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Title: A Literary and Historical Atlas of Asia

Author: J. G. Bartholomew

Release Date: September 30, 2012 [EBook #40900]

Language: English

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Transcriber's Note:

Obvious typographical errors have been corrected. Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation in the original document have been preserved.

Manus Island, page 202. No location named. Should probably be East Indies.

Gulf of Kas, page 195. Missing longitude.

Fitze-long Bay, page 187. Wrong map coordinates.

The Index lists Dharmapuri, Diggi, Kang-ping and Radhan as having Glossary entries which do not exist.

Alternative spellings of Ibn Batuta include Batutu, Batatu, and Batouka.

Inconsistencies between latitude and longitude in the Index and the Glossary have been left as printed, including Ajmere, Bahera, Bitlis, Carmel, the Dead Sea, Deogarh, Dharwar, Diarbekr, Dondra Head, Elichpur, Hugli, Kagoshima, and Kamagawa.

EVERYMAN'S LIBRARY
EDITED BY ERNEST RHYS

REFERENCE

A LITERARY AND
HISTORICAL ATLAS
OF ASIA

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New York: E. P. DUTTON & CO.

Frontpiece A

TO
THE
WISE MAN
ALL THE
WORLD'S
A SOIL

BEN JONSON

Frontpiece B

A LITERARY &
HISTORICAL
ATLAS OF
ASIA


J G. BARTHOLOMEW LL.D


LONDON: PUBLISHED
by J·M·DENT & SONS LTD
AND IN NEW YORK
BY E·P·DUTTON & CO

INTRODUCTION

vii

Fourth in the series of special atlases designed for "Everyman's Library" the present volume deals with the countries of Asia, whose history and geography, and whose possibilities, great and grave, are alike reflected in the maps and charts that follow. When Queen Elizabeth granted to certain merchants of London a charter that gave them a roving commission to trade in the East Indies, she could not foresee the immense developments that were to rise from that adventurous commerce between east and west. The successive maps of India with their frontier changes mark the gradual advance of an old world toward the new one knit by powerful mutual ties to the Isle of Britain; and recently we have seen what it is to be hoped will open a greater era for those regions, marked by a return to the old capital of Delhi, and a resuming of ancient rites which first gained their symbolism in those lands.

But Asia, as Japan has taught us and as China will undoubtedly teach us again, has her own destiny to bear out, apart from our European interests and politics; and it is in that aspect we need to study her on the lines laid down and made clear and positive in this volume. It is not the military records, the charts of mutinies and battle-fields, interesting as they are, which are alone important; but those showing the conditions, physical and climatic, of the country; the dispersion of the tongues, the sites of the old religions, the wealth and tillage of the earth with its fruits, grain and minerals, its rice fields and tea plantations; the prevalence of rain, sun and trade-winds; and the course of the sea-roads that affect its human and industrial life.

A gazetteer does not always seem to the ordinary man a very entertaining thing, but in this of Asia its compiler, Miss Grant, has tried to mark in brief, close compacted in small type, the place-associations, historical and other, that give life to the names of town or country. She has related them to the books that have dealt with them, and the events they have witnessed: given Ning-po its allusion to Marco Polo's travels, and Madras its San Thomé pedigree, connected Palmyra with Tamerlane, viii and Puri, Bengal, with the gold tooth of the Buddha and the Temple of Vishnu's incarnation. In the Brief Survey of the Coins and Coinage, Mr. J. Allan (of the Coins and Medal Department, British Museum) has traced the record from Lydia, six centuries and more B.C., to our own time. His notes on the Phoenician coins—"tetradrachms of Tyre with a dolphin or the god Melkart riding on a sea-horse," or an owl with a crook and a flail (Egyptian royal symbols); or the double shekels of Sidon with a galley, sails, or oars, before a walled city on one side, and a king of Persia on the other—show how much of history a set of coins, apparently so secretive, may hide in their silver and gold impressions.

In this Asian Atlas, of small dimensions as it requires to be to fit its pocket, Irkutsk in the north, "far Mandalay," the details of the East and West Indies, the route of Marco Polo, coasts like the Carnatic, towns like Lucknow and Cawnpore, Lhasa, "the Forbidden City" of Tibet, and Matsuye, the old capital of Idzumo, which Lafcadio Hearn describes, all have their record. It remains to be said, that as in other volumes of the same set, Dr. Bartholomew of Edinburgh has acted as cartographer; and the editor and publishers wish to acknowledge his large practical aid in the design of the atlas. Also, they owe a word of thanks to Mr. William Foster of the India Office for his expert advice.

Finally, they wish to dedicate the volume to the people and the princes of India, Japan, and the other countries of which it is a memorial, believing in their great future.

E. R.

CONTENTS

ix

COLOURED MAPS

  PAGE

The World according to Hecatæus, B.C. 500

1

The World according to Eratosthenes, B.C. 220

2

Quadrans Habitabilis according to Abu Rihan Birunensis, A.D. 1030

3

Egyptian Empire, B.C. 1450

4

Babylonian Empire, B.C. 560

5

Persian Empire at its greatest Extent, 525 B.C.

6, 7

Empire of Alexander the Great, 325 B.C.

8, 9

Asia Minor

10, 11

Palestine, Old Testament

12

Palestine, New Testament

13

Asia, Early Explorers

14, 15

Asia, Thirteenth Century

16

Asia, about 1740

17

India, 1705

18

India, 1765

19

India, 1805

20

India, 1857

21

The Far East, 1800

22, 23

Russian Advances in Central Asia

24, 25

The World on Mercator's Projection. Showing Routes to Asia

26, 27

Asia—Orographical

28
 

River Basins

29
 

January Temperature

30
 

July Temperature

31
 

January Rainfall

32
 

July Rainfall

33
 

Mean Annual Rainfall

34
 

Vegetation

35
 

Races

36
 

Religions

37
 

Population

38
 

Political

39

Economic Map of Asia on Mercator's Projection

40, 41

Trade Routes of Asia on Mercator's Projection

42, 43

Turkey in Asia, Arabia, Persia, Afghanistan, and Baluchistan

44, 45 x

Asia Minor, Syria, etc.

46, 47

Suez Canal

48

Aden

49

Orographical Central Asia, with Indian Frontiers

50, 51

Indian Empire

52, 53

Products of India

54, 55

Bombay, Berar, and part of Central India

56, 57

Punjab, Sind, Rajputana, Kashmir, etc.

58, 59

United and Central Provinces, Bengal, Assam, etc.

60, 61

Madras, Haidarabad, Mysore, and Ceylon

62, 63

Environs of Bombay

64

Environs of Calcutta

65

Orographical Farther India

66

Burma

67

Malay States

68, 69

Siam and Indo-China

70, 71

The Far East, Economic

72, 73

East Indies

74, 75

Java

76

Philippine Islands

77

Island of Singapore

78

Hong-Kong

79

China and Japan

80, 81

Northern China

82, 83

Southern China

84, 85

Environs of Peking and Shanghai

86

Environs of Hong-Kong and Manila

87

Japan

88, 89

Korea and Manchuria

90

Central Japan

91

Environs of Tokio

92

Environs of Port-Arthur and Nagasaki

93

Siberia

94, 95

Environs of Vladivostok

96
 

A BRIEF SURVEY OF THE COINAGES OF ASIA, From the Earliest Times to the Present Day, by J. Allan, M.A., M.R.A.S.

97

LINE MAPS

xi

  PAGE
Battle of Sirangapatam, February 1792130
Battle of Assaye, September 1803131
Battle of Meanee, February 1843131
Battle of Aliwal, January 1846132
Battle of Sobraon, February 1846132
Indian Mutiny, showing Distribution of Troops, May 1857133
Aryan Languages of India134
Non-Aryan Languages of India135
Sites of Ancient Indian Temples136, 137
Military Divisions of India138
Delhi139
Lucknow140
Cawnpore141
Lahore142
Rangoon143
Lhasa, "The Forbidden City"144
   
A Gazetteer of Towns and Places in Asia having an Historic Interest145
   
Index173

1

The World according to Hecataeus

THE WORLD according to HECATÆUS
B.C. 500

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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2

The World
According To
Eratosthenes

THE WORLD
according to
ERATOSTHENES
B.C. 220

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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3

Quadrans Habitabilis According To Abu Rihan Birunensis

QUADRANS HABITABILIS
according to
ABU RIHAN BIRUNENSIS
A.D. 1030

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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4

Egyptian Empire

EGYPTIAN EMPIRE
B.C. 1450

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5

Babylonian Empire

BABYLONIAN EMPIRE
B.C. 560

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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6-7

Persian Empire

PERSIAN EMPIRE
AT ITS GREATEST EXTENT
525 B.C.

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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8-9

Empire of Alexander the Great

EMPIRE OF
ALEXANDER THE GREAT
325 B.C.

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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10-11

Asia Minor

ASIA MINOR

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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12

Palestine, Old Testament

PALESTINE
OLD TESTAMENT

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13

Palestine, New Testament

PALESTINE
NEW TESTAMENT

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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14-15

Asia Early Explorers

ASIA
EARLY EXPLORERS

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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16

Asia 13th Century

ASIA
13th CENTURY

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17

Asia About 1740

ASIA
ABOUT 1740

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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18

India, 1705

INDIA, 1705

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19

India, 1765

INDIA, 1765

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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20

India, 1805

INDIA, 1805

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21

India, 1857

INDIA, 1857

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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22-23

The Far East 1800

THE FAR EAST
1800

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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24-25

Russian Advances in Central Asia

RUSSIAN ADVANCES IN CENTRAL ASIA

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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26-27

The World on Mercators Projection.

THE WORLD
ON MERCATORS PROJECTION.
SHOWING
ROUTES TO ASIA

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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28

Asia Orographical

ASIA
OROGRAPHICAL

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29

Asia Orographical

ASIA
RIVER BASINS

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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30

Asia January Temperature

ASIA
JANUARY TEMPERATURE

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31

Asia July Temperature

ASIA
JULY TEMPERATURE

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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32

Asia January Rainfall

ASIA
JANUARY RAINFALL

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33

Asia July Rainfall

ASIA
JULY RAINFALL

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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34

Asia Mean Annual Rainfall

ASIA
MEAN ANNUAL RAINFALL

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35

Asia Vegetation

ASIA
VEGETATION

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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36

Asia Races

ASIA
RACES

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37

Asia Religions

ASIA
RELIGIONS

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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38

Asia Population

ASIA
POPULATION

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39

Asia Political

ASIA
POLITICAL

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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40-41

Economic Map of Asia

ECONOMIC MAP
OF
ASIA
ON MERCATORS PROJECTION

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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42-43

Trade Routes of Asia

TRADE ROUTES
OF
ASIA
ON MERCATORS PROJECTION

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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44-45

Turkey in Asia

TURKEY IN ASIA
ARABIA, PERSIA
AFGHANISTAN & BALUCHISTAN

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46-47

Asia Minor, Syria &c.

