Leon landed in Florida, and claimed the honor of the discovery; although Sebastian Cabot sailed along the coast in 1497. He was led to undertake the expedition by the Indian tradition in Cuba, that in the interior of the country was a spring which made those who drank it young and perpetuated their youth. At a great loss of his men [112]in the swamps and marshes, he penetrated into the interior, but was driven back by the Indians without discovering the miraculous fountain.

1556. Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, burnt for heresy at Oxford. He was born 1489, and educated for the ministry. His first promotion arose from his remarking that the meditated divorce of Henry VIII from his first wife, Catharine of Arragon, might be decided by learned divines without an appeal to the pope. The king, on hearing of it exclaimed "by G—d, the man has got the sow by the right ear!" He was sent for to court, and immediately preferred. On the accession of Mary, he was tried before commissioners, sent from Rome on charges of blasphemy, perjury, incontinence and heresy, and sentenced to be degraded and deprived of office, and finally burnt for the confessions he was induced to make with the hope of pardon. He contributed far more than any other individual to the establishment of the independence of the English church, and was a great patron of learning and the universities.

1604. Peter Ernest, count de Mansfield, died at Luxembourg. He was an able statesman in the service of the emperor of Germany. His conduct was considered so meritorious that he was appointed governor of Brabant.

1639. Thomas Campanelli, an Italian philosopher of great eminence, died at Paris. So great was his learning and eloquence, that his rivals and enemies procured the interference of the inquisition on an accusation of sorcery and magic. He was afterwards put to the rack and condemned to perpetual imprisonment, but found means to escape to France, where he was protected.

1644. Prince Rupert defeated the parliament forces in England, and relieved Newark.

1656. James Usher, archbishop of Armagh, died. He enjoyed a reputation seldom acquired, in every department of knowledge, and received pressing invitations to France and Germany, at a time when his own country was in a state of anarchy, and his property falling a prey to the fortunes of war.

1663. Charlotte Tremouille, countess of Derby, died. She was the wife of the earl of Derby who was treacherously beheaded during the civil war of England, and imitated his heroic conduct by defying the attacks of the parliament forces, and was the last person who submitted to them.

1673. The castle formerly standing at the entrance of Boston harbor, accidentally destroyed by fire. It was constructed of timber, since replaced by a new one of stone.

1676. A hissing, detonating meteor passed over Italy two hours after sunset. Its apparent diameter was greater than that of the moon; its real diameter about three quarters of a mile; and the velocity was calculated at 160 miles a minute.

1684. Nathaniel Highmore, an eminent English anatomist, died. He is the author of the first systematic treatise on the structure of the human body, in the English language, and was indefatigable in the pursuit and improvement of anatomical science.

1733. Stanislaus, king of Poland, sent his abdication by express, to Warsaw.

1766. Richard Dawes, an English scholar, died; celebrated as the author of the Miscellanea Critica.

1772. James Nicholas Bellin, a learned and laborious geographical engineer of Paris, died.

1776. The duke of Bridgewater's canal from Manchester to Liverpool completed, a great achievement for the time.

1778. The American ministers, Franklin, Dean and Lee, were publicly received at the French court.

1788. A fire occurred at New Orleans, by which seven-eighths of the city was laid in ashes.

1797. John Parkhurst, an English divine, died aged 69; well known as a lexicographer.

1797. The French entered Goritz in Austria, where they found 1500 sick, and a great quantity of provisions and stores.

1799. Battle of Asterach, between the French under Jourdan, and the Austrians under the archduke, in which the latter were defeated. Austrian loss 2160.

1800. The Ionian republic, formed under the protection of the porte. Corfu, Zante and other Venitian isles formed the confederation.

1801. Battle of Aboukir, or Alexandria, in Egypt, between the French under Menou, and the British and Turks under Abercrombie. The French were defeated with the loss of 3000 killed, and the standard of the invincible regiment taken, the officer bearing this famous banner being killed, and nearly the whole of those celebrated soldiers annihilated. British loss 1376, and their commander, Abercrombie, mortally wounded.

1803. Edward Marcus Despard, an Irish officer, executed for treason. He was appointed superintendent of the English colonies in the West Indies, where his conduct led to a recall; out of his subsequent treatment grew a desire for revenge, which led him on to his fate.

1804. Duke d'Enghien, shot at Vincennes by torch light. (See p. 104.)

[113]1806. Madison county, New York, was formed.

1815. Bonaparte entered Paris, the Bourbons having previously evacuated it, on the news of his landing from Elba.

1821. Michael Bryan, an eminent connoisseur in the fine arts, died. He is the author of a biographical and critical dictionary of painters and engravers.

1829. Duel at London between the duke of Wellington and the earl of Winchelsea.

1829. Great earthquake in the provinces of Murcia and Oriheula, in Spain. Upwards of 20 churches and 4,000 houses destroyed, and great numbers of the inhabitants killed. A considerable portion of the former province was converted into a barren waste.

1839. Louisa, the last surviving daughter of Linnæus the naturalist, died at Upsala, aged 90.

1843. Herard, the successful general of the insurgents in Hayti, made a triumphal entry into Port au Prince.

1843. Robert Southey, an eminent English poet, died, aged 68, in a state of mental darkness, from an excess of labor.

1845. Benjamin Bushe died at Greensboro, Vt., aged 115.

1849. Benj. F. Thompson, the historian of Long island, died, aged 64. He was distinguished by an ardent love for historical research, and left a large collection of materials for the illustration of the local history of New York state.

1852. Armand Marrast, one of the leading and ablest journalists of France, died. His name was conspicuous in the revolution of February, 1848, which made him mayor of Paris, and a member of the provisional government. He was the author of the French constitution of 1848.

1856. The fortieth asteroid, named Lætitia, discovered by Mr. Goldschmidt, at Paris.

MARCH 22.

387. Theodosius degraded Antioch, the metropolis of the east, from the rank of a city, and subjected it to the jurisdiction of Laodicea, on account of a sedition.

1270. Louis IX, king of France, died. He displayed the magnanimity of the hero, the integrity of the patriot, and the humanity of the philosopher. By his order a translation of the whole Bible was made into French.

1312. The order of Knights Templars suppressed by a papal decree.

1520. Leo X gave permission for the publication of the Complutensian Polyglott, a magnificent edition of the Bible, prepared and printed at the expense of Cardinal Ximenes of Toledo. The work was commenced in 1502, and prosecuted without interruption fifteen years, at an expense of more than 50,000 crowns of gold.

1530. Diet of Augsburg, in Germany, at which Melanchton drew up a creed known by the name of the Augsburg Confession.

1595. Walter Raleigh, in search of the fabulous golden city of Manoa del Dorado, arrived at Trinidad. He had fitted out a fleet at great expense; leaving his ships at Trinidad he proceeded with 100 men in boats 400 miles up the Oronoque; but the river beginning dangerously to swell, he returned without effecting the great discovery.

1621. The colonists at Plymouth received a visit from Masassoit, the greatest king of the neighboring Indians. A league of friendship was agreed upon which was inviolably observed more than fifty years.

1646. Battle of Stowe, in which the royalists under Lord Astley, 3000 in number, were defeated by Col. Morgan. This was the last body of men that appeared on the field for King Charles.

1687. Jean Baptiste Lully, an Italian musician, died at Paris. He was born of obscure parentage, and at the age of ten was sent by the Chevalier Guise to France as a page to Mad'lle de Montpensier. The lady, however was so little pleased with him, that she sent him into the kitchen, where he officiated as under-scullion, till his musical talent became accidentally known. From this time he rose rapidly, and contributed much to the improvement of the science of music in France. He is said to have been the inventor of the overture.

1717. Matthew Hubert, an eloquent French preacher, died. His sermons are published in 6 vols. and highly esteemed.

1740. Porto Bello, on the isthmus of Darien, taken by the English under Admiral Vernon.

1758. Jonathan Edwards, the most celebrated of American metaphysicians and theologians, died of small pox, aged 55. There have been three great editions of his works published, one in England and two in this country.

1765. Stamp act passed by the British parliament, the first attempt to tax America without allowing her a representation in the parliament.

1772. John Canton, an English natural philosopher, died. He was a cloth-weaver, and first devoted his leisure moments to mathematics. He became a member of the royal society, and obtained their gold medal by his experiments on the Leyden phial.

1797. Battle of La Chinse, in Austria. [114]The French under Guieux drove the imperialists before them until they fell in with Massena at Tarwis and were defeated. The French took 5000 prisoners, 400 wagons and 30 cannon.

1797. The French under Joubert crossed the Adige at Newmark, in Saxony, defeated Gen. Laudohn, entered Botzen, and matched directly for Claufen. The French took 1500 prisoners.

1806. Murat proclaimed at Dusseldorf, "Prince Joachim, duke of Cleves and Berg."

1821. Stephen Decatur, a distinguished American commodore, died at Washington, aged 41.

1828. Louis Choris, an eminent Russian painter and draftsman to Kotzebue's circumnavigating expedition, was killed in company with his traveling companion, near Vera Cruz in Mexico.

1832. The bill banishing the families of Napoleon and Charles X, passed the chamber of peers by a vote of 80 to 30.

1832. John Wolfgang von Gœthe, "the patriarch of German literature," died, aged 83. He early gave indications of genius and a taste for the fine arts; acquired several languages, and made some proficiency in drawing, engraving, &c.; and first attracted attention as an author by the drama of Gœtz in 1773, and the Sorrows of Werther the next year. The activity and versatility of his genius were prodigious, and his productions amounting to 50 vols., embrace every branch of literature and science. He died at Weimar, quietly seated in his armchair, and apparently without suffering.

1842. Condy Raguet, author of the Free Trade Advocate, and many other political productions, died at Philadelphia.

1851. Mordecai Manasseh Noah, for over forty years connected with the press of New York and prominent as a writer and politician, died.

1851. Isaac Hill, one of the most influential political writers in America and for many years editor of the New Hampshire Patriot, died.

1851. John Stuart Skinner, editor of the Plow, the Loom and the Anvil, died at Baltimore, aged 63. He was the pioneer in the establishment of American agricultural journals, although he had been educated for the law.

1855. Ramon Pinto, an eminent Cuban lawyer, suffered death by the garotte, at Havana, for conspiring to take Concha's life and overthrow the existing government.

1855. The Russians, in a night sortie upon the French lines at Sebastopol, were driven back after a contest of two and a half hours.

MARCH 23.

1208. The pope laid the churches of England under an interdict. King John in retaliation banished the bishops that obeyed.

1534. Clement VIII issued his bull rescinding Cranmer's sentence, and confirming Henry VIII's marriage with Catharine; in consequence of which the pope's authority was abolished in England, and the king declared the supreme head of the church.

1556. Julius III (John Marie du Mont), pope of Rome, died. He is notorious for having dissolved the council of Trent, and is characterized as a weak and narrow-minded pontiff, little calculated to uphold the dignity and power of his office.

1606. Justus Lipsius died; a most acute and learned Flemish critic and commentator on ancient authors. His works were published in 6 vols. folio.

1621. John Carver, first governor of Plymouth colony, died. He was among the English emigrants to Leyden; and when a removal to America was contemplated, he was sent over to negotiate for a suitable territory. He conducted the affairs of the colony with great prudence, and discovered great address in the management of the natives.

1650. The English army commanded by Oliver Cromwell, laid siege to the town of Kilkenny in Ireland. The defence was obstinate, but the garrison surrendered in a few days.

1776. Robert James, an English physician, died; known as the inventor of James' Fever Powders, a preparation which has acquired great celebrity and proved an inexhaustible source of opulence to his family, and benefit to the public.

1776. Congress issued letters of marque and reprisal against England.

1777. The British under Bird landed at Peekskill on the Hudson river for the purpose of seizing the military stores; but on the news of his approach the guard stationed there under Gen. McDougal, fired the principal store houses and retired.

1793. Spain declared war against England.

1797. The French under Dugua entered Trieste, the most important seaport town of Austria; at the same time another French army took possession of the mines of Ydria.

1801. Petrowitz Paul, emperor of Russia, assassinated. He was the son of Catharine II, who treated him with great rigor, during her life. In 1780 he traveled with his wife through the southern part of Europe under the title of Count of the North. In 1796 he ascended the throne, and among [115]the first of his acts were the discontinuance of the Persian war, and the liberation of the Poles confined in Russia. But his conduct was suddenly reversed, and his indiscretions and tyranny finally produced a conspiracy among the nobles, by which it is supposed his sons were accessory to his death. In the official publication of his death, it was ascribed to apoplexy.

1806. The exploring party under Captains Clarke and Lewis, left fort Clatsop on their return up the Columbia river to the United States.

1808. Murat, at the head of 40,000 French soldiers, taking advantage of a faction among the populace, entered Madrid and took possession of it.

1809. Thomas Holcroft, an English dramatic writer, died. His father was a shoemaker in low circumstances, which occupation the son also followed till he resolved to try his fortune on the stage. Besides his dramas he produced several novels and translations from the German and French. He suffered imprisonment for republicanism, with Tooke and others.

1815. Action off the island of Tristran d'Acunha, between the United States brig Hornet, 16 guns, Capt. Biddle, and the British brig Penguin, 18 guns and a 12 pound carronade, 132 men, Capt. Dickinson. Capt. Dickinson was killed and the Penguin captured in 22 minutes; she was so much injured that it was found necessary to sink her. Penguin had 14 killed, 28 wounded; Hornet 1 killed, 11 wounded. After the surrender a British soldier wounded Capt. Biddle in the neck with a musket ball; he was immediately shot by two of the marines.

1819. August Frederick von Kotzebue, a celebrated German dramatist, assassinated at Manheim. The Stranger and Pizarro are translated and popular at our theatres. His works are numerous. He was assassinated by a fanatical student named Sandt, who at the same time stabbed himself; but recovered and was beheaded.

1840. William Maclure, a distinguished naturalist, formerly of Philadelphia, and twenty years president of the academy of natural sciences in that city, died near the city of Mexico. He wrote on the geology of the United States and the West Indies.

1849. Benjamin Simpson died at Saco, Maine, aged 94; one of the party engaged in throwing the tea overboard in Boston harbor, at the opening of the revolution.

1849. Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, in consequence of his defeat by the Austrians, abdicated his crown in favor of his eldest son, the duke of Savoy.

1849. Elizabeth Hughes, well known in England as a fortune-teller and familiar with angels, died at Fowdon in her 89th year.

1850. John W. Webster, professor of chemistry in Cambridge university, found guilty of the murder of his friend Benjamin Parkman; a case which excited community for a long time.

1854. A treaty of commerce concluded between Commodore Perry of the United States squadron, and the emperor of Japan.

MARCH 24.

1426 B. C. The 24th Nisan is marked as a feast in the Jews' calendar for the death of Joshua. He was buried, full of honor, on the border of his capital in Mount Ephraim.

1455. Pope Nicholas V, the friend of ancient literature and the protector of the learned exiles of Greece, died.

1495. Columbus with an army of 200 men, 20 horses and 20 dogs! commenced a campaign against the natives of Hispaniola, who in consequence of the excesses of the Spaniards had raised an army of 100,000 men to destroy the colony at Isabella. The admiral spent a year in ranging the island; and reduced it to such obedience that every inhabitant was subjected to a quarterly tribute to the king of Spain in gold dust or cotton.

1545. Diet at Worms assembled. The protestants disclaimed all connection with the council of Trent.

1564. Pius IV issued a bull denouncing the perusal of certain books, and establishing new rules by which to judge books.

1581. James Dyer, an eminent English judge, died. He was distinguished for his learning and excellence; a volume of law reports which he left in manuscript and were not published till 20 years after his death, have been often reprinted.

1588 (1580?). Bombs first used at the siege of Wachtendonk in Holland. The invention of bombs is disputed among several countries, and there are good reasons for believing that some contrivance of the kind had been made use of long before this event. Galen, bishop of Munster, is said to have been the inventor of bombs; while Strada in his account of the wars of the Low Countries, attributes the invention a few days before this siege to an inhabitant of the town of Venloo, and that the people of the city, wishing to exhibit it in presence of the duke of Cleves, discharged a bomb, which falling on one of the houses, set fire to it, and three-fourths of the town were destroyed before the flames could be extinguished.

1603. Elizabeth, queen of England, [116]died, aged 70. She was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. On the death of Mary, 1558, she was proclaimed queen, at the age of twenty-five, and held the sceptre forty-five years with uncommon ability. Her reign was a period of great prosperity for England. Her treatment of the queen of Scots can never be defended, and some other foibles tarnish her fame; but the splendor of her reign and the strength of mind displayed in the conduct of the government overbalance those weaknesses which few crowned heads are devoid of.

1638. Canonicus and Miantonimoh gave Roger Williams a deed of Providence.

1645. The parliament voted that the clause for the preservation of his majesty's person should be left out of Sir Thos. Fairfax's commission. This was a bad omen for King Charles.

1674. Jonathan Goddard, an English physician and chemist, died. He was a favorite with Cromwell; but on the restoration his abilities were not in sufficient estimation to preserve him from being disgraced. He was an able writer and a liberal patron of learned men, and one of the promoters of the royal society.

1698. John Evelyn, distinguished as a poet and translator, died, aged 45. At the age of 15 he wrote the elegant Greek poem which accompanies the second edition of the Sylva, written by his father.

1718. On the island of Lithy, India, there fell a ball of fire, containing gelatinous matter.

1720. John Peringskioll, a Swedish antiquary and historian, died. He was professor of antiquities at Upsala, and secretary and councilor to the king. His works amount to 17 vols. folio.

1726. Daniel Whitby, an English prelate, died. He was, like many of his profession, totally unqualified for the common pursuits of business; but was engrossed with matters of religion and learning. His publications are more than 40 in number; one of which gave offence to the clergy and was publicly burnt.

1730. The British parliament passed an act prohibiting any subject lending money to a foreigner or other nation.

1740. The English Capt. Knowles took from the Spaniards the castle of St. Lorenzo in South America; a large amount of spoil fell into the hands of the conquerors.

1742. Peter Sabbathier, a French Benedictine, died. He was engaged 23 years in making a collection of the Latin versions of the Bible, which was published 1743 in 3 vols. folio.

1744. War between France and Great Britain declared.

1751. Fredrick, prince of Wales, died.

1754. John James Wetstein, a learned Swiss divine, died. He traveled through several countries of Europe to examine the various manuscripts of the Greek Testament, and on his return to Basel published his Prologomena; he was immediately persecuted as a Socinian, and compelled to flee his country. He found protection at Amsterdam, where he died.

1764. Thomas Slack commenced the New Castle Chronicle, a paper still well sustained in England.

1773. Philip Dormer Stanhope, earl of Chesterfield, died, aged 79. He was one of the most celebrated wits of his age, an eminent statesman, political, epistolatory and miscellaneous writer. His Letters, containing advice to his son, prove him to have been an excellent scholar; but the critical reader will find that they insidiously inculcate the loosest principles.

1773. Stephen Leake, an ingenious writer on coins and heraldry, died at Thorp, England.

1776. John Harrison, an eminent English mechanic, died. He was the son of an obscure mechanic, but made himself famous by the invention of a time-keeper, in the form of a watch, for ascertaining the longitude at sea, for which he received from parliament about $90,000.

1782. Spain acknowledged the Independence of the United States.

1782. A blockhouse situated on Toms' river, New Jersey, attacked by a body of royalists. Capt. Huddy defended the place while his ammunition lasted, and on surrendering was executed without a trial.

1783. Robert Saunders, a self created LL. D., died. His Notes on the Bible profited him very little, though in a pecuniary point of view they profited others.

1794. Insurrection of the Poles. The Russian troops evacuated Cracow, and the patriot Kosciusko took possession.

1794. Charles Philip Ronsin, with a number of his confreres, guillotined at Paris. The revolution brought him out from obscurity only to display the natural deformity of his character. He was promoted to the office of minister of war, and then to the command of an army. He met his fate at the hands of Danton and Marat, who had raised him up.

1797. Battle in the passes of Eisach in Saxony, between the Austrians under Gen. Laudohn, and the French, who captured 8 cannon and 1500 soldiers.

1801. Paul, emperor of Russia, assassinated. His reign was remarkable for its caprice and eccentricity.

1804. The county of Seneca, in Western New York, formed.

1838. Thomas Attwood, an eminent English musical composer, died, aged 73.

[117]

MARCH 25.

1409. The schism of the church was ended by the council of Pisa.

1519. First regular battle of the Spaniards under Cortez with the Indians, on the plains of Ceutla, near Tabasco. The Spaniards were victorious, with the loss of 1 killed and more than 60 wounded. The loss of the Indians was very great; 800 were left dead on the field; the Indians being unable to carry off all their dead, as was their custom.

1595. Snow fell at Rome. There is no other record of such an event occurring there till 1834—exhibiting the curious phenomenon of a space of 240 years without snow.

1609. Henry Hudson sailed from Amsterdam on the voyage in which he discovered the North or Hudson river, and explored it as far as Albany.

1661. The Savoy conference, concerning the liturgy, between 12 bishops with 9 assistants, and a like number of presbyterians appointed by King Charles II.

1678. Ypres, in Belgium, surrendered to the French after a siege of 7 days.

1688. First establishment of charity schools in England.

1693. Printing ordered to be introduced into New York.

1711. Nehemiah Grew, a London physician, died. His merits and skill procured him a very extensive practice; he was also author on subjects connected with his profession.

1741. The British under Admiral Vernon took the castle of Bocca Chicca, in Carthagena, by assault.

1751. The commencement of the year in England was altered from this day to the first of January, to conform with the custom of other European countries, which had long before adopted the Gregorian calendar. For this purpose there was passed an act of parliament, directing that the year should commence on the first of January, and that eleven days, from the 2d to the 14th September, 1752, should be omitted, so that the 3d of September should be dated the 14th. This occasioned great perplexity and confusion of dates, arising from the computations by the old and new styles.

1754. William Hamilton, an ingenious Scottish poet, died. His pieces are distinguished for liveliness of imagination and delicacy of sentiment.

1761. The first tree cut towards clearing land for cultivation in the town of Bennington, Vt. The honor of the act belongs to Samuel Robinson, who on that day began the settlement of the town. In 1790 it contained 4,000 inhabitants, and by actual return their industry produced 26,000 yards of linen cloth, made in private families from flax of their own raising.

1763. Elias Farneworth, an English prelate, died; distinguished as the translator of Machiavelli and several other European authors.

1792. Lake Harantoreen, in the county of Kerry, Ireland, sunk into the earth.

1792. The British under Gen. Campbell carried by storm the batteries at Port Royal in Grenada.

1793. Hebert, Anacharsis Cloots and 18 others, chiefs of the Cordelier Club, executed at Paris.

1799. Florence and Leghorn in Italy, fell into the hands of the French.

1799. Battle of Stockach in Germany. The princes of Furstenberg and Anhalt-Bernburg killed.

1800. The county of Greene, in New York, erected.

1801. The British army in Egypt reinforced by the Turks.

1808. Charles IV of Spain wrote to Bonaparte protesting against his abdication in favor of Ferdinand VII, as having been extorted from him by force, at the same time offering to place himself and the royal family in Bonaparte's power.

1809. Anna Seward, an English poetess, died. She exhibited an early taste for poetry, and her poems were popular in their day, and often republished. She held a correspondence with the literati of her time, and her letters were published in six volumes, octavo.

1810. Bonaparte issued a decree giving liberty to all state prisoners in France, and a free pardon to all deserters.

1811. Battle of Campo Major in Portugal, in which the British under Gen. Beresford defeated the French, took 600 prisoners, and drove them to Badajos.

1811. British frigate Amazon destroyed off cape Barfleur by part of the Cherbourg squadron.

1811. Every printing press in Paris obnoxious to Bonaparte, suppressed by the police.

1812. George Frederick Cooke, an eminent English actor, died. He was first engaged as a printer, and afterwards in the navy; but left these for the stage, and acquired a reputation seldom attained, in the highest walks of the drama.

1815. Confirmatory pact signed at Vienna, by which the allied powers solemnly united their forces to maintain the treaty of Paris against Bonaparte.

1815. Richard Dowell, the famed organist at Dulwich college, died.

1820. Alexander of Russia banished all Jesuits from his dominions, because they [118]interfered with the government and the peace of families.

1836. Henry Roscoe died, near Liverpool, England. He was distinguished for his legal and various abilities and learning, and was the author of several professional and other works.

1843. Ceremony of opening the Thames tunnel. Its length is 1200 feet, its cost about two and a half millions of dollars, and it was 18 years in building, under Brunel. The number of persons who visited it during the two following days was about 50,000, at a revenue of one penny each is nearly $1000.

1849. George Cooke, an artist of some note in the south, died of Cholera at New Orleans.

1852. Jane West died, aged 93; a very fruitful authoress, in the beginning of the present century, of poems, tales and novels, long since forgotten, though much in vogue for a time.

1855. An unsuccessful attempt at revolution made in San Domingo with the intent to recall ex-president Paez.

MARCH 26.

1546. Thomas Elyot, an eminent English scholar, died. He published the first Latin and English Dictionary in that country.

1602. Bartholomew Gosnold sailed from England in a shallop with 32 persons to effect a colony in the northern part of Virginia. He was the first Englishman who came in a direct course to this part of America, instead of making the circuit by the Canaries and the West Indies. After a passage of 7 weeks they made land in 43 degrees.

1630. Charles I renewed the patent granted by his father to Ben Jonson, as poet laureate. The pension was augmented from 100 marks to 100 pounds, with the grace cup of "one tierce of Canary Spanish wine," to be delivered annually from the royal cellars at Whitehall.

1644. The English parliament made an ordinance to enjoin every family one meal per week, and to contribute the value thereof to the kingdom.

1649. John Winthrop, first governor of Massachusetts colony, died at Boston, aged 63. He came out to America 1630, as governor of the colony; to which he continued to be re-elected, with a few years intermission, till his death. He kept an accurate journal of the events of the early colony from its foundation to the time of his death, two volumes of which were published at Hartford 1790; and the third, which had been a long time lost, appeared in 1826.

1662. Brian Duppa, an English bishop, died. He was distinguished for his learning and virtues, and the firmness of his adherence to the cause of the Stuarts during their misfortunes.

1676. Marlborough, Mass., destroyed by the Indians. So completely did the enemy finish their horrid purposes here, that the inhabitants deserted their dwellings and sought shelter elsewhere. On the following evening a party of about forty men went out in search of the Indians; and coming upon them towards morning lying around their fires to the number of about three hundred, fired in upon them. Although it was so dark at a short distance from the fires that "an Indian could not be discerned from a better man," yet they discharged several volleys upon them, and came off without the loss of one of the band. The few houses which escaped the brand on this occasion were razed by the enemy soon after.

1688. Winston Churchill, an English historian, died; better known as the father of the great duke of Marlborough.

1699. "After an extraordinary storm," says Evelyn, "there came up the Thames a whale which was 56 feet long. Such and a larger of the spout kind, was killed there 40 years ago. That year died Cromwell." The reverend antiquary probably considered this a prodigious omen of the usurper's dissolution.

1702. William Courten died; a collector of whatever was curious and important in medallic and antiquarian history. He left 38 vols. folio, and 8 quarto, which together with his collection were purchased for the British museum at £20,000; scarcely the value of the coins and precious stones.

1707. The regalia of Scotland deposited in an oaken chest, at the Edinburgh castle.

1711. Engagement between the British ship Lion, 60 guns, Capt. Walpole, and 4 French ships, in which the latter were beaten off. Walpole had his right arm shot off; and it may be mentioned that Lord Nelson had the same sword in his hand when his right arm was shot off, 1797.

1719. A Spanish fleet under the duke of Ormond, intended for the invasion of England in favor of the pretender, was dispersed by a storm.

1726. John Vanbrugh, an English dramatist and architect, died. He was knighted by Queen Anne, and held several lucrative offices; but a want of economy in the management of his income kept him in indigence, and his dramas were produced in rapid succession to retrieve his credit. [119]Few of his pieces, although popular at the time, still keep the stage.

1729. Robert Moss, a popular London preacher, died. His sermons have been published in 8 vols.; and he is the author of some poems, and small tracts.

1730. The landgrave of Hesse Cassel, father of the king of Sweden, died. The Swedish monarch was declared successor.

1756. Gilbert West, an English poet, died. He was a man of polished manners and great erudition.

1772. Charles Dineau Duclos, historiographer of France, died. He was also a distinguished member of the French academy, and was engaged in the Dictionary and History of the Society.

1784. Thomas Bond, a distinguished American physician, died. After spending considerable time in preparatory study at Paris, he returned and commenced practice in Philadelphia, where he acquired a great reputation in his profession, and as a man of letters.

1794. Congress passed an embargo law.

1799. Battle of Verona, between the French and Austrians. The battle continued from morning till night, and the loss on both sides was so great, that each army found it necessary to retreat.

1806. Broome county, in New York, erected.

1812. Earthquake in Venezuela, South America; the town of St. Philip with a population of 1,200 souls was entirely swallowed up, and it is supposed that about 20,000 persons perished in the whole province. Caraccas, with a population of 40,000, was destroyed, and from 10,000 to 40,000 persons perished, authorities differ.

1813. The American batteries at Black Rock opened their fire on the British, and silenced their lower battery.

1814. Gen. Hull, tried at Albany by court martial for surrendering Detroit, was found guilty and sentenced to be shot. His punishment was remitted by the president.

1814. Battle of St. Dizier in France, in which Bonaparte defeated Winzingerode.

1814. Engagement in the bay of La Hogue, between the British ship Hebrus and French frigate L'Etoile. French loss, 40 killed, 71 wounded; British 13 killed, 25 wounded.

1832. The Asiatic cholera appeared in Paris. During its prevalence 1 in 33 of the population died. In the whole of France 229,534 persons were attacked, and 94,665 died.

1838. William H. Ashley died near Boonville, Missouri. He was the first lieut. governor of that state, and a man highly respected for his great enterprise, talents, integrity and principle. He emigrated from Virginia at the age of 30, and settled near the lead mines. In 1822 he projected the scheme of uniting the Indian trade of the Rocky mountains with the hunting and trapping business; and having enlisted about 300 hardy men, they, after various successes and reverses, realized handsome fortunes.

1839. Power Le Poer Trench, archbishop of Tuam and primate of Connaught, in Ireland, died. He was distinguished for his talents, eloquence and learning, and greatly revered for his benevolence and piety.

1850. Samuel T. Armstrong, a distinguished American bookseller, died in Boston.

1852. While the engineer Maillefert and his assistants were engaged in submarine blastings at Hellgate, New York harbor, by accident a charge exploded and instantly killed Capt. Southard and 2 others. Maillefert and others were raised several feet, and fell into the water; but were rescued with few injuries.

1854. Jonathan Harrington died, aged 85; a fifer for the minute men who assembled on Lexington Green on the morning of the 19th of April, 1775, and the last survivor of the gallant band who were engaged in that first conflict of the American revolution.

MARCH 27.

47 B. C. Ptolemy Dionysius, king of Egypt, drowned in the Nile. His name is rendered execrable to the latest posterity for the murder of Pompey, his benefactor.

1306. Robert Bruce crowned king of Scotland at Scone. Edward had carried off the national diadem, so that one was manufactured for the occasion, which was placed upon the head of the liberator by Isabella, countess of Buchan, a descendant of Macduff.

1350. Alphonso II of Castile died at Gibraltar. He is famous for his wars with the Moors, in which 200,000 of them were slain.

1546. John Diaz, a Spaniard, murdered at Neuberg, Germany. He embraced the doctrines of the reformers, and while on a visit to Calvin was met by his brother, who, being unable to reconvert him, hired an assassin to dash out his brains with an axe while in bed at night.

1563. A bill brought into the house of commons, permitting the Bible and church service to be translated into the Welsh or British tongue and used in the church of Wales. The New Testament in Welsh appeared in 1567, in quarto, 339 pages in black letter.

[120]1614. An octroy passed the States General of the United Netherlands, for regulating voyages to America, under which Adrian Block, Hendrick Corstiaensen, and Cornelis Jacobsen Mey, distinguished themselves by their adventures.

1617. Francis Bacon made lord chancellor of England, in place of Ellesmere, who died within a fortnight of his resignation. The new chancellor soon disgusted the public by his vanity, love of show, meanness and corruption.

1622. The Indians, by a preconcerted conspiracy, fell upon the Virginia colony, 347 of whom, unresisting and defenceless, were massacred with indiscriminate barbarity. This massacre was plotted by Opecancanough, and was followed by an exterminating war between the parties.

1625. James VI of Scotland (I of England) died, aged 59. He was the son of Mary and Lord Darnley, and succeeded to the throne at an early age. In 1603 he succeeded to the crown of England, on the death of Elizabeth. It was during his reign that the famous plot was concerted for blowing up the king and parliament. It was also during his reign, and through his weakness, that Walter Raleigh lost his life. He was an encourager of learning, though a pedant himself. The translation of the Bible in present use bears his sanction and authority.

1634. Leonard Calvert, having been appointed governor of Maryland by his brother Lord Baltimore, arrived with two hundred settlers, and settled the town of St. Marys, establishing religious liberty and granting lots of fifty acres to each emigrant.

1654. Monsieur Bourdeaux, ambassador extraordinary from the king of France to Cromwell, arrived in London, and on obtaining an audience, recognized the principle that God shows his love to men by giving them wise rulers.

1660. Tobias Venner, an English physician, died. His medical works were popular, and for talent are above mediocrity.

1669. Mount Trumento formed of an indurated mass of lava by the great eruption of mount Etna.

1676. Battle of Patuxet, between fifty English and twenty friendly Indians under Capt. Pierce, and six hundred of Philip's Indians. The English were drawn into an ambush, or deceived in the force of their enemies, and making an error in drawing down by the side of the river to prevent being surrounded, the Indians crossed over, and galled them from the opposite side, so that they were constrained to fight it out to the last.

1699. Edward Stillingfleet, an eminent English prelate, died. His first work was entitled Weapon Salve for the Church's Wounds, which was ably written, notwithstanding the quaintness of the title. His works were principally polemical, and were published in 6 vols. folio.

1710. Sacheverell's two sermons burnt before the Royal Exchange in the presence of the lord mayor of London, and he himself forbid to preach for 3 years.

1718. Mary Beatrix Eleonora d'Este, queen dowager to King James II of England, died at St. Germain en Laye.

1729. Leopold, duke of Lorrain, died. He was noted for his military abilities, by which he recovered his country, and governed his subjects with wisdom and justice. He was also a liberal patron of the arts and sciences.

1756. French burnt fort Bull, Oneida county, New York.

1771. A. McDougal discharged by the supreme court of New York, after having been subjected to imprisonment as the author of a newspaper article signed A Son of Liberty.

1778. Nicholas Sebastian Adam, a French sculptor, died. He was the second of three brothers who enjoyed some reputation as sculptors in France in the early part of the last century. His principal works are the tomb for the wife of Stanislaus of Poland, and Prometheus chained.

1782. Caraccioli, the viceroy of Sicily, abolished the inquisition there, and destroyed the archives.

1793. The French Gen. Dumourier, in a conference with Austrian Col. Mack, at Ath, resolved to march back on Paris and establish the constitutional monarchy of 1791.

1794. Jacob Nicholas Moreau, historiographer of France, guillotined at the age of 77. He was also librarian to the queen, an able writer, and attached to the royal cause.

1794. Convention between Denmark and Sweden, for the mutual defence of their rights.

1802. Treaty of Amiens signed between England, Spain, France and the Batavian republic.

1805. The county of Lewis, in northern New York, erected.

1809. Sullivan county, New York, erected.

1809. An eruption of mount Etna.

1811. Battle of Anhalt in the Cattegat strait. The island was attacked by 4000 Danes, who were repulsed by 350 British, with the loss of 6 cannon and 500 prisoners.

1814. Battle of Horse-Shoe, at the bend of the Tallepoosie river, between the United States troops under Gen. Jackson, and [121]the Creek Indians. The latter were defeated with the loss of about 800 killed; U. S. loss 91 killed, 268 wounded.

1829. The zoological society of London in Bruton street incorporated.

1839. All the opium belonging to British subjects in China, amounting to 20,283 chests, valued at about $9,000,000, was surrendered up to Capt. Elliot, superintendent of the British trade, for the purpose of being destroyed, in obedience to the orders of the Chinese government.

1847. Methuselah Baldwin died at Scotchtown, New York, aged 84; he was licensed to preach in 1791 by the presbytery of Newark.

1854. William Henry Cavendish Scott Bentinck, duke of Portland, a British statesman, died, aged 84.

1856. N. S. Prime, a New York divine, died, aged 70; known as the author of a history of Long Island.

1857. Charles III, duke of Parma, aged 31, died at Turin of a wound given by an assassin in the streets the night previous.

MARCH 28.

168 B. C. The Roman senate assembled at eight o'clock in the morning, a few days after Paulus Emilius had assumed the immortal consulate. The English house of commons usually sat at the same hour five centuries ago.

193. Publius Helvius Pertinax, emperor of Rome, assassinated. He was of obscure origin, and was elected on the death of Commodus. His virtues were too great for the time in which he lived, and he was destroyed by the same hands which had raised him up; and the imperial diadem was offered at public auction.

1134. Stephen Harding, an Englishman, and one of the founders of the Cistercians, died. In the year 1098, he retired with twenty companions to Citeaux, a marshy wilderness in France, where they founded a monastery. A valuable manuscript copy of the Bible in four volumes, still preserved, attests the assiduity of the monk.

1318. The town and castle of Berwick taken by the generals of Bruce.

1380. Gunpowder is said to have been first used in Europe on this day, by the Venetians against the Genoese. The discovery of the power of powder is attributed to Berthold Schwartz, a monk of Mayence, about 1300, though it is said to have been known in India very early, and obtained from them by the Arabians, who employed it in a battle near Mecca in 690. The use of gunpowder at the battles of Cressy and Poitiers in 1346 is questioned. Rabelais says that the art of printing was invented about the same time by divine inspiration, as a match for the devil's suggestion of artillery.

1480. William Caxton, the first English printer, finished the Cordial in folio. The fact is thus set forth in his own words: "The Book named Cordyale: or Memorare Novissima: which treateth of The foure last Thinges. Began on the morn after the Purification of our blessid Lady (2d Feb. 1478), &c. And finisshed on the even of thannciacion of our said blessid Lady, fallying on the Wednesdaye the xxiiij daye of Marche In the xix yere of Kyng Edwarde the fourthe."

1520. Sanzio Raphael, an illustrious Italian painter and architect, died. He is by general consent called the prince of modern painters, and was probably the best painter the world ever produced.

1636. James Callot, an eminent French engraver, died. He carried the art to a greater state of perfection than any other before him, and attained all that it then seemed possible for human industry to reach.

1638. William Kieft arrived at New Amsterdam as governor of the colony.

1663. At Laucha, near Naumburg, in Prussia, there fell a great quantity of a fibrous substance, represented as resembling blue silk.

1676. The Indians attacked Rehoboth, Mass., and burnt 40 houses and about 30 barns.

1677. Wentzel Hollar, a Bohemian engraver, died. His talents were noticed by Arundel, the English ambassador, by whom he was induced to visit England, where he executed a great number of portraits and views; but though his graver gave celebrity to so many, he was himself the victim of want, and was barely permitted by his creditors to die on his own bed.

1678. James Dixwell, one of the regicides, died at New Haven, Conn.

1678. Claudius Francis Milliet Dechales, a French mathematician, died. His works, published in 3 vols. folio, are a complete course of mathematics.

1741. The British Capt. Knowles destroyed the batteries at Passa Cavallo, Carthagena.

1745. Ventilators, invented by the Rev. Dr. Hales, ordered by the council of England to be introduced into Newgate.

1757. Robert Francis Damiens executed at Paris for an attempt to assassinate Louis XV. He was the son of a poor farmer, and from his vicious inclinations acquired the title of Robert le Diable. As the king was getting into his carriage at Versailles, surrounded by his train, Damiens stabbed him in the right side with a knife. He was seized, tried and condemned [122]to a death of torture. Being drawn on a sledge to the Place de Greve, he there had the flesh of his thighs and arms torn off with red hot pincers, and the hand which held the knife cut off. Afterwards his body was drawn and quartered by four horses, his members and corpse burnt and the ashes thrown into the air.

1758. Action in the North Sea between 2 French and 2 British frigates; one of the former escaped, the other was captured with 40 guns and 340 men.

1760. Margaret Woffington, an eminent Irish actress, died. Her talents and good sense were greatly aided by extraordinary beauty of features and form.

1778. Louis XVI issued letters of marque and reprisal against England.

1783. A hill 500 feet in height was carried four miles from its site by the great Calabrian earthquake.

1791. Honore Gabriel Riquetti, count de Mirabeau, the distinguished French revolutionist but debauched man, died. The French directory decreed a public mourning of eight days; and all the places of amusement in Paris were shut on the day of his death.

1794. J. B. V. Guillotine was beheaded at Lyons. There is some mistake about this event; the authority from which it is derived stating that he was the inventor of the guillotine. (See March 20, and April 25, 1792; also May 26, 1814.)

1794. John Anthony Nicholas Caritat, marquis de Condorcet, died. His mathematical essays at an early age procured him a seat in the academy of sciences, of which he was afterwards elected secretary. He published the lives of several eminent men of his day, and was an active contributor to the famous Encyclopedie. He unfortunately took part in the revolution, and failing to keep pace with the ultra views of the Robespierre party, was proscribed, and died in prison either from want or by his own hand.

1801. Ralph Abercromby died. He rose from a common soldier, through all the gradations, to the highest rank in the army; was appointed commander in chief of the expedition to Egypt, and landed after a severe contest at Aboukir bay. He was wounded and unhorsed at the battle of Alexandria, notwithstanding which he disarmed his antagonist, and kept the field during the day and was victorious. He was conveyed on board the admiral's ship where he lingered a few days, and died. He was buried beneath the castle of St. Elmo, in Malta.

1802. The planet Pallas discovered by Dr. Olbers, at Bremen. Its revolution round the sun occupies 4 years, 7 months and 11 days.

1805. The county of Jefferson, in northern New York, erected.

1811. A hereditary monarchy established in Hayti, and Christophe declared king, by the title of Henry I.

1814. Action in the neutral port of Valparaiso between the United States frigate Essex, Capt. Porter, 52 guns, 255 men, and the British ship Phebe and sloop of war Cherub, in all 81 guns and 500 men. After a most sanguinary conflict of more than 2 hours, the Essex was captured, with the loss of 58 killed.

1818. Alexander Sabes Petion, president of Hayti, died. He joined the revolution at the age of 20, and when the blacks had succeeded in gaining their independence, he was appointed governor of the western province, and in 1807 elected president.

1836. Richard Valpy, an eminent Greek and Latin scholar, died, aged 82, at Kensington, England.

1838. Thomas Morton, one of the most successful of modern dramatists, died at London, aged 74.

1849. The king of Prussia elected emperor by the German parliament at Frankfort. He did not accept.

1852. John Haviland, an eminent architect, died at Washington, aged 60. He was born in England, and commenced his career in Russia. He came to this country highly recommended by J. Q. Adams, and constructed many public works. He paid especial attention to the construction of jails and prisons.

1853. A peace address signed by 4000 English merchants, bankers and traders, presented to Napoleon III at the Tuilleries.

1854. War formally declared against Russia by Great Britain and France.

1855. The United States marshal at Philadelphia arrested 12 men who had enlisted in that city for a foreign legion.

MARCH 29.

403. Battle of Pollentia and defeat of the Huns under Alaric their leader.

1069. Abba'd abu' Amru, surnamed the ornament of the state, died; a Moorish king of Seville, who made extensive conquests of the neighboring states, and was an extraordinary character in his day.

1208. Notwithstanding the pope's interdict, King John gave a receipt to the sacrist of Reading, for books which had been in the custody of the abbot of that monastery.

1315. Raymond Lully stoned to death by the natives of Mauritania, in Africa, whither he had gone to convert the Mohammedans, at the age of 80. He was [123]born at Majorca, 1235, and became attached to the gay court of James I of Arragon. He afterwards became the most celebrated chemist and alchymist of his time. At the age of 30 he commenced the study of theology for the purpose of converting infidels. He went over to Africa to convert the Mohammedan doctors to Christianity, from whence he narrowly escaped with his life. He made a second attempt several years after, which resulted in his banishment from that region; but he returned a third time, and was stoned to death.

1405. Prince James of Scotland, on his passage to France, was seized by an English corsair at Flamborough head, and conducted to the English court.

1461. Battle of Towton, which decided the fate of the houses of York and Lancaster. The battle commenced at break of day in a snow storm, and was maintained with deadly obstinacy till three in the afternoon. It is said 38,000 bodies were left dead on the field, of whom the herald appointed to number the slain, returned that 28,000 were Lancastrians. The duke of York, who won the day, made a triumphal entry into York, where he ordered the death of several prisoners, while Henry who lost his crown, escaped with difficulty to the borders.

1562. Philip II of Spain and the Netherlands to prevent the circulation of the scriptures and books favorable to the reformation, issued a placard ordering the officers not only to visit the houses of booksellers, but diligently to watch that no pedler went about with books for sale.

1629. Tobias Matthews, an able divine in the reign of James I, died. His talents and worth raised him to the office of archbishop of York.

1644. Battle of Cherington, where the forces of Charles I, 14,000 strong, under Hopeton, were defeated by the parliament forces under Waller.

1672. The test act of England passed, which required all officers of government to receive the sacrament according to the church of England.

1675. A large body of Indians attacked the town of Providence, R. I., and burnt 29 houses. The records of the town were partially saved by being concealed in a mill pond. The town did not recover from this disaster in more than sixty years.

1689. Theophilus Bonet, a noted Swiss physician, died. He spent several years at the best universities of Europe, in the study of his profession, and became eminently successful. He published several medical treatises in his old age, valuable in their day, for the facts and observations which they contained.

1710. Henry Basnage, a French lawyer, died at the Hague. He was a member of the parliament of Rouen, who upon the proscription of the protestants fled to Holland.

1726. James Pierce, an eminent English divine, died. He was attached to a congregation of presbyterians; but becoming an Arian was expelled from the desk.

1730. Vincent Houdry, a French Jesuit, died, aged 99. He was an eloquent preacher, and his writings comprise about 30 vols. His last moments were embittered by the reflection that he could not be permitted to reach his 100th year!

1751. Thomas Coram, projector of the foundling hospital, died. He was captain of a colonial trading vessel, and was prompted to this charitable project, by frequently seeing children exposed in the streets of London by the cruelty of their parents. He persevered in this humane design 17 years, and at last obtained a charter by his sole application. He was accustomed to spend so much of his time and money in charitable services, that in his old age he was dependent upon the charities of others, when his principal benefactor was the prince of Wales.

1772. Emanuel Swedenborg, founder of the New-Jerusalem church, died in London, aged 84. His father was a Swedish Lutheran bishop, and the son received a scientific education, and became eminent as a mathematical and philosophical writer, was ennobled, and shared the favor of the king. From the pursuit of philosophy he subsequently turned his attention to heavenly things, and became equally celebrated for his mystical reveries. His followers have multiplied in Europe and America since his death.

1792. Gustavus III, king of Sweden, died. He succeeded to the throne 1771. His reign was a turbulent one, in which all the arts and stratagems to which he was obliged to resort, scarcely secured him in power. He formed a plan for uniting Sweden, Russia, Prussia and Austria, with himself at the head of the confederacy. While he was maturing his plans, a plot was formed among his nobility for assassinating him. A masquerade at Stockholm was chosen for the perpetration of the deed. He was shot in the back by Ankerstroom, a disbanded officer.

1796. La Cherette was executed; this closed the Vendean or civil war at the commencement of the French revolution.

1797. The Mohawks relinquished all their claims to land in the state of New York.

1799. The legislature of the state of New York passed a law for the gradual abolition of slavery in that state, providing that every child born of a slave after the fourth of July in this year, should be free [124]at the age of 28 if a male, and 25 if a female.

1807. The planet Vesta discovered by Dr. Olbers. Its revolution is completed in 3 years, 66 days and 4 hours.

1809. Oporto, in Portugal, taken by the French under Soult, and pillaged in spite of that general's endeavors to prevent it.

1814. Bonaparte had his head quarters at Troyes, from whence he moved by forced marches to Paris, by the road of Sens.

1815. Bonaparte abolished the slave trade in the French dominions.

1829. The castle of Rumelia in Turkey surrendered to the Greek army under Capo d'Istria.

1837. The Akhbar Vekai, (News and Events) the first Persian newspaper, made its appearance at Teheran. It consisted of two closely written, and lithographed pages, one devoted to oriental, the other to foreign intelligence. Its conductor had been an envoy to London, whence he carried home with him and executed the idea of a newspaper—the most efficient missionary for the spread of civilization and intelligence the world has ever known.

1844. E. Pendleton Kennedy, of the United States navy and commander of the battle ship Pennsylvania, died at Norfolk, Va.

1848. John Jacob Astor, founder of the Astor library, died in New York, aged 80. He was a native of Germany, and during a residence of nearly 60 years in America, amassed a fortune of about twenty millions of dollars. He landed in this country with a trifling sum in his pocket, and early commenced business as a trader in fur, and when the state of New York was a wilderness, made frequent voyages up the Mohawk, to trade with the Indians. As his wealth increased, he enlarged his business until by the formation of the American Fur Company, he was a competitor with the great capitalists of Europe, the proprietor of the North Western and Canadian fur companies. Such was his enterprise, that he extended his business to the mouth of the Columbia river and formed the first fur establishment there, known as Astoria. Several expensive expeditions were fitted out by him, of overland journeys, to the Pacific, some of which were executed by individuals with great suffering. For many years previous to the war of 1812, and subsequently, Mr. Astor was extensively engaged in the Canton trade, and during the war was so fortunate that several of his ships arrived here with valuable cargoes in safety. The profits on those ships were enormous. Mr. Astor made large investments in American stocks, which he purchased during the war with Great Britain, at sixty to seventy cents on the dollar, and which after the peace, went up to twenty per cent. above par. His great estate, however, accumulated more from the purchase of real estate, than from any other source.

1849. The Lahore war being finished, the Punjaub was formally annexed to the British crown.

1849. Louriana Thrower died in Georgia, aged 137. Her sight had failed, 20 years before her death, but returned, so that she could read the finest print, and her faculties remained almost unimpaired.

1853. The Jail at Chesterfield, S. C., destroyed by fire, and 8 prisoners burned.

1853. A democratic conspiracy discovered at Berlin, in Prussia, and 86 persons arrested.

MARCH 30.

1756 A. M. The ark of Noah grounded on the 17th of 2d month, Marchesvan (corresponding with this date), after the waters had prevailed upon the earth 150 days, (See Nov. 2.)

317 B. C. Phocion, the Athenian general, executed by poison. He was of an obscure family, and rose by his own merits. He was placed at the head of the Athenian armies 45 times, and on all occasions displayed great ability; nor was he less illustrious for his virtues. Yet neither his virtues nor his services could shield him from the malice of his enemies, and he was condemned on a false accusation of treason.

1280. Hugh Balsam, bishop of Ely, endowed his foundation of Peterhouse, the first college in the University of Cambridge.

1282. Massacre of 8,000 French by the people of Sicily. It began at Palermo as the bell was tolling for evening service, and hence it has taken the quaint title of the Sicilian Vespers.

1296. Berwick, on the borders of Scotland, taken by assault by the English under Edward I, and about 17,000 of the inhabitants put to the sword.

1323. A truce for 13 years concluded at Thorpe, between Edward II, who had been recently defeated at Biland Abbey, and Robert Bruce.

1327. Edward III, then newly inaugurated, in his fifteenth year, convoked his splendid and gallant rendezvous at York, of 60,000 men at arms, including 500 belted knights, animated by the presence of the queen mother, and fifty ladies of the highest rank, to revenge the breach of the treaty made by the Scots with his father.

1363. Edward III first distributed the Maunday for the purification of the poor.

1587. Ralph Sadler, an English statesman, died. He filled some of the highest [125]offices of state under Henry VIII and Elizabeth, with ability.

1601. Henry Cuffee, celebrated for his wit, learning and misfortunes, was executed at Tyburn. An epigram alluding to his Greek, says:

Thy alpha was crowned with hope,
Thy omega proved but a rope.

1612. John Wower, a distinguished German politician and literary character, died at Gottorp.

1621. John King, an English prelate, died. He was chaplain to Queen Elizabeth, and so popular a preacher, as to acquire the title of "the king of preachers." Coke declares him "the best speaker in the star chamber of his time."

1638. John Davenport, a celebrated preacher of Coleman street, London, and several of his followers, having purchased of the natives all the lands lying between the rivers Connecticut and Hudson, sailed from Boston for Quinnipiack, now New Haven. The colony was organized under a tree, and they agreed to be governed in civil matters by the laws of God until they could make better!

1647. Mutiny in the parliamentary army on account of arrearages of pay due to the soldiery, many of them having twelve months' pay due.

1669. William Somner, an English antiquary, died. He was indefatigable in his researches, and acquired the old Gaelic, Irish, Scotch, Danish, Gothic, Saxon, and other northern dialects, that he might with greater accuracy and success develop the records of ancient times. He published a Saxon dictionary and some other works.

1707. Sebastian le Prestre, seigneur de Vauban, a celebrated French engineer, died. He was taken prisoner in the service of Spain, and persuaded to enter the French army, in which he distinguished himself by a most unexampled career. During his life he had been engaged in 140 actions, conducted 53 sieges, assisted in repairing 300 ancient citadels, and erected 33 new ones. His publications were principally on fortifications, and he left 12 large volumes in manuscript, containing observations, thoughts, &c., which he called his oisivétés (idlenesses).

1756. Stephen Duck, an English poet, committed suicide. He was a persevering character, entirely self taught, and his poems were above mediocrity. The queen bestowed upon him a pension, which enabled him to take orders, and he obtained "a living;" in which office he sustained himself with credit. Notwithstanding his good fortune, his spirits became depressed, and he was led to cut short his existence by throwing himself into the Thames.

1761. At Tregony, in Cornwall, was discovered a coffin 11 feet 3 inches long, 3 feet 9 inches deep, inclosing a skeleton of gigantic size.

1781. Mutiny disclosed on board U. S. frigate Alliance, Capt. Barry, on return from France to Boston. The plot was disclosed by an Indian named Mahomman, on the eve of its being carried into effect. It was intended to murder the officers and take the ship to England or Ireland. This was the second mutiny in the service, the first having occurred on the same vessel, two years before (see Feb. 3d). The third was seasonably disclosed on board the Somers in 1842.

1783. William Hunter, an eminent British anatomist, died. He was educated at the University of Glasgow, and in 1746 established himself in London as a teacher of anatomy, where he distinguished himself; and his works on medical subjects, which appeared at short intervals, added to his reputation. He built an anatomical theatre and museum, and ultimately collected there a library of Greek and Roman classics, and a valuable cabinet of medals, now deposited in the university of Glasgow.

1793. The English under General McBride took possession of Ostend in France.

1796. The French army under Beaulieu entered the Genoese territory.

1798. Ireland declared in a state of rebellion, and orders issued for disarming the United Irishmen, and all disaffected persons, by the most summary and effectual measures.

1799. Second battle of Verona (March 26). The French under Moreau were again successful, but the division under Scherer having been beaten again by the imperialists were obliged to halt to cover the main body of the army.

1800. Action between the French ship Guilleaume Tell, Admiral Dacres, 84 guns, 1000 men, and three British ships of 180 guns, Capt. Berry. The Frenchman was the last ship of the Nile fleet that remained uncaptured, and was taken after a most determined resistance, with the loss of 200 killed. British loss, 101; among the wounded was Capt. Berry.

1801. Jail liberties for the first time established in the state of New York, and prisoners entitled to the benefit of them, on giving a bond and sufficient sureties to the sheriff, that they would remain true and faithful prisoners, and not at any time or in anywise escape.

1806. Joseph Bonaparte proclaimed king of Naples.

1810. Luigi Lanzi, a modern Italian archæologist and writer on art, died of apoplexy.

1813. The prince regent of England [126]notified to foreign ministers in London, that efficient measures had been pursued to place New York, Delaware, Port Royal, Charleston, Savannah, and the river Mississippi in a state of blockade.

1814. Battle of La Cole Mills, Canada; Gen. Wilkinson was repulsed with the loss of 13 killed and 123 wounded; British loss, 13 killed, 45 wounded.

1814. The allied army after a sanguinary resistance from Marmont, and Mortier, advanced to the gates of Paris, and offered terms of capitulation, which were agreed to.

1834. Rudolph Ackerman died; the originator of the British annuals, and the first to introduce the lithographic art into England, and lighting by gas into London.

1844. Thorwaldsen, the sculptor, buried at Copenhagen with regal honors; the king and princes and chief officers of state acting as mourners, followed by troops and processions of the different guilds and orders of citizens, and a concourse of thousands. The streets were lined with soldiers as at a royal funeral; and the queen and princesses attended the service in the church. At the end of the ceremony, the king headed a subscription for a monument on a magnificent scale by the regal donation of $25,000.

1849. General Haynau assaulted Brescia, which, after great slaughter, was taken and sacked.

1854. A fight took place 12 miles from Loar, between a company of 60 dragoons under Lieut. J. W. Davidson, and a party of nearly 300 Apache and Utah Indians. The dragoons lost 21 killed and 18 wounded; the Indian loss unknown.

1856. Treaty of peace between the French, English, and Turks on one side, and the Russians on the other, signed at Paris.

MARCH 31.

32 B. C. Titus Pomponius Atticus, a distinguished Roman, died. He understood the art of conducting himself so well, that amidst the civil wars and party strife of the time in which he lived, he preserved the respect and esteem of all parties. He reached the age of 77 without sickness; but finding himself at last attacked by a slight disease, he resolved to put an end to his life by abstaining from food, and expired in five days.

1474. The first book printed in England finished by Caxton as appears by the following entry: "The Game and Playe of the Chesse; translated out of the French and emprynted by William Caxton. Fynished the last day of Marche, the yer of our Lord God a thousand four hundred and lxxiiij."

1547. Francis I of France died. He was the rival and opponent of Charles V of Germany, with whom he was involved in war during almost his whole reign, with various success, and to whom he was once a prisoner, with his two sons. He was a patron of literature and the arts.

1605. An expedition fitted out by the earl of Southampton and Lord Arundel, under the command of George Weymouth, sailed from the Downs with a view to the discovery of a north-west passage to India, the passion for which was now in its full vigor.

1621. Philip III of Spain died. He ascended the throne of his father at the age of 20. The war with Holland, which had revolted, was continued with great spirit, and the siege of Ostend maintained three years, at great expense, and the loss of 80,000 men before it was reduced. He imprudently banished the Moors from his kingdom, and thus deprived himself of a million of peaceable and useful artists; a loss which the country has never recovered from.

1631. John Donne, an English poet and divine, died. He embraced protestantism at an early age, which together with his shining talents, procured him favors and emoluments. Dryden styles him "the greatest wit, though not the greatest poet, of the nation," and his eloquence as a divine is also attested to.

1654. Cockfighting prohibited in England by the parliament (called an act of the usurpation).

1656. James Usher, archbishop of Armagh, died, aged 76. He was advanced by James I and Charles I, and courted by Cromwell.

1665. The English authorities issued an order to imprison George Fox, the founder of the sect called Quakers, for his sermons against the awful crime of building meeting houses with steeples.

1698. Peter Joseph d'Orleans, a French Jesuit, died. He professed belles-lettres, and wrote several valuable histories and biographies.

1713. Peace of Utrecht concluded, which placed England at the head of the European states, and humbled the ambition of France.

1763. Mr. Harrison was granted £5,000 for the construction of a chronometer to determine with more accuracy the longitude at sea.

1765. The Jesuits expelled from Madrid and all Spain. The order was finally suppressed by the pope, 1773.

1774. The bill for closing the port of Boston received the royal assent.

[127]1783. Nakita Ivanowitz, count de Panin, a Russian statesman, died. He was raised from the rank of a horse soldier, under Elizabeth, became a general under Peter, and prime minister of the great Catharine. He possessed great powers of mind, and other qualifications for the high places which he occupied, but his business habits were lax, his conduct haughty, and his manners dissolute.

1791. Matthias Ogden, a revolutionary patriot, died. He was one of the first that joined Washington at Cambridge; he penetrated the wilderness with Arnold to Canada, and was wounded in the attack on Quebec. On his return he was promoted by congress, and remained in the army through the war.

1794. The national convention of France, in the plenitude of omniscience, decreed that there was no God!

1795. The British museum purchased the oriental manuscripts of Mr. Halstead, the disciple of the prophet Brothers.

1797. Daniel Bull Macartney, an Irish gentleman, died, aged 112. He married his fifth wife, who survived him, at the age of 84, when she was 14, by whom he had 20 children in 20 years. His constitution was so hardy that no cold affected him, and he could not bear the warmth of a sheet in the night time for the last 70 years of his life. In company he drank freely of rum and brandy, which he called naked truth; and retained his activity to the time of his death.

1797. Bonaparte, from his head quarters at Klagenfurth, offered peace to the archduke Charles.

1801. The island of Santa Cruz, in the West Indies, surrendered to the British under Admiral Duckworth. It was afterwards restored.

1806. George Macartney, a celebrated British statesman, died. He was employed in several important embassies and other offices, till in 1792 he was selected as ambassador extraordinary to China, a mission which occupied three years, and engaged much attention in Europe; and an account of which has been published in 3 vols. quarto by Sir G. Staunton.

1807. Slave trade abolished by the British government.

1812. Wells, the pedestrian, undertook for 5 pounds, to walk from Westminster bridge, London, to Croydon and back, in two hours, a distance of 19 miles. He performed it in 2 minutes less than the time, but dropped down with fatigue, and was unable to walk home.

1813. Battle of St. Antonio, Mexico, between the royalists and patriots. The former were defeated with the loss of 100 killed, their camp equipage, 6 cannon, and great quantities of stores, &c.

1814. Paris capitulated to the allied army, about 2 o'clock in the morning, and the French troops evacuated it at 7, hostilities to commence in 2 hours. At 11, the conquerors entered the city with the emperor of Russia and the king of Prussia at their head.

1827. Ludwig Von Beethoven, a German musical composer, died. His works are numerous, and universally known and admired. His musical talents procured him wealthy patrons among the nobility, by whom he was munificently supported. He was extremely deaf, and eccentric in his manners.

1831. Edward Augustus Holyoake, a venerated New England physician, died, aged 100. He was born at Salem, Mass., 100 years after its settlement, and was a practicing physician there 79 years. He enjoyed uninterrupted good health during life, and at a dinner given by a number of the profession on his centennial anniversary, he appeared among them with a firm step. On a post mortem examination, all the vital organs appeared to have been unimpaired by age and capable of sustaining life much longer, except the stomach, which was divided by a stricture, leaving an aperture less than an inch in diameter.

1831. Battle of Praga, between the Poles under Skrzynecki, and the Russians of 8000 under Geismar, in which the latter were almost totally destroyed, with the loss of 4000 prisoners and 1600 cannon.

1831. An Irish scholar and divine, Rev. Hynes Halloran, chaplain to the Britannia in the battle of Trafalgar, was transported for seven years, for forging a frank, value 19 pence.

1835. John Whitcomb, a soldier of the revolution, died at Swanzey, N. H., aged 104.

1836. Matthew Lumsden died; an eminent orientalist.

1837. The president at interim of Mexico protested "in the most solemn manner, before all civilized nations, against the acknowledgment of the pretended republic of Texas made by the United States."

1839. Battle of Pago Largo in South America, between the troops of Corrientes and Entre Rios, two provinces of the Argentine republic. The former were defeated with a loss stated at 1960, including the commander-in-chief.

1851. John Caldwell Calhoun, one of the most distinguished American statesmen, died, aged 68, a senator from South Carolina.

[128]1852. Tremont Temple, Boston, entirely destroyed by fire.

1854. Thomas Noon Talfourd, an English judge and dramatist, died, aged 57. He cultivated literature as a refreshing relief from the labors of his profession. He died while charging the jury.

1854. Gen. Canrobert and more than 1000 French troops landed at Gallipoli.

1854. The artisans of Barcelona, Spain, to the number of 1500 proceeded to the municipality and demanded that the price of provisions should be reduced and wages increased.


[129]

APRIL.

APRIL 1.

168 B. C. Emylius Paulus passed from Brundusium to Corcyra (the modern Corfu) on his famous Macedonian expedition, and on the 6th, sacrificed at the shrine of Delphi.

1386. James Audley, an English warrior, died. He distinguished himself under Edward III in the wars with France, and on their return was liberally rewarded by his sovereign for the deeds of heroism he had displayed in the service.

1405. Tamerlane, chan of the Tartars, died. He is supposed to have been the son of a shepherd, and raised himself by his courage and prudence to the sovereignty of nearly three quarters of the world. He was preparing for the invasion of China when death put a stop to his career at the early age of 36.

1506. Erasmus was entertained at London by the great and learned men of the day.

1614. Henry de Montmorency, constable of France, died. He distinguished himself in several famous battles. Catharine de Medici found means to disgrace him, when he retired to Savoy, and made successful war upon his country. He lived to be promoted to the highest office under the king.

1672. Archibald Armstrong, privileged jester or fool of Charles V, died. There is a little book high priced and of little worth entitled Archibald's Jests.

1696. Père Gerbillon, the Jesuit missionary (see May 30th), accompanied the imperial Chinese army into Tartary, in the suite of the emperor, being his fifth journey into that country.

1696. John Bigg, an English hermit, died, aged 97. He begged pieces of leather, which he nailed to his clothes, till he became a truly grotesque figure. One of his shoes is preserved in the Bodleian museum, and is made up of about a thousand patches of leather.

1712. Lord Bolingbroke stated in parliament, that in the great contest, called "the glorious wars of Queen Anne," the duke of Marlborough had not lost a single battle, and yet the French had carried their point, the succession to the Spanish monarchy, the pretended cause for so great an enterprise. Dean Swift called this statement "a due donation for all fools day."

1720. John Leake, an English admiral, died. He fought against the far famed Van Tromp, but the battle at La Hogue most distinguished him.

1729. The grand jubilee began at Rome.

1732. John Burchard Mencke, a learned German author, died at Leipsic, where he had conducted the Acta Eruditorum 25 years, a valuable work begun by his father in 1682, and which established a correspondence with the learned men of Europe.

1764. An annular eclipse of the sun was observed at London.

1764. At Monmouth assizes a girl, aged 18, was burned for murdering her mistress. This was among the last punishments by burning in England.

1775. Col. Daniel Boone, the Kentucky pioneer, began to erect the fort of Boonsborough, at a salt lick, 60 yards from the Kentucky river.

1779. John Langhorne, an English poet and divine, died. Besides poems, sermons and miscellanies, by which he is favorably known, the translation of Plutarch in common use bears his name.

1789. First meeting of congress under the federal constitution.

1794. The British under Sir John Jervis took the island of St. Helena.

1794. John Lewis Lombard, a German professor of artillery, died. He wrote several works on the movement of projectiles and the principles of gunnery.

1797. The French under Bernadotte entered Lauback, the capital of Carniola. At the same time Massena, commanding the advance guard of the French army, [130]attacked the imperialists in the defiles near Neumark; the strife being between the flower of the Austrian army and the French veterans of Italy, was most obstinately contested. The French, however, carried the day.

1799. Assault upon the works of St. Jean d'Acre, in Palestine. The French were repulsed with great loss.

1808. Russian ukase prohibiting the introduction of British goods into the Russian ports.

1810. State marriage of Napoleon Bonaparte with the archduchess Maria Louisa of Austria celebrated at St. Cloud. The emperor caused a medal to be struck on the occasion, with the singular device of Love bearing a thunderbolt.

1826. Isaac Milner, an English mathematician and theological writer, died. He was brought up to the weaving business, but occupied his leisure with the classics and mathematics. He was the tutor of Wilberforce and Pitt.

1832. War broke out between the Winnebago and other Indian tribes and the United States.

1832. The London Penny Magazine, under the superintendence of the society for the diffusion of useful knowledge, commenced.

1833. John Hooker Ashmun, professor of law in Harvard university, died. He had not attained his 33d year, yet he had gathered about him all the honors which are usually the harvest of a riper life.

1837. Robert Hawker, an English divine, died at Plymouth, England. In 1814 he published the holy scriptures in penny numbers for the use of the poor.

1843. John Armstrong, aged 84, died at Red Hook, N. Y. He was the author of the celebrated Newburgh Letters, and a prominent soldier in the war of the American revolution, and for some time secretary of war under President Madison.

1844. Peter S. Duponceau so favorably known as a scholar and statesman, died at Philadelphia, aged 84. In his 78th year he published his Dissertation on the Chinese Language.

1853. Santa Anna arrived at Vera Cruz, having been elected president of Mexico by the vote of 19 out of 25 states.

1856. Isaac McKeever, an American commodore, died at Norfolk, Va., where he commanded the navy yard.

1856. The Emperor Alexander published at St. Petersburg a proclamation announcing the signing of the treaty of peace with England, France and Turkey which terminated the struggle between Russia on the one side, and England, France and Turkey on the other, and prolonged the salvation of the latter country.

APRIL 2.

1081. Constantinople besieged by Alexius Commenus.

1507. Francis, of Paula, founder of the order of Minims, died.

1512. Florida discovered by Ponce de Leon.

1594. A skirmish at Edinburgh between the earl of Bothwell and the cavalry of King James.

1640. Matthias Sarbieuski Cassimir, a Polish Jesuit, died. He was so excellent a Latin poet that his poems have been thought to be equal to some of the best Latin authors, not excepting Horace and Virgil. He had begun an epic in the style of Virgil, called The Lesciades, but died before it was completed. Many editions of his poems have been published.

1640. Paul Flemming, one of the best German poets of the 17th century, died.

1683. William Penn gave his colonists in Pennsylvania a new charter.

1696. There fell in many parts of Ireland a thick dew, which the country people called butter, from the consistency and color of it, being soft, clammy, and of a dark yellow. This phenomenon had for some time been of frequent occurrence; it fell always in the night, and chiefly in moorish low grounds, on the top of the grass, and on the thatch of the cabins. It frequently lay a fortnight without changing its color, and had a bad odor, like that of church yards or graves.

1698. The earl of Bellemont arrived at New York to succeed Fletcher as governor.

1736. Jacob Tonson the elder, a noted English bookseller, died.

1743. Birthday of Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States.

1747. John James Dillenius, a German botanist, died in England. He is considered as the father of cryptogamic botany. His works were illustrated with plates, admirably drawn and engraved by himself.

1754. Thomas Carte, an English historian, died. He was engaged several years in writing a history of England, which was published in four vols. folio, and esteemed a work of great merit.

1755. Severndroog castle, on the coast of Malabar, the rendezvous of the celebrated pirate Angria, taken by the British under Com. Jones.

1768. John Baptist Boyer, a French physician, died. He distinguished himself by the skill which he displayed during the plague at Marseilles.

1784. County of Washington, in the state of New York, erected.

1791. Honore Gabriel Riquetti, count de Mirabeau, the French revolutionist, [131]died. He was an extraordinary character, of great talent and ambition, but whose genius was controlled by the worst propensities. He was the master spirit of the revolution, and had he lived might have given it a different character. His funeral was conducted with great pomp by the enthusiastic populace.

1793. Dumouriez, the French general, arrested the minister of war and the commissioners of the convention, who had been sent to arrest him, and delivered them to the Austrian general, Clairfait.

1794. The British took the island of St. Lucia, in the West Indies, belonging to the French. It was ceded to the British in 1814.

1794. William Jones, a distinguished oriental scholar, died in India.

1801. Battle of Copenhagen, between the Danish and British fleets, the latter under Nelson and Parker. The Danish ships and batteries were entirely destroyed, with the loss of 1600 men killed and wounded. British loss, 254 killed, 689 wounded. Nelson was created viscount on his return home, and his honors made hereditary, even in the female line.

1804. Jean Mossequin died at Portieu, in France, aged 103. He was married the day before to his ninth wife, Marie Vascois, aged 19. He left twenty-nine children.

1817. Mrs. McCowen, aged 77, died at Lewistown, Pa. She was one of the first white women that came up the long narrows to that wilderness which is now a fruitful field.

1817. Kosciusko abolished servitude in his domain of Siechnowieze, in Poland, and declared all ancient serfs free, exempted from all charges and quit-rents, and fully entitled to their chattels and lands.

1821. Erie county, New York, erected.

1823. First paper in Syracuse.

1839. Hezekiah Niles died, at Wilmington, Delaware, aged 63. He is known as the founder, and for twenty-five years the intelligent and laborious editor of Nile's Weekly Register, a valuable journal published at Baltimore. In private life he was one of the most amiable of men.

1840. Richard Phillips, a self-educated English author, and editor of various publications, died, aged 73. His original name is said to have been Philip Richard, and he was many years an eminent London bookseller. He established the Monthly Magazine, which at one time had a great circulation. He was afterwards elected sheriff, and received the honor of knighthood.

1855. George Bellas Greenough, an English geologist, died, aged 77. He was one of the founders of the Geological society, of London, and constructed several valuable maps, the most celebrated of which is a geological and physical map of all India, giving the geological attributes of each district between the plateaux north of the Himalaya and cape Cormorin.

APRIL 3.

13. Augustus, emperor of Rome, signed his will, bequeathing to the Roman people 40,000,000 sesterces, (about $1,600,000,) and divorced the two Julias, his daughter and grand-daughter, from his sepulchre. It was written upon two skins of parchment.

33. Jesus Christ, our Savior, crucified.

68. Galba accuses Nero before the people of his enormities, and elects himself lieutenant of the state.

1068. William, the conqueror, again imposes the tax of Danegelt which occasioned an armed opposition at Exeter.

1143. John II (Commenus), emperor of the East, died. He ascended the throne of Constantinople on the death of his father; was victorious over the Mohammedans and other foes; and swayed the sceptre with wisdom and ability.

1367. Battle of Navarette, and victory of Edward the black prince, by which Peter the cruel was replaced on the Castilian throne.

1421. Battle of Beauge, in France, when the duke of Clarence and 1500 English were slain.

1617. John Napier, baron of Merchiston, died. He was born in Scotland, in 1550, and after completing his education traveled on the continent. On his return he devoted himself to the cultivation of science and literature, became a distinguished mathematician, and was regarded by Kepler as one of the greatest men of the age. He is known as the inventor of logarithms for the use of navigators.

1646. Thomas Lydiat, an English chronologer, died. He early devoted himself to literature, became an able scholar, and was deservedly esteemed by the learned of the times.

1707. Edmund Dickinson, a learned English physician, died. He was appointed physician to Charles II and his successor; and retired from practice to become an author.

1717. James Ozenham, an eminent French mathematician, died. He taught mathematics at Paris, and acquired property; but the Spanish war reduced his finances, and the death of his wife and twelve children embittered his last days. His works are numerous and valuable.

[132]1736. John Albert Fabricius, a learned German, died at Hamburgh. He was an indefatigable scholar, of great modesty and simplicity of manners, and so highly esteemed by the citizens of Hamburgh, that when invited elsewhere, the senate prevailed on him by a superior salary, not to relinquish his residence among them.

1760. James Benignus Winslow, an eminent Danish anatomist, died. He went to Paris, where his talents were appreciated and rewarded.

1763. All the gibbets on the Edgeware road, on which many malefactors were hung in chains, near London, were cut down by unknown persons.

1764. The archduke Joseph chosen and crowned king of the Romans.

1775. New York colonial legislature held its last session.

1783. Treaty of amity and commerce for fifteen years between the United States and Sweden concluded by Franklin.

1791. John Berkenhout, a literary and medical character, died. He was the son of a Dutch merchant, and experienced many vicissitudes; first served in the Prussian and afterwards in the English army; studied medicine at Leyden; and in 1778 came with certain commissioners to America, where he was imprisoned by congress, on which account he enjoyed a pension from the British government.

1792. George Pococke, an English admiral, died. He signalized himself by the capture of Havana, and many other important services.

1793. Dumouriez, the French general, who escaped from the lines, under the repeated fire of three battalions, joined the Austrians, accompanied by several other officers.

1811. Partial action on the Coa, near Sabugal, between the advanced posts of the British, and a division of the French army under Massena, who was defeated, and the French expelled from Portugal.

1813. Action near Urbanna, on the Chesapeake, between 17 British barges and 2 schooners, and 3 letters of marque and 1 privateer of Baltimore; the latter were captured.

1814. The French conservative senate solemnly decreed that Bonaparte had forfeited the throne, and released all persons from their oaths of allegiance to him.

1815. Eruption of mount Tomboro, on the island of Sumbawa, distant about 800 miles from Batavia, in the Indian Ocean.

1816. Treaty of peace concluded by Lord Exmouth, commanding a British fleet before Algiers, between the Dey and Sardinia, and 51 Sardinian prisoners liberated.

1816. Thomas Machin, an officer of the revolution, died at his residence in Schoharie county, N. Y., aged 72. He was a British officer at the battle of Minden, and an American officer during the whole war of the revolution. The chain across the Hudson at West Point was constructed under his direction, and he was wounded at Bunker Hill and Fort Montgomery.

1826. Reginald Heber, bishop of Calcutta, died. He was zealous in his calling, and no doubt accelerated his death by his devotion to the cause of his master. He ranks high among the British poets.

1829. Safety banking fund in the state of New York established.

1833. Nicholas Ipsilanti, an officer of the Greek revolution, died, at the age of 35.

1838. M. Antomarchi, physician of Napoleon at St. Helena, died at St. Jago de Cuba. He was a native of Corsica, and left a professorship at Florence, in order to accompany the exiled emperor. He attended him in his last moments, of which he has given an account, and received a legacy of 100,000 francs. He afterwards practiced medicine in Paris, where he published a series of beautiful and expensive anatomical plates. On the revolt of the Poles he hastened thither, and took the direction of the medical establishments.

1854. John Wilson, a Scottish author, died, aged 69. He is well known as the Christopher North of Blackwood's Magazine.

1856. Gorham A. Worth, a New York financier, died, aged 72.

1856. President Commonfort returned to the city of Mexico after a triumph at Puebla, where the rebel army surrendered to him, and where the rebel generals were reduced to the rank of privates.

APRIL 4.

357. B. C. A transit of the moon over the planet mars observed by Aristotle.

397. Ambrose, archbishop of Milan, died. He was famous for the zeal which he manifested in the cause of the church, and the severity with which he censured the emperor Theodosius, who had barbarously ordered several innocent persons to be put to death at Thessalonica. The Te Deum is attributed to him.

1284. Alphonso X, of Castile, died. He was elected emperor of Germany 1258, but neglecting to visit the empire, Rodolphus was chosen in his place. He was dethroned by his own son, and compelled to seek protection among the Saracens. His fame as an astronomer and a man of letters, is greater than as a monarch. He is the first Castilian king who had the [133]public laws and the scriptures drawn in the vulgar tongue.

1581. Drake, the navigator, was knighted on board his famous ship, the Pelican, at Deptford.

1588. Frederick II, of Denmark, died. He was a liberal and enlightened ruler, who enlarged the happiness of his people and patronized learning. The astronomer Tycho Brahe, particularly, was indebted to him for munificent protection and advancement.

1589. Lady Burleigh, eldest daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, and a highly distinguished literary character, died, aged 63. This age was prolific of literary women.

1593. Three Samuels of Warboys condemned for bewitching the children of Mr. Throgmorton at Huntington, England.

1594. Sylvester Wyet, of Bristol, England, made a voyage up the gulf of St. Lawrence, for the barbs or fins of whales and train oil. He met with 60 sail of French, and 28 sail of Englishmen, engaged in fishing at this early day.

1634. Robert Naunton, an English statesman, died. He was secretary of state to James I, and published some curious anecdotes of the reign of Elizabeth, under the title of Fragmentia Regalia.

1638. Massachusetts patent demanded. A quo warranto having been brought by the attorney general of England against the governor and corporation of Massachusetts, and judgment given that the liberties and franchises should be seized into the king's hand, the council made an order requiring that the charter should be returned by the next ship. Arbitrary measures were pursued in reply to the petitions of the colony, and 8 ships prepared to sail for New England were detained in the Thames by order of the privy council. By this order, Oliver Cromwell, Arthur Hazelrig, John Hambden and other malcontents, were forcibly prevented from emigrating to America. How little did Charles anticipate that by this high-handed measure he was detaining the very men who were destined to overturn his throne, and terminate his career by a violent death.

1643. Simon Episcopius, an able Dutch divine, died. He embraced the doctrines of Arminius in relation to predestination, which exposed him to much persecution and obloquy, and finally led to his banishment from the commonwealth: he afterwards was permitted to return, and became minister of the remonstrant church. His death happening at the moment of an eclipse of the moon, was considered as an emblem of the departure of the brightest ornament of the church.

1656. Andrew Rivinus, (alias Barchmann) a Saxon physician, died. He became professor of poetry and philosophy at Leipsic, and published several works of considerable merit.

1669. Johann Michael Moscherosch, a German writer, died. His celebrity consisted chiefly in some satirical pieces entitled Wunderliche und wahrhafte Geschichte Philanders von Sittewald.

1704. The first newspaper printed in the United States, appeared at Boston, called the Boston News Letter.

1706. John Bayles, an English buttonmaker, died, aged 130. He used to walk to the neighboring markets with his buttons till he was 120 years of age.

1720. Knightly Chetwode, dean of Gloucester, died. He wrote several poems, and a life of lord Roscommon.

1743. Robert Ainsworth, an English teacher, died. In 1714 he was invited by the English booksellers to undertake the compilation of an English and Latin dictionary, on the plan of Faber's Thesaurus. The task proved to be more difficult than had been anticipated, and was not completed till 1736.

1747. Number Four (Charlestown, N. H.) attacked by a large body of French and Indians under M. Debeline, and gallantly defended by 30 men, under major Stevens. The enemy kept up a brisk assault night and day; when, on the third day, being in a starving condition, and finding it impracticable to force or persuade a surrender, they retired and were seen no more. This was considered one of the most chivalrous feats of the time.

1764. Michael Lomonozof, a Russian poet, died. From the occupation of a fishmonger he rose to be the "father of Russian poetry," and a philosopher of no mean pretensions. He published a history of the Russian sovereigns, and an ancient history of Russia, from the origin of the nation. His odes are greatly admired for the originality of invention, sublimity of sentiment, and energy of language.

1769. Hyder Ally, the adventurous East India chief, compelled the English to form a treaty with him.

1770. James Parsons, an eminent English physician, died. He was the correspondent of Buffon and other learned characters on the continent, and an able writer on physic, anatomy, natural history, antiquities, language, and the fine arts.

1774. Oliver Goldsmith died, aged 46. He received a partial education at Dublin college, after which he strayed from home, and making a tour on the continent, afoot and alone, with a flute in his hand, fixed himself, on his return, in London, as a builder of books. The details of his life are interesting, chequered as they are with [134]vicissitudes. As a bookseller's hack he was particularly successful; but the liberality of his disposition and want of economy, contributed to keep him in want, and sometimes brought him to starvation. He died about £2,000 in debt. His works, though most of them were produced on the spur of the moment, to procure the necessaries of life, are still found in almost every library.

1777. John Swinton, an English antiquary, died. His literary productions, which are numerous, appeared originally in the Philosophical Transactions, and relate principally to antiquities.

1786. Columbia county, in the state of New York, erected.

1793. General Dumouriez, accompanied by General Valance and young Egalite (Louis Philip), afterwards king of France, narrowly escaped to the Austrians.

1794. Battle of Raclawice, Poland, between the Russians and 4,000 Poles under Kosciusko, mostly armed with scythes. The battle lasted five hours, and ended in the defeat of the Russians, who left 3,000 killed on the spot.

1795. Barrere a lawyer, Varennes a monk, Collot de Herbois a comedian, and Vadier a counsellor, members of the French convention, sentenced by a decree of that body to be transported to Guiana. Barrere was president of the convention, and as such passed sentence of death upon the king; and they all voted for the king's death.

1799. Battle of Tauffers and St. Marie, in Germany. The French under Jourdan lost upwards of 4,000 men, and fell back to the heights of Villengen.

1802. Lloyd Kenyon, an English judge, died. He filled the offices entrusted to him with distinguished integrity, and to him England is indebted for much of that reform which has been introduced into the practice of the law.

1807. Joseph Jerome la Francais de Lalande died at Paris, aged 70. He received a minute religious education, and displayed his abilities while quite young by his sermons and mystical romances. His attention was first drawn to astronomy by the remarkable comet of 1744; and he pursued the study with so great success that he was sent to Berlin by the academy at the age of 19, to make some observations on the moon's parallax, when Frederick the Great could not conceal his astonishment at the phenomenon of so young an astronomer. He became editor of the Connaissance des Temps, published several works on astronomy, and wrote all the astronomical articles for the great Encyclopedie. In 1778 he published a folio volume on canals, containing a general history of all the ancient canals which had been previously undertaken, accomplished and even projected. Although a sceptic, he is said to have been "religious, in his own way."

1809. The legislature of Pennsylvania passed a law directing the poor to be sent to the most convenient school and their tuition paid.

1812. Congress passed an embargo law for 90 days.

1814. Bonaparte having received the opinions of his marshals abdicates the imperial throne in favor of his son, only to be succeeded the next day by a relinquishment in favor of his heirs also.

1815. Hostilities between France and the allied powers ceased. Alexander I, in the name of the allies, recommended Bonaparte to choose a place of retreat for himself and his family.

1817. Andrew Massena, prince of Essling, one of the ablest of Bonaparte's field marshals, died. He commanded in chief in the memorable campaign in Switzerland; when at the battle of Zurich he had to contend against the archduke Charles and prince Suwaroff; yet the fruits of this campaign were 70,000 prisoners. He ended his military career in 1810, by the command of the army of Portugal, where he was defeated by Wellington.

1831. Isaiah Thomas, a distinguished American printer, died. He was born in Boston, 1749, served an apprenticeship of 11 years, and commenced business at a very early age at Newburyport. In 1770 he printed the Massachusetts Spy at Boston, where he annoyed the provincial officers by the boldness and freedom of his articles on the difficulties that agitated the country. He was also one of the most active and dexterous of the skirmishers on the plains of Lexington. A few days after that affair he removed his paper to Worcester; and gradually established presses and book-stores in different parts of the Union, to the number of twenty-four; so that he nearly supplied the entire country with books. His Bibles, school books and almanacs, were in great repute for a long time. He was the founder of the American antiquarian society, and author of the History of Printing in America, a valuable work to the profession and the antiquary.

1841. William Henry Harrison, president of the United States, died at Washington, aged 69. He was a distinguished patriot of the revolution, one of the signers of the declaration of independence, governor of Virginia, and long a leader of the United States armies in the severe contests with the British and Indians.

1855. The Baltic fleet, fitted out by the French and British governments to act [135]against the northern ports of Russia, sailed from Portsmouth.

APRIL 5.

2348 B. C. The ark of Noah rested on mount Ararat.

347 B. C. Plato, the Athenian philosopher, died. He was the pupil of Socrates, and on the death of his master went into foreign countries in search of knowledge. His works have come down to us, and confirm the opinions of his contemporaries by whom his talents and learning were highly appreciated.

33. The day of our Savior's resurrection called Easter.

1242. Battle of lake Peipus, in Russia; the Russians under Alexander Jaroslawitz gained a decisive victory over the Swedes under Eric XI. The battle was fought on the ice; 400 Teutonic knights were slain, and 50 made prisoners. The German knights were pardoned, but the Esthonians were ordered to be hung as Russian rebels.

1470. An instrument similar to a warranty deed given to William Tourneville, bishop of Angers, with a copy of Faust and Schoeffer's Bible for the sum of 40 crowns, bears this date.

1605. John Stow, an English antiquary and historian, died, aged 80. He was born in London, 1525, and initiated by his father into all the mysteries of tailoring as practiced at that period. But he discovered a penchant for musty relics and antiquarian lumber, and finally quitted his business to compose a history of England. He at length got together such a medley of antique and diabolical books and parchments, that he became suspected of some heretical designs against religion, so that the bishop of London ordered an investigation of his library. He published A Summarie of the Englyshe Chronicles, and in 1598 a Survey of London, on which he was long employed, and which has been often reprinted. He was reduced to live by charity, and at length fell a victim to poverty and disease. His labors formed a rich legacy to future historians.

1621. John Carver, first governor of Massachusetts, died. He conducted the colonists over from Leyden, and managed the affairs of the settlement with great prudence and address.

1676. John Winthrop, first governor of Connecticut, died. He was the eldest son of the governor of Massachusetts, and a man of great learning and talents. He was one of the founders of the Royal society, distinguished as one of the greatest chemists and physicians of the day, and one of the most noted men in New England. In 1635 he came over to settle a plantation on Connecticut river, and began the town of Saybrook at the mouth of that river.

1677. Cambray, a fortified city of France, surrendered to Louis XIV, who commanded in person.

1684. William Brouncker, an English mathematician, died. He is celebrated for his attachment to the royal cause during the civil wars. On the institution of the Royal society, he was the first president, and adorned the office by his polite manners and extensive erudition.

1707. Battle of Almanza, in Spain; the allied British, Dutch, and Portuguese army defeated with the loss of 1000, attributed to the bad conduct of the Portuguese troops.

1725. Benjamin Ibbot, an eloquent English divine, died. A selection of his sermons was published after his death by his friend Dr. Samuel Clarke.

1735. William Derham, an able English philosopher and divine, died. He accomplished much in the advancement of science by a long life of industry; his publications amounting to not less than 40, mostly on philosophical subjects.

1746. Thomas Hanmer, an English statesman, died. He was for 30 years a distinguished member of Parliament, from which he retired to devote himself to literary pursuits.

1748. Unsuccessful attempt by the British under admiral Knowles on St. Jago de Cuba.

1753. Parliament passed an act to raise £20,000 by lottery to purchase the library of Sir Hanse Sloane, of his daughters, for the public use. It formed the basis of the British museum.

1758. The first number of Johnson's Idler appeared.

1762. Granada surrendered to the British.

1776. Grainger, vicar of Shiplake and author of the Biographical History of England, died suddenly while administering the sacrament.

1779. The refugees plundered Nantucket and carried off with them two loaded brigs, and several other vessels.

1780. Alexis Hubert Jaillot, a French geographer, and sculptor to the king, died.

1790. Elizabeth Welsh died at New York, aged 104.

1794. George James Danton, a French Revolutionary Leader, guillotined. Robespierre, dreading the dauntless intrepidity of Danton, Fabre d'Eglantine, Bazire, Chabot, and others of the most noted of his fellow desperadoes in the convention, caused them to be arrested as conspirators against the republic, and after a summary trial, they were executed by the guillotine [136]on this day. The government of France was now almost entirely vested in one man, under whose sanguinary administration the prisons of Paris contained at one time more than seven thousand persons, and a day seldom passed without sixty or eighty executions by the revolutionary axe.

1794. Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles, a French statesman, guillotined. He conducted before the revolution as an able and upright officer; but as the scene progressed he became identified with the terrorists, and went to the scaffold with Danton, Desmoulins, (q. v.) and others. The two conducted with as much levity in their last moments as if they had been going to a party of pleasure.

1794. Benedict Camille Desmoulins, one of the founders of the Jacobin club in France, guillotined. He was the friend of Danton, and one of the most bloody and reckless of the revolutionists. When arraigned by order of Robespierre, he was asked his age, to which he replied "33 ans, l'age du sans culotte Jesus Christ." His wife, whom he adored, a beautiful, courageous and spirited woman, desired to share her husband's fate, which Robespierre seems not to have been slow to grant.

1795. Treaty of peace concluded at Basle, Switzerland, between France and Prussia.

1795. County of Schoharie, in New York, erected.

1797. The first Turkish ships arrived at London.

1799. The British forces under Gen. Harris, called the Madras army, arrived at Seringapatam, within Tippoo Saib had retreated after the defeat of Seedasere.

1799. Battle of Villingen and Rothweil in Germany; the French under Joubert defeated by the Austrians under the archduke Charles.

1800. British captured Goeree; admiral Duckworth's squadron on the same day, fell in with and captured two Spanish frigates and eleven merchantmen from Lima. The admiral's share of the spoil amounted to £75,000.

1804. Robert Raikes, an English printer and philanthropist, died. He succeeded his father in the printing business and having realized a good property, he employed it, with his pen and his influence, in relieving such objects as stood in need of his benevolent assistance. He is however best known as the originator of sabbath schools.

1811. Henry I (Christophe), king of Hayti, created an hereditary nobility, consisting of 4 princes, 7 dukes, 21 counts, 9 barons and chevaliers, and appointed persons to those ranks.

1811. James Traquair died; the first man in America who procured busts to be carved in American marble. They were likenesses of Washington and Penn, and executed by an Italian.

1814. Bonaparte accepted the island of Elba as his residence, and renounced for himself and heirs the throne of France.

1815. Continued eruption of Tomboro, which began April 3. (See April 12.)

1817. Battle of Maypu, which sealed the independence of Chili. The patriots under San Martin and Las Heras defeated the royalists, 5000, under Osorio; 2000 were killed and 2500 taken.

1830. The bill to remove the civil disabilities of the Jews introduced into the British parliament.

1832. Ratification of the treaties of commerce, navigation and limits, between the United States and Mexico, exchanged at Washington.

1837. Henry Bathurst, bishop of Norwich, died in London, aged 93. He was distinguished for the liberality of his principles, and was exemplary in the exercise of his duties—the father of 36 children, 22 by his first wife, 14 by his second.

1842. Patrick Kelly died at Brighton, England. He is well known for his valuable writings on science, but his great work the Universal Cambist entitles him to lasting distinction.

1843. Valnier, a native of St. Domingo, died at Merida, Yucatan, aged 117. He retained his sight until the age of 105, and his intellect was unimpaired till the time of his death.

1844. John Sanderson of Philadelphia, who wrote an account of the lives of the signers of the declaration of American independence, died. He had some reputation for wit.

1852. Felix von Schwartzenberg died at Vienna, aged 52. He represented the Austrian empire at various courts, at different periods, the earliest being at the age of 15. In a military capacity he took the field in 1843 against Charles Albert of Sardinia, and half a year later succeeded prince Metternich, on his fall, as prime minister of the empire.

1853. A new planet was discovered by Prof. de Gasparis, at Naples.

APRIL 6.

323 B. C. Alexander (the Great,) of Macedon, died of intemperance. The death of this famous hero took place at Babylon, on the 6th day of the Athenian month Thagelion, which then corresponded with the 28th of the Macedonian month Dæsius. He lived 32 years and 10 months, and [137]reigned, computing from the Olympiad six months prior to the death of Philip, 12 years and 10 months—a brief career of extraordinary, but profitless glory.

1190. Richard I (Cœur de Lion), killed at the siege of Chalus, in France. He commenced his career by rebellion against his father. On ascending the throne of England, he plundered and massacred the Jews, and set sail for Palestine with the bravest of his subjects. Taking the lead in the crusade, he gained a series of victories over the Moslem. On his way home he was seized and imprisoned, and ransomed by his subjects with 150,000 marks. He was preparing for another crusade, when his career was suddenly terminated by a wound from a cross-bow, in the 42d year of his age.

1348. Laura de Noves, Petrarch's mistress, died. She was descended of a Provencal family which became extinct in the 16th century, inherited a large fortune by the death of her father, and married Hugh de Sade of Avignon. She was considered the most beautiful woman of the city. Petrarch says it was 6 o'clock in the morning of the 6th April, 1327, that he first saw her in the church of the nuns of St. Clara; and it was at the same hour of the same day, 1348, that she died of the plague. Nearly two centuries after, some antiquarians obtained permission to open her grave. They found a parchment enclosed in a leaden box, containing a sonnet bearing Petrarch's signature.

1453. Mohammed II besieged Constantinople, which terminated in the overthrow of the Christian empire.

1528. Albrecht Duerer, a celebrated German painter and engraver, died. He is still esteemed in Germany as one of the brightest jewels in her crown of fame. He was the reformer if not the founder of the German school of painting, and was the first to bring the art of engraving to any degree of perfection.

1574. Paul Manutius, a learned Venetian printer, died, aged 62. He wrote valuable commentaries on Cicero, and four treatises on Roman antiquities.

1580. Earthquake which was felt throughout England. The bells rang, and chimneys toppled down.

1590. Francis Walsyngham, an English statesman, died, aged 90. He flourished in the reign of Elizabeth, and was of infinite service to the state, by the energy and zeal with which he performed the duties of his offices. Yet he died so poor that his remains were privately buried by night, without any ceremony.

1609. Henry Hudson departed from the Texel on his famous voyage of discovery, the object of which was to find a northern passage to India. Meeting with obstructions he determined to attempt a north-west passage; and this also being attended with disasters, he shaped his course south along the American continent, and discovered the noble river which bears his name, and gave him immortality.

1645. William Burton, an English antiquary, died. He published a history of the county of Leicestershire, which is valuable.

1655. David Blondel, a French protestant minister, died. He had the misfortune to lose his sight by close application to study, but even under that calamity he dictated two folio volumes on the genealogy of the kings of France. He was a man of great learning.

1686. Arthur Annesley, earl of Anglesey, died. He was a statesman of great utility, sagacity and learning, under Charles I.

1695. Richard Busby, a celebrated English schoolmaster, died. He was educated by the bounty of the parish, and became head master of Westminster school, which place he held during half a century. He educated most of the eminent men who flourished about the period of his death. They regarded him as a father, though a severe one.

1707. William van der Velde (the younger), a Dutch painter, died. He was an admirable artist, distinguished for his excellence in marine subjects, painted in black and white, on a ground so prepared on canvas, as to give it the appearance of paper. It is said he has had no equal in his line.

1717. James Perizonius, a German professor at Leyden, died. He published various works in Latin, on history, classical literature and antiquities; and was a man of extensive erudition, great application and sound judgment.

1739. The workmen at Stocks market, England, disinterred a grave stone with antique letters, supposed to have been buried 297 years.

1743. William Melmoth, (the elder,) a learned English lawyer, died. He is better known by a treatise on religious life, of which immense editions have been published.

1751. Frederick, king of Sweden and landgrave of Hesse Cassel, died.

1755. Richard Rawlinson, an English antiquary, died. He was an indefatigable collector, and made himself useful to his cotemporary antiquaries in the completion of their works. The sale of the printed books and pamphlets of his library occupied 60 days.

1760. Charlotte Charke, the last surviving daughter of Colley Cibber, died.

[138]1776. Action between the British ship Glasgow, of 20 ninepounders, and her tender, Capt. Howe, and American brigantine Cabot, 20 nines and 10 sixes; Columbus, 18 nines, 10 sixes; Annodine brig, 6 guns, and Providence sloop, 12 sixes, under Com. Hopkins. The British made the attack, and continued the engagement 3 hours, when the tender was captured, but the Glasgow escaped.

1793. The French army evacuated Antwerp and Mons in Belgium, and retreated towards Valenciennes and Lisle.

1794. The French took Oneglia, in Sardinia, where they captured 2 frigates and a few galleys.

1796. David Allan, a Scottish painter, died. He practiced history, portrait and landscape; but exercised his talents chiefly on works of humor. Some of his pieces have been engraved.

1796. David Campbell, a Scottish divine, died. He was professor of divinity at Aberdeen, translated the gospels, and answered Hume on the miracles.

1799. Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode, an English antiquary, died. He was a man of great wealth and literary attainments, and his library and cabinet was one of the most select and valuable in the kingdom. His immense collection of books, medals, drawings, &c., &c., he bequeathed to the British museum.

1804. Charles Pichegru, the French general, died. He was born 1761, of poor parents, educated in a monastery, and was a tutor of Bonaparte at Brienne. He came to America with a French regiment near the close of the revolution. At the outbreak of the revolution in France he distinguished himself so much that he rose to be the first in command, and achieved a series of most brilliant and important victories, which resulted in the conquest of Holland. He was detected in a plot for the restoration of the Bourbons, which cut short his career, and he died in prison by strangulation.

1808. Corner stone laid of the vault prepared for the relics of the American seamen, soldiers and citizens, who perished in the British prison ships at the Wallabout, during the war of the revolution.

1810. Three days' rioting commenced in London on account of Francis Burdett's budget.

1811. French privateer Revance de Cerfe, burnt at Norfolk, Va. She was fired by 15 men in 2 boats, at about 2 A. M.

1812. Badajos, in Spain, taken by storm, at ten at night, by the British and Portuguese troops under Wellington; loss of the allied army 4000; the defence made by the French governor was brave, determined and noble.

1813. Lewistown, Delaware, cannonaded about 20 hours by the British frigate Belvidere. The defence was conducted in such a manner that but little injury was done.

1814. The French provisional government proposed, and the conservative senate adopted the form of a constitution; a limited monarchy, founded on the French and American constitutions, and declared Louis XVIII king.

1815. The American prisoners in Dartmoor prison fired upon by their guard, and many of them killed and wounded. The prince regent pointedly disapproved of their conduct, censured the officers and soldiery, and offered to make provision for the widows and families of the sufferers; this, however, was rejected by president Madison.

1829. Henry Nicholas Abeel, one of the most acute mathematicians of the present age, died.

1831. Revolution in Brazil. Don Pedro abdicated in favor of his son, who was proclaimed Don Pedro II.

1853. The Mexican Governor Trias issued a proclamation at Chihuahua, relative to the possession of the Mesilla valley, threatening to resist the occupation of New Mexico by the United States.

1855. An asteroid was discovered by M. Chacornac, at the imperial observatory of France.

1856. The constitution of the new state of Deseret was established by a people's convention at Salt Lake city, Utah territory.

APRIL 7.

1118. Baldwin I, king of Jerusalem, died, and was buried on mount Calvary. He accompanied his brother, Godfrey de Bouillon, to Palestine during the crusades, and on the death of Godfrey was made king.

1141. Maud declared queen of England in a national synod.

1196. William Longbeard, a factious priest, executed. He was notorious for raising seditions in London, during the reign of Richard I. He was torn to pieces by horses, and then hung upon a gallows.

1498. Charles VIII, (the affable,) king of France, died. He was crowned king of Naples, and emperor of Constantinople, but afterwards met with reverses, and was driven back into France.

1521. Magellan erected the Spanish standard on one of the Philippine islands.

1656. Jerome Bignon, a French statesman, died. He was born 1590, and his attainments were so rapid that at the age [139]of 10 he published a description of Palestine, and at the age of 14 a treatise on the election of the popes.

1668. William Davenant, an English poet and dramatist, died. He succeeded Ben Jonson as poet laureate, and obtained a patent for a theatre in Lincoln's Inn fields, which was in operation a number of years.

1684. Dublin castle in Ireland burned.

1710. Thos. Betterton, the actor, died. He was esteemed the greatest master of tragic action in his time.

1710. Edward Codrington died at Barbadoes. He was a native of the West Indies, and distinguished himself by his learning, and by his courage in defence of the British islands against the French.

1712. Richard Simon, a French critic and historian, died. His works are numerous, and evince extensive learning and strong judgment.

1766. Tiberius Hemsterhuys, a Dutch critic, died. He was appointed professor of mathematics and philosophy at Amsterdam at the early age of 19, and is the author of several learned works.

1776. Charles Peter Colardeau, a French poet, died. He translated a part of Pope and Young with great spirit and elegance, and also wrote for the stage.

1780. Robert Watson, a Scottish historian, died; author of Philip III of Spain.

1785. First paper issued in Hudson, Columbia county, New York.

1786. The celebrated catacombs of Paris consecrated, with great solemnity. They lie under a part of the city which was undermined some centuries ago, to furnish stone for the ancient edifices of Paris, and at length became closed up. This cemetery had been used more than a thousand years by twenty parishes, and it is estimated that more than three millions of people had been inhumed within its inclosures. In process of time, as the city extended, palaces and churches were built over the subterranean caverns, and were in imminent danger of sinking into the pit below, before it was again discovered. The mighty city of Paris had until now but one burial place, where a pit was dug, and the bodies laid side by side, without any earth being put over them, till the first tier was full; then a thin layer of earth covered them, and another tier of dead came on; thus by layer upon layer, and dead upon dead, the hole was filled up. These pits were emptied every thirty or forty years to receive new tenants. The last grave digger, Francis Pontraci, had by his own register, in less than thirty years, inhumed more than 90,000 bodies in that ground. The great increase of burials rendered the cemetery still more inconvenient, and it was at last happily thought of converting the quarries under the city into a receptacle for the dead.

1788. The first settlement in Ohio began, at Marietta, by 47 persons from New England.

1789. Peter Camper, a Dutch physician and naturalist, died. He was distinguished for the extent of his knowledge. A splendid edition of his works was published in 6 vols. accompanied by 100 folio plates.

1789. Achmet IV, one of the most enlightened of the Turkish rulers, died. The first act of his successor Selim was the execution of the grand vizier, on the pretext that he had occasioned the loss of Oczakov.

1796. The British squadron under Warren captured 3 French brigs and 1 sloop, laden with provisions.

1797. Suspension of arms between Napoleon and the Archduke Charles.

1797. William Mason, an English poet, died. He was chaplain to the king till the American war, when his name was erased from the list in consequence of the sentiments he entertained in regard to the liberties of the subject.

1800. Action between the British ship Leviathan, admiral Duckworth, and the Spanish frigates Carmen and Florentia, 36 guns each, and 650 men, with 3000 quintals of quicksilver on board. The Spaniards were captured, together with 7 vessels under convoy.

1806. Alleghany county in western New York erected.

1807. Lalande (see April 4: by some authorities his death is put down on the 7th.)

1812. Capt. Agar, a celebrated English pedestrian, undertook to walk a distance of 59 miles in 8½ hours, for 200 guineas. He won the match 3 minutes within the time.

1812. Mrs. Bumby died at Ekring, England, aged 80; remarkable for a horn growing from her forehead in a spiral form to the length of nearly six inches.

1814. About 200 British marines and sailors landed at Saybrook, in Connecticut, spiked the cannon and destroyed several vessels, and escaped in the night to their shipping.

1817. The county of Tompkins in the state of New York erected.

1835. James Brown, an American statesman, died. He rose to a high rank at the bar, and was several years minister to France.

1836. William Godwin, an English novelist, and political and miscellaneous writer, died, aged 81. He commenced his career as a dissenting minister, which station he relinquished to gain a subsistence [140]by literature. His works are numerous, and acquired him much celebrity, though tinctured more or less with skepticism.

1844. Morgan Lewis, a distinguished American military officer and statesman, died at New York, aged 90. He served with fidelity under the colonial government, and with honor and gallantry in the war of the revolution, and in the war of 1812. He held various important civil offices from 1791 to 1810.

1849. Irvine Shubrick, an American naval officer, died. He had been thirty-five years in the service, and fought under Decatur and Downes. He commanded the expedition against the island of Sumatra in 1832, which captured Qualla Battoo, and broke up a horde of pirates who molested vessels there.

1850. James Emott, a distinguished member of the New York bar, died at Poughkeepsie, aged 80.

1854. All English and French vessels were ordered out of the port of Odessa.

1856. The steamship Adriatic, the largest vessel of the kind that had ever been built, was launched at New York.

APRIL 8.

431 B. C. A body of 300 Thebans surprised the town of Platæa, in Greece, in the dead of night, and were all destroyed or captured by the inhabitants.

46. Battle of Thassus, in Africa; Scipio and Juba defeated by Julius Cæsar.

217. Caracalla, the Roman emperor, assassinated at Edessa.

1341. Petrarch crowned with laurels at Rome, with great pomp. This distinction was awarded him on the appearance of his Latin poem entitled Africa, in which he celebrates Scipio, his favorite hero. This poem he considered his best, yet it was never finished. His reputation now rests as a poet, on his Italian poems.

1364. John I, king of France, died. He was taken by Edward III at the battle of Poictiers, and conducted to England, where he was retained in captivity four years. He returned from France in 1363, which he had visited on parole, and died at his palace in London, aged 45, after a reign of 14 years, which had been extremely calamitous to France.

1492. Lorenzo de Medicis, surnamed the Great, and the father of letters, died at Florence. He was a great merchant, and an eminent statesman; whose public services so recommended him to the Florentines that he was declared chief of the republic; and whose wisdom and judgment were so conspicuous, that foreign princes made him the arbiter of their differences.

1546. The council of Trent declared against the Lutheran system, and adopted the Latin or vulgate translation of the Bible by St. Jerome.

1663. The first play bill issued from Drury Lane theatre. The play was advertised to be acted "by his majesty's company of comedians," and was entitled the Hvmovrovs Lievtenant, and was to commence at three o'clock precisely.

1679. Bosia, a village near Piedmont, in Italy, suddenly sunk into the earth, by which about 200 persons perished.

1702. Thomas Gale, an English divine, died. Though engaged the best part of his life in active and laborious employments, he yet found much time to devote to literature and classical learning. His publications are numerous and display great ability.

1704. Job Ludolphus, a German linguist, died, aged 80. He was one of the most eminent orientalists of his time, and the first European who acquired the Ethiopic language, of which he published a grammar and dictionary, and a history of the country. He was well versed in twenty-five languages.

1704. Henry Sidney, earl of Romney, died. He was brother to the famous Algernon Sydney, and an accomplished statesman.

1731. Elizabeth Cromwell, grand-daughter of the lord protector of England, Oliver Cromwell, died at Bedford row in her 82d year.

1735. Francis Leopold Ragotzki, prince of Transylvania, died. He wrote an interesting memoir on the revolutions in Hungary.

1793. Edmund C. Genet, first minister from the French republic to the United States, arrived at Charleston. He was superseded by Fauchet at the request of Washington the next year.

1801. The French surrendered Rosetta, in Egypt, to the British troops under Col. Spencer.

1803. Louis Frederick Antoine Arbogast, a French mathematician, died. He was a member of the national convention, but appears not to have taken any active part in politics, his name appearing only to some report on scientific subjects. His works place his name high among the distinguished men of the day; his character was blameless.

1806. Herring, aged 60, and his wife, executed at Newgate, London, for coining money.

1808. County of Cortland in New York state erected.

1811. First law passed by the New York legislature respecting the Erie canal.

1812. Louisiana became a member of the United States confederacy.

[141]1821. Simon Assemanni, one of the most learned of Maronites in modern times, died at Padua, where he had long been a professor. His explanation of the Arabian antiquities is much esteemed.

1832. Robert Simson died at Montreal, aged 101. He was at the attack on Quebec under Wolfe.

1835. Mr. Clayton, an American æronaut, made an ascension at Cincinnati, which proved an extraordinary affair. The spot at which he came to the earth was on Stevenson's knob, a mountain in Virginia, 3000 feet above the level of the sea, and 350 miles from Cincinnati, which distance he was wafted in 9½ hours.

1835. William Von Humboldt, a distinguished philologist, died, near Berlin, Prussia. He was elder brother of the celebrated traveler of that name, and distinguished as a statesman and a scholar.

1838. John, a negro, drowned at Washington, aged 115.

1854. An explosion on the steam boat Gazelle, at Canemah, Oregon, destroyed the boat and killed 21 persons.

1854. A fire at Salonica, in Greece, destroyed 600 houses and warehouses.

1854. The Ganges canal, a work of vast magnitude, was opened by the lieutenant-governor of Agra, with great ceremony and a display of troops.

APRIL 9.

1483. Edward IV, of England, died. He disputed the crown with Henry VI and involved the kingdom in war and bloodshed, till the death of the latter, when he ascended the throne unmolested. He became a voluptuary, and died from excessive eating.

1483. Dr. Shaw, brother to the lord mayor of London, preached a sermon on the text "Bastard slips shall not thrive." It was not productive of many converts.

1547. Edward VI succeeded to the throne of England on the death of Henry VIII.

1589. Thomas Sampson, a noted English nonconformist divine, died. During the reign of Mary, he fled to Geneva, where he was engaged in the translation of the Genevan Bible.

1609. Hudson left the Texel on his memorable voyage of discovery, in the yacht "Halve Maan," of forty lasts (80 tons) burden; a size which easily admits the supposition that he ascended the river as far as Half-Moon, or Waterford.

1626. Francis Bacon, an English philosopher, died, aged 66. At the age of 13 he entered the university, where he made the most astonishing progress in all the sciences then taught, and at the age of 16 attacked the Aristotlean philosophy. He succeeded rapidly in office under government, and in 1619 was appointed lord high chancellor of England and baron of Verulam. Here, unfortunately, he sullied his name, and was fined, imprisoned and degraded, for bribery and corruption. This extraordinary man is justly entitled to the appellation of "the father of experimental philosophy."

1648. A great insurrection of the people of London by reason of the parliament abolishing holydays.

1670. Samuel Sorbierre, a French writer, died. He was educated for the protestant ministry, but abandoned that faith for popery, without much advantage to himself, as his sincerity was suspected. His literary reputation is also somewhat tarnished.

1697. William, earl of Craven, died in his 89th year. The nobility of England are famed for longevity.

1747. Simon Frazer, Lord Lovat, executed on Towerhill, aged 80. He was a Scottish statesman, educated among the Jesuits in France. His life was a scene of treachery and misdemeanor, which compelled him to fly from one country to another. Finally, joining the rebellion of 1745, he was seized and condemned, and died like a martyr.

1754. Christian Wolff, a Prussian philosopher, died. In consequence of a Latin oration on the Chinese, which gave offence to the clergy, he was expelled from the country; but the honors conferred upon him by other countries, led to his recall by the king, when his merits were duly rewarded, and his former injuries obliviated. His whole life was devoted to advance the interests of science and virtue.

1759. Nicholas Hardinge died, an eminent English scholar, and author of some Latin poems.

1761. William Law, an English dissenting divine, died. He is well known as the author of the Serious Call.

1780. Charleston invaded by the British land and naval forces under Sir Henry Clinton.

1790. Nicholas Sylvester Bergier, a French ecclesiastic, died. He is the author of several learned and valuable works. His talents and worth commanded preferments, until he declined any more, replying that he was rich enough!

1795. An act for the encouragement of common schools passed by the legislature of New York.

1796. A British squadron under Sir Edward Pellew captured a large French convoy, under the protection of La Volage, 26 guns, which was driven on shore.

[142]1804. James Necker, a Swiss statesman, died. He was sent as ambassador to France, where his abilities were so much respected, that he was twice elevated to the rank of prime minister. But the revolution destroyed his popularity, and he retired to Copet, where he died. He is the author of a work on the finances of France.

1807. John Opie, an eminent English painter, died. He was the son of a humble carpenter, and was drawn from obscurity by the patronage of Dr. Wolcott (alias Peter Pindar). He not only became an excellent artist, but also an admirable writer on the art.

1813. The Chesapeake frigate, Capt. Evans, returned to Boston from a cruise, having captured during an absence of four months, 2 British brigs and 1 ship, 1 American brig with a British license, and a schooner.

1831. Battle near Siedlce, in Poland, in which the Russians were defeated.

1854. The English and French vessels on the coast of Thessaly were directed to search all vessels suspected of having munitions of war on board, and to seize such as were so found.

1855. All the English and French batteries opened on Sebastopol, and continued incessantly through the night and following day. The Russian loss was acknowledged by Gortschakoff at 833 killed and wounded.

APRIL 10.

879. Louis II. of France, died. He is characterized as a weak prince, who had not sufficient firmness to maintain his rights.

1534. James Cartier sailed from France with two small ships and 122 men, with a view to the establishment of a colony. He arrived at Newfoundland in May, and named the gulf St. Lawrence, from his entering it on the day of that festival. He returned without effecting a settlement.

1563. The city of Goa in India introduced printing.

1599. Gabrielle d'Estrees, a mistress of Henry IV, died. She was descended from an illustrious house, and was 20 years of age when her beauty captivated the king. He procured a divorce from Margaret of Valois, in order to raise Gabrielle to the throne; but her sudden death, probably by poison, frustrated the plan, and plunged him in excessive grief. Her amiable disposition, gentleness of character and modesty, won her general favor, and she was universally lamented by the French.

1603. A couple of vessels, fitted out by the mayor and aldermen of Bristol, under the command of Martin Pring, to make discoveries on the north of Virginia, and collect sassafras, sailed for the American coast. The sassafras, which was greatly overrated for its medicinal virtues, formed a profitable article of traffic, and is still extensively exported to Great Britain. Of this, they procured a cargo near Bristol, Rhode Island.

1606. The colony of Virginia, as it was called, divided by the king into two colonies. Although 109 years had elapsed since the discovery of the country by the Cabots, in the service of Henry VII, the English had made no effectual settlement in the new world. Twenty years had elapsed since Walter Raleigh attempted the settlement of a colony in Virginia, but not an Englishman was now to be found in the country.

1630. William Herbert, earl of Pembroke, died. He was the son of the illustrious Mary Sidney, and united in himself the virtues of his mother with the manners and accomplishments of a scholar. He is the author of a volume of poems.

1651. Birthday of Ehrenfried Walter von Tschirnhausen, an ingenious Lusatian mathematician, and founder of the celebrated Dresden porcelain manufactory. He also constructed, about the year 1687, an extraordinary burning mirror.

1653. Oliver Cromwell, having turned out the long parliament, locked the doors upon them.

1703. Andrew Morel, a Swiss antiquary died. He was a diligent and curious collector of medals, and in a work published in 1683 promised to give a description of twenty thousand medals, exactly designed. A part of this great work appeared after his death, in two vols., folio, describing 3,539.

1728. Robert Woodcock, an eminent English musician and composer, died. He also excelled as a painter of sea pieces.

1736. Francis Eugene, prince of Savoy, died, aged 73. He was born at Paris, and destined for the church, against his own inclinations. He applied to the king for a company of dragoons, and on being refused, entered the Austrian service. His first campaign was in capacity of a volunteer against the Turks; where he acquitted himself with so much distinction, that he was appointed to the command of a company of dragoons. He finally rose step by step to the rank of commander in chief of the Austrian army, and achieved a succession of brilliant victories and enterprises in Europe, which humbled the arms of the French, and rendered his name immortal in the annals of fame. His successful campaign in conjunction with [143]the duke of Marlborough, rendered him so popular in England, that a maiden lady bequeathed him £2500, and a gardener £100. [By some authorities, 21st.]

1741. Battle of Molwitz, between the Prussians and Austrians. The latter were defeated with the loss of 7000 men and 180 officers. The Prussians took 1200 prisoners; their loss was 1500 killed, and 3000 wounded.

1752. William Cheselden, an eminent English surgeon and anatomist, died. He acquired great professional reputation, and published several popular works. He was the first foreigner admitted into the French royal academy of surgery.

1756. Joseph Vaissette, a French ecclesiastic, died. He published a History of Languedoc, and a Universal Geography.

1774. John Saas, a French canon and librarian, died. He wrote an abridgment of the French Historical Dictionary, and other works.

1786. John Byron, the English admiral, died. He enjoys a high and merited reputation for courage and professional skill.

1794. The islands of the Saints, in the West Indies, captured by the British.

1795. Action between the British ship Astrea, Capt. Pawlet, and French ship La Glorie, 24 guns: the latter was captured.

1796. Battle of Montenotte, which was attacked by the Austrians under Beaulieu, and defended by the French under Rampon, with such desperate resistance that Bonaparte had time to come up and obtain a victory, taking 2000 prisoners.

1797. Miss Farren, the actress, took leave of the stage, after the performance of her part in the School for Scandal, to marry the earl of Derby.

1798. Bernadotte, the French ambassador at Vienna, in obedience to the Directory, displayed the tri-colored flag at his lodgings; but the populace in a rage tore it down. Not receiving the satisfaction he desired, he left the court.

1806. Horatio Gates, a distinguished officer in the revolutionary war, died. He came over from England as a soldier, and at the defeat of Braddock, 1755, was shot through the body. He joined the American army in 1775, and in 1777 captured Burgoyne. He was afterwards defeated by Cornwallis, at Camden. In 1790 he liberated his slaves in Virginia, and removed to New York, where he died.

1813. Von Berger and Fink executed at Oldenberg, Germany. When the Russians approached the town, the French magistrates fled, leaving a committee of regency of which the above were members. This committee were summoned before a court martial, at which Vandamme presided, and these two excellent men were unjustly condemned to death, although their accuser had only proposed their imprisonment.

1813. Joseph Louis Lagrange, a Sardinian mathematician, died. He went to Paris 1787, where he met with great favor, and under Bonaparte was invested with honors and dignities. His chief work is the Méchanique Analitique.

1814. Battle of Toulouse, at which the French under Soult were defeated by Wellington.

1816. The bank of the United States incorporated by act of congress, with a capital of $35,000,000.

1818. John Cleves Symmes, "of Ohio, late captain of infantry," promulgated "to all the world," his theory that the earth is hollow, containing a number of solid concentric spheres, one within the other, and that it is open at the poles 12 or 16 degrees. His theory amused the world for a number of years.

1823. Charles Leonard Reinhold, an Austrian philosopher, died. He was sent to study with the Jesuits, whose order was abolished while he was a student. In 1787 he settled at Jena, which owes much of its reputation to him, and in 1797 at Kiel, where he died. His works are numerous.

1835. Jacob Schmuck, a distinguished officer in the war of 1812 with England, died. He was a native of Pennsylvania, died at St. Augustine.

1842. John Sutherland, commonly called Killyman, died at Merigonisbe, aged 116. He was born in the last year of the reign of George I, and consequently lived under all the sovereigns of the house of Hanover, six in number. He emigrated to Nova Scotia about 1822, and continued to wear the kilt to the end of his life, declaring that he would never disgrace his country by adopting a foreign garb.

1856. The Americans under Lieut. Green attacked 200 Costa Ricans, killed 27 of them and dispersed the rest. American loss 1 killed and 2 wounded.

1856. A company of 208 men left New York to join Gen. Walker in Nicaragua.

APRIL 11.

52 B. C. Trial of Milo for the murder of Clodius, in the consulship of Pompey. All the unwashed industry of the city was crammed within the forum on that momentous day; but neither Cato's candid ballot, nor the splendid labors of Tully, were sufficient to save the tyrant-killer; so that he was banished to Marseilles, and his estate confiscated.

44 B. C. Marc Antony recorded in the [144]senate a decree of Julius Cæsar, on behalf of the Jews, made thirty-four days before his assassination. The decree is addressed to the senate of Paros, who had forbidden the Delian Jews to worship in the manner of their forefathers.

1415. Pierre Plaont, bishop of Senlis, died. A large quarto Bible fairly written on vellum was presented by him to the House of the Sarbonne for the use of the poor, valued at £15.

1447. Henry Beaufort, brother of Henry IV of England, died. He held the highest ecclesiastical and civil offices in England, under the king; was created cardinal and pope's legate in Germany; and is characterized as proud, haughty and ambitious.

1512. Battle of Ravenna, in Italy, between the Spanish and papal troops, and the French under the brave Gaston de Foix. The French were victorious, with the loss of their general, who was killed in endeavoring to cut off the retreat of the Spaniards. He was but 24 years of age.

1544. Battle of Cerisoles, between the imperialists under the marquis del Geasto, and the French, count de Enguin, who obtained the victory. The marquis was wounded, and 10,000 of his men slain; his tents, baggage and artillery, and many prisoners taken.

1555. Thos. Wyatt beheaded; acquitting with his last breath the princess Elizabeth and the earl of Devonshire.

1585. Gregory XIII, (Hugh Buoncompagno), pope of Rome, died, aged 83. He was an able pontiff, and has rendered his name immortal by the reformation of the calendar, and the adoption of the style which bears his name. This plan, necessary and useful, was long pertinaciously rejected by the protestants, and not adopted by them generally till about two centuries after, and not yet by Russia.

1644. The parliamentary forces under the two Fairfaxes victorious at Selby; 1600 common soldiers, 2000 stand of arms and 500 horses, the result. The parliament ordered a day of thanksgiving.

1669. Clifford, Arlington, Bucks, Ashley, Lauderdale, constituted the cabinet council of Charles II. From the initials of their names, this was called the king's cabal.

1713. The celebrated peace of Utrecht concluded, and with it the twelve years' war for the throne of Spain, in which the principal powers of Europe had been engaged, at a vast expense of life and treasure.

1733. The sheriffs of London and eminent merchants in 200 carriages, went to the house of parliament with a petition against the excise bill, then pending.

1737. Philip Hecquet, a French physician, died. He is the original of the immortal Sangrado of Gil Blas. He was a man of great simplicity of diet, and a friend to bleeding and the use of warm water at proper times, whence the caricature. He published several medical works.

1758. The wooden bridge over the Thames at London was burned down.

1766. Above 100 convicts left Newgate, in London, for the American colonies. They passed along with music playing before them.

1786. The first commencement of Columbia college, New York, when, the papers of the day say, "the public with equal surprise and pleasure, received the first fruits of reviving learning, after a lamented interval of many years."

1798. Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, the last king of Poland, died. He was elected to the throne in 1764 under the influence of Russian bayonets; was an elegant and accomplished gentleman, with good intentions, but without the energy and firmness of purpose necessary to sustain a tottering throne, and bridle a licentious nobility. The three great robbers, Russia, Prussia and Austria, divided his kingdom between them, and he retired to private life at St. Petersburgh, on a pension, where he died.

1799. Battle of Ledjars, in Syria; the French under Kleber defeated the Turkish and Arabian army, consisting of 4000 cavalry and 5000 foot, and compelled them to retreat across the river Jordan.

1801. Anthony de Rivarol, a French author, died. He was a man of great acquirements, and associated with the learned men of France before the revolution.

1804. James Thomas died in Tatnal county, Georgia, aged 134.

1805. Treaty signed between Great Britain and Russia, the basis of the anti-Gallican alliance.

1808. British order in council encouraging evasions of the United States embargo law.

1812. Four British barges taken in Hampton roads by the frigate Constellation and revenue cutter Jefferson; prisoners 80.

1814. Napoleon subscribed the treaty of abdication at Paris. On the same day the white banner was advanced by lord Wellington on the ramparts of Toulouse.

1816. Act of the British parliament regulating the intercourse with St. Helena during Bonaparte's confinement there. It legalized the detention of the fallen emperor as a prisoner of war during the king's pleasure; British subjects aiding or assisting him to escape, to suffer death.

[145]1817. William Beloe, an English divine and critic, died. He is principally known as the translator of Herodotus and Aulus Gellius, though his works are numerous and highly creditable.

1817. At Dartmoor, England, a man sold his wife in the market place. She stood as in olden times, with a rope round her neck. Her first lover was the purchaser at the price of two guineas.

1823. County of Wayne erected in western New York.

1824. Jean Baptiste Drouet, who arrested Louis XVI in his flight, and was expelled from France as a regicide, died under the assumed name of Meyer, at Macon in France.

1829. The catholic relief bill passed the house of peers, in the British parliament after much discussion.

1832. Raffaele Morghen, a celebrated Italian engraver, died at Florence, aged 72.

1833. Rowland Hill, an able and eccentric preacher, died, aged 89. He usually spent a considerable part of the summer in visiting various parts of England, preaching in churches of every denomination that would admit of his services, and occasionally to large assemblies in the open air. He preached for the last time to an immense audience, but three days before his death.

1837. Kirk Boott died at Lowell. He was a native of Boston, and received an excellent education, partly in England; went to Spain, and joined the British army as an officer under Wellington; spent two years at the military school at Woolwich, Eng.; on his return to Boston he engaged in mercantile pursuits, and subsequently was called to superintend the erection of manufacturing establishments at Lowell, where, by his enterprise, energy and extraordinary talent, his name became identified with the prosperity of that new and flourishing city.

1840. Alexander Nasmith, the father of the Scottish school of landscape painting, an eminent artist, and author of numerous productions, died at Edinburgh, aged 83.

1844. James Stewart, commonly known as Jimmey Strength, died in England, aged 116. He was born at Charleston, S. C., 1728, and at the age of 20 enlisted as a soldier—was at the battle of Quebec and Bunker's Hill. He had five wives and 27 children. Ten of his sons were killed in battle. His strength was remarkable. During the last 60 years of his life he traveled the borders as a wandering minstrel, scraping upon a wretched violin.

1854. One of the college buildings of the Indiana University was destroyed by fire; it contained a library of 2700 volumes.

1854. The emperor Nicholas issued a manifesto to all his Russian subjects, stating the object of the war with Turkey and the allied powers.

1855. Broussa, in Asia Minor, again visited by an earthquake, and the wooden buildings in the place were mostly destroyed by fire.

1856. The great bridge over the Mississippi at Rock Island completed, and locomotives passed from the Illinois to the Iowa side.

1856. Battle of Rivas; General Walker, with 400 Americans and 300 natives, attacked the Costa Ricans, numbering 3000 men, who after a long contest left the city. The latter acknowledged a loss of 200 killed and 400 wounded; Walker's loss, 80 killed and disabled, including almost all of his official staff.

APRIL 12.

205 B. C. The shrine of the potent goddess Cybele received at Rome from Pessinus, and deposited in the temple of Victory; Scipio Africanus and Crassus Dives, consuls. This was done in pursuance of an oracle in the sybilline books, which affirmed that if a foreign enemy invaded Italy, they might be vanquished by introducing the goddess Cybele into the capital.

65. Lucius Annæus Seneca, the Roman philosopher, destroyed himself by order of Nero. He was born in the first year of the Christian era, received a careful education, and became a disciple of the stoic school of philosophy. He was the tutor of Nero, who, listening to the calumnies of his enemies, had him accused of treason and condemned. He professed a contempt for luxuries, but was not indifferent to wealth, for he acquired an immense estate. His Morals have often been republished in English.

276. Marcos Claudius Tacitus, emperor of Rome, died, at Tyana upon Saurus. He claimed descent from Tacitus the historian, was a wise, benevolent and patriotic ruler, and had reigned but six months when he was snatched away by assassination or some violent disease.

1204. Siege of Constantinople by the French and Venitian crusaders. In the pillage which followed the conquest of this superb city, all the admirable monuments of Grecian art were demolished, including a colossal Hercules, by Lysippus. This deed by Christians is a great offset to the wanton depredations upon works of art of which the Turks and pagans are so often accused.

[146]1443. Henry Chicheley, archbishop of Canterbury, died. His talents fitted him for the office; and the office enabled him to exercise his benevolence and charity with munificence. He founded the college of All Souls.

1520. Francis Alvares, a Portuguese priest, arrived at the court of David, king of Abyssinia, where he remained six years, and on his return published an account of his embassy.

1549. Joan of Kent, an anabaptist, condemned to be burned.

1646. Francis de Bassompierre, marshal of France, died. He was one of the most distinguished and the most amiable men of the court of Henry IV. Incurring the displeasure or the jealousy of Cardinal Richelieu, he was sent to the Bastile, where he remained 12 years, until the death of the cardinal. He wrote his own memoirs and a history of his embassies, while in prison.

1655. Francis Guyet, an eminent French critic, died. He employed many years in traveling and study, and finally settled in Paris, where he became so much esteemed that he might have risen to the highest honors, had he not preferred retirement.

1678. Thomas Stanley, a learned English writer, died, aged 34. He published a History of Philosophy, containing the lives and opinions of philosophers, of every sect, a work of great merit and popularity, and which was translated into Latin for the use of the German literati.

1695. Votes of the assembly of New York first published.

1695. John Kittlewell, an English divine, died. He acquired great reputation previous to the revolution, but refusing to take the oath of allegiance after that event, was deprived of his living, and devoted his time to writing.

1704. James Benignus Bossuet, bishop of Meaux, in France, died. He distinguished himself as a preacher and a writer of great erudition. His works were published in 12 vols. quarto.

1709. First number of the Tatler appeared.

1734. Thomas Fautet de Lagny died at Paris. His mathematical efforts and researches were directed more to subjects of curiosity than utility. He carried the quadrature of the circle to 120 decimal places.

1743. George Cheyne, a Scottish physician, died. He was studious and abstemious in his youth, but on coming to London, cultivated the society of free livers for the advantages of trade! till he became at length extremely asthmatic, lethargic, listless, and corpulent, exceeding 32 stone in weight. Finding the power of medicine unavailing, he returned to a milk and vegetable diet, and recovered his strength, activity and cheerfulness, with the free and perfect use of his faculties; and by a regular observance of this regimen, reached the mature age of 72. His writings are numerous, and principally on health and longevity.

1749. British ships Namur, 74 guns, 700 men; Pembroke, 60 guns, 400 men; Apollo, 40 guns, 300 men; and a great many merchantmen, lost on the coast of Coromandel; 23 men only saved from the Namur.

1749. Francis Bellenger, a learned doctor of the Sarbonne, died at Paris. He translated some of the ancient historians, and wrote criticisms on Rollin's works, to show his ignorance of Greek.

1757. Subsidiary treaty between England and Prussia; England to pay annually 4,000,000 crowns to Frederick II.

1765. Edward Young, the English poet, died, aged 84. He was educated for the church, but was unfortunately induced to abandon it for politics, in which he was unsuccessful. His Night Thoughts had their origin in a melancholy state of mind, produced by his misfortunes.

1770. George III gave his assent to the act for repealing the duties on glass, paper and colors, in America; but the duty was continued from a point of honor, and as a badge of sovereignty over the colonies.

1780. The British opened their fire upon the American batteries at Charleston, which they continued until the 20th.

1782. Pietro Metastasio, an Italian poet, died. He supplied the opera for a number of years with popular operas and oratorios. He has been styled the poet of love. In all his works he stands high; in his operas he is unrivaled.

1782. The French fleet under count de Grasse defeated by the British under Rodney, with the loss of 9,000 killed and wounded. A French 74 gun ship was blown up, and one of the same rate sunk; two 74's, one 64, and the Ville de Paris, of 110 guns, having on board the French admiral, were taken. Thirty-six chests of money, the whole train of artillery, battering cannon, and traveling carriages, were on board the captured vessels—a circumstance which totally disabled the French from carrying on offensive operations against the British possessions in the West Indies. British loss 1,050 killed and wounded. A new system of tactics for breaking through the line of an enemy was here made use of for the first time. It was invented by John Clerk, of Eldin, a country gentleman, unacquainted with navigation. His principles have since been applied by all the English admirals, and Howe, St. [147]Vincent, Duncan and Nelson, owe to them their most signal victories.

1782. Action off Ceylon, between the French under Admiral Suffrein, and the British under Hughes. British loss, 144 killed and 400 wounded.

1784. Joseph Raulin, an eminent French physician, died. He was induced by Montesquieu to remove to Paris, where he acquired great reputation, and was employed by government to write medical works.

1788. The first power loom began to work at Philadelphia, and on the first of November following the quantity of cloths manufactured was 3,719 yards jean, 580 corduroys, 67 federal rib, 57 beaver fustian, 3,672 plain cottons, 123 birdseye, and 2,879 linen; total 11,197, besides the quantity then in the looms.

1800. Frederick Conrad Hornemann, a celebrated German teacher, who had undertaken a journey into Africa for discovery, wrote that he was on the point of setting out with the great caravan of Bornou, since which nothing certain has been learned of him.

1804. Joseph Dacre Carlyle, an English orientalist, died. He devoted much attention to the study of Arabic, traveled in the east, and on his return was employed in the publication of the Bible in Arabic, when his constitution gave way under the task imposed upon it.

1809. The French fleet in Basque roads destroyed by the British under Admiral Cochran. The British lost but 10 killed and about 40 wounded. The loss of the French in vessels and men was tremendous.

1810. The French captured the East India company's settlement at Tapanooly, in Sumatra.

1814. Count d'Artois, brother of Louis XVI, entered Paris; Bonaparte set off for the island of Elba; intercourse between France and England opened; and a grand illumination in London, on account of the restoration of the Bourbons, and peace with France, which was continued three days.

1814. Charles Burney, an English musical composer, died. He commenced the study of music as an organist. At the age of 31 he undertook to write a General History of Music, upon which he bestowed nearly 40 years of labor and travel. He visited all the institutions of Europe at which he could obtain important information for his work. He furnished the musical articles for Rees' Encyclopedia, and is the author of several other valuable works.

1815. Great eruption of Tomboro, which commenced on the 5th. The explosions resembled the firing of cannon, and were heard at Sumatra, not nearer than 900 miles. Such were the tremendous effects of the burning lava, the overflowing of the sea, the falling of houses, and the violence of the whirlwind, that out of 12,000 inhabitants on this island, only 26 survived. At Java, 300 miles distant, the air was so full of ashes, as to produce profound darkness at mid-day; and at Bima, 40 miles distant, the roofs of many houses were crushed by the weight of ashes falling on them.

1816. Hamilton county in northern New York erected.

1829. Felix Neff, a Swiss preacher, died. He undertook to improve the education and domestic habits of the peasants of the dreary regions called the High Alps of France. He persevered a number of years with much success; but his unremitting labors destroyed his constitution, and led to a premature death.

1834. N. G. Dufief, a French linguist, died. His mother was distinguished for her heroism in the Vendean war; and the son was driven to America by political disturbances, and resided at Philadelphia. He just survived the publication of his great work, the Pronouncing Dictionary.

1839. John Galt, the novelist, died at Greenock, Scotland, aged 60. Being unsuccessful in business in London, he visited the south of Europe in 1809, and soon after commenced an active literary career, which continued till near the close of his life.

1839. The justly celebrated Dr. Black, of Mareschall college, Aberdeen, Dr. Keith so well known as a writer on prophecy, with the devoted Messrs. McCheyne and Bonar of the Scottish church, sailed from Dover in England to inquire into and devise measures for the amelioration of the state of the Jews in Palestine. This mission proved of much benefit.

1840. Francis Anthony, chevalier de Gerstner, a distinguished Austrian engineer, died at Philadelphia, aged 44. He commenced at his own risk, the first rail road on the continent of Europe, from Budweis on the Moldau, to Lintz on the Danube, 130 miles. He suggested to the emperor Nicholas the project of a rail road from St. Petersburg to Moscow, a portion of which was undertaken under his direction, and first opened in 1837, and since prosecuted by the government.

1848. New code of New York laws adopted.

1849. Signor Gasparis, at Naples, discovered a new planet, making the fourth added to our system in four years.

1850. Adoniram Judson, a celebrated baptist missionary died at sea.

1854. A review of 25,000 troops in Paris, before the British officers.

[148]1854. The French squadron under Admiral Parseval-Deschenes, sailed from Brest to join the British fleet in the Baltic.

1855. The United States gave the twelve months' notice to Denmark of their intention to terminate the treaty of 1826, by which the payment of sound dues was recognized.

APRIL 13.

58 B. C. Julius Cæsar finished his famous wall of entrenchment, 16 feet in height and 17 miles in length, from Geneva to St. Claude; being a labor of only 6 days.

1436. Paris surrendered to the French under Charles VII, having been almost 14 years in the possession of the English.

1517. Cairo taken by the Turks under Selim, after a gallant resistance, and 50,000 of its inhabitants barbarously massacred. The sultan was hanged on one of the gates, Egypt was reduced to a province, and the power of the Mamelukes crushed, who for more than 260 years had swayed the land.

1584. An expedition fitted out by Sir Walter Raleigh took possession of Wowoken, on the coast of America, since called Virginia. A colony was left there, but they were cut off by the Indians, and every one put to death.

1598. Henry IV of France published at Nantes the memorable edict of toleration; it was revoked 1685, by Louis XIV.

1605. Boris Godoonoff, czar of Moscow, died. He was called to the throne by acclamation, on the death of Fedor, the last of the dynasty of Ruric. In abilities and vigor of character, he resembled Peter the great; and might be called one of the greatest of princes, was not his name tarnished by a crime that led his way to the throne.

1638. Henry, duke of Rohan, a French warrior and historian, died. He signalized himself under Henry IV, both in the field and in the cabinet, but the jealousy of Richelieu drove him to Geneva. He joined the duke of Saxe Weimar against the imperialists, and was wounded in the battle, of which he died.

1640. The English parliament again met by royal mandate, after a refusal on the part of the king to call one for 12 years.

1641. Richard Montague, a learned English prelate, died. He published several controversial works.

1684. Nicolao Antonio, a Spanish author, died. He published an account of all the Spanish writers, in 4 vols. folio, entitled Bibliotheca Hispania. He spent his income, which was large, in acts of charity, and in collecting a library, which at his death, amounted to 30,000 volumes.

1686. Antonio de Solis, a Spanish author of note, died, aged 76. He was appointed historiographer of the Indies, and wrote the Conquest of Mexico, on which his fame as an author principally rests.

1699. Birthday of Maria Catharina Walter, in Germany. She died in Philadelphia, 1802, aged over 103, having lived in three centuries.

1722. Charles Leslie, an Irish theologian, died. He was a magistrate under James II, and respected for his talents and integrity. His writings were numerous, and sought for with avidity.

1726. Velasco Y. Palomino, a highly admired Spanish painter, died at Madrid.

1742. Oliver Reylof died at Ghent, eminent as a Latin poet.

1743. Christopher Pitt, an English poet, died. His translation of Virgil's Æneid is said to be superior to Dryden's.

1759. George Frederick Handel, the illustrious German musical composer, died at London, aged 75. His grand oratorio, the Messiah, appeared in 1741.

1759. Battle of Bergen, in which the duke of Broglio defeated the allies under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, who lost 2,000 men and the Hanoverian prince Ysemberg.

1777. Battle of Boundbrook, New Jersey, in which 500 Americans under Gen. Lincoln were attacked by 2000 British under Cornwallis, and effected a retreat with the loss of 60.

1782. Third action off Ceylon, between the British under Admiral Hughes, and the French under Suffrein; latter defeated.

1787. Board of regents of the university of the state of New York established.

1788. Great riot in New York, occasioned by the imprudent manner in which the physicians procured subjects from the burying grounds; several lives lost.

1794. Peter Gaspard Chaumette, a French revolutionist, executed. He was the son of a cobbler, displayed great courage at the taking of the Bastile, and became one of the most sanguinary and reckless characters of the time, till his career was arrested by the guillotine.

1795. Riots in England on account of the high prices of food.

1796. Battle in the defiles of Millesimo, Italy, in which the French under Augereau and Joubert defeated the imperialists, who retreated to the mountains of Cossaria.

1799. Schaffhausen, on the Rhine in Switzerland, taken by the imperialists.

1801. The canal at Alexandria, Egypt, cut by the British, and the country inundated.

1804. Makey, a Malay settlement on the coast of Sumatra, destroyed by the British.

[149]1807. Robert Heron, an erudite and popular writer, died. By unwearied industry he raised himself from an obscure to a prominent situation in society.

1813. Battle of Castilla, in Spain; the British under Sir John Murray, defeated the French under Suchet.

1815. The bill for the construction of the Erie canal from the Hudson river to lake Erie, passed the house of assembly, 84 to 15.

1818. Thomas Hatchcock died in Richmond county, North Carolina, aged 125, leaving a son aged 93 and another 16, and a great progeny besides.

1827. Hugh Clapperton, a Scottish traveler, died. He was employed by the British to explore the interior of Africa, and died at Sackatoo, on his second journey thither.

1832. Shadrach Bond, first governor of Illinois, died at Kaskaskia.

1839. Robert Hillhouse, an English poet, died. He was a stocking-weaver of Nottingham, and had no advantages of education but such as were afforded by Sunday schools. His works "will insure his celebrity as a poet of no mean grade."

1850. Pope Pius IX returned to Rome.

1853. William R. King, vice-president of the United States, died. He was for many years a diplomat abroad, and his career furnished a remarkable instance of the eminent and deserved success of probity, fidelity, industry, gentlemanly spirit and bearing, and inflexible honor.

1855. Henry Thomas de la Beche, an eminent English geologist, died, aged 59. He was the author of many geological works, and director-general of the geological survey of the united kingdom, and was knighted in 1848, in recognition of his valued and long-continued services.

1856. Philadelphia visited by a tornado, 150 houses unroofed.

APRIL 14.

979. Ethelred II, crowned at Kingston by the famous Dunstan, then archbishop of Canterbury. This was the first king in England who took a coronation oath, and the first it is said to institute trial by jury. In this reign priests were forbidden to marry.

1040. Harold I (Harefoot), king of England, died. He was succeeded by his brother Hardicanute, whose first act was to order the body of Harold to be dug up and thrown into the Thames.

1293. Naval engagement in the British channel, between the French and English fleets, by mutual agreement, with the whole of their respective forces. The English, under Edward I, were victorious, carrying off more than 250 sail of their opponents.

1293. The mariners of Portsmouth and the Cinque Ports captured the Norman fleet, of 200 ships, off Brittany, and massacred the crews.

1322. Fitz-Simeon and Hugh the illuminator, two friars of Dublin, commenced their pilgrimage to the holy sepulchre.

1345. Richard Aungerville, an English scholar and statesman, died; better known as Richard de Bury. He may be classed as the first bibliomaniac upon record in England. He purchased thirty or forty volumes of the Abbot of St. Albans, for fifty pounds weight of silver; and so enamored was he of his collection, which became very large for that period, that he expressly composed a treatise on the love of books, entitled Philobiblon.

1471. Battle of Barnet, between Edward IV and the great earl of Warwick, in which the latter was defeated and slain, together with his brother and 10,000 men. Margaret (the queen of Henry VI, who was confined in the tower,) landed from France on the same day with troops, only to hear the tidings of the disaster which had befallen her cause.

1558. Marriage of the dauphin of France with Mary Stuart, queen of Scots, to whom he had been affianced ten years.

1619. John van Oldenbarneveldt, a statesman in the time of Elizabeth, beheaded for his praiseworthy attempts to limit the power of the stadtholder Maurice, which were construed into crimes. His noble lady, who witnessed his death without emotion, was afterwards solicitous for the pardon of a son, telling the astonished Maurice that she did not ask pardon for her husband for he was innocent, but she entreated for her son for he was guilty.

1662. William Fiennes, Lord Say and Sele, died. He was a troublesome subject under Charles I and Cromwell; but became tractable under Charles II (as he had been under James I), and was promoted, instead of others who had been more devoted to the royal cause.

1685. Thomas Otway, an English dramatist, died. His tragedy of Venice Preserved still keeps the stage; and though his pieces were generally successful, he died at a public house (where he had secreted himself from his creditors) in a state of great destitution, at the early age of 34.

1707. Battle of Almanza, in which the combined English and Portuguese armies were totally defeated by the French and Spaniards under the duke of Berwick, with the loss of 5,000 killed and wounded, and 10,000 prisoners.

1711. Louis, the dauphin of France, died of smallpox, aged 50.

[150]1743. Thomas Rundle, a learned English prelate, died. He was the intimate friend of the learned and polite of his age. A volume of his letters has been published.

1760. Louis Silvester, an eminent French painter, died. He was ennobled by the king of Poland.

1769. John Gilbert Cooper, an English miscellaneous writer, died. He was a man of wealth, who made literature his amusement. His works, original and translated, are lively and elegant.

1780. Battle of Monk's Corner in South Carolina; the American cavalry surprised and defeated by Tarleton.

1783. Michael Francis Dandre-Bardon, a French painter, died. He was professor in the academy of painting, and admired for his historical writings.

1785. William Whitehead, an English poet, died. His principal works are the Roman Father and Creusa, dramas, which were received with great applause.

1793. Action between the British ship Phæton and French privateer Dumourier, with a Spanish prize in tow. The prize was taken; her cargo was valued at £1,300,000, and £935,000 was adjudged salvage for her recapture.

1793. John Baptist Gobel, a French bishop, guillotined. He took an active part in the revolution, abjured religion, and was condemned by Robespierre for atheism, and executed.

1795. A cargo of boards arrived at Newburyport, the first arrival through the locks and canals on Merrimack river—an expensive project of inland navigation, which was the best then in vogue.

1796. Battle of Millesimo, Italy; the French under Napoleon defeated the Austrians and Sardinians, who lost 2,500 killed, about 8,000 prisoners, and 22 cannon.

1801. Lemuel Hopkins, a Connecticut physician and poet, died. He was singular in his appearance and habits, but possessed great skill and assiduity in his profession; and as a man of learning and a poet entitled to more fame than is awarded him.

1803. John F. Hamtramck, an officer of the revolution, died at Detroit, where he was stationed as colonel of the first regiment of United States infantry, and commandant of Detroit and its dependencies. He served during the whole war of the revolution, with such distinguished merit as to receive the particular approbation of Washington.

1809. Beilby Porteus, bishop of London, died. His talents and acquirements procured him honors and wealth; and his writings will perpetuate his name.

1814. Congress repealed the embargo law of Dec, 1813.

1855. The office of the Industrial Luminary in Parkville, Missouri, was broken into, and ransacked, and the press thrown into the Missouri river, and the editors ordered to leave the state. The mob voted that no person belonging to the northern methodist church should preach in Platte county under "the penalty of tar and feathers for the first offence, and a hemp rope for the second."

APRIL 15.

1491 B. C. The Israelites arrived at the wilderness of Sin, on the 15th of Jiar, just a month after their departure from Ramasses.

43 B. C. First battle of Mutina, the modern Modena, in which Marc Antony was repulsed by the two consuls Hirtius and Pansa, assisted by Octavius Cæsar. Pansa died of the wounds he received in this conflict, and Hirtius was slain after he had achieved a second and more decisive victory.

1053. Godwin, earl of Kent, died. He was a powerful Saxon baron, who distinguished himself under Canute in the war with Sweden.

1205. Baldwin I, emperor of Constantinople, defeated by Joannices, king of the Bulgarians, and taken prisoner.

1415. Emanuel Chrysoloras, a learned Greek, died. He was employed by John Palæologus as ambassador to different courts of Europe, where he acquitted himself with honor.

1513. The English fleet under sir Edward Howard defeated off Brest by the French.

1521. The faculty of divines of the university of Paris, after many meetings held in the Sorbonne, drew up a censure of the heresies of Luther, which was solemnly proclaimed in a general assembly on this day.

1558. A volcano burst out near a spring in the isle of Palma, one of the Canaries.

1570. William Alley, bishop of Exeter, died. During the reign of Mary he retired, and kept a school and practiced physic, in order to avoid persecution; but on the accession of Elizabeth he was promoted. He wrote the Poor Man's Library, and other works.

1611. Richard Mulcaster, a celebrated scholar and English writer, died at Stanford Rivers, where he was rector.

1632. George Calvert, lord Baltimore, died. He was a learned, amiable and accomplished man, who resigned his offices under James I on embracing the catholic faith. The king, however, raised him to the Irish peerage of Baltimore. He obtained a grant for a plantation in Newfoundland; but the invasions of the French [151]obliged him to abandon it, after he had spent £25,000 in its settlement. In the place of it, he received a territory on the continent, now known as the state of Maryland.

1642. Battle of Killrush in Ireland, in which the Roman catholic army was signally defeated by the duke of Ormond.

1659. Simon Dach, a German poet, died. He lived in a humble condition until he was appointed professor of poetry in the university of Konigsberg. His secular songs are said to be lively and natural; his sacred songs distinguished for deep and quiet feeling.

1670. John Daillie, a distinguished French protestant divine, died. His works evince great learning and judgment, and excited much interest.

1697. Charles XI of Sweden died. He was successful in war, and respected as a just prince.

1702. The proprietaries of East and West Jersey surrendered the government to queen Anne, after which it continued under one government, called New Jersey.

1715. The Yamasses, a powerful tribe of Indians in South Carolina, having meditated the extirpation of the English settlements in that state, fell upon Pocataligo and the neighboring plantations, and massacred all who fell into their hands.

1719. Frances d'Aubigne, madame de Maintenon, a celebrated French lady, died. From a state of want and dependence she rose to be the wife of the king of France, though not publicly married. Her exemplary life and extensive charity after that event, made amends for many errors committed in reaching the height of her ambition.

1720. Luke Melbourne, an English divine, died. He was a prose and poetical writer of considerable ability, and his name is frequently introduced by Dryden and Pope in their works.

1754. The first theatre opened in Philadelphia, at the west corner of Cedar and Vernon streets, with the Fair Penitent and Miss in her Teens.

1755. The counters of the bank of England were broken down by the crowd in their eagerness to obtain lottery tickets.

1756. James Cassini, a French astronomer, died. He succeeded his father as astronomer royal, and made many important discoveries.

1758. The strong fortress of Schweidnitz, in Prussia, taken by assault, by the Prussians, and count Theirhaimb with 5,000 Austrians surrendered.

1761. James Cawthorne, an English poet, died. His poems were collected and published quarto, in 1771.

1761. William Oldys, a famous English antiquary, died. He was well versed in English antiquities, a correct writer and a good historian.

1764. Jane Antoinette Poisson, marchioness de Pompadour, died. She was the favorite of the licentious Louis XV. The patronage she extended to literature and the arts in some degree atoned for the follies she committed.

1764. Archibald Laidlie, having accepted a call from the reformed protestant Dutch church in New York, preached the first English sermon before that congregation.

1768. The populace at Peterborough, England, demolished a house that had been opened for the inoculation for small pox. The pretence was to prevent the spreading of a new disease.

1776. James Granger, a learned and ingenious English divine, died. He is the author of a valuable Biographical History of England, 4 vols, quarto.

1777. A party of 100 Indians attacked the settlement of Boonesborough, in Kentucky, and killed 4 of colonel Boone's men.

1777. Congress resolved that no distinction be made between the troops, and that the titles of Congress's Own Regiment, Washington's Life Guards, &c., be abolished.

1777. British picket near Bonumtown, N. J., stormed by a detachment under captain Patterson.

1786. Andrew Wilson executed at Edinburgh. This execution occasioned the subsequent Porteous mob.

1788. Mary Delany, an ingenious Irish lady, died, aged 88. She corresponded with some of the learned men of the day; but is chiefly known by an ingenious Flora which she commenced at the age of 74, and labored at with taste and assiduity nearly ten years, when her sight began to fail her. It was constructed of paper, cut and painted to resemble nature, with great accuracy of form and color.

1791. The first corner stone in the district of Columbia was laid at Jones's point, near Alexandria, with the imposing masonic ceremonies of the time, and a quaint address by Rev. James Muir. By the retrocession of Alexandria, a little more than fifty years after, the corner stone was no longer within the district.

1793. Forster Powell, the celebrated English pedestrian, died, aged 59. His favorite walk was from the monument in London to the cathedral in York and back again, a distance of 340 miles, in less than six days.

1793. Philibert Francis Rouxelle de Blanchelande executed; distinguished in the American war, and at the taking of Tobago.

[152]1796. Second battle of Dego, Italy. The Austrians under Beaulieu surprised the French and carried the village. Massena, who attempted to stop their progress, was repulsed; Bonaparte with Victor and Lannes finally succeeded in driving them out.

1813. Alexander Murray, a Scottish linguist, died. His History of European Languages, which was published after his death, is a work of great research and merit. His application hastened his death, which took place at the early age of 37.

1816. A brick-red snow fell on Tonal and other mountains in Italy.

1817. The memorable law upon which the system of internal improvement of the state of New York is based, passed the legislature.

1820. John Bell, an eminent surgeon of Edinburgh, died at Rome. He is well known for his valuable works on surgery and anatomy.

1825. Henry Fuseli, a Swiss painter, died. He was induced to visit England, where he distinguished himself.

1828. Michofsky, a Russian farmer, died at Pleskow, in the government of Novogorod, aged 165. He led a very sober life, though occasionally he partook of ardent spirits. He never ate meat more than twice a week. At 120 he still labored in the field. His mother lived to the age of 117, and one of his sisters 112, but his father died at 52.

1834. Aylet Hawes, a distinguished philanthropist, died in Culpepper county, Virginia. He manumitted his slaves, 110 in number, and provided for their removal to Liberia.

1840. James Browne, a Scottish author, died at Edinburgh; a man distinguished for his learning and research, for several years editor of the Caledonian Mercury, and a writer of valuable articles in the Encyclopedia Britannica, particularly on grammar, history, biography, &c.

1843. Charles Bulfinch, an eminent American architect, died in Boston, Mass. The state house at Boston and the capitol at Washington were built after his designs.

1846. At an eruption of mount Hecla the pillars of fire rose from a new crater to the height of 14,000 feet. The ice and snow which had covered the mountain for many centuries were wholly melted, and pieces of scoriæ weighing 200 pounds were thrown a league and a half.

1852. Alexander Mackay, an English political economist and reformer, died, aged 33. He was many years connected with the Morning Chronicle newspaper; traveled in the United States in 1846-7, and published his observations in three volumes, under the title of Western World.

1854. James Moore died at Metrechin, N. J., aged 100. His death was occasioned by a fall, before which he was accustomed to walk 12 miles a day.

1854. The steam boat Secretary, while crossing San Pablo bay, from San Francisco to Petaluma, burst her boiler, by which the boat was blown to pieces, and more than 50 persons perished.

1856. An affray occurred at Panama between the passengers of the American transit company and the natives, in which 30 passengers were killed and 20 wounded.

APRIL 16.

29 B. C. Octavius Cæsar entered Rome and celebrated the grand triple triumph of nine days, for his victories at Dalmatia, at Actium and Alexandria, and shut the gates of the temple of Janus Quirinus the second time. This is also the anniversary of his being saluted Emperor. The city at this time was 50 miles in circumference, containing 4,000,000 inhabitants, and the annual revenue of the state amounted to about $180,000,000,000!

66. The massacre and crucifixion of 3600 Jews took place at Jerusalem, on the 16th Artemisius, (Jiar) under the procuratorship of Gessius Horus.

1546. Paul III excommunicated the bishop of Cologne for heresy in countenancing Lutheranism. The bishop resigned rather than expose his people to the miseries of war.

1548. Evening prayer began to be read in English in king Edward VI's chapel.

1551. A pestilence broke out at Shrewsbury, in England. It reached London in July, and the weekly mortality was upwards of 700. It ravaged the eastern and northern parts of the kingdom till September, when it stopped suddenly.

1564. Birthday of William Shakspeare, at Stratford-upon-Avon.

1629. The lord treasurer's warrant issued, giving liberty for 60 women and maids, 26 children, and 300 men, with victuals, arms, apparel and tools, 140 cattle, some horses, sheep and goats, to go to America. They sailed in 6 ships, and landed at Naumkeak, in Massachusetts, now Salem, a name which was chosen in place of the aboriginal one, as expressive of the peaceful asylum they found in the American wilderness.

1634. Of seven sailors left by the Dutch on the coast of Greenland, for the purpose of establishing a wintering place, the first one died. These sailors were amply supplied with every article of clothing, provisions and utensils thought necessary or useful in such a situation. A journal was [153]kept by them, by which it appears that on the ninth October they began to make a constant fire to sit by; and soon after it was remarked that they experienced a considerable change in their bodies, with giddiness in their heads. At the time of the death of this man, they were all disabled but one person. This poor wretch continued the journal till the last day of April, when they were praying for a speedy release from their miseries. On the return of their countrymen in the spring, they were all found dead. (See Jan. 14th for a similar event.)

1639. William Kieft having become governor of New Netherland, took the affidavit of sundry persons to the effect that under the administration of his predecessor the public interests had been neglected, and the fortifications allowed to go to decay.

1644. William Brewster, one of the leading members of the Plymouth colony, died. He possessed a large property in England, which he lost in escaping from ecclesiastical tyranny, and supported himself in Holland by teaching a school.

1662. Three of the judges who condemned Charles I, namely Miles Corbet, John Ohey and John Barstead, were arrested in Holland, and sent to England for execution.

1681. The province of New Jersey offered for sale, at about $25,000. An original letter is still in existence, from the earl of Bath to lord Norbury, since sold by auction as a curious manuscript, containing a proposal for the sale, in which it is represented as "a country almost as large as England, belonging to the late George Carteret."

1689. Aphara Behn (alias Astrea) an English authoress, died. At Surinam, where her family resided, she became acquainted with the African prince Oroonooko, on whose story she founded a novel, which Southey has dramatized. Her works consist of novels, poems and 17 plays.

1743. Cornelius Van Bynkershoek, an eminent Dutch lawyer, died. He published several law works, which display great talents and research, and is characterized as "one of the most learned among modern civilians."

1746. Battle of Culloden, which terminated the Scottish rebellion. The forces of the pretender were defeated, with the loss of 1,200 slain, by the English under the duke of Cumberland, second son of George II, and the pretender himself compelled to flee to France.

1781. Naval action in the harbor of St. Jago, Cape de Verde, between the British fleet under Johnstone, and the French under admiral Suffrein, in which the latter were compelled to retire with considerable loss.

1788. George Louis Leclerc, count de Buffon, died. He was the greatest naturalist of the 18th century. His Natural History, to which he devoted fifty years of his life, was published in 36 vols. and opened a new science to the world.

1796. Samuel Pinnock, a negro, died at Kingston, Jamaica, aged 125.

1796. Battle of Cera; the entrenched Piedmontese camp attacked by the French under Augereau and Joubert; the former fought all day, and then evacuated their camp.

1799. Battle of Esdrelon and Mount Tabor; the Syrian army defeated by Bonaparte, with the loss of 5,000 men.

1811. A plantation at Port-Royal mountains, Jamaica, on which were about thirty acres of coffee, sunk down and disappeared, so that only the ridge of the house was discernible.

1812. Hugh White, founder of Whitestown, near Utica, New York, died.

1813. Part of the British squadron anchored off Petapsco river, within sight of Baltimore.

1814. Charles Philip, count d'Artois, declared the Capetan, or French monarchy, to be re-established.

1820. Arthur Young, a celebrated English agriculturist, died. He traveled extensively in Great Britain and on the continent with a view to the improvement of husbandry. Besides his works on agriculture he published his tours.

1823. William Aspinwall, an American physician, died, aged 80. He was a surgeon in the revolutionary army, and was famous for his skill in the treatment of smallpox. He erected hospitals, where he received patients to be inoculated for the disease; but on becoming convinced of the efficacy of vaccination, he closed them.

1830. Earthquake in Central America; several towns destroyed.

1831. National congress of Belgium dissolved.

1832. Muzio Clementino, the father of pianoforte music, died in England. He was born at Rome, 1752, and practiced in his profession as a musician with great applause in the principal cities of Europe.

1840. William Pitts, an eminent sculptor, died at London, aged 50.

1847. John Burnham, aged 93, and his wife, Mehitable, aged 90, died in Essex, Mass., and were buried in one grave. Two days previous Benjamin Burnham, aged 92, died at the same place. They were the three oldest inhabitants of that town.

1854. The city of San Salvador was wholly destroyed by an earthquake, causing the loss, in less than one minute, of[154]more than 200 lives, and four millions worth of property.

1854. The ship Powhatan, from Havre for New York, having on board 311 emigrants, went ashore in a gale on Long Beach, near Egg Harbor, was totally wrecked, and not a single passenger was saved.

1856. Thacher Magoun, a noted American ship builder, died, aged 81. He laid the first keel of a ship at Midford, Mass., in 1802, and during half a century built a fleet.

APRIL 17.

1013. Abdullah, a Moorish historian, was killed at the taking of Cordova, his native city.

1421. An inundation of the rivers at Dort, in Holland, which swept away 100,000 persons, and destroyed 72 villages.

1434. The ice broke up at Paris, which had continued from the first of January. Snow fell in Holland forty days successively during the same winter.

1492. The Spanish sovereigns, Ferdinand and Isabella, signed at Granada their grant to Columbus, constituting him hereditary admiral and viceroy over all the islands and continents he should discover during his expedition, with the benefit of a tithe of the profits arising from the merchandise found within his admiralty.

1537. The river Simeto, in Sicily, overflowed its banks, and destroyed 500 houses with the neighboring castles, and all the wood was uprooted by a storm.

1575. William Davenant, a learned German, died. He was the friend and confidant of the leaders of the reformation, as well as of every man of learning and consequence of the age. His works are numerous.

1610. Henry Hudson sailed on his last voyage.

1613. A "prodigious monster" born at Adlington, England, with two bodies joined to one back. It was described by a reverend gentleman, in a pamphlet entitled Strange News.

1670. Eric Daniel Achrelius, a Swedish philosopher and professor at Abo, died, aged 66.

1688. George Villiers, duke of Buckingham, died. He distinguished himself as a statesman, a poet and dramatic writer; but his character both in public and private life was extremely reprehensible.

1697. Charles XI, king of Sweden, died; successful as a warrior and accounted a just prince.

1704. The Boston News Letter, the first newspaper printed in the North American colonies, was commenced at Boston, by John Campbell, who was a bookseller and postmaster, and printed by B. Green.

1711. Joseph I, 15th emperor of Austria, died. He was crowned king of Hungary, 1687; elected king of the Romans, 1690, and succeeded to the empire of Germany, 1705.

1761. Benjamin Hoadley, bishop of Winchester, died, aged 85. He was a great controversialist, and started a question which occupied the press a number of years. His works comprise 4 volumes folio.

1765. Lord Byron convicted before the house of peers in London of manslaughter in slaying Mr. Chaworth in a duel. Being a privileged peer, burning in the hand was dispensed with, and he was discharged on the payment of fees.

1770. Great illumination of the city of London, on account of the liberation of the celebrated politician, Mr. Wilkes, from prison.

1777. Henry Woodward, a celebrated English comedian and harlequin, died, aged 60. His death was occasioned by an accident as he was jumping upon a table in the character of Scrub!

1780. Engagement between the British fleet under Rodney, and the French, admiral De Guichen, in the West Indies. The French took shelter under Guadaloupe, where the British were too much crippled to follow.

1784. Universal religious equality created by law in New York.

1790. Benjamin Franklin, the American printer, statesman and philosopher, died. He was born at Boston, 1706, and went to Philadelphia at an early age, where he spent the remainder of his life. His public career is well known; his private life, written by himself, is full of counsel, and cautions, and examples of prudence and economy, and is the largest work he ever composed.

1794. The Russians expelled from Warsaw by the Poles.

1796. The French convention decreed that all printers of journals should be personally liable for the contents of their papers, as well as the hawkers, sellers and posters of periodical papers.

1816. An act for improving the internal navigation of the state of New York, embracing the Erie and Champlain canals, became a law. Stephen Van Rensselaer, De Witt Clinton, Samuel Young, Joseph Ellison, and Myron Holley, were created commissioners, and seventy thousand dollars appropriated to the purpose.

1817. Seven Luddites hanged at Leicester, England. Luddites was a name given to malcontents who went about destroying labor-saving machinery.

[155]1830. Navigation of the Black sea opened to American vessels.

1834. Ivan Petrovitch Martos, died; formerly director of the academy of fine arts at St. Petersburg, and one of the most eminent sculptors of the age. His works are found in the principal cities of Russia.

1835. William Henry Ireland died. He rendered himself notorious by an attempt to impose on society some dramatic compositions of his own, as relics of those of Shakspeare. He confessed himself the author, and fully exonerated his father who had been implicated in the fraud.

1837. Joseph Anderson, an American statesman, died at Washington, aged 80. He was a native of Pennsylvania, and served in the New Jersey line throughout the revolutionary war.

1837. Henry Vose died at Woodville, Mississippi, of small pox. He was distinguished at the West Point school as a proficient in mathematics, and was subsequently connected with the press in Mississippi, to which he contributed extensively in geography, statistics and history.

1837. United States sloop of war Natchez captured a Mexican brig of war, after having made a formal demand upon the Mexican authorities to release six American vessels which had been illegally captured.

1838. John Reilay died at Troy, aged 104.

1843. Alexander Proudfit, pastor of the Associate reformed church at Salem, Washington co., N. Y., and secretary of the New York Colonization society, died, aged 75.

1849. The steamer General Pike burnt on the Mississippi, when Col. Butler of Texas, with several others, perished in the flames.

1850. James Thom, the sculptor, died at New York.

1852. Etienne Maurice Gerard died in Paris, aged 74. He entered the army in 1791, and was engaged in the battles of Fleurus and Austerlitz, and in those of the disastrous Russian campaign; became a marshal and peer of France, and twice held the place of minister of war.

1854. Riot at Saginaw, Michigan; some 300 armed men attempted to burn the jail, and rescue certain prisoners. The sheriff and others were killed.

1854. The Winchester, an emigrant ship from Liverpool for Boston, was wrecked, and a large number of passengers lost.

1855. A new planet of the eleventh magnitude was discovered by Luther, at the observatory of Bilk, near Dusseldorf.

1855. Petropaulowski deserted by its inhabitants, and its fortifications destroyed, and what stores could not be removed were burned.

1856. The peace conference at Paris terminated, for the settlement of the war in the Crimea between Russia on the one side, and England, France and Turkey on the other.

APRIL 18.

515 B. C. The Jewish passover, a festival in commemoration of the destruction of the first born of the Egyptians, while the houses of the Jews were spared, was celebrated in the new temple.

1551. Nicholas Udall obtains a patent to print the works of Peter Martyr and the English Bible.

1552. John Leland, styled the father of antiquaries, died in London. He applied himself to his favorite pursuit with so much ardor as to impair his reason. He was the most accomplished writer of the age.

1556. Lewis Alemanni, a Florentine statesman, died. He was at the head of the faction that sought to expel the Medici; but finding himself unable to keep his popularity, he fled to France, where he was employed as a diplomatist.

1587. John Fox, the martyrologist, died, aged 70. His attention was early turned to the reformation, and he studied the early writers with so much devotion that his seclusion and frequent absence from church excited the persecution of his enemies, and occasioned him a great deal of misfortune.

1593. Shakspeare's poem of Venus Adonis entered in the books at Stationer's Hall.

1610. Robert Parsons, an English Jesuit, died at Rome. His abilities procured him the patronage of the pope, and he was employed in educating missionaries to convert protestants in England. He possessed the elements of turbulence and intrigue to a great extent, but his operations were entirely unsuccessful.

1630. Manors in America created.

1640. Peter Kirstenius, a German physician, died at Upsal. He applied himself with great assiduity to literature and science, acquired 26 languages, and published among other things an Arabic grammar.

1676. Sudbury, Mass., attacked by the Narragansetts. Several houses and barns were burnt, and a small party who had hastened from Concord to their relief were intercepted and cut off. Another party of 50, sent from Boston for the relief of Marlborough, which the Indians had totally destroyed the day before, went in pursuit of the enemy, were drawn into an ambush and suddenly surrounded by a body of 500. The gallant leader and his brave band fought with desperate valor to the last [156]man: but they fell a prey to the numbers, the artifice, and the bravery of their enemies. The Indians lost about 120.

1689. Sir Edmund Andros, governor of Massachusetts, seized and imprisoned by the people, and the old magistrates reinstated. This revolution was brought about after the colonists had borne the impositions of the new administration about three years, on the circulation of a rumor that a massacre was intended by the governor's guards.

1689. George Jeffreys, baron Wem, the infamous lord chancellor under James II, died. He was never formally admitted to the bar, yet continued to practice unrestrained until he attained the highest employments in the law. He was one of the advisers and promoters of all the oppressive and arbitrary measures of the reign of James II, till the revolution transferred him to the tower, where he died.

1710. Alexander Lainez, a French poet, died. His pieces possess great vivacity and elegance.

1710. Four Indian chiefs from eastern New England and Canada, arrived at London and were carried in the royal coaches to their audience with the queen.

1768. Madame Bontems, a French poetess, died at Paris. She was respected for her wit and knowledge; she published a translation of Thompson's Seasons.

1781. British evacuated Camden, S. C., after burning the jail, mill, several houses, the greater part of their baggage and stores, and a large quantity of private stores. They left 31 American and 58 British soldiers, and 3 officers, all too badly wounded to be removed.

1782. Naval action between the French and British fleets, in which Rodney of England defeated and took prisoner Count de Grasse of France.

1791. Louis XVI and the royal family arrested by the populace, while on their way to St. Cloud, and compelled to return to Paris.

1794. Charles Pratt, earl of Camden, died, aged 80. He was an eminent English statesman and judge, and particularly distinguished himself by his animation and eloquence in parliament.

1794. Jean Joseph de Laborde, a wealthy French merchant, guillotined. At the breaking out of the American revolution, he alone furnished the government with twelve million livres in gold at Brest, which enabled the expedition under Rochambeau to set sail. He sustained an admirable character and bestowed immense sums for charitable and benevolent objects. He fell a sacrifice to the fury of the revolution, at the age of 70, for no offence but that of being rich.

1796. Sidney Smith was taken prisoner on the French coast, and sent strongly guarded to Paris.

1797. Austria made peace with France, ceding the Netherlands, free navigation of the Rhine, &c., to France.

1802. Erasmus Darwin, an English poet, died. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, and first appeared before the world as a poet in 1781, by the publication of the Botanical Garden. He has left behind him the character of an able man of great eccentricity. His publications tended to materialism, and although popular for a time, have nearly fallen into oblivion.

1831. John Abernethy, an eminent English surgeon, died. During his studies he was remarkable rather for the oddity of his conversation and manners, than for any indications of genius; and passed by the name of the ostler, on account of his attending the lectures in the dress of a groom. His medical and surgical works are numerous, and his eccentricity was proverbial.

1838. Enactment of the New York general banking law.

1842. Charles Bell, a distinguished medical author, and brother to the anatomist, John Bell, died at Edinburgh.

1847. The American army carried the heights of Cero Gordo with much loss, but took many prisoners.

APRIL 19.

481 B. C. An eclipse of the sun noticed by Herodotus.

1110. Robert, abbot of Molesme, founder of the Cistersians, died. The Cistersian monks allotted several hours of the day to copying books, or sacred studies and manual labor. (See March 28, 1134.)

1390. Robert II, of Scotland, died, aged 84. He was the first of the house of Stuart who reigned, and was crowned in 1371. On the accession of Richard II of England a war commenced which continued during the greater part of his reign.

1529. The elector of Saxony, marquis of Brandenburg, landgrave of Hesse, dukes of Lunenburg, prince of Anhalt, together with 14 imperial cities, entered a solemn protest against the decree of the diet of Spires condemning their nonconformity to the Romish church by abolishing the mass, &c., declaring the decree unjust and impious. Hence they were distinguished by the name of protestants.

1560. Philip Melanchthon, a celebrated German divine, died. He was a coadjutor with Luther in the reformation, and one of the wisest and greatest men of his age.

1593. Giles Bays died; a celebrated Parisian printer, and the first after Ramas [157]to make a distinction between j & i and u & v in printing.

1598. Henry IV of France published the memorable edict of Nantes, by which protestantism was tolerated in his dominions.

1608. Thomas Sackville, an English statesman and poet, died. He distinguished himself as a writer by the tragedy of Gorboduc, the first regular play on the English stage. As a statesman he has left a fair character.

1618. Thomas Bastard died, a poet and preacher of England, of considerable learning and ability.

1669. George Bate, an English physician, died. He had the talent and address to keep his situation as court physician to Charles I, Cromwell and Charles II. He wrote an account of the civil wars in Latin.

1684. The Synod of Edinburgh changed the year of confirmation for children from 8 to 16 years.

1689. Christina, queen of Sweden, died. She resigned the sceptre, 1654, became a catholic, and resided at Rome. She was a woman of great abilities and learning, and corresponded with the learned men of the day in different languages.

1689. The toleration act, so famous among dissenters and others in England, was passed.

1710. The 5 Mohawk chiefs, who were taken to England by Col. Schuyler, attended an audience of great state with the queen, and made a speech.

1739. Nicholas Saunderson, an English mathematician, died. He lost his sight from smallpox, at the age of one year; notwithstanding which he acquired a knowledge of Greek and Latin, pursued his studies with the assistance of friends, and was sent to Cambridge University, where he became acquainted with Newton, and was finally chosen professor of mathematics. His eminence in the science of certainties has rarely been equaled.

1747. Thomas Coxeter, an English antiquary, died. He was a faithful and industrious collector of old English literature, amassed materials for a biography of the English poets, and assisted Ames in his History of English Typography.

1751. John Banks, an English author, died. He was originally a weaver's apprentice.

1751. La Caille arrived at the cape of Good Hope, for the purpose of observing the southern hemisphere. He remained there three years, during which period he determined the exact position of ten thousand stars, and fixed the situation of the isles of France and Bourbon.

1765. While at dinner with his family at Redriffe, in England, a blacksmith was killed by a cannon ball projected from an old cannon thrown into a neighboring furnace for fusion.

1775. Battle of Lexington, which commenced the revolutionary war. About 800 British grenadiers and light infantry, proceeding to destroy the military stores at Concord, fell in with about 70 militia, upon whom they fired and killed 8. The British proceeded to Concord, where they partially effected their purpose, but were compelled to retreat before the gathering provincials, although reinforced by 900 men and 2 pieces of cannon. In this excursion the British lost 65 killed, 180 wounded, and 28 prisoners. The provincials lost 88 killed, wounded and missing.

1779. Col. Van Schaick marched from fort Schuyler and destroyed Onondaga, N. Y., killed 12 Indians, took 34 prisoners, together with a large quantity of stores, arms, horses, &c. He returned without losing a man.

1782. Holland acknowledged the independence of the United States.

1783. Cessation of hostilities was proclaimed in the American army, just eight years from the day on which the war commenced. The loss of lives to the Americans during this war was estimated at 70,000 men, vast numbers of whom died on board of prison ships; not less than 11,000 died in the Jersey prison ship alone.

1787. Dr. Herschel observed three lunar volcanoes.

1791. Richard Price, an eminent English divine, died; celebrated for his great abilities in arithmetical calculations, and for very numerous and valuable writings, theological, political and scientific.

1797. Battle of Diersheim, between the Austrians under the veteran Gen. Kray, and the French under Hoche, &c. The former were defeated with the loss of 4000 prisoners, and all their cannon, baggage, ammunition, &c.

1797. The French under Moreau defeated the Austrians and entered Kehl. The Austrians fled, abandoning everything to the enemy.

1813. Benjamin Rush, a distinguished American physician and statesman, died. He was a member of Congress in 1776, and a signer of the declaration of independence. Few men have been greater ornaments to the country, and very few have acquired greater reputation both at home and abroad.

1824. George Gordon, lord Byron, died aged 36. At the age of 19 he published a volume of his juvenile poems, which were the precursors of some of the rarest productions which the language affords. [158]His career was marked by singularities and dissipation. Having embarked in the struggle of the Greeks for liberty, he was attacked by fever and died at Missolonghi.

1833. James Gambier, a British admiral died. He commanded the fleet which took possession of the Danish navy in 1807. He was characterized by great piety and benevolence.

1837. M. Ancillon, a Prussian minister, died at Berlin, aged 70; eminent as a statesman, philosopher and publicist.

1839. Aaron Ogden, an American statesman and patriot, died. He served as an officer during the whole of the revolutionary war; after which he practiced law for many years with great reputation, and held important civil offices.

1854. John Davis, a Massachusetts statesman of great ability, died, aged 67.

1856. Thomas Rogers, a noted manufacturer of cotton machinery, died in New York, aged 64. He early turned his attention to the construction of iron work and machinery for rail roads, and in 1835 began the manufacture of locomotives, in the construction of which he became greatly distinguished.

APRIL 20.

69. Marcus Salvius Otho, emperor of Rome, died. He ascended the throne after the murder of Galba and Piso, and three months after, being defeated by Vitellus, killed himself, rather than fall into the hands of the conqueror.

332. Battle of Mæsia, in which Constantine defeated the Goths under Alaric, and compelled them to recross the Danube.

1314. Clement V (Bertrand de Goth), pope of Rome, died. He was a Frenchman, bishop of Bordeaux, elected pope, 1305; was accused of licentiousness and extravagance.

1534. Elizabeth Barton (the Holy Maid of Kent), and several other persons, hanged at Tyburn, and their heads set up in several parts of London, for practicing an imposture.

1558 (or 9). John Bugenhagen, a learned coadjutor of Martin Luther in translating the scriptures, and author of commentaries thereon, died.

1566. John Mason, an English statesman, died. He rose from obscurity to places of honor under Henry VIII, and maintained his influence at court under Edward, Mary and Elizabeth.

1579. A man named Hammond was burnt in a ditch at Norwich, England, for the crime of obstinate heresy, as charged by the bishop of Norwich.

1626. St. Salvadore, capital of Brazil, surrendered by the Dutch to the Portuguese.

1657. Naval battle in the harbor of St. Cruz, Teneriffe, in which Admiral Blake attacked and destroyed the Spanish fleet of 16 ships, under the protection of the batteries on shore. This was his last and greatest achievement.

1708. Damaris Masham, a learned English lady, died. She was an authoress, and deservedly respected, not only for her learning, but for every virtue.

1718. James Petiver, an English botanist, died. He collected a valuable museum, and wrote several works on botany.

1743. French seigniories on Lake Champlain.

1750. John Lewis Petit, a celebrated French surgeon, died. He was invited to visit the king of Poland, and afterwards went to Spain to attend on Ferdinand. He invented some valuable surgical instruments, and published several works on surgery.

1775. General Putnam joined the patriot band at Concord, having rode his horse about 100 miles in 18 hours.

1777. First constitution of New York state adopted.

1792. French declared war against Francis I, as king of Hungary and Bohemia.

1795. Treaty between the French convention and the Chouans.

1798. Jenkins, known in London as the tall clerk, died. His outer coffin measured 8 feet. He was buried under the floors of the banking house which covered a part of St. Christopher's burying ground. £200 had been offered for his body.

1798. Engagement between the British ship Mars, 74 guns, Capt. A. Hood, and French ship L'Hercule, 74 guns, and 700 men. The British captured the Frenchman, but with the loss of Capt. Hood killed.

1809. Battle of Abensburgh; the Austrian army defeated by Napoleon, who took about 10,000 prisoners and 40 cannon. This defeat broke the lines of the Austrians, and exposed them to farther misfortunes.

1810. Great fire at Constantinople, 8,000 houses burnt.

1812. George Clinton, vice-president of the United States, died. He was a member of the colonial assembly at the breaking out of the revolution, when he received the appointment of brigadier-general. He was selected governor of New York five times.

1813. The advance of the British and Indians appeared before Fort Meigs.

1821. Frederick Charles Achard, a Prussian naturalist and chemist, died. He is principally known as the inventor of a process of manufacturing sugar from beets, which has since been brought to great perfection.

[159]1835. Samuel Slater, "father of the cotton manufacturing business in the United States," died. The first cotton manufactory in this country was built by him at Pawtucket, R. I.; it was standing and in operation at the time of his death.

1838. A meteoric shower observed at Knoxville, Tenn.; 154 meteors being counted by two observers between the hours of 10 at night and 4 in the morning.

George Nugent, general and field-marshal, died in England at the age of ninety-two. He was the oldest field officer in service, having entered it in 1773. He served throughout the American revolutionary war, and was employed in the expedition up the Hudson for the relief of Burgoyne's army. He was also present at the capture of Forts Clinton and Montgomery.

1842. Bertrand Cassel, who for a time was a resident of the United States, and during that period was sentenced to death by the French government, died at Toulouse.

1845. William Read, a member of Gen. Washington's staff, died at Charleston, S. C., aged 91.

1847. Battle of Cherubusco.

1854. An offensive and defensive alliance was signed between Austria and Prussia.

1854. The bill of Miss Dix, the philanthropist, granting ten millions of acres of the public lands to be distributed among the states, to ameliorate the condition of the indigent insane, was vetoed by the president.

1856. Robert L. Stevens died at Hoboken, N. J., aged 68. He devoted much time to the improvement of steam machinery and steam boat models; was one of the projectors of the Camden and Amboy rail road, and at the time of his death was engaged by government in building an immense steam battery for harbor defence.

APRIL 21.

753 B. C. Anniversary of the foundation of Rome, in the 3d year of the 6th olympiad, 431 years after the destruction of Troy, and 116 years from the building of Carthage. Romulus was in his 17th year when he received the regal title, and his subjects consisted of a legion of 3,000 foot and 300 horse.

753 B. C. Remus, the brother of Romulus, slain by the workmen who were building Rome, for ridiculing the weakness of the walls. Thus marked with blood at the outset, the city became the sanctuary of refugees and criminals, and to increase the population, neighboring females were dragged within its boundaries.

323 B. C. Diogenes, the cynic, died at Corinth, aged 90. He was expelled from his native city, Synope, for coining false money. His smart sayings and repartees were taken for wisdom, and his misanthropy and residence in a tub for philosophy! He snarled at the follies of men—wherein he differed from two other great philosophers, one of whom laughed at, the other wept for, the foibles of the world.

248. The thousandth anniversary of the foundation of Rome celebrated, in the reign of the emperor Philip, when Pompey's famous theatre was burnt.

1073. Alexander II, pope, died. He possessed one Christian virtue, that was charity for the Jews, whom he protected from murder and rapine.

1109. Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, died. He was no sooner invested with the robes, than he began a quarrel with the king, in which he was worsted. He was a haughty prelate, and the first who insisted on the celibacy of his clergy in England. He was canonized under Henry VII.

1143. Peter Abelard, a learned Frenchman, died. His love and misfortunes have saved his memory from oblivion; and the man whom his own century have admired as a profound divine, is now celebrated as the martyr of love. The letters of Abelard and Heloise are frequently republished, and there is a voluminous life of the lovers by Berington.

1284. Alfonzo X (the wise), king of Castile and Leon, died. He was a man of great learning, and was the first king who had the public documents written in Spanish, which he did with a view to polish and enrich the language. His son usurped the throne, and it was with the greatest difficulty that he got it back again, by calling in the troops of the Moors; and the excommunication of the pope.

1480. William Caxton, the first English printer, finished the translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses, as we learn from his own memorandum, as follows: "Ouyde his booke of Metamorphose Translated and fynnysshed by me William Caxton at Westmestre the xxii day of Apryll, the yere of our lord m.iiijc.iiijxx. And the xx yere of the Regne Kynge Edward the fourthe." This work is not known to have been printed, but there are several fragments of the work preserved in manuscript.

1519. The armament under Cortez arrived on the coast of Chalchiucuechan, a part of the Mexican empire.

1526. Battle of Paniput, in Hindostan, between Ibrahim Lodi, sultan of Delhi, and the Tartar prince Raber. Ibrahim was defeated and killed, which decided the conquest of Hindostan by the Tartars.

[160]1545. The mines of Potosi opened. They were discovered by an Indian peasant, while hunting. A shrub which he had laid hold of to support himself, was torn up by the roots, and disclosed to the hunter a rich mass of silver. The population of the city increased so rapidly that in 1611, a little more than half a century afterwards, there were 160,000 inhabitants, but in 1826 they had decreased to 12,000. There are at present less than 100 mines worked, and these conducted with great ignorance and disadvantage.

1671. Anthony Godeau, a French divine, died. He was one of the first and brightest ornaments of the academy of belles-lettres, an active and attentive prelate, and exemplary in every part of his conduct. He wrote a valuable Ecclesiastical History, 3 vols. folio.

1679. The council of 30 constituted by Charles II. They consisted of 15 whigs and 15 tories—chosen by their property to balance the commons, the former valued at £300,000, that of the latter at £400,000.

1696. Brigadier Ambrose Rockwood with two others, convicted at Tyburn for high treason and executed on the 29th. They were the first prisoners having the benefit of council, &c.

1718. Philip de la Hire, a French mathematician, died, aged 78. He is characterized as a great and good man whose days were employed in study, and his nights frequently in astronomical observations. His scientific pursuits were various, and his works numerous and valuable.

1757. Battle of Reichenberg, in Bohemia; the Prussians under Schwerin defeated the Austrians under Count Konigseg. Austrian loss 1,000 killed, 400 prisoners; Prussian loss, 100 killed and wounded.

1765. David Mallet, a Scotch poet, died. His name is familiar as an author, although his place is not very high on the roll of fame; there is no species of composition in which he was eminent.

1770. Marriage of Louis XVI and Maria Antoinette, archduchess of Austria; when 4,000 persons perished in the crowd that assembled to witness the procession.

1773. Ali Bey, governor of Egypt, died. He was the son of a Greek sold by a band of robbers to the Janisaries, who raised him to power; and was finally enabled to throw off his obedience to the Porte. He was humane and generous, and possessed an elevated mind.

1794. Guadaloupe and its dependencies, Marigalante and Deseada, surrendered to the British.

1809. Battle of Landshut, in Bavaria, when Napoleon following up his victory of the previous day, attacked the Austrian army and defeated it. The Austrians lost 30 pieces of cannon, 9,000 prisoners, baggage, &c., and retreated to concentrate their forces at Eckmuhl.

1818. New York state library established.

1836. Battle of San Jacinto, in Texas, between the Mexicans, 1,500, under Santa Anna, and the Texans, 783, under Gen. Houston. The Mexicans were defeated, with the loss of 630 killed, 208 wounded, and 730 prisoners, among whom were Santa Anna and Gen. Cos; also 600 muskets, 390 sabres, 260 pistols, several hundred horses, and $12,000 in specie, fell into the hands of the victors, who lost 2 killed, 23 wounded.

1843. Augustus Frederick, duke of Sussex, died in London. He was an untiring patron of the deserving aspirants in any art.

1844. Henry Baldwin, one of the judges of the United States supreme court, died at Philadelphia.

1853. Lewis C. Beck, noted for his attainments in natural science, died at Albany, aged 53. He published works on botany and chemistry, and one on the mineralogy of New York.

1855. A riot broke out at Chicago, occasioned by the license question; the military were called out.

APRIL 22.

1369. Corner stone of the bastile, (a name used to denote a fortress or prison,) laid at Paris, by Hugues d'Aubriot, provost des marchands, and the founder of the Huguenots. It was not completed till 1383. It was demolished 1789.

1509. Henry VII of England died. The victory of Bosworth field and the death of Richard III left him in peaceable possession of the throne. He was an able and wise king, but insatiably covetous.

1519. Cortez arrived at San Juan Ulloa, in Mexico, where he received ambassadors from Montezuma, with rich presents, offering his services to the Spaniards, but declining to receive their visits at his court; and finally, after mutual messages and presents, refused to consent that foreign troops should appear nearer his capital, or remain longer in his dominions. "Truly this is a great monarch, and rich," said Cortez to his attendants; "with the permission of God we must see him."

1522. Battle of Villalar; count de Haro defeated Padillo, chief of the holy junta. Padillo was taken and executed next day, with John Bravo and Francis Maldonado, two of his chiefs.

1555. Sienna, in Tuscany, reduced by [161]famine, surrendered to the Florentines, after a siege of 10 months.

1608. Hudson sailed from England on his second voyage of discovery; but returned after spending about four months in the search of a northwest passage to England.

1638. Wouter Van Twiller, having been superseded in the government of New Netherland, leased the farm or bouwery No. 1, belonging to the West India company, for three years, at an annual rent of 250 guilders ($100).

1697. Birthday of Belinda Crauford, who died in the beginning of June, 1812, aged 115, at Richmond, Galway county, Ireland. It is said that at the time of her death she could read and sew without spectacles, and what was more remarkable, looked as youthful as a girl of eighteen years, had a blooming complexion, her eyes animated and lively, and walked occasionally a distance of two miles to church.

1699. Hans Assman von Abschatz, a German statesman and poet, died.

1699. Jean Racine, a French tragic poet, died. His pieces were received with great applause, and he came to be generally preferred to his contemporary Corneille, who had been previously looked upon as inimitable.

1702. Francis Charpentier, a Frenchman of learning and abilities, died. He greatly contributed to the noble series of medals struck in the reign of Louis XIV.

1715. Total eclipse of the sun in England. It occurred at 9 in the morning, when the stars appeared, and the birds sunk within their nests.

1730. A public library founded in New York.

1741. Matthew Elias, a painter, died; who, under the patronage of Corbeen, rose to great eminence in his profession.

1751. One, Osborne, and his wife accused by a publican at Tring, in Hertfordshire, England, of witchcraft, were brutally murdered by the populace.

1758. Anthony de Jussieu, an eminent French botanist, died. He traveled over several countries of Europe in the pursuit of his favorite science, which he greatly improved.

1764. Edward Cobelen, an eminent English divine and theological writer, died. Although he enjoyed several clerical offices, he restricted himself to a small income, on which he lived with simplicity and contentment.

1792. Isaac Rene Guy de Chapellier, a native of Rennes, in France, and a zealous advocate of liberty, died.

1794. Christian William de Lamoignon Malesherbes, an able French advocate and author, beheaded. After serving his country 25 years he retired; but was recalled by Louis XVI to be minister of the interior. When the unfortunate king was dragged before the revolutionary tribunal, Malesherbes boldly appeared to defend him. He was himself condemned by the same tribunal, and ascended the scaffold with his daughter and a grandchild.

1796. Demerara and its dependencies in Guiana, surrendered to the British.

1801. Murad Bey, the celebrated Mameluke chief, died of the plague, while descending the Nile to join the English. He was succeeded by Tambourji, so named from having been a drummer.

1809. Battle of Eckmuhl, in which Bonaparte, having routed one division of the Austrian army two days in succession, executed a variety of movements, considered as among the most admirable displays of his science, by which he brought the whole of his force upon the army of the archduke Charles, which he had concentrated at Eckmuhl. The battle is said to have been one of the most splendid which the art of war could display. The Austrian army, of upwards of 100,000 men, were dispossessed of all their positions, by the combined attack of the French, whose divisions appeared on the field, each in its due place and order, as regularly as the movements of the various pieces in the game of chess. The battle commenced at two in the afternoon and continued till nightfall. It resulted in the complete overthrow of the Austrians; all their wounded, a great part of their artillery, fifteen stands of colors, and 20,000 prisoners, remained in the power of the French to which their loss in the field may be added. Their retreat was also attended with corresponding loss.

1826. Missolonghi taken by the Turks. It had been besieged several months, and was reduced to a heap of ruins by continued bombardments. The heroic garrison forced a passage through the besiegers, leaving the sick, aged and wounded in a mill containing a quantity of powder. An old wounded soldier took his seat on the mine, and fired it as soon as the Turks entered.

1829. Lepanto surrendered by capitulation to the Greeks.

1839. Thomas Haynes Bayly, an English lyric poet, died. He is the author of about 30 plays, and many beautiful and popular songs.

1846. The Chilian ship Maria Helena arrived at Edgartown, Mass., from Valparaiso Dec. 7th; said to have been the first Chilian ship that ever visited the United States.

1850. The last publication of the bans [162]of marriage in Massachusetts. It was the case of a black man who declared his intention to marry a white woman.

1853. An insurrection attempted at Freiburg, in Switzerland, by the Jesuit party; but was soon suppressed, with some loss of life.

1854. Odessa was bombarded by the allied fleets, and in ten hours a large part of the city was laid in ruins.

APRIL 23.

997. Adalbert, the apostle of Prussia, murdered. He was archbishop of Prague, preached the gospel among the Bohemians, and afterwards among the Poles, where he was killed.

1016. Ethelred II, king of England, died. To deliver himself from the heavy tribute which he paid the Danes, called Danegelt, he caused them to be put to death; whereupon England was invaded by Sweyn, and Ethelred obliged to fly to Normandy, where he remained till Sweyn's death.

1349. The order of the Garter instituted by Edward III.

1408. The heroic earl of Warwick, Richard Beauchamp, on his way to the Holy Land, is challenged at Verona by Pandulph Malet, whose shoulder the English knight cleaved with his battleaxe.

1500. Brazil discovered by Pedro Alvarez Cabral, a Portuguese adventurer; who immediately sent home a ship with the intelligence, and the king took possession of it. But as the pope had given all the western infidels to the Spaniards, it is probable a great deal of trouble would have arisen out of the case, had not the two monarchs been kinsmen and friends.

1547. Battle of Mulhausen, in which the emperor Charles V defeated the Saxons, who lost 1200 killed, and the elector was wounded and taken prisoner.

1557. Peter Danes, professor of Greek at Paris, died. He was a prelate of great eloquence and extensive learning.

1616. William Shakspeare, the English dramatist, died, aged 52. His history is shrouded in obscurity; but the success of his dramas, with the sobriety and moderation of his views, enabled him to retire early with a competence. The writings of this great poet of nature are found in the libraries of the greatest foes of the drama. This is also the anniversary of his birthday, 1564.

1616. Michael de Cervantes Saavedra, the Spanish novelist, died, aged 67. His life was attended with poverty and misfortune. The immortal Don Quixote, which wrought so great a change in the fashionable literature of the day, is still read and admired in almost every language.

1625. Maurice of Nassau, prince of Orange, died. He succeeded his father in the government of the Low Countries, added to his dominions by conquest, and was considered the ablest general of his time.

1662. Charter of Connecticut granted, with ample privileges, by Charles II. John Winthrop was appointed governor until a new election should be made. The colony of New Haven was included in the charter, but did not consent to be united with the other colonies under one government. The fact was, they considered their civil and religious code rather superior to any thing else of the kind in the world, and were exceedingly jealous of contamination.

1676. Engagement off Aosta, in Sicily, between the French fleet under admiral du Quesne, and the Dutch fleet under De Ruyter, who was mortally wounded.

1709. The first number of the Tatler was published by Steele, Addison and Swift.

1729. Jean Barbeyrac, an eminent French jurist, died. He has distinguished himself by many learned works, which show a high degree of erudition and a liberal spirit.

1740. Thomas Tickell, an English poet, died. He was the friend of Addison whose works he published, and translated the Iliad in opposition to Pope.

1750. Andrew Baxter, a Scottish metaphysician, died. His writings are highly lauded by Warburton. By one of them we learn that dreams are caused by the agency of separate immaterial beings.

1774. Battle between the forces of Rohilcund in Afghanistan, and the subahdar of Oude backed by a British force. The Rohilcas showed great bravery and resolution, and exhibited a considerable share of military knowledge; but after a cannonade of two hours and twenty minutes, they retreated with the loss of 2000 killed, including many of their chiefs; the country became tributary, and the people robbers and plunderers.

1775. A captain Sears and Mr. Lamb assembled the citizens of New York, shut up the custom-house, and prevented the sailing of vessels to Boston, Quebec and Georgia. They sent an express to Philadelphia, where the same measures were adopted.

1781. Fort Watson, in South Carolina, taken from the British, by the provincials under colonel Lee. The fort was built on an Indian mound 30 feet high; but the besiegers speedily erected a work which [163]overlooked the fort, and fired into it with such effect that the garrison surrendered.

1794. James Duval d'Epremenie, a French advocate, executed. He was remarkable for the violence of his proceedings during the revolution, and was sent to the scaffold with his old opponent Chapellier.

1795. Warren Hastings acquitted after a trial of 7 years. His crime as charged by the house of commons to the peers was maladministration in India.

1808. Murat, at the head of 40,000 French soldiers, taking advantage of a faction among the people, entered Madrid and took possession of it.

1809. Battle of Ratisbon. The Austrians, having sustained defeat and losses four days successively, made some attempt to fortify this city, in order to protect the retreat of the army. The French, who had advanced to the storm, were cut down by the musquetry of the besieged. There was at length difficulty in finding volunteers to renew the attack, when the impetuous Lannes, by whom they were commanded, seized a ladder and rushed forward to fix it himself against the wall. "I will show," exclaimed he, "that your general is still a grenadier." The French rallied and carried the ramparts—the contest was renewed in the street, and the city fired. The Austrians were driven out of Ratisbon, leaving cannon, baggage and prisoners in the hands of the French. Thus in five days, in spite of the inferiority of numbers and the imperfect manner in which his troops were combined, Bonaparte, by the sole energy of his genius, triumphed over the main forces of his opponent, and opened the road to his capital. At no period of his momentous career, says Scott, did the genius of Napoleon appear more completely to prostrate all opposition; at no time did the talents of a single individual exercise such an influence on the fate of the universe.

1810. Fort Matagorda, having bean reduced to a heap of ruins, was evacuated by the British, in consequence of which the French were enabled to bombard Cadiz; 500 officers and 900 men fell into the hands of the French.

1810. Dinah, a black woman, died in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, aged 116.

1823. Aaron Arrowsmith, hydrographer to the king of Great Britain, died. He was distinguished as a constructor of maps and charts, and published a new General Atlas to accompany the Edinburgh Gazetteer.

1823. Joseph Nollekins, an eminent sculptor, died. He gained great reputation as an artist during his residence in Italy, and on his return to England was so extensively patronized that he acquired a large fortune.

1833. The foundation laid of the first protestant episcopal church ever built in France.

1838. The English steam packets Great Western and Sirius arrived at New York, forming a new era in navigation, and commencing a new and expeditious mode of intercourse between England and the United States. The Great Western, measuring 1,340 tons, made the passage in 14½ days, against head winds and a rough sea.

1839. H. V. Ducoudray Holstein died at Albany; formerly a distinguished officer under Bonaparte. After the fall of the emperor he came to this country, and gained a subsistence by teaching the French and German languages.

1847. N. P. Ames, the celebrated manufacturer of fire arms, swords, &c., died at Cabotville, Mass.

1848. The United States exploring expedition reached the Dead sea, which was circumnavigated for the first time in a boat. It was sounded to the depth of 600 fathoms, and the bottom found to be crusted with crystalized salt.

1850. Wm. Wordsworth, an eminent English poet, died, aged 80.

1852. Solomon Van Rensselaer, an officer in the war of 1812, died at Albany, aged 78. He commenced his military career at the age of 18, and was with Wayne in the battle of Miami, where he was dangerously wounded. He received six balls at the battle of Queenstown, one of which he carried to the time of his death. He also held several civil offices with distinction.

1852. Arthur Condorcet O'Connor died in France, aged 87. He was a native of Ireland, and one of the most conspicuous leaders of the rebellion in 1798, which made him an exile in France. He married a daughter of Condorcet, and adopted the name of the philosopher within his own.

1854. Fifteen firemen lost their lives by the sudden fall of a large store in Broadway, New York, while in the discharge of their duty.

1854. Great tornado at Burmah, which swept over several hundred miles of country, causing great loss of life on the Irrawaddy.

1856. A grand review of the fleet took place off Plymouth, England; it consisted of 240 ships of war, all but 2 being steamers.

1856. Joseph Roberts died, aged 81. He was cashier for the trustees of the first bank of the United States, the affairs of which institution he conducted to its final winding up.

[164]

APRIL 24.

1184 B. C. The conquest and destruction of the city of Troy by the Greeks, took place on the 24th of Thargelion.

339 B. C. Timoleon defeated the Carthagenians at the river Crimesus, near the mount Giuliano, in Sicily.

1016. Ethelred II buried in St. Paul's, London.

1254. Louis IX of France, embarked from Acre, in Palestine, on his return from the crusade, with his queen, children and troops, in 14 vessels, and arrived in Vincennes in September, after an absence of six years, and a most disastrous campaign.

1345. Richard Aungervyle, bishop of Durham, died. He was the tutor of Edward III, a learned man, and the author of a work on the right use of books.

1474. In Edward prince of Wales's procession there was a station with three patriarchs standing with Jacob's 12 sons, and many other personifications of scripture characters,—such was the amusement of the times.

1500. Brazil discovered by Pedro Alvarez de Cabral, who left two convicts.

1556. Osep Napea, the first ambassador from Russia to England, made his appearance at the court of Elizabeth, and delivered his master's presents.

1557. George Rorar (Rorarius), a learned corrector of the press at Wittemburg, died, aged 65. He had been the amanuensis of Luther, and assisted in editing some of the works of the great reformer.

1599. Birthday of Oliver Cromwell.

1603. James Beaton, bishop of Glasgow, died. He was raised to the see before the age of 25; when the reformation broke forth, he fled to France, with the records and sacred vessels of his cathedral, which were deposited with the Scotch college of Paris. He left a history of Scotland in manuscript.

1617. D'Ancre Concini, marechal of France, assassinated. He was a Florentine by birth, and acquired his offices by intrigue. The day following his burial, the body was taken from the grave, mutilated and dragged through the streets of Paris.

1645. Cromwell defeated the king's forces at Islip bridge, near Oxford, taking the king's standard and 200 prisoners.

1667. Matthew Wren, bishop of Hereford, died. During the civil wars his property was confiscated and himself confined in the Tower 18 years without being brought to trial.

1704. The Boston News Letter, the first paper printed in America, made its appearance at Boston, published by John Campbell, the postmaster. It was printed on a half sheet of writing paper. It was continued until the British evacuated Boston, in 1776.

1731. Daniel Defoe, a popular English author, died. He is best known as the author of Robinson Crusoe, which was supposed at first to be a true narrative, and afterwards as erroneously to have been founded upon the papers of Alexander Selkirk. It still enjoys an old age of honor and renown, which it is impossible for any eulogium to exalt. Like its hero, it has traveled into the most distant regions, and worn the costume of literature and the garland of fame in almost every civilized country of the globe.

1735. "Here lyes inter'd ye remains of deacon Christopher Huntington of Norwich, November 1st, 1660, and ye first born of males in ye town. He served near 40 years in ye office of a deacon, and died April ye 24th, 1735, to ye 75th yr. of his age. Memento mori."

1763. Charles Stephen Pesselier, a French dramatist and financier, died. He was early assiduously devoted to literature and the muses; but when entrusted with the finances of the kingdom, his application ruined his constitution, and he fell a victim to excessive mental fatigue.

1773. Philip Dormer, earl of Chesterfield, died. He was a polished courtier, and a writer on, rather than a practicer of, good manners.

1775. Josiah Quincy, Jr., an eminent American patriot, died. He was employed by the British officers, together with John Adams, to defend their cause in the case of the Boston massacre, and although warmly opposed to the measures of the British ministry, he conducted the defence with great propriety. He fell a victim to intense application, at the age of 31, and died at sea on his return from England.

1778. Action in the roads opposite the town of Carrickfergus, in Ireland, in which the British sloop of war Drake was captured by the United States ship Ranger, under Paul Jones.

1780. Claude Joseph Dorat, a French poet, died. He entered the military service as a musketeer, but abandoned it to pursue his favorite study. His works comprise 20 vols.

1780. John Nourse, a distinguished bookseller and mathematician, died.

1799. William Seward, an English antiquary, died. He was the son of a brewer, and being possessed of a competency devoted himself to literature. He published 7 volumes of anecdotes and notices of distinguished characters, compiled from scarce and curious books.

1799. Peter Augustin Caron de [165]Beaumarchais, a French dramatist, died. He was a watchmaker, and made some improvement in the escapement of a watch. His dramas are numerous, and some of them still popular.

1814. The British army took the city of Washington by surprise, and burnt the public buildings. The library of congress consisting of 3000 volumes of rare books was destroyed.

1824. Richard Payne, died at London; an eminent Greek scholar and antiquary.

1841. George Baxter, one of the most eminent of Presbyterian ministers, died at his residence in Virginia, aged 77.

1856. The sheriff of Kansas, who had been engaged in arresting some Free State men, as they were termed, was shot while sitting in his tent.

APRIL 25.

68. Saint Mark, the evangelist, died at Alexandria.

1199. John, the 6th son of Henry II of England, seized the treasures of his late father, preparatory to taking possession of his throne and dukedom.

1284. Edward II born at Caernarvon, and styled the prince of Wales, the first who received that appellation.

1342. Benedict XII (James de Nouveau, the baker), died. When elected, unanimously, by the cardinals, pope of Rome, he had so little confidence in himself that he told them they had chosen an ass. His conduct, however, was firm and dignified, and gained him universal respect.

1513. Edward Howard, an English admiral, celebrated for his bravery, killed in an action with a French ship.

1520. Ferdinand Magellan, the Portuguese navigator killed in one of the Phillipine islands, fighting for the king of the country, who had become his ally. Of all his fleet, only one ship and 18 men returned to Spain, from whence the expedition sailed.

1536. Conflagration of mount Ætna, which overwhelmed the church of St. Leon, and the physician Piazzi.

1576. Treaty between Holland and Zealand, being the two first provinces that united for their liberty. William of Nassau, prince of Orange, drew up the treaty, and may be considered as the founder of the United Provinces.

1595. Torquato Tasso, an illustrious Italian poet, died. He was excellent in every kind of composition, but the Jerusalem Delivered procured him the offer of the laurel crown. He expired on the day appointed for the coronation.

1636. James Hay, earl of Carlisle, died. He was the first Scotchman raised to the English peerage, and was employed by James I in various embassies.

1660. Henry Hammond, an English divine, died. He published a commentary on the New Testament; and began a paraphrase and commentary on the Old Testament, which he did not live to finish.

1671. The city of Oxford, England, nearly destroyed by a great fire.

1728. John Woodward, an English natural philosopher, died. He was bound apprentice to a linen draper, but was attracted from the business by the charms of science.

1732. The corpse of bishop Atterbury who died in France arrived in the Thames. Four pieces of French silk brocaded with silver were found with the body, which the custom house officers seized!

1734. John Conrad Dippel, a German chemist and physician, died. He was an eccentric character, who pretended to have discovered the philosophers' stone, and yet was confined for debt. In pursuing his alchemical researches, he discovered Prussian blue, and the animal oil which bears his name.

1735. Samuel Wesley, an English poet, died. His writings made up in quantity what they lacked in quality. He wrote the Life of Christ, a heroic poem, in folio, and a history of the Bible in verse, 3 vols.

1764. Judah Monis, an Italian Jew, died at Northborough, Mass., aged 82. He was converted and baptized, and was the first Hebrew instructor at Harvard college.

1770. John Anthony Nollet, a learned Frenchman, died. His writings are valuable, and his experiments contributed much to the advancement of science.

1775. The Baltimoreans received the news of the battle of Lexington, and immediately seized upon the provincial magazines, containing 1500 stand of arms, &c.

1781. Battle of Camden, between the provincials, about 1200, and the British under lord Rawdon. In the beginning of the action the Americans had essentially the advantage; but the premature retreat of two companies occasioned a total defeat. Greene retreated in such order as to bring off all his wounded and cannon, and took 50 prisoners.

1781. British under Arnold and Philips took Petersburg, Va., after a smart action with baron Steuben. They burnt 400 hogsheads of tobacco, a ship, and several small craft.

1782. Adrian Balbi, the Venitian geographer, was born at Venice. The work by which he is best known is his Abrégé de Géographie.

1792. The convention having determined [166]on adopting the proposition of M. Guillotin, to substitute decapitation for hanging, the first criminal was executed by this mode on this day. M. Guillotin was actuated by benevolent motives in proposing the machine, which was called from him guillotine, and from which himself narrowly escaped.

1800. William Cowper, an excellent English poet, died. He commenced publishing at the age of 50, and three years after produced the Task, which excited universal admiration. He was subject to religious delirium, and died in a state of absolute despair.

1805. Thomas Pownall, an English antiquary, died. He was successively governor of New Jersey, Massachusetts and South Carolina under the crown. His works are numerous, and display a great deal of information.

1810. Sweden excluded British goods, conformably to the continental system established by Bonaparte.

1812. Baltimore privateer schooner Surprise, Capt. Cothell, of 10 guns, captured the British brig Kutousoff, of 12 guns, laden with coffee, &c., and brought her safe to port.

1820. Patrick Colquohun, a distinguished Scottish magistrate, died. He was a writer on police and political economy, and his works possess great merit.

1832 & 1833. Spring navigation of the Erie canal opened.

1835. Jonathan P. Cushing, president of Hampden Sidney college, died, aged 40. The institution, over which he had presided 14 years, was greatly indebted to his services, and he was highly esteemed for his virtues.

1838. The second centennial celebration of the settlement of New Haven.

1838. The steamboat Moselle burst her boiler with a tremendous explosion. She had just left the wharf at Cincinnati for Louisville, with 225 passengers on board, of whom but 124 were saved.

1839. Samuel Smith, an officer of the revolution, died at Baltimore, aged 87. His name is connected with some of the most important events of that struggle for freedom, and is identified with the history of the city of Baltimore for a great number of years; that city being indebted to his enterprise for a large share of its commercial thrift.

1840. M. Poisson, a peer of France, and president of the academy of sciences, died at Paris, aged 58. His life was devoted to analytical discovery and scientific investigation, and he was styled the first geometrician of Europe.

1849. The parliament house and library of the British provinces, at Montreal, burned by a mob.

1849. The French republican armament against republican Rome reached Civita Vecchia.

1854. The slaves of Venezuela became freemen by virtue of an act previously passed for their emancipation.

1855. Lieut. Col. St. Vrain, with a detachment of United States troops, came up with and captured a camp of Apache Indians, on the Purgatory, near the Raton mountains.

APRIL 26.

871. Ethelred I defeated the Danes, but died of his wounds. In his reign a great plague occurred.

1478. Lorenzo de Medici, duke of Florence, rescued by the populace from the hands of assassins. His brother Julian was less fortunate; he fell beneath their daggers. The duke was conducted back to his palace by the multitude with every demonstration of regard, while the archbishop, who became the tool of the pope for executing this foul and impious conspiracy, was suspended in his pontifical robes from the window of his own sanctuary.

1566. Diana de Poitiers, duchess of Valentinois, died. She captivated the heart of the king of France, Henry II, and for many years remained sole mistress, not only of his affections, but of the kingdom. Her unusual powers of mind, and firmness and dignity, constituted her the fittest sovereign of the two.

1595. Michael Neander, a learned German protestant, died. He was rector of the university of Ilfeldt 40 years, and published several learned works.

1607. Christopher Newport, with three vessels and 100 emigrants, forming the first permanent English colony, stood into Chesapeake bay, "which seemed to invite his entrance."

1616. John Somers, an English statesman, died. He was a patriot of the noblest and most extensive views, and justly celebrated as a man of learning, eloquent and refined.

1665. The great plague of this and the subsequent year broke out at St. Giles, London.

1726. Jeremy Collier, an English divine, died. In 1698 he made an attempt to reform the stage, which engaged him in a controversy, and exposed him to the satire of the wits of the day; but after a ten years' struggle he accomplished his object, and actually produced an amendment.

1734. John Baptist Morvan de Bellegarde, a French Jesuit, died. He was [167]expelled from the order at Nantes, for being a Cartesian.

1777. Danbury, Conn., burnt, and the military stores destroyed, by a detachment of 2,000 British under Tyron. The place was guarded by 100 soldiers, who retired to await reinforcements. Eighteen houses, 800 barrels of flour, 800 barrels of pork and beef, 2,000 bushels of grain, and 1,700 tents were destroyed. The enemy were pursued and annoyed by a few hundred of the citizens under Wooster and Arnold; the former was killed.

1783. Eyre Coots, a celebrated commander of the East India Company's forces, died. He gained great renown by his victories over Hyder Ally; in one of which, near Porto Novo, with 10,000 men he defeated Hyder's army of 150,000.

1794. The Vendeans under Charette defeated by the French.

1794. Battle of Prisches; Austrians defeated by the French.

1794. Grand attack of the French upon the allies, from Trevers to the sea.

1805. William Woodville died; a distinguished English physician and medical writer.

1807. The planet Vesta observed in England by Groombridge, an ingenious and active astronomer, who had successfully devoted his leisure and fortune to the advancement of astronomy.

1815. Carsten Neibuhr, a Danish traveler, died, aged 82. He was employed by the Danish government in 1761, with four other learned men, to explore Arabia; was the only one of the company who returned, after an absence of six years, and was liberally rewarded. His publications were, Travels in Arabia and Description of Arabia.

1816. George Hardinge, an eminent English lawyer, died. He rose rapidly in his profession, became council for the East India Company, and attorney-general to the queen, and had a seat in parliament. His speeches and writings were numerous.

1831. Imprisonment for debt abolished in the state of New York.

1835 Henry Kater died at London. His experiments on the pendulum and Geodesic surveys rendered him famous.

1836. St. Jean d'Arc, in Palestine, surrendered to the Egyptian troops under Ibrahim Pasha. The governor of the fortress was provided with a safe residence in Egypt, and an annual pension of 75,000 piasters.

1837. The trial of Meunier for an attempt to assassinate the king of the French, terminated in his conviction. His sentence was commuted to perpetual banishment.

1838. Battle near Brugos, between Gen. Espartero and the Carlists under Negri, in which the latter were defeated, with the loss of 2,000 prisoners, their baggage and artillery.

1840. Bacchus, a negro slave, died at Friedland, in Virginia, aged 110. He had been in the family of his last owner more than 40 years; was employed as a teamster during the war of the revolution; and was in attendance with his team at the glorious and final siege of Yorktown. He saw Gen. Braddock as he passed on to his defeat, and could give a succinct account of that sanguinary action. The evening previous to his death he was walking about the farm, in the full possession of all his faculties of mind and body.

1840. John Thornton Kirkland, president of Harvard university, died, aged 70. His father was more than 40 years a missionary among the Oneida Indians, during which he was born at Little Falls, 1770. His rank was with the most eminent among the constant and serviceable friends of good principles, good learning and good men. Some of his productions will continue to be esteemed among the gems of our literature.

1843. Hodijah Baylies died; a soldier of the revolutionary war, and for some time an aid to Gen. Washington. Like others of that noble band, he too was a distinguished civilian.

1853. Russell Jarvis died in New York, aged 63; widely known as a politician, and co-editor with Duff Green, of the United States Telegraph, at Washington.

1854. A day of humiliation was observed throughout England; divine service was performed in all the places of public worship, and collections taken for the benefit of the wives and children of the soldiers engaged in the war of the east.

1854. Gabriel Rosetti, an Italian poet and painter, died, aged 71. Setting up for a reformer, he was obliged to fly to England, where he spent the remainder of his days in teaching Italian.

1854. Henry T. Cochrane, a Scottish jurist, died; known as the biographer of his friend Lord Jeffrey.

1855. The emperor and empress of the French, having visited the queen of England, returned to France on this day.

APRIL 27.

1124. Alexander I of Scotland, son of Malcom Canmore, died. He ascended the throne on the death of his brother Edgar, 1107, and from the energy and impetuosity of his character he was called the fierce. There were several rebellions and insurrections against his reign, which he put down with vigor. A conspiracy was formed against his life, and the traitors got [168]admission into his bed chamber at night. He cut his way through them, and after killing six made his escape.

1192. Conrad de Montferrat assassinated at Tyre.

1296. Battle of Dunbar, in which Edward I, of England, defeated the Scots under the king, John Baliol, who lost 20,000 slain. Baliol was taken prisoner to England, and confined in the tower.

1404. Philip (the bold), duke of Burgundy, died. He was a just and brave prince, but so profuse in his expenses, that his body was seized after death by his creditors, and it was with difficulty that his duchess could redeem it.

1573. The army or the States General seized Flushing, and hanged the Spanish commander.

1603. King James I, on his way to take possession of the English crown, was magnificently entertained at Winchinbrook by Sir Oliver Cromwell.

1610. Patent for Newfoundland granted to the earl of Northampton and 44 other persons, by the name of the treasurer and company of adventurers and planters of the cities of Bristol and London, for the colony or plantation of Newfoundland, from lat. 46 to 52 deg., together with the seas and islands lying within ten leagues of the coast.

1667. Milton disposed of the copy right of the Paradise Lost for £5! It was with much difficulty that he could find any one to undertake the publication of it.

1702. John Barth died; who by his bravery and skill rose to a high rank in the French navy.

1717. The Dissenters received £5,000 for damages done their meeting houses during the rebellion on account of the pretender to the English throne.

1742. Nicholas Amherst, an English political writer, died. He for a considerable time published the Craftsman, a paper conducted with unusual spirit and success, which guided the public taste and awed the administration.

1762. The Irish levelers suppressed by Lord Halifax.

1775. The Bostonians delivered up a large quantity of guns, &c., to the British general Gage.

1782. Edward Chamberlayne, an English statesman, died. He was one of the best scholars of his age.

1785. Prince Leopold of Brunswick, son of the reigning duke, having gone to the relief of the inhabitants of an inundated village on the Oder, near Frankfort, was upset in his boat and drowned. Thus dying as he had lived, in the highest exercise of humanity.

1792. John James Ankerstroom, a Swedish officer, executed for the murder of Gustavus, king of Sweden.

1794. William Jones died, a man who rose by the superiority of his genius, from a low station to a high judicial office in Bengal. By his unwearied industry and skill in the Asiatic languages, he successfully explored the hidden sources of oriental science and literature, and to whose translations we are indebted for many beautiful effusions of the Persian muse. As a linguist he has seldom if ever been surpassed. He was master of almost every language of Europe and Asia.

1794. James Bruce, the celebrated Scottish traveler, died. Being consul at Algiers, he found leisure to study the oriental languages, and formed the project of exploring the interior of Africa. He discovered the sources of the Nile.

1796. Charles Townsend, an English nobleman, was found dead in a post chaise on his return from Great Yarmouth, for which borough his brother Frederick had been elected to parliament. They both had exhibited marks of insanity, and in one of these paroxysms Charles shot himself.

1799. Battle of Cassano, in Italy; the French under Moreau totally defeated by the Russians and Austrians under Suwarrow.

1803. Toussaint l'Overture, a mulatto chieftain of St. Domingo, died. He possessed unbounded influence over the blacks of that island, and became the head of all power, civil and military, among them. He was treacherously betrayed by the French, and thrown into prison where he died.

1804. Jonathan Boucher, an English archæologist, died. He was an episcopal preacher in America, till the revolution drove him back to England. He prepared a glossary of provincial and archæological words, intended for a supplement to Johnson's Dictionary.

1806. The squadron under Miranda, intended to begin a revolution in South America, engaged two Spanish guardacostas. The Spaniards captured two schooners, having on board 22 officers and 30 men, all of whom were hanged or sent to the mines.

1813. The American army under Gen. Pike took York, the capital of Upper Canada. The British blew up the works, by which Gen. Pike was killed, as well as about 50 of the British, and 200 American soldiers killed or wounded.

1830. City of Guatemala nearly destroyed by an earthquake.

1834. Thomas Stothard died; celebrated for his illustrations to the Canterbury Tales, Rogers' Italy, Pilgrims' Progress and Robinson Crusoe.

[169]1836. John Hart, an American physician, died. He joined the army at the outbreak of the revolution, and continued in it until it was disbanded. He was afterwards a member of the Massachusetts senate, and much esteemed as a physician and a patriot.

1836. Battle near Fort Brook, Florida, between the United States volunteer troops and the Indians. The Indians were defeated with the loss of 200 killed. Loss of the U. S. troops, 2 killed, 24 wounded.

1836. The celebrated Bible presented by Alcuin to Charlemagne, was sold at auction in London for £1,500 ($6,666). See Dec. 1, 801.

1838. Baroness Schopenhauer died at Jena; a woman of talent and celebrity, and author of various works, which were collected in 24 vols.

1838. Great fire at Charlestown, S. C., "which laid waste 145 acres of the most populous part of the city."

1849. William B. Cooper, ex-governor, and a highly respected citizen of the state of Delaware, died at his residence, Laurel hill.

1850. The Atlantic, first steamer of the Collins line, sailed from Liverpool.

1855. Col. Kinney arrested in New York on a bench warrant, for beginning a military enterprise against Nicaragua.

1856. Ratification of the treaty of peace between England, France and Turkey, and Russia, which terminated the Crimean war.

1856. Robert Kelly, a New York merchant, died, aged 47. Having acquired a fortune and a high reputation as a merchant, he devoted his attention to science, acquired eight languages, and filled many important offices. His superior talents and untiring industry were under the direction of philanthropic and Christian impulses.

APRIL 28.

1060 B. C. The 28th Jiar is kept as a fast by the Hebrews for the death of Samuel, which took place two years before the destruction of Saul.

492 B. C. Menenius Agrippa, a Roman patrician died; celebrated for appeasing a sedition by a fable of the belly and the limbs.

357. Constantius, the third and surviving son of Constantine the great, visited Rome for thirty days, when he displayed the magnificence of a triumph.

1489. Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland, murdered.

1494. Joan Boughton, a widow, was burned for heresy; said to be the first female martyr of England.

1521. Cortez having constructed 13 brigantines with sails and oars, and transported them on the backs of 8000 Tlascalans, they were launched on this day in the lake of Mexico, with religious ceremonies under a discharge of the artillery and small arms, followed by the singing of Te Deum to the music of military instruments. They were provided with sails and twelve oars each, and a falconet, or small brass cannon. The final success of the enterprise was greatly indebted to these vessels.

1535. Albert Pio, a Spanish ecclesiastic buried with extraordinary pomp at Paris, in the church of the Cordeliers.

1552. The council of Trent was prorogued for two years; it did not assemble again until 1562.

1636. Julius Cæsar, an English statesman under Elizabeth, died. He was a man of great learning and integrity, charitable and benevolent.

1710. Thomas Betterton, an English, tragedian, died. He was a bookbinder previous to going upon the stage; and acquired a high degree of reputation as an actor.

1721. An order of the English council was issued to suppress Hellfire clubs.

1738. Shakspeare's tragedy of Julius Cæsar performed at Drury Lane theatre, for the purpose of raising a fund for the erection of a monument to his memory at Westminster.

1751. Thomas Gibson, an eminent English painter, died.

1752. Francis Oudin, a French Jesuit, died. He was professor of theology at Dijon, and an author.

1754. Washington attacked a French encampment at the confluence of the Alleghany and Monongahela. The night was dark and rainy, and the enemy completely secure. His troops having surrounded the camp, fired and rushed upon the French, who immediately surrendered.

1760. Battle of Sillery, in Canada, between the British garrison at Quebec, 3000, under Gen. Murray, and the French under Levi, consisting of 10 battalions of regulars, 6000 Canadian militia, and a body of Indians. The British general finding himself in danger of being outflanked, retreated to his fortifications, with the loss of 1000 men. The French loss was still greater, and they reaped no essential advantage from the victory.

1772. The counts Struensee, and Brandt, the favorite of the king of Denmark, executed at Copenhagen. Their alleged crime was an intrigue with the queen of Denmark, princess Caroline Matilda, sister of George III, of England.

1779. Simon Barnard, a celebrated [170]aid-du-camp of Napoleon, and for some time chief of the engineer corps of the United States, was born at Dôle, in France.

1786. Gustavus, king of Sweden, read the eulogy of Creutz, the poet and statesman, who died a short time previous. Creutz signed with Franklin a treaty of amity between the United States and Sweden, 1783.

1788. Maryland, the 7th state in succession, adopted the constitution of the United States; votes 63 to 12.

1789. Mutiny on board the ship Bounty on her voyage from Otaheite, whither she had sailed to procure fruit trees to stock the West India islands. The vessel had on board 1015 plants of the bread fruit tree. Lieut. Bligh and 19 of the crew were compelled to go into an open boat; "they reached the island of Timor in June, after a perilous voyage of 1200 leagues."

1789. Thomas Hutchins, geographer-general of the United States, died. He was a native of New Jersey, and was in England at the commencement of the revolutionary war, where he refused some excellent offers, and was subsequently imprisoned and lost £12,000 on suspicion of holding correspondence with Franklin in Paris. He afterwards returned to America, served under Greene in South Carolina, and published several historical and geographical works, with charts and maps.

1793. Battle of Duren; the French defeated by the Austrians under Clairfait, with a loss of 2000, and their military chest, 12 cannon, and 13 ammunition wagons.

1796. Action off Lizard point, between the British ship Indefatigable, sir Edward Pellew, and French frigate La Virginia, 44 guns; the latter captured.

1796. Charette, the Vendean chief, executed at Nantes. This afforded General Hoche an opportunity to subdue the royalists in France.

1797. Robert Parker hanged for burglary at Knoxville, Tennessee.

1799. The French ambassadors were assassinated at Radstat. The infamy of this base action is shared by the French emigrants and Austrians.

1799. Battle of Adda, in Italy; the Russians under Suwarrow defeated the French under Serrurier, who, with his division, was taken prisoner.

1804. Surinam, or Dutch Guiana, in South America, taken by the British; the Dutch surrendered 2000 prisoners, 282 cannon, and several vessels.

1813. Spesutie island taken possession of by the British, situated near the head of Chesapeake.

1813. Privateer Yorktown, Capt. Riker, of New York, captured the British brig Avery, with a valuable cargo, and brought her safe to port.

1813. Michael Lavrionovitch Golenitcheff Kutusoff-Smolenski, the famous Russian field-marshal, died. He commanded the Russian army destined to oppose the invasion of Bonaparte in 1812.

1814. Bonaparte embarked for Elba from Frejus. He had landed at this place on his return from Egypt, when about to commence that astonishing career, which will be remembered in the history of Europe to the end of time; but which now, to all appearance, was about to terminate, and that at the very point from which it had started.

1851. Edward Codrington, a British admiral, died, aged 81. He distinguished himself under Howe and Nelson, but his name is chiefly renowned by the famous action of Navarino, where he had chief command.

1854. The American barque Hespar, bound for Antwerp, came in collision with the Bremen barque Favorite, for Baltimore, having 180 passengers on board, all of whom perished.

1854. William Henry Pagot, marquis of Anglesey, died, aged 86. He distinguished himself in several campaigns, especially in the Peninsular war, and was raised to the rank of field marshal.

1855. Giovanni Pianori, a hired bravo, attempted to shoot Louis Napoleon while riding in the Champs Elysees.

1856. The receipt of the ratification of the treaty of peace by all the foreign powers was announced officially in England, and a day of thanksgiving throughout the United Kingdom was appointed.

1857. Frederick Emerson, an eminent American instructor, died, aged 68. He was the author of a popular arithmetic used in the public schools.

APRIL 29.

997. Adalbert, archbishop of Prague, murdered. His zeal led him among foreigners as a missionary; after visiting Bohemia, he went among the Poles, by whom he was killed. Boleslaus purchased his body for its weight in gold.

1075. Waltheof, earl of Huntingdon and Northampton, executed by William the conqueror. He had married Judith, William's niece; and being considered by the English as the last resource of their nation, they most grievously lamented his death.

1205. King John, along with wine of various kinds to be transmitted to Windsor, [171]ordered to be sent immediately the romance of the History of England.

1594. Thomas Cooper, an English prelate, died; highly commended for his great learning and eloquence.

1643. Ferdinando, lord Fairfax, the father of the famous General Fairfax, defeated at Bramham moor, by the earl of Newcastle.

1649. Dockier, a prominent leader of the Levelers, in the times of the English commonwealth, was shot by order of the government.

1652. A great eclipse of the sun in England. The almanacs of the day did not let so favorable an opportunity escape for exercising their power over the ignorant, and accordingly their prognostics created such a terror among the inhabitants "and so exceedingly alarmed the whole nation," says Evelyn, "that hardly any one would work, nor stir out of their houses. So ridiculously were they abused by ignorant and knavish star-gazers."

1659. John Cleveland, an English poet, died. He was contemporary with Milton, and preferred before him by critics of the day, but has now sunk into oblivion.

1676. Michael Adrian de Ruyter, the famous Dutch admiral, died. He began his military career at the age of 11, and continued in the service nearly 60 years.

1685. Luc d'Acheri, a French ecclesiastic, died. He displayed great learning as an antiquary and an author.

1688. Frederick William, elector of Brandenburg, died. Posterity awards to him the character of a brave, generous and patriotic prince, who devoted his attention to the commerce and general welfare of his people.

1735. The Turks defeated by the Persians under Thomas Kouli Khan, 60,000 slain.

1740. Charles Drew, executed at St. Edmundsburg, in Suffolk, for the murder of his father.

1740. The English parliament prorogued. It was at this parliament that the famous acts against horse racing and deceitful gaming were passed.

1743. Charles Irenæus Castel de Saint-Pierre, a French ecclesiastic, died; distinguished as a politician, a man of letters, and an author.

1746. Curtis Barnet, a British commodore, died.

1758. Action off fort St. Davids, East Indies, between the British under admiral Pococke, and the French fleet under count d'Ache. British loss, 29 killed, 89 wounded; French loss, 600 killed and wounded, and one of their vessels sunk.

1762. The book of Cornelius Nepos in Latin was issued from the Russian press, being the first in that language ever printed in Russia.

1779. John Ash, an English dissenting minister, died. His Complete English Dictionary, until the appearance of Mr. Todd's octavo edition of Johnson's, was the best compendium of words that could be referred to.

1783. Bernard de Tanucci died; professor of jurisprudence in the university of Pisa, and prime minister of Naples, an office which he sustained with dignity, ability and integrity, for 50 years, when he resigned.

1788. Election of representatives from New York to consider the federal constitution held.

1793. A French privateer with her prize, the Spanish ship San Jago, was captured by the English. Cargo valued at £1,500,000.

1805. The constitution of the Batavian republic changed for the third time; the state was divided into 8 departments, and a legislative body of 19 members, with a pensionary (Schimmelpenninck), chosen for the term of five years, who administered the executive power.

1810. Augustenburgh, crown prince of Sweden, and heir to the throne, seized with an apoplexy while reviewing some corps of cavalry, fell from his horse and expired immediately.

1813. United States frigate Essex, Capt. Porter, captured, near Albemarle island, in the Pacific, British ships Montezuma and Policy, of 10 guns each, and Georgiana, of 6 guns and 4 swivels.

1813. British admiral Cockburn burnt the store-houses at Frenchtown, Chesapeake bay, in which was a great quantity of goods belonging to Philadelphia and Baltimore merchants. He also burnt two vessels, and plundered the private houses.

1814. Action between the United States sloop of war Peacock, 20 guns, 160 men, and British king's brig of war Epervier, 18 guns, 128 men, off cape Carnaverel. The Epervier was captured in 42 minutes, with the loss of 8 killed and 15 wounded; the Peacock had 2 wounded. The Epervier had on board $118,000, exclusive of $10,000 which the crew plundered before she was boarded. The Epervier was sent in 1815 from Algiers, with American prisoners, liberated there, but never arrived.

1827. Rufus King, an American statesman, died. He was many years a senator in congress, and twice minister to England. All parties have borne testimony to the value of his services, and the eminence of his talents.

1849. The republicans at Rome repulsed the French republicans under the city walls.

[172]1849. The emperor Nicholas of Russia declared, by ukase, his purpose to assist Austria. (See April 26th.)

1851. C. C. Pepys, earl of Cottenham, died in Italy, aged 70. He passed through all the honors of the law, and in 1836 became lord chancellor.

1854. Great excitement at Louisville, occasioned by the acquittal of Matthew F. Ward, who murdered Prof. Butler.

1855. Robert Hamilton Bishop died, aged 78. He was a native of Scotland, was licensed to preach in 1801; on coming to this country, he assisted in rearing several institutions of learning in the western states.

1855. John Wilson, a celebrated landscape and marine painter, died at Folkstone, aged 81.

1855. The United States troops under Col. Fauntleroy, attacked a camp of Utah Indians near the Arkansas river, twenty miles north of the Puncha pass, killed 40, captured 6, and took a large amount of Indian property and plunder.

APRIL 30.

65. Marcus Annæus Lucanus, the Latin poet, died. He was the friend and favorite of Nero, but afterwards joined a conspiracy with Piso against the tyrant, and was compelled to destroy himself, which he did by suffocation in a bath.

313. Battle of Heraclea, in which the emperor Galerius Maximus was defeated by Lucinus.

534. Amalasontha, queen of the Ostrogoths, murdered by her husband Theodatus. She was universally regretted; as for learning and humanity she had few equals.

711. Tarik, a freed man of the Arabian viceroy of Africa, landed at the foot of the rock Calpe called afterwards by his name Gebal-Tarik (Gibraltar), and two days after by a great battle fought on the banks of the Guadalete put an end to the Gothic empire in Spain.

1156. The city of Moscow founded by Duke George I. Its present population is about 400,000.

1262. Alexander Newski, grand duke of Russia, died. He signalized himself by a great victory which he obtained on the banks of the Neva, over the northern powers.

1439. Richard de Beauchamp, the famous earl of Warwick, died at Rouen, in Normandy. He was the most distinguished warrior in the reign of Henry VI.

1483. The duke of Gloucester (afterwards Richard III), arrested the lords Rivers and Gray at Stony Stratford, on their passage with the young king to the capital.

1513. Edmund de la Pole, earl of Suffolk, on account of his near relationship to the house of York, beheaded.

1519. A skirmish at Edinburgh, called "Cleanse the Causeway," between the earls of Arran and Angus.

1524. Pierre du Terrail, chevalier de Bayard, buried. He was a distinguished warrior under Francis I, mortally wounded at the battle of Marignan.

1542. The new creed, called the King's Book, approved by the houses of convocation, and made the standard of English orthodoxy.

1544. Thomas Audley, an English statesman, died; appointed chancellor in the place of sir Thomas More.

1572. Pius V (Michael Ghisleri), died. He was an Italian of the Dominican order. It was under his auspices that the battle of Lepanto was fought, in which the Turks were so signally defeated.

1598. The edict of Nantes signed and sealed by Henry IV of France, re-establishing the protestant religion where it had been interrupted, and restoring its churches, houses and revenues.

1614. Captain John Smith arrived on the coast of New England, it being his first voyage to North Virginia, as the country was then called. He explored the coast in open boats, from Penobscot to Cape Cod, and trafficked with the Indians. It was on his return from this voyage that he presented a map of the country to prince Charles, who declared that it should be called New England.

1632. Battle of Ingolstadt, in Bavaria; the imperial troops of Germany, under count de Tilly, defeated by the Swedes under Gustavus Adolphus, and the general mortally wounded in defending the pass of the Lech.

1632. John Tzerclaes, count de Tilly, died; a Dutch officer, who distinguished himself in the wars with the Turks, and with Denmark.

1637. The puritans forbid by royal proclamation to emigrate to New England.

1655. Eustache le Sueur died; one of the best French historical painters of his time.

1655. Christopher Bennet died; a distinguished London physician, and writer on medical subjects.

1667. The Dutch fleet attacked Burnt island, in Scotland, but were repulsed.

1690. Rene le Pays, a French poet, died; well known at court by his miscellanies.

1696. Robert Plot died; an eminent English philosopher and naturalist.

1707. George Farquhar, an ingenious comic writer, died. He was the son of an Irish clergyman, and held a commission in [173]the army. His comedies are sprightly and diverting.

1712. Philip Limborch died; a Dutch professor of divinity, and author of a history of the inquisition.

1724. William Dawes, an English nobleman and prelate, died. He was learned, benevolent and pious, and author of several religious works.

1735. Daniel Duncan died; one of the most eminent physicians of his time. He was known in almost every part of Europe as a practitioner and an author.

1745. Battle of Fontenoy, in Belgium, between the British and Hanoverians, under the duke of Cumberland, and the French under count de Saxe. The allies were defeated with great loss.

1758. German Flats in the colony of New York attacked by French Indians.

1762. The celebrated John Wilkes committed to the tower as the author of the North Briton, the 45th number of which was burnt by the common hangman.

1769. Battle of Choczine between the Russians and Turks.

1776. The eccentric Edward Wortley Montague died. He was the son of Lady Mary the author of the celebrated letters.

1781. Arnold, the traitor, made war upon 1,200 hogsheads of tobacco at Manchester, Va., and on his return to Petersburg conflagrated a large range of rope walks, a magazine of flour, all the vessels on the stocks, a number of warehouses, &c., and several fine mills. His progress was like that of the cannibal!

1789. Washington inaugurated first president of the United States.

1795. Jean Jacques Barthelemi, "the Nestor of French literature," died, aged 80. His principal work is Travels of Anacharsis in Greece.

1796. George Anderson, an English self-taught mathematician, died. His parents were peasants and he wrought as a day laborer till he attracted attention. He translated Archimedes' treatise on measuring the sands, and wrote a general view of the variations which have taken place in the affairs of the East India company. His intense application proved fatal to him at the age of 36, after which his widow received a pension, as a reward due to the merits of her husband.

1802. Lotea, in Spain, destroyed by the bursting of a reservoir, which inundated more than twenty leagues of the surrounding country, and "upwards of 1,000 persons perished, exclusive of cattle, &c."

1810. The prince regent of Portugal prohibited the exportation of wine.

1812. Eruption of the Souffriere mountain, in St. Vincent, one of the Caribee islands. It was preceded by repeated earthquakes for 11 months. No flames had been emitted since 1718.

1812. Samuel Abbot, a Boston merchant, died. He was one of the founders of Andover theological seminary, and contributed altogether about $125,000 to that institution.

1812. Henry Lemoine died. He was a bookseller, but better known as a translator of the German contributor to the Gentleman's Magazine, &c.

1816. A spot on the sun visible with the naked eye at Philadelphia. It was seen for several days.

1840. George Brummell, the celebrated Beau Brummell, died at Caen, in France, aged 62. He was the associate of George IV when prince of Wales, and was for a long time at the head of fashion and manners in England. He passed the latter part of his life in poverty, and towards the close of it, was confined in a madhouse.

1843. Jacob Ridgway, a wealthy mechanic, died at Philadelphia. He was in early life a shipcarpenter, and subsequently American consul at Antwerp. His property was estimated at $6,000,000. He was noted for liberality to mechanics and tenants.

1854. The first rail road opened in Brazil, the emperor and empress being present at the inauguration.

1854. James Montgomery, the poet and journalist, of Sheffield, died, aged 82.

1855. Henry Rowley Bishop, a noted English music composer, died, aged 68. He was the most distinguished representative of the English school of composition, and was knighted in 1842.

1857. W. B. Buchanan, an American poet, died, aged 63. He was long a correspondent of the National Intelligencer and other papers, residing in Virginia.


[174]

MAY.

MAY 1.

305. Diocletian, the Roman emperor, abdicated the throne in the presence of the soldiery and a multitude of people, at Nicomedia, in the 21st year of his reign. When afterwards solicited by a friend to resume the purple, he calmly replied, that if he could show the cabbages which he had planted at Salona with his own hands, he should no longer be urged to relinquish the enjoyment of happiness for the pursuit of power.

475. Henghist, the Saxon, caused 300 English noblemen to be murdered.

1119. Henry I of England obtained a great victory over the Normans at Brenville.

1291. All the Italian merchants in the realm of France, called money lenders, seized by order of Philip the fair, for their ransoms.

1308. Albert I, emperor of Germany, assassinated by his nephew, John, duke of Swabia. The Swiss were led by his oppressions to assert their liberty.

1515. Henry VIII and queen attended by nobles went a maying and were entertained by the noted forester Robin Hood.

1517. A riot among the London apprentices, against foreign artisans, which resulted in the death and mutilation of many of the latter, principally Frenchmen. It commenced at 9 o'clock in the evening, and continued till 3 in the morning. The exertions of the city authorities, who had notice of the meditated riot, were unable to prevent or quell it. The next morning, several hundred youths, from 13 years upwards, were arrested, and ten gallows, constructed to move from street to street, prepared for their execution. The ring leaders were drawn, hanged and quartered; when an order came from the king to suspend the execution, and the remainder were pardoned.

1557. England made her first commercial treaty with Russia.

1607. Henry Hudson sailed from Gravesend on his first voyage for the discovery of a northwest passage to India. In this voyage he discovered the island of Spitzbergen.

1619. The famous Calvinistic convocation, the synod of Dort, caused their decrees to be publicly read, and dissolved the council. (May 9? 29?)

1637. A court was summoned at Hartford, Conn., to take measures to secure the colony against the depredations of the Pequot Indians. They determined that an offensive war should be carried on against them, and voted to raise 90 men! The Pequots then numbered 5000 fighting men.

1660. The convention parliament having heard Charles's letters read by sir John Granville, voted that the government of England should be by king, lords, and commons.

1683. Robert Fitzgerald received a patent in England for making salt water fresh.

1701. John Dryden, an illustrious English poet, died. "What he has done in any one species or distinct kind of writing would have been sufficient to have acquired him a great name."

1703. Battle of Pultusk, in Poland, in which the Swedes under Charles XII defeated 10,000 Poles.

1707. Union of England and Scotland consummated.

1708. Claude de Vert died; he devoted much attention to the ceremonies of the church of Rome, of which he wrote a history.

1727. Francis Paris, a French ecclesiastic, died. He retired from office, bestowing his property upon his brother, in order to devote himself to the austerities of a religious life. After his death crowds flocked to his grave to touch his holy monument, till the authorities caused the church yard to be shut.

1737. John Alphonsus Turretini died; professor of ecclesiastical history at Geneva, distinguished for his learning.

1755. John Baptist Oudri died; an admired French painter.

1760. William Duncan died; an ingenious Scottish critic, professor of philosophy at Aberdeen, and translator of Cæsar's Commentaries.

[175]1771. Louis Petit de Bachaumon died; a native of Paris, known as the author of several literary works.

1772. Gottfried Achenwall, an eminent German lecturer on statistics, history and the laws of nature, died at Göttingen.

1774. William Hewson died; an eminent English anatomist, and medical author.

1775. Israel Lyons died; a celebrated English mathematician.

1776. Dr. Adam Weishaupt, professor of canon law at Ingolstadt, founded the secret society of the illuminati.

1785. Miles Cooper died; a learned English divine and poet.

1786. Gibbon concluded the fourth volume of his History, immortal as its subject.

1789. The states general of France met at Paris, convened by the king to calm the troubles of the state, which he had not power to quell, and which had now assumed a menacing appearance towards royalty itself.

1790. Indian war commenced between the British and Tippo Saib, sultan of Mysore.

1807. Slave trade in the West Indies proscribed in the British parliament.

1808. A volcano broke out in the island of St. George, one of the Azores. A crater was formed in the centre of the island, amidst fertile pastures, 3,500 feet in height, and this beautiful island, before rich in cattle, corn and wine, became a scene of ruin and devastation.

1809. Gottlieb Conrad Pfeffel, one of the best poets of Germany, died. He became blind at the age of 21, a misfortune which he bore more than 80 years, and rendered himself a useful citizen by conducting a school where many excellent scholars were educated.

1813. British and Indians opened their fire upon fort Meigs, from a 24, a 12 and a 6 pounder, and a howitzer. They fired 260 shot, and wounded 8 men, 1 mortally.

1813. John Baptist Bessiers, duke of Istria, killed. He distinguished himself under Napoleon, by whom he was greatly lamented. He was killed in the combat that preceded the battle of Lutzen.

1813. James Delille, one of the most celebrated of modern French poets, died.

1814. Pierre Van Cortlandt, a distinguished revolutionary patriot, died at his seat at Croton river, aged 94. He was a member of the first provincial congress, and eighteen years lieutenant governor of the state of New York.

1823. The skeleton, entire, of a mammoth, was discovered at Ilford, in Essex, England.

1830. The Comet started on her first trip up the Arkansas, being the first steam boat that ascended that river.

1837. An official return stated that there were 70,000 English residents in France, and over 24,000 in Paris alone.

1838. Battle of Rio Pardo, in Rio Grande, between the troops of the emperor of Brazil, about 1,800 in number, and the republican forces; the former were completely routed.

1839. Herbert Marsh, professor of divinity in the university of Cambridge, England, died. He was the author of many learned theological works and controversial publications.

1848. Insurrectionary movements at Rome in consequence of the pope's refusal to declare war against Austria.

1854. Great flood in the Connecticut valley; the water was 29½ feet above low water mark, and 2½ feet higher than during the great flood of 1801. Hundreds of persons were driven from their dwellings and drowned.

1855. The French under Gen. Pelissier carried the Russian works at Sebastopol, in front of the central bastion, and held them against vigorous sorties, taking eight small mortars, and 200 prisoners.

1855. An extraordinary eruption of mount Vesuvius commenced, which in ten days had advanced ten miles from its original source.

1856. Ogden Hoffman, a distinguished member of the New York bar, died, aged 62. He served as a midshipman in the last war with Great Britain, after which he studied law, and took the front rank in his profession, and showed an eminent fitness for the public offices which he filled.

1856. George James Guthrie, an eminent British surgeon, died in London, aged 71. He published several valuable works on surgery.

MAY 2.

373. Athanasius, patriarch of Alexandria, died. His parents were pagans; he became a Christian, and distinguished himself by his learning, and the zeal with which he opposed the Arian heresy.

1450. The duke of Suffolk, prime minister to Henry VI of England, beheaded in a boat at Calais. During his ministry England lost most of her possessions in France. Yet his murder was resented by the formidable rebellion of Jack Cade.

1487. Lambert Simnel, an impostor, crowned at Dublin, by the title of Edward VI.

1494. Columbus discovered the island of Jamaica.

[176]1519. Leonardo da Vinci, a celebrated Italian painter, died. He distinguished himself in early youth by the variety of studies which he accomplished. He afterwards became the head of the Florentine school of painting.

1520. Sebastian Brandt died; counsellor of Strassburg, a lawyer, and author of a curious poem.

1550. Joan Bocher, of Kent, England, burnt for heresy.

1568. Mary, queen of Scots, aided by the gallant George Douglass, escaped from the castle of Lochleven, where she was confined after the murder of Darnley.

1595. Anthony, titular king of Portugal, died at Paris, a fugitive from the victorious arms of the Spaniards.

1606. Fernand de Quiros discovered the New Hebrides islands.

1611. The Half Moon, in which Hudson made his memorable voyage of discovery, sailed in company with another vessel to the East Indies, under captain Laurens Redel, and was lost. (March 6.)

1635. Horace Vere, an English general, died. He was created baron Tilbury by Charles I for meritorious services.

1667. George Withers, an English pastoral poet, died. He was so zealous a partisan of democracy, and of Cromwell, that the authorities frequently placed him in a straight jacket. His poems were numerous and quaint.

1679. James Sharp, archbishop of St. Andrews, assassinated for his zeal in the cause of the episcopacy in Scotland.

1691. George Mackenzie, a Scottish lawyer, died. He figured conspicuously in trials of witchcraft, which puzzled the best heads in those days, and it is probable that he dealt with that sin most thoroughly, for he received the appellation of "the blood thirsty advocate." He was a literary character, however, of no small note, and was among the first Scotchmen who wrote the English language in a style approaching to purity.

1711. Lawrence Hyde, earl of Rochester, died; deservedly respected as an able statesman.

1753. Leonor Jean Christine Soulas d'Allainval died; a native of Chartres, in France, and author of several comedies of merit.

1774. Permission was given to the society of antiquaries to open the stone coffin of Edward I, and it was found that the body was in a perfect state of preservation, and measured 6 feet 2 inches. It had been placed in wax.

1777. David Wooster, a revolutionary officer, died of a wound received in pursuing the British from Danbury (April 27). He graduated at Yale college, and at the commencement of hostilities was appointed to the chief command of the Connecticut troops.

1785. John Lewis Moreau de Beaumont, a French political author, died. His works are much and deservedly admired.

1795. The number of prisoners confined in the 12 prisons of Paris amounted to 2338.

1802. Bonaparte constituted first consul for a second term of ten years.

1808. Embargo laid on American shipping in France.

1808. The royal family of Spain sent prisoners to France. At the sight of this procedure, there was a general insurrection of the inhabitants of Madrid, who attacked the French soldiers with knives, and a bloody contest took place, which was only quelled by scouring the streets with grape shot. The Spaniards finally desisted on seeing their resistance fruitless. It is estimated that 4,000 French and 6,000 Spaniards lost their lives.

1808. John Collins died; author of The Evening Brush, an oral entertainment of story, song and sentiment, which he delivered many years with great success, in all the principal towns in Great Britain. In this sort of entertainment he has had many followers, among whom the most noted was Charles Matthews.

1809. Battle of Amaranta, in Portugal, in which the Portuguese were defeated by the French under Soult.

1813. Battle of Lutzen, between the French army under Bonaparte, and the allies, under the kings of Russia and Prussia. The attack was commenced by the allies under Blucher upon the French centre, with a fury irresistible. The battle was for a long time maintained by both armies with obstinate energy. It was the more desperate and deplorable, says sir Walter Scott, that on the one side fought the flower of the Russian youth, which had left their universities to support the cause of national honor and freedom; and on the other, the young men of Paris, many of them of the best rank, who bravely endeavored to sustain their country's long pre-eminent claim to victory. Both combatted under the eyes of their respective sovereigns, maintained the honor of their country, and paid an ample tribute to the carnage of the day. The victory finally resulted to the arms of the French, by the superior generalship of their great leader, and the determined bravery of his troops. The allies sustained a loss of 20,000, and among them several experienced officers. The French loss was severe.

1817. Catharine Rush died at Philadelphia, aged 110 years, 11 months.

1821. Hester Lynch Piozzi, an English [177]authoress, died. She is known as Mrs. Thrale, the friend of Dr. Johnson.

1825. Adam Seybert, an American statistical writer, died at Paris. He was a member of congress from Philadelphia, and a man of science.

1836. Jeremiah Holme Whiffen, an English poet, died. He belonged to the society of friends, published a variety of miscellaneous poems, a translation of the Spanish poet Garcilasso de la Vega, and of Tasso.

1840. Thomas Manning, an eminent English linguist, died, aged 67. Having made several ineffectual attempts to penetrate China, his services were solicited by the British government, to accompany lord Amherst in his embassy to that country. He made himself one of the first Chinese scholars in Europe, and collected one of the finest Chinese libraries to be found in that quarter of the world.

1844. William Beckford, author of the Arabian tale entitled Vathek, with many other works, died at Fonthill, England.

1855. George Head, a British commissariat, died, aged 73. He published several valuable works, relating to different parts of the world, where his duties called him, and was knighted in 1831.

1856. James Gates Percival, an eminent American poet and philosopher, died in Wisconsin, aged 60. He was a native of Connecticut, graduated at Yale college, and studied medicine, but devoted himself to the cultivation of poetry, and the pursuit of science. He assisted in preparing Webster's Dictionary for the press, and superintended the publication of Malte Brun's Geography. He afterwards made a geological survey of Connecticut, and in 1854 was appointed state geologist of Wisconsin, in which service he died. Although distinguished for his attainments in philology and general science, he will be chiefly remembered as one of the eminent American poets.

MAY 3.

1324. A poetic festival at Toulouse called jeux floraux, to which all the poets of the Langue d'Oc were invited, where the composer of the best poem was to receive a violet of fine gold. The celebrated troubadour, Arnaud Vidal, won the prize.

1381. John Ball, a priest and compeer of the notorious Wat Tyler, preached to Tyler's army from the proverbial rhyme:

"When Adam dalfe and Eve span,
Who was then a gentleman?"

1410. Alexander V, pope, died. He was originally a beggar, but found means to cultivate his mind, and rose by degrees in the church till he reached the pontifical chair. He is distinguished as a man of great firmness, liberal and munificent.

1481. Mahomet II, sultan of Turkey, died. He took Constantinople from the Christians, thereby driving many learned men into the West, which was a great cause of the restoration of learning in Europe.

1493. The pope issued a great bull, by which the infidel world was divided between Ferdinand and Isabella on the one hand, and the Portuguese on the other. That is, the Spanish were granted the full right to all countries inhabited by infidels which they should discover west of an imaginary line drawn from pole to pole, at a distance of 100 leagues westward of the Azores, while the Portuguese were to have all east of that line.

1568. Dominique de Gourges, having destroyed the Spanish settlements in Florida, embarked for France. The Spaniards had seized the French settlements in the same places, and murdered the inhabitants. Gourges fitted out three vessels and 150 soldiers at his own expense to revenge their death, and repair the honor of his nation. The Spaniards were well fortified to the number of 400 in their forts; but de Gourges resolutely pressed forward, and after a desperate assault carried the forts. Those who escaped the massacre were hung upon the same trees on which the Frenchmen had previously been hung. The Spaniards had placed over their victims a label, signifying, "I do not this as to Frenchmen, but as to Lutherans." De Gourges replaced it with a tablet of fir wood, on which was graven the following: "I do not this as to Spaniards, nor as to mariners, but as to traitors, robbers and murderers."

1573. A border feud at Reedsquair, between the English and Scottish marchmen, in which the former were completely beaten. This skirmish was the last of any note between the two nations.

1621. Sentence of fine and imprisonment passed upon lord Bacon in the house of peers for bribery.

1649. Isaac Dorislaus assassinated; a Dutchman who went from Leyden to England and read lectures on history at Cambridge. He was alternately royalist and republican during the civil wars; and was stabbed to the heart by some enthusiastic royalist while on an embassy to Holland.

1655. The English took the island of Jamaica from the Spanish.

1664. The earl of Tiviot, governor of Tangier, surprised and defeated by the Moors.

1697. Kaldan, khan of the Eleuts, who had for several years eluded the formidable armies sent against him annually from [178]China, accompanied by the emperor himself, being finally reduced to the last extremity, and abandoned by his best subjects, put an end to his life by poison.

1702. Lord Cornbury commenced his administration of the government of New York.

1711. Richard Chiswell, a noted English printer and an extensive publisher, died.

1733. Richard Cox, lord chancellor of Ireland, died. He published a history of that kingdom.

1747. Naval battle between the English fleet under Anson and Warren, and the French fleet under M. de la Jonquiere, which was convoying six East India ships and a number of transports and merchantmen to Canada. After a regular and well fought battle, the French struck their colors. The loss of the French killed and wounded was 700; that of the British 500. The trophies of the victory were six men of war and all of their East India ships, and between four and five thousand prisoners. The treasure taken on board these vessels was afterwards conveyed to the bank of England in 20 wagons. The French loss by this defeat was estimated at one million and a half.

1759. A young woman in England who had laid a considerable wager that she could ride 1000 miles in 1000 hours, finished her match in a little more than two-thirds of that time. At her coming in the country people strewed flowers in her way.

1763. George Psalmanazar, a literary impostor, died. He was a native of France, and obtained a thorough education. After various adventures he arrived at London under the character of a Japanese converted to Christianity, was patronized by the great, and undertook to translate the catechism into Japanese, and wrote a history of the country. Some absurdities were detected, when he confessed himself an impostor, and afterwards subsisted by turning his pen to better employment.

1765. Sujah ul Dowlah defeated at Calpy, in India, by the British.

1776. Sir Peter Parker's squadron of 20 sail arrived at Cape Fear river, with lord Cornwallis.

1784. Anthony Banezet, a philanthropist of Philadelphia, died. He was a native of France, and early engaged in mercantile pursuits, which he abandoned to devote his attention to objects of benevolence and philanthropy, in which he continued during a long life.

1793. Battle of Famars, in which the allies drove the French from their camp with great loss.

1794. James William Thouret guillotined; he was president of the national assembly when Louis XVI accepted the constitution of 1791.

1797. The first commencement of Union College for conferring degrees in the arts and sciences.

1797. Bonaparte invaded Venice pretending that the Venetians had illtreated the French. This issued in republicanizing Venice and Genoa.

1799. Benjamin Flower, printer of the Cambridge Intelligencer, was fined £100 and ordered by the house of lords to be imprisoned 6 months, for some freedom with the speech of bishop Llandaff.

1802. Peter Elmsly, a partner of the celebrated Paul Valliant, and himself an importer of books and no mean critic and linguist, died.

1810. Lord Byron, in emulation of Leander, swam the Dardanelles, from Abydos to Sestos. The distance, including the length he was carried by the current, was upwards of four miles; though the actual breadth is barely one.

1813. Havre de Grace, Maryland, burnt by the British.

1814. Bonaparte arrived at the island of Elba, and Louis XVIII made his entrance into Paris.

1814. Thomas Coke, a methodist bishop in the United States, died. He became one of the assistants of Mr. Wesley, and was active in the service of the church. He wrote a Commentary on the Bible, History of the West Indies, &c.

1816. James McHenry, confident of Gen. Washington, and for some time secretary of war, died at Baltimore.

1818. Capt. Ross sailed from Shetland, on his first voyage for the discovery of the north-west passage.

1839. Fernando Paer, an Italian dramatic composer, died at Paris. He was a native of Parma; his pieces have been performed in Germany, France and Italy, with success.

1840. James Morison, self-styled The Hygeist, died at Paris, aged 70. He was the inventor of the vegetable universal medicines, known as Morison's Pills, from which he realized great profits, and is said to have paid the English government in ten years £60,000 for medicine stamps.

1849. A serious insurrection occurred at Dresden, in Saxony, but was in a few days put down.

1852. Sarah Coleridge died; the accomplished and only daughter of S. T. Coleridge. She translated from the Latin the curious works of Dobrizhoffer on Paraguay, 3 vols., and completed the editorial care of her father's Literary Remains, begun by her husband.

1853. John B. Gibson, an eminent Pennsylvania jurist, died at Philadelphia, aged [179]73; at which time he was judge of the supreme court.

1856. Adolphe Charles Adam, the noted French music composer, died at Paris, aged 54.

MAY 4.

1471. Battle of Tewkesbury, between the York partisans and the Lancastrians, in which the latter were defeated, and queen Margaret and her son Edward taken prisoners. The young prince was basely murdered on the spot, by the dukes of Gloucester and Clarence.

1605. Ulysses Aldrovand, a Bolognese philosopher, died. He was the most celebrated naturalist of the 16th century, and spent his life and exhausted his resources in the pursuit of science. He lost his sight, and ended his days in a hospital at the age of 80.

1643. Louis XIII (the just), king of France, died. He was guided in his conduct by the celebrated cardinal Richelieu, who, from motives of ambition, kept him at war during most of his reign.

1655. Giovanni Francesca Abela, a historian and ecclesiastic of Malta, died.

1668. A riot in London under pretence of destroying brothels. Four of the leaders taken and executed for treason. In the reign of some of the English kings the demolition of such houses would not have been adjudged treason.

1673. Richard Brathwaite, an English poet and miscellaneous writer, died. His works are numerous.

1677. Isaac Barrow, an eminent English mathematician and divine, died. His writings are numerous and valuable, and chiefly on mathematical subjects; his sermons are highly esteemed, and have been frequently edited.

1702. War declared against France and Spain, by England, Germany and Holland.

1729. Lewis Anthony de Noailles, a French cardinal, died. Though by birth duke of St. Cloud, he preferred the ecclesiastical state to political distinction.

1734. James Thornhill died; an English historical painter.

1737. Eustace Budgell, the friend of Addison, drowned in the Thames. He turned his attention to polite literature, contributed to the Spectator, Tatler, Guardian and Craftsman, and published two volumes of biography.

1768. Charles Stephen Louis Camus died, a learned French mathematician.

1786. George Gordon, an English nobleman, who it is said submitted to circumcision, avowed Judaism, and was excommunicated from the church of Mary le Bone.

1791. The pope burnt in effigy at Paris.

1799. Seringapatam, a city of Hindostan, taken by storm by the British, under Gen. Harris. Tippoo Saib was slain, with 8,000 of his men. The treasure found in the city amounted to £3,000,000; 2,200 cannon, and an immense booty, fell into the hands of the conquerors, and the once powerful kingdom of Mysore was extinguished.

1804. The conservative senate sent a deputation to Bonaparte, expressing their desire that he would accept the title of emperor.

1813. Heavy rain retarded the firing on fort Meigs; 220 cannon shot were fired; 2 killed, several wounded. The rifle was more used this day than on any other.

1831. Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt, employed upwards of 70,000 men in excavating, cleansing and lining canals in his territories.

1842. Great fire at Hamburg, in Germany, destroyed 2,000 houses.

1843. James P. Preston, formerly governor of Virginia, died at Smithfield, aged 69. He commanded a regiment in the war of 1812, and was maimed for life in the battle of Chrystler's fields.

1854. Alexander Witherspoon, a New York physician, died at Washington, aged 37; a medical writer remarkable for the exactness of his observations and the clearness of his statements.

1854. John Matthews died, aged 70. He served with distinction as a general officer in the war of 1812-15; and for a period of fifteen years was a representative in the state legislature of Maryland.

1856. John Collins Warren, a distinguished Boston physician, died, aged 77. He was the first successful competitor for the Franklin medal. He had a long and brilliant career as a physician, and during the latter years of his life devoted much time to the study of the natural sciences, and collected a valuable museum, among which was the most perfect skeleton of the mastodon known to exist.

MAY 5.

1421. A holy convocation at Canterbury decreed that a bishop's barber should not receive a fee from any one on whom the bishop had conferred holy orders.

1432. Francesco Bussone di Carmagnola, count de Castlenuovo, executed. He was a celebrated Italian general, first in the service of the duke of Milan, afterwards led the Venetian army to repeated victories. His fortune at length turned, when the senate suspecting him of treachery, he was tortured and condemned to death.

[180]1526. Frederick (the wise), elector of Savoy, died. He was one of the first and most zealous friends of Luther.

1529. Paulus Æmilius, a learned Italian, died. He was invited to France, where he employed a great number of years in writing a history of the French kings, but did not live to finish it.

1556. The company of London stationers received their first charter from Philip and Mary, under the title of "The master and keepers or wardens, and commonalty, of the mystery or art of the stationers of the city of London."

1586. Henry Sidney, an English statesman, died. He was the favorite of Edward VI, and afterwards employed by Mary and Elizabeth.

1618. One Williams, a barrister, arraigned for libeling the king, was executed.

1643. Parliament of England ordered the Book of Sports to be burned by the common hangman.

1670. Francis Annibal d'Estrees, a French statesman, died, aged 98. He distinguished himself by several military exploits, and wrote some valuable historical works.

1682. William Penn, published in England his frame of government for the colony of Pennsylvania.

1687. A proclamation was issued by government to establish a manufactory for white paper in England.

1700. Stephen Morin, a French protestant divine, died at Amsterdam. He was professor of oriental languages; his dissertations on various subjects of criticism and antiquity were highly esteemed.

1705. Leopold I, emperor of Germany, died. He was long engaged in sanguinary war with the Turks and the French, who pillaged and destroyed his frontier towns.

1706. Lateral eruption of the peak of Teneriffe. A volcano opened at the south side, towards the port of Garachico, and in a few hours not an edifice of that populous city was left standing.

1710. Nicholas Joseph Poisson, a French priest, died. He was the friend of Descartes, and a philosopher; distinguished for his eloquence and as an author.

1751. John Pichon died; a French Jesuit and an author.

1757. Battle of Prague, between the Prussians under Frederick the great and the Austrians. The Prussians were victorious, after a bloody contest, in which the distinguished general, count Schwerin, was killed. Austrian loss 24,000; Prussian loss 18,000.

1760. Lawrence Shirley, earl of Feraro, executed at Tyburn for the murder of his steward. He was a man of no mean mental acquirements, but passionate and often inflamed by inebriety.

1776. Congress declared the authority of England over the thirteen colonies abolished.

1785. Thomas Davies (alias Honest Tom Davies), an English author, died. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, became an actor, afterwards a bookseller, turned strolling player, married Miss Yarrow, an actress of great beauty, returned to bookselling, became bankrupt, was relieved by the assistance of Dr. Johnson, wrote the Life of Garrick, several other biographies and innumerable miscellanies, and was entrusted with the publication of Granger's Biographical History of England.

1789. Joseph Baretti, an Italian lexicographer, died. He emigrated to England, where he published an Italian and English dictionary, and assisted Dr. Johnson in compiling his dictionary.

1789. Assembly of the states general of France, at Versailles. This may be called the first day of the revolution, although the object of the meeting was to prevent such a catastrophe.

1795. The law went into operation in England imposing a tax on wearing hair powder.

1802. Cleopatra's coffin, head of the Theban ram, and other Egyptian curiosities, arrived in England.

1804. France formed into an empire.

1808. Peter John George Cabanis, a French physician, died. He was the friend of Mirabeau, sat in the council of 500, and in the senate of Napoleon acquired great reputation for talent, learning and benevolence. His works are published in 7 volumes.

1811. Battle of Fuentes d'Onor, in Portugal; the French repulsed with great loss, by the British under Wellington.

1813. Battle at Fort Meigs; Gen. Clay arrived with 1,000 Kentucky militia and volunteers, attacked the British, carried their batteries and spiked their cannon; but having pressed too far in pursuit, were met by a reinforcement of Indians, and in turn defeated, so that only 150 escaped. The British had fired 143 cannon shot into the fort before the arrival of Gen. Clay. American loss, 64 killed, 124 wounded, exclusive of Clay's loss. British stated their loss at 103, killed, wounded and missing, and that they had taken 495 American prisoners.

1814. Napoleon landed at Elba at an early hour in disguise, with a sergeant's company of marines. He made a formal landing at 2 in the afternoon, and was welcomed by the people with acclamation.

1821. Napoleon Bonaparte died at St. Helena, in the 52d year of his age, and the [181]6th of his exile, to the great relief of the British nation. He commenced in 1795 that unparalleled career of military achievements, which continued to agitate Europe for 20 years, and terminated with the battle of Waterloo, 1815.

1822. Thomas Truxton, an American naval officer, died. He distinguished himself in the revolutionary war, and also in the war with France of 1799, after which he retired from the navy, and died in Philadelphia.

1827. Frederick Augustus I, king of Saxony, died, aged 77; a wise and benevolent monarch, who devoted the energy of his mind to promote the welfare of his subjects.

1846. John Pickering, an eminent American philologist, died at Boston, aged 60. He commenced the practice of the law, and distinguished himself as a jurist; but his reputation rests chiefly on his attainments as a scholar, and on his literary and scientific labors, which were of great service to the cause of learning in this country. He published a vocabulary of Americanisms, and a Greek and English lexicon.

1848. Opening of the national assembly of France, after the abdication of Louis Philippe.

1853. His other demands having been conceded, prince Menschikoff sent in an ultimatum to the Turkish divan, demanding for the emperor of Russia the protectorate of the Greek church Christians in Turkey.

1853. A new planet was discovered at the observatory of Bilk, at Dusseldorf, by Prof. Luther.

MAY 6.

356. B. C. Marcius Rutilus, the first dictator elected from the plebeians, entered Rome in triumph from his victories over the Etrurians.

1527. The imperialists under the duke of Bourbon, took Rome by assault and plundered it. The duke was killed by a musket ball. He had been disgraced at the French court, and was now in the service of Charles V of Germany.

1540. John Lewis Vives, a learned Spaniard, died. He resided some time at the court of Henry VIII of England, where he was imprisoned for opposing the divorce of Catharine of Arragon.

1562. Paul de la Barthe, lord of Thermes, a French general, died, aged 80. He was distinguished in the wars of his country by several important victories.

1569. The first English lottery, which commenced drawing on the 11th January (q. v.), and had been continued day and night, finished on this day. It consisted of 400,000 lots of 10s. each. The prizes were plate, and the profits were to be expended in repairing the havens of the kingdom.

1631. Robert Bruce Cotton, an eminent English antiquary, died. His writings are numerous and valuable, and he did great service to learning by leaving his valuable library to the use of posterity, in the British museum.

1643. Battle of Stratton, in which the parliamentary army under the earl of Stamford was attacked by the Cornish royalists, who, although far inferior in numbers, gained a complete victory, taking the camp of the enemy, all their artillery, baggage and provisions, and many prisoners.

1667. Samuel Bochart, a learned French protestant divine, died. He was distinguished as an oriental scholar, and died while delivering an oration at the academy of Caen.

1673. The island of St. Helena retaken by the English.

1712. Garien de sieur de Sandras Courtlitz, a French author, died. His works were numerous, and some of them political, for which he was confined in the bastile nine years.

1739. Kouli Khan, after pillaging the capital of Hindostan, and slaughtering 150,000 of its inhabitants, departed from the city, leaving his son Mohammed Schah on the throne.

1743. Andrew Michael Ramsay, a Scottish historian and philosopher, died. He spent much of his time in France, with Fenelon and Turenne, where he died.

1763. John Wilkes released from the tower by the memorable sentence of chief justice Pratt. (See April 30).

1766. Samuel Squire, bishop of St. David's died; a poetical, historical and antiquarian writer of note.

1766. Lord Howe and Gen. Howe appointed commissioners for restoring peace to the British colonies.

1766. Thomas Arthur Lally, an Irish officer in the service of France, executed. He fought against the British in the East Indies with great bravery, but had become so unpopular, that on being defeated he was imprisoned and condemned for treason.

1780. Fort Moultrie, on Sullivan's island, surrendered to the British, who bombarded Charleston at the same time.

1782. Stephen Mignol de Montigni died at Paris; eminent as a mechanic and a man of science, who introduced several useful manufactures into France.

1790. John James Gesner died; professor in the university at Zurich, and a noted Swiss author.

1796. Adolphus F. F. L. Knigge, a German author, died. His works were various, and his novels once popular. He [182]was a member of the illuminati, and implicated in some of the disputes relating to that order.

1801. Action of Barcelona, between British ship Speedy, 14 guns 54 men, lord Cochrane, and Spanish frigate El Gamo, 32 guns 319 men. British loss, killed and wounded 11, Spanish loss, 55.

1802. Samuel McDonald died, aged 40. He served under the British with the Sutherland fencibles, and afterwards as fugleman in the royals. He was six feet ten inches in height, and his strength is represented to have been prodigious. He continued active till his 35th year, when he began to decline, and died of water in the chest.

1811. William Boscawen, an English poet and miscellaneous writer, died. His translation of Horace is preferred by some critics to that of Dr. Francis.

1814. Battle of Oswego. The town was attacked the second time by the British, 1,600 soldiers and sailors, and two companies of Glengarians, under Gen. Drummond. The Americans, about 300, under Col. Mitchell, gallantly defended the place, till they were compelled to retreat before an overwhelming force, after securing their stores. American loss, killed 6, wounded 38, missing 25; British, 94.

1839. William Lenoir, an officer of the revolution, died. He bore a distinguished part in the war in South Carolina, and was closely identified with the early history of the state. He held various civil offices, was a justice of the peace about 60 years, and for many years a member of the state legislature. He was distinguished for integrity, firmness and patriotism.

1840. Demetrius Augustine Galitzin, son of prince de Galitzin, one of the first nobility of Russia, died in poverty at Loretto, Pa., aged 70. He left the princely halls of his ancestors, and spent thirty years in a rude log cabin in America, almost denying himself the comforts of life, that he might devote his days to religion, and assist the poor and distressed. Few have left behind them such examples of charity and benevolence.

1840. Francisco Paula de Santander, formerly president of the republic of New Granada, died at Bogota, aged 48. When the revolution began to agitate the country he embarked in the cause of independence, and soon rose to distinction as an officer in the army.

1844. Fearful rioting in Philadelphia between the native Americans and Irish.

1848. Engagement between the Austrians and Piedmontese before Verona; great loss on both sides.

1848. Gen. Folque, a veteran officer, died at Lisbon, Portugal, aged 102.

1853. The drawbridge of the New York and New Haven rail road having been carelessly left open at Norwalk, the cars were thrown into the water; forty-five persons were killed, and many severely injured.

1856. An accident occurred on the Panama rail road, recently put in operation, by which 43 persons were killed, and 60 wounded.

1856. William Hamilton, a distinguished Scottish metaphysician, died at Edinburgh, where he was professor of logic and metaphysics, and became more widely known by his volume of Essays.

MAY 7.

431 B. C. The war which wasted the Athenians for 27 years, commonly called the Peloponnesian war, began May 7th.

399 B. C. Socrates, the greatest of the ancient philosophers, died. He was put to death by the Athenians on a charge of atheism, and corrupting the youth.

973. Otho (the great), emperor of Germany, died. He was an active and valiant prince, who made himself respected by the powers of Europe.

1253. Rubruquius (or Ruysbroeck) landed at Soldaia, on the Black sea, on his way to discover a Christian people, who were said to inhabit the centre of Tartary. On this embassy he explored that country, and though unsuccessful in the object of his mission, he brought back a fund of curious information, which after the lapse of centuries is still about the best picture we possess of Tartar life. But few have been among them in their native wilds since then, and those who have, like Marco Polo, John Bell and Timkowsky, confirm most of his details.

1402. Battle of Nisbeth, between the English and Scottish forces, in which 10,000 of the latter were slain.

1588. Lord Burleigh, as chancellor of Cambridge, issued rules for reforming the apparel and other "disorders" of the scholars: "and that the excess of colored shirtbands and ruffs, exceeding one inch and a half (saving for the sons of noblemen), be avoided presently; and that no scholar do wear any long locks of hair upon his head, but that he be polled after the manner of the gravest scholars, under pain of 6s. 8d."

1621. John Guillim died; rouge-croix pursuivant at arms, and author of a celebrated work called The Display of Heraldry.

1621. John Suckling, an English poet, died. He also signalized himself as a soldier under Gustavus Adolphus.

1660. The king's statue was again set up in Guild hall, London, and the states arms taken down.

[183]1768. Patrick Delany died; an eminent divine and theological writer of Ireland, better known now as the friend and correspondent of Dean Swift.

1676. Henry de Valois (Henricus Valesius) died; a French critic of great abilities and learning.

1776. The American army under Gen. Thomas, on their retreat from before Quebec, took up their line of march at 1 in the morning, and reached Point de Chambault. At Jaques Cartier they had but one batteau to cross the army over with, and were fired upon during the whole time by two frigates.

1777. Charles de Brosses, president of the parliament of Burgundy, died. He is the author of several useful works.

1778. British took possession of Bordentown, N. J. They burnt 4 store-houses and about 40 vessels.

1794. Robespierre appeared before the French convention as the Champion of the Supreme Being! It was thought advisable to found a religion, and it was necessary first to enact a supreme being, for God had been abolished by a decree of the convention. The tyrant made an eloquent speech, and concluded by declaring the real temple of the supreme being to be the universe; his worship, virtue; his festivals the joy of a great nation. His propositions were carried by acclamation, and a solemn festival proclaimed, which under the arrangement of David, the painter, was a magnificent affair.

1795. Anthony Quentin Fouquier Tinville, a notorious French revolutionist, guillotined. As public accuser, he caused the death of immense numbers, of all ages and either sex.

1796. Bonaparte and the army of the French republic crossed the Po at Placenza.

1800. Nicholas Piccini, an eminent musical composer, died at Naples.

1811. Richard Cumberland died; eminent as a British poet, essayist, novelist and dramatic writer. The number of his works is very extraordinary, as was also his vanity.

1825. John Gabriel Chasteler, governor of Venice, died. He was a Spanish grandee of the first rank, entered the Austrian service, and distinguished himself in several engagements with the French. He possessed a chivalrous and cultivated mind, and spoke 12 languages.

1830. Treaty between the United States and Turkey signed at Constantinople, securing to the United States the free navigation of the Black sea, and the trade of the Turkish empire.

1838. Mary Sprouse died in Albemarle county, Va., aged 99. She was in the practice of carrying poultry, vegetables, &c., to market at Charlottesville, a distance of 8 miles, on foot, till within a few weeks of her death.

1838. Thomas Bradford, the oldest master printer in America, died at Philadelphia, aged 94. He was the successor of Dr. Franklin as editor, and entered upon the business in 1763. During the revolutionary war he was commissary-general to the Pennsylvania division, and printer to congress. He was long known as a distinguished printer, editor and publisher.

1840. A tremendous tornado passed over the city of Natchez, very destructive to life and property. Almost every building in the city was more or less injured, many being utterly demolished. The amount of property destroyed was estimated at $1,500,000; and 317 persons were killed.

1840. Thomas Barnes, principal editor of the Times newspaper, died in London, aged 56. He was unquestionably the most accomplished and powerful political writer of the day, and particularly excelled in the portraiture of public men.

1842. The island of Hayti destroyed by an earthquake. Not a single town escaped without some casualty. Thousands of lives were lost, and property to an incalculable extent was destroyed. Cape Haytien was entirely leveled with the ground, and of 12,000 inhabitants, one half were buried under the ruins, and of those which escaped, a great part perished by fire and other disasters which followed. Bands of armed negroes came in the next day to plunder, and stabbed and shot the wounded wherever they found them, for the jewels and clothing they wore.

1844. It was discovered that all the watches on board the British schooner Henry Curwen, and the chronometer, had stopped, and on referring to the three compasses on board, they were found to point different ways, and were entirely useless. In about two hours afterward the watches and chronometer recommenced going, and the compasses resumed their position. This occurred in 44° north, and 32° 35´ long., at 4 A. M.

1848. The Polish insurgents surrendered to the Prussian troops, after great slaughter, at Posen.

1848. Insurrection at Madrid, when many lives were lost.

1848. The Indians, who were in a state of insurrection in Yucatan against the Spanish population, entered the town of Marie, and butchered 200 of the inhabitants, besides committing other outrages.

1849. Gen. Worth died at San Antonio de Bexar of cholera.

1849. Macready, the English tragedian, [184]hissed from the stage of the Astor opera house in New York.

1852. James Savage, a distinguished London architect, died, aged 74. The Gentleman's Magazine contains a long list of the bridges and churches which attest his reputation and skill.

1854. The gallery of the Catholic church at Erie, Pa., fell, crushing the people below, and killing and wounding several persons.

MAY 8.

685. Pope Benedict II died.

1360. The treaty called the great peace signed at Bretigni, by which Edward III renounced all his claims to the French crown and its territories.

1429. The siege of Orleans was abandoned. At dawn, the English army was discovered at a small distance from the walls, drawn up in battle array, and braving the enemy to fight in the open field. After waiting for some hours, the signal was given; the long line of forts, the fruit of 7 months' labor, was instantly in flames and the soldiers, with mingled feelings of shame and regret, turned their backs to the enemy. This was one of the inexplicable feats of Joan d'Arc.

1493. Ferdinand and Isabella confirmed, at Barcelona, the appointment of Columbus, on his return from the new world. "The office of admiral of the said ocean, which is ours, commences by a line, which we have ordered to be marked, passing from the Azores to the cape de Verd islands, from the north to the south, from pole to pole; so that all which is beyond the aforesaid line to the west is ours, and belongs to us; and of all this we create our admiral, you and your children."

1532. Francis Alvarez Paez died; a Portuguese divine of the order of the Cordeliers, and an author.

1535. Henry VIII of England had his head shaved, and commanded all about his court to follow his example.

1538. Edward Fox, an English prelate and statesman, died. He was the principal pillar of the reformation in England.

1572. Dame Dorothy Packington sent the trusty and well beloved Thos. Lichfield and George Borden to be her burgess in parliament, informing the queen that whatever they might do in her service in parliament should receive her (Dorothy's) approval.

1638. Cornelius Jansenius died; founder of the Jansenists, who gave the pope and the Jesuits much trouble in Europe.

1655. Edward Winslow died; one of the first settlers of Plymouth colony, Mass., and afterwards its governor. He joined the fleet sent over by Cromwell to attack St. Domingo, the only place of strength which the Spaniards had in Hispaniola, and died at sea, aged 60. His marriage was the first that was celebrated in the colony.

1657. Cromwell refused the title of king of England.

1659. A remnant of the long parliament assembled during the anarchy, and has been termed the rump.

1662. Peter Heylin, an English historian, died. He was an able and indefatigable writer, principally known by his Description of the great World, and History of the Reformation.

1676. Bridgewater, Mass., invaded by the Indian enemy, and 17 buildings laid in ashes.

1703. Vincent Alsop died; a presbyterian clergyman, who attacked Dr. Sherlock with great wit and some seriousness.

1725. Capt. John Lovewell, with a party of 36 men, encouraged by his former success against the Indians (see Feb. 20), undertook an expedition against Pigwacket, on Saco river, was ambuscaded, and himself and a great part of his men killed. They made a brave resistance, determined to die rather than yield, and by their well directed fire thinned the number of the savages so that their cries became fainter, and they finally left the field, carrying off their dead.

1729. William King, archbishop of Dublin, died; author of a celebrated treatise on the origin of evil.

1744. Giles Jacob died; an English law writer, biographer, and lexicographer.

1758. Benedict XIV (Prosper Lambertini), pope, died. His character was that of a learned, liberal-minded and benevolent man. His works fill 16 vols. folio.

1775. The great tunnel at Norwood hill, through which the Chesterfield and Trent canal was to pass, was opened; its length nearly 1¾ miles.

1779. Charles Hardy, an English admiral, died. He was two years governor of New York, and was appointed commander in chief of the western squadron, 1779.

1782. Sebastian Joseph Carvallo de Pombal, a Portuguese statesman, died. He displayed great wisdom and abilities in the offices to which he was promoted; and under his munificence and patriotism the city of Lisbon rose from her ruins by the earthquake, in new splendor and increased magnificence.

1793. Battle of Vicogne, the French defeated by the Austrians under Clairfait, after an obstinate action and great carnage.

1793. Jas. Ridgway and H. D. Symonds, [185]booksellers in London, severely fined and sentenced to 4 years imprisonment for selling the books of Thomas Payne.

1794. Anthony Lawrence Lavoisier, a French chemist, guillotined. His philosophical researches were of great service to science, and of practical utility to his country; he was condemned on the most frivolous pretexts.

1799. Bonaparte made an unsuccessful attempt to carry St. Jean d'Acre by assault.

1806. Robert Morris, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was one of the most extensive merchants in America, and in 1781 was appointed to the control of the government finances, where the services he rendered the country were of the utmost importance. The army was frequently supplied by his own personal credit. It is painful to add, that the latter years of his life were passed in prison, where he was confined for debt.

1813. The Americans evacuated York, Upper Canada, after burning the blockhouses, barracks and king's stores.

1815. David Ramsay, an American physician and historian, died. By unwearied industry and economy of time he was enabled, amidst an extensive practice, to publish several important histories, and left others in manuscript.

1815. Saxony dismembered, and a great part of the kingdom given to Prussia.

1816. The United States ship Washington, 74 guns, put to sea, being the first American ship of the line afloat.

1822. John Stark, a major general in the revolutionary army, died, aged 93. By his skill and intrepidity the first step was achieved towards the capture of Burgoyne, by the defeat of colonel Baum in the battle of Bennington.

1829. Charles Abbot, lord Colchester, died; a British statesman.

1842. More than 70 lives lost by a rail road accident between Versailles and Paris among whom were the celebrated navigator, admiral Dumont d'Urville and his wife and children.

1846. Battle of Palo Alto. The Americans, 2,000, under Gen. Taylor, were attacked on their return from Point Isabel, by 5,000 Mexicans. The former fought their way through the Mexican lines, dispersing the enemy, capturing their baggage and artillery, and several of their superior officers.

1848. Great hail storm at Charleston, S. C.; some of the stones that fell were 7½ inches in circumference.

1852. The emperor of Russia visited the emperor of Austria at Vienna, and two days afterwards reviewed the Austrian troops, consisting of 20,000 infantry and 10,000 artillery and cavalry.

1853. John Farrar, a distinguished American mathematician, died, aged 54. He gave the active portion of his life to the service of Harvard college, to which he brought great natural tastes and aptitudes, habits of persevering labor, and deep conscientiousness.

1854. The sultan of Turkey gave a grand banquet in honor of Napoleon.

1855. Jane Davy, widow of sir Humphrey Davy, died in London; conspicuous in literary circles for her accomplishments, unwearied conversation and physical activity.

MAY 9.

1502. Columbus sailed from Cadiz, with four vessels and 140 men and boys, in search of a passage to the South sea, being his fourth voyage across the Atlantic. It was a disastrous expedition for the admiral, against whom the elements seem to have joined his countrymen, to complete the ruin of his fortunes.

1657. William Bradford, second governor of Plymouth colony, died. He removed to America with the first settlers of the colony, and was their governor thirty years. He wrote a history of the colony from 1602 to 1646, which was deposited in the library of the old south church in Boston, where it fell a sacrifice to the fury of the British, 1775.

1657. A secret treaty signed at Paris between Louis XIV and Cromwell, for "the ruin and destruction of the proud and tyrannical monarchy of Spain."

1760. Nicholas Lewis Zinzendorf, a German count, died; founder of the sect of Moravians, or Hernhutters.

1767. Cassini observed, by the position of certain spots, the revolution of the planet Venus on its axis.

1768. Bonnell Thornton died; an English poet, essayist and miscellaneous writer, and translator of Plautus.

1776. Ellen Ellis at Beumaris in Anglesey gave birth to a child in her 72d year.

1781. British generals Arnold and Philips took Wilmington, Va.

1781. Spaniards took Pensacola and all Florida.

1791. Francis Hopkinson, one of the signers, died. He was judge of the admiralty court of Pennsylvania; his writings abound with wit, humor and satire.

1794. Charles Henry d'Estaing, a French admiral, guillotined. He was commander of the French squadron in the American war; and at the revolution in France became member of the assembly of notables.

[186]1799. Sally from the garrison of St. Jean d'Acre, when they succeeded in spiking 4 cannon within the French lines.

1803. Robert Chambers died at Paris; a learned English judge and orientalist.

1805. Frederick Schiller, an eminent German dramatist, died. He is also the author of a history of the revolt of the Netherlands from Spain.

1813. The siege of fort Meigs raised. It had continued 13 days, and it was computed that 1760 cannon balls and shells had been fired at the fort, by which 17 were killed and 66 wounded.

1832. Israel Thorndike, a Boston merchant, died. He possessed a talent for business which enabled him to accumulate the largest fortune ever acquired in New England, amounting to nearly two millions. In 1818 he purchased the valuable library of professor Ebeling, of Hamburg, 4,000 vols., and presented it to Harvard university. This library is considered the most valuable and extensive in American history and antiquities, ever collected.

1832. Camillo Philip Louis Borghese, an Italian prince of immense wealth, died. He was an officer under Bonaparte, whose sister he married. After the abdication of the emperor, he broke up all connection with the Bonaparte family, and separated from his wife.

1836. Caleb P. Bennett, governor of the state of Delaware, died, aged 78. He was the last surviving officer of the Delaware regiment in the revolutionary army.

1846. Battle of Resaca de la Palma and death of major Samuel Ringgold, whose place of sepulture in Baltimore is surrounded by an inclosure of Mexican bayonets.

1846. Charles Turner Torrey died in the jail at Baltimore, Maryland, while sustaining an imprisonment for a breach of the laws of Maryland in relation to kidnapping slaves.

1853. An earthquake completely destroyed Schiraz in Persia; 12,000 lives were lost.

1854. An imperial ukase in Russia called for nine men out of every thousand souls of the "eleventh ordinary partial levy in the eastern portion of the empire," and, independently of this, three recruits out of every thousand souls to bring up arrears; the Jews furnishing ten men out of a thousand.

MAY 10.

664. The memorable pestilence in Ireland began.

1307. Battle of Loudown hill; Bruce defeated Aylmer de Valence, earl of Pembroke.

1422. Henry V reduced Meaux, after a siege of 7 months.

1503. Columbus discovered the Tortugas islands.

1547. Charles V summoned Wittenberg, defended by Sibylla, wife of the elector of Saxony; refusing to surrender, he ordered a court-martial who condemned her husband, then a prisoner, to death.

1574. Queen Elizabeth issued her royal license under seal, for the performance of stage plays; the first establishment of a regular company of players in England.

1611. Sir Thomas Dale arrived at the Jamestown colony, with 3 ships, 300 people, 12 cows, 20 goats, and all things needful. Lord Baltimore had previously left for England on account of his health, and Dale took command. Sir Thomas Gates arrived in August following, with 6 ships, 280 men, 20 women, 100 cattle, 200 hogs, and military stores, and assumed the government. These added to the 200 left by lord Baltimore, swelled the number to 800.

1631. Magdeburg taken by the Austrians under general Tilly, by assault, and given up to pillage, massacre and fire, only two churches and some ruins remaining.

1632. Louis de Marillac, marechal of France, beheaded. He conspired against Richelieu, to whom he was indebted for much of his good fortune, and to whose resentment he fell a victim.

1641. John Bannier died; a Swedish general under Gustavus Adolphus.

1646. Manuel d'Almeida, a Portuguese Jesuit, died; a missionary to India 40 years, and author of a work on Ethiopia.

1649. Governor Endicott, and other influential men in Massachusetts, formed an association against wearing long hair!

1671. The English admiral Sprague destroyed 12 Algerine pirate ships at Bugea, a seaport of Algiers.

1696. John de la Bruyere, a noted French author, died. His Characters, in imitation of Theophrastus, is a work of established excellence, and descriptive of the manners of that age.

1733. Barton Booth died; a celebrated tragedian in the reign of queen Anne, author of some songs and minor pieces.

1773. An act of parliament passed, authorizing the East India company to export their own tea, duty 3d. per pound; in consequence of this act they determined to send it to New York, Philadelphia and Boston. In October of the same year the Americans refused to receive it.

1774. Louis XV of France died, in the 60th year of his reign. He outlived the respect of his subjects.

1775. Colonels Allen and Arnold surprised Ticonderoga, which surrendered, without the loss of a man. Crown-point was taken by them the same day.

[187]1775. Carolina Matilda, the divorced queen of Denmark, died at Zell, aged 24: youngest sister of George III.

1779. Portsmouth and Norfolk, Va., taken by the British, and many vessels, stores and houses destroyed.

1781. Lord Rawdon evacuated Camden, after destroying the public and private houses, and much of his own baggage.

1784. Anthony Court de Gebelin, a French writer, died; celebrated as the author of The Primitive World compared with the Modern, a work which the French academy were so well satisfied with that they twice decreed him the annual prize of 1,200 livres for the best work.

1790. The Gabelle Tax in France was abolished. This was a duty on salt capricious and unequal in its operation, which notwithstanding had continued since the beginning of the 14th century.

1793. Clairfait attacked and carried the wood of Hasnon; the slaughter of the French was great.

1794. Battle of Tournay and defeat of the French by the British and Austrians under the duke of York.

1794. Elizabeth of France, sister of Louis XVI, guillotined.

1796. Battle of Lodi, in which Bonaparte gained an important victory over the Austrians, under the veteran general Beaulieu. The long narrow bridge which led to the city, was defended by 30 pieces of cannon. The French generals put themselves at the head of 3000 grenadiers, and in the face of a murderous fire crossed the bridge over the dead bodies of their comrades, who were mowed down by hundreds, and took possession of the Austrian batteries. The loss was about 3,000 men on each side. This was one of the most striking military achievements of Bonaparte. It was on this occasion that he received the title of the little corporal.

1796. The Babeuf conspiracy was discovered by the council of 500 in Paris. Babeuf and Darthe, the principal leaders were secured and executed, which completely crushed the Jacobin power.

1809. The Swedish diet renounced all allegiance to Gustavus IV, and deprived him and his heirs of the crown.

1811. French evacuated Almeida, after destroying everything, and the next day they abandoned Portugal entirely.

1824. John Guthrie, the celebrated Edinburgh bookseller of the firm of Guthrie & Jait, died. Like Benjamin Franklin he wheeled home his own purchases.

1831. John Trumbull, an American poet, died. He was for many years judge of a court in Connecticut, and is known as the author of the popular poem, McFingal.

1831. Battle of Terlepe; 20,000 Albanians under the pasha of Scodra defeated by the Turks under the grand vizier.

1837. All the banks in the city of New York without exception, and by common consent, stop specie payments. The banks throughout the Union adopted the same course.

1848. A very destructive fire occurred in Detroit, Michigan. The houses were of wood principally on leased land.

1849. The city of Leghorn taken by the Tuscan troops.

1849. Astor house opera riot in the city of New York.

1853. Ashbel Strong Norton, an American preacher, died, aged 87. He was born in Farmington, Ct., graduated at Yale college in 1790; filled the pastoral office at Clinton, N. Y., with distinguished usefulness and success forty years, during which he was largely concerned in laying the foundations of social and religious institutions in central New York.

1853. The pope prohibited the circulation of Uncle Tom's Cabin, an American novel, in his dominions.

1855. A mob of armed men destroyed the Birch creek reservoir, in Clay county, Indiana, connected with the Wabash and Erie canal.

MAY 11.

1491 B. C. The Egyptians under Pharaoh drowned in the Red sea.

1153. David I, of Scotland, died. He was earl of Northumberland and Huntington, and married the daughter of the king of England, for whom he claimed the throne on the death of her father. He was a mild and popular king.

1310. James de Molai, grand master, and 54 knights of the temple, publicly burned at Paris, under the decree of an archiepiscopal council. They were condemned on confessions of Islamism and paganism, extorted by the rack, and afterwards retracted.

1537. A terrible and destructive eruption of Mount Ætna.

1553. Three vessels sailed from England, under Sir Hugh Willoughby, to explore the northern seas. By this voyage an inlet was discovered to the White sea and the bay of Archangel, and an almost exclusive commerce established with Russia in that quarter.

1554. Francisco de Orellana sailed from St. Lucar, in Spain, with 4 ships and 400 men, for the purpose of exploring the river Amazon. He forced his way up about 120 leagues, and meeting with disasters by which he lost his ships and the greater part of his men, he turned about [188]and died on his way back. "Orellana was very warmly received by armed swift-footed females, which originated the fanciful name Amazonia."

1676. The Indians assaulted the town of Plymouth, Mass., and burned 11 houses and 5 barns; and two days after they burned 7 houses and 2 barns, and the remaining houses in Namasket.

1686. Otho Guericke, a Prussian philosopher, died. He was the most celebrated mathematician of his time, and invented the air pump.

1690. Charlemont, in Ireland, taken by the English.

1696. The Reformed Dutch church at New York incorporated.

1723. Jean Gualbert de Campistron, a French poet, died. He is thought to be little inferior to Racine in the merit of his dramatic compositions.

1743. Several tons of leaden pipe were dug up in Fleet street, London, laid down 300 years before.

1749. Catharine Cockburn, an English poetress, died. She produced the tragedy of Agnes de Castro in her 17th year, which was followed by several others. She possessed also a great and philosophic mind, and wrote an able defence of Locke.

1776. At an action near Charleston, S. C., between count Pulaski and the British, Major Huger of the American army was killed by mistake.

1778. William Pitt, earl of Chatham, a most illustrious English statesman, died. He was the friend of liberty and justice, and eloquent in their cause.

1781. Orangeburgh surrendered to the American Gen. Sumpter; prisoners taken, 82.

1782. Richard Wilson died; an English landscape painter of great merit.

1799. Philip Nicholas Pia, a French chemist, died. He was sheriff of Paris, 1770, and employed his leisure in objects of benevolence, till the revolution overwhelmed him.

1807. Action in the Dardanelles, between the Russian and Turkish fleets; 3 of the latter stranded.

1810. Hastalrick, in Catalonia, evacuated for want of provisions; the garrison cut their way through the French troops.

1813. Spencer Perceval, prime minister of Great Britain, shot in the lobby of the house of commons.

1814. Robert Treat Paine, one of the signers, died. He was a distinguished lawyer, of learning and integrity, member of the first congress, and judge of the supreme court of Massachusetts.

1821. George Howe, editor of the Sydney Gazette, died. His paper commenced in March, 1803, in the 15th year of the colony, and was the first Australian periodical.

1838. Andrew Thomas Knight died. His horticultural writings were exceedingly beneficial, as well to the gardeners as farmers.

1839. Thomas Cooper, president of South Carolina college, died, aged 80. He wrote on law, medical jurisprudence and political economy, and translated Justinian and Broussais.

1844. Stephen Wood, died at Miami, Ohio, aged 82. He was the last survivor of those who were associated with John Cleves Symmes in the settlement of North Bend.

1848. An expedition under Sir James Ross, sailed for the Arctic regions, in search of Sir John Franklin.

1853. Peter Hitchcock, an eminent civilian, died at Painesville, Ohio, aged 70. He was a member of the Ohio senate, and of the house of representatives at Washington; also for twenty-five years a judge of the supreme court of Ohio.

1854. The packet Pike, from St. Louis to Louisville, struck a snag, and sank in a few minutes, by which about fifty passengers lost their lives.

1854. J. Delius, of Bremen, assistant professor of English literature at Berlin, fell into the crater of Vesuvius, and perished there.

MAY 12.

48 B. C. Battle of Pharsalia, between Cæsar and Pompey, in which the latter was defeated, and escaped on foot. This battle forms an important era in the history of the world.

824. Paschal I, pope, died; distinguished for his benevolence and toleration.

1264. Battle of Lewes and defeat of Henry III by Leicester.

1294. Edward I of England met at Norham the states of Scotland, when they acknowledged his sovereignty, and engaged to deliver up to him their castles.

1430. The famous Joan of Arc, or maid of Orleans, pretended to be sent from God to save the kingdom of France.

1539. Ferdinand de Soto sailed from Havana with ten ships for the conquest of Florida.

1618. The Calvinists of Bohemia entered the castle of Prague, cast the leading members of the council from the windows, and took possession of the capital.

1621. The first marriage in the colony at Plymouth took place, between Edward Winslow and Susanna White.

1641. Thomas Wentworth, an English statesman under Charles I, beheaded on a false charge of treason. The king was [189]compelled by the clamors of the populace to order his execution.

1663. The books of the London stationers company record the names of 59 persons exercising the trade as master printers.

1690. John Rushworth, an English writer, died in the king's bench prison, where he had been confined 6 years; author of Historical Collections, in 7 vols. folio.

1763. John Jackson died; an English divine and historian, author of Chronological Antiquities.

1763. John Bell, the distinguished anatomist of Scotland, was born at Edinburgh.

1771. Christopher Smart, an English poet and miscellaneous writer, died; known by a popular translation of Horace. By some authorities his death is placed in 1770.

1780. Charleston, S. C., surrendered to the British; 2,500 prisoners and 400 cannon fell into the hands of the enemy.

1781. Fort Motte surrendered by the British to the American generals Marion and Lee.

1785. Mr. McGuire having ascended from Dublin in a balloon, was carried with great velocity towards the sea, into which he descended, and was taken up nearly lifeless.

1791. Francis Grose died; author of the Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, a complete collection of British technicals, vulgarisms, and billingsgate used by gamblers, ostlers, servants, fishwomen, &c., which, though not very popular, or creditable to him, is yet quite a curiosity. He produced some other works of great merit, which mark him a profound antiquary.

1795. Ezra Stiles, president of Yale college, died. He was eminent as a divine, and an indefatigable scholar. His publications were few, but he left 40 vols. in manuscript.

1796. The French under Bonaparte defeated the Austrians with great slaughter, who were compelled to abandon their guns and baggage, and take refuge under the cannon of Mantua.

1797. Bonaparte took possession of Venice, boasting an independence of fourteen centuries.

1798. Sidney Smith escaped from France after two years imprisonment.

1809. Vienna capitulated to the French, and Napoleon established his head quarters in the imperial palace of Schoenbrunn. The emperor had already quitted it, with all his family except his daughter the archduchess Maria Louisa, afterwards wife of Napoleon, who was confined to her chamber by sickness—on learning which, Bonaparte ordered that there should be no firing in that direction.

1809. Lord Wellington took Oporto by assault, and the French under Soult were compelled to retreat to Amarante.

1809. Alcantara, in Spain, taken by a division of the French under Victor, together with the British garrison.

1848. Alexander Baring, lord Ashburton, died in England, aged 78. He passed much of his youth in America, and was British embassador at Washington, to settle the Maine boundary in 1842. He acquired great wealth, and was a highly accomplished man.

1848. Posen incorporated with Germany, and the insurgent Poles disarmed.—Violent earthquake at Sienna, Italy.

1849. A crevasse was made in the levee above New Orleans flooding much of the city.

1854. The British ship Tiger, 16 guns, was captured near Odessa by the Russians, with 226 prisoners.

1855. D. J. McCord, an American lawyer, died at Columbia, S. C. He published law reports, and edited the Statutes at Large, on the death of Dr. Cooper, to whom the work was first entrusted.

MAY 13.

432. B. C. Meton, the Athenian astronomer, began his famous lunar cycle of 19 years (then marked by successive letters in gold, which are now called the golden numbers), with the new moon nearest to the summer solstice falling upon the 16th of Scirophion.

48 B. C. Pompey, in passing through the Archipelago, stopt at Mitylene to receive his wife, the exemplary Cornelia, and there conversed with Cratippus, the philosopher, on the nature of providence.

1213. King John received Pandulph, the pope's legate, in whose presence he subscribed an instrument by which the sentences of interdict, excommunication and deposition were revoked, conditionally that he reversed all his former acts of oppression.

1520. Massacre of the Mexicans by Alvarado, during the absence of Cortez. This happened on the great festival of their god Huitzilopochtli, in the month Toxcatl, the emperor being then a prisoner of the Spaniards in his palace, and the principal nobles gathered there for the dance, when the Spaniards fell upon them with the utmost fury. The victims were unable to defend themselves or escape by flight, and the slaughter was terrible. An insurrection immediately followed, and the quarters of the Spaniards were assaulted with such determined energy that they were compelled to hasten the return of Cortez, and led to the disaster of the 1st July (q. v.)

1539. A bill brought into the English parliament vesting in the crown all the [190]property of the monastic institutions. This was followed by the fall of 644 monasteries, 90 colleges, 2,374 chantries, and 110 hospitals. The revenue of these establishments amounted to £161,000.

1568. Battle of Langside hill, Mary queen of Scots defeated by the regent Murray, and fled to England.

1607. Jamestown, Virginia, settled. Three small ships, with 105 persons intended to form a settlement, under Sir Christopher Newport, took possession of a peninsula in Powhatan river, and gave it the name of Jamestown. Though they had to strive against appalling difficulties, and were several times on the verge of losing or abandoning the enterprise, they were ultimately established, mainly through the great exertions and talents of Capt. John Smith, one of the most remarkable persons connected with the early history of the country, and indeed one of the most remarkable of an age prolific of memorable men. Jamestown was for a long time the capital of the state, but has sunk into ruin, and is almost desolate. Two or three old houses, the ruins of an old steeple, a churchyard, and faint marks of the rude fortifications, are the only memorials of its former importance.

1614. Marguard Freher died. His books on law, criticism and history are numerous and respectable.

1619. John Van Oldenbarneveldt, a Dutch statesman, beheaded. Zeal for his country led him to oppose the arbitrary measures of the stadtholder, for which he was accused of treason and condemned at the age of 72. (See April 14.)

1625. Charles I issued a proclamation for "settling the plantation of Virginia." The colony was reduced under the immediate direction of the crown, and the commission to the new governor and council was accompanied with arbitrary instructions. "The commerce of the colony was restrained, and the persons of the colonists enslaved."

1649. William Chappel, bishop of Cork, died. His works have been translated into English. To him is ascribed, among others, the authorship of the Whole Duty of Man.

1704. Louis Bourdaloue died; esteemed the best preacher that France ever produced.

1728. Counsellor Hagen, formerly secretary to the famous baron Gortz, shot himself through the head. He left a letter to king George II, and a paper stating "I am quite weary of eating and drinking, of shunning my creditors, weary of being burthensome to my friends, weary of being vexatious to my enemies, and lastly tired with myself."

1734. James Thornhill, an eminent English historical painter, died.

1736. The foundation of the Ratcliffe library laid at Oxford, England.

1781. Roger Byrne, the Irish giant, was buried. He weighed with his coffin 578 lbs., and died of no other disease than suffocation occasioned by a superabundance of fat, which stopped the play of his lungs, and put a period to his life in the 54th year of his age. His height, it is believed, was nearly 8 feet.

1760. A copy of Tendall's testament sold at Oxford for 20 guineas, supposed to be the only copy of that edition unburned by Tonstall. This book occasioned some prelates to say that they must root out printing or printing would root out them.

1783. Society of Cincinnati established; originated by Gen. Knox, and composed exclusively of officers who had served in the regular army during the revolutionary war.

1790. Action in the port of Revel, between the Swedish fleet of 23 ships and 18 frigates, and the Russian fleet of 11 sail and 5 frigates, protected by several batteries and fortifications. A furious storm raged at the time, which destroyed two Swedish ships.

1799. Bartholomew Mercier, abbot of St. Leger, died; a learned French author and a worthy man, whom the revolution reduced to poverty and wretchedness.

1806. Broome county in the state of New York erected.

1814. Madam Murat surrendered the fleet and arsenal at Naples, and Ferdinand returned to his capital.

1814. British cannonaded and bombarded the town of Charlotte at the mouth of Genesee river. It was successfully defended by Gen. Peter B. Porter, with 150 volunteers and 350 militia.

1816. Treaty between the United States and the Sac Indians of Rock river.

1825. Charles Whitworth, an English earl, died; employed by the government as ambassador to different courts of Europe—a man of much private worth and unquestioned talent.

1832. George Leopold Cuvier, the French naturalist, died. His grand work, the Animal Kingdom, forms an imperishable monument of his genius.

1835. Elizabeth Cook, widow of Capt. James Cook, the circumnavigator, died near London, aged 94. She survived her husband 55 years, and was highly esteemed for her virtues.

1835. John Nash, the architect of Regent street, Buckingham palace, &c., London, died.

1836. Sir Charles Wilkins, an eminent oriental scholar, died.

[191]1838. Zachary Macauley, a distinguished philanthropist, died at London, aged 70. He edited the Christian Observer from 1802 to 1816, with ability, and for more than 40 years dedicated his eminent talents and active energies in conjunction with other distinguished men to the abolition of African slave trade.

1839. Joseph Fresch, archbishop of Lyons, died. He was the uncle of Bonaparte, and after the fall of the emperor resided at Rome in the enjoyment of immense wealth, and one of the first picture galleries in that city.

1841. The American Bible Society celebrated its 25th anniversary at New York. The whole amount of receipts during the year preceding, was $118,860·41; the number of Bibles and testaments published and circulated through the efforts of the society since its organization, three millions.

1849. A revolution at Carlsruhe, and the grand duke of Baden fled.

1852. George Dolland, an English astronomer and optician, died, aged 78. His father and grandfather followed the same pursuits. He is the author of the Atmospheric Recorder.

MAY 14.

1097. The siege of Nice, the Turkish capital of Soliman, sultan of Roum, opened by the French crusaders, whose camps formed an imperfect circle of more than 6 miles.

1501. Amerigo Vespucci sailed with three ships furnished him by Emanuel of Portugal. This was his third voyage, which he extended as far as Patagonia.

1602. Bartholomew Gosnold, after a passage of 7 weeks direct west from England, discovered land on the American coast, and fell in with a shallop with sails and oars, manned by Indians, with whom they had friendly intercourse. They are represented as naked, "save neere their wastes seale skins tyed fast like to Irish dimmi trouses;" and the chief wore a few things of European fabric, described the coast with a piece of chalk, and "spake diverse Christian words." Their vessel is supposed to have belonged to some wrecked fishermen of Biscay.

1610. Henry IV of France assassinated by Ravaillac. Above 50 historians and 500 panegyrists, poets and orators, have spoken in his praise; but the Henriade of Voltaire is the most likely to immortalize him.

1652. British commodore Young fell in with a Dutch convoy, and demanded that according to an act of king John (A. D. 1200) they should strike their flag to the British flag. This being refused, a severe action ensued, which ended in the Dutch flag being struck, after which they were permitted to proceed!

1667. Joan Henry Ursinus died; a Lutheran divine, eminent for his learning in sacred and profane history.

1692. Sir William Phips arrived at Boston with the new charter by William and Mary, where he was received with great pomp, and conducted by the military, magistrates, ministers, and principal men of the country to the town-house, where the charter was published. This charter included the whole of old Massachusetts, Plymouth colony, the provinces of Maine and Nova Scotia, the islands of Elizabeth, Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, as the province of Massachusetts, of which Phips was appointed governor.

1731. A final settlement was made of the boundary line between New York and Connecticut; 60,000 acres called the Oblong being ceded to New York in exchange for lands near the sound.

1761. Thomas Simpson, an eminent English mathematician, died. He was a weaver in the lowest circumstances, who raised himself to distinction by close application to science.

1780. Peter Montan le Berton died; an eminent French musician, and manager of the operas at Paris.

1781. Lieut. col. Christopher Greene (the conqueror of count Donop) and major Flag, surprised and murdered at Croton river, by a party of refugees.

1785. Canal opened between the Baltic and North seas.

1796. Vaccination for cowpox first applied by Dr. Jenner.

1796. Bonaparte made his public entry into Milan under a triumphal arch.

1798. David Ruhnkenius died; professor of belles-lettres and history, and librarian in the university at Leyden, and a learned and able critic.

1805. Robert Bisset died; a Scottish historian, biographer, and novelist.

1810. Lerida, in Spain, surrendered to the French general Suchet, who found large quantities of stores. Same day, Catalonians defeated the French, whose loss is stated at 45,000, and that of the Catalonians 25,000.

1814. British fleet on lake Champlain commenced a heavy cannonade on the American batteries under colonel Davis, at the mouth of Otter creek. The British were compelled to retreat.

1814. French defeated at Madrid by lord Wellington.

1814. Spanish squadron belonging to Monte Video, defeated by the Buenos Ayrean squadron under com. Brown.

1820. Henry Grattan, an Irish statesman, died. He warmly espoused the [192]interests of his country, and many important measures were effected by his eloquence.

1826. State prison at Sing Sing, New York, commenced.

MAY 15.

164 B. C. The Jews, upon the 15th Sivan, celebrate a feast for the victory of Judas Maccabæus over the people of Bethsan, or Scythopolis.

67. Vespasian invested Jotopata, in Galilee, defended by Josephus, the historian, a very interesting siege as it respects the latter.

392. Valentinian, emperor of Rome, strangled at Vienne, in Milan, by order of Arbogastes, his rebellious general.

1213. King John, oppressed with guilt and despair, resigned the kingdoms of England and Ireland to the pope, to be held of him and of the Roman church in fee, by the annual rent of 1,000 marks.

1464. Battle of Hexham, on the banks of the Dilswater, and defeat of the Lancastrians under the duke of Somerset, by Edward IV. The fate of the royal family after this defeat was extremely singular and distressing.

1494. Columbus discovered a great number of small islands in the West Indies, which he called the Queen's Garden. These were in his opinion the 5,000 islands which Marco Polo and Mandeville described as the boundary of India.

1548. The emperor Charles V laid before the diet of Augsburg a rule of faith, which he compelled them to acquiesce in, notwithstanding that it was disapproved by both protestants and papists.

1567. Marriage of Mary, queen of Scots, and the earl of Bothwell.

1571. Moscow burnt by the Tartars, who had surrounded the city, and set it on fire at all points. The entire city was burnt down, and upwards of 200,000 of the inhabitants perished in the flames.

1602. Bartholomew Gosnold, in search of a suitable place to settle a plantation, discovered a head land in 42 deg., where he came to anchor; and taking a great number of cod at this place, they called it cape Cod, which name it still retains.

1618. The celebrated Kepler discovered his canon for the periodical motion of the planets.

1645. Battle of Alderne, in which the earl of Montrose defeated the Scots under Urrey with great slaughter.

1664. The Dutch governor surrendered the island of Cayenne to the French, by treaty.

1674. Besançon, an ancient city of France, taken by Louis XIV.

1679. The Ashmolean museum, at Oxford, England, founded for the purpose of receiving the antiquary's "twelve cartloads of rarities."

1716. John Bagford, an English antiquary, died. He was originally a shoemaker, became a bookseller, and an amateur of old English books and curious prints, with which he enriched several famous libraries.

1719. Francis Malaval died; a Frenchman, who, although he lost his sight when 9 months old, acquired celebrity as a mystical writer on quietism.

1737. Alexander Cunningham, a Scottish historian, died. He wrote a valuable History of Great Britain in Latin, which remained in manuscript till 1787, when it was translated by Thompson, and published in 2 vols. quarto.

1740. Ephraim Chambers, an English encyclopedist, died. He was apprenticed to a globemaker, and during his minority projected his Dictionary of the Arts and Sciences, which appeared in 1728 in 2 vols. folio. It was extended by Dr. Rees to 45 vols. quarto.

1747. British fleet under Anson captured 1 French ship of 74 guns, 5 of 64, 4 of 60, 1 of 50, and 20 merchantmen.

1766. John Astruc, a French physician, died; author of several useful and curious works.

1772. Antony Francis Riccoboni died; an Italian actor, author of Art du Théatre, a work of great merit.

1773. Alban Butler died; director of the English college of St. Omer's, and author of the Lives of the Fathers, Saints and Martyrs, with valuable notes.

1775. Congress resolved to issue paper money.

1776. American fort at the Cedars, 43 miles above Montreal, surrendered by maj. Butterfield, with 390 men, to capt. Foster, with 650 British and Indians. (See May 20, 27.)

1781. Fort Granby surrendered by the British to col. Lee.

1789. The number of emigrants which had passed through Muskingum to settle in Kentucky since the first of Aug., 1786, (not including those who passed in the night unnoticed) was 19,882. These were accompanied by 8,884 horses, 2,297 cattle, 1,920 sheep, 627 wagons, and 1,067 boats.

1800. James Mallet du Pan died in England, where he took refuge from the revolutionary mania of France. He was a literary and political writer, distinguished by the extent of his knowledge and vigor of style, as well as probity and independence of character.

1800. Bonaparte crossed the mount St. Bernard. Each man, says sir Walter Scott, [193]carried from sixty to eighty pounds, up icy precipices, where a man totally without encumbrance could ascend but slowly. Probably no troops but the French could have endured the fatigue of such a march; and no other general than Bonaparte would have ventured to require it at their hands.

1802. The Portuguese frigate Cine captured by the Algerines, after a smart action. The crew having ran below, the officers were all cut to pieces.

1814. The British plundered Poultneyville, on lake Ontario. They were driven off by general Swift.

1817. David Irving died at Philadelphia. He was taken prisoner on board the United States frigate Philadelphia at Tripoli and imprisoned there two years.

1821. John Wall Callcott died; an English musical composer, and author of a Musical Grammar.

1821. John Bonnycastle died; an English mathematician, whose works are in use in this country. He contributed the mathematical articles for Rees's Cyclopedia.

1830. An extensive shower of red dust extending over Italy, Malta, Sicily, Sardinia, &c., observed by Dr. John Davy.

1833. Edmund Kean, a celebrated English tragedian, died. It is ascertained that the total sum which he received for acting from 1814, was £177,000, averaging nearly $40,000 per annum for 19 years; yet he died poor.

1836. The village of Roanoke, on the Chatahoochee, Ga., attacked and stormed by 300 Indians, and burnt to ashes.

1838. John Murphy died in Fauquier county, Va., aged 106.

1847. Daniel O'Connel, the Irish agitator, died at Genoa, on his way to Rome. His heart was sent forward and his body carried back to Ireland.

1848. Attempted communist counter revolution in Paris.

1848. Richard H. Toler, a distinguished writer and for 23 years editor of the Lynchburgh Virginian, died at Richmond.

1854. George Perkins, a retired Boston merchant, was murdered by the Chinese crew of a boat which he had engaged to take him ashore at Macao, whither he had just arrived from San Francisco.

1854. The ship Townsend, from Boston to San Francisco destroyed by fire, and several lives lost.

1854. An explosion took place in the Blackheath coal mines, Virginia; by which of the twenty-three workmen only one escaped death.

1855. The universal industrial exhibition was opened at Paris by Louis Napoleon.

1855. A destructive tornado swept over a portion of Lapeer county, Michigan.

MAY 16.

1277. John XXI, pope, killed by the fall of a building. He was a Portuguese, and wrote on philosophy, medicine, &c.

1525. Thomas Munzer, a Saxon divine, executed. In conjunction with Stork, he pulled down all the images in the churches which Luther had left standing, and finally at the head of 40,000 men, commenced leveler of all ranks and distinctions, as usurpations on the rights of mankind. He was at length defeated in battle, when 7,000 of his followers were slain and himself captured.

1568. Mary, queen of Scots, crossed the frith of Solway, the irremeable stream, and landed in England.

1681. Female dancers first introduced on the Parisian stage, in a court opera, called Le Triumphe de l'Amour.

1691. Leisler and Milbourne hung as the cause of the Schenectady massacre.

1710. Thomas Smith died; a learned English writer on the manners and religion of the Turks, &c.

1725. Paul de Rapin de Thoyras, an eminent French historical writer, died. He served in the English army, and devoted 17 years to a History of England, which was published in 10 vols. quarto.

1747. M. Buffon, the celebrated naturalist, communicated to the Academy of sciences the results of some experiments on burning glasses, asserting the account of Archimedes burning the Roman ships at Syracuse, were neither absurd nor false.

1770. Louis XVI of France espoused Maria Antoinette, archduchess of Austria. A violent tempest on that day was regarded as an omen of future misfortunes.

1776. The French navigator, De Pages, passed the 81st degree of north latitude, in an attempt to reach the pole.

1776. John Hoadley, an English poet and dramatic writer, died. He was the son of bishop Hoadley, took orders and was loaded with preferments.

1782. Daniel Charles Solander, a celebrated Swedish naturalist, died. He was the pupil of Linnæus; visited England, and went with Cook on his voyage round the world.

1793. Edmund C. Genet, the French minister, arrived at Philadelphia. He was received with much enthusiasm by the citizens. (See July 14.)

1795. The Batavian republic formed, by the aid of the French, in imitation of France; being governed by a legislature and a directory of five.

[194]1796. Earthquake in Syria; Lataka, the ancient Laodicea, was laid in ruins, and more than 3,000 persons buried under the fallen mass. The village of Gibel was totally destroyed, and many houses in Tripoli were tumbled down.

1801. Battle of Heliopolis; the French under Belliard defeated by the Turks under the grand vizier.

1806. Blockade of the Elbe and of Brest, a coast of 1000 miles, with no place invested by land, and before many of the ports no blockading ships.

1809. The rear guard of the French army attacked at Salamonde in Portugal, and compelled to retreat before superior forces, with the loss of their artillery and baggage; having lost about 8,000 men, 2,000 of whom were slaughtered by the Portuguese. The army was a fortnight without clothing, shoes, provisions, &c., excepting those procured by marauding, and they must all have been destroyed but for the great military talents of Soult.

1811. Battle of Albuera, in Spain; the allies defeated by the French under Soult; about 20,000 men fell in this battle.

1811. Action between the United States frigate President, Rogers, and British ship Little-Belt, which was captured.

1813. Battle of Mignano, Italy, and defeat of the French.

1828. William Congreve, a British officer, died; inventor of the Congreve rocket, a hydro-pneumatic canal lock, and a new method of manufacturing gun powder, &c.

1830. The bill to remove the civil disabilities of the Jews rejected in the British parliament by a vote of 288 to 165.

1830. Great eruption of mount Ætna; seven new craters were formed, and eight villages were destroyed, to which the lava had never before extended.

1835. Felicia Dorothea Hemans, a celebrated English poetess, died. Her poems were extremely popular during her lifetime, and have been published in 2 vols.

1838. New York state banks resumed specie payment.

1841. A constitution of the republic of Yucatan decreed by the legislature and published at Merida, the capital; Yucatan having declared its absolute independence of the republic of Mexico.

1842. Count de Las Casas, author of the Memoirs of Napoleon, died near Paris.

1849. The city of Bologna capitulated to the Austrians after a conflict of eight days.

1850. William Hendricks, for some time governor of Indiana, died at Madison, aged 67.

1854. Tornadoes occurred in Alabama, Missouri and Illinois, accompanied with extensive damage to property.

1855. General Canrobert resigned the command of the French troops in the Crimea, and was succeeded by general Pelissier.

MAY 17.

1039. Harold I, the second Danish monarch of England, died, at Oxford. A heavy tax which he imposed on his people made him unpopular. He was buried at Winchester; but by the cruel edicts of his brother the body was dug up, beheaded and thrown into the Thames; recovered and again buried only to be a second time disinterred and committed to the Thames; found and privately buried at Westminster.

1163. Heloise, abbess of the Paraclete, died; celebrated as the mistress of Abelard, and for her learning. She was entombed with her husband. At the dissolution of the monasteries in 1792, the principal inhabitants of Nogent-sur-Seine went in grand procession to the Paraclete, to transfer the remains of the lovers to a vault in their church. In 1800 they were transported to Paris, and one of the most picturesque and interesting ornaments in the cemetery of Pere la Chaise, is the sepulchral chapel covering their remains, constructed from the ruins of the Paraclete.

1498. Vasquez de Gama discovered the continent of India. On his return he again doubled cape Good Hope, which had long been regarded as the ne plus ultra of navigation.

1536. George Boleyn, an English statesman, beheaded. He was a man of learning and ability, whose elevation followed that of his sister Anne as queen; and when she fell, he too was degraded and unjustly condemned.

1575. Matthew Parker, second protestant archbishop of Canterbury, died. He was deeply versed in Saxon literature and published a work on the antiquity of the English church.

1610. Gervase Babington died; bishop of Worcester and an eminent theological writer.

1617. Jacob Augustus Thuanus (alias De Thou) died; an illustrious French statesman and historian.

1664. The English conventicle act was passed forbidding more than five persons meeting for religious purposes except those regulated by the book of common prayer.

1690. A party of French and Indians under the sieur Hertel, returning from a marauding excursion among the English settlements, attacked and destroyed the fort at Casco, Me.

1723. Joseph Bingham, an English [195]ecclesiastic, died; author of Antiquities of the Christian Church, a learned and laborious work, in 10 vols.

1727. Catharine Alexievna, empress of Russia, died. She was the daughter of a peasant of Livonia, married a Swedish dragoon, who was killed on the same day in battle. The Russian general Bauer made her his mistress, after which she lived a short time with prince Mentschicoff. In her 17th year she became the mistress of Peter the Great, who afterwards married her and presented her with the diadem and the sceptre. After his death she was proclaimed sovereign empress of all the Russias, and showed herself worthy of her high fortune.

1729. Samuel Clarke, a famous English divine, died; celebrated also for his writings on mathematics, &c.

1732. William Lowth died; a celebrated English theological writer and commentator.

1738 O. S. Bell, the Scottish traveler, returned to St. Petersburg from his embassy to Constantinople, whither he went at the earnest solicitation of the Russian cabinet, and the British minister. This was the last of his expeditions, and was undertaken in the midst of winter, through a country exposed to all the horrors of a barbarous warfare, attended by only one servant, who understood the Turkish language.

1740. Peter Julian Rouille, a French Jesuit, died; professor of theology and philosophy to his order, and co-editor of the Roman History, 21 vols. quarto.

1742. Battle of Czaslau, or Chatusitz, in Bohemia; the Prussians defeated the Austrians, who lost 7,000; Prussian loss, 3,000.

1749. Samuel Boyse, an Irish poet, died. His talents were amply rewarded, but he unfortunately had a disposition to practice the meanest deceptions to procure benefactions, which brought him to wretchedness and contempt.

1767. Roger Wolcott, governor of Connecticut, died. He never attended school a single day of his life, yet gradually rose by his own efforts to the highest military and civil honors.

1772. The theatre at Amsterdam, in Holland, took fire and burned to death 31 persons.

1774. At a town meeting of the inhabitants of Providence, R. I., the subject of a general congress was acted upon, being the first act of the kind by a public assemblage.

1776. Captain Mugford in a vessel of 4 guns captured British ship Hope, 4 guns, with 1,500 barrels powder and military stores, and brought her into the port of Boston.

1794. Battle of Surcoign; British defeated by the French after a sanguinary conflict.

1797. Revolution in Venice, and a democratic government formed under the direction of the French general Angereau.

1797. Louis XVIII compelled to quit the Venetian territory.

1797. Michel Jean Sedaine, a French dramatic writer, died, aged 78. Bred to the occupation of a stone mason, by application to study he won a place in the French academy.

1801. A French convoy of 560 men with 1 cannon and 550 camels, in Egypt, captured by the British.

1801. William Heberden died; an English physician and medical writer.

1809. Bonaparte issued from Vienna a decree declaring the temporal sovereignty of the pope to be wholly at an end, and incorporating Rome with the French empire. The "holy father" instantly fulminated a bull of excommunication against the daring emperor, but it did not avail; his holiness was taken in his palace and conveyed away at midnight, under pretence that a life so sacred in the eyes of all Christians, might be endangered!

1817. Samuel Jessup died; an opulent English grazier, of pilltaking notoriety. An apothecary's bill, which was given in evidence on a trial a short time previous to his death, affords a table of statistics which will not be exceeded by the memorabilia of the life of any man. In 21 years he took 226,934 pills. He began with a moderate appetite, which increased as he proceeded, so that in the last five years he took them at the rate of 78 a day, and in the year 1814 swallowed not less than 51,590. Notwithstanding this, and an addition of 40,000 bottles of mixtures, he attained the advanced age of 65 years.

1829. John Jay, a distinguished American statesman, died, aged 84. His public services commenced in 1774, and continued till 1801, when he retired to private life; distinguished as a man of great discernment, extensive information, and fine talents as a writer.

1829. Battle between the Russians under general Diebitsch, and the Turks; the latter of whom, 5,000 in number, were defeated and driven into Silistria, with heavy losses on both sides.

1829. Battle of Pravadia, between the Russian army under general Roth, and the Turks under the grand vizier. The Turks are said to have lost 2,000, and the Russians 1,000. The latter maintained their ground, but no important advantage was gained by either party.

1831. Nathaniel Rochester, an officer in the revolution, died at Rochester, New York, from whom the town took its name.

[196]1838. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Perigord, one of the most distinguished statesmen and diplomatists of modern times, died at Paris, aged 84. His namdee was intimately associated with French politics, from the commencement of the revolution in 1789.

1841. About 250 feet of the cliff on which the defences of the city of Quebec stand, fell away, causing the ruin of several buildings, and the death of about 30 persons.

1843. Peter W. Gallaudet died at Washington, D. C., aged 88. The Washington manual laborer school and the Howard institution can bear testimony to his industry and patriotism.

1848. Massacre in Naples, justified by the king, on the ground of necessity; 1777 bodies were found, 400 troops killed, and the city given up to pillage.

1849. A severe and very destructive fire at St. Louis, Missouri.

1850. Gallinas, the noted slave factory on the west of Africa, purchased by the Liberian republic.

1856. Redwood Fisher, an American author, died, aged 73. He began business as a merchant in Philadelphia; subsequently edited a daily paper in New York, and took an active part in public affairs. He published several volumes on political economy, and was much interested in statistics.

MAY 18.

975. Edward (the martyr), murdered by his step-mother. He was the son of king Edgar who enacted laws against excessive drinking, ordaining a size with pins in the cup with penalties on any who should presume to drink deeper than the mark. Hence the phrase drinking deep.

1291. The city of Acre, in Palestine, taken by the Turks; after a siege of 30 days the double wall was forced by the Moslems, the principal tower yielded to their engines, the Mamelukes made a general assault, the city was stormed, and death or slavery was the lot of 60,000 Christians, and the Holy Land was again in the hands of the Turks.

1410. Robert, emperor of Germany, died, just as a powerful combination had been formed to deprive him of the crown.

1539. Ferdinand de Soto, governor of Cuba, sailed for the conquest of Florida with nine vessels, 900 men besides sailors, 213 horses and a herd of swine. He landed on the west coast of the peninsula, with 300 men, and pitched his camp; but about day break the next morning they were attacked by the natives, and obliged to retire.

1565. The Turks under Mustapha, pasha, to the number of 30,000 choice troops, landed on the island of Malta, with a view to extirpate the knights. But the desperate resistance they encountered compelled them to abandon the island with the loss of 25,000 men. Loss of the knights 7,000.

1596. Heemskerk, accompanied by Jan Cornelissen Ryp, with two vessels again attempted the discovery of a northern passage to India. In this voyage he became embayed in ice, and passed the winter in the arctic regions, exposed to the rigors of the climate, and other perils. The ill success of this expedition destroyed all hope with the Dutch of finding a northern passage to China.

1652. Naval action near Dover, England; admiral Van Tromp refusing to pay honor to the British flag by lowering his own, brought on a furious battle between him and admiral Blake. One of the Dutch ships taken, and one sunk.

1663. Samuel Des Marets, a French protestant divine, died; celebrated for his controversies, in which he was diligently engaged 18 years, and displayed astonishing knowledge and erudition.

1664. "His sacred majesty," Charles II, advertised that he would attend to healing his people of the king's evil, by touching, during the month of May.

1675. Stanislaus Lubienietski, a celebrated Polish Socinian, died in exile at Hamburg. His theological works are numerous, but he is better known by a work on comets, entitled Theatrum Cometicum, which was written to show that comets portend both good and evil, in opposition to the prevailing notion that they were the harbingers of misfortune only! It contained an elaborate account of all the comets recorded in history (415), down to the year 1665.

1676. Indian battle at Turner's falls, on Connecticut river above Greenfield. The Indians having planted nothing, were unwilling to lose the fishing season also, and had encamped here in great security; when three of the towns below hearing of their position mustered about 150 men, mounted on horses, and set out for their camp. Arriving towards morning, they tied their horses, and proceeding about a quarter of a mile farther, found them sleeping in their huts, without any sentinels or guard. The attack was so sudden and unexpected that they fled, many into the river where they perished, and others were killed under the banks where they had concealed themselves. The Indians at first supposed they had received a visit from their friends the Mohawks, but the daylight disclosing the error, and the fewness of their assailants, they rallied and [197]turned upon their pursuers. The English retreated in turn, unable to resist the superiority of numbers, and not managing their retreat well, thirty-eight were cut off and lost. The Indians acknowledged a loss of 300.

1692. Elias Ashmole, a noted English antiquary, died. His valuable collection of coins, to the number of 9,000 besides books and other curiosities, were destroyed by fire; but his most valuable gold coins and manuscripts escaped. He was an indefatigable laborer in the cause of science.

1701. Frederick Spanheim died; a noted divinity professor at Leyden, and a voluminous writer.

1724. Cardinal Vincent Maria Orsini elected pope and took the name of Benedict XIII.

1733. Edmund Chishull, an English traveler, died; author of a book of travels in Turkey.

1742. Richard Joy (the English Samson), died; a man of wonderful strength.

1769. Virginia entered into the non-importation agreement.

1773. Boundary line between New York and Massachusetts agreed upon.

1787. First attempt made to engrave on glass by M. de Puymaurin, at Toulouse.

1794. Battle of Bullion; French under Jourdan defeated by the Austrians under Beaulieu with the loss of 1,200 killed.

1794. Battle of Tournay; British defeated by the French.

1794. Battle of Lannoy, in France, between the French under Pichegru, and the British under the duke of York; the latter defeated with the loss of sixty pieces of cannon.

1800. Peter Alexis Wasiliowitsch, count Suwaroff-Rimnitskoy, died; a Russian general, known in the wars of Europe as Gen. Suwarrow; distinguished for his bravery and abilities, and equally so for his inhumanities.

1803. War was again declared between France and England. Who, asked Bonaparte, is responsible for the consequences. Ah! who indeed.

1804. The conservative senate of France declared Bonaparte emperor.

1805. Battle of Derne, in Barbary, which was attacked by the Tripolitan army, and defended by the American general Eaton, who repulsed the assailants with great slaughter.

1807. John Douglas, bishop of Salisbury, died. He was one of the first literary characters of the age, and the last surviving member but one of the beef steak club, celebrated by Goldsmith in his poem of Retaliation.

1821. Timothy Bigelow, an eminent lawyer of Massachusetts, died. He was 11 years speaker of the assembly, and during a practice of thirty-two years, argued 15,000 causes.

1822. Iturbide declared emperor of Mexico by the army under the title of Augustin I.

1832. Cassimir Perrier, prime minister of France, died. He left the army in 1800 to become a banker, in which capacity he acquired an immense fortune, with the advantages of which he combined great mental capacity, talent for business and habits of public speaking. He was one of the few victims of cholera in the higher ranks of life.

1843. Charles Bagot, governor-general of the British North American provinces, died at Kingston, in Canada.

1848. Commander Henry Pinckney, of the United States navy, was drowned by the swamping of a boat.

1850. Great fire at the village of Corning, Chemung county, New York.

1855. John C. Spencer, an American statesman, died at Albany, aged 67. He was a man of intellect and energy, and was in public life from an early age. He achieved his highest fame from his connection with the revision of the statutes of New York.

MAY 19.

804. Flaccus Alcuinus, an English ecclesiastic, died in France. He may be considered as one of the learned few whose genius dissipated the gloom of the 8th century. His writings, most of which are extant, were published 1617. (See Dec. 1.)

1122. Lincoln in England destroyed by fire.

1217. Battle of Lincoln; the French defeated, and England effectually secured from the dominion of Lewis the Dauphin, who was then holding his court within the walls of London.

1218. Otho IV (the proud), emperor of Germany, died. He laid claim to some of the territories of the pope, by whom he was excommunicated and deposed.

1242. Henry III of England embarked for France, taking with him 30 hhds of silver.

1494. Columbus, proceeding towards Cuba, named the headland Cabo de Cruz on this day. He now ascertained from the natives that Cuba was an island, but after coasting it 335 leagues from the eastern point, renounced the idea; and but for the scarcity of provisions, would have attempted to return to Europe by way of the Red sea, under the impression that he was on the coast of India.

[198]1536. Anne Boleyn, queen of England, executed. She was crowned at Westminster 1533 with unparalleled splendor, and in a few weeks after became the mother of the famous Elizabeth.

1610. Thomas Sanchez, a Spanish Jesuit, died, and was buried with extraordinary magnificence. His works are ingenious.

1613. King James issued farthing tokens by proclamation.

1622. Osman I, sultan of Turkey, strangled by his soldiery. He undertook an expedition against Poland, in which he lost 80,000 men and 100,000 horses: these misfortunes were attributed to the Janizaries, who thereupon hurled him from the throne.

1643. Battle of Rocroy, between the French and Spaniards, in which the French under the duke d'Enghien gained a signal victory.

1651. Peter Wright, chaplain to the marquis of Winchester, executed. Romanist priests were viewed in the same light as highway robbers.

1656. John Hales died; an English author, so much admired for his wit and learning, that he is called the ever memorable.

1670. Ferdinando Ugheli, a Florentine monk, died; distinguished for his learning and his virtues.

1676. John Greenhill died; an eminent English painter.

1692. Battle of La Hogue; the combined English and Dutch fleets defeated the French of 50 sail, who lost 20 of their largest men of war, and were prevented from making a descent on England.

1715. Charles Montague, earl Halifax, died; an eminent English statesman, orator and poet.

1769. Cardinal Ganganelli proclaimed pope under the title of Clement XIV.

1776. Captain Mugford having secured his prize (see May 17) and put to sea again, was attacked by 13 British boats, whom he beat off; but was himself killed, being the only person injured.

1780. Dark day in New England, occasioned by a thin cloud or vapor. The people dined by candlelight, and the darkness of the night is represented as Egyptian.

1788. Samuel Badcock, an English divine and writer, died; admired as a pulpit orator and a man of literary talent.

1788. Congress ordered two cannon to be named, one John Hancock, and the other Adams; being one moiety of four cannon which constituted the whole train of artillery possessed by the colonies at the commencement of the war. The other two were taken by the British.

1795. James Boswell, died, aged 55; a Scottish lawyer, rendered famous as the friend and biographer of Dr. Johnson, with whom he lived in the closest intimacy.

1795. Josiah Bartlett, one of the signers, died. He was a delegate from New Hampshire in the first congress, and his was the first name called on the vote of the declaration of independence.

1798. Bonaparte with an immense armament sailed from Toulon for the conquest of Egypt. The sunrise was splendid and similar phenomena were called the suns of Napoleon.

1798. Intelligence having been received by the British that a number of transports fitted out at Flushing were intended to be sent round by the canals to Ostend and Dunkirk, for the purpose of invading England, an expedition was despatched to destroy the sluices and basin of the Bruges canal at Ostend. The direction of the enterprise was entrusted to general Coote and captain Home Popham, who on this day disembarked their troops, and in a few hours the sluices were blown up, and several vessels in the canals destroyed; but on returning to the beach, the wind and surf were so high, that it was impossible to re-embark; meanwhile the country being alarmed, the enemy advanced upon them with a superior force, and the British, after a spirited resistance, were compelled to capitulate. Of 1000 forces landed more than 100 were killed or wounded, among whom was general Coote.

1808. Action in the night between British ship Virginia, and Dutch frigate Gelderland; the latter captured.

1810. Explosion of a powder magazine at New Haswell in Hungary, which destroyed 300 houses, killed 80 persons, and 300 were dug out of the ruins alive.

1831. Francis Maseres, an English mathematician, died, aged 93. He was not only an author, but devoted a part of his income to reprinting such works as he thought useful either in illustration of mathematical history or of that of his country. Penny Cyclopedia says 1824, which agrees with the 93 years from the date of his birth.

1838. Thomas T. Biddulph, an eminent English clergyman, died. He was the author of various publications, one of which, Sixteen Short Sermons, has been translated into 15 languages.

1850. A body of Americans under gen. Paredez landed on the island of Cuba, with a view to revolutionize it, and took the town of Cardenas.

1853. The Chinese rebels captured the city of Amoy.

1854. William Hulme Cooper, a lieutenant in the British navy, died, aged 26, from the effects of exposure and privation during four years arctic service in search [199]of sir John Franklin. He commanded a cutter in an expedition from Icy cape to the Mackenzie; for three days he was lost in a snow storm, and for two winters he and his boat's crew were isolated near the northern shores of America. The hardships he endured caused the pulmonary disease of which he died.

1856. John Keating died at Philadelphia, aged 96. He was a native of France and in early life was an officer in the service of Louis XVI. He came to the United States after the death of that monarch, with about thirty families of the French noblesse and military, and founded the colony of The Asylum, near Towanda, in Pennsylvania.

MAY 20.

526. Earthquake at Antioch, by which 250,000 persons are said to have perished.

1499. Alonzo de Ojeda sailed from Cadiz on a western voyage of discovery, accompanied by Amerigo Vespucci. It is uncertain in what station Amerigo sailed, but he appears to have had a chief share in directing the voyage, and on his return published an amusing account of the country they visited; which having a rapid circulation, he was supposed to be the discoverer, and it came gradually to be called by his name.

1506. Christopher Columbus, the discoverer of the new world, died at Valladolid in Spain, aged about 70. He had devoted his whole life to the study and accomplishment of his grand enterprise, and its complete success embittered the remainder of his days by exciting the perfidy and ingratitude of a base and treacherous nation.

1521. Cortez mustered his army in the great market place of Tezcuco, to make a division of it, appoint commanders, assign to each the station where they were to form their camps, in order to invest the city of Mexico. (See May 30.)

1610. Nicholas Serarius, a French Jesuit, died. His works, 16 vols. folio, display great labor and extensive erudition.

1618. King James publicly declared his pleasure, "that after the end of divine service, the people should not be letted from any lawful recreation on Sundays, such as dancing, archery, vaulting, May-games, Whitsun-ales, morris-dances, and the setting up of May-poles, and other sports therewith used."

1690. John Eliot, the apostle of the Indians, died, aged 86. He was the first protestant clergyman who preached the gospel to the North American Indians.

1713. Thomas Sprat, an English prelate and poet, died; he was distinguished as a writer, and rewarded with preferments.

1726. Nicholas Brady died; an Irish divine of good ability and learning, translated Virgil and wrote a new version of the Psalms in conjunction with Tate.

1728. James le Quien de la Neufville, a French historian, died; author of an excellent history of Portugal, &c.

1732. Thomas Boston, a Scottish divine, died; author of the well known book, Human Nature in its Fourfold State.

1735. The Turks defeated by the Prussians, and more than 60,000 killed and wounded.

1736. The body of one Samuel Baldwin, of England, in compliance with his will, immersed in the sea at Lymington. His motive for this extraordinary mode of interment was to prevent his wife from dancing over his grave, which she had threatened to do in case she survived him.

1756. Naval action at Fort Philip, Minorca, between the French fleet, 12 ships 5 frigates, and the British, 13 ships 5 frigates. Admiral Byng was afterwards shot in England, on an unjust charge of cowardice in this affair.

1758. The scenery and wardrobe of the Bath theatre burned by the wagons taking fire on which it was being transported over Salisbury plain.

1774. British parliament passed an act for transporting Americans to England for trial.

1775. Articles of confederation and union agreed on by the American colonies.

1776. Major Sherburne, with 140 Americans, marching to relieve the post at the Cedars, in Canada, was attacked by 500 Indians, and after an obstinate battle, the party surrendered. The Indians having lost a chief and 21 warriors, massacred as many prisoners.

1778. Gen. Grant with 7000 British, made an attempt to surprise La Fayette, then posted at Barren-hill, Pa., with 2500 men. The latter escaped by a masterly retreat.

1783. William Robertson, the Scottish divine, died.

1789. The French clergy renounced their privileges.

1793. Charles Bonnet, a noted Swiss naturalist, died at Geneva.

1796. Bonaparte passed the river Po; Marceau and Championnet drove the Austrians from Hunsruch; they were also defeated on the Sieg, with the loss of 2400.

1799. Bonaparte raised the siege of St. Jean d'Acre; it had lasted 60 days.

1799. Joseph Towers died; a printer, bookseller, and afterwards a preacher with [200]the title of LL. D. He wrote British Biography, 7 vols. and other works of merit.

1800. Bonaparte passed mount St. Bernard, among the Alps, after astonishing efforts.

1813. Battle of Bautzen, between Russians and Prussians under Barclay de Tolly, and French under Bonaparte.

1813. American frigate Congress, capt. Smith, captured British brig Jean, 10 guns, took out 40 tons copper and sunk her.

1815. Murat, king of Naples, left the city in disguise, while his queen sought the security which had been promised her on board a British man of war.

1820. Charles Louis Sand executed; the murderer of Kotzebue.

1840. Joseph Blanco White, an English preacher and controversial writer, died, aged 67. He was the author of various works, and distinguished himself by the zeal and ability with which he opposed the catholic religion.

1841. William P. Dewees, a distinguished medical writer, died at Philadelphia.

1848. A treaty of peace made with the Navajo Indians and the United States.

1855. The king of Hanover issued an ordinance annulling the constitution settled in 1848, and the provincial electoral law of 1850.

1856. James King, editor of the Evening Mirror, at San Francisco, California, died of a pistol wound inflicted in the street a few days before by Casey, editor of the Sunday Times. Casey was arrested and conveyed to jail under great popular excitement. Subsequently the vigilance committee, numbering 3000 men, proceeded to the jail, and took Casey and another murderer to the committee rooms, where they were tried, and soon after hung.

MAY 21.

216 B. C. Battle of Cannæ, in Italy, in which the Roman consuls were vanquished by Hannibal, with a loss of 40,000 men, including Paulus Æmylius, and 5,630 knights. The Carthaginians seemed not to know the use of victory.

987. Louis V (the lazy), king of France, poisoned by his wife, Blanche.

1342. John Cantacuzenus, the historian of his own times, and a defender of the faith, inaugurated emperor of Constantinople.

1420. Treaty of Troyes, by which Henry V of England was to marry Kate, daughter of Charles VII of France, and the two kingdoms to be united under Henry on the death of Charles.

1502. The island of St. Helena discovered.

1542. Ferdinand de Soto, a Spanish adventurer, died at the confluence of the Guacoya and Mississippi. He was a companion of Pizarro in his Peruvian expedition, and amassed great wealth; after which he became governor of Cuba. He fitted out an expedition to search Florida for more gold, and lost his life.

1643. Battle of Wakefield; the forces of Charles I defeated by the parliamentary troops.

1647. Peter Cornelius Hooft, one of the most eminent poets and prose writers of Holland, died.

1649. The commonwealth of England proclaimed.

1650. James Graham, marquis of Montrose, executed. He fought with great bravery in the royal cause; but being at length captured he was hung on a gallows 30 feet high at Edinburgh, and his quartered remains exposed over the city gates.

1682. Michael Angelo Ricci, an Italian cardinal, died; celebrated as a mathematician.

1718. Gaspard Abeille, a French poet and wit, died. His writings are not much esteemed.

1723. James Maboul, an eloquent French preacher, died; author of Orationes Funebres.

1724. Robert Harley, earl of Oxford, died; an English statesman and literary character.

1745. British squadron captured French ship Vigilant, 64 guns, and 560 men, with a cargo valued at £60,000.

1762. British ships Active and Favorite captured the Spanish ship Hermione from Lima, with a cargo of $2,308,700. The four highest British officers shared $288,000 each.

1780. Village of Johnstown, New York, burnt by the tories.

1781. British fort Dreadnought surrendered to the Americans under Gen. Lee.

1782. American general Wayne defeated a considerable body of British under Col. Brown, near Savannah.

1789. John Hawkins, an English writer, died; author of a History of Music in 5 vols. quarto.

1790. Thomas Warton, an English poet died; author of a History of Poetry, 3 vols.

1794. French under Dumas scaled mount Cenis.

1794. Bastia, in Corsica, surrendered to lord Hood.

1796. Battles of Tombio and Codogno; the French defeated the Austrians; the gallant French gen. La Harpe killed.

1799. Archduke Charles crossed the Rhine into Switzerland.

1804. The first interment in the cemetery [201]of Pere la Chaise; it was laid out and prepared by order of Bonaparte.

1807. Dantzic surrendered to the French after a siege of 51 days. Its garrison at first consisted of 16,000; 4000 deserted; only 9000 were taken; 800 cannon and immense stores fell into the hands of the French.

1809. Battle of Essling, in Austria. It began by a furious attack upon the village of Asperne, which was taken and retaken several times. Essling sustained three attacks also. Night interrupted the action; the Austrians exulting in their partial success, Napoleon surprised that he should not have been wholly successful. On either side the carnage had been terrible, and the pathways of the village were literally choked with the dead.

1813. British attacked Sacketts Harbor.

1813. Battle of Bautzen, which had continued two days; the Prussians were driven from their position, and Napoleon advanced to Breslaw, leaving 12,000 Frenchmen in the searching claws of their executors—the crows.

1826. George Reichenbach, a distinguished mechanical artist, died at Munich, where he had a noted manufactory of astronomical instruments, unsurpassed in the world.

1830. Leopold of Saxe Coburg declined the throne of Greece, except on terms which the allied sovereigns would not accede to.

1832. George W. Rogers, an American commodore, died on board ship Warren, off Buenos Ayres.

1849. Maria Edgworth, the popular and distinguished authoress, died at her residence in Edgworthstown, Ireland.

1855. The ship canal round the falls of St. Mary's river, Michigan, was completed and accepted.

1855. The allied fleet of the French and English entered the Russian port of Petropaulowski, and found it deserted.

MAY 22.

334 B. C. Battle of the Granicus, in Bythinia, in which Alexander of Macedon defeated the Persians.

337. Constantine (the great), emperor of Rome, died. He was an able general and a sagacious politician; celebrated as the builder of Constantinople on the site of Byzantium, and as the first emperor who embraced Christianity.

1424. James I, of Scotland, crowned 18 years after his accession, since which he had been in captivity.

1498. Vasco de Gama landed at Calicut, the first Indian port visited by a European vessel.

1542. Paul III, summoned the council of Trent; but was compelled to prorogue it, his own ecclesiastics only attending.

1555. John Peter Caraffa elected pope, and assumed the title of Paul IV.

1604. The first settlement made on the coast of Guiana, by captain Charles and sir Oliver Leigh.

1611. James I, instituted the order of Baronets, and elevated 75 families to that dignity.

1659. Richard Cromwell's parliament dissolved by commission under the great seal, at the instance of Desborough.

1661. The solemn league and covenant burned by the common hangman at London, and afterwards throughout the country.

1667. Alexander VII (Fabio Chigi), pope, died; characterized as little in great things, and great in little ones. He was liberal towards men of letters, and embellished Rome with some splendid edifices.

1680. A vast luminous meteor appeared at Leipsic.

1688. John Andrew Quenstedt died; a German divine, author of a Latin account of learned men down to 1600.

1690. Naval action at Cherbourg; British admiral Ashby destroyed 3 French ships of the line and several frigates, being part of Tourville's squadron.

1692. Action off La Hogue, commenced the night previous, between the combined English and Dutch fleets, admiral Russell, and the French fleet, which lost 16 sail.

1707. Battle of Stolhoffen, on the Rhine; French under Villars forced the lines of the allies.

1722. Sebastian Vaillant, a French botanist, died. He was originally organist to a convent.

1725. Robert Molesworth, an able English statesman, died. He rendered himself obnoxious to the clergy by insinuating that "religion is a pious craft, a useful state engine, but far inferior to the principles which in the school of Athens and Rome, incited their attentive youth to the love of their country, and to the practice of the moral virtues."

1734. Kouli Khan, defeated the Turkish army in Persia.

1745. Battle Jagernsdorf; Prussians defeated the imperialists.

1773. John Entick, an English clergyman and schoolmaster, died; author of the Spelling Dictionary, and other works.

1775. Meeting of provincial congress at New York.

1780. Sir John Johnson, with a party of British and tories, burnt a mill and 33 houses at Johnson Hall, killed about a [202]dozen persons, destroyed all the sheep and cattle, and having dug up his silver plate decamped.

1781. John Baptist Beccaria, a learned Italian monk, died.

1782. Formosa, a large island in the Chinese sea, almost wholly inundated by volcanic agency, during a storm.

1794. Battle of Esperes; French defeated by the British, who took 500 prisoners and 700 cannon.

1795. Mungo Park, sailed from England on his first expedition to Africa, for the purpose of tracing the course of the Niger, and procuring information relative to the city of Timbuctoo, of which little more than the name was known.

1798. Bonaparte and the French fleet sailed from Toulon; at the same time lord Nelson's fleet was in a storm in the gulf of Lyons, not many leagues distant.

1809. Second battle of Essling; French recrossed the Danube.

1810. Charlotte Genevieve Louisa Augusta Andrea Timothee du Beaumont d'Eon, a French diplomatist, died, aged 82; memorable as a politician, but more so for having been discovered to be a female while on an embassy to England, in the year 1777.

1812. Action off the coast of France, between 2 British ships and 2 French 44 gun frigates, and a brig of 18 guns; the latter were destroyed.

1813. Battle of Reichenbach; 1500 French cavalry charged and overthrew the allied cavalry; but many divisions coming to their aid, the French were reinforced by 14,000 horse and cuirassiers and the allies compelled to retreat.

1813. Michael Duroc, a distinguished French general, killed by a cannon ball, which struck him as he stood conversing with Mortier and Kirgener, the latter of whom was also killed instantly.

1813. United States frigate Congress, Capt. Smith, captured the British brig Diana 10 guns.

1814. Joseph White, an eminent English divine, and oriental scholar, died. He was a weaver in humble life till his self-acquired attainments attracted patronage.

1819. The steamship Savannah, started from Savannah, Ga., for Liverpool, being the first passage of the Atlantic attempted by steam. She arrived in Liverpool on the 22d June, having consumed her fuel in ten days. She visited Stockholm and St. Petersburg before her return, which was in December following.

1819. Hugh Williamson, an American physician, scholar and statesman, died, aged 83. He assisted in framing the federal constitution, and made himself useful to his country in various ways.

1854. Rail road inaugurated in Sardinia, running between Turin and Susa; the king and queen, the government officials, and a great concourse of people participating.

1855. The convent suppression bill passed the Sardinian senate.

1856. Preston S. Brooks, a South Carolina member of congress, wickedly and cowardly assaulted Charles Summer, senator from Massachusetts, while seated at his desk in the senate chamber, and felled him to the floor with a cane, in retaliation for abusive language in debate.

MAY 23.

1270 B. C. Larcher places the chronology of the fall of Troy upon this day.

63 B. C. Jerusalem taken by Pompey on the 23d day of the Hebrew month Sivan, in the consulate of Cicero, a day that was then observed as a fast, in remembrance of the defection and idolatry of Jeroboam, who made Israel to sin.

37 B. C. Jerusalem fell into the hands of Herod, in the consulate of Agrippa; it being one of those septenniary periods called sabbatic years.

683. Leo II, pope, died; an able and resolute pontiff; established the kiss of peace at the mass, and the use of holy water.

1125. Henry V of Germany died; leaving an odious character.

1430. The town of Compiegne in France was besieged by the combined forces of England and Burgundy, and defended by Joan of Arc.

1455. Battle of St. Albans (first of the roses), between the Lancastrians under Henry VI, and the Yorkists. The former were defeated with the loss of 3 earls, 49 barons and about 5,000 men killed, and the king himself was wounded in the neck and taken prisoner. Loss of the other party 500.

1498. Geronimo Savanarola, an Italian monk, burnt. His influence was so great at Florence, that for several years he guided the state as its sovereign; but when he attacked the corruptions of the church of Rome and the infamous conduct of pope Alexander VI, neither his purity nor his popularity could save him from destruction.

1533. Cranmer pronounced sentence of divorce between Henry VIII and Catharine of Arragon.

1609. The company of South Virginia not realizing the expected profit from its colony, obtained from king James a new charter, with more ample privileges. Their territory extended 400 miles on the Atlantic [203]coast, and "from the Atlantic westward to the South sea."

1610. The English wrecked on the island of Bermudas (see July 24), having built two small vessels and paid the seams with lime and tortoise oil, arrived in them at the settlement of Jamestown; they found the inhabitants reduced from 500 to 60, by famine; and seeing no other means of preserving them than by abandoning the country, they took them all on board, with the intention of returning to England. At this juncture lord Delaware arrived with three ships, 150 men, and plenty of provisions, and settled the colony.

1679. It was discovered that 27 members of the English parliament had been pensioners on the government.

1692. Third action off La Hogue, between the British and French fleets; 6 ships of the latter burnt.

1701. William Kidd with others executed at Execution dock, London, for piracy. In America every reminiscence of Kidd has yet an air of romance.

1706. Battle of Ramilles, in Belgium, between the French under Villeroy, and the allies under the duke of Marlborough, in which the latter were signally victorious. The armies contained about 60,000 men each; the loss of the French was 15,000, that of the allies 4,000.

1720. The French Mississippi scheme, projected by John Law, dissolved, like those bright floating circles which amuse and vex the hopes of children of a lesser growth.

1752. Wm. Bradford, a noted American printer, died, aged 94. He established the first printing office in Philadelphia, and also in New York. He was government printer more than fifty years, and is said to have walked over a great part of the city of New York on the day he died.

1764. Francis Algarotti died; an Italian, eminent as a connoisseur and critic in every branch of belles-lettres, and an author of repute.

1783. James Otis, an American patriot and statesman, killed by lightning. He was one of the most zealous and active promoters of the revolution.

1785. William Woollet, a celebrated English historical and landscape engraver, died. The death of general Wolfe from West's painting is probably his best.

1786. Mauritius Augustus Benyowsky, an extraordinary Hungarian adventurer, killed on the island of Madagascar in an action with the French.

1783. South Carolina adopted the federal constitution, recommending amendments, being the 8th state in succession; votes 149 to 73.

1793. Battle of Famars; the French defeated by the allies, consisting of Austrians, Prussians, British, Hanoverians, Hessians and Dutch.

1794. Cecile Regnault attempted to assassinate Robespierre and Collot d'Herbois.

1798. The rebellion of the united Irishmen commenced.

1798. Lady Edward Fitzgerald, the celebrated Pamela, daughter of the duke of Orleans, ordered to quit the kingdom.

1808. Riots among the English weavers on account of wages.

1812. Louis Dutens, a French miscellaneous writer, died.

1815. G. Henry Ernest Muehlenburgh, an American Lutheran divine, died. He was a man of extensive science, particularly eminent as a botanist.

1816. Massacre of the Christians by the Turks at Bona in Algiers.

1836. Edward Livingston, an eminent American jurist, died. He was a native of New York, and after holding various offices, removed to New Orleans, where on the invasion of Louisiana by the British, he offered his services to general Jackson, and acted as aid. He was afterwards secretary of state at Washington and minister to France, in which offices he manifested distinguished ability.

1841. Samuel Dale, an eminent pioneer in the settlement of the southwest, died in Lauderdale county, Mississippi. He was remarkable for his courage and bodily strength, and distinguished for his contests with the Indians, and as an officer in the last war with England.

1848. Freedom of the negroes proclaimed at St. Pierre, Martinique; an insurrection followed, and several houses and 32 persons were burnt.

1850. Grinnell's ships of discovery sailed from New York in search of sir John Franklin.

1851. Richard Lalor Sheil, a British statesman and dramatist, died at