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Title: Travels Through North America, v. 1-2
       During the Years 1825 and 1826.

Author: Berhard Saxe-Weimar Eisenach

Release Date: January 24, 2013 [EBook #41913]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8

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Contents (added by transcriber)
Preface
Volume II
Notes on Spelling

 

TRAVELS
THROUGH
NORTH AMERICA,

DURING THE
YEARS 1825 AND 1826.


BY HIS HIGHNESS,
BERNHARD, DUKE OF SAXE-WEIMAR EISENACH.


IN TWO VOLUMES.


VOL. I.


PHILADELPHIA:
CAREY, LEA & CAREY—CHESNUT STREET.
SOLD IN NEW YORK BY G. & C. CARVILL.


1828.

Contents

(Volume I)

        I. Departure from Ghent.—Sojourn at Hellevoetsluis—Arrival at Spithead.

       II. Stay in England.—Portsmouth.—Plymouth.—Devonport.—Falmouth.

      III. Voyage from Falmouth to Boston.

      IV. Boston.

       V. Journey from Boston to Albany, by way of Worcester and Northampton.—Sojourn there, from the 8th to the 14th of August, 1825.

      VI. Journey from Albany to the Falls of Niagara.—Erie Canal.—Schenectady.—Utica.—Rochester.—Buffalo.—The Falls of Niagara, from the 14th to the 25th of August, 1825.

      VII. Journey from the Falls of Niagara to Montreal.—The Battle-ground at Queenstown.—Newark.—Kingston.—Montreal.

     VIII. Journey from Montreal to Quebec.—Stay at Quebec.—Return to Montreal—from the 3d to the 9th of September, 1825.

      IX. Journey from Montreal to New York.—Isle Aux Noix.—Lake Champlain.—Lake George.—Falls of Hudson.—Glenn’s Falls.—Saratoga Springs.—Saratoga Battleground.—Shaker Settlement at New Lebanon.—Military School at West Point.

       X. Stay at New York.

      XI. Journey to Philadelphia.—Stay in that place.—Bethlehem and Nazareth.

     XII. Baltimore.

    XIII. Stay in Washington, from the 2d until the 15th of November, 1825.

    XIV. Departure from Washington.—Fredericktown.—Harper’s Ferry.—Blue Ridge.—Staunton.—Natural Bridge.—Wier’s Cave.—Charlotteville.—University of Virginia.—Monticello.—Richmond.—Jamestown.—Norfolk.—Fort Monroe.—Fayetteville.—Columbia.

(Volume II)

     XV. Journey to Charleston, and Residence in that City—from the 11th to the 19th of December, 1825.

    XVI. Journey from Charleston, through Augusta, Milledgeville, Macon, and the country of the Creek Indians, to Montgomery, in the State of Alabama.

   XVII. Journey from Montgomery, on the Alabama river, to Mobile, and residence in that city.

  XVIII. Travels to Pensacola.

    XIX. Journey to New Orleans, and Residence in that City.

     XX. Travels up the Mississippi from New Orleans to St. Louis, and to St. Charles, on the Missouri.

    XXI. Travels from St. Louis to New Harmony.—Mr. Owen’s System and Experiment.

   XXII. Travels to Louisville, and Stay in that City.

  XXIII. Cincinnati, interior of the State of Ohio.—Pittsburgh, in Pennsylvania.

  XXIV. Pittsburgh.—Economy.—Mr. Rapp and his Society.

   XXV. Journey to Philadelphia, and second stay in that city.

  XXVI. Journey from Philadelphia to New York.—Coal-mines of Pottsville and Mauch Chunk.—Bethlehem.

 XXVII. Return Voyage from New York to Liverpool.

XXVIII. Stay in England, and return to Ghent.

SKERRETT—NINTH STREET,
PHILADELPHIA.
I.iii

PREFACE.

The following journal was by no means originally designed for publication. I wrote it during my travels, partly to recall past incidents at a future period, partly to give, with more ease and certainty, information to my much-honoured parents, my relatives, and friends, on any subject, upon which inquiry might be made. After my return, the book was read by several, for whose perusal it had not been altogether intended. Many judicious persons imagined that it would be of interest to a larger number of readers, and variously and repeatedly requested its publication, in order to give it a more extensive circulation. As I could not easily withstand these solicitations, and besides met with an experienced and worthy person, Counsellor Luden, to whom, as editor, I might without hesitation entrust the whole manuscript, I yielded; whether with propriety or not, I cannot tell.

As to the voyage itself, I have nothing to say, either with regard to its cause or design. The idea of visiting America, occupied me, almost from my earliest years. Why this idea arose, or why it continued in my mind, is not a matter of much moment. The chief reason was, I wished to see the new world; the country; the people; their conditions and institutions; their customs and manners. The more I became acquainted with the old world, the more my desire to see the new increased.

The state and relations of the European countries, however, and the duties by which I deem myself bound, as a military man, to the country, to which I had dedicated my services, precluded the hope of an early accomplishment of my design. Still I made the necessary preparations as far as my situation and circumstances allowed, so that the voyage might not be made at a future time without some advantage. At last Europe appeared to have I.iv attained a degree of tranquillity which would permit an absence of a year or eighteen months, without a fear on my part that I should fail in any of my engagements. His majesty, the King of the Netherlands, whom I have the honour to serve, not only allowed me the requisite time, but also granted me a passage in the Pallas, a royal sloop of war, commanded by Captain-Lieutenant Ryk, a gallant, highly-esteemed, and experienced seaman.

Under which order of travellers I am to be ranked, according to poor Yorick’s classification, is submitted to the decision of the kind reader.

BERNHARD,
Duke of Saxe-Weimar.

Ghent, May 20, 1827.

I.9

TRAVELS, &c.

----

CHAPTER I.

Departure from Ghent.—Sojourn at Hellevoetsluis—Arrival at Spithead.

On the 4th of April, 1825, I set out from Ghent for Antwerp. This ancient and noble city is in every point of view interesting; to the admirers of the fine arts, on account of the unique treasures she possesses; to the military observer for her long defence against the army of the Duke of Parma, and for her military and maritime importance obtained in modern times through him who long guided the destiny of Europe; and to the philanthropist, who derives satisfaction from the increasing prosperity of mankind, for numerous reasons. Long the victim of politics and the jealousy of her neighbours, which kept the mighty Scheld, the harbour of Antwerp, blockaded, she now powerfully lifts her head above her rivals, and her commerce, nearly as flourishing as under the Hanseatic league, is annually becoming more extensive, thanks to the foresight of the wise prince whom Providence has placed at the head of our country’s government.

A government yacht received us at Antwerp, and with a fair wind and most delightful spring weather, conveyed us, by the evening of the 6th of April, to the road of Hellevoetsluis, where the corvette Pallas was lying at anchor, which had orders to sail on the following day. The first part of the voyage to Hellevoetsluis is down the Scheld; the beautiful steeple of the cathedral of Antwerp long remains in sight; the forts on both shores attract the attention of military men, and perhaps remind them of the remains of the great bridge between forts St. Mary and St. Philip, by which Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, crossed the stream and forced the city to surrender.

At an hour’s sail below Antwerp, the Scheld forms a large basin, and divides into two arms the East and West Scheld, which are separated by the island of Zuid-Beveland. The West Scheld is the deepest, and flows into the North Sea: we sailed on the eastern branch to the place of our destination.

A century ago South Beveland was well cultivated, and contained a town and numerous villages: it was swallowed up by the water, and still remains overflowed. It may be reserved for the creative spirit peculiar to our existing government and its I.10 illustrious chief, to give employment to the plough of the industrious farmer on the spot where at present the poor fisherman protracts a wretched existence.

We afterwards left the East Scheld, and sailed past several well cultivated islands, protected against the violence of the stormy waves by artificial dams. We entered upon the stream formed by the confluence of the Maas and Rhine, and advanced immediately to Hellevoetsluis, whence in former times the victorious fleets of Holland frequently sailed to the remotest parts of the world, and dictated terms to her enemies. The ships which convey the treasures of the tropical regions to the rich city of Rotterdam, or carry the products of our own industry, as well as the defenders of our extensive possessions, are often obliged, by contrary winds, to remain here for various periods. Hence Hellevoetsluis is generally very lively.

The corvette Pallas, in which our government permitted me to sail for America, was a new vessel, fitted out as an instruction ship. A selection of young naval officers was made for this voyage, as midshipmen. To these were added a young naval architect named Tromp, a worthy descendant of historically renowned ancestors, whose deep knowledge, distinguished talents, and estimable character, I became acquainted with and cherished in the course of the voyage. These selected officers were entrusted to the direction of Captain Ryk, one of our most approved commanders,I.1 who had orders to visit some of the principal English and American naval depôts, in order to acquire whatever knowledge might best promote the interests of his country. On this account the corvette was fitted out rather as a packet ship than a man of war. She had no long guns on deck, except two long sixes in the bows as chase guns; her battery consisted of eighteen twenty-four pound carronades. I was established in the captain’s cabin, and a swinging cot was suspended at night for my sleeping place.

In consequence of contrary winds and other causes which it is needless to mention, the corvette could not sail as quickly as ordered. In the mean time I stayed at Hellevoetsluis, and employed my forced leisure in examining this small town and its vicinity.

I.11

Hellevoetsluis contains upwards of two thousand inhabitants, among whom there is scarcely a poor one to be found. The town properly consists of but one street, on both sides of the harbour, having walled quays, and united by a double drawbridge, built two years ago. Where the town terminates, the dock-yard commences, which contains most of the fortifications. Near the dock-yard are the barracks, which can, if necessary, contain two thousand men. The frigate Rhine lay in harbour as guard-ship. There was one ship repairing in the dock, none building. For the purpose of repairing there is, behind the basin of the dock-yard, a dry, terrace-shaped, walled basin, or dry dock, large enough for a ship. When the ship is brought into this dock, the gates are closed, and the water pumped out by a steam machine of thirty horse-power. This being done, the ship is dry, and may be examined on all sides. When the repairs are completed, the gates are again opened, the water admitted, and the ship floated out. A boat-gate is better adapted to this purpose: a boat-gate consists of a box which exactly enters the canal leading to the dry dock: when brought to the place where it is to be used, a quantity of water is admitted sufficient to sink it to the level of the shores, and then it forms a bridge. When it is necessary to open the gate, the water is pumped out, and the box is withdrawn from the canal. The frigate Kenau Hasselaar was in the basin getting ready for sea, and with the crew of the guard-ship under command of Captain Dibbetz, she was to sail for the East Indies. The frigates Scheld, Maas, Yssel, and Java, with the brig Havic, and about twenty gun-boats, were laid up in ordinary. One of the gun-boats was built after a Danish model, which allows the upper part of the rudder to be taken down and two ports to be opened, by which the stern can be used in battery. The magazines and smithies are not large, but are kept in very neat order.

The admiralty have a very large building here which is used as the residence of the marine commander in chief. From a belvidere of this house there is a fine view of the harbour and surrounding country. In the former, the frigate Amstel, corvette Pallas, brig De Gier, and transport-ship Zeemeeuw rode at anchor, the two latter bound to the Mediterranean. In the dock-yard we remarked a very large mast-crane, which may be seen far at sea, and serves mariners as a landmark. There is also a light-house upon one of the two dams which secure the harbour, also built two years ago.

[From the 11th to the 25th of April, contrary winds detained the corvette at Hellevoetsluis, during which time an excursion was made to Goedereede, Stellendam, &c. After various changes of winds, and a storm while lying at anchor, nothing of interest I.12 occurred until four P. M. of the 25th, when the ship weighed anchor and stood out to sea.]

Fair wind and good weather continued until the forenoon of the 27th. About four o’clock we saw the English coast, being the North Foreland, not far from Margate. Here we were obliged to steer to the left to enter the Channel, in order to reach Portsmouth and avoid the dangerous Goodwin Sands. At the same time the barometer had fallen, the air was thick and rainy, and a disagreeable south-west wind began to blow. The passage between these sand-banks was by no means pleasant; the wind was quite boisterous and almost stormy; we lost all hope of reaching the Channel during this day, and were forced to be content with beating about in our perilous situation. The motion of the ship became very vehement towards evening, and I became sea-sick; it was not so bad while I remained motionless in my cot. During the night the ship was in a very dangerous situation, and Captain Ryk remained all the time on deck. The lead was regularly thrown during the night. In attempting to get into my cot, which was very much inclined, and the ship giving a heavy lurch at the same time, I received a heavy fall on my head, which, however, was not productive of much injury. On the morning of the 28th the wind was somewhat lighter, and we discovered that during the night we had been in a situation of extreme danger, and had reason to be thankful to the great Creator for our safety. The weather gradually cleared up, and we enjoyed with great satisfaction the noble prospect of the English coast. Immediately ahead lay Margate with the southern shore of the Thames; farther to the left, Ramsgate, and still farther, Deal. We were moreover surrounded by shipping, and in the Downs we saw the English ship of the line, Ramilies, which cruised this year on this station, lying at anchor.

The wind was now westerly, and our commander having no wish to pass another night as dangerously as the preceding, resolved to cast anchor in the Downs. This determination led me to think of landing at Deal, going to London for a day, and then returning to Portsmouth. In the course of the day, however, an east wind sprung up, which changed all our resolutions. We passed the cape of South Foreland, and entered the Channel prosperously, where we saw the high chalk rock between Deal and Dover, with several castles, and Dover itself, with its ancient and strong castle, near the ruins, &c. We were also delighted with a beautiful view of the French coast, the white rocks of which were illumined by the sun. The wind, as we passed by Dover, was very light, the current was against us, and during the night it rained and blew. The anchor was consequently dropped, and we remained off Dover till one o’clock the I.13 following day. In the mean time the weather improved, though the wind continued to be very slight and unfavourable. I embraced this opportunity to visit Dover, in company with Captain Ryk, his nephew, and Mr. Tromp. We breakfasted at Wright’s hotel, in which, eighteen months before I had stayed with my family, and at that time took a walk to the fortified camp, that lies westwardly from the town, on an important height. To this place we ascended by stairs cut about twenty years ago. A subterranean passage leads from the town to the foot of these stairs. For a supply of water a well was dug through the rock to the depth of about two hundred feet, and to this well three stairs were cut of two hundred and sixty-eight steps each. These stairways are wide enough to allow two men to walk conveniently abreast. They terminate in a funnel-shaped excavation, whence a stone staircase leads towards four terrace-shaped barracks, built one above the other. Somewhat higher is a pentagonal redoubt, also employed as a barrack, in which at this time a detachment of artillery, the only garrison of Dover was quartered. The redoubt forms the right wing of the position. From this point an irregular line of masonry, partly hewed out of the rock, runs to the left wing, where there is an oblong quadrangular fort. In front of this fort is a tolerably deep valley, through which the London road passes. We were delighted with the view of this beautiful vale and the fresh green of the turf. Messrs. Tromp and Ryk made a sketch of the rocks and mountains, which would make a strong impression upon one who had not beheld them, even upon me who am familiar with their appearance, it produced a very agreeable feeling. From the left wing a line runs en crémaillère, beside which, at an entering angle, a casemated magazine is placed near a small fort that defends the harbour. From this line a door opens towards the high rock called Shakspeare’s Cliff, which we had not leisure to visit. The masonry of the fortification is of brick, with a half revêtement. The rock is throughout chalk, containing flint. These flints are much employed in paving roads and streets, to the great injury of the hoofs of horses; some houses in Dover are also built of them. We turned back again towards the corvette, highly gratified with our excursion. We saw two steam-boats arrive at Dover, one from Calais and the other from Boulogne. A water spout was pointed out to me at a distance. At one o’clock the wind began to blow fair, the anchor was weighed, and we stood onwards with fine weather, delighted with the continuous view of the English coast.

On the 30th of April with a fresh wind we made the eastern point of the Isle of Wight, where we hoisted a flag, and fired a gun for a pilot, who did not come on board immediately. We sailed cautiously onwards, came in sight of Portsmouth, and I.14 neared St. Helen’s point, Isle of Wight. The pilot then came on board, and steered us into Spithead road, off Portsmouth. This town, in which I was so much pleased two years before, has a very handsome appearance. Several ships of the line were lying in the harbour, among which was the Victory, on board of which Lord Nelson was killed. When we saw the admiral’s flag floating from her mainmast head, we saluted her with seventeen guns, which she returned with thirteen. We anchored in the road where we found two English corvettes, an East India company’s ship, and a Portuguese frigate, which had brought the Portuguese ambassador, the Marquis Palmella, to England.

----

CHAPTER II.

Stay in England.—Portsmouth.—Plymouth.—Devonport.—Falmouth.

As the corvette was to remain, for the instruction of the midshipmen, until all the naval establishments had been accurately examined, I resolved to go on shore and travel from Portsmouth to Plymouth and Falmouth, and then rejoin the corvette. On the 1st of May I went in the boat, accompanied by Captain Ryk and Lieutenant Lejeune, to Portsmouth. The sea ran very high, and the eight oarsmen made very little way against the swell. As we entered the harbour where the waves were exceedingly high, we turned so quickly that two seas struck our boat in the side, and made us more than once fear that she would be foundered. Nevertheless we arrived safely, though thoroughly wet.

I remained in Portsmouth three days, and as its situation and relations were already known to me, I spent the time in reading, writing, paying and receiving visits, and in strolling about in interesting society. For a similar reason I allowed myself to make desultory observations.

According to the navy list, there are at Portsmouth sixteen ships in actual service, mounting five hundred and eighteen guns; sixty-five dismantled, with four thousand one hundred and forty-three guns, and eighteen building, which are to carry seven hundred and fifty-six guns; making a total of five thousand four hundred and seventeen guns.

Some of the lowest class of people were masquerading in honour of the 1st of May. Most of them were dressed as Jack-puddings; others were ornamented with bladders: they marched I.15 through the streets to the sound of music, stopped and danced before some of the houses, and collected money. They also had a boxing match between two boys, which was conducted as a regular combat. As soon as one boy was down, his antagonist ceased to strike, and his second helped him up. One, however, did strike a blow while the other was down, whereupon several of the bystanders rushed upon the offender, held him fast, and gave him so many punches in the ribs that he was completely discomfited; and this terminated the fray. In the harbour about one hundred and fifty men were shipped as recruits for the 89th regiment, stationed in the East Indies. They came from the depôt at the Isle of Wight, and appeared to be very weak and miserable.

The Marquis Palmella, who resided in the same hotel with me, set out on the 3d of May with his family, a wife, eight children, and a numerous suite, for London. I paid him a visit, and was introduced to his lady, a very beautiful woman. The marquis, who is very generally esteemed, suffered considerably during the last Portuguese counter-revolution, and was kept prisoner for several days. During his stay at this place he has constantly had two honorary sentries, and an hour before his departure, a company of fifty marines, with three officers, and the band in full uniform, marched in front of the hotel, and remained as a guard of honour until he left Portsmouth. It was with real pleasure that I remarked the excellent condition of this corps.

The royal marines, whose barracks I visited, and saw the men defile, have an exceedingly fine appearance, and are highly esteemed. The officers are promoted according to seniority; but since the peace, the corps has been much reduced, and the officers are old in their grades. The officers also are mostly persons without influence, and enter the royal marines because unable to purchase rank in the army. The barracks for the soldiers did not altogether please me: they are better regulated and kept more cleanly in the Netherlands. It is a good regulation that the bedsteads are iron, and that every man lies alone; but it is very bad on the other hand, that they cook in the same room.

I visited, in company with Captain Ryk, the Ganges, a ship of the line of eighty-four guns, built a few years since by Indian workmen, entirely of Teak-wood. This hard and heavy timber is not only very lasting, but has also the great excellence of not cracking in a warm climate. We were received on board the ship with great attention, in the absence of Captain Campbell, by Lieutenant Wright, who did the honours in a very friendly manner. I cannot sufficiently admire the neatness observed in this ship. They have an excellent mode of taking care of the rings, bolts, weapons, and other iron, brass, and copper utensils, on I.16 board of English ships of war. The forepart of the gun-deck is an extraordinary apartment, the iron implements are varnished, and the others polished and arranged along the whitewashed sides, so as to form figures and inscriptions. When strangers visit the ship a sort of chandelier is lighted, which produces a very beautiful effect. When we left the ship, Lieutenant Wright had the politeness to take us in his barge to the inner harbour, where the ships are laid up in ordinary. As we left the Ganges, she saluted us with nineteen guns.

Ships in commission are painted black and white; when they go into ordinary this paint is scraped off, and they are then painted brownish yellow; if not again to be employed in active service they are painted entirely black. We went on board of the Nelson, of one hundred and twenty guns, in the harbour. She is a new ship, but lay in ordinary, having been already affected with the destructive dry-rot. The injured planks had been removed, and at present she is entirely sound. The Nelson, Ganges, and all the recently built ships of the line have round sterns. All of them have the wood work necessary for their equipment, as for gun-carriages, &c. on board. In order to preserve this and the deck from the influence of the weather, a large roof is built over them. From the Nelson we went on board the royal yacht, the Royal George, which I had already seen, but which I willingly examined once more, on account of her elegant construction and great luxury. The magnificence of the royal apartments, and those for the suite, are very strongly contrasted with the birth-deck for the crew, which is both dark and confined. We remarked here a patent iron camboose, which cooked all the food by means of steam.

Having purchased the necessary provisions, especially Gamble’s preserved meats, which keep fresh for a year, I went on the 4th of May, at 4 P. M. on board the steam ship, Sir Francis Drake, to go to Plymouth, distant one hundred and fifty miles. The engine is of seventy horse-power. The ship was not very comfortably arranged; the main cabin was so near the boiler that the heat was intolerable. Our passengers amounted to thirty persons, only eight of whom were cabin passengers. About five o’clock a gun was fired as a signal for sailing, and we stood out to sea. Spithead road with the shipping lay to the left, and our course was between the land and the Isle of Wight. Cowes with its beautiful gardens presented an agreeable sight, about a mile to the westward of which stands a castle called Egypt. It began to grow dark. We saw on the right hand the extremely bright lights of Hurst-castle, and on the left the light-house of the Needles, on the western extremity of the Isle of Wight, which I visited two years ago. The white rocks of the Needles were visible in I.17 the dark, and from the effects of frequent storms have an entirely peculiar appearance. As we passed this dangerous place, the wind increased, and the motion of the little ship, with the continual jarring of the steam-engine, became exceedingly disagreeable. As the birth allotted to me was too short, I was obliged to place my mattrass upon the floor. The heat and strokes of the adjacent steam-engine, the coughing of a catarrhous Irishman, and the squalling of a child in the next cabin, long prevented me from sleeping. It was not until near morning that I began to slumber, but was soon waked again by the insupportable heat. I sought refuge upon deck, where nearly all the company, without excepting the captain, were unwell.

The rocky English coast was in view in almost every direction; the town of Dartmouth appears to be very finely situated. After a rather long and unpleasant passage, we arrived in Plymouth Bay at 1 o’clock, P. M. We passed a little to the left of the breakwater, a dam intended to protect Plymouth road from the south-west storms, begun thirteen years ago, but not yet completed: we were gratified with the view of Mount Edgecumbe Park and Drake’s Island, on which is a small fort that forms a very beautiful view from the three towns, Plymouth, with the citadel; Stonehouse and Plymouth Dock, now called Devonport. This dock, with all the ships building and repairing there, furnishes a beautiful and imposing prospect.

After my arrival I paid a visit to the authorities of this place. The admiral in chief, Sir James Saumarez, a worthy man, seventy years of age, excited in me an extraordinary degree of interest. He has served England for fifty-six years, and during the last war commanded for five years in the Eastern Ocean. His actions are known to all the world, and caused him to be distinguished with the grand cross of the order of the Bath, which he has worn for twenty-four years.

Among the remarkable things of this place, is the court-house, which is a new, oblong building, having on one of its small sides a broad staircase leading to a portico, with four Ionic columns. The hall is large and very conveniently arranged with galleries for spectators. Beneath the dock for the prisoners is a trap-door, by which persons are brought from the prison on the ground floor, for trial, and carried back again, without being brought into contact with the public. The six cells for prisoners in the lower part of the house are all arched with stone, and furnished with iron bedsteads. The doors are of stout oak plank, studded with iron; a small opening allows air and light to enter, though very sparingly. The prisoners can walk daily for exercise in a corridor, twelve paces in length, by three in breadth: they have a miserable existence. We left this granite and marble I.18 abode of sorrow with very unpleasant impressions. Scarcely had we left it, when our eyes fell upon a monument, building upon a rock, which is to be a column one hundred and one feet high, commemorating the change of the name of the town, from Plymouth Dock to Devonport. This work did not dispel the disagreeable feeling caused by the prison. Not far distant from this monument stands a Gothic church, and near this a school-house, in the Egyptian style. The crowding together within so narrow a space of such various styles of architecture, exhibits a singular, I cannot say an agreeable sight. We also examined the market, which is furnished with numerous covered galleries, in which provisions, fish for instance, are displayed upon marble tables. But marble is so common here, that the foot-walks are paved with it: houses are also built therewith. The houses in Devonport are not handsome: some of the old ones are entirely covered with slate, which produces a disagreeable impression. In the court-house there is a fire-place made of slate.

On the 7th of May we examined the dock-yard; there are eight ships here in actual service, mounting three hundred and sixty-six guns; sixty-five in ordinary, with three thousand five hundred and twenty guns, and twenty-two building, which will mount upwards of seven hundred and twenty; making in all, four thousand six hundred and six guns.

The dock-yard, with its admirable regulation, is perfectly described by Dupin in his excellent travels in Great Britain. The work is known to most readers, and for an accurate description of the dock I refer them thereto. The entrance is really beautiful; you behold the greater part of the dock-yard, which is terrace-shaped, beneath you; on the right hand is the church and some offices, opposite to which are two cannon employed more for show than defence. The houses are built of the gray marble-like lime-stone, which is so common here. A new magazine is rendered entirely fire-proof by this stone and iron; the different store-rooms being separated by iron doors, so that in case of fire it can be insulated. The rope-walk is a building two stories high, with walks two hundred yards long. All the ships, as in other English docks, are built under roofs, which are sometimes covered with slate, though mostly with copper. To my surprise, the water is pumped out of the dry docks by a horse-mill instead of a steam-engine. In one of the dry docks we saw the unfortunate ship FortitudoI.2 repairing. All her timbers were decayed; her copper destroyed, and she required three new masts; her repairs I.19 cost the house of Roelands of Antwerp eight thousand pounds. There is at this dock a huge iron kettle, in which ship timber is boiled in sea water in order to protect it from the dry rot. About two thousand two hundred men are daily employed in this yard, and some earn thirty-six shillings a week.

After a stay of about two hours at the dock-yard, I went in company with the admiral to Hamoaze, where the fleets in service and dismantled lay at anchor. We went on board the flag ship Britannia, and were received in a very friendly manner by Captain Pipon, who showed us the ship throughout: every thing was as admirable as in the ships at Portsmouth. From the Britannia, which saluted us with twenty-one guns, we went on board the St. Vincent, which in every respect resembled the Nelson at Portsmouth.

On the 6th of May, which was Sunday, and the town consequently very quiet, I went first to visit the marine barracks, and thence to Plymouth, which I had not yet seen. It is about a mile distant from Stonehouse. The entrance is agreeable, exhibiting several new houses, and a large quadrangular building, ornamented with columns, which contains the theatre and Royal Hotel. But as soon as one advances a little farther into the town the scene changes, the streets are all narrow and precipitous, badly paved, and without side-walks; the houses are badly built, and angular, and the sun cannot shine into the streets. The harbour that is forming at Catwater appears to be visited, and the bay presents a noble prospect. We passed by a road cut in the rock to the citadel, to visit the vice-governor, Major General Sir John Cameron; but he was sick. We walked round the ramparts of the citadel, and enjoyed at every point an admirable view, to which the fine weather contributed its full proportion. At noon we walked to Stoke, a village in which the inhabitants of Plymouth have country seats. At this place it is customary, as far as practicable, to bury the dead on Sunday; we therefore met funeral processions in most of the streets, which did not particularly raise our spirits.

On Monday I went with Sir James Saumarez in the Britannia’s barge to examine the breakwater. We first visited the stone quarries at Catwater, whence the stone for the breakwater is procured. The land where this quarry is situated was purchased from various proprietors. The rock, which is lime-stone, is blasted with gunpowder. Many of the blocks of stone weigh five tons and upwards. They are lifted by iron cranes, by which one workman is able to raise a ton and a half, and placed upon small four wheeled iron cars, which run on rail-roads to the quay where the vessels lay which are to convey them to the breakwater. These vessels, which are built expressly for this service, can carry I.20 eighteen of the heaviest of these blocks; the lighter stones are carried in hired vessels. At the quarry we were received by the secretary of Mr. Whitby, who planned the breakwater, and at present superintends the work. A cave was discovered in the rock containing rhinoceros bones in good preservation, and some time after, another cavern was found containing the bones and teeth of bears. From the mount above the quarry, there is an extensive and exceedingly beautiful prospect. From this place we went to Bovisand-bay, where, under the direction of Mr. Whitby, a quay and reservoir of fresh water is building for the navy. The water is collected from two springs into a reservoir twenty feet deep, situated between the hills. Thence it is to be conducted through iron pipes for nearly an English mile to the quay. These seventeen cocks will each deliver two and a half tuns of water a minute. The watering boats will land at the quay, and in a very short time return with their lading to the ships. In the valley near the reservoir is Mr. Whitby’s handsome dwelling, from which he can survey the whole work, and consequently may from his own chamber control the workmen.

The breakwater suffered exceedingly by the terrible storm of the 22d and 23d of November, 1824. It is now to be rendered more permanent in the following manner:—The stones most exposed to the waves are to be hewed and clamped together with iron. I fear, however, that this work will also be destroyed, unless a couple of perpendicular dams be built touching the principal dam, to break the force of the waves before they reach the latter. The old works are in so ruinous a condition that we were nearly wrecked upon them. On this account we stood farther off, and went on board of the Thetis frigate to pay a visit to Sir John Phillimore. Sir John, in honour of our presence, displayed all his flags. The marines, with their officers, stood near the mizen-mast, and with the crew marched round the deck; some of the latter were armed with pikes, some with sabres, and others with battle-axes. I was delighted with the perfect order and neatness which universally appeared. Both cabins were very elegantly arranged and ornamented with mahogany. As we took leave, the yards were manned, and a salute given. It was now high water, and we passed between Drake’s Island and Mount Edgecumbe through a passage called the Bridge, which is dangerous on account of rocks. We touched twice upon them without injury, as fortunately the wind was slight: we landed at the beautiful stone stairs of Mount Wise.

On the day following, I visited the Marine Hospital, in company with Sir John Phillimore. This is an admirably managed and richly endowed institution.I.3 The building was begun during I.21 the seven years war. It can accommodate two thousand sick or wounded: we found but about seventy persons in the hospital, and among these some officers and midshipmen. It appeared to me that the plan of having eight separate buildings, each three stories high, was a very good one, as the spreading of contagious diseases, or of a conflagration, can be so much more easily prevented. Each ward contains sixteen bedsteads, all of iron; the bedsteads for the officers are of wood, and furnished with curtains. There are also beds in the wards for the nurses, which, in all the English marine hospitals, are females, whose attendance is preferred for its greater gentleness to that of male assistants. The sick are brought from the ships to the hospital by water, and go, or are carried up a wide stone stair to the receiving office. They are then stripped and bathed in the hospital to which they are sent, and their clothes are marked, and kept in a particular magazine. An iron crane is employed to land those who are badly wounded. In all the wards, as well as in the different store-rooms, and the apothecary room, the greatest order and cleanliness is observable.

The church does not appear to me to be arranged in correspondence with the rest of the establishment. It is small, and has a store-room on the first floor, so that the patients find it occasionally very troublesome to attend upon worship. A covered colonnade surrounds the quadrangular court-yard which encloses the building, under which the patients, in bad or hot weather, can exercise. The middle of the court-yard is a well-kept grass-plot.

For maniac patients there is a proper house, built remote from the others. The wash-house stands also aloof. In bad weather, the wash is dried by steam. The wash is hung upon frames, which fold together, and may be run in and out for the convenience of taking off the dried pieces and adding the wet. Eight of such frames may be folded together and occupy a very small space. There is also a very appropriately managed bathing-house for the use of the patients, in which they may not only have all sorts of baths, but with the greatest convenience. The superintendents, physicians, and officers, have their dwellings in front of the hospital, in a spacious place planted with trees. The commissioner at the head of the institution, is Captain Creyke, a pensioner, eighty years old, who first served at sea in 1759, and accompanied Commodore Wallis in his first voyage round the world. Before we left the hospital we took a glance at his beautifully situated and tastefully arranged house. We then visited the Plymouth Library, established by subscription about twenty years ago, which does not yet appear to be very rich. The establishment consists of three apartments, the book-room, the reading-room, I.22 and the director’s meeting-room. The library serves properly for a reading club, like our literary society at Ghent. On the 10th, I dined in company with Admiral Saumarez and Sir John Phillimore, with the officer’s mess of the twenty-fourth regiment of infantry, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Fleming.

On the ensuing day, the admiral accompanied us to Mount Edgecumbe Park; this is a truly noble situation, yet, in time of war, as this position is indispensable to the defence of the dock-yard, it is necessary to convert it into a fortification. The ground is very advantageously employed in the disposition and embellishment of the park: it is not encumbered with buildings; the green and bath-house are the principal, and in the construction of these the marble of the vicinity has been very happily used. The trees are chiefly beech, some of them apparently very old, sickly, and injured by the sea-air. There are also three great cedars of Lebanon, which do not thrive well in an English park. The Castle of Mount Edgecumbe is ancient, and externally resembles a state prison; we did not examine it internally. We saw the monument of Lady Mount Edgecumbe, who died in 1806, to whom the park is indebted for most of its improvements. It is told of her that she was twice buried; the first time she remained three days in a vault, lying in her coffin, and was aroused by a thief cutting off her finger to steal a ring: she left the grave, took refuge in a neighbouring house, made herself known, and was reconveyed to her castle, where she subsequently lived several years and gave birth to children. Relata refero. On the sea-shore, near the bridge that we passed two days since, Lord Mount Edgecumbe has erected a battery of twenty-one iron six pounders, which he fires upon all festival occasions. We embarked at this battery to visit the rock lying in front of Stonehouse, called Devil’s Point, which is to be partly levelled to make room for a new victualling office. The work is scarcely begun. A cellar was dug out of the rock and a wall built in the sea to support the foundation. This was effected by means of a diving-bell. The bell containing the workmen, remained while we were present, nearly four hours under water. Government intends to construct a new water-reservoir at this place, which will probably render that of Bovisand unnecessary. Drinking water is brought to Plymouth in iron pipes from Dartmouth, which is eighteen miles distant, so that in time of war the supply might readily be cut off.

Next day I went by land to visit the Castle of Saltroun, situated six English miles from Plymouth at the end of Catwater, and belonging to Lord Morlay, who resides in London. The road passes through a delightful valley; on the right is Catwater, I.23 to the left the ruins of castles on the heights: there are also here numerous terrace-shaped strawberry beds, the fruit of which is exceedingly good. Close to the entrance of the park we crossed the Catwater upon an old, very narrow, stone bridge of five arches. Through the park, a beautiful road leads from the valley to the loftily situated castle. It rained excessively, and as we could see nothing from the park, we restricted ourselves to the castle, which was built probably about sixty years ago, and has a very large apartment in the basement. A very spacious vestibule leads to the library, in which are a number of splendid family portraits and pictures of some once celebrated actresses. The best picture is a portrait of Sir Joshua Reynolds, painted by himself. Four plaster columns resembling verd-antique are excellent imitations. From the library a small apartment opens into the picture gallery. In both rooms are several paintings by Carlo Dolce, Andrea Del Sarto, Teniers, Wouvermans, Ostade, Kuyp, Vandermeulen, &c. I cannot assert that all these are original paintings. In the parlour, ball-room, and dining-hall, there are also numerous pictures. Some of these are attributed to Angelica Kauffman, others to Reubens, Van Dyke, Sassoferrato, Guido Rheni, Titian, Ruysdael, Parmegiano, &c. However, I have seen the originals of many of them at Antwerp and Ghent, and of one of the Parmegianos in Windsor Castle. Among the statues and busts, I especially remarked a copy of the Florentine Venus, by Canova, and a copy of Hebe by the same master. The staircase of the castle is fine, and adorned with pictures by Angelica Kauffman. The mantel-pieces, all of Italian marble, ornamented with bas-reliefs, are also very remarkable. The bad weather accompanied us throughout our return to Plymouth. On this occasion I remarked that the pavement was taken up in several streets, and Macadamized, which is much better for the horses and houses.

[Several succeeding days were spent in excursions to different places in the vicinity, in company with the Admiral and Sir John Phillimore; and one day on a water party accompanied by ladies.]

On the 19th of May, in a small boat belonging to the Fortitudo, I made, with great pleasure, an excursion to Trematon Castle, which I had formerly understood was once the residence of the ancient Princes of Cornwall. Sir John Phillimore had been so polite as to inform the proprietor, Mr. Tucker, chief director of the neighbouring mines, whose son is an officer on board the Thetis, of our coming. On landing, we found a carriage sent by Mr. Tucker to meet and convey us to the castle. I observed here a water-mill, behind which was a large walled basin that is filled by the flood tide, and closed by a gate. During the ebb tide the gate is opened and I.24 the mill set to work. It reminded me of the bassins de chasse, in some of our harbours.

Trematon Castle is situated upon a height. Besides the walls furnished with loop-holes which form a quadrangle, the castle consists of but two towers, one quadrangular, which forms the entrance, and the other a round one, somewhat higher. As Mr. Tucker holds this castle of the king, the royal arms are over the portal. In the court-yard of the castle, Mr. Tucker has built a tasteful house, and, by removing part of the adjacent wall, has obtained a beautiful prospect from his dwelling, comprising a view of most of the Hamoaze with the shipping, Anthony’s Park, Devonport, and part of Plymouth Sound. Mr. Tucker holds several important posts in the navy, and during Fox’s ministry he was secretary to the admiralty. At the overthrow of that administration, he retired to his native place with a pension of two thousand pounds per annum, and the office of secretary to the duchy of Cornwall; here he is highly esteemed, enjoys great influence, and has his property principally vested in the mines. After receiving us in a very friendly manner, and introducing his family, he took a seat in the carriage.

We went eight miles further to a silver mine, the only one in England. It belongs to a company of five stockholders, of which Mr. Tucker is the principal. The country is very hilly, the road sometimes narrow and steep, so that it was frequently necessary to lock the wheels. A part of the way was over the good road from Saltash to Callington; we also passed near to Pentilhe castle. The land is generally good, with the exception of a heath, of which England contains a number under the name of “commons.” The silver mine is situated in a deep valley of Fulliford common. The mine is named St. Vincent, in honour of the deceased admiral, who was a great patron of Mr. Tucker. The mine has been but five years in progress, and produces so little that it sinks two hundred pounds per month for the stockholders. The vein of silver, whose presence is judged of certainly by iron-stone, is cut at right angles by a vein of copper. This copper they are breaking through in hopes of greater success. The mine has five shafts; the deepest is rather more than three hundred feet deep, and serves as a working-shaft: two others are used for pumping out the water. One pump is worked by a steam-engine of seventy horse-power, the other is worked by a compound lever, which is about a quarter of a mile long, moved by a water-wheel of forty feet in diameter. The wheel is overshot, and the water for working it is obtained from a small brook, aided by the water pumped up by the steam machine, and conducted to it by a small canal. The lever is composed I.25 of long wooden beams, bound together with iron straps, and hangs by tripods placed at determinate distances.

The ore raised from the mine, is pounded, washed, and roasted in the usual manner. In order to separate the silver from the ore, the following mixture is added to an ounce of the powder; red lead, two ounces; red tartar, five pennyweights; nitre, nine pennyweights; borax, four pennyweights; lime, one-quarter of an ounce; common salt, two ounces; pounded fluor spar, one-quarter of an ounce. The whole is thrown into a red hot iron crucible, which is placed on a glowing coke fire for five minutes. The crucible is then taken off and the melted mass poured into a ladle, allowed to cool and the dross removed. Some copper still remains in the mass, so that the silver is again smelted with some lead, and poured into a small vessel made of bone ashes: the lead is oxydated and the silver remains pure. An ounce of ore produces one-fourth of an ounce of silver.

The mine is extremely damp, and as I had not felt entirely well for some days, I did not descend, neither did any of the company. We returned to Trematon, and in order to examine the noble spot to which we were going more thoroughly, I mounted the box, and enjoyed a great treat. To the left I looked down a deep valley upon the Tamer; farther off, upon the Hamoaze, and to the right, far over Cornwall. Falmouth is said also to be in sight. In his tastefully arranged house, Mr. Tucker has a very interesting collection of minerals and metals of the vicinity. He possesses a valuable library, and his wife has a remarkable collection of shells. In the quadrangular tower of the castle, he has fitted up a billiard room, and arranged on the walls numerous curiosities: ancient weapons, and implements from the South Sea Islands, the tatoed and dried head of a New Zealand chief, with his dress; pieces of worm-eaten ship-timber from the Indian Ocean, with one of the worms in spirits; Indian weapons; an American tomahawk; a human skull, found thirty feet under ground in Cornwall; a marble bullet, with which an English ship was struck in the Dardanelles, in 1807; articles from the field of Waterloo; and a weeping willow leaf from over Napoleon’s tomb! Above the clock in this tower, is placed the bell of the Spanish ship Salvador del Mundo, taken and burnt by Lord St. Vincent. The round tower, of which only the outward wall is standing, formerly served for a prison. The walls of this tower, as well as all the rest of the castle, are overgrown with ivy. A wooden staircase within, leads to a circular gallery, which affords a beautiful prospect. A narrow passage cut through the walls, leads to the garden, which contains numerous hot houses and a very fine orangery. From this spot Mr. Tucker accompanied us, by a very shady foot-path, back to our boat. I remarked I.26 near the Castle of Trematon, as about other English castles, and public walks, a vast flock of rooks, which roost there, making a great filth and noise. The rook is much esteemed, and I hear that the people foster them, and have their eggs hatched under pigeons, as they are thought to destroy vast numbers of injurious insects.

Amid all this friendly, agreeable, and learned society, these entertainments and excursions, my impatience became great, and augmented from day to day, from hour to hour. My time was precious, yet the greater part of it was lost here. I waited with increasing anxiety for the arrival of the Pallas, which still did not appear. More than once I resolved to leave behind all I had on board of the corvette, and go to the United States in a common packet. In the meanwhile various considerations deferred my departure from day to day, until finally on the 30th of May the Pallas arrived.

While waiting for the ship, I derived much pleasure from a visit made with Sir John Phillimore to the country seat of Colonel Ginnis, formerly of the army. He lives in a beautiful park, a charming situation, five miles from Plymouth, not far from the left bank of the Tamer, with five lovely and handsome daughters. His house is very tastefully arranged, and ornamented with paintings by himself. He has a peculiar talent for landscape painting, both in oil and water colours. He has thus preserved representations of the most beautiful situations visited in the course of his numerous journeys. He passed nine years in North America, and showed us views of wonders of nature, which I hope soon to admire myself. His view of the cataract of Niagara, and Falls of Montmorenci, gave me great pleasure.

Sir John Phillimore also accompanied me to see Mr. Harris, a surgeon, who has invented a new lightning conductor for ships. He has, for the sake of experiment, had the model of a frigate built, which he floats in a tub of water. There is a conductor to each mast, from which copper rods, secured close to each other, run down the mast to the keel, through which they pass into the water. Mr. Harris asserts, that the lightning passes down these rods without affecting any thing in the vicinity. To prove this, he wound around the mast a paper filled with fine gunpowder, through which the lightning was sent without exploding it. To prove farther, that the electricity can produce combustion after passing through water, he connected the conductor below the keel by a copper wire, with the touch-hole of a small cannon, which was floated in the tub. When the electricity strikes the conductor on the mast, the cannon is instantaneously fired. The cloud is represented by a frame stuffed with cotton, which hangs by a silk thread, and is connected with an electrical machine. I.27 Mr. Harris has a fine collection of philosophical apparatus; the lightning rod of his house communicates by conductors with a chime of bells, which are set to ringing whenever an electric cloud passes over the house; this happened during our visit. Mr. Harris has published a small pamphlet relative to his ship-conductor, of which he presented me with a copy. We were very much gratified with his experiments, and were grateful to him for his politeness.

The delay of the Pallas also afforded me an opportunity of seeing an East India ship launched. She was called the City of Rochester; was built in London, and had sailed on her first voyage last autumn, for Bengal, but off the heights of Plymouth was struck by a tremendous hurricane with so much power as to wreck her to a degree that required rebuilding. I had an opportunity of examining her while on the stocks, and was pleased with her construction. She is intended to carry passengers. On the quarter-deck she has a parlour and two state-rooms, like the captain’s quarters in a ship of the line, and below, the rooms are distributed, as in the wardroom of a ship of the line, with this difference, that in a transport ship the chambers are larger and neater than in a ship of war. In each state-room there is a toilette, with a water-closet, which is exceedingly good and comfortable. As I had never seen a ship launched before, I was much interested. She rested upon two ways, and was retained by two wedges; at a given signal these were knocked away, and then by her own weight she was slowly and majestically launched into the water, amid the acclamations of a great crowd of people.

The celebrated General Mina, a victim of the troubles which existed in unfortunate Spain, met with a hearty welcome in England. But the humid climate of this island did not agree with him, and he was afflicted with rheumatism. Plymouth has the reputation of enjoying a very fine climate, and together with the great medical skill of Dr. Hammick, who has charge of the Marine hospital, is very much praised. For both these reasons, General Mina had selected Plymouth as his residence. I cultivated his acquaintance, and was witness of a very interesting ceremony in honour of him. The Spanish committee in London had voted him a sword, and a member of this society, Mr. Bowring, the same person who in 1824 was arrested in France, on account of a pretended treasonable correspondence, and soon after liberated again, was commissioned to present this sword to the general in a solemn manner. It was on the 2d of June, when a numerous and selected company met at the Royal Hotel of Plymouth, to attend this ceremony. As the general was introduced to the company, Mr. Bowring informed the public I.28 of the object of the meeting, and praised the merits of the brave general. He then addressed the general in Spanish, informed him of the decision of the committee, and finally displayed the diploma which accompanied the sword: this was drawn up in English and Spanish with great calligraphic splendour. The diploma and sabre were then presented to the general. The sword has a gold hilt, with the general’s arms on it, and a richly gilt sheath, the sides of which were beautifully embossed with emblems of the general’s services. Mina returned an answer in Spanish, and gave it to Mr. Bowring. One of the company quickly translated it into English, for the benefit of the public, whose long-continued applauses expressed their admiration of the brave general. Mr. Bowring invited me to a friendly entertainment that was to be given to Mina; unfortunately I was obliged to decline it, as I had already made another engagement.

[The 5th of June was fixed upon for the sailing of the Pallas for Falmouth, but bad weather and high head winds detained her until the 7th. On the 9th, at 6 A. M. she arrived at Falmouth.]

This tolerably long town lay at the foot of a hill, on our left, and contains seven thousand inhabitants. It has by no means a brilliant appearance, as it is, like Devonport, built of grey limestone, and the roofs are slated. It is not visible from the sea, as a hill intervenes, upon which the citadel stands. On the right side of the bay there is an old castle, called St. Mawes, with about five houses, tenanted by poor fishermen; this castle is one of the often-mentioned rotten boroughs: it formerly was a town, and still sends two members to parliament.

The hills are mostly cultivated; some are employed as pastures. Trees are very rare, and few ships lay in the harbour. We anchored not far from the frigate Astrea, a guard-ship, and saluted her with eleven guns, which she returned. When we fired a salute on our arrival at Spithead, the oil was spilled from the sympisometer, and Captain Ryk was obliged to obtain a new one from London. To avoid a similar catastrophe, the sympisometer and chronometer were both kept in hands during this salute. The frigate Astrea, commanded by Captain King, serves as a depôt for all the packets, which sail hence to all parts of the world lying south and west of England, and are collectively under command of Captain King. The packets were formerly private property; the conveyance of the mail to foreign parts, was consequently not only very irregular, but a wide door was opened for smuggling.—On this account, the government, after having contracted with the former proprietors of the packets, assumed the sole direction. When a packet is no longer retained in service, a corvette or brig, commanded by a lieutenant of the navy, is substituted. At this time thirty-four packets were in service, of which fifteen were I.29 vessels of war, commanded by navy officers, the others were the old packets in charge of their former captains.

Soon after our arrival we were visited by the consul of the Netherlands, Mr. Lake, who brought me several letters. We afterwards received a visit from Captain King, a very entertaining old gentleman. At eleven o’clock, Captain Ryk and I went on shore, where we found a crowd assembled to witness our landing. We took lodgings in the Royal Hotel, a large, tastefully-arranged building, though in a very filthy street. We were much annoyed by the fish-market, which was immediately opposite to us; in this we saw very large and fine fish, as well as enormous shrimps, which are here very cheap. We repaired to the Custom House, where I made the necessary arrangements relative to the landing of my baggage, after which we visited Mr. Lake and Captain King. The latter lived without the limits of the city, near the bay, in a house, which, though old and small, is very handsomely situated in a garden, and commands a very fine prospect of the bay. The house is also historically remarkable: it was once inhabited by Oliver Cromwell.

The citadel, named Pendennis Castle, stands, as has been already remarked, on an eminence near the entrance of the bay, which it defends. It occupies the entire height, and is not overlooked by any other fortress. The soil consists of slate, and many of the works are cut out of the rock. It has six bastions, and on the water side, two batteries, each of about twenty pieces. A furnace for heating shot stands near the upper battery, and the lower, which lies close to the shore, is attached by its left wing to an old tower erected during the reign of Henry VIII. The fortress was built in Cromwell’s time. At the southern point stands an old tower, built of granite and surrounded by a ditch, which was erected in the reign of Henry VIII. This tower, the original fortress, serves at present as the dwelling of the commander. It may be compared with the French tours modelés. From the pinnacle, a tolerably extensive prospect of the surrounding country may be obtained. The day on which I visited the fortress with several officers from the Pallas, was very favourable, and yet a fog on the hills, descended into the vale between the fortress and the city of Falmouth, so that some time elapsed before we could see the rocky shore of the sea. These fogs are said to appear very frequently, even on the finest summer days. The fortress, which is capable of containing a garrison of two thousand men, was merely occupied by a detachment of veterans. There is an arsenal in it, where we saw nearly four thousand stands of arms for infantry and marines, besides a number of sabres, &c. all very handsomely arranged. I observed in this, as in other English fortresses, that even during peace, nearly all the cannon are suffered I.30 to remain mounted on the walls, and the fortresses are enclosed with palisades. Truly! many persons find the business of keeping the carriages in good order very profitable, and the palisades also serve instead of hedges!

The Dalcoath mines are about fourteen miles from Falmouth. The stockholders of these mines, held a meeting on the 13th of June, to settle their accounts. I rode thither with Mr. Lake, Captain Ryk, and some officers of the Pallas. But having already visited many mines, and learnt from experience that nothing is generally seen but small and low passages, that much inconvenience is experienced from dampness and filth, and my object being to visit America, I thought it by no means necessary to enter these subterraneous regions. Coals are not found in the province of Cornwall. The ore is therefore sold in heaps, at about seven pounds and a half sterling per ton, and conveyed by water to Wales, where, as is well known, stone-coal is found in abundance; it is there smelted. The Dalcoath mines occupy a large extent of ground, and have seven shafts, one of which is three hundred and forty fathoms deep. The pumps are worked by means of steam-engines, the cylinder of one of which is seventy-six inches in diameter. We were told of an engine in the neighbourhood, whose cylinder was one hundred inches in diameter. Nearly eight hundred people work daily in the Dalcoath mines, whose wages are proportioned to the product of their labour. The ridge consists of granite and schist. The metals are copper and tin. The veins of these metals lie close together, frequently cross each other, and are so rich, that in general it yields a third of its weight in pure metal. The stone is broken and washed, and the copper separated from the tin, after which the ore is collected into heaps for sale. The breaking of the stone into small pieces is performed by women, some of whom were very handsome. I remarked also, that the stone was drawn up the shaft in iron, and not in wooden buckets, as is customary in other countries. The company to which these mines belong is said to realize great sums; however a deficit occasionally occurs. This was the case at the present settlement of accounts, and for this reason the gentlemen, about twenty in number, with a permanent director, Mr. Rennel at their head, were not in the best humour. At the dinner, which naturally closed the transaction, many local concerns, which did not particularly interest us, were discussed. Many toasts, which all referred to localities, were drank. At last, it occurred to the gentlemen to drink the health of the king of the Netherlands, which I returned by drinking the health of the royal family of England. The dinner consisted, according to the English fashion, of very solid food—roast-beef, plumb-pudding, &c.

Our course led us through Penryn, a small place, about two I.31 miles from Falmouth, containing about three thousand inhabitants, and but poorly built. It has a harbour, and lies at one extremity of Falmouth Bay. Coal ships from Wales, and vessels with grain from Ireland, principally visit this port. Cornwall is too hilly to allow the necessary grain to be raised, and the mines occupy so much space, and withdraw so many poor people from farming, that by far the largest portion of grain must be brought from other quarters. The road, which, though hilly, was in a good state, led through many pastures which were enclosed with hedges.

The few trees which are seen, have not attained a great height. In the new plantations I observed some larches. The houses are built of stone, many of granite, here very common and cheap, and roofed with slate. Many new houses are erected on speculation, because the population rapidly increases. We also passed through Redruth, a hilly and angular town, of about three thousand inhabitants, who are principally miners. The town is surrounded by mines, whose general aspect is by no means pleasing. On an eminence not far from Redruth, we saw some ruins which are said to be the remains of a Druid temple. In the mines I observed a superstitious practice, which I find to prevail also in ships and farm houses; a horse-shoe is nailed over the door to keep off witches. When at Dalcoath, we found ourselves only a mile and a half distant from Bristol Channel, and saw St. Agnes’ Beacon, a high mountain in the neighbourhood. We at last arrived at Tehidy Park, belonging to Lord Dunstanville; this is principally a new settlement, which appears to great advantage in a region like this, which is not rich. We stopped at the dwelling house to view it. It is a tolerably large, square building with four porches, and contains several paintings by Van Dyk, Lely, Kneller, Hudson, and Sir Joshua Reynolds; however, I doubt whether the former be genuine. I was particularly pleased with a very good portrait of the celebrated Fox. We saw also several statues, copies of the best antiques and cameos of verd and jaune antique.

I had frequently seen sketches of St. Michael’s Mount in Cornwall, and had long wished to see the mount itself. I accordingly took advantage of my present leisure to visit it. The mount lies in Mountbay, opposite Marazion, twenty-three miles distant from Falmouth. I left this place June 14th, at noon, the weather being very warm. The road leads through Penryn, and then inclines to the left towards the ridges, constantly up and down hill, through heaths, where few traces of culture were observed; the houses stand detached, and have a miserable appearance. On the heights, however, we had occasionally a prospect towards the western ridges of Cornwall. Trees are few in number; we observed mines here and I.32 there. Thirteen miles from Falmouth lies Helstone, a little mining town of two thousand five hundred inhabitants, containing some neat houses, but miserable pavements. The court-house stands in the middle of the town, under which is the market. On the other side of Helstone we came to a beautiful valley, where we saw trees again, and by means of a stone bridge we passed over Looe, a small stream, which at a short distance empties into the sea. As far as Marazion the region is agreeable; hilly indeed, but better cultivated. We approached the sea on the left; on the right we had the ridges, among which we discovered some neat farms. As we approached Marazion, which lies on a descent towards the sea, we enjoyed the really fine view of Mountbay and of St. Michael’s Mount. In Marazion we stopped at the Star Inn, and immediately took a boat to reach the mountain, which is a short distance from the shore. The rock, which at low water joins the shore, consists of granite, is a mile in circumference at its base, and is two hundred and fifty feet high. At its foot there is a small fishing village of about thirty houses, with a harbour formed by two new piers. By means of very inconvenient steps which are cut out of the rock, we reached an old castle, standing at the highest point, and belonging to the family St. Aubyn. This is the same family, whose chief, Sir John St. Aubyn, owns almost all the houses in Devonport, and a large portion of the ground of the dock-yard. In former times, St. Michael’s Mount was a cloister. Adapted by its isolated situation for a fortress, art has contributed but little to its strength, and added merely a pair of bastions, and platforms, on which a few small cannon belonging to the owner of the mount, are at present standing. It sustained several sieges in former times. We were conducted to a Gothic chapel with ancient, painted window-glasses, after which we examined the castle. In this, however, we found nothing remarkable, except the old refectory of the cloister, called the chevy-chace-room, with strange bas-reliefs, representing ancient hunting scenes. In this hall are very old pieces of furniture; one chair is said to be three hundred, another five hundred years old.

The windows of the castle command a very fine prospect towards Mountbay and its shores, in which Marazion and Penzance, which are three miles distant from each other, appear to very great advantage. Not far from the latter place, the Thetis lay at anchor. I regretted extremely that my time would not allow me to visit my gallant friend, Sir John Phillimore. A steeple rises above the church of the castle, which I, however, did not ascend, being fatigued, and the steps in a neglected state. We rode back to Marazion, which was formerly called Marketzew, and has eleven hundred inhabitants, and passing by Helstone, we I.33 arrived about one o’clock at night, much fatigued, at Falmouth. Penryn, to which I made several excursions, contains a row of newly-built, elegant houses, with handsome gardens and a catholic church. The beautiful terrace on which the new houses stand with their gardens, is called the Green Bank, and is a very agreeable promenade.

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CHAPTER III.

Voyage from Falmouth to Boston.

[The Pallas sailed from Falmouth Bay on the 18th of June, and arrived on the 26th of July. During the voyage a midshipman was lost overboard, and the American ship Schuylkill, in distress for water and provisions, was spoken and relieved. The other incidents of the voyage are not sufficiently interesting to need a particular description.

The following is the duke’s account of his landing at Boston:—

It was ten o’clock, on the morning of the 26th of July, when I first placed my foot in America, upon a broad piece of granite! It is impossible to describe what I felt at that instant. Heretofore, but two moments of my life had left a delightful remembrance; the first was, when at seventeen years of age, I received the Cross of the Legion of Honour, after the battle of Wagram—the second, when my son William was born. My landing in America, that country which, from my early youth, had been the object of my warmest wishes, will, throughout life, remain a subject of pleasing recollection!]

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CHAPTER IV.

Boston.

On our arrival in Boston we took lodgings at the Exchange Coffee-house, where I received a visit from Mr. Andrew Ritchie, whose acquaintance I made in England two years ago. I was much pleased to see this worthy man again, who eighteen months since married the daughter of Mr. Otis, formerly a senator of the United States and leader of the federal party; both these gentlemen I.34 are highly esteemed here. I dined at the inn at two o’clock, according to the custom of the place; my seat was at the head of the table, by the side of the host, Mr. Hamilton. He had served in the last war as a volunteer colonel, and still retained his title. He exhibited much politeness, and indeed I cannot sufficiently praise the politeness of the guests, with many of whom I became acquainted. The dishes were very good, and even had this not been the case I should still have enjoyed them, having so long been without fresh provisions; this was the case with the fruit, which though small and bad, was still agreeable. On account of the excessive heat, which had been greater than at any time during the last twenty years, fruit in general had matured too early. Wine was served up in coolers with ice, and into every glass of beer, a piece of ice was thrown.

Adjoining the large dining room is a parlour and two sitting rooms, where strangers who have nothing to do pass the day. At a sideboard, wine, lemonade, soda water, &c. with ice, may be obtained. Eight newspapers were lying on a large table, all of which had the form of English papers, and were chiefly filled with mercantile and other advertisements. The house itself is arranged much like an English inn. The servants of both colours were civil and attentive. At four o’clock, Mr. Ritchie with his father-in-law, and the son of the latter, lately returned from a tour in Europe, came to show us the city.

There are many elegant stores in Cornhill, one of the principal streets. We saw a new building, intended as a branch of the United States Bank, the front of which is plain, with two Doric columns, each consisting of a single piece of granite, eighteen feet high, and almost five feet in diameter. The first popular assemblies at the commencement of the American revolution, were held in the old court-house. A large hall, in which the aldermen meet, contains a full length portrait of Washington, by Stuart, and also a bust of Adams, father of the present president. The bust is encircled by a wreath of stars. The names of all the citizens who distinguished themselves by great services during the revolution, are engraved on four columns. The beef and vegetable markets are under the court-house; but as this place was justly considered unsuitable for such a purpose, a new market was built not far from the water. The corporation began to fill up a ditch, and erect upon it a long building, the foundation of which is granite, and the three stories of brick, which was sold to the merchants as a warehouse. This sale was made on such favourable terms, that from the profits a new market was built, parallel with this warehouse, entirely of granite. It is five hundred and twenty-five feet long, fifty feet wide, and one story high. On the other side of this market, and parallel with it, a new row of warehouses, similar I.35 to the former are building. Mr. Ritchie led us through several wide and elegant streets to his house, one of the largest in Boston, and situated on Beacon-hill, a public promenade. Many frame houses are still to be observed; no new houses can be built of wood. Most of them are of brick; granite, which is found in abundance about twenty miles from Boston, is used frequently for foundations, particularly for those of stores. The mall, as it is called, consists of a large meadow, sparingly planted with trees, and extending down the hill to the water. On the highest part of the hill stands the state-house or capitol, with a large dome, covered with copper. The building is of brick, decorated with a façade of ten columns. These are of wood, and impart to the whole an air of weakness. Mr. Ritchie’s house is furnished with much splendour and taste, and decorated by some paintings which he obtained during his travels. Among these I remarked a very successful copy of Madonna della sedia of Raphael, another Madonna of Sassoferrato, and a scene from the deluge of Poussin. We spent the evening with Mr. Ritchie, and became acquainted with his lady, and also with the widow of General Humphreys, adjutant of General Washington, and formerly ambassador of the United States to Lisbon and Madrid. Mrs. Humphreys is descended from an English family, was born in Lisbon, and must have been very handsome in her youth. Mr. Otis and his son were also present. When we departed at nine o’clock, it was still very warm, and the full moon looked like a glowing coal in the heated atmosphere. The Pallas arrived at Boston towards evening, and cast anchor near Long-wharf. In passing she saluted Fort Independence with seventeen guns, and was answered by eighteen.

I had imagined that no one would take the least notice of me in America, but I soon found myself agreeably disappointed. The morning after my arrival I received an invitation to dine the next day with Mr. Otis, and was visited at the same time by several gentlemen. Captain Henderson and Mr. Dixon, among others, called upon me; the latter introduced me to his wife and his father-in-law, Mr. Homer. This gentleman inhabits a large and handsome house on Beacon-hill, and has two amiable daughters. I was much pleased with the arrangement of this house, and indeed the houses and chambers in general are larger and better adapted for convenience and ease than the English.

In company with Mr. Ritchie I paid a visit to Mrs. Humphreys, whose house is really splendidly furnished. In the evening I visited Mr. De Wallenstein, attached to the Russian embassy at Washington, who resides here during the summer, on account of his health. He is an agreeable and reflecting man. Afterwards I visited Mr. Edward Everett, professor of the Greek I.36 language in Harvard University. Mr. Everett had previously written me a German letter, and offered me his services in an extremely friendly manner. He has passed five years in Europe, during two of which he studied at Goettingen, and also visited Weimar. He remembered this with much pleasure, and was particularly pleased with the acquaintance of St. M. v. Goethe. Having been elected a member of congress he resigned his professorship.

Mr. Everett called for me the next day to take me to Harvard University, at Cambridge, three miles distant from Boston. At twelve o’clock we left Boston, though the heat was extreme, and rode over the wooden bridge which connects both towns, and is three thousand four hundred feet long. Cambridge is by no means compactly built, but occupies a large extent of ground. The houses are generally frame, a few of brick, and very few entirely of granite; they are however painted with bright colours and are very pleasing to the eye. Every house has a garden. Many meadows, like those in England, are enclosed with three rails, lying one above the other; Indian corn is cultivated in the fields; the grass was dry and withered.

Harvard University, one of the oldest colleges in the United States, was founded in 1638, by a clergyman named Harvard, who bequeathed it about eight hundred pounds sterling. By means of bequests made since that period, it has now a very large income. The state of Massachusetts supplies the deficiencies without however making any fixed contribution. The university has eight buildings, chiefly of brick, and only one of granite. The Unitarian chapel is in the latter, in which, besides the usual services on Sunday, morning and evening prayers are held, which all the students must attend. In front of the buildings is a large space, surrounded with trees, where the students may amuse themselves. The students are about three hundred and fifty in number, and principally board and lodge in the buildings of the university; a number, however, who cannot find room, or are recommended to families, live in private houses. They are in other respects, as in the universities of England, subjected to a very rigid discipline. The library, which occupies two halls, contains about eighteen thousand volumes. It contains the first edition of the large work on Egypt; a Polyglot bible from the collection of Lord Clarendon; a splendid edition of the Lusiad, by Camoens, with plates from the designs of Gerard, edited by the Marquis de Souza, and printed by Didot at Paris. Only two hundred and fifty copies of this edition were printed, and this copy was given to the university by the Marquis himself. Of manuscripts I saw but few, and these were Greek, which Mr. Everett bought at Constantinople during his travels, and another containing the aphorisms of Hippocrates, I.37 which an English schoolmaster copied with so much skill, that it appears to have been printed.I.4 In the mathematical lecture room I did not observe a very complete apparatus. They have also but few astronomical instruments, and in one observatory there are none. A new electrical machine with a glass globe had but lately arrived from England. The mineralogical collection is under obligations to Mr. Ritchie for most of its finest specimens, which he bought during his travels at Dresden, and presented to the university. A piece of basalt found under ground in this neighbourhood, bears some similarity to the profile of a human face. It is not known whether it be a lusus naturæ or the work of human hands. Does this belong to the remains of an earlier race of men which has vanished from the earth, but which has, not without reason, been supposed by many to have once existed? The other natural collections were of slight importance; there are no collections of insects and butterflies. I saw there also the antlers of two stags, which had become so completely entangled in fighting, that they could not be separated, and in this state they were killed. The chemical laboratory is arranged in a separate house, strongly resembling a chapel. The anatomical theatre has been removed for want of room, from Cambridge to Boston. In the former lecture room, however, there are still several handsome wax preparations made in Florence, among which are two fine full length figures, male and female. The latter represents a pregnant woman, and is separable. Near the chapel is the assembly room of the academical senate, where there are some very handsome engravings. I was surprised to find among these engravings the defence of Gibraltar, by Elliot, and one which represented Admiral Dewinter taken prisoner by Admiral Duncan. I gave the attendant who conducted us two dollars, and he seemed to be so much gratified by my generosity, that when we were in the chapel he whispered to the organist, who immediately played “God save the king,” at which I was much surprised. We were escorted through the botanic garden by Professor Nuttall, an Englishman, who has made several scientific journeys in the western parts of the United States. Among the green-house plants I observed a strelitzia, which had been raised from seed in this country, and also a blooming and handsome Inua gloriosa, and a Hedychium longifolium. The green-house and the garden are both small; in the latter I remarked no extraordinary shrubs or flowers, on the contrary, however, I saw many beetles, which I.38 were new to me, with bright colours, and extremely beautiful butterflies. A son of President Adams is one of the students of the university, and also Mr. Jerome Bonaparte, a legitimate son of the former king of Westphalia, by his marriage with Miss Patterson of Baltimore, which marriage, as is well known, was dissolved by the Emperor Napoleon. This young man, who is about twenty years old, bears an excellent character.

My acquaintances increased in number, and I received visits from many distinguished men. Among those who paid me this honour on the third day after my arrival, I must mention the Danish ambassador, Mr. Pedersen, who was travelling with his family in the northern parts of the United States, and was introduced to me by Mr. Ritchie; Mr. Josiah Quincy, mayor of the city, was also present, a worthy and extremely agreeable man, to whom I am under great obligations.

After the gentlemen had withdrawn, I visited the New England Museum, a very pompous description of which had fallen into my hands. This museum is a private establishment, and consists of a mixture of wax figures, musical clocks, stuffed animals, portraits, French caricatures, butterflies, &c. Two articles alone interested me, namely, two living rattlesnakes, and three Egyptian mummies. The snakes, caught near Lake Erie, were lying in a box covered with glass, and received no nourishment but water. They are ugly creatures, of a dark gray colour, with large sharp scales and yellow bellies. Large thick heads, prominent black eyes, and forked tongues. One of them, which was engaged in casting its skin, was for the time blind; it had four rattles, and was receiving a fifth. The attendant irritated it, but we did not hear it rattle. Spirit of hartshorn is said to be very effectual against their bite. The mummies were brought last year in an American vessel from Egypt. One was in the same condition in which it had been when in the coffin, except that the cloth had been taken from the face. The two others were more or less uncovered; their coffins were well preserved. I was astonished to see the fresh colours of the figures painted on them. One of the mummies had two coffins, whence it is inferred that she was a person of high rank. I saw also a Chinese painting, representing all the tortures and modes of death common in China; a shocking and disgusting sight. Finally, I observed a good model of the old bastile of Paris, made of a stone from this building.

The mayor, Mr. Quincy, had the politeness to show us the state prison. This is situated in Charlestown, is of granite, and was built about twenty years ago at the expense of the state of Massachusetts. It consists of a centre building, containing the dwelling and offices of the superintendant, as well as the watchroom, and of two wings, where the prisoners are lodged. Behind I.39 the building is a large yard where the prisoners work. It is enclosed by a high wall, with palisades, which is guarded day and night by several sentinels. The prisoners are chiefly employed in cutting and polishing blocks of granite, which are used in Boston and its vicinity. The punishment of every prisoner who is sufficiently robust, commences with this hard labour, which, however, is changed if his conduct merits it, or if he exhibits abilities for some other employment. As stone-cutter, a daily task is assigned to him, which, if not finished, or badly done, is followed by solitary confinement. If he performs more than his task, he is paid for the surplus. Of this sum he can dispose as he pleases when discharged. Newly-arrived prisoners, and those who have conducted themselves badly, are dressed in green and blue, when, however, they conduct themselves properly again, they are freed from this distinguishing habit. Other prisoners work at various trades; supplying at the same time their mutual wants, as shoes, &c. An engraver who was imprisoned for counterfeiting Nova Scotia bank notes, worked in a separate room, and engraved very neat maps. Four prisoners sleep in one cell, which are all tolerably well ventilated, and every prisoner has his own hammock. Black bread and soup constitute the food of the prisoners, who receive besides for breakfast and supper, a portion of syrup and flour, forming a kind of pudding. Besides the usual service on Sunday, they have prayers daily.

A report of the state of the prison from September 30, 1823, to September 30, 1824, which was published by the warden, Mr. Thomas Harris, contains the following results:—

The whole number of prisoners from 1805 to September 30, 1824, was one thousand eight hundred and sixteen; of these there were thirteen hundred and three dismissed, after the period of their punishment had expired; two hundred and ninety-eight were pardoned; fifteen escaped; one hundred and two died; two hundred and ninety-eight remained; of the thirteen hundred and three who were dismissed, two hundred and thirteen were a second time in prison for new crimes, and among these two hundred and thirteen there were twenty-four who had been pardoned.

On the 30th of September, 1823, there were three hundred and eight prisoners; of these eighty were dismissed, ten pardoned, six died, and, consequently, two hundred and twelve remained. To these eighty-six had been added, so that the number of prisoners amounted, September 30th, 1824, to two hundred and ninety-eight, as was mentioned above. Among these there were only three females.

Of these two hundred and ninety-eight, there were fifty-four I.40 black or coloured people, and fifty-nine white foreigners, viz. thirteen Englishmen, seventeen Irishmen, eight Scotchmen, four from Nova Scotia, two Canadians, one from the Cape of Good Hope, three West Indians, four Frenchmen, two Swedes, two Italians, one from Green Cape, one Portuguese, one German.

Two hundred and twenty-two were sentenced for stealing, twenty-six for passing counterfeit money, sixteen for burglary, seven for attempted rape, six for attempting to murder, five for being incendiaries, eleven for forgery, and five, among whom were the three females, for robbery.

The prisoners are employed in different occupations; one hundred and twenty-one were stone-cutters, twenty-seven for removing the stone, thirty joiners, eleven brush makers, eight weavers, six shoemakers, ten tailors, &c. There were eleven in the hospital, four in solitary confinement, and three invalids.

The expenses of the prison amounted to forty-one thousand six hundred and ninety-five dollars for the maintenance of the prisoners, clothes, beds, medicine, and materials employed in the labours of the prisoners; and fifteen thousand nine hundred and twenty-six dollars for the officers, &c. Total of expenses, fifty-seven thousand six hundred and twenty-two dollars.

The income derived from the labours of the prisoners amounted to fifty-eight thousand eight hundred and thirty-four dollars, and thus the prison was not only of no expense to the state, but produced a profit of twelve hundred and twelve dollars!

After leaving this remarkable building, the mayor accompanied us to Cambridge. A company of volunteers from Boston, the Washington Rangers, were training. The company were already departing when we arrived, but had the politeness to halt and repeat their exercise again. They exhibited much skill. They are somewhat fantastically dressed in green, and armed with long rifles. I became acquainted with the officers, who were all young men of the best families. I also spoke with several Cambridge students, some of whom were dressed in a uniform, belonging to a volunteer company, consisting of students alone.

We then went to Bunker’s Hill, near Charlestown. The space is small, but of great importance in American history. Connected with the main land by a bridge, this field of battle lies on a small island and has two hills, the higher and most northern of which is called Bunker’s Hill; the southern, Breed’s Hill, commands Charlestown and the Boston Roads. In the year 1775, the Americans occupied this hill, and with their artillery, which was placed in a redoubt hastily thrown up, harassed the English garrison in Boston, and the fleet. On the morning of the 17th of June, the English made a sally, left Boston, landed on a point I.41 east of the redoubt, where the Americans had left too weak a defence, formed their columns, whilst the artillery in Boston set Charlestown on fire, and attacked the redoubt. This was so well defended, that the English were twice obliged to retreat with very great loss. In one of these unsuccessful attacks, the English Major Pitcairn, who shortly before had commanded the English advance guard at the affair of Lexington, was shot by an American sharp shooter, who still lives, at the moment when he shouted to his soldiers not to be “afraid of these d——d rebels, which were nothing but a crowd of grasshoppers.”

But the English received reinforcements, and renewed the attack. The Americans, on the contrary, had expended their ammunition, and the shot sent to them from Cambridge, the headquarters of General Lee, were too large for the calibre of their pieces. They could obtain no assistance, as an English man of war kept up a fierce fire upon the bridge, the only means of communication with the main land. They determined, therefore, to evacuate the redoubt, and they effected it, though with great loss. At this time an English officer shot Dr. Warren, one of the most distinguished American patriots, who shortly before had been appointed general, by congress. The English did not pursue the Americans farther than Bunker’s Hill, but returned during the night to Boston. The remains of the redoubt are still seen, and on the 17th of June last, the corner stone of a monument was laid, which is to be an obelisk two hundred and ten feet high. One hundred and thirty veterans were present at this ceremony, the last of the seventeen hundred Americans who had participated in this affair.

Finally, Mr. Quincy introduced us, in Charlestown, to a major of militia, who devotes much of his attention to rural economy, and to the breeding of cattle and horses. His whole establishment was interesting. The major showed us, particularly, a noble English bull, from which he had raised very handsome and strong calves, and also a fine English stallion, ten years old.

In these peregrinations I made inquiries after Miss Wright, who, some years ago, published letters on America, which excited much attention in Europe, as well as in America. I was told that this lady with her sister, unattended by a male protector, had roved through the country, in steam-boats and stages, that she constantly tagged about after General La Fayette, and whenever the general arrived at any place, Miss Wright was sure to follow next day, as but little notice had been taken of this lady in Boston, a literary attack was expected from her pen. She is no longer young, and is of tall stature and masculine manners. I.42 In general, her letters are not much esteemed, and the flattering terms in which she speaks of Americans and all their institutions, are regarded as overstrained.I.5

On the 30th of July I went on board the Pallas to attend to the unloading of my baggage. I remained there a few hours, as I found it cooler on board than on shore. The vessel was as they said, full of visitors all day, for Captain Ryk, with his usual liberality, denied access to no one of genteel appearance. Citizens are by no means allowed to visit American vessels of war, unless they are known to an officer, and on this account the curiosity of the inhabitants of this place to see a foreign vessel of war is great.

When I returned to the city, I visited Mr. Quincy, who took me to the Court-house to see the arsenal of the thirteen volunteer companies of this place. One of these companies has been organized ever since 1638; all of these consist of young men of good families, who do not wish to serve in the same companies with the common crowd, but have united, and, in elegant uniforms, compose the flank companies of the battalions of militia. A large hall in the Court-house is appropriated for their exercises, when the weather is inclement. Every company consists of about sixty men. The greater number of the companies are armed like infantry, with bayonets according to the English mode, and the riflemen alone with rifles. Not only the arms of the company, but the swords of the officers are kept in the chambers of the Court-house.

From the Court-house, Mr. Quincy took me to the Athenæum, where the principal journals of the United States are found, and a library of about twenty thousand volumes, which were partly presented and partly purchased. A regular librarian showed us every thing; we noticed particularly several interesting medals, and the collection made by Thomasson in Birmingham, which represents the Elgin marbles. In the vestibule of the house, and in the large reading room, are plaster busts, which Lawyer Thorndike brought from Rome and presented to the Athenæum. The handsome house itself, which is valued at twenty thousand dollars, was given to the society by Mr. Perkins, a brother of the celebrated mechanician in London.

Some days later, August 2, Mr. Quincy had the politeness to show me several hospitals of the city.

I.43

The civil hospital was founded about twenty years ago, and is a massive building of granite, with ten Ionic columns of the same stone. The building, founded by voluntary subscriptions, and afterwards enriched by legacies, now supports itself by the interest of the capital and by fees which some patients pay. The administration of the hospitals and other benevolent institutions, is conducted, without charge, by the principal inhabitants, in a very correct and economical manner. The house has a cellar, two stories besides a ground floor, and may contain about eighty sick of both sexes, which are placed in different wings of the building. There were at that time fifty-six patients, under the care of six nurses and a matron. The house is under the direction of a steward, who is at the same time a physician. Those patients who pay ten dollars a week, occupy separate chambers, with separate attendants; others pay only three dollars a week, and many nothing at all. The latter are all in the same halls, which, however, are very light and well ventilated. The sick sleep on beds of hard wood, with good hair mattresses and very fine bed clothes. The steps are of granite, the halls and chambers are planked, and the floors are painted with oil colours. I have seen many hospitals, but none in which the sick were so conveniently and suitably lodged, and none in which cleanliness was so well observed. The kitchen and wash-house are in the cellar. In the former, the victuals are cooked by means of steam, and the latter is arranged like that in the Plymouth Marine Hospital, namely, with very large wooden frames to dry the clothes. The session room of the directors, the anatomical theatre, with some chambers for sick, are in the first story; the dwelling of the matron, and the remainder of the chambers for patients, are arranged in the second story. Two reservoirs of water, which may be raised by pumps, should a fire break out, are situated on the ground floor. Mr. Coolidge, one of the directors, accompanied us, and conducted us also to the lunatic asylum, which is under the same directors.

This building stands on an eminence between Cambridge and Charlestown. A farm-house has been purchased in the neighbourhood, which serves as the dwelling of the steward and head physician, as well as for a kitchen and wash-house. Behind this house two very solid wings have been built, three stories high, one for males, and the other for females. They somewhat resemble prisons, but are concealed by the farm-house, which has a very pleasing aspect, and thus prevents the unpleasant sensations which the institution would otherwise excite in the minds of the unhappy lunatics when they first approach it. A large garden, surrounded with a wall, is attached to each wing, serving as a place of recreation for the patients. A well-lighted corridor runs I.44 along each story, at each side of which are the doors of the cells; in these nothing is placed but a wooden bedstead, as in the hospital. Every story has an eating room, and a common hall; in the latter, in which the sick may pass the day, a table is placed with benches, which are nailed to the floor. The infuriated are placed in solitary cells, and when they cannot be subdued, are brought under a cold shower bath. The chambers are heated, as in the hospitals, by means of flues. In this asylum also, in which there were forty patients, the greatest cleanliness prevailed.

On the 3d of August, Mr. Quincy called for me at twelve o’clock, to introduce me, with Captain Ryk and Mr. Tromp, to the elder Mr. Adams, father of the present president. This worthy old man, who was ninety years old, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, lives ten miles from Boston, on his farm at Quincy, revered by his family, and honoured by the whole nation, who regard him as their common father. I was much affected when, as I approached this venerable man who had so efficiently laboured in the cause of American independence, he extended to me his hand. He was still in full possession of his mental faculties, and remembered, not only the things which had occurred long ago, but knew also every thing which had recently taken place, or was now passing. His bodily strength, however, was diminishing, and he felt a weakness, particularly in his legs. He conversed with me about half an hour, especially concerning Holland, where he had been ambassador during the revolution, and the features of his ancient countenance revived again as he dwelt on the fact, that it was owing to him that Holland then declared war against England, and the English ambassador, notwithstanding all his intrigues, could effect nothing. When Mr. Tromp was introduced to him, he remembered his great ancestor, shook his hand in a friendly manner, was much affected, and said to him, “God bless you, Van Tromp!” We left this worthy old man in deep emotion, and congratulated each other on our good fortune in having been introduced to this departing veteran of a revolution, which may well be called salutary.

In his house we saw several good portraits and busts of him, portraits of his wife, who died seven years ago, of his son, the president, and of General Warren, who fell at Bunker’s Hill. We saw also a son of President J. Q. Adams, who is a lawyer at Boston, and with whom I became acquainted some days ago in the Athenæum.

From Boston to Quincy there is a good turnpike road. It runs over some hills, on which the traveller sees a handsome panorama; behind him the city, on the left the bay, in front a well-cultivated region with handsome farms, on the right the Blue Hills. We passed by several neat farm-houses; the grounds are separated I.45 by means of dry walls, the stones of which are partly hewn, and separated from each other, somewhat like those of Scotland. No old trees are found, because the first settlers very imprudently destroyed all the wood, and now it must be raised again with much trouble. Lombardy poplars, and plane trees are frequent. The inhabitants generally appear to be in good circumstances, at least the farmers seem to prosper, and the houses appear to great advantage, for instance, we remarked a common village blacksmith shop, which was built of massive granite. At the very neat village of Miltonbridge we passed over the river Neponset, which is navigable for small vessels.

Quincy contains about four thousand inhabitants, and has assumed this name in honour of the mayor’s family, which is here much beloved and esteemed. Mr. Quincy’s country seat, to which we repaired from the house of the ex-president, is about two miles distant from the latter, and lies in the neighbourhood of the sea on a small eminence, from which there is a very handsome prospect towards the bay. Mr. Quincy introduced us to his family, to his wife, two sons, and four daughters. The eldest daughter is very accomplished, and excels in painting landscapes in sepia. Some years ago she visited the Falls of Niagara with her family, and sketched several views. The other daughters are also very well educated, and have a talent for music. We met here several gentlemen from Boston, among others, Mr. Shepherd, Mr. Everett, and President Kirkland, from Cambridge, who was accompanied by an aged English teacher, Mr. Cooper, who fled from England with Priestley, thirty-five years ago, and now directs Columbia College in South Carolina. He appeared to be a gloomy, austere man, and very different in his address from the humane and friendly manner of Dr. Kirkland. Towards evening we returned to Boston by a shorter road, and passed the Neponset by means of a long wooden bridge, which Mr. Quincy built not far from the place where it empties into the sea. We then passed through Dorchester, and saw on an eminence to the right the remains of two redoubts, built by the English, which the great Washington took from them, strengthened, and thus principally contributed to the evacuation of Boston.

I accompanied, August 4th, a party to a Mr. Nathaniel Amory; we passed over the long mill-dam, which cuts off a part of the water surrounding Boston, and is to be filled up in time, and houses built on it. Six miles from the city is a wooden bridge over Charles river, which we crossed to see the arsenal on the opposite side. This establishment was built in 1816. A long yard, surrounded with a wall of granite, is attached to the chief arsenal, which is three stories high, with two wings, containing the offices and dwellings of the two directors, Major Craige and Lieutenant I.46 Van Nessen. The workshops of the different mechanics, belonging to the arsenal, are arranged behind this building, on each side of the yard; at a short distance from the arsenal stands the powder magazine, built of granite, and containing about fifty thousand pounds; thirty thousand stands of arms are contained in the arsenal in chests, each holding twenty pieces. I saw there a newly-invented machine for casting a hundred and sixty-two balls at once, giving them at the same time a perfectly round form. The arsenal is very pleasantly situated in Watertown.

We passed farther along the shore, through a romantic part of the country, towards Waltham. At this place a branch of a large cotton manufactory is situated, belonging to a company of twenty-five persons. It is under the direction of Mr. Jackson, who possesses a very handsome dwelling, where he appears to pass a happy life with his amiable family. About four hundred and fifty workmen are employed, who live in different buildings belonging to the factory, and form a particular colony; they have two schools, a church, and a clergyman. They appear to be in very good circumstances, as the dress, cleanly exterior, and healthy appearance of the workmen testify. In these buildings the cotton is spun and woven; but the colouring and printing are performed in another establishment. The machines are worked by water, which is said not to freeze in winter, but sometimes fails in dry summers. More simple machines than jennys are used for spinning, and the dressing machines are different from those in the Netherlands, though not better, I believe, as they have but one cylinder. The weaving machines are mostly of wood, which is very cheap, though I believe that our iron ones are better. The workmen of this factory are, as I have since learned, esteemed on account of their good manners, and their morality is universally praised. But one case of seduction occurred in ten years. After leaving this factory we passed by several very neat houses and parks; the latter are smaller than those in England, because in this country there are no rights of primogeniture, and the estate of parents at their death is divided into as many parts as there are children. On this account we do not find such great and powerful landholders here as in England. It is a subject of dispute, whether primogeniture or equal division be preferable; but it is certain that real prosperity is much more diffused through the nation in America, and the land is better cultivated.

Mr. Nathaniel Amory’s country seat lies on a small eminence in a tolerably large park, and affords an extensive prospect of the vicinity of Boston. Mr. Amory collected several good paintings of the Flemish school in his travels, and some handsome mosaic work in Rome, with which his house is decorated. In the afternoon we took a walk through the park to a cottage, which I.47 belongs to the English sea captain, Wormley, brother-in-law of Mr. Amory, and, though small, is very neatly arranged, and handsomely situated. A small lake, called the Fresh Pond, with its shady trees, affords a very picturesque view. After spending some time very agreeably with his friendly family, we returned at nine o’clock in the evening, by way of Cambridge to Boston.

I visited the navy-yard on the 5th August, in company with Major Wainwright, of the marines, and Lieutenant Gwynn. In the small barracks of the marines where we commenced, the rooms are not large; the beds stand on a platform, so that the rooms are very narrow and close. The appearance of the soldiers was not remarkable. The navy-yard was founded only twelve years ago, and not yet completed, but is very extensive. A dry dock has not yet been made, but will be advantageously placed. The two line of battle ships, Columbus and Independence, and the frigate Java, were in ordinary. Two line of battle-ships and a corvette were on the stocks, and not yet named. The two former, which were under sheds, were finished, so that they could leave the stocks as soon as government should order. But as no loss was incurred, the vessels were allowed to lie on the stocks, and under shelter as long as possible, that the wood may become still better seasoned. The sheds are larger than the English, and are actual houses. The two vessels are very modestly called seventy-fours, but have each three decks; the one pierced for one hundred and thirty thirty-two pounders, and the other for an hundred and thirty-six, of the same caliber. They are built of live oak, and to prevent the dry rot, salt is scattered among the timbers, which, as I was told, was of great advantage. The vessels are so high and roomy, that I could stand erect in the two lower batteries under the beams. Some methods which tend to strengthen and relieve vessels, used in other places, have not yet been adopted here; for instance, I did not observe the cruciform strengthening of the sides, and the diagonal deck, according to the plan of Sir Robert Seppings, from which two improvements the navies of England and the Netherlands derive the greatest advantage. The same system which prevails in England is observed here, namely, not to employ shipwrights for builders, as in the Netherlands and in France, but carpenters. Mr. Baker, the master shipwright of this place, with whom I became acquainted, is considered to be a very skilful man.

After we had seen the navy-yard, been much gratified with its good condition, and wishing it might soon be finished, we visited the lady of the commissioner, Captain Craine, who was absent. The commissioner’s house belongs to the government, and is placed on a height overlooking the navy-yard; the architect who planned it, worried the commissioner with continual questions I.48 relative to the form of the house, until finally he replied in great vexation, build it like my ——. The architect took him at his word, and built it with two round projections standing close together, which have a very curious appearance from the navy-yard. We saw in the navy-yard sails of cotton canvass, which are preferred to hempen sails, both because they are more easily worked, and are peculiarly durable. They are not, however, liked in the navy, because they are too combustible, and on that account might be extremely dangerous to a vessel during an action; they are therefore used only for the higher sails.

On the next day Mr. Quincy very politely invited me to visit some of the public schools, which are under his direction. I accepted this invitation with much pleasure, for in a country like this, where the people govern themselves, without doubt the prevailing spirit may be best learnt from the institutions for public education. There are also at Boston, besides various private and two public schools, a Latin and a mathematical school, called high schools, which are both maintained at the expense of the city; boys of every class are admitted without paying for their tuition.I.6 Well-informed young men, who received good salaries, are selected as teachers. The first teacher of the high school receives yearly two thousand five hundred dollars. The study of the ancient languages, the Latin and Greek, forms the basis of public instruction. At the same time that these are taught, the attention, acuteness, and memory of the pupils, are variously exercised; if, for example, any one recites a line of the Eneid, and repeats the last letter, another immediately arises, and repeats from the same poem a line, beginning with this letter. The pupils do this with wonderful rapidity. The declamations took place during our presence. One of the scholars recited the speech of an English member of parliament, with so warm and correct a delivery, that the speech could scarcely have been better spoken in parliament. Another recited an oration, in which the advantages of a moderate above a despotic government, were also exhibited in a very good and distinct manner. Every evening the place of each scholar in the class for the next day, is appointed by the teacher, according to the industry which he may have shown during the day, and entered into a book. At the end of the month judgments are passed on all the pupils according to this list.

I.49

The mathematical and physical sciences are taught in the high school; it possesses a very good philosophical cabinet. We heard one class examined in arithmetic, and another in analytic geometry. In the former I saw that much attention was paid to mental calculation, and was surprised at the quick and correct solutions of difficult arithmetical questions. In the higher class the teacher proposed a question, and all those immediately arose who thought they could answer it. One was designated by the teacher to solve it, and if another thought the answer not exactly correct, he raised his hand, without interrupting the first, and corrected him when called upon. I was pleased both with the kind manners of the teachers, and the modest, correct, and easy deportment of the scholars. The boys generally had handsome faces, and were all of an animated physiognomy. With this they combine, as I was frequently convinced, the greatest respect for their parents and teachers. It appears to me impossible that young people, who receive so liberal an education, can grow up to be bad or malicious men. I was indeed affected when I left the schools, and could not but congratulate Mr. Quincy from the bottom of my heart, on such a rising generation! Captain Ryk, who accompanied us, participated in my views and feelings.

From the schools we went to the state-house or capitol, of the exterior of which I have already spoken, but the interior arrangement I had not yet seen. Besides the offices belonging to the state government, it contains the assembly rooms of the three bodies which govern the state, the council of the governor, the senate, and the representatives. These rooms are spacious; still, however, it is evident, that thirty-seven years ago, when this building was erected, every thing was done in haste, and that architecture had not then made the progress which it since has. All the steps are of wood. A trophy is erected in one of the chambers, composed of Brunswick arms, which were taken at the battle of Saratoga. One hundred and sixty-eight steps lead to the lantern of the cupola, which is of wood, and covered with copper. Notwithstanding the excessive heat, we went up, and our labour was richly recompensed by a splendid prospect. The dome is the highest point in the vicinity, and affords a view not only of the whole city and the bay, but also of a great extent of ground beyond, in every part of which a number of neat dwellings may be observed.

Thus passed almost fourteen days, in an uncommonly pleasing and instructive manner. In general my state of health allowed me to enjoy every new and interesting object with serenity of mind; I was indisposed but two days, and this was probably owing to the excessive heat. Even the intermediate hours, which could not be dedicated to the inspection of public institutions, I.50 generally afforded instructive amusements. I passed the morning in reading and writing, then received or paid visits, and at all times met with attention, courteousness, and kindness. I visited the churches on the Sundays I passed in Boston, which are still more quietly kept in America than in England. The first time I went to a Unitarian church, attended by a son of the mayor; a second time I went to an Episcopalian church, accompanied by Mr. Lloyd, a very distinguished man, and senator of the United States. I dined twice at the inn, but generally accepted some friendly invitation, and passed all my evenings very agreeably in company at musical parties and other entertainments. I also made some excursions into the country besides those already mentioned.

The society, especially when ladies are not present, is uncommonly fine and lively—both sexes are very well educated and accomplished. So much care is bestowed upon the education of the female sex, that it would perhaps be considered in other countries as superfluous. Young ladies even learn Latin and Greek, but then they also can speak of other things besides fashions and tea-table subjects; thus, for instance, I was at a party of Mrs. General Humphreys, which was entirely in the European style, without cards, dancing or music, and yet it was lively and agreeable. Thus I passed some delightful hours with Mr. Ritchie, Mr. Dixon, Mr. Homer, Mr. Otis, Mr. Shepherd, and Mr. Artiguenave, a Frenchman, formerly an actor in the Théâtre Français, at Paris, and now professor of the French language at Cambridge University. Many of those gentlemen who are met with in such society, have travelled in Europe, sometimes accompanied by their ladies; Europeans are frequently present, and thus there is no want of materials for conversation. The generality of the houses, moreover, offer something attractive in the fine arts; and in returning home on an evening, the city, the bridges, and the Mill-dam are very well lighted, not indeed with gas, but with reflecting lamps, and none of that disorderly conduct is observed in the streets, which so often shocks the mind in the cities of England.

We made an excursion on the 1st of August into the country with Mr. Dixon in his dearborn. A dearborn is a very light wagon, with two benches and four wheels, drawn by one horse. We rode over the neck which unites Boston with the main land, and was fortified by the English during the revolution; then in an ascending direction towards the heights of Roxbury, where, during the blockade, the right wing of the American lines stood. The ground is very rocky, and partly covered with fir trees; the trees which formerly stood here must have been entirely removed, as not one high tree can be seen. Passing farther on we saw I.51 very handsome country houses and gardens, the former generally two stories high, and surrounded with covered colonnades. At one of these we paid a visit to the owner, Mr. Rufus Amory. A walk, shaded by oak, elm, and maple trees, leads to the dwelling on a slight elevation, which commands an extended and beautiful view of Boston and the bay. We were received by the friendly owner in an extremely obliging and hospitable manner. We rode through a romantic part of the country to Dorchester, to visit General Sumner at his country seat, but did not find him at home. We then returned by another handsome road to Boston, and passed a large rope manufactory, the works of which were moved by steam.

At another excursion to Dorchester, in company with some young men, sons of the richest inhabitants of the place, a game of ten-pins was played. It is called ten-pins, because that number of pins is here used in the game.I.7

Finally, I cannot omit to mention one visit, which, in company with Mr. Ritchie, I made to Mr. Coolidge, jr. Mr. Coolidge had, three months ago, married a Miss Randolph, a granddaughter of Thomas Jefferson. His wife, about thirty years old, was brought up by her grandfather in the country in his library. She is said to be so learned that Jefferson often asked her advice. She had arrived a few days previous, and made known that she would receive visiters, and we therefore found the chamber filled with people. Every one at his departure took with him a piece of wedding cake. The young ladies, as it is said, place this cake under their pillows, and then dream of their future lovers.

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CHAPTER V.

Journey from Boston to Albany, by way of Worcester and Northampton.—Sojourn there, from the 8th to the 14th of August, 1825.

Accompanied by Mr. Tromp, who had become endeared to me by his knowledge, his modest, honourable, and amiable deportment, I left Boston on the 9th of August, for Worcester, distant forty miles. The mail-coach, like the diligence stage, consists of a long calash with three benches, each capable of containing three persons. The top is fixed, though the curtains can be rolled up, so that a person may enjoy the fresh air and the I.52 prospect of the surrounding country, without being exposed to the sun.

We left the hospitable city of Boston with grateful hearts, and rode over the Mill-dam into the interior of the country. The horses were changed four times, generally in small villages; Farmingham and Westborough appeared to be the only ones of any importance. The country sometimes seemed wild, and but thinly settled, though the state of Massachusetts is said to be the most populous in North America. We saw no grain,I.8 though in some places we observed Indian corn, and now and then some millet. Apple orchards were abundant—the trees hung so full of fruit that many of the boughs were broken. The apples are small and yellow, and are employed in preparing the favourite beverage called cider. We gradually approached forests, consisting of oak, chesnut, and elm trees. Sumach also occurs in some places, the bark of which is said to be excellent for tanning leather. There are evidently no forest regulations here, and the timber is very much neglected. The road was for the greatest part a good turnpike, and made in the German manner. We crossed several small rivers and rivulets on wooden bridges, which are very slight, though they are built with a great waste of timber. The planks are not even nailed upon the beams, so that I began to be somewhat fearful, especially as the carriage drove rapidly over. About two miles from Worcester we crossed a lake called Guansiganog-pond, on a wooden bridge one-fourth of a mile in length. The banks of this lake are covered with wood, and present a very handsome appearance. On our way, we were overtaken by a considerable thunder-storm, which settled the dust, and procured us a pleasant evening. We arrived at Worcester about 7 o’clock, and alighted at an excellent tavern. This town contains about four thousand inhabitants, and consists of a principal street, with an avenue shaded with old elm trees, and of several bye-streets, which, like the preceding, are altogether unpaved. The houses, generally built of wood, and but few of brick, are all surrounded with gardens, and stand at a considerable distance from each other, so that the town appears like a village. It has four churches, a bank, and three printing-offices, each of which furnishes a newspaper. There are also printing-offices in many of the villages through which we passed, as well as a fire-engine in each. In the evening we paid a visit to the governor of Massachusetts, Mr. Levi Lincoln, who resides at this place. We found this worthy man, who is universally esteemed by his fellow-citizens, at home with his wife and sister-in-law, and were received by him in the most friendly manner. We spent a very I.53 agreeable evening in his company. A proof of the public esteem which he enjoys, is, that at the last election, there was not a single vote against him, an example almost unparalleled in the United States. The governor is styled “his excellency.” On the following morning the governor conducted us to a recently established museum, which is designed chiefly for the collection of American antiquities. It is yet in its infancy, and contains but few interesting specimens; the library also is of small extent, notwithstanding we must render full justice to the inhabitants for their laudable zeal in the cause of natural science. We rode around the town in company with the governor, passed the court-house and prison, which unfortunately we had not time to visit, and returned to our inn. The gardens we passed had rather a wild appearance. They cultivate kitchen vegetables, a few watermelons, and fruit; we saw no flowers excepting the sunflower.

At 10 o’clock we departed in the Worcester stage for Northampton, distant forty-seven miles. Our company in the stage-coach consisted of two gentlemen and ladies from the state of Mississippi, who had undertaken a tour to the northern states on account of the unhealthy climate in their own country, and who entertained us very agreeably with an account of their estates. The road was worse than yesterday, sometimes sandy, and the horses generally bad, so that on the whole, our progress was slow. The country is less populous, as well as less cultivated, though there is more timber, which, however, is also very much neglected. We observed the cypress and a few large cedars. As there are no grazing laws in force, they are obliged on account of the cattle, and particularly on account of the sheep which graze in these woods at large, to make fences of young chesnut trees which are split into four pieces. These fences generally consist of six rails placed upon each other, with an interspace of several inches. They are placed in an angular form, and at the point where the rails meet, they are placed one upon the other, and usually supported upon a large stone. Such a waste of timber and land is only pardonable in a country where the inhabitants are few, and where timber is abundant. A large extent of wood-land has been cleared only within a short time, and the trunks of the trees which remained have been destroyed by fire. The soil is not particularly fertile. We observed numerous blocks of granite, which may be hereafter usefully employed, the large for building, and the small upon the roads. The villages which we passed on our way are Leicester, seven, Spencer, five, Brookfield, seven, Ware, eight, Belchertown, nine, and Madley, ten miles. They are most of them small places, consisting generally of frame houses, standing at a distance from each other, which are very neat and comfortable; each village has a frame church and a school-house. Stores are I.54 observed in most of these places, and in Belchertown there is even a fashionable one. The churches are usually provided with long sheds, in which the carriages and horses of the members of the church are protected from the heat and weather during the service. Ware, situated on the river of the same name, which is crossed by a wooden bridge rather better built than usual, was laid out about three years since; it is a neat, flourishing place, and belongs to the Dexter family in Boston, who have established a woollen and cotton manufactory here, the workmen of which, above three hundred in number, form the inhabitants of the place. Mr. Dexter, of Boston, had entrusted me with an important packet of papers for his brother, who resides in Ware, which I delivered in person. We found Mr. Dexter with his beautiful wife, at his neat and well arranged cottage, situated in the centre of a garden, and received a friendly welcome. From his window he can overlook the whole village and manufactories. Heretofore, said Mr. Dexter, I have received the greatest part of my wool from Saxony, which is preferred here to the Spanish; but at present, we have sheep imported from Saxony, which are permitted to roam at large through the wood, as there are no wild animals in Massachusetts to destroy them; they yield a very superior kind of wool. Unfortunately we were not at leisure to accept of Mr. Dexter’s invitation to look at his establishments. At the tavern, which was perfectly clean and comfortable, we obtained a very good dinner, and continued our journey. The inhabitants of Ware are said to be distinguished for their strict morality. They have a common school, to which they are obliged by law to send their children, as is the case throughout Massachusetts, or pay a fine. In Ware there is but one physician, who has a handsome house, and keeps a well furnished apothecary store. The strict republicans are jealous of the large manufacturing establishments, because they are afraid that individual citizens, in consequence of their property, may have too great an influence upon a large mass of people; but I imagine that the republic has nothing to fear on this head, since the effect of individual influence is counterbalanced by the promotion of the welfare of the poorer classes.

About a mile from Northampton we passed the Connecticut river, five hundred yards wide, in a small ferry-boat, which, as the night had already set in, was not very agreeable. At Northampton we took lodgings at Warner’s Hotel, a large, clean, and convenient inn. In front of the house is a large porch, and in the first story a large balcony. The gentlemen sit below, and the ladies walk above. It is called a piazza, and has many conveniences. Elm trees stand in front of the house, and a large reflecting lamp illuminates the house and the yard. This, with the beautiful warm evening, and the great number of people, who I.55 reposed on the piazza, or went to and from the house, produced a very agreeable effect. The people here are exceedingly religious, and, besides going to church on Sundays, they go thrice during the week. When we arrived, the service had just ended, and we saw some very handsome ladies come out of the church. Each bed-chamber of our tavern was provided with a bible. To-day I observed also a new mode of delivering letters and newspapers. The driver of the mail-coach throws the letters and newspapers, with which he is entrusted, before the houses where they are to be left; he sometimes throws them even into open fields, along the lane leading from the main road to the house.

About two years ago, Messrs. Cogswell and Bancroft established a boarding-school at Northampton. The day after our arrival, 11th of August, Mr. Cogswell paid me a visit, and introduced one of his professors, Dr. Beck, of Heidelberg, a step-son of Dr. De Wette, of Weimar, who teaches the Latin and Greek languages. Another German professor, whom, however, I did not see, directs the gymnastic exercises. Both these gentlemen conducted us to the institute, which is situated on Round Hill, about a mile from Northampton.

Northampton contains about four thousand inhabitants, and its buildings are, apparently, very much like those of Worcester; it has one bank, a court-house, prison, and a printing-office. From Mr. Cogswell’s institute, you have a magnificent view of the fertile and well-cultivated valley of the Connecticut river, which, in this place, winds between two lofty mountains, Holyoake and Mounttoby. On the left, the lofty mountains of New Hampshire present a beautiful prospect. In 1824, this institution had but forty pupils, and in 1825, it numbered no less than seventy-four, so that Mr. Cogswell is obliged, although he has three large houses belonging to his establishment, to erect a fourth and larger one. The gymnastic exercises, for which a place is provided in the woods, with the necessary apparatus, form a principal part of the instructions of this seminary. The boys are entirely excluded from the world; but that they may not become too much estranged, Mr. Cogswell accompanies them annually in various pedestrian tours through the surrounding country. I visited Mr. Bancroft at his room. Both these gentlemen entertain the warmest enthusiasm for Germany and the German method of instruction, and are determined to regulate every thing according to that system. Mr. Bates, a lawyer introduced to us by Mr. Cogswell, returned with us to town, and showed us the church, court-house, and a collection of minerals, in the possession of Dr. Hunt, in which I admired particularly two specimens of American beryl and several specimens of rock-crystal. On our I.56 return to the tavern, I received a visit from a physician, Dr. Seeger, who was educated with Schiller in the military school at Wirtemberg. He wished to become acquainted with me on account of my father, for whom he expressed the highest veneration. I must acknowledge, that, in a country so far from my native land, this afforded me the most sincere gratification, and my acquaintance with the worthy Dr. Seeger, who has been an inhabitant of the United States during the last forty years, and who is universally esteemed as an honest man and a good physician, I shall always remember with pleasure and satisfaction.

At Springfield, twenty miles from Northampton down the Connecticut river, is the government armoury. We left Northampton, to visit this establishment, under the most oppressive heat, with five ladies and two gentlemen in the stage-coach, into which we were crowded, somewhat like those that were shut up in the Trojan horse. We arrived about 3 o’clock in the afternoon, and again found an excellent tavern, which was provided with a piazza. Our ride passed through a well-cultivated region of country, along the right bank of the Connecticut river; Indian corn, millet, and potatoes were observed in considerable abundance, in some places we also observed hemp, and sometimes, though seldom, hops.

Springfield is situated on the left bank of the Connecticut river, over which, close by the town, is a wooden bridge, five hundred yards long, and built in a very awkward style. Springfield has much more the appearance of a city than Worcester and Northampton, for there are at least some stone houses situated so closely together that they form a street. Colonel Lee had the goodness to take us in his carriage to the manufactory of arms, of which he is the director. It is situated about a mile from Springfield, in a very beautiful valley, on a rivulet. It employs daily two hundred and seventy-four workmen. These are settled in the vicinity of the manufactory, form a kind of colony, and have a school for their children. They are also obliged to distinguish themselves by their good moral deportment. The muskets for the American army are made on the improved French model of 1777, with the exception that they are somewhat shorter, while the bayonets are rather longer. The barrels and bayonets are browned, as Dupin has described at full length in Travels through Great Britain. We examined the works throughout. There are several houses, and the machines are propelled by water. They finish annually fifteen thousand muskets, each of which costs the government on an average eleven dollars. How much might be saved, if, as in other countries, muskets were made by private workmen! The arsenal in which these muskets are preserved I.57 and packed in chests, each containing twenty pieces, was destroyed by fire about a year and a half since, but having been rebuilt, it consists at present of a centre building for the offices, two isolated wings for the preservation of the different arms, and of several other adjacent buildings for the necessary workshops. These buildings form an oblong square, of which the proper armoury forms one of the short sides; on the other, oppositely to the centre building, is Colonel Lee’s neat and beautiful dwelling. The houses belonging to the arsenal are built of brick externally, while internally every thing is of wood; and as, during the winter season these buildings are heated with wood, there appeared to me to be much danger of fire. I remarked this to Colonel Lee, who appeared to participate in my apprehensions. After our return to the tavern, Mr. Calhoun, with whom we had become acquainted through Mr. Bates, introduced us to several gentlemen of the town, and took us in the evening to a musical party at the house of a Mr. Dwight, where we found the fashionable part of society assembled. The ladies sang very well, and played on the piano-forte several pieces from “Der Freischutz,” an opera which is at present a favourite in America.

We had determined to go on the 12th of August to New Lebanon, to visit the Springs and the Shaker’s village, but the Fates had decreed otherwise. We left Springfield at two o’clock in the morning in the stage, rode over the bridge, through Westfield, which, as far as we could judge in the dark, is a handsome village, and arrived at day break in a romantic valley, on Westfield river, whose waters fall over huge rocks. At Russel, which is situated in an uncultivated valley, seventeen miles from Springfield, we partook of an excellent breakfast at the stage-office, and were much pleased at the clean and comfortable appearance of the houses and inhabitants. It was so cold early in the morning, that a large fire which we found at this house, was quite comfortable. The road through the wild romantic valley, generally ascending, and along the river, was rather bad, and often very narrow; instead of a railing, there were only trunks of large trees, which were permitted to decay in a very unjustifiable manner. The bridges also were as badly built as those of which we have already complained. The forest trees were very handsome, but many of them are destroyed for the cabins of the new settlers. These dwellings, like the log-houses, are built of the trunks of large trees. Amongst the few settlers whom we observed there, were several negro and mulatto families. The villages of Chester, Bucket, and Lee, through which we passed, consist of but few houses; Lee, however, appears to be a flourishing village. At this place we left the mountains, and again entered upon a better cultivated region, in which we observed stubbles of wheat and rye.

I.58

Exceedingly fatigued in consequence of the great heat, and the number of passengers in the stage-coach, I was anxious to procure a carriage in order to visit New Lebanon, distant fourteen miles; but the person of whom I inquired was so extortionate as to ask ten dollars. I determined, in order to avoid a new yankee trick, to prosecute my journey in the stage-coach, direct for Albany. At Canaan, thirteen miles distant, we left the state of Massachusetts, and entered that of New York. The other villages which we passed after our departure from Canaan, were Chatham, six miles, Nassau, or Union Village, four miles, and Schoodie, five miles. The distance from Springfield to Albany is eighty-one miles. The above villages have a neat and comfortable appearance, and the fields were in a good state of cultivation. Upon our arrival at Schoodie the night was just setting in, but unfortunately we were lighted by a burning house upon an eminence not far off. At the village of Greenbush, near Albany, we crossed the Hudson or North river in a horse-boat, and upon our arrival in the city took lodgings at Cruttenden’s boarding-house, on an eminence near the capitol or state-house.

Albany contains about fifteen thousand inhabitants. It is situated upon the right bank of the Hudson, and extends westward upon an eminence. It was built by the Dutch in 1614, under the name of Fort Orange, and received its present name after it came into the possession of the English, in honour of the afterwards unfortunate King James II. who was then duke of York and Albany. Some of the Dutch houses are still standing, and several of the streets retain their original names.

At the tavern we met with a Mr. Jackson, from New York, who had arrived at the same time, and who was accompanied by his sister and his son, Columbus, a sensible lad about ten years of age. Mr. J. is a teacher. In consequence of the vicinity to the Ballston, Saratoga, and New Lebanon springs, and the fashionable season, the hotel was so full of strangers, that I was obliged to sleep with Mr. Tromp, in a small chamber. On the following morning, at the public breakfast, I again met with Mr. Jackson and Columbus, and as he was acquainted in Albany, I accepted of his invitation to take a walk through the city. It is old and in some parts appears to be in a state of decay. During the late war with England it was in a quite flourishing state; but since the peace it has suffered considerably, in consequence of some heavy failures and a great fire. Albany has received a new impulse, an increase of commerce, and expects to reap the most happy results from the Erie Canal, which has been lately established, and which commences here, and runs a distance of three hundred and sixty-two miles to Lake Erie, as well as from the canal from Lake Champlain. The pavements were so bad that I I.59 was obliged to complain immediately upon our arrival, and this I was subsequently forced to repeat; the streets were also very crooked. We visited several bookstores, which appeared to be well furnished, and then took a walk to the new basin, into which the canal empties. It is separated from the Hudson by a dam which runs parallel with the river, and is four thousand feet long, from three to four hundred wide, and ten feet deep. The dam is built of strong rafters, which form its two walls, the intervals of which are filled up with earth and stone. It is connected with the bank of the river by several high wooden bridges, in the centre of which there are drawbridges for the passage of boats. The building of this dam cost one hundred and thirty thousand dollars. It was divided into lots, and sold separately, on condition that store-houses should be erected upon it: in consequence of this they have realized the sum of one hundred and ninety thousand dollars. In my opinion, the managers of the canal, at whose expense the basin and the two canals have been built, would have done better, if they had kept the dam and rented it. Being built of wood, which is more or less subject to decay, as they are to erect nothing but store-houses upon it, it is to be feared that in the course of ten years it will tumble down in consequence of the pressure, or that they will be obliged to repair it in great measure, or perhaps completely rebuild it with stone. As stone is very cheap here, and sawed in the prisons, they should have originally built the dam of stone. The present one seems to me to have been but badly executed. In the basin we saw a travelling bookstore in one of the canal-boats. Mr. Wilcox, who established it about two years ago on the Erie Canal, travels backwards and forwards several times a year, and is said to do considerable business. He had just returned to get a new assortment of books. Most of the books which he sells at the villages in the neighbourhood of the canal are ancient authors, some medical and religious, and a few law books and novels. This gentleman, formerly a merchant in Albany, entirely supports his family, who reside with him in his boat, by this fortunate speculation. I purchased of him an excellent map of the state of New York.

A few hours after, we visited some of the steam-boats which ply between Albany and New York. The largest, called the Car of Commerce, is provided with excellent apartments, and makes her trip in nineteen hours. This vessel is extremely elegant, but my friend Tromp is of opinion that the English steam-boats are superior in machinery. In fact, in this country, the American steam-engines are not celebrated for the safety of their boilers; and several explosions which have occurred, serve to increase this evil report. From this reason, as well as on account of the disagreeable motion of the steam-engine, many persons were unwilling I.60 to risk their lives, so that they have attached a safety-barge to one of the steam-boats. This is a real floating hotel, furnished with the greatest luxury. In the ladies cabin there are even silk curtains. Besides this, the ladies have a separate toilette and parlour. The gentlemen assemble in the dining room. The whole boat is surrounded by a piazza, which, in warm weather, must be extremely pleasant. The name of this safety-barge which carries passengers at four dollars, is Lady Clinton, in honour of the wife of the governor of New York, De Witt Clinton. We also visited the Constellation, another beautiful steam-boat, which has no safety-barge. There are also steam-boats for the purpose of towing the common sloops, &c. up and down the river, called steam-tow-boats.

Finally, we examined the horse ferry-boats. These boats consist of two vessels joined together, have a common deck, and are of an elliptical form. Upon the centre of the deck is a round house, in which six horses work, turning a horizontal, which moves two common wheels between the boats, provided with paddles, as in the steam-boats. The carriage, and twenty-two two-horse carts crossed at the same time, standing on both sides of the round house. There are two rudders, one at the stern, the other at the bow.

The trade in timber and boards is one of the capital branches of internal trade. We saw a great quantity of both on the wharves, and at the dam. At dinner we became acquainted with the Spanish consul of Boston, a worthy young man, who was educated in France. After dinner we took a view of the capitol, or state-house, situated upon a small eminence, and at a short distance from our inn. Albany is the seat of government and the capitol of the state of New York, but it is said to be the intention of the inhabitants shortly to remove the seat of government to Utica, which is situated farther to the west, and in a more central part of the state. The capitol is built of brown sand-stone, and in a quadrangular form; in front it is ornamented with large steps, and four Ionic columns of white marble. The halls of the different branches of the legislature are spacious, but exhibit nothing remarkable. In one of the halls is a full length portrait of Washington, and in another, that of the late Governor Clinton, an uncle of the present governor.I.9 On the top of the capitol is a cupola, from which there is a beautiful view of the city of Albany, and the valley of the Hudson, which is bounded on the right by the Catskill mountains, and on the left by the mountains of Vermont. On the dome is a wooden statue representing justice, to the back of which is secured a heavy lightning-rod, so that witlings remark that she is standing in the pillory.

I.61

At Albany are some remains of the feudal system. The Van Rensselaer family, one of the oldest of the Dutch emigrants, obtained the country around Albany at the time it was first settled, as a fief; it was divided into different portions, and some of these were leased to vassals who were obliged to pay a certain rent, and to render certain services to the owner. The eldest of the Van Rensselaer family has always borne the title of patroon, and enjoys certain feudal prerogatives, for which the family are indebted to the great popularity they have enjoyed ever since the revolution, though every recollection of the feudal system is repugnant to the genius of the American government. By the people in the neighbourhood, the house of the old General Van Rensselaer is always called the manor of the patroon.

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CHAPTER VI.

Journey from Albany to the Falls of Niagara.—Erie Canal.—Schenectady.—Utica.—Rochester.—Buffalo.—The Falls of Niagara, from the 14th to the 25th of August, 1825.

On the morning of the 14th of August, we took passage on board the Albany, one of the canal packet-boats, for Lake Erie. This canal was built at an expense of $2,500,000, and will be completed in about four weeks: at present, they are at work only on the western part of it. During the preceding year, they received an income of $300,000, and they expect, during the present year, after the canal shall have been completed, an income of $500,000, so that the expenses will, in a very short time, be replaced, and the state realize an immense profit, unless it be necessary to make great repairs, which I have no doubt will be the case, and will consequently require a large share of this income. Hitherto the great canal system was unknown in the United States, and was rather unpopular. It might have been expected, therefore, that so great and rapid an undertaking, would have a tendency to astound, if we may so speak, the public mind; so that this canal was finished as soon as possible, without calling to aid the great experience possessed by other nations. Notwithstanding, this canal, which is three hundred and sixty-two miles in length, with eighty-three locks, between the Hudson and Lake Erie, which lies six hundred and eighty-eight feet above the level of the former river, does the greatest honour to the genius of its projector; though one who has seen the canals in France, I.62 Holland, and England, will readily perceive, that the water-works of this country afford much room for improvement. The canal is thirty-five feet wide on the surface, twenty-eight feet at the bottom, and four feet deep, so that none but flat vessels and rafts can sail on it. The packet-boat which took us to Schenectady, was seventy feet long, fourteen feet wide, and drew two feet water. It was covered, and contained a spacious cabin, with a kitchen, and was very neatly arranged. On account of the great number of locks, the progress of our journey was but slow: our packet-boat went only at the rate of three miles an hour, being detained at each lock, on an average, four minutes. The locks are fourteen feet wide above the surface, and have a fall from seven to twelve feet. The packet-boat was drawn by three horses, which walked upon a narrow tow-path leading along the canal, and beneath the numerous bridges which are thrown over it. These bridges, of which there are about three hundred between Albany and Utica, are all built of wood, and in a very awkward style; most of them belong to the farmers, and are intended to serve as a means of communication between their fields. The distance from Albany to Schenectady, by land, is only fifteen miles, and persons are enabled to travel it in a very short time in the stage-coach; but as we were anxious to see the canal, and get leisure to complete our journals, we preferred going by water, twenty-eight miles.

At Troy, five miles and a half from Albany, is the government arsenal, which appears to be a large establishment. As far as this place, the canal runs nearly parallel with the Hudson. Troy, which is very pleasantly situated on the left bank of the river, at the foot of several tolerably high mountains, one of which is called Mount Ida, appears, if we may be permitted to judge from the large store-houses and the good appearance of the dwellings, to be a wealthy place. Here is a branch canal which has two locks, and establishes a communication with Troy. Shortly after, we arrived at a place where there are no less than nine locks, with an ascent of seventy-eight feet. In front, and to the right of this, is another canal, which unites with the Hudson and the canal from Lake Champlain. At this place we left the Hudson and directed our course along the Mohawk river. During our ride we observed a covered wooden bridge, which extends over the latter river, a short distance from its mouth, and is about six hundred feet in length, supported by fifteen wooden piers. Here we saw the famous Cohoes Falls of the Mohawk river, seventy-eight feet in height and about four hundred feet wide. In the spring, when these falls extend over the entire bed of the Mohawk, they are said to be extremely magnificent; during the present dry weather, they presented a very handsome appearance, though I.63 they were very small. The river was almost completely dried up. I walked over its bed, which consists of slate rock, as far as its middle and near to the falls. In some places the rocks are excavated by the action of the water, and you may see holes which are full of water and are said to contain excellent fish. Finding great difficulty in continuing the canal on the right bank of the Mohawk, they were obliged here to carry it to the opposite side by means of an aqueduct-bridge, one thousand one hundred and eighty-eight feet in length. This bridge is of wood, and is supported by twenty-six stone columns, on account of which, they have placed a chevaux-de-frise, to keep off the ice in the river about one hundred yards off. The part of this wooden canal, which contains the water, is about twenty feet wide and has a tow-path eight feet wide on one side. These wooden aqueducts will probably soon require repairing, and there is no doubt but that they will ultimately be obliged to build them of iron. The canal is cut through the rocks, almost the whole distance, where it runs along the left bank of the Mohawk, and presents a very handsome appearance. Twelve miles farther on, it returns again to the right bank of the Mohawk by a similar aqueduct, seven hundred and forty-eight feet in length and supported by sixteen piers. Above this aqueduct, which is also protected by a chevaux-de-frise, there is a common wooden bridge thrown over the river, for wagons. Four miles farther on is Schenectady, where we arrived after sunset. Between this town and Albany, we passed no less than twenty-seven locks. These, though they are built of solid lime-stone, will soon require repairing, as the water passes through them in various places. The gates also lock badly, so that the water which percolates forms artificial cascades. The country through which we passed to-day was generally wild and hilly, and somewhat thinly settled.

Schenectady is an old town containing about five thousand inhabitants, and is intersected by the canal. At this place we left the packet-boat, in order to proceed to Utica next morning in another boat, and found excellent lodgings at Given’s hotel, which, after the great heat we had endured during the day, was exceedingly agreeable. Its inhabitants are, in part, descendants of the Lower Saxons, and some of them whom I saw at the tavern conversed with me in bad Dutch. Early on the next morning we walked through the town, and visited Union College, which consists of two large buildings situated a short distance from the town upon a little eminence. It was the time of vacation, and consequently it was perfectly silent. From its decaying appearance, I should judge the college was not in a very prosperous condition. From this building you have a beautiful view of the I.64 town, and of the Mohawk valley, which appears here to be well settled. In the town we observed a peculiar windmill, with a horizontal wheel, whose sails, about twenty in number, stand perpendicularly.

We left Schenectady early in the morning on board the packet-boat Samuel Young, which had engaged to take us to Utica, eighty miles distant, by an early hour the next day. It was a large boat, and, as the passengers are obliged to spend the night on board, is provided with separate apartments for the ladies. The canal again ran along the well-cultivated valley of the Mohawk, and the country, on account of the foliage of the trees upon the heights was beautiful. The village of Amsterdam consists of a few neat houses; and opposite, on the right bank of the Mohawk, is Rotterdam. On our way we passed several small aqueducts, the longest of which rest only upon three piers, and extend over small brooks, which, as well as the small rivulets, are distinguished by the Indian appellation of “creek.” The canal is carried over two rivers, called Schoharie and Canajoharie creeks, from which it receives the most of its water. At this place the horses are conveyed to the opposite side of the two rivers by means of ferry-boats. At the first ferry is a small village, called Fort Hunter, where, before the revolution, there had been a fort, or rather a redoubt of the same name. Towards evening we passed through a valley, which is formed by two rocky mountains, one of which is called Anthony’s Nose. The houses we saw on our route, had generally a handsome appearance; to-day and yesterday I observed also some saw-mills. There are twenty-six locks between Schenectady and Utica. The day was intolerably warm, and our company was very numerous. I confined myself to writing, the whole day, as much as possible; but, in consequence of the heat, I could not avoid sleeping. In the evening we fortunately had a thunder-storm, which cooled the air. During the night, as there was a want of births, the beds were placed upon benches, and, as I was the tallest person, mine was put in the centre upon the longest bench, with a chair as a supplement. It had the appearance of a hereditary sepulchre, in the centre of which I lay as father of the family. I spent an uncomfortable night, on account of my constrained posture, the insects which annoyed me, and the steersman, who always played an agreeable tune upon his bugle whenever he approached a lock. During the night we passed an aqueduct bridge, which stands over a solace, called Little Falls. Towards morning we passed through a well-cultivated region, with some neat houses, called German flats, and which was settled by some Germans during the time of Queen Anne. At about twelve o’clock at noon we arrived at Utica, nine miles I.65 from the place where we passed a lock, which is the last that occurs in the next seventy miles. The land appeared to be marshy, and consisted of sand and pebbles.

Utica, which is intersected by the canal, is a flourishing town, of about four thousand inhabitants, and stands upon the site where Fort Schuyler, a redoubt against the Indians, was formerly situated. In 1794, there was a small tavern here, which was the only dwelling house in this part of the country; but at present Utica is one of the most flourishing towns in the state of New York, and new houses are continually building. In fact, it is only here that a person begins to admire the great improvements in cultivation, and gets perfectly new ideas of the works of man, and of his enterprising genius! Utica, on the right bank of the Mohawk, has two banks, four churches, an academy, and large and convenient stores, a bookstore, and printing-office. It has also several ale-houses, and three fine taverns, at the largest of which, called Shepherd’s hotel, we found excellent accommodations. In this house there are always more than seventy beds for the accommodation of strangers; and these, on some occasions, are barely sufficient. The number of travellers this summer, is said to have been unusually great, especially from the southern states, where the heat is intolerable, and the summers generally unhealthy. In such an American tavern every thing is perfectly comfortable, and proportionably cheap. The price for board and lodging is a dollar a day. The bell for rising rings before seven o’clock in the morning. The bed-chambers are spacious, the beds wide and comfortable, and the linen fine and perfectly clean. The bed-chambers, moreover, are furnished with the necessary wash-stands, &c. After a person is dressed, he enters the bar-room, where he finds all kinds of strong and refreshing drinks; the desk of the head waiter is also here, who attends to the bill. The inn-keeper is generally a gentleman, who eats with the guests, and leads the conversation. Besides the entry, where the boots and shoes are left in the evening, and where they are found well cleaned in the morning, there are several sitting, reading, and writing parlours, &c. And if a person wishes a separate sitting-room, especially when he travels with ladies, it may be readily had at a separate charge. Half an hour after rising, they ring the bell for breakfast; and, upon going to the dining-room, you find upon a covered table, beef-steaks, mutton, broiled chicken, or other fowls, fish, and boiled potatoes, which are of a very superior quality. The waiters, or in many places, the servant-maids, hand the coffee and tea. As the Americans, in general, are a quiet people, such a breakfast, which is eaten in great haste, is attended with but little noise. Dinner is generally served at about I.66 two o’clock, and tea at seven in the evening. At tea, the table is again furnished as at breakfast, with the addition of ragouts and baker’s bread. Nobody is obliged to drink wine. There are usually water and whiskey on the table, which are mixed in the summer, as the most healthy drink. Every one must help himself as well as he can, for the victuals are not handed about. Napkins you do not get, and instead, you are obliged to make use of the table-cloth. With the exception of the spoons, there is no silver on the table; the forks have two steel prongs, and their handles, like those of the knives, are of buck’s horn. It is an excellent rule, that no one on departing is obliged to give money to the servants.

At Utica, seven of us for nine dollars hired a stage to visit the Falls of Trenton, distant fourteen miles. Our passengers were partly from New York, and partly from the state of North Carolina. We crossed the Mohawk upon a covered wooden bridge, built in a bad and awkward manner, on which I observed an advertisement, “that all persons who pass this bridge on horseback or wagon faster than a walk, shall be fined one dollar.” After this, our road gradually ascended to a forest, which was, however, in part cleared for new fields. The timber is so much neglected here, that they will very probably feel the want of it in less than fifty years. At a short distance from the falls of West Canada Creek is a new tavern, which is situated in a lately cleared forest, and is built entirely of wood. At this tavern we left the carriage, and went on foot through thick woods, from which a pair of stairs conduct to the falls. A new pair of wooden stairs of about eighty steps, built for the accommodation of strangers, leads to the bed of the river. This consists entirely of slate-rock, is about two hundred feet wide, and is enclosed between high rocky banks, which are lined by beautiful and lofty firs, arbor vitæ, the maple, the elm, and the cedar. This beautiful mass of green, the azure sky, the large and variegated rocks, and the three falls, produce a most happy effect. The rocks at these falls, which, on account of the great heat, scarcely extended over half the river, are so excavated by the water, that they have the form of a common kettle. The upper falls, which are about ninety feet high, are the grandest; and near them, under the shade of an arbor vitæ, an adventurer has established a small tavern, which presents a very picturesque appearance, and is said to yield considerable profit. The rocks contain handsome petrifactions of shells, plants, and animals; and we saw one specimen a foot and a half long, which resembled a young alligator; of the smaller ones we took several specimens. At the tavern where we had put up, we found a tolerably good dinner, and towards I.67 evening returned to Utica. The day was fine and pleasant. The thunder-storm of yesterday, had done some good. I regretted that it was too late upon our return to Utica, to visit a hydrostatic lock, designed to weigh the boats which pass on the canal.

Having seen enough of the canal, and being anxious to see the newly-settled country between this place and Niagara, we determined to continue our journey on the next day in the stage-coach. With this intention we left Utica at 4 o’clock in the morning of the 17th of August, and the same day arrived at Auburn, distant seventy-three miles. The stage-coaches in this country do not, as in England, travel ten miles an hour, but usually six; as the country is generally hilly, and the coach, when it carries the mail, stops at every village where there is a post-office, on account of the great number of newspapers; the letter-bag must be taken out, opened, again locked, and then returned; the coachmen also are not very punctual, so that travelling is not so rapid as it should be. The villages between Utica and Auburn were New Hartford, four miles, Manchester, five miles, Vernon, eight miles, Oneida, five miles, Lenox, four miles, Sullivan, eight miles, Manlius, six miles, Jamesville, five miles, Onandago Hollow, five miles, Onandago Hill, two miles, Marcellus, eight miles, and Skeneatelass, six miles.

Between Manchester and Vernon day dawned, and we found ourselves in a rather wild country, in the midst of a wilderness. Oneida is an Indian settlement, and was built by the remnant of the once mighty Oneida tribe, who, unlike their countrymen, unwilling to fly before the white settlers to the west, are at present a wretched people, despised and oppressed by their neighbours like a gang of gypsies. They have been obliged to learn trades, and to labour on farms; they have also been converted to Christianity by means of missionaries, and of whom the principal one is a Mr. Williams, a converted Indian, educated by the Quakers. On entering the village we observed on a little eminence to the left, a small, neat, frame church, where the Indians hold their service, and close by, an open plain, surrounded by butternut trees, called “Council Grove” where the elders of the tribe assemble to deliberate on their most important affairs. The houses of the Indians are scattered through the fields, are generally small, and built of logs. In the centre of the village are white settlers, mechanics and tavern-keepers; the latter of whom in particular make out well, as the Indians are fond of strong drink. The land belongs to the whole tribe, and each individual labours for the common good. We observed several Indians along the road. They had a tawny complexion, and black hair; the men appeared to be well built, and the women I.68 were stout, and resemble the pictures of Esquimaux women in Parry’s Travels. Some of them wore their hair down, which, if possible, increased their ugliness. Both the men and women wear trowsers, generally of blue, and ornamented with white lace; sometimes also of two colours, like the prisoners at Boston. The men wear shirts over their trowsers, and great-coats of cloth. The women dress in white or blue woollen mantles. At first, I thought myself in civilized Europe, for a great number of children came along the carriage to beg, a circumstance which had not occurred since my arrival in the United States. It was soon ascertained, however, that they were Indian children, dressed somewhat like their parents, and of the same complexion. The girls had brass buckles on their cloaks, which fastened in front, and most of them wore large bead necklaces.

Behind this village the road led along a considerable hill, from which we had a beautiful view of Oneida Lake, which presented the appearance of a large stream. Here you have a number of extensive prospects, which, however, as you see but little cultivated land and few houses, is rather uniform. Farther on we saw a small lake called Salt Lake, which is in the midst of a forest, and has on its banks three picturesquely situated towns, Liverpool, Salina, and Syracuse. At Salina are rich salt springs, the water of which is collected in reservoirs, and it is evaporated by the heat of the sun to procure the salt. Beyond Sullivan we passed through the village of Chitteningo. It contains several mills, a cotton factory, and a branch of the Erie Canal, which forms a kind of harbour, and serves as a landing place for articles manufactured here, and for the plaster and lime which are procured in the neighbourhood. This lime becomes hard under water, so that it is excellently adapted to waterworks. We dined at Manlius, a new village, containing two churches. Besides the usual stage-coach there were two others to-day, all full of passengers. In our own we had for a short distance a farmer, a descendant of a German emigrant, who spoke the language that was used in Germany about a hundred years ago. He thought my German was too high, and that I spoke it like a parson. From the canal which forms an angle here, we drove in a southerly direction, in order to keep on the plains, as the main road, which is nearer, leads over a hill. The two Onondago villages appear to be flourishing manufacturing places, and are pleasantly situated. Marcellus is also a new village and has two churches. Most of the small villages have two churches, an Episcopal and a Presbyterian. In each of them, and even at the Indian village, there is a school. In several of the villages also I had the pleasure of seeing bookstores. Beyond Marcellus the night unfortunately closed in, which prevented me from seeing Skeneatelass I.69 Lake, as well as the town of the same name, which is said to be extremely pleasantly situated on one of its banks. About nine o’clock in the evening we arrived at Auburn, and found good accommodations at one of the public houses. This town contains upwards of one hundred and fifty houses, a court-house and penitentiary, which is said to be managed in a very excellent manner. To my regret I saw none of them; for at four o’clock the next morning, 18th of August, we set out in the stage-coach for Rochester, distant sixty-nine miles. The villages which we passed on our route were, Cayuga, nine miles, Seneca Falls, three miles, Waterloo, five miles, Geneva, six miles, Canandaigua, sixteen miles, Mendon, fifteen miles, Pittsford, seven miles, from which latter it was yet eight miles to Rochester.

It was just daylight as we arrived in the vicinity of Cayuga, on the lake of the same name, which is about twenty miles long, and from one to three wide. This lake empties into the Seneca river, which afterwards unites with the Mohawk. We crossed the lake not far from its mouth, on a wooden bridge, one mile in length, eighteen yards wide, and built in a very rough and careless manner: the planks are loose and the chevaux-de-frise is in a bad condition. On the opposite side of the lake is a large toll-house. At a short distance from this we arrived at Seneca Falls, so called in consequence of the little falls of the Seneca river, which are close by, and are chiefly formed by a mill-dam. At the tavern we met an Indian and his wife, of the Oneida tribe, who were going on a visit to the Senecas. We conversed with the man, who had been at school, and understood English. He told us that he had been raised by a Quaker missionary, and that he was a farmer, and concluded by asking for a little money, which he probably spent with his ugly wife at the next grog-shop.

All the villages through which we passed are quite new, and in many places we passed through primitive forests, which, in some places, they are just beginning to clear. At Waterloo the first house was erected in 1816, and at present it has two churches and about three thousand inhabitants. Several of the houses are built of brick, and contain well furnished stores. At the tavern we saw a large, beautiful young eagle, which had been caught in his nest and tamed. The country beyond Waterloo was boggy, and the road in some places made of large logs, so that we were very disagreeably jolted. Geneva is situated at the north point of Seneca Lake, which is between fifty and sixty miles long and about five wide. The town derives its name from its similarity of situation to Geneva in Switzerland. It is also quite new, and contains about four thousand inhabitants. It has two churches I.70 and several large stone and brick houses, of which the Franklin Hotel, situated on the bank of the lake, is the most spacious and beautiful. I went into a bookstore to ascertain what kind of books were most sold in this part of the country, and was told that the ancient classics and religious books found the most ready sale; sometimes also novels, law and medical works. The college is said to have several hundred students. In front of the town along the lake, there are beautiful country seats and gardens. On the other side of the town the woods are but a short distance from the houses, and are as yet not much cleared. We saw, however, several tracts of timber on fire; the trees are burnt in order to clear the land.

Canandaigua, which lies on the north point of the lake of the same name, which is about twenty miles long, is an extremely beautiful and pleasant town, that has been but lately settled. The Duke de la Rochefoucault says, that during his travels in America, in 1790, there was but a single house on this lake, in which he spent the night, in a garret used as a store-room. Now it is a beautiful commercial town, having one bank, a court-house, and a very superior tavern. The court was sitting, and there was a large collection of people, so that the town exhibited a very lively appearance. At this place the road separates, the left goes through Batavia and several small villages to Buffalo on Lake Erie; the right, to Rochester, and thence to Lake Ontario and the Falls of Niagara: and as this road again approaches the Erie canal, it is said to be the most interesting. On this account we gave it the preference, although the longest route.

We left Canandaigua in the afternoon, and rode through Victor, Mendon, and Pittsford, to Rochester. On this route we observed nothing particularly interesting, excepting several new settlements; the inhabitants of which resided in log-houses, which had a peculiar, but by no means an unpleasant aspect. I was particularly pleased with the neat and decent appearance of the inhabitants.

We arrived at Rochester at half past eight o’clock in the evening, and took lodgings at the Eagle Tavern. We crossed the Genesee river, which divides Rochester into two parts, on a wooden bridge, the first that we had hitherto met in the United States that was built firmly and properly. It rests upon stone piers, and is made of solid beams, with thick and well fastened planks. The next morning we walked through the town, and were pleased with its rapid increase. In 1812, there was not a single house here; nothing but a wilderness; and the land could be purchased at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre. At present, Rochester is one of the most flourishing towns in the state of New York. It contains four churches, one bank, a court-house, I.71 and about four thousand inhabitants. Many of the houses are built of blue limestone, and of brick. The town contains several mills and manufactories; and amongst others, a nail factory, in which the nails are made with a machine, as in Birmingham. They also manufacture rifle-guns, which are very long and heavy. On the right bank of the Genesee river, the houses are not so numerous as on the left, and there are yet many frame, and even some log-houses: in the place where, probably in a short time, handsome wharves will be built, there may yet be seen stumps of trees—a truly interesting sight to those who observe the progress of this country. The basements of the houses are generally built of rough sand-stone; their corners, doors, and windows, of a kind of white marble-like sand-stone, and the rest of brick. The white sand-stone is procured in the neighbourhood, and is cut into slabs at a saw-mill on the Genesee river. I saw three of these blocks sawed; and in one frame I observed no less than five saws. Several hundred yards below the bridge the Genesee river is about two hundred yards wide, and has a fall of ninety-five feet, which at present, however, did not appear to much advantage. Above the falls is a race which conducts the water to several mills, and it again flows into the river below the falls, where it forms three beautiful cascades, which reminded me of the Villa di Mäcen, at Tivoli.

At Rochester the Erie canal is carried over the Genesee river by a stone aqueduct bridge, and resembles that of the Bridgewater canal at Manchester, in England. This aqueduct, which is about one thousand yards above the falls, rests upon a base of slate rock, and is seven hundred and eighty feet long. A work which has been lately published, called the “Northern Tour,” gives the following description of it: “The aqueduct consists of eleven broad arches, built in the form of circular segments, the tops of which are raised eleven feet above the level of the arches, and fifteen feet above that of the water in the river. The two exterior arches have an extent of forty feet each, and beneath them are the streams which turn the mills; the other nine each fifty feet wide, &c.” Upon one of its sides is a tow-path secured by iron railings. The whole is a solid work, and does much credit to its architect, Benjamin Wright.

We left Rochester at nine o’clock, on board the canal packet-boat Ohio, Captain Storch. The canal, between Lockport and Rochester, runs a distance of sixty-three miles, through a tolerably level country, and north of the Rochester ridge. This ridge consists of a series of rocks, which form the chain of the mountains which commences north of Lake Erie, stretches eastward to the Niagara river, confines it, and forms its falls, then continues its course, and forms the different falls which are north of I.72 Lake Ontario, and is at length lost in the neighbourhood of the Hudson. It has only been within the last year that this part of the canal has been passable; its course is through dense sombre forests, in which are but few settlements, such as Spencer’s Basin, Bates, and Brickport. The bridges are better and higher than those we have mentioned in the preceding pages. Amongst our passengers, was a Mr. Bosch, a Dutch clergyman from Curaçao, and the Rev. Messrs. Sluiter and Wykoff, from New York. These gentlemen, being of Dutch descent, the conversation was generally carried on in their native tongue. Captain Storch also, who is a native of Amsterdam, and a Jew by birth, who has travelled extensively, made the time pass very pleasantly, by his lively disposition, and his agreeable conversation. Both before and after dinner, as well as at tea, the two clergymen from New York, asked a blessing; and before we retired to bed, one of them read several chapters in the Bible, and then made a long prayer.

We reached Lockport on the 20th of August, about 7 o’clock in the morning. At this place the canal is carried over the ridge by five large locks, through which the water is raised to the height of seventy-six feet. The locks are ten in number, being arranged in two parallel rows, so that while the boats ascend in one row, they may descend at the same time in the other. Through this arrangement the navigation is greatly facilitated, and the whole work, hewn through and surrounded by large rocks, presents an imposing aspect.

Lockport, to which we repaired, while the boat was left in the basin at the foot of the locks, is an extremely interesting place, and is situated just above the locks. In May, 1821, it consisted of two log-houses; at present it contains not less than six hundred, some of which are stone houses: it contains a post-office, one printing-office, which issues a weekly paper, and two churches. Though at present Lockport appears perfectly wild, yet this appearance will no doubt vanish in the course of four or five years, so that it will present as splendid an appearance as Canandaigua and Rochester. On our arrival, the canal was still unfinished for about five miles; but it was supposed that the whole would be completed before the close of the year. They were obliged to cut it through solid rock, generally about thirty feet deep, for a distance of more than three miles. This was mostly effected by blasting. Several hundred Irishmen were at work. They reside in log huts, built along the canal. They make much money; but they suffer also severely in consequence of the unhealthy climate, especially from fevers, which not unfrequently prove fatal. The stone, which is quarried, is employed in building houses, and in making turnpikes. In breaking the rocks they often find beautiful I.73 petrifactions, and other remarkable minerals; for example, strontian, and beautiful transparent gypsum. I saw a large petrified tree, and a handsome petrified sea-coral.

At Lockport we took a dearborn for Buffalo, where we were anxious to go, in order to see the union of the canal with Lake Erie. Though a good stage runs between Lockport and the Falls of Niagara, we went in this bad vehicle five miles, to the navigable part of the canal. The road led through the forest, the trees of which had been felled along the canal, and passed over the stumps, so that it was uncommonly rough, especially as it had rained the day before. Arrived at length at the navigable part of the canal, we took passage on board a rather bad boat, where nothing was to be had but the common cordial, whiskey. The village where we went on board, is called Cottensburgh, and is quite a new settlement. At this place also the canal is cut through rocks to the depth of about thirty feet. About two or three miles farther on, it terminates in the Tonnawanta Creek, which serves as a canal for twelve miles. This creek has scarcely any outlet, so that when it rises much, they are obliged to protect the canal by means of safety-locks near its union with the creek. At the outlet of the creek into the Niagara is a sluice for the purpose of keeping the water always at a certain height. The creek itself is about fifty yards wide, and runs through a dense and beautiful forest, which has never been touched by the axe, except along the canal, where they have been obliged to make a tow-path. I sat in the bow of the boat during the whole passage. Nothing interrupted the solemn silence, except the chattering of the boatmen’s teeth, who are often severely affected in this unhealthy part of the country, with the intermittent fever. Another small river, called Eleven-mile Creek, unites with the main river, and not far from this junction was the site for the new town of Tonnawanta. A few small houses and a saw-mill were already erected; the inhabitants appeared also to suffer much from the intermittent fever. Here the Tonnawanta Creek, unites with the Niagara, where the sluice which we have just mentioned leads off. At this place also we had the first view of the Niagara river, which conveys the waters of Lake Erie into Lake Ontario, from the other extremity of which flows the St. Lawrence. In the river we observed Grand Island, which contains about one thousand one hundred acres, is overgrown with timber, and belongs to a New York editor, Moses Mordecai Noah, a Jew, who purchased it for the purpose of establishing a Jewish colony. The soil is very good; during the late war between England and the United States, the Niagara, it is well known, formed the boundary line between them and the British provinces of Upper Canada, and this island bore testimony of the bloody conflict. I.74 From this place, the canal runs along the bank of the Niagara, from which it is separated only by a small bank, built rather carelessly, and several feet above the level of the river, which is already somewhat rapid on account of its vicinity to the falls. On the Tonnawanta Creek we saw several canoes which were made by excavating the trunks of trees. From Tonnawanta to Buffalo it is eight miles, five of which we travelled on the canal as far as Black Rock. A basin is formed here by means of a dam situated near Squaw Island, on which is a lock communicating with the Niagara. The whole of this work is of wood, and cannot therefore be expected to be very durable. In the basin lay the new steam-boat Henry Clay, of three hundred tons, intended for running on Lake Erie. We had here the first view of the lake, whose shore appeared to be overgrown with wood. The other shore of course we could not see, and it seemed therefore as though we were looking into an expanded sea. The canal to Buffalo not being completed, we again took stage at Black Rock, and rode three miles to the former town, where we arrived at about 5 o’clock at evening, and took lodgings at the Mansion House, pleasantly situated on a little eminence in the lake.

Buffalo was burnt during the late war, by the British, but it has arisen from its ashes with increased beauty. The town contains about five thousand inhabitants, and will, in consequence of its situation near the mouth of the canal and its harbour, at which they are hard at work, soon become an important place. At the entrance of the harbour is a light-house, and on the lake we observed several schooners of about three hundred tons. A steam-boat, called the Superior, was ready to start with fifty passengers to Erie, and thence to Detroit. In the streets, we saw some tolerably well-dressed Indians of the Seneca tribe, who have their wigwam three miles distant. Amongst them were several women, who indeed, but for their complexion, might have been considered handsome. We also had an amusing military spectacle. It consisted of a militia parade, consisting of thirty men, including seven officers and two cornets. They were formed, like a battalion, into six divisions, and performed a number of manœuvres. The members were not all provided with muskets, but had ramrods instead. Only the officers and the rifle-company, four men strong, were in uniform. The band consisted of sixteen men, and was commanded by an officer with a colonel’s epaulets and drawn sword!

On the following day, 21st of August, we left Buffalo for the small village of Manchester, twenty-three miles distant, and situated on the right bank of the Niagara, near the falls. As far as the village of Tonnawanta the road passed along the canal. I.75 It was in a very bad condition, cut through the forest, and no pains have been taken to remove the trees, which are thrown on the road side, and the most beautiful trunks are permitted to spoil in a pitiable manner. On the left we had a view of the river and of Grand-Island, thickly studded with timber. The river is more than one mile wide below the island. On the Canada side is the village of Chippewa. From this place, a distance of three miles, we could already see the rising vapours of the falls. The water, however, indicated no signs of the approach to the precipice. It is only a short distance from Manchester, where you perceive the lofty trees on Goat-Island with its heights, situated in the midst of the falls, that the river becomes rocky, and the rapids commence; these form a number of small falls, which are nearly a mile long and the same in breadth, running as far as where the two great falls are separated by Goat-Island.

At Manchester, we took lodgings at the Eagle Tavern, and hastened immediately to the Falls: our steps were guided by their mighty roaring. In a few moments we stood near the precipice, and saw before us the immense mass of water which rushes with a tremendous noise into the frightful abyss below. It is impossible to describe the scene, and the pen is too feeble to delineate the simultaneous feelings of insignificance and grandeur which agitate the human breast at the sight of this stupendous work of nature! We can only gaze, admire, and adore. The rocks on both sides are perpendicular, but there is a wooden staircase which leads to the bed of the river. We descended, but in consequence of the drizzly rain which is produced by the foam of the water, we had by no means so fine a prospect from below as we anticipated. On this account, therefore, we soon ascended and satisfied ourselves by looking from above upon this sublime and majestic sight. As we returned, full of these mighty impressions, to the Eagle Tavern we found to our great joy a fine opportunity of speaking of the grandeur and magnificence we had just beheld. Lieutenants De Goer and Van Vloten, of the Pallas, had just arrived to render homage to this great natural curiosity.

In company with these gentlemen we took a walk to Goat-Island, by a convenient wooden bridge, thrown over the rapids about seven years since. The first bridge leads to a small island called Bath-Island, which contains a bath-house and billiard-room: the second to Goat-Island, which is about one mile in circumference, and overgrown with old and beautiful trees. The Indians who formerly resided in this part of the country, considered the island as sacred. They used to say that the Great Manito or Great Spirit inhabited it. And in fact, how could the Great Spirit manifest himself more irresistibly than in the destructive might of the tremendous Falls?

I.76

On Bath-Island a person may approach so near to the American falls as to look into the abyss below. The animals in the neighbourhood are so careless of this, that the cows and horses go into the river to drink within five yards of the brink of the precipice. From the foot of the falls you can see nothing of the abyss, inasmuch as every thing is concealed by the foam and vapour. On Goat-Island a person may in the same manner approach the Canadian falls, in the centre of which is a semicircular hollow, called the Horse-shoe, and here the noise is still more tremendous than on the other side. The vapour which rises from the Horse-shoe forms a thick mist, which may be seen at a great distance. To look into the Horse-shoe is awful and horrible. Nor can this be done but at the instant when the vapour is somewhat dissipated. You stand like a petrified being. The level of Lake Erie is said to be five hundred and sixty-four feet above that of the sea, and three hundred and thirty-four feet above the waters of Lake Ontario. Lake Ontario is consequently two hundred and thirty feet above the level of the sea. From Lake Erie to the rapids the water has a fall of fifteen feet, in the rapids fifty-seven feet, and according to a recent measurement, the falls on the American side are one hundred and sixty-two feet high. From this place to Lewistown the river has a fall of one hundred and four feet, and thence to Lake Ontario, of two feet.

The next morning, 22d of August, we made another visit to Goat-Island. We afterwards descended the stairs to the river, which we crossed in a small boat, at a short distance from both falls. The bed of the river is said to be here two hundred and forty-six feet deep. The current passes beneath the surface of the water, and does not again become visible till after a distance of three miles. On the Canada side you have a much better view of the falls than on the American, for you see both falls at the same time. There is on the Canada side a covered wooden staircase, which we ascended, and approached the falls, amidst a constant drizzling caused by the falling water. The sun threw his rays upon the thick mist and formed a beautiful rainbow. Another winding staircase leads down the rocks near the falls, under which you may walk to the distance of one hundred and twenty feet; several of the gentlemen present went in, but according to their report they could not see any thing. I was contented therefore to behold the falls from Table rock, which almost overhangs them. A part of this rock gave way several years ago and fell down the precipice, and the remaining part is so much undermined by the water that it will probably soon follow. The whole distance from the American to the British shore is fourteen hundred yards, of which three hundred and eighty belong to the American falls, three hundred and thirty to Goat-Island, and seven hundred yards to the Canada or Horse-shoe falls. On I.77 the British side, opposite to the falls are two taverns, in the larger of which, Forsyth’s Hotel, we took lodgings until the next day, when we intended to pay a visit to the governor of Upper Canada, Sir Peregrine Maitland, who resides at his country seat within a few miles of the falls. During the late war a bridge was thrown over the river about one mile above this tavern, which, together with a mill, was burnt by the Americans on their retreat from the battle of Lundy’s Lane. A few years ago a burning spring was discovered here, several of which are said to occur in different parts of the United States. It is surrounded by a cask, and contains a cold water of a blackish, slimy appearance, and of a sulphurous taste. Within this cask is a small vessel which is open at the bottom, and has a pipe at its upper end. If a lighted candle be held within a foot of the mouth of this pipe, it will instantly produce a strong flame, similar to a gas-light. If the vessel be taken out, and the candle be held over the surface of the water, it will produce the same effect, but the flame will soon disappear. In the neighbourhood of Forsyth’s Hotel is the only point from which you have a full view of both falls at the same time, which, however, is often interrupted by the ascending vapour.

On our return to the American shore, we examined a camera obscura which is situated at the head of the American staircase, and was built by a Swiss. This gives a tolerably good view of the falls. Afterwards we took a ride to the Whirlpool, which is three miles down the Niagara, and is formed by a kind of rocky basin where the river runs between narrow rocky banks. It is singular to see this confusion of the water, whose appearance cannot be better described than by comparing it with the flowing of melted lead. The lofty rocks which form the banks of this river, are beautifully covered with wood and present a stately, majestic appearance. In the evening I again went to Goat-Island in order to view the falls by bright moonlight: in this light they produce a very peculiarly beautiful effect, which is greatly heightened by a moon-rainbow.

The following day, 23d August, all our company departed; my friend Tromp and myself alone remained. We went to the other side of the river, and took lodgings at Forsyth’s Hotel, where we found Sir Michael and Lady Clare, from Jamaica, where Sir Michael is a member of parliament: he was making a tour of pleasure, with his lady, through the United States. I also became acquainted with a Mr. Grymes, of Virginia, who was formerly attorney general of the state of Louisiana, and is married to the widow of the late Governor Claiborne, a beautiful and wealthy creole. As this family were also going on a tour to Canada, I hoped to travel with them. Mrs. Grymes spoke French, I.78 a circumstance which was exceedingly agreeable on account of the facility with which I could converse with her. I also found the son and adjutant of the governor, Sir Peregrine Maitland, who had been sent by his father, to await my arrival. In a short time after, this worthy general came himself to pay me a visit, and offer me a room in his cottage, four miles off. This I refused, but on the evening of the following day, I rode to Sir Peregrine’s in company with Sir Michael and Lady Clare. The road went over the battle-ground at Lundy’s Lane, (25th July, 1814,) which is situated upon a gentle eminence, and through the beautiful village of Stamford. The fields here are much better cultivated than in the United States, and there is not so much waste of timber. The clearing is done with much more order and regularity. Sir Peregrine resides at his cottage, in summer, which was built by his father-in-law, the Duke of Richmond, and surrounded by a park. His winter residence is at York, on the northern shore of Lake Ontario, the seat of the parliament of Upper Canada.

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CHAPTER VII.

Journey from the Falls of Niagara to Montreal.—The Battle-ground at Queenstown.—Newark.—Kingston.—Montreal.

On Thursday, the 25th of August, we took our final leave of the falls, in the forenoon, in company with the Grymes and Clare families, for the town of Newark, which is situated at the junction of the Niagara with Lake Ontario, on the Canada shore, about fourteen miles distant. At first our road passed over small hills, until we reached the battle-ground at Queenstown, a steep hill, which is situated behind Queenstown, and commands a view of the whole surrounding country. From this, the country as far as Lake Ontario, is more level. Opposite to Queenstown, on the American shore, is Lewistown.

The battle of Queenstown took place on the 13th of October, 1812. The English, under the command of General Brock, occupied the heights, whose right wing borders on the Niagara, having a deep ravine in front, and whose left wing gradually slopes towards other no less considerable eminences, which they had slightly fortified. General Solomon Van Rensselaer, the present post-master in Albany, and cousin of General Van I.79 Rensselaer, the patroon, encamped with the American troops, consisting of regulars and militia, on the opposite shore, near Lewistown. General Van Rensselaer was apprised that General Brock, with the greatest part of his corps, had marched towards the west, and that there were but few troops left on the heights. He determined therefore to cross the river, to make himself master of so important a position. During the night he conveyed his regulars, about one thousand four hundred men, over the river, and gave orders that the militia should follow on the return of the boats, and form a reserve in the rear. These troops gained the heights, and nearly surprised the British, who, notwithstanding, made a bold resistance. The Americans would, however, have remained masters of the field, had not General Brock returned with his detachment. Brock was a brave soldier, and hearing that the troops whom he had left behind, were in a dangerous position, he immediately attacked the Americans with but a single company. In this attack he found a glorious and memorable death. The Americans kept the heights as long as possible; their ammunition, however, being nearly exhausted, General Van Rensselaer sent orders to the militia to advance. The general himself hastened to the opposite shore to accelerate their movements; he was answered that they were ready to defend the borders of the United States, but it was contrary to the laws of the country to take them out of it. The troops of the line in the meanwhile, having exhausted their ammunition, were obliged to retreat; they expected to embark, but not finding any boats, they were compelled, after a heroic defence to surrender as prisoners of war. On the place where General Brock fell, the parliament of Canada has erected a monument to the memory of that brave and intrepid soldier. It consists of a lofty column, which may be observed from every part of the adjacent country. It was not yet completed, and wanted the inscription.

We expected to meet the steam-boat Queenstown at Newark, in order to proceed to Kingston, on the eastern extremity of Lake Ontario. We missed it, however, and were afterwards informed that it had been obliged to put in at another harbour on account of repairs. We were compelled, therefore, to remain three days at Newark. Newark is a regularly built town, with several handsome houses; it is situated at the outlet of the Niagara into Lake Ontario, between Fort George and Missagua. Fort Missagua is near the lake; Fort George lies south of Newark, and is in ruins. During the last war, both these forts were occupied by the Americans, and from Fort George towards the town, they had raised a bulwark so as to form a kind of intrenchment. After they had evacuated this position, and were obliged to retreat to the right shore of the Niagara, the commander, I.80 General M‘Clure, burnt the town of Newark, an act for which he has been severely censured by his country. Since this occurred, the village has never properly recovered, and its future increase will also be slow, especially as government is digging a canal to the west of Newark, which is to connect Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario, which will probably hereafter withdraw all the transitory commerce. Our time passed very agreeably in this town, particularly through the attention of the worthy Sir Peregrine Maitland, who had come hither; the politeness of Major Cob, and the gallant officers of the seventy-sixth regiment, of which four companies were at Newark, as well as the delightful singing of Mrs. Grymes, who remained with her husband, while many others, with whom we had expected to sail, went away.

We visited Fort Niagara, which is situated on the American shore, and which, in consequence of its white houses, and its waving flag, presents a very handsome appearance. The fort lies on a neck of land; it was erected by the French in the middle of the last century, and was shortly after taken by the British. After the peace of Versailles in 1783, it fell into the possession of the United States, was retaken during the late war by the British, and at the peace of Ghent, was again obtained by the United States. We saw all that was to be seen, and found every thing clean and comfortable. I will only further remark on the present occasion, that the uniform of the United States’ Infantry is very simple, and consists of dark blue cloth, with one row of white buttons, blue lace collars and cuffs of the same, white cord, and leather caps.

We also visited the village of the Tuscarora tribe of Indians, who reside within the limits of the United States, about three miles from Lewistown. The village consists of single houses, or wigwams, and is handsomely situated in a valley surrounded by forests. It contains a frame church, in which the service is performed by a methodist missionary, who also, during the winter, keeps school for their children. Most of the houses are surrounded by gardens and orchards; and the fields, in which they mostly cultivate Indian corn, appeared to be in a very good condition. We were conducted into the house of an Indian, about forty years of age, who had been educated in one of the schools in New York, who speaks and writes English fluently. We found him in his bed suffering from an attack of rheumatism. He inquired after our native countries, and was pretty well acquainted with their geography. We examined his library, and found that it consisted chiefly of methodist religious books, with a history of the United States. He also had a collection of Indian implements of war, consisting of a club of hickory wood, a battle-axe of stone, bows and arrows, the points of which are I.81 flint, very artificially made; an oblong stone, a kind of serpentine, which the savages wear on their breasts during an engagement, and ornaments of glass beads and shells, which they wear around their waists in time of battle. All these articles I wished to buy; but the Indian told me that he kept them for the inspection of strangers, and that they were not for sale. Instead of them, he sold me some mocassins, a kind of soft leather shoe, made of buckskin, which are ornamented with silk and beads, and a small basket. Amongst the Indians, the women are obliged to do all the work, even of the most degrading kind. Mr. Tromp, in order to see several articles more conveniently, had placed his hat on the floor, which was scarcely observed by the Indian, before he desired Mrs. Grymes to put it upon a chair. His grandson, a boy of eleven years, shot very expertly at an apple with his bow and arrow.

The steam-boat Frontenac, arrived in the evening after our return, and was to sail on the following day for Kingston. We went on board and examined her cabin. Around the dining-cabin there are six chambers, each containing four births. I was shown into one of these, in which I could lie at full length. In the ladies cabin are fourteen births. A great part of the deck was covered by an awning, so that passengers could enjoy the fresh air at the same time that they were protected from the sun or bad weather. The boat carries seven hundred and fifty tons, and has an engine made by Bolton and Watt, at Soho, near Birmingham, of twenty-seven horse-power. Sir Peregrine Maitland conveyed me to this vessel in his carriage. She lay at anchor off Fort George. Sir Peregrine had the great politeness to station one of the companies of the seventy-sixth regiment with a flag, to fire a salute of twenty-one guns; and his attention was still farther shown in sending his son along, that I might have no difficulty in seeing the navy-yard, at Kingston. The Frontenac sailed at half past five o’clock. In a few moments we were on the lake, and in a short time lost sight of land, and were apparently in the open sea. There was but little wind, and the vessel, in consequence of its great size, produced no disagreeable rocking. During the whole evening we were entertained by Mrs. Grymes, by her delightful performance on the guitar, and by her singing French and Spanish songs. The night passed quietly; but it was otherwise at break of day. It rained repeatedly; the wind grew stronger; the vessel pitched, and several persons became sea-sick. Lake Ontario is of an elliptical form, is about two hundred miles long, and fifty-five miles at its widest part. It is everywhere very deep, in some places five hundred feet, and never freezes completely over. It contains several good harbours, and the I.82 boundary line between Canada and the United States, divides it into two nearly equal parts.

In the afternoon we saw a small peninsula towards the west, called Prince Edward’s Island, and passed between a cluster of small islands, called the Ducks. About nine o’clock in the evening we reached Kingston, the British harbour on Lake Ontario. We cast anchor close by the town. I spent the night on board, and in the morning, as I awoke, I found one of the companies of the thirty-seventh regiment, who are here in garrison, marching along the quay, near the vessel, as a guard of honour, accompanied by a band of music. I dismissed them of course immediately, and after having received the visits of a few officers, we rode over the bay to the dock-yard, which lies opposite to Kingston, surrounded by a high wall and protected by a strong guard. By the navy-list I ascertained that there are ten ships here, with three hundred and six guns, in ordinary. It appeared to me, however, that the number of guns was greater, for the St. Lawrence, one of these vessels, carried one hundred and twenty guns, and two which are yet on the stocks, the Montreal and Wolf, have three decks, and ports for one hundred and thirty guns each. According to the stipulation of the treaty of Ghent, they are not permitted to build any ships here during time of peace; so that the soldiers at the arsenal consisted merely of the necessary officers, besides twelve carpenters, who had scarcely any thing to do, but to work at an elegant little schooner, which was shortly to be launched to serve as a yacht. The large vessels on the stocks were uncovered, and appeared to have suffered much from the weather. The St. Lawrence was the largest vessel in the river, and is said also to be in a state of decay; her bottom especially has suffered from the effects of the fresh water and worms. The wharves of the dock-yard are built of wood, and bear marks of the haste in which they were erected; they were in a bad condition. Within a few years they have erected a magazine, three stories high and one hundred and ninety-two feet long, with iron doors and shutters, for the preservation of the sails and cordage. The partitions in the inside are made of wood. Immediately on our entrance into the magazine the large iron door was locked and kept so, inasmuch as they greatly mistrust the Americans. Beneath the building is a cellar, which is also occupied as a magazine, and the floor of which consists of limestone, which serves for the foundation of the whole building. The stairs are of stone, and are built into a tower; they intend also at some future period, to make the different floors fire-proof, like the magazine at Plymouth, by covering them with iron. In a distinct massy building are the forges, and in a third the offices. By the side of the offices is a large room, which contains I.83 the different articles used in ship-building. Opposite to the dock-yard, on a neck of land, is Fort Frederick, which I had not time to visit. Behind the dock-yard, upon a small height, stood a number of tents. We were informed that about four hundred Irish emigrants had encamped there, who had been sent to this country at the expense of the English government, to settle a piece of land on the north-western bank of Lake Ontario, whither they were soon to go. The town of Kingston contains about two thousand inhabitants, and is built in the usual style.

We left Kingston after eleven o’clock, on board the steam-boat Lady Dalhousie, for Prescott, sixty-eight miles from Kingston, on the left bank of the St. Lawrence. Adjutant Maitland left us at Kingston, but the rest of the company remained. We had scarcely left this place before we sailed round a promontory on which stands Fort Henry, into the St. Lawrence. This river is here very wide, and forms an archipelago about fifty miles in length, called the thousand islands. The English and American commissioners for determining the boundary line, took the pains to count these islands, and found that they amounted to sixteen hundred and ninety-two; in this calculation, however, they have included every projecting rock, even if it had but a single tree. This archipelago presents a beautiful prospect; most of the islands are rocky, and are overgrown with trees, generally cedars. Here and there a fir reared his lofty head, which, generally growing upon the bare rocks, where the trees are less numerous, presents a picturesque appearance. We observed something similar to the picture of Frederick, of which we were often reminded in descending the St. Lawrence. Eighteen miles from Kingston our vessel stopped at the village of Gananoqui, on the Canada shore, to take in wood. I went for a moment ashore and found an insignificant village, in the neighbourhood of which the river of the same name falls into the St. Lawrence. The Gananoqui river has a rocky bed, and is crossed by a wooden bridge, beyond which, upon a small eminence, is a square two story log-house, the upper story of which was formerly occupied as a garrison by about forty men. During the late war the Americans got possession here of an English post and a magazine, in consequence of which they built this block-house. At the extremity of the archipelago of the thousands islands is a similar block-house for the protection of the navigation of the river.

On the Canada shore, about fifty miles below Kingston, where the archipelago terminates, is the small village of Brockville, where there are some fine magazines near the river. At this place the night set in, which was warm and moonlight. We found two taverns in the village, but they were so full of people, and had such a dirty appearance, that I preferred spending the night I.84 on board the steam-boat, and my example was followed by the families of Messrs. Clare and Grymes. The steam-boat carried one hundred tons, and was of twenty-five horse power, but she was by no means so convenient and comfortable as the Frontenac.

At this place commence the rapids of the St. Lawrence. They are formed by rocks, which extend obliquely across the river, over which the water rushes with tremendous force, so that between this place and Montreal, a distance of one hundred and thirteen miles, the steam-boats can run only a part of the way. On this account, therefore, there is a line of stage-coaches and steam-boats between Prescott and Montreal, which take the passengers alternately, and produce much vexation in consequence of the baggage. The rapids may be descended in bateaux, or Durham-boats, which are small, flat vessels of about forty tons, have but half deck, and draw eighteen inches of water. The Durham-boats have a mast and two sails, and carry large cargoes of goods. We were anxious to undertake the passage, in order to see the rapids, and to ascertain the danger of which so much has been spoken. We therefore went on board a Durham-boat, the Flying Dutchman, paid two dollars for each passenger, and were assured by the captain, that, if the wind should be good, we should be at Montreal in a day. Sir Michael resolved to attempt the enterprise, and his lady accompanied him, in spite of her fears. Mrs. Grymes, however, was so much afraid, that she preferred travelling partly in the stage and partly by steam-boat.

We embarked on board the Flying Dutchman, at about 6 o’clock, early in the morning of the 30th August. The morning was delightful, and as we were much pleased with the beautiful prospect of Prescott, in the neighbourhood of which is Fort Wellington, a redoubt, which was built during the late war.

On the American shore we saw the town of Ogdensburgh, which was fortified by the Americans during the late war, but soon fell into the hands of the British. The comforts of our vessel were not, as we have remarked, very great. It was open, a few barrels of potash served us as a floor; and boards laid across our trunks as seats. Six miles below Prescott we arrived at a few islands called the Gallop Islands, and the first rapids. As we approached, the water appeared to be boiling, and high foaming billows arose, over which our boat passed rapidly. They are not so high as the swells at sea, but they are very short and rapid in their movements. As our Durham-boat, however, was remarkably long, it divided them without producing any disagreeable motion. Scarcely had we passed the rapids before the river became again smooth, and as we had scarcely any wind, our progress was but slow. Another set of rapids, nine miles long, were passed in an hour, and with no more danger than the preceding. I.85 We were assured, however, that a branch of these rapids, from which we were separated by an island, are very dangerous. It is called the least channel; and Duncan, in his Journal, gives a beautiful description of a shipwreck that occurred here, in which many lives were lost. Our vessel was not only flat at the bottom, like all the others that pass these rapids, but had also an ingenious false keel, which could be lowered and raised as the water was either shallow or deep. Our passengers were principally of the lower class of Canadians, who spoke bad French, somewhat like the Walloon. There was also a lively young black bear, three months old, on board.

About twenty miles below Longsault, we reached the village of Cornwall, on the Canada shore. The wind was so feeble that we had no hopes of reaching a good tavern before dark, we determined, therefore, to stay here all night. Towards evening, Mr. Grymes’ family also arrived by land, and took lodgings at the same tavern. The village is small, but the streets intersect each other at right angles, and contain several new stone houses. It appears to be a place of little business. The country is pretty flat, and the plain near the village is used by the British as a race-ground. A race was to take place in a few days, horses had already arrived and lodgings were bespoken. The British government sends many Scotch emigrants into this part of the country.

Our departure on the following morning was delayed two hours by the ladies; and it was not until about 7 o’clock that we left Cornwall in our Durham-boat. The morning was very pleasant, and in consequence of a rather strong southerly wind, we glided rapidly along. Five miles below Cornwall, on the right shore, we saw the village of St. Regis, the last belonging to the United States. The American line here leaves the St. Lawrence, both shores of which belong to Canada as far as its outlet into the sea. On the left bank of the river we descried a new Scotch village, called Glengary Settlement. Farther on, you reach a lake, called Lac St. François, through which the St. Lawrence flows, and through which the boundary line between Upper and Lower Canada is drawn. This lake, which is about forty miles long, and six broad, contains a number of islands. Not far from St. Regis we passed one of these islands, which is inhabited by some Indians, who have been baptized by a Catholic missionary, and have their island in a good state of cultivation. One of the Indians, with his wife, came along side of us in a canoe, and sold us some fish. At the point where Lac St. François terminates, and where the St. Lawrence again commences, is the village of Coteau de Lac, on the left bank of the river. At this village is a pretty strong rapid, stronger than those we passed yesterday. In order that this rapid may be I.86 avoided, and that vessels may ascend with more ease, the government has had a canal dug along the river, which has two locks, and is covered by a small fort, Fort du Coteau.

Our captain had business at the custom-house; he stopped therefore for an hour, during which I had time to look at the fort; after which we continued our course in a strong wind which was brought on by a thunder-storm. The shores and islands of the river are generally covered with cedar trees, and amongst them we observed some neat houses and churches, with bright tin roofs. At the village of Coteau des Cèdres, we were obliged to encounter the last and most dangerous rapid, called the Cascades. The waves were uncommonly high, and our vessel passed over the dangerous parts with incredible velocity. Along these rapids there is also a canal provided with locks, and intended to facilitate the ascent of vessels. If these rapids are viewed from the shore, it appears incredible that a canoe should venture in without being swallowed up. Such a misfortune, however, does not happen, as we had just proved. Below this rapid the river, where it receives the Ottawa, again spreads out so as to form another lake called Lac St. Louis. North of this lake, and at the place where the Ottawa unites with the St. Lawrence, it forms another lake, Lac des deux Montagnes, which is separated from Lac St. Louis by three islands, called Jesus, Perrot, and Montreal. The thunder-storm passed close by us; the wind blew heavy, but favourably. We met a steam-boat, having a corpse on board, and her flag at half-mast; this was a bad omen! Another steam-boat got ahead of us as we were passing towards La Chine, and excited our desire to sail faster; but suddenly we saw a terrible storm approaching. In an instant every hand was endeavouring to take down the sails, and the small one was fortunately drawn in before the arrival of the squall, but the large one, in consequence of its bad cordage, was only half way down when it struck us. Near us we observed a sound, with a dangerous cliff, which it was necessary to avoid by steering to the left, but we were driven directly towards it. Six men could scarcely manage the helm. Half of the sail floated in the water, and our destruction appeared inevitable. No one knew who commanded; the sailors thought themselves better qualified than the captain, and every thing was hurry and confusion. I deemed it best to remain silent, and commit myself to the care of Providence, who guides the destinies of man. At length a sailor climbed the mast and cut the cord, so that the sail could be taken down, by which time we had fortunately passed the sound. The storm also, which altogether did not last much longer than five minutes, began to abate. The steam-boat ahead had been in the same dangerous situation, and would have been cast upon the rocks in the sound, had she not speedily I.87 returned into the lake, where she cast anchor. Immediately after the storm, during which it had rained, we observed a remarkable phenomenon, viz. a fall of white-winged insects, of which a great quantity fell upon our boat. It continued during five minutes. These insects had in all probability been driven from the neighbouring forests. The storm, though unpleasant, had the effect of propelling us swiftly forwards. After 6 o’clock in the evening, we reached without any other unpleasant occurrence La Chine, a village, which has a harbour situated upon the island of Montreal.

La Chine appears to be an insignificant village, though in consequence of its favourable situation, it is said to do considerable business. The French was spoken so badly here, that I thought myself transported to our provinces of Hennegau or Namur. The village is said to have obtained its name from the circumstance that during the time the country was occupied by the French colony, they believed they could pass to China by way of the St. Lawrence; and with this object, an expedition had been fitted out, which embarked at La Chine.

Between La Chine and Montreal, the river has a very dangerous rapid, on account of which the government has built a canal as far as this place, which is nine miles long, has several locks, and is said to be of much importance to the trade. As we preferred going by land we hired a stage-coach, and started about eight o’clock in the evening during a violent thunder-storm. Lady Clare, who was scarcely recovered from the fear which she experienced on the water, would willingly have spent the night here in a tavern, as she was much afraid to travel during a thunder-storm at night. It soon turned out that her fears were not unfounded. We had scarcely passed three miles over a good turnpike road, before we came in contact with several carts that stood in front of a tavern, loaded with iron bars. The drivers had gone into the tavern, and left their carts in the middle of the road, and as the night was dark we approached one of them so suddenly that three of the iron bars entered the breast of our shaft-horse, which immediately fell and expired. After much dispute between the coachman and the carters, we rode on with three horses, and arrived at Montreal about ten o’clock at night. We stopt at the Masonic Hall, a hotel which has been established within the last year. It is a very large, convenient, massy building, four stories high, and built of blue stone. It affords a fine view of the St. Lawrence, which is upwards of twelve hundred yards wide here. At our arrival, I became immediately acquainted with Captain Mellish, of the engineers, who was sent from England on a scientific expedition into the interior of the colony.

I.88

We remained at Montreal nearly three days. The city, which I examined in company with Lieutenant Colonel Evans of the seventieth regiment, in garrison here, contains about twenty-five thousand inhabitants. It extends upon a hill to a considerable distance, between the St. Lawrence and Le Mont Réal, which is about seven hundred feet high, and is lined with timber. It has two principal streets, which run parallel with the river, and are intersected by a third, that runs along the ditch of the demolished fortresses. The houses are generally built of blue stone, and covered with bright tin, have iron doors and shutters to protect them against the fire, which give the city a very dismal appearance. In our walk we passed a number of young men who wore belts, and were dressed in blue coats, the seams of which were covered with white cord. We were informed that they were the pupils of the Catholic ecclesiastical school. It is well known that most of the Canadians, and four-fifth of the inhabitants of Montreal, are Catholics; they are bigotted, and the lower classes are exceedingly ignorant. There is a very broad street, which unites the two principal streets, and in the centre is the market-house. At one of the extremities of this street, are the court-house and prison; behind which is the place where the old forts stood, since converted into a parade. Montreal has several hospitals, which are superintended by nurses. These hospitals, however, are not sufficient, especially as the nuns do not admit any fever patients. In consequence of this, some of the most wealthy citizens have joined, and selected a healthy spot, on which they have erected a new hospital, three stories high, capable of containing seventy patients of both sexes. In this hospital, the sick, fifty in number, receive cheap and excellent accommodations. They are under the care of nurses, and are attended gratis, by the best physicians of the city. The arrangement is similar to that of the hospital at Boston, but there is less of luxury here in their management.

The public library is as yet small, though it is rapidly increasing. It has united with it a cabinet of natural history. We also observed the foundation for a large cathedral, which is to be built by private contributions. At the barracks of the subalterns, I was much pleased with the mess-room, which has a library connected with it; I was also much gratified with the school for the education of the soldiers, and their children. The barracks were formerly occupied as the Jesuit college, which stood in the old French citadel, of which not a vestige remains. Not far from the barracks is a steam-engine, which conveys the water from the river into the city, at the same time that it moves a mill. At the market-house stands a monument erected by the colony in honour of Lord Nelson. It consists of a statue resting upon a single I.89 column. On one side of the pedestal is an inscription; two others contain representations of naval engagements; and the fourth, a representation of the capitulation of Copenhagen.

The next day, Lieutenant-colonel Mac Gregor conducted me to the parade, where a part of his regiment was assembled. They formed a battalion of six divisions. The battalion exercises were not performed, but the manœuvres, which were very complicated, and only adapted to the place, were executed with much precision and admirable celerity. I learned a new mode of making ready. At the command “ready,” the soldiers levelled their muskets, cocked them in this position; at the command “fire,” they brought them slowly to their cheeks. The infantry were divided into two bodies, but in making a flank march, they formed into three, by passing through the files. The platoons were divided into sections, containing from four to six files, in consequence of which the oblique march was easily executed.

After this manœuvre was completed, we took a boat, in company with the officers, for the island of St. Helen, oppositely to Montreal, in the middle of the St. Lawrence. This island contains a large artillery depôt, under the direction of Major Wallace. Upon landing we were saluted with a discharge of twenty-one guns from the battery on the neck of the island. This battery is of a crescent shape, and serves as a training-place for the company of artillery stationed here. The gunners were just practising with one nine, and one six pounder, and a seven-inch howitzer, each of which was charged with grenades. The mark stood in the river, and their dexterity was such that the grenade never exploded before reaching it. The skill consists chiefly in the proper calculation of the fuse, so that the powder of the grenade may explode the moment it is over the mark.

St. Helen was the only point that the French retained after all Canada had submitted to the British power. It is about two miles in circumference, and is covered with fine elms and different kinds of nut trees, particularly the hickory. The soldiers have made excellent paths through and around the island. A botanic garden was established here a few years ago by the government, in which all the North American plants are collected, for the purpose of furnishing gardens in England. On the north side of the island you have some beautiful views of the shores of the river, and Montreal, with her numerous churches, and situation at the foot of the green mountain, presents a very imposing appearance. Here are also the arsenal and barracks, new massy buildings, which are protected against a coup de main by a breast-work, as well as by embrasures in the walls. The interior of the island is hilly, and in a really romantic valley is a powder-magazine, containing four thousand barrels of powder. I.90 Through Major Wallace, who resides in a very beautiful house at the barracks, we became acquainted with his wife and daughter, who pass their time very pleasantly at their solitary habitation in music and drawing. During the winter, the people who are obliged to stay on the island are sometimes prevented from going to Montreal for six weeks, in consequence of the ice.

After our return to Montreal we took another ramble through the city, and observed some very large stores. As Montreal carries on some fur trade through the Ottawa river, with the Hudson Bay and North-west Company, I had supposed I should be able to procure some cheap fur; but I found little that was good, and this was valued at an enormous price. In the evening we went to the Royal Circus, whose pompous advertisement had promised a large company of riders and a good play. The riders, four grown persons and two boys, performed some tolerably good feats; but the play was so badly managed that we soon returned to the house. The theatre is in other respects handsomely arranged: it has two tiers of boxes, and a circle for the horses, which, during the play, forms the pit.

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CHAPTER VIII.

Journey from Montreal to Quebec.—Stay at Quebec.—Return to Montreal—from the 3d to the 9th of September, 1825.

About 8 o’clock in the evening of the 3d of September, in company with Messrs. Grymes and Clare’s families, we embarked on board the steam-boat Lady Sherbrook for Quebec, one hundred and eighty miles from Montreal. Montreal wants good wharves, a circumstance which we felt sensibly on going on board the steam-boat, as we were obliged to walk in the dark through the mire, which was particularly disagreeable to the ladies. We had taken state-rooms on board the vessel, so that the ladies could live alone, and not be obliged to sleep in the common ladies cabin. To me it was also pleasant to have a small room to myself. At Montreal I met Captain King, of the English artillery, with whom I had become acquainted at Boston, and who likewise travelled to Quebec. The other passengers were not numerous.

The steam-boat was one hundred and fifty feet long, carried eight hundred tons, and her engine was of sixty horse-power, much too little for such a large and heavy vessel. It started after 9 I.91 o’clock in the evening. During the night it stopt an hour at the outlet of the river Sorel into the St. Lawrence, at William Henry, a small town, so called in honour of the Duke of Clarence. They were obliged to take in wood; for the American and Canada steam-boats are not, like the European, heated with stone coal, but with wood, which takes up much room on the vessel, and much time in loading.

The next morning we stopt on the left bank of the little town Les Trois Rivières, which contains two thousand five hundred inhabitants, is eighty miles distant from Montreal, and situated where the St. Maurice empties itself into the St. Lawrence. Before we came to this place, we had to go through Lake St. Pierre, which is formed by the widening of the river St. Lawrence. The banks of this river are thickly inhabited on both sides, and are also said to be cultivated and productive. The river is throughout from one to two miles wide, but fifty-two miles below Trois Rivières, at the village of Richelieu, it becomes narrower, and here are the last rapids, called Rapids de Richelieu. The banks, which as far as this place are pretty low, become higher and more rocky, particularly on the left side. The neighbourhood is remarkably handsome and picturesque. The majestic stream with its pleasant banks and the view of the distant blue mountains near Quebec, produce an indescribable effect. The weather was favourable, a clear sunny day, and not very warm; in this northern latitude you can already perceive the approaching autumn by the coolness of the nights and mornings.

We reached Quebec at 10 o’clock in the evening. This city consists of two parts, the upper town, which is built on a rock, and the lower, which is pressed in between the river and the rock. The lights in the lower town and the fortifications, had an elegant appearance, when contrasted with the dark rock. The first coup d’œil, which was by night, reminded me of Namur, as it is seen from the right bank of the Maas. In the river were many vessels, mostly used for carrying wood. It was already late, and we should have found difficulty in transporting our baggage by night, besides other inconveniences in finding lodgings for the ladies, so we spent this night also on board the steam-boat, where we were very comfortable and found it cleanly.

The next morning, after dismissing the guard which the governor had appointed to escort us, we went to our lodgings, in the upper part of the town. The lower town is very narrow, and has a filthy appearance. The streets are not paved, and badly provided with side-walks. The road which leads to the upper part of the town is very steep. It stands on a rocky ground, and I.92 its fortifications are elevated three hundred and fifty feet from the level of the ocean. The upper is separated from the lower town by a stone wall, which has the form of a horn-work. Through this wall is a gate, which has a guard, the guard-room is opposite the gate, and by means of a portcullis defends the entrance. For the convenience of foot-passengers, there is a door near the gate, with wooden stairs, by ascending which you reach the upper town. On the right side of the gate is a building which resembles a chapel, and serves for the house of commons of Canada. In order to get home, we were obliged to go round part of the walls of the town. Even here you have an indescribably beautiful view of the Bay of Quebec and the right bank of the river, which has the appearance of a cape called Point Levi.

Shortly after our arrival, I received a visit from Colonel Duchesnay, first adjutant of the governor-general, and from Colonel Darnford, director of engineers. The first gentleman came to bid me welcome, in the name of the governor, and the latter begged to show me the fortifications. Lord Dalhousie, governor-general of all the British possessions in North America, was at that time in England, but was expected daily. During his absence, the government was under the direction of the lieutenant-governor, Sir Francis Burton, brother of Lord Conyngham. He is a civilian, but is said to fill his high post with credit. The good spirits the inhabitants are in, and the harmony that exists in the colony, is mostly owing to his good management, and his humane and friendly deportment towards them. It is said of Lord Dalhousie, that he has estranged the hearts of the people from himself and the government, through his haughty and absolute deportment, and the opposition party in the Canadian parliament has thereby been strengthened.

With the above-mentioned public officers, we wandered through the city, and first of all visited the government house, which is a large old building, vacant during the absence of Lord Dalhousie. The rooms are not large, and were not as richly furnished as I expected to see the mansion of an English governor-general. At the back of the house, over the vault, is a large balcony, from which one can see part of the town, the harbour, and the surrounding neighbourhood. The citadel is a new work, and not quite finished. The English speak with a kind of exultation of the fortifications of Quebec, and compare it to Gibraltar. I also expected something extraordinary, but cannot say that my expectations were gratified. The heights near the town are the well-known plains of Abraham, or more correctly heights of Abraham, upon which, on the 12th of September, 1759, the battle between the English general, Wolfe, and the French general, Marquis Montcalm, I.93 took place; a battle which cost the lives of both generals, and in which the French were defeated with the loss of the town and colony.

General Wolfe took possession of the Isle d’Orleans, and made himself master of Point Levi. The Marquis de Montcalm, upon the heights by the falls of Montmorency, with his army in a fortified position, heroically received the attack of General Wolfe and drove him back, with great loss to the English army. On this occasion, General Wolfe embarked his men in the night, took advantage of the darkness to pass the town, sailed up the St. Lawrence, and disembarked at the place that is now called Wolfe’s cove. He mounted the rock with a great deal of difficulty, and then put his army at the break of day in order of battle on the Heights of Abraham. To assist the town, and drive the English from the heights of Abraham, the Marquis de Montcalm found it necessary to leave his impregnable position at Montmorency, and to cross, by a bridge secured by double piers, over the river St. Charles. He now, with Quebec in his rear, drew up his army upon the heights in good order and gave battle, the result of which was unfortunate to him and his government.

The English engineers make use of bricks which are burned in England, for building the casemates of the fortification. A thousand of these bricks cost the government, including transportation, two pounds ten shillings! The reason they give is, that the bricks burned here, crack in the winter. I rather believe that the preference of these foreign bricks has some other reason.

The arsenal is a large, yet not bomb-proof building, in which there are more than twenty thousand muskets, and some useful pistols. We also saw here several very handsomely ornamented single and double-barrel guns, which are kept for the purpose of making presents to Indian chiefs.

The upper part of the town is very old and angular, the streets are muddy, and many not paved. Both towns contain about twenty-five thousand inhabitants. The Catholic cathedral is quite a handsome building; it has three altars, and paintings of but little value. On account of the coldness of the climate the church is floored. The inside of the church is divided like English churches, into aisles. It is near the seminary, an old French building, with massive walls, having four corners like a bastion. In this seminary resides the Bishop of Quebec. We had already been introduced to Bishop Plessis, in the house of Sir Francis Burton, and found him a very agreeable and well-informed man. He is the son of a butcher of Montreal, and has elevated himself by his own merit. A few years ago he travelled through England, France, and Italy, where he received the title of Archbishop of Canada, from the pope. The English government in the mean I.94 time, took into consideration, whether they would recognise his title, because he would, as archbishop, rank in the Canadian parliament before the English episcopal bishop. We paid our respects to this worthy man. He received us kindly, surrounded by many young priests. His secretary showed us the building and the garden. The scholars had a vacation, and the house was deserted. They are not all destined for the priesthood; the most respectable people of this country have their sons brought up in this institution, in which they receive a very good education. The Catholic clergy are very much respected here, and they are said to deserve it, on account of the information they possess, and the benefactions they bestow. The English government left them all the emoluments and prerogatives which they possessed before the colony was conquered. On this account, the clergy are obedient to the government, and exert their best influence over the people in favour of the government. In the seminary is a small philosophical apparatus. The natural history cabinet is not very rich; the best part of it is a collection of East India shells. The garden of the seminary is rather large, and serves as a fruit and vegetable garden, &c.

Nine miles from Quebec is the waterfall of Montmorency, to which we travelled, escorted by Colonel Duchesnay. The road passed through the palace gate. This is the gate where General Arnold made his attack, when he stormed the place in December, 1775, and was wounded in the leg. His column had already pressed into the city, and would certainly have taken the town, if General Montgomery, who attacked the lower town from the side of the St. Lawrence, had met him at the same time. This, however, was impossible, as General Montgomery fell, and after his death his division fell into confusion, and retreated. An English artillerist, returning to the only cannon placed there, which had already been deserted, set a match to it, killed this hero with twelve men, and thus saved the town.

We crossed the river St. Charles over a long well built wooden bridge, and continued our journey partly on a road cut through the rock, having the St. Lawrence always in view. The neighbourhood is well cultivated; several farm-houses have a very ancient appearance. The handsomest of them belongs to the seminary at Quebec, and serves the priests as a pleasure ground. About the middle of the road is the village Beaufort, where one has a very good prospect of the city, the right bank of the St. Lawrence, the Isle d’Orleans, and down the stream. We left the carriage at the river Montmorency, over which a wooden bridge is thrown, and walked nearly to where the Montmorency empties itself into the St. Lawrence. At that place are the falls, two hundred and seventy-five feet high. The surrounding country is I.95 extraordinarily beautiful. Near the waterfall is a cave, where the soil is either sunk, or washed away by the water; it is a narrow deep crack in the earth, which you cannot behold without shuddering. When the water is high, there are three falls. The middle one precipitates directly down, the two others cross over the middle one. The drought, however, of the summer of 1825, and a canal, which drains the water from the river to drive saw and other mills, has lessened the quantity of water in the river, so that only one of the three falls has water, and instead of seeing the other two, you perceive the bare rock. This rock is slate. At Quebec and Point Levi, it is limestone; in Quebec it is interspersed with silicious crystals, hence its name Cape Diamond. The stones of Point Levi are used for building houses and fortifications; all copings are made of this stone. Most of the trees in this neighbourhood are cedar. Below the falls of St. Lawrence they have constructed a little harbour by means of two piers, whence they trade in boards on account of its nearness to the sawmills. About a mile and a half above the great falls, in the same river, are others. The channel at these falls is very narrow between the rocks, and formed like stairs; on this account, they are called the natural stairs; resembling very much, though in miniature, the falls of Trenton, near Utica, and are situated in a thick forest of fir, pine, and cedar trees. The road from the bridge to this place, and hence to the turnpike, is a very obscure footpath through the woods.

On the second and last day of my sojourn at Quebec, I went to the parade, escorted by Colonels Durnford and Duchesnay. I was pleasantly taken by surprise, when I found the whole garrison under arms. The commanding officers wished to show me their corps. On the right wing stood two companies of artillery, then a company of sappers and miners, after this, the sixty-eighth, and lastly, the seventy-first regiment of infantry. The last is a light regiment, and consists of Scotch Highlanders; it appeared to be in particularly good condition. This regiment is not dressed in the Highland uniform, which was only worn by some of the buglemen. It has a very good band of buglemen, who wear curious caps, made of blue woollen, bordered below with red and white stripes. The troops defiled twice before me.

On the 6th of September we sat out in the steam-boat for Montreal. Sir Francis sent us his carriage, which was very useful to the ladies. On the dock stood a company of the sixty-eighth regiment, with their flag displayed as a guard of honour, which I immediately dismissed. The fortification saluted us with twenty-one guns; this caused a very fine echo from the mountains. Night soon set in, but we had sufficient light to take leave of the magnificent vicinity of Quebec.

I.96

The journey, of course, was more tedious in ascending than in descending the river. Fortunately the tide was in our favour during the night, until we passed the rapids of Richelieu. In the morning we stopt at Trois Rivières to take in wood; we then went slowly on. I employed this leisure in writing, but was often interrupted. In this boat they have four meals daily, and at every repast they drove me from my writing place. In the morning at seven o’clock, they ring the bell for the passengers to rise and dress; at eight o’clock breakfast is served, which consists of tea, coffee, sausages, ham, beefsteak, and eggs; at twelve, they take luncheon; at four, dine; at eight, take tea; and an hour before every meal they set the table. The weather was cloudy nearly the whole day; it began to rain towards evening, and continued raining through the night.

At Sorel, or William Henry, we came to, in order to land some passengers, and take in wood. This place is situated on the right bank of both rivers, at the confluence of the Sorel or Richelieu, (the only outlet of Lake Champlain,) with the St. Lawrence. The French built a fort here, which stands yet, if such bad palisades, barracks, and arsenals, deserve that name. The town itself was built in the year 1785, by the so called American tories and discharged soldiers. It contains two churches, about one hundred houses, and six hundred inhabitants, whose houses are mostly of wood, and stand separately in the streets, which are arranged in squares, and occupy a great space. It is built on a sandy soil, and has a poor aspect. Generally speaking, the towns in Canada bear a very poor comparison with those of the United States, and will never arrive at the same point, because the settlers in Canada are mostly poor Scotchmen and Irishmen, who come out at the expense of the government; they receive land, and are oppressed by the feudal system, which opposes all prosperity; emigrants, however, who possess some property, and have an ambitious spirit, settle themselves in the United States, where nobody is oppressed; on the contrary, where all the laws are in their favour.

At Fort Sorel is stationed a garrison, a detachment of the seventieth regiment, commanded by a sergeant; an artillery detachment which was moving to Montreal, tied its sloop to our steam-boat, and came on board; the artillerymen mostly intoxicated. Towards evening, we learned that the sloop contained three boxes of gunpowder, which caused us a great deal of uneasiness. The danger was so much the greater, as the sparks were continually flying from the pipe of the steam-boat, which the wind drove towards the sloop. I was one of the first who received the information, and immediately gave the alarm. All the passengers agreed in persuading the captain during this rainy and I.97 stormy night to remove the sloop some distance from our boat, and place in it an officer and three of the least intoxicated artillerymen. The night was dark, and we were compelled to cast anchor and remain till morning.

The next morning the weather was still cloudy and rainy; the storm was particularly strong, and the wind ahead. The machinery was too weak to make any progress. We therefore saw Montreal three hours before we could reach it; the current particularly was so strong between Montreal and the Isle of St. Helen, that in spite of the machinery we were driven backwards. At last we were obliged to draw up the boat by aid of six oxen, two horses, and ten men. The Lady Sherbrook, however, is one of the oldest steam-boats on the St. Lawrence, and the captain himself confessed that she was so rotten that she was not worth repairing, and will soon be condemned. About 4 o’clock in the afternoon, after we had been forty-six hours on our journey, which took but twenty-six hours going down, we were landed at Montreal. The battery on the Island of St. Helen saluted us with twenty-one guns. The first information we received was, that fifty houses were burned down yesterday in the suburbs of the town, and that this misfortune fell mostly upon the poorer class, whose houses were not insured.

Mr. Bingham, from Philadelphia, who married a rich heiress here, and turned Catholic to get possession of her estate, gave a ball to-day, in honour of the first birth-day of his only daughter, and politely invited our company. We accepted the invitation, and rode to the ball at 9 o’clock. He was twenty-four years of age, and his wife nineteen; has many friends, because his cellar is well filled, and has the talent to spend his money liberally among the people. We found assembled in his rich and tastefully furnished halls the whole fashionable world of Montreal. They mostly dance French contra dances, commonly called Spanish dances. To the contra dances, in honour of the officers of the seventieth regiment, who are the favourite young gentlemen, they have adopted tedious Scotch melodies; to the Spanish dances they played German waltzes. The native ladies conversed in very soft Canadian bad French, not even excepting our handsome landlady. I took particular notice of a Miss Ermatinger, the daughter of a Swiss, and an Indian woman, on account of her singular but very beautiful Indian countenance. She was dressed in the best taste of all, and danced very well. Indeed there was a great deal of animation at this ball, as well as a great deal of luxury, particularly a profusion of silver plate and glass in the house of Mr. Bingham, whose sister is the wife of the banker, Baring, of London.

I.98

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CHAPTER IX.

Journey from Montreal to New York.—Isle Aux Noix.—Lake Champlain.—Lake George.—Falls of Hudson.—Glenn’s Falls.—Saratoga Springs.—Saratoga Battleground.—Shaker Settlement at New Lebanon.—Military School at West Point.

As the season was so far advanced, I wished to reach New York without delay. We therefore concluded to travel soon, and visit Lake Champlain to its southern extremity, then to Saratoga, Albany, and further down the Hudson to New York, taking the Catskill mountains by the way, and inspecting the famous military school of West Point. With this view, on Friday, the 9th of September, we went on board the steam-boat Montreal, which runs between Montreal and the right bank of the river. Lieutenant-Colonel M‘Gregor and Major Loring escorted us to the boat. In half an hour we found ourselves on the other side of the river. We landed near the village Longueuil, where stage-coaches awaited us, which carried us and our baggage to St. John, situated on the river Richelieu, about twenty-seven miles from Longueuil. The road lies several miles along the banks of the river St. Lawrence, till you arrive to the village of La Prairie. In this village we took our leave of this noble neighbourhood and majestic stream, on whose banks we had tarried so agreeably. The road led through a plain, which was very little cultivated, and containing few trees. We only met with a single village called Lavane. Here and there we observed some larch trees. About half past one in the afternoon, we reached the village of St. John, having arrived a mile from the above-named village, at the river Richelieu. Here we went on board the American steam-boat Phœnix, in order to sail for Whitehall. This vessel deserves the name, because the boat, whose place it supplies, was of the same name, and burned some years ago on Lake Champlain. The new Phœnix is commodious and clean, one hundred and twenty feet long, having machinery of forty-six horse-power. Both banks of the river were thickly timbered. Ten miles above St. John we reached an island called Isle Aux Noix, the last English strong post on Lake Champlain. The captain had the politeness to tarry here a short time, in order that I might survey the island and its fortifications.

Isle Aux Noix contains about ninety acres, and is very flat and I.99 swampy. The fort is called Fort Lenox, in honour of the late duke of Richmond; it consists of a regular square, with four bastions and two ravelins, and is built according to the system of Vaubans. On account of the swampy ground, the fortification which anciently stood here, is almost sunk. The revêtement is a half one, and formed of wood, as well as the scarp and counterscarp. The whole lower wall consists of roots of trees, mostly cedar, placed horizontally crosswise, and only those roots which constitute the revêtement stand upright. On the horizontal roots earth is thrown and rammed. The engineers believe that this costly work will stand thirty years. I however believe it would have been better if they had rammed the roots into the ground and put a grate upon that, and then a strong stone revêtement, or still better if they had arched it en décharge. The two ravelins, whose basis is also of wood, lie before the northern and southern front. Under the curtain of the eastern front, they have built casemates for the garrison. Near the gate in the wall are small arsenals, and on the inside of the fort stands the guard-house, which also contains the prison. The base of this fortification, as well as the few buildings which stand within, are bomb-proof. The houses are built of blue limestone which comes from the state of Vermont. A road covered with palisades surrounds the fort. I observed here palisades which can be knocked down backwards, and might be advantageous in case of accident, whilst I took a survey of this work, accompanied by Captain Reed of the seventieth regiment, who is commandant, and has already been in garrison here one year with his company, also by the two engineer officers. Northward of the fort stands the navy-yard, which is in the same situation as it was at the period of the treaty of Ghent. There were about twelve gun-boats under cover, and a frigate of thirty-six guns on the stocks, whose keel and skeleton has rotted ever since. A naval magazine, and the dwellings of the officers, overseers, and workmen of the wharf, stand behind the navy-yard. The two branches of the stream separating the island from the main land are tolerably small, and the shores are covered with trees.

Eleven miles above Isle Aux Noix we left Canada and again reached the territories of the United States. At the point where the river Sorel leaves Lake Champlain, and where we entered into the latter, the American government has erected a fort called Rous’ Point, consisting of a defensive tower with casemates, which, as well as I could judge in passing, appeared to have been located with much judgment and erected at a small expense. This tower completely commands the communication between the lake and the Sorel, and as the guns are all under cover, the garrison has I.100 but little to fear from the vertical fire of the enemy’s infantry. The fort stands on a cape. According to the treaty of Ghent, the forty-fifth degree of north latitude, between the state of Maine and the St. Lawrence, between the United States and Canada, were fixed as boundaries; and as to fulfil the terms of the treaty, the commissioners determined the latitude of several places astronomically, it has been discovered that this fort lies somewhat north of forty-five degrees, and consequently is on the Canadian side.

The greatest breadth of Lake Champlain, which contains several large islands, is six miles. The shore on our right, belonging to the state of New York, is low and covered with trees; the other belongs to Vermont, and is more mountainous. As night approached, we were prevented from enjoying this beautiful part of the country; I was also with regret prevented from seeing the battle ground of Plattsburgh, at which town the vessel made a short stay during the night. Some American custom-house officers came on board, without, however, inquiring after our baggage, and this was a new and not disagreeable circumstance.

The same night we stopped at Burlington in Vermont, and the Grymes’ family left us here to go to Boston. I expected to meet this interesting family again in New York in fourteen days. Towards morning we passed the ruins of Fort Crownpoint, which lie on a hill. At this place the lake is very narrow and resembles a river. The shores are generally covered with bushes and pine trees, are hilly, and afford a pleasing prospect. At the village of Shoreham, twelve miles above Crownpoint, on the eastern shore of Vermont, we left the Phœnix, which went twenty miles further to Whitehall, the southern point of Lake Champlain, and landed to see Lake George, which is celebrated for its romantic situation and shores. Sir Michael and Lady Clare continued with us, and resolved not to part from us till we arrived at Albany, after which they would travel to Boston. As a slight recompense for the loss of the Grymes’ family, Mr. Shoemaker, and his wife, from Philadelphia, bore us company hence to Albany. They were Quakers, but had laid aside the striking costume of their sect.

At the inn of Shoreham is a place for loading and unloading vessels, which transport much plaster of Paris and blue limestone for building, to Canada. Among the stones on the shore we found some which appeared to be rich iron ore, said to be common in Vermont. At the inn we met with an elderly lady of the middle rank, who was smoking tobacco; this custom is said to be prevalent here among elderly women. We passed over the lake, scarcely half a mile wide, in a wherry, and landed on the other shore, not far from the ruins of Fort Ticonderoga. This in an old I.101 French fort, lying on an elevated cape, which commands the navigation of the lake. From the ruins we saw that it was a square with four small bastions and three ravelins, the scarp, and the counterscarp being covered with strong stone-work; the bastion contains casemates as well as the curtain of the eastern front. Several massive buildings stood in the fort so that it must have had but little room. About three hundred paces east of the fort, on the extremity of the cape, stands a small pentagonal redoubt, which communicated with the fort by means of a covered way. The cape is connected with the main land of New York by means of a neck of land, which was cut off by a crownwork, consisting of earth. The eminence on which this crownwork lies, in some measure commands the fort, and an entrenched camp seems to have been located here. Between the fort and crownwork we remarked the remains of two square redoubts. On the same shore, south of the fort, but separated from it by an inlet of the lake, lies Mount Defiance, which commands the fort in a great degree, and from which, in July, 1777, the English, under General Burgoyne, bombarded the fort, which was too quickly evacuated by the Americans, under General St. Clair. On the eastern shore of the lake, opposite Ticonderoga, lies another hill, Mount Independence, of the same height as the fort on which the Americans had formed their works at that time, under the protection of which they passed the lake after the evacuation of the fort. This was afterwards destroyed by the English. In July, 1758, when the fort still belonged to the French, the English attacked it, but were repulsed with a loss of eighteen hundred men.

From Ticonderoga we went in a stage three miles further to Lake George, through a very hilly country. The level of this lake is about three hundred feet higher than that of Lake Champlain; the stream which flows from the former into the latter lake, forms a succession of small cascades, and turns several saw-mills. We arrived at the northern point of Lake George, and entered the steam-boat Mountaineer, which was ready to depart; it was ninety feet long with a machine of sixteen horse-power.

Lake George resembles the Scottish lakes. It is thirty-six miles long, and never more than five miles broad. The shores are very hilly, the heights are all covered with trees, and are not, as it seems to me, above eight hundred feet high. There are several islands in the lake, generally covered with wood. A single one, called Diamond Island, on account of the handsome crystals which are found in it, is inhabited. The inhabitants consist of an Indian family, which lives in a small house, and maintains itself by selling these crystals. About five o’clock in the evening, we arrived at the southern point of the lake. The scenery is very I.102 handsome. One of the highest mountains, which rises perpendicularly out of the lake, is called Rodgers’ rock, after an American Captain Rodgers, who being hunted by the Indians, during the revolution, fled to the top of this rock, and in extremely cold weather, being urged by danger, glided on the smooth surface down to the frozen lake. Towns are not seen; but few single houses stand along the shore. At the southern extremity, however, lies the village of Caldwell, founded about twenty years ago, which, besides a very good and large inn, where we took lodgings, contains several neat houses. In former times, an English fort, William Henry, stood here, which, to judge from its few remains, must have been a square redoubt of earth. It was built in the year 1755, by order of Sir William Johnstone, who commanded the English army in the then colony of New York, after having completely routed, on September the 8th, 1755, a French corps which had come from Ticonderoga to attack him. In this rencontre, Baron Dieskau, a French general lost his life. In the following year, however, Marquis de Montcalm arrived with a stronger force and captured the fort. A capitulation was allowed to the English garrison, but they were attacked after leaving the fort, by the Indians, in a disgraceful manner, and the greater part cut to pieces. After the fort was taken, the Marquis de Montcalm ordered it to be destroyed. Not far from this place, in a higher station and on a rocky ground, the English erected afterwards a new fort, called Fort George, which, at the unsuccessful expedition of General Burgoyne, in 1777, served his army as a depôt and magazine, till he moved too far forward and was cut off from the fort. Remains of it are still plainly seen. It was a strongly-built square redoubt, the entrance being protected by a fleche. It lies in an advantageous situation, commands the whole southern shore of the lake, with a large part of the vicinity, stands, as was said before, on a strong ground, and is covered on one side by a morass. On the eastern side alone, it is commanded by a high mountain, which, however, is at some distance. If the American government should resolve to restore Crownpoint and Ticonderoga, the latter particularly would be adapted, after fortifying the two mountains, Defiance and Independence, for an arsenal of a superior kind; it might contain large depôts, serve as a fortified camp, and be successfully defended by a small garrison. Here fleets might be completed to command Lake Champlain, and an expedition against Isle Aux Noix and Canada organized. However, a good road would be necessary, leading from Ticonderoga to the northern point of Lake George, three miles distant, and here it would be necessary to protect the place of embarkation by a fort. A new fort on the same spot where Fort George was erected, would be necessary. There is a good locality between I.103 this fort and Fort William Henry to found a dock-yard. The communication between Ticonderoga and the United States would be well and doubly protected by the southern point of Lake Champlain, towards Whitehall, and by Lake George. If the English should attack the United States on this side, they would undoubtedly waste much strength, and not advance a step, unless they had seized Ticonderoga.

We left Caldwell at eight o’clock the next day, September 11, in two inconvenient carriages, and passed through a very uninteresting, deep, sandy road, in a hilly country, covered with thorny trees, on our route to Saratoga springs, to which the whole fashionable world of the United States repairs in summer, for the fashionables have here the same mania which prevails in other countries, to visit the baths in summer, whether sick or well. The distance is twenty-seven miles. On our passage, we saw but one interesting object—the Hudson falls, which river we had left at Albany, and reached again nine miles from Caldwell, coming from the west.

These falls are known under the name of Glenn’s Falls. A village of the same name is built in their vicinity, on the rocky shores of the river. The river is crossed by means of a pendant wooden bridge. The arches rest on pillars, consisting of large beams, which lie across each other, as tit-mouse traps are constructed in my native country; the bridge might therefore be called bird-cage bridge. These cages rest on a foundation of limestone, cut through by the Hudson in its course. This river is really a remarkable sight in this sandy country. Above the bridge it is one hundred and sixty yards broad, and crossed by a dam, which conducts the water to the saw-mills along the banks. A single rock, on which, also, a saw-mill stands, divides into two parts, the principal fall, which is forty feet high. But there are, both above and below the principal falls, a number of smaller falls, which we could approach with ease, as the water was very low. These falls are not indeed to be numbered among the largest, but among the handsomest falls which I have seen. A constant mist arises from them, and, as the sun shone very brilliantly, we saw several rainbows at the same time. In the rock, as at Niagara, we observed some remarkable and deep cavities. They arise from the flintstones which are scattered throughout the limestone, and are washed away by the violence of the water. When these flintstones meet with resistance, or fall into a small cavity, they are constantly agitated by the falling water, and moving in a circular direction, form by degrees deep cavities in the soft limestone. At the base of the small island, which divides the chief fall into two parts, a remarkable cave appears below the falls, leading to the other side of the rock; this was also undoubtedly I.104 made by the washing of the water. The saw-mills, all of wood, occupy a bold position over the falls, and appear besides, to be in such a state of decay, that a fear arises, lest they should soon fall into the abyss. The Hudson is partly navigable above Glenn’s Falls, and two miles further up, feeds a navigable canal, with thirteen locks, which runs seven miles north of the Hudson, and then joins Champlain canal.

We arrived at Saratoga at two o’clock in the afternoon, and stopped at Congress Hall. The greater part of the company had already departed, so that but forty persons remained; among these was the governor of the state of New York, the celebrated De Witt Clinton.I.10 I was immediately introduced to his excellency, and very well received by this great statesman.

The water of the springs is cold, of a somewhat salt taste, and stronger than the mineral water of Eger. It is said to act very beneficially as a tonic. When this region was yet covered with forests, inhabited principally by Indians, and by few white people, the Indians were acquainted with the virtues of this water; only one spring, however, High Rock Spring, was discovered. They led to it the above-mentioned Sir William Johnstone, who was much beloved by the Indians, and in a bad state of health. By drinking this water he regained his health, and thus this spring became known. It is not above twelve years since a beginning was made to clear the ground, and build houses; at present, more than a hundred, principally of wood, form a street. They are generally arranged to receive strangers. The four largest hotels are Congress Hall, Union Hall, the Pavilion, and the United States Hotel, the last of brick, the three former of wood. Congress Hall alone, was yet open, the others had closed since September 1st, on account of the frost. The hotel can accommodate two hundred strangers. In the evening the company assembles in the large halls in the lower story, at this season, alas! by the fire, and pass the time in music, dancing, or conversation. Games of chance are strictly forbidden by the laws of the state, and in general, public opinion in the United States is much against gaming. I was told that at a watering-place in Pennsylvania, three genteel young men once arrived from different parts of the United States. They were at first very well received, but afterwards were found to be gamblers. All communication with them was immediately broken off in so striking a manner that they were soon obliged to leave the place.

The different springs, which do not lie far from each other in a swampy ground in the same valley, are called Hamilton, Congress, Columbia, Flat Rock, Munroe, High Rock, President, and I.105 Red Spring. The water is generally drank, but baths are also erected. High Rock Spring flows from a white conical limestone rock, five feet high, in which there is a round aperture above, about nine inches in diameter, through which the water in the spring is seen in a state of constant agitation. So much fixed air escapes from it, that an animal held over it, as in the Grotto del Cane, near Naples, cannot live above half a minute. Mr. Shoemaker held his head over the opening, and though he had covered it with a handkerchief, immediately fainted away; he retained besides, during several days after this experiment, a bad dry cough. The vicinity of Saratoga Springs possesses no attraction. Promenades are not yet constructed. The only pleasure which can be enjoyed must be sought in company. A large piazza is built before Congress Hall, to the pillars of which wild vines are attached, which almost reach the roof. I passed the evening in the lower parlour by the fire, with the governor and Mr. Schley, from Maryland, in very agreeable and instructive conversation. The ladies did not entertain us with music, because it was Sunday.

The governor had the kindness to give me some letters for New York, and a letter of introduction to the Shakers of New Lebanon. Furnished with these, we left Saratoga Springs, September 12th, at 9 o’clock, in a convenient stage to go to Albany, thirty-six miles distant. We passed through a disagreeable and sandy country. The uniformity was, however, very pleasingly interrupted by Saratoga lake, which is eight miles long. At Stillwater village, we reached the Hudson. Not far from this, runs the new Champlain Canal, which was commenced at the same time with the Erie Canal, but is not yet completed, and which I mentioned on my passage from Albany to Schenectady. At Stillwater we visited the two battle-grounds, Freeman’s Farm and Bernis’s Heights, which became celebrated September 19th, and October 7th, 1777. These actions, as is known, took place during the expedition of Burgoyne. They closed with taking the whole corps of this general, to which also the Brunswick troops, under General Von Riedesel belonged, at Saratoga.

Our guide to both battle-grounds, which are adjacent, was an octogenarian farmer, called by his neighbours Major Buel, because he had been the guide of the American army during the campaign. The ground has since greatly changed; wood has grown again, so that with the exception of some remains of the English lines, nothing is to be seen. Not far from the river, on an eminence, are the remains of a very small work, called the great English redoubt. Here lies General Fraser, of whose burial Madam Von Riedesel gives a description so attractive, and yet so terrific. I broke off, near his grave, a small branch of a I.106 pine tree to present it to Baron Von Riedesel, Land-marshal of the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar. I inquired after the house in which the mother of the latter had lived, and in which General Fraser died. This house stands no longer on the original spot, as the canal passed through its site; in other respects it is said to be arranged now, as it was then. The place in the bar-room, where General Frazer died, and a small room behind this, in which Madam Von Riedesel lived with her children, were shown me.

At the small town of Waterford we passed along the left shore of the Hudson on a long wooden bridge, to avoid a bad bridge over the Mohawk. We proceeded on our route in the night on a very good road, and passed through Lansingburg and Troy. The latter is very handsomely built, and many stores are very well lighted up in the evening. Here we returned to the right shore of the Hudson, and reached Albany at 10 o’clock at night.

On the 13th of September I went with Mr. Tromp in a stage-coach to New Lebanon, twenty-eight miles from Albany to see the settlement of Shakers. We passed through Greenbush, (where the team-boat put us on the left side of the Hudson,) Schodack, Union, Stephentown, and Canaan. The country about New Lebanon is extremely handsome; the tops of the mountains are covered with trees, and the lower parts well cultivated. The valley is wide, with very neat houses, and resembles a garden. Fruit is particularly cultivated. On a slight eminence at the foot of a mountain, the Shaker village is very beautifully situated, and is about one mile long. The houses stand in groups at a distance from each other, in general large, built of wood, and painted yellow; the church alone, or rather the meeting-house, is wide, with an arched roof of slate.

The Shakers are a religious sect, originally from England. It was founded by Ann Lee, the daughter of a Manchester blacksmith, and wife of the blacksmith Stanley, of the same city. Her chief doctrines are, community of goods, a perfect continence with regard to the sexes and adoration of the Deity by dancing. Ann Lee pretended to higher inspiration, performed miracles, announced the speedy reappearance of Christ on earth, spoke of the millennium, and of similar glories. She commenced in England, by making proselytes among the lowest classes, who followed her when she preached in public, held noisy prayer, or rather, dancing meetings, and thus disturbed the public peace. This worthy prophetess was therefore, with her friends, at different times imprisoned; the impatient and unbelieving public even began once to stone her. The good soul, whose convulsions were said by the wicked world to be the effect of ardent spirits, wandered therefore, in 1774, with her family, and several of her friends, to New York, where she settled. But her husband was wearied I.107 with the sisterly connexion in which he lived with her, and resolved to divorce his sisterly wife, and marry another. Whereupon the repudiated wife wandered towards Albany, settled first at Watervliet, and held meetings. These meetings, however, appeared to the Americans so suspicious, (it was during the time of the revolution,) that the good lady was arrested at Albany with several of her friends, and transported to the neighbourhood of New York, in order to give her in charge to the English, who then held the city. But she soon returned again to Watervliet, and her faithful adherents bought land near Niskayuna, between Albany and Schenectady, and settled there. A large part of this people, those particularly who had joined the sect in America, founded the colony of New Lebanon. Ann Lee died in Niskayuna, in 1784. As this sect conducted itself very quietly, and gave no public offence, the government allowed them to live in peace. The colony numbers about six hundred members, who are divided into families, some of which contain above one hundred individuals of both sexes. Each lives in a group of houses with an elder at their head. The elders of all the families form a counsel, which watches for the public good. They have for divine service a sort of preachers, two of each sex, who hold forth on Sundays. The greatest cleanliness prevails in the houses, equalled perhaps only by the hospital of Boston; the brethren live on one side, and the sisters on the other. They have a common eating-room, in which again each sex has its own side, but different working places. Both the brethren and the sisters live, generally, two individuals in one room, and two also sleep in the same bed. Many of the sisters, however, notwithstanding their good food, were pale and wan.

When a family wishes to join the Shakers, the relation of brother and sister, must immediately take place between husband and wife. The children are then brought up in Shaker principles. Orphans also find a home with them; still, however, unfavourable reports are circulated about the origin of these orphans. Of course, if the principles of these people should prevail, which, however, may heaven prevent, the world would soon be depopulated. In countries, however, with too great population, it might perhaps be of service to receive missionaries of this sect and promote proselytism.

Every family possesses a shop, where all things made by the family are laid out for sale. These articles generally consist of wooden utensils, sieves, brushes, harness, table-linen, somewhat coarse silver writing pens, very good rose water, &c. Besides, they sell books, exposing the doctrines of their sect, and containing the life of their founder, Ann Lee, whom they call mother Ann. They pay also much attention to the breeding of cattle, I.108 make good butter, and particularly good cheese, great quantities of which they sell. Their hogs are remarkably handsome, and cleanliness is also extended to them. It is a rare pleasure to walk about in a Shaker pig-sty! They have a large kitchen garden behind the church, where they raise vegetables, principally for the sake of seed, which is said to be here of a remarkably good kind. Medicinal herbs, roots, and berries, which they cultivate very carefully in a separate garden, and which, as I heard in Albany, are of a remarkably good quality, form a principal part of their commerce.

The governor’s letter every where procured me a good reception, as they generally lead strangers about the settlement with reluctance. The few men with whom I spoke, and who accompanied me, were elderly people, and had long ago become Shakers with their parents. An old man told me, that he had been one of the first adherents of mother Ann at her arrival in America. They were very polite to me, and appear to be somewhat monkish. They showed me also their church, which they do not generally do, Sundays excepted, as every body can attend their worship. My travelling plan did not allow me to pass a Sunday with them. The hall, which serves as their church, is about eighty feet long, and above fifty broad. On one side stand benches in form of an amphitheatre, for spectators and old members, to whom the dancing has become difficult. The floor consists of handsome cedar wood, which is well polished; the boards are attached to each other without nails. Service commences, as I was told, with a speech, which the congregation hear in a standing position, the sexes being again divided. Occasionally the spirit comes upon one or the other; they are so moved by the speech, that they begin to shake, and to make strange contortions. Then begin the prayers, which are sung, and during which, they dance. Every member has a spot about four feet square for jumping, and I was assured this service was done with such a zeal, that the vaulters sometimes fainted away.

We delayed too long with the Shakers to follow our plan of previously visiting Lebanon springs, and reach Albany the same day. We consequently gave up this design and returned to Albany; we were overtaken by the night, and a storm. It was so dark, that the driver could scarcely find the way; he therefore took a lantern against my advice. This was extinguished, and we were in a still worse situation. Two miles from Greenbush the driver left the road, went to the right towards a slope, and almost threw the stage entirely over; it fell on the right side, and my head and arm were injured, though but slightly. On my right side I was much more hurt, and one of my ribs was actually broken, as it was afterwards discovered. Mr. Tromp had his I.109 head and one of his hands injured. As we had no baggage, and were but two miles from Greenbush, we resolved to leave the stage where it was, and walked to Greenbush. At about eleven o’clock we reached the river. Not a soul was in the street; the lights were all extinguished, and the ferry boats were on the other side of the river. Our shouting was of no avail; the pain in my side also prevented me from calling. In about half an hour, however, the stage arrived, which the driver had raised with the help of some farmers; and he made such a terrible noise, that at last, after waiting an hour, the ferry boats came to take us to Albany. In riding through the city the jolting of the stage gave me much pain. On leaving the stage at twelve o’clock I could scarcely speak or walk on account of my side, which I had also injured two years previously, on my passage from Ostend to London, and since that time it had constantly retained a painful sensation.

The next morning I awoke with such dreadful pain in my right side, that I could scarcely move in bed. The obliging Sir Michael Clare gave me every assistance. He opened a vein in my arm, took sixteen ounces of blood, gave me a purgative, and ordered embrocations to the side, by which treatment the pain had so much abated in the afternoon, that I could move with more ease. I was, however, confined the whole day to my bed. The Van Rensselaer family showed me much attention. On the second day I could indeed leave the bed, but still not continue my journey. On the third day, September 16th, Sir Michael and Lady Clare left Albany for Boston, whence they were going to New York. My pains had not much abated, but I nevertheless resolved to proceed to New York, as I had read in the papers that the Pallas had arrived there, and as I wished to receive the attendance of Dr. Schilett. I was indeed obliged to relinquish my design of seeing Catskill Mountains, but thought of stopping at West Point to visit the military school.

At ten o’clock we embarked on board the steam-boat Richmond. The banks of the Hudson are very handsome, and here and there well cultivated. From Albany to New York it is one hundred and forty-four miles, and to West Point ninety-six. Hudson, a place twenty-seven and a half miles from Albany, which we reached at noon, seems to be very handsome and lively. We remarked in the harbour several sloops, and on shore some brick stores, five stories high. On the opposite side of the river lies Athens, between which and Hudson there seems to be much communication kept up by a team-boat. A very low island in the middle of the stream between the two places rendered this communication somewhat difficult at first, as vessels I.110 were obliged to make a great circuit. To avoid this inconvenience, a canal was cut through the island, through which the team-boat now passes with ease and rapidity. This place affords a very fine view of the lofty Catskill Mountains.

About eleven o’clock at night we arrived at West Point, on the right side of the Hudson, and landed at a wharf furnished with a sentry-box. An artillerist, who stood sentinel, examined us. I afterwards discovered that this rule was made on account of the visits which the cadets receive. We were obliged to ascend a somewhat steep road in order to reach the house, which is prepared for the reception of strangers. A small but very clean room was prepared for us. The building belongs to the government, and is designed for the mess-room of the officers and cadets. The purveyor for this table is bound by contract with government to keep several chambers with beds in order, for the reception of the relations of the cadets, and thus a kind of inn arose.

The morning after our arrival we paid an early visit to lieutenant-colonel Thayer, superintendent of the military school, and were received in a very friendly manner. He has presided over this school eight years. It was founded in 1802, during the presidency of Jefferson. Colonel Thayer has entirely remodelled this institution. During his travels in Europe he visited the French military schools, and has endeavoured to make this resemble the polytechnic school. But he will find it difficult to equal this once celebrated school, as with the best will in the world he cannot find in this country such excellent professors as were assembled in that institution. The cadets, whose number may amount to two hundred and fifty, but at the last examination consisted of two hundred and twenty-one, are divided into four classes for the purposes of instruction. They are received between the ages of fourteen and twenty, undergo an examination before they enter, and must then pass a probationary term of half a year, during which time the mathematics are chiefly studied. After six months the young men are examined on the instruction which they have received, and those only who pass this ordeal continue in the school; the others are dismissed.

Instruction is communicated gratuitously to the cadets, each of whom receives monthly eight dollars from government as wages. A public examination of the cadets takes place every year at the end of June, by a commission, appointed by the secretary of war. This commission consists of staff-officers from the army and navy, members of congress, governors of states, learned men, and other distinguished citizens. After this examination, the best among those who have finished their course are appointed as officers in the army; the very best may choose the corps in which they wish I.111 to serve. The others receive stations, according to their capacity, in the following order: engineers, artillerists, infantry, marines. Should even these corps have the necessary number of officers, these young men as supernumeraries, receive full pay. At the examinations also, the cadets advance from one class to another. The names of the five best in each class are made known in the newspapers, and also printed in the army list, which appears every year. This is certainly an encouraging arrangement, and worthy of imitation.

The discipline of the cadets is very rigid; they leave the school only as officers, on which account their noviciate in the corps of cadets serves as a practical school of passive obedience. The punishments consist of arrest, which, however, does not interrupt the course of instruction; but when a case occurs that a cadet is to be punished a second time for the same fault, he is dismissed. The same takes place when after two public examinations he has not learned enough to advance into a higher class.

The day is thus divided in this school:—

From day-break till sunrise.—Reveillé at day-break—roll-call after reveillé—cleaning of rooms, arms and dress—half an hour after roll-call, inspection of the rooms.

From sunrise till seven o’clock.—First class, military engineering.—Second, natural and experimental philosophy.—Third and fourth, mathematics.

From seven till eight o’clock.—Breakfast at seven o’clock.—Parade at half past seven.—Class parade at eight o’clock.

From eight till eleven o’clock.—First class, recitations and engineer and military drawing.—Second, natural and experimental philosophy.—Third and fourth, mathematical recitations.

From eleven till twelve o’clock.—First class, lectures on engineer and military sciences.—Second, lectures on natural and experimental philosophy.—Third and fourth, mathematical studies.

From twelve till one o’clock.—First class, Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, lectures on chemistry applied to mechanics and the arts, or mineralogy and geology.—Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, studies on the same subjects.—Second, Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, lectures on chemistry.—Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, studies on the same subject.—Third, French recitations.—Fourth, French studies and recitations.

From one till two o’clock.—Dinner very plain and frugal at one o’clock—recreation after dinner till two o’clock.

From two till four o’clock.—First class, studies and recitations in geography, history, belles lettres and national laws.—Second, I.112 landscape and topographical drawing.—Third, Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, drawing of the human figure.—Tuesday and Thursday, studies of the French language.—Fourth, French studies and recitations.

From four o’clock till sunset.—Military exercises—inspection of the dress and roll-call at sunset.

From sunset till half an hour later.—Supper immediately after parade—signal to go to the rooms immediately after the supper.

Half an hour after sunset till half past nine.—First class, studies on engineer and military sciences.—Second, studies on natural and experimental philosophy.—Third and fourth, mathematical studies.

From half past nine till ten o’clock.—Retreat beat at half past nine—roll-call immediately after—signal to extinguish the lights and inspection of the rooms at ten o’clock.

TABLE

Of the Sciences taught and the Books used at West Point.

First Class. Course of fourth year.
SCIENCES. PARTICULAR SUBJECTS. TEXT BOOKS.

Engineering.

Instructors.

Capt. Douglass.
Lieut. Mordecai.

Artillery tactics.

Field and permanent fortifications.

Civil and military architecture and constructions.

Treatise on the Sciences of War and Fortification, by Guy de Vernon.

Traité des Machines, par Hachette.

Programme d’un Cours de Construction, par Sganzin.

History and belles-lettres.

Rev. Mr. M‘Ilvaine, Chaplain.

Geography.
History.
Moral philosophy.
Laws of nations.

Morse’s Geography.

Tytler’s Elements of General History.

Paley’s Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy.

Vattel’s Law of Nations.

Chemistry and Mineralogy.

Dr. Torrey.
Lieut. Prescott.

Application of chemistry to the arts.

Cleveland’s Treatise on Mineralogy and Chemistry.

Tactics.

Major Worth.
Capt. Hitchcock.
Lieut. C. Smith.

Lieut. Kinley, teacher of the Artillery.

Platoon—battalion—school and line-evolutions.

Exercises and manœuvres of artillery

Rules and Regulations for the Field-exercise and Manœuvres of Infantry.

Lallemand’s Treatise on Artillery.

I.113
2nd Class. Course of 3rd year.
SCIENCES. PARTICULAR SUBJECTS. TEXT BOOKS.

Natural and Experimental Philosophy.

Prof. Mansfield.
Lieut. S. Smith.
Lieut. Parrot.

Statistic, dynamic, hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, pneumatic.

Magnetism, electricity, optics, astronomy.

Gregory’s Treatise of Mechanics.

Newton’s Principia.

Enfield’s Institutes of Natural Philosophy.

Chemistry.

Chemical philosophy.

Henry’s Chemistry.

Drawing.

Capt. Douglass.

Drawing Master.

Gimbrede.
Landscape.

Topographical drawing.

3rd Class. Course of 2nd year.
SCIENCES. PARTICULAR SUBJECTS. TEXT BOOKS.

Mathematics.

Prof. Davies.
Lieut. Ross.
Lieut. Webster.
Lieut. Greene.
Lieut. Mahan.

Differential and integral calculus.

Analytic geometry.
Perspective shades.

Descriptive geometry and conic sections.

Traité du Calcul Différential et Intégral, par Lacroix.

Essai de Géométrie Analytique Appliquée aux Courbes et aux Surfaces du second ordre, par Biot.

Crozet’s Treatise on Perspective, Shades and Shadows.

Crozet’s Treatise on Descriptive Geometry and Conic Sections.

French Language.

Teachers.

Berard and Ducommun.

Translation from French into English.

Histoire de Gil Blas, les 3 derniers tomes.

Histoire de Charles XII. par Voltaire.

Drawing.

Drawing Master.

Gimbrede.
Human figure.
4th Class. Course of 1st year.
SCIENCES. PARTICULAR SUBJECTS. TEXT BOOKS.

Mathematics.

Surveying and measuring.

Trigonometry.
Geometry.
Algebra.

Treatise on Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, and on the Application of Algebra to Geometry, translated from the French of Lacroix and Bezout, by Professor Farrar.

Legendre’s Geometry.

Complement des Elémens d’Algébra, par Lacroix.

Lacroix’s Elements of Algebra.

French Language.

Translation from French into English.

Histoire de Gil Blas, tome I.

Berard’s Lecteur Français.

Berard’s French Grammar.

I.114

I was surprised to learn that the young men clean their rooms and clothes themselves, as well as make their own beds: only the cleaning of shoes and boots, and carrying of wood may be done by servants. But Colonel Thayer thinks, that if too many servants were in the school, the cadets would have too great an opportunity of remaining in connexion with the world, without the knowledge of the officers. The cadets are divided in four companies, and live in two large massive buildings, three stories high. In the older of the two buildings, two occupy one room; in the other, three are placed in one room. They sleep on mattresses, which are spread out on the floor in the evening, and have always two chambers, one for sleeping and the other for study.—This opens upon a long corridor. The cadets keep their arms also in their rooms. Their uniform consists of a grey jacket, with three rows of yellow buttons, bound with black cords; in winter, grey, in summer, white pantaloons; white leather equipments, as worn by the army, and, for fatigue service, leather caps. The officers wear the uniform of the artillery corps, to which they belong. Notwithstanding the extraordinarily fine situation of the school, the cadets have not a healthy appearance, perhaps because they have too little recreation.

After having seen the rich private library of Colonel Thayer, he took us to the school. We met with a class which was engaged in descriptive geometry. Several cadets, who stood at the board, demonstrated some problems of this science very correctly, and answered with great ease and accuracy some questions and objections, which Professor Davies made to them. We then attended a physical lecture of Lieutenant Prescott, which, however, appeared to be elementary; he explained the principles of the doctrine of heat, and then related the theory and history of the thermometer.

The institution possesses a fine library and a collection of maps, which receives constant additions. We found several of the newest German maps. Colonel Thayer is a man who labours under a disease with which they say I am also afflicted, namely, the bibliomania; on that account I continued a long time in this library. I remarked here, also, a full-length portrait of the former president, Jefferson, by Sully, of Philadelphia, and another of the engineer, General Williams, founder of the school.

The institution possesses four principal buildings. The two largest serve as barracks for the cadets, a third contains the mess-room and inn, and the fourth the church, chemical laboratory, library, and the hall for drawing, in which are some of the best drawings of the cadets. As a model of topographical drawing, they had taken the Montjoui of Gironna, designed according to the Atlas of Marshal G. St. Cyr. They have adopted the French I.115 manner of drawing plans; I saw, however, in the library, Lehmann’s work translated into English. A very fine marble bust of the Emperor Napoleon stands in the drawing-hall.

A large level space, consisting of several acres, lies in front of the buildings, forming a peninsula and commanding the navigation of the Hudson, above which it is elevated one hundred and eighty-eight feet. Towards the river it is surrounded with steep rocks, so that it would be difficult to ascend, unless by the usual way. At its junction with the main land, it is commanded by a mountain, whose summit is five hundred and ninety-six feet above the level of the river. This position called to my mind the plain below Lilienstein, in Saxony, opposite to Kœnigstein. On the summit of this mountain lie the ruins of Fort Putnam, so that the plain on which the buildings of the academy stand, is entirely insulated, and may be very well defended as well in the direction of the river as of the main land. During the revolution this fort was erected, like Fort Clinton, and was impregnable. To seize it, the English had recourse to bribery, and General Arnold, who commanded West Point, was on the point of delivering this position to them. This disgraceful treachery was fortunately prevented by the seizure of Major André. The tragical end of the major, and the flight of Arnold on board the English corvette Vulture, which lay at Verplank’s Point ready to receive him, are well known.

The above-mentioned Fort Clinton stood on the eastern point of the level, and was considered as a redoubt. It consisted of a crown-work of three bastions, and the redoubt which the two wings of the crown-work adjoined. The redoubt stands on the extreme point of the rock, and the remains of the battery can still be seen in it, which completely commanded the river, both above and below West Point. The fort is now in a state of dilapidation, and the foundations of the buildings alone, are to be seen. During the revolution, chains were extended here across the river. On the left side, in an oblique direction towards West Point, is another rock, not so high, and similar to a peninsula, washed by the Hudson on three sides and separated from the main land by a morass. Two redoubts stood on this rock, in order to have complete control over the river.

Besides the above-mentioned buildings, several houses and gardens are situated on the plain of West Point, occupied by the officers and professors. Large wooden barracks also stand here, inhabited by a company of artillerists, and some soldiers condemned to confinement in irons, who are employed to blast the rocks. These culprits have a long chain attached to one foot, and the other end of the chain is fastened to a twenty-four pound ball, which they must either drag or carry. Three iron six I.116 pounders stand in front of the barracks. The Americans use iron cannon, like the Swedes, and are very well satisfied with them. At another place on the same plain, we saw five six pounders, with which the cadets exercise. Three are French pieces, presented to the Americans by Louis XVI. decorated with the French arms; and the motto, ultima ratio regum. The two other pieces are English, were taken during the revolution, and as an inscription says, were given by congress to General Greene as a reward for his conduct in the south of the United States during the war. His heirs have not yet reclaimed them, and they consequently remain here. A pyramid of white marble not far from these pieces was, according to the inscription, erected by General Brown, to the memory of Lieutenant-Colonel Wood, a pupil of this school, who fell in 1814, at a sally of Fort Erie.

In the evening we saw the cadets exercise; they form a small battalion of four divisions, and are commanded by their officers, and the eldest cadets of the first class, who wear officer’s scarfs, and swords. The young men perform their exercises uncommonly well, and I was gratified at the good order which prevailed. A band of music, paid by the government, belongs exclusively to them, and is said to afford the best military music in the United States. Every one has his taste, but I must confess that even the celebrated music of the English guards, and the American music, are far behind that of the French, Netherlanders, and Germans.

In company with Colonel Thayer, we crossed the Hudson to visit an iron foundry which belongs to a society, whose director is Mr. Campbell, a friend of Colonel Thayer. Two high furnaces are in constant employment, as the foundry furnishes all the iron arms which government requires. One piece had just been cast, and we saw several other pieces cast from a new high furnace. Next to the foundry is a building for boring the guns, in which ten pieces may be bored at once; for this purpose they lie in a horizontal position, the machinery being turned by a large wheel. As, however, in hot and very dry summers, or in very cold winters, the water now and then fails, they contemplate substituting a steam-engine in place of water-power.

Notwithstanding my injured side, I ascended the rocky mountain on which the ruins of Fort Putnam lie. My way led through a handsome forest of oak, beech, chesnut, and walnut trees. The fort occupied the summit of the mountain, was erected in an indented form, of strong granite, and is altogether inaccessible on the side next the enemy. It had but a single entrance, with very strong casemates, and two small powder-magazines. It was built during the revolution on private property; the owner of the ground claimed it, and government were obliged to restore it to I.117 him, after which he destroyed the fort. The government afterwards acquired the ground on which West Point stands, as well as the adjoining heights. It appeared to me, if not necessary, still to be useful to build Fort Putnam again, in order to complete the important position of West Point, which can serve in time of war as a fortified camp, or place of refuge for the people, &c. as impregnable as it was before. But to my astonishment, I learned that this would probably not take place, that on the contrary, with regard to the defence of the country, reliance was placed on the fortified entrance of New York, and that in general in the interior of the country no fortifications would probably be made. They appear to think that the impregnability of the country particularly consists in having no powerful neighbours; that England could not send over a strong army, and that even if this should happen, England would be obliged to scatter her strength too much, so that single corps could be subdued with ease. This view appears to me doubtful; I wish from my heart that these excellent people may never find by experience, that they have deceived themselves. But security, when too great, is always dangerous. A very fine view is enjoyed from Fort Putnam of the plain of West Point, and of the Hudson, which here calls to mind the high banks of the Rhine. The view to the north is particularly handsome, in which direction Newburgh, lying on the river, is seen in the back ground. We saw nothing of the Catskill mountains.

We went with Colonel Thayer and the cadets to church. The chaplain of the academy, Dr. M‘Ilvaine, an Episcopalian clergyman, performed divine service. The sermon was very good and sensible, and very well adapted to the young men. He proposed several objections which are made against the superiority of the Christian religion, and refuted them all, by deriving his arguments from the new testament and human reason. I was much pleased with the deportment of the cadets in the church, a deportment which is not always observed in young people in other countries at such times.

The topographical drawings which the cadets make, and according to which they are instructed in fortification, were shown to me by the excellent Captain Douglass, teacher of engineering. The so called modern system, or the Carnmontaigne system, improved by the French engineers, forms the basis of the instruction. Captain Douglass, who also instructs them in the formation of roads and bridges, makes use of Wiebeking. Many of the cadets who do not intend to remain in the military service as officers, being bound to remain but one year in service, after leaving the academy, serve each in his own state, as civil engineers, and perform very essential services. All officers of I.118 the army and navy are now supplied by cadets from the academy; for there are no cadets in the regiments, and in time of peace no subaltern officers are promoted.

I was very sorry that we were obliged on the third day after our arrival to leave this agreeable place, which had so extremely pleased me; but I was obliged to go to New York at last! Our West Point friends accompanied us to the steam-boat, and here we took an affectionate farewell. A Captain Randolph, of Virginia, with whom I had become acquainted at West Point, with his wife, went also to New York, so that I was agreeably entertained on board; the boat was so filled with people, we scarcely found room at the dinner-table. The shores continue to be handsome. We passed several handsome places and country-seats, which denoted that we were on the road to a large and flourishing city. At a turn of the river the shores approximate, and here stands a handsome country-seat with a garden, called Verplank’s Point; opposite is a fort, Stony Point, the possession of which was disputed during the revolution by several bloody fights. The situation of Singsing, where there is a house of correction, is very handsome. We saw the offenders engaged in blasting rocks. The stream now becomes broad, and forms two successive bays, the former Haverstraw Bay, and the other Tappan Sea. On the right shore of the latter is the town of Tappan, where, condemned by the court-marshal as a spy, Major André was hung and buried. The English government ordered him to be dug up some years ago, and his remains to be transported to England, if I am not mistaken, to be laid in Westminster Abbey, whilst the remains of General Fraser, who fell like a hero in open battle, at the head of the royal troops, still lies without the slightest memorial in the old redoubt of Stillwater! The tree which grew on André’s grave was also taken to England, and as I was assured, transplanted to the Royal Garden, behind Carlton Palace!!

Below Tappan Sea, the shores again approximate, and the right side becomes very steep, resembling the rocks near Pirna, on the Elbe, and are called the palisades. After sundown we came into the vicinity of New York, the largest city in the United States, which attracts nearly the whole commerce of the country, and now already numbers one hundred and seventy thousand inhabitants. We landed about eight o’clock in the evening, and on account of the incredible number of strangers could not obtain lodgings at five different taverns. At last we were very glad, after much fatigue from running about, to find a miserable bed-chamber in a common and ordinary tavern, the Theatre Hotel, handsomely situated near the park and theatre.

I.119

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CHAPTER X.

Stay at New York.

On the ensuing morning, we removed for the present to a French boarding-house, No. 76, Broad street; and I took a first walk through the city, in order to acquire some general knowledge of it. The city is partly built in a regular style; the streets are badly paved, but the side-walks are good, and there are not so many hogs running at large as in Albany. I was particularly pleased with Broadway, the principal street. This is three miles long, very wide, has elegant stores, and very pleasant side-walks. The Park is likewise very handsome, as well as the City Hall, which is situated in its centre, and is called one of the handsomest buildings in the United States. However, I was not exceedingly pleased with it, finding neither there, nor in the churches of this city, a remarkably fine style of building. There is a great number of churches, and most of them have church-yards attached; but for some years past they have interred their dead in cemetries, which are situated out of town. At a church near the Park, I observed a monument in memory of General Montgomery, who died in attacking the city of Quebec; this monument is not very tasteful.I.11

Back of the City Hall is a large building, called American Museum. It contains a number of curiosities from the animal and mineral kingdoms, put up in very good order in two large halls. A considerable collection of American birds occupies nearly the entire walls of one hall; there are numbers of quadrupeds, though less perfect; an interesting collection of fishes very well preserved, and a fine series of turtles, from a gigantic species,I.12 seven feet six inches long, down to the smallest; there was likewise a considerable series of crustaceous animals; a small collection of minerals, and these without arrangement. Besides, there were various Indian weapons, dresses, and other curiosities; ancient and modern arms of different nations, &c. a helmet of the first regiment of the Duke of Naussau, found on the field of Waterloo; several Italian antiquities, the most of them small lamps and other trifles. There is a large and exceedingly beautiful specimen of rock crystal, I.120 weighing two hundred and twelve pounds, found in a Mexican silver mine. An Indian mummy is likewise very interesting; this was found in the year 1814, near Glasgow, state of Kentucky, nine feet under ground, in a nitre cavern, two thousand yards distant from the entrance; it is in a sitting posture, and was enveloped with deer-skins and Indian cloth. In addition to various miscellaneous articles, there was a number of miserable wax figures and paintings.

The battery, to which I walked, is at the southern extremity of the city and island of New York; there was formerly a Dutch fort here, but it has been pulled down, and the place altered into a public garden, which gives a fine perspective of the entrance of the bay, and of Long Island. West of the battery, in the Hudson river, is a fort, called Castle Clinton, communicating with the battery by a wooden bridge, ninety paces long. This fort forms a semicircle; on the diameter are the former barracks, and behind the walls, which form the semicircle, a battery of twenty-four guns, under casemates. North of this fort, on the same shore, in front of the city, are two other forts of the same description, called North Battery and Fort Gansevoort; being of no use they are abandoned. Castle Clinton is now a public pleasure house. In the barrack is a coffee-house; boxes for parties are arranged within the battery, and on the platform are amphitheatrical seats, because the yard of the fort is used for fire-works, and other exhibitions. From the battery I walked to Brooklyn ferry, and was delighted with the large number of vessels, and the great life and bustle. Brooklyn is situated on Long Island, opposite to New York. The straight, called East river, at Brooklyn, requires about seven minutes and a half to cross it; there are two steam-boats and two team-boats continually crossing. Brooklyn appears to be a flourishing little town, judging by the quantity of stores which are established there. I passed to the left, and after having walked upwards of a mile, spent some hours at the navy-yard, and returned to the city exceedingly fatigued, on account of the great distance.

I went on board of the Pallas with Mr. Hone, president of the Canal Bank of this city, a rich and respectable man, and with Mr. Derviter, a merchant of this city, and a native of Grammont, in Flanders. The Pallas rode at anchor in the Hudson, between New York and Jersey City, a little village in the state of New Jersey, opposite New York, on the right side of the river. Soon after our arrival, boats likewise arrived with some ladies, who had wished to see the Pallas. As the cabin was but small and narrow, the ladies were served, by Captain Ryk, with an elegant luncheon on deck, under an awning; they were some of the most amiable and fashionable ladies of the city, and remained I.121 on board till three o’clock, and then went on shore during a pretty heavy storm.

On returning home at night, I observed that the streets were not well lighted. I was afterwards informed, that the corporation of the city was just engaged in a quarrel with the gas-company relative to the lamps; this quarrel protracted the inconvenience, though it was somewhat lessened by the numerous stores, which are kept open till a late hour, and are very splendidly lighted with gas. The gas-lights burn in handsome figures; at a music store, I saw one in form of a harp.

An eminent physician of this city, Dr. David Hosack, who, since his second marriage, is said to have an annual income of twenty thousand dollars, receives every Saturday night, during the winter season, the professional gentlemen of the city, and distinguished foreigners. His library, and collection of engravings, is then opened for the use of the visitors, and a discourse is sometimes delivered. This learned and obliging gentleman, offered himself to me as a guide through the city; I accepted his politeness, and visited several interesting institutions in his company.

The City Hospital was built in the year 1770, by voluntary contributions, and is supported by the interest of its capital, and by the state government. The building is of blue stone, and stands on high ground, in a very healthy situation. An avenue of old and high elm trees leads to it. In the first story is a large room, where the board meet; this contains the library, which is particularly rich in botanical works. In the basement is the kitchen, and several wards for syphilitic patients. They intended to establish a new hospital for these patients, like the lunatic asylum, formerly in one of the wings of this hospital, which is now established out of town. There may be accommodated in this hospital altogether four hundred patients of both sexes. They are attended to by nurses in large wards, each of them containing about sixteen beds. The bedsteads are of wood; upon inquiring why they were not of iron, they replied, they were afraid to use them, on account of the heavy thunder-storms which frequently occur. Six physicians and four surgeons are attached to the hospital, and alternately attend. One physician and one surgeon live free of expense in the hospital, and one of them must always be present for extraordinary cases. The apothecary’s shop attached to the hospital is kept very neatly; however, it appeared to me to be inferior to those in the hospitals of Boston and Montreal.

For the purpose of visiting the newly-erected lunatic asylum, we called upon Thomas Eddy,I.13 an aged and venerable Quaker, I.122 who is at the head of the hospitals, charitable institutions, &c. I was introduced to him at Dr. Hosack’s. We found Mr. Eddy at home, with his two daughters, his son, and partner, who is likewise a Quaker. The family was dressed in the plainest style, and this simplicity joined to the greatest cleanliness, prevailed through the whole house. Mr. Eddy is in possession of a fine library, which he showed us; it contained several splendid works on natural science; among others, Wilson’s American Ornithology, with the splendid supplementary volume published by Charles Lucian Buonaparte, son of Lucian Buonaparte. Mr. Eddy then drove with us to the country-seat of Dr. Hosack, on the East River, opposite the navy-yard. Dr. Hosack, who was formerly married to a sister of Mr. Eddy, accompanied us to the Lunatic Asylum. This is five miles from the city, on a hill, in a very healthy situation, not far from the Hudson River. The road lies between country-seats and handsome gardens, and it is one of the most pleasant places I have seen in America.

The asylum is built of sand-stone, is three stories high, and surrounded by a garden; it was built mostly by subscription, but is likewise supported by the state government. Mr. Eddy is one of its greatest benefactors and patrons. There were one hundred and thirty-three maniacs, by which number the building was almost filled; they were about to enlarge it by two other wings. Besides the meeting rooms for the committee in the first story, there are the apothecary’s shop, and the wards for the poor patients, who have a large corridor and sitting room. One wing of the building is inhabited by the male, and the other by the female patients. There are subterraneous passages from the corridors to the large yard, which is surrounded by walls, and serve the patients for walking, exercise, and play. In the middle of each yard is a shelter supplied with benches, for bad weather. In the upper stories are the rooms for the inspectors, and several other apartments where patients may live separately. In the whole establishment great cleanliness is observed; but still the institution appeared to me less perfect than the asylum of Boston, or that of Glasgow in Scotland. The garden is kept in very good order; there is likewise a hot-house, which is supplied mostly from Dr. Hosack’s collection. On the roof of the house is a platform, from which we had a very pleasant and extensive view.

A Philosophical Society hold their meetings in the same building containing the American Museum. In one of the rooms is a collection of minerals, not yet very extensive, but exhibiting many fine minerals from the northern frontiers of the United States. Another saloon contains a collection of paintings, which do not appear to be very valuable. The best picture was a portrait of the celebrated American painter, Benjamin West, who I.123 died in London; this picture is from the masterly pencil of Sir Thomas Lawrence. There are two paintings by Teniers, and two others by Salvator Rosa. I was particularly pleased with one of the latter; an old soldier praying in a wild landscape before a simple cross! Two other paintings are said to be by Rubens: among these I observed a portrait of Rubens, of which the original is in the collection of Mr. Schamp, at Ghent. There are likewise good plaster-casts of the best Roman antiques, of a Venus of Milo, and the three Graces of Canova, and likewise two gladiators of full size by the same artist.

The house of Commodore ChaunceyI.14 is situated on a hill in the navy-yard, which affords a fine view of the wharf and Long Island. The commodore took a walk with me to the wharf. As I left his house, I was escorted by a guard of honour of thirty marines, commanded by a captain; in the meantime the man-of-war Franklin saluted me with twenty-one guns. This mark of respect was quite unexpected in the United States, and of course I was the more surprised and flattered.

In the navy-yard two frigates and two corvettes, not yet named, were building; one frigate was finished, but was still under cover. Both frigates are called forty-fours, but carry each sixty-four guns. These are intended to be thirty-two pounders, which is now the common calibre of the navy of the United States. The vessels are built of live oak, from North Carolina; the timbers are salted in order to prevent the dry-rot. The three ships of the line, Franklin, Washington, and Ohio, were in ordinary; they are called seventy-fours, but the two first are each calculated for eighty-six and the latter for one hundred and six guns. I saw likewise the renowned steam-frigate Fulton the First, of which many fables have been fabricated in Europe. The schooner Shark, of eight guns, was perfectly fitted out, and ready to sail in a few days for the coast of Africa, in order to prevent the slave-trade.

At a second visit, we first went on board the steam-frigate, Fulton the First; this vessel is entirely disarmed, and serves as a receiving ship. She is a floating battery, and was to carry thirty thirty-two pounders. Her sides are six feet thick, made of oak timbers, which are fixed upon and crossing each other, so that the vessel may be compared to a floating block-house. Her machinery resembles that of a team-boat: she has two parallel keels, between these an engine of one hundred and twenty-horse power is fixed, and one large wheel is moved by it. The vessel is very spacious: in several places reverberatory furnaces may be added, in order to heat balls red-hot. Before this frigate was I.124 dismantled, she carried two small masts with triangular sails, but the commodore has substituted large masts with the usual sails, for the instruction of the sailors. The machinery had been taken out for some months, and placed in an arsenal on the wharf: the place it had occupied was covered with boards, to make a common deck for the sailors. Since that time an upper deck has been built, upon which are comfortable state-rooms for the officers. This frigate has been spoken of as a real miracle; that she presented towards the enemy a forest of swords and lances, and threw a stream of boiling water, &c. all of these are stories. Her construction during the latter part of the war with England was merely an experiment, though it caused the English a great deal of anxiety. All competent judges with whom I conversed concerning this vessel, objected to her and were of opinion that this large body could only be used to defend straits. She never was at sea, and some feared that she would be unfit for it. Moreover, as the navy-board at Washington having objections to the further application of steam to ships of war, it is probable that they will discontinue the building of more steam-frigates, although the machinery of a second is already finished and placed in the magazine.

We were likewise on board of the two ships of the line, Ohio and Franklin. The Ohio is of a new construction, and has not yet been in service; the Franklin and Washington, however, have already made several voyages. The sides of the Ohio are thicker than those of the other ships, and her decks higher: all these men of war have not the modern round, but broad sterns, in each of which is a battery of twelve guns. Only one of the frigates, still standing on the stocks, has an elliptical stern, which unites the defensive power of the round, with the elegance of the broad sterns.

Every thing appears to be in an improving state at the arsenal. In the house where the office of the commodore and his agents is kept, there is a hall fitted up as a chapel; this serves during the week as a school-room for the midshipmen; we found these young gentlemen engaged in their mathematical studies, under the direction of the chaplain.

In the harbour we visited two Liverpool packet-ships, the William Thompson and the Pacific. Every regular mode of communication between two places, by stages, steam-boats, &c. is here called a line. Two years since, I saw the packet-ship Cortez, at Liverpool, and admired her elegant arrangements; but these two vessels were far superior to her in regard to elegance and comfort. Both have a large dining room, and in its centre a long mahogany table; on both sides of the dining room are the state-rooms, each of them containing two beds one above the other, I.125 and a wash-table. In this cabin there are ten of these state-rooms, five on each side, and, besides, near the windows in the stern of the ship, there are two state-rooms having but one bed, so that twenty-two gentlemen may be accommodated. The mizen-mast passes through the cabin and table. The cabin is lighted partly by the windows in the stern and partly by a large skylight; the state-rooms receive their light by patent deck-lights. There is another room in front of the dining room, for the ladies, near the mainmast, where the motion of the vessel is the least felt; on each side of their room, are two state-rooms, for eight ladies. The sides of the dining room and ladies cabin are of mahogany and curled maple, with elegant looking-glasses. In the Pacific, between every two state-rooms there are columns of white marble. All the settees are of mahogany covered with black horse hair cushions, and the floors of both cabins are richly carpeted. The stairs which lead into the dining room, are likewise of mahogany and covered by a shelter, under which sea-sick passengers may sit on benches. There is likewise a roof over the poop, where passengers may walk and be sheltered from the rain and sun. The passage from New York to Liverpool costs but thirty guineas, for which price passengers are perfectly accommodated. Each packet is of about five hundred tons, and they sometimes make the passage in seventeen days. On the 1st and 16th of each month, one of the eight vessels of this line leaves New York for Liverpool, and on the same day another leaves Liverpool for New York.

On the first Sunday of my stay in New York, I visited the new Lutheran church, with the consul, Mr. Zimmerman. The service was in English, because there are at New York but few descendants of German parents who understand the German language. Dr. Schaeffer preached: he is a native of Philadelphia, and the son of a German clergyman; his sermon was good and not too long, but after the sermon came a lamentation upon the miserable state of the church funds, which was not particularly edifying. There appeared to be a deficit of eighteen thousand dollars, which the consistory tried to make up by subscription, to which the congregation was invited to contribute. Dr. Schaeffer’s congregation formerly belonged to an older Lutheran church, still existing in this city, but they parted from the latter and established a new church, though rather in too extravagant a style, as their expenses were disproportioned to their income. The minister besides complained of his own small salary, and implied that an augmentation would not be unpleasant to him, as he stood in need of it.

It is a difficult matter to ride in a carriage through the streets on Sunday, because there are chains stretched across in front of I.126 the churches, to prevent their passage during service. The land of liberty has also its chains!I.15

In this manner eight days soon elapsed, and amusement was not wanting, as my mind was occupied with interesting and useful novelties. I passed my time in cheerful and pleasant company. At dinner and evening parties I continued to make interesting acquaintances with men of different occupations and professions. I observed that the families I visited were richly furnished with silver, china, and glass; the fine arts also contributed to the ornament of their apartments. At the evening parties we commonly had music and dancing. The dinner parties consisted generally of from twenty to thirty persons, whose conversation was generally refined. In New York, as well as at all other places, where English customs prevail, the ladies leave the table during the dessert, and the gentlemen keep their seats; however, nobody is obliged to drink, unless he feels inclined. Every one rises and leaves the house without ceremony. The servants are generally negroes and mulattos; most of the white servants are Irish; the Americans have a great abhorrence of servitude. Liveries are not to be seen; the male servants wear frock coats. All the families complain of bad servants and their impudence, because the latter consider themselves on an equality with their employers. Of this insolence of servants I saw daily examples. Negroes and mulattos are abundant here, but they generally rank low, and are labourers. There are but a few slaves in the state of New York, and even these are to be freed in the year 1827, according to a law passed by senate of the state. There are public schools established for the instruction of coloured children, and I was told that these little ape-like creatures do sometimes learn very well. In the city there are several churches belonging to the coloured population; most of them are Methodists, some Episcopalians. A black minister, who was educated in an Episcopalian seminary, is said to be a good preacher. But there is in this country a great abhorrence of this class of people, who are obliged to live almost like the Indian Parias. In the army they are only employed as musicians, but are never admitted to be soldiers. Soldiers are not even allowed to be of mixed blood!I.16

Colonel Bankhead, of the second artillery regiment, who was I.127 on the recruiting service in this city, offered to show me the fortifications for the defence of the bay of New York. We sailed in a boat, along with General Swift and an engineer, first to Governor’s Island, opposite to New York.

Upon this small island is a fort of red sandstone, called Columbus; it consists of four bastions, which, on the city side, has still a covered work between two of the bastions, but further below, in the Narrows, new fortifications have been built, and therefore Fort Columbus is considered useless and is neglected. In the interior are the barracks and arsenals, the former in very good order, and inhabited by a company of artillery. I found a bible in each room, and was informed that it was a present from the New York Bible Society.

West of the fort, near the river, there is a tower after the style of Montalambert, called Castle Williams. This was commenced in 1803, and finished in 1811. Colonel Macrea of the artillery in the fort, received me with twenty-one guns. The officers have lodgings and gardens on the glacis of the fort; there is likewise a wooden barrack, which serves in time of war for a battalion of infantry; a large two-story brick house with a piazza, is intended for the head-quarters of the commanding general. Opposite to Castle Williams, are two small islands; on each of them is likewise a battery, called Fort Wood and Fort Gibson. These batteries appear but small, and the principal defence will be at Castle Williams, where also I observed furnaces for heating shot. From this spot there is a particularly fine view of the city.

We then sailed along the western shores of Long Island, to the straits called the Narrows, a thousand yards wide, and formed by the shores of Long Island and Staten Island. They are defended by Fort Tompkins on Staten Island, and Fort La Fayette on Long Island. We visited the latter; it is built on rocks in the sea, two hundred and fifty yards distant from the shores, so that it forms an island. It is a square building, and erected after a plan of General Swift. From the outside it has the appearance of a Montalambert tower. The outside of the walls is of red sandstone, but their interior of gneiss; it was garrisoned by one company of artillery. During peace a shed was built over the platform, and a garrison stationed here during the present hot summer.

Fort Tompkins stands on a height opposite to Fort La Fayette, and on the shore of Staten Island is a battery which defends the Narrows by a raking fire.

On Long Island is another hill near the village of New Utrecht which commands Fort La Fayette, and in the vicinity there is a bay, where the English and Hessian army landed in the year 1776, when coming from Staten Island to take possession I.128 of Long Island. In order to defend this spot sufficiently they are about to build a very strong fort designed by General Bernard, resembling Fort Francis, near Coblenz, (on the Rhine.) The casemates, calculated for dwellings as well as for defence, are to be built under the ramparts, whose front face will be three hundred and seventy-five feet long: they are to be covered with earth, and a common rampart erected on top of them. In front of this is a covered way in the ditch, lower than the ramparts, with six guns, three on each side, for the defence of the ditch, &c. They were just beginning to build this fort, which is to be called Fort Hamilton, and the engineer-officers thought that it would not be finished in less than four years. The government has experienced the disadvantage of those buildings which were built by contract, and this well-arranged work will therefore be built under the immediate direction of government. General Bernard is a Frenchman; he was engineer at Antwerp, and obtained the attention and favour of the Emperor Napoleon by his great knowledge and modesty, who appointed him his aid. In 1815, he entered the service of the United States, at the recommendation of General La Fayette, and was appointed in the engineer corps under the title of assistant engineer, with the salary of a brigadier-general, but without wearing the uniform of the engineer corps, nor having any rank in the army.

He is a great acquisition to the corps, and I was somewhat astonished at the cool and indifferent manner in which they spoke of this distinguished engineer. The cause, however, of this coolness, undoubtedly is to be found in a silly misconception of patriotism; for the general is a foreigner, and frequent experience has shown that a foreigner in military service seldom enjoys satisfaction. Two new fortifications are to be built outside of the Narrows on rocks, in order still better to defend the entrance to New York, by firing crosswise at vessels, and are intended to serve as advanced posts to Forts La Fayette and Tompkins.

A gun-maker, by name of Ellis, received a patent for making repeating-guns; I visited him in company with Mr. Tromp. A repeating musket will fire frequently after being once loaded; it consists of a long tube, in which touch-holes are bored at certain distances, according to the number of shots it is intended to discharge. The musket is charged in the usual way, a piece of sole-leather is put upon the load, on this another charge, and again a piece of leather, &c. until the required number is introduced, according to the size of the tube. For each of these loads, whose height is known by a mark on the rod, there are touch-holes made on the right side of the tube, each of them closed by a valve. A box is attached to the lock, which primes itself, and I.129 moves downwards from the highest touch-hole to the lowest, until the shots are gradually discharged, one after the other, and in the same manner the valves of each touch-hole must be opened. This instrument was very interesting to me. Mr. Ellis has also made an experiment of his plan for the use of American troops, but it seems to me that such a tube would be much too long and too heavy, and the loading would consume too much time, not to speak of the difficulty of drilling a man to use this curious weapon. This idea struck me, and my opinion was confirmed as soon as I tried Mr. Ellis’s gun. The experiments I made with it, proved to me that particular care would be necessary in using it without danger. A musket of this nature, containing five charges, fired the two first separately, and the last three at once!

We also went with Mr. Tromp to several private wharves on the East river; the largest of these belongs to Mr. Bayard, my banker. On one of the wharves there was a frigate on the stocks, of sixty-four guns, intended for the Greeks; they worked very industriously, and hoped that she would depart for her destination next year. She was built of Carolina live oak like the government vessels. The advantage of this wood is said to be, that in addition to its durability, when balls strike it, they simply make a hole, without many splinters, which latter generally disable more men than the shot themselves. At another wharf lay a frigate of sixty-eight guns, with an elliptic stern; she was built for the republic of Colombia, and is nearly ready for sea; she is built like a ship of the line. Her gun-deck was so high that I could stand upright in it.I.17 On the upper deck the guns were disposed of in an irregular row, which gave this frigate still more the appearance of a ship of the line. The three masts raked somewhat like those of a schooner, which was said to be more fashionable than useful. When we came on board they were just finishing the officers cabins; they were built of mahogany and maple, roomy, and the state-rooms long, so that the officers are very comfortably situated. The cabins as well as the mess-rooms were below deck, therefore not in the way during an action. In the battery were only the rooms of the captain. There were also two other men of war on the stocks, of smaller dimensions, which are also said to be intended for Colombia. The guns of all these ships were manufactured at Mr. Campbell’s foundry, near West Point.

The house of the American Bible Society, to which I was accompanied by Mr. Eddy, was built by voluntary contributions I.130 of its members, and has been three years finished. It is four stories high, built of red sandstone and brick, and cost twenty-two thousand dollars. In the basement story is the office and place of deposit for bound bibles, which lie on shelves, ready to be sent away. The English bibles are sold at one dollar and forty cents, and the Spanish, of which a great number are printed and intended for South America, for one dollar and fifty cents. They also sell a great many new testaments separately.

In the office I saw a great collection of old and new bibles; among them I observed Walton’s Polyglot, of which I had already seen a copy in the library of Harvard College, near Boston; an old bible, printed in Switzerland, in the old German text; also a new very elegant folio bible, printed at Zurich; one in Irish, with the most singular type; a bible half in the Sclavonic and half in the Russian language; in showing the latter they told me that bible societies were prohibited in Russia; also two bibles in Chinese, one printed at Calcutta, and the other at Macao. The printing-office and the bookbindery of the society are in the second, third, and fourth stories of the building, and are in charge of a bookbinder and printer under certain contracts. In the garret they dry the fresh printed sheets. The English and Spanish bibles are stereotyped; they have now in operation twelve or thirteen presses; these presses are made of iron and very simple, but without a drawing a description of them would be unintelligible. To every press there is a workman, and a boy whose business it is to ink the form. At the bookbindery several women and girls are engaged to fold the sheets. These persons work in the third story, and in order to separate them entirely from the males, there is a separate stair for them to ascend. The large hall where the members of the bible society meet, is decorated with two portraits, one of Governor Jay, and the other of Dr. Boudinot, first president of the society.

The high school was also built by subscription; in this building three hundred boys are educated, not gratuitously, as in Boston, but by a quarterly payment, according to the class the boy is in. In the first class every child has to pay three dollars, in the second, five, in the third, seven dollars; the mode of instruction is the Lancasterian. In the lower classes are small children, some only four years old; they learn spelling, reading, writing, and the elements of arithmetic. The boys are generally commanded by the sound of a whistle, like sailors; they rise, seat themselves, take their slates, and put them away, form classes in order to change the different courses of instruction, all of which is done at the whistle of the instructors. In the middle class education is more extended; the children are instructed in grammar, English, Latin, history, geography, physics, and make I.131 likewise considerable progress in mathematics. In the highest class the boys are instructed in the higher mathematics, and are prepared to enter college. As I entered the school they were just receiving instruction in geography. The teacher asked, where is Weimar? The answer was, on the Rhine. The instructor then informed the children of the meritorious share my forefathers had in the Reformation, and praised the encouragement given in modern times to literature in Weimar. He spoke altogether with great enthusiasm of German literature, and concluded by wishing that the time might soon come, when instruction in the German language should be given at this school. As I left the room the scholars spontaneously applauded me, and I confess I was affected by it. In this higher class the orders are also given with a whistle, combined however with a small telegraph, which stands on the desk of the principal. This school, which is only seven years old, is already in possession of a very handsome mineralogical cabinet, and a small philosophical apparatus.

The institution for juvenile offenders is situated out of town; it is for children condemned by the court to imprisonment, and are thus confined in a separate prison to improve their principles by education. When they are improved, and have some education, they are then bound out to a farmer in the country, but if they are of an untameable disposition, and need stronger control, they are then disposed of as sailors. The girls are bound out as servants in the country. In order to have a good location for this institution, the society bought, of the United States government, a building, heretofore used as an arsenal, but become useless to the government on account of its distance from the water. It has existed but one year, and has at present forty-four juvenile delinquents. The sexes are separated, and each child occupies a distinct chamber. During the day they are mostly employed in learning, and in domestic occupations. As the building was not sufficiently large to receive all the offenders, a new one was built in the rear of the first, which the boys were employed in erecting. One of the boys who had escaped twice, walked about with an iron chain and heavy iron ball secured to his leg. A young man of respectable family, sixteen years old, who was imprisoned for his great propensity to stealing, was employed as a sub-instructor, account-keeper, and sub-overseer of the institution. Hopes are still entertained that he may be reclaimed.

From this institution, Mr. Eddy led me to another establishment, also founded and supported by voluntary contributions, viz. the Orphan Asylum. The house, in which there are one hundred children of both sexes, is in a very healthy situation; the rooms are large, and the children sleep in wards, which contain twelve beds. They are instructed in reading, writing, arithmetic, I.132 particularly in mental calculation, and at the age of twelve years they are bound out to farmers. Several of the boys were very expert in mental calculation, and solved the following questions with great facility:—How much is three hundred and twenty multiplied by three hundred and forty; how many days constitute three years seven months and twenty-one days? The manner of instruction is Lancasterian. The principal directors of this institution are Friends, among whom Mr. Collins is said to be the most distinguished.

With Mr. Eddy, I also visited the state-prison, which contains about five hundred and fifty prisoners of both sexes, and can receive seven hundred. The building stands in the village of Greenwich, was built about twenty years, and at that time stood quite insulated; since that period the population has so rapidly increased, that Greenwich is united with New York, and three sides of the prison are surrounded with rows of houses; the fourth faces the Hudson river. In front of the house are the offices and stores, behind this are two courts, which are separated by a church; one yard is for males, and the other for females. The dwellings surround the yards, and are three stories high. The prisoners sleep eight in a room, on straw mats, covered with woollen blankets; every sleeping room is separately locked; the eating-hall is spacious; the fare, good brown bread, soup, and three times a week meat; on other days, fish. The workshops are in appropriate buildings, partly built of wood, standing in separate yards. You find among them all kinds of handicrafts, and all domestic utensils and clothing are manufactured. Articles intended for sale, are generally wooden ware, brushes, and other household utensils. The prisoners receive no money, and if they are backward in working, or otherwise behave ill, they are subjected to solitary confinement, which soon brings them to their senses. There is nothing to object to this building, except that the stairs are of wood, and there is otherwise too much wood about the house, which appears to me dangerous, in case of fire.

On the second Sunday of my stay in this city, I went with the consul, Mr. Zimmerman, to a German Lutheran church, where the venerable Mr. Geisenheimer, performed the service in the German language. It was a curious accident, that, when I entered the church, they sung an ancient hymn, which was composed by Duke William, of Saxe-Weimar. My ancestor certainly never expected that one of the unworthiest of his descendants should, for the first time in his life hear, in the new world, that he had composed church music, and that this hymn should originally greet his ears in New York. The church is very old and inelegant; the congregation was plain: however, they are not in debt, and the church is moreover said to possess a good fund. I.133 The organ was good, and the performance of the organist pleasing.

I twice visited the theatre; in Chatham Theatre, situated at the extremity of a public garden, they performed the melo-drama of the Lady of the Lake tolerably well. I was much pleased with the inside of the theatre, and particularly with the decorations; it was full of people, and the heat extreme. Ladies of the first fashion do not go often to the theatre. In the pit persons pulled off their coats, in order to be cool. At the Park Theatre, so called because it is situated near the Park, the drama of William Tell was performed, and the after-piece of Love, Law and Physic. The first is by no means an imitation of Schiller’s drama, but entirely dressed up in English taste, with a full share of battles. Whenever any observation was made in favour of liberty, the pit applauded. The decorations were very handsome, and I was pleased with the internal arrangement of the theatre, but the spectators were not numerous. The visitors of the theatre are entirely unrestrained; the gentlemen keep on their hats in the boxes, and in the pit they make themselves in every respect comfortable.

On the afternoon of the third of October, there was a great procession of negroes, some of them well dressed, parading through the streets, two by two, preceded by music and a flag. An African club, called the Wilberforce Society, thus celebrated the anniversary of the abolition of slavery in New York, and concluded the day by a dinner and ball. The coloured people of New York, belonging to this society, have a fund of their own, raised by weekly subscription, which is employed in assisting sick and unfortunate blacks. This fund, contained in a sky-blue box, was carried in the procession; the treasurer holding in his hand a large gilt key; the rest of the officers wore ribands of several colours, and badges like the officers of free masons; marshals with long staves walked outside of the procession. During a quarter of an hour, scarcely any but black faces were to be seen in Broadway.

Mr. J. R. Livingston, a very respectable citizen of New York, whose country seat is at Massena, near Redhook, about a hundred miles up the Hudson river, near the little town called Hudson, invited me to visit him, and be present at a ball. I accepted the invitation, especially as I was informed I should find assembled there the best society, who generally reside during the summer in the country.

The Grymes’ family, which arrived at New York not long after me, were likewise of the party. Consequently we left New York on the 5th of October, on board the safety-barge Lady Van Rensselaer, for Albany. As Mr. Livingston had invited several I.134 other persons of the best families of New York, who were all on board, good conversation was not wanting. About half past five we started, but did not long enjoy the beauties of this noble river, as it soon became dark. During night we were awakened with the unpleasant news that the leading boat had run ashore in a fog. After five hours of useless exertion to get her afloat, we were obliged to go on board the steam-boat Henry Eckford, passing up the river. This boat was old, and no longer used for conveying passengers, but as a tow-boat. She had vessels attached to her, on both sides, laden with goods, which gave her the appearance of a ferry-boat. Though not very pleasantly situated on board of this boat, we had a good opportunity of observing the magnificent banks of the river after the fog disappeared. Instead of arriving at eight o’clock, A. M. we did not reach our place of destination till five o’clock P. M. We were received by the owner, a gentleman seventy-six years old, and his lovely daughter. The house is pleasantly situated on an elevated spot in a rather neglected park. Our new acquaintances mostly belonged to the Livingston family. I was introduced to Mr. Edward Livingston, member of congress, the brother of our entertainer, a gentleman, who for talent and personal character, stands high in this country. He resides in Louisiana, and is employed in preparing a new criminal code for that state, which is much praised by those who are acquainted with jurisprudence.

In the evening about eight o’clock, the company assembled at the ball, which was animated, and the ladies elegantly attired. They danced nothing but French contra-dances, for the American ladies have so much modesty that they object to waltzing. The ball continued until two o’clock in the morning. I became acquainted at this ball with two young officers from West Point, by the name of Bache, great grandsons of Dr. Franklin. Their grandmother was the only daughter of this worthy man; one is a lieutenant of the artillery at West Point, and the other was educated in the same excellent school, and obtained last year the first prize-medal; he was then appointed lieutenant of the engineer corps, and second professor of the science of engineering, under Professor Douglass. On the following day we took a ride in spite of the great heat, at which I was much astonished, as it was so late in the season, to the country-seat of General Montgomery’s widow, a lady eighty-two years of age, sister to the elder Messrs. Livingstons. General Montgomery fell before Quebec on the 31st of October, 1775. This worthy lady, at this advanced age, is still in possession of her mental faculties; her eyes were somewhat dim. Besides her place of residence, which is handsomely situated on the Hudson river, she possesses a good fortune. Adjoining the house is a small park I.135 with handsome walks, and a natural waterfall of forty feet. I observed in the house a portrait of General Montgomery, besides a great number of family portraits, which the Americans seem to value highly. According to this painting he must have been a very handsome man. At four o’clock in the afternoon we left our friendly landlord and embarked in the steam-boat Olive Branch, belonging to the Livingston family for New York, where we arrived next morning at six o’clock.

During the last day of my stay at New York, I received two interesting visits, one from the Prussian consul at Washington, Mr. Niederstetter, and the other from a Piedmontese count, Charles Vidua, who has made several journeys through Scandinavia, Turkey, Asia Minor, Palestine, Egypt, &c. and is now travelling through America. Afterwards I paid a few farewell visits. At Mr. Eddy’s I found a whole society of Quakers, men and women; they took much pains to convince me of the excellence of their sect, and seemed not disinclined to adopt me as one of their members; at least they desired me to read the letter of an English sea-captain, who resigned his situation as a captain in the British navy, and turned Quaker. Mr. Eddy gave me likewise Barclay’s Apology for the Quakers, in German, to read and reflect upon.

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CHAPTER XI.

Journey to Philadelphia.—Stay in that place.—Bethlehem and Nazareth.

On the 10th of October we left the city of New York in the steam-boat Thistle, which conveyed us to New Brunswick, through a thick fog which lasted all day. For several days past we had smoky, warm weather, which was ascribed to the burning of a forest in the state of Maine.

The shores of New Jersey seemed flat and swampy, resembling very much the Dutch banks. As we approached New Brunswick, the banks of the Raritan become higher. On our arrival, eight stages were already waiting for us, having each four horses, and the passengers were so numerous that each stage carried from eight to nine persons; we had hardly time to have our baggage packed, and consequently could see nothing of the neighbourhood. We continued our journey through New Brunswick, apparently a busy and well built place, thirty miles by land to Trenton, I.136 on the Delaware. The road led through a hilly country, but carefully turnpiked, several pits being filled up to make the road even. This road is formed somewhat according to the manner of German turnpikes, of small beaten stones, with side-roads and ditches. The neighbourhood is mostly woody, consisting of chesnuts and oaks. The forest has been regularly cleared of undergrowth, and has a cleanly appearance. In places where wood has been felled, the land is well cultivated with corn and fruit trees. Most of the good-looking houses we passed were provided with cider-presses. About four o’clock, P. M. we arrived at Trenton, and immediately embarked in the steam-boat Philadelphia.

I was very sorry for this great hurry, because I should have liked to have examined Trenton; it is a very handsome place, and was to me particularly interesting, on account of General Washington’s crossing the Delaware above Trenton, in the winter of 1776-77, and attacking a troop of Hessians, of whom he took one thousand four hundred prisoners. The Hessian Colonel Rall fell in this engagement. This was one of the best fought battles of the American war. There is, moreover, at Trenton, a remarkable bridge crossing the Delaware. It consists of five great suspended wooden arches which rest upon two stone abutments, and three stone piers. The difference between this bridge and others consists in this, that in common bridges the road runs over the tangent, but in this bridge, the roads form the segment of the arch. The bridge is divided in two roads in order that wagons may pass without meeting, and has also side-walks for foot-passengers.

The banks of the Delaware are hilly, well cultivated, and covered with elegant country-seats and villages. The neighbourhood, and the breadth of the river reminded me of the river Main, near Frankfort; unfortunately we could not enjoy this handsome landscape, because as soon as we arrived on board, we set down to dinner, and afterwards it became dark. Amongst other little towns, we passed Bordentown, where Count Survilliers, Joseph Buonaparte, ex-king of Spain, has a very handsome country-seat, and Burlington. About eight o’clock, P. M. we reached Philadelphia. Mr. Tromp, who left New York a few days before, came immediately on board, and conducted us to the Mansion House, where, though we were not so elegantly lodged as at New York, we found every thing neat and comfortable. Next morning we drove out early, in order to get acquainted with the city, which contains more than one hundred and twenty thousand inhabitants, and to observe some curiosities. We went up Market street over the Schuylkill. In the middle of this broad Market street or High street, the first objects we perceived were the market-houses; the long, straight, uniform streets, which I.137 appeared to be endless, seemed singular to us: they are mostly planted with poplars, and all provided with paved side-walks. In point of showiness of stores and bustle, the streets of Philadelphia are far behind New York.

The two bridges over the Schuylkill are of wood; Market street bridge, consists of three covered arches of very strong wood-work, which rest upon two stone piers, and two stone abutments. These piers and abutments are built upon a rock; the pier on the west side must have cost a great deal of labour, because the rock on which it stands, is dug out forty-one feet below low-water mark. It is said, that this pier required seventy-five thousand tons of stone. The length of this bridge including the piers, is one thousand three hundred feet, whereof the wood-work takes up five hundred and fifty feet; the extent of the middle arch amounts to one hundred and ninety feet, and the two others, each one hundred and fifty feet. A company, in the year 1798, began this bridge, and finished it in six years. At the east end of the bridge is an obelisk, which contains the following inscription: that besides the cost of the ground on which this bridge and its appendages stand, and which amount to forty thousand dollars, there were two hundred and thirty-five thousand dollars expended in building it; about a mile above this bridge there is another over the Schuylkill, which was finished in 1813, and cost one hundred and fifty thousand dollars; it is also of wood, and consists of a single arch, whose segment amounts to three hundred and forty feet, four inches; a toll is paid for crossing both bridges.

Somewhat north of the last bridge, and on the left bank of the Schuylkill are the water-works, by means of which the whole city of Philadelphia is supplied with water, even to the tops of the houses if wanting. The water of the Schuylkill is raised by aid of a dam; the water runs into a basin behind the dam as in a mill-pond; hence it drives by its fall three wheels, each of them sixteen feet in diameter, which are in an appropriate building. These wheels work three horizontal pumps, which force the water through iron pipes into the reservoir, ninety-two feet above the surface of the river. Within twenty-four hours, four million gallons of water can be pumped into the reservoirs. From these basins the water is conveyed by iron pipes into every part of the city. At certain distances there are hydrants, where hoses can be screwed on in case of fire. Generally, one wheel and one pump are worked, the others are kept in reserve, and are only used in case an extra quantity of water is needed, or in case of fire. This work has now been in operation for two years; it was designed by Mr. Graff, an hydraulic engineer; the whole establishment cost four hundred and thirty-two thousand I.138 five hundred and twelve dollars; the daily expenses, including two overseers, are five dollars. The dam has also rendered the upper part of the Schuylkill navigable, and in order to unite the upper with the lower part of the river, a canal with a lock to it, has been opened along the western side of the dam.

A high square pyramidal tower attracted our attention; it is a shot-tower, one hundred and sixty-six feet high. The melted lead, which is thrown through a tin box, whose apertures are suited to the size of shot wanting, falls from the whole height into water; while falling it forms itself into shot and becomes cold as it falls in the water. The different numbers of shot are intermixed; in order to separate the perfect from the imperfect shot, they put them in a flat basin, and by a certain motion in an oblique direction, the perfectly round ones roll down into a receiver, whilst the imperfect remain in the basin. After this they throw the good shot into a box of the shape of a bureau, with rockers like a cradle; the drawers have perforated tin bottoms, the upper drawer has the largest holes, and the lower the smallest; when the upper drawer is filled with shot, it is locked, and then the whole box is rocked for some minutes. Through this the shot is separated according to the size, and I believe there are fourteen different numbers. In order to give the shot a perfectly smooth surface, they throw it into a box which is attached to a wheel turned by water, and in this manner they are rolled for some time. They are then packed according to their number, in bags, and carried into the warehouse.

In front of the state house, whose lower floor is used as a court room, we saw a great assemblage of people; we heard it was the election of the common council. This state house is remarkable in an historical point of view, as being the place where the Declaration of Independence was signed, on the 4th of July, 1776, and in which the first Congress assembled, until its removal to Washington City. From the public houses in the vicinity, flags were displayed, to give notice what political party assembled there; hand-bills were sent all over town into the houses, to invite votes. From the tenor of these bills one might have concluded that the city was in great danger. The election, however, to our exceeding astonishment, passed over very peaceably.I.18

I.139

The Bank of the United States, which is situated in Chesnut street, is the handsomest building that I have yet beheld in this country; it is built of white marble, after the model of the Parthenon at Athens; its entrance is decorated by eight Doric columns, and large broad steps. White marble is very common here; the steps of most houses are made of it. The railings are generally of iron with bright brass knobs; even on the scrapers at the doors I observed these bright brass knobs. The private houses are generally built of brick, the kitchens, &c. are commonly in the cellar. I observed here a very good contrivance, which I also remarked in various cities of the United States, that there are openings through the foot-pavement, covered by a locked iron grate, which serves to throw wood, coal, &c. in the cellar, so that they need not be carried through the houses.

I visited several bookstores; the store of Messrs. Carey, Lea & Carey appeared to be well assorted; Tanner’s is the best mapstore.

The Philadelphia Museum was commenced by an artist, Charles Willson Peale, and was subsequently incorporated as a joint stock company. The most remarkable curiosity it contains is undoubtedly the famous skeleton of the mastodon, which has rendered this museum so celebrated. The height of the shoulders is eleven feet; the length of the animal, including the stooping of the back, from the point of the head to the tail, measures thirty-one feet, but in a straight line seventeen and a half feet; its two large tusks are ten feet seven inches long; one of the back teeth,—for there are no front teeth,—measures eighteen and a half inches in circumference, and weighs four pounds ten ounces. The whole skeleton weighs about one thousand pounds. I was somewhat astonished that the knee of the fore-foot bends backwards and not forwards.I.19 This skeleton was found in a swamp in the state of New York, and there is a painting representing the colossal machine and building, by which the skeleton I.140 was removed from the swamp. For the sake of contrast, they have put the skeleton of an elephant next the mastodon. Under its foot is the skeleton of a mouse.

The academy of fine arts is a collection of paintings and statues. The best works which we saw belong to Count Survilliers. Among these was the count’s own portrait, robed as king of Spain, the portrait of his lady, and his two daughters, while yet children, all painted by Gérard of Paris. There were four busts, one of Madame Mère, the queen of Naples, Madame Murat, the princess Borghese, and the empress Marie Louise; and last of all a statue, representing the infant king of Rome, all by Canova. Amongst other paintings I observed several from the Flemish school, very few Italian, but some very fine pieces by Granet, which represented the interior of an Italian cloister. Two large paintings, one representing the children of Niobe by Rehberg, and the other the raising from the dead by touching the bones of the prophet Elisha, by the American painter Allston; both have merit, but I was neither pleased with the colouring nor execution. The statues are mostly casts, copies of the most famous antiquities. I observed, however, amongst them, the Venus of Canova.

In wandering through the streets I was struck with a building having a dome similar to the Roman pantheon; it was a Baptist chapel. I accordingly entered; the interior arrangement was very simple, and offered nothing remarkable. In the midst of the chapel is the baptismal font for baptising grown persons; it is a marble bath, something in the manner of the bath in the palace of Weimar. While speaking on this subject, I will notice the various sects that have churches in this city. 1st, Catholics; 2d, Protestant Episcopal; 3d, Presbyterian; 4th, Scotch Presbyterian; 5th, Covenanters, or Reformed Presbyterians; 6th, Baptist; 7th, the Methodist; most of the coloured people belong to the latter sect; 8th, the Friends or Quakers; 9th, the Free Quakers; 10th, German Lutheran; 11th, German Reformed; 12th, Dutch Reformed; 13th, Universalists; 14th, Swedenborgians; 15th, Moravians, or United Brethren; 16th, Swedish Lutheran; 17th, Mount Zion; 18th, Menonists; 19th, Bible Christians; 20th, Mariners Church; 21st, Unitarians; and 22d, Israelites; and all these sects live peaceably in the vicinity of each other.

A merchant, Mr. Halbach, to whom I was introduced, took a walk with me to two gardens adjoining the city. One of these belongs to a rich merchant, Mr. Pratt, and is situated upon a rocky peninsula, formed by the Schuylkill, immediately above the water-works. The soil consists mostly of quartz and clay. The owner seldom comes there, and this is easy to be perceived, I.141 for instead of handsome grass-plots you see potatoes and turnips planted in the garden. The trees, however, are very handsome, mostly chesnut, and some hickory. I also observed particularly two large and strong tulip trees; the circumference of one was fifteen feet. In the hot-houses was a fine collection of orange trees, and a handsome collection of exotic plants, some of the order Euphorbia from South America; also a few palm trees. The gardener, an Englishman by birth, seemed to be well acquainted with his plants. Through a hydraulic machine the water is brought up from the river into several basins, and thence forced into the hot-houses. There was also in the garden a mineral spring of a ferruginous quality. From several spots in the garden there are fine views of the Schuylkill, whose banks, covered with trees, now in the fall of the year, have a striking and pleasant effect from the various hues of the foliage. The other garden, called Woodlands, belonged to the Hamilton family. The road led us through the village of Mantua, which altogether consists of country-seats, and where Mr. Halbach also has his country residence. Woodlands has more the appearance of an English park than Mr. Pratt’s country-seat; the dwelling house is large, and provided with two balconies, from both of which there is a very fine view, especially of the Schuylkill and floating bridge. Inside of the dwelling there is a handsome collection of pictures; several of them are of the Dutch school. What particularly struck me was a female figure, in entire dishabelle, laying on her back, with half-lifted eyes expressive of exquisite pleasure. There were also orange trees and hot-houses, superintended by a French gardener.

The navy-yard, which I visited with Mr. Tromp, was shown us by a lieutenant of the navy and major Miller of the marines; at the same time I became acquainted with the naval architect, Mr. Humphreys, who is considered one of the most skilful in his department in the United States. Three years ago he visited England and its dock-yards by order of the government. This navy-yard is not very large, for although ships are built here, yet they do not leave the yard perfectly equipped, as the Delaware is too shallow for completely armed ships of the line. On the stocks there was a ship of the line and a frigate yet incomplete, which, however, could be made ready for sea in a short time. The former is to carry one hundred and forty guns, and is said to be the largest vessel ever built. The frigate was of sixty-four guns. Each vessel had an elliptic stern, and was under cover. The house which covered the ship of the line is so large that I counted on one side one hundred and forty windows. Between the two houses the keel of a sloop of war is to be laid.I.20 I.142 There was no man-of-war here in actual service, but a small steam-brig in ordinary, called the Sea Gull, which had returned a few months ago from the West Indies, where she had been cruising after the pirates; she was now condemned as unseaworthy, and used as a receiving ship. Philadelphia is inhabited by many Germans and descendants of Germans; some respectable people among them have formed themselves into a German society, which has rendered great services, particularly to the unfortunate Germans who arrived here some years ago in great numbers. When those gentlemen heard of my arrival, they invited me to a dinner, given in honour of me. It took place on the 15th October, in the Masonic Hall, a large building, erected by the freemasons of this place, whose basement story contains a very handsome hall, which serves for public entertainments. The table was set for seventy persons; every thing was splendid.

Before dinner I was introduced to all the guests present; the descendants of Germans had almost forgotten their mother tongue; some of them were lawyers, some merchants, and some mechanics. At the dessert, several toasts were drank in honour of America and Germany, and also in honour of me; I of course thanked them in a short speech. Our waiters were blacks; even the music was performed by blacks, because white musicians will never perform at public entertainments. After every toast the music struck up; but our virtuosi were only acquainted with two German pieces. After drinking my health, they played “a dish and a song,” &c; and after the toast was given of “the German Athens,” they played “Oh thou dear Augustin,” &c. After the regular toasts by the president, Mr. Wampole, were finished, volunteer toasts were drank, ad infinitum. I soon retired to call upon Mr. Walsh, to whom I was introduced by letter.

At Mr. Walsh’s I found a numerous assembly, mostly of scientific and literary gentlemen. This assembly is called “Wistar Party;” it is a small learned circle which owes its existence to a Quaker physician, Dr. Wistar, who assembled all the literati and public characters of Philadelphia at his house, every Saturday evening, where all well-recommended foreigners were introduced. After his death, the society was continued by his friends, under the above title, with this difference, that they now assemble alternately at the houses of the members. The conversation generally relates to literary and scientific topics. I unexpectedly met Mr. E. Livingston in this assembly; I was also introduced to the mayor of the city, Mr. Watson, as well as most of the gentlemen present, whose interesting conversation afforded me much entertainment.

Mr. Shoemaker accompanied us to a Quaker meeting. The Quakers, as is well known, have no parsons, but sit quietly I.143 assembled until the spirit moves some one. The individual thus excited, then preaches, ad libitum, whether male or female. The meeting was very quiet when we entered, and remained quiet for more than an hour; the spirit moved no one; at last this fatiguing sitting terminated, and we went home unedified. The church, or rather the meeting-house, is very simple, without the least ornament; the whole hall is filled with benches, and on an elevated form sit the elders of both sexes, with those who are in the habit of preaching.

A Quaker, Mr. Vaux, is at the head of several public institutions in Philadelphia. I was introduced to him by Mr. Eddy: he received me kindly, although using the appellation “thou,”I.21 and promised to show me these institutions. The first objects we saw in his house, were paintings and copperplates referring to the first settlement of the Quakers in this state, and a model of a monument which is intended to be erected to the memory of William Penn. The model represented an obelisk, and was made of part of the elm tree under which this great benefactor of mankind concluded his treaty with the Indians.I.22 After that we drove to the new penitentiary, a prison which was built near the water-works.

Efforts have been made to abolish capital punishment in Pennsylvania, and to substitute solitary confinement, which hitherto has only been occasionally resorted to in the prisons, for offences committed there; it is even intended to inflict this punishment for life. It is also wished to separate prisoners condemned to hard labour, to give them their tasks in separate cells. For this purpose, a large square yard has been walled in, each side of which is six hundred and fifty feet long. This yard has but one entrance, over which is erected a Gothic building, to accommodate the officers, offices, watchrooms, and hospital wards. The portal has very much the appearance and strength of the gate of a fortification. In the middle of this yard is a round tower, which is intended for the watchmen, and from this central point, six wings run in an eccentric direction, containing the cells. Each wing consists of a vaulted corridor, which runs from one end of the wing to the other; on both sides of each of the six corridors are nineteen cells, whose entrance is from the outside. There is an opening in every cell, leading into the vaulted corridor, merely large enough to admit provisions; this aperture has a small iron door attached to it, only to be opened from the corridor. To every cell there is a yard, sixteen feet long and seven feet broad, I.144 surrounded by a wall twenty feet high: in this yard leading to the cell, the prisoner has the liberty of walking, provided the prisoners in the next cells are locked up. The cell itself is eight feet long and five feet broad, its entrance is low and small, and secured by a door and grate. The floor of the cell is of boards, the roof an arch which inclines outwardly, that the rain may run from it: a patent glass gives light to the prisoner. There are small apertures in the walls, in order to admit a current of air, and others to admit heated air during winter. Every cell has a water-closet, which is connected with the principal pipe, under the corridor, throughout all the length of the wings. They are not yet quite decided in what manner the prisoner is to sleep, whether in a bedstead or on a hammock.

I do not now wish to enter upon the question whether it is advisable to abolish capital punishment altogether or not, but I maintain that this solitary confinement, in which the prisoner is prohibited from all human converse, without work, exercise, and almost without fresh air, is even worse than punishment by death. From want of exercise they will certainly become sickly; from the want of work they will become unaccustomed to labour, and perhaps lose what skill they may have possessed heretofore in their trades, so that when restored to the world, they will be useless for any kind of business, and merely drag out a miserable existence. No book is allowed them but the bible. It appears therefore to me perfectly possible, that this insulation of the prisoner will be injurious to his mind, and drive him to fanaticism, enthusiasm, and even derangement. When Mr. Vaux asked my opinion of this prison, I could not refrain from answering him that it reminded me of the Spanish inquisition, as described by Llorente. Mr. Vaux answered that it is only an experiment to ascertain whether capital punishment can be abolished; but notwithstanding this philanthropic view, the experiment appears to me to be an expensive one, because the building has already cost three hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and the state of Pennsylvania will have to expend annually for its support, an immense sum. The first great object of a government ought to be to provide for the welfare of its good citizens, and not to oppress them with taxes; on the contrary, to relieve them as much as possible, as it is hard for the good citizens to have to maintain vagabonds, for the sake of deterring others by example, or to render convicts harmless. In this view it should be the object of the government to arrange the prisons so that convicts can maintain themselves. When once this is realized, then it is likewise easier to improve their moral principles. Continued employment would answer both purposes. If it be possible that the prisoner can earn a little surplus money, in order I.145 that when he returns to society he may be in possession of a small sum for his pressing necessities, I believe it would be much better than any philanthropic experiment.I.23

The county jail contains prisoners who are waiting for trial; they are, however, seldom confined longer than one month before they receive sentence. The house consists of a principal building and two wings; the one for males, the other for females. In the centre building are the offices, dwellings of the keepers and watch, as well as the infirmary, where the patients have good bedding, and are carefully nursed. In the wings are long corridors, with rooms on each side, which are closed during the night with iron doors. About eight prisoners sleep in one room, they sleep on the floor, and have only two blankets, to sleep upon and cover themselves. The floor is of boards, and I was delighted at the great cleanliness prevailing through the whole house. At the end of each wing is a yard where the prisoners walk, and in each yard there is a shed under which they work. The men I found busy pulling horse-hair, and most of the females at their usual domestic occupations. Even here we perceived the great distinction between the white and coloured races.

The number of female prisoners of both colours was nearly equal, and the coloured were not permitted to sit on the same bench with the white; the coloured were separated to the left! I procured a sight of the register, and was astonished to see that in this free country a magistrate has the right to imprison a person for two days, for cursing in the streets, as I found in the book. There are also in the county jail several cells for solitary confinement, narrow dark holes, in which it must be insupportably hot during the summer. Those who are of savage behaviour are confined in these cells, and kept there till they become civil.

Of the charitable institutions, we visited first, the Orphan Asylum, and then the hospital for widows, which stand near each other. They owe their origin to the donation of a lady, which has been increased by voluntary contributions, and is now under the direction of a board of ladies, mostly Friends, who are aided by the advice of a few select gentlemen. In the Orphan Asylum were ninety children of both sexes, who remain till they are twelve years of age, and are then bound out to learn a trade. They are educated in the same way as the orphans at New York. During the hours of recess, the children run about in a garden; the house is very cleanly, the bed-rooms are spacious, and each contain twenty beds; nevertheless, two children have to sleep in one bed.

I.146

Some years ago, the house caught fire, and the conflagration was so rapid that more than thirty children perished in the flames. In rebuilding the house, they had the praiseworthy consideration to banish wood entirely from the building, and even the stairs are of stone. The Widow’s Asylum is tenanted by helpless widows, over which the above-mentioned board also have control. They are boarded, clothed, and nursed as long as they live. The rooms are occupied by one or two persons each, and there is a common sitting and eating room. In this establishment great cleanliness is also observable.

The large and celebrated hospital of Philadelphia was established by the Quakers, and is under their direction. It owes its origin to voluntary contributions and posthumous donations. It is surrounded by a garden, and consists of a main building with two wings, besides other separate buildings, one of which is used for incurable lunatics, another for venereal patients, and others for household purposes and stables; for they here keep carriages, in which the convalescents ride when it is allowed. Behind the principal building is a kitchen garden, with a hot-house that contains many exotic plants. A particular building has been erected for the painting of Sir Benjamin West, who was a native of Philadelphia, and presented it to the hospital. The subject of the painting is Christ healing the sick. Neither the composition nor the execution of this painting appear to me to be successful; and perhaps it is only here, where they are unaccustomed to see great and well executed paintings, that this could excite such astonishing admiration as it has done.I.24 It is really singular that near this painting, which certainly has some merit, they should hang a little picture, accidentally discovered in the city, which was daubed as a first essay by the same artist, when young.

The hospital is three stories high; in the lower story are the offices, the apothecary, the rooms of two physicians, one of whom must always be in the house, and the library, which contains a very handsome collection of books on medicine and natural history. As a sort of antiquity, they show here William Penn’s arm-chair; a leaden statue, made in England, of this eminent man, of full size and in the Quaker dress, stands in the square in front of the house. Corridors run through both wings, and thence you enter the rooms, each containing twelve patients; they are under the care of female nurses, and lay on wooden bedsteads; only the maniacs have them of iron. Throughout this I.147 house extraordinary cleanliness is observed. To the melancholy, every species of employment is permitted, provided it does not interfere with their own safety or that of other patients. Some worked in the garden, two were occupied as cabinet-makers, and a lock-maker from Darmstadt was engaged two years in making a musket, for which he has prepared a colossal lock of wire and tin.

When I returned from this remarkable institution, I received a visit from a literary gentleman from Leipzic, Mr. Rivinus. This young man had already been two years in this city, collecting observations on America, to make known in Germany. I was much interested by him. He appeared to me well suited to gather information concerning the new world and to present it to the old; perhaps he may contribute to make German literature known to the Americans.

Mr. Vaux had the politeness to accompany me to some literary institutions. We went first to the Franklin Library; this collection, which amounts to thirty thousand volumes, was established by voluntary subscriptions, and is supported by the same means. The subscribers have the right to take books home with them; the library contains likewise a large collection of copperplates, and amongst others a handsome edition of Hogarth’s prints. The library is arranged in two great halls, and as a curiosity they show Dr. Franklin’s library chair. The statue of this famous man stands in a niche over the entrance of the house, and was presented, as the inscription says, by Mr. Bingham, the meritorious father of Mr. Bingham of Montreal. After that we went to the Philosophical Society, which also owns a building, and possesses a rich library and cabinet.I.25 The librarian, Mr. John Vaughan, a venerable gentleman, equally esteemed for his benevolence and urbanity, performed the honours. He showed us the handwriting of several celebrated individuals of the revolution. The cabinet contains, amongst other things, a mineralogical cabinet, a collection of shells, &c. Finally, we went to the State House, and saw the plain and not very large hall in which the Declaration of Independence was signed on the 4th of July, 1776. This hall is decorated with a wooden statue, the size of life of President Washington; on the pedestal is the following inscription: “First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen.”

I.148

On the 18th of October, I travelled in the stage to Bethlehem, a place settled in the year 1741, by the evangelical congregation of Moravians. It was impossible to me to leave the state of Pennsylvania without first visiting this society, which is highly esteemed here on account of their usefulness, morals, &c. Mr. Vaux gave me a recommendatory letter.

Bethlehem is fifty-two miles from Philadelphia; as the intercourse between both places is not very great, the stage goes but twice a week from each place. Day had not dawned when I left Philadelphia; the stage was very full, and the weather was uncommonly cold. As stage companions, I became acquainted with two Messrs. Rice, members of the Moravian Society, and inhabitants of Bethlehem, and found them very amiable, sensible, and well-informed men. One of them had travelled in Germany, and both spoke very good German. We changed horses twice, and also the stage, which unfortunately was worse at each change, the first time at Whitemarsh, and the second at Quakertown; the road was mostly turnpike, and somewhat resembled our German roads, except that the stones thrown on the road were rather too large, and the path was not well filled up. After having changed horses the second time, we went on a lately made turnpike, the stones not having been travelled on. The latter part of the road was not yet turnpiked, and resembled a rocky bye-road, but, on account of the dry season, was the most comfortable. The agriculture of this region shows that the country has already been long under cultivation. The houses are mostly strong, built of blue limestone, and covered with shingles. There has been considerable expense bestowed on the barns, most of them have the appearance of churches. The fields and meadows were fenced, mostly with zigzag, commonly called worm-fences. Corn was still standing on the fields, but they had begun to gather it. The winter grain had already sprouted, and had a pleasing appearance. The trade in wheat flour is carried on very largely in Pennsylvania; this flour has very justly obtained a good reputation, and is much sought for in the West Indies; no where, not even excepting Europe, have I eaten as good bread as in this state. The original forests have been eradicated, and you see very few old and handsome trees as in the state of New York; the wood, however, has grown again, and consists mostly of large-leafed oaks, chesnut, walnut, and hickory trees; the soil is partly limestone, and partly clay. In the neighbourhood of Bethlehem, the soil is mostly limestone; there are a great many rocks, and you observe here the earth often crumbled, as is the case in calcarious mountains. The inhabitants are mostly descendants of Germans, emigrants from Wirtemberg, who still retain their language, although in an imperfect state. They print here for the country I.149 people, newspapers and sheet almanacs, in American German. The difference is already perceptible in the state of Pennsylvania which exists between the southern and northern states in the education of the lower classes: it is said to be still more striking in the southern states. They particularly complain that the former German farmers did not send their children to school at all; lately, however, they have become more ambitious, and attend the schools, because the legislature of Pennsylvania has passed a law, that no citizen shall sit on a jury unless he can read and write the English language. The German farmers consider it an honour to be called upon a jury, but find themselves deprived of that honour on account of their ignorance. They now, therefore, have their sons instructed in English. I saw in the woods two small octagonal houses, and was informed that they were schools, which, however, were never frequented.

In many villages where you see handsome brick buildings, stables, and barns, the school is a simple log-house, much worse than the school-houses I have seen among the Indians. There is no want of churches, mostly Lutheran, some Calvinist, Quaker meeting-houses, Anabaptists, and Menonists. Between Quakertown and Bethlehem, the former called so on account of its having been originally settled by that sect, but now inhabited mostly by Germans, there is a parish of Swiss Menonists, which they call here Dunkards, because the men let their beards grow. As we passed through, there happened to be the funeral of a young girl, and almost the whole congregation followed the coffin. Between four and five o’clock, P. M. we reached Bethlehem, and staid in Bishop’s tavern, which was very cleanly, and well managed.

Bethlehem is very handsomely situated, partly in a valley, and partly on a hill near the river Lehigh, into which empties the Manokesy brook. Very near the town there is a wooden bridge over the river, which was built in the year 1791, and rests upon three stone pillars, and over the brook there is a newly-built stone bridge of two arches. The moment you behold Bethlehem, you are pleased with it: opposite the town, on the right bank of the Lehigh, are rather high mountains, overgrown with wood. The brick houses of the town are situated amphitheatrically; above all the houses, you see the church with a small steeple, and the whole is crowned by the burying-place, which lies upon a hill, and is planted with lombardy poplars. The fields around the town are excellently cultivated, and the landscape is bounded by the Blue Mountains, eighteen miles distant, a long range of mountains with no one distinct summit, but with some openings through. The streets in Bethlehem are not paved, but planted with poplars, and provided with broad brick side-walks; the houses are built either of blue limestone or of brick. The greatest I.150 building in this town, which formerly served as the house for the brethren, is now occupied as a young ladies boarding-school. There is also here an arched market-place, where butcher’s meat is sold. On the place where Bishop’s tavern now stands, not long ago stood a little frame building, which was built at the time Bethlehem was founded by Count Zinzendorf. The town has about seven hundred inhabitants, mostly tradesmen and merchants. The clergy consists of Bishop Huffel and the two preachers, Messrs. Seidel and Von Schweinitz; the latter is the great grandson of Count Zinzendorf, he was just absent on a voyage to Germany, where he met the general synod in Herrenhut.

One of the Messrs. Rice introduced me into the tavern, and gave notice to the clergy of my arrival; shortly after, I received a visit from Mr. Seidel, a Saxon by birth, who has resided nineteen years in the United States. I found him a very friendly and pleasant gentleman, and had a long conversation with him. I also met with an old man from Eisenach, by the name of Stickel, who came to this country as a surgeon with the Hessians, and for some years past had taken up his residence in this tavern, where he acts as cicerone to the strangers.

Next morning I received another visit from parson Seidel, and went with him to Bishop Huffel; the bishop is a man of about sixty years of age, also a Saxon, and a very friendly man, who has travelled much and speaks pleasantly. He had a very handsome collection of minerals, particularly of American marbles; Mr. Seidel resides with him in the oldest dwelling of the town, which has quite the appearance of the house of a country parson in Germany, and has even German locks and bolts to it; in this house is a large hall, which formerly served the parish as a church until the church was finished. I visited the church, escorted by the two divines; the arrangements are quite simple, a white hall with benches, and a somewhat higher seat for the clergy, with a table before it; the church has a very fine organ, which was made at New York. The bishop, who is a good performer on the piano, had the goodness to play for me on the organ. From the steeple of the church is a handsome prospect of the surrounding neighbourhood, the Lehigh, the mountains of the same name, and the Blue Mountains. In the church building, next to the large hall, are several chambers, where they formerly kept school, before the new school was built, but now the elders hold their conferences in it, and the smaller meetings of the parish. By building this new church, the parish incurred a debt; the building, however, is not very tasty. The burying place of the congregation is upon a small hill, and resembles a garden planted with trees. The graves are in rows, a simple stone lying on each, containing the name, birth, and time of I.151 death of the departed. This morning I observed by a circular notice, the death of a young lad who died last evening; in order to give notice of his death, they played with trumpets the tunes of three hymns from the steeple, early in the morning; certainly a very simple and touching ceremony! The corpse is put in the corpse-house, and the burying takes place in presence of the whole parish. Not far from the burying place, upon an elevated spot, is a cistern, in which by means of a forcing machine, the water is carried from the brook, and thence all the houses and streets are supplied with water.

After that we went to the dwelling of the sisterhood; all the old maids, and some younger ones of the parish, who have no parents, live together. Heretofore, all the unmarried women were obliged to live in the sister-house; but this has been changed since, and those who have parents, live with their families. Those sisters who live together, have either each a separate room, or several have a sitting room together. They support themselves by selling female utensils, which they manufacture. There is no house for the brotherhood, because young industrious labourers in this happy land, where there are no taxes, can support themselves very well. The ground on which the houses stand, belongs to the parish, and every man, who wishes to build here, has to pay a certain ground rent. There is, however, here no community of goods; every one has to work for, and to support himself, and the parish only assists him when he has become poor by misfortune.

After this interesting ramble I visited Mr. Rice, who is a merchant, owner of a mill, and is particularly engaged in the flour business; he also keeps a store, where every article is to be found, which the country people are in need of; from cloth, and fine linen, down to common wagon-screws. After that, I dined at home in the lively company of six young ladies from Providence, who also came to finish their education here in the boarding-school; as in Germany, the brothers have boarding-schools, where children, whose parents do not belong to the society, are carefully educated. The female school is at Bethlehem, and the male school in Nazareth.

After dinner I took a ride with Dr. Stickel, in order to examine a new lock, lately established on the river Lehigh. Within a few years they have opened important coal works, about thirty miles from this place, at Mauch Chunk, on the other side of the Blue Mountains; these mines furnish Philadelphia and the neighbourhood with the well-known Lehigh coals, which are much better than the English coals. These coals were formerly shipped in light boats near the pit, and floated down the Lehigh into the Delaware to Philadelphia, and the boats were then broke I.152 to pieces and sold, on account of the falls and strong current of the Lehigh, which prevented their return. As even the navigation down the river was frequently obstructed on account of low water, and incumbered with difficulties, the company owning the mines, made a dam in the river, through which canals pass with locks, by means of which they have improved the navigation.

In the vicinity of the Lehigh, there are many limestone rocks; these they explode, partly for the purpose of having heavy stones, which are thrown on the dams, partly for burning them to lime. The burned lime is not only used for building, but also as manure for the fields.

We returned from the locks to Bethlehem by another road; on account of their distance from the coal pits, these locks are called the thirty-seven mile locks. We passed through a well cultivated valley, wherein is situated a place called Butstown, settled by Germans, and consisting of a few neat brick buildings. Thence the road passed through an oak-wood, which appeared to be in very good order, and belonged to the brotherhood. In the evening I went with Mr. Seidel to a concert, which the amateurs of the town gave. In the town-school is a room appropriated for these concerts, which take place weekly. The orchestra consisted of eleven musicians, all of whom were mechanics of Bethlehem, who very successfully practiced this art as amateurs. The greatest part of the religious service of the brotherhood consists of music; for this reason music constitutes a principal part of their education. The music was fine beyond all expectation; I heard very good male and female singers; amongst others were Mr. Seidel and one of the young female ushers of the boarding-school, Miss Humphreys. Finally, the good Bishop Huffel had the politeness to amuse us, to our great gratification, by performing fancy pieces of his own on the piano. After the concert I remained a few hours with Mr. Seidel, his wife is a German by birth; moreover, I made acquaintance with a preacher, Mr. Frueauf, a native of Dietendorf, near Gotha; he married a sister of Mr. Von Schweinitz, and lives on his income; I found in him a friendly old gentleman, who was rejoiced to meet a countryman. Moreover it was no trifling gratification to me, to have conversed this whole day in German, and to hear that language spoken in purity, which is hardly ever the case in other parts of America.

On the third day of my stay at Bethlehem, Mr. Frueauf called for me, for the purpose of riding with me to the brotherhood of Nazareth, which is ten miles distant. The road passes partly through a well kept wood, and partly through a well cultivated country. A great many single farms, which we passed, showed the wealth of their owners. One of the places we passed, is I.153 called Hecktown; this name originated from a waggery of Mr. Frueauf, on account of the fruitfulness of the inhabitants, who increase and multiply very fast. Nazareth is also very well built, and resembles Bethlehem, only it is, if it be possible, still more quiet. The town was laid out in the year 1744, and the large brick building, which is now used as the boys boarding-school, was originally intended for the mansion of Count Zinzendorf. This district has about five hundred inhabitants, including the adjoining parish called Schoeneck, they are mostly mechanics and farmers. There were two clergymen, Mr. Van Vleck, son of the ex-bishop of Bethlehem, and Mr. Ronthal, a native German, who was long pastor of the parish of Sarepta in Russia.

We first visited Mr. Van Vleck, and then inspected the society’s garden; it is situated on the slope of a hill and has some pavilions and handsome promenades. Then we went in the boarding school, in which sixty boys receive their education; forty board in the house, and twenty reside with their parents, in the village. This school is likewise for children of different denominations, and is generally praised. Immediately on my entrance, I remarked the great cleanliness of the house. The scholars are divided into four classes, and are not received till they are eight years old. The tutors are mostly Germans, or at least speak that language, which is taught to the boys by particular desire of their parents. The school possesses a good cabinet of natural history, which is kept in good order, and has a collection of eggs of various birds of the neighbourhood, gathered by the scholars. The scholars sleep in common in two great halls, two superintendents sleep in each of them. They eat in common and take a long daily walk, under the guardianship of their tutors. Besides the common school rudiments, the French, German, and English languages, they are taught drawing, music, and Italian book-keeping by double entry. For instruction in music, every class has a piano: a particular room is destined for religious worship. The boys have all healthy, lively, and open countenances, and are kept very clean. In the building there is also a theological seminary for young men who are designed for the pulpit; there were five pupils studying. These students are obliged to finish their education in the large theological seminary of Gnadenfeld in Upper Silesia. On the top of the house there is a gallery, from which you see the surrounding neighbourhood. Nazareth is situated on rather high ground, and is only eight miles distant from the Blue Mountains. The vicinity would be very handsome, if there were more streams in the neighbourhood, but in these it seems to be deficient.

After this we went to the sisterhood’s house, wherein were lodged thirty-seven old women, who sleep all in one large hall. I.154 In the room where they perform worship, there is a small organ, as in the sisterhood at Bethlehem; one of the sisters acts as organist. I observed here, as well as in Bethlehem, that the old Moravian female costume, particularly the caps, have gone out of fashion, except some few very old women, and they now dress in handsome modern style. We visited the parson, Mr. Ronthal, and the elder of the congregation, Mr. Hoeber. I became acquainted with a former missionary, Mr. Oppelt, who was many years amongst the Indians, one hundred miles the other side of Detroit, and has baptized several of them. He has retired to Nazareth, and was busy in making preparations of birds.

On our return to Bethlehem, we went rather roundabout, in order to see a large farm, which is distinguished in the country on account of its good management; it is occupied by a native of Nassau, Mr. Schlabach. His fields are indeed in an excellent situation, as well as all his barns and farm houses. This proprietor, who is now so wealthy, came over a redemptioner, and owes his present wealth to his industry and frugality.

After dinner I went with Mr. Seidel, who is the guardian, to the great female boarding-school. In the office where the small domestic library is kept, which not only consists of religious books, but also belles lettres, voyages and travels, I met the venerable Bishop Huffel, who accompanied me, with Mr. Seidel, during my inspection of the school. In this school we found about one hundred handsome young ladies, between the ages of eight and eighteen years, who are carefully educated, and who, besides the common school education, are instructed in drawing, music, and all female accomplishments. They make very fine embroidery and tapestry, and also handsome artificial flowers. They are divided into four classes; in every class-room was a piano. I was informed that they performed their morning and evening devotions by chanting. After dinner they receive no other instructions but music and female accomplishments; the latter part of the day is employed in walking in the large garden, which lies in a vale behind the house. They have also a hall for prayers, in which stands a piano, and which is often made use of as a concert room. They sleep in large halls, with the superintendents, and the girls have a very good appearance. The custom which prevails in European boarding-schools, of dressing all the girls in uniform, and distinguishing different classes by different ribands, does not take place here; every girl dresses as she pleases. The scholars are from all parts of the United States, even some from Alabama.

After having examined this interesting establishment, I walked with the bishop and Mr. Seidel on the banks of the brook, in order to examine some works that are situated on the waterside. I.155 The first was the work which forces the water into the cistern, as above-mentioned. By a conductor from the brook, a water-wheel is set in motion; this wheel works two pumps, which force the water into iron pipes leading into the cistern. Not far from this work lives a currier by the name of Mr. Leipert, who manufactures leather and morocco: in this establishment the principal machinery is also moved by water. They have two ways here of raising water, one is by boxes fastened on a large wheel, these boxes fill themselves with water, when they are below, and throw it into a gutter, when they come up; the other is by a common pump.

At last my companions introduced me to a gentleman, who, with trouble and expense, had established a cabinet of ancient and other coins. This collection was indeed extensive and valuable, recollecting that it was in America.

I spent the evening very pleasantly in the young ladies school; all the girls were assembled, and gave a musical entertainment, mostly songs composed for several voices. But as the girls have to retire early, the entertainment, for which I was indebted to the politeness of Mr. Seidel, was soon ended. I remained a short time with Mr. Seidel, I then took my leave of this worthy man, of the venerable Bishop Huffel, and the polite Mr. Frueauf, with the intention of returning next spring, God willing, to this lovely spot, with which I was so much delighted. In going home, I heard the young ladies sing their evening hymn, and received a very pretty serenade from twenty young folks of the place, who, although they belong to the brotherhood, serve as the musical band of the militia. I could not leave this peaceable and quiet Bethlehem without being affected, whose inhabitants all live united like one family, in brotherly and sisterly love, and seem all to have the same habits, acquired by the same education and continued sociability. I returned with the stage on the same bad road to Philadelphia by which I left it, but better enjoyed the view of this beautiful, well cultivated and thickly peopled country. The last part of the road was particularly interesting to me. In the flourishing villages of Germantown and Nicetown there are handsome gardens and country-seats of Philadelphians. In the vicinity of Whitemarsh, I observed the remains of General Washington’s entrenchments. Germantown, originally settled by Germans, forms only one street, which is above three miles long. During the time when the English occupied Philadelphia and its vicinity, General Washington fell upon the English that were in and about Germantown. One battalion of the British threw themselves into a stone house, and defended themselves in it until the British army could rally again, and drive the Americans back. The house is situated in a I.156 garden, about one hundred paces from the road; near the house, in the street, is a well which supplies the house with water; to keep possession of the well was of great consequence to the British, and in its vicinity many men are said to have lost their lives.

On the ensuing morning I went with Mr. Halbach to Mr. Vaux, in order to visit under his guidance some other public institutions. At Mr. Vaux’s we met several of the public characters of the city, with whom I had conversations on various subjects of public utility, such as schools, punishments, &c. Then we went into a Lancasterian free school, where five hundred lads are instructed, and several hundred girls of the lower classes. We did not see the girls; it was Saturday, which is a holiday. The boys are of various ages, and are divided into eight classes, under the inspection of one teacher and several monitors. They obey their instructors by signals, all their motions are made according to these signals, and they give their answers with the greatest precision. They exercise their memory by reciting pieces of poetry, and making mental calculations. They write well and all alike; they also receive instruction in geography; one of the boys had drawn a good and correct sketch of Thuringia. They ought to pay more attention to the dress of the children, for some of them were in rags. The school is supported by the city, and is under the direction of Quakers.

Of the courts of justice I will say nothing; they are entirely formed after the English model. The common law of England is so well known, and so many huge volumes written upon it, that I need say nothing on the subject.

The state prison, which, about fifty years ago, was built for a county jail, contained ad interim those prisoners which are intended for the new penitentiary. For this reason this prison is overfilled with five hundred prisoners; they were not sufficiently watched, and therefore often riotous. Through a misdirected philanthropy of the Quakers, who have also the direction of this prison, there are no guards on the walls, nor in the passages, and but five overseers go continually amongst the labouring prisoners, and their lives are often exposed. The inspector of the house, Mr. Swift, seemed no way to favour this system, which not only does not improve the morals of the convicts, but also seems to threaten public security. At this time there was a bad feeling among the prisoners, and they daily expected a riot. The Quakers themselves, in spite of their philanthropy, seemed to have no great confidence in the prisoners. In our walk through the prison with Mr. Vaux, it was evident from his countenance that he felt uneasy, and as the prisoners were assembled on the large stairs at twelve o’clock, to go to their dinner, he ensconced himself behind the iron grate.

I.157

The female prisoners occupy one of the wings of the prison, and are employed in spinning, sewing, knitting and pulling horse-hair, platting straw, and washing. They sit in long warmed corridors, adjoining to the doors of their bed-rooms; ten and more sleep in one room, on horse-hair mattresses with blankets. There are also cells for solitary confinement established for them; in one of them, four weeks since, a handsome girl was confined that had been condemned for stealing, and affected to be a simpleton, deaf and dumb, but during her solitary confinement she began to speak sensibly, and with good understanding. The male prisoners inhabit the other wing, and have the whole yard to themselves, where there are several workshops. Most of the prisoners were busy in the yard sawing marble, others weave, are tailors, shoemakers, &c. and there are several good cabinet-makers, who make very fine furniture for the stores in the city. All hands are busy: the invalids are mostly employed in pulling horse-hair. In the bake-house of the institution they bake very good brown bread, and each prisoner receives daily one pound and a half. The prisoners have a long subterraneous room for an eating hall, which is lighted with lamps, and receive daily good broth, fresh meat, and potatoes. They certainly live much better than many an honest man who has to maintain his family by his industry. A weaver was confined in the solitary cells, who, in a moment of impatience, had cut through his thread with a knife, because it was entangled. In each wing there is a separate nursery for the patients of both sexes. In spite of the great number of prisoners, great cleanliness is maintained.

His excellency, John Quincy Adams, President of the United States, had just returned from a visit to his aged and venerable father near Boston, and took the room next to mine in the Mansion-house. He had been invited to the Wistar-Party on the 22d of October, at the house of Colonel Biddle, and accepted the invitation to the gratification of all the members. I also visited the party. The President is a man about sixty years old, of rather short stature, with a bald head, and of a very plain and worthy appearance. He speaks little, but what he does speak is to the purpose. I must confess that I seldom in my life felt so true and sincere a reverence as at the moment when this honourable gentleman whom eleven millions of people have thought worthy to elect as their chief magistrate, shook hands with me. He made many inquiries after his friends at Ghent, and particularly after the family of Mr. Meulemeester. Unfortunately I could not long converse with him, because every member of the party had greater claims than myself. At the same time I made several other new and interesting acquaintances, among others with a Quaker, Mr. Wood, who had undertaken a tour through England, I.158 France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden and Russia, mostly with the philanthropic view of examining the prison discipline of those countries. I was much gratified with his instructive conversation, although I had some controversy with him on the prison discipline, as he heard that I did not agree with his views relative to the new penitentiary, of which he was one of the most active promoters. Mr. Livingston, who has effected the abolition of capital punishment in the state of Louisiana, was here lauded to the skies by the philanthropists. God send it success!

On the following day I paid my respects to the President, and gave him the medals which Mr. Cornelissen at Ghent had confided to my care. One silver medal was from the Botanic Society of Ghent, with an appropriate inscription for the President; the other a bronze medal, which had been struck in the year 1823, in honour of the Haerlem jubilee on the discovery of the art of printing; both were sunk by the skilful artist Mr. Braemt, at Brussels. In the evening I saw the President again, who honoured with his presence a party at Mr. Walsh’s. I had first the intention of leaving here to-day with the steam-boat for Baltimore, but the arrival of the President changed my resolution, as I wished to attend with him the anniversary, which was to be celebrated on the 24th of October, and then to travel in his company to Baltimore.

In order to celebrate the day on which William Penn landed in the year 1683 in America, which was the origin of the state of Pennsylvania, those who respect his memory have established a society, which celebrates the 24th of October as a public festival. At this time the celebration consisted of a public oration in the University and a public dinner. Mr. Vaux called for me at twelve o’clock to go to the oration. The building of the University of Pennsylvania was originally intended as a dwelling for President Washington, who declined the present, and it was then used for the University. A great number of people had collected in one of the lecture rooms; they seated me within the tribune whence the orator was to speak; the President, who entered soon after me, was led to the same place, and received with loud and warm acclamations. The oration was delivered by a lawyer, Mr. Charles Ingersoll; it contained rather a statistic account of the state of Pennsylvania than of the landing of William Penn; this the Quakers did not like, although the oration was well conceived and generally admired. The orator mentioned a particular fact, which, as far as I know, is unknown in Europe, viz. William Penn mentions in one of his writings, of which I had already seen the original in the library of the Philosophical Society, shown to me by Mr. Vaughan, that by an act of Charles II. this I.159 land was given to William Penn, and his Majesty, in honour of Penn’s father, Admiral Penn, called it Pennsylvania; he, William Penn, had proposed the name of New Wales, but the king did not sanction this name; Penn then offered to the secretary of the king twenty guineas, if he would persuade the king to call the country merely Sylvania; but even this proposition did not succeed; the name of Pennsylvania was very unpleasant to him; for they would think it great vanity in him, although he was very far from being vain. In his observations concerning the manufactures of Pennsylvania, the orator went now and then too far. He said, for instance, that nowhere, not even in Europe, are better carriages made than in Philadelphia, although the carriages of this place are not the very best nor the most convenient. The school establishments, however, he pointed out in a too indifferent light, and confessed complainingly that in the northern states they were farther advanced than here; he particularly observed that the University of Pennsylvania was in a poor condition. He also complained of the dissipation of the lower classes. This oration was much applauded; the audience likewise exhibited their respect to the President as he retired.

I sat next to Judge Peters, a venerable gentleman of eighty-two years of age, who was secretary of war during the revolution; moreover, I was introduced here to Mr. Washington, nephew of the hero, and Judge in the Supreme Court of the United States. He is the heir of his uncle, and possessor of Mount Vernon, where his ashes rest. After the oration I inspected the anatomical cabinet of the University; it is not a rich collection, but has some interesting articles, viz. two wax figures of full size, which can be taken to pieces; also a collection of human skulls, among which I remarked particularly the flattened skulls of two Peruvian Indians, and also a skeleton of a Creek Indian; many samples of fractured and badly cured human bones, and many curious bones; parts of the human body, injected or preserved in alcohol, &c.

At four o’clock, P. M. I drove with Mr. Vaux to the Masonic Hall, where the dinner was to be given. About seventy persons, mostly gentlemen of my acquaintance, were present. The President of the United States sat on the right of Judge Peters, who was president of the dinner, and sat in William Penn’s chair; I sat on the left of this worthy old gentleman, and on my left was the orator of the day, Mr. Ingersoll. Behind Judge Peters’s chair was William Penn’s portrait, painted in oil, and under that was a copperplate of his well known treaty with the Indians. The vice-president of the table was Mr. Duponceau, a Frenchman who has resided in this country forty-seven years, and during the revolution was adjutant to Baron Steuben; he is I.160 a lawyer, and pleads very well in the English language. This gentleman possesses a rare talent for languages, and has a particular fondness for the German. Gœthe’s Faust is his favourite work, and as I agreed with his taste, we entertained ourselves for a long time with Faust, alternately reciting our favourite passages. The first health that was drank, was naturally that of the President of the United States; his excellency rose, and in a short speech thanked them heartily; as my health was drank, I also rose, excused my imperfect knowledge of the English, and begged permission to thank them in the French language, wherein I could express myself better and more fluently. I then spoke a few words from the bottom of my heart, expressing the sincere interest I take in the happiness and welfare of this country; I congratulated the society on the pious feelings with which they celebrate the memory of their ancestors, and particularly of that excellent man who laid the foundation of this great community; these would be the best security for their future prosperity. I expressed my gladness at being present on this occasion, to witness their animated sentiments, thanked them, feeling fully for the kind reception I had met with, and told them that this festival, which was still more valuable on account of the presence of the chief magistrate of this great nation, would never fade from my memory, and that I hoped to leave behind me friends in the new world when I should have returned to the old. I concluded with wishes of blessings and happiness. It appeared to me that my plain address was not unkindly received. The president retired at eight o’clock, and I remained until ten. Among the commonly called volunteer toasts, the following were drank: “Weimar, the native country of letters!” I rose and said, that to this toast I could only answer by a modest silence, as it was worthy to be answered by a learned man from Weimar, and unfortunately I could not pretend to be one. When young, I had left home for a military school, to run my career in the chances of war, so that the sciences did not enter my door. I therefore, gave them in reply, the following toast: “Pennsylvania, the asylum of unfortunate Germans!” This toast was received with great applause. The venerable Judge PetersI.26 sung a song, which he composed the preceding evening, with a great deal of vivacity, and every one was merry and lively.

The society have their laws written on parchment, bound in a very elegant volume. This book was placed before the president and myself, to sign; we signed it, and by this means became honorary members of this respectable society.

I.161

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CHAPTER XII.

Baltimore.

On the 25th of October, I made several farewell visits, and went on board the steam-boat Baltimore at twelve o’clock, to leave the dear Philadelphia to which I had become so much attached. Mr. Tromp had set out several days before, to meet the Pallas at Norfolk. The President of the United States came on board of the steam-boat soon after, in company of several gentlemen from town. At the steam-boat wharf, a crowd of citizens had assembled once more to see the respected chief of their government, who is justly venerated by all intelligent men. When the boat started, the crowd, consisting of well-dressed individuals, cheered the president, who remained a long time uncovered. We descended the Delaware about forty miles. This river becomes very large; the shores are flat, and apparently well cultivated. The president had the kindness to converse a long time with me.

I was here introduced to a Mr. Sullivan, from Boston, who seemed to be much esteemed by the president, and Captain Maclean of the garrison of Halifax, who was travelling for his pleasure.

I also met with Mr. De Salazar, ambassador from Colombia, with his secretary, Mr. Gomes, and the Mexican consul, Mr. Obregon: I had already made the acquaintance of these gentlemen in New York. Their interesting conversation, and the moderation of their views gave me much pleasure.

We arrived at New Castle between four and five o’clock; this is a well-built little town, situated on the right shore of the river, in the state of Delaware, whence it is sixteen miles to Frenchtown by land, where the Chesapeake steam-boats receive the passengers.

The president being in one of the stages, the drivers went on more rapidly than customary. The road was in general sandy, and ran through woods; we did not perceive any villages, as it soon became dark, and the interesting conversation respecting the scenery ceased. Frenchtown is a little place, which was burnt and plundered during the last war, by the British Admiral Cockburn. We went on board the steam-boat Constitution. This boat was very spacious, and furnished with beds, the machinery, however, made a great noise, and produced a jarring motion.

The night was beautiful; the moonlight and the woody shores I.162 of the river, produced a very fine effect. I remained a long time on deck in conversation with Captain Maclean; no rest could be obtained in bed, as, in addition to the noise of the machinery, six horses trampled just above me on deck, and a German mechanic, who was unable to sleep, talked to himself, near me. We arrived very early next morning at Baltimore. After our arrival, the president took a carriage for Washington, which is only thirty-six miles distant. The greater part of the travellers remained in bed until between six and seven o’clock. I went through the somewhat solitary but regular streets to the hotel, called the Indian Queen, where lodgings had been prepared for me. Here I had the pleasure to meet Sir Michael Clare and his lady; shortly after my arrival, I received the visit of Mr. Huygens, son to the Chevalier Bangemann Huygens, ambassador from the Netherlands, at Washington, officer of our artillery, and attached to the legation. His father had the politeness to place this young gentleman at my disposal. As soon as I was established in the hotel, I went out in company with Sir Michael, in order to see the curiosities of the city. The town is of a regular construction, and contains, as I was assured, seventy-five thousand inhabitants. Great projects are formed for increasing its prosperity; these projects, however, have been somewhat stopped by some considerable failures. This place has increased with almost incredible rapidity; in the year 1752, there were only ten houses. The streets are wide, with foot-walks, some of them are planted as in Philadelphia, with poplar trees. The city seems tolerably animated; I saw a very great number of negroes in the streets. The state of Maryland is the first on which I set my foot where the slavery of negroes is legally maintained. Farther to the south, this state of things is every where common. I merely mention the fact; it does not belong to me to give opinions on so delicate a subject. Still my journey convinced me of the truth of the old observation, that inaccurate judgments are easily formed respecting things not sufficiently known, which we have neither seen nor examined ourselves. We first visited the Washington Monument, situated on a hill. It is, or rather will be, erected by the state of Maryland; it consists of a column of white marble one hundred and sixty feet high, it is to be adorned with bas-reliefs of bronze, representing scenes from the life of the hero. On the top of the column is to be placed the colossal statue of this great man. But the requisite funds are wanting; and therefore these ornaments are not yet finished. We ascended the column by a spiral staircase of two hundred and twenty-six steps, but did not enjoy a fine prospect, on account of the misty atmosphere. We visited another monument, erected to the memory of the citizens who fell in the defence of Baltimore on the 12th of September, I.163 1814. On a pedestal stands a column representing a bundle of staves. The names of the fallen citizens are inscribed on the ribands which unite them. On the top is the statue of victory; at the four corners of the pedestal, griffins. We remarked several fine public buildings, among which, some churches were very distinguished. The handsomest is the Catholic cathedral, the dome of which, is similar to that of the Roman pantheon. The interior of this church is richly ornamented, and contains several fine paintings, the greater part of which, arrived during the French revolution. The handsomest among them is a descent from the cross, by Gulein, in Paris, which, according to an inscription, was presented to the church by Louis XVIII. at the request of Count Menou. It is to be regretted that its size does not permit it to be placed over the altar. It was suspended near the entrance. King Charles X. is said to have promised the companion to this piece. I was introduced in the church to the archbishop of Baltimore, M. Maréchal,I.27 who is the Catholic primate of the United States. He is a native of France, and has resided in the United States since 1792, whither he first came as a missionary. He is spoken of as a man of much spirit and activity. His exterior is of great simplicity; he is of small stature, and animated. When he first addressed me, with his book under his arm, I took him for a French teacher, but he very soon presented himself to me as the archbishop.

The state of Maryland contains the greatest number of Catholics, with the exception of the state of Louisiana and Florida, where the Catholics, on account of their wealth have some influence. Not far distant from the cathedral is the Unitarian church, tastefully ornamented on the exterior with columns, and surmounted by a dome. The English Episcopal church is likewise not far distant; it has a colonade at the entrance, but a spire without the least taste. The front of the church is ornamented with two statues, of the Saviour and Moses, by an Italian sculptor, (still living here,) Mr. Capellano. It is reported that the inhabitants of Baltimore being very much scandalized at the horns of Moses, the artist was obliged to take them off. Certain it is, that the Moses on this church does not wear these ornaments. We saw another building of recent construction, called the Athenæum, which was built by subscription. We found there a small library and reading room for American and English newspapers, and a concert room. Finally, we went to a large building called the Exchange. A few hours after this promenade, Sir Michael and Lady Clare set out for Now York, whence they intended to embark for Jamaica. To them I was indebted for an introduction I.164 to Dr. Macauley, a respectable physician, whose acquaintance was the more agreeable to me, as I found him to be an accomplished man. In his company I rode to Fort M‘Henry; this fort is situated two miles from Baltimore, at the latter extremity of the isthmus formed by the eastern and western arms of the Patapsco, which empties into the Chesapeake Bay. This fort was rendered interesting by the repulse of an attack made by the British the 12th of September, 1814, by water; this well-sustained defence contributed much to the safety of Baltimore. The English disembarked their troops on the eastern shore of the Patapsco—these were to attack the city by land, meanwhile the fleet was to bombard, and to take Fort M‘Henry. The landed troops, whose general, Ross, was killed, met with such resistance from the citizens that they were compelled to retire with considerable loss; the attack on Fort M‘Henry had no better success. The English bomb-ships were anchored too far from the fort to allow the shells to do much mischief. Not being able to obtain any advantage from this side, they embarked troops in boats the following night, which, by aid of the darkness, passed the fort, and entered the western branch of the Patapsco. But they were discovered in time, and repelled by the batteries situated above the fort. The fort itself is very small, and ill-shaped; a pentagon with five little bastions, where at most but three large guns can be mounted; in front of the entrance is a little ravelin which defends nothing. There is no counterscarp; the ramparts are sodded. The fort is separated from the land by a wall, which might rather prove injurious than advantageous. Near the water’s edge there is a battery which can contain more than fifty guns for firing over the beach. There are also some furnaces for heating cannon balls. It was this battery which offered the greatest resistance to the British. It contained heavy guns formerly belonging to a French man of war, which were served by American sailors. One thousand five hundred men stood in this narrow space, without a single bomb-proof building in the fort, not even the powder-magazine, and notwithstanding, not more than thirty men were killed and wounded. Since that time, the engineers have erected bomb-proofs on each side of the gate, as well as a bomb-proof powder-magazine, and a bomb-proof roof over the pump. The fort is in a decayed condition, and is to be abandoned on account of its unimportant situation. The engineers intend to construct new fortifications several miles farther off in the Chesapeake Bay. Moreover, the situation of this fort is so unhealthy that the garrison leave it during the summer. From this spot there is a fine view of both branches of the Patapsco, on whose shores the trees in their autumnal dress of variegated leaves presented a very handsome appearance. On returning, we I.165 ascended one of the hills commanding the city, where we enjoyed a beautiful prospect. An observatory situated here, announces the arrival of ships in the bay by signals.

Dr. Macauley showed me the medical college, constructed at the expense of the state of Maryland, a spacious and handsome building, decorated with a portico. It contains an amphitheatre, sky-lighted rotunda for anatomical lectures, a semi-amphitheatre for chemical lectures, to which are joined a laboratory and a cabinet with philosophical apparatus. The anatomical cabinet did not appear to be very rich, as the school is yet in its infancy. I remarked a female wax figure representing a rupture of the uterus, and several human embrios, abortions, and monsters. I saw likewise a considerable collection of minerals, among which I saluted as an old acquaintance, a basaltic column from the giant’s causeway in Ireland. Seven professors lecture in the medical college; the lectures are delivered during four months, from November to the end of February. Near to the college is an infirmary belonging to this institution, where the sick are nursed by an order of religious women called sisters of charity.

The Baltimore Museum was established by the second son of the same artist, C. W. Peale, who founded the Philadelphia Museum. His sons were destined from their cradle to become artists, as their Christian names are Rafaelle, Rubens, Titian, &c. One of the saloons of the museum is occupied by the paintings of Rembrandt Peale. He succeeds very well in some of his copies; for instance, King Lear braving the tempest, from West; perhaps he is less successful in his originals, especially in his full length equestrian portrait of Napoleon. Several paintings in miniature, by Miss Peale, niece of C. W. Peale, are tolerably good.

The museum is not so extensive as that of Philadelphia; still it contains some very interesting objects, which however, I had not time to examine sufficiently in detail. The museum is arranged in two stories of the buildings; the first contains various quadrupeds and birds, I perceived a specimen of the duck-bill animal from New South Wales. The birds are all indigenous, and are described in Wilson’s Ornithology. The collection of American insects and butterflies is very handsome; among them are several centipedes, large scorpions, and the mammoth spider from South America, which kills the humming bird. These insects are well preserved in frames of white plaster. The plaster is cast on moulds, the insect is put into the cavity, and fastened by pins stuck in the plaster while it is sufficiently hot to destroy the moths which may have entered the cavity; finally, they are hermetically secured beneath watch crystals. There is also a handsome collection of Indian antiquities, weapons and I.166 other objects; among these arms were a great number of arrow-heads of flint, such as I had seen among the Tuscaroras; farther, a great number of toys, and other trifles; a skeleton of the mastodon, but not so complete as the one in Philadelphia, forms part of this museum; the large teeth are missing, but the lower jaw boneI.28 is particularly well preserved; two weeks previous to my visit it had fallen down along with the chain by which it had been suspended from the ceiling, and had broken in two.

There is also here, a very handsome collection of minerals. It is to be regretted that so many rare things are not better arranged, and separated from mere trifles. The city library was founded by subscription; it contains about fifteen thousand volumes; I asked to see Humboldt’s splendid work on Mexico; the library does not contain any thing very remarkable. Mr. Thomas, a Friend, one of the philanthropic public characters to whom I was introduced by Mr. Vaux, of Philadelphia, conducted me to a steam-mill, situated near the basin. It seems to me that such a mill is well worth imitating, especially in Flanders, where running water is so scarce. The machine which moves the wheels was made by Bolton and Watt, of Soho, in England, and is of sixty horse-power. This mill has eight pair of stones, of which there are commonly but four worked at a time; most of the work, which in general is done by men, is performed by machinery connected with the steam-engine; a long and horizontal chest leads from the interior of the mill to the wharf, where the vessels with grain lie; from the vessel, the wheat is poured in one of the extremities of the chest, or rather channel, along whose whole length a spiral screw runs, which by turning brings the grain to a large reservoir in the mill. By another piece of machinery the wheat is conveyed to the upper part of the house and thrown into a wire cylinder, where it is perfectly fanned, and is thence conducted to the hoppers; the flour falls into a common reservoir, whence it is conveyed to a bolting machine. The fine flour passes through a trough to a place where it is spread by a horizontally revolving rake, to be cooled; after this it runs by a spout to the ground floor, where it is packed in oaken barrels. A workman fills the barrel with a shovel, pushes it on an iron ring forming part of a scale, to weigh it, underneath a wooden block, which acted upon by a lever presses the flour into the barrel; this block, after being sponged in the common way, is again ready for immediate use. Two hundred barrels of superfine I.167 flour can be furnished daily by this mill, which works night and day; twelve workmen are sufficient to attend to all the operations. The owner said he could do with fewer, but was unwilling to dismiss them. The engine has three boilers, one is unemployed, to be cleaned and to be in reserve in case of an accident; from the roof of the mill there is a fine prospect over the city and harbour.

Mr. Thomas, who is one of the trustees, accompanied us to the Alms-house, nearly three miles distant from town, which was erected four years ago, at the expense of the state of Maryland. The house consists in a centre building, composed of the dwelling of the superintendent, office, and store-house; farther off are two insulated wings, the one for the men, the other for the females and children. The latter are brought to the Alms-house by their parents, or they are the children of disorderly parents taken up by public authority. Several of the paupers are intrusted with the care of these unfortunate creatures; two schoolmasters, who, by drunkenness, had been reduced to beggary, and lived as paupers in the house, taught them to read and write. I observed, with regret, that they were both armed with whips. The poor sleep in large airy rooms, the sick excepted, who are in separate infirmaries situated in the wings of the building; each one has a separate bed. Some infirm females only were in separate apartments, where three or four occupied one room. Each wing has three stories and one under ground, containing the kitchen, the wash-house, and bake-house; the bread used here is white and very good. Their meals are excellent: four times a week they have meat, twice vegetables; and on Fridays, as there are many Catholics, herrings. The building contains two large court-yards, with all the shops necessary for several mechanics, a large kitchen garden and all its dependencies of husbandry. It is situated on an elevated ground of cleared woods, a considerable number of acres of land appertaining to it, are cultivated by the poor. They are employed according to their strength and capacity, particularly in working for the house and in making their clothes. All the articles not used by the establishment are sold. Every poor person on entering the house, is shorn, takes a bath, and is clothed. For his clothes he becomes a debtor to the establishment, and cannot be dismissed until he has paid for them by his labour. The directors decide at this time if such a person is able to make his living in an honest manner, and resolve upon his discharge. Those who conduct themselves ill in the house are punished by solitary confinement. If they are sick on entering the house, two physicians, who are attached to the establishment, visit them daily and alternately; four students, also, I.168 from the medical college lodge in the house, and two of them are constantly present. For lunatics there are appropriate cells on the ground-floor.

I was twice in the Catholic Cathedral, the first time on Sunday, October 30th. The desire of hearing good music, decided me on going to this church, and I had no occasion to repent it. At the beginning of the service, I remained standing near the door, but being perceived, was conducted to a pew near the altar. The archbishop was sitting on an elevated chair, under a canopy. The music was particularly good, both in composition and execution. There were ladies attached to the choir, and it was a lady who played the organ. The charity sermon, by Mr. Wheeler, on charity and on the pleasure of doing good, was very edifying. This text had been chosen to move the hearts of the congregation, in behalf of the Catholic poor-school. Several days after, I returned to the Cathedral, in company with Mr. Vallenilla, (attached to the Colombian legation, and who had lately been married here,) to see Dr. Fenwick consecrated bishop of Boston. The church was crowded; it was with difficulty we obtained seats in a gallery opposite to the choir. A mass, composed by Cimarosa, was executed under the direction of Mr. H. Gilles, in a masterly style. I do not remember to have heard such good music for a long time. The best female voices were those of Mrs. French, Mrs. Gilles, and Miss Olivia Donaldson, sister-in-law to Mr. Vallenilla. The ceremony lasted very long. I remained from ten o’clock until two, P. M. and then left the church; the service continued until three o’clock. The archbishop himself officiated, in pontificalibus, with a mitre of cloth of gold and his gilded crosier-staff. He was served by the bishops of Charleston and Philadelphia, who wore mitres of cloth of silver. The first, Mr. England, delivered a long sermon, with a strong Irish accent, of which I did not understand much, except that he drew a comparison between a republican state citizen and a good Catholic: he spoke with much vehemence, and was very declamatory. It is said that this prelate is one of the pillars of the Romish church, in the United States.

I found the society very agreeable in Baltimore; at dinners every thing was unceremonious, and the conversation very instructive and lively; the evening parties afforded excellent music; the ladies in general are very handsome, and sing very well. It was at one of these evening parties, given by Mr. Henry Gilles, that I made the acquaintance of General Bernard and his lady, Baroness Serchenfeld of Bavaria. His acquaintance gave me great pleasure. I found him a very plain, modest and interesting man.

I.169

In paying Mr. Thomas my parting visit, I met his father, eighty-eight years old, and in full possession of his mental faculties. I entertained myself a long time with him. Among other topics, he related to me, that he had seen the spot which the city of Baltimore now occupies, a forest inhabited by Indians.

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CHAPTER XIII.

Stay in Washington, from the 2d until the 15th of November, 1825.

On the morning of the 2d of November I received another visit from Mr. de Vallenilla. He showed me a golden medal, which had formerly been coined by the town of Williamsburg in Virginia, in honour of President Washington, and a very well made miniature of that great man, painted by Stewart, to which was appended his hair. The medal was in a box made of wood from one of the trees standing near Washington’s tomb. The medal and miniature were intended by Washington’s family as presents for President Bolivar, and Mr. de Vallenilla was to set off within a few days for Caraccas, in order to present them to his patron, the liberator Bolivar.

In the public stage I left the friendly city of Baltimore, with which I was extremely gratified, accompanied by Mr. Huygens, for Washington, the seat of government of the United States, distant thirty-nine miles. The weather was good and tolerably warm. The stage travelled slowly, and we did not arrive before five o’clock in the evening. The road was principally a turnpike, kept in a very good state. The country belonging to the state of Maryland is for the most part hilly, covered with wood of large-leaved oak and pine trees, appearing but very little settled. The ground is sandy; the fields are planted with Indian corn and tobacco. The country is for the most part uniform; we did not pass through a single decent village. The difference between this country and the northern states is very striking. The houses are a great deal smaller, and of an inferior construction than the worst log-houses in the state of New York. The most of these small houses are inhabited by negroes, who generally had a very tattered appearance. We crossed several creeks over good wooden bridges, and six miles from Washington, near Bladensburg, we crossed the east branch of the Potomac, by two wooden bridges. It was here, that in the year 1814, an engagement I.170 between the English and the Americans took place, in which the American militia is said to have displayed no very great degree of courage. In consequence of this affair, the English marched into Washington, and burned the capitol and the President’s house.

I had not formed a great idea of Washington city, but what I saw was inferior to my expectation. The capitol stands upon an elevation, and is to be considered as the centre of the future city. Up to this time it is surrounded but by inconsiderable houses and fields, through which small houses are also scattered. From the capitol, several avenues, planted with trees, extend in different directions. We rode into the Pennsylvania avenue, and eventually came to the houses, which are built so far apart that this part of the city has the appearance of a newly-established watering place. The adjacent country is very fine, and there are several fine views upon the broad Potomac. We passed by the President’s house; it is a plain building,I.29 of white marble, situated in a small garden.

The president resides in the middle building; the four others are occupied as public offices. They are built of brick.

The plan of Washington is colossal, and will hardly ever be executed. According to the plan, it could contain a population of one million of inhabitants, whilst it is said at present to have but thirteen thousand. To be the capitol of such a large country, Washington lies much too near the sea. This inconvenience was particularly felt during the last war. It has been proposed to transfer the seat of government to Wheeling, on the Ohio, in the western part of Virginia.

Quite early next morning I received a friendly visit from the French minister, Baron Durand de Mareuil, whom I knew in Dresden, nineteen years ago, and afterwards as French minister at Naples, and met him in the same quality at Brussels. General Macomb, commander of the engineer corps of the United States, paid me a visit, and I was much delighted with his interesting conversation. Lieutenant Huygens also came, with whom I rode to Georgetown. This small town is amphitheatrically situated on the Potomac, whose right bank, covered with wood and partly cultivated, presents a pleasant view. Georgetown is separated from Washington, or rather from the ground on which it is to stand, by a small river called Rocky Creek, which empties into the Potomac, over which there is a bad wooden bridge. I returned to Washington with the minister, in order to be introduced to several of the highest public officers, and to the diplomatic body. I.171 At first we went to the office of Mr. Clay, the secretary of state, one of the most celebrated American orators. He is a tall, thin man; I found him in mourning for one of his daughters, of whom he has had the misfortune to lose three in a short time. Afterwards we went to see the president, who received us very kindly, and treated me as an old acquaintance. The house of the president, as already mentioned, is built of white marble. In the interior there is a large hall with columns. We were received in a handsomely furnished apartment. Beautiful bronzes ornamented the mantels, and a full length portrait of President Washington hung upon the wall.

From the president’s house we went to the office of the war department, to visit Mr. Barbour, the secretary, whom, however, we did not find, and thence to the navy department, to see the secretary, Mr. Southard. This officer is reputed to be one of the most learned men in the United States. The four offices are all built alike, very plain, with wooden staircases; their interior resembles a school-house. There are no sentinels nor porters; in the building for the war department a woman kept a fruit shop. Even the president himself has usually no sentries, and only during the night the marines from the navy-yard keep guard before his house.

We next visited Baron Mareuil, and I was very glad to renew my acquaintance with his amiable lady. His house stands quite insulated, like a country dwelling. The houses stand generally so widely distant in Washington, that the plan of the city exhibits more streets than houses. We made our last visit to the Russian minister, Baron Tuill, and the English minister, Mr. Vaughan, but found neither at home. At five o’clock I dined at Baron Mareuil’s, who gave a diplomatic dinner in honour of the King of France’s name-day. I found the greatest part of the diplomatic body assembled, and observed the French legation, particularly, was very numerous. It was composed of the consul-general Durand de St. André, brother of the Baron Mareuil, the vice-consul Thierry, the secretary of the legation De Bresson, the Count Ganay, and Mr. De Sonntag, a step-son of the Baron Mareuil, who was attached to the legation, and of Mr. Laborie, who, however, did not appear. Of the Russian legation, I found Mr. De Wallenstein, whom I had known in Boston, and who is very much esteemed and beloved here on account of his sensible conduct and good character, but particularly on account of his solid acquirements and correct views. The president, it is said, entertains a high opinion of him. I saw likewise Baron Maltitz, of the same legation, who married an American wife some months ago, also the Chargé d’Affaires of Brazils, Chevalier Rebello. I also became acquainted with the secretary of the treasury, Mr. I.172 Rush, who was for many years ambassador to England, and I met too with Mr. Brent, the under secretary of state. The ladies present, were only Mrs. De Mareuil and Mrs. De St. André. The dinner was truly splendid.

The number of our acquaintances soon increased, and pleasant and interesting parties ensued. At the same time we saw what was remarkable in Washington and its vicinity.

With Messrs. Huygens, father and son, we rode to the navy-yard, which is under the command of a commodore. The commodore was just gone travelling, therefore, we were accompanied on our tour by Captain Booth. In this navy-yard ships are only built and refitted; after that they descend the Potomac into the Chesapeake Bay, and go to Norfolk, where they are armed. At the time of our visit there were but two frigates in the yard, called forty-four gun ships, but mounting sixty-four pieces: the Congress, an old ship, which was repairing, and the Potomac, an entirely new ship, which has been launched, but subsequently hauled up and placed under a roof.

Upon the spot where the frigate Brandywine, which carried Gen. La Fayette to France, was built, the keel of a new frigate was laid, and at the same time the foundation for a house over this new ship was begun. The ground being very moist, this building is erected on piles. Opposite the entrance of the navy-yard, stands a rostral column of white marble with allegoric figures. It was erected by the officers and midshipmen of the navy of the United States, to commemorate the death of their comrades who fell in the attack of Tripoli. The English, at the time of their taking possession of Washington, on the 25th of June, 1814, broke the fingers of one hand belonging to the allegoric figure representing America, and destroyed the stylus in the hand of the muse of history. This inscription has been added to the column: “mutilated by the British.” At the foot of the monument stand two Spanish brass twenty-four pounders, taken by the Americans at Tripoli.

In this, as well as in other American navy-yards, there are several buildings. I found large forges where chain-cables are made, and tried in the same manner I had witnessed two years ago in Newbridge, South Wales. All the old copper taken from the ships is melted, and with an alloy of brass, converted into utensils of every description used on board ships; a steam-engine of fourteen horse-power moves a saw-mill, consisting of two large and several smaller circular saws, as also, machines for block-making, which however, can by no means be compared with Brunel’s block machine in Portsmouth; in the little arsenal are the muskets, swords, &c. I observed a contrivance on the locks of the guns to insulate the priming, and secure it in damp I.173 weather. I saw also a kind of repeating musket with two locks, one behind the other. With such muskets, by means of the anterior lock, twelve consecutive discharges can be produced, and these being over, the gun is loaded again like an ordinary infantry musket, and fired by means of the lowest lock. After the anterior lock is fired, all the remaining shots incessantly follow, and cannot be withheld at will, as it is the case with the repeating gun bought by me in New York, already described. It is yet unknown how this successive firing can be obtained. Captain Booth showed me also double screws of his own invention, the object of which is to supply the place of ordinary lanyards for ships. This officer has obtained a patent for his contrivance, and it has been adopted, for experiment, in the frigate Brandywine; in the same navy-yard is a laboratory, under the arsenal, where the necessary fire-works for the artillery are made. The place seemed to me to be ill chosen, since an explosion that may easily happen in such an establishment, might cause most terrible consequences to the navy-yard.

Over the Potomac there is a long wooden bridge, built upon ordinary cross-beams. I measured it, and found it to be fifteen paces broad, and one thousand nine hundred long. My paces being to the ordinary ones in the relation of four to five, it may be assumed that it is about two thousand three hundred and seventy-five paces in length. It required nineteen minutes to walk from one end to the other. Every foot-passenger pays six cents. This bridge astonishes by its length, but not at all in its execution, for it is clumsy and coarse. Many of the planks are rotten, and it is in want of repair; it has two side-walks, one of them is separated from the road by a rail. It is lighted by night with lanterns. It is provided with two drawbridges, in order to let vessels pass. It grew dark before I returned home, and was surprised at the stillness of the streets, as I scarcely met an individual.

Patents of invention are issued from the patent-office; whoever wishes to obtain a patent for an invention, is obliged to deliver a model or an accurate drawing of it. These models are exposed in an appropriate place, where they remain until the expiration of the time for which the patents are granted; they are then put into the lumber-room. Among such models, there certainly is a great number of things of little importance, as for instance, a contrivance for peeling apples; there are also ninety-six models for making nails in different ways, but some of them very remarkable. The most interesting models of machinery seemed to me to be those intended to remove mud from the bottoms of rivers, and canals, or to make them deeper. One of them consists of an ordinary steam-boat; with her they go to the spot where they are to work; arrived at the spot they cast anchor, I.174 stop the two water-wheels, and with an apparatus which is moved by the engine, draw the mud from the bottom. According to another model, the same operation can be performed by means of a draw-wheel. A great many models are intended to separate seed from cotton, to beat, spin, and weave it; none of them, however, are reputed to be superior to the known English machines.

Of steam-engines and steam-boats there are a great many models of very singular form, also steam-boats with rotatory motions; they however do not answer the purpose. I saw patterns of railways, and models of machines to draw boats from a lower canal into a higher one, by help of an inclined plane. Then two models of floating covered batteries. One of them was an oblong case, in which is fixed a steam-engine, giving to two long iron bars a rotatory motion. These bars, like two clock-hands, projecting off the deck, are intended to keep off a boarding enemy. A model to compress leaden bullets, in order to give them more weight. A great number of household and kitchen apparatus, fire-places of different descriptions, an earth-augur for seeking water, fire-engines of various kinds, a fire-proof roof, contrived by a German, several machines to make bricks, instruments by means of which, in navigating the Mississippi, trees lying under water can be taken hold of and sawed to pieces without stopping the vessel in its course, machinery to bore holes in rocks, and others to hoist rocks out of water; the machine contrived in London by Perkins to print with steel; models of book printing-presses; models for combing wool, and dressing woollen stuffs; fan-mills; leather manufacturing instruments, and among others, an instrument for splitting hides; a great number of agricultural instruments, namely, a great many ploughs for every kind of soil, invented by Germans; machines for mowing grass, for thrashing and cutting straw. Among the most important machines, I will mention one for making blocks, which is considered not to be inferior in any respect to that of Brunel, in Portsmouth, and another which renders steeping of flax unnecessary, and yet fits it after fourteen days drying to be broken and heckled. For permission to take a copy of the machine, one must pay ten dollars to the inventor. I ordered two copies; one for the Agricultural Society of Ghent, and another to present to my father. Several fine models of bridges, especially of hanging ones, among others, one of the bridges in Trenton, near Philadelphia, and another of that near Fayetteville, in North Carolina; also one of a hanging bridge, under which is suspended a canal passing over the river. Respecting arms I did not find much improvement. There was also a triangle of steel, weighing six pounds, upon which three different hammers struck, to supply the place of church bells. This ringing I.175 is said to be heard at a great distance. It has been introduced in several places to assemble the people.

The patent-office is in the same building with the post-office. They pointed out to me two large gilt frames with the arms of France and Navarre. They hung before the catastrophe of 1814, in the house of the president, and contained full length portraits of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette, which were presented in 1783, by those unfortunate monarchs to the United States, at their especial desire. Both portraits suddenly disappeared, and it is believed that it happened in 1814, when the English made their unexpected visit to Washington, and burnt down the house of the president.

The patent-office is under the direction of Dr. Thornton,I.30 who is an able draughtsman. Under Dr. Thornton, a Swiss is employed, whose name is Keller, a very able mechanic, and inspector of the model room, who explained every thing to me. Dr. Thornton was so kind as to accompany me to a sculptor, who, by means of casting a mould upon the face, obtains a striking resemblance, and has made busts of the first American statesmen, &c.

I arranged a party to the Falls of Potomac, with Mr. De Bresson, sixteen miles distant, where we were accompanied by Mr. Huygens, Jr. On the 6th of November, at nine o’clock, we left Washington and went five miles upon a very rough road, along the left bank of the river, which is at first very broad. Both shores are hilly and covered with wood, for the most part hickory and different species of oak. Of the primitive woods nothing is to be seen, for generally the wood is second growth. The banks soon became rocky, and we observed even in the river some projecting rocks. On the left shore they have dug a canal, this, however is too narrow, and only navigable by long boats, resembling the Durham-boats on the St. Lawrence river. In these boats, wood, lumber, stones, especially mill-stones, and the harvest from the upper countries, are carried to Washington.

Five miles above the city, we went over, on a hanging bridge, to the right shore. The chains consist of bars of wrought iron. The bridge itself is of wood, as well as the two cross-beams standing on its extremities, through which the chains are passed; these cross-beams form a kind of entrance, having an Egyptian appearance. The length of the bridge is about one hundred and sixteen feet, its breadth sixteen feet. A rather high toll is paid for passing it; we paid a dollar and a half for a carriage with two horses, for going and coming. The road, passing almost incessantly I.176 through a wood, became a little better after we arrived at the other side of the bridge. It was called a turnpike road, but still it continued hilly. We passed but a single inn, and saw but a single country house, which belonged to Commodore Jones, whose daughter became a Catholic and a nun, in a convent at Georgetown; this occurrence produced a great sensation in the United States. Most of the people we met with, were tattered negroes, who humbly saluted us. We were now in the state of Virginia, in the vicinity of the falls; when the road became very bad, we left our vehicle and went on foot through the forest, to see this natural curiosity, whose noise made us sensible of its proximity.

The river runs here over a rocky bed, and is about three hundred paces wide; in the dry season it is a great deal narrower. It forms several distinct falls, none of them above fifty feet high. They recall to memory Glenn’s Falls on the Hudson, between Lake George and Saratoga. We crept about in the labyrinth of broken rocks, not without danger or difficulty, in order to obtain different views of these falls. The sun was shining upon them at the time, and afforded us the sight of several rainbows; we soon felt ourselves richly rewarded for our pains.

In order to avoid these falls, a canal with locks has been made on the right shore. The canal passing through the rocks, is in some places dug down more than fifty feet. We, unfortunately, had chosen Sunday for our excursion; the inhabitants were gone to church, and there was nobody to give us the necessary explanations. There was no vegetation on the rocks about the falls, except some broom and single clover. We saw also upon the rock a creeping cactus plant, resembling the cochineal cactus, with small pear-shaped fruit, which contained a purple-red slimy juice. This plant gave me the first sign of my approach to the south. We returned to Washington by the road we came. Notwithstanding the late season, it was as warm as in midsummer.

The capitol is a really imposing building. When it is once surrounded by handsome buildings, it will produce a fine effect. It is built of white marble, and has three domes; the largest is over the rotunda, and the two smaller over the wings. The capitol stands on an acclivity, and in front is three stories high, and on the back, which is opposite the president’s mansion, four stories high. In front is the entrance, with a portal of Corinthian columns; on the back part there is a large balcony, decorated with columns. The entrance under the portal is a little too low.

In the centre of the building, under the principal dome is a large circular hall, receiving light from the roof. Pictures are to be placed in this hall, under the bas-reliefs. One of these represents the deliverance of Captain Smith, commander of the I.177 first English settlement in Virginia, by the Indian Princess Pocahontas; another is an allegory, representing the landing of European emigrants. Behind this hall is a large saloon, contiguous to the balcony, which contains the library of Congress. During the English incursion in 1814, the library was destroyed by fire; the present library has been gradually collected since, and consists in great part of the late President Jefferson’s books. Under the large hall is a small one, supported by three rows of columns, not unlike a family tomb. It receives its light from above, by a round opening in the floor of the large hall, and serves as a passage. It has been proposed to place there the coffin of the great Washington. No principal staircase is yet built, but a great number of smaller ones. The interior is altogether very angular. Columns and corridors are numerous in all the lateral galleries and saloons; the capitals of the columns are mostly of Egyptian taste, and the models seem to have been taken from the “description de l’Egypte.” In the corridor leading to the senate chamber, are columns, the shafts of which represent a bunch of stalks of Indian corn, and the capitals the fruit of the same plant. In the wings on the right hand side from the entrance, is the senate chamber, the offices belonging to it, the office of the president, and session room of the supreme court of the United States. This, and the senate chamber, are built in a semicircular form. In the centre is a place for the presiding officer. The members of the senate have their seats amphitheatrically arranged; every one has a chair, and before him a small mahogany desk. In this wing are hung the four pictures by Trumbull, which are hereafter to be placed in the rotunda. One of them represents the Declaration of Independence: there is a very fine engraving of this picture; another, the surrender of General Burgoyne to General Gates, near Saratoga; the third, the capitulation at Yorktown, and the filing off of the English between the American and French army; the fourth, the resignation of General Washington, and laying down of his commission to congress on the 23d of December, 1783. The portraits are said to be striking likenesses. As to the composition and execution of these pictures, the first makes one think of the pedantic school of Benjamin West, and the other looses by faint colouring. The painter was, moreover, placed under restraint by want of taste in his countrymen for the fine arts, who resemble, in that respect, their English ancestors: the posture of almost every single person having been prescribed him.

In the other wing of the building is the hall of representatives, likewise in form of an amphitheatre, and the offices belonging to it. In this hall is a full length portrait of General La Fayette. The ceiling of this saloon, like that of the senate chamber, and I.178 supreme court room, is supported by doric columns, whose shafts are of pudding-stone. The gallery above the principal dome, affords a very extensive view. The principal avenues of the city, which is to be built, all depart from this point, and this view recalls the situation of the castle at Carlsruhe, with this difference, that here no wood, and but few houses are seen.

With the families de Mareuil, St. André, Huygens, and all the French legation, we made an excursion by water to Mount Vernon, the country-seat of the great Washington. Mount Vernon is situated sixteen miles from the capitol, and on the right bank of the Potomac, in the state of Virginia. We hired a steam-boat for the purpose, on board of which we went at half past ten o’clock, at Georgetown. We went across the long bridge through an opening of a double drawbridge, and steered down the Potomac. Washington remaining on our left, had a very handsome appearance from the water, and especially the cape, named Greenleaf’s point, situated at the junction of the east branch with the Potomac, which is fortified, and contains very spacious storehouses. Eight miles below Washington, we stopped at the city of Alexandria, lying on the right bank of this river, in order to obtain a boat for landing at Mount Vernon. Alexandria is one of the three cities of the district of Columbia, which are Washington, Georgetown, and Alexandria. This town is said to have a considerable commerce; it has a harbour with wooden wharves, near which I saw several schooners lying, and also two brigs. It is said to contain about eight thousand inhabitants. The streets are long and very straight, crossing each other at right angles. After a stay of twenty minutes, we continued our course. Both banks are hilly, in some places rocky; there is a great deal of gravel, and they are covered with wood. At a winding of the stream we passed by Fort Washington, recently built upon a rock on the left bank, commanding the stream with its batteries. In an oblique direction on the opposite shore, we at last perceived Mount Vernon, beautifully situated. The water near the banks being very low, the steam-boat stopped in the middle of the stream, about a mile from the shore, and we landed in boats. We ascended by a very bad road to a place where cattle were grazing, which I heard was formerly Washington’s garden. Between three oaks and some cypress trees, we saw a coarse wooden door about four feet high, in a very bad piece of masonry. I thought at first it was a spring-house. How great was my astonishment, when I learned that this was the entrance to the sepulchral vault of the greatest man of his time; the ornament of his age; of Washington!

I picked up some acorns fallen from the trees which shaded the tomb; my object was to plant them when I returned home. I.179 I took also from this sacred spot a twig of a cypress tree. The tomb is no longer opened, since strangers have nearly cut to pieces the whole of the pall covering the coffin, in order to preserve it as a relic. It was last opened at the time of General La Fayette’s visit.

Thence we went to the dwelling-house, about three hundred paces distant, and situated on a hill, from which there is an extremely fine view of the Potomac. This estate belongs to Judge Washington, who, being absent upon business connected with his office the greatest part of the year, permits his inherited property to decay very much. He has no children. The house is two stories high, built of wood, and without taste. On the side next the river, it has a piazza, and on the other, is the entrance with stone steps, which are almost decayed. By means of a wooden colonade, the house communicates right and left with the wings and household buildings. Farther on, are houses for negro slaves, of whose dirty, ugly, and ragged children, we saw a great many running about. It being Sunday, we had much difficulty in finding access to the house; at last we succeeded in getting into the lower story, which has been left nearly in the same condition it was at the decease of its great possessor. But the number of books belonging to the library, has been increased by many new works by the present proprietor. A great many fine engravings decorate the walls, especially a very handsome Louis XVI. which Washington was presented with by that unfortunate monarch. On the gilt frame above, are the arms of France, and below, those of Washington’s family. In the four corners are the cyphers of the king and G. W. There are also two very good engravings, representing the battle of Bunker’s Hill, and the death of General Montgomery; four views of the attack of Gibraltar and its defence, and a miniature portrait of the great man painted on enamel. One of the keys of the Bastille, sent after its destruction by General La Fayette to Washington, is exposed in a case of glass, under it is a sepia drawing of the demolition of that prison. The furniture and other regulations of the rooms, are very plain; in the eating-room I observed a valuable chimneypiece of Italian marble, with handsome bas-reliefs, and two columns of gallo-antico.

It is known that when General La Fayette was visiting Washington’s burial place, an eagle made his appearance in the air and hovered over the spot until the general had proceeded farther. We also observed to day a very large one, which seemed to observe us from the height; we saw him above us when we were embarking. He seemed to hover over the same spot for a long while, and when the last boat came near the steam-boat, he suddenly left the place, flew towards the wood, and was lost to sight.

I.180

In our travelling company, I became acquainted with Count Miot, who had formerly been minister of the interior in Naples, and afterwards in Spain, under Joseph Buonaparte, and now was travelling for pleasure, and to visit his ancient master. Mr. De Mareuil detained all the gentlemen of our party to dinner at his house, and we remained there till ten o’clock, very much pleased. At a ball given by Baron Mareuil, more than two hundred persons, the members of the diplomatic body, the first authorities of the country, and the principal inhabitants, were present. I met with General Bernard, and became acquainted with General Brown, an aged man, whose right side appeared to be palsied. The most interesting acquaintances I made, were those of Commodore Porter, whose name, as well as the important services he rendered to his country, and his late trial, have rendered him known to the world, and of Colonel Roberdeau, of the engineers. I became farther acquainted with Mr. Calvert, who told me his son had studied in Göttingen and had some time ago travelled to Weimar, where he was presented at court and was very well received. The ladies were very elegantly dressed, and danced very well. They danced mostly French quadrilles, but always with the same figures. The music was good, and by the marine band of the garrison. The ball, however, did not last long; I was one of the last to go, and came home at eleven o’clock. The president was not there; he does not accept any invitation in the city. The present president receives even the foreign ministers only when they have been announced by the secretary of state. The president is likewise exempt from returning visits, which he had already the kindness to give me notice of by Mrs. Sullivan, in Baltimore.

Another ball was given by General Brown, in honour of the marriage of Captain Gardner, of the fourth regiment of artillery. The gentlemen I found there were mostly officers of the army. There is scarcely an army in Europe in which the corps of officers is better composed than in the small American army; since in the United States no one can on any account be an officer, if he is not well educated. The officers are exclusively taken from the military academy in West Point; no subaltern officer is promoted. The greater part of the inferior officers who were advanced during the last war, had been dismissed. Such a measure is in this country unavoidably necessary, where none but people of the lowest class enlist as soldiers in the army; without such an interval between the officers and the rank and file, discipline could not be maintained. Therefore, if a young man is seen in the uniform of an American officer, it may with confidence be inferred that he is in every respect fit to maintain his place in the best society.

At the third ball, given by Mr. Huygens, we once more met I.181 with a very pleasant company. I conversed a long time with Lieutenant Wolf Tone, of the first regiment of artillery. He is an Irishman by birth, educated in a French military school. He had been formerly in the French service, and is patronised by General Bernard.

At a visit I made to General Macomb and Major Vandeventer, at the war-office, the general showed me many drawings and plans of fortresses and entrenchments, together with two remarkable lists sent in every month from West Point by Lieutenant-Colonel Thayer. One of them contains the names of the best and worst cadets in every class, and the other the names of those who deserve to be rewarded, as well of others who have been punished, with indication of their faults; finally, of those who have been expelled, and the reason of their expulsion. Both lists are put in frames, under glass, and hung up in the general’s office; one is changed every fortnight, and the other every month. I was told by the general, that they saved him frequently from wasting conversation with the parents of the cadets.

The general conducted me also to the topographical office, being under the direction of Colonel Roberdeau. I found there several repeating circles, theodolites and telescopes, made by Troughton and Ramsden; also two transit instruments, destined for the observatory which is still to be built; an instrument by Troughton, which serves for measuring the ten-thousandth part of an English inch, and a model measure of the English yard, French mètre and litre. This gentleman regretted that the old English measures and weights are retained in the United States, instead of adopting, as it has been done in the Netherlands, the new French standard, which is much better.

There were also several good plans of battles and sieges of the revolutionary war, namely, those of the old fortresses Ticonderoga and Crownpoint, on Lake Champlain. I missed the most recent drawings. On the other hand, General Macomb showed me what they call the Indian department, where all business with the Indian tribes is attended to. There we found portraits of a great many Indian chiefs, and several of their wives, who have been at different periods in Washington, in order to compliment the president. They then receive medals according to their rank, which they wear by a riband round the neck. There were also several weapons and different ornaments of tribes I had already seen. Finally, I visited the ordnance department, which is under the direction of a colonel. I saw here a gun invented by Mr. Hall, at Harper’s Ferry, which is loaded from the breech, and with which five sure shots can be made in a minute. With this gun, three thousand discharges had been made, and it has proved I.182 very exact; several have been ordered, and one or two companies are to be armed with them in case of war.

At a dinner given by the president, and at which I had the honour along with about forty persons, to be present, were the diplomatic body, the state secretaries, several generals, and other persons of distinction. Among them, I made the acquaintance of Mr. Gaillard,I.31 of North Carolina, president pro tem. of the senate. No ladies were present, because Mrs. Adams was not well. The table furniture was very rich. I was particularly pleased with a service of silver gilt. The eating-room is very spacious, besides which there were two richly furnished rooms open. I remarked several handsome Sèvres, porcelain vessels, and a marble bust of the great Washington, by the Italian sculptor Ceracchi, who was afterwards shot in Paris, on account of a conspiracy against Napoleon’s life. A great chandelier was remarkably fine; it was made for the Emperor Napoleon, and purchased in the year 1815, by the American minister in Paris. The imperial eagles now pass for American.

General Brown,I.32 during a visit, showed me a large gold medal which was presented to him by congress, on account of his services in the late war. On one side of it is a bust of the general, and on the other a trophy of English arms surrounding a fasces. Four shields bear the names, Sackett’s Harbour, Niagara, Chippewa, and Erie, with the dates on which these places witnessed the general’s deeds. At the foot of the trophy an American eagle is represented, holding in his talons an English banner. This medal is not intended to be worn: the general preserves it in a box. The American citizens are not allowed to wear any foreign decorations; even General Bernard was obliged to lay aside those he had so truly merited. General Brown showed me also a gold box, presented to him by the city of New York, together with the freedom of the city.

On the 14th of November I began to make farewell visits, for the dwellings in Washington are so far distant, that such visits require a great deal of time. On this occasion, I had a long conversation with the secretary of war, Mr. Barbour, and general Macomb, on military subjects. I differed in opinion from the secretary about the efficiency of militia men, of whom he, as their former general,I.33 seemed to entertain too high an opinion. At Mr. de Wallenstein’s I saw some good instruments; a barometer for measuring heights, and a telescope which he had adopted as a transit-instrument. I found there also Krusenstern’s I.183 large Atlas of the South Sea, a fine work on bad paper. Mr. de Wallenstein had translated an astronomical work from the Spanish into English; he had also an English copy of the illustrations of Göthe’s Faust laid open. With General Bernard I conversed for a long while on the science of military engineering. He told me he had served at the defence of two fortresses, and obtained the experience, that there can be no strong defence, without having covered works on the front of attack. Respecting coast batteries, he was of opinion that the best were those which had at least an elevation of thirty feet above the surface of the water, in order that the rebounding shots coming from ships should not attain the breastwork. He considered the establishments for military instruction in this country susceptible of great improvements. He had proposed to establish a military exercise school, to which should be alternately sent battalions of infantry, and companies of artillery; this proposition has not been adopted. The general said also a great deal about the importance of Anvers, and gave me many interesting explanations of Napoleon’s designs in fortifying that place. Finally, the conversation turned on the battle of Waterloo, at which the General had been present as aid to the Emperor. Tears came into the eyes of this gallant man, while speaking of his former master.

On the last day of my stay in Washington, I took a ride with Messrs. Huygens, and Mr. de Bresson; we went to the marine barracks, where, by order of the secretary of war, experiments with Hall’s muskets were to be made. Mr. Hall, who is inspector of the gun manufactory at Harper’s Ferry, was present himself.

Experiments were made on the celerity of firing; Mr. Hall fired with his gun, and the sergeant major of the marines with an ordinary infantry musket. The last could make but four shots in a minute; whilst Mr. Hall made six. He has also applied his invention to ordinary infantry muskets and rifles, and caused them to be constructed at Harper’s Ferry. They cost the government eighteen dollars a piece. An essential improvement would be to introduce percussion fire-locks. Moreover these arms can only be given into the hands of very well exercised men. The government intends to arm the left wing companies with them. For the riflemen or light infantry, this gun seems to be very well suited. I expressed a desire that Mr. Hall would make such a gun for me; but he replied, that being in the service of the government, he was not allowed to make any without particular permission of the secretary of war. The few marines in quarters were paraded under the command of a Lieutenant, and I was received with music and presented arms. I.184 The whole of the marine corps is composed of but seven hundred men, who were employed on board the squadrons in the Mediterranean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and in the South Sea, to serve on board the receiving ships, and in the navy yards of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Washington and Norfolk. Hopes were entertained, that the next congress would consent to augment this corps to the number of fifteen hundred men, and this augmentation would, no doubt, have a great influence on the improvement of the service.

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CHAPTER XIV.

Departure from Washington.—Fredericktown.—Harper’s Ferry.—Blue Ridge.—Staunton.—Natural Bridge.—Wier’s Cave.—Charlotteville.—University of Virginia.—Monticello.—Richmond.—Jamestown.—Norfolk.—Fort Monroe.—Fayetteville.—Columbia.

On the 15th of November, I set out from Washington with Mr. Huygens, jr., who was desirous of accompanying me by permission of his father. I had hired a carriage with four horses to Harper’s Ferry, about fifty miles from Washington, where we were to arrive in two days. The road was for some miles very good, but afterwards it became bad and rugged and continued so the rest of the day. We left the District of Columbia, and again entered the state of Maryland. The country through which we were passing was hilly, covered with wood, and in some places cultivated; single large houses belonging to tobacco planters, and in their vicinity small ones for the negro slaves, were scattered here and there. We went through only one decent place called Rocksville. About seven o’clock in the evening we reached an inn called Scholl’s tavern, situated in the township of Clarksburg, distant from Washington twenty-five miles.

Next morning we left Clarksburg; it was pretty cool, and the road as rough as before. It was fifteen miles to Fredericktown, over a hilly and rocky country. Sometimes we saw handsome prospects on the mountains of the Blue Ridge, which we were approaching. The houses that we passed by, were like those of yesterday; the negro houses mostly of wood, with clumsy chimnies, built close to the house. The Monocacy river we passed at a ford within four miles of Fredericktown. This is one of the principal places in the state of Maryland, and is situated in I.185 a well cultivated country surrounded by hills. It has about five thousand inhabitants, and is built very regularly. At the entrance of one of the streets stood a wooden triumphal arch raised in honour of General La Fayette. The inscriptions were already nearly effaced by the weather. I had hardly alighted at the tavern, when I received a visit from a clergyman of this place named Dr. Schaeffer, a son of a preacher of the same name in Philadelphia. This gentleman accompanied me to see Mr. Schley, whom I had known in Saratoga, and afterwards we went to a Lutheran church, a very plain building. We ascended the spire in order to have a view of the town and surrounding country. The country appeared to be very well cultivated; their principal agricultural object is tobacco. There are four churches, Lutheran, Reformed, Catholic and Methodist. The public buildings are the Court-house and prison.

Harper’s Ferry was yet twenty-one miles distant from Fredericktown. The country grew at every moment more hilly, and the road rugged and worse; as we were approaching the Blue Ridge, we often alighted and walked. We met with several herds and flocks, which are driven from the western states to different seaports for sale. The wagons we met were generally carrying products of the west; they were large wagons with five stout horses. Every horse had on its collar a set of bells, consisting of five different tones, which made a very singular music.

Meanwhile, our road passed mostly through forest; we went through but a single insignificant village called Newton. The mountains grew higher and more rocky. At last we came again to the Potomac, which we had left the day before, and enjoyed many fine views.

This country reminded me of Pranen, near Dresden. It was night when we arrived on the left bank of the Potomac, opposite to Harper’s Ferry; we were obliged to wait for a considerable length of time for the ferry-boat. When this came, we saw it was conducted by an intoxicated negro; even the ferry-boat itself was very bad; however, we fortunately crossed the shallow river, passing amidst pieces of rocks, and perceived at some distance up, three piers standing in the river, on which the next year, a bridge was to be built. Having crossed, we came into the state of Virginia. At Harper’s Ferry, we took our lodgings in a neat tavern; and I had here the pleasure to see Dr. Weise, from Dresden, who, as soon as he knew I had arrived, came to see me. I take the liberty of inserting here the following description of this country, by Thomas Jefferson, in his “Notes on the State of Virginia.”

“The passage of the Potomac through the Blue Ridge is perhaps one of the most stupendous scenes in nature. You stand I.186 on a very high point of land. On your right comes up the Shenandoah, having ranged along the foot of the mountain an hundred miles to seek a vent. On your left approaches the Potomac, in quest of a passage also. In the moment of their junction they rush together against the mountain, rend it asunder, and pass off to the sea. The first glance of this scene hurries our senses into the opinion, that this earth has been created in time, that the mountains were formed first, that the rivers began to flow afterwards, that in this place particularly they have been dammed up by the Blue Ridge of mountains, and have formed an ocean which filled the whole valley; that continuing to rise they have at length broken over at this spot, and have torn the mountain down from its summit to its base. The piles of rock on each hand, but particularly on the Shenandoah, the evident marks of their disrupture and avulsion from their beds, by the most powerful agents of nature, corroborate the impression. But the distant finishing which nature has given to the picture, is of a very different character. It is a true contrast to the foreground. It is as placid and delightful, as that is wild and tremendous. For the mountain being cloven asunder, she presents to your eye, through the cleft, a small catch of smooth blue horizon, at an infinite distance in the plain country, inviting you, as it were, from the riot and tumult roaring around, to pass through the breach and participate of the calm below. Here the eye ultimately composes itself; and that way too the road happens actually to lead. You cross the Potomac above the junction, pass along its side through the base of the mountain for three miles, its terrible precipices hanging in fragments over you, and within about twenty miles reach Fredericktown, and the fine country round that. This scene is worth a voyage across the Atlantic. Yet here, as in the neighbourhood of the Natural Bridge, are people who have passed their lives within half a dozen miles, and have never been to survey these monuments of a war between rivers and mountains, which must have shaken the earth itself to its centre.”

The morning after my arrival at Harper’s Ferry, I visited Mr. Stubbersfield, director of the gun manufactory, to whom I was recommended by the secretary of war, and he showed me the establishments under his orders. The workshops are in seven large stone buildings, of which the interior partitions, with regret be it spoken, are of wood. The buildings stand in rows, four at the foot of the mountain, and opposite to them, three on the bank of the Potomac. At the entrance of the street which they form, is Mr. Stubbersfield’s office, from which he can overlook the entrances of all the buildings. The machines are moved by water-wheels. All the buildings are two stories high; in the I.187 lower part are the forges, and in the higher stories, workmen who use no fire in their work. In the working of iron I saw nothing new. The iron employed for barrels, comes from Juniata, in the state of Pennsylvania, and is in plates, of which each is calculated for one barrel. The steel is German, called Halbach’s steel, furnished by Mr. Halbach, of Philadelphia. Every gun must pass through one hundred and twenty hands before it is ready. A particular workman is appointed for every part and paid for it separately, when the work has been duly examined, and proved to be good. A skilful and diligent workman can gain two dollars per day. When the workmen have prepared all the parts of a fire-lock, they deliver them to a man who examines, tries them, and puts them together. The barrels are turned by means of rings, which can be rendered smaller or larger. The machinery for making gun-stocks was the most interesting to me, because it was formerly a very laborious work. A piece of iron is screwed upon a piece of wood, which has been made in the form of a stock, at the place where the barrel is to be placed. After this the piece is screwed into the machinery; in a parallel direction to it a piece of iron is screwed, having the same form that is to be given to the stock. The planing is performed by means of a wheel, to which are adapted ledge-planes. The operation begins with the muzzle, and ends with the breech of the gun. The gun-stock moves together with the iron model, each round its axis, having a parallel direction with the axis of a plain wheel of brass, which is rubbing on the iron model, and following all its prominences and cavities. This wheel is also put in motion and drawn towards the breech by means of an endless screw; during this motion it planes the gun-stock off, and gives it the proper form. This operation lasts six or seven minutes, and there is nothing to prevent it from turning at the same time another gun-stock on the other side. The gun-stock being duly formed, is taken out of the machinery, and another put in its place; then the iron piece is taken away from the turned gun-stock, it is fixed in a cramp, and applied to a bore-plane for making the groove to receive the barrel.

This manufactory, and that of Springfield, the only ones belonging to the government, furnishes at present in time of peace, fifteen thousand guns yearly. These guns are generally browned by the process indicated by Dupin, also, the rings and bayonets, the last of which are kept bright by the British.

Mr. Stubbersfield conducted me also to the arsenal, in which the finished muskets are delivered, and are either here preserved, or packed up in cases by twenty, and sent to other arsenals. In the interior of the arsenal, every thing is of wood, notwithstanding the great importance of being fire-proof, as it contains such I.188 a large capital. There were eighty-four thousand guns. If the value of one be estimated only at thirteen dollars, it makes the sum of one million and ninety-two thousand dollars.

From the arsenal, we were conducted to a new manufactory, half a mile from the town, where Mr. Hall’s patent guns are constructed under his own direction. He not being present, I was not fortunate enough to find any body to explain the machinery, which appeared not yet in full action. Dr. Weise, went with us to a mountain above this place, called Jefferson’s Rock. The prospect from it is really very fine; it agrees with the description, yet I believe I have seen finer landscapes in Germany. From that place also, the town can be surveyed, the houses of which appeared to be rather scattered; of its fifteen hundred inhabitants, three hundred are working in the gun manufactory. The ground for the most part belongs to the government, and well recommended persons obtain permission to build upon it. On an elevation, near Jefferson’s Rock, a large building, three stories high, has been erected. The first story was intended for a church, the second for a Lancasterian school, and the third for a free mason’s lodge. I suffered very much from a very cold wind, which brought with it a little snow. In the evening, Dr. Weise came to me with a bridge builder, who was a native of Reuslingen, who came here thirty years ago as a baker, and then had learned the art of constructing mills and bridges. The second bridge on the Schuylkill, above Philadelphia, built of a single arch, is of his invention, and the next year he was to build one here over the Potomac.

On the 19th of November, we left Harper’s ferry in a clear, but very cold morning, and set off on a journey to the Natural Bridge, which is one hundred and seventy-five miles distant. We rode in an ordinary stage. The improvement of stages, appears not yet to have extended beyond the Blue Mountains, because we were obliged to be contented with one, which was in every respect very uncomfortable. The way led us through a hilly country and was very bad. We went for a considerable distance on rocks; on the road, a great many loose stones were lying, and I was surprised, that our miserable vehicle was not broken to pieces. At break of day, we arrived at a small place called Smithfield, eighteen miles from Harper’s ferry. A couple of miles farther, we came to warm Sulphur Springs, the water of which has the taste of spoiled eggs, like that of Aix-la-Chapelle. It seems to be very little known, as there is no enclosure around it, and no houses near. A lucky chance will no doubt make it known, and I should not be surprised, were I to come hither again in fifteen or twenty years, to find at this spot an elegant watering place, somewhat like Saratoga Springs. The road continued I.189 through a forest of oak, chesnut, acacia, and cedar trees; houses were seldom met with. We forded many creeks, the most considerable of them is called Cedar creek. We observed also some grist-mills. It froze pretty hard, so that the borders of the creeks were covered with a pretty thick ice, and large icicles hung on the sluices of the mills. Eleven miles beyond Smithfield, we came to Winchester, a very nice country town, where the houses are mostly of masonry, and form a long principal street, intersected by other smaller ones; it has a market-house, and many stores, which appeared to be very well provided. Here we changed our stage for a better one, although still very inconvenient. The wood of which it was constructed was hickory, which has a great deal of elasticity.

From Winchester, we went to Stephensbury, eight miles farther, to Middleton, then to Strasburg, six miles, and at last to Woodstock, twelve miles, where we passed the night. This place is sixty-one miles distant from Harper’s ferry. We reached our night-quarters in the evening about six o’clock, in a very cold night and a fine moonshine. The places between Winchester and Woodstock were not considerable, except Strasburg, which is more ancient than the others, and appears to have a larger population. The houses are generally of wood and covered with shingles, although a great number of stones are found here. The country became at last very fine. On our left we saw the Blue Ridge, from which we now withdrew at every moment. Another ridge, in a parallel direction with the former, called the Northern Ridge, rose suddenly between us and the Blue Ridge, which soon entirely disappeared. On our right there was another ridge of mountains, it was an arm of the Alleghany Mountains, and we went through a valley at least ten miles wide. The formation of these parallel ridges is very singular, and no instance occurs of it in the other parts of the world. The country was pretty well cultivated, and by the exterior appearance of many country-houses, we were induced to believe their inhabitants enjoyed plenty. The enclosures of fields are here, for the most part, the above-mentioned old fences, yet next to the houses they are of masonry carefully formed. As it appeared, they travel here much on horseback. On account of great distances between the plantations, almost all the ladies can ride on horseback; we met several of them elegantly dressed, and also black women. The race of horses of this country, appears to be a very strong one. They use also oxen for drawing; to many carts were put two oxen, and before them two horses. On the 20th of November, we left Woodstock at half-past two o’clock in the morning, in a very miserable stage, and proceeded to Staunton, seventy-one miles distant, on a still more rugged road than that of yesterday; in I.190 this place we passed the night. The places on our way were mostly insignificant: only Shryock, New Market, Big Spring, and Harrisonburg, deserve to be mentioned; the last of them is said to have from eight to nine hundred inhabitants. The greatest part of the houses were wooden ones, and but a few of masonry. This part of the state of Virginia does not bear comparison with Massachusetts, New York, or even Pennsylvania. The great number of slaves in this state, makes also a very bad impression.I.34 The largest part of the country is not covered with wood, and appears to be well cultivated. As for the rest it is very hilly, and on our left hand we had all day the ridge of North Mountains, of which, however, we could not see much, owing to the fogginess of the weather. We crossed many streams at fords; these streams were rather torrents. We crossed the Shenandoah near its source. About seven o’clock in the evening we reached Staunton, and took our lodgings in an unpleasant tavern. This long and uncomfortable journey, in an extremely bad stage, and upon a very rough way, made me quite uneasy, and my young travelling companion more so, for he seemed not to be very much accustomed to such fatigues. I suffered, however, this want of comfort with a great deal of patience.

On the 21st of November, we were obliged to stay in Staunton, because the stage goes only every other day to the Natural Bridge, which is on the road to Knoxville and Louisville, and this bridge being too far distant from Staunton, we could not, with a hired carriage, go there, and return within two days. We employed the leisure forced upon us in examining the country. The town itself is small, has about one thousand six hundred inhabitants, and consists, properly speaking, of but two principal streets, intersecting each other at right angles. The greatest part of the houses are of wood, covered with shingles. Staunton is the chief place of Augusta county; the court was in session, and on that account a great many lawyers were present. The town is surrounded by hills and covered with wood, as far as I could observe in the foggy weather, which lasted all day. The Shenandoah here is but a small brook; opposite the town is a limestone rock, having many cavities. I was told they were very spacious. I tried to creep in, but found the entrance so narrow and low, that I was obliged to give it up. I had obtained from I.191 Mrs. Weightman, in Washington, a letter of introduction to Dr. Scheffey, her brother-in-law, and the most renowned lawyer in the place. I delivered it, and received a visit from this gentleman. He came with several of his brother lawyers, and among them three generals of militia were introduced. Dr. Scheffey himself was a major, and almost every inhabitant of distinction is invested with a rank in the militia. The custom being here to call one another by their military rank, one is tempted to believe himself transported to the head-quarters of some army! In conversing with these gentlemen, I observed with astonishment the aristocratical spirit which the Virginians possess. I was astonished to hear them praising hereditary nobility and primogeniture! In the evening I went to see Dr. Scheffey, and we spent the time very pleasantly over a good glass of wine, and in rational conversation.

The next morning, I left my baggage in Staunton at half past two o’clock, in a miserable stage, in order to go to the Natural Bridge, upon a very bad road. We passed only two decent places, Fairfield and Lexington, the last is the chief town of Rockbridge county, and has a court and high school. On account of a fog, which lasted all day, we could see but little of the country, which in some parts of Rockbridge county becomes very mountainous. We forded two small streams, called Middle river and Buffalo creek, over the last there is a wooden bridge, which is made use of only at very high water. Our travelling company was not the most agreeable, it was composed of two Americans, who did not open their mouths, and of an Irish resident, who talked the more for the silence of the others; all this was disagreeable enough. At times he became interesting, when he had cheered his heart with whiskey. We passed by many very handsome country-houses; at one of them we saw eight large black eagles sitting on a fence, they were fed by the care of the proprietor. The inhabitants seem not very fond of shooting, for I saw snipes in Fairfield, which flew even into the yard of the tavern. Game is here very abundant, a deer costs about a dollar and a half.

In the afternoon we reached a lonely tavern, situated in the mountains called Natural Bridge, which is fifty miles distant from Staunton. I availed myself of the short time the sun remained above the horizon to hasten to the Natural Bridge, which is a mile and a half distant from the tavern, and for the sake of which I had made so great a circuit and suffered so many fatigues. A young negro slave from the tavern was our conductor; the way lead through mountains overgrown with wood. At last I stood upon a rock whence I could overlook the cleft and the bridge just before me. In Jefferson’s Notes, that learned man gives a description of the bridge, which is as follows:

I.192

“The Natural Bridge, the most sublime of Nature’s works, though not comprehended under the present head, must not be pretermitted. It is on the ascent of a hill, which seems to have been cloven through its length by some great convulsion. The fissure just at the bridge, is by some admeasurements, two hundred and seventy feet deep, by others only two hundred and five. It is about forty-five feet wide at the bottom, and ninety feet at the top; this of course determines the length of the bridge, and its height from the water, its breadth in the middle is about sixty feet, but more at the ends, and the thickness of the mass, at the summit of the arch about forty feet. A part of this thickness is constituted by a coat of earth, which gives growth to many large trees. The residue, with the hill on both sides, is one solid rock of limestone.—The arch approaches the semi-elliptical form, but the larger axis of the ellipsis, which would be the chord of the arch, is many times longer than the transverse. Though the sides of this bridge are provided in some parts with a parapet of fixed rocks, yet few men have resolution to walk to them, and look over into the abyss. You involuntarily fall on your hands and feet, creep to the parapet, and peep over it. Looking down from this height about a minute, gave me a violent head-ache. If the view from the top be painful and intolerable, that from below is delightful in an equal extreme. It is impossible for the emotions arising from the sublime, to be felt beyond what they are here: so beautiful an arch, so elevated, so light, and springing as it were up to heaven! The rapture of the spectator is really indiscribable! The fissure continuing narrow, deep, and straight, for a considerable distance above and below the bridge, opens a short but very pleasing view of the North Mountain on one side and Blue Ridge on the other, at the distance each of them of about five miles. This bridge is in the county of Rockbridge, to which it has given name, and affords a public and commodious passage over a valley, which cannot be crossed elsewhere for a considerable distance. The stream passing under it is called Cedar creek. It is a water of James’s river, and sufficient in the driest seasons to turn a grist-mill, though its fountain is not more than two miles above.”

I confess that I am no poet; yet I was very glad to have taken the trouble of coming hither; this rock-bridge being certainly one of the greatest wonders of nature I have ever beheld; and I have seen Vesuvius and the Phlegrean fields, the Giant’s Causeway in Ireland, the Island of Staffa, and the Falls of Niagara! The brook under the bridge was almost dry; the most majestic view is from below.

On the 23d of November we left the wretched tavern at the Natural Bridge, and returned to Staunton in a crowded stage, I.193 in which were four gentlemen from the state of Tennessee, members of congress, going to Washington. I took my seat as usual alongside the coachman, where I had more room and fresh air. We returned as far as Lexington by the road we left it. Having stopped for a short while here, I was the object of much curiosity to the German descendants who are settled here. The town of Lexington was first established about forty years ago, and it now contains eleven hundred inhabitants. In its vicinity upon a hill, is a large arsenal covered with zinc, belonging to the United States.

From Lexington we took another road which led us through the considerable villages of Brownsburgh and Middleburgh. The road was in some places very bad, and terribly rough; but we sometimes found a side road, which in that dry season was still very good; it ran generally through a forest. We saw lonely houses and met with many travellers on horseback, several of them were well dressed white women. All our coachmen in this state were whites; I was surprised at this, knowing that black coachmen could be had at a cheaper rate, and was told that in this state, blacks were not allowed to drive the mail stage.

On the 24th of November, after nine o’clock in the morning, we set out from Staunton in a hired coach, in order to pass by a circuitous route the celebrated Wier’s cave, and thence continue our journey to Charlotteville, whither we had sent our heavy baggage by the stage.

As far as Wier’s cave, eighteen miles distant, we had a good country road. We took our lodgings in a lonely house belonging to Mr. Mohler, a German from Pennsylvania, of Saxon origin. The way was through a hilly, woody country; many breaks in the earth presented limestone rocks, and announced the proximity of caves. For a sportsman this country must be delightful, for we saw in the woods two flocks of partridges, which left the road, only to give way to the passing carriage, and then settled at not more than ten paces from us. On the banks of the creeks we saw a great number of snipes. Mohler’s house is situated on a considerable creek, called the South river, which by means of a canal, works a grist-mill and forge.

The grist-mill belongs to a miller, who has also a whiskey distillery, and upwards of one hundred acres of land, with four negro slaves. He cultivates wheat, some rye, and a great quantity of Indian corn. His mill, a large stone building, is arranged very compendiously, and reminded me of the large steam-mill at Baltimore. There are only two pairs of stones, one for wheat, and the other for Indian corn. The boulted flour is conveyed to the upper floor by means of elevators, and spread upon it by a rake, which has a circular and horizontal motion, in order to cool it. I.194 He sends his flour packed up in barrels to Richmond, and even to Baltimore. The industrious Mohler has connected with his grist-mill, a saw-mill, and a mill to break flax, which is likewise cultivated, though not in a large quantity; this year, on account of the dryness, it has failed.

The entrance of the cave is about a mile and a half from Mohler’s house, and is situated in the middle of a steep side of a mountain on the bank of the South river. We crept down the hollow, every one provided with a taper, and came directly into a space where we could stand up; there were some beautiful stalactites, mostly in columns. This place is called the antichamber. Then we arrived at a hall called dragon’s room, from a stalactite, which is said to have the form of a dragon. Several of the stalactites are not unlike waterfalls; one of them is called Niagara Falls.

The following gallery is called the Devil’s gallery, from a figure standing in it; yet I found in this figure more resemblance to a statue of the virgin, than to that of a devil.

A whole stratum of the stalactites detached from the roof of the cavern, was as it were, suspended between heaven and earth, and afforded a fine view, especially as a new formation of stalactites took place between the roof and the suspended stratum.

A narrow hollow passage leads into a more spacious cavern called Solomon’s Temple; here are very singular and mostly foliated transparent stalactites, hanging from the roof down to the floor. Not far from that cavern is another, named hide-room, in which the stalactites hang down in form of hides in a tannery. Then we came into another vault, which is called the drum-room, because if a stone is thrown against the stalactites, they give a sound resembling that of a drum. Some of the stalactites having the form of sticks, and ranged in circles, produce all the sounds of an octave, if struck with a stick. You pass afterwards through a narrow passage, by an opening, which looks like an antique tomb in ruins, and is called Patterson’s grave, in commemoration of an individual of that name who fell in there. By means of a rather rotten ladder, you come now into a very high smooth saloon, eighty feet long, called the ball-room, in which benches are placed; I was told that visitors having ladies with them, entertained themselves here very often with dancing. Then you ascend another ladder, and creep on all fours through a narrow hollow, which has been partly enlarged by a mine, when you arrive at a natural, but very slippery staircase, called Jacob’s ladder, which you descend; then passing through a narrow dungeon, you get into a more spacious room, named Senate-chamber, when by means of a rotten ladder you reach a long gallery, called Washington-hall, from a large stalactite standing in the middle I.195 of it, and having the form of a statue, which is called Washington’s statue.

Not far from this statue, there is a small fountain, the water of which, though very thirsty, I did not venture to drink, having some days since experienced bad consequences from drinking water from limestone rocks. Next to this hall, is a place in which the stalactites covering the rock, have a shining crystalline-like surface, wherefore this vault is called the diamond room. Farther on, you get in a large saloon called the dining room, in which the stalactites represent something not unlike a side-board set with bottles and tumblers. In Washington-hall there is a heap of this filtered stone, called the hay-stack, and over it hangs another stalactite, having the form of a rake.

From the dining room, we passed into the last cave, that had been hitherto visited, by the name of Jefferson’s-hall, in which are seen several clefts, and I am persuaded that a new passage could be easily opened, and new caves discovered. In different spots of the cavern, where the crust of the stalactites is broken, we saw hollows, which have not yet been examined. Such an undertaking, seems the more worth while, as this cave is probably in communication with the Madison’s cave, which was discovered by Jefferson, many years ago, and is in the same mountain; its entrance being only three hundred yards distant from that of Wier’s cave.

Wier’s cave was discovered in the year 1806, by a German farmer named Wier; Madison’s cave is not any longer visited; it is said also, that its finest stalactites have been destroyed by the indiscretion of strangers.

My attention in Wier’s cave, was particularly attracted by plates, which came off from the roof of the cavern, and hang from it, so that new stalactites have been formed between them and the roof, the last giving the others a very singular form. One of these plates looks like a large shell of mother of pearl,—another, like a looking-glass. The cave is of course damp, from the dripping of water, but it is less so than I expected, and less than is the case in such caves in Germany and England. The temperature was pretty high, and the air very pure. Our candles burnt with a bright flame, and we felt no difficulty in breathing.

From Jefferson’s hall, we began our rather difficult retreat, and came again into day-light, which was already decreasing.

We spent the rest of the evening with our friendly landlord, by a chimney fire; he had a bible in folio, printed in Nuremberg in the year 1765, with the portraits of my ancestors, the Grand Duke William IV., the Grand Duke Bernhard, and others.

It was interesting to me, to be reminded of my family in such I.196 a way, when in the interior of Virginia, and beyond the Blue Ridge.

On the 25th of November, we set out for Charlotteville, thirty-two miles distant, passing over the Blue Ridge. The road is through a country little cultivated, and without a single village; and the number of separate houses could scarcely be more than a dozen. After we had gone about five miles, we arrived at the western base of the Blue Ridge, which affords an agreeable view, being overgrown with wood up to the top. Then we entered a narrow valley, and when the road began to ascend, we alighted and walked over the mountains. I was surprised to find the road less steep than I expected, and it was also pretty good. From elevated places, the day being not so foggy as the preceding ones, we had many fine views of the mountains. The wood consisted of oak trees, and different kinds of nut trees; here and there were colossal fir, larch, Weymouth’s pine and acacia trees. Evergreen rhododendrons, for which some amateurs in Europe spend a great deal of money, are growing here in abundance, also wild vines, which wind themselves round the trees. The prospect on the mountains would have been more pleasant, had there been some marks of human dwellings, but we saw only two miserable log houses, inhabited by dirty and ragged negro families, on the whole tract for eight miles over the mountains; and we met but a few carts loaded with flour.

Having crossed the Blue Ridge, we arrived at a good-looking country house, and a mill called Brown’s Farm, situated at the base of the mountains, and took our dinner there. This house is surrounded by fields belonging to it, and from its piazza there is a very fine view of the mountains. From this place we had yet twenty miles to Charlotteville. The road became less hilly, at least we had no more mountains to cross; however, the road continued very rough, and we were rudely jolted. About eight o’clock in the evening we reached Charlotteville, in which the houses appeared to be scattered. In its vicinity is a new establishment for education, called University of Virginia. The next morning we went to see the university, which is one mile distant from the town.

This establishment has been open since March, 1824, and it is said to have already one hundred and thirty students; but a spirit of insubordination has caused many of the pupils to be sent away. The buildings are all new, and yet some of them seem to threaten to fall in, which may be the case with several others also, being chiefly built of wood. The interior of the library was not yet finished, but according to its plan it will be a beautiful one. The dome is made after the model of the Pantheon in Rome, reduced one half. This place is intended for I.197 public meetings of the academy: but it is said that an echo is heard in case of loud speaking, which renders the voice of the speaker unintelligible.

Under the rotunda are three elliptical halls, the destination of which is not yet entirely determined. The set of columns on the outside of this building, I was told is to be a very fine one; the capitals were made in Italy.

As for the rest, the ten buildings on the right and left are not at all regularly built, but each of them in a different manner, so that there is no harmony in the whole, which prevents it from having a beautiful and majestic appearance.

The garden walls of the lateral building are also in crooked lines, which gives them a singular but handsome appearance. The buildings have been executed according to Mr. Jefferson’s plan, and are his hobby; he is rector of the University, in the construction of which the state of Virginia is said to have laid out considerable sums of money.

We addressed a gentleman whom we met by chance, in order to get some information, and we had every reason to be satisfied with his politeness. It was Dr. Dunglison, professor of medicine. He is an Englishman, and came last year with three other professors from Europe. He showed us the library, which was still inconsiderable, and has been provisionally arranged in a lecture room; it contained some German belles lettres works, among others a series of Kotzebue’s calendar of dramatical works. It was said a great quantity of books was coming from Europe.

The university is situated on a hill in a very healthy situation, and there is a very fine view of the Blue Ridge. President Jefferson invited us to a family dinner; but as in Charlotteville there is but a single hackney-coach, and this being absent, we were obliged to go the three miles to Monticello on foot.

We went by a pathway, through well cultivated and enclosed fields, crossed a creek named Rivanna, passing on a trunk of a tree cut in a rough shape, and without rails; then ascended a steep hill overgrown with wood, and came on its top to Mr. Jefferson’s house, which is in an open space, walled round with bricks, forming an oblong, whose shorter sides are rounded; on each of the longer sides are portals of four columns.

The unsuccessful waiting for a carriage, and our long walk, caused such a delay, that we found the company at table when we entered; but Mr. Jefferson came very kindly to meet us, forced us to take our seats, and ordered dinner to be served up anew. He was an old man of eighty-six years of age, of tall stature, plain appearance, and long white hair.

In conversation he was very lively, and his spirits, as also his hearing and sight, seemed not to have decreased at all with his I.198 advancing age. I found in him a man who retained his faculties remarkably well in his old age, and one would have taken him for a man of sixty. He asked me what I had seen in Virginia. I eulogized all the places, that I was certain would meet with his approbation, and he seemed very much pleased. The company at the table, consisted of the family of his daughter, Mrs. Randolph, and of that of the professor of mathematics at the university, an Englishman, and of his wife. I turned the conversation to the subject of the university, and observed, that this was the favourite topic with Mr. Jefferson; he entertained very sanguine hopes as to the flourishing state of the university in future, and believed that it, and the Harvard University near Boston, would in a very short time be the only institutions, where the youth of the United States would receive a truly classical and solid education. After dinner we intended to take our leave, in order to return to Charlotteville; but Mr. Jefferson would not consent to it. He pressed us to remain for the night at his house. The evening was spent by the fire; a great deal was said about travels, and objects of natural history; the fine arts were also introduced, of which Mr. Jefferson was a great admirer. He spoke also of his travels in France, and the country on the Rhine, where he was very much pleased. His description of Virginia is the best proof what an admirer he is of beauties of nature. He told us that it was only eight months since he could not ride on horseback; otherwise, he rode every day to visit the surrounding country; he entertained, however, hopes of being able to re-commence the next spring his favourite exercise. Between nine and ten o’clock in the evening, the company broke up, and a handsome room was assigned to me.

The next morning I took a walk round the house, and admired the beautiful panorama, which this spot presents. On the left, I saw the Blue Ridge, and between them and Monticello are smaller hills. Charlotteville and the University lay at my feet; before me, the valley of the Rivanna river, which farther on, makes its junction with the James river, and on my right was the flat part of Virginia, the extent of which is lost in distance; behind me was a towering hill, which limited the sight. The interior of the house was plain, and the furniture somewhat of an old fashion. In the entrance was a marble stove with Mr. Jefferson’s bust, by Ceracchi. In the rooms hung several copies of the celebrated pictures of the Italian school, views of Monticello, Mount Vernon, the principal buildings in Washington and Harper’s Ferry; there were also an oil painting, and an engraving of the Natural Bridge, views of Niagara by Vanderlin, a sketch of the large picture by Trumbull, representing the surrender at Yorktown, and a pen drawing of Hector’s departure, I.199 by Benjamin West, presented by him to General Kosciuszko, finally, several portraits of Mr. Jefferson, among which the best was that in profile by Stuart. In the saloon there were two busts, one of Napoleon as first consul, and another of the Emperor Alexander. Mr. Jefferson admired Napoleon’s military talents, but did not love him. After breakfast, which we took with the family, we bid the respectable old man farewell, and set out upon our return on foot to Charlotteville.

Mr. Jefferson tendered us the use of his carriage, but I declined, as I preferred walking in a fine and cool morning. In the afternoon we left Charlotteville, in a tolerably good stage, in order to go to Richmond, the chief town of Virginia, distant eighty miles. A student was our travelling companion, and so we had plenty of room. But the stage went only ten miles to a small tavern situated in a wood, and kept by Mrs. Boyd. We passed by not far from Monticello, crossed the Rivanna at a rather deep ford, and remained for some miles on its left bank. The banks were high and rocky in some places. The road was, for the greatest part, through a wood, hilly and rough; in some places it was what they call causeway.

On the 28th of November we set out at half past two o’clock in the morning, by moonlight and very cold weather, and went seventy miles to Richmond. The stage was better, and the road was also better than formerly. Notwithstanding that the country continued hilly, a considerable portion of the road was causeway, for the greatest part of logs, and the country uninteresting. When we approached James river, along the banks of which we went for some miles, the country grew finer, and had it been more settled I would have compared it with that on the Elbe, above Dresden. The ground was in the beginning loamy, then sandy. We changed horses at isolated taverns. Gordonsville and Goochland were the only villages through which we passed, and in these villages too the houses were very scattered, and almost all of them of wood. We rode on the left bank of James river, and passed by a navigable canal, which is said to extend in land about eighty miles above Richmond, and appeared to have been constructed with great care; the wooden bridges were neatly constructed and solid; an aqueduct of two arches, which conducted the canal over a brook having high banks, was well built. About eight o’clock in the evening we reached Richmond, a town of about seventeen thousand inhabitants of both colours. To judge by the houses, Richmond must be a wealthy place. We took our lodgings in the Union Hotel, a large and well-furnished inn. I felt really happy at finding myself once again in a considerable place, as I was almost unaccustomed to such a sight.

We could not depart on the 29th of November, as no steam-boat I.200 went in the direction we wished to take. My design was to go to Yorktown, to see the remains of an English fortification of the revolutionary war, and Fort Monroe near Old Point Comfort, and then to travel on farther to Norfolk, to see the navy-yard, thence to hasten to the south, in order to make up for the time I spent in Virginia. I took a walk through the town, to look around, for there was nothing else remarkable to be seen. The town lies on the left bank of James river, and consists of two streets, running parallel with the river, and of several insignificant alleys. The main street, which lies next to the river, is finished, the other does not contain many houses; the former is probably a mile long, paved, and has side-walks made of bricks. As they burn coal here, the city looks nearly black. In the western part of Virginia, they only use wood. The blacks seem to compose the most numerous part of the population of that place. It is here where James river becomes navigable; above the city, navigation is carried on by the above-mentioned canal, which here joins the river, after having gone through a large basin, at whose wharves they were yet working. This canal descends in the city from a considerable height, by means of eight locks; the sides of the canal between the locks are only made of plank. On the hill where those locks begin, there is a pretty large basin, which serves as an harbour for the boats coming from the countries above, and bound for Richmond. In the vicinity of this basin, I saw a hollow formed by rocks and full of wooden huts, which were inhabited by negroes, and exhibited a true picture of human misery. This hollow has the form of a funnel. In rainy weather, these poor people must probably suffer a great deal from dampness. Below the locks, you cross James river on a wooden bridge resting on wooden trestles. From this bridge you go over a side bridge to a small island, containing a public garden, and lying in the middle of the river; above the island a ledge of rocks crosses the river and forms a small cataract; farther up there are said to be several other falls in the river.

On a hill which commands the city, stands the state-house, called the capitol, surrounded by a newly laid out garden; it reminds one of the Maison Quarrée, at Nismes in France. On one of the smaller sides of the parallelogram there is a portico of eight Ionic columns. But these columns are of wood only, and have, when closely inspected, a rather decayed appearance. On the two long sides, the building has entrances with steps. In the hall in the middle of the house, there is a full length marble statue of President Washington, somewhat tasteless. It represents the great man in uniform; the right hand reposing on a cane, the left arm on fasces, to which a sword is hanging, and against which the plough leans. In one of the lateral chambers the court of the I.201 United States was assembled, to try a captain of a merchant vessel, and a Frenchman by birth. This man had twice sunk his ship, in order to get the insurance money for it. At one of these sinkings, a lady lost her life, and on that account the captain was accused of murder. I was sorry I could not fully understand the debates and speeches of the advocates, as I heard that the person under trial had the best lawyers for his defenders. The decision did not follow.

Behind the capitol stands the court-house, a massive building with a portico of four Doric stone columns; in the interior of the building I saw nothing farther remarkable. At several booksellers I asked in vain for the plan of the city and the surrounding country, also for a description of the canal.

We intended to leave Richmond at three o’clock in the morning of the 30th of November, and set out on our projected tour. But, as the ordinary stage was repairing, they put us in a small carriage with only two horses, in which it was impossible to carry our baggage. As I would not part with it, I gave up the tour which I had concluded on, and left Richmond, in the morning at eight o’clock, on board the steam-boat Richmond, to descend the James river to Norfolk. In the mean time, I had an opportunity of noticing the particular manner in which the negroes are treated. I wished to employ my leisure in writing; when I entered the room, I found several slaves wrapt up in woollen blankets, sleeping on the floor by the chimney-fire; upon inquiring, I was told that slaves never receive a better bed.

We had one hundred and twenty-two miles to Norfolk, and reached that city between nine and ten o’clock in the evening. During the whole day the weather was not clear; on the banks of the meandering James river, which grows gradually larger, there was not any thing remarkable. The travelling company was not large, and was composed of incommunicative persons: I could not exchange a word with any of them. There was no opportunity of writing, as the engine communicated such a quivering motion to the whole vessel, that I could hardly hold my pen, and spent my time in reading. Towards evening we perceived a large stone building on the left bank, the only remains of James Town, the first English settlement in Virginia. The following romantic story is related. An Indian princess, Pocahontas, daughter of a powerful Indian chief on the banks of this river, whose name was Powhattan, fell in love with the English Captain Smith, who was the commander of the first settlement at James Town. This Indian princess swam across the river in a stormy night, in order to give notice to her lover of the conspiracy of her father and the principal chiefs, against his life. In this manner she saved the new settlement, and also I.202 twice afterwards under the same circumstances. However, her lover fell at last into an Indian ambush, and was to become a victim of the Indians. Then she laid her head down with his on the block, and once more saved his life. This scene is represented by a bas relief, which is in the large rotunda in Washington. Captain Smith was a married man, and on that account could not, when returning to England, take his benefactress with him; he made her believe that he was dead, and secretly went on board a ship. Some time afterwards, Pocahontas married Rolf, who succeeded her lover in the command of the settlement, and followed him to England. She met once, by chance, with her first lover in the street, whom she believed to have been dead, and soon sunk into such a melancholy state, that she left England, embarked for America, and died on the passage.I.35

In very disagreeable weather we landed at Norfolk, a city of ten thousand inhabitants, and took our lodgings in Carr’s Hotel, a tolerably good tavern. I made acquaintance with Mr. Meyau, the French Consul, a very pleasant man. In his company I went the next day to Fort Monroe, distant fourteen miles from Norfolk. We went in the Baltimore steam-boat. It fortunately happened that our steam-boat, with the steam-boat Richmond, were engaged to tow the frigate Constellation into Hampton Roads, which could not sail on account of a feeble breeze. This road is intended to be the principal rendezvous of the United States navy, and is advantageously situated; it commands the Chesapeake bay, which is to be connected by a large union canal with the Delaware, and consequently with Philadelphia, so that the ships built in the navy yard can go into Hampton Roads, where they will be armed.

On a point of land called Old Point Comfort, in the above mentioned road, on which also is a light-house, lies the principal Fort Monroe, and before it upon the sand-bank Riprap, a small casemated fort called Calhoun, to command the road or rather the passage from a nearer point. To prevent this position from being turned on its right wing by a land army, all the dry points between Norfolk and the surrounding impracticable marshes are to be fortified, and a large central arsenal with dry-docks is to be erected farther backwards in the bay, in order to receive a whole fleet after a battle, and fit it out there. The frigate I.203 Constellation, under the command of Captain Woolsey, was designed for the West India station, called the pirate station; the principal object being to suppress these wretches. The frigate is one of the oldest ships, and served in the last war, but being blockaded in Hampton roads, could not come to any engagement. She is what they call a thirty-six gun ship, but carries forty-eight pieces, thirty-two pounders, and caronades of the same calibre. The guns were almost all from the captured English frigate Macedonian.

We passed by a small fortified Island, called Crany Island, and by a fort on our right, both rendered useless, since Fort Monroe was built, and their works will be demolished; we approached the Constellation, our steam-boat on her left side, where she was made fast with cables. The steam-boat Richmond did the same on the right of the frigate. Captain Woolsey finding that I was on board of the boat, had the kindness to invite me on board the frigate. His cabin was in the forepart of the gundeck; and was very neat, having four guns in it. The after-cabin was arranged as a parlour and contained two cabinets, all tastefully contrived. The officers had their lodgings below, as in a ship of the line. I was very much pleased with the great neatness and general order that prevailed. Even by the sentry at the captain’s door was placed a spit-box, and every thing of iron or copper, shone like mirrors. Instead of the ordinary and very often incorrect hour-glasses of our ships, there was by the sentry a chronometer, for the purpose of calling the hour. We came on board, as the last anchor was lifted, and then proceeded, being towed by the two boats till we came opposite Fort Monroe; where, on account of the feeble breeze, the anchor was dropped, and the steam-boats continued on their way.

Captain Woolsey gave us a boat with twelve oars, under the command of a midshipman, to carry us to Fort Monroe. A guard composed of thirty marines was under arms, and made a military salute, whilst the frigate saluted me with seventeen guns. When we landed we stopped at a very good tavern, where we found two majors of artillery. After dinner we went to survey the fortress, which General Bernard planned; but the work was yet far from being completed. The fortress consists of a bastioned heptagon, which can be attacked from land, but by a single front. The sides facing the sea, are entirely casemated, and every gun has its particular arch. On the most dangerous side where the ships of the enemy can approach the land, there is on the counterscarp, a casemated coast-battery protected by the fire of heavy guns on the rampart. This battery on the counterscarp was built temporarily of wood, like a block-house, and served the garrison for quarters. The coping is of granite, found in the vicinity of I.204 Washington. The arches are of brick. The government does not build by contract, but by measure, what the French call au mètre cube; whereby it obtains good work. The masons work only is performed by hired workmen, mostly by blacks; other work is done by military prisoners, who have been condemned by court martial to public labours. The garrison consists of eleven companies of artillery, which form a provisional regiment, and are under the command of Colonel Fenwick, and Lieutenant-Colonel Eustis. The first officer I became acquainted with, at General Brown’s in Washington, where he is still residing. To the latter I was recommended by Lieutenant-Colonel Bankheard from New York. Mr. Eustis invited me to stay till to-morrow, in order to show me his regiment; but I was obliged to decline his invitation on account of time.

We availed ourselves of the opportunity, which the steam-boat Potomac presented coming from Washington to go to Norfolk, and went on board of her in a boat rowed by artillerists. About nine o’clock, P. M. we landed in Norfolk, all day we had disagreeable rainy weather. I designed to stay longer in order to see the navy-yard in Gosport, a mile distant from Norfolk; Mr. Meyau would accompany me. The landlord, who was willing to derive as much advantage as possible from my presence, had advertised in the papers, he would on that day give a dinner of turtle-soup, game, wild ducks, &c, but it was written in the book of fate, that I should not partake of these dainties. On inquiring, I was told that the mail stage was the only ordinary means of communication with the south, and went only on Tuesdays and Fridays to Fayetteville, and consequently if we did not leave Norfolk in half an hour, we should be obliged to wait until the next Tuesday. This not at all agreeing with my travelling plan, and as a hired coach could not be procured, I packed up my baggage in great haste, bid the friendly Mr. Meyau farewell, and left Norfolk at half past ten o’clock in the mail stage, connected with the Baltimore steam-boat.

We went sixty-eight miles to Murfreesborough, where we arrived about eleven o’clock in the evening. We crossed at first two small inlets of the bay, on very long wooden bridges, passed through Portsmouth, a small place near the navy-yard, where I saw the ship of the line Delaware, and the frigate Macedonian, taken from the British, in ordinary, but had no time to examine this very interesting establishment. We had scarcely left this place when we entered a forest, through which we travelled during the day. The country is a large marsh, called the Dismal Swamp, crossed by a sandy road. The forest is very thick, and consists of oak trees, among which I noticed the live oak, cypress, cedar and pine trees; on the marshy spots there are evergreen I.205 trees, and bushes of the Portuguese laurel and holly; here and there were also magnolias, and large wild vines around the trees. This variety of vegetation must look very fine in the summer season, however I was told that at that time flies and mosquetos were very troublesome, and that there are also a great many snakes. This marsh is said to be full of bears, which, however, never attack men. In Suffolk, twenty-eight miles from Norfolk, a small place, having wooden houses, and situated in the middle of the forest, we took our dinner. The wheat bread became scarce by degrees, and in its place we had a sort of cakes made of Indian corn. On the other side of Suffolk, we passed by a cotton plantation, the first I saw. It was already night when we passed the boundary and entered on the territory of North Carolina. We crossed the rivers Nottoway and Meherrin in bad and narrow ferry-boats, which were very dangerous, as the night was very dark. Candles and lamps seem to be here very scarce; for the few houses that we passed by were lighted with torches of pine: we took some of them to light our way. Our journeying was very unpleasant, on account of a rainy and very dark night. We alighted in Murfreesborough at a tolerably good inn.

On the 3d of December, at two o’clock, A. M., we set out in dreadful rainy weather, which lasted all day, and travelled as far as Emerson’s tavern, seventy-five miles distant. The country still continued woody as yesterday, and in frequent marshy spots, presented to the eye a very pleasant variety by the evergreen trees and bushes. In some places the country was somewhat cultivated; that is, there were some plantations where cotton and Indian corn were raised. Such a plantation consists only of wooden buildings; in the middle is the house of the planter, with a piazza; on its right and left are log-houses for negro slaves, and barns for corn and cotton. Horses are kept in very spacious wooden stables; cows and pigs in the open air within an enclosure of worm fences. Only fattening beasts are kept in stables. In many plantations we saw cotton-gins, in which the seed is separated from the cotton by means of a cylindrical hackle. These mills are worked either by water or horses. The cotton cleaned from its seed is put into a large chest, pressed in, and packed up. In the chest is a bag, which receives the cotton; the cover of the chest is moveable, and is pressed on the cotton by means of a screw turned by two horses; afterwards the cover is taken away, the bag closed, and the bale which it forms fastened with ropes; such a bale weighs on an average three hundred pounds. This is a very troublesome work, and only two bales can be made in a day. If instead of that awkward machine, they would make use of Brahmah’s water press, a great deal of time, expense and power would be spared. The bagging made use of is wove in England. We crossed the Roanoke river in a rather I.206 bad ferry-boat. The banks of the river are really picturesque, and covered with a variety of southern plants, which reminded one of a park. We dined at a very good tavern in a small town called Tarborough, situated on the river of the same name. We had already crossed this river, and were delighted with its fine banks. Our lodgings were at a solitary plantation, where we arrived at eight o’clock in the evening; the house was entirely of wood, except the chimney. It was rather transparent; they assigned us a garret for a sleeping place, and through the cracks in the floor we could see into the room below. If fire once breaks out in such a house, it cannot be saved. In the morning we passed by the smoking rubbish of a school-house, which burned down in an hour; the brick chimney alone was standing. The log-houses of the negro slaves in particular are very open, and present by night when lighted with pine splinters a very singular appearance. The road was thoroughly sandy; however, it was interrupted by log causeways, which are made over the marshy spots, in passing which in the mail stage we were shaken to pieces. The small town of Tarborough where we dined, is said to contain eight hundred inhabitants, is regularly built, has broad streets, but its houses are of wood. I saw but two built of brick; had there been more brick houses, I should have compared this pleasant place to a village in Holland.

The next morning, at three o’clock, we left our airy lodgings and went eighty-six miles to Fayetteville. During the day we travelled through a thick forest, and did not meet with a single village; we saw some lonely plantations of corn and cotton. During several days we saw different species of birds, unknown to me, especially a great many large vultures, called buzzards, the shooting of which is prohibited, as they feed upon carrion, and contribute in this manner to the salubrity of the country. We crossed the Neuse, a rather wide river, in a narrow and clumsy ferry-boat. On the banks of this river, are many ever green trees and bushes. The oak trees are here not very high, but there is a great variety of them: thirty-seven species are enumerated; chesnut and nut trees are not so numerous; we were told they were common only in mountainous countries. At a short distance from Fayetteville, where we arrived about nine o’clock, P. M., we crossed Cape Fear river, by a long covered bridge, consisting of hanging lattice work, of which I saw a very good model in the patent-office at Washington. As I was very much fatigued with the uncomfortable travelling, I intended to stay one day in Fayetteville, a flourishing place of about four thousand inhabitants. But I was told that no opportunity would occur sooner than three days for Charleston. Therefore I resolved to continue our journey next morning. A new difficulty now arose; the mail stage going directly to Charleston, had only two horses, and could not take my I.207 baggage, whilst the mail for the above city passing through Columbia, South Carolina, drives four. Although the first was the direct road, and the second a circuitous one, I resolved to take the latter.

On the 8th of December, at three o’clock in the morning, we set out from Fayetteville, and travelled for fifty-seven miles to Cheraw, in the state of South Carolina, where we arrived at seven o’clock in the evening. Our travelling company was increased in Fayetteville, by Mr. Davis from Columbia, a young gentleman very well educated. The weather was pretty cold, but not rainy. The way continued still through forests, and was very sandy. We saw little interesting, except the vegetation. We discovered new plants progressively as we advanced to the south, for instance, jessamines and a tree hitherto unknown to me, called pride of China, melia azedarach, which is generally seen near the houses; there were also gum-trees. We crossed several rivers, the most considerable of which were the great and the little Pedee, near Cheraw. In this place I met with Commodores Bainbridge and Warrington, and Captain Biddle; these gentlemen were appointed commissioners by the government, to determine a place for a naval establishment on the Gulf of Mexico, becoming every day of greater importance to the United States. They came from Pensacola to Savannah by sea, whence they went to Washington by land. Commodore Warrington, however, was to return to the Gulf of Mexico, where he commanded the station. I was very much pleased with their acquaintance and spent the evening with them. On the 6th of December, at three, A. M. we left Cheraw and went to Camden, sixty-eight miles. We continually rode through a thick wood. It had frozen very hard the preceding night, and the cold continued still in the morning; but the sun appeared, it grew warmer, and the day became very fine, as in spring. The increasing blue of the sky, indicated that we were rapidly advancing towards the south. The plants were much the same, but the magnolias of different kinds, became gradually larger. Our meals showed us that we were in a country, were rice is cultivated.

Black creek and two branches of Lynch’s creek were the most considerable streams. The country on these creeks, on account of their evergreen vegetation pleased me very much. The ground was sandy, and we went very slowly on. We breakfasted and dined in solitary frame houses, which stand upon pillars built of bricks, and permit the air to pass under them, the walls of these buildings are so thin and disjoined, that the daylight finds access every where. At the openings for windows, there is nothing but shutters. It would be a good speculation to establish a glass manufactory in this country, where there is such a want of glass, and a superabundance of pine trees and sand. I.208 About eight o’clock in the evening we reached Camden, a flourishing place, where we found a very good abode. The nights were very clear; some time since I saw quite new constellations, whilst the old ones disappeared by degrees.

On the 7th of December, at three o’clock in the morning, we set out in severe cold weather for Columbia. The road was as on the preceding days, but the country grew more hilly, the sand more yellow, and mingled with clay. We crossed the Wateree river in a small boat with much difficulty. We reached the river by break of day. The driver often blew his horn, nevertheless we had to wait about half an hour for the ferry-boat. At last it came, manned by two negroes. But scarcely was the carriage in it when another misery began. We were sitting on a bench, and the negroes were obliged to work for half an hour before we were again afloat. Finally, we reached the opposite shore, but the negroes were so awkward, that they took more than a quarter of an hour, to place the boat in such a situation as to permit the carriage to get out. We reached Columbia about one o’clock in the afternoon, and took lodgings at Clark’s hotel, a large but merely tolerable house. We were obliged to content ourselves with the narrowness of our lodgings, for the legislature of the state was just assembled in that place, and all the houses were full. It is only forty years since the city was laid out; it contains four hundred inhabitants, is situated very pleasantly upon an eminence, below the confluence of Saluda and Broad rivers which form the Congaree by their junction. The town is built very regularly, contains a great number of brick houses, and its streets, crossing each other at right angles, are one hundred feet broad; though not paved, they are provided with large side-walks, and rows of pride of China trees. In the surrounding gardens of many elegant private houses, I saw a great number of evergreen trees, mostly laurels, and also some pretty high yucca gloriosa, which they call here palmetto. In Columbia there are many well-provisioned stores, and there seemed to be a great deal of life in the place. At the common table where many of the deputies were dining, I made acquaintance with a Mr. Washington, from Charleston, to whom I had letters from Baltimore. He made me immediately acquainted with several of the members of the legislature. The governor of the state, Mr. Manning, sent me his compliments by Mr. Butler, his aid, and invited me to an evening party. Towards the evening Mr. Washington, a distant relation of the president, and son of Colonel Washington, distinguished in the revolutionary war, accompanied me to see Judge Desaussure, one of the principal men of this city and state, to whom also, I had letters, and found in him a respectable old gentleman. His father was a native of Lausanne, I.209 in Switzerland, and uncle of the celebrated naturalist Desaussure. I met at his house a large company of gentlemen, who had dined there, and became acquainted with the governor, a very fine man. After the company had retired, Judge Desaussure accompanied me to one of his step son’s, Colonel Blanding, civil engineer, who has the reputation of being a man of great knowledge. The habit of chewing tobacco, practised by several of the gentlemen, and in which they indulge even when in the society of ladies, appeared remarkable to me. The society was numerous, and composed of many ladies; I became acquainted with two Professors of Columbia College, Messrs. Henry and Nott; the first is acquainted with the French and German languages, he has translated Niebuhr’s Roman History into English. Mr. Nott studied in England and France, resided for some time in Ghent, and married a lady of Brussels. From Mr. Blanding’s house we went to the governor’s, where again a large company was assembled to a ball. No other dances but cotillions were danced, in the manner of the tedious German quadrilles; the band consisted of negroes. The governor, who in this state is elected for two years, and his lady, did the honours exceedingly well; he introduced me to all present, gentlemen and ladies. The acquaintance I made with a Frenchman, Mons. Herbemont, was very interesting to me; he has been an inhabitant of the United States for more than forty years, was formerly Professor of Botany in Columbia College, and now lives upon his income. The company remained together until the evening.

On the next morning I received visits from Messrs. Desaussure and Herbemont, who came with the design of showing me the few curiosities of the city. We went at first to see the water-works, which provide the whole city with water. In a hollow place there is a basin, or rather a reservoir, to which several fountains have been conducted. From this reservoir the water is pumped by means of a steam-engine having two horse-power, and driven into the city, which is situated one hundred and thirty feet above it. The water is distributed in the different parts of the town by pipes, which are in the middle of the streets. At different places the tubes are provided with fire-plugs, constructed according to the plan of Mr. Blanding.

Afterwards we went to see the state-house, a large wooden building, which will probably in a few years be replaced by one of stone. In one of the halls of the state-house, the senators, forty in number, were assembled under the presidency of Mr. Johns; in another were the hundred and twenty representatives: the speaker was Mr. O’Neil. The halls are very plain. The senators as well as the representatives, sit in a semicircle, and the speaker in a more elevated place in the middle. During my I.210 presence, the debates in both chambers were on no interesting subjects, therefore I did not stay long. In the senate chamber hung two pictures of no great excellence, by an artist of Charleston: the battle of Eutaw in the revolutionary war, under General Greene, and the defence of the lines at New Orleans, by General Jackson. In a few days an interesting object was to be taken into consideration, namely, the question if the government of the United States have the right to lay out canals and public roads in the different states of the union, or not! Reasonable men conceive that the government must have the power to execute such works; on the other hand, the short-sighted, from certain envy between the states, dispute this right with the government. The jealousy between the states seems to take the upper hand. The state of South Carolina intended to make a public road, leading from Charleston westwards to the state of Tennessee; this road would have passed for some miles through the state of North Carolina, the state of North Carolina opposed its execution, under the pretext that the road would not bring sufficient profit to the last state, although the two first states would have executed it at their own expense. The true reason of this opposition is said to be that the advantage of that road to the state of South Carolina, was grudged by the other states.

From the state-house we went to Columbia College; it is an university, but has neither medical nor theological faculties. There are six professors. Dr. Cooper is the president, with whom I became acquainted last summer in Boston: on his return home, he was taken sick in Richmond.

The number of students was one hundred and twenty, who live in two large buildings, opposite each other; between them is the house of the President, and on both sides the houses of the professors. We paid a visit to Mr. Vanuxem, Professor of Natural History. He showed us the collection of minerals belonging to the college, but not so interesting as the collection of minerals of South Carolina, made by him last summer. There were several fine tourmalines, emeralds, pyrites containing gold; a new kind of metal called Columbian, asbestus and different specimens of primitive rocks. There was also pure gold from North Carolina, which was only discovered about six years ago. When at Cheraw, I was willing to make an excursion to the gold mine, but it would have taken me a couple of days. I was told, gold is found in a slime, which is dried up and then sifted, the gold dust remaining in the sieve. But miners are expected from Germany, and at their arrival, they will begin a regular exploration. It is said, that at present the company has a profit of twenty dollars a week. I visited also the library, which was not considerable, and did not contain any thing remarkable. I.211 On this occasion I made acquaintance with a Mr. Elliott, who had published a Flora of the state of South Carolina; he extolled the botanical treasures of that state. A small observatory was shut up; perhaps they would not show it to me, because there were but few instruments.

In Mr. Herbemont’s garden, we saw some very interesting plants and trees; magnolias, gardenias, pomegranate and other fruit trees, which he had grafted in a very singular manner one upon another; date palm trees and fig trees, raised from kernels, and a great number of evergreen laurel trees.

A mile from the city, on the left bank of the Congaree river is a canal three miles in length, to avoid some rapids, which are in the river. This canal has four locks, and the difference of the level of the water above and below them, is thirty-six feet. Two are built of granite, which is obtained close to the canal. Several blocks have been blown up, to make way for the canal. The other two are of brick, and the mason work appeared to me to have been well executed. They were just building a wooden bridge over the Congaree, in order to lead to Augusta; the bridge was to be supported by eight piers of stone. They are made of granite without any lime or cement.I.36 The exterior stones were chiseled and connected with cramp-irons. The undertaking was contracted for at seventy thousand dollars.

Not far from the bridge are several cotton plantations belonging to the wealthy family of Taylor. On one of these fields the harvest was just making by fifty-eight negroes of both sexes. They take the cotton by hand from the capsules, look at it, that no withered leaves may be attached to it, and throw it into bags, which are hanging before them; afterwards they shake the cotton from the bags into baskets which are prepared for that purpose. These negroes made a very disagreeable impression upon me, especially when some of the women asked Mr. Herbemont for some chewing tobacco. I saw here some fine oak and pine trees, the latter are very abundant in all the woods we lately passed through. They have extremely long leaves; the young shoots particularly have a fine appearance. The leaves are more than a foot in length, and the shoot looks like the bunch of horse-hairs on the caps of the Prussian grenadiers. On the trees hangs a long moss-like plant called Spanish beard. They pick up this plant, put it into water, to rot the grayish bark, and employ the black fibres which then make their appearance, like horse-hair, for making mattresses, which are even exported to Europe. Finally, we saw several aromatic and medicinal herbs, for instance, the I.212 monarda punctata, the juice of which, mixed with that of an onion, is said to be very efficacious in gravel complaints.

The Lunatic Asylum of Columbia is situated in an open place out of the city. It consists of a principal building adorned with a portico of six columns. In this building are lodgings for the inspectors, offices, and rooms for persons of moderate fortune. Two wings are connected with the principal building, and form obtuse angles with it, each of them is three stories high, in which the lunatics are placed. By degrees, as the income of the establishment increases, other wings will be built, and the whole will form an octagon. There is on the principal building a spire, from which is a very extensive view, though you see nothing else but woods. The distempered in mind will find here many conveniences when the buildings are completed: namely, good rooms, gardens, and walking places on balconies, inclosed with high walls.

A Catholic chapel in Gothic style has been built in Columbia by subscription, but the amount collected, being not sufficient, a lottery has been opened to obtain the deficiency! Next to the chapel is a theatre, which likewise is unfinished by the undertaker, on account of insufficiency of funds.

At Professor Henry’s, a very agreeable society assembled at dinner. At that party I observed a singular manner which is practised; the ladies sit down by themselves at one of the corners of the table. But I broke the old custom, and glided between them: and no one’s appetite was injured thereby.

I spent one evening at a ball given by Mr. Taylor, a rich proprietor, at one of his plantations. I found there a numerous and splendid society. But the music was of a singular kind; for the blacks, who two days ago played very well at the governor’s, were now drunk, and could not make their appearance. This was the reason that the whole music consisted of two violins and a tamborine. This tamborine was struck with a terrible energy. The two others scraped the violin, in the truest signification of the word; one of them cried out the figures, imitating with his body all the motions of the dance. The whole of it amused me much; for the rest, I was astonished at the great plainness of the house. Besides the first room, there were three rooms open, which had white walls, and were without window-curtains.

I.1 For the benefit of my readers who are not military, I subjoin the names of offices in our navy, and their correspondence in rank with army offices:—

Admiral is equal to General.
Vice-admiral Lieutenant-general.
Rear-admiral Major-general.
Captain Colonel.
Captain-lieutenant Lieutenant-colonel.
Lieutenant of the first class Captain.
Lieutenant of the second class First lieutenant.

I.2 A Netherland merchant ship, employed to carry troops to the East Indies, whose wretched condition was not discovered until she was in the main ocean, and was obliged to make for Plymouth for repairs.

I.3 For minute description of this hospital, see Dupin.

I.4 [This manuscript is perhaps one of the most curious specimens of calligraphy extant. Without the aid of a microscope it is almost impossible to discover that it is not a printed work, so extremely uniform and accurate is every letter. We believe it was originally prepared for the celebrated Dr. Richard Meade of London.] —Trans.

I.5 [This “lady” is now one of the editors of a newspaper, published in the western country, devoted to the especial debasement of the human race. She has kindly undertaken to enlighten the Americans by endeavouring to convince them that religion is a cheat, chastity a dream, and all who adhere to the pure precept of the gospel of our Saviour, fools!] —Trans.

I.6 The expenses of public instruction, with the exception of Harvard University, are defrayed by means of a school tax, granted by the representatives of the state of Massachusetts, to which every inhabitant of the state is obliged to contribute. This praiseworthy arrangement exists also in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. In the last state, moreover, those parents who neglect to keep their children at school, are fined five dollars for every absent child, which sum goes into the school treasury.

I.7 [Most probably to evade a law against “nine-pins.”] —Trans.

I.8 [The harvest having occurred in July.] —Trans.

I.9 [Recently deceased.] —Trans.

I.10 [Since, unfortunately for his country, deceased.] —Trans.

I.11 [It was designed and executed in Paris.] —Trans.

I.12 [Improved by having a number of Shark’s teeth placed in its mouth and throat.] —Trans.

I.13 [This ornament of human nature, died in the year 1827.] —Trans.

I.14 Commodore of the navy-yard.

I.15 [This unwarrantable and exasperating usurpation of extending CHAINS across the public highways is not attempted by all religious sects. Through the good sense of congregations it has been entirely relinquished in some of our cities. That it is productive of more dislike to churches and churchmen than of any other result, is a truth which will one day be profoundly felt.] —Trans.

I.16 [Blacks are shipped as seamen in the navy of the United States, where they stand on the same level with white seamen.] —Trans.

I.17 [The duke, it will be recollected, was rather above six feet in height.] —Trans.

I.18 Here is one of the bills.

Sir,

The enclosed Federal Republican Ticket, is earnestly recommended to you for your support, This Day. Our opponents are active—Danger threatens—Every vote is important—One may be decisive. Be therefore on the alert—vote early for your own convenience, and the public good. Bring your friends to the poll, and all will be well. The improvement of the city is carefully regarded—good order and tranquillity abounds—general prosperity is every where apparent. Then secure by your vote This Day, a continuance of the present happy state of things.

Our mayor is independent, faithful, and vigilant:—Who will be mayor if we fail!!! Think on this and hesitate no longer, but vote the whole of the enclosed ticket.

(Naturalized citizens will please to take their certificates with them.)

Tuesday, October 11th, 1825.

I.19 [This surprise originated from the almost universal mistake of considering the elbow of animals as a knee. The anterior extremities of animals are in all respects analogous to those of the superior extremities of man; hence the second joint from the shoulder blade uniformly bends backward like the human elbow. It is not longer ago than the year 1810, that the present Sir Everard Home, whose pretensions as a comparative anatomist are well known, almost quarrelled with Mr. Peale, in presence of Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Heavisides, for insisting upon the similarity of the anterior limbs of animals to the human arm!] —Trans.

I.20 [The Vandalia, recently launched.] —Trans.

I.21 [“Thou,” in German, is only used in addressing individuals of the lowest degree.] —Trans.

I.22 This took place on the banks of the Delaware, in Kensington, near Philadelphia. The elm tree was struck by lightning, a few years ago and destroyed.

I.23 [Both sides of this question are warmly and ably defended by philanthropists of high character and unquestionable benevolence. The reader will find in the late correspondence between Roscoe and Mr. Roberts Vaux, of Philadelphia, the arguments urged for and against the system.] —Trans.

I.24 [Perhaps, had his highness known that this picture was long exhibited and admired in London by amateurs and artists, who certainly are somewhat accustomed to seeing good pictures, he would not have pronounced so decidedly from a very cursory examination. There is nothing, however, which the Duke of Saxe-Weimar says concerning the fine arts, in these travels, to entitle his opinion on paintings to any authority.] —Trans.

I.25 [The library of the American Philosophical Society is one of the most valuable collections in the United States, and is richer in the Transactions of other learned societies than any in our country. The Duke states in the original that books are not lent from this library, which is so erroneous that we have not repeated it in the translation. Members of the society enjoy a free use of the books, and literary men properly recommended are always able to obtain advantageous access to the library.] —Trans.

I.26 [Recently deceased.] —Trans.

I.27 [Since deceased.] —Trans.

I.28 [This is the only perfect lower jaw of the mastodon ever found, and the lover of Natural History must regret the extreme carelessness of the proprietor or superintendent of the Baltimore Museum, which has allowed so valuable a specimen to be mutilated. The London Medical Society was once in treaty for this jaw bone, at the price of three hundred guineas.] —Trans.

I.29 The Duke of Leinster’s Palace served as the model for this building; that, however, is one story higher.

I.30 [Since deceased. His place is supplied by Dr. Thomas P. Jones, of Philadelphia.] —Trans.

I.31 Since dead.

I.32 [Since dead.] —Trans.

I.33 He had commanded the militia when Governor of Virginia.

I.34 [“Let it never be forgotten that a part of the quarrel of the Americans with the government of Great Britain, arose from the determination of the former not to tolerate the farther importation of slaves; an importation absolutely forced on them by England, in consideration of the vested rights of the Royal African Company!!! With an admirable grace does England upbraid America with tolerating slavery,—a curse by her inflicted on her colonies.”—London Literary Chronicle, June 7th, 1828.] —Trans.

I.35 She left an only son by her marriage with Rolf, who settled himself in America, and had two daughters. From these are descended the families of Randolph and Robinson, and from these the family of Claiborne, consequently the two eldest children of Mrs. Grymes, Charles and Sophrone are descendants of the unfortunate Indian princess. In the two families, Randolph and Robinson, the eldest son is named Powhattan, and the eldest daughter Pocahontas. At New Orleans I became acquainted with a member of the Robinson family who had formerly been governor of Louisiana.

I.36 Because they would be obliged to bring it from the northern states at a great expense.

END OF VOL. I.

   

TRAVELS
THROUGH
NORTH AMERICA,

DURING THE
YEARS 1825 AND 1826.


BY HIS HIGHNESS,
BERNHARD, DUKE OF SAXE-WEIMAR EISENACH.


IN TWO VOLUMES.


VOL. II.


PHILADELPHIA:
CAREY, LEA & CAREY—CHESNUT STREET.


1828.

II.2

SKERRETT—NINTH STREET,
PHILADELPHIA.

II.3

TRAVELS, &c.

----

CHAPTER XV.

Journey to Charleston, and Residence in that City—from the 11th to the 19th of December, 1825.

On the 11th of December, we were prepared before five o’clock to travel in the mail stage from Columbia to Charleston, one hundred and twenty miles distant. Unfortunately, our coachman had, the evening before, involved himself in a quarrel with a watchman, who attempted to arrest his sable Dulcinea, and given him a stab with a knife. It was feared that the watchman, who was the father of a family, would die. The coachman was immediately taken into custody. We were, consequently, obliged to remain till seven o’clock, since the contractor of the mail stage was unable to find another white driver sooner, and according to law, no negro could convey the United States’ mail.

Our company was very pleasant; I especially remarked a Mr. Bacott, from Charleston, and young Mr. Ramsay, as being well-informed men. Three miles below Columbia, we crossed the Congaree in a wretched boat, and on the right bank of the river, passed through a little place called Granby, which formerly had been a German settlement, called Saxe-Gotha. The road was, without exception, sandy, swampy, and at times hilly. The stage travelled very slowly, and for the greater part of the way, I left it behind, being on foot. It was nearly a continued forest, composed mostly of pine and oak trees, from which the Spanish moss hung in such quantities, that the appearance was far from agreeable. The number of the magnolia, kalmia, and gardenia trees increased, and also of the yucca gloriosa, which until now were situated principally in the neighbourhood of the dwellings. We also saw more live oaks here, of which the timber is uncommonly excellent for ship-building, because it does not rot, and cannon-shot in striking it produce no splinters. Towards evening, we passed the village of Orangeburg, with wooden houses. We supped in a solitary house, and at the same time met the mail stage coming from Charleston, in which we took seats. It had been built for General La Fayette, and was named the La Fayette stage. We proceeded through the whole night: the day had been II.4 pleasant, the night, however, was extremely cold: I suffered considerably, as I sat upon the coach-box, where I always took my seat, for the advantage of free air and prospect.

We travelled during the forenoon of the 12th of December, constantly through a forest. The number of live oaks increased, and they were really beautiful. The solitary fan-like macaw trees, which we took notice of, were small. The yuccas multiplied every moment. The last place before reaching Charleston, was Dorchester. We then passed by an old church, nearly in ruins, called St. Andrews, which has survived since the time of the English government. It stands in the midst of a venerable church-yard, under lofty live oaks and hickories, with palmettoes and macaw trees growing between the graves. The whole had a picturesque aspect. The plantations succeeded each other more frequently, presented a more agreeable appearance, and every thing showed marks of the proximity of a large city. At length, in the afternoon, we left the continued forest, and entered upon an open swampy district. Charleston extended before us. The city, distinguished as a seaport, lies upon a tongue of land, formed by the rivers Ashley and Cooper: we crossed the Ashley to reach the city. A causeway, constructed of fascines, passes through the swamp to the ferry. The river is three-quarters of a mile broad; we crossed it in an eight-horse team-boat. A wooden bridge, which formerly crossed the river here, was destroyed by a severe storm, and never again rebuilt. Upon the right bank, in the vicinity of Charleston, an entirely novel spectacle expanded itself to my view. The houses of the suburb, were, for the most part, surrounded by gardens, in which orange trees, with most splendid ripe fruit, monthly roses in full bloom, and a variety of other flourishing plants displayed themselves. The greater part of the habitations have piazzas and spacious balconies. Upon the walls and columns run creeping vines, we took notice of a great number of passion flowers. I felt delighted with this southern climate.

Charleston has a population of forty thousand inhabitants, about twenty-five thousand of these are free. The city is regularly built, the streets cross each other at right angles. The smallest streets are paved, all have brick side-walks. The paving-stone is imported from the northern states, on this account it is an expensive article, and the paving of the streets can only be gradually effected. In the suburb we passed through a street which was a log causeway. The principal part of the houses are, it is true, built of wood, and all are, as I am told, covered with shingles, on account of the frequent prevalence of severe tempests; the more recent are, however, of brick, and in very good taste. I took up my abode in Jones’s Hotel, a well supported and finely situated house, whose host was a mulatto. I had the pleasure II.5 to meet here with Colonel Wool, inspector-general of the army, with whom I became acquainted in Washington. I moreover made acquaintance with Mr. Bee, an elderly gentleman who had travelled much, to whom I had letters; also the late governor of the state, Mr. Wilson, with his young and accomplished lady, from New York, who, besides her native language, spoke French, German, Spanish, and Italian, and understood Latin and Greek; lastly, Major Massias, army paymaster.

A severe catarrh obliged me to remain at home a whole day. The weather was also unpleasant and stormy; Fahrenheit’s thermometer had fallen to twenty degrees, which degree of cold is here extremely uncommon. In the meantime, I received visits from a number of the distinguished inhabitants: from Dr. Tidyman, whom I had known in Philadelphia; from Mr. Lowndes, to whom I had introductory letters; from Dr. Johnson, mayor of the city; from Messrs. Pitray and Viel, French merchants; from the Marquis De Fougères, French consul; from Mr. Bacott, with whom I had arrived yesterday, and from Major Massias. Some extremely interesting strangers were also in the hotel, so that I did not lack entertainment. The following was related to me:—Some years previous, the negroes of the country engaged in a conspiracy to murder all the white males, and spare none but the females. This design was found out, and it was discovered that the original projectors were free negroes out of the limits of the state, who travelled in the northern section of the union, and in part were become Methodist preachers. They had returned home and preached freedom to the slave population. Since that period the legislature of this state has adopted very severe precautionary laws against free negroes and mulattoes. One of them is, that no individual of this description, if he have once left the state, shall be permitted to return. The wife of our host, Jones, found herself in this predicament. She had undertaken a voyage to New York, her native city, and now dared not to attempt a return. On this account, I was informed, had I brought a free black servant with me, he would have been taken from me, and put in custody till I should have left the state, or I must deposit a considerable security for him.

I made my first excursion abroad in company with Colonel Wool and Major Massias, in a boat to Fort Moultrie, where the Colonel had to inspect two companies of the third regiment of artillery, lying there in garrison. This fort is situated at the entrance of Charleston Bay, upon a peninsula, Sullivan’s Island, which is connected with the continent by a marshy strip of land. The vessels running into the bay are compelled to pass within reach of the cannon of this fort. It is four miles distant from the II.6 city, and lies about half way from each extremity of the peninsula. Opposite is the coast battery, with a stone parapet. This battery can receive fifty pieces of cannon. There will be no further disbursements for the maintenance of this fort, since new works, after plans of General Bernard, are to be placed at the entrance of the passage, to guard against too close a blockade of the bay, so that the ancient and more retired posts will be deprived of all their importance. Between the city and Sullivan’s Island, on a point of land to the left, stands a defensive work called Castle Pinckney, resembling Castle Garden in New York, on the right is situated Castle Johnson. Sullivan’s Island is exceedingly sandy, nothing but cabbage trees grow upon it, so that I seemed transported to India. Outside the fort there are a number of slight built wooden houses, which, during the heats of summer, and especially when the yellow fever prevails in Charleston, are occupied by the inhabitants of that city, for the peninsula has the reputation of being healthier, and much more temperate in climate. The trunk of the cabbage-tree affords a good porous timber, which is peculiarly valuable for building in salt water, since it is not injured by it. It is highly recommended for entrenchments, as the balls of the enemy cannot splinter it. On the same spot where Fort Moultrie now stands, a fortress of the same name stood in the revolutionary war, which was built in great haste from trunks of the cabbage-tree, and maintained itself with great glory. We had a boat, attached to the artillery, prepared for our passage, which was manned by the artillerists. These are exercised as oarsmen in all posts situated on the water, and this is certainly a good arrangement, if the officers do not abuse the privilege. Our boat’s crew had unfortunately made too spirituous a breakfast, the oars of course moved as Providence guided them, and the colonel was so irritated, that he dispatched the whole six on landing to the black hole. I remained during the parade of the two artillery companies in garrison. A company of this description is with matrosses and cannoneers, fifty-five strong; from these are subtracted, the sentinels, sick, and those under arrest, so that both corps had scarcely sixty men under arms. The privates had fire-arms and cartridge boxes, and the matrosses and corporals alone carried side-arms. The haversack consisted of a wooden box, covered with black waxed linen. They wore grey pantaloons, and boots, as our artillery; the officers alone had white cloth pantaloons. The coats were not well made, and did not fit; all the men had large shirt collars, which had a bad effect, and gloves of a different pattern, because each individual bought for himself. While the colonel was going through the inspection, I took a walk on the ramparts with Major Massias, and visited the II.7 officer’s quarters. In the chamber of a lieutenant, in which we stopped, I found, besides the books belonging to service, a small library of English belles lettres, and classical poets.

Charleston keeps in pay a company of police soldiers, who during the night occupy several posts. They have their guard house near Jones’s Hotel, and I was startled to hear the retreat and reveillé beat there. This corps owes its support to the fear of the negroes. At nine o’clock in the evening a bell is sounded; and after this no negro can venture without a written permission from his master, or he will immediately be thrown into prison, nor can his owner obtain his release till next day, by the payment of a fine. Should the master refuse to pay this fine, then the slave receives twenty-five lashes, and a receipt, with which he is sent back to his master!

The market consists of five houses, in a long street ending upon the harbour, and resemble somewhat those of the Philadelphia market. The quantity of the most beautiful tropical fruit therein arranged, oranges from Florida, pistachios, and large excellent pine apples from Cuba, interested me much. These large and delicious fruit cost only twelve and a half cents each, of course a dollar for eight. There were nuts of various descriptions; many sorts of potatoes, cabbages, and white and red radishes. Fish were not presented in so great a variety as I expected. Of shell-fish, I saw oysters only, which are roasted in the shell at market, and consumed by the negroes with great avidity. Upon the roofs of the market houses sat a number of buzzards, who are supported by the offals. It is a species of vulture, black, with a naked head. Seen from a distance they resemble turkeys, for which reason they are denominated turkey-buzzards. They are not only suffered as very useful animals, but there is a fine of five dollars for the killing of one of these birds. A pair of these creatures were so tame that they crept about in the meat market among the feet of the buyers.

Accompanied by Dr. Johnson, Mr. Lowndes, and Dr. Tidyman, I visited the public institutions of the city. The Court-house, in which the different courts of justice hold their sessions, contains nothing remarkable with the exception of the City Library in the upper story, established by subscription. I noticed in this a beautiful collection of copperplates from the Shakspeare Gallery, and a sketched plan of Charleston with the investment of it in the revolutionary war. Since this epoch the city has much extended itself. On the localities, which then were occupied by fortifications, houses are now standing. The morasses which covered the left wing of these works, are filled up level with earth, and no trace of them is perceivable.

In the City Hall, the lower story is occupied by one large II.8 saloon. It is appropriated to the sittings of the city police. Above it are arranged the meeting rooms of the magistracy and various separate offices. In one of these apartments I noticed an elegant new plan of the city, designed by an emigrant French engineer, Mr. Petitral.

The Orphan-house is a brick building, three stories high, erected by voluntary contributions, and in it, one hundred and thirty-six children of both sexes are supported. I was surprized at the exceeding cleanliness pervading the whole establishment. The children sleep upon the floor, and the girls and sick only are allowed mattresses; the boys have a woollen coverlet, in which they wrap themselves. I was informed that this was done from fear of vermin. A very nourishing diet, and a truly maternal care, preserve the children healthy. At their twelfth year, they are provided for abroad to enable them to earn their own subsistence. Many of the boys enter into the United States navy, and it has been reported to me that two of the pupils of this institution have attained the rank of officers. Behind the house is a moderately large chapel, in the midst of the garden. The clergy of all Christian professions can hold divine service here every Sunday afternoon; in the mornings, the service in turn is taken charge of by a superintendent. In front of the building is a large open square. In it stands an ill-preserved statue of Lord Chatham, which was erected by the then colony of South Carolina, before the breaking out of the American revolution, in memory of that great man, in gratitude for the opposition he maintained against colonial taxation. An inscription on the statue mentions this. During the siege, it stood at the corner of the street, near the City Hall. There it lost an arm by one of the first English balls that struck the city.

The state prison is a small building. The prisoners are too much crowded together, and have no employment. The atrocious criminals live in the upper story, and are immured two together in a cell, without ever being permitted to come into the open air. This is allowed only to those dwelling in the first story, consisting of debtors, and persons who are imprisoned for breaches of the peace. The walls within, as well as the flooring, are of strong oak wood. In each apartment is an iron ring in the floor, for the purpose of securing dangerous prisoners. In the upper story there is a negro confined, who, implicated in one of the late conspiracies, had not committed himself so far as to allow of his being hung; nevertheless, his presence appeared so dangerous to the public tranquillity, that he is detained in prison till his master can find some opportunity to ship him to the West Indies, and there sell him. In another room was a white prisoner, and it is not known whether he be an American or Scotchman, II.9 who involved himself by his writings deeply in the last negro conspiracy. The prisoners received their food while we were present: it consisted of very good soup, and three-quarters of a pound of beef. Upon the ground floor is the dwelling of the keeper, who was an Amsterdam Jew, and the state-rooms in which gentlemen, who are lodged here, receive accommodation for money and fair words. The cleanliness of the house was not very great; upon the whole it left an unfavourable impression upon me.

I found the other prison, destined for the punishment of minor offences of the negro slaves, in a better condition. In it there were about forty individuals of both sexes. These slaves are either such as have been arrested during the night by the police, or such as have been sent here by their masters for punishment. The house displays throughout a remarkable neatness; black overseers go about every where armed with cow-hides. In the basement story there is an apparatus upon which the negroes, by order of the police, or at the request of their masters, are flogged. The latter can have nineteen lashes inflicted on them according to the existing law. The machine consists of a sort of crane, on which a cord with two nooses runs over pullies; the nooses are made fast to the hands of the slave and drawn up, while the feet are bound tight to a plank. The body is stretched out as much as possible, and thus the miserable creature receives the exact number of lashes as counted off! Within a year, flogging occurs less frequently: that is to say, a tread-mill has been erected in a back building of the prison, in which there are two tread-wheels in operation. Each employs twelve prisoners, who work a mill for grinding corn, and thereby contribute to the support of the prison. Six tread at once upon each wheel, while six rest upon a bench placed behind the wheel. Every half minute the left hand man steps off the tread-wheel, while the five others move to the left to fill up the vacant place; at the same time the right hand man sitting on the bench, steps on the wheel, and begins his movement, while the rest, sitting on the bench, uniformly recede. Thus, even three minutes sitting, allows the unhappy being no repose. The signal for changing is given by a small bell attached to the wheel. The prisoners are compelled to labour eight hours a day in this manner. Order is preserved by a person, who, armed with a cow-hide, stands by the wheel. Both sexes tread promiscuously upon the wheel. Since, however, only twenty-four prisoners find employment at once on both wheels, the idle are obliged in the interval to sit upon the floor in the upper chambers, and observe a strict silence. One who had eloped several times from a plantation, was fastened by a heavy iron ring, that passed over his leg to the floor. To provide II.10 against this state of idleness, there should be another pair of tread-wheels erected. The negroes entertain a strong fear of the tread-mills, and regard flogging as the lighter evil! Of about three hundred and sixty, who, since the erection of these tread-mills, have been employed upon them, only six have been sent back a second time.

The poor-house, an old building raised by subscription, contains one hundred and sixty-six paupers. It will only admit such poor persons as are completely disabled. Those who can labour a little can obtain the employment they desire, and then receive good attendance and proper support. The sick were taken care of in a distinct infirmary, where each had a separate bed. The healthy slept upon the floor. I enquired why the sick were not provided with iron bedsteads in place of the wooden ones they occupied? and was informed that it was from apprehension of the prevailing severe thunder-storms.

Connected with the Poor-house is a Magdalen Asylum, which provides shelter and care for thirty unfortunate beings. It struck me forcibly, as I saw under an open shed in the yard where the poor walked about, the dead cart, and close by it numbers of empty coffins piled up together, that the scene might be very well introduced in a monastery of the order of La Trappe.

A medical school is to be built not far from the poor-house. Until the completion of this structure, the students, one hundred and twenty in number, receive their instruction in a wooden building, in which there are arranged an amphitheatre, and a chemical laboratory.

Dr. Tidyman and Mr. Lowndes had the politeness to show me a rice mill established a few years ago. This mill is the property of Mr. Lucas, who has fixed a similar one in the neighbourhood of London. Rice is known as the staple article of produce of the lowlands in South Carolina, and yet there was no mill hitherto to free the rice from its husk, and to prepare it for use or export. This mill is situated near the river Ashley. The schooner that conveys the rice from the plantation, lies directly before it, a cart is taken on board the vessel filled with rice, and by means of an inclined plane drawn into the mill, where it is deposited. Hence the rice is drawn to the upper story, in which it is cleared of dust by a fan, and passed between two large mill-stones which frees the hull from the grain. It is then placed in a cylinder of bolting cloth. By this it is further cleaned from all the hull. Now it comes into the trough, where it is beaten by heavy hammers faced with tin, and by that means is completely cleaned. It is once more conveyed into a bolting cylinder, where, by another series of revolutions, it is freed from the slightest dust, and shook through a tube into the tierces placed II.11 for packing. The tierces stand upon a trunnel, which whirls round while a hammer continually strikes upon it. Such a tierce in this way receives six hundred pounds of rice. The machinery is to be set in motion in future by a steam-machine of twenty-four horse-power. It is wonderful, however, that the best steam-engines must be made in England to supply a country that has numbered Robert Fulton among her citizens!

Dr. Tidyman honoured me with a dinner, at which I met several of the distinguished inhabitants of the place, as Mr. Lowndes, Major Garden, son of that Scotch physician to whose honour Linnæus has given the name of Gardenia to a class of plants; Mr. J. Allen Smith, who passed seventeen years of his life in Europe, principally in Russia, and enjoyed the especial favour of the Emperor Alexander; he was present at my brother’s marriage, and enquired after him in the most ardent manner. This extremely amiable and interesting man has lost the greater part of his property. Here also I met with the Marquis de Fougères, Mr. Viel, and the English Consul, Mr. Newman. After dinner was over, a numerous company of gentlemen and ladies assembled, who remained in society through the evening. We had music, some of which was very good.

In one of my strolls through the city, I talked with a person from Erfurt, Mr. Siegling, who had established a music store here, and appeared to do very good business. I saw at his residence several handsome English harps and piano fortes; also several wind instruments of different kinds. He pricks the notes himself on tin, and has a press with which he prints them.

In Charleston there exists among the Germans, and their descendants, who for the most part are tradesmen of small capital, but persons of great respectability, a Friendly German Society.

On Sunday the 18th of December, two members of this Society, the militia Colonel Sass, a native Hessian, who had already passed fifty-two years in this country, and Mr. Strohhecker, came to take me to the Lutheran church. The Lutheran preacher, Mr. Bachman, a native of Troy, in the State of New York, administered divine service in the English language. The church has been built but a few years. It is simple within, but in very good taste. The organ is good, and was well played, and the hymns sung in unison by the congregation. Mr. Bachman delivered an excellent sermon upon the story of Cornelius, from the Acts of the Apostles. Afterwards he detailed a report of a journey of about eight hundred miles, which he had performed through the interior of this state, for the purpose of examining the condition of the various Lutheran congregations. The report upon churches and schools appeared very favourable. This service displayed II.12 so much benevolence, and real goodness, that I felt truly edified.

Upon the following day I was accompanied by Mr. Bacott and his brother-in-law, to St. Michael’s episcopal church, to see the building, and particularly the steeple, one hundred and eighty-six feet high. We mounted two hundred and thirty-six steps, and enjoyed a very handsome prospect over the regular built city, the bay, and adjacent country. The bay, with its protecting forts, showed to great advantage; the surrounding district not so agreeably, it being very level and overgrown with wood. In the city several buildings reared their heads, among others, the churches, and there are here twenty-two churches belonging to various sects, then the orphan-house and custom-house. St. Michael’s church contains in itself nothing worthy of remark, if you except some simple funeral tablets. The churches, moreover, stand in the centre of burial grounds, and the custom still prevails, so injurious to health, of entombing the dead in the city.

On the same day, the last of my stay in Charleston, I was present at a dinner which the German Friendly Society gave in compliment to me, having invited me by a deputation. The party met at half past three o’clock. The company was composed, with the exception of the mayor, Dr. Johnson, of more than sixty persons, for the most part Germans or of German origin. It was assembled in a house belonging to the society, in which, besides the large assembly room, was also a school for the children of the members, and the dwellings of the preceptors. The society was instituted in the year 1766, the principal founder was Captain Kalteisen, a native Wirtemburger, who had raised a volunteer corps of fusileers from the Germans then living there, with which he not only distinguished himself in the defence of Fort Moultrie against the English, but also personally, during the whole war, rendered the most important services as adjutant quarter-master-general in the staff of the southern army. The company of fusileers always preserved their connection with the German Society. Kalteisen himself died in the year 1807, as commandant of Fort Johnson; he was so attached to this German association, that he had himself buried in the yard of the building, the bricks of the pavement mark the form of his coffin over it, and a tablet of marble in the hall contains an inscription to the memory of the deceased. In the great hall, his portrait hangs next to that of Colonel Sass, who after him commanded the company, and of a Wormser, named Strobel, who was a joint founder of the society, and whose sons and nephew appeared at table. Two brothers, Messrs. Horlbeck, presided at the dinner, which was very well arranged. They had the politeness to nominate me an honorary member of the society, and to present me their II.13 laws for my signature; under them were here and there crosses only. Several of the usual toasts were given out; my health being drank, I returned my thanks in the German language. There was also singing. The melody was guided by an old Mr. Eckhardt, a Hessian that had come to America with the Hessian troops, as a musician, and remained here. He is now organist of one of the churches, and three of his sons occupy the same station in other churches. The German society possesses, moreover, a library, which owes its origin to donations. In the school-room there was a planetarium, very neatly finished, set in motion by clock-work.

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CHAPTER XVI.

Journey from Charleston, through Augusta, Milledgeville, Macon, and the country of the Creek Indians, to Montgomery, in the State of Alabama.

My design had been to travel from Charleston to Savannah. I understood, however, that the stage to Savannah was very bad; that the steam-boat went very irregularly; that Savannah had lost its importance as a place of trade, and on the whole, contained nothing worthy of observation. As this tour would cost me many days, and a circuitous route, I resolved to relinquish the visit to Savannah, and betake myself the nearest way to Augusta, one hundred and twenty-nine miles distant; thence by Milledgeville through the Creek Indians, to go into the state of Alabama. Colonel Wool liked my plan, as also did Mr. Temple Bowdoin, an Anglo-American, a very polished man, who had travelled, and who in his younger days served in the British army. We had engaged the mail stage for ourselves alone, and in it left Charleston on the 20th of December.

We passed Ashley river at the same place, and in the same team-boat, as I did eight days back. It was at low ebb, and many oyster banks were exposed dry. This was a novel spectacle to me. The oysters stood straight up, close together, and had somewhat the appearance of a brush. Several negroes were employed in taking them out of the mud, in baskets. Even on the piers of the bridge, many oysters were sticking fast. On the opposite shore the road ran through a country generally woody, but partly ornamented with plantations. Several of these plantations II.14 are pretty, commonly an avenue of ancient, well preserved live oaks, leads up to the mansion-house, at the entrance of which a grated gate is placed. Maize and cotton are planted here, and in some places also rice, which is the staple of the lower part of South Carolina. The rice fields must stand several months of the year under water. On this account they are situated in swampy districts, and surrounded by ditches of water. But in consequence of this, these places are so unhealthy, that hardly a white planter can remain during the summer on his plantation; he is obliged to resort to Charleston, or the northern states. The climate of Charleston is such, that whoever is there in the beginning of the hot season, dares not to sleep a single night during the continuance of it, upon a plantation, without exposing his life to imminent danger. The blacks are the only human beings on whom this deadly climate has no bad effect, and they are, therefore, indispensable for the cultivation of this district. The vegetation was again extremely beautiful, noble live oaks, laurel trees, magnolias, cabbage and macaw trees. The road ran upon light bridges over small rivers, on the banks of which negroes were busied in angling. We saw the family of a planter in an elegant boat, manned by six black oarsmen, rowing to their plantation. In a large inn, which was itself the mansion-house of a plantation, we found a particularly good dinner. In the evening we crossed the Edisto river in a narrow ferry-boat, for the arrival of which we were obliged to delay a long time. The soil was mostly very sandy, partly also marshy, and the jolting log causeways made us tired of our lives. On this side of the river we arrived at the village of Edisto. We travelled through the whole night, and I suffered much from the cold in my airy seat. Otherwise, it was a clear moonlight, and if it had been a little warmer would deserve the appellation of a fine night. We changed our stage during the night, but gained nothing.

The succeeding morning exhibited all the ponds of water covered with a crust of ice. We passed the Salkechee and Cambahee rivers upon bridges, and noticed nothing worthy of observation. The vegetation was less beautiful than on the preceding day; the plantations were also less considerable. At a new plantation, at which we arrived about break of day, I spoke to the overseer of the negroes. The man’s employment I recognised from his whip, and from the use he made of it, in rousing up the negroes to make a fire. He told us that in the district, where the plantation was situated, and where maize and cotton were planted, but a little time before there was nothing but forest; his employer had commenced in 1816, with two negroes, and now he possessed one hundred and four, who were kept at II.15 work in clearing the wood, and extending the plantation. The cotton crop was finished in most of the fields, and cattle were driven in, to consume the weeds and tops of the bushes. We passed several mill-ponds, and saw some saw-mills. Only pine trees appeared to flourish in this part of the country; upon the whole, it was hilly, and the progress was tedious through the deep sand. We passed the river Savannah three miles from Augusta, in a little ferry-boat. The left bank appeared here and there to be rocky, and pretty high; the right is sandy. When we crossed the river, we left the state of South Carolina, and entered that of Georgia, the most southern of the old thirteen United States, which in fifty years have grown to twenty-four in number. We reached Augusta in the evening at nine o’clock, on a very good road, a scattered built town of four thousand six hundred inhabitants, of both complexions. We took up our quarters in the Globe Hotel, a tolerable inn; during the whole day it was very clear, but cold weather, in the evening it froze hard. The old remark is a very just one, that one suffers no where so much from cold as in a warm climate, since the dwellings are well calculated to resist heat, but in nowise suited to repel cold.

We were compelled to remain in Augusta during the 22d of December, as the mail stage for the first time went to Milledgeville on the following day, and Colonel Wool had to inspect the United States’ arsenal here, which contained about six thousand stand of arms for infantry. We understood that Mr. Crawford, formerly embassador of the United States, in Paris, afterwards secretary of state, and lastly, candidate for the office of president, was here at a friend’s house. We therefore paid him a visit. Mr. Crawford is a man of gigantic stature, and dignified appearance; he had a stroke of apoplexy about a year since, so that he was crippled on one side, and could not speak without difficulty. To my astonishment, he did not speak French, though he had been several years an envoy in Paris. They say, that Mr. Crawford’s predecessor in Paris, was chancellor Livingston, this gentleman was deaf; both Livingston and Crawford were introduced to the Emperor Napoleon at the same time; the emperor, who could carry on no conversation with either of them, expressed his surprise, that the United States had sent him a deaf and dumb embassy. I likewise reaped very little profit from Mr. Crawford’s conversation. As he was an old friend of Mr. Bowdoin, almost all the benefit of it fell to his share, and I addressed myself chiefly to his daughter, and one of her female friends, who were present. Much indeed was to be anticipated as the result of a conversation with the daughter of such a statesman. She had been educated in a school of the southern states. My conclusion II.16 was, the farther south I advanced, so much the firmer am I convinced that the inhabitants of these states suffer in comparing their education with those of the north. To conclude, Mr. Crawford was the hero of the democratic party, and would, in all probability, have been chosen president in the spring of 1825, had not his apoplectic attack supervened. On account of his indisposition, General Jackson was pushed before him; and so much was brought forward against the individual character of this person in opposition, that the present incumbent, Adams, on that account, succeeded.

The city of Augusta is very regularly built. The main street is about one hundred feet wide, it contains many brick houses, and good-looking stores. None of the streets are paved, but all have brick foot-paths. A wooden bridge, three hundred and fifty yards long, and thirty feet wide, crosses from the neighbourhood of the city, to the left bank of Savannah river, the city lies on the right bank. Along the bank is erected a quay in the manner of a terrace, which is one of the most suitable that I have seen; for it is accommodated to the swell of the river, which often rises above twenty feet. It has three terraces. The lower one has a margin of beams, mostly of cypress timber, at which, in the present uncommon low stage of the water, the vessels are loaded. From the second terrace, (which as well as the upper one, has a brick facing,) are wooden landings reaching to the edge of the under terrace, by which, at higher stages, the vessels may land there. The upper terrace is paved with large stones, which are quarried above the city. The quay, as well as the landings, belong to the State Bank of Georgia: the landings produce fifteen per cent. annually.

Augusta is the depôt for the cotton, which is conveyed from the upper part of Georgia by land carriage, and here shipped either to Savannah or Charleston. We noticed a couple of vessels of a peculiar structure, employed in this trade. They are flat underneath, and look like large ferry-boats. Each vessel can carry a load of three hundred tons. The bales of cotton, each of which weighs about three hundred pounds, were piled upon one another to the height of eleven feet. Steam-boats are provided to tow these vessels up and down the stream, but on account of the present low state of the water, they cannot come up to Augusta. I was assured that year by year between fifteen and twenty thousand bales of cotton were sent down the river. The state of South Carolina, to which the left bank of the river belongs, was formerly compelled to make Augusta its depôt. To prevent this, Mr. Schulz, a man of enterprise, originally from Holstein, has founded a new town, called Hamburg, upon the left bank of the river, close by the bridge, supported, as is said, by the legislature II.17 of South Carolina with an advance of fifty thousand dollars. This town was commenced in the year 1821, and numbers about four hundred inhabitants, who are collectively maintained by the forwarding business. It consists of one single row of wooden houses, streaked with white, which appear very well upon the dark back ground, formed by the high forest close behind the houses. Nearly every house contains a store, a single one, which comprised two stores, was rented for one thousand dollars. Several new houses were building, and population and comfort appear fast increasing. The row of houses which form the town, runs parallel with the river, and is removed back from it about one hundred and fifty paces. Upon this space stands a large warehouse, and a little wooden hut, looking quite snug, upon the whole, with the superscription “Bank.” A Hamburg bank in such a booth, was so tempting an object for me, that I could not refrain from gratifying my curiosity. I went in, and made acquaintance with Mr. Schulz, who was there. He appears to me to be a very public-spirited man, having been one of the most prominent undertakers of the landings and quay of Augusta. It is said, however, that he only accomplishes good objects for other people, and realizes nothing for himself. He has already several times possessed a respectable fortune, which he has always sunk again by too daring speculations. This Hamburg bank, moreover, has suspended its payments, and will not resume business till the first of next month. On this account, it was not possible for me to obtain its notes, which, for the curiosity of the thing, I would gladly have taken back with me to Germany.

On the 23d December we left Augusta, about four o’clock, by moonlight, and the weather pretty cold, in the miserable mail stage, which we had engaged for ourselves. It went for Milledgeville, eighty-six miles distant from Augusta. The road was one of the most tedious that I had hitherto met with in the United States; hilly, nothing but sand, at times solitary pieces of rock, and eternal pine woods with very little foliage; none of the evergreen trees and the southern plants seen elsewhere, which, new as they were to my eye, had so pleasantly broke the monotony of the tiresome forests through which I had travelled from the beginning of December; even the houses were clap-board cabins. Every thing contributed to give me an unfavourable impression. The inhabitants of Georgia are regarded in the United States under the character of great barbarians, and this reputation appears really not unjustly conferred. We see unpleasant countenances even in Italy: but here all the faces are haggard, and bear the stamp of the sickly climate.

To the cold weather which we had for several days, warm temperature succeeded to-day. We were considerably annoyed by II.18 dust. Besides several solitary houses and plantations, we encountered two little hamlets here, called towns, Warrenton and Powelton, this last lies upon Great Ogechee river, over which passes a wooden bridge. We stopped at Warrenton. The court of justice is in the only brick house of the place: close by it stands the prison, or county gaol, a building composed of strong planks and beams nailed together. Between Warrenton and Powelton, we had a drunken Irishman for our driver, who placed us more than once in great danger. This race of beings, who have spread themselves like a pestilence over the United States, are here also, and despised even by the Georgians. We travelled again all night; it was, however, not so cold as the nights previous. Towards midnight, we reached a trifling place called Sparta. We were obliged to stop here some time, as the stage and horses were to be changed. We seated ourselves at the fire-place in the tavern. All of a sudden there stood betwixt us, like an evil genius, a stout fellow, with an abominable visage, who appeared to be intoxicated, and crowded himself in behind Mr. Bowdoin. I addressed this gentleman to be on guard for his pockets. The ruffian made a movement, and a dirk fell from his sleeve, which he clutched up, and made off. They told me that he was an Irishman, who, abandoned to liquor, as most of his countrymen were, had no means of subsistence, and often slunk about at night to sleep in houses that happened to be open. Most probably he had intended to steal. We then obtained another driver, whom, from his half drunkenness and imprecations, I judged to be a son of Hibernia, and was not deceived.

On the 24th December, we left this unlucky Sparta at one o’clock in the morning. The driver wished very much to put a passenger in the stage with us, which we prevented. Vexed by this, he drove us so tediously, that we spent full eight hours going twenty-two miles to Milledgeville, and did not therefore reach there until nine in the morning. Immediately after leaving Norfolk, and travelling in the woods where there was little accommodation for travellers, we had every night seen bivouacs of wagoners or emigrants, moving to the western states—the backwoods. The horses of such a caravan are tied to the side of the wagon, and stand feeding at their trough; near the wagon is a large fire lighted up, of fallen or cut timber. At this fire the people sleep in good weather, in bad, they lay themselves in or under the wagon. After leaving Augusta we encountered several of these bivouacs, which consist partly of numerous families with harnessed wagons. They intended to go to Alabama, the district of country lately sold by the United States, and there to set themselves down and fall to hewing and building. I saw three families sitting on a long fallen tree, to which they had set fire II.19 in three places. These groups placed themselves in a very picturesque manner; but their way of acting is very dangerous. The night before we saw the woods on fire in three different directions, and the fire was without doubt occasioned by such emigrants as these. The lofty pine trees look very handsome while burning, when they are insulated, but the owner of the forest has all the trouble attending it to himself.

The country which we passed through towards morning was hilly, the bottom constantly sandy, towards the last, mixed with clay and rock. The trees were nothing but long-leafed pines. Close by Milledgeville, we crossed the Oconee river on a bridge that had been finished but a few days, and which rested on wooden piles. Until now the river was passed by a ferry-boat. Both shores are very high and steep, so that going in and coming out were attended with great difficulty.

Milledgeville lies upon elevated ground, the town is very regularly built, its broad streets are right-angled, they are, however, unpaved. It numbers about three thousand inhabitants of both complexions. It was established about twenty years ago, and increased very rapidly from its commencement, as it is the capital of the state of Georgia, and the seat of the legislature. Its increase is now calculated to be checked, since the story goes that the seat of government will be changed to the newly-founded town of Macon, or when the state has conquered congress in the cause yet depending before that body, and part of the Creek Indians territory is obtained, then it will be placed at Athens, where the university of the state is situated. We took up our residence at La Fayette Hall, a large tavern.

Soon after our arrival, I took a walk through the town. It contains mostly wooden houses, but they were good and even elegantly built, good stores, also a bookseller’s shop, and several printing presses. There are published here four gazettes, which a little while since were exceedingly active on the sides of the two parties who oppose each other in the state. One party is that of Governor Troup, who, from his discussions with the United States concerning the Creek territory, and on account of his warmth in his official correspondence, has become noted; the other is the party of the former governor, General Clark, who is, in all appearance, a very mild man, and very much respected by sensible and well-disposed persons. At the last election of the governor, it was believed and hoped that General Clark would be chosen. He had the majority of the legislature in his favour, yet, as the governor in this state is chosen for two years by the people, and every man that pays half a dollar tax has a vote, it so happened that Governor Troup succeeded, by his popularity, in bearing off the palm.

II.20

I examined the state-house, which is a simple, but well-finished brick building of two stories. In the ground floor are the offices, in the upper story two halls, one is for the senate, the other for the representatives. In each there is a seat, with a canopy, for the speaker. The senators have each a desk before them, in the hall of the representatives one desk serves two persons. All places are numbered, to prevent awkward encounters. In each hall there is a gallery for the public. The state-house is placed alone on a little eminence. In its neighbourhood stands the state arsenal. Another house belonging to the state, is appointed for the residence of the governor. Mr. Troup, notwithstanding, does not inhabit it; he has no family establishment, and has domesticated himself in a plain boarding-house. We intended to pay him our respects, he could not, however, receive us, as he lay dangerously ill of a pleurisy. Through two friends, Colonel Hamilton and Mr. Ringold, he tendered us his apologies, and these gentlemen, in his name, proffered us their services.

We were then carried to the state prison, a large brick edifice, under the superintendence of Mr. Williams, and contained seventy-six prisoners. All these were white persons, for the black were punished by the whip, and not with imprisonment. No idleness was suffered among the prisoners. If one understood no mechanical trade, he was obliged to learn one. I found most of them employed in wagon and saddle-making; others laboured in a smithy; others as shoemakers or tailors. The greatest quiet and silence prevailed among the prisoners. Their dress is blue, with broad white stripes upon all the seams. The interior of the lodging-house did not please me as much as the workshops. Cleanliness, so indispensable to such an establishment, was wanting here; it was neither swept nor scrubbed, and in the cells of the prisoners, in which four or five slept upon the floor, the woollen coverlets and pillows lay confusedly together. There were also cells for solitary confinement, this was, however, used only as a means of house discipline. The eating room was equally disagreeable to me. A piece of cooked meat was laid on the table for each prisoner, without knives, forks, or plates. Bread did not appear to be furnished every day; at least the day we were there, none was to be seen. The prison is surrounded by a high wall, at each of its four corners stands a sentry-box for the watch, which they ascend from without, and from which the whole yard can be overlooked. This establishment is so well conducted, that it occasions no expense to the state, on the contrary, it produces a profit. Upon the principal building stands a turret, which commands an extensive view over the town and circumjacent country. The district around appears uneven and covered with II.21 wood, the monotony of the view is relieved by nothing. The woods begin at the edge of the town.

Colonel Hamilton and Dr. Rogers accompanied us on Christmas day to the state-house. A travelling Unitarian clergyman from the northern states held divine service in the hall of representatives. The generality of people here are either Methodists or Baptists. As the Unitarian had found the churches here shut on this day, he had opened his temple in the state-house. His audience was composed of the beau monde, as a Unitarian was something new. He delivered a good discourse, in which he set forth pure morality, and received general approbation. After dinner he proposed to give a second service, for the purpose of expounding the doctrines of his belief, as founded on common sense.

Colonel Hamilton, a particular friend of Governor Troup, was formerly secretary of state of Georgia. The appointment to this office belongs to the legislature. This was the cause that though Troup is again chosen governor by the people, Mr. Hamilton and all the friends of the governor have lost their places, which are occupied by persons attached to the Clark party. Dr. Rodgers was secretary of the state treasury, and has been deprived of his office from the same cause. We saw here several Indians of both sexes, from the Creek nation, who sold bows, arrows, and very neatly made baskets. These Indians had a much better appearance than those I saw in the western part of the state of New York and Canada. Afterwards several of the grandees of the country were presented to me by Colonel Hamilton. All these gentlemen had their own peculiar character. It was evident that they lived in a state separated from the civilized world.

We were constrained to remain in Milledgeville on the day after Christmas, how unpleasant soever it might be. No stage goes from this place through the Indian territory to Montgomery on the Alabama river, whither we intended to bend our way. We therefore hired for this journey of one hundred and ninety-eight miles, a four-horse extra stage, for the price of two hundred and twenty-five dollars; this stage was at present under repair in the state prison, and could not be placed at our disposal before the 27th of December. It was necessary for us to have patience, and pass the time as well as possible, and the few gentlemen with whom we had formed acquaintance exerted themselves to amuse us.

On the 27th of December we left Milledgeville at nine o’clock in the morning. It was a pretty cold day, and there was ice half an inch thick. We rode only thirty miles to Macon. In spite of the large sum of money which our carriage had cost us, it broke twice; the repairs consumed much time, and we left it II.22 several miles behind. The day was very clear, and towards midday moderately warm, in the evening there was again a strong frost. I was pleased with the dark blue of the sky, such as we hardly have in Germany in a midsummer’s day. We met with several families, emigrating with their property to Macon and the State of Alabama. One of these families, who had paid their wagoners beforehand, had been left by them under frivolous pretext in the middle of the woods, two miles from Milledgeville: we found these unfortunate persons, who had made a bivouac, after they had waited several days in vain for their runaway wagoner and his horses. Several lonely houses which we passed were grog-shops, in which the neighbours were celebrating the third day of the Christmas holy-days. Every thing as at home, thought I, and fancied that I was in a European country. We noticed a gentleman and lady on horseback, the horses were not loaded completely, a barefooted negro wench was obliged to run with a heavy sack of corn on her shoulders to feed the horses! Then I was convinced, and with pleasure, that I was not in Europe! The road was sandy, uneven, and passed through pine woods. This wood was here and there cleared, and a patch of cotton and Indian corn planted. Close by Macon we crossed the Oakmulgee river in a ferry-boat, and reached the town after sunset. We found tolerable accommodation in a new tavern.

The country in which Macon is situated, was first purchased from the Creek Indians, in the year 1822, and the town began about two years ago. In the last war, the Indians had collected a number of their people here, and the United States built Fort Hawkins, on the left bank of the river, at present deserted.

In Macon we received a visit from a Colonel Danah, who formerly served in the army, and was now settled here. He introduced to me several of the distinguished people of the place, who had come to see me. The town has only three streets, which crossed at right angles. At the point of intersection is a large square, there are houses only on three sides of it; on the fourth side it is contemplated to erect the capitol, if, as it has been proposed, the government should be removed here from Milledgeville. One street runs perpendicular to the line of the river, over which a bridge is intended to be built: the mason work for its support has been completed on both sides. The streets are about one hundred feet wide, the roots of the felled trees are visible in them, of which trees the houses are constructed throughout. The place contains about sixteen hundred inhabitants, white and black. The population are partly young people from Georgia, partly emigrants from the two Carolinas and the northern states, who have fixed themselves here from motives of speculation. II.23 Although the site of the new town is represented as extremely healthy, yet they have suffered during the preceding summer from bilious fever. The country around is little built upon, and the woods begin not far behind the houses.

About nine o’clock in the morning, on the 28th December, we left Macon and rode thirty-one miles distance to the Indian agency, on the left bank of Flint river, called by the Indians, Thlo-no-teas-kah. The road was partly sandy, partly rocky, but extremely uneven. It was kept in very bad order. No pains had been taken to carry away or saw through trees, which had fallen more than a year back crosswise over the road; the carriage was obliged to make a considerable deviation through the woods to pass these fallen trees. The plantations by which we passed, are all new; the houses were completely log huts. The tiresome uniformity of the pine woods were, in the low and marshy places into which we often came, very pleasantly interrupted by evergreen cane, as well as by thorn oaks and laurel trees, we also saw several green-leaved trees, chiefly oaks, as formerly.

Towards four o’clock in the afternoon we reached the agency, a group of twenty log houses, and some negro huts. It is appointed for the residence of the agent of the United States with the Creek Indians, (he, however, was absent at this time,) and is situated in a very handsome tract of land on the left side of the Flint river, which rushes over a rocky bed between pretty steep banks. The right bank belongs to the Creek nation, of about twenty-one thousand souls, and is inhabited by them. The contest between the state of Georgia and the United States is caused by this territory. The state of Georgia had concluded a treaty with one of the Creek chiefs, M‘Intosh, concerning the surrender of this district of land; the nation, discontented with the treaty, and is nowise willing to evacuate their country, insisted that they had been deceived, and killed M‘Intosh. The United States espoused the side of the Indians, and blamed the Georgia commissioners for scandalous impositions upon the Indians. Congress is now about to decide upon this matter. In one of the log-houses, with a Mr. Crowell, we took up our night’s lodging, and enjoyed some very well cooked venison. In a neighbouring grog-shop we found a collection of drunken Indians, and some negroes, who were frolicing during the Christmas holy-days. Several of them were well dressed; they wore mocassins and leggings of leather; broad knee-bands ornamented with white glass beads, a sort of coat of striped cotton, and upon the head a striped cotton cloth, almost like a turban. Several of them were very large. For a treat of whiskey, which I gave them, eight of them performed the war dance. They skipped here and there in a circle, moved II.24 themselves right and left, sprung against each other, raised their hands on high, let them fall again, and bellowed horribly through the whole scene. Some old men who stood near, took it in dudgeon, that the young men should dance in such a way before white people. They called to them to stop. Mr. Crowell, however, brought them to silence easily, by whiskey.

The colour of these Indians is a dusky brown. They have black straight hair. Several of them possess negroes, to whom it is very acceptable to live with them, since they are treated with more equality than by the whites. Some of these negroes were very well clothed in the Indian manner, they drank and jumped about with the Indians. One of them was of colossal stature, and appeared to be in great request among the Indians, to whom he served as interpreter. The constitution of these Indians is a mixture of aristocratical and republican form of government. The chiefs are chosen for life, and the dignity is not hereditary; for improper conduct they can be deposed. They cannot write their language. Their laws are of course very simple, and founded on traditionary usage.

It had rained hard in the night, between the 28th and 29th of December, it rained also in the day, almost incessantly, yet this rain was mild and warm, nearly like a spring rain in Germany. There was a consultation, whether we should remain or go farther on, I determined on the latter. About nine o’clock we left our night quarters. In the vicinity thereof, the governor of the state of Georgia had built Fort Lawrence, which was evacuated, and given up at the peace. The houses, which belonged to the agency, were then built as magazines and hospitals for the troops, and arranged for a post of defence. Near the chimney, and the doors and windows, (the last without glass sashes,) were loop-holes pierced. Behind this post we passed the Flint river in an Indian ferry-boat, and found ourselves landed upon their territory. We rode twenty-eight miles farther to a lonely plantation, called Currel’s. The road ran through the worst part of the Indian lands, the woods consisted as before, of the long-leaved pine, and it was only in damp places we observed green leaves. In particular, there grew high and beautiful cane. The soil is for the most part dry sand, in strata, and particularly in the bottoms it is mixed with clay, and of a full yellow colour. The Indians have thrown bridges over two brooks with marshy shores, at each of them we paid, with great pleasure, half a dollar toll-money. The bridges are indeed not remarkably good, yet better than several in the christian state of Georgia, and even in many of the more northern states. We met but few of the Indian inhabitants; these were all wrapt up in woollen blankets. We only saw three wigwams, II.25 Indian houses, chiefly toll-houses of the bridges. They resemble the log-houses, neither are they so open as those which I saw last summer in the state of New York. The day was exceedingly uninteresting. Mr. Currel, with whom we passed the night, is a Virginian, who has settled here for the opportunity of speculating among the Indians, from whom he purchased his land at a rather cheap rate: to judge from his habits of intoxication, he has already adapted himself too much to their mode of life. His plantation buildings are, as all the rest, log huts: the wind blew to our heart’s content through the room; no lamp could burn, and we were forced to use a great hearth fire to give us light. There was no ceiling to our room, but a transparent roof of clap-boards directly over us. I was surprised to discover Shakspeare’s works in this place. In one of the out-houses there was a very good supper set before us, at which, especially, we had excellent venison.

Upon the 30th of December, after we had passed a cold night in our clap-board hut, which allowed the storm free admission, and locked our few articles of property in our chamber, from fear of the Indians sneaking about, we started before break of day, and rode a distance of thirty-three miles to Fort Mitchel. The weather was cold the whole day through, and threatened rain. The country again very uninteresting, mostly pines, a sandy soil, here and there mingled with clay: at length wood with green leaves. Only in low situations, along the rivulets, of which we passed three, was the vegetation to be admired. The laurel bushes particularly looked well. It gave me real pleasure to be able to walk in a green thicket along a brook, which I could have accomplished with difficulty in summer, since these bushes are the favourite resort of a great number of rattlesnakes. In a solitary plantation we took our breakfast; it belonged to a Mr. Colfrey, a worthy old Virginian, who had lost a considerable property, and to better his circumstances, had determined on the hard alternative of settling among the Indians. We found his plantation in a very uncommon state of order and neatness, and we were delighted by an unexpected and most excellent breakfast. Mr. Bowdoin said to the owner of the place, that he appeared as if he had not always lived thus among the savages, and never can I forget how the old man, with tears in his eyes, turned away without making an answer.

We met with several wigwams, and various temporary cabins of travelling Indians, also a number of bridges, at which we were obliged to pay the Indians toll. The country was very hilly till we came into a valley, a mile from our night quarters, through which the Chatahouchee flowed. This river empties itself into the Mexican gulf. The district, even to the left bank II.26 of the river, is rather marshy, grown up with willows, laurel, and cane. Not far from the river we beheld several buildings appointed for the popular assembly of the Indians, called the big talk. They are large and round, having a conical-formed roof, covered with tree-bark; they have walls of lime, and a covered low entrance also of lime. The Indians assemble in these buildings only in bad weather, or at night, and then a fire kindled in the middle of the house, gives light. In good weather they collect in a square place covered with sheds, under which the Indians sit down on planks protected from the sun’s heat. There is also another place for public games, and particularly for ball-playing. They appeared here also to have a species of masquerade, for we found some in a half gourd, cut through and made into a mask, with eyes and mouth cut in it, and the nose set on of a piece of wood. From the neck of the gourd, which was cut at half its length, they had made a pair of horns, and fasted them on the mask, and under this a long white beard.

We passed the river Chatahouchee at one of the ferries belonging to the Indians, and kept in order by them. The right bank is somewhat steep, of red earth, which, from the violent rain, had become slippery. Half a mile from the ferry brought us to Fort Mitchel. It stood upon a height, and was situated to the right of us. We dismounted not far from this, between Indian wigwams at Crowell’s tavern. The host was a brother of the Indian agent. This house has also a plantation attached to it, as the one above-mentioned had. Colonel Wool and I were lodged in an airy out-house of clap-boards, without a ceiling, and windows without glass. We were accommodated with freer circulation than would have fallen to our lot in a German barn. Four companies of the fourth regiment of infantry, the staff of which was fixed at Pensacola, lay in garrison at the fort. The commandant, Major Donoho, and his officers had taken board at Crowell’s tavern; in the evening we made acquaintance with them. The most of these officers, pupils of the school at West Point, were men of information, and we passed the remainder of the evening much pleased with their society.

We made the 31st of December a day of rest, as Colonel Wool had to inspect the garrison of the fort. The four companies here stationed form properly the garrison of Pensacola, and were only sent here last summer during the contest between Georgia and the United States, to protect the Creeks against the encroachments of that State. It openly wishes to take possession of the Indian territory to the Chatahouchee, to which river, agreeable to the charter, Georgia extends. The right bank of the river, on which we now found ourselves, is in the jurisdiction of the State of Alabama. The troops arriving, at first II.27 encamped here, but immediately commenced building a new but smaller fort, on the spot where Fort Mitchell stands, so called in honour of the then governor of Georgia, which they now occupy. They hoped, however, that they should return to Pensacola as soon as the disagreements had been settled.

After the inspection, we took a walk to a plantation lying near, which belonged to an Indian named M‘Intosh. He was absent at Washington as a delegate from his nation. He is the son of that M‘Intosh, who obtained from the State of Georgia the title of General, and who last spring, on account of the treaty with the state, had been shot by his countrymen and hewed in pieces. Polygamy prevails among the Indians. The young M‘Intosh had indeed only two wives, a white woman and an Indian. They say he had several wives whom he wished to keep: the white woman however had driven them with scolding and disgrace out of the house, as she would only submit to one Indian rival. We did not see the Indian wife. The white wife, however, received us quite politely. She is the daughter of a planter in Georgia, and tolerably pretty. She was attired in the European style, only according to the Indian fancy in dress, she carried a quantity of glass beads about her neck. She showed us her two children, completely white, and also the portrait of her father-in-law, as large as life, with the sword of honour given him by the United States. The family is in very good circumstances, and possesses seventy negroes.

In the afternoon we went to a Methodist mission, one short mile distant. We found none but the women at home. The missionaries have established a school, which is frequented by thirty children. They have three Indian girls, boarders, who were extremely modest. The mission is situated in a handsome plantation, on which I saw tame deer. The deer here are evidently smaller than those in Europe.

Sunday, the 1st of January, 1826, we were awakened by the drums and fifes, which announced the new year, by playing Hail Columbia and Yankee Doodle. With the break of day, between seven and eight o’clock, we left Fort Mitchel, and rode twenty-five miles to a plantation called Lewis’s, which is located on the spot, upon which, in the last war, Fort Bainbridge stood. The road ran through a very hilly country. At first the soil was sandy and poor, it bore nothing but pine trees. After we had passed over half the distance, the soil improved, it looked reddish-yellow, and the apparently everlasting pines gave place to handsome oaks and lofty hickories. On the other hand the carriage road became very bad, and in a narrow place we upset. The carriage fell slowly towards my side, I took the right moment, sprung from the box on which I sat, and fell upon my II.28 feet. This was the eighth time I had been overturned, and never did I escape so cheap as on this occasion. As none of the other gentlemen were injured, we could happily laugh at our accident. The carriage was somewhat damaged, and since we were only four miles distant from Lewis’s, and had very fine weather, a true spring day, with clear dark-blue sky, we went the rest of the way on foot.

We passed several wigwams and temporary Indian huts, in which the men lived with the hogs, and lay around the fire with them. A hut of this description is open in front, behind it is closed with pieces of wood and bark. The residents live on roasted venison and Indian corn. The hides of the deer, and even of cattle, they stretch out to dry in the sun, and then sell them. At one hut, covered with cane leaves, there was venison roasting, and bacon smoking. The venison is cut in pieces, and spitted on a cane stalk, many such stalks lie upon two blocks near each other. Under these the fire is kindled, and the stalk continually turned round, till the flesh is dried through. Upon this is laid a hurdle made of cane which rests on four posts. To this are all the large pieces suspended. The hams of bacon are laid upon the hurdle so that the smoke may draw through them.

The grass in many parts of the woods was in a blaze, and many pine trees were burning. We crossed two small streams, the Great and Little Uchee, on tolerable wooden bridges. Between three and four o’clock in the afternoon we reached Lewis’s, a handsome house, the best that we had found in the Indian territory. We took here an excellent dinner. We ate daily of the best of venison. In Fort Mitchel we had eaten partridges, of which the officers in one day took fifty-seven in the morning, and forty-six in the evening, in their nets. For the singularity of the thing, I will notice our dinner of to-day, that the inquisitive reader may observe that one is in no danger of hunger on the lands of the Indians: soup of turnips, roast-beef, a roast-turkey, venison with a kind of sour sauce, roast-chickens, and pork with sweet potatoes.

On the 2d of January we rode thirty-one miles to Walker’s, also a solitary plantation. The country hilly, the road bad to such a degree that we could only creep along in the most tedious manner, and were obliged to proceed on foot very often. The wood on the other hand grew better and better, and consisted, besides the pines, of handsome oaks, and various sorts of nut-bearing trees, mostly hickories: the soil, for the most part, of a reddish yellow. In several marshy places, and on the banks of rivulets, we saw again the evergreen trees and bushes, and in a swamp nearly a mile long, through which a causeway ran, some magnolia grandiflora which were at least sixty feet high. I also II.29 saw here again several trees, which first forming one trunk, four or five feet above the ground, divided themselves into two trunks, and then shot up into the air one hundred feet. In the north-western part of the state of New York, I have seen trees which ran up in five, six, and even seven trunks. Over a stream with marshy banks, a bridge was thrown, three hundred and eleven paces long: the view which I took from this bridge of the luxuriant exotic vegetation which surrounded me, exhibited, as I thought, the original of the sketches of the Brazilian forests in the travels of the Prince Nieuwied. The beautiful day, the cloudless dark-blue sky, also introduced by him, were recalled to me by this picture. But when I observed upon the trees the hateful Spanish moss, I was reminded that I was in the neighbourhood of Columbia and Charleston, and that it was a token of unwholesome air. In the swamps I noticed several plants which were known to me from hot-house cultivation, but unfortunately I cannot recall their names.

The country is comparatively populously inhabited by Indians. They live partly in wigwams, partly in bark cabins. Before one of these huts, or cabins, hung a skinned otter, upon which they seemed preparing to make a meal. The Indians roast their maize on the naked coals, then they throw it into a cavity made in a trunk of a tree, and pound it with a stick of wood into a sort of coarse meal. I bought a species of nuts, which were roasted, ground-nuts, and amused myself with the propensity to thievery a young Indian displayed. As I was putting the nuts in my pocket, one or more would drop, instantly the young fellow would step forward, as if by accident, set his foot on the nut, take it between his toes, and move off. We passed through a tolerably cleared, fenced, and built district, in which several negro quarters of a decent appearance were scattered about. This plantation belonged to a chief, one of the principal of the Creeks, called the Big Warrior, who owns above three hundred negroes, whose wooden dwelling-house stands in the centre of his property. He is now at Washington, as one of the deputies of his nation. We came over another cleared spot, where the Indians were routed in the last war by the Georgia militia under General Floyd.

Not far from this place, we noticed a number of Indians collected in the neighbourhood of a plantation. We left our carriage to inquire into the cause of it. There had been a horse race of middling unsightly horses: the festival was, however, ended, and the meeting was on the point of breaking up. A white planter who was there, conducted us to the son of the Big Warrior. He was himself a chief, and possessed a high reputation, as was said amongst those of the nation. He sat upon a felled tree between two inferior chiefs. His dress was a tunic of flowered, II.30 clear blue calico, a piece of the same stuff was wrapped round his head like a turban. He wore richly ornamented leather leggings set with glass beads, and mocassins, and had an equally ornamented hunting pouch hung around him. Moderately fat, and of a great stature, he appeared to be about thirty years old. He had mustaches like all his countrymen. I was introduced to him, and shook hands with him. The conversation was very trifling and short. It took place through an interpreter who appeared to be a dismissed soldier. This creature caused the chief to rise when we commenced speaking to him; when I begged him to remain sitting, he reseated himself mechanically. He directed no questions to me, and answered mine with yes and no. To the question, whether he knew any thing of the country of which I was a native, he answered by a shake of the head. He looked no more at me. Several Indians wore their hair in a singular style; it was shorn on both sides of the head, and the middle, from the neck over to the forehead, stood up like a cock’s comb. Seen from behind, they appeared as if they wore a helmet. Quite small boys practised themselves already in shooting with a little bow. I attempted to joke with a little fellow, three years old, but he took the jest in bad part, and threatened me with his bow.

After sunset, towards six o’clock in the evening, we reached Walker’s, and found a good reception in a large log-house, each of us had a separate chamber. The landlord was a captain of infantry in the United States’ service formerly, and had, as our host of yesterday, an Indian wife.

On the following day we rode to Montgomery, twenty-five miles distant. The road was in the beginning bad, afterwards, however, really good. We crossed a bridge over a stream one hundred paces long, and were then obliged to toil over a long, wretched causeway. The vegetation was again exceedingly luxuriant, it was remarkably beautiful on the banks of Line Creek, a little river, which forms the boundary between the Indian territory and the state of Alabama, eight miles from Walker’s. Very lofty live oaks, and oaks of other descriptions, several magnolias, and amongst them, a particularly handsome and lofty macrophylla.

As we entered upon the territory of Alabama, we soon observed that we were upon a much better soil. It was darker, much wood was removed, and signs of cultivation every where. Upon several plantations, the cotton fields exhibited themselves in beautiful order; the log houses were only employed as negro cabins; the mansion-houses, two stories high, are for the most part painted white, and provided with piazzas and balconies. At most of them the cotton gins and presses were at work. The planters had not finished the whole of their crop, on account of II.31 the unusual drought. The Alabama river was so low that the steam-boats had not been able for several weeks to pass from Mobile to Montgomery. This place had therefore, for a length of time, suffered for the want of the most necessary supplies, which are drawn from Mobile; fifteen dollars had been asked for one bushel of salt. We met several caravans of emigrants from the eastern part of Georgia, who were on their way to Butler county, Alabama, to settle themselves on land which they had purchased very cheap from the United States. The number of their negroes, wagons, horses, and cattle, showed that these emigrants were in easy circumstances. On account of the bad road, we went at first a good deal on foot; at one of the creeks, the carriage passed through the ford, and we footmen crossed over on one of the simplest bridges in the world, namely, a felled pine tree of great size. We arrived at Montgomery about two o’clock. In the night it had frozen, but the day had solaced us with the warmth of spring.

Montgomery lies on the Alabama river, a navigable stream, which rises about two hundred and twenty miles above this place, and after it has joined itself to the Tombigbee, empties into the Mexican gulf, below Mobile. The town contains about one thousand two hundred inhabitants, of both complexions. It has two streets, which are very broad, tolerably good houses, one, not yet finished, of brick, which material is very bad here. This place was first laid out about five years ago, and has already a very lively appearance. On the bank of the river, they were employed in loading two steam-boats with cotton bales, as, within a few days, the river had risen five feet, and the navigation was once more carried on with animation.

The journey by water from Montgomery to Mobile, is four hundred miles, and as we intended to go this way, we took a look at the two steam-boats lying here, the Steubenville and Hornet, bound for Mobile. We chose the Steubenville, which gave out to start on the next day. The construction of both these boats, and their arrangement, was far inferior to that of the steam-boats in the north: every thing was coarser, and displayed the difference between the civilization of the two different sections of the union. This town is so new, that the original forest still stands between the houses. In a street there was a well digging; I discovered by this that the earth was exceedingly well adapted to brick-making, and that an industrious man, who should establish a kiln here, must make a handsome profit on the business. The bricks which they sell here at ten dollars a thousand, are scandalous. Of the inhabitants I heard nothing commendable: and how can this young town, whose situation, at least in II.32 summer, is unhealthy, have a fixed character; how can it attain a high degree of cultivation? All come here for the purpose of amassing property, or are driven here by the prostration of their fortunes, in their old residence!

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CHAPTER XVII.

Journey from Montgomery, on the Alabama river, to Mobile, and residence in that city.

The Steubenville, commanded by Captain Grover, is of one hundred and seventy tons, and has a high pressure machine, of fifty horse-power. Machines like these are very dangerous, and therefore prohibited in the Netherlands. The machine of the Steubenville was made in Pittsburg. The body of the boat is occupied by the cargo, the cabins are upon deck. The dining-room had twelve births; behind this is a gallery with some apartments; the last one was hired by us. Before we sailed, two Indians came on board, who wondered very much at my double barrelled gun, with percussion locks; they had never seen such fire-arms before; I permitted them to discharge it, and gave them some of the copper caps, at which present they testified great delight.

We went down the river very swiftly, sixteen miles an hour. The banks of the river near Montgomery are rather high, they consist of red earth, with many spots of flint, and covered with willow-growth. We came only a distance of eighteen miles, to a place called Washington, where the Hornet lay, and where we also were stopped, to remain during the night for the purpose of taking in wood and cotton. On account of the number of sand banks, the navigation of the river must be dangerous; the captain assured me that the experienced pilot then on board, had one hundred dollars per month pay, so seldom are the officers of the boats here, accustomed to the localities!

The next morning we moved on at break of day, with considerable rapidity; but we soon stopped again, to take in some cotton bales, which lay ready in a wood on the shore. We had above four hundred bales already on board. The hold of the boat was full, the space between the machine and the first cabin was filled, as well as the space about the cabins, and the roof over them. There was no room left for exercise in walking, and in the cabin it was very dark. The first delay lasted about II.33 an hour; as soon as we were in motion again, we were obliged to stop for several hours, as one of the two pipes fell, and drew the other with it. The steward standing near, was wounded. We pursued our journey about midday, and laid by again towards sunset to take in wood, and remain for the night, as the water in the river had fallen, and the sand banks were numerous in this vicinity.

We went on shore to look about, and found ourselves near to a plantation with extensive cotton fields, a cotton gin, and a large cotton press. There is a vast quantity of cotton seed left, more than is required for the next year’s planting, and the overplus is used for manure. I am well convinced, that with a small trouble and little expense, a very good oil could be expressed from this seed. It was thrown out in great heaps, which contained so much heat, that it was impossible to keep my hand in it a moment. The breadth of the river is here said to be three hundred yards, but I cannot believe it to be so much. The right bank may be about sixty feet high, it rests partly on sandstone, and consists of many layers of soil; the left bank is lower. Both are grown up with wood, close to the water’s edge with willows, and farther back with different sorts of trees; lofty oaks, live oaks, and white oaks, which only flourish in the south, with plane trees, hickories, and other nut-bearing trees, here and there with beech, ash, and alder, and also with tall green cane. If it were not so warm and unhealthy during the summer, a residence here would be delightful. We saw upon the river many flocks of wild geese and ducks, and upon the shore several buzzards. The river makes a number of turns, and contains several islands; yet the most of them are merely sand banks. Upon them lie fallen trees, of which passing vessels must take great care. On the banks were canoes, which, in the Indian fashion, were hewed out of a single tree.

On the 6th of January, the boat was under way before daybreak; she stopt at Cahawba till ten o’clock, to take in wood. This place has its name from a small river, which here flows into the Alabama. It lies upon the right hand bank of the river, here rather high. It was founded about five years ago, and it is already the capital of the state. With all this advantage, it contains only three hundred inhabitants of all sorts, and it is to be feared that its population will not increase, as the present legislature of Alabama, has resolved to change the seat of government to Tuscaloosa.

A fatiguing and bad road goes from the landing to this village. It has two very broad streets, which cut each other at right angles. Only four or five houses are of brick, the others all built of wood; they stand at a distance from one another. In the II.34 streets were erected two very plain triumphal arches, in honour of General La Fayette. I was made acquainted with Colonel Pickens, friend of Colonel Wool. He had formerly served in the army, was afterwards governor of South Carolina, and now a planter in Alabama. He carried us to the state-house, where the legislature was in session.II.1 He introduced me to Governor Murphy, in whose office we passed half an hour, in conversing very pleasantly. The governor gave me several details concerning the state. The greater part of it had been bought from the Indians, and settled within ten years. It was first received by congress as a state of the union in the year 1819. All establishments within it, are of course very new. The staple productions are Indian corn and cotton, which are shipped to Mobile, the sea port of the state, and sold there. The bales of cotton average about forty dollars. About forty miles hence, at the confluence of the Black Warrior and the Tombigbee rivers, lies the town of Demopolis, formerly called Eagleville. It was located by the French, who had come back from the much promising Champ d’Asyle. This place attracted my curiosity in a lively degree, and I would willingly have visited it. The governor and the secretary of state, however, advised me strongly against this, as there was nothing at all there worthy of observation. They related to me what follows:

Alabama, as a territory, was under the especial superintendence of congress. At that period a number of French arrived from the perishing Champ d’Asyle to the United States. At the head of them were the Generals Lefebvre-Desnouettes, Lallemand and Rigaud; congress allowed these Frenchmen a large tract of land upon a very long credit, almost for nothing, under the promise that they would endeavour to plant the vine and olive tree. Both attempts miscarried, either through the neglect of the French, or that the land was too rich for the vine and the olive. Some of these Frenchmen devoted themselves to the more profitable cultivation of cotton; the most of them, however, disposed of the land allotted to them very advantageously, spread themselves through the United States, and sought a livelihood in a variety of ways. Some were dancing and fencing masters, some fancy shopkeepers, and others in Mobile and New Orleans, even croupiers at the hazard tables, that are there licensed. General Rigaud betook himself at the time of the Spanish revolution to Spain, there to contend against France, and may now be living in England; General Lefebvre-Desnouettes, also went II.35 back to Europe, as it was said to obtain the money collected in France for the colony, and to bring out settlers; he lost his life some years ago in the shipwreck of the Albion packet, on the Irish coast. General Lallemand resorted to New York, where he is doing well. The Frenchmen, with some of whom I afterwards conversed in New Orleans, insisted that they had received none of the money collected for them. Eagleville, since called Demopolis, has only one store, and a few log houses. It lies in a very level country, and at the most only five Frenchmen, whose names I could not obtain, are living there now, the remaining inhabitants are Americans.

After we had looked about the two streets of Cahawba, we embarked and pursued our voyage. At our going on board, we remarked that Cahawba was a depôt for cotton, which, partly in steam-boats, and partly in vessels made of light wood, are transported down the river. These vessels have a flat bottom, and are built in the form of a parallelogram. The part under the water is pitched, and on the fore and back narrower ends, are rudder oars, with which the boats are steered. The vessels are finished in a very rough way; they are broken up in Mobile, and the timber sold. They are known by the general title of flat boats.

Some miles below Cahawba we stopped on the right bank, near the plantation of Mr. Rutherford. There were still fifteen bales of cotton to be taken in. While this was doing, we went on shore to take a walk, where the bank was tolerably high. Mr. Rutherford’s plantation has been about six years in cultivation. The mansion-house is of wood, and built as other log houses, but it is handsomely situated among live oaks and pride of China trees. The entrance is shaded by a rose-tree. Around were handsome, high and uncommonly thick sycamores, whose trunks appeared white, elms, gum trees, and the above named (live oaks and Chinas) many from a single trunk, also cane, that was at least twenty feet high. The situation of the plantation was unhealthy, and Mr. R. a Georgian by birth, told us that he carried his family for the sake of health to the north every summer. We saw here several hundred paroquets flying round, who kept up a great screaming. Many were shot. They are parrots, but of a larger species than the common kind, clear green with yellow tips to their wings, and orange-coloured heads, flesh-coloured bills, and long green tails. We had before seen on the bank several astonishingly numerous flocks of black birds. The banks of the river are here and there one hundred feet high, they are composed of steep sandstone rock, from which springs flow.

By the accession of the new load of cotton bales, our vessel became too heavily laden. She acquired a balancing motion, II.36 like a ship at sea. This was exceedingly embarrassing in the numerous bends of the river, and to avoid the danger of falling back, it was necessary to stop the machinery at every turn. The fine dry weather which pleased us so much, was the cause of the great fall in the water of the river. The change from high to low water was very rapid. In the spring, as I was assured, the river rose sixty feet and more, and inundated the high land near it. I could not doubt the fact; for I saw upon the rocky banks the traces of the high water. About dark we laid by on the right shore to take in wood. We remained here for the night, and I had in a wretched lair an equally wretched repose.II.2

On the 7th of January, at six in the morning, our vessel was once more in motion; soon, however, she stuck fast upon the sand. It required much trouble to bring her off, and turn her round; the task occupied an hour and a half. It was shortly before daybreak, and we were all in bed, if such miserable cribs deserved the name. It had various effects upon our travelling companions. Mr. Huygens rose in consternation from his bed, and made a great disturbance. Mr. Bowdoin called to his servant, and directed him to inquire what had happened. He was very uneasy when we told him that we might lie several days, perhaps weeks here, to wait for rain, and the consequent rise of the river. The colonel and I, who had acquired by our long experience, a tolerable portion of recklessness, remained in our cots, and left the matter to Providence, as we perceived that the captain would rather disembark his cotton, which consumed nothing, than to support much longer a number of passengers, all with good appetites, who had agreed for their voyage at a certain price. When we were again afloat, Mr. Bowdoin remarked with a face of great wisdom, that he had foreseen that we should not long remain aground, as he had not felt the stroke of the boat on the sand-bar.

We passed the whole day without any further accident, the weather was rather dull and drizzling. Nothing interesting occurred to our observation. We passed by two steam-boats that had been sunk in the river, of which the last, called the Cotton Plant, went down only a month since. Both struck against trees in the river, and sank so slowly, that all the passengers, and part of the cargo were saved. They were so deep that only the wheel-houses raised themselves above the water. From these boats already a part of the machinery has been taken out piece-meal.

In the afternoon we passed a little place called Claiborne, situated II.37 on an eminence on the left bank of the river. Three miles below, we stopped about sunset, on the right bank for wood. The name of the place is Wiggins’s Landing. It consists of two log-houses standing upon a height, among old tall thin oak trees, which was settled by a Mr. Wiggins, with his wife and children, a short time before. The houses had a very picturesque appearance, and I was sorry that I could not take a sketch of them. Mr. W. proposed to cut down the wood for the purpose of raising cotton there. It was a pity to do so with this handsome grove, handsome, although injured in its appearance by the Spanish moss which hangs from the trees. Monsieur Chateaubriand compares the trees enveloped in this moss to apparitions; in the opinion of Brackenridge, they resemble ships under full sail, with which the air plays in a calm at sea. I, who never beheld ghosts, nor possessed Mons. Chateaubriand’s powers of imagination, though I had seen sails tossing in the wind, compared these trees in my prosaic mood, to tenter-hooks, on which beggars dry their ragged apparel before some great holy-day.

We were in hopes, that we should have made more progress during the night, but the captain had become so prudent, and almost anxious, from the sight of the two sunken steam-boats, that he determined to spend the night at Wiggins’s Landing. Formerly, near Claiborne, there was a stockade, called Fort Claiborne, where an affair took place with the Indians in the last war. This place is named in honour of the deceased Mr. Claiborne, governor of the former Mississippi Territory, of which the present state of Alabama formed a part, who died about eight years ago, governor of the state of Louisiana, in New Orleans. He had taken possession of Louisiana, in the name of the United States, which the then existing French Government had sold to them. Mr. Claiborne was a particular favourite and countryman of President Jefferson. He had by his voice decided the presidential election in favour of Jefferson, against his antagonist, Aaron Burr, for which Jefferson was gratefully mindful during his whole life.

On the 8th of January, we left our anchoring ground between six and seven o’clock. The shores, which at first were pretty high, became by degrees lower, they remained, however, woody, mostly of oak wood in appearance, hung with long moss. Under the trees, grew very thick, and uncommonly handsome cane, above twenty feet high. At the rise of the river, these shores, often covered with water, are on this account little inhabited. Taking it for granted that the population of Alabama increases in numbers, and the higher land becomes healthier from extirpation of the forest, without doubt dykes will be made on these lower banks, to guard the land from inundation, and II.38 make it susceptible of culture. Here and there rose sand banks out of the water, and also several snags. We passed the place where the year before, a steam-boat, the Henry Clay, was sunk; since which time, however, she has been set afloat again. It is not very consolatory to the traveller, to behold places and remains of such occurrences, particularly when they find themselves on board such a miserable vessel as ours. Several steam-boats, which at present navigate the Alabama, formerly ran on the Mississippi, as this one did; they were judged too bad for that river, and were, therefore, brought into this trade, by which their possessors realized much money. We saw to-day many wild ducks and geese, on the shores also, numbers of paroquets, which make a great noise; in the river there were alligators, which are smaller than the Egyptian crocodile. One of these creatures was lying on the shore of the bank, and was sunning itself, yet too far from us, and our boat went too fast, to permit of my seeing it distinctly, or of shooting at it. In the afternoon we saw several small rivers, which flowed into the Alabama, or ran out of it, forming stagnant arms, which are here called bayous. The river itself takes extraordinary turns, and shapes out a variety of islands. We afterwards reached the confluence of the rivers Alabama and Tombigbee, where there is an island, and the country appears extremely well. Both rivers united, take the name of Mobile river.

About three miles below this junction, several wooden houses formed a group on the right bank. Formerly, there was a stockade here, Fort Stoddart, from which this collection of houses has its name. Here is the line which forms the thirty-first degree of latitude, once the boundary between the United States and the Spanish possessions. The Mobile river still increased in breadth, and as the night commenced, seemed about half a mile wide. The weather was very dark and cloudy, the pilot could not distinguish his course, and although we approached close to the city, we could proceed no farther, without exposing ourselves to danger.

Early on the 9th of January it was extremely foggy. On this account a boat was sent out to reconnoitre. The fog after some time cleared away a little, and we found ourselves so near the wharves that we immediately touched one of the piers, and landed about half past eight. We had travelled four hundred and fifty miles from Montgomery. The journey by land amounts only to two hundred and fifty-eight miles, and yet is seldom performed, on account of the want of good roads and accommodation. Being arrived at Mobile and extremely glad at having left our wretched steam-boat, in which we had enjoyed no comfort, we took up our residence in Smooth’s Hotel, a  II.39 wooden building, the bar-room of which is at the same time the post-office, and therefore somewhat lively.

Mobile, an ancient Spanish town, yet still earlier occupied by the French, was ceded with Louisiana, in 1803, to the United States. The few respectable creole families, who had formerly dwelt here, left the place at the cession, and withdrew to the island of Cuba, and none but those of the lower classes remained behind. A new population was formed of the North Americans, who came here to make money. From this cause, the French as well as the Spanish language remains only among the lower classes; the better society is thoroughly American. Mobile contains five thousand inhabitants, of both complexions, of which about one thousand may be blacks. The town lies on the right bank of the Florida river, where it is divided into several arms, and has formed Mobile bay, which, thirty miles below, joins the Mexican gulf. It is regularly built, the streets are at right angles, part of them parallel with the river, the rest perpendicular to it. Along the shore is a wooden quay, and wooden piers or landing bridges project into the water, for the convenience of vessels. There are lying here about thirty ships, of which several are of four hundred tons, to be loaded with cotton. The most of them are from New York. When the ebb tide draws off the water, a quantity of filth remains uncovered on the shore, and poisons the atmosphere. This circumstance may contribute its agency to the unhealthiness of the place in summer. The shore opposite the harbour is marshy and full of cane. The town lies upon a poor sandy soil; the streets are not paved, and unpleasant from the depth of the sand. On both sides of the streets there are paths made of strong plank, which divide the walk from the cartway of the street, which will be converted into pavements when brick or stone shall have become cheaper.

The generality of the houses are of wood, covered with shingles, and have piazzas. Some new houses only, are built of brick. This article must be imported, and is not to be procured in large quantities of any quality. As an example of this, I saw a house finished, of which the two first stories were of red brick, and the third of yellow. There are also here some Spanish houses which consist of timber frames, of which the open spaces are filled up with beaten clay, like those of the German peasantry. Besides several private houses, most of the public buildings are of brick. These are, a theatre, which, besides the pit, has a row of boxes and a gallery, the bank, the court of the United States, the county court-house, the building of which was in progress, and the prison. Near this prison stood the public whipping post for negroes. It was constructed like a sash frame. The lower board on which the feet of the unfortunate II.40 being were to stand, could be pushed up or down, to accommodate the height of the individual. Upon it is a block, through which the legs are passed. The neck and arms are passed through another.

The Catholic church here is in a very miserable situation. I went into it, just at the time the church seats were publicly rented for the year to the highest bidders; two in my presence were disposed of for nineteen dollars a piece. The church within resembles a barn, it had a high altar with vessels of tin, and a picture of no value, also two little side altars.

A large cotton warehouse, of all the buildings in Mobile, most excited my attention. This consists of a square yard, surrounded on three sides by massive arcades, where the cotton bales coming from the country are brought in, and preparatory to their shipment are again pressed, that they may occupy as little room as possible in the vessel. The bales were arranged on a layer of thick plank, between which there is room allowed to pass the ropes through. Above the bales, which are placed between four strong iron vices, is a cover, in which there is room left for the ropes as below. These covers have four apertures, with female screws, through which the vices pass. On every screw there is a face wheel. All these four face wheels are driven by a crown wheel, which is put in motion by a horse. The covers are thus screwed down on the bales, and their bulk reduced one-third. During the pressure, the negro labourers have drawn the ropes through the groves between the planks and fastened the bales with little difficulty. This warehouse or magazine has two such presses. It occupies three sides of the yard, the fourth contains a handsome dwelling house. The whole is built of brick, and has an iron verandah. It belongs to speculators in New Orleans, and is known by the name of the “fire proof magazine,” although the interior is of wood.

The weather was very fine, and as warm as we have it in summer: I felt it very much in walking, and most of the doors and windows in the houses stood open. On this account I seated myself in the piazza before the house. A number of Choctaw Indians, who led a wandering life in the woods around the town, went about the streets selling wood, which they carried in small billets, bound on their backs. They are of a darker colour, and, if possible, still dirtier than the Creeks, they wrap themselves also in blankets, and most of them wore round hats trimmed with tin rings and pieces of tin. I walked through the streets of the place, which contains several large stores, to all appearance well stocked. In these excursions I found an old Brunswicker, named Thomas, who kept a grog-shop here, and who showed me a young alligator, an ugly animal, at most three months old. It was II.41 about eight inches long, and was preserved in a tub of water, in which it was daily supplied with fresh grass. When it was taken out of the water and placed on the sand, it ran about with much alacrity. Its head was disproportionately large, and it had already double rows of sharp teeth.

In the afternoon we saw a volunteer company, of about twenty and upwards strong, pretty well equipped, turn out to celebrate the anniversary of the battle of New Orleans, the eighth of January, 1815. On the preceding day, being Sunday, this festival was not commemorated. They had erected a platform on an open spot of ground, and brought there three old iron pieces, with which a national salute of twenty-four guns was fired. Colonel Wool had many acquaintances and countrymen here, from the north, to whom he introduced me. Conversation, therefore, did not fail us, though many comforts of life are withheld for a period. Thus, for example, I was deprived of milk so long as I was in the Indian territory, as the cattle were driven into the woods during the winter, to support themselves.

I made an attempt to pass round the town, but was prevented on one side by woods, and on the other, by ditches and marshes, so that I found myself limited in my promenade to the streets. These, however, I measured to my heart’s content. There was nothing new to me but some fruit shops, in which were excellent oranges from Cuba, at six cents a piece, large pine apples, much larger than the finest I had seen in England, also from Cuba, at forty-two and three-quarter cents a piece, thus much dearer than in Charleston, where they cost but twelve and a half cents a piece, besides bananas and cocoa nuts in abundance.

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CHAPTER XVIII.

Travels to Pensacola.

Colonel Wool was obliged to go to Pensacola, in pursuance of his duty of inspection. I determined to accompany him with Mr. Huygens, as Pensacola was interesting to me as a military man. Mr. Bowdoin felt himself unwell, and was tired of travelling. He remained, therefore, in Mobile, with the intention of going to New Orleans by the first opportunity.

On the 10th of January, we left Mobile in the steam-boat Emeline. This vessel goes daily from Blakely, which lies on the left shore of the bay, to Mobile, and back again. The II.42 distance amounts, in a straight line, to about twelve miles; some marshy islands covered with cane and shallows, lengthen the passage to fourteen miles. The Emeline, Captain Fowler, is the smallest steam-boat that I ever saw. She is only of thirty-two tons burthen, is built of planks, which are laid over each other without ribs, like a skiff, and the engine, a low pressure, has only eight horse-power. The boat belongs to the captain, and, with its engine, was constructed in New York. When it left that city to sail for Mobile, no insurance company would undertake to underwrite it, and Mr. Fowler was compelled to come on his individual risk. His capital embarked in it, will, nevertheless, produce a very good profit. Yet the smallest steam-boats which navigate the Florida and Alabama rivers, are insured. Some are too old and rotten for any company to insure, especially as the navigation on these rivers is so dangerous, that the few good vessels must give one per cent. monthly, as a premium.

From the water side, Mobile, with its ships in harbour, has a pretty appearance. We had also a handsome view of Mobile Bay, in which we counted nine ships of various sizes stretching in. A number of wild ducks flew about among the islands. In two hours we crossed the bay, and landed at five o’clock in the evening at Blakely.

This place has a very good situation, on rather an elevated bank, in a grove nearly composed of live oaks, of which some are full twenty feet in circumference. A bushy kind of palm tree grows here which is called Spanish bayonet, which appears to partake of the nature of the macaw trees. Blakely was founded in the year 1816, by a Mr. Blakely, dead about five years since, and then sold to various speculators. This place was established to injure Mobile, and to draw the commerce of that place away from it. The design has, however, failed of success. Mobile is superior in capital, and Blakely has injured itself alone. Upon the shore stand two large wooden buildings in ruins, the smallest part of them only is rented, and used as stores. On the eminence behind these buildings are placed about twenty wooden houses, of which the largest is the only tavern, and it is really a respectable one. We took our lodging there. The houses are very neatly built, with projecting roofs and piazzas, and surrounded with gardens. Some, however, are deserted, and exhibit the decay of the place. A large wooden edifice two stories high, provided with a cupola, was originally intended for an academy; from the want of scholars, this academy has never been in operation, the building therefore is used as a place of worship, and as a court-house. The number of inhabitants cannot exceed two hundred.

II.43

During our ramble it had become dark; the moon was in her first quarter. The air was as warm as in a fine May evening in Germany. All was pleasant and cheerful, and only our recollection that this handsome country was poisonous in summer, produced a discord with the scene. In the evening I sat and wrote in one of the rooms of the tavern with open doors and windows, and heard the sparrow chirp as if it were summer. I had noticed very few sweet orange trees in this part of the country, and the few which I saw were small and young. As I manifested my surprise, the reason was given, that the numerous orange trees which formerly were here, had been all killed in the winter of 1821-22, by a four day’s frost.

Before we commenced our journey the next morning, I found in the earth several pieces of petrified live oak. The mineral riches of this district are not yet explored. I imagine, that a mineralogist, who should here prosecute his researches, might reap a rich harvest.

We hired a two-horse barouche, which was to carry us to Pensacola, sixty-five miles distant from Blakely. In this, we departed about ten o’clock in the morning, well stocked with plenty of provision, which, in this country, so destitute of inns, was considered as a necessary supply. Close to Blakely we ascended a hill, which afforded us a very beautiful view of the town, the bay of Mobile, and of a valley watered by a stream, with the richest prospect of vegetation I ever beheld. The grove before us was full of magnolias of all sizes, of laurels, and an evergreen bush that was called the water oak; and among them all, the most splendid live oaks. Unfortunately this lovely country did not reach very far. Scarcely a short mile from Blakely, the good soil ceased, and the wearisome sand and long-leaved pines began once more. We advanced but thirty miles during the day; a delicious warm state of the weather, however, cheered us. At first we found several plantations which the inhabitants of Blakely, in somewhat easy circumstances, resorted to during the summer, when the yellow fever occupied that place. On some of these plantations, the dry rice, (so called from the fields which produce it lying so high that they cannot be overflowed,) is cultivated. This rice is little inferior to the swamp rice of South Carolina, and will yield fifty bushels to the acre. I regaled myself with the melody of several birds, of which most were robins, birds of passage, which live through the winter in these southern countries, and in the spring, approach the north, there to announce it. I saw also several cranes. To complete the illusion, that it was summer, a number of frogs lent their aid, and croaked loudly from the marshes.

II.44

We halted at noon, in a shady place, near a clear brook, and dispatched a part of our provisions, seated on a dry green turf. For the first time in my life, a shade in January was a desirable object. The night overtook us before we reached our lodgings for the night, which we intended to take up at a place called Belle Fontaine. The road was hardly discernible, for it was so little travelled, that grass grew in the tracks, and the stumps of trees were as difficult to avoid, as they were frequent. We risked oversetting more than once. To avoid such an accident, we determined to proceed on foot. We took in this way, a walk of at least six miles, in an unbroken pine forest, inhabited by bears, wolves, and even panthers. At first we had the light of the moon; about nine o’clock it went down, and we had considerable difficulty to keep the road. As the dwellings were scattering from each other, we imitated the barking of dogs, to give them an opportunity to answer in the same language. This succeeded; we heard dogs bark, moved in the direction whence the sound came, and reached about ten o’clock, the desired Belle Fontaine, a log house with two rooms, or cabins, and a cleared opening before it. A man of rather unpromising appearance, the landlord, Mr. Pollard, admitted us, and took charge of our horses. His wife, a pale, sickly looking being, who hardly returned an answer to our questions, was obliged to rise from her bed, to prepare us a supper and sleeping-room. The whole establishment had at first, the look of a harbour for robbers, but there was well roasted venison prepared for us, on a neat table, and tolerable coffee, for which we had, luckily, brought sugar along with us. It was really comfortable, though our chamber remained open the whole night, as there was no door, and only two beds were furnished.

The 12th of January we left our quarters at seven in the morning, and travelled thirty-two miles to Pensacola. Twelve miles from Belle Fontaine brought us to a stand at the Perdido, where we breakfasted at a plantation, situated on the right bank of the river. This stream forms the boundary between Alabama and the territory of Florida, which does not yet contain inhabitants sufficient to entitle it to a reception among the states of the Union. The river is small, its banks sandy, and we crossed it in a poor ferry-boat. On the banks, as generally through the whole of that district, I saw many bushy palms, here called palmattoes. The soil on the whole, was as bad as that we saw yesterday, the growth was pine; there is fresh vegetation only about the springs. The air grew still warmer, we saw a few butterflies. As we approached Pensacola, the pines ceased, and we moved through dwarf oaks. The soil was a deep sand; we passed by a marsh full of water oaks.

II.45

Pensacola, which we reached about five o’clock, lies upon a bay of the ocean. It is an ancient Spanish town, and was surrendered by Spain with all Florida, to the United States in 1821. It contains about one thousand inhabitants. We lodged ourselves in Collins’s Hotel, and went, immediately on our arrival, to walk about the town. It is the most miserable place that I have beheld since I crossed the Atlantic. Such Spaniards as possessed any property have left this place, when it was ceded to the United States, and have moved off either to New Orleans, or the island of Cuba. Only the poorest of them have remained. Since that time, the Americans settled here, have, as at Mobile, created a new population. The deepest sand covers the unpaved streets, which are broad, and regularly laid out. Only a few new houses are of brick, they are mostly of wood, and stand at a considerable distance from each other. There is not a single ship in the port. A new market-house of brick is building upon the shore, and not far from it stands the wooden catholic church, the outside of which appears in a forlorn condition. Near the church are the ruins of an old English barrack, which was burnt about four years ago; its two wings were covered by two block houses of logs, which are standing, one of which serves for a custom-house. About the town several block houses have stood, which formerly afforded a good protection against the Seminole Indians, the original inhabitants of this section of country.

In the evening of this day, and on the next morning we received visits from several officers, from Colonel Clinch, commandant of the 4th regiment of infantry, who was posted here with Major Wright and others. Captain Campbell of the Marine Corps, who had the command of the new navy-yard, that was to be established here: some supplies had arrived, and were put in store at Fort Barrancas. As we wished to see this fort, the gentlemen were so polite as to accommodate us with their boats.

I went with Colonel Wool in Captain Campbell’s boat. We had a favourable wind, and spreading two sails we reached fort Barrancas, nine miles by sea from Pensacola, in an hour. On the way we saw a flock of sixteen pelicans. On account of the point of land stretching into the bay, we had to make a circuit; it was called Tartar point, and the new navy-yard is to be upon it. It is thought that it will be commenced in two months. The country about Pensacola and the shores of the bay are the most disagreeable that can be conceived of; nothing but sand heaps dazzling-white like snow. In the bay lies a level island, St. Rosa, with a growth of dwarf oaks. On it had been erected a fort, which was blown up by the English, when they occupied Pensacola in the year 1814, to support the Creek Indians then at war with the United States, and were compelled to evacuate it II.46 by General Jackson. The English blew up also a part of Fort Barrancas at the same time, but the Spaniards have reinstated it, although on a smaller scale; thus it remains at present.

The cannon are of brass, English and Spanish. Among the latter I observed two very fine twenty-four pounders, cast in Seville. Nothing can be more unhandy than the Spanish gun-carriages, they have wheels, which at the outside measure four feet in diameter.

In the gorge of the works, there is a large bomb-proof casemate, and in the yard a furnace for red-hot shot. The whole of the work is built of sand, therefore the wall outside, and the parapet inside, are covered with upright planks, and the cheeks of the embrazures in the same manner. The Spanish cannon, also mounted on the clumsiest carriages, are placed in battery. The fort was temporarily given up to the marines, who employed the casemates and block houses for magazines, till the requisite preparations could be made in the navy-yard. At that period, the fort will be dismantled, and in its place a respectable fortress will be erected to defend this important point.

It is of the highest consequence to the United States, to have an extensive maritime and military position on the Mexican gulf, on account of the increasing power of the new South American Republics. Nevertheless, Pensacola can only be of secondary ability to fill such a station, since the sand bank lying in the mouth of the bay, has only twenty-two feet upon it at high water; and necessarily, is too shallow for ships of the line, or even American frigates of the first class. Besides, upon the whole coast of the Gulf of Mexico, there is but one single bay, (and this is situated southward of La Vera Cruz,) in which armed ships of the line can pass in and out. The pieces of ordnance placed upon the walls, as well as some forty lying upon the beach, half covered with sand, of old Spanish and English cannon, are, as is said, perfectly unserviceable.

Outside of the fort, about two hundred paces distant from it, along the sea-coast, stands a light house built of brick, about eighty feet high, in which twenty lamps in divisions of five, constantly turn upon an axis in a horizontal movement during the night. They are set in motion by clock-work, and were prepared in Roxbury, near Boston. I saw the model in the patent office at Washington. The lamps are all furnished with plated reflectors, and are fed with spermaceti oil. The land about the fort is for the most part sandy, and produces only pines naturally, these however have been rooted out, and dwarf oaks and palmettoes have since sprouted out.

I have mentioned General Jackson above, and surmised that he had driven the English out of Pensacola. I add to this II.47 remark the following: the Seminoles, as it is asserted, manifestly stirred up by the English, without the least provocation, commenced a war against the United States, in the year 1818. General Jackson defeated them, and directed the two Englishmen, Arbuthnot and Ambrister, who had sold weapons and ammunition to the Indians, as well as stimulated them to war against the United States, to be hanged. After this, he attacked Pensacola and the Barrancas, where the Indians were sheltered and protected by the Spanish authorities. The town of Pensacola was poorly fortified and soon mastered. General Jackson then opened a cannonade of two pieces of artillery on Fort Barrancas. The Spanish governor hid himself under the steps of the coast battery, and surrendered the fort, since by the agreeing statement of two captains, the garrison refused to fight, (consisting of three companies of the Spanish regiment of Louisiana,) because they had not received their pay for some time. “Audacibus fortuna juvat!”

On the 14th of January I took a walk in front of the town to view the former fortifications of this place. These works owe their foundation to the English. England, indeed avowedly possessed this country, West Florida, from 1763 to 1783; at the treaty of Versailles, it was fully given up to Spain, after it had been conquered by Don Galvez, then governor of Louisiana, who afterwards was Viceroy of Mexico. The best defence of Pensacola consists in the marshes which surround it. Beyond the marshes lie undistinguishable sand hillocks, which were occupied by forts. A thousand paces in front of the town, to the left of the road leading to Mobile, lies a fort.

The form of this fort, I made out from the remains grown over with bushes. Behind it was open, and there are still the ruins of a bomb-proof powder magazine, built of brick, which the English blew up in 1814. It appeared partly covered with timber. A thousand paces farther to the left, are the ruins of another somewhat larger fort, upon another small eminence so disposed as to command the interior of the first. It appears to have been calculated for from four to five hundred men, while the first could only shelter two hundred. The ramparts of both are composed merely of sand, and the high bushes of various species, which flourish to a remarkable degree on the ruins, exhibit the productive force of the climate. The soil around the forts, also consisting of sand only, yields palmettoes and dwarf oaks. I had remarked the same soil upon the land side of Fort Barrancas, and besides cactus, some of which grew in a screw-like form through the bricks, many of them in the driest sand. In 1782, a handful of Waldeckers, then in English pay, defended these works against fifteen thousand Spaniards, and in the absence of an English II.48 engineer, the captain there, and the present Lieutenant-General Heldring, of the Netherlands, discharged that duty.

Colonel Walton, secretary of state of Florida, who had just returned in a vessel from Talahasse, told me so much of the beautiful situation, and delicious country about that town, only laid out within a year, as well as of the interior of Florida, with its rising and falling springs and lakes, the discharge of which no one was acquainted with, that I was sorry I could not visit that place, to which the fourth regiment had marked out a road. Thirty miles from Talahasse, Prince Achille Murat, in company with the former colonel, now Mr. Gadsden, purchased much land, on which he will cultivate maize, cotton and sugar. M. Murat must be a young man of great spirit. It is, however, charged against him, that he has addicted himself to a low familiar behaviour, in which he appears to wish to excel; that he chews tobacco constantly, &c.

I paid a visit to the catholic clergyman of this place, Abbé Mainhout, a native of Waerschot, in East Flanders. The Abbé came in 1817, with the bishop of Louisiana, Mr. Dubourg, as a missionary to the United States. This excellent man does very little credit to the climate, he is now just recovering from a severe fit of sickness. He is universally esteemed and loved on account of his exemplary conduct and learning: and as he is the only clergyman in the place, the inhabitants of whatever persuasion they may be, resort to his church. He was pleased with my visit, particularly, as I brought him news from his native land.

Colonel Clinch sent us his carriage, to carry us to the quarters, where Colonel Wool was to hold his inspection. Since the English barracks have been burnt, the troops have been stationed out of town in preference, from apprehension of the yellow fever. There is a large wooden barracks built in a healthy situation, on an eminence two miles from town on the road to the Barrancas, for the troops. These barracks in the phrase of this service are called cantonments, this one, after the colonel, is named cantonment Clinch. It consists of ten log-houses built in a row, under one roof. Each house is for a company, and contains two rooms. Before this long range of barracks, is a large parade, with a flag staff. Opposite to this are the officers quarters. The officers of each company have a house, which stands opposite to the barrack of their own soldiers. Behind the long building for the men, is the range of kitchens; behind this is the guard house and prisoners room, and still farther back in the woods, the etcetera. On the right wing is the colonel’s house, placed in a garden surrounded by a palisade. The house is built II.49 of wood, two stories high, and furnished with a piazza below, and a gallery above. Upon the left wing, stands a similar building appointed for the residence of the lieutenant colonel and major; at present, however, arranged as an hospital, as the first officer commands in Tampa Bay, and the major in Fort Mitchel. The cantonment has its front towards the bay; at the foot of the eminence on which it stands, is a bayou, and the appearance is really handsome. The colonel has only two officers and about twenty men, with the regimental surgeon, so that the inspection was soon completed.

After dinner we returned to the town, and passed the evening in a very pleasant party at Mr. Walton’s, which was given from politeness to me. I found here several Creole ladies of the place, who spoke bad French, but looked very well, and were dressed with taste. Conversation was our only amusement, but this was animated and well supported.

On the 15th of January we left Pensacola, at eight o’clock in the morning, to return to Mobile by the same way we came. We encountered a skunk, something larger than a cat, with a thick, hairy, and erect tail. This creature cannot run with agility, and we could easily have caught it. We, however, suffered it to go quietly to its hole, as it scatters its effluvium when disturbed, and if the least piece of clothing be touched by it, it must be thrown away entirely, as there is no method of freeing it from the detestable smell. If a dog is sprinkled by it he become almost sick, whines, and throws himself about for some time on the earth. We passed also two wolf-traps, resembling our rat-traps, but of course constructed on a larger scale.

We made a short stay at the house on Perdido river. We met with a planter from the banks of the Alabama, who had come here to take back one of his negroes, whom he had hired before to the mistress of this house and ferry. He had treated the poor creature with such barbarity, that the negro not far from the house had threatened him with the knife, and had ran back. The man had put us across the river, but as soon as he saw his master, he ran away quickly, and was no more to be seen. The gentleman asked us to assist him in arresting and detaining his negro, but we unanimously rejected his proposal with disgust. Some days before, the negro had pleased me much by his lively and agreeable disposition, while his master and tormentor appeared to me, in every respect, highly the reverse.

About five o’clock in the afternoon we reached the same log-house in which we had passed the night, near Belle Fontaine. As it was still daylight, I went immediately in search of the spring to which this place owes its name; I found, however, only a marsh with several springs, about which, except the vegetation, II.50 there was nothing attractive. The landlord was not at home, and the whole domestic management rested on the poor pale wife, who had five children to take care of, and expected a sixth soon. She had for an assistant a single little negro wench, who was soon sent away, so the poor woman had every thing to provide; yet she set before us an excellent supper.

Towards morning, I was roused out of my uneasy slumbers by a powerful uproar. It was caused by cranes that flew over the house. At eight o’clock in the morning we left Belle Fontaine and travelled back to Blakely, where we arrived before five o’clock in the evening, and took possession of our former quarters. Through the whole passage back, not the least thing occurred worthy of remark. A good road could be made at little expense between Blakely and Pensacola, at least the numerous large trees, which after violent storms have fallen transversely over the road and shut it up, might be cleared away. One is obliged often to make a considerable circuit on account of these trees.

On the following morning at ten o’clock, we embarked once more on board the steam-boat Emeline, and in very fine, though cold weather, reached Mobile at twelve o’clock. We found Mr. Bowdoin confined to his bed, with the gout in both legs. We immediately betook ourselves to the harbour. During our absence, the packet schooner Emblem, Captain Vincent, from New Orleans, had arrived here, and designed returning to that city. The captain had heard of us, and remained some time to take us along. His vessel stood in very high repute, as well for her sailing, as on account of accommodation and cleanliness. We agreed for the passage at fifteen dollars for each person. The vessel would have sailed exactly on this day, but as the captain had understood that we were desirous of seeing the new fort on Mobile point, which was built thirty miles from Mobile, he was so polite as to postpone his voyage till the next morning, to allow us to see the fort by daylight.

Of course, we had some time on our hands. We took a walk in the woods situated behind the town, which is composed of pines, and some evergreen bushes. It is also the great burial-ground, which is thickly filled up by the agency of the yellow fever, and the sickly climate. Several Choctaw Indians bivouacked here, like gypsies; the men lay drunk upon the earth, and their miserable women were obliged to carry the bundles of wood to town for sale.

To my great astonishment, I learned that there were gambling-houses even here, kept by Frenchmen, and that each in the city paid a yearly tax of one thousand dollars for a license. I was told that respectable merchants were in the habit of going there II.51 to have an eye over their clerks, and also to observe what mechanics, or other small tradesmen, played here, to stop giving credit to such as haunted the resorts of these gentry. I was taken to two of these gambling-houses, which are united with coffee-houses, to see how they were conducted. In one of them were two roulette tables, in two separate rooms, in the other, which was smaller, one roulette and one pharo table. There was betted here silver and paper, but not more than twenty dollars bank notes, and most of them did not bet more than a dollar a time. A couple of young fellows lost all that they had, and behaved very indecently when they were stripped of their money. Several of the better sort appeared to be country people, who had brought their corn and cotton to market, and only played off their profits. At one of the tables sat some common sailors, half drunk. We found rather low company collected in both houses, and our curiosity was soon satisfied. It is to be hoped, that the legislature of Alabama will prohibit such houses. They are, on the whole, very good places for recruiting the army and navy!

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CHAPTER XIX.

Journey to New Orleans, and Residence in that City.

On the 18th of January, we embarked in the schooner Emblem, whose cabin was proportioned to her tonnage, (which was but fifty tons,) but comfortably high, and well ornamented. The sides were of mahogany and maple; on each side were two state-rooms, with two births each; the back part of the cabin, being something higher than the forward part, contained a birth on each side. Of these, the starboard was occupied by Mr. Bowdoin, the other by myself.

The shores of Mobile Bay, which is very wide, are low and overgrown with wood, before us lay a long island, called Isle Dauphine, by the unfortunate Delasalle, who discovered it. Mobile point lies to the left, where, after sunset, we beheld the light in the light-house. There stood on this point in the late war a small fort, called Fort Bowyer, which the present Lieutenant-Colonel, then Major Lawrence, gallantly defended, with a garrison of one hundred and thirty men, against eight hundred disembarked English sailors and Seminole Indians, under Major Nichols. The assailants were defeated, after their ordnance was dismounted, with considerable loss, and the English corvette II.52 Hermes, which covered the attack, was blown up by the well-directed fire of the fort. In February, 1815, this brave officer found himself obliged to yield to superior force, and to capitulate to Admiral Cockburn, who was on his return from the unsuccessful expedition to New Orleans. This was the last act of hostility that occurred during that war. Fort Bowyer is since demolished, and in its stead a more extensive fortress is erecting, which we would willingly have inspected, had the wind been more favourable, and brought us there earlier. We steered between Mobile Point and Dauphin Island, so as to reach the Mexican gulf, and turning then to the right, southward of the Sandy Islands, which laid along the coast, sailed towards Lake Borgne. Scarcely were we at sea, when a strong wind rose from the west, which blew directly against us. We struggled nearly the whole night to beat to windward, but in vain. The wind changed to a gale, with rain, thunder, and lightning. The main-topmast was carried away, and fell on deck. The mate was injured by the helm striking him in the side, and was for a time unfit for duty. On account of the great bustle on deck, the passengers could hardly close an eye all night. The motion of the vessel was violent, on account of her small size. A falling block broke out several of the panes in the sky-light of the cabin, so that the rain was admitted, and the furniture was tossed about by the rolling.

On the morning of the 19th of January, we were driven back to the strait between Dauphin Island and Mobile Point, and the anchor was dropt to prevent farther drifting. I was sea-sick, but had the consolation that several passengers shared my misfortune. The whole day continued disagreeable, cold, and cloudy. As we lay not far from Dauphin Island, several of our company went on shore, and brought back a few thrushes which they had shot. I was too unwell to feel any desire of visiting this inhospitable island, a mere strip of sand, bearing nothing but everlasting pines. Upon it, stands some remains of an old entrenchment and barrack. Besides the custom-house officers, only three families live on the whole island. We saw the light-house, and the houses at Mobile Point, not far from us. I wished to have gone there to see the fortification lately commenced, but it was too far to go on a rough sea in a skiff.

On the 20th of January, the wind was more favourable; it blew from the north-east, and dispersed the clouds, and we set sail. After several delays, caused by striking on sand-banks, we proceeded with a favourable wind, passed Dauphin Island and the islands Petit Bois, Massacre, Horn, and Ship Island.

These islands consist of high sand-hills, some of them covered with pine, and remind one strongly of the coasts of Holland and II.53 Flanders. Behind Horn and Massacre Islands lies a bay, which is called Pascagoula, from a river rising in the state of Mississippi, and emptying here into the sea. Ship Island is about nine miles long, and it was here that the English fleet which transported the troops sent on the expedition against New Orleans, remained during the months of December and January, 1814-15. At a considerable distance from us to the left, were some scattered islands, called Les Malheureux. Behind these were the islands De la Chandeleur, and still farther La Clef du Francmaçon. Afterwards we passed a muddy shallow, upon which, luckily, we did not stick fast, and arrived in the gulf Lac Borgne, which connects itself with Lake Ponchartrain, lying back of it, by two communications, each above a mile broad; of which one is called Chef Menteur, and the other the Rigolets. Both are guarded by forts, the first by the fort of Chef Menteur, the other by that of the Petites Coquilles, so called because it is built on a foundation of muscle shells, and its walls are composed of a cement of the same. We took this last direction, and passed the Rigolets in the night, with a fair wind. Night had already fallen when we reached Lake Borgne. After we had passed the Rigolets, we arrived in Lake Ponchartrain, then turned left from the light-house of Fort St. John, which protects the entrance of the bayou of the same name, leading to New Orleans.

I awoke on the 21st of January, as we entered the bayou St. John. This water is so broad, that we could not see the northern shore. We remained at the entrance one hour, to give the sailors a short rest, who had worked the whole night, and whose duty it was now to tow the vessel to the city, six miles distant. This fort, which has lost its importance since the erection of Chef Menteur, and Petites Coquilles, is abandoned, and a tavern is now building in its place. It lies about five hundred paces distant from the sea, but on account of the marshy banks cannot be thence attacked without great difficulty. The bank is covered with thick beams, to make it hold firm, which covering in this hot and damp climate perishes very quickly. The causeway which runs along the bayou, is of made earth on a foundation of timber. Behind the fort is a public house, called Ponchartrain Hotel, which is much frequented by persons from the city during summer. I recognized the darling amusements of the inhabitants, in a pharo and roulette table.

As the passage hence to the city is very tedious in stages, we proposed to hire a carriage, but there was none to be found; six dollars was asked for a boat; we therefore, decided to go on foot. The Colonel, Mr. Huygens, Mr. Egbert, Mr. Chew, and myself made up this walking party. The morning was beautiful spring weather; we passed through a shocking marshy country, along II.54 the right side of the bayou. The woods were hanging full of the hateful Spanish moss, and a number of palmettoes were the only variety afforded. The causeway was very muddy; there were good wooden bridges over little ditches, which conveyed the water from the surrounding marshes into the bayou.

After we had proceeded three miles in this manner, we came into a cultivated district, passed a sort of gate, and found ourselves quite in another world. Plantations, with handsome buildings, followed in quick succession; noble live oaks, which had been trimmed to regular shapes, young orange trees, pride of China, and other tropical trees and bushes, along the road. Several inns and public gardens were exhibited, for a population that willingly seeks amusement. We noticed several mansion-houses, ornamented with columns, piazzas, and covered galleries; some of these were of ancient style in building. It was naturally agreeable to me, after wandering a long time in mere wildernesses, once more to come into a long civilized country. We saw from afar, the white spires of the cathedral of New Orleans, also the masts of the ships lying in the Mississippi. The bayou unites itself, three miles from this city, with a canal leading thither, which we passed upon a turning bridge, to strike into the city by a nearer way.

This road carried us between well-built mansions, and over the streets were hung reflecting lamps. The first view of the city, as we reached, without knowing it, was really not handsome; for we came into the oldest section, which consisted only of little one-story houses, with mud walls, and wide projecting roofs. On the whole, the streets are regularly laid out, part parallel with the river, the rest perpendicular to it. The ancient town was surrounded by a wall, which is destroyed, in its room there is a boulevard laid out, called Rue de Remparts. Next to the old town below, lies the suburb Marigny, and above, that of St. Mary; then begins the most elegant part of the city.

Before we searched for lodgings, we looked about a little through the city, and went first to the Mississippi, to pay our homage to this “father of rivers.” It is about half a mile wide, and must be above eighty fathoms deep; it is separated from the city by a compost of muscle shells. This causeway defends it from inundations. There are no wharves, they cannot be fixed, as the river would sweep them away. The ships lay four and five deep, in tiers along the bank, as in the Thames, at London. Below them, were ten very large steam-boats, employed in the river trade. In a line with the bank stood houses, which were two or three stories high, and built of brick, also ancient massive Spanish houses, known by their heavy, solid style, and mostly white. We passed by a square, of which the river formed one II.55 side, opposite stood the cathedral, and on each side of it, a massive public edifice, with arcades. Along the bank stood the market-houses, built of brick, modelled after the Propylæa, in Athens, and divided into separate blocks. We saw in these, fine pine-apples, oranges, bananas, peccan-nuts, cocoa-nuts, and vegetables of different descriptions; also several shops, in which coffee and oysters were sold. The black population appeared very large; we were informed, that above one-half of the inhabitants, forty-five thousand in number, were of the darker colour. The custom-house on the Levée, is a pretty building.

We met a merchant, Mr. Ogden, partner of Mr. William Nott, to whose house I had letters, who had the politeness to take charge of us, and assist us in our search for lodgings. We obtained tolerable quarters in the boarding house of Madame Herries, Rue de Chartres. The first person I encountered in this house, was Count Vidua, with whom I had become acquainted in New York, and who since had travelled through Canada, the western country, and down the Ohio and Mississippi.

My first excursion was to visit Mr. Grymes, who here inhabits a large, massive, and splendidly furnished house. I found only Mrs. Grymes at home, who after an exceedingly fatiguing journey arrived here, and in fourteen days after had given birth to a fine son. I found two elegantly arranged rooms prepared for me, but I did not accept this hospitable invitation. After some time Mr. Grymes came home, and accompanied me back to my lodgings. As our schooner had not yet arrived, we went to meet it and found it in the canal, a mile and a half from town, where two cotton boats blocked up the way. We had our baggage put into the skiff, and came with it into the basin, where the canal terminates.

In the evening we paid our visit to the governor of the state of Louisiana, Mr. Johnson, but did not find him at home. After this we went to several coffee-houses, where the lower class amused themselves, hearing a workman singing in Spanish, which he accompanied with the guitar. Mr. Grymes took me to the masked ball, which is held every evening during the carnival at the French theatre. The saloon in which they danced, was quite long, well planned, and adorned with large mirrors. Round it were three rows of benches amphitheatrically arranged. There were few masks, only a few dominos, none in character. Cotillions and waltzes were the dances performed. The dress of the ladies I observed to be very elegant, but understood that most of those dancing did not belong to the better class of society. There were several adjoining rooms open, in which there is a supper when subscription balls are given. In the ground floor of the building are rooms, in which pharo and II.56 roulette are played. These places were obscure, and resembled caverns: the company playing there appeared from their dress, not to be of the best description.

Next day, we made new acquaintances, and renewed some old ones. I remained in this city several weeks, for I was obliged to give up my plan of visiting Mexico, as no stranger was allowed to go to that country who was not a subject of such states as had recognized the new government. There were too many obstacles in my way, and therefore I determined to wait in New Orleans for the mild season, and then to ascend the Mississippi. The result was an extensive acquaintance, a succession of visits, a certain conformity in living, from which one cannot refrain yielding to in a city. No day passed over this winter which did not produce something pleasant or interesting, each day however, was nearly the same as its predecessors. Dinners, evening parties, plays, masquerades, and other amusements followed close on each other, and were interrupted only by the little circumstances which accompany life in this hemisphere, as well as in the other.

The cathedral in New Orleans is built in a dull and heavy style of architecture externally, with a gable on which a tower and two lateral cupolas are erected. The façade is so confused, that I cannot pretend to describe it. Within, the church resembles a village church in Flanders. The ceiling is of wood, the pillars which support it, and divide the nave into three aisles, are heavy, made of wood, covered with plaster: as well as the walls, they are constructed without taste. The three altars are distinguished by no remarkable ornament. Upon one of the side altars stands an ugly wax image of the virgin and child. Near the great altar is a throne for the bishop. On Sundays and holy-days, this cathedral is visited by the beau monde; except on these occasions, I found that most of the worshippers consisted only of blacks, and coloured people, the chief part of them females.

The sinking of the earth of the Levée is guarded against in a peculiar way. In Holland piles are driven in along the water for this purpose, and held together by wattling. After the dam is raised up, there are palisades of the same kind placed behind each other. Here the twigs of the palmetto are inserted in the ground close together, and their fan-like leaves form a wall, which prevents the earth from rolling down.

There are only two streets paved in the city; but all have brick side-walks. The paving stones are brought as ballast by the ships from the northern states, and sell here very high. Several side-walks are also laid with broad flag stones. In the carriage way of the streets there is a prodigious quantity of mud. After a rain it is difficult even for a carriage to pass; the walkers who II.57 wish to go from one side to the other, have a severe inconvenience before them; either they must make a long digression, to find some stones that are placed in the abyss, for the benefit of jumping over, or if they undertake to wade through, run a risk of sticking fast.

Sunday is not observed with the puritanic strictness in New Orleans, that it is in the north. The shops are open, and there is singing and guitar-playing in the streets. In New York, or Philadelphia, such proceedings would be regarded as outrageously indecent. On a Sunday we went for the first time, to the French theatre, in which a play was performed every Sunday and Thursday. The piece for this night, was the tragedy of Regulus, and two vaudevilles. The dramatic corps was merely tolerable, such as those of the small French provincial towns,II.3 where they never presume to present tragedies, or comedies of the highest class. “Regulus” was murdered; Mr. Marchand and Madame Clozel, whose husband performed the comic parts very well in the vaudevilles, alone distinguished themselves. The saloon is not very large, but well ornamented; below is the pit and parquet, a row of boxes each for four persons, and before them a balcony. The boxes are not divided by walls, but only separated by a low partition, so that the ladies can exhibit themselves conveniently. Over the first row of boxes is a second, to which the free colored people resort, who are not admitted to any other part of the theatre, and above this row is the gallery, in which slaves may go, with the permission of their masters. Behind the boxes is a lobby, where the gentlemen who do not wish to sit in a box, stand, or walk about, where they can see over the boxes. The theatre was less attended, than we had supposed it would be; and it was said, that the great shock felt in the commercial world, on account of the bankruptcy of three of the most distinguished houses, in consequence of unfortunate speculations in cotton, and the failures in Liverpool, was the cause of this desertion.

The garrison consists of two companies of infantry, of the first and fourth regiments. This has been here since the last insurrection of the negroes, and has been continued, to overawe them. In case of a serious alarm, this would prove but of little service! and what security is there against such an alarm? In Chartres street, where we dwelt, there were two establishments, which constantly revolted my feelings, to wit: shops in which negroes were purchased and sold. These unfortunate beings, of II.58 both sexes, stood or sat the whole day, in these shops, or in front of them, to exhibit themselves, and wait for purchasers. The abomination is shocking, and the barbarity and indifference, produced by the custom in white men, is indescribable.II.4

There were subscription balls given in New Orleans, to which the managers had the politeness to invite us. These balls took place twice a week, Tuesdays and Fridays, at the French theatre, where the masquerade had been, which I mentioned before. None but good society were admitted to these subscription balls; the first that we attended was not crowded, however, the generality of the ladies present were very pretty, and had a very genteel French air. The dress was extremely elegant, and after the latest Paris fashion. The ladies danced, upon the whole, excellently, and did great honour to their French teachers. Dancing, and some instruction in music, is almost the whole education of the female creoles.

Most of the gentlemen here are far behind the ladies in elegance. They did not remain long at the ball, but hasted away to the quadroon ball, so called, where they amused themselves more, and were more at their ease. This was the reason why there were more ladies than gentlemen present at the ball, and that many were obliged to form “tapestry.” When a lady is left sitting, she is said to be “bredouille.” Two cotillions and a waltz, are danced in succession, and there is hardly an interval of two or three minutes between the dances. The music was performed by negroes and coloured people, and was pretty good. The governor was also at the ball, and introduced me to several gentlemen, among others, a Frenchman, General Garrigues de Flaugeac, who, having emigrated here from St. Domingo, had married, and given the world some very handsome daughters. Several of the French families here settled, and indeed, the most respectable, were emigrants from that island, who wait for the indemnification II.59 due to them, but without any great hopes of receiving it.

Colonel Wool inspected the two companies of the first and fourth regiments, under Major Twiggs stationed here; both together made at the most, eighty men under arms. The inspection took place before the Cathedral. I admired the good order and great propriety of these companies, as well as their uniformity of march and dressing, which I had no opportunity to observe before, in the troops of the United States. There was indeed many things to be wished for; as for example, the coats of the men did not fit, and many were too short; the grey cloth pantaloons were of different shades, and much too short; no bayonet sheaths, nor gun straps; the belt intended for the bayonet sheath over that of the cartridge box: the privates had wooden flints in their guns, and none in their cartridge boxes, also no spare flints, files, screwdrivers, nor oil flasks. From the false maxim, that the second rank, if they are shorter men, cannot fire over the front, the lesser men are ranged in the first, and the taller in the second rank through the whole army of the United States, and this produces a great eye-sore. There was some manual exercise, and manœuvres in battalion training: all good. The soldiers were mostly young, handsome and strong men, well fed and healthy looking natives of the western states; there were some Germans and Irish among them. The Irish, however, since their conduct is often in nowise commendable, are no longer admitted. Governor Johnson remained during the review, which lasted above an hour or more; there were also several members of the legislature now assembling, present. I formed an acquaintance here with General La Coste, who formerly had been engaged in the Spanish service, and at present commanded a division of the Louisiana militia. Colonel Croghan also attended the review.II.5

When the review was over, the governor showed me the two extensive buildings, joining the Cathedral, with arcades, as before-mentioned. One of them is devoted to the use of the several courts of justice, and the other is the City Hall. In the first, the United States court was holding its sessions, and as it was rather cold, the judge had removed himself to the fire-place, there to have the business transacted before him. The suit in controversy related to the sale of a negro. The buyer had purchased him II.60 as a slave for life; after the bargain had been concluded, and payment made, he discovered, by the declaration of his former master, the seller, that at a certain period he was to be free. I could not remain long enough in the court, to wait for the decision.

We passed then to the City Hall. In the lower story, is the guard-house of the city guard, besides a prisonII.6 for runaways, or negroes punished by order of their masters, who are here incarcerated, and employed in all servile labours for the city; they are termed negres marrons. The masters receive a daily recompense of twenty-five cents for each imprisoned negro. Near the guard-house stands a small piece of ordnance, from which the signal tattoo is fired. After this shot, no negro can tread the streets without a pass.II.7 The upper stories of this building contains the offices and court halls of the magistrates. Part of them were ornamented very richly, as these chambers served as quarters for General La Fayette, who was here in the month of April last. Before the chambers, the whole length of the building, ran a gallery with very large windows, which being raised in summer, change the gallery into an airy balcony: an arrangement which I had remarked to exist also in the other building, where the courts of justice sat.

Hence the governor next conducted me to the old Spanish government house, in which the senators and representatives of the state of Louisiana were now assembled. The building is ancient and crazy, otherwise situated in a handsome spot on the levée, surrounded by a balcony. There is nothing more done for the repair of this building, as in a few years the legislature will be removed to Donaldsonville. The reason given for this is, that many members of the legislature are plain people, who feel embarrassed in New Orleans, and hope to be more at their ease in Donaldsonville. The office of the governor is in the yard, in a II.61 small house, where the secretary of the Spanish governor formerly had his office.

In a magazine belonging to the state, there are still several articles which belonged to the former navy-yard, and which, hereafter, are to be sent to Pensacola. Among these, I remarked brass and iron cannon of various calibres, and from different countries, English, Spanish, and French. There were some ancient ones among the French, with beautiful ornaments and inscriptions. On one was, “ultima ratio regum;” on others, the darling “liberté, egalité.” These pieces were found in the trifling fortifications that formerly surrounded the city, when the United States took possession of Louisiana, in 1803.

During the last of January, it rained uncommonly hard and steady. The streets became bottomless: holes formed in them, where carriages and carts were in constant peril of upsetting. At first it was cold; while the rain continued, there followed such an oppressive heat, that it was feared an earthquake was about to take place: it thundered and lightened also very heavily.

At the masked balls, each paid a dollar for admission. As I visited it for the second time, I observed, however, many present by free tickets, and I was told that the company was very much mixed. The unmasked ladies belonging to good society, sat in the recesses of the windows, which were higher than the saloon, and furnished with galleries. There were some masks in character, but none worthy of remark. Two quarrels took place, which commenced in the ball-room with blows, and terminated in the vestibule, with pocket-pistols and kicking, without any interruption from the police.

On the same evening, what was called a quadroon ball took place. A quadroon is the child of a mestize mother and a white father, as a mestize is the child of a mulatto mother and a white father. The quadroons are almost entirely white: from their skin no one would detect their origin; nay many of them have as fair a complexion as many of the haughty creole females. Such of them as frequent these balls are free. Formerly they were known by their black hair and eyes, but at present there are completely fair quadroon males and females. Still, however, the strongest prejudice reigns against them on account of their black blood, and the white ladies maintain, or affect to maintain, the most violent aversion towards them. Marriage between the white and coloured population is forbidden by the law of the state. As the quadroons on their part regard the negroes and mulattoes with contempt, and will not mix with them, so nothing remains for them but to be the friends, as it is termed, of the white men. The female quadroon looks upon such an engagement as a matrimonial contract, though it goes no farther II.62 than a formal contract by which the “friend” engages to pay the father or mother of the quadroon a specified sum. The quadroons both assume the name of their friends, and as I am assured preserve this engagement with as much fidelity as ladies espoused at the altar. Several of these girls have inherited property from their fathers or friends, and possess handsome fortunes. Notwithstanding this, their situation is always very humiliating. They cannot drive through the streets in a carriage, and their “friends” are forced to bring them in their own conveyances after dark to the ball: they dare not sit in the presence of white ladies, and cannot enter their apartments without especial permission. The whites have the privilege to procure these unfortunate creatures a whipping like that inflicted on slaves, upon an accusation, proved by two witnesses. Several of these females have enjoyed the benefits of as careful an education as most of the whites; they conduct themselves ordinarily with more propriety and decorum, and confer more happiness on their “friends,” than many of the white ladies to their married lords. Still, the white ladies constantly speak with the greatest contempt, and even with animosity, of these unhappy and oppressed beings. The strongest language of high nobility in the monarchies of the old world, cannot be more haughty, overweening or contemptuous towards their fellow creatures, than the expressions of the creole females with regard to the quadroons, in one of the much vaunted states of the free Union. In fact, such comparison strikes the mind of a thinking being very singularly! Many wealthy fathers, on account of the existing prejudices send daughters of this description to France, where these girls with a good education and property, find no difficulty in forming a legitimate establishment. At the quadroon ball, only coloured ladies are admitted, the men of that caste, be it understood, are shut out by the white gentlemen. To take away all semblance of vulgarity, the price of admission is fixed at two dollars, so that only persons of the better class can appear there.

As a stranger in my situation should see every thing, to acquire a knowledge of the habits, customs, opinions and prejudices of the people he is among, therefore I accepted the offer of some gentlemen who proposed to carry me to this quadroon ball. And I must avow I found it much more decent than the masked ball. The coloured ladies were under the eyes of their mothers, they were well and gracefully dressed, and conducted themselves with much propriety and modesty. Cotillions and waltzes were danced, and several of the ladies performed elegantly. I did not remain long there that I might not utterly destroy my standing in New Orleans, but returned to the masked ball and took great care not to disclose to the white ladies where I had been. I could not II.63 however refrain from making comparisons, which in no wise redounded to the advantage of the white assembly. As soon as I entered I found a state of formality.II.8

At the end of January, a contagious disorder prevailed, called the varioloid. It was said to be a species of small-pox, and was described as malignant in the highest degree. Even persons who had undergone vaccination, and those who had passed through the natural small-pox, were attacked by this disorder. The garrison lost six men, of whom two were severely marked. The garrison were placed in the barracks to preserve them from this malady. It was thought that it was imported by some negro slaves from the north. Many owners of slaves in the states of Maryland and Virginia have real—(pardon the loathsome expression, I know not how otherwise to designate the beastly idea,) stud nurseries for slaves, whence the planters of Louisiana, Mississippi, and the other southern states draw their supplies, which increase every day in price. Such a disease as the varioloid is a fit present, in return for slaves thus obtained!II.9

We paid the late governor of the state, Mr. Robinson, a visit. It gave me much pleasure to cultivate his acquaintance. Mr. Robinson is regarded with universal respect, and I met in him a highly interesting and well informed man, who converses with wit and spirit. At a dinner, given by the acting governor, I became acquainted with the former governor and militia general Villaret, as well as with Dr. Herman, from Cassel, who was employed in the navy of the United States as surgeon-general. From this dinner we went to the child’s ball, which was given in the customary ball room of the French theatre, for the benefit of the dancing master. Most of the children were quite charming, and danced very prettily: only the little girls from ten to eleven years of age, were dressed and tricked off like full grown ladies. About eight o’clock the little children left off dancing and were mostly sent home, and in their place the larger girls resumed the dance. The costume of the ladies was very elegant. To my discomfiture, however, a pair II.64 of tobacco-chewing gentlemen engaged me in conversation, from which I received such a sensation of disgust, that I was nearly in the situation of one sea-sick.

On the 1st of February, to my great sorrow, the brave Colonel Wool, who had become exceedingly dear and valuable to me, took leave. I accompanied him to his steam-boat, which departed at eleven o’clock, and gazed after him for a long time.

I paid a visit to the bishop of Louisiana, Mr. Dubourg, and was very politely received. He is a Jesuit, a native of St. Domingo, and appears to be about sixty years old. He delivers himself very well, and conversed with me concerning the disturbances in the diocese of Ghent, in the time of the Prince Broglio, in which he, as friend and counsellor of that prince, whom he accompanied in his progress through his diocese, took an active part. In his chamber, I saw a very fine portrait of Pope Pius VII. a copy of one painted by Camuccini, and given by the pope to the deceased duke of Saxe-Gotha. The bishop inhabited a quondam nunnery, the greater part of which he had assigned for, and established as a school for boys. The bishop returned my visit on the next day.

At a dinner, which Mr. Grymes gave with the greatest display of magnificence, after the second course, large folding doors opened and we beheld another dining room, in which stood a table with the dessert. We withdrew from the first table, and seated ourselves at the second, in the same order in which we had partaken of the first. As the variety of wines began to set the tongues of the guests at liberty, the ladies rose, retired to another apartment, and resorted to music for amusement. Some of the gentlemen remained with the bottle, while others, among whom I was one, followed the ladies, and regaled ourselves with harmony. We had waltzing until ten o’clock, when we went to the masquerade in the theatre of St. Phillip’s street, a small building, in which, at other times, Spanish dramas were exhibited. The female company consisted of quadroons, who, however, were masked. Several of them addressed me, and coquetted with me some time, in the most subtle and amusing manner.

A young lawyer from Paris, of the name of Souliez, paid me a visit. He was involved in unpleasant circumstances in his native country, on account of some liberal publications which he had made against the Jesuits in the newspapers. On this account, he, full of liberal ideas, had left his home, and gone to Hayti, with recommendatory letters from bishop Gregoire to President Boyer. There, however, he found the state of things widely different from what he had fancied them at home. The consequence was, he had come to the United States, and he now candidly confessed that he was completely cured of his fine dreams of liberty.

II.65

Dr. Herman gave a dinner, at which were more than twenty guests. Among them were the governor, Colonel Croghan, and several of the public characters here. Mr. Bowdoin, who was slowly recovering from his gout, and Count Vidua, were also there. Except our hostess there was no lady present. Mrs. Herman, a very beautiful young woman, was very unwell, and obliged to leave the table soon. The dinner was very splendid.

We crossed the Mississippi in a boat, like a small chest, such a boat is styled a “ferry-boat.” This was the only stated means of communication supported between the city and the right bank. Formerly there was a steam ferry-boat, and afterwards a horse-boat, but neither the one nor the other could be supported by the business. The stream is nearly three-fourths of a mile broad. Arrived on the right bank, we found a little inconsiderable place called Macdonaldville, that did not appear very thriving. Along the bank runs a levée, to protect the land from inundation. Several vessels are laid up here. The country is exceedingly level, and is composed of swampy meadows, and in the back ground, of forest, partly of live oaks, which is much concealed, however, by long ugly moss. Farther inward is a sugar plantation belonging to Baron Marigny. The river makes a remarkable bend opposite New Orleans, and the city, with its white spires, and crowds of vessels lying in the stream, looks uncommonly well from the right bank.

General Villaret invited us to dinner at his country-house, which is eight miles distant from New Orleans, and had the politeness to bring us in his carriage. At half past eleven o’clock, I went out with Count Vidua, and Mr. Huygens. The habitation, as the mansion-houses lying in a sugar plantation are termed, is upon the left bank of the Mississippi, about a short mile from the river. In December, 1814, it served the English army for head quarters. The road to it led along the levée, past country houses, which succeeded each other rapidly for five miles. Several display the comfort and good taste of their owners. The mansion-house, commonly, is situated about one hundred paces from the entrance, and an avenue of laurel trees, which are cut in a pyramidical form, and pride of China trees, leads to the door. The most of these houses are two stories high, and are surrounded with piazzas and covered galleries. Back of the elegant mansion-house stand the negro cabins, like a camp, and behind the sugar-cane fields, which extend to the marshy cypress woods about a mile back, called the cypress swamp. Among these country-houses is a nunnery of Ursulines, the inhabitants of which are employed in the education of female youth.

Five miles from the city we reached the former plantation of M‘Carthy, now belonging to Mr. Montgomery, in which General II.66 Jackson had his head quarters. About one hundred paces farther, commences the right of the line, to the defence of which this general owes his great renown. I left the carriage here, and went along the remainder of the line, at most a mile in length, with the right wing on the river, and the left resting on the cypress swamp.

The English landed in Lake Borgne, which is about three miles distant from General Villaret’s dwelling. On the 23d of December, a company of soldiers attacked this house, and took two of the general’s sons prisoners. The third of his sons escaped, and brought to General Jackson, whose head quarters were at that time in the city, the intelligence of the landing and progress of the British. Immediately the alarm guns were fired, and the general marched with the few troops and militia under his command, not two thousand in number, against the habitation of Villaret. The English had established themselves here, with the intent to attack the city directly, which was without the least protection. The general advanced along the line of the woods, and nearly surprised the English. He would probably have captured them, if he had had time to despatch a few riflemen through the generally passable cypress swamp to the right wing: and had not the night come on, and a sudden fog also prevented it. He judged it more prudent to fall back, and stationed his troops at the narrowest point between the river and the cypress swamp, while he took up his head quarters in the habitation of M‘Carthy.

There was a small ditch in front of his line, and on the next day some young men of the militia commenced, on their own motion, to throw up a little breast-work, with the spades and shovels they found in the habitation. This suggested to the general the idea of forming a line here. This line was, however, the very feeblest an engineer could have devised, that is, a strait one. There was not sufficient earth to make the breast work of the requisite height and strength, since, if the ground here was dug two feet, water flowed out. To remedy this evil in some measure, a number of cotton bales were brought from the warehouses of the city, and the breast-work was strengthened by them. Behind these bales artillery was placed, mostly ship’s cannon, and they endeavoured, by a redoubt erected on the right wing at the levée, to render it more susceptible of defence; especially as no time was to be lost, and the offensive operations of the British were daily perceptible; still the defensive preparations which General Jackson could effect were very imperfect. The English force strengthened itself constantly, they threw up batteries, widened the canal leading from Villaret’s to Lake Borgne, so as to admit their boats into the Mississippi, and covered this canal by several detached entrenchments.

II.67

A cannonade was maintained by their batteries for several days on the American line, but they could not reach it, and had several of their own pieces dismounted by the well-directed fire of the American artillery. Finally, on the 8th of January, after General Jackson had time to procure reinforcements, of which the best were the volunteer riflemen of Tennessee, who were distributed along the line, well covered by the cotton bales, and each of which had one or two men behind him, to load the rifles, the English commenced storming the line, under Sir Edward Packenham’s personal direction. The soil in front of the line consisted of perfectly level cane fields, which had been cut down, not a single tree or bush was to be found. The unfortunate Englishmen, whose force in the field was reckoned at from eight to ten thousand men, were obliged to advance without any shelter, and remain a long time, first under the fire of the well-directed cannon, afterwards under the fire of the rifles and small arms of the Americans, without being able to effect any thing in return against them. The first attack was made upon the left wing of the line. The British did not reach the ditch, but began soon to give way. Sir Edward attempted to lead them on again; a cannon-shot, however, killed his horse and wounded him in both legs. The soldiers carried him off, but he unluckily received some rifle-shots, that put an end to his life, having five balls in his body. The Major-generals Gibbs and Keane were struck at the same time, the first killed and the latter mortally wounded. By this the troops, who had continually supported a most murderous fire, were at length obliged completely to give way. Major-general Lambert, who commanded the reserve, and upon whom also at this period the whole command of the army devolved, made a last attempt to force the line. He led his troops in a run upon the batture, between the levée and the river, (which at that time was very low,) against the right wing of the line, where the small redoubt was placed, stormed, and took possession of it, but was forced, by the well-supported fire of the riflemen behind the line, to evacuate it again. The English colonel of engineers, Rennee, met with a glorious death, upon the breast-work, in this affair. After this unsuccessful attempt, the English retreated to their entrenchments at Villaret’s, and in a few days re-embarked.

During the failure of this principal attack, the English had conveyed eight hundred men to the right shore of the river, who gained some advantages there against insignificant entrenchments. These advantages, when they heard of the bad results of the main attack, they were obliged to abandon, and to return to the left bank. Had the storm of the right wing, and the feigned assault on the left been successful, in all probability General Jackson would have been obliged to evacuate not only his lines, but the II.68 city itself. Providence surely took the city under its protection; for the English were promised the plunder of New Orleans in case of success, as was asserted in that city: General Jackson moreover had given orders, in case of his retreat, not only to blow up the powder magazine of the city on the right bank, but to destroy the public buildings, and set the city on fire at the four corners. The general himself so fully recognized the hand of Providence in the event, that on the day after his victory, he expressed himself to Bishop Dubourg thus: that he knew the city owed its preservation to a merciful Providence alone, and that his first step should be on his return to the city, to thank God in his temple for the victory so wonderfully obtained. The bishop immediately gave directions for a thanksgiving, and it was unanimously celebrated with a sincere feeling of gratitude.

From the battle ground to General Villaret’s dwelling, we had three miles still to go over. For some days back, we had dry weather, and the road, which after a hard rain, must be bottomless, was on that account, hard and good. The Mississippi has the peculiarity possessed by several streams in Holland, of changing its bed. The house of General Villaret, was once much nearer the river; for some years, however, it has inclined so much to the right, that it constantly wears away the soil there, while it forms new deposits to the left. The general’s possessions are therefrom increased, and that with very good soil. The visit of the English nearly ruined the general. Their landing on this side was so entirely unexpected, that he, being employed in collecting the militia in the districts above the city, had not been able to remove the least of his property. The English took all the cattle away, as well as above sixty negroes. There has not been any intelligence of what was the fate of these negroes, probably they were sold in the West Indies. All the fences, bridges, and negro cabins were destroyed. The mansion-house was only spared, as it was occupied as head-quarters. The youngest son of the general, between thirteen and fourteen years old, was obliged to remain in the house the whole time it was retained, and was very well treated by the English generals and officers. As the English were on the point of re-embarking, General Lambert gave young Villaret four hundred dollars in silver to carry to his father, as indemnification for the cattle carried off. The young man went to the city, and delivered the money to his father. General Villaret requested General Jackson to send a flag of truce on board the English fleet, to carry the money back to General Lambert, with a letter from General Villaret. This was done, but the general never received an answer.

The removal of the negroes was a severe stroke for the General, from which, as he told me himself, it cost him much trouble II.69 gradually to recover. The canal or bayou, which ran from his plantation to Lake Borgne, was shut up by order of General Jackson after the retreat of the English, and there were not labourers sufficient left with General Villaret to reinstate it; it was of great importance to him for the conveyance of wood and other necessaries.

We found at the general’s, his sons, his son-in-law, Mr. Lavoisne, and several gentlemen from the city, among them Governor Johnson. We took some walks in the adjacent grounds. The house was not very large, and was not very much ornamented, for reasons already mentioned. Behind it was a brick sugar-boiling house, and another one for the sugar mill. Near that was a large yard, with stables and neat negro cabins for the house-servants. The huts of the field slaves were removed farther off. The whole is surrounded by cane fields, of which some were then brought in, and others all cut down. A field of this description must rest fallow for five years, and be manured, before being again set out in plants. For manure, a large species of bean is sown, which is left to rot in the field, and answers the purpose very well. The cane is commonly cut in December, and brought to the mill. These mills consists of three iron cylinders, which stand upright, the centre one of which is put in motion by a horse-mill underneath, so as to turn the other by crown-wheels. The cane is shoved in between these, and must pass twice through to be thoroughly squeezed out. The fresh juice thus pressed out, runs through a groove into a reservoir. From this it is drawn off into the kettles, in which it is boiled, to expel the watery part by evaporation. There are three of these kettles close together, so as to pour the juice when it boils from one to the other, and thus facilitate the evaporation of the water. The boiling in these kettles lasts one hour; one set gives half a hogshead of brown sugar. In several of the plantations there is a steam-engine employed in place of the horse-power: the general’s misfortunes have not yet permitted him to incur this expense.

After dinner we walked in the yard, where we remarked several Guinea fowls, which are common here, a pair of Mexican pheasants, and a tame fawn. Before the house stood a number of lofty nut-trees, called peccan trees. At the foot of one, Sir Edward Packenham’s bowels are interred; his body was embalmed and sent to England. In the fields there are numbers of English buried, and a place was shown to me where forty officers alone were laid. We took leave of our friendly host at sundown, and returned to the city.

On Shrove Tuesday, all the ball-rooms in the city were opened. I went to the great masked ball in the French theatre. The price of admission was raised to two dollars for a gentleman, and II.70 one dollar for a lady. There was dancing, not only in the ball-room, but also in the theatre itself, and on this occasion, the parterre was raised to a level with the stage. The illumination of the house was very good, and presented a handsome view. Many of the ladies were in masks, and intrigued as well as they were able. I could not restrain my curiosity, and visited the quadroon ball in the theatre of St. Philippe. It however was too late when I arrived there, many of the ladies had left the ball, and the gentlemen, a motly society, were for the most part drunk. This being the case, I returned after a quarter of an hour to the principal ball. But here too, some gentlemen had dipped too deep in the glass, and several quarrels with fists and canes took place. The police is not strict enough here to prevent gentlemen from bringing canes with them to balls. The balls continue through lent, when they are but little frequented.

On the 12th of February the intelligence of the death of the Emperor Alexander was spread abroad, which had been received by the ship Mogul, yesterday arrived from Liverpool, and by London gazettes of the 24th of December. I could not believe this to be a fact, and betook myself to the office of one of the public papers. I was here given the English gazette to read, and I found, to my no small terror, the detailed account of this sorrowful event. Consternation entered into my mind, on reflecting what effect this must have produced in Weimar, and increased my troubled state of feeling!

The volunteer battalion of artillery of this place is a handsome corps, uniformed as the artillery of the old French guard. It is above one hundred men strong, and presents a very military front. This corps manœuvred about half an hour in the square before the cathedral, and then marched to the City Hall, to receive a standard. Upon the right wing of the battalion, a detachment of flying artillery was placed. The corps had done essential service on the 8th of January, 1815, in the defence of the line, and stands here in high respect.

About four miles below the city Mr. Grymes has a country-seat, or habitation. The house is entirely new, and situated on a piece of ground formerly employed as a sugar-cane field. The new plantings made in the garden, consisted of young orange-trees and magnolias. Behind the house is an artificial hill, with a temple upon it, and within the hill itself, a grotto, arranged artificially with shells. At the entrance stands a banana tree, and this, with several creeping plants, will conceal it very well in summer. I observed in the garden several singular heaps of earth, which are hollow within, and stand over a hole in the ground. They are said to be formed by a species of land-crab, for their residence. If a stone be thrown into the hole, you hear II.71 that it immediately falls into water. Generally, in this country, you cannot dig more than a foot deep in the earth, without meeting water.

It was pure curiosity that carried me a third time to the masquerade, in St. Philippe’s theatre. It was, however, no more agreeable than the one eight days previous. There were but few masks; and among the tobacco-chewing gentry, several Spanish visages slipped about, who carried sword-canes, and seemed to have no good design in carrying them. Some of these visiters were intoxicated, and there appeared a willing disposition for disturbance. The whole aspect was that of a den of ruffians. I did not remain here a half hour, and learned next day that I was judicious in going home early, as later, battles with canes and dirks had taken place. Twenty persons were more or less dangerously wounded!

It rained very frequently during the first half of the month of February; in the middle it was warm, and for a time, about the 20th, an oppressive heat prevailed, which made me quite lethargic, and operated equally unpleasantly on every one. Indeed a real sirocco blew at this time. It surprised me very much, that with such extraordinary weather, not at all uncommon here, that there should be so many handsome, healthy, and robust children. This climate, so unhealthy, and almost mortal to strangers, seems to produce no injurious effect upon the children born here.

In the vacant space, where the walls of New Orleans formerly stood, are at present the Esplanade rue des Remparts, and rue du canal. The city proper forms a parallelogram, and was once surrounded by a palisade and a ditch. At each of the four corners stood a redoubt. The last of these redoubts, which stood at the entrance of the Fauxbourg Marigny, was demolished only since the last war. It would be important for the security of the present inhabitants, to have a fortress on the bank of the river, so that in case of an insurrection of the negroes, not only the trifling garrison, but the white women and children should possess a place of refuge, which is now totally wanting. The ditch is filled up, and planted with trees; there are no buildings newly erected here, and these open spaces are the worst parts of the city.

On the night of the 22d of February, the alarm bell was sounded: a fire had broken out in the warehouse of a merchant. There was time to save every thing, even the wooden building was not consumed, but in the course of two hours the fire was extinguished.

On the same day, was celebrated the birth of the great Washington. All the vessels lying in the river were adorned with flags, and fired salutes. The volunteer legion of Louisiana was II.72 called out in full uniform, to fire volleys in honour of the day. The artillery before mentioned, which gave thirteen discharges from two pieces, distinguished themselves again by their excellent discipline. The infantry was very weak, not exceeding fifty men, with a most monstrous standard. A company of riflemen of thirty men, who had done good service on the 8th of January, 1815, appeared very singular in their costume: it consisted of a sky-blue frock and pantaloons, with white fringe and borders, and fur hoods. This legion was established in the last war, and considering itself independent of the militia, it has clothed itself after the French taste, and is officered by Frenchmen.

In the evening there was a subscription ball, in the ball-room of the French theatre. This ball was given also, on account of the festival celebrated this day. In former years, each person had subscribed ten dollars for this ball; the saloon had been decorated with Washington’s portrait, and a number of standards, and a splendid supper spread for the ladies. This year the subscription had been reduced to three dollars for a ticket, and hardly filled up at that price. It was attempted to be accounted for, by the critical juncture of commercial affairs, in which the city was placed; the true cause, however, might be traced to the incomprehensible want of attachment among the creoles to the United States. Although the city of New Orleans, and the whole state of Louisiana, has benefited extremely by its union with the United States, and daily increases; yet the creoles appear rather to wish their country should be a French colony, than annexed to the Union. From their conversations, one would conclude that they do not regard the Americans as their countrymen. This aversion certainly will lessen, as the better part of the young people acquire their scientific education in the northern states; at this moment, however, it is very powerful. Under this state of things, Mr. Davis, the manager of the French theatre, the balls, and several gaming houses, announced a masked ball, at one dollar admission, for Washington’s birth-night. The young ladies, however, to whom a subscription ball was in anticipation, and on account of it had prepared a fresh set of ornaments, to assist their toilet, felt themselves exceedingly disappointed by this arrangement; as there would be a very mixed company at the masked ball, and they would not be able to distinguish themselves by individual ornament. For this reason, their parents and relations had exerted themselves, and happily brought it to pass, that instead of a ticket ball, there should be one by subscription. In fact, this ball was very splendid, so far as the dress of the ladies contributed thereto. Moreover, no battles took place.

II.73

In the neighbourhood of the city, some Choctaw Indians hunted, and lived a wandering life. They frequently resorted to the city to sell the produce of their hunting, also canes, palmetto baskets, and many other articles. The money for these was afterwards consumed in liquor. They are of very dark colour, have coats made of woollen blankets; wear mocassins, and undressed leather leggings, necklaces of checkered glass beads, with a large shell in the form of a collar, silver rings in the nose and ears, and smooth copper rings on the wrists. The children until four years old are quite naked; only wearing mocassins, leggings, and the rings round the wrists.

In a tavern on the Levée, there was a collection of fossil bones, which had been dug out of a swamp, not far from the mouth of the Mississippi, the preceding year, and must have belonged to a colossal amphibious animal. The single piece of the spine remaining appeared to be that of a whale; a single rib however, also found, was too much curved ever to have been the rib of a whale. The largest piece of those that were dug up, appeared to be a jaw bone. Unfortunately I understand too little of these things, to be able to venture upon a description of these remarkable remains of an apparently antideluvian animal; certainly it would be worth the trouble of having them examined and described by a scientific person. Two of the bones appeared to have belonged to the legs, and from these alone, some would determine, that the animal was a crocodile. I was informed at this time—I say, with Herodotus, that I only tell now what others have told me, and perhaps some one may either believe it, or know it,—I was told that a perfect skeleton of a mammoth was collected many years ago in one of the meadows, on the banks of the Mississippi, not far from its mouth, and was conveyed to London, and that very old inhabitants had heard as a tradition from their ancestors, that this mammoth had been thrown ashore by the sea, part rotted, and in part was devoured by the buzzards.

There is no particular market day in New Orleans, as in other places, but every morning market is open for all kinds of vegetables, fruits, game, &c. This market is very well provided on Sunday, as the slaves have permission to offer for sale on this day all they desire to dispose of.

I visited Captain Harney of the first regiment of infantry, who in the year 1825, as lieutenant to General Atkinson, had accompanied the expedition to Yellow Stone river, and had brought back with him several of the curiosities of those western regions, so little known. These curiosities consisted of a variety of skins of bears, for example, of the grizzled bear, also skins of buffalo, foxes, of a white wolf, (which is a great rarity,) of a porcupine, II.74 whose quills are much shorter than those of the African species, and of wild cats. Besides these, Mr. Harney has procured pieces of Indian habiliments, coats and leggings made of deer skin. The warriors among these Indians wear the mark of their dignity—the scalps—on the leggings, those of the inferior grade on one leg, those higher, on both. The coats are made with a checkered sewing, ornamented partly with glass beads, and partly with split porcupine quills. The Indian women, who are designated by the universal name of squaw, work these ornaments very ingeniously. Mr. Harney showed me also a quiver, made of cougar’s skin with different sorts of arrows, a bow of elk’s horn, strung with tendons drawn from the elk; several tobacco pipes, with heads of serpentine stone, of which I had seen some on Lake Ontario already, hunting pouches, a head dress of eagle’s feathers for the great chief of the Crow nation, a set of the claws of the grizzled bear, which also were worn for ornament, and a tomahawk of flint with a variety of bunches of human hair: for every time a warrior has killed his enemy with his tomahawk, he fastens a bunch of his hair, with a piece of the scalp on his weapon. He farther showed me a pipe made of a sheep’s rib, adorned with glass beads, upon which the Indians blow all the time they are engaged in a fight, so as not to loose themselves in the woods; a spoon made of the horn of a wild mountain ram; various minerals, and among them petrified wood, which is found in great quantities in that western region; serpentine, and other curiosities. The coats of the squaws are trimmed with long thin strips of leather, on one of these a bunch of yellow moss and grass was tied, which the Indians regard as a sort of amulet or talisman.

On the 28th of February, in the forenoon, I went with Mr. Huygens to pay General Villaret a visit at his country-house. A pretty strong west wind moderated the great heat outside of the city; within it, the thermometer of Fahrenheit had stood at eighty-one degrees in the shade. Most of the fruit trees were in blossom. Every where we saw fresh green and bloom; all was fresh and lively. In a sugar-cane field, there were oats a foot and a half high, cut as green fodder. The general and his son were occupied in managing the labours of the field. We went with them to walk in the garden. The soil is very fruitful, that, however, is the most so, which is reclaimed from the swamp of the Mississippi, or the Bayou. In this soil, nevertheless the germ of a real land plague, the coco, as it is called, shows itself, the same which was made use of on the continent of Europe, as a substitute for coffee, during the existence of the vexatious continental system. This knotty growth is principally found in the mud; and one lump or knot of it multiplies itself so II.75 extremely quick, that it kills all the plants growing near it, and covers the whole field, in which it has taken root. It is very difficult to extirpate, since the smallest knot, that remains in the earth, serves for the root of a new plant, and several hundred new knots. The legislature of Louisiana, has offered a considerable reward to whoever shall succeed in the discovery of an efficient remedy against this pest of the soil. No one has yet obtained the desired object.

The general explained to me, the manner in which the sugar-cane fields were managed. Parallel furrows are made through them at intervals of three feet. In these furrows, the cane is laid lengthwise, and covered with earth. Some planters lay two cane joints together, others content themselves with but one. The end of the successive piece of cane, is so placed, that it lies about six inches above the end of the first. From each joint of the cane, there shoot up new sprouts, and form new stalks. In St. Domingo, there is another method of arranging the cane field. The field is digged in square holes, placed checkerwise at the distance of three feet apart, in which four pieces of cane are laid in the square, and then covered up. This method is judged the best.

The tragedy of Marie Stuart by Le Brun from Schiller, and a vaudeville, la Demoiselle et la Dame, were produced at the theatre, to which I went. The first piece was announced at the request of several American families, of course there were numbers of ladies of that nation in the boxes. The tragedy of Le Brun is changed very little from that by Schiller; it is only curtailed, and two parts, those of Shrewsbury and Mellvil, are thrown into one. Many scenes in it, particularly the meeting of the two queens, is translated almost word for word. Madam Clozel undertook the part of Marie Stuart, and supported it from beginning to end in a masterly style; but she was not properly supported. Nevertheless, the piece met with great approbation. Unluckily, however, the machinery was not in order. At the close of the piece, when Leicester falls in the greatest distraction into the arms of an officer of the guard, the curtain could not be lowered, and several minutes elapsed, before poor Leicester could leave his painful attitude. On this account the audience made known their displeasure by hissing, which marred very much the effect produced by the piece.

A representation of Hamlet, in the French theatre was uncommonly well attended. The Colombian Commodore Jolly, who had brought a brig of his nation into New Orleans, appeared in uniform, and drew the attention of the public upon himself, partly by his dress, and partly by his huge dress hat, with a white feather. The next morning I made acquaintance with the commodore, and with his two officers, of whom one is a Colombian, II.76 and the other an Englishman by birth. The commodore had also taken up his quarters with Madam Herries; he is a Frenchman, fifty-six years of age, of which he has passed forty in the West Indies. I carried him and the two officers to visit Governor Johnson, and also Bishop Dubourg. The latter appeared very much flattered by this visit. On going away, the Englishman kissed the Bishop’s hand. He, the bishop, expressed his surprise at receiving this testimony of respect from a protestant; to which the officer replied, that this reverence was paid to the episcopal ring. Mr. Dubourg, indeed, wore a costly amethyst on his finger, as a representation of the fisher’s ring.

For some days back the weather had become oppressively warm, like the heat of summer. Several persons who were not accustomed to this degree of heat, found themselves unwell; it, however, agreed with me. After a while considerable showers of rain, accompanied by thunder and lightning took place. The consequence of this was, in one way, that the mud became excessively deep in the streets, but on the other hand, the river began to rise, which occasioned great joy in the city. Numbers of steam-boats, and flat-boats were looked for, with provisions from the western states, as they began to grow scarce and dear.

An acquaintance very dear to me, and of which I shall always preserve a grateful remembrance, was that which I made with Baron Marigny, a creole by birth, and one of the most distinguished inhabitants of the state. One of the suburbs of New Orleans was laid out by his father, and bears his name; at the entrance of it, he lives in a mansion-house, erected with taste and splendour. Never shall I forget the happy days, which I passed in the circle of his amiable family. During the troubles of the French revolution, the then duke of Orleans, found a refuge and active assistance with M. Marigny. After some time, this gentleman made a voyage to France, and was well received by the duke. I saw at his house, a coffee-set of French china, which he had received from him as a present. The cups contained the well executed portraits of the duke, the dutchess, and their nine children, and upon the larger pieces were views of the palais royal, and of the castle and park in Neuilly. The Baron Marigny, also had in his possession a very fine portrait of the duke, painted by Augustin, in Paris; likewise an engraving, representing him, as he supported himself during his exile in Switzerland, by giving lessons in the mathematics.

On the 11th of March, in a small company of ladies and gentlemen, I saw a cosmorama, which was set up here. It is known generally, to be a sort of prospect, given by being in a dark room, and beholding various objects, through glasses of different magnifying powers. This cosmorama contained ten views of II.77 different places, which are changed every week. Some views of East Indian antiquities, and remarkable buildings, were well displayed, as also, a representation of a hall in the former prisons of the Inquisition at Goa, not so good; and a couple of views in Japan and Macao, in China. The examination of all the objects, detained us until evening. We then accompanied the ladies home, they lived in a country-house, a mile below the Fauxbourg Marigny, on the Levée. It was eight o’clock as we descended the Levée; the evening was clear, with star-light; the bustle in the harbour had ceased; we only remarked on board of some ships the sailors collected on the deck, under an illuminated awning, where the captain held evening divine service. Precisely at eight o’clock, the retreat-gun fired at the City Hall, which is the signal for the negroes to return home, immediately after, the two Colombian brigs fired, the drums and bugles sounded the retreat, while the barracks of the infantry did the same. All this, added to the lighted ships, and the solitary gleams from the opposite side of the river, made an impression upon me, which I cannot venture to describe. The wretched miry way, in which we nearly stuck fast, was almost forgotten. One of the gentlemen accompanying us, had the politeness to send me home in his chaise. This was a pleasant attention to me, for there are drunken sailors, and fellows of the lower class, (which are called here, as in Mexico, Guichinangos,) in great numbers here, and as these creatures have a strong propensity to street-robbing and stabbing, it is not very prudent to be alone on a dark evening, upon this deserted road.

In an excursion to the country-house of Mr. David Urquhart, I observed the great injury done by the coco, before alluded to, in his garden; it covered both the walks and beds, from which daily industry will not root it out. In the vegetable garden, I found most kinds of those used in Europe, the peas were as large on the 13th of March, as they are in Flanders on the beginning of June; we ate of green peas full three weeks ago. The melons are first deposited in beds of manure, to force them for earlier use, and when they begin to sprout, are planted afresh in the field. The soil is so rich, that it does not require manure. I noticed several fruit trees of various kinds, but was informed, that the fruit produced by them, on account of the intense heat of summer, would not be of good quality.

The brig Arcturus arrived on the 14th of March from Boston, with a cargo of ice. This article is very conducive to comfort in a warm climate, but it is exceedingly difficult to preserve it. Where there is water every where two feet below the surface of the earth, of course, ice-vaults are impracticable. The cargo which now arrived, was thrown into a large brick building, and II.78 it was asserted that it would keep there till winter. I examined the construction of this building. A coffer, made of strong thick planks, and some forty feet in height, is provided with a small opening under the roof. Through this opening the ice is thrown in, and again taken out for use. About the coffer there is carried a brick wall, and the vacant space between the wall and the planks of the coffer, which is about two feet, is filled up with a mixture of shavings and saw-dust, which resists the influence of the exterior warm atmosphere.

A great quantity of drift timber was floating on the river, even huge trees. Negroes were busied in small canoes in collecting it, as it serves the residents on the Levée for fire-wood. The largest part of it, however, is driven into the Gulf of Mexico, strikes the gulf stream, is again carried into the Atlantic ocean, and driven upon the shores of Iceland and Greenland, where it serves to warm the miserable inhabitants of those inhospitable countries.

On the 17th of March, I accompanied Commodore Jolly to the criminal court, before which he was cited. The cause thereof was as follows:—The year previous, a Colombian corvette had arrived at New Orleans, from which several sailors deserted. One of these sailors, an Indian, native of Maracaybo, had hired himself as a servant at a Spanish grog-shop, and came on board the Pichincha, Commodore Jolly’s brig, to visit his old comrades, and to induce several to desert. He was recognised as a deserter, and as such arrested. The Spaniard, with whom the sailor Ramirez had served, laid his complaint before the criminal court, and the commodore was cited to appear. The Spaniard had employed two lawyers, a Frenchman, named Canonge, and an old Spaniard, Rodriguez, who defended the cause of the sailor, and laboured to prove the commodore’s proceedings to be illegal. The pleading of the Frenchman was full of common place and far-fetched haranguing. Mr. Rodriguez explained his arguments more logically, though by his Spanish accent he excited great merriment among the audience. The commodore had no counsel, wherefore a Mr. Morel was assigned to him as such, who, as he had no time for preparation, requested the postponement of the cause to the following day. This request was granted.

On the next day, we again visited the criminal court. I was apprized that several Spaniards had combined, and promised five hundred dollars for the setting Ramirez at liberty. They had employed a Mr. Davezac as their third advocate. The officers, some petty officers, and one seaman, of the two brigs, were heard as witnesses. These proved in the fullest manner, that the sailor had deserted from the corvette Ourika last year. The Spaniards produced opposing witnesses. These contradicted each other so vilely II.79 in their respective declarations, that they were soon held back, so as not to be involved in a charge of perjury as false witnesses. By this opportunity I learnt, that it was considered difficult among the Spaniards here to obtain a witness for the sum of eight dollars, to say any thing in evidence that was required. And yet that is more than such a complacent witness costs in some other countries. The lawyers put such strange questions to the Colombian witnesses, and particularly to the seamen, (as for instance, in what manner was he enlisted, what was his pay, and how he was paid, how he was fed and treated?) that the judge called them to order several times. Mr. Morel conducted his defence very well, and successfully combated the arguments produced by his antagonists. He then laid down the principle, which certainly is a very just one, that the person who is on board of a vessel of war, is within the limits and jurisdiction of that government to which the vessel may belong. Upon this principle the commodore necessarily must gain his suit, and this he did in a very satisfactory manner.

After the disposal of this cause, on the 17th of March another one was taken up. A resident lawyer, named Lloyd, whose reputation stood very low, had, on the preceding day, insulted the presiding Judge Turner in the street, for which reason the judge had him taken in custody by the sheriff, and thrown into prison. The injured judge presided in his own suit, and in this manner was both judge and party. I was informed that Mr. Turner was insulted in his individual capacity, but that he decided as a judge in the name of the state of Louisiana. This explanation did not satisfy me, the distinction between person and his office, may be correct in theory, it is, however, very hardly so in practice; and on this account, the proceeding to me appeared arbitrary. It appeared unfair also to me, that the judge was not assisted by a jury. Farther, Mr. Lloyd wished to defend his own cause, he was, however, half intoxicated, and attacked the judge so grossly from time to time, that he ordered him frequently to be silent. The examination of the witnesses consumed so much time, that I was obliged to leave the court before the termination of the case. I heard afterwards that Mr. Lloyd had been adjudged, to provide two sureties for his good behaviour, during one year, each in a penalty of one thousand dollars, and since he was not able to find these securities immediately, to be remanded to prison.

On the same day, Mr. Bowdoin left us, and embarked on board the steam-boat George Washington, bound to Louisville: afterwards to return to New York. I accompanied him on board of the boat, and had an opportunity of observing her most II.80 excellent accommodations. The part devoted to lodging passengers, is built like a house in a boat. The lower deck, or deck on which the engine is placed, is occupied by what are called deck-passengers, those who pay a lower price,—there are cot frames suspended for them, but if there should be too many, the last comers must of course sleep on the deck. Above this, is the principal cabin, the passage in which to Louisville costs fifty dollars. Here is a handsome saloon lighted from above, in the centre and on each side are enclosed state-rooms, each with two births, one over the other. Behind this is the ladies cabin, which can be so joined to it by the opening of two folding doors, that both apartments may be thrown into one at pleasure. Around this principal deck, runs a broad and lofty gallery, for the convenience of travellers. Above the cabin, is the deck also covered with a roof, where cotton, other articles, and deck-passengers find accommodation. For such as smoke tobacco, there is a separate apartment provided, in which they enjoy this acquired habit, without incommoding the other passengers, or the ladies thereby. For the use of travellers, there is likewise a library provided on board. The elevated position of the cabin is very agreeable, because one is not annoyed by the engine; moreover in case a boiler should burst, he is exposed to less danger, as the explosion can only direct a fatal force along the lower deck. There were a pretty large number of passengers on board; the vessel sailed about half after four o’clock, P. M. and presented a majestic appearance in her progress.

On the 19th of March, at nine o’clock, I went with Mr. Huygens, and a Mr. Authur Andry, to his brother Michael Andry’s habitation, about eleven miles distant from the city below, situated on the right bank of the Mississippi. The road carried us over the field of battle, and past the habitation of General Villaret: about two miles farther on, we stopped at the habitation of Jumonville, left the carriage and embarked in one of Mr. Andry’s ferry-boats, sent over for us, manned by seven negroes, and crossed the river. There was much drift wood collected on the left bank, through which we worked our way with difficulty. Then we had also both wind and current against us, and had to keep guard against the floating trunks of trees. We spent three quarters of an hour in this passage. We landed at a large field of clover, belonging to Mr. Andry, and through the garden reached his large and handsome mansion-house, two stories high, with a piazza and very broad gallery, which is defended from the heat of the sun by large curtains extended from pillar to pillar. Here Mr. Andry received us.

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Not long after our arrival, we went to the sugar-mills, behind the mansion-house, near the negro-quarter. The mill, in which the cylinders lie horizontally, is set in motion by a steam-engine of twelve horse-power, made in Liverpool by Faucett. The juice from the cane flows into the boiling-house, in which there are ten kettles. Mr. Andry directs himself all the operations, and while the mill is at work resides in a small room not far from the engine. He has the reputation of being very severe to his negroes. Whether this imputation be just or not, I could not decide, but twelve years ago an insurrection of the slaves broke out at his habitation, in which one of his brothers was murdered, and his father received three severe wounds with an axe. The garden here was not well kept. Scientific gardeners are very difficult to be procured here. Some years before two ships arrived with German emigrants, who were sold to defray the price of their passage. There were several gardeners among them. These men very soon extricated themselves from their dependent situation, and part of them established themselves; but the rest fell a sacrifice to the noxious climate. As the term of their service was limited to a few years, their masters did not give themselves much trouble to reclaim the runaways. Mr. Andry’s garden was surrounded by a thick hedge of orange trees, and contained many magnolias, orange trees, myrtles, jasmines, &c. We returned to the left bank about eleven o’clock at night, and our carriage conveyed us through the beautiful, mild moonlight, back to New Orleans in an hour.

In the American theatre, “Der Freischutz” was presented under the title of the “Black Huntsman of Bohemia.” This drama, so universally known and admired, and which has followed me even in America like an evil genius, (since detached pieces of it were sung and played in almost all companies,) I had never yet witnessed. Determined not to remain longer in the rear of the age, I therefore went to the theatre. The orchestra was very weak and badly filled, hardly any of the performers could sing; I was told that the handsomest pieces of music are either abridged or entirely omitted. The decorations, nevertheless, were tolerably good, I found the boxes and galleries thronged. In the pit there were but few spectators, and these consisted of sailors and countrymen from Kentucky, who made themselves quite at ease on the benches, and cracked nuts during the finest pieces of music; a custom I have noticed in all English theatres, and from which my tobacco-chewing neighbours in the boxes did not refrain. The theatre is newly erected, and is arranged not untastefully. It contains, besides the pit and parquet, three rows of galleries as the French theatre; the boxes are only divided by low balustrades, so that you look out as if from a balcony; II.82 the second gallery is destined for the reception of coloured spectators, among whom I saw not a single female, and in the upper gallery the mob and women of the town sit. The saloon is lit with gas, and has a very tasteful girandole. I remained but for a short time.

One witnesses almost daily examples of the degrading treatment which the poor negroes experience. I should say nothing of it, but one particular scene, which roused my indignation in the highest manner, on the 22d of March, I cannot suffer to pass in silence. There was a young Virginian female slave in our boarding-house, employed as a chamber maid, a cleanly, attentive, quiet, and very regular individual. A Frenchman residing in the house, called, in the morning early, for water to wash. As the water was not instantly brought to him, he went down the steps, and encountered this poor girl, who just then had some other occupation in hand. He struck her immediately with the fist, in the face, so that the blood ran from her forehead. The poor creature, roused by this unmerited abuse, put herself on her defence, and caught the Frenchman by the throat. He screamed for help, but no one would interfere. The fellow then ran to his room, gathered his things together, and designed to leave the house. But when our landlady, Madam Herries, was informed of this, in order to satisfy the wretch, she disgraced herself by having twenty-six lashes inflicted upon the poor girl with a cow-hide, and refined upon her cruelty so much, that she forced the sweetheart of the girl, a young negro slave, who waited in the house, to count off the lashes upon her.II.10

The river was progressively on the rise: the level of the water already higher than the land. It still brought down great quantities of drift timber with it. It was said, that about three days before, an uncommonly long and thick rattlesnake had been caught upon a tree that had been fished out. It was killed by a stroke of an axe, and had eighteen rattles on its tail. From this it was concluded that extraordinary inundations had taken place in the upper countries.

In order to pay my farewell visit to Mr. and Madam Andry, I crossed the Mississippi river in a little boat, and it occupied me full three-quarters of an hour to gain the right bank. It required a quarter of an hour alone to pass through the drift wood, which had collected on the shore. We were compelled, nevertheless, to direct our course parallel with the bank, for if we had attained II.83 the main current, it would have swept us down with great force. In addition to this, we experienced a real equinoctial tempest, so that the passage was far from being comfortable. I hired a horse upon the opposite bank, and rode in less than an hour to Mr. Andry’s habitation, ten miles distance. The horses here are trained to a small gallop or canter, which is upon the whole not fatiguing, and carries you speedily. The storm had driven off in a thunder-squall, I felt but the beginning of it, and reached the habitation just at the right time. I galloped back again about five o’clock in the evening, under a beautiful clear sky. The road ran partly on the levée, partly along side of it. The land is chiefly cane-fields. I came past three considerable sugar plantations, from which canals were made in the cypress woods behind the fields, and thence to the Lake Barataria. These canals are intended principally for the carriage of wood. The young sprouts of the sugar cane made their appearance above ground, and the negroes were employed in weeding it. The passage over the river was shorter this evening than in the morning, it lasted an half hour.

Dr. Herman showed me, at my farewell visit to him, besides his library, the claws and head of an alligator, which he had shot on the lake Barataria. The teeth of this reptile are indeed very long, but they do not appear to be fixed firmly in, but are hollow, and seem as if the animal changed them periodically; for in the cavities of several teeth, which had appeared to leave no roots, you see young teeth pushing forth. Below the under jaw, the alligator has two little glands, which have a strong odour of musk. The Doctor has dried these glands, and hung them up in that state for several years, yet still they impart a strong musky smell. The alligator perhaps may avail himself of this substance to benumb the fish which come within his reach, and then swallow them.II.11

Bishop Dubourg, whom I have often visited during my residence in this place, received me one day in his library, which contains besides theological works, many books of science and belles lettres. I remarked a perfect set of the French Encyclopédie, and complimented the bishop upon it, and expressed my surprise that he should have been able to purchase this work so complete in this country. The worthy man related with a smile how he had acquired it. As he was travelling through Flanders in 1816 and 1817, in company with the Bishop Prince de Broglio, he formed an acquaintance with a gentleman and his daughter, well known for their bigotry. The latter, a great admirer of books, told him confidingly, that she II.84 experienced great scruples on account of keeping in her library the Encyclopédie, in which so many wicked things were contained in opposition to the church. She inquired of him whether she had not better throw this shocking book into the fire? He himself being a great book fancier, and having observed that the work was complete, forbid this pious proceeding, and told her that if she would commit it to his custody, he would provide against its proving prejudicial. In this manner he saved this expensive work from destruction, and thereby enriched his own library.

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CHAPTER XX.

Travels up the Mississippi from New Orleans to St. Louis, and to St. Charles, on the Missouri.

After a stay of nine weeks, I at length left New Orleans, on the 26th of March, with the most grateful feelings towards its inhabitants, who had received me in a friendly and affectionate manner, and had made this winter so extremely agreeable to me. Never shall I forget what the families of Messrs. Grymes, Urquhart and Andry, did for my benefit, and with what cordiality and true hospitality they acted towards me. The Baron de Marigny has, however, merited the most from my hands, and since he has it in prospect to leave America, and settle himself in Europe, I trust yet once more to have it in my power to exhibit my gratitude to him otherwise than by words. The real creoles are, upon the whole, a warm-hearted generation, and the people with whom I was least pleased here, were the Americans, who are mostly brought only by the desire of accumulating wealth. The Germans in Louisiana, unhappily rank behind even the Irish. They are mostly a lazy race, not distinguished for their morality, and very different from their countrymen in Pennsylvania, who, on account of their moral and industrious characters, are universally respected, and are worthy of this high regard.

Since my landing in Boston, on the 26th July, to my reaching New Orleans, I had travelled the distance of four thousand two hundred and seventy-five English miles. I entered now upon another great journey. I designed to go from here to St. Louis, thence through the states of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio to Pittsburgh, thence through Pennsylvania by Philadelphia to New York. Here I proposed, with God’s help, to embark for Liverpool, in the month of June.

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About ten o’clock in the morning, I repaired from the Levée on board the steam-boat Phoenix, bound for St. Louis, and immediately left the shore. Eight steam-boats ascended the river on the same day. Ours was the finest of this number. She was not large and had proportionately a too powerful and dangerous high pressure engine. This communicated to the vessel such a violent shock, that it was hardly possible to write. Mr. Huygens was still my travelling companion; and I found to my great satisfaction, a new and very welcome one in M. Hottinguer, the son of a banker in Paris, whom I had known in New York, and who was now desirous of viewing the western states on his return to Europe. The remaining passengers, only three in number, were inhabitants of St. Genevieve, not far from St. Louis, in the state of Missouri. The day was very beautiful; the city, as well as the extensive suburb of St. Marie, afforded a very picturesque view. What a pity that the shores are so very low. It is hard to determine where the suburb St. Marie ends, the houses gradually stand farther apart, until they are confounded with the sugar plantations, of which we observed a good many on both banks of the river, and some ornamented with very convenient dwelling houses. The banks are highly cultivated, behind the fields, however, the cypress woods are seen to commence. Towards the afternoon, something broke in the engine, and we had to lie by for repairs, about three hours. We heard music on the plantations, as the negroes were allowed to amuse themselves on this first day of the Easter holy-days. So much timber drove down the stream, that our engine was frequently stopped, to prevent the buckets of the wheels from being injured by floating trunks of trees.

Our accommodations consisted of a cabin with sixteen births; behind this were two ladies cabins, of which, as there were no ladies on board, we took possession, so that we might be located at the greatest possible distance from the engine. We met three steam-boats, and several keel and flat boats, which were laden with cotton, meal in barrels, bacon, hams, birds, &c.

We passed the whole night without receiving any damage, although we suffered some heavy blows from floating trunks of trees. The next day the dwellings were more scattered, all of them, as well as the sugar-cane fields about them, appeared in good condition. The banks on both sides we found mostly covered with wood; the cypress had ceased, and green-leaved trees, such as ash and poplar took their place. At first the shore was very low, and we could observe from the marks on the trees left by the water, that at a high stage of it the surrounding country must be overflowed. Towards midday we passed the small town of Baton Rouge, which lies upon a height, II.86 and may contain about twelve hundred inhabitants. It was the first town we had noticed. In passing, I remarked upon the eminence two brick barracks, two stories high, and good looking, which are inhabited during the summer by the garrison of New Orleans, on account of their healthy situation. Baton Rouge is one hundred and thirty-one miles distant from New Orleans, and owes its name to an ancient Indian trunk of a tree, which was so denominated by the first French settlers. We did not stop here, but made our first halt after sunset, at Bayou Sara, one hundred and sixty-three miles from New Orleans, for an hour, to take in wood for the engine. Above Baton Rouge the banks were steep, especially the left. Such solitary elevations are termed here bluffs. The islands in the Mississippi are numbered as they occur from the junction of the Ohio down. The last is No. 97, we came this day up above No. 94, and found all these intermediate islands low and covered with wood. Towards the rising of the sun, we had passed by at the mouth of the Bayou la Fourche, the little town of Donaldsonville, where as it is said, the seat of government of Louisiana will be established.II.12 We saw three large alligators lying on the shore sunning themselves, the largest must have been from six to eight feet long. The weather was fine the whole day.

We did not lie by again in the evening, but went on through the night, and still received several blows from the drift wood.

The next morning produced nothing novel; some tortoises only passed us, sailing on pieces of wood. The river made many and considerable windings. The banks are every where woody, and for the most part so low, that from the water-marks on the trees, they must be inundated at high freshes. There were several high bluffs on the left bank, of which those called Loftus Heights, appear to be the most remarkable. There is a small settlement there called Fort Adams, from a fort that formerly stood here. Scattered, but considerable plantations, are situated on the shores. The sugar plantations have ceased, and the cotton fields have taken their place. We stopped at one of these plantations to take in wood; I embraced this opportunity to land, and look round about me in the neighbourhood of the plantation. The soil appeared to be of a dark colour, and very productive. The trees were chiefly of ash and poplar, of which one was sixteen feet in circumference. Upon II.87 all the trees, wild vines branched aloft, partly from thick trunks; also many locust trees grew about here. In the garden of the plantation, there stood a large bush of the champagne rose, as it is called, which appeared very beautiful, as it was in full bloom, and diffused a delicious odour. The raising of bees was carried on at this plantation. The vegetation was as far advanced almost, as it is in Germany about June. The right bank of the stream still belongs to Louisiana, the left side however, is in Mississippi. Before we reached Fort Adams, we saw to the left of us the broad Red river, emptying itself into the Mississippi two hundred and thirty-two miles from New Orleans.

I take the liberty of inserting the following account of this river, which is given in the “Western Navigator,” a work which is published with charts of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers: “The Red river falls into the Mississippi a little to the south of the thirty-first degree of north latitude. At its mouth it is about five hundred yards wide, and its general breadth is between two hundred and fifty and three hundred yards. The main branch of this majestic stream rises in the Mexican range of mountains eastward from Santa Fé, in nearly the thirty-sixth degree of north latitude. It flows about one hundred miles in a north-eastern direction, unites itself with another broad branch coming from the north-west, makes then a great circuit towards the south-east, and follows this direction to the Mississippi for the distance of fifteen hundred miles. The country about the lower half of the Red river is pretty well examined, and found equal to the other part of Louisiana in fertility, except about fifty miles from the Mississippi, which district is exposed to annual inundations. The cotton and the tobacco raised about Natchitoches and at the Rapids, are of the best quality, and command the highest prices. Besides many small craft, the trade employs several steam-boats at Natchitoches. The bed and shores of this river consists of clear red sand, mixed with clay and gravel, the same colour is imparted to the water.”

On the morning of the 29th March we reached Natchez, and made a stop of some hours, to repair a leaky boiler. I employed this leisure in writing some letters of thanks to New Orleans. This occupied so much of my time, that I was not able to look about in Natchez. Several of our company did so, and informed me that the city was regularly and well built, and situated upon an eminence on the left bank of the river, removed a short mile back from it. Upon the bank itself, are some few streets of wooden houses, with shops for provisioning and supplying the steam-boats, which mostly make this a station. Back of these streets, rises a sand-hill, upon which the city stands, and a very II.88 laborious ascent through deep sand carries one there. Natchez is two hundred and ninety-eight miles distant from New Orleans.

At half past eight o’clock we proceeded: the banks were very low, and bluffs were to be seen only now and then on the left side. Only one solitary plantation on a hill covered with grass appeared well cultivated. It was situated upon a point called Petit gulf, where the river makes a remarkable bend, and is three hundred and forty miles from New Orleans. Besides this, we took notice of several little plantations which are exposed to inundations, and have only wretched log-houses. They are fixed there by poor people, who seek to acquire property in this unhealthy district. We stopt at two of this kind of plantations to take in wood, and I went ashore both times for exercise. At one of these places, the owner had put fire to all the trees that were not hewn down, to make the land arable, and to change the wood into cotton fields. The day passed over in the same way: our travelling party was increased by a woman from St. Louis, who had waited for us with her three children at one of the plantations. She was the wife of a mechanic in St. Louis, who also was engaged in trade, having been to Santa Fé, in Mexico, and from there had brought mules for sale to the state of Alabama. He appeared to have staid away rather too long; his wife, and her three little children, had travelled after him, but not being able to find him, she now returned home.

During the night we passed the little town of Warrenton, on the left bank of the river, three hundred and ninety-eight miles from New Orleans, and afterwards another, on an eminence on the same shore, called Walnut Hills, ten miles farther. About midday, on the 30th of March, we passed the mouth of the Yazoo.

Concerning this river, the Western Navigator makes the following remarks:—“The Yazoo rises in the state of Georgia, takes a south-westerly direction, meanders through a fertile country, and empties itself into the Mississippi, in the latitude of 32° 30´. At its mouth it is about one hundred and thirty yards wide.”

The country was again very monotonous, low banks, partly covered with water, covered thickly with trees, of which the fresh green leaves were very much hidden by the disagreeable Spanish moss: some inconsiderable plantations, where cotton and Indian corn were raised, and the dwelling-houses, miserable little log-cabins, which are built on a sort of grate, on account of the overflowing water. We stopt at one of these places for wood, on the left bank. The labourers discovered among the wood prepared for them, a snake two feet long, green and yellow striped, with II.89 a white belly. They considered it poisonous, and killed it; I believe, however, that it was not, for at a dinner in the habitation of Mr. Andry, the sons of our host brought a similar snake, which he had found in the garden, into the chamber, and I permitted it, (to the terror of the ladies,) to creep into my sleeve upon the naked skin. Although the head of this snake had been cut off, yet the body still had life, and wound itself so fast upon my finger with the tail that I could carry it a considerable distance. There are many bears in the woods here, as the wife of the planter assured me, which make great havoc among the hogs of the inhabitants, but do not attack men. The islands in the river are very low, and covered thick with timber.

The weather had become cold, on the 31st of March it became warmer. Nothing new! woody shores, high trees, poplars and sycamores, with large creeping plants, mostly of wild vines, and here and there tall cane. We passed several low islands, which, as well as a distance on both shores, were overflowed, also some solitary, mean, and miserable dwellings. The left bank of the river still is in the limits of the state of Mississippi, the right thus far is in Arkansas Territory; of which Little Rock on the Arkansas river is the principal place, at which many emigrants from the eastern states have settled themselves. About ten o’clock at night we reached the mouth of the Arkansas. Of this, the “Western Navigator” speaks as follows:—This very beautiful river is about three hundred and sixty yards wide, at its mouth it is said to be fifteen hundred miles long. It rises at forty degrees north latitude in the Mexican mountains, between the river La Platte on the one side, and the Rio del Norte on the other. “This river, (as Stoddart writes,) has a rocky bed, and the navigation of it is much impeded by rapids and shoals. The extensive country through which it rolls, is diversified by some mountains, numerous elevations, and fruitful vallies, especially along the water-courses; by scattered groves and copses of wood, and by prairies or natural meadows of great extent, where immense flocks of various kinds of wild animals resort to graze.”

The pilot was obliged to be very careful here, since several dangerous “snags”II.13 lay in the river where we passed by the remains of the steam-boat Putnam, sunk there. We met the beautiful large steam-boat Caledonia, which, coming from Louisville, went down the river in a most imposing style. The mouth of II.90 the Arkansas is distant five hundred and ninety and a half miles from New Orleans, and there are still five hundred and fifty-nine and a half miles remaining to St. Louis, so that the distance from New Orleans to St. Louis amounts to eleven hundred and fifty-eight miles.

On the 1st of April, the shores on both sides, as well as most of the islands, continued still as low and woody as those we had noticed during the preceding days. The ugly long moss, however ceased to deform the trees. Upon the right shore, was situated a little new settlement, Helena, which, from the appearance of its buildings, must be in a tolerably thriving condition. Towards evening, we stopped to wood on the right bank, at a small settlement, called Big Prairie. It was an open place, surrounded by forests, in which stood some very handsome live-oaks. As it became dark, we saw in the woods a great number of fire flies, swarming about, which for a moment led us to think that there was a smithy, or a high furnace in the forest, out of which the sparks were flying. The navigation during the night was very dangerous on account of the number of snags: we received some powerful blows, and a branch, to which we approached too near in the dark, forced its way into one of the cabins, and made a considerable breach. Luckily no one at the time was sleeping there.

Upon the following day we still contemplated no object but low and inundated shores. The human dwellings, the most miserable that could be conceived, were placed along in a scattered manner. As we took in wood towards evening, we were obliged to fasten to the wood-pile, as the whole plantation was under water. The lights on the left shore, which may rise about forty feet, are called the Chickesa Bluffs, of which there are reckoned four in a stretch of about sixty miles.

Before we reached the fourth Chickesa Bluff, we passed a large island, called President’s Island. The river changes its course almost every year, and constantly washes the sand-banks away, while it makes others, so that the chart of the stream made a few years back, is not to be depended upon as a guide. The passage in which we sailed along, was at times rather narrow on account of the island, when the river was at least an English mile broad. Upon the fourth Chickesa Bluff stood the quondam Fort Pickering, consisting of a stockade, as were the forts, as they were called in the Creek nation. The two block houses of this fort are still visible, of which a plantation house has been made. A short mile above the fort, stands a group of rather miserable houses: it is the town of Memphis. It is seven hundred and sixty-three miles from New Orleans, and three hundred and eighty-seven from St. Louis.

II.91

Above this town of great name, the Wolf river discharges itself into the Mississippi. The state of Mississippi has its boundary here, and the state of Tennessee commences. It is reported, that Miss Wright, of whom notice has been taken before, has settled herself near Memphis, bought several negroes, and located a plantation. During her travels in the northern states, she expressed so great a disgust towards slavery, that she could not be persuaded to cross the Potomac, to go into Virginia. And now, she has even purchased negroes! It is said, however, that she has acted thus from a philanthropical designs, to follow a proposed plan of setting the negroes free, and giving them their liberty by degrees. I have already given my sentiments at Boston, concerning Miss Wright. All that I have since heard respecting her, confirms the unfavourable judgment which I then communicated. A respectable person, who had become acquainted with her in Philadelphia, said, that she stretched herself on a sofa, spoke little, and gave herself little or no trouble about any one, now and then breaking out in detached sentences, such as this, for example; I believe that bears are of more value than men. At Memphis, she will, I have no doubt, enjoy many opportunities of confirming herself in practical experience of the truth of this maxim. In the evening, we were amused again with the great numbers of fire flies, which filled the woods.

On the 3rd of April, we were embarrassed by our fire wood giving out. The banks were overflowed, and there was no regular landing place to be obtained. At the place called the new cut-off, we had a very powerful current against us, which we overcame with great trouble and waste of time. The wood was so far gone, that old barrels were broke up, and a mast and several boards were obliged to be sawed for a supply. This new cut had formed itself in February 1822, and saves the vessels a circuit of thirteen miles. It may be observed on the chart, what a large bend the Mississippi makes here. By degrees it washed the small isthmus of land, which intervened between the bends, and formed itself a new bed directly through. This neck of land, through which this new cut passes, is hardly half a mile wide. It is but a short time since the steam-boats first ventured to take this short route: for the remains of the trees washed away are still visible, and this admonishes the navigator to be on his guard.

After we had passed this strait, which is distant eight hundred and sixty-nine miles from New Orleans, we stopped on the right bank, to provide ourselves with wood. We embraced this opportunity to go ashore for a walk, and into the woods. A young man of our vessel, killed a very handsome snake in the forest. It was one and a half foot long, whitish, with coal-black, edged II.92 spots on the back, the belly white with black stripes.II.14 Farther on, a black eagle with white head and tail was shot. We saw a similar one in the afternoon fly long before our boat, he had found a snake which he held in his talons. We met with several plovers also. After sunset, we stopt at the right bank for the second time, to obtain more wood for the night. This place was called Point Pleasant, and there were about it several small plantations; one of which served as a trade-deposit with the Indians. The Indians bring deer, buck, muskrat and other skins, and barter them for arms, ammunition, woollen blankets, stamped calicoes, &c. one of our travelling companions, Mr. Vallais employed himself in this trade. We accompanied him to the depôt, whence he brought a whole cart-load of pressed skins to the boat, to take up with him.

On the right hand shore the Arkansas territory ceases, and the new state of Missouri begins. This was first received into the Union two years since, and with truly great difficulty, and after long debate; as congress was at issue whether the state should be suffered to permit slavery within its limits or not. The state at length, however, obtained that privilege.

Six miles below Point Pleasant, the little town of New Madrid lies upon the right bank, nine hundred and twelve miles from New Orleans. We past by it in the night, to my great regret; for I should have liked to have seen the remains of the violent earthquake, which prevailed here in the years 1811 and 1812. There are great sink-holes to be seen here yet, in which trees are buried. The soil upon which the town itself stood, has sunk many feet, and the place has suffered very much. New Madrid was a Spanish settlement, and so long as the whole right bank of the Mississippi, that is, from 1763 to 1803, belonged to the Spaniards, under the name of Louisiana, there was a Spanish military post there. On the left bank of the river this evening, we left the jurisdiction of Tennessee, and entered that of Kentucky.

On the 4th of April, it was exactly one year, since I left the city of Ghent, and my family. The time has passed over rapidly with me, I have seen many remarkable things, my mind has been kept on a constant stretch; nevertheless, that which passed more than a year ago is as present, as if performed but a few days since. If the great Architect of the universe shall conduct me in health home to those I love, which I have prayed for, then shall the 4th of April be a festival-day in my family as long as I live.

Both shores of the river, appeared in the forenoon just as they appeared during the last days. Only we remarked two elevations II.93 on the left bank, of which one was called Chalk Bank, the other Iron Bank. About one o’clock in the afternoon we found ourselves opposite the mouth of the Ohio river. The river is here very broad, and both streams with their low banks, grown thick with wood, puts one in mind of the Mecklenburg lakes.

The Western Navigator says, in a note concerning the Ohio: “The Ohio arises from the junction of the Alleghany with the Monongahela at Pittsburgh, the first is about three hundred and seventy, the latter near five hundred yards broad at their mouths. After a west-south-westerly course of nine hundred and fifty-two miles the Ohio empties itself into the Mississippi about in the degree of north latitude thirty-seven. It changes its breadth from four hundred to fourteen hundred yards. At Cincinnati it is eight hundred and forty-seven yards wide, which may be considered its medium. Its course is gentle, not broken by falls or rapids, except at Louisville. It is inferior to few streams in the convenience of communication from one part to the other, especially if the operation of canaling the falls, and erecting of locks, which has long been contemplated, be carried through with success. The height of the falls is estimated at twenty-two and a half feet, the length of the descent two miles. The greatest extremes of falling in the height of the river, are between Pittsburgh and the Mississippi; they lessen as the river is descended, and the medium height is from twenty-five to thirty feet. At the lowest state of water, the river is fordable in many places above the falls. ” 

The mouth of the Ohio is nine hundred and seventy-seven miles from New Orleans, and one hundred and seventy-three from St. Louis. Two steam-boats, the Friendship and Philadelphia, which had remained near us all the way from New Orleans, here left us, and ascended the Ohio. The Mississippi continues still very broad above the Ohio, and contains many islands. From the mouth of the Ohio, the left shore of the river belongs to the state of Illinois, the right, as already observed, to the state of Missouri. The banks of the Mississippi begin to be something higher, and at times still more rocky. We stopt at a couple of solitary houses on the right bank for wood. During this halt I went into the wood lying back, to walk, and remarked several sycamores of an uncommon height and stoutness; I believe I can affirm that one of them was twenty feet in circumference. We observed from the cooler air, and the less precocious vegetation, that we were again in a more northern climate. A few of the trees were in leaf, others were blossoming, which in New Orleans, occurred six weeks ago. Near the dwellings were large orchards, in which the apple-tree was in blossom. On the II.94 bank grew arbres de judée, whose blossoms resemble those of the peach-tree, and near them blossoming white-thorns.

The water in the Ohio had risen very much for some days, and poured with force into the Mississippi; this circumstance assisted our progress, since above the junction we had a weaker stream to contend with. At ten o’clock at night we reached a little town on the right bank, Gape Girardeau, where Mr. Vallais had some goods to land. This place is situated on a high bank, and appears to be thriving and well built, in a fruitful and tolerably populous district. On account of the numerous snags under water and the sawyers, the navigation during the night would have been dangerous, we therefore spent the night at Cape Girardeau. There are here several examples of unlucky steam-boats. The place is one hundred and thirty-two miles from St. Louis.

On the 5th of April we were set in motion before daybreak, and stopped towards morning at a group of five wooden houses, called the town of Bainbridge, one hundred and twenty-two miles from St. Louis, on the right bank. Again goods were landed, and wood taken in. In the outset of our day’s trip, the shores became higher. Upon the right side we saw sandstone rock, probably forty feet high; they were partly worn with water, and had singular forms. One of these rocks, which stands alone, is called the Devil’s tea-table. Farther the river is compressed in its course between two ledges of rock, of which one is called the Devil’s bake-oven, where several steam-boats have gone down. The current is here very strong. On the right bank rises a solitary rock named the Tower, resembling very much an old fortress. It must be about one hundred feet in circumference, and one hundred and fifty feet high. The river became by degrees narrower. The vegetation continued still more backward. Towards evening, we encountered a very heavy storm, that lasted, with severe thunder, rain and hail, for a couple of hours. On this account we could advance no farther without danger, and remained during the night on the right bank near the Saline River’s mouth, sixty-nine miles and a half distant from St. Louis. On this river considerable and profitable salt works are established.

On the sixth of April, we moved again before daybreak. The storm of yesterday had cooled the air very perceptibly. After we had advanced five miles farther, we stopt on the left bank. An establishment was placed there, Simonton’s Warehouse, where the goods intended for Kaskaskia were landed, which is a town in the state of Illinois, lying on the river Ouwa or Kaskaskia, two miles from the warehouse: we soon got under way again. The country on the right bank was very well cultivated. On a small eminence we beheld the little town of St. Genevieve. This place II.95 is one mile distant from the river, on a little stream called Gabane creek. Mr. Vallais, and another of our fellow travellers, Mr. Rozier, a native of Nantes, and established as a merchant in St. Genevieve, landed their goods purchased in New Orleans here, and took leave of us.

We stopped several hours. The river takes a new direction against the right bank, wears it out in hollows, and often tears away whole fields, by which the left bank profits. We accompanied our fellow voyagers to the town, which contains about two thousand inhabitants, of both complexions. The road ran between fields of Indian corn, and then over a bridge on Gabane creek. The place has regular streets, but has rather a poor appearance. I remarked only three substantial houses: one of them stands on an open square, and is the court-house. Not far from this is the prison, a box framed of strong timbers. Upon the eminence on which the place slopes down, stands a massive edifice, which indeed had a roof upon it, but was without doors or windows, and threatened to fall in. It was destined for an academy, but for want of funds the plan was not completed. The place receives great advantage from the neighbouring lead mines. The navigation near St. Genevieve is extremely dangerous, from the snags lying under the water. Two steam-boats have been sunk here, the Franklin and the Cincinnati. The accident of the last took place when Prince Paul of Wirtemburg was on board. I noticed here several pieces of a very brittle sandstone, found in the vicinity of St. Genevieve, and sent as an article of trade to Pittsburgh, where it is used in the manufacture of glass.

Before we proceeded on our voyage, we received the visit of a Shawnee Indian on board, a well looking man of about thirty years of age, who spoke tolerably good English. He travelled on horse-back with his gun, hunted on the way, and sold his venison. His dress was very similar to that of the Creek Indians. Between twelve and one o’clock, we were again under way. The right bank continued rocky, and contained below very singular shapes and excavations, which reminded me of the rocks on the Inn, and the one called Buckfarth Castle.

About ten miles above St. Genevieve an island lies on the left shore, called Fort Chartres, where at the time of the first French establishment, a fort of this name was standing. It was nevertheless partly torn away by the current, and at present, has vanished entirely. We passed several islands, of which three are called the Plattan islands. In the woods on these we saw many birds with parti-coloured feathers, the largest among them were cormorants. About 5 o’clock in the evening, we reached Herculaneum, a little town on the right shore. The river Joachim, which has been turned into Owashing creek, which here flows II.96 into the Mississippi, divides the place into two parts. Herculaneum is thirty miles from St. Louis, is very small, but contains several decent houses, and supports itself by the lead establishments, furnished by the mines in the neighbourhood, and by two shot factories. The rocks, which form the right bank of the river, open themselves here to let the Owashing pass through, which flows in a narrow, truly picturesque valley, which again recalled the Ilmthal to my mind. Looking from the river, Herculaneum is situated between two high crags of rock, in the back ground woody heights crowned with rocks, and appears very handsome. On each summit of the rocks, stands what is called a shot tower. The material of the rock here is wacke, in which there are many flints. We stopt here to take in wood.

The 7th of April, we continued our voyage about five o’clock, and reached St. Louis about eleven o’clock forenoon. Thus had we accomplished a distance of 1150 miles in less than thirteen days against the current, which before the introduction of the steam-boat required at least three months, a new testimony of the importance of this noble discovery, so honourable to the human intellect.

We enquired in several houses for accommodation, but found the most of them too bad; and remained at length in the Missouri Hotel, a tolerably moderate kind of an inn, where we were obliged to house ourselves very narrowly.

St. Louis has existed since the year 1763, and was settled by French and Canadians. In that year when Canada with the left bank of the Illinois and Mississippi were ceded to England, these people were not willing to be English subjects, and withdrew to the right bank of the Mississippi, which then was under the dominion of France, but soon after was given up to Spain. The emigrants built St. Louis and St. Charles on the Missouri, as well as several other little places: they lived a long time cut off from the civilized world, and surrounded by Indians. They effected but little in the cultivation of the soil, had almost no agriculture, and supported themselves by hunting. They would at length have become savages, had not this territory, with Louisiana, in the year 1803, came into the possession of the United States. Since that time communication and roads have been opened between the United States and St. Louis; many Americans and foreigners removed here, and brought their property and their industry with them: and by the introduction of the use of steam-boats, a new and easy intercourse was opened with the shores of the Ohio, and with New Orleans, that important depôt of the western states. A glance at the map of the United States shows what an interesting place St. Louis is destined to become, when the white population has spread itself more westwardly II.97 from the Mississippi, and up along the Missouri river. Perhaps it may yet become the capital of a great nation.

St. Louis lies upon a rather high rocky foundation on the right bank of the Mississippi, and stretches itself out, nearly a mile in length, in the direction of the river. The most of the houses have a garden towards the water, the earth is supported by walls, so that the gardens form so many terraces. The city contains about four thousand inhabitants. It consists of one long main street, running parallel with the river, from which several side streets run to the heights behind the city. Here single houses point out the space, where another street, parallel with the main street can one day be built. The generality of the houses are new, built of brick two stories high; some are of rough stone, and others of wood and clay in the Spanish taste, resembling the old houses in New Orleans. Round the city, along the heights, formerly ran a wall, but it is now taken away. At the corners stood massive round guard-towers, the walls of which one still can see.

In a northern direction from the city, are seven artificial hillocks, in two rows, which form a parallelogram. They belong to the much talked of Indian mounds and fortifications, of which numbers are found on the shores of the Ohio and Mississippi, and which are dispersed over these regions from Lake Erie to New Mexico. There exists neither documents nor traditions concerning the erection of these works, or of the tribe of people who erected them. In some, a great quantity of human bones have been discovered, in others, on the contrary, nothing. This double row near St. Louis has not yet been examined.

Soon after our arrival, we made some visits to deliver the introductory letters given me by Bishop Dubourg. We called first upon General Clark, governor of the state of Missouri. The general was absent in Washington. We were, however, received in a very friendly manner by his wife and daughters. Governor Clark is moreover the well-known fellow traveller of the late Governor Lewis, in the expedition to the mouth of Columbia river, on the Pacific ocean, in the years 1804, 1805, and 1806. We afterwards went to visit Mr. Choteau, who was one of the founders of St. Louis, who was not at home.

As we were so near the Missouri, we were unwilling to leave this part of the country, without at least looking at that interesting river; for St. Charles, a little town on the left bank of the Missouri, which empties into the Mississippi some twenty miles above St. Louis, is but twenty miles distant from this city. Not to lose any time, we determined to go there this very day. We therefore hired a little two-horse carriage, and with it, I and Mr. Hottinguer, and Mr. Huygens, began our journey in the afternoon. At first, all went right. The II.98 road ran through an uneven prairie, upon which many cattle pastured. After a ride of eight miles, we came into a forest, which lasted all the way to the Missouri. The country was pretty hilly, the forest consisted of green-leaved timber, oaks, and various nut-bearing trees, of Canadian poplars, and much sumach. On most of the trees, climbing plants mounted over them, wild vines, and ivy. There was hardly any sign of the spring here yet: the vegetation was still as backward as at that period of the year in Flanders. This made no very friendly impression upon us, who had just arrived from New Orleans, where it had long been summer. In the woods we found several solitary inclosures, made by worm-fences. Wheat, oats, and Indian corn were raised here. The cattle, and the numerous swine bivouacked in the woods, and were obliged to take care of themselves. There are a number of emigrants from the eastern states, also Germans, established here in Missouri, who have purchased the land from government for one dollar and a half per acre, and made it arable. Most of them, however, repent of this proceeding; on account of the small population of this state, and the want of a market, they cannot dispose of their produce. We also passed a little village “the station,” and afterwards had nearly been lost in the forest, as our coachman knew nothing of the road. The road was marshy and very bad; and to complete our misfortune the night shut in. One of our companions betook himself to his knowledge of astronomy, and wished to steer us by the pole star. I trusted more to my judgment of localities, and opposed all learned demonstrations. My other companion voted with me, and therefore we proceeded by my guidance, and I had the glory of finding the true road, for we arrived at half-past ten o’clock at night, on the right bank of the Missouri, opposite St. Charles, at Chauvin’s ferry.

The way had latterly become so bad, that to prevent accidents, we proceeded on foot. It was too late to cross the river to St. Charles; we therefore had a frugal supper prepared for us at the ferry-house, and passed the night in a little garret-room. The country in the neighbourhood of the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi, cannot in any manner be healthy; in the summer bilious fevers prevail, and in the winter, what they call the influenza, which has shown itself in most of the northern states. It consists of a very severe cough, joined with rheumatic symptoms. If the disease be neglected, death may be the consequence. To my no small alarm and dissatisfaction, one of our chamber associates was very much affected with this influenza, and another stranger, who slept in the next apartment, was visited by this malady likewise; so that we were fated to hear a most annoying cough duett.

II.99

On the next morning we crossed early to the left bank of the Missouri, where St. Charles was situated, in a small canoe. The river is here three-quarters of a mile broad, has excessively thick and muddy water, and a very powerful current. The right bank is rather level, yet so high that it experiences no inundation, while the left is pretty hilly. St. Charles, which has the same origin with St. Louis, lies at the foot of a hill; it consists of a single street running parallel with the river, and is mostly built of brick. These houses are for the greater part built by the Americans who have come here in later times, and are inhabited by them as the most respectable portion of the inhabitants. The Canadian, (or as they are called here, from their original parentage and their language, the French,) are less industrious than the Americans, and occupy themselves of preference in hunting; they live in smaller, older houses, at the commencement and termination of the street. The place may contain one thousand inhabitants, who nearly all belong to the Catholic faith, and have a small wooden church. I spoke to the present pastor, Verhegghen, a native of Ghent, a young man, who, with the Abbé Maenhout in Pensacola, and many other young students from Flanders, accompanied Bishop Dubourg on his return from Europe. Abbé Verhegghen told me, that eight Flanders clergymen were appointed either as pastors through the state, or placed in the seminary five miles from St. Genevieve.

St. Charles has no remarkable exterior, and the streets are not paved. We had it in contemplation to go to an eminence lying below the town, “les Mamelles,” where it was said there was a view of the Missouri and Mississippi both at once. The road carried us through a wood, which begins below St. Charles. We had no guide, lost our way, and came at last to a couple of lonely cabins. These cabins were inhabited by Canadians, who took me for a Catholic pastor. We learned to our dismay, that far from the “Mamelles,” we had six miles between us and St. Charles. In this manner we took a sentimental walk of twelve miles for nothing. Luckily for us we had fine weather. We had constantly remained in the vicinity of the river, the return way took us somewhat differently, and we came to a great marshy meadow, from which we could distinguish the heights on the left bank of the Mississippi. The forest is rather thick, with the same trees before-mentioned, and with large and very thick sycamores. Not a sign of herbage was to be seen. In the forest, however, there were beautiful birds, a pair were of a dazzling sky-blue, and several paroquets, similar to those I had seen on the river Alabama. For snakes, and especially for rattlesnakes, which are found in great numbers here in summer, it was now too cold.

Exceeding fatigued with our useless promenade, we crossed II.100 the Missouri immediately from St. Charles to Chauvin’s ferry, where we had slept. We took our dinner here, and set out on the road to St. Louis in our little light carriage, about four o’clock. We got over the worst part of the road by daylight. We were surprised at the great numbers of partridges, upon which we came, and which were so tame, that they would hardly run out of our way: they remained sitting within ten paces of us. As the night overtook us, we reached the better part of the road. We passed a bivouack of an emigrant family, and arrived in St. Louis without accident, in a very cold night about ten o’clock.

The 9th of April found us plunged into the midst of winter. It never ceased snowing and freezing during the whole day. Except a slight fall of it that I had experienced at Harper’s ferry, in the month of November, 1825, this was the first snow that I happened to witness in America. We could not make up our minds to go abroad, but preferred sitting at the fire-side, and entertained ourselves with past happy days. Later, however, we paid Mrs. Clark a visit, and spent the evening at her house.

The steam-boat Mexico, Captain Clark, from the Prairie des Chiens on the upper Mississippi, arrived this day, in the afternoon, at St. Louis, fired a cannon to announce it, and intended to sail the next morning down the Mississippi, and up the Ohio to Louisville and Pittsburgh. I determined to embrace this opportunity to arrive in the Ohio, and then visit New Harmony on the Wabash. My design at first was to have gone by land through the state of Illinois, to Vincennes, and from there down the Wabash to New Harmony. From information since obtained, this road would be almost bottomless at this season of the year, several rivers were to be crossed, and those provided with miserable ferries. For these reasons, I declined the journey by land, in which, without such considerations, there was nothing interesting to attract attention.

I had also felt a desire to visit the lead-mines, of which the most important lie at Potosi, sixty miles from St. Louis, which are almost daily increasing in consequence. I declined to join in this excursion, since the journey there would take at least two days, the return as much, and besides the road was described as wretched in the highest degree. I was told, that the lead ore lies almost on the surface, and is so extensive, that it is not worth the trouble to dig for it deep. If therefore a shaft is pushed so deep as to strike water, this shaft is abandoned and another opened. This easy method of working will last until the owner has laboured over every part of his territory, then he will be obliged to have recourse to water-pumps, and steam-engines. On Fever river, on the upper Mississippi, are also very rich lead-works. These, united to the works at Potosi, have delivered, II.101 during nine months, eight hundred and eighty-seven thousand two hundred and ninety-eight pounds of lead; the amount of per centage which the United States receive from these works during that time, was a hundred and four thousand one hundred and thirteen pounds. It is supposed, that in the next year the mine-works will produce from three to four million pounds of lead, which must be three hundred and fifty thousand pounds for the share of the United States. It is but a few years since these mines were worked.

On the 10th of April, we paid yet some other visits, before our departure. First, to Major Biddle of the sixth regiment of infantry. He is a brother to Commodore Biddle, and also of the President of the United States Bank, in Philadelphia. His wife, educated in France, does not appear particularly delighted with these out posts of civilization. We then went to see Mrs. Clark, who, through the secretary of her husband, Mr. Alexander, exhibited to us the museum collected by the governor on his travels, and since considerably augmented. Mr. Alexander showed us articles of Indian clothing of different kinds, and various materials,—except the leather, the larger part of these materials were American, or rather entirely European in their origin. A single garment alone, was made by the Cherokees of cotton, which was pulled, spun, wove on a loom, made by an Indian, and even dyed blue by them. Besides, several weapons of different tribes, wooden tomahawks, or battle-axes, in one of them was a sharp piece of iron to strike into the skulls of their prisoners; another made of elks-horn, bows of elks-horn and of wood, spears, quivers with arrows, a spear head of an Indian of the Columbia river, hewed out of flint, a water-proof basket of the same people, in which cooking can be performed, several kinds of tobacco pipes, especially the calumet, or great pipe of peace. The heads of this pipe are cut out of a sort of argillaceous earth, or serpentine; in time of war the spot where this stone is dug out, is regarded as neutral, and hostile parties, who meet each other at that place, cannot engage in any thing inimical against each other. The pipe which the commissioners of the United States use at treaties with the Indians, has a heavy silver head, and a peculiarly handsome ornamented wooden stem. Farther: Mr. Alexander showed us the medals which the Indian chiefs have received at different periods from the Spanish, English and American governments, and the portraits of various chiefs, who have been at St. Louis to conclude treaties with the governor, who is also Indian agent. Among the remarkable things in natural history, we noticed an alligator, eight feet long; a pelican; the horns of a wild goat, shot by the governor in his tour among II.102 the rocky mountains; the horns of a mountain-ram, and those of an elk, several bearskins, among others, of the white bear; buffalo, elk, of the skunk, which were sowed together in a robe, skins of martins, ferrets, &c. &c. moreover, several petrifactions of wood, and animal subjects, among others, of elephants teeth, a piece of rock-salt, tolerably white, yet not shooting in crystals, as the English; various crystals; a large piece of rock crystal; very handsome small agates, which are here taken for cornelians, &c. Among the curiosities, the most remarkable were two canoes, the one of animal-hide, the other of tree-bark, a peace-belt, which consists of a white girdle, set with glass beads two hands breadth wide; farther, snow shoes, nets which are drawn over an oval frame, also the rackets, which they use in playing their game of ball, &c. &c.

After the examination of this interesting collection, we paid our visit to Mr. Choteau. This is a venerable old man of eighty years, a native of New Orleans. He told us that at the founding of St. Louis, he felled the first tree. His house resembling in architecture the old government-house in New Orleans, was the first substantial building erected here. The conversation with this aged man, who received us like a patriarch, surrounded by his descendants, was very interesting. He was of opinion that the people from whom the Indian antiquities have come down to us, either by a pestilential disease, or by an all-destroying war, must have been blotted from the earth. He believed that Behring’s Straits were more practicable formerly than at present, at least it must have been Asiatic hordes that came to America. How otherwise, (asked he,) could the elephants, since there have been none ever upon this continent, have reached the American bottom, where their bones are now found? This bottom is a very rich body of land, running south, opposite to St. Louis. Mounds and fortifications are found there, of the kind spoken of before. Here the elephants bones are not scattered about, but found laid in a long row near each other, as if they had been killed in a battle, or at the assault of some fortification. I gave him a description of the opening of a Roman mound, at which I was present with my father, in the year 1813, and he expressed his astonishment at the great similarity between these mounds, and those of the Indian grave-hills. Among the stone war-hatchets in the governor’s museum, there are several resembling the battle-axes which are found in Germany at these mounds.

In our inn there lodged merchants, who prepare caravans, with which they go in a space of from between forty and fifty days, to Santa Fé in New Mexico. The articles which they mostly carry there, consist of cotton fabrics, cloths, iron ware, &c. These goods II.103 they pack in four-horse wagons, covered over, in which they sleep at night. There are about one hundred men in such a caravan. From Santa Fé they bring back dollars and mules.

After dinner the worthy old gentleman, Mr. Choteau, surprised us by a visit, and brought his brother, his sons, and a Captain Smith, of the first regiment of infantry, who is here on recruiting duty, with him. He staid long with us and was very talkative. He related, for example, that at the commencement of the settlement of St. Louis, the Indians attacked the town, which was only defended by one hundred and fifty men, and that they were driven off. After this attack, the Spaniards had built the defensive towers, of which the remains stand yet around the city. They resemble the English Martello towers, and like them were of but little value.

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CHAPTER XXI.

Travels from St. Louis to New Harmony.—Mr. Owen’s System and Experiment.

On the 10th of April at seven o’clock, P. M. we left St. Louis, in the Mexico, a neat boat with a low pressure engine. We went down the stream so rapidly, that we advanced fourteen and fifteen miles per hour. We received an unpleasant shock during the night from a snag. It gave the vessel such a violent blow, that all were roused from sleep, and sprang out of bed: I thought that the boat was going down. Happily we were only scared this time. Towards morning we hastened past Cape Girardeau, and all the places which we had seen a few days before. It was agreeable for us again to come something more southerly, and recognize traces of vegetation. We reached the junction of the Ohio with the Mississippi about twelve o’clock in the day. We then quitted the Mississippi, and steered into the Ohio.

At the period when the French extended their posts from Canada to New Orleans, the Ohio was known to them under the name of “La Belle Riviere;” Mr. Choteau, Senr. used this appellation constantly in speaking of it, while conversing with me. The water of the Ohio is much clearer and purer than that of the Mississippi, which is evidently very foul from the confluence of the Missouri. At the union with the Ohio, this difference in the colour of the streams is striking, when you pass from the turbid waters of the Mississippi into the purer current of the Ohio. II.104 They are divided from each other by a perceptible line, disturbed cloudings being visible on each side of this line.

I took a solemn leave of the majestic father of rivers, the Mississippi; but, with God’s permission, not an eternal one.

The banks of the Ohio are at first very low, and exposed to inundations. Upon the right bank, eleven miles above the mouth, lies a small place, consisting of a few wooden houses, called America. It is built upon a bank raised several feet above the highest water-mark. It is only three miles hence across to the Mississippi. A project, therefore has been agitated, and a company formed with a capital of ten thousand dollars, to cut through this narrow piece of land, to unite the rivers sooner, and gain an easier navigation. Since the bank is not exposed to overflow at this point, as I have remarked before, a town may be established here, in process of time, when this design is carried into effect, that will be extremely important and wealthy.

About six miles from the mouth, stand a tavern and warehouses, on the right bank, which is called Trinity. In this vicinity there are several rocks concealed under the water, that must be very dangerous at a low stage of the river. Some miles higher, thirty-seven and a half miles from the mouth, fourteen hundred miles from New Orleans, and three hundred and thirty-four and a half from Louisville, is Fort Massac, situated on an eminence on the right bank. The remains of a stockade, two block-houses, and barracks, are what is left of this fort, which gains its name from the massacre of the French garrison by the Indians. As long as the western military posts of the United States were kept up, an infantry company remained here in garrison. This fort has been abandoned for a long time. Nine miles higher up on the left bank, the Tennessee river flows into the Ohio, upon which the Western Navigator makes the following remarks: “This river is the largest branch of the Ohio, and is navigable for large boats more than six hundred miles. It rises in the north western part of Virginia, and runs through the whole breadth of East Tennessee, in a south-westerly direction. Afterwards it enters at the north-east corner of Alabama, through the breadth of which it runs, then turning in a northern direction, nearly in a direct line with the western boundary of that state, it flows through Tennessee and a part of Kentucky, in which it discharges itself into the Ohio.” The right bank of the river on which we were now sailing, belongs to the state of Illinois, and the left to Kentucky. Both shores are thickly covered with woods. Although our course up the stream did not equal the speed with which we had descended the Mississippi, yet we made handsome progress.

On the second night we went on, in spite of the snags, and without accident. On the third day, 12th of April, we were II.105 delighted with the prospect of the beautiful banks of the Ohio, thickly covered with wood. The right shore especially is rocky, and occupied by neat dwellings and little settlements. During the night we had passed the mouth of the Cumberland, an eastern tributary river to the Ohio. This is one of the largest rivers in Kentucky. It rises in the Cumberland mountains, in the vicinity of the heads of Clinch and Kentucky rivers, flows in a westerly direction more than two hundred miles, enters the state of Tennessee, reaching Nashville, after meandering through that state one hundred and twenty miles, in the thirty-sixth degree of north latitude, or thereabouts, flows then one hundred and twenty miles in a north-west course, and discharges itself into the Ohio.

This mouth of Cumberland is eight hundred and ninety-four miles from Pittsburgh, and ten hundred and thirty-five from New Orleans. On the right shore we saw the little town of Golconda, afterwards the Cave in Rock, where a considerable cavern runs into the rock. It reaches one hundred and fifty feet deep under the hill, and was used by a robber in former days for a place of residence, whence he sallied out and plundered the passing flat-boats and smaller craft.

Towards noon we reached Shawnee town, on the right bank, ten hundred and ninety-five miles from New Orleans, and eight hundred and thirty-four from Pittsburgh. The Western Navigator says, “Shawnee town was formerly a village which belonged to the Shawnee Indian nation, and bore its name. It is at present a handsomely situated town, in Gallatin county, state of Illinois. It contains a post-office, a land-office, and a bank, called the Great Bank of Illinois, with a capital of two hundred thousand dollars. Although it is subject to be overflowed, yet it is nevertheless a considerable place, since it is the centre of the emigrants going to Kaskaskias, St. Louis, &c.” It appeared to me safe from inundation, as it lies upon a tolerably elevated bank. The houses, of which many contain stores, are mostly of wood, yet I observed many of brick. It may contain eight hundred inhabitants, mostly white persons. The states of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, lying between the Mississippi and Ohio, hold no slaves; a slave coming here from other states is free: and yet these states are only divided by the Mississippi from Missouri, and by the Ohio from Kentucky and Virginia, in which three states, slavery still exists.

Ten miles above Shawnee town we passed the mouth of the Wabash, a western tributary of the Ohio.

The Wabash, a very beautiful river, rises not far from the sources of the Miami of the Lakes, and meanders through one of the most fertile districts of the west. At its mouth, it is about two hundred and fifty yards broad, and is navigable about four II.106 hundred miles. The Wabash forms the boundary between the states of Illinois and Indiana, the right bank belongs to the former, the left to the latter state. About evening, the steam-boat landed Mr. Huygens and myself on the right bank at Mount Vernon, a place established about two years ago, whence we proposed to go by land to New Harmony. Mr. Hottinguer left us, as he pursued his voyage in the steam-boat; I parted very reluctantly from this esteemed fellow traveller, who possessed many good qualities, above all others, one seldom found in his countrymen, great modesty.

Mount Vernon lies upon a high bank, one hundred and twenty-six miles from New Orleans, and eight hundred and three from Pittsburgh. It is a favourable situation for trade, laid out on an extensive plan, but has only frame houses, and at most three hundred inhabitants. It is the new capital of Posey county. A prison was finished for the use of the county; a court-house was about to be built. We formed an acquaintance with a physician established here, and a travelling merchant. The roots of the felled trees remained yet in the streets of the town, the woods began close behind the houses; nay, the latest built were encircled by them.

On the following morning, 15th of April, we hired a two-horse wagon, to carry us to the village of New Harmony, which is sixteen miles distant from Mount Vernon, and lies on the left shore of the Wabash. The road passed through a hilly country, thickly grown with green-leaved trees. The way was made very bad by former rains, and the most miry places were mended with logs, forming a grievous causeway;II.15 over a little stream, called Big creek, we crossed a tolerable wooden bridge. About half way is Springfield, at first made the capital of Posey county, which, however, afterwards was changed to Mount Vernon, as I have mentioned before. In Springfield the county gaol still remains, also a brick court-house, and about ten wooden houses, two of them are taverns. As the road was very bad, and the horses went very slow, I walked at least ten miles, and arrived at New Harmony, before the carriage. As soon as you clear the woods, you have a very handsome view of the place. It lies in a valley, not far from the Wabash. The woody and low banks of this river, were at present, in the neighbourhood of New Harmony, overflowed. From the roots of trees still remaining, it was visible, that this country had been covered with wood but a short time back.

In fact, it is but eleven years since Mr. Rapp with his society, II.107 after they had disposed of Harmony in Pennsylvania, moved here, and felled the first tree to found New Harmony in a country inhabited only by wolves, Indians, bears, rattlesnakes, &c. The hills immediately next to the place, are already cleared of timber of the larger kind; they are converted into vineyards, and partly into orchards. Farther off are meadows and fields to the right, and to the left fruit and vegetable gardens, carefully enclosed by palisades. New Harmony itself, has broad unpaved streets, in which good brick houses appear alternately, with framed cabins and log houses: the streets are regular, running at right angles. We took up our quarters in the only tavern there, belonging to the community; it was passable.

Rapp’s society, called from their former residence, the Harmonites, consisted of Wurtemburgers. Their early history is known, and perhaps, when I visit this society from Pittsburgh in their new establishment, “Economy,” I may find an opportunity to say more concerning them. Rapp sold New Harmony in the year 1825, to the Englishman, Robert Owen, and left there with his people on the 5th of May, to go up the Ohio to Economy. Mr. Owen was originally engaged in manufactures, and possessed a large cotton factory at New Lanark, on the Falls of Clyde, ten miles from Glasgow in Scotland, where he had, by the adoption of a new system of education and formation of character, changed a collection of one thousand rude labourers into a community of industrious beings. His system, and his ideas upon the situation of human society, as well as the improvements that are capable of being made, he has divulged in a series of essays, which are collected, and appear in print under the name of a new view of society. They conclude with the project of a constitution for a community formed on his system.

Mr. Owen is an enemy to all sects, the spirit of which has generated so much evil under the imposing name of religion. He allows each person liberty to believe in what he may consider to be good; so that a pure Deism is the peculiar religion of his adherents. On this account he was very obnoxious to the prevailing sects in Great Britain, and accordingly his system could not extend itself there. He was therefore induced to turn his attention to the United States, and particularly to the western part of the Union, where, as he says, there is less hypocrisy of religion prevailing than to the east. He then purchased New Harmony from Mr. Rapp, and commenced his establishment in the month of May last. As he laid the foundation of it entirely on perfect equality and community of property, many enthusiasts in these principles from various parts of the Union joined themselves to him; and also a number of vagabonds and lazy worthless persons, from all parts of the world, that II.108 would willingly live well at the public expense, who had drank away the little money, if they brought any at all, at the tavern, and who would not work, but desired to say a great deal. Mr. Owen had gone to England on account of business in the month of July, and during his absence, a complete anarchy had been introduced into the new community. At the end of October he arrived from England at New York on his return, gave lectures there, in Philadelphia, and in Washington, upon his system, made some proselytes in Philadelphia, and came back to New Harmony. He lamented over his people, and brought the situation of anarchy in which they had fallen before their eyes so plainly, with the consequences resulting therefrom, that they invested him with dictatorial authority for one year.

In the eastern states there is a general dislike to him. It was thought unadvised that he issued a proclamation to the Americans on his last arrival in New York, in which he told them, that among many virtues they possessed great faults, among which he alluded to an ill-directed propensity to religious feelings, and proposed himself as their reformer in this respect. I heard at that time unfavourable expressions from persons in the highest public offices against him; and one of them gave Mr. Owen to understand very plainly, that he considered his intellects rather deranged.II.16 In one family alone, where theory took place of experimental knowledge, did I hear conversation turn to his advantage.

After all this, I came with the utmost expectation to New Harmony, curious to become acquainted with a man of such extraordinary sentiments. In the tavern, I accosted a man very plainly dressed, about fifty years of age, rather of low stature, who entered into a conversation with me, concerning the situation of the place, and the disordered state in which I would find every thing, where all was newly established, &c. When I asked this man how long before Mr. Owen would be there, he announced himself, to my no small surprize, as Mr. Owen, was glad at my visit, and offered himself to show every thing, and explain to me whatever remained without explanation. As the arrangement calculated for Rapp’s society was not adapted to his, of course many alterations would naturally be made. All the log houses still standing in the place, he intended to remove, and only brick and framed edifices should be permitted to remain. Also all enclosures about particular gardens, as well as all the II.109 enclosures within the place itself, he would take away, and only allow the public highways leading through the settlement to be enclosed. The whole should bear a resemblance to a park, in which the separate houses should be scattered about.

In the first place, Mr. Owen carried me to the quondam church of Rapp’s society; a simple wooden building, with a steeple of the same materials, provided with a clock. This church was at present appropriated to joiner’s and shoemaker’s shops, in which the boys are instructed in these mechanic arts.

Behind the church stands a large brick edifice, built in the form of a cross, and furnished with a species of cupola, the purpose of which is unknown. Rapp, they say, had dreamed three times that this building should be erected, and therefore he had it done; but it is thought, and I believe correctly, that he only did this to keep his society in constant employment, so that they could have no leisure to reflect upon their situation, and dependence upon him. His power over them actually extended so far, that to prevent his society from too great an increase, he forbid the husbands from associating with their wives. I also heard here a report which I had already been apprised of in Germany, that he had himself castrated a son who had transgressed this law, for the sake of example, and that the son had died under the operation. Over one of the entrances of this problematical edifice, stands the date of the year 1822, hewed in stone; under it is a gilt rose, and under this is placed the inscription Micah 4. v. 8. The interior of the house forms a large hall, in form of a cross, the ceiling is supported by wooden pillars. Mr. Owen has devoted the hall to the purposes of dancing, music, and meetings for philosophical discussions. He told me that he intended to have the ends of the cross, both of the grand saloon as well as those of the hall under the roof, divided off by partitions, so as to use them for school-rooms, for a library, for a cabinet of natural history, of physical objects, &c.

Mr. Owen then conducted me to Rapp’s former dwelling, a large, well-built brick house, with two lightning rods. The man of God, it appeared, took especial good care of himself; his house was by far the best in the place, surrounded by a garden, with a flight of stone steps, and the only one furnished with lightning rods. Mr. Owen, on the contrary, contented himself with a small apartment in the same tavern where I lodged. At present, the offices, and the residence of Mr. M‘Clure, the associate of Mr. Owen, are in Rapp’s house.II.17

Mr. M‘Clure is a man distinguished for learning, who has II.110 published a geological chart of the United States. He told me that he was in Germany in the year 1802, and also at Weimar, where he had become acquainted with the literati residing there: I was introduced by him to a native of Alsace, of the name of Neef, a rather aged man, who had the superintendence of the boys. Mr. Owen’s two eldest sons were also here shown to me, pupils of Fellenberg, who is greatly respected. Afterwards Mr. Owen made me acquainted with Mr. Lewis, secretary of the society, from Virginia, and a relation of the great Washington. He was already pretty far advanced in years, and appeared to have united himself to the society from liberal principles, as far as I could judge from our short conversation. Another acquaintance that I made, was with a Mr. Jennings, from Philadelphia, a young man, who was educated as a clergyman, but had quitted that profession to follow this course of life, and had united himself to Mr. Owen. He intended, nevertheless, to leave this place again, and return back to Philadelphia. Many other members have the same design, and I can hardly believe that this society will have a long duration.II.18 Enthusiasm, which abandons its subjects but too soon, as well as the itch for novelty, had contributed much to the formation of this society. In spite of the principles of equality which they recognise, it shocks the feelings of people of education, to live on the same footing with every one indiscriminately, and eat with them at the same table.

The society consisted, as I was informed, of about one thousand members; at a distance of two miles are founded two new communities. Till a general table shall be instituted, according to the fundamental constitution of the society, the members are placed in four boarding-houses, where they must live very frugally. Several of the most turbulent, with an Irishman who wore a long beard, at their head, wished to leave the society immediately to go to Mexico, there to settle themselves, but where their subsistence will be procured with as much difficulty.

In the evening Mr. Owen conducted me to a concert in the non-descript building. Most of the members of the society were present. The orchestra was not numerous, it consisted at first only of one violin, one violoncello, one clarionet and two flutes. Nevertheless the concert was surprisingly good, especially as the musicians have not been together a year. The clarionet player performed particularly well, and afterwards let us hear him on the bugle. Several good male and female vocalists then took a part, they sang among other things a trio accompanied by the clarionet only. Declamation was interspersed among the musical II.111 performances, Lord Byron’s stanzas to his wife after their separation were extremely well recited. Between the two parts of the concert the music played a march, each gentleman gave a lady his arm, and a promenade took place, resembling a Polonaise with pretty figures, sometimes in two couples, sometimes in four; two ladies in the middle, the gentlemen separated from the ladies, then again all together. The concert closed with a lively cotillion. I was, on the whole, much amused; and Mr. Huygens took an active share in the dancing. This general evening amusement takes place often in the week; besides, on Tuesday, there is a general ball. There is a particular costume adopted for the society. That for the men consists of wide pantaloons buttoned over a boy’s jacket, made of light material, without a collar; that of the women of a coat reaching to the knee and pantaloons, such as little girls wear among us. These dresses are not universally adopted, but they have a good appearance. An elderly French lady, who presides over the department of young mothers, and the nursing of all the very small children, stuck by my side during a large portion of the evening, and tormented me with her philosophical views. All the men did not take a share in the dance, i. e. the lower class, but read newspapers, which were scattered over the side-tables.

The public house in which we lived was conducted on account of the society. General Evans was looked for, who was to keep the house; in the mean time it was directed by the physician of the society, Dr. M‘Namee, from Vincennes. Among the public buildings I remarked two of which the lower part was strongly built with rough stone, and provided with loop-holes. The larger of these was the granary, and it was reasonably thought that Rapp had this built as a defensive redoubt for his own people. At the first period of his establishment in this country he not only had the Indians, but also the rude people known under the general title of backwoodsmen, who not only saw the establishment of such a society with jealous eyes, which they knew would be wealthy in a short time, but also entertained a grudge against Rapp’s unnatural rules of chastity.

On the morning of the 14th of April, I strolled about the place to look round me. I visited Mr. Neef, but found his wife only at home, a native of Memmingen, in Swabia. Her husband was in the act of leading the boys out to labour. Military exercises form a part of the instruction of the children. I saw the boys divided into two ranks, and parted into detachments marching to labour, and on the way they performed various wheelings and evolutions. All the boys and girls have a very healthy look, are cheerful and lively, and by no means bashful. The boys labour in the field and garden, and were now occupied with new II.112 fencing. The girls learn female employments; they were as little oppressed as the boys with labour and teaching; these happy and interesting children were much more employed in making their youth pass as pleasantly as possible. Madam Neef showed the school-house, in which she dwelt, and in which the places for sleeping were arranged for the boys. Each boy slept on a cot frame, upon a straw bed.

We went next to Rapp’s distillery: it will be removed altogether. Mr. Owen has forbidden distilling also, as well as the use of ardent spirits. Notwithstanding this, the Irishmen here find opportunities of getting whiskey and fuddling themselves from the flat boats that stop here, &c. We saw also a dye-house and a mill set in motion by a steam-engine of ten horse-power. The engine was old and not in good order, Mr. Owen said however, he hoped to introduce steam-mills here in time from England. From the mills we went to the vineyard, which was enclosed and kept in very good order. I spoke to an old French vine-dresser here. He assured me that Rapp’s people had not understood the art of making wine; that he would in time make more and much better wine, than had been done heretofore. The wine stocks are imported from the Cape of Good Hope, and the wine has an entirely singular and strange taste, which reminds one of the common Spanish wines.

We went again to the quondam church, or workshop for the boys, who are intended for joiners and shoemakers. These boys sleep upon the floor above the church in cribs, three in a row, and thus have their sleeping place and place of instruction close together. We also saw the shops of the shoemakers, tailors and saddlers, also the smiths, of which six were under one roof, and the pottery, in which were two rather large furnaces. A porcelain earth has been discovered on the banks of the Mississippi, in the state of Illinois, not far from St. Louis. Two experienced members of the society, went in that direction, to bring some of the earth to try experiments with, in burning. The greater part of the young girls, whom we chanced to meet at home, we found employed in plaiting straw hats. I became acquainted with a Madam F——, a native of St. Petersburg. She married an American merchant, settled there, and had the misfortune to lose her husband three days after marriage. She then joined her husband’s family at Philadelphia, and as she was somewhat eccentric and sentimental, quickly became enthusiastically attached to Mr. Owen’s system. She told me, however, in German, that she found herself egregiously deceived; that the highly vaunted equality was not altogether to her taste; that some of the society were too low, and the table was below all criticism. The good lady appeared to be about to run from one extreme to the other; II.113 for she added, that in the summer, she would enter a Shaker establishment near Vincennes.II.19

I renewed acquaintance here with Mr. Say, a distinguished naturalist from Philadelphia, whom I had been introduced to, at the Wistar Party there; unfortunately he had found himself embarrassed in his fortune, and was obliged to come here as a friend of Mr. M‘Clure. This gentleman appeared quite comical in the costume of the society, before described, with his hands full of hard lumps and blisters, occasioned by the unusual labour he was obliged to undertake in the garden.

In the evening I went to walk in the streets, and met with several of the ladies of the society, who rested from the labours of the day. Madam F—— was among them, whose complaints of disappointed expectations I had listened to. I feared still more from all that I saw and heard, that the society would have but a brief existence. I accompanied the ladies to a dancing assembly, which was held in the kitchen of one of the boarding-houses. I observed that this was only an hour of instruction to the unpractised in dancing, and that there was some restraint on account of my presence, from politeness I went away, and remained at home the remainder of the evening. About ten o’clock, an alarm of fire was suddenly raised. An old log building used as a wash-house was in flames, immediately the fire-engine kept in a distinct house, was brought and served by persons appointed to that duty. They threw the stream of water through the many apertures of the log-house, and quickly put a stop to the fire. In a quarter of an hour, all was over. Since the houses in the place all stand separately, there is nothing to fear from the extension of fire, unless in a strong wind. The houses, however, are all covered with shingles.

On the 15th of April, I went into the garden back of Rapp’s house to see a plate or block of stone, which is remarkable as it bears the impression of two human feet. This piece of stone was hewed out of a rock near St. Louis, and sold to Mr. Rapp. Schoolcraft speaks of it in his travels, and I insert his remarks, as I have found them correct. “The impressions are to all appearance those of a man standing upright, the left foot a little forwards, the heels turned inwards. The distance between the heels by an exact measurement was six and a quarter inches, and thirteen and a half between the extremities of the great toes. By an accurate examination, it however will be ascertained, that they are not the impression of feet, accustomed to the use of European shoes, for the toes are pressed out, and the foot is flat, as is II.114 observed in persons who walk barefoot. The probability that they were caused by the pressure of an individual, that belonged to an unknown race of men, ignorant of the art of tanning hides, and that this took place in a much earlier age than the traditions of the present Indians extend to, this probability I say, is strengthened by the extraordinary size of the feet here given. In another respect, the impressions are strikingly natural, since the muscles of the feet are represented with the greatest exactness and truth. This circumstance weakens very much the hypothesis, that they are possibly evidences of the ancient sculpture of a race of men living in the remote ages of this continent. Neither history nor tradition, gives us the slightest information of such a people. For it must be kept in mind, that we have no proof that the people who erected our surprising western tumuli, ever had a knowledge of masonry, even much less of sculpture, or that they had invented the chisel, the knife, or the axe, those excepted made from porphyry, hornstone or obsidian. The medium length of the human male foot can be taken at ten inches. The length of the foot stamp here described, amounts to ten and a quarter inches, the breadth measured over the toes, in a right angle with the first line is four inches, but the greatest spread of the toes is four and a half inches, which breadth diminishes at the heels to two and a half inches. Directly before these impressions is a well inserted and deep mark, similar to a scroll of which the greatest length is two feet seven inches, and the greatest breadth twelve and a half inches. The rock which contains these interesting traces, is a compact limestone of a bluish-gray colour.”

This rock with the unknown impressions are remembered as long as the country about St. Louis has been known, this table is hewn out of a rock, and indeed out of a perpendicular wall of rock.

The garden of Rapp’s house was the usual flower-garden of a rich German farmer. In it was a green-house, in which several large fig trees, an orange, and lemon tree stood in the earth. Mr. Owen took me into one of the newly-built houses, in which the married members of the society are to dwell. It consisted of two stories, in each two chambers and two alcoves, with the requisite ventilators. The cellar of the house is to contain a heating apparatus, to heat the whole with warm air. When all shall be thoroughly organized, the members will alternately have the charge of heating the apparatus. Each family will have a chamber and an alcove, which will be sufficient, as the little children will be in a nursery, and the larger at school. They will not require kitchens, as all are to eat in common. The unmarried women will live together, as will also the unmarried men, in the manner of the Moravian brethren.

II.115

I had an ample conversation with Mr. Owen, relating to his system, and his expectations. He looks forward to nothing less than to remodel the world entirely; to root out all crime; to abolish all punishments; to create similar views and similar wants, and in this manner to avoid all dissension and warfare. When his system of education shall be brought into connection with the great progress made by mechanics, and which is daily increasing, every man can then, as he thought, provide his smaller necessaries for himself, and trade would cease entirely! I expressed a doubt of the practicability of his system in Europe, and even in the United States. He was too unalterably convinced of the results, to admit the slightest room for doubt. It grieved me to see that Mr. Owen should allow himself to be so infatuated by his passion for universal improvement, as to believe and to say that he is about to reform the whole world; and yet that almost every member of his society, with whom I have conversed apart, acknowledged that he was deceived in his expectations, and expressed their opinion that Mr. Owen had commenced on too grand a scale, and had admitted too many members, without the requisite selection! The territory of the society may contain twenty five thousand acres. The sum of one hundred and twenty thousand dollars was paid to Rapp for this purchase, and for that consideration he also left both his cattle, and a considerable flock of sheep behind.

I went with the elder Doctor M‘Namee, to the two new established communities, one of which is called No. 2, or Macluria; the other lately founded, No. 3. No. 2, lies two miles distant from New Harmony, at the entrance of the forest, which will be cleared to make the land fit for cultivation, and consists of nine log houses, first tenanted about four weeks since, by about eighty persons. They are mostly backwoodsmen with their families, who have separated themselves from the community No. 1, in New Harmony, because no religion is acknowledged there, and these people wish to hold their prayer meetings undisturbed. The fields in the neighbourhood of this community were of course very new. The community No. 3, consisted of English country people, who formed a new association, as the mixture, or perhaps the cosmopolitism of New Harmony did not suit them; they left the colony planted by Mr. Birkbeck, at English Prairie, about twenty miles hence, on the right bank of the Wabash, after the unfortunate death of that gentleman,II.20 and came here. This is a proof that there are two evils that strike at the root of the young societies; one is a sectarian II.116 or intolerant spirit; the other, national prejudice. No. 3, is to be built on a very pretty eminence, as yet there is only a frame building for three families begun.

After we had returned to New Harmony, I went to the orchard on the Mount Vernon road to walk, and beheld, to my great concern, what ravages the frost had committed on the fruit blossoms, the vines must have been completely killed. The orchards planted by Rapp and his society are large and very handsome, containing mostly apple and peach trees, also some pear and cherry trees. One of the gardens is exclusively devoted to flowers, where, in Rapp’s time, a labyrinth was constructed of beech tree hedges and flowers, in the middle of which stood a pavilion, covered with the tops of trees.

I afterwards visited Mr. Neef, who is still full of the maxims and principles of the French revolution; captivated with the system of equality; talks of the emancipation of the negroes, and openly proclaims himself an Atheist. Such people stand by themselves, and fortunately are so very few in number, that they can do little or no injury.

In the evening there was a general meeting in the large hall, it opened with music. Then one of the members, an English architect of talent, who came to the United States with Mr. Owen, whose confidence he appeared to possess, and was here at the head of the arranging and architectural department, read some extracts from the newspapers, upon which Mr. Owen made a very good commentary; for example, upon the extension and improvement of steam-engines, upon their adaptation to navigation, and the advantages resulting therefrom. He lost himself, however, in his theories, when he expatiated on an article which related to the experiments which had been made with Perkins’s steam-gun. During these lectures, I made my observations on the much vaunted equality, as some tatterdemalions stretched themselves on the platform close by Mr. Owen. The better educated members kept themselves together, and took no notice of the others. I remarked also, that the members belonging to the higher class of society had put on the new costume, and made a party by themselves. After the lecture the band played a march, each gentleman took a lady, and marched with her round the room. Lastly, a cotillion was danced: the ladies were then escorted home, and each retired to his own quarters.

I went early on the following morning, (Sunday,) to the assembly room. The meeting was opened by music. After this Mr. Owen stated a proposition, in the discussion of which he spoke of the advances made by the society, and of the location of a new community at Valley Forge, in Pennsylvania, and another in the state of New York. A classification of the members was II.117 spoken of afterwards. They were separated into three classes, first, of such as undertook to be security for the sums due Mr. Owen and Mr. M‘Clure, (that is, for the amount paid to Rapp, and so expended as a pledge to be redeemed by the society,) and who, if desirous to leave the society, must give six months previous notice; secondly, of such as after a notice of fourteen days can depart; and, lastly of those who are received only on trial.

After this meeting, I paid Mr. M‘Clure a visit, and received from him the French papers. Mr. M‘Clure is old, childless, was never married, and intends, as is reported, to leave his property to the society. Afterwards I went with Mr. Owen, and some ladies of the society, to walk to the cut-off, as it is called, of the Wabash, where this river has formed a new channel, and an island, which contains more than a hundred acres of the best land; at present, however, inundated by water. There is here a substantial grist-mill, erected by Rapp, which was said to contain a very good set of machinery, but where we could not reach it on account of the water. We went some distance along the river, and then returned through the woods over the hills, which, as it was rather warm, and we could discover no pathway, was very laborious to the ladies, who were uncommonly alarmed at the different snakes we chanced to meet. Most of the serpent species here are harmless, and the children catch them for playthings. The poisonous snakes harbouring about here, are rattlesnakes and copperheads; these, however, diminish rapidly in numbers, for it is a common observation, that the poisonous serpents, like the Indians and bears, fly before civilization. The rattlesnakes have a powerful enemy in the numerous hogs, belonging to the settlers, running about the woods, which are very well skilled in catching them by the neck and devouring them.

In the evening I paid visits to some ladies, and witnessed philosophy and the love of equality put to the severest trial with one of them. She is named Virginia, from Philadelphia; is very young and pretty, was delicately brought up, and appears to have taken refuge here on account of an unhappy attachment. While she was singing and playing very well on the piano forte, she was told that the milking of the cows was her duty, and that they were waiting unmilked. Almost in tears, she betook herself to this servile employment, deprecating the new social system, and its so much prized equality.

After the cows were milked, in doing which the poor girl was trod on by one, and daubed by another, I joined an aquatic party with the young ladies and some young philosophers, in a very good boat upon the inundated meadows of the Wabash. The evening was beautiful moonlight, and the air very mild; the beautiful Miss Virginia forgot her stable sufferings, and regaled II.118 us with her sweet voice. Somewhat later we collected together in the house No. 2, appointed for a school-house, where all the young ladies and gentlemen of quality assembled. In spite of the equality so much recommended, this class of persons will not mix with the common sort, and I believe that all the well brought up members are disgusted, and will soon abandon the society. We amused ourselves exceedingly during the whole remainder of the evening, dancing cotillions, reels and waltzes, and with such animation as rendered it quite lively. New figures had been introduced among the cotillions, among which is one called the new social system. Several of the ladies made objections to dancing on Sunday; we thought however, that in this sanctuary of philosophy, such prejudices should be utterly discarded, and our arguments, as well as the inclination of the ladies, gained the victory.

On the 17th April, a violent storm arose, which collected such clouds of dust together that it was hardly possible to remain in the streets, and I remained at home almost all day. I received a visit from a Mr. Von Schott. This person, a Wurtemburger by birth, and brother of lady Von Mareuil, in Washington, has settled himself seven or eight miles from New Harmony, and lives a real hermit’s life, without a servant or assistant of any kind. He was formerly an officer in the Wurtemburg cavalry, took his discharge, and went, from pure enthusiasm, and overwrought fanaticism, to Greece, to defend their rights. As he there discovered himself to be deceived in his anticipations, he returned to his native country, and delivered himself up to religious superstition. To extricate himself, in his opinion, from this world plunged in wretchedness, he accompanied his sister to the United States, came to Indiana, bought a piece of land from Rapp, by whom he asserted he was imposed upon, and had difficulties to undergo, since he knew nothing of agriculture. He lived in this manner in the midst of the forest with a solitary horse. A cruel accident had befallen him the week before, his stable with his trusty horse was burnt. He appeared to be a well-informed man, and spoke well and rationally, only when he touched upon religious topics, his mind appeared to be somewhat deranged. He declared that he supported all possible privations with the greatest patience, only he felt the want of intercourse with a friend in his solitude.

To-day two companies of the New Harmony militia paraded, with drums beating, and exercised morning and afternoon. They were all in uniform, well armed, and presented an imposing front.

I was invited to dinner in the house, No. 4. Some gentlemen had been out hunting, and had brought home a wild turkey, which must be consumed. This turkey formed the whole dinner. II.119 Upon the whole I cannot complain either of an overloaded stomach, or a head-ache from the wine affecting it, in any way. The living was frugal in the strictest sense, and in nowise pleased the elegant ladies with whom I dined. In the evening I visited Mr. M‘Clure and Madam Fretageot, living in the same house. She is a Frenchwoman, who formerly kept a boarding-school in Philadelphia, and is called mother by all the young girls here. The handsomest and most polished of the female world here, Miss Lucia Saistare and Miss Virginia, were under her care. The cows were milked this evening when I came in, and therefore we could hear their performance on the piano forte, and their charming voices in peace and quiet. Later in the evening we went to the kitchen of No. 3, where there was a ball. The young ladies of the better class kept themselves in a corner under Madam Fretageot’s protection, and formed a little aristocratical club. To prevent all possible partialities, the gentlemen as well as the ladies, drew numbers for the cotillions, and thus apportioned them equitably. Our young ladies turned up their noses apart at the democratic dancers, who often in this way fell to their lot. Although every one was pleased upon the whole, yet they separated at ten o’clock, as it is necessary to rise early here. I accompanied Madam Fretageot and her two pupils home, and passed some time in conversation with Mr. M‘Clure on his travels in Europe, which were undertaken with mineralogical views. The architect, Mr. Whitwell, besides showed me to-day the plan of this establishment. I admired particularly the judicious and economical arrangements for warming and ventilating the buildings, as well as the kitchens and laundries. It would indeed be a desirable thing could a building on this plan once be completed, and Mr. Owen hopes that the whole of New Harmony will thus be arranged.

On the following day I received a visit from one of the German patriots who had entered the society, of the name of Schmidt, who wished to have been considered as first lieutenant in the Prussian artillery, at Erfurt. He appeared to have engaged in one of the political conspiracies there, and to have deserted. Mr. Owen brought him from England last autumn as a servant. He was now a member of the society, and had charge of the cattle. His fine visions of freedom seemed to be very much lowered, for he presented himself to me, and his father to Mr. Huygens, to be employed as servants.

Towards evening, an Englishman, a friend of Mr. Owen, Mr. Applegarth, arrived, who had presided over the school in New Lanark, and was to organize one here in all probability. After dinner I went to walk with him in the vineyard and woods. We conversed much concerning the new system, II.120 and the consequences which he had reason to expect would result, &c. and we discovered amongst other things, that Mr. Owen must have conceived the rough features of his general system from considering forced services or statutory labour; for the labour imposed upon persons for which they receive no compensation, would apply and operate much more upon them for their lodging, clothing, food, the education and care of their children, &c. so that they would consider their labour in the light of a corvée. We observed several labourers employed in loading bricks upon a cart, and they performed this so tedious and disagreeable task, as a statutory labour imposed on them by circumstances, and this observation led us to the above reflection. I afterwards visited Mr. M‘Clure, and entertained myself for an hour with the instructive conversation of this interesting old gentleman. Madam Fretageot, who appears to have considerable influence over Mr. M‘Clure, took an animated share in our discourse. In the evening there was a ball in the large assembly room, at which most of the members were present. It lasted only until ten o’clock, in dancing cotillions, and closed with a grand promenade, as before described. There was a particular place marked off by benches for the children to dance in, in the centre of the hall, where they could gambol about without running between the legs of the grown persons.

On the 19th of April, a steam-boat came down the Wabash, bound for Louisville on the Ohio. It stopt opposite Harmony, and sent a boat through the overflow of water to receive passengers. I was at first disposed to embrace the opportunity of leaving this place, but as I heard that the boat was none of the best, I determined rather to remain and go by land to Mount Vernon, to wait for a better steam-boat there. We took a walk to the community, No. 3. The work on the house had made but little progress; we found but one workman there, and he was sleeping quite at his ease. This circumstance recalled the observation before mentioned, concerning gratis-labour, to my mind. We advanced beyond into the woods, commencing behind No. 3: there was still little verdure to be seen.

On the succeeding day, I intended to leave New Harmony early; but as it was impossible to procure a carriage, I was obliged to content myself. I walked to the community No. 2, or Macluria, and farther into the woods. They were employed in hewing down trees to build log houses. The wood used in the brick and frame houses here is of the tulip tree, which is abundant, worked easily, and lasts long. After dinner I walked with Mr. Owen and Madam Fretageot, to community No. 3. There a new vegetable garden was opened; farther on they were employed in preparing a field in which Indian corn was to be sown. II.121 This answers the best purpose here, as the soil is too rich for wheat; the stalks grow too long, the heads contain too few grains, and the stalks on account of their length soon break down, so that the crop is not very productive. The chief complaint here is on account of the too great luxuriancy of the soil. The trees are all very large, shoot up quickly to a great height, but have so few, and such weak roots, that they are easily prostrated by a violent storm; they also rot very easily, and I met with a great number of hollow trees, in proportion. I saw them sow maize or Indian corn, for the first time. There were furrows drawn diagonally across the field with the plough, each at a distance of two feet from the other; then other furrows at the same distance apart, at right angles with the first. A person goes behind the plough with a bag of corn, and in each crossing of the furrows he drops six grains. Another person with a shovel follows, and covers these grains with earth. When the young plants are half a foot high, they are ploughed between and the earth thrown up on both sides of the plants; and when they are two feet high this operation is repeated, to give them more firmness and to destroy the weeds. There is a want of experienced farmers here; the furrows were badly made, and the whole was attended to rather too much en amateur.

After we returned to Madam Fretageot’s, Mr. Owen showed me two interesting objects of his invention; one of them consisted of cubes of different sizes, representing the different classes of the British population in the year 1811, and showed what a powerful burden rested on the labouring class, and how desirable an equal division of property would be in that kingdom. The other was a plate, according to which, as Mr. Owen asserted, each child could be shown his capabilities, and upon which, after a mature self-examination, he can himself discover what progress he has made. The plate has this superscription: scale of human faculties and qualities at birth. It has ten scales with the following titles: from the left to the right, self-attachment; affections; judgment; imagination; memory; reflection; perception; excitability; courage; strength. Each scale is divided into one hundred parts, which are marked from five to five. A slide that can be moved up or down, shows the measure of the qualities therein specified each one possesses, or believes himself to possess.

I add but a few remarks more. Mr. Owen considers it as an absurdity to promise never-ending love on marriage. For this reason he has introduced the civil contract of marriage, after the manner of the Quakers, and the French laws into his community, and declares that the bond of matrimony is in no way indissoluble. The children indeed, cause no impediment in case of a II.122 separation, for they belong to the community from their second year, and are all brought up together.

Mr. M‘Clure has shown himself a great adherent of the Pestalozzian system of education. He had cultivated Pestalozzi’s acquaintance while upon his travels, and upon this recommendation brought Mr. Neef with him to Philadelphia, to carry this system into operation. At first it appeared to succeed perfectly, soon however, Mr. Neef found so many opposers, apparently on account of his anti-religious principles, that he gave up the business, and settled himself on a farm in the woods of Kentucky. He had just abandoned the farm to take the head of a boarding-school, which Mr. M‘Clure intended to establish in New Harmony. Mr. Jennings, formerly mentioned, was likewise to co-operate in this school; his reserved and haughty character was ill suited for such a situation, and Messrs. Owen and M‘Clure willingly consented to his withdrawing, as he would have done the boarding-school more injury, from the bad reputation in which he stood, than he could have assisted it by his acquirements. An Englishman by birth, he was brought up for a military life; this he had forsaken to devote himself to clerical pursuits, had arrived in the United States as a Universalist preacher, and had been received with much attention in that capacity in Cincinnati, till he abandoned himself with enthusiasm to the new social system, and made himself openly and publicly known as an Atheist.II.21

I passed the evening with the amiable Mr. M‘Clure, and Madam Fretageot, and became acquainted through them, with a French artist, Mons. Lesueur, calling himself uncle of Miss Virginia, as also a Dutch physician from Herzogenbusch, Dr. Troost, an eminent naturalist. Both are members of the community, and have just arrived from a scientific pedestrian tour to Illinois and the southern part of Missouri, where they have examined the iron, and particularly the lead-mine works, as well as the peculiarities of the different mountains. Mr. Lesueur has besides discovered several species of fish, as yet undescribed. He was there too early in the season to catch many snakes. Both gentlemen had together collected thirteen chests of natural curiosities, which are expected here immediately. Mr. Lesueur accompanied the naturalist Perron, as draftsman in his tour to New South Wales, under Captain Baudin, and possessed all the illuminated designs of the animals which were discovered for the first time on this voyage, upon vellum. This collection is unique of its kind, either as regards the interest of the objects represented, II.123 or in respect to their execution; and I account myself fortunate to have seen them through Mr. Lesueur’s politeness. He showed me also the sketches he made while on his last pedestrian tour, as well as those during the voyage of several members of the society to Mount Vernon, down the Ohio from Pittsburgh. On this voyage, the society had many difficulties to contend with, and were obliged often to cut a path for the boat through the ice. The sketches exhibit the originality of talent of the artist. He had come with Mr. M‘Clure in 1815, from France to Philadelphia, where he devoted himself to the arts and sciences. Whether he will remain long in this society or not, I cannot venture to decide.II.22

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CHAPTER XXII.

Travels to Louisville, and Stay in that City.

On the 21st of April, we left New Harmony, after taking a cordial leave of Mr. Owen, and availed ourselves of the mail stage, which leaves here once a week for Mount Vernon, to make this passage. Besides our company, there was only a single traveller in the stage, a Mr. Riley, from Cincinnati, and a native of Ireland. One mile from New Harmony, we were forced to alight from the carriage, as the horses would not draw us up a steep hill. One-half mile farther, we got out again on account of a similar dilemma, and we had hardly done so, when it was overturned by the unskilfulness of the driver. We unloaded our baggage, left it under the care of Böttner, my servant, permitted the driver to his chagrin and mortification to go on alone, and returned back on foot to New Harmony, to look about for another method of conveyance. I paid a visit to Messrs. M‘Clure, Lesueur, &c. They told me that about ten o’clock a cart under the direction of a Mr. Johnson would leave this place for Mount Vernon, in which our baggage would find a place. As to our own conveyance, I saw plainly that it would be the wiser plan to confide mine to my own trustworthy legs. I assumed therefore the pilgrim’s staff, left my slower moving travelling companions something behind, and accomplished the sixteen miles to Mount Vernon, over a very hilly road, in five hours.

I did not pass through Springfield, saw only two solitary log-houses, II.124 and encountered but few people. The herbage had advanced very much during a week; many trees were in blossom, and the young green leaves, particularly those of the tulip trees, produced a very pleasing effect. I passed by many sugar-maples, which were perforated, to draw the sugar juice from them. When the trees are completely in leaf, the natural scenery of these forests, of which the ground is very hilly, must be extremely beautiful, especially to the eyes of a northern European, who is not accustomed to the grandeur of the colossal sycamores, tulip trees and maples. In noticing these trees, I may add the remark that Mr. Rapp had planted the Lombardy poplar in the streets of New Harmony; that these poplars had succeeded very well at first, but when their roots struck a stratum of reddish sand lying under the good fertile soil, they died. Mr. Rapp then substituted mulberry trees, which have thriven well, and Mr. Owen has it in design, to make an experiment in raising silk-worms.

I reached Mount Vernon, tolerably fatigued, about three o’clock, P. M. I met Dr. Clark again. Mr. Huygens and Mr. Riley made their appearance after some time. Towards evening the expected cart arrived, but without Böttner and my baggage. The carter said in his own excuse, that they had given him so much freight in New Harmony, that his horses could hardly draw it, and that there was no room left for my effects. After having made a survey of the localities in person, I was obliged to admit the cogency of his reasons, in spite of my vexation; and of course to find a remedy in patience.

In this state of affairs, I solaced myself with Major Dunn’s society. He and his countryman Riley, belonged to the better class of Irish, and possessed a good deal of shrewdness, so that the time passed very pleasantly. In the evening we went to the court-house, to hear a Presbyterian preacher, travelling from the eastern states. He was quite a young man, of the name of Stewart, whom I had met in New Harmony; he had, however, only looked about, without announcing himself as a clergyman, probably from his knowing the anti-religious opinions prevailing there. In the little new settled places of the western states, they do not build churches before houses, as is the practice in the north-eastern section, but a dwelling and clearing of land is their first object. Nevertheless, divine service is not lacking; for many clergymen, who are not located, seek after a situation; in so doing are accustomed to preach, where they can be heard. In most of the public houses, and ferry-boats, no pay is required from these clergymen, and thus they can take pretty long journies, the descriptions of which are often published, at a very cheap rate. From the want of a church in Mount Vernon, the II.125 meeting was held in the court-house. It was a temporary log-house, which formed but one room. The chimney fire, and two tallow candles formed the whole illumination of it, and the seats were constructed of some blocks and boards, upon which upwards of twenty people sat. The singing was conducted by a couple of old folks, with rather discordant voices. The preacher then rose, and delivered us a sermon. I could not follow his discourse well, and was very much fatigued by my day’s walk. In his prayer, however, the minister alluded to those who despise the word of the Lord, and prayed for their conviction and conversion. This hint was evidently aimed at the community in New Harmony and the new social system. In the sermon there was no such allusion. Probably the discourse was one of those, which he knew by heart; which he delivered in various places, and admitted of no interpolations. The service lasted till ten o’clock at night.

Unluckily for me, my port-folio also remained behind among my other baggage. I suffered therefore, the whole forenoon of the next day the most excessive tedium, and was obliged to remain in noble idleness. I went to walk in the woods, gaped about at the pretty flowers, and the amazing variety of butterflies; came back, seated myself in Mr. Dunn’s store, and viewed the steam-boats going down the river. At length in the afternoon, Böttner arrived, with my baggage in a one-horse cart, splashed all over with mud, as he had been obliged to lead the restive horse all the way by the bridle. The poor fellow bivouacked in the woods yesterday, from one o’clock in the morning till four in the evening, when by chance the shepherds of New Harmony passed by, and gave Mr. Owen an account of Böttner’s situation, upon which old Dr. M‘Namee had come out with his one-horse vehicle, and brought back the baggage and its guard. By Mr. Owen’s kindness, the cart was on this day sent on, with my effects.

Now my earnest desire was to get away as quickly as possible. To be sure, the splendid view of the Ohio and its banks by the light of the moon, regaled me in the evening; but the residence in this place was too inhospitable and uninteresting; besides I suffered the whole afternoon and evening with tooth-ache, and symptoms of fever. But how were we to get away? During the night a steam-boat passed, going up the river, but she kept to the left bank where the deepest water was, and took no notice of Mount Vernon. About nine o’clock on the 23d of April, another steam-boat, the General Wayne, came up, bound in the same direction. A flag was hoisted, to give notice that passengers wished to come on board, we waved our handkerchiefs, but the vessel did not regard us, and passed on. To kill time, I went II.126 with Mr. Riley to Major Dunn’s store, where we told stories about steam-boats to keep off ennui as well as we could, but in vain. In the evening I heard much concerning Rapp’s society, from a German mechanic, who had belonged to it, and who had left it as he said, because Rapp refused to let him have the inheritance of his father-in-law. We heard psalmody in the court-house, for the religious inhabitants of the place, mostly methodists, hold Sunday evening prayer meetings without a clergyman. The day was upon the whole quite warm, and towards evening we had to contend with numbers of mosquetoes. To prevent in some measure their coming from the woods, where they harboured, fires were kindled about the place, and likewise before the houses. The situation here must be an unhealthy one, for not only was I annoyed during the night with head-ache and fever, but Messrs. Huygens, Riley, and Johnson, complained of being unwell. With the exception of some miserable, filthy lodgings in Canada, I do not recollect in any part of the United States, even among the Creek Indians, to have found myself so wretchedly situated in every respect, as here. The food, furnished in small quantity as it was, was hardly fit to be eaten; the only beverage was water, which it was necessary to mix with ordinary whiskey; the beds very bad; and the whole house in a state of the most revolting filthiness.

On the morning of the 24th of April, came the hour of our deliverance. The steam-boat General Neville came up the river after seven o’clock. We dispatched a boat to tell them that several cabin passengers waited for them in Mount Vernon. Immediately the vessel steered for our shore, and took us in.

We were extremely rejoiced at our escape from this disagreeable place. The boat had come from St. Louis, and was bound for Louisville. She was but small, containing sixteen births in her cabin, and had a high-pressure engine. Luckily, however, we found but three cabin passengers on board. We started immediately, and the banks of the river here and there low and subject to inundation, gratified us very much by the fresh green of the trees. We passed by some considerable islands. One of them, Diamond Island, is about three miles and a half long and above a mile broad, and must contain several thousand acres of excellent land. Afterwards we saw upon the left bank, here pretty high, the little town of Henderson, in Kentucky. Eleven miles and a half higher, we saw Evansville upon an eminence on the right shore, still an inconsiderable place, but busy; it being the principal place in the county of Vandeburg, in the state of Indiana, lying in the neighbourhood of a body of fertile land, and is a convenient landing place for emigrants, who go to the Wabash country. Upon the same shore are seen several dwellings upon the fresh II.127 turf, shaded by high green trees. Close below Evansville, a small river called Big Pigeon creek falls into the Ohio. In its mouth we saw several flat boats, with apparatus similar to pile-driving machines. These vessels belong to a contractor, who has entered into an engagement with the government, to make the Ohio free and clear of the snags and sawyers lying in its current. This work was discharged in a negligent manner, and the officer to whom the superintendence was committed, is censured for having suffered himself to be imposed upon. I remembered having seen models in the patent-office at Washington, of machines which were intended to effect this purpose. Seven miles and a half higher up, Green river unites itself to the Ohio on the left bank. Of this the Western Navigator says: “that it is a considerable river in Kentucky, navigable about two hundred miles, and rises in Lincoln county.” On board our boat we did not find ourselves comfortable, either in respect to lodging, or the table. All was small and confined, and in the evening we were much annoyed by the mosquetoes. My mosqueto bar, purchased in New Orleans, assisted me very much as a defence during the night.

During the night, we stopped several times to take in wood, and once to repair the engine. An overhanging tree, which we approached too nearly, gave us a powerful blow, and did much damage to the upper part of the vessel. I had no state room, and therefore obtained no sleep during the constant uproar. The banks became constantly higher, and more picturesque in their appearance. They were frequently rocky: in several rocks we observed cavities, which with the houses built in front of them, produced a pleasing effect. Upon the right bank, was a little place called Troy; several settlements, composed of frame houses, instead of logs. Towards evening we saw upon the left bank, the mouth of a little stream, Sinking creek. Upon the right shore of this creek, is a group of houses called Rome, and on the left a little place, named Stevensport; both places are united by a wooden bridge, resting upon one high pier. I spent nearly the whole day on deck, to regale myself with the beautiful landscapes surrounding us. Between several turns of the river the country is so shut in, that one would suppose himself sailing on a lake. The agreeable sensations caused by the beautiful country, and the mild spring temperature which surrounded me, upon the whole compensated for many of our privations. We indeed were in want of every thing but absolute necessaries. I met an acquaintance indeed; one of our fellow travellers who had formerly been a clerk of the English North West Company, and had remained three years at the posts of the company in the Rocky Mountains, and on the Columbia river; but this person II.128 had acquired so many of the habits of the savages, that his company was in no wise an acquisition. I was also, as well as all the other gentlemen who had been in that unlucky Mount Vernon, tormented with constant pains in the limbs, and our coarse food was so bad, that it was hardly possible to consume it. There was neither wine nor beer on board, nor any acids, so that water and whiskey, were the beverages to which we were reduced. For many years I had never undergone such gastronomic privations, as in the western parts of America. The Ohio appears to contain many good and well tasted fish, but it seems that the people here prefer the eternal hog meat, and that mostly salted, to every thing else, for until now I had seen no fish in these regions, at least none procured for eating. In the night, we advanced on our voyage without stop or accident.

On the morning of the 26th of April, we saw the mouth of Salt river, which, as the Western Navigator says, is a considerable river of Kentucky, about one hundred and thirty yards wide at its mouth, and navigable one hundred and fifty miles. Twenty miles above this, the little town of New Albany lies on the right bank, which promises to be a flourishing place. It has a factory of steam-engines, which finds good employment here. On the bank, a newly-built steam-boat was lying, waiting for her engine. These engines must be built very strong, proportionably too powerful for the tonnage of the vessel, on account of the stiffness of the current. They of consequence suffer a violent shock from it, and can only be used about three years. An island in the river divides it into two narrow channels, in which there are rapid currents. Above the island is the foot of the Falls of Ohio. At the present high stage of water, the descent does not strike the eye, and vessels are able to pass up or down the river over the falls. Ours, which went no farther up, stopped on the left bank at Shippingport, opposite New Albany, two miles below Louisville.

Shippingport, is an insignificant place, which is supported by the lading and unlading of vessels. We found several hackney coaches, which carried us and our baggage by land to Louisville, where we took up our abode in a large and respectable inn, called Washington Hall, kept by a Mr. Allen. The Western Navigator has the following remarks upon this neighbourhood: “The rapids of the Ohio are, in a natural as well as a political regard, a point well deserving of attention. In low states of the water, they are the termination of navigation by steam-boats, and the last place in the descent of the Ohio, where any considerable impediment occurs in its course. A number of infant towns have already sprung up on both shores of the Ohio, in the neighbourhood of this point, Jefferson, Clarksburg, and New Albany, in II.129 Indiana; Louisville, Shippingport, and Portland, in Kentucky. Among these is Louisville, the principal, with a population of three thousand souls; while new Albany contains about one thousand, Shippingport six hundred, and Jeffersonville five hundred inhabitants; all these are thriving situations. Inclusive of the towns and neighbourhood, there is a population of ten thousand people in this vicinity. In the year 1810, Louisville contained only thirteen hundred and fifty-seven inhabitants; it exceeds beyond a doubt its present estimate of five thousand, and will still increase. It is the seat of justice for Jefferson county, Kentucky, contains a prison, court-house, and the other essential buildings, besides a theatre, three banks, of which one is a branch of the United States Bank, a market, several places of worship, and three printing-offices. Louisville lies in 38° 18’ north latitude, and 5° 42’ west longitude from Washington.”

Louisville, at least the main street of it, running parallel with the Ohio, has a good appearance. This street is rather broad, paved, and provided with foot-walks; it contains brick buildings and several considerable stores. In our hotel, I renewed my acquaintance with Major Davenport, of the sixth regiment of infantry, whom, together with his lady, I had known in Washington, at General Brown’s, and who is here on recruiting duty. It fell out luckily enough, that the post-master here, Mr. Gray, had just married his daughter, and in compliment to her gave a splendid party, to which I received an invitation. I repaired to it with Major Davenport, and found an extremely numerous, and, contrary to my expectations, even an elegant society. It was a real English rout, so full that many of the guests were obliged to remain on the steps. I was introduced to most of the ladies and gentlemen, was forced to talk a good deal, and found myself very much annoyed by the heat prevailing in the rooms. About eleven o’clock, I reached home heartily fatigued.

In former years, when the state of Kentucky was an integral part of Virginia, Louisville consisted of a stockade, built as a protection against the hostile Indian tribes, who then still inhabited the banks of the Ohio. It received its name as a mark of respect for the unfortunate King, Louis XVI. This is attributable to the Canadian traders, who established this post to secure their trade. By degrees white settlers joined them, and thus the town commenced, which at first suffered much from the Indians. It is five hundred and eighty miles distant from Pittsburgh, one hundred and thirty-one from Cincinnati, and thirteen hundred and forty-nine from New Orleans. I took a walk with Major Davenport through the town, and to the new canal. It consists of three streets running parallel with the Ohio, of which only the first or front one is built out completely and paved; and of several II.130 cross streets which cut the former at right angles. It has several churches, tolerably well built; a new one was began, but on rather too large a scale. The pious funds were exhausted; therefore a lodge of freemasons undertook the finishing of this grand house, and kept it for their own use. The canal is destined to light vessels over the Ohio, when they cannot pass the falls on account of low water, and are obliged to discharge their cargo. It is apprehended however, that the money invested in the canal will not yield a great interest, as the time of service, for which the canal is required does not extend beyond three months. During six months of the year the Ohio is so low, that not a solitary boat can navigate it, and when it rises, it becomes so high, that the rocks which produce the rapids are covered, so that vessels can go up and down without danger. The labour on the canal has been commenced about six weeks. The banks in the neighbourhood of the canal are high, and present a beautiful prospect over the rapids, and the adjacent region, which is well cultivated and bounded by woody hills.

A second walk with Major Davenport, was directed to the north side of the town, where several respectable country houses are situated, all built of brick; and then to a handsome wood, through which a causeway runs, which is used by the inhabitants as a pleasure walk. The wood contains very handsome beech trees, sugar maples, sycamores and locust trees, also different species of nut-bearing trees.

The state of Kentucky is involved at this period in considerable confusion. A son of Governor Desha, was arrested on a charge of having robbed and murdered a traveller the year before; was tried and found guilty by two different juries. For the purpose of screening his son, as was reported, the governor had changed the whole court, and filled it anew with his own creatures. There was a prodigious excitement through the state at this arbitrary stroke of authority. It was torn by parties; I was assured that political struggles, often terminating in sanguinary conflicts, were the order of the day; nay, that this division had already given occasion to several assassinations. It is said to be almost as dangerous to speak upon the political relations of the state, as to converse upon religion in Spain.

A merchant from Lexington, Mr. Wenzel, a native of Bavaria, made me acquainted with an architect, Barret, from New York, who has the superintendence over the canal that is going forward. I received some more particular intelligence from this person concerning the work. The expense was estimated at three hundred and seventy-seven thousand dollars. The labour on it began this March, and is to be concluded in the month of November of the following year. The length of the canal II.131 amounts to nearly two miles. It commences below Louisville in a small bay, goes behind Shippingport, and joins the Ohio between that place and Portland. Its descent was reckoned at twenty-four feet. Three locks, each at a distance of one hundred and ninety feet from each other, will be located not far from the mouth near Shippingport, and the difference of level in each will be eight feet. The breadth of the locks was fixed at fifty feet, to admit of the passage of the broadest steam-boat, on which account also the interval from one lock to the other was made one hundred and ninety feet. Above the highest lock on both sides of the canal, dry docks will be constructed for steam-boats to repair in. The sides of the canal are only walled with masonry between the locks. The banks above are in a terrace form. One advantage this canal has, is that the bottom consists of rock; the depth to which it is hewed or blown out, must be throughout fifty feet wide. The rock, however, which is broke out here is a brittle limestone, which is not fit for water masonry, and of course does not answer for locks. The rock employed for this work is a species of blue stone, brought out of the state of Indiana, and a bulk of sixteen square feet, four feet deep, costs four dollars delivered at the canal. To dig this canal out, twenty-seven feet of yellow clay at its thickest part, then seven feet thick of yellow sand; from here fifteen feet thick of blue clay, must be passed through before you come to the rock, where there are ten feet thickness still to be dug away. As for the lock gates, they were to be made only of timber, and none of the improvements introduced in England, either the elliptical form of the gates, or the iron frames were to be employed. Moreover, I observed from the profile of the work, the incredible height of the river, which often raises itself fifty feet over places fordable in the last of summer.

Upon the following day I took a walk with Dr. Croghan and Major Davenport, down the canal to Shippingport, and witnessed the labour in removing the earth for the canal. The soil intended to be dug out, was first ploughed by a heavy plough, drawn by six oxen. Afterwards a sort of scoop drawn by two horses was filled with earth, (and it contained three times as much as an ordinary wheel-barrow,) it was then carried up the slope, where it was deposited, and the scoop was brought back to be filled anew. In this manner much time and manual labour was saved.

Several steam-boats lie at Shippingport, among them was the General Wayne, which had arrived at New Orleans in five days voyage from this place; had stopt there five days on account of unloading, and reloading, and had made her return trip from New Orleans to Louisville in ten days; consequently had moved against the stream one hundred and thirty-five miles daily. II.132 Several hackney coaches waited here from Louisville, expecting the arrival of the steam-boat George Washington, which was looked for every minute. The country is highly romantic. We found ourselves on an eminence upon the bank, where a large substantial warehouse had been built jutting over the river. Before us was the foot of the falls; opposite an island overgrown with wood, to the right the falls, and Louisville in the back ground; to the left on the other shore, New Albany, and all around in the rear, a green forest of the finest trees.

On our return we passed by a large deserted brick building. It is called the Hope Distillery, and was established by a company of speculators to do business on a large scale. After the company had invested about seventy thousand dollars, several of the stockholders stopped payment. One of them procured the whole at auction for three thousand dollars, and would now let any one have it for less. In the year 1817, the desire to buy land and build upon it, had risen to a mania in this place. Dr. Croghan showed me a lot of ground, which he had then purchased for two thousand dollars, and for which, at present, no one would hardly offer him seven hundred. He has hired a German gardener, who has laid out a very pretty vegetable garden on this spot, which will yield considerable profit by his industrious management.

Dr. Ferguson, a physician here, carried us to the hospital. This edifice lies insulated upon a small eminence. The building was commenced several years ago, and is not yet finished. The state of Kentucky gave the ground as a donation, and bears a part of the expenses of building. As the establishment is principally used for the reception of sick seamen, congress has given the hospital a revenue from the custom-house in New Orleans. The hospital consists of a basement story, three stories above, and wings, which each have a basement and two stories. In the basement of the centre building, are the kitchen, wash-house, the store-rooms, &c., and in the upper story, the chamber for the meeting of the directors, the apothecary’s room, the steward’s dwelling, and the state rooms for patients paying board and lodging. In the third story a theatre for surgical operations will be arranged. In the wings are roomy and well aired apartments for the white patients, and in the basement, those for the negroes and coloured persons. Slavery is still permitted in Kentucky. There has been until now only one apartment habitable, in which twelve patients are lying. These have cleanly beds, but only wooden bedsteads. When the building is thoroughly finished, it will contain at least one hundred and fifty persons with comfort. Such an establishment is extremely necessary for such a place as Louisville, which is very unhealthy in summer.

II.133

I made with Major Davenport an excursion into the country, to the very respectable country-seat, Locust Grove, six miles from Louisville, belonging to Dr. Croghan and a younger brother, and inherited from their father. Close by the town we crossed a small stream, which falls here into the Ohio, and is called Bear Grass creek. This serves the keel and flat boats as a very safe harbour. From the bridge over this, the road goes several miles through a handsome wood on the banks of the Ohio, past country-seats, and well cultivated fields, behind which fine looking hills arose. The wood consisted mostly of sycamores. We observed five that sprung from one root; two are quite common. The trees are very thick. We measured the bulk of the thickest sycamore, and found it twenty-seven feet four inches in circumference. I never recollect to have seen such a mammoth tree. Locust Grove itself lies about a mile from the river, and is, as appears from its name, surrounded by those trees. We found here the doctor, his brother William Croghan, with his young wife, a native of Pittsburgh, and a fat, lovely little boy, who strikingly reminded me of my sons.

At a party in the house of Mr. Use, a rich merchant and president of the branch of the United States Bank here, we met a very numerous and splendid society. Cotillions and reels were danced to the music of a single violin, and every thing went off pleasantly. We remained till midnight, and the company were still keeping up the dance, when we left them.

Dr. Ferguson was very much occupied in vaccination. The natural small-pox had made its appearance within a few days, under a very malignant form, in the town. On this account every one had their children vaccinated as speedily as possible; even those who were prejudiced against vaccination. In the evening, I went with Major and Mrs. Davenport to the house of Mrs. Wilson, to tea, whose daughter, fifteen years of age, had been married above a month. The young females marry much too early here, quite as early as in Louisiana.

There were two pieces represented at the theatre for the benefit of a Mrs. Drake; Man and Wife, a favourite English drama, and a farce called Three Weeks after Marriage. We were present on this occasion. The proscenium is very small; a confined pit, a single row of boxes, and a gallery. It was well filled; as Mrs. Drake was very much a favourite with the ladies here, all the boxes were full of the fashionables of the place. The dramatic corps was very ordinary with the exception of Mrs. Drake. Most of the actors were dressed very badly, had not committed their parts, and played in a vulgar style. One actor was so intoxicated, that he was hardly able to keep his legs.

I was furthermore witness to a revolting spectacle in Louisville, II.134 from which I escaped as quick as I was able. A pregnant mulatto woman was offered for sale at public auction, with her two children. The woman stood with her children on a bench at a coffee-house; the auctioneer standing by her side, indulged himself in brutal jests upon her thriving condition, and sold her for four hundred dollars!

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CHAPTER XXIII.

Cincinnati, interior of the State of Ohio.—Pittsburgh, in Pennsylvania.

On the 30th of April I was very agreeably surprised by a visit from Colonel Wool, returning from an inspection on the Red river, the Arkansas, and New Orleans: he had ascended the stream in the steam-boat Washington, and arrived in the night at Shippingport. Being on his return to Washington, he took his passage on board the steam-boat Atlanta, for Pittsburgh. As this boat stopped at Cincinnati, whither it was my intention to go, I immediately concluded upon continuing my journey in the same boat, to enjoy as long as possible the society of so estimable a friend. We went on board between ten and eleven. The Atlanta was crowded with passengers, but we were fixed very comfortably and neatly. The greater part of the passengers were from Natchez, who came with the intention of spending the summer in the healthier northern states. Among them was Major Chotard, who was going with his family to New York, whence he intended to embark for France; and Abbé Martial, a Frenchman, who had kept a boarding-school in New Orleans for a long time, and was at that time employed by the Bishop of Kentucky in Bairdstown, on whose account he was to travel in France and Italy.

Our trip up the river was very pleasant. The weather was fine; the shores of the Ohio became more and more interesting the higher we ascended the stream. In the afternoon, we perceived on the right shore the little town of Madison, situated on an eminence. It appeared to be in a flourishing condition, and contained many brick houses; a multitude of well-dressed persons were standing on the shore. Towards evening we passed the mouth of the Kentucky river on the left shore. The Kentucky river, according to the Western Navigator, is a beautiful river in Kentucky. It originates in the Cumberland mountains, II.135 is two hundred miles in length, one hundred and fifty of which are navigable. Its mouth is one hundred and sixty yards broad, and proves to be an excellent harbour for boats. The town occupies a very pretty situation; above its mouth, and farther down lies Prestonville. The flourishing town of Frankfort, the seat of government, is situated about sixty miles from the mouth of the river. The former is five hundred and twenty-four and a half miles distant from Pittsburgh, fifty-seven and a half from Cincinnati, and fifty-five and a half from Louisville. Shortly after leaving Louisville, we were followed by another steam-boat called the General Marion, towards evening it reached, and wanted to pass us; a race took place, which discomposed us considerably, and became dangerous to a high degree. The boilers, being soon over-heated, might have burst and occasioned a great disaster; during this time we were so close together, that the railing, as well as the roofs of the wheels knocked against each other. The danger increased as night drew on, and particularly so as there were a great number of ladies on board, who were crying in a most piteous manner. One of them conducted herself most distractedly; she fell into hysteric fits, wanted to throw herself in the water on the opposite side of the boat, and could scarcely be prevented by three strong men. The heating of the boilers of the General Marion had been so violent, that they ran short of wood, and to their great confusion, and our extreme satisfaction, they were not only left behind, but were overtaken by the slow steam-boat Ohio: thus the Atlanta obtained a brilliant victory. Ten miles above the mouth of the Kentucky river on the right shore, is the little town of Vevay, built and inhabited by Switzers. They planted vineyards, which it is said give them a good revenue. I regretted very much that we passed them by night, and thus were deprived of the view of Vevay. On the left shore is a small village called Ghent, in honour of the treaty concluded in that city, in Flanders. I regretted not to have been able to visit that place, if only on account of the name. Without farther accident we went on the whole night, and next morning found ourselves opposite to the mouth of the Great Miami, which joins the Ohio from the right shore. This stream forms the boundary between the states of Indiana and Ohio, and the Western Navigator makes the following observation concerning it. “The Great Miami is a considerable river, which takes its sources in Allen, Logan, Shelby, Merion, and Drake counties. It runs southerly through Miami and Montgomery counties, and receives in the last two considerable rivers, on the left the Mad river, and on the right the south-west fork. On entering Butler county the Miami takes a south-westerly direction, and flows into the Ohio at the south-west corner of this state, and the north-east one of Indiana. Its course is one hundred and twenty II.136 miles. Its sources situated between 40° and 41° lat. are in the vicinity of the Massassinaway, a branch of the Wabash, the Auglaize and St. Mary’s, which are branches of the Maumée and the Sciota, its course is in general rapid, but without any considerable falls, and runs through a large and fertile valley which is partly submerged by high water. Near Dayton, about seventy-five miles from its mouth, the Miami receives on the east side the Mad river; from this place boats carrying three and four thousand barrels, may run into the Ohio during high water. The trial of ascending Mad river is seldom made, the stream being too rapid and there being a great many sand-banks and dams. The Miami has a diameter of one hundred and fifty yards during forty miles. ” 

We found the shores of the Ohio well cultivated, with orchards and Indian corn: we observed several very pretty country-seats. These shores are mostly elevated, and at the distance of about a mile we could perceive a chain of hills covered with woods, which made a fine prospect. Towards ten o’clock in the morning we reached Cincinnati, four hundred and forty-nine miles from Pittsburgh, one hundred and thirty-one from Louisville, and fourteen hundred and eighty from New Orleans. It is situated on the right shore of the Ohio, and built at the foot of a hill, which is surrounded by a half circle of higher hills covered with forests. This city presents a very fine aspect. The hills on the opposite side likewise form a half circle, and in this manner the hill on which Cincinnati is built, lies as it were in a basin. On the left shore, the Licking river flows into the Ohio. This, says the Western Navigator, is a considerable river in Kentucky, which, originating not far from the sources of the Cumberland and running about two hundred miles in a north-westerly direction, flows into the Ohio opposite Cincinnati. The towns of Newport and Covington, the former immediately above, and the latter below the mouth of Licking river, are beautifully situated in Campbell county, Kentucky: Newport contains a military depot of the United States. The shores near Cincinnati are rather steep, and to render the loading and unloading of boats more convenient, they are paved and provided with rings and chains of iron.

Before we could land, the health officers came on board to seek information respecting the health of the passengers, as great fears were entertained in Cincinnati of the small-pox, which was raging in Louisville. We took lodgings at Mack’s, a good hotel, near the shore. Shortly after our arrival, I took a walk in town with Colonel Wool and Major Foster, of the sixth regiment, who came here to recruit. We visited some bookstores. The town contains about fifteen thousand inhabitants, and consists mostly of brick houses. Some of the streets run parallel with the Ohio, and others form a right-angle with them, which makes them very regular; they are wide, well-paved, and have II.137 side-walks. Those streets which cross in the direction of the river, ascend and lead to the top of the hill, from which there is a view resembling a panorama. Here they were building a large Catholic cathedral, which was commenced during the last year, and would probably be finished the next: it will be an ornament to the city. The Bishop, Mr. Fenwick, had been travelling for some years past in the Catholic countries of Europe, and had collected considerable contributions for the construction of this cathedral. The old cathedral, a modest wooden building, stands yet in the rear of the new one; it is to be demolished when the former is finished. Cincinnati was settled in the year 1788, round an old fort, called Washington. The first settlers came from New England. The settlement did not succeed until 1794, when General Wayne subdued the Indians. In 1815, it contained six thousand five hundred, in 1818, about nine thousand, and in 1826, about fifteen thousand. Cincinnati is the most important city of the western states. There are two Presbyterian, two Methodist, one Episcopal, one Baptist, one Swedenborg, and one Quaker church, and the Catholic cathedral. There are three markets, and several museums. We visited the principal one, called the Western Museum, but did not meet with any thing new: several Indian dresses, weapons, pipes, a human scalp, a dried human head from the South Sea Islands, the head of an Egyptian mummy, manuscripts on papyrus from the sarcophagus of the mummies, several ancient and modern coins, the last consisting mostly of foreign gold coins, and some objects of natural history; a handsome collection of birds, many of them European, several quadrupeds, some minerals, as well as an indifferent collection of butterflies. We also saw some oil paintings,II.23 scarcely worth mentioning, and finally some show-boxes.

To my great regret, Colonel Wool left us this day, to continue his journey up the river, on board the Atlanta. Having seen on the map of the city of Cincinnati, the indication of some Indian mounds, I went in search of them, but was unsuccessful, for the very good reason that the hills had been demolished and in their place houses built. After this I called on Bishop Fenwick, but he was not at home. I here met with a clergyman who was a native of Hildesheim, his name was Rese, who was educated in the Propaganda in Rome. This man showed me the old and new cathedral. The former is built of wood, resembling a German village church; in its interior the splendid episcopal seat is particularly distinguished. The altar had but few ornaments with II.138 the exception of four silver chandeliers which the Queen of Etruria gave to Bishop Fenwick for his church, and a gilded tabernacle a gift from Pope Pius VII. In the sacristy there were no ornaments, with the exception of two gilded frames with relics. The new cathedral is a spacious and lofty building: they were building the choir, in which an organ made in Pittsburgh was to be placed. There was to be a large vault under the altar, destined for the sepulture of the bishops and clergymen. The church had not as yet any bells, with respect to these, the clergy expected some contributions from Italy. The vicar-general of the bishop was Abbé Hill,II.24 he had formerly been a captain in the British service, and having become a Catholic while in Italy, entered the Dominican order. He was said to be a good orator.

Deer creek runs into the Ohio above the town—two wooden bridges lead over it. This brook was very inconsiderable, and could be leaped over, but it was evident from its steep shores that it swelled sometimes to a great height. On the other side of this creek is the highest hill in the vicinity. From its summit there is a delightful prospect over the city and valley, the centre of which it occupies. This view, even in Europe, would be considered as very handsome. I found on the top a great quantity of reddish limestone with shells, an evident proof that this part of the country was formerly covered by the sea. Among the gentlemen who favoured me with their visits, I remember a General Neville, from Pittsburgh, whose father had been adjutant to General La Fayette during the revolutionary war. Mr. Symmes,II.25 brother of Captain Symmes, author of the theory that our planet is hollow and inhabited, drew very well, and had collected the likenesses of all the persons visiting Cincinnati who had interested him: he had the kindness to include my portrait in his collection. Some of these gentlemen conducted me to see the remains of Indian antiquities which are yet existing, but which could scarcely be recognized. We ascended an Indian mound, which is about thirty feet high, situated in a garden. One part of it had been cut off, but nothing being found in it, they began to plant it with trees. I had resolved on travelling in the interior of the state of Ohio, in order to convince myself of the condition of this country, which has been inhabited but thirty years by a white population. I therefore renounced the comfortable travelling on the Ohio for the inconvenient passage by land. To be enabled to travel at my leisure, I hired a carriage with four horses, at six dollars per day, and left Cincinnati on the 3rd of May, at eleven o’clock, A. M. We rode that day twenty-one miles, to the II.139 lodgings of the governor, Mr. Morrow, to whom I had letters from Governor Johnson, of New Orleans. The road led through a hilly and well-cultivated country. The fields separated by worm fences adjoin each other, and contain good dwelling-houses and barns. Their extensive orchards mostly contain apple and peach trees. I had not seen before any place in the United States in so high a state of cultivation. But alas! the rain had made the roads so muddy, that it was with difficulty we proceeded. Fourteen miles from Cincinnati we reached a little country town, Montgomery, of very good appearance, surrounded with handsome fields. A few years past there were nothing but woods here, as the roots which still exist bear testimony. They cultivate Indian corn and wheat, which is said to succeed better here than in the state of Indiana. The dwelling of the governor consists of a plain frame house, situated on a little elevation not far from the shore of the little Miami, and is entirely surrounded by fields. The business of the state calls him once a month to Columbus, the seat of government, and the remainder of his time he passes at his country-seat, occupied with farming, a faithful copy of an ancient Cincinnatus; he was engaged at our arrival in cutting a wagon pole, but he immediately stopt his work to give us a hearty welcome. He appeared to be about fifty years of age; is not tall, but thin and strong, and has an expressive physiognomy, with dark and animated eyes. He is a native of Pennsylvania, and was one of the first settlers in the state of Ohio. He offered us a night’s lodging at his house, which invitation we accepted very thankfully. When seated round the chimney fire in the evening, he related to us a great many of the dangers and difficulties the first settlers had to contend with. They suffered mostly from the Delawares, the Indians then living there. They had to place their houses in a state of defence. There are at present scarcely any Indians in the state of Ohio, and it is not now necessary for the inhabitants to guard their crops and cattle, or to tremble for their lives. The governor told us that the increase of population in the state of Ohio was almost incredible. In the year 1800, it amounted to two hundred thousand inhabitants, in 1810, between four and five hundred thousand, in 1820, about eight hundred thousand, and it is to be expected that at the next census of 1830, it will pass one million. Very few of the settlers brought any thing with them, it was therefore necessary that they should do every thing by their industry and exertion. The state had not yet been able to undertake any public works, roads, &c. The two canals which were constructing, were the first great work which they had attempted. We spent our evening with the governor and his lady. Their children are settled, and they have with them only a couple II.140 of grandchildren. When we took our seats at supper, the governor made a prayer. There was a bible and several religious books lying on the table. After breakfasting with our hospitable host, we took our leave at nine o’clock, and rode fifteen miles to Union Village, a settlement of the Shakers. The road was again hilly, and the country as well cultivated as that we saw yesterday; we passed through a country town of good appearance, Lebanon, which lies only four miles from the Shaker Village.

Towards three o’clock, P. M. we reached Union Village, and as the Shakers do not allow any taverns nor public houses, we were received with great hospitality into one of their private dwellings; we had a clean and very nice apartment. Soon after our arrival, we were visited by a great number of the brothers, who looked at us in a very scrutinizing manner, and asked us a great many questions. The inquisitiveness of these people resembles very much that of the monks, to whom they bear a strong resemblance. I remarked among them two old persons named M‘Naman and Houston, on account of their sensible conversation; they had formerly been Presbyterian clergymen, and are now a sort of church-wardens to the congregation. This sect consists of six hundred members, and is of more recent origin than the one in the state of New York, containing mostly people of limited fortune. It had to contend in the commencement with great difficulties, and was not in so flourishing a condition as the one in New Lebanon. The produce of their labours is scarcely sufficient for their wants, they have therefore not been able as yet to establish stores, which are so productive to their fellow believers in New Lebanon. Their houses are good and clean, they are almost all of brick, and distant from each other. Each house has a stone staircase leading to two doors, separated only by a window. The right one is for the men, and the left for the females or sisters, and so the right side of the house is destined for the brothers and the left for the sisters. In the rear of the dwelling-houses, some of which contain sixty members, there is a separate building for the kitchen and dining-room, and for the workshops. The houses are surrounded with sods, over these boards are laid leading to the pumps, stables, wash-houses, &c.; along the side-walk and the road through the village, there are also boards for the pedestrian. At six o’clock in the evening, the members take supper in the adjacent refectories; I was permitted to look at them. Two long tables were covered on each side of the room, behind the tables were benches, in the midst of the room was a cupboard. At a signal given with a horn, the brothers entered the door to the right, and the sisters the one to the left, marching two and two to the table. The sisters in waiting, to the number of six, came at the same time from the kitchen and ranged themselves II.141 in one file opposite the table of the sisters. After which they all fell on their knees making a silent prayer, then arose, took hold of the benches behind them, sat down and took their meal in the greatest silence. I was told this manner was observed at all their daily meals. They eat bread, butter and cakes, and drank tea. Each member found his cup filled before him—the serving sisters filling them when required. One of the sisters was standing at the cupboard to pour out the tea—the meal was very short, the whole society rose at once, the benches were put back, they fell again on their knees, rose again, and wheeling to the right, left the room with a quick step. I remarked among the females some very pretty faces, but they were all without exception of a pale and sickly hue. They were disfigured by their ugly costume, which consists of a white starched bonnet. The men likewise had bad complexions. During the whole evening I was visited by the brothers, by whom I was completely examined; among them were two Frenchmen of the name of Conchon, father and son, who told me they were very well satisfied. The son had perfectly adopted the humble manner of the monks, did not open his eyes, and in explaining the principles of their sect according to the bible, he maintained that they were the only Christian sect who followed the true spirit of the gospel. Respecting their political regulations, they are entirely founded on perfect community of goods, and renunciation of all private property; they live in a perfect equality. It will be found that Mr. Owen has borrowed the greater part of the laws of his new social system from the Shakers, with this difference, that the Shakers are united by the tie of religion, and the hope of a better life, which is entirely disbelieved by Owen.

It is known that a part of the worship of the believers in mother Ann Lee, as the Shakers call themselves, consists in dancing. The bible gives us several examples of worship by dancing—king David danced before the ark. Mother Ann Lee, founder of this sect, taught that God should not only be worshipped with the tongue but with the whole body, and in consequence she introduced jumping and dancing in her divine service. This is practised publicly in church, accompanied by the singing of hymns composed for the purpose—strangers are admitted as spectators. Their church consists of a plain and spacious room, but not near so large as the church at New Lebanon. On the mornings and evenings during the week, there are private dancing prayers in the dwelling houses. The walls of the rooms of the brothers and sisters consists of large folding doors, which, when opened, form with the corridor one large room, in which they dance and jump. Our presence putting them under some restraint, there was no dancing in the evening, which was a great disappointment II.142 to us. Delicacy prevented my inquiring after the dance. At nine o’clock in the evening every one retired. I was shown to a very good and clean room.

The following day, 5th May, several brothers called upon me. Among them was a German, the only one belonging to this sect. His name was Christian Bockholder, a native of Neuwied on the Rhine. He is a small, weakly man, who was converted to this sect but six years ago, and who seemed much pleased, particularly with the good order, tranquillity, and peace, which reigns among them; but he observed that this life not suiting every one, it was necessary to try it carefully before becoming a member; he had lived six months among them before being received. Finally he remarked, that notwithstanding every one was free to leave the society when he thought proper, it would be very wrong to do so, as when once accustomed to it he would be utterly unfit for the world. At nine o’clock, when we left Union Village, they, to our surprise, refused to receive either pay or presents, and nothing now remained but to return verbal thanks for their hospitality, after which we parted. We rode twenty-six miles to Xenia, a small country town, where we arrived after five o’clock, P. M.

We rode through a very fine and cultivated country, which originally consisted of woods. We saw at least every five hundred paces with an habitation or some fields. Those forests which still remain, are chiefly composed of oak, ash, sugar-maple, plane, shumac, and dogwood trees; the latter bears handsome white flowers. I did not find the vegetation so much advanced as in the states of Indiana and Kentucky. We suffered very much from the bad roads, a greater part of which were log causeways. I walked a great part of the way. We forded several little rivulets and creeks, among them the Little Miami; we found a tree laid across without a rail, intended as a bridge. At several of these we saw some flour and saw-mills, and passed several small and new settlements, with neat brick houses and large barns. The handsomest is Bellbrook. Xenia, where we found a good tavern, is situated very agreeably. The streets are large, and cross each other at right angles: most of the houses are of brick, and are situated at a certain distance from each other. The number of inhabitants is about eight hundred, who farm and carry on different trades. This little place has two printing-offices, a Latin school, and several stores. In the centre of the town is the court-house, built of brick. Xenia is the chief town of Green county. Next to it is a massive jail. In an excursion we made the following day, May 6th, I remarked one of the machines for preparing flax, of which I bought a copyright at the patent-office in Washington. It was worked by a single horse, and did the work of five men, besides which the flax does not require any rotting. II.143 After nine o’clock we departed, and rode eighteen miles to Springfield. We stopped on our way at a small village, Yellow Springs, to see the spring from which this place derives its name. The village occupies a woody elevation on the shore of the Little Miami, rushing through a deep rocky valley. The place is small, and was bought by a society of twelve gentlemen, under the direction of Mr. Lowndes, a friend of Mr. M‘Clure. These gentlemen intended to found a sect upon Owen’s system; there had been one established here previously, but dissolved on account of the majority of them being worthless creatures, who had brought neither capital, nor inclination to work. Mr. Lowndes, whose acquaintance I made, said that he expected new and better members. The locality is healthy and favourable for such an establishment. The spring originates in a limestone rock, the water has a little taste of iron, and deposits a great quantity of ochre, from which it takes its name. The spring is said to give one hundred and ten gallons of water per minute, which is received in a basin, surrounded with cedar trees. The yellow stream which comes from the basin, runs a short distance over a bed of limestone and is afterwards precipitated into the valley. These limestone rocks form very singular figures on the edge of this valley; the detached pieces resemble the Devil’s Wall of the Hartz.

They had no baths fitted up, as yet there is only a shower-bath. The former will most probably be established, when it becomes a place of public resort. Mr. Lowndes told me that it was their intention to take more water in, and to have some walks established in the vicinity, to which the surrounding country is very favourable. Following Mr. Lowndes’ advice, we took a roundabout way of one mile and rode to a saw-mill called Patterson’s mill, to see the lesser falls of the Little Miami. I had no reason to repent it, as I was richly rewarded with one of the finest prospects I ever beheld. The Little Miami forces itself for the length of a mile with most singular windings through a rocky dale at least fifty feet deep, which in many places is but eighteen feet wide, it forms little cataracts, and suddenly disappears for a short distance. Large cedar trees shade this precipice, which makes it very gloomy, and contribute in a great measure to the peculiarity of this imposing scene of nature. The rocks are very steep, and are connected by a bridge, on which one looks from the dizzy precipice into a real abyss. Following a narrow path, I went down to the water and found myself almost in obscurity. I felt entirely separated from the world, and was scarcely able to preserve the consciousness of my own existence. I experienced a peculiar feeling on again perceiving the day-light. Following the course of the rushing II.144 waters I reached Patterson’s saw-mill, where the men working for their daily bread, recalled me to human life. Near the saw-mill a dam forms an artificial waterfall, making a very handsome effect, being about twenty feet high. The saw-mill has a horizontal water-mill of the same description as those which I had previously seen in the United States. With a strong fall of water these wheels have more effect, and are cheaper than those used in other countries. The road from the mill to Springfield was bad, mostly by causeways, and I was again compelled to walk a greater part of the way. Springfield is the chief town of Clark county, and lies partly at the foot of a hill and partly upon it, at the confluence of two creeks, the shores are so marshy that I believe it would be possible to cut turf there. The town contains fifteen hundred inhabitants, nearly all the houses are built of brick, the streets are wide and right-angled, they are not paved; the principal street has a side-walk of brick. In the centre of this little town is a court-house built of brick, and having the form of an octagon; next to it stands a jail. The place is surrounded with orchards, meadows and well cultivated fenced fields. A chain of hills end in a point behind the town, not far from the confluence of both creeks. On this point are four insulated hills, which are said to be Indian mounds, three stand on the edge of one of the creeks, and at some distance is the fourth, which is quite detached from the others. The latter is the highest, its elevation is more than one hundred feet above the level of the valley; from this hill the eye commands a view over Springfield, the whole surrounding valley, the union of both valleys and the woody heights encircling the whole, there are clusters of blooming and high black thorn bushes growing in the meadows, which produce a good effect. This place seems to be opulent, it contains several good stores, and depends chiefly on the breeding of cattle and agriculture. We were very comfortably lodged at the inn at which we stopped.

On the 7th of May, at nine o’clock, we left Springfield on a beautiful Sunday morning, and curiosity had assembled a crowd of people before our inn, to gaze at such wonders as we were. We went twenty-three miles on the road to Columbus, until we arrived at a single tavern, called Pike’s. The country was less cultivated than we had seen since leaving Cincinnati; we saw however, several fine orchards and fields; all the settlements are new, and the habitations mostly consist of log-houses; we met several carts filled with well-dressed