ASIA MINOR, SYRIA &c.

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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48

Suez Canal

SUEZ CANAL

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49

Aden

ADEN

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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50-51

Orographical Central Asia

OROGRAPHICAL
CENTRAL ASIA
WITH INDIAN FRONTIERS

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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52-53

Indian Empire

INDIAN EMPIRE

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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54

Products of India

PRODUCTS OF INDIA

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55

Products of India

PRODUCTS OF INDIA

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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56-57

Bombay and Central India

BOMBAY
BERAR, AND PART OF
CENTRAL INDIA

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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58-59

Punjab

PUNJAB
SIND, RAJPUTANA,
KASHMIR, &c.

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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60-61

United and Central Provinces

UNITED AND
CENTRAL PROVINCES
BENGAL, ASSAM, &c.

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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62-63

Madras

MADRAS
HAIDARABAD, MYSORE,
AND CEYLON

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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64

Bombay

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65

Calcutta

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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66

Orographical Farther India

OROGRAPHICAL
FARTHER INDIA

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67

Burma

BURMA

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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68-69

Malay States

MALAY STATES

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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70-71

Siam and Indo-China

SIAM & INDO-CHINA

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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72-73

The Far East, Economic

THE FAR EAST
ECONOMIC

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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74-75

East Indies

EAST INDIES

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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76

Java

JAVA

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77

Philippine Islands

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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78

Singapore

ISLAND OF
SINGAPORE

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79

Hong Kong

HONG-KONG

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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80-81

CHINA & JAPAN

China & Japan

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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82-83

Northern China

NORTHERN CHINA

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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84-85

Southern China

SOUTHERN CHINA

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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86

Peking and Shanghai

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87

Canton and Manila

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88-89

Japan

JAPAN

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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90

Korea and Manchuria

KOREA AND
MANCHURIA

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91

Central Japan

CENTRAL JAPAN

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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92

Tokio

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93

Kwang-Tung Peninsula and Nagasaki

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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94-95

Siberia

SIBERIA

John Bartholomew & Co., Edinr

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96

Vladivostok

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A
BRIEF SURVEY
OF THE
COINAGES OF ASIA
FROM THE
EARLIEST TIMES
TO THE
PRESENT DAY

A
BRIEF SURVEY
OF THE
COINAGES OF ASIA
FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES (700 B.C.) TO THE PRESENT DAY

99

By J. ALLAN, M.A., M.R.A.S.
Of the Department of Coins, British Museum

The coins of Asia from the earliest times may be conveniently reviewed in the following geographical and chronological sections: I. Ancient coins of Western and Central Asia (to the rise of Islam, excluding the majority of Greek and Roman coins which have no claim to be Asiatic); II. Mohammadan coins of Western and Central Asia; III. Coins of India (Hindu and Mohammadan); IV. Coins of the Far East; V. Coins struck by European nations for their Asiatic possessions.

I.—ANCIENT COINS OF WESTERN AND CENTRAL ASIA

Origin of Coinage in Lydia.—According to Herodotus (I. 94) the Lydians were the first people to strike coins of gold and silver, while other writers attribute the invention of coinage to Pheidon, king of Argos, who struck coins in Aegina. The truth appears to be that gold, or rather electrum, was first coined in Lydia in the seventh century B.C., while silver was first minted in Aegina about the same time. The earliest Lydian coins are believed to have been issued in the time of Gyges, king of Lydia (687-652 B.C.). These are rude oval pieces 100 of electrum, a natural mixture of gold and silver found locally, and are stamped on one side only (Plate I. 1). The uncertain value of this metal was found an embarrassment to commerce, and Croesus (561-546 B.C.), under whose rule Lydia became a great and wealthy power, introduced a coinage of pure gold and of pure silver, ten staters of silver being equal to one of gold (Plate I. 2, gold stater).

Persia.—When Cyrus conquered Lydia in 546 B.C., the Persians, who, like the Assyrians, had no coined money, became acquainted with the art of coinage. It is not certain when the Persians began to issue coins, but from the statement of Herodotus that Darius Hystaspis (521-486 B.C.) coined gold of the finest quality, and the probable etymology of "daric" from Darius, the beginning of the Achaemenid coinage is placed in his reign; it is most probable that it was at Sardes in Lydia that Darius first struck his coins, as there he would be most likely to find skilled artificers. The coins of the Persian empire were the daric of gold about equal in value to the stater of Croesus (or rather more than an English sovereign in metal value) and the siglos (shekel) of which twenty were the equivalent of a daric. The types were the same on each coin, viz., on the obverse, the Persian King in a half-kneeling position holding a bow in his left hand and a spear in his right, while the reverse still had no type but only a rough incuse caused in striking the coins (Plate I. 3, daric). These two coins remained the official coinage of the Persian empire till its fall. The conquered Greek cities were not allowed to strike gold, but the issue of silver and copper by them was not interfered with; in addition certain Persian satraps were allowed to issue silver coins bearing their own names.

Phoenicia.—In spite of their commercial activity, the Phoenician cities of the Mediterranean coast did not begin to strike coins until comparatively late times, the end of the fifth and beginning of the fourth centuries B.C. We possess extensive silver coinages of the fourth century for most of these cities, those of Tyre and Sidon being particularly important. The 101 tetradrachms of Tyre have as types, a dolphin or the god Melkart riding on a sea-horse and an owl with crook and flail, Egyptian symbols of royalty (Plate I. 4, c. 410-332 B.C.). The double shekels of Sidon bear on the obverse a galley with sails or rowers often before a walled city, and on the reverse the suzerain king of Persia in a chariot (Plate I. 5, c. 400-384 B.C.).

Imitations of Athenian coins.—The coins of Athens circulated very widely in the ancient world, particularly in Central Asia, where imitations of them were made when the Athenian mint could no longer supply the demand (Plate I. 6, imitation of Athenian tetradrachm). On some of these imitations the owl was replaced by an eagle, while Athenian influence can still be traced in the remarkably neat coins of Sophytes (Plate I. 11, reverse, cock), whom Alexander found reigning on the North-West Indian frontier on his march across it in 326 B.C.

Alexander III., the Great.—When the Persian empire fell before Alexander the Great his coins became current throughout Asia, from the Mediterranean to the Indus, and profoundly influenced all later coinages. His gold coins (the stater, with its multiple the distater and its sub-divisions) have on the obverse a head of Athena, and on the reverse a winged Victory with the king's name; the silver (drachm, with multiples and subdivisions) has on the obverse a head of the young Herakles in lion-skin, and reverse, Zeus seated on throne holding eagle and sceptre (Plate I. 7). Tetradrachms bearing Alexander's name and types continued to be struck for a century and a half after his death, and they are at the present day the commonest of ancient coins.

Seleucid Kings of Syria.—We possess an extensive series of coins of the Seleucid kings of Syria, the dynasty founded by Seleucus Nikator (312-280 B.C.), the general of Alexander who succeeded to his Asiatic heritage. The earliest Seleucid coins (before 306 B.C.) retained the name and types of Alexander, but soon a greater variety of types was adopted, while the king's head began to appear regularly on the obverse. The Seleucid coins are remarkable for the unique series of portraits they give 102 us. One of the commonest types of the Seleucid series has the king's head on the obverse, and a seated Apollo with bow and arrow on the reverse (Plate I. 8, gold stater of Antiochus I., 280-266 B.C.; Plate I. 10, silver tetradrachm of Antiochus IV., 175-166 B.C.).

Bactria.—About the middle of the third century B.C. the empire founded by Seleucus began to break up. A line of kings was founded in Bactria by Diodotos, a revolted satrap, whose independence Antiochus II. had to acknowledge. The earlier coins of these kings, who afterwards crossed into India and gradually lost their Hellenism, present some of the finest examples of portraiture on Greek coins (Plate I. 9, gold stater of Diodotos I., c. 250 B.C.).

Judaea.—Among the smaller kingdoms who became independent of the Seleucids in the second century B.C. may be mentioned that of the Jews. Certain shekels, bearing on the obverse a chalice with the legend "shekel of Israel," and on the reverse a branch with three buds and the legend "Jerusalem the Holy" (Plate II. 1), have been attributed to Simon Maccabaeus (143-135 B.C.), but they may belong to the First Revolt (66-70 A.D.).

Parthia.—About the same period, the great Parthian kingdom was founded in Central Asia and lasted till 220 A.D. The Parthian coinage is of silver (drachms and tetradrachms) and bronze. Although Parthian drachms are at the present day one of the most extensive of ancient coinages, their classification is exceedingly difficult on account of our ignorance of Parthian history, and the fact that the coins do not bear the name of the issuer but of Arsakes, the founder of the dynasty. The silver drachms bear on the obverse the portrait of the reigning king, and on the reverse the first king Arsakes seated holding a bow, with a legend in Greek characters which is at first simply (coin of) "the king Arsakes" (Plate II. 2, drachm of Mithridates I. the Great, 171-138 B.C.), but gradually increases in length till a century later it assumes the form (coin of) "the king of kings Arsakes, the just, the illustrious, the beneficent, the friend of the Greeks," 103 which remains the usual legend. Tetradrachms with similar legends were also struck in large numbers; their usual reverse type is the Parthian king seated, receiving a wreath from the goddess of Victory or from a City goddess (Plate II. 3, tetradrachm of Phraates IV., 38-3 B.C.). After the reign of Phraates IV. the coins are dated in the Seleucid era, while the later coins bear a Pehlevi legend in addition to the Greek inscription which is by this time almost unintelligible.

Sassanian Empire.—Early in the third century A.D. the last remnants of Parthian power were destroyed by Ardashir, a Persian prince, who founded the Sassanian empire, which after successfully disputing the supremacy of Asia with the Romans for four centuries finally fell before the conquering hosts of Islam. The Sassanian silver coins, particularly of the later kings, are exceedingly numerous at the present day, but the gold and copper are rare. The types of the gold and silver are throughout the dynasty the same; on the obverse is the head of the king with a long legend of the form, "Ardashir, worshipper of Ahura Mazda, divine king of kings of Iran, a scion of the celestial race," on the reverse a fire-altar, usually with two attendant priests, and at first the legend "the fire of Ardashir" (etc.), later the mint and regnal year of issue. The earlier coins are of remarkably good workmanship, and give us fine portraits of the Sassanian kings (Plate II. 4, gold coin of Ardashir I., 226-241 A.D.; Plate II. 5, silver drachm of Sapor I., 241-272 A.D.). The gold coins weigh rather less than an English sovereign, and their standard appears to be derived from Roman solidi; the silver coins are drachms following the Parthian standard, and, particularly the latter pieces, are remarkable for their thin fabric (e.g. Plate II. 7, Khusrau (Chosroes) II., Parvez, 590-628 A.D.) which was copied by the Arabs in their silver coins, and can be traced in certain Mohammadan series to the present day.

Bibliography.—B. V. Head, Historia Numorum (Oxford, 104 1911), pp. 643-845; B. V. Head, Coinage of Lydia and Persia (London, 1878); British Museum Catalogue of Greek Coins, Lydia (1901), Syria (1878), Parthia (1905), Phoenicia (1910); E. Babelon, Perses Acheménides (Paris, 1893); E. Babelon, Rois de Syrie (Paris, 1890); Dorn & Bartholomaei, Monnaies Sassanides (St. Petersburg, 1875).

II.—MOHAMMADAN COINAGES
(Exclusive of India)

Beginnings of Arab Coinage.—The Arabs were unacquainted with the art of coinage till they learned it on their campaigns of conquest in Syria (Byzantine) and Persia (Sassanian). At first they were content to issue gold and copper pieces imitated from contemporary Byzantine coins (Plate II. 9, early copper coin of Abd-al-Malik; obverse, figure of the Caliph; reverse, modified Byzantine cross), while their silver pieces were copies of late Sassanian coins (like Plate II. 7), with the addition of bismillah (in the name of God) on the margin.

Abd-al-Malik's Reformed Currency.—Though one traditionist says that even Adam felt the need for money and struck dinars and dirhems, more reliable authorities agree in attributing to Abd-al-Malik, the fifth Omayyad Caliph (684-705 A.D.), the institution in 696 A.D. of a purely Muslim coinage, worthy of the great Arab empire and the foundations on which it was built. This coinage was of gold, silver, and copper, and the names dinar (denarius aureus), dirhem (drachma), and falus (follis), which have remained in use practically to the present day, were borrowed from the Byzantines. The dinar originally weighed rather more than half a sovereign, while the dirhem was a little less than sixpence in English money, but the names came to mean simply gold and silver coin respectively.

Mohammad's interdiction of any form of image-making, as savouring of idolatry, limited the orthodox Caliph to legends on his coins, but thereby gave Arab coins an importance as historical documents possessed by no other series. From the 105 earliest times they bore the mint and date (in the Mohammadan era dating from 622 A.D.), and later the ruler's name and titles, often including valuable genealogical data, were added. The right of striking coins was one of the privileges of sovereignty, and Muslim coins thus throw a good deal of light on Arab history.

Plate II. 6 is a dinar, and Plate II. 8 a dirhem of Abd-al-Malik; both bear on the obverse the profession of faith, "There is no god but God; He hath no associate:" around the reverse of the dinar is the legend, "In the name of God this dinar was struck in the year 77" (696 A.D.), while the similar inscription on the dirhem includes the mint (Damascus, 79 A.H.) and is placed around the obverse. On both the reverse areas is "God is alone; God is eternal; He begets not and is not begotten" (the dinar ends here, but the dirhem continues) "nor is there any one like unto Him" (Koran, cxii.). Around the obverse of the dinar and reverse of the dirhem is, "Mohammad is the prophet of God, sent with guidance and the religion of truth to make it prevail over all other religions" (dinar stops here), "averse though the idolaters may be" (Koran ix. 33).

Abbasids.—In 750 A.D. the Abbasids overthrew the Omayyads, and at first made but superficial alterations in the coinage; the long reverse formula was replaced by the simple profession, "Mohammad is the prophet of God." Plate III. 2, a dinar of the "good" Caliph Harun-al-Rashid (786-809 A.D.) is typical of the period, except that it bears the name of his ill-fated vizier, Ja'afar, who will be remembered by readers of the Arabian Nights as the companion of the Caliph's nocturnal ramblings, on whom this signal honour was conferred. In the ninth century a second marginal inscription, "To God belongs the order before and after, and in that day the believers shall rejoice in the help of God" (Koran, xxx. 3, 4) was added on the obverse, while the Caliph's name begins to appear regularly on the reverse area.

Contemporaries of the Caliphs.—Coins with similar legends were struck by the various dynasties which arose on the weakening 106 of the authority of the Caliph in the ninth and tenth centuries. In addition to the ruler's name they usually bear the name of the reigning Caliph, whose spiritual authority was still recognised; such are Plate III. 1, a dirhem of the Samanid Nasr b. Ahmad struck in 300 A.H. at Samarkand, which was then one of the great centres of Mohammadan learning and literary activity; Plate III. 4, a Buwayhid dinar of Rukn-al-Daula (932-976 A.D.), struck at Hamadan in 352 A.H., bearing the name of the fainéant Caliph al-Muti; and Plate III. 6, a dinar, struck at Rayy, 447 A.H., of the Great Seljuk Toghrul Beg (1037-1063 A.D.), the Turkish conqueror of Western Asia whose descendants were among the most redoubtable of the "Saracens." Plate III. 3, a dinar of the last Abbasid Caliph—Al-Mustasim (1242-1258 A.D.), illustrates the change in the fabric and calligraphy of the coinage which had taken place in six centuries. Plate III. 5 is a dinar of Mahmud of Ghazni (998-1030 A.D.), with the reverse legend in Sanskrit for the benefit of his Indian subjects.

Seljuks, Ortukids, and Ayyubids (Saracens).—Plate III. 7, a dirhem of Sulaiman II. (1199-1203 A.D.), a Seljuk of Asia Minor, is the first of a series of striking deviations from the orthodox Mohammadan type, prompted as much by necessities of commerce with Christian nations as by a lack of orthodoxy on the part of their issuers, heretics though they were. The obverse area is occupied by a horseman holding a mace over his shoulder, while around is the Shia form of the Mohammadan creed (as above, with the addition of the words "Ali is the friend of God"); the reverse bears the usual data. Plate III. 8 is a dirhem of one of his successors Kaikubad I. (1219-1236 A.D.), a fine specimen of the calligraphy of the period; Plate III. 9, is a dirhem of his successor, Kai-Khusru II. (1136-1245 A.D.), bearing the "lion and sun," the horoscope of his beautiful Georgian wife, whose portrait he wished to place on his coins, till his counsellors persuaded him to be content with her horoscope. The coins of the Ortukids, who were also prominent opponents of the Crusaders, are 107 remarkable for their immense variety of types borrowed from all sources (Greek, Roman, Byzantine, etc.). Plate IV. 1, reverse of a copper coin of Kara Arslan (1148-1174 A.D.), and Plate IV. 2, of a copper coin of Alpi (1152-1176 A.D.), represent Christ seated and the Virgin crowning the emperor respectively, both well-known Byzantine types. The Saracen best known by name to English readers is Saladin the Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt and Syria (1169-93 A.D.) whose capture of Jerusalem in 1187 provoked the Third Crusade in which Richard I., Cœur-de-Lion, took a prominent part. Plate IV. 3 is a dirhem struck by him at Damascus, his Syrian capital, in 582 A.H. (1186 A.D.).

Mongols.—In the thirteenth century the Mongols, led by the Chingiz Khan (1206-1227 A.D.), one of the greatest conquerors the world has known, subjugated practically all Asia with the exception of India. Plate IV. 4 is one of the rare coins attributed to Chingiz Khan, while Plate IV. 5 is a handsome dinar struck by Arghun, one of the earliest (1284-1295 A.D.) of the Persian line of Mongols (obverse, Mohammadan (Shia) creed and date, etc.; reverse, the Khan's titles, etc., in Mongol). Tamerlane (1369-1404 A.D.) (Timur Lang, Timur the Lame), a distant descendant of Chingiz Khan, is another great conqueror familiar to English readers through Marlowe and Gibbon. One of the coins struck by him, with the name of his nominal sovereign, Suyurghatmish, is figured on Plate IV. 6. Plate IV. 7 is a dirhem of his son and ultimate successor, Shah Rukh (1404-1447 A.D.), of a type (obverse, Mohammadan creed, with the names of the four orthodox Caliphs around the margin; reverse, titles) which was very popular in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. Plate IV. 8 is an early Ottoman coin struck by Mohammad I. (1402-1421 A.D.) at Brusa in 822 A.H. (1419 A.D.), of a type which served the Turks for some centuries.

Persia.—The earliest coins of the Shahs of Persia (e.g. Plate IV. 10, reverse of a silver coin of Ismail I. (1502-1524 A.D.) struck at Meshhed in 924 A.H. (1518 A.D.)) are of the type 108 instituted by Shah Rukh to which they may be traced through the Shaibanid coinage; the later Persian coins are smaller and thicker (Plate IV. 12, mohur of the great conqueror Nadir Shah (1736-1747 A.D.)). Plate IV. 11, a gold tuman of Fath-Ali Shah (1797-1834 A.D.), the first Shah with whom England entered into diplomatic relations, is a remarkable fine product of the Persian mint. Nasir-al-Din (1848-1896 A.D.) instituted a mint on the European model in Teheran, and struck coins with his portrait (e.g. Plate IV. 13, a gold tuman), or the Lion and Sun, on the obverse and his titles on the reverse.

Bukhara.—The coins of the Emirs of Bukhara, now under Russian suzerainty, are mainly of gold (e.g. Plate IV. 9, a gold tila of the fanatical Haidar Tora, 1800-1826 A.D.).

Afghanistan.—The Emirs (Durrani and Barakzai) of Afghanistan, who became independent of Persia in the eighteenth century, adopted the standards and types of their Moghul contemporaries. A mint on the European model has recently been established in Kabul, and its coins are rapidly replacing older issues.

Bibliography.—O. Codrington, Musulman Numismatics (London, 1904); S. Lane-Poole, Mohammadan Dynasties (London, 1894); British Museum Catalogue of Oriental Coins, vols, i.-x.; British Museum Catalogue of Persian Coins, Shahs of Persia (1887); W. H. Valentine, Copper Coins of Modern Muhammadan States (London, 1911); M. Longworth Dames, Coins of the Durranis (Numismatic Chronicle, 1888); L. White King, Coins of the Barakzais (Numismatic Chronicle, 1896).

III.—COINS OF INDIA

Early Hindu Coins.—The earliest coins of India are square or oblong pieces of silver or copper punched with various symbols, the exact significance of which is not exactly known. They were probably made by money-changers or by the 109 authority responsible for the purity of the coin. These pieces date from as early as the fourth century B.C. and circulated all over India (Plate V. 1). To a somewhat later date belong the coins of various native states in North India; these soon became profoundly influenced by the coinages of foreign invaders, and indeed it is only lately that the independent origin of coinage in India has been generally recognised (Plate V. 3, silver coin of the Kuninda king, Amoghabhuti, second century B.C.).

Foreign Invaders.—Early in the second century B.C., in the reign of Euthydemus, the Greeks of Bactria began to invade India. We possess coins of his son Demetrius, of the square Indian form with an Indian legend on the reverse, showing a compromise between the Greek and Indian methods of coinage. Henceforth the coins of his successors, many of whom are otherwise unknown to history, are bilingual (Plate V. 2, hemidrachm of Apollodotos I., c. 150 B.C.). Towards the end of the second century B.C. the Scythians invaded Bactria and India; their coins are imitated from those of their Greek predecessors, but are much inferior as works of art (Plate V. 4, silver coin of Azes I., c. 90 B.C.).

They were followed about the middle of the first century B.C. by the Kushans who founded a great empire in North-West India. The Kushan kings of whom the greatest was Kanishka, famed in Buddhist legend, have left a great wealth of gold and copper coins remarkable for the variety of deities (Zoroastrian, Greek, Hindu, and Buddha) depicted on their reverses (Plate V. 5, gold coin of Kanishka).

Andhras and Western Satraps.—During the first three centuries A.D. the Western Satraps, a dynasty of Scythic origin, ruled a powerful kingdom in Western India. Their coinage of silver, forming a long dated series, appears to be derived from hemidrachms of the Greek kings possibly influenced by Roman denarii (Plate V. 8, Damaghsada, c. 180 A.D.). Unique among India coinages is the lead coinage of the Andhras who ruled in Central and Southern India from the third century B.C. 110 till they fell before the Satraps (Plate V. 7, Vilivayakura, c. 100 A.D.; reverse only).

Guptas.—A new era in the history of India begins in the fourth century A.D. with the rise of the Gupta dynasty which conquered practically all India and held it for two centuries. Their coinage, mainly of gold, is derived from the Kushan, but displays great originality and variety of types, and has legends in pure Sanskrit (Plate V. 9, gold coin (suvarna) of Samudragupta, 340-380 A.D., commemorating his horse-sacrifice on his conquests; V. 10, suvarna of Kumaragupta I., 414-450 A.D.).

Huns.—The Gupta empire finally fell before the inroads of barbarous Huns, who swept down through Persia on India about the same time that their kinsmen under Attila were ravaging Europe. They have left numerous coins imitated from Sassanian or Indian types (Plate V. 12, silver coin of Toramana, c. 514-544 A.D., with Sassanian types). From the Hun imitations of Sassanian coins are descended certain coins of very rude fabric known to the natives as "asses' head" money, which circulated very largely in North India from the sixth to the eighth century (Plate V. 11).

Mediaeval Hindu Dynasties.—The later Kushan type (Plate V. 6, gold, c. 250 A.D.), with a king standing, sacrificing at altar on the obverse and a goddess enthroned facing on the reverse, survived for centuries on the base gold and rude copper coins of Kashmir (Plate VI. 1, gold, Yasovarman, c. 730 A.D.), and the seated goddess remains a familiar type on the gold coins of the mediaeval Hindu dynasties of the present United and Central Provinces, and even survived on the coins of Mohammadan invaders (Plate VI. 4, gold coin of Hallakshanavarman, 1097-1110 A.D., of Jejahuti). Among the commonest of Indian coins are the silver "Bull and Horseman" coins of the Brahman kings of Kandahar (Plate VI. 2, Spalapatideva, c. 875 A.D.), the types of which were copied by various Hindu kings (e.g. Plate VI. 3, Prithvi-Raja of Delhi, 1166-1192 A.D.) and retained by their Mohammadan conquerors.

South India.—In South India the primitive punch-marked coins remained much longer in circulation than in the north, 111 and from the frequent finds of Roman gold and silver coins, it is probable that these formed the major part of the currency in the early centuries of the Christian era. Many of the Hindu coins of South India are uninscribed, and their attribution is still uncertain. To the Chera dynasty of Malabar are attributed certain gold coins having an elephant on the obverse (Plate V. 13, thirteenth century). Copper coins, having on the obverse a figure of the king standing and on the reverse the king seated, were introduced by Rajaraja of the Chola dynasty (c. 1030 A.D.); this type spread through South India, was introduced into Ceylon on the Chola conquest, and adopted there by the independent kings of Kandy (Plate VI. 7, Parakramabahu, 1153-1186 A.D.). Thick gold cup-shaped pieces are attributed to the Western Chalukyas of the Deccan (eighth century A.D., Plate VI. 6), while large thin gold coins were struck by the eastern branch of the family (Plate VI. 8, Rajaraja, 1021-1062 A.D.); both bear the Chalukya emblem, the boar. Certain cup-shaped gold pieces bearing a lotus were struck by the Kadambas of Northern Mysore (Plate VI. 9). The great mediaeval Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagara (Mysore) has left an extensive series of gold and copper coins. Its small gold coins called pagodas (Plate VI. 5, Venkata Raya, c. 1530-1542 A.D.), bearing one or more deities on the obverse, formed the pattern for later coinages not only of the native states but also of various European invaders of South India.

Sultans of Delhi.—When Mohammad bin Sam (1193-1205 A.D.) defeated the allied Hindu forces on the plain of Thaneswar in 1193 he became master of India and founded the dynasty known as the Sultans of Delhi, which survived till the Moghul conquest. In addition to striking coins of the usual Mohammadan type he copied the coins of his Hindu predecessors (e.g. Plate VI. 10, copper, cf. 2 and 3; VI. 11, gold, cf. 4). The coins of his successors are the tanka (about 175 grains) in gold and in silver, in addition to smaller coins of copper and billon. Plate VI. 13 may be taken as typical; it is a gold tanka of Mohammad III. bin Tughlak (1324-1351 A.D.); on one side it 112 bears the name of the Sultan, "Mohammad Shah Sultan who trusts in the support of the Merciful One," with a marginal inscription giving the date and mint (Delhi, 726 A.H. (1326 A.D.)); on the other side is a form of the Muslim creed. Plate VI. 12 is one of the remarkable brass tokens with which the same Sultan sought to displace gold and silver money. It bears a legend giving the value at which it was to pass, and an appeal to the piety of his subjects in a legend from the Koran, "He that obeys the Sultan obeys the Merciful One." Though no fraud was intended, this token currency was a failure. Plate VI. 14 is a silver tanka of Sher Shah (1539-1545 A.D.), one of the last and one of the greatest of the Sultans of Delhi. The obverse bears the Mohammadan creed and the names of the first four caliphs on the margin, a type which survived for two centuries longer in the Moghul coins. The coins of the various Mohammadan states which became independent of Delhi in the fifteenth century cannot be detailed here. Plate VII. 1, a silver tanka of Ghiyas-al-Din of Malwa (1468-1500 A.D.), may be taken as typical of them.

Moghul Emperors.—The Moghul Emperors made but little change in the types and standards of the coins of their predecessors, but gave the standard gold coin the name mohur, while the silver was called the rupee. Plate VII. 2 is a mohur of Jalal-al-Din ("Glory of the Faith"), Mohammad Akbar (1556-1605 A.D.), struck at Agra in 976 A.H. (1568 A.D.), similar in type to Sher Shah's tanka (Plate VI. 14). The coins of his son Nur-al-Din ("Light of the Faith"), Mohammad Jahangir (1605-1627 A.D.), are the most remarkable of the series. Plate VII. 3, a mohur of Jahangir, is a fine specimen of calligraphy (obverse, Mohammadan creed; reverse, titles and mint; Lahore, 1015 A.H.), while Plate VII. 4 is the obverse (Ram) of a mohur of the remarkable series issued by him bearing the signs of the zodiac. Jahangir was, like many of the Moghuls, a heavy drinker, and went so far as to portray himself with the wine cup in his hand on a well-known mohur (Plate VII. 5). Plate VII. 6, a mohur of his successor Shihab-al-Din ("Flame of the 113 Faith"), Shah Jahan (1628-1659), is typical of the coinage of the period (obverse as Plate VII. 2, reverse, titles; Agra, 1050 A.H. (1640 A.D.)). His successor, Aurangzib (1659-1707 A.D.), replaced the religious legends on the obverse by the mint and date, and this remained the usual type to the end of the series. (Plate VII. 7, mohur of Shah Alam II. 1759-1806 A.D.; Delhi, 1205 A.H.).

At the end of the eighteenth century numerous states became practically independent of the Great Moghul, but struck coins which still bore his name. When the last Moghul Emperor was deposed in 1858, the name of Queen Victoria began to appear on the coins of such native states as were allowed to continue issuing coins. To attain uniformity in the currency of the empire this right has been gradually curtailed by the British government, and is now exercised only by a few of the more important states, such as Hyderabad, which issues coins struck by modern European machinery.

Assam and Nepal.—Two important Hindu kingdoms, Assam and Nepal, were never subject to the Moghuls. The kings of Assam issued an extensive coinage (octagonal in form) till their territory was acquired by Britain (Plate VII. 8, rupee "of the divine king Siva Sinha (1714-1744 A.D.) a bee on the lotus feet of Hara and Gauri"). Plate VII. 9 is a silver mohur of Prthvi Vira Vikrama (1881) of Nepal, the reigning Maharaja of Nepal.

Bibliography.—E. J. Rapson, Indian Coins (Strassburg, 1897); Sir A. Cunningham, Coins of Ancient India (London, 1891), Coins of Mediaeval India (1894); British Museum Catalogue of Indian Coins, Greek and Scythic Kings (1886), Andhras and Western Ksatrapas (1908), Sultans of Delhi (1885), Muhammadan States (1885), Moghul Emperors (1891); Catalogue of Coins in the Indian Museum, vol. i. by V. A. Smith (Oxford, 1906), vols. ii. and iii. (1907, 1908) by H. Nelson Wright; E. H. Walsh, The Coins of Nepal (Journ. of Roy. Asiat. Society, 1907); J. Allan, Coinage of Assam (Num. Chron., 1908). 114

IV.—THE COINAGES OF THE FAR EAST

China.—The earliest coins of China, like those of Western Asia, date from the seventh century B.C.: these are small bronze spades and knives, copies of the actual spades, knives, or rather billhooks, and other small articles of husbandry which had previously been used for barter. The knives are about seven inches long and bear an inscription giving the weight or value and the name of the town or confederacy which issued it; a modified form of the spade money, called the pu (flattened) money, circulated widely in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. (Plate VIII. 1, a pu coin of the town of Lu-Yang). Round money had been made as early as the fourth century B.C., but it was not till 221 B.C. that the great reformer Shih Huang Ti (221-210 B.C.), the "First Emperor," definitely superseded all previous currencies by round coins. His coins were pieces of half an ounce (pan-liang), and were continued by the Han dynasty (Plate VIII. 6, a pan-liang of the Empress Kao Hou, 187-179 B.C.).

This coinage gradually became so debased and counterfeited that in 118 B.C. the Emperor Wu Ti (122-117 B.C.) issued a new bronze coinage of five-chu pieces (Plate VIII. 2); the five-chu piece remained the standard coin for the next eight centuries. The attempted monetary reforms of the usurper Wang Mang (9-22 A.D.) may be mentioned here. In addition to reviving a modified pu and knife money (Plate VIII. 4), he instituted a round coinage (ho tsiuen, Plate VIII. 3), but after his assassination and the restoration of the Han dynasty the five-chu piece was restored. The history of Chinese currency is henceforth a continual struggle between the government and the counterfeiter. On one occasion at least, the government sought to get rid of the forgers by making the most skilled of them mint officials.

In 618 A.D. the Tang emperor Kao Tsu (618-627 A.D.) issued the Kai yuan tung pao, "current money of the inauguration" 115 (i.e. of the Tang dynasty, Plate VIII. 5), which gave the coinages of the Far East the form they have retained almost to the present day. From the time of the Sung dynasty (960-1120 A.D.) onwards the legend took the form "current money of" (name of regnal period) (Plate VIII. 8, "current money of (the) Sung Yuan" period, 960-976 A.D.). The Southern Sung dynasty (1127-1278 A.D.) dated their coins on the reverse in regnal years. The Mongols (1260-1341 A.D.) issued but little copper money. An account of their extensive paper currency in the reign of Kublai Khan (1260-1295 A.D.) is given by Marco Polo. The Ming dynasty (1368-1628 A.D.) placed the mint-name on the reverse, while the Ching dynasty (1628-1911) placed the mint-name in Manchu on the reverse (Plate VIII. 7, Shun-che period, 1644-1662 A.D.; Pekin mint).

It is only recently that a serious attempt to institute a silver coinage in China has been made. In the nineties of last century, mints with European machinery were instituted in each province, and struck silver and copper coins of European fabric (Plate IX. 1, half-dollar of the late Emperor Kuang Hsü, 1875-1910) for Sze-Chuan. During the last thirty years bilingual silver coins have been issued for the Mohammadan population of Chinese Turkestan (Plate IX. 6, reverse of a five mithkal piece of Kashgar). One of the most remarkable of Chinese coins is the silver rupee recently issued for the Sze-chuan province, bearing the Emperor's head, and copied from the Indian rupee, with which it is destined to compete for Tibetan trade (Plate IX. 3).

Japan.—The Japanese borrowed the art of coinage from the Chinese, and issued coins as early as 708 A.D. Plate VIII. 9 is an early Japanese copper coin or sen of the period 818-835 A.D. (inscription—"Divine Treasure of Wealth and Longevity"). From the tenth to the sixteenth centuries the main coinage of Japan consisted of imitations of contemporary Chinese coins. One of the commonest of Japanese coins is the kwan-ei sen (Plate VIII. 10), which was extensively issued from 1624-1859. Large, flat gold coins (obans and kobans) 116 were frequently issued from the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. The smaller gold and silver coins of this period are rectangular (Plate IX. 7, a gold bu of 1837 A.D.). Plate IX. 4 is the obverse of a coin (a piece of 5 momme) with an interesting history. In 1765, a high official named Taruna ordered that all silver ornaments should be confiscated as useless luxuries and made into coins. This edict aroused great indignation, particularly among the fair sex, and its enforcement was one of the causes which led to the assassination of the tyrannical governor. In 1869 a mint with European machinery was established in Tokio, and a coinage of gold, silver (yen or dollar), and copper (sen, 100 = 1 dollar) on the European model adopted (Plate IX. 5, 50 sen of the sixth year of Meiji, 1873).

Corea, Annam, and Siam.—Corea issued bronze coins in the Chinese style in its various intervals of independence. The commonest is the Shang Ping cash issued at various mints from 1790 to 1881 (Plate VIII. 11). Plate IX. 2 is a piece of one yang (silver) issued by the new mint in 1898. Japanese influence may be traced in it (cf. Plate IX. 5), as on the Chinese coin of Kashgar (Plate IX. 6). The kings of Annam issued an extensive coinage modelled on the Chinese till Annam became a French possession. Siam has issued a coinage struck by European machinery since 1850 (Plate IX. 8, rupee of Phra Chom Klao, 1850-1868 A.D.).

Bibliography.—Terrien de Lacouperie, British Museum Catalogue of Chinese Coins, vol. i. (all published) (1892); J. H. S. Lockhart, Currency of the Farther East (Hong-Kong, 1893-1895); H. G. Munro, Coinage of Japan (Yokohama, 1904); A. Schroeder, Annam, Etudes Numismatiques (Paris, 1905).

V.—COINS OF EUROPEAN POSSESSIONS IN ASIA

English.—In 1600 Queen Elizabeth granted a Royal Charter to "The Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies," and soon afterwards ordered silver coins to be struck at the Tower Mint for the Company's use in the Indies 117 (Plate X. 2, sixpence or real of this issue). In 1677 the first English mint in India was established at Bombay, which had come to Charles II. in 1662 as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza, and rupees and copper cash were issued in the name of Charles II., or "bearing the name of their impure king" as an indignant Moghul historian describes them. For trade with the natives, however, the Company required coins of a type familiar to them, and had to send their bullion to be minted at the Moghul mints or to imitate Moghul coins at their own mints, the latter course being really forgery, as it was not till the middle of the eighteenth century that the Great Moghul finally allowed them to issue coins freely in his name (Plate X. 5, half-rupee of Murshidabad struck by the East India Company in name of Shah Alam II. in 1768 A.D.). In 1641 the Company had acquired a settlement at Fort St. George (Madras) and thenceforth issued coins in imitation of the local currencies of the Coromandel coast (Plate X. 3, gold star pagoda; Plate X. 1, silver fanam (cf. Plate VI. 5); Plate X. 4 is the later pagoda of European fabric issued at the end of the eighteenth century). It was not till 1835 that the name of an English king again appeared on the coins of the East India Company, when a uniform coinage of English style was adopted for India (Plate X. 6, quarter-rupee of William IV.). There has since been little change in the type then adopted. In 1858 the name of the East India Company disappears from the reverse, and in 1877 the proclamation of Queen Victoria as Empress of India necessitated a change of title on the obverse (Plate X. 7, quarter-rupee of Victoria).

In 1796, the English occupied Ceylon, hitherto a Dutch possession, and were confirmed in its possession by the treaty of Amiens in 1802. The earlier coins were struck on the standard introduced by their predecessors (Plate X. 8, a silver piece of 24 stivers). In 1836 the English standard was adopted, and silver coins (three-halfpenny pieces) and copper (half-farthings) issued till 1870, when the cent was adopted as the standard coin (Plate X. 9, 25 cents (silver) of George V.). 118

The East India Company issued coins similar to their later Indian issues for their possessions in the Malay Peninsula, and since 1867 there has been a regular Imperial coinage (100 cents = one dollar) for the Straits Settlements and also for Hong-Kong (Plate X. 10, 5 cents (silver) of Edward VII.).

Portuguese.—In 1510 Albuquerque captured Goa, which became the capital of the Portuguese empire in the east, and increased in wealth and commercial importance so rapidly that it became known as "Golden Goa" (Goa Dourada). From the time of Albuquerque the Portuguese have issued coins here, always with European types. Plate X. 11 is a pardao or half-rupee of Maria struck at Goa in 1808, and is typical of the coinage for nearly three centuries previous. Since 1881 the coins for Goa, which is now all that is left of the Portuguese possessions in the East, have been struck at the Bombay mint, and are uniform with those of British India (Plate X. 12, quarter-rupee, 1885).

Dutch, etc.—Towards the end of the sixteenth century the Dutch began to dispute Portuguese supremacy in the East, and ultimately acquired considerable possessions in the Malay Archipelago. An extensive coinage was issued by the Dutch East India Company in Java in the eighteenth century (Plate X. 13, gold rupee of Java, and X. 14, copper doit). The latter coins of the Dutch territories in the East are similar to the coins of Holland. Coins have also been struck for their Indian possessions of France (Pondichery) and Denmark (Tranquebar) on local standards but with European types.

Bibliography.—J. Atkins, Coins of the British Possessions and Colonies (London, 1889); E. Thurston, The Coinage of the East India Company (Madras, 1890); G. da Cuñha, Indo-Portuguese Numismatics (Bombay, 1880); J. A. van der Chijs, De Munten van Nederlandsch Indië (Batavia, 1859).

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PLATE I.

Plate I

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PLATE II.

Plate II

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PLATE III.

Plate III

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PLATE IV.

Plate IV

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PLATE V

Plate V

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PLATE VI.

Plate VI

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125

PLATE VII.

Plate VII

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126

PLATE VIII.

Plate VIII

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127

PLATE IX.

Plate IX

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128

PLATE X.

Plate X

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129

MAPS AND PLANS
OF
NOTABLE BATTLES, DISTRICTS, & TOWNS
CONNECTED WITH
THE HISTORY OF ASIA

130

PLANS
OF THE
FIVE CHIEF BATTLES
OF INDIA

Battle of Seringapatam

BATTLE OF
SERINGAPATAM
February 1792

Bartholomew Edinr

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131

Battle of Assaye

BATTLE OF
ASSAYE
September 1803

Bartholomew Edinr

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Battle of Meanee

BATTLE OF
MEANEE
February 1843

Bartholomew Edinr

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132

Battle of Aliwal

BATTLE OF
ALIWAL
January 1846

Bartholomew Edinr

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Battle of Sabraon

BATTLE OF
SOBRAON
February 1846

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133

Indian Mutina

INDIAN MUTINY
SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF TROOPS
May, 1857

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134

Aryan Languages of India

ARYAN LANGUAGES
OF INDIA

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135

Non-Aryan Languages of India

NON-ARYAN LANGUAGES
OF INDIA

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136-137

Sites of Ancient Indian Temples

SITES OF
ANCIENT INDIAN
TEMPLES

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138

Military Divisions of India

MILITARY DIVISIONS
OF INDIA

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139

Delhi

DELHI

Bartholomew Edinr

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140

Lucknow

LUCKNOW

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141

Cawnpore

CAWNPORE

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142

Lahore

LAHORE

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143

Rangoon

RANGOON

Bartholomew Edinr

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144

Lhasa

LHASA
"THE FORBIDDEN CITY"
After Map by Major Ryder

Bartholomew Edinr

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A GAZETTEER
OF
TOWNS AND PLACES IN ASIA

147

A GAZETTEER
OF TOWNS AND PLACES IN ASIA[1]

ABBREVIATIONS

F. Founded. |  Res. Residence. |  Bp. Birthplace. |  Provs. Provinces.

Abila, Palestine. 33N. 36E. Traditional burial-place of Abel.

Abohar, Punjab. 30N. 74E. Said to have been f. by Jaura; visited by Ibn Batuta, 1332.

Aboo, Rajputana. 25N. 73E. Contains famous Jain temple, the Vimla Sah, f. in 1032.

Abydos, Asia Minor. 40N. 26E. Xerxes entered Europe, B.C. 480. Scene of story of Hero and Leander. (See Byron's 'Bride of Abydos.')

Acre, Palestine. 33N. 35E. Taken by the Crusaders, 1104; retaken by Saladin, 1187; recovered by Richard Cœur de Lion, 1191; surrendered to Saracens, 1291; unsuccessfully besieged by Napoleon, 1799; stormed by Ibrahim Pasha, 1832; bombarded by a combined English, Austrian, and Turkish fleet, 1840. (See Scott's 'Talisman,' 'Travels of Marco Polo,' Thomson's 'Land and the Book,' Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte.')

Adalia, Asiatic Turkey. 36N. 31E. Visited by Kinglake, who gives an account of the city in 'Eothen.'

Adam's Peak, Ceylon. 7N. 80E. Supposed to contain tomb of Adam. (See 'Travels of Marco Polo.')

Adas, Bombay. 22N. 73E. Scene of Hamid Khan's victory over Rustam Ali, 1723; Mahrattas over Raghunath Rao Peshwa, 1775; British over Mahrattas, 1775.

Aden, Arabia. 13N. 45E. Taken from the Portuguese by Turks, 1538; annexed to British India, 1839. (See 'Purchas His Pilgrimes,' 'Travels of Marco Polo.')

Adoni, Madras. 16N. 77E. Seized by Sultan of Bijapur, 1568; by Aurungzebe, 1686; unsuccessfully attacked by Hyder Ali, 1779; taken by Tippoo Sahib, 1786; ceded to British, 1800.

Agra, United Provs. 27N. 78E. Contains palace of Shah Jehan, the Pearl Mosque, and the Taj Mahal, and was the supposed scene of incarnation of Vishnu. Capital of Mogul sovereigns, 1526-1658. Taken by British, 1803. (See Sir Edwin Arnold's 'With Sa'di in the Garden,' Whittier's 'Miriam,' 'Purchas His Pilgrimes.')

Ahar, United Provs. 28N. 78E. Town from which Rukminí, wife of Krishna, was said to have been taken.

Ahmadabad ('the abode of Ahmed'), Bombay. 23N. 73E. F. in 1412. Ancient Mohammedan capital, famed for architectural relics. Taken by British, 1818.

Ahmadnagar, Bombay. 19N. 75E. F. by Ahmed Nuzam Shah, 1494. Taken by General Wellesley, 1803.

Aivalli, Bombay. 16N. 76E. Contains famous temples, and is sacred spot of Vishnu.

Ajmere, Rajputana. 26N. 75E. Capital of Ajmere-Merwara. Contains tomb of Mussulman saint, Kwajah. Purchased by Britain, 1818. Mayo College f. 1875.

Akashi, Japan. 35N. 135E. Contains Shinto temple in honour of the poet Kakinomoto-no-Hitomaro.

Ak-su, Eastern Turkestan. 41N. 81E. Nearly destroyed by earthquake, 1718. Captured by Khan of Kashgar, 1867; retaken by Chinese, 1877.

Alandi, Bombay. 19N. 74E. Resort of Hindu pilgrims, and said to have been res. of Jnaneshvar.

Aleppo, Syria. 36N. 37E. Taken by Saracens, 636; conquered by Tamerlane, 1402; by Turks, 1517. Visited by earthquakes, 1170, 1822. Contains the Jami Sakarya, or Great Mosque, in which lie alleged remains of Zacharias, father of John the Baptist. Res. of Mutanabbi. (See Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte,' 148 Hakluyt's 'Voyages,' Burckhardt's 'Travels in Syria and the Holy Land.')

Aligarh, United Provs. 28N. 78E. Contains Fort Aligarh, captured by General Lake from Mahrattas, 1803. Seat of Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College.

Allahabad ('city of God'), United Provs. 25N. 82E. F. by Akbar, 1575. Taken by Britain, 1801. Contains Muir Central College. Scene of journeying of Rama and Sita described in the 'Ramayana' as the hermitage of Bharadvaja.

Allah Shehr, Asia Minor. 38N. 29E. F. by Attalus Philadelphus, c. 200 B.C.; supposed to be one of 'seven churches of Asia' mentioned in Apocalypse.

Amarapura ('city of the gods'), Burma. 22N. 96E. Former capital of Burma. F. in 1783, by Bodawpaya. Destroyed by fire, 1810; by earthquake, 1839. Contains celebrated temple with colossal bronze statue of Gautama.

Amasia, Asiatic Turkey. 41N. 36E. Former capital of kings of Pontus. Bp. of Strabo.

Ambur, Madras. 13N. 79E. Muzaffar Jang conquered Anwar-ud-din, Nawab of Arcot, 1749.

Amoy ('gallery gate'), China. 24N. 118E. Taken by Britain, 1841; opened to foreign trade by Treaty of Nanking, 1842.

Amritsar ('pool of immortality'), Punjab. 32N. 75E. F. round sacred reservoir by Guru Ram Das, 1574. Contains Darbar Sahib, chief Sikh temple; also fortress of Govindgarh, 1809.

Amroha, United Provs. 29N. 78E. Said to have been f. by Hastinapur; res. of Shah Wilayat. In the vicinity the Mongols were conquered, 1304.

Amu Daria, Turkestan. 37N. 73E. Ancient river Oxus, occurring as Amoo in 'The Veiled Prophet of Khorassan.' (See Moore's 'Lalla Rookh.')

Anantapur, Madras. 15N. 78E. F. by Chikkappa Udaiyar, 1364; attacked by Mahrattas, 1757.

Aneysa, Arabia. 26N. 45E. Bp. of Abdul-Wahab, founder of Wahabis. (See Doughty's 'Travels in Arabia Deserta.')

Angkor, Indo-China. 13N. 104E. Ruined city, near which are ruins of Angkor-Vat, a famous Cambodian temple. (See Little's 'Far East.')

Angora, Asiatic Turkey. 40N. 33E. Supposed to have been f. by Midas. Scene of Christian Councils, 314, 358. Contains temple erected to Augustus. Sultan Bejazet I. captured by Tamerlane, 1402.

Ani, Asiatic Turkey. 41N. 43E. Ancient Armenian capital. Taken by Greeks, 1045; by Seljuks, 1064. Destroyed by earthquake, 1319.

Anjangaon, Berar. 21N. 77E. Treaty signed between British and Daulat Rao Sindhia after second Mahratta War, 1803.

Anjengo, Madras. 9N. 77E. Bp. of historian, Robert Orme, and res. of Eliza Draper, friend of Laurence Sterne.

Anjidiv, Bombay. 15N. 74E. Island visited by Ibn Batatu, 1342; by Vasco da Gama, 1498. Occupied by Portuguese, 1505. Mentioned by Ptolemy.

Ankai Tonkai, Bombay. 20N. 74E. Conquered by Shah Jehan, 1635; occupied by British, 1818.

Antioch, Syria. 36N. 36E. F. by Seleucus Nicator, c. 300 B.C. Scene of St. Paul's first ministry. Destroyed by earthquakes, 526, 1872. Ruined by Persians, 538; taken by Saracens, 658; by Turks, 1516. Bp. of Archias, St. Luke, and Chrysostom. (See Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte.')

An-tung, Manchuria. 40N. 125E. General Kuroki established here during Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905. (See McKenzie's 'From Tokyo to Tiflis.')

Anupshahr, United Provs. 28N. 78E. Occupied by Ahmad Shah Durrani, 1757; by British, 1773.

Arafat ('the mountain of mercy'), Arabia. 21N. 40E. Mountain on which Adam and Eve are alleged to have met after the fall. Scene of many Mohammedan pilgrimages. (See Burton's 'Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah,' Burckhardt's 'Travels in Arabia.')

Arantangi, Madras. 10N. 79E. Seized by Raghunatha Levan, c. 1646, 1698.

Ararat, Asiatic Turkey. 40N. 44E. One of mountains in Asia on which Noah's ark is said to have rested. Parrot first ascended Great Ararat, 1829. Severe earthquake experienced, 1840. (See 'Travels of Marco Polo.')

Arcot ('six deserts'), Madras. 13N. 79E. Contains ruins of Nawab's palace. Mentioned by Ptolemy. Clive defended city successfully against siege, 1751.

Ardahan, Asiatic Turkey. 41N. 43E. Successfully stormed by Russians, 1877; ceded to Russia by Turkey, 1878.

Argaum, Berar. 21N. 77E. Mahrattas defeated by Wellesley, 1803.

Arginusæ Is., off W. coast of Asia Minor. 39N. 27E. Spartan fleet defeated by Athenians near these islands, 406 B.C.

Arjesh, Turkish Armenia. 39N. 43E. 149 Taken by Jelal-ed-Din, 1228. Destroyed by earthquake, 1246.

Arni, Madras. 13N. 79E. Clive defeated Raja Sahib and French forces, 1751.

Aror, Bombay. 28N. 69E. Captured by Mohammedans, c. 712.

Arpad, Syria. 37N. 37E. Taken by Tiglath Pileser II., 740 B.C.

Arrah, Bengal. 26N. 85E. In Indian Mutiny 12 Englishmen and 50 Sikhs held out against 3000 Sepoys for 8 days, 1857.

Artaxata, Russian Armenia. 39N. 45E. Ancient capital of Armenia, now in ruins. Hannibal supposed to have superintended building of city; named after Artaxis I., c. 180 B.C. Destroyed by Romans, 58; by Persians, 370. Joseph, the patriarch, presided over ecclesiastical council, 450.

Ashdod, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Captured by Jonathan, 147 B.C. Mentioned by Herodotus. Contained famous temple of Dagon. (See Thomson's 'Land and the Book.')

Ashta, Central India. 23N. 77E. Contains fort built by Dost Mohammed Khan, 1716; captured by Mahrattas, 1745; stormed by Kudsia Begam, 1837.

Ashta, Bombay. 18N. 75E. British defeated Baji Rao Peshwa, 1818.

Asirgarh, Central Provs. 21N. 76E. Massacre of garrison by Ala-ud-din Khilji, 1295; captured by Akbar, 1600; by General Wellesley, 1803; besieged by British, 1819.

Askelon, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Ancient seat of worship of Astarte, and of Dagon and Dercetis, whose temple was plundered by Scythians, 630 B.C. Bp. of Herod I., who embellished it. Godfrey de Bouillon defeated Egyptians, 1099; city taken by Crusaders, 1153; by Saladin, 1187; destroyed by Sultan Bibars, 1270. (See Scott's 'The Talisman.')

Assaye, Haidarabad. 20N. 76E. Mahrattas conquered by Sir Arthur Wellesley, 1803. (See Malleson's 'Decisive Battles of India.')

Athni, Bombay. 17N. 75E. Visited by French traveller Mandelslo, 1639. Yielded to Rajah Sahu of Satara, 1730; British possession, 1839.

Atrauli, N.W. Provs. 28N. 78E. Held for three months by Mohammedans during Mutiny, 1857.

Attock, Punjab. 34N. 72E. Contains fort built by Akbar, 1581; captured by Ranjit Singh, 1812.

Augur, Central India. 24N. 76E. F. by Agra Bhil; destroyed by Bapuji Sindhia, 1801; suffered during Mutiny, 1857.

Aurungabad ('the abode of Aurungzebe'), Haidarabad. 20N. 75E. F. in 1620. Contains Buddhist caves, and mausoleum built by Aurungzebe in memory of his daughter.

Ava ('a fish-pond'), Burma. 22N. 96E. F. by Thadominpaya, 1364. Former capital of Burma. Ruined by earthquake, 1839.

Ayodhya, United Provs. 27N. 82E. Famous in legend as city of Dasa-ratha, father of Rama. (See 'Ramayana.')

Ayuthia, Siam. 14N. 101E. Founded in 1351; capital of Siam until nearly destroyed by Burmese, 1767. Chief ruin is a Buddhist temple, the 'Golden Mount.' (See Little's 'Far East.')

Baalbek ('city of Baal'), Syria. 34N. 36E. Contains Temple of the Sun, built by Antoninus Pius. Taken by Arabs, 748; by Tamerlane, 1400. Destroyed by earthquake, 1170, 1750. (See Twain's 'New Pilgrim's Progress,' Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient,' Moore's 'Lalla Rookh,' Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte,' Burckhardt's 'Travels in Syria and the Holy Land.')

Babylon ('the gate of the god'), Asiatic Turkey. 33N. 45E. First mentioned, 3800 B.C.; capital of Babylonia, c. 2300 B.C. Destroyed by Sennacherib, 689 B.C.; attained eminence under Nabopolassar, 625-604 B.C.; under Nebuchadnezzar, 604-561 B.C. Surrendered to Cyrus, 539 B.C. Alexander the Great died in palace of Nebuchadnezzar, 323 B.C. (See 'Purchas His Pilgrimes,' Hakluyt's 'Voyages.')

Badami, Bombay. 16N. 76E. Contains famous cave-temple, f. 650. Captured by General Munro, 1818; by Arabs, 1840.

Badarpur, Bengal. 25N. 93E. British defeated Burmese, 1824.

Badnera, Berar. 21N. 78E. Partially destroyed by Rajah Ram, 1822.

Bagalkot, Bombay. 16N. 76E. Captured by Peshwa of Savanur, 1775; by Hyder Ali, 1778; by General Munro, 1818.

Baghdad, Asiatic Turkey. 33N. 44E. F. by Caliph Al-Mansur, c. 762; embellished by Harun-al-Rashid; taken by Hulaku Khan, 1258; by Tamerlane, 1393; by Amurath IV., 1638. Contains tomb of Zobeida, wife of Harun-al-Rashid, and is famous by means of the 'Arabian Nights.' (See Firdausi's 'Sha Name,' Gosse's 'Firdausi in Exile,' 'Purchas His Pilgrimes,' 'Travels of Marco Polo.')

Baghput, Punjab. 29N. 77E. Said to be the Vyaghraprastha mentioned in the 'Mahabharata.' 150

Bahera, Punjab. 32N. 73E. Captured by Babar, 1519; pillaged by Nur-ud-din, 1757.

Bahraich, United Provs. 28N. 82E. Contains tomb of Mohammedan saint, Masaud.

Baj-Baj, Bengal. 22N. 88E. Fort captured by Clive from Siraj-ud-daula, 1756.

Bajwara, Punjab. 32N. 76E. Rajah Sansar Chand conquered Sirdar Bhup Singh, 1801; fort captured by Ranjit Singh, 1825.

Balkh, Afghan Turkestan. 37N. 67E. Zoroaster first preached his doctrine, 549 B.C.; died at Balkh. Visited by Chinese explorer, Fa Hian, 402; Hiouen Thsang, 643; by Marco Polo, 1263. Besieged and taken by Ninus, 1933 B.C.; pillaged by Genghis Khan, 1221; destroyed by Tamerlane, 1390. (See 'Travels of Marco Polo.')

Bamian, Afghanistan. 35N. 68E. Destroyed by Genghis Khan, 1221.

Bander Abbas ('harbour of Abbas'), Persia. 27N. 56E. Ancient Harmozia. Portuguese driven out by Shah Abbas the Great with help of British, 1623. (See Moore's 'Lalla Rookh,' story of 'The Fire-Worshippers.')

Bandhogarh, Central India. 24N. 81E. Attacked by Asaf Khan, 1563; captured by Patr Das, 1597; yielded to Anup Singh, 1658. Said to be bp. of Akbar.

Banera, Rajputana. 26N. 75E. Conquered by Akbar, 1567; fort built in 1726; captured by Rajah of Shahpura, c. 1756.

Bangalore, Mysore. 13N. 78E. F. by Hyder Ali, 1537. Taken by Lord Cornwallis, 1791. Contains palace of Tippoo Sahib, and Central College.

Bangkok, Siam. 14N. 101E. Ceded to Louis XIV., 1687; became royal residence, 1767. Contains famous temples, and a colossal statue of Buddha. (See Little's 'Far East.')

Banias, Syria. 33N. 36E. Visited by W. M. Thomson, and described in 'The Land and the Book.'

Bankapur, Bombay. 15N. 76E. First mentioned, 898. Stormed by Firoz Shah, 1406; conquered by Hyder Ali, 1776; ceded to British, 1802.

Bantam, East Indies. 6S. 106E. Described in first part of 'Purchas His Pilgrimes' as celebrated town of Java.

Baragaon, Bengal. 25N. 85E. Visited by Hiuen Tsiang, who here studied religion.

Bardwan, Bengal. 23N. 88E. Scene of the third story of the vampire in Burton's 'Vikram and the Vampire.'

Bareilly, United Provs. 28N. 79E. New town f. by Rajah Makrand-Mughals, 1657. Taken by English, 1801; Europeans massacred during Mutiny, 1857; recaptured by Sir Colin Campbell, 1858.

Baroda, Bombay, 22N. 73E. Tributary to Great Britain, 1802; Malhar Rao succeeded Sayaji Rao III., 1875.

Barpeta, Bengal. 26N. 91E. Sankar Deb, follower of Vishnu, here f. a religious college. Partially destroyed by earthquake, 1897.

Barrackpur, Bengal. 23N. 88E. Prominent town in Sepoy mutinies, 1824, 1857. Contains Lady Canning's tomb.

Barsana, United Provs. 28N. 77E. Fabled to be a res. of Radha, mistress of Kishna. Pillaged by imperial troops, 1774.

Barwani, Central India. 22N. 75E. Said to have been f. by Rana Chandra Singh, c. 1650. Near town is sacred hill of Jains, and temple with inscription dating from 1166.

Basarh, Bengal. 26N. 85E. Visited by Buddha, and sacred town of Buddhists. Visited by explorers Fa Hian and Hieun Tsiang.

Basavapatna, Mysore. 14N. 76E. Captured by Bijapurs, 1637; destroyed by Hyder Ali, 1763; plundered by Mahrattas, 1791. Ancient res. of Baba Budan.

Basra ('fortress'), Asiatic Turkey. 30N. 48E. F. under Omar, 656. Contains tomb of Zobeir. (See 'Travels of Marco Polo.')

Bassein, Bombay. 19N. 73E. Ceded to Portuguese, 1534; taken by Mahrattas, 1765; by British, 1780.

Batala, Punjab. 32N. 75E. F. by Rai Ram Deo, c. 1465. Contains tomb of Shamsher Khan, foster-brother of Akbar.

Batavia ('good land'), East Indies. 6S. 107E. First European settlement f. by Pieter Both, 1610; new city f. by Jean Koen, 1621. Unsuccessfully besieged by Kings of Bantam and Jacantra, 1619. Earthquake experienced, 1699.

Bayana, Punjab. 26N. 77E. Contains temple with inscription dated 1043. Fort near captured by Mohammed Ghori, 1196; by Sikanda Lodi, 1492; by Humayun, 1535.

Bayazid, Turkish Armenia. 39N. 44E. Captured by Russians, 1828, 1854, 1877. Yielded to Turkey by Treaty of Berlin, 1878.

Bednore ('bamboo city'), Mysore. 14N. 75E. Capital of Rajah of Ikari, 1645. Taken by Hyder Ali, 1763; by General Matthews, 1783; by Tippoo Sahib, 1784. 151

Beer-Sheba ('well of the oath'), Palestine. 31N. 35E. Only ruins remain of ancient city famous in Biblical history from time of Abraham's digging a well and planting a grove.

Begampur, Bombay. 18N. 76E. Contains tomb of daughter of Aurungzebe.

Behar ('monastery'), Bengal. 25N. 86E. Famous as ancient centre of Buddhism, and as city in which Buddha preached.

Behistun ('place of the gods'), Persia. 34N. 47E. Rock on which cuneiform inscriptions recounting deeds of Darius I. are engraved; discovered by Sir Henry Rawlinson, 1835.

Beit Jibrin, Syria. 32N. 35E. Visited by W. M. Thomson, and described in 'The Land and the Book.'

Bela, Baluchistan. 26N. 66E. Contains tomb of Sir Robert Sandeman.

Belgaum, Bombay. 16N. 75E. Taken by Aurungzebe, 1686; by Hyder Ali, 1776; by British, 1818.

Bellary, Madras. 15N. 77E. Captured by Sivaji, the Mahratta, c. 1678; ceded to British, 1800.

Benares ('the splendid'), N.W. Provs. 25N. 83E. Visited by Hsuan Tsang in 7th century A.D. Religious capital of India, containing many temples. Taken by Sultan Mahmoud, 1190; ceded to England, 1775; outbreak during Indian Mutiny, 1857. (See Sir Edwin Arnold's 'Light of Asia,' Burton's 'Vikram and the Vampire.')

Bencoolen, Sumatra. 4S. 102E. F. by British, 1685; Fort Marlborough built, 1714. Formerly chief British possession in Sumatra; ceded to Holland in exchange for Malacca, 1824.

Bendemeer, Persia. 30N. 52E. (See Thos. Moore's 'Lalla Rookh,' story of the 'Veiled Prophet of Khorassan.')

Berasia, Central India. 24N. 77E. Contains tomb of his father built by Dost Mohammed.

Berea, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Battle fought in which Judas Maccabæus was killed, 161 B.C.

Berezov, Siberia. 64N. 65E. F. in 1593. Partially burnt, 1719, 1808. Prince Menshikov died in exile, 1729; Prince Dolgoruki, 1730. General Ostermann exiled, 1742; died, 1747.

Berghama, Asiatic Turkey. 39N. 27E. Ancient capital of Pergamus, and contains many magnificent ruins; bequeathed to Romans by Attalus III., 133 B.C. Bp. of Galen and Apollodorus.

Berhampur, Bengal. 24N. 88E. Indian Mutiny originated here, 1857.

Besika, Asia Minor. 40N. 26E. Bay used as station for British fleet, 1853-1854, 1877-1878.

Bethany, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Frequently mentioned in the Bible as the house of Lazarus, Martha and Mary, Simon the leper. Contains alleged tomb of Lazarus, and village is now called 'El-Azariyeh,' the 'Place of Lazarus.'

Bethel ('house of God'), Palestine. 32N. 35E. Supposed to have been f. by Abraham or Jacob. Rachel and Deborah died at Bethel.

Beth-horon ('place of caves'), Palestine. 32N. 35E. The Syrians under Prince Sorom vanquished by Judas Maccabæus.

Bethlehem ('house of bread'), Palestine. 33N. 35E. Bp. of David and of Christ. Devastated by Hadrian, 132. Contains Church of the Nativity built by Constantine; enlarged by Justinian; embellished by Manuel Comnenus, 1170; by Edward IV. and Philip of Burgundy, 1482. Burial-place of Jerome. (See Kinglake's 'Eothen,' Twain's 'New Pilgrim's Progress,' Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient,' 'Purchas His Pilgrimes,' Thomson's 'Land and the Book.')

Beyrout, Syria. 34N. 35E. Destroyed by Tryphon, 140 B.C.; taken by Arabs, 635; by Baldwin, 1111; re-captured by Saladin, 1187; by Turks, 1763. Lamartine's only daughter died here, 1832. (See Kinglake's 'Eothen,' Burton's 'Wanderings in Three Continents,' Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient,' Thomson's 'Land and the Book,' Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte.')

Bhadaur, Punjab. 30N. 75E. F. by Sirdar Dunna Singh, 1718; res. of Bhadaur chiefs.

Bhagalpur, Bengal. 25N. 87E. Contains famous Jain temples, and native monument to Augustus Cleveland.

Bhagwangola, Bengal. 24N. 88E. Unsuccessfully besieged by Mahrattas, 1743; burnt by Mahrattas, 1750. Temporary res. of Surajah Dowlah.

Bhainsrorgarh, Rajputana. 25N. 76E. Said to have been f. by Bhainsa Sah; captured by Ala-ud-din, c. 1303.

Bhanpura, Rajputana. 25N. 76E. Res. and burial-place of Jaswant Rao Holkar.

Bhartpur ('city of Bhurat'), Rajputana. 27N. 78E. Unsuccessfully stormed by Lord Lake, 1805; taken by Lord Combermere, 1826. Under British administration, 1853. (See Malleson's 'Decisive Battles of India.')

Bhatner, Punjab. 30N. 74E. Captured and partially destroyed by Tamerlane, 1398. 152

Bhilsa, Rajputana. 24N. 78E. Contains mosques built by Akbar, 1583; by Aurungzebe, 1682. Plundered by Altamsh, 1235; seized by Ala-ud-din, 1290.

Bhojpur, Bombay. 19N. 74E. Contains stones bearing ancient carvings and inscription dating from c. 200 B.C.

Bhubaneswar, Bengal. 20N. 86E. Sacred city of the followers of Siva; of great antiquity.

Bhuj, Bombay. 23N. 70E. Taken by storm by Sir William Kier, 1819.

Bidar, Haidarabad. 18N. 78E. Captured by Ulugh Khan, 1321; by Aurungzebe, 1656.

Biderra, Bengal. 23N. 88E. Colonel Forde conquered Dutch under Colonel Roussel, 1759. (See Malleson's 'Decisive Battles of India.')

Bijanagur ('city of triumph'), Madras. 16N. 77E. F. in 1336; destroyed by Mohammedan kings, 1564. Contains temples made of granite.

Bijapur ('city of victory'), Bombay. 17N. 76E. Taken by Aurungzebe, 1686; given to Rajah of Satara by British, 1818.

Bilsa, Bengal. 24N. 88E. Remarkable Buddhist remains discovered by English travellers, 1822; contains tomb of Mussulman, Djelal-ed-din Bhokhary.

Bimlipatam, Madras. 18N. 83E. Captured by Mahrattas, 1754; ceded to British by Dutch, 1825.

Bindraban, Bengal. 26N. 88E. Krishna is supposed to have passed his childhood here, and several temples are erected in his honour.

Birsinha, Bengal. 23N. 88E. Bp. of Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar, writer of 'Sitar Banabas.'

Bisauli, United Provs. 28N. 79E. Res. and burial-place of Dunde Khan.

Bithur, United Provs. 27N. 80E. One of chief centres of worship of Brahma. Nana Sahib here defeated by Havelock during Mutiny, 1857.

Bitlis, Asiatic Turkey. 38N. 42E. Supposed to have been f. by Alexander the Great. Taken by Arabs, 648. Scene of defeat of Solyman by Persians, 1554.

Blagovieshtchensk ('city of the annunciation'), Siberia. 76N. 146E. F. in 1856; capital of Amur district, 1858. Attacked unsuccessfully by Chinese, 1900. (See Fraser's 'Real Siberia.')

Boca Tigris ('the tiger's mouth'), China. 23N. 114E. Entrance to the Canton river, containing fortified islands taken by British, 1841, 1856.

Bodinayakkanur, Madras. 10N. 77E. Captured by Hyder Ali, 1776.

Bokhara ('a church'), Turkestan. 40N. 65E. Burnt by Djenghis-Khan, 1221. Contains 360 mosques and many colleges. Scene of youth of Zelica and Azim in Moore's 'Lalla Rookh.'

Bombay, Bombay. 19N. 73E. Ceded to Portugal, 1530; part of marriage-portion of Catherine of Portugal, 1661; British established themselves here, 1666.

Borsad, Bombay. 22N. 73E. Res. of Rangoji, 1741; here made prisoner, 1748.

Botad, Bombay. 22N. 72E. Town near which is tomb of Pir Hamir Khan, Mussulman saint.

Brahmakund, Bengal. 28N. 96E. Pool which was the scene of an incident in which Parasu Rama, an incarnation of Vishnu, took part.

Brahmapuri, Bombay. 18N. 76E. Res. of Aurungzebe from 1695 to 1700.

Brahmini, Bengal. 21N. 86E. Famous as scene of wooing of Matsya Gandha, mother of alleged compiler of 'Mahabharata' and the Vedas.

Broach, Bombay. 22N. 73E. Captured by British, 1772; ceded to Scindia, 1783; re-captured by British, 1803.

Brusa, Asiatic Turkey. 40N. 29E. Former capital of Bithynia. F. by Prusus II., King of Bithynia. Captured by Sultan Orkhan of Turkey, 1326; plundered by Tartars, 1402; suffered from earthquakes, 1855.

Budaun, United Provs. 28N. 78E. Supposed to have been f. c. 905. Seized by Kutb-ud-din, 1196; joined in Mutiny, 1857. Res. of Ala-ud-din.

Buddha-Gaya, Bengal. 25N. 85E. Formerly centre of worship of Buddha, and contains sacred pipal-tree under which Sakyamuni reached Buddhahood. Visited by Hieun Tsiang, 635.

Budihaul, Madras. 14N. 76E. Captured by Hyder Ali, 1761; by Mahrattas, 1771, 1790.

Budrum, Asiatic Turkey. 37N. 27E. F. on site of ancient Halicarnassus. Contains a fortress built by the knights of Rhodes, 1402. Bp. of Herodotus and Dionysius.

Burhanpur, Central Provs. 21N. 76E. F. by Nasir Khan, c. 1400; adorned by Akbar, 1600. Pillaged by Mahrattas, 1685; captured by Wellesley, 1803.

Buxar, Bengal. 26N. 84E. Mir Kasim defeated by Sir Hector Munro, 1764. Of literary interest as res. of writers of Vedic hymns. 153

Cæsarea, Palestine. 32N. 35E. F. by Herod the Great on site of Strato's Tower. Famous in biblical history as city in which St. Peter preached to Cornelius, and St. Paul was incarcerated for two years. Vespasian became emperor, 69; Eusebius was bishop, 315-318; captured by Crusaders but regained by Saladin, 1101; destroyed by Sultan Bibars, 1265. (See Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient,' Thomson's 'Land and the Book.')

Calah, Asiatic Turkey. 36N. 43E. One of ancient capitals of Assyria; f. by Shalmaneser I., c. 1300 B.C.; rebuilt by Asurnazirpal, 880 B.C. Ruins discovered by Sir A. H. Layard, 1845.

Calcutta, Bengal. 23N. 88E. F. by Governor Job Charnock, 1686; Fort William established, 1696; besieged by Surajah Dowlah, Nawab of Bengal, and captives imprisoned in the 'Black Hole,' 1756; recaptured by Clive, 1757; chief seat of British government, 1773. (See Kipling's 'City of Dreadful Night.')

Calicut, Madras. 11N. 76E. Covilham landed here, 1486; Vasco da Gama, 1498; Captain Keeling, 1615. Don Fernando Coutinho repulsed, 1509; devastated by Hyder Ali, 1765; taken by British, 1782; by Tippoo Sahib, 1788; re-taken by British, 1790. (See Burton's 'Goa and the Blue Mountains,' also 'Purchas His Pilgrimes.')

Cambay, Bombay. 22N. 73E. Taken by General Goddard, 1780; given to Mahrattas, 1783; ceded to British, 1803. (See Hakluyt's 'Voyages.')

Cana, Palestine. 33N. 35E. Famous in biblical history as scene of Christ's first miracle. Bp. of his disciple Simon.

Cannanore, Madras. 12N. 75E. Visited by Vasco de Gama, 1498.

Canton, China. 23N. 113E. Bogue forts captured by British, 1841; city occupied by French and British forces, 1857. (See Little's 'Far East,' Kipling's 'From Sea to Sea.')

Capernaum ('village of Nahum'), Palestine. 33N. 36E. City in which Christ resided, and performed many miracles; home of St. Matthew. (See Thomson's 'Land and the Book.')

Carchemish, Asiatic Turkey. 37N. 38E. Captured by Tiglath-pileser I., c. 1120 B.C.; Josiah killed by Necho II. of Egypt, 609 B.C.; Necho vanquished by Nebuchadnezzar, 605 B.C.

Carmel, Palestine. 33N. 35E. Mountain on which Elijah slaughtered the priests of Baal. Napoleon used one of the monasteries situated here as a hospital, 1799. Visited by Lamartine, 1832.

Cawnpur ('city of Krishna'), United Provs. 26N. 80E. Scene of the massacre of Europeans by Nana Sahib during Mutiny, 1857. (See Trevelyan's 'Cawnpore.')

Cayster, Asia Minor. 38N. 28E. River made famous by Virgil in the 'Georgics' and Ovid in the 'Metamorphoses.' Remains of Ephesus are near its mouth.

Celebes, Malay Archipelago. 4S. 121E. Discovered by Portuguese, 1512; established fort at Macassar, 1525; driven out by Dutch, 1660; taken by British, but yielded to Dutch, 1814.

Ceylon, Indian Ocean. 8N. 81E. Visited by Portuguese, 1505; driven from island by Dutch, 1658; ceded to Britain by Treaty of Amiens, 1802; annexed, 1815.

Chakan, Bombay. 19N. 74E. Captured by Malik Ahmad, 1486; by Shaista Khan, 1662; by Lieut.-Col. Deacon, 1818.

Chakdaha, Bengal. 23N. 89E. Bp. of Karta Baba, who f. the Kartabhaja sect.

Champaner, Bombay. 22N. 74E. Taken by Mahmoud Begara, 1484; plundered by Humayun, 1535.

Chanar, United Provs. 25N. 83E. Supposed to have been f. by Bhartrinath. Taken by Humayun, