The Project Gutenberg EBook of King Horn, Floriz and Blauncheflur, The
Assumption of Our Lady, by Various

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Title: King Horn, Floriz and Blauncheflur, The Assumption of Our Lady

Author: Various

Editor: J. Rawson Lumby
        George H. McKnight

Release Date: May 15, 2013 [EBook #42713]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


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King Horn, / Floriz and Blauncheflur, / The Assumption of our Lady.




Published for
by the



First Published (Edited by J. Rawson Lumby) 1866
Re-edited by George H. McKnight 1901
Reprinted (1901 Version) 1962


Original Series, No. 14

Reprinted in Great Britain by Richard Clay and Company, Ltd.,
Bungay, Suffolk.



All sections except the general Preface and the Glossary are in separate files, one for each text.

King Horn vii
Floris and Blancheflur xxx

The Assumption of Our Lady



CAMBR. UNIV. MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2 1
LAUD MISC. MS. 108 1
HARL. MS. 2253 1


CAMBRIDGE MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2 80


CAMBR. UNIV. MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2 111
BRIT. MUS. ADD. MS. 10,036 111
HARL. MS. 2382 118
King Horn 137
Floris and Blancheflur 146

The Assumption of Our Lady



The triple labour involved in editing three independent works in one volume will, it is hoped, serve as an excuse for some of the shortcomings of the present publication. Under the circumstances it has been impossible to make the work as definitive as might have been the case with a single text. For example, while I have been able to print the three existing manuscript texts of King Horn, of the other two poems, the textual material is not nearly so complete.

The texts, it is hoped, are accurately printed. The credit for this is due, in large measure, to Dr. Furnivall,—who has read with the MSS. the proofs of all the British Museum texts,—and to the proof-readers at Oxford and Cambridge. The notes to King Horn represent a good deal of labour, and may, I trust, prove useful. The glossary, though not so complete as that in Wissmann’s excellent critical edition of King Horn, is intended to fit the volume, and to supply explanation of words and uses of words not intelligible to ordinary readers of Early English Texts.

It is my pleasant duty to acknowledge assistance from various quarters. I am indebted to the libraries of the British Museum and Cambridge University, and the Bodleian library at Oxford for the use of manuscripts; also to the Duke of Sutherland for permission to copy the text of Floris and Blauncheflur from the manuscript in his private library; also to the Cornell University library for conveniences placed at my disposal in the preparation of this volume. I must also acknowledge timely words of advice from Prof. J. M. Hart, notes on Layamon from Dr. B. S. Monroe, and assistance in proof-reading by Prof. W. Strunk, jr. But above all I must acknowledge the less apparent work of Dr. Furnivall in preparing the texts for press, a work the amount of which one who has not edited for the E.E.T.S. is not likely to realize.

G. H. M. K.

Ithaca, N.Y., July 8, 1901.




Add.   Brit. Mus. Add. MS. of Ass.

Ass.   Assumption of our Lady.

C.   Cambridge Univ. MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2. of King Horn and Assumption.

Cott.   Cottonian MS. of Floriz and Bl.

F. & B.   Floriz and Blancheflur.

H.   Harleian MSS. of King Horn and of Assumption.

KH.   King Horn.

L.   Laud Misc. MS. 108 of King Horn.

OE.   Old English.

OF.   Old French.

T.   Trentham MS. of Floriz and Bl.

V.   Cottonian MS. of Floriz and Bl.

Yogh ȝ and thorn þ are alphabetized as “g” and “t”. I and J are alphabetized together. U/V as a vowel is alphabetized before V as a consonant.

 a   b   c   d   e   f   g   h   i   l   m 
 n   o   p   q   r   s   t   u   v   w   y 

abegge, abeie, see beien.

abide, see bide.

acupement, sb. accusation, F. & B. 664, 670, etc., C. OF. acoupement.

Adam, Ass. 429, 461, 465 Add.

Admiral, sb. emir, F. & B. 164, 170 C.; amirel, amirayl, F. & B. 175, 179 Cott.; Admirad, amyraud, Admyrold, KH. 95.

adrenche, see drenche.

adriȝe, see dreȝe.

adrinke, see drinke.

adun, adv. down, KH. 458 C, 485 C; adune, adowne, adoune, KH. 1608 C L H; adun, adoun, KH. 1610.

age, sb. be of ——, KH. 1420, F. & B. 37 T, of age. Cf. KH. 1420 Note.

aȝenes, see ȝen.

agesse, see gesse.

agrise, see grise.

Ailbrus, Aylbrus, see Aþelbrus.

Ailmar, Aylmar, Almair, Eylmer, King of Westernesse, KH. 169, 233, 359, 526, 538, 549, 729, 733, 747, 753, 1331, 1514, 1614, etc. OE. Aeþelmær.

al, adv. all, quite, KH. 38 L H.

alle veile, everywhere, KH. 262 L.

Allof, father of Horn, KH. 4, 33, 73 H.

also, conj. as, KH. 32, 1102 etc. OE. eal swā.

angussus, adj. full of anguish, F. & B. 366 C. OF. angoissous.

anhitte, see hitten.

apliȝt, adv. on one’s faith; aplyȝt, F. & B. 88 T; aplyst, F. & B. 200 Cott.; apliȝt, F. & B. 649 C. OE. on + pliht.

aquelde, see quelle.

aquite, see quite.

araȝte, see areche.

areche, v. explain, recount; infin., KH. 1308 C.; 3 sing. pret. araȝte, F. & B. 812 C. OE. areccean.

arecche, see recche.

areche ?, see reche.

aredde, infin. rid, deliver, F. & B. 689 C. OE. ahreddan.

Arnoldin, Arnoldyn, KH. 1561, 1613, 1618.

aroum, adv. apart; aroom), F. & B. 824 T; aroum, Cott. Cf. Gen. & Ex. 4000, 4021. OE. on rum, apart.

arre, see er.

arson, sb. saddle bow; n. s., F. & B. 369 T. OF. arçon.

aslawe, see slon.

asoke, see sake.

assoine, infin. prevent, F. & B. 423 T.

at, prep. from. KH. 619 etc. OE. æt.

atel, adj. dreadful, cruel, F. & B. 113 Cott. OE. atol, eatol.

Aþelbrus, Aylbrous, Ailbrus, etc., KH. 239, 257, 282, 309, 351, 385, 481, 495, 501, 1621, 1627.

Aþulf, Haþulf, ayol, KH. 27, 29, 300, 309, 311, 316, 537, etc. OE. Æthelwulf, Aþulf, or Eadwulf.

aton, adj. (at + one) agreed, KH. 997 C H.

at wite, v. find fault with, twit; infin. F. & B. 490 C.; 3 s. pret. atwist, F. & B. 490 C. OE. ætwītan.

awreke, v. avenge; infin., F. & B. 731 C.; 3 s. pret. awrek, KH. 952 H. OE. wrecan.


axede, askede, 3 s. pret. asked, KH. 43; askede H, axede C, acsede L. OE. āscian, āxian.

aye, see eie.

Babylon, dat. F. & B. 147 T; Babyloyn, 190 T, 191 T; -loigne, 119 C.; babyloyne, 147 T, 191 T; Babyloyne, 153 T; Babilloine, 172 C.; Babiloyne, 181 Cott.; Babilloigne, 120, 129 C.; Babilloine, 129 C, etc. French version has Babiloine, 406, 505, etc.

bale, sb. bale, calamity, F. & B. 821 C. OE. bealu.

barbecan, sb. outer work of a fortress, F. & B. 207 C. OF. barbecane.

barm, sb. lap, bosom; in bearme, KH. 752. OE. bearm.

barnage, sb. baronage, F. & B. 639 C. OF. baronage.

bede, sb. prayer, Ass. 89 C, 95 Add., 332 H, 486 Add. etc. OE. bēd.

bede, v. present, offer; infin., KH. 492; 2 pl. pres., KH. 977 C L. OE. bēodan.

beien, v. buy; 3 s. pret. boȝte, KH. 1442 C. abeie, v. atone for, expiate; infin. abeie C; abeye L, KH. 116; abugge C H; abygge L 1155; 3 s. pret. aboute L; abohte H, KH. 1493. OE. bycgan.

belamy, sb. good friend, F. & B. 633 C. OF. bel ami

belde, see bolde

belete, see leten.

bemeneþ, see bimene.

bene, sb. petition, KH. 590 C L. OE. bēn.

beode, v. offer; infin., F. & B. 369 C.; 3 s. pret. bed, F. & B. 733 C. OE. bēodan.

Berild, byrild, beryld, Byryld, KH. 816, 817, 825, 837, 845, 877, 878.

berwe, v. protect; infin., KH. 980 L. OE. beorgan.

beyne, num. both, KH. 949 H. OE. bēgen.

bi, by, prep. by, along, in, KH. 5, 20, etc. OE. be.

bicolwede, see colwen.

bidde, v. pray, beg; infin. bidde, bydde, KH. 1263; 1 s. pres. bidde, Ass. 135 C, 143 Add.; bid, 170 C; 3 s. pres. biddeþ, F. & B. 588 C.; byddeþ, F. & B. 1081 T; 3 s. pret. bad, bed, KH. 85, 1272; bad, badde, Ass. 90 C, 95 Add., 329, C; pp. ibede, F. & B. 579 C.; ybede, 859 T. OE. biddan.

bide, abide, v. (1) wait, (2) expect, (3) wait for, KH. 910, 1099, 1564. OE. ābīdan.

bidene, by dene, adv. at once, F. & B. 60 T, Ass. 347 Add.

bihelde, biholde, v. look on, behold, F. & B. 102 Cott., KH 639. OE. bihealdan.

biheue, adj. profitable, Ass. 676 Add. OE. behēfe.

bihoten, v. promise; 3 s. pret. bihet, KH. 500. OE. hātan.

biknewe, pp., see knowe.

bileue, see leue.

biliue, bliue, adv. quickly, KH. 350 L, 502 C, 771 C, 1042 C; blyue, Ass. 776 Add. OE. bī līfe.

bimene, v. bemoan, lament; infin., F. & B. 72 Cott.; 3 s. pres. bemeneþ, F. & B. 957 T. OE. bimǣnan.

binom, 3 s. pret. took away from, F. & B. 112 Cott.; pp. binomen, benome, Ass. 271 A, 273 C. OE. biniman.

birine, see reyne.

bisemen, v. befit, beseem; 3 s. pres. bisemeþ C, byseme L, bysemeþ H, KH. 518. Icel. sǣma.

bispac, see speke.

biswike, see swike.

bite, infin. bite, partake of as food, KH. 1211 L, H. OE. bītan.

biteche, 1 s. pres. entrust, KH. 613 L, H. OE. tǣcan.

bitide, see tide.

biþinne, prep. within, KH. 1122 C, 1387 C.

bitwexe, prep. between, KH. 454 C. OE. betweox, betwux.

biwente, see wende.

biwreien, see wreien.

Blancheflour, Blauncheflur, etc., nom. 18 T, 46 T, 22 V, 34 V; dat. 20 T, 22 T, 36 T, 58 T, 114 T, 122 T, 34, 46, 48, 64, 96, 102, 112 etc., C. Fr. Blanceflors, Blanceflor.

blenche, infin. overturn, KH. 1525 C L; ouerblenche, 1525 H. OE. blencan.

blesse, infin. bless, KH. 17 L H. OE. bletsian.

blessing, sb. blessing, KH. 170 C. OE. bletsung.


blethelyche, adv. blithely. OE. blīðelīce.

ble[y]ne, sb. whale, KH. 727 L. OF. baleine.

bliþe, blyþe, adj. blithe, KH. 1, 141, etc.

blynne, see linnen.

bode, dat. sing. message, Ass. 146 C; accus. bodes, Ass. 126 Add. OE. bod.

bold, bald, baud, adj. bold; sing. KH. 96; pl. belde, bolde, KH. 640. OE. beald.

bone, sb. prayer, boon, Ass. 522 H, 27 C, 329 C, 441 C. ON. bōn.

boneyres, adj. devoted, good looking, debonair, KH. 968 L. OF. bonaire.

bord, sb. (ship) board; dat. sing. borde, KH. 119, 123.

bord, sb. table, F. & B. 103 C, KH. 269, 1605.

bote, sb. remedy, redress, F. & B. 821 C. OE. bōt.

bote, KH. 1364 L; v. baddest, or scribal error.

bote, see bute.

braide, breide, 3 s. pret. draw, brandish, F. & B. 289 T, 1014 T. OE. brægd.

breche, dat. sing. breeches, F. & B. 258 C. OE. brēc.

breme, adj. valiant, spirited, famous, F. & B. 792 C, 1071 T. OE. brēme.

brenie, brunie, sb. coat of mail, KH. 627, 765, 897, 1310. OE. byrne.

bruken, v. use, enjoy; imper. 3 sing. bruc C, brouke L, brouc H, KH. 220. OE. brūcan.

brun, sb. beer (?); of a brun C, of þe broune L, H, KH. 1202.

brymme, sb. edge, shore, KH. 204 C.

buȝe, v. bow, writhe, twist, let fall (Mätzner); infin. buȝe C, unbowe H, KH. 458. OE. būgan.

bulmeþ, 3 sing. pres. boils, F. & B. 305 C. Probable error for welmeþ. Cf. ȝelle.

bur, sb. bower, women’s quarters, KH. 285. OE. būr.

burdon, sb. staff, KH. 1141. OF. burdoun.

burgeis, sb. burgess, citizen, F. & B. 115 C, 155 T, etc. Bugays, F. & B. 207 T. OF. burgeis.

burȝ, bureȝ, boruh, sb. castle, F. & B. 176, 181, 182 C.; boruh, F. & B. 190 Cott. OE. burg, burh.

burles, sb. tomb, sepulchre, F. & B. 63 Cott. OE. byrgels.

bute, bote, but, conj. but, unless, KH. 26 L, 69, 207 C, 37 L, H, etc. OE. būtan, except, unless.

buxom, adj. flexible, obedient, Ass. 410 H. OE. būhsum.

byȝete, sb. acquisition, F. & B. 202 T, and Cott. OE. begietan.

bygone, pp. surrounded, F. & B. 371 T. OE. bigān.

byne, (?), F. & B. 1010 T.

cacche, v. catch; infin. KH. 1307, 1465 H; 3 pl. pret. kaute, KH. 944 L.; infin. bikeche, KH. 328 L. OF. cachier.

can, v. can, know; 3 s. subj. pres. cunne; conne, KH. 602 C, H; infin. konne, KH. 598 L; 3 pl. pret. couþ, couth, F. & B. 33 T, 157 T. OE. cann.

care, sb. care, sorrow, KH. 279. OE. cearu.

catel, sb. property, capital, F. & B. 150 T, 988 T. OF. catel.

kele, infin. cool, F. & B. 995 T. OE. cēlan.

kelwe, see colmie.

ken, kenne, kunne, sb. race, people, KH. 156, 190, 1358. OE. cynn.

kende, cunde, sb. birth, kind, Nature, KH. 451, 1479 C, L; F. & B. 677 C, 960 T. OE. cynd.

kene, adj. keen, brave, KH. 42, 97, 178, 539, 1208, etc. OE. cēn.

kepe, v. (1) keep, (2) guard, protect, KH. 800, 1288 C H, Ass. 49 Add., 52 Add., 271 Add. OE. cēpan.

kep, sb. heed, care, Ass. 72 C, 78 Add.

kerue, v. carve, KH. 249. OE. ceorfan.

Cesar, F. & B. 181 T. French version has Cesar, v. 494.

chaere, sb. throne (?), KH. 1353. OF. chaere.

ycharged, pp. loaded, F. & B. 343 T. OF. charger.

chelde, kolde, kelde, infin. become cold, KH. 1230. OE. cealdian.

chepinge, sb. market, fair, F. & B. 186, 188 Cott. OE. cēapung.

chere, sb. mien, facial expression, KH. 1143, 1165 L. OF. chere.

child, sb. (1) child, (2) youth, KH. 10, 13, 27, 99, etc. OE. cild.

Claris, Clarice, Clariȝ, Clarys, F. & B. 158 895 T, 901 T, 905 T, 915 T, 931 T, etc.; C. 479, 485, 529, etc. French has Claris, 2125, 2131, 2115, 2339, etc.

cleche, infin. reach (with nails), KH. 1027 H ; pp. ycliȝt, Ass. 719 Add.

clef, scribal blunder (?), c + lef, KH. 161 L.

clenchen, infin. make to clink, KH. 1596.

clene, adj. pure, F. & B. 297 C. OE. clǣne.

clepe, clepen, clepede, clupede, cleped, icluped, etc., v. call, KH. 239, 840 L; F. & B. 137 T, 287 T, 137 T, 837 T; 607 C, 140 C, etc.; Ass. 707 H, 847 Add., 73 C, 180 C, etc. OE. cleopian.

clergie, sb. learned knowledge, F. & B. Cf. Hausknecht’s note.

cleppe, clippe, cluppe, klippt, klepte, iclupt, etc., v. embrace, KH. 1297 H, 1450; F. & B. 549 C, 594 C, 614 C, 806 T, 512 C, etc. OE. clyppan.

ycliȝt, see cleche.

knaue, sb. boy, servant, KH. 1012 C, 1095 C; F. & B. 166 T. OE. cnafa.

knowe, v. (1) know, (2) recognize, KH. 1294; (3) beon biknowe of = acknowledge (cf. Mätzner, KH. 983 Note; Lay. II. 355, III. 51; Alisaunder 724, etc.); pp. was iknowe C, was by cnowe L, was biknowe H, KH. 1059 = confessed. OE. cnāwan, becnāwan.

knyhty, v. knight, KH. 488 H, 547, 682.

colmie, kelwe, adj. sooty, KH. 1162, see colwen.

colwen, bicolwede, v. smear, blacken, KH. 1144, 1162.

con, v. auxil. = did, KH. 817 H, 825 H, 938 H, 1470 H, 1549 H, 1632 H; 3 s. pluperf. couþe, 1634 H, see gan.

icore, pp. chosen, F. & B. 268 C. OE. gecoren.

creyde, 3 s. pret. cried, KH. 1362 L. OF. crier.

crois, sb. cross, KH. 1405 C H; croyȝ, KH. 1398 H. OF. crois.

crowch, sb. cross, KH. 1398 L, 1405 L. Lat. crucem.

crude, infin. press, crowd, KH 1385. OE. crūdan.

crune, sb. skull, head, KH. 1607. ON. kruna.

culuart, adj. false, faithless, F. & B. 210, 329 C. OF. culvert.

cupe, sb. basket, F. & B. 435, 438, 452, 471 C, etc. OE. cȳpe, Lat. cūpa.

cuppe, cupe, coupe, sb. cup, KH. 250, 479; coupe, F. & B. 163 T, 181 T, 208 T, etc. OE. cuppa.

Cutberd, Cuberd, Cubert, KH. 876, 833, 851 C, 882, 895, 912, 938, 948, 965 L, 981. OE. Cūþbeorht.

cuþe, 1 s. pret. knew, Ass. 39 C; 3 pl. pret. couthe, Ass. 290 C.

cuþe, cowþe, couþe, 3 s. pret. subj. could, KH. 371.

dales, pl. valleys, dales, KH. 168. OE. dæl.

dar, v. dare, 3 s. pres. durþ, KH. 408 H; 3 s. pret. dorte, dorste, F. & B. 167 C, 204 T; 3 s. pret. subj. þorte, F. & B. 216 C, KH. 408 C. OE. dearr, dorste.

Daris, Dares, Dayre, daye, Darys, doyres, Darie, F. & B. 561, 570, 599, 737, 816. French has Daires, nom. 1470, 1531, 1853, etc. Dairon, accus. 1931.

dawes, pl. days, KH. 999 L; nom. sing. day. OE. pl. dagas.

ded, deed, sb. death, KH. 345 L.; dat. sing. deede, F. & B. 46 T.

deie, deye, deȝe, infin., KH. 115. ON. deyja.

del, sb. part, portion, deal, Ass. 212 C, 218 A, 261 A; dell, 225 C. OE. dǣl.

ideld, p. pl. separated, F. & B. 598 C. OE. dǣlan.

demure, demere, sb. delay, F. & B. 591 C. and Cott. OF. demeurer.

denie, v. din, rattle, KH. 628. OE. dynian.

dent, dunt, sb. stroke, blow, KH. 164 C, 607, 647, 913, 920, 933, 946. OE. dynt.

deol, dole, sb. grief, KH. 1128, 1129. OF. doel, duel.

dere, adj. dear, beloved, KH. 161 L, etc. OE. dēore.

derie, dere, infin. injure, harm, KH. 840, F. & B. 378 T, Ass. 162 C. OE. derian.

derne, adj. secret, hidden, Ass. 856 Add. OE. dierne.

deuise, 2 s. pres. subj. devise, KH. 253 L, H. OF. deviser.


direwurþe, adj. precious, F. & B. 289 C. OE. de͞orwyrðe.

don, dede, dude, v. (1) cause to, KH. 148, 284, 1069, Ass. 462 Add., 474 Add., etc. (2) put, KH. 360, 745, 1332 C; F. & B. 46 T, 200 T, 69 C.; Ass. 61 Add., etc. (3) intens. do, did, KH. 1003 (?), F. & B. 16 C, Ass. 17 Add., 80 C, etc. (cf. dede let wed, F. & B. 1065 T). OE. dōn, dyde.

dreden, 3 pl. pret. fear, dread, KH. 130; dradde C, adred L; pp. adred H; 1 sing. pres. of drede. C L; adrede H, KH. 307. OE. drǣdan.

dreȝe, adriȝe, infin. suffer, endure, KH. 1115. OE. dre͞ogan.

dreme, sb. sound, F. & B. 37 C, 397 T. OE. drēam.

drenche, v. drown; infin. adrenche, KH. 111 C H, 1526; to drenche, KH. 1045 L; pp. adrent, KH. 1053 C; drenched, KH. 1054 L. OE. drencan.

dright, driȝte, sb. lord, Ass. 275 C, KH. 1406 C. OE. drihten.

idriȝt, pp. troubled, Ass. 190 C. OE. gedreccan.

drinke, v. drink; infin. adrinke, adrynke, drown, KH. 111 L, 1045 C H. OE. drincan.

druerie, drury, sb. love, F. & B. 382 C, 820 T. OF. druerie.

dun, doun, down, sb. dune, hill, KH. 168. OE. dūn.

dunt, see dent.

dureþ, 3 sing. pres. extendeth, F. & B. 173 C. OF. durer.

durþ, see dar.

dute, v. fear, be afraid; infin. duti, F. & B. 4 C, 192 Cott.; 1 sing. pres. dute, doute, KH. 362; 2 pl. imper. douȝt, dute, F. & B. 817 T, 531 C. OF. douter.

dyȝcte, infin. arrange, KH. 904 L; pp. idiȝt, F. & B. 23, 260 C. OE. dihtan.

ede, see ȝede.

Edmound, seynt, Ass. 893 Add.

eidel, sb. anything, F. & B. 813 C. OE. ǣnig dǣl.

eie, aye, sb. fear, F. & B. 791 T. OE. ege.

eke, adv. also, KH. 17, 99, 1474, etc. OE. e͞ac.

enchesone, sb. occasion, F. & B. 78 T. OF. enchaisoun.

engynne, sb. device, scheme, artifice, F. & B. 313 T; engin, Ass. 755, 759 C. OF. engin.

Enneas, F. & B. 177 T. French version Eneas, 489.

entermeten, infin. meddle with, F. & B. 167 C. OF. entremetre.

er, arre, her, or, conj. before, ere, KH. 136 H, 567 C; arre, 567 L.

Ermenild, see Reynild, KH. 979 H. Cf. Eormenhild, daughter of Eorcenbriht, king of Kent, Leechdoms iii, index.

erndinge, sb. result of undertaking. OE. ǣrendung.

erne, v. run; infin. vrne, erne, KH. 936; 3 s. pret. arnde C, rende L, ernde H, KH. 1314; pp. iorne C, hy ȝouren L, yorne H, KH. 1228. OE. yrnan.

escheker, sb. chess board, F. & B. 344 C, etc. OF. eschekier.

Estnesse, KH. 1018 L H, 1295 L.

eþe, yþe, adv. easily, KH. 61, 891. OE. e͞aðe.

eþelikeste, superl. most precious, F. & B. 274 C. OE. æðel.

Eue, Ass. 461 Add.

euene, eueneliche, adv. equally, symmetrically, KH. 100.

euerich, adj. every, KH. 230. OE. ǣfrǣlc.

eure ȝut, ever yet, KH. 842.

fable, sb. story, KH. 762 L.

fader, sb. father; gen. sing. fader, C H; faderes L, KH. 116; fader, 1622 H.

fairhede, fayrhede, feyrhade, sb. fairness, KH. 89.

falle, v. fall; bifalle, biualle, happen, occur, become; infin., KH. 105, 186; pp. 450 C, L.

fawe, fain, F. & B. 986 T. OE. fægn.

fay, sb. faith, Ass. 576 C. OF. fei.

fayne, adj. glad, F. & B. 97 T. OE. fægn.

fayne, adv. gladly, F. & B. 286 T.

fecche, fette, infin. fetch, Ass. 129 C, 137 Add.; 3 pl. pret. fett, Ass. 456 C. OE. fetian.

feere, see fere.

feire, sb. market, fair, F. & B. 179 C. OF. feire.


felaurade, sb. company, KH. 180 H. ON. fēlagi.

yfelde, 3 pl. pret. feel, KH. 58. OE. gefēlan.

fele, vele, adj. many, KH. 60, 1425 C, 1464 H. OE. fela.

felle, v. fell, slay; infin., KH. 66; 3 pl. pret. felde, KH. 58.

felle, sb. skin, KH. 1015 L. OE. fell.

felle, adj. pl. fierce, cruel, fell, KH. 1581 L, Ass. 574 C, 684 Add. OE. fel.

felun, adj. savage, cruel, F. & B. 210, 329 C. OF. felon, felun.

fende, feond, sb. fiend, devil; dat. sing. KH. 1480 L, Ass. 164 C. OE. fēond.

feo, dat. sing. money, expense, F. & B. 25 C. OE. feo(h).

fer, adj. unharmed, sound, KH. 161 C, H; Ass. 67 C, 72 A. OE. fēre, Icel. færr.

veracle, sb. company, KH. 180 C. OE. ferræden.

ferde, sb. host, army; dat. sing., Ass. 116 Add. OE. ferd, fyrd.

ferde, 3 s. pret. went, KH. 663, 805, 1010. uerden, 3 pl. pret. behaved, F. & B. 24 C. OE. fēran.

fere, ifere, sb. companion, comrade; sing. accus. fere, Ass. 78 C, 84 Add., 78 Add.; ifere 46 C; dat. sing. ifere C, fere L, yfere H, KH. 1209; plur. feren, KH. 21, 53 H, 88, 108, 235 L, etc.; ifere C, yfere L, KH. 235; ferene, Ass. 406 C. OE. fēra, gefēra.

fere, feere, sb. companionship, F. & B. 5, 81, 280 T, etc. OE. gefēr.

ferli, ferlich, sb. miracle, wonder, F. & B. 456 C, Ass. 732 Add. OE. fǣrlīc.

ferli, ferly, adj. (1) fearful, (2) unexpected, sudden, (3) rare, wonderful, Ass. 327, Add. 347 C.

fett, see fecche.

Fikenhild, fykenyld, fykenild, fokenild, Fykenhild, Fekenyld, etc., KH. 28, 30, 731, 1336, 1493, 1509, 1513, 1516, 1543, 1554, 1567, 1589, 1613; gen. 1554, 1607.

fine, infin. end, KH. 274. OF. finer.

fiþeleres, fyþelers, sb. fiddler; nom. pl. KH. 1592. OE. fiðelere.

fle, infin. flay, KH. 1468 C. OE. flēan.

fleme, sb. fugitive, exile, KH. 1363 C, L. OE. flēma.

fleoten, flete, v. flow, float, swim; infin. flete, L; fleoten H, KH. 165; flette 811 L; 3 s. pret. flet, KH. 203 H; 3 pl. pret. fletten, 811 H; pp. bi flette, KH. 1504 C. OE. flēotan.

flitte, flecte, flette, 2 s. subj. pres. leave, depart, KH. 757. ON. flytta.

Floris, Florys, Floreys, Florens, Floyres, Floriȝ, Florice, Floures, Florisse, etc., F. & B. 40 T, 44 T, 49 T, 56 T, 65 T, etc. French version has Floires, Floire.

flotterede, 3 sing. pret. was tossed in the waves, KH. 135 H.

flur, flour, sb. flower, KH. 15, F. & B. 780 T, 482 C, etc.

flyten, infin. combat, KH. 903 H. OE. flītan.

fode, foode, sb. food, child, KH. 1436, F. & B. 149 T.

foȝel, foul, sb. bird, KH. 139, 1506; F. & B. 277 Cambr., etc. OE. fugol.

fole, sb. foal, horse, KH. 623. OE. fōla.

follyche, KH. 98 L. (?). OE. fūllīce.

fond, pret. sing. found, KH. 39. OE. findan.

fonde, v. try, experience, prove; infin., KH. 163 C H, 782, 1634 H; F. & B. 2 T, 55 T, 158, 399 C, etc.; 3 sing. pret. fonde, fondede, KH. 1634 C. OE. fandian.

fonge, underfonge, v. receive, take; infin. fonge, KH. 345 C L, 163 L, 769; F. & B. 300, 395 C. etc.; vnderfonge, KH. 607 H, 255, 976 C, etc. OE. fōn.

forbere, infin. do without, dispense with, Ass. 60 C, 66 Add. OE. forberan.

forbod, forbode, acc. sing. forbiddal, prohibition, KH. 82.

fordo, pp. destroyed, F. & B. 308 C. OE. fordōn.

foreward, forewart, sb. agreement, pledge, KH. 482, 586 H; F. & B. 426 C. OE. foreweard.

forȝolde, pp. paid for, F. & B. 388 T. OE. forgieldan.

forgone, pp. distressed, Ass. 829 Add.

forhele, 2 sing. imper. conceal, Ass. 192 Add. OE. forhelan.

forleie, forlauȝt, pp. commit adultery, F. & B. 301 Cambr., 618 T. OE. forlicgan.


forlesen, see lesen.

forliued, pp. mislived, F. & B. 99 Cott.

forloren, see lesen.

fort (for + to), until, F. & B. 66, 122 C.; fort he = for to þe.

forþinkeþ, 3 sing. pres., reflex., repent, Ass. 538 Add., 813 Add. ON. fyrirþykkja.

forto, forte, conj. in order to, KH. 25.

forto, prep. to, for to, KH. 166 L.

fremde, fremede, sb. foreigner, stranger, KH. 68. OE. fremede.

fremde, adj. strange, foreign, Ass. 181 C. OE. fremede, fremde.

frume, atte, first, F. & B. 135, 179, 345 C. OE. fruma.

ful, foul, foule, adj. foul, dirty, KH. 1143. OE. fūl.

fulde, 3 sing. pret. filled, KH. 1202. OE. fyllan.

funde, fonde, founde, v. go, KH. 109, 143, 780, 888, 942, 1372. OE. fundian.

fundlyng, fundyng, etc., sb. foundling, KH. 234 C H, 242 C, 450.

furst, sb. space of time, respite, F. & B. 638 C. OE. fyrst.

furthermost, foremost, F. & B. 1059 T.

fus, adj. ready, F. & B. 368 C. OE. fūs.

fyȝen, fissen, infin. fish, KH. 1216. OE. fiscian.

gabbe, joking, F. & B. 785 T.

gabbest, 2 sing. pres. (1) ridicule, (2) deceive, (3) chatter, F. & B. 235 T. ON. gabba.

gabbing, nom. sing., (1) deceit, (2) babble, F. & B. 236, T and Cott.

galeie, sb. galley, KH. 199, 1084 C, 1086 H. OF. galee.

game, sb. joy, pleasure, KH. 211. OE. gamen, gomen.

gan, v. auxil. did; gan, gon, KH. 257, 268, 312 C, 318 C, etc.; plur. gunne, gonne, gunnen, gonnen, KH. 55, 65, 193, 675, 1090, etc.; imper. gyn, KH. 329 H, 396 H; bigyn, KH. 329 L; bigan, began, did, KH. 127, 146 L, 203 C, 1271 H; con, did, KH. 372 H, 817 H, 825 H, 938 H, 1049 H, 1470 H, 1632 H, etc.; pluperf. couþe, KH. 1634 H.

ȝare, adv. quickly, KH. 497 C, 960 C, 1453 L. OE. gearu.

garysone, garisone, sb. treasure, F. & B. 206, T and Cott. OE. gersum, gersuma. OF. garison. Cf. gersume.

ȝede, yede, eode, v. pret. went; 3 sing. ȝede C, eode H, KH. 621, 622; yede Ass. 636 H; 3 pl. yede L, ede H, KH. 117; ȝede C, yede L, eoden H, KH. 167, 621; yede Ass. 634 H, ȝede Ass. 843 Add., ȝeden Ass. 849 Add., F. & B. 444 C.

gegges, sb. frivolous women (?), F. & B. 439 C.

ȝelde, yelde, v. (1) yield, (2) pay for; infin., KH. 514 C H, Ass. 249 C, 255 Add.; pp. iȝolde C, yolde L, ȝolde H, KH. 681; iȝolde C, hyȝolde L, yȝolde H, KH. 490; F. & B. 161 T, 809 C; 2 sing. subj. or imper. ȝeld, pay for, KH. 1066. OE. gieldan.

ȝelle = welle (?), F. & B. 621 T.

ȝem, 2 sing. imper. protect, care for. OE. gīeman.

ȝeme, sb. care, F. & B. 38 C.

ȝen, against; aȝeyn KH. 60, aȝenes C, ayenes L, aȝeyn H, KH. 82. OE. gegn, gēn.

ȝend, gonde, prep. throughout, KH. 1078; adv. yonder, far away; ȝent, KH. 1261 H; gonde, beyond, F. & B. 210 C. OE. geond.

geng, dat. sing. company, Ass. 220 C. OE. genge.

gent, adj. noble, F. & B. 47 Cott. OF. gent.

ȝere, yere, sb. year; pl. ȝere C, yere L, KH. 102. OE. ge͞ar.

ȝerne, v. desire, ask for; 1 sing. pres. ȝerne C H, herne L, KH. 985; infin. KH. 1495 L, 1517 C. OE. geornian.

ȝerne, adj. willing, desirous, eager, KH. 1165 C, 1472 H, etc. OE. georn.

ȝerne, adv. eagerly, F. & B. 127, 375, 588 C. OE. georne.

(þureȝ) gersume, reward, F. & B. 405, 419, 773 C. Cf. garisone.

gesninge, gestinge, iustinge, sb. entertainment, F. & B. 82, 125, 164 C., 175 Cott.

gesse, infin. guess (?), agesse C, agesce L, gesse H, KH. 1267.

ȝeuen, v. give, KH. 170, 172, etc. OE. giefan, gifan.

gigours, nom. plur. violin players, KH. 1592 C. OF. gigueour.


ginne, gynne, sb.? (1) contrivance, scheme. (2) tool, penis, KH. 1574 C H; F. & B. 131, 195, 206, 258 C., etc.; F. & B. 1032, 1048 T. ON. ginna, Lat. ingenium.

ginnur, sb. engineer, workman, F. & B. 324 C.

gle, glewe, sb. song, joy, KH. 1352 C H; Ass. 483 Add. OE. glēoẉ, glīw.

glede, sb. coal, KH. 532 L H. OE. glēd.

gleowinge, glewinge, gleynge, sb. play, KH. 1588.

glide, infin. (1) glide, (2) slip away, KH. 146 L, 1127. OE. glīdan.

gloue, glouen, acc. plur. gloves, KH. 848. OE. glōfa.

Godhild, Godild, Godyld, Godylt, KH. 7, 72, 75, 158, 159, 1458.

Godmod, Horn’s assumed name, KH. 821, 833, 879, 883, 895, 911, 925, 949, 952, 965, 987.

ȝonge, ȝynge, adj. young, KH. 137, etc. OE. geong.

ȝore, adv. long ago, F. & B. 174 C. OE. gēara.

grace, sb. virtue, power, KH. 605. OF. grace.

grame, sb. anger, wrath, F. & B. 712 C.; Ass. 515 H, Ass. 738 Add. OE. grama.

igraue, hygraue, ygraued, pp. scratched, engraved, KH. 599. OF. grafan.

grede, v. cry out; infin. F. & B. 454 C.; 3 sing. pret. gredde, KH. 1282 H. OE. grædan.

greding, sb. clamour, lamentation, Ass. 213 Add.

greithe, greþi, infin. prepare, make ready, Ass. 120 C, 128 Add. ON. greiða.

grete, infin. weep, KH. 957 C L. OE. grētan.

gripe, infin. grip, seize, KH. 55. OE. grīpan.

grisen, v. feel horror; infin. agrise C L; agryse H, KH. 925; 3 sing. pret. gros C, agros L, H, KH. 1410. OE. āgrīsan.

grom, sb. boy; nom. sing. grom, KH. 1035 L H; nom. pl. grome, KH. 175, F. & B. 111 T. ON. gromr.

grunde, grounde, sb.; dat. sing. ground, bottom, KH. 110, 144, 352, 1242.

gume, sb. man; nom. sing. gume, F. & B. 261 C.; nom. plur. gomes, KH. 24, gumes C, gomen H; grome L, KH. 175. OE. guma.

halke, dat. sing. corner, KH. 1167 C L. OE. healoc

Harild, Alrid, Ayld, Aþyld, KH. 815, 877, 878.

harwed, 1 sing. pret. harrowed, Ass. 463 Add. OE. hergian.

hatere, sb. garments, Ass. 149 C. OE. hæteru.

hatte, 3 sing. pret. became hot, KH. 646 C. OE. hǣtan.

heele, 1 sing. pres. conceal, F. & B. 820 T, 533 C. OE. helan.

heete, 3 sing. pret. was named, F. & B. 1004 T. Cf. hoten.

helde, v., see holde.

helde, sb. faith, allegiance, F. & B. 397 C. OE. hyldo.

heleþ, 3 sing. imper. conceal, Ass. 188 C, see heele.

hende, adj. (1) prompt, gracious, alert, KH. 391, 1197, 1345, etc., F. & B. 156 T, etc.; (2) near, ready, KH. 1217 H. OE. (ȝe)hende.

henne, hanne, hennes, adv. hence, KH. 50, 337, 341 C.

hente, v. grasp, receive, get; infin. KH. 1032 H; 1 pl. pret. KH. 919 L; pp. hent, Ass. 453 C.

hepe, dat. sing. throng, crowd, F. & B. 466 C. OE. hēap.

her, see er.

here, poss. pron. their; nom. sing., KH. 9, etc.

heren, v. hire; 3 sing. pret. hurede C, herde L, herde L H, KH. 806. OE. hȳrian.

heste, dat. sing. command, hest, F. & B. 610 C. Cf. Skeat.

het, 3 sing. pret. bade, F. & B. 608, 619 C. OE. hātan.

heynde, sb. hind (?), KH. 686 L. OE. hind.

hiȝe, v. hasten, hie; 3 sing. pret. KH. 1042 C. OE. higian.

hiȝhede, sb. height, F. & B. 327 C.

hitten, v. hit, strike; 1 sing. pres. anhitte C; infin. hette L, KH. 758. ON. hitta.

hol, adj. safe, KH. 161 C H etc. OE. hāl.


holde, helde, v. hold, KH. 323, 482. OE. healdan.

holde, adj., accus. pl. faithful, KH. 1339 L H. OE. hold.

holt, adj. lame, halt, Ass. 516 H. OE. healt, halt.

hondhabbing, having in the hand, in the act, en flagrant delit, F. & B. 668 C. OE. hondhæbbende.

Horn, 9, 74, 121, 128, 135, 184, etc.; horn child 121 L, 128 C, 173, etc.; Horns 123 L; horn þe ȝynge 137 H; Hor 185 L, 397 L, 459 L, 558 L.

hoten, v. be called; 1 sing. pres. hote, KH. 821; 3 sing. pret. het C, hihte H, KH. 9, 27 C; pp. ihote C, hote L, yhote H, KH. 215, 1125 C. OE. hātan.

houe, 2 sing. pret. raised, KH. 1359 C H; ȝoue L. OE. hebban.

hurne, dat. sing. corner, KH. 1471 H. OE. hyrne.

hynde, adj. kind (?), F. & B. 355 T.

I—, I lome, etc., see lome, etc.

Ierusalem, Ass. 475 C, 594 Add.

Iewes, Iewis, Iewys, nom. sing. Iewe, Ass. 620 Add., 564 H, Iew 674 Add.; dat. sing. Iewe, Ass. 530 H, Iew, Ass. 620 Add.; gen. sing. Iewis, Ass. 553 H, etc.

Almost everything in this entry is wrong. As printed:
Iewes, Iewis, Iewys, nom. sing. Iewe, Ass. 620 Add., 674 H [564 H corresponds to 674 Add.], Iew 674 Add.; dat. sing. Iewe, Ass. 530 C, Iew, Ass. 620 Add. [this is wrong, but the correct form has not been identified]; gen. sing. Iewis, Ass. 553 C, etc.

Ihesu, Ass. 51 Add., 324 C, 388 Add., Ihesus 481 C, Iesus 486 C; gen. Ihesus 624 Add., Crist 76 C, Ihesu crist 248 T, etc.

ilk, ylk, adj. same; dat. sing. ilke, KH. 948 C, ylke F. & B. 78 T, vlke C, hulke L, KH. 1285, etc. OE. ilca.

ynde, India, Ass. 611 C, 775 Add., 807 Add.

Iogelours L, iogelers H; nom. pl. jugglers, KH. 1592. OF. jongleor.

Iohan, Ion, Ass. 14 C, 15 Add., 49 C, 52 Add., 55 Add., 77 C, 224 C, 228 Add., etc.; nom. sing. seynt Ione, 820 Add.

Iosaphath, Iosephas, Iosephat, Ass. 472 C, 581 C, 754 Add.

Irisse, yrisse, yrisshe, Hyrische, KH. 1080, 1302 L, 1382, 1464.

Irlond, hirelonde, yrlonde, KH. 810 L, 1078 C, 1633 C H.

lacchen, v. catch, take; infin. lacchen, KH. 686 L, lache KH. 702 L; 3 sing. pret. laȝte C, laucte L, lahte H, KH. 259; 3 pl. pret. laucte, KH. 943 L, by laucte 705 L; 3 pl. pret. of laucte, 943 L. OE. (ȝe)læccan.

laȝe, lawe, sb. (1) law, (2) religion, (3) custom, KH. 69 C H, 1190. OE. lagu.

largeliche, adv. liberally, F. & B. 71 C. OF. large.

laste, leste, v. last, endure, KH. 6, 433 L, etc. OE. lǣstan.

lay, ley, sb. law, religion, KH. 69 L, 1642 H, Ass. 686 Add. OF. lei.

lef, leue, leof, luef, adj. dear, KH. 126 L, 342, 695, 754, 1013, 1457, etc.; F. & B. 151 C., 321 C., etc.; Ass. 40 C, 167 C, 42 Add., 173 Add., etc. OE. lēof.

lef, leue, leof, lyfe, sb. dear one, darling, F. & B. 108 T, 89, 103 Cott., 312 T, 831 T, 542 C. OE. lēof.

leue, v. believe, F. & B. 325 T. OE. lēfan, lȳfan.

bileue, v. remain; infin. KH. 381, F. & B. 103 Cott., 51 C.; 3 sing. pret. bilefte, Ass. 57 T, bileft 63 Add., 151 Add.; 3 pl. pret. bileft, Ass. 759 Add., etc. OE. belǣfan.

leiȝe, leyhe, v. laugh; infin. leyhe L (lyþe H?), KH. 372; 3 sing. pret. lowe L, loh KH. 373, louȝe C, lowe L H, KH, 1600; 3 plur. pret. lowȝ, F. & B. 1053 T, 776 C. OE. hlehhan.

leme, sb. light, brightness, F. & B. 198 C, Ass. 607 H. OE. lēoma.

lemman, leman, sb. dear one, leman, KH. 463, 589, 721. OE. le͞ofmon.

lene, v. lend, KH. 491. OE. lǣnan.

leng, compar. longer, KH. 1183 etc. OE. leng.

lep, lepe, sb. basket, F. & B. 465 C., 738, 740, 741 T, 753 T, 758 T. OE. le͞ap.

lere, sb. cheek, F. & B. 501 C. OE hlēor.

lere, v. teach, KH. 257, F. & B. 148 C, Ass. 896 Add. OE. lǣran.

lese, leose, forlese, v. lose; infin. leose C. forlese L, forleose H, KH. 707; pp. forloren, KH. 511 C. OE. forle͞osan.

leste, luste, v. listen, KH. 355, 505, 1355 C. OE. hlystan.

leste, luste, v. desire, hanker, lust, KH. 426, 433, 918, 1298. OE. lystan.


lesing, lesyng, sb. falsehood, F. & B. 84 T, 233 T, 585 C. OE. le͞asung.

lete, late, v. let, permit, leave, lose, KH. 1124 C, 1330 L; belete, leave behind, F. & B. 201 T, 1593; forlete, desert, KH. 232, F. & B. 201 Cott. OE. lǣtan.

let, lette, v. hinder, retard, impede, KH. 100, F. & B. 333 T, 25 C. OE. lettan.

yliche, iliche, sb. like, equal, KH. 20, 305, 331, etc. OE. gelīca.

licte, lyhte, v. alight, KH. 51 etc; 3 sing. pret. aliȝte, KH. 51 C. OE. lihtan.

linne, lynne, blynne, v. cease, KH. 329, 372, 1068. OE. linnan.

list, sb. art, KH. 251, 1577. OE. list.

lite, lyte, adj., adv. little, KH. 1004, 678 L, 1211 C. ON. lītt.

liþe, lyþe, v. listen, KH. 2, 354, 372 H, 436 L. ON. hlȳða.

lodlike, adj. loathsome, hateful, KH. 1415 L.

lofte, sb. loft, upstairs, women’s apartments, KH. 974 C. OE. loft. ON. lopt. The peculiar turn of meaning is Scandinavian.

loke, loky, v. watch, guard, KH. 800, 1180, 1181 L H, 1419 L H, Ass. 47 C. OE. lōcian.

loking, lokyng, sb. care, watch, KH. 360.

ilome, adv. frequently, F. & B. 96 Cott. OE. gelōme.

londiss, adj. native, KH. 671. Cf. vnlondisshe, KH. 672 H. OE. lendisc.

longest, 3 sing. pres. belongest, KH. 1406 C. OE. longian.

lore, sb. teaching, bidding, KH. 472. OE. lār.

loþe, adj. hateful, KH. 1140, 1283. OE. lāð.

Lumbardy, F. & B. 179 T. French version has (En)Lombardie 49.

lure, v. (1) lour, look sullen (?), (2) lie in wait, set trap (?), KH. 286, 1312.

luste, impers. be pleasing, F. & B. 378 C.

lut, sb. little, KH. 658 H. OE. lȳt.

luþere, adj. evil, bad; nom. plur., KH. 530 C. OE. lȳðer. Cf. of þan luþer folke (= accursed), Lay. 29576 B.

lyst, sb. desire, pleasure, Ass. 2 Add. OE. lyst.

maine, meyne, meigne, sb. household, Ass. 110 C, 417, 475, 569, 573 Add.; F. & B. 782 C, 1059 T. OF. maisnee.

maister, sb. leader, KH. 659; maister-king, KH. 659 L, 680. OF. maistre.

make, sb. wife, spouse, KH. 1523, F. & B. 78 Cott., 303 T. OE. gemaca.

make, v. pretend to be, F. & B. 76 T.

male, sb. bag, pouch, F. & B. 689 T. OF. male.

manrede, sb. homage, F. & B. 395 C. OE. manrǣden.

Marie, Marye, gen. Maries, Ass. 29 C, 31 Add., 239 C, 241 Add., 253 C, 498 H, 500 H, 546 C, etc.; seynt Marye, F. & B. 248 T; seynte-marie, F. & B. 49 V.

may, sb. may, maid, KH. 329, 979 H, 1019 H, 1516 H; F. & B. 201 T, 393 T, 46, 102 C., etc.; Ass. 4 C, etc. OE. mǣg.

me, indef. pron. one, KH. 1008 C H, 1126 C; F. & B. 671, 672, 699 C., etc. OE. man(n).

mede, sb. mead, meadow, F. & B. 434 C. OE. mǣd.

mede, sb. reward, KH. 288 L, 500, 1498 L, Ass. 638 Add. OE. mēd.

meene, v. mourn, lament, 1 sing. pres. F. & B. 273 T. OE. (bi)mǣnan.

meigne, meyne, see maine.

meniuer, sb. a kind of fur, F. & B. 110 C. Cf. Hausknecht’s Note. Lat. minutus varius.

menske, sb. honour, F. & B. 56 T. OE. menniscu, humanity; Icel. menska, honour.

mesauenture, sb. ill luck, KH. 344 C L. OF. aventure.

mest, superl. adj. most, KH. 26.

mester, mystere, sb. (1) office, trade, (2) need, necessity, KH. 243, 581. OF. mestier.

mete, v. meet, encounter, 3 plur. pret. metten. KH. 169. OE. mētan.

ymete, adj. fit, reasonable, KH. 1401 L. OE. gemǣte.

mete, v. dream, KH. 1522. OE. mǣtan.

meting, metyng, sb. dream, KH. 699. OE. mǣtan.

mid, prep. with, KH. 22 L, 25 L, etc. OE. mid.

middelerd, sb. earth, world, F. & B. 272 C. OE. middangeard.


misliken, v. misplease, KH. 455. OE. mislīcian.

mod, sb. mood, mind, KH. 297, 1579 C H. OE. mōd.

modi, mody, adj. full of passion, angry, KH. 748. OE. mōdiȝ.

Modi, Mody, KH. 1023, 1094, 1121 L, 1331 L, 1626.

molde, sb. earth, KH. 335, F. & B. 343 T. OE. molde.

mone, ymone, sb. companion, KH. 560, 840 C L. OE. gemāna.

mone, sb. companionship, communion, participation, KH. 890 L, 1149 C.

mote, moste, v. may, might, was to; mote, KH. 197, 218 C, 829; moste, KH. 67 C, 186; munthe (?), KH. 1508 L.

Mountargis, F. & B. 66 T. French version, Montoire, 174, 316, etc.

murne, adj. troubled, KH. 748. OE. (un)murne.

Murry, Murri, morye, moye, moy, Mory, mury, KH. 4, 33, 73, 921, 1431. Cf. Maurius (Maurus), son of Aruiragus, Lay. 9895 ff. He defeats the invading Picts, and sets up a stone with runes to commemorate the victory.

nabod (ne + abod).

neb, nebbe, sb. face, F. & B. 615 C, 890 T. OE. nebb.

nime, v. take; infin. nyme, Ass. 121 C; 2 sing. subjunct. or imper. nym, KH. 1205 L; 1 sing. pres. nime, KH. 713 L; 3 sing. pret. nam, nom, KH. 619, 1269, Ass. 33 C, 35, 59 Add., etc.; 3 pl. pret. neme C, nomen L H, KH. 64; pp. ynome, Ass. 6 C; vndernome, F. & B. 128 T, 189 T, 219 T, 227 T, 920 T, etc.; nam = went, Ass. 53 C. Cf. vndernom. OE. niman.

niþing, sb. wretch, villain, evil man, KH. 210. OE. nīðing.

noȝ, enough, KH. 196; inoȝe C, hy nowe L, ynowe H. OE. genōh.

nonskyns, adj. of no kind, F. & B. 226 T. OE. nānes cynnes.

noþing, adv. not at all, KH. 290 C.

Nubil, F. & B. 665 C. French, (de) Nubie, 2492.

O, prep. until, KH. 134 H. OE. .

of drede, see dreden.

of reche, see reche.

on, prep. on, in; on mi lokyng, KH. 360 C; on kneuling, KH. 503 L.

onde, sb. envy, Ass. 424 C. OE. anda, onda.

one, sb. alone, solitary; hou one KH. 364 L, is one 559 L, go one 559 C, al one C, alon L, ys one H 650. Cf. Bradley-Stratmann.

oppe, prep. upon, KH. 466, 480 L.

or, see er, or oþer.

ord, sb. point, beginning; dat. sing. orde C H, horde L, KH. 662; dat. sing. ord H, hord L, KH. 1475; accus. sing., F. & B. 48 C. OE. ord.

ore, sb. favour, grace, KH. 695, 1629 C, F. & B. 173 C. OE. ār.

orfreys, sb. orfrey, gold fringe, F. & B. 371 T. OE. orfreis.

Orgas, F. & B. 101 T. French, Li dus Joras, 357.

oþer, num. second, KH. 201. OE. ōðer.

oþer, conj. or, KH. 44. OE. oððe.

oþer, pr. other, KH. 28. OE. ōðer.

otter (buterfliȝe C), sb. butterfly (?), F. & B. 772 T.

oueral, adv. everywhere, KH. 262 H. Cf. Germ. überall.

out londisse, adj. foreign, KH. 635 L.

ower, gen. plur. your, F. & B. 534 C. OE. e͞ower.

paene, adj. pagan, KH. 159 C.

payn, peynim, payen, pain, paynim, paen, etc., sb. paien, pagan, heathen, KH. 45, 63, 82, 87, 193, 935, 948, 950, 1412, etc.

paynime, sb. heathen land, KH. 859.

page, sb. boy, servant, KH. 1012 L H, 1379 H. OF. page.

pal, palle, sb. costly sort of cloth, F. & B. 822 T, and Cott.; Ass. 631 H, 795 Add. OE. pæll, OF. pal.

parage, sb. high birth, F. & B. 256, 269 C., etc. OF. parage.

paramur, adv. passionately, F. & B. 486 C., etc.

Paryse, nom. sing., F. & B. 168 T. Fr. Paris, 449, etc.

pel, pelle, sb. skin, KH. 421, 1582 L. OF. pel.

pelte, pulte, pylte, 3 sing. pret. pushed, KH. 1529.

pilegrim C, pylegrim L, pelryne H, KH. 1236 pilgrim. OF. pelegrin.


Petir, Petyr, Peter, Petre, Ass. 317, 327, 580, 581, 638, 639, 673 Add., 464, 470, 529 C, 499, 563 H, etc.

ipight, pp. placed, F. & B. 117, 183 C.

pine, pyne, v. pain; infin. KH. 726 C; 1 sing. pres., KH. 1280 L; pp. pined C, pyned H, KH. 1280. OE. pīnian.

pyne, sb. pain, torture, KH. 277 C H, Ass. 426, 458 Add. OE. pīn.

plawe, sb. sport, fight, KH. 1170 H. Cf. Bradley-Stratmann, plaȝe.

pleie, pleye, v. play, KH. 25, 200, 363. OE. plegian.

pleing C, pleyhunge L, pleyȝyng H, KH. 34, playing.

plener, plenere, adj. full, F. & B. 179 C., 188 Cott. OF. plenier.

pliȝte, v. plight; infin. pliȝte, plyȝte, plyhte, KH. 321; 2 sing. imper. plist, plyct, plyht, KH. 440; 1 sing. pres. indic. pliȝte C, plicte L, plyhte H, KH. 716; pp. ipliȝt, F. & B. 141 C. OE. plihtan.

pomel, sb. pommel, F. & B. 209, 213 Cott. OF. pomel.

porter, sb. doorkeeper, F. & B. 329 C. OF. portier.

posse, v. push; infin. KH. 1087 C; 3 sing. pret. puste, KH. 1153 H; pugde 1156 L. OF. pousser.

poure, pure, infin. pore, look, KH. 1172 C L.

prede, sb. pride, KH. 1497 L. OE. prȳta.

prime, sb. first quarter of the day, name of one of the offices of the Church, after ‘lauds,’ KH. 1040; at prime tide, KH. 905.

pris, prys, sb. value, worth, KH. 968 C, F. & B. 310, 350, 750 C., 1028 T. OF. pris.

pruesse, sb. brave deed, prowess, KH. 588. OF. proesse.

pugde, see posse.

quantyse, sb. cleverness, F. & B. 543 T.

qued, sb. bad, Ass. 174 C, 197, 465 Add. etc. OE. cwēd.

quelle, v. kill; infin. KH. 65, 656 C; 2 sing. imper. quel, F. & B. 1008 T, aquel 725 C.; 3 sing. pret. quelde, F. & B. 904 T, aquelde KH. 929 L H, aquelde H, quelde C, KH. 1064. OE. cwellan.

queme, v. please, KH. 517. OE. cwēman.

queme, adj. pleasing, KH. 501 L. OE. (ge)cwēme.

queþe, v. say; 3 sing. pret. quaþe, quoþ H, KH. 137, etc. OE. cweðan.

quic, quike, adj. alive, KH. 92 C, 1468 C, 1478 H. OE. cwic.

quite, aquite, pp. through with, quit of, F. & B. 171, 724 C., 180 Cott. OF. aquiter.

qware, where, KH. 735 L.

rake, infin. hasten, KH. 1126 L, 1158 L. OE. rācian.

rape, sb. haste, KH. 586 C, 1532 C.

rathe, adv. soon, quickly, KH. 1407 L, F. & B. 24 T, 193 T, etc. OE. hræð.

recche, rekke, v. reck, care for; 3 sing. pres. recche C, reche L, yrecche H, KH. 370; 3 sing. subj. arecche, KH. 710 H; 1 sing. pres. rekke, F. & B. 96 T. OE. reccan.

reche, areche, ofreche, þorhreche, v. reach; infin. areche, KH. 1308 C; of reche, gain, KH. 1375 C L; þorhreche, traverse, KH. 1375 H; pp. araȝt, F. & B. 687 C, rauȝt F. & B. 974 T. OE. rǣcan.

rede, reed, reede, sb. counsel, opinion, F. & B. 45 T, 50 T, 53 T, 314 T, Ass. 294, 298 Add., etc. OE. rǣd.

rede, v. (1) read, (2) counsel, advise; infin. KH. 308, 511 L, 881, 966 L, F. & B. 21 T, 148, 151 C.; 1 sing. pres. KH. 966 C, F. & B. 75 T; pp. rad, Ass. 891 Add., irad F. & B. 578 C., yredde 858 T. OE. rǣdan.

rein, sb. rain, KH. 11.

reme, sb. coast (?), OE. rima; or realm (?), OF. reaume, KH. 1625 H (reaume 1623 L).

rende, see erne.

rende, v. rend, tear; 3 sing. pret. rente C H, to rente L, KH. 775.

rente, sb. pay, wages, KH. 984 C L. OF. rente.

reue, sb. reeve, guard, KH. 1418. OE. (ge)rēfa.

reue, reyue, infin. rob, plunder, F. & B. 209 C., Ass. 168 Add. OE. re͞afian.

rewe, infin. rue, repent, KH. 398. OE. hrēowan.


rewlich, adj. sad, KH. 1129. OE. hre͞owlīc.

reyne, ryne, birine, infin. rain, KH. 11.

Reynes C, reny L, Raynis H, KH. 1023.

Reynild, Hermenyl, hermenylde, ermenyld, KH. 973, 1636. ON. Ragnhilda, OE. Eormenhild, daughter of Eorcenbriht, king of Kent.

riche, sb. kingdom, KH. 20. OE. rīce.

rigge, sb. back, KH. 1138. OE. hrycg.

rime, ryme, sb. rime, speech, KH. 860, 1461.

rive, adj. abundant, F. & B. 73 Cott. OE. rīf.

riuen, ariuen, v. arrive, land; infin. ariue C, aryue H, KH. 193; pp. riued, KH. 162 L, 193 L, ariued, aryued, KH. 40, 162.

riȝte, adv. direct, at once, KH. 1428 C.

roche, sb. rock, KH. 79.

rode, sb. cross, rood, KH. 346, Ass. 12, 19 C, 44 C, 46 Add., 270 C, etc. OE. rōd.

roþer, sb. rudder, KH. 202. OE. rōðer.

roune, rowne, sb. counsel, KH. 1378. OE. rūn.

runde, rounde, 3 sing. pret. whispered, F. & B. 716 C., 999 T. OE. rūnian.

Rymenhild, rimenild, rymenyld, reymnyld, rymenild, reymild, reymyld, Rymyld, rimenyld, etc., KH. 264, 293, 393, 472, 600, 652, 691, 738, 741, 1510, etc. Rimhild, OE. nomen mulieris.

ryue, sb. shore, KH. 142.

sake, v. contend, fight; 3 pl. pret. asoke C, forsoken L H, KH. 69, gave up. OE. sacan.

sale, sb. hall, KH. 1187 C H. OE. sal.

salyley, scribal error (?), KH. 199 L.

Sarazin, sarazyn, KH. 42, 636, 645, 671, 1415, 1477 H, 1479.

scene, schene, adj. beautiful, KH. 97 L, 178 L, F. & B. 263 C. OE. scēne.

schauntillun, sb. model, F. & B. 325 C.

schenche, v. give, serve, dispense; infin. schenche, shenche, KH. 1186; 2 sing. subjunct. or imper. shenh, KH. 1199 H. OE. scencan.

schende, v. (1) scold, (2) injure; infin. KH. 747 L, 724; 3 sing. pret. schente, schende, shende, KH. 340. OE. scendan.

schete, v. shoot, KH. 1011. OE. sce͞otan.

schillen, v. sound; 3 sing. pres. shilleþ, KH. 224 L. OE. scillan.

schonde, sb. harm, disgrace, KH. 746, 760 C, F. & B. 942 T. OE. scand, sceand.

schrede, v. clothe; 3 sing. pret. schredde L, sredde H, KH. 625, schredde C L, shredde H, KH. 896; 3 pl. pret. schrudde C, schurde L, KH. 1582. OE. scrȳdan.

schrewe, sb. shrew, evil person, KH. 60. OE. scre͞awa, barn mouse.

schulle, adv. shrill, sonorous, KH. 221 C. OE. scylle, scelle.

sclauyne, sb. pilgrim’s cloak, KH. 1134, 1137, 1310. OF. esclavine.

scrippe, sb. scrip, sack, KH. 1141. ON. skreppa.

scur, sb. shower, F. & B. 73 Cott. OE. scūr.

sekerly, see sikirli.

senpere, sb. bridge keeper (?), F. & B. 500 T, 513 T.

sere, sb. apparel (?), contrivance (?), Ass. 704 Add. OE. searo.

seriauns, sb. sergeant, man at arms, F. & B. 218 C. OF. sergant, serjant.

serie, infin. dispense, KH. 1489 C. OE. scerwen, ‘a scattering.’

seyne, sb. snare, fishing net, KH. 726 L. OE. segne, OF. seine.

shrelle, infin. cry, F. & B. 756 T.

sib, sibbe, sb. kinsman, kindred, KH. 68, Ass. 181 C, 185 Add., 585 H. OE. sibb.

side, syde, sb. (1) side, (2) shore, KH. 35, 145. OE. sīde.

sike, syke, syken, v. sigh, KH. 456; 3 sing. pres. sykes, F. & B. 113 T; 3 sing. pret. syȝt, syȝte, F. & B. 256, 270 T, 417, 431 C. OE. sīcan.

sikirli, sekerly, adv. certainly, Ass. 390 Add., F. & B. 92 T. OE. sicor.

siþe, syþe, sb. time, KH. 374 C, 1446, F. & B. 196 T. OE. sīð.

sithen, conj. since, Ass. 283, 422 Add. OE. siððan.

siþþe, sitthe, sithen, adv. afterwards, KH. 1185 C, 1238, Ass. 542 Add., 434 C. OE. siððan.

skeete, soon, quickly, F. & B. 1005 T. OE. scēot, ON. ski͞otr.

skille, skyle, sb. right, reason, Ass. 312 H, 352 Add. Icel. skil.


slitte, sb. opening in garment, pocket, F. & B. 348 C.

slon, v. slay; infin. slen C, slon L, slo H, KH. 91, 47; 3 pl. pret. sloȝen C, slowe L, slowen H, KH. 195; pp. aslaȝe C, yslawe L H, KH. 94. OE. slēan.

sloo, sb. slough, Ass. 507 H. OE. slōh.

smerte, v. pain, KH. 1602. OE. smeortan.

snelle, adj. quick, KH. 1581 C. OE. snell.

so, conj. as, KH. 14, 15, etc.

soler, sb. upper room, summer room, F. & B. 173. OF. solier, Lat. solarium.

sond, sonde, sb. (1) message, (2) dish at table, Ass. 634 H, 798 Add., F. & B. 1072 T.

sonde, sb. messenger, KH. 281, 287, (ysonde 287 L), 992 H, 1005 C H, etc., F. & B. 796 C., Ass. 106 C, 682 Add. OE. sand, sond.

sore, sb. pain, KH. 75 L H. OE. sār.

sore, adv. much, very, KH. 73, 362. OE. sāre.

soth, soþ, soþe, adj. true, F. & B. 321 T, etc. OE. sōð.

soune, sb. sound, KH. 224 H. Fr. son.

soune, adv. clearly, KH. 224 L.

Spaine, Spayne, Spaygne, Speine, F. & B. 413, 769 C., 1046 T.

spede, sb. speed, good luck, KH. 491. OE. spēd.

spede, infin. speed, have good fortune, KH. 852 C H, F. & B. 1026 T. OE. speke, bispac, spēdan.

spell, spelle, sb. tale, KH. 1015 H, 1106. OE. spell.

spille, spylle, v. perish, kill, KH. 208, 720 L, F. & B. 1007 T; pp. ispild, killed, Ass. 19 C. OE. spillan.

squire, sb. square, F. & B. 325 C. OF. esqvarre.

stage, sb. upper floor of a house, F. & B. 218, 270 C. OF. estage.

stede, sb. horse, steed, KH. 51. OE. stēda.

stede, sb. place, KH. 273, Ass. 730, 866 Add. OE. stede.

steke, v. pierce; 2 sing. pres. stikkest, F. & B. 98 Cott.

stere, sb. rudder, ship, KH. 107 C, 1471 C. OE. stēor.

stere, v. lead, command, KH. 464 C, L. OE. ste͞oran.

sterne, adj. stern, insolent, KH. 935 C, 784 H. OE. sterne, styrne.

sterte, v. start, leap, F. & B. 457 C. ON. sterta.

sterue, v. die, KH. 829, 980 C, 984 H, 1253 C. OE. steorfan.

steuene, sb. voice, KH. 1453 L, F. & B. 54 C., Ass. 73, 239 C, 79, 245 Add., etc. OE. stefn.

steyȝ, 3 sing. pret. climbed, F. & B. 892 C. OE. stīgan.

stonde, infin. spring up, rise, KH. 809 L, H. Cf. Lay. 20509.

stonge, 3 pl. pret. pierced, KH. 1475 L H, Ass. 447 Add. OE. stingan.

store, adj., nom. plur. great, strong, F. & B. 19 C. OE. stor.

stounde, stunde, sb. point of time, period of time, F. & B. 327 T, Ass. 635, 727 Add., KH. 181 C, 351, 791, 1030, 1371. OE. stund.

striken, 3 pl. pret. struck, stripped (Stratmann)?, striken L H, strike C, KH. 1089. OE. strīcan.

sture, infin. stir, move, KH. 1541 H. OE. styrian.

Sture, name of a river, KH. 729, 1551.

Suddene, Sodenne, Sudenne, Suddenne, KH. 155, 189, 542, 929, 1062, 1351, 1370, 1389, 1463, 1637.

sundry, adj. separate, apart, Ass. 148, 364 Add. OE. syndrig.

sune, 2 sing. subj. pres. sound, KH. 223 C. OF. soner.

swage, infin. assuage, abate, F. & B. 38 T. OF. asuager.

swere, swire, suire, sb. neck, KH. 796, 1144, 1291, F. & B. 1016 T. OE. swira, sweora.

sweting, sb. favourite, KH. 234 L.

sweuen, sb. dream, KH. 710, 723. OE. swefen.

sweuening, sb. dream, KH. 774.

swike, swyke, infin. deceive; biswike C L, bysuyke H, KH. 306; biswike C, swike L, byswyke H, KH. 711. OE. swīcan.

swilc, swihc, such, etc., such. OE. swylce.

swiþe, swyþe, suþe, adv. (1) very, KH. 96, 98 L H, 172, 192, etc., Ass. 355 C, F. & B. 87, 280 C.; (2) soon, quickly, rapid, KH. 129 L H, 374 L, 435 L, 289, 845, 1042, etc., F. & B. 148, 308 C., Ass. 612, 671 H, 839 Add., etc. OE. swīðe.


iswoȝe, yswowe, pp. in a faint, KH. 458, 914.

swoȝning C, swohinge L, swowenynge H, sb. fainting spell, swoon, KH. 474.

swongen, 3 pl. pret. suspended, (?) Ass. 443 Add. OE. swingan.

swymme, swemme, infin. move on water, KH. 203. OE. swimman.

take, v. take, give, KH. 568, 834, 1134, 1204, F. & B. 207 T, 159 C., Ass. 48, 682 Add., 572 H, etc.; bitak, KH. 839 C, bytoke L, bitoke H, KH. 1179. Cf. teche, biteche. ON. taka.

targeþ, v. delay, F. & B. 226 Cott. OF. targier.

te, ten, v. draw; infin. te, Ass. 282 C, ten KH. 767 T, teon 767 H; 3 sing. pret. teȝ, F. & B. 617 C.; 2 sing. imper. te, KH. 327 L. OE. tēon.

teche, v. usually ‘teach,’ sometimes ‘give’ (cf. take); infin. teche, give, Ass. 46 C; 1 sing. pres. biteche, KH. 619 L H.

tendeþ, v. set on fire, burn, F. & B. 672 C. OE. (on)tendan.

tene, teone, sb. injustice, harm, KH. 367, 727; anger, F. & B. 902 T. OE. te͞ona.

terme, sb. term, period, F. & B. 432 Cambr. OF. terme.

teyse, sb. measure of three yards, F. & B. 201, 203 Cott. OF. toise.

þar, v. need, KH. 408 L. OE. þearf.

þat, (1) demonstr. the, that, KH. 27, 28; (2) rel. that, KH. 2, 22; (3) conj. that, KH. 33 L; (4) comp. rel. him, who, KH. 1064 C.

the, infin. prosper, thrive, F. & B. 566 T. OE. ðēon.

þinke, v. seem; infin. KH. 1233; 3 sing. pres. þinkþ, KH. 1405 C, etc.; þincheþ, F. & B. 169 C.; of þinke, misplease, repent, infin., KH. 112, 1046 C H, 1136. OE. þyncean.

þo, adv. then, KH. 52, etc. OE. ða.

þole, þolie, v. endure, suffer; infin., F. & B. 422, 677, 678, 737 C., Ass. 22, 215 C, 26, 217, 219 Add.; 3 sing. pret., F. & B. 580 C., etc. OE. þolian.

Thomas, F. & B. 611 C, 659, 775, 796, 807, 821 Add.

þorhreche, see reche.

þral, þralle, sb. slave, thrall, KH. 449. OE. þrǣl.

þroȝe, sb. period of time, KH. 354, 1036. OE. þrāge.

þrottene, þrettene, num. thirteen. OE. þrēotȳne.

þulke (þe + ulke), the same, F. & B. 746 C., etc.

þurston, KH. 875, 1057. Seems to be Norse. A frequent name of Hus Carls. Thurstan (Turstayn) is one of two tax collectors sent by Hardicanute to Worcester.

tide, sb. time, KH. 1563. OE. tīd.

tide, bitide, v. happen, betide; infin., KH. 212 L H, 218 C; 3 sing. pres., tit, tyt, KH. 1442 L H; bitide, infin. KH. 218 L H, 575. OE. tīdian.

Printed on two lines with superfluous “OE.”:
tide, bitide, v. happen, betide; infin., KH. 212 L H, 218 C; 3 sing. pres., OE.
tit, tyt, KH. 1442 L H; bitide, infin. KH. 218 L H, 575. OE. tīdian.

timing, tymyng, sb. success, KH. 1701 C H. OE. tīmian.

tire, tyre, infin. tear, F. & B. 736 C., 1017 T. OE. teran.

tiþing, tidinge, etc., sb. tiding, KH. 138, 1058, 1318.

to, (1) prep. to, KH. 2; (2) adv. too, KH. 37 L H; (3) prefix apart, asunder.

to-brake, 3 sing. pret. broke apart, F. & B. 133 T.

to-draȝe, to drawe, infin. draw to pieces (cf. draw and quarter), KH. 1612; 3 pl. pret. KH. 195. Cf. alle þa chirchen he to droh, Lay. 29135 A.

toȝenes, see ȝen.

to-shake, v. shake to pieces. Ass. 356 C.

trende, 3 sing. pret. roll, KH. 460 H. OE. trendan.

trewage, truage, sb. tribute, homage, KH. 1618. OF. truage.

trewþe, sb. truth, troth, KH. 321. OE. trēowð.

Troye, dat. sing., F. & B. 178 T.

Tune, sb. town, city, KH. 168. OE. tūn.

tweie, tueye, tweyne, num. two, twain, KH. 943 H, 955. OE. twēgen.

twie, twye, adv. twice, KH. 1570 C L. OE. tuwa, twiwa.

tytte, 3 sing. pret. pull tightly (Bradley-Stratmann).

vȝten, sb. morning, dawn, KH. 1474. OE. ūhte.

uncuþe, vncouþe, adj. unknown, KH. 781. OE. cūð.

vnderfonge, see fonge.


vnderȝete, v. perceive, learn; infin. F. & B. 49 T; 3 sing. pret. vnderȝat, F. & B. 35 C., etc.; pp., F. & B. 292 T, and Cott. 556 C. OE. undergietan.

vndern, sb. noon, F. & B. 511 T; ondarne, Cott. OE. undern.

vndernome, pp. journeyed, F. & B. 189, 219 T; vndernome, set out, gone, 920 T. Cf. noome, gone, F. & B. 227 T.

vndrestode, 3 sing. pret. received, Ass. 564 Add.

vnmete, adv. violently, Ass. 354 C. OE. unmete.

vnmeþ, sb. immoderation, F. & B. 675 C. OE. unmet.

vnneþes, adv. with difficulty, F. & B. 63 T. OE. une͞aðe.

unorne, adj. old, ugly, KH. 348, 1646 C. OE. unorne.

vnpliȝt, sb. peril, Ass. 194 Add.

unspurne, infin. kick open, KH. 1159. OE. spurnan.

vnwemmed, adj. spotless, Ass. 537 C. OE. wamm.

vrne, see erne.

utrage, sb. error for truage (?), KH. 1618 L.

verde, see ferde.

verdoune, sb. troop, company (?), Ass. 455, 457 H.

vertu, sb. power, strength, F. & B. 370 T. OF. vertu.

vie, sb. life, Ass. 879, 889, 891 Add. OF. vie.

warysoun, sb. reward, F. & B. 1051 T, see gersume, garisone.

wat, water, KH. 634 L.

waxe, wexe, v. grow, wax; infin., KH. 101, 268 C, 312 C; 3 sing. pret. wex, KH. 268 L. OE. weaxan.

wed-broþer, sb. pledged brother, KH. 300 L. Cf. Lay. 14469 and Note 32209. Sax. Chron. 30, brother by baptism. Wace has for Layamon’s wed-broðer, in one instance ‘cousin,’ in another ‘nephew.’ Cf. also Plummer, Two Saxon Chronicles, p. 25, bottom. ON. veð brōðar.

wedde, v. wed, marry; infin., KH. 1021; 3 sing. pret. wedde (wax mad?); pp. wedde, KH. 316 C, L. OE. weddian.

wede, sb. clothes, KH. 1132. OE. wǣd.

wel, adv., (1) well, KH. 374 etc., (2) very, KH. 74 L, 97 L, 98 C, 131, F. & B. 147 C. OE. wēl.

welde, wolde, infin. wield, rule, KH. 324, 452 L, 972 L, F. & B. 207 T. OE. wealdan.

wem, sb. spot, stain, Ass. 647 Add. OE. wamm.

wende, v. turn, wend, go; infin., KH. 971 C L, F. & B. 60 C.; 2 sing. imper. went C H, wend L; go, KH. 343, 755 C, 759 C H; pp. wend H, I wend C, turned, KH. 1170; went, turned, Ass. 346 Add.; biwente C, bywende L, bywente H; 3 sing. pret. turned around, KH. 339. OE. wendan.

wendling, sb. vagrant (?), KH. 754 L.

wene, v. think, KH. 131, 313, 1204, 1207, 1213, 1365. OE. wēnan.

wene, weene, sb. (1) thought, F. & B. 651 C.; (2) doubt, F. & B. 197 T, 181 Cott. OE. wēn.

were, 2 sing. pres. subj. wear. OE. werian.

werie, werye, infin. protect, KH. 839. OE. werian.

werne, wurne, v. prevent, KH.; infin., KH. 938 L H, 1166 C, 1496 L, 1518 C. OE. wyrnan.

werþe, v. become, shall be; 2 sing. pres. wurstu C, worstu L, worþest þou H, KH. 342; 3 sing. pres. wurþ C, worþ L H, KH. 490, 728. worþe, KH. 509. OE. weorðan.

westernesse, westnesse, westene londe, westnesse londe, westnisse, KH. 172, 182, 228, 808, 993, 1017, 1088 C H, 1268, 1295 C H, 1615 C H.

whannes, wenne, whenne, inter. adv. whence, KH. 175. OE. hwanne, hwenne.

weturly, wytterli, adv. surely, F. & B. 819 T, Cott. ON. vitrliga.

wif, sb. woman, Ass. 18 C. OE. wīf.

wiȝt, sb. (1) bit, KH. 535; (2) being, person, KH. 715. OE. wiht.

wis, ywis, adv. certainly, indeed; KH. 131 C, 54 L H, 131 L H, 210 C, etc.

wise, sb. guise, KH. 378. OF. guise.

wise, wisse, v. conduct, direct, KH. 253 C, 443, 807 L, 1575. OE. wīsian.

wit, witte, wytte, sb. intelligence, understanding, wit, KH. 188, 692 C, 1164. OE. witt.

wite, v. 1 know; infin. KH. 309, 471 171 L, F. & B. 170, 609, 620 C.; 1 sing. pres. wole, Ass. 332 Add.; 2 pl. pres. woot, F. & B. 940 T; 2 pl. subj. weete, F. & B. 1031 T; 2 sing. subj. wite, 755 C.: 3 sing. pret. wiste, C L, nust H, KH. 84. Cf. also Ass. 32 C, 240 Add., etc. OE. witan.

wite, iwite, v. 2 guard, keep; 2 sing. subj. white, KH. 1569 H; infin. wite, F. & B. 555, 756 C. OE. wītan, gewītan.

wiþerling C, wiþering L, wytherlyng H, sb. enemy, foe, KH. 160.

wiþsegge, v. deny, KH. 1368. OE. secgan.

wode, adj. mad, KH. 950 L. OE. wōd.

woȝe, wowe, awowen, wowen, infin. woo, KH. 578, 847, 1517 C. OE. wōgian.

woȝe, wowe, sb. wall, KH. 1048. OE. wāg.

wolde, see welde.

won, sb. store, quantity, pomp (?); wiþ ryche won, KH. 962 H, F. & B. 386 C.

wonde, v. hesitate, delay, KH. 355, 788. OE. wandian.

wone, wonie, wune, v. dwell, be accustomed to; infin. KH. 783, 1456, F. & B. 218 Cott., Ass. 184 C; pp. wonede, KH. 80 L H, iwuned, F. & B. 567 C., etc. OE. wunian.

wone, wune, sb. custom, practice, F. & B. 557 C., 90 Cott., Ass. 20 Add. OE. (ge)wuna.

wood, adj. mad, F. & B. 936, 994 T. OE. wōd.

worship, sb. dignity, honour, F. & B. 1030 T. OE. weorðscipe.

worstu, thou shalt be, see werþe.

wreche, sb. vengeance, KH. 1376. OE. wrǣc.

wreie, wreye, v. (1) bewray, (2) accuse, KH. 1338, 1341 L, F. & B. 816 T. biwreie, bewray, accuse, KH. 380 C. OE. wrēgan.

wreke, infin. avenge, Ass. 726 Add., F. & B. 919 T; awreke, 640 C. OE. wrecan.

wringe, v. wring, twist; infin. wringe, wrynge, KH. 1142 H; 3 sing. pret. wrong, 1142 C; pr. part. wringinde C, wringende L, wryngynde H, KH. 118. OE. wringan.

wroþe, adj. fearful, afraid, KH. 366, 1304. OE. wrāð.

wunder, wonder, sb. wonder, harm, KH. 1335, 1536. OE. wundor. Cf. Mätzner, King Horn, 1247 Note, 1422 Note.

wyȝte, adj. brave, dexterous, KH. 1080 L, 1302 L.

wynne, sb. joy, pleasure, F. & B. 333 T. OE. wynn.

y-, see i-.

Differences between this e-text and the printed book

Sidenotes giving leaf-and-column information were often abbreviated for space. The forms “lf.” and “bk.” have been silently regularized to “leaf” and “back”. The full word “leaf” has been supplied where missing, except in references to the Trentham MS., where it was consistently omitted in the original.

Notes were variously printed in the side margin or at the bottom of the page, depending on space constraints. They have been treated as footnotes or sidenotes according to their function: information about the text or MS. (footnote), leaf- or column numbering (sidenote), narrative summary (sidenote). Where more than one MS was used, narrative sidenotes are shown at the beginning of each group of lines.

The recurring words “No gap in MS.” are in the original; they are generally followed by one or more blank lines inserted to keep the texts parallel. The words are retained in King Horn to preserve the editor’s line numbering; in the other texts they were retained only when needed to prevent ambiguity.

Each page of King Horn was divided into three: the Cambridge and Laud versions in adjoining columns, and the Harleian across the bottom, with lines printed in pairs separated by a | divider. For this e-text, the Harleian text has been separated into single lines to match the other two. General sidenotes were originally printed in the Harleian section.

Other Texts

At time of preparation, the three diagrams shown in the Introduction were available online at The Internet Archive:

Wissmann on King Horn: (page n16)

Herzog on Floris and Blancheflur in Scandinavia: (page n100)

Hausknecht on Floris and Blancheflur: (page n131)

In the Introduction to Floris and Blancheflur, the English passages printed alongside the French version are from Hausknecht’s edition.


The forms “H Z”, “HZ.” and “H. Z.” (for “Haupt’s Zeitschrift für deutsches Alterthum”) each appear once.

The term “X type” (of OE. rime) appears both with and without period, and in both bold and ordinary type.

Some references to Hempl’s test have “-wǭ-, -wō-” instead of the expected “-wǭ-, -wọ̄-”. These are shown as printed.

In a few paragraphs, the abbreviation “O.E.” has been silently regularized to “OE.”


The abbreviations “V.” and “Cott.” (see beginning of Glossary) refer to the same MS., Cott. Vitell. D. III.

“MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2.” is written both with and without final period (full stop).

When the editor is writing in his own voice, the Introduction uses “æ” while the notes use “ae”. Middle English is always “æ” (one letter); Latin is always “ae” (two letters).

The Laud MS. always has “crist...” instead of the more common “crist...”

In the Notes, anomalous quotation marks such as ‘R. H.’ for R. H. (without quotes) are unchanged.

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The Assumption of Our Lady, by Various


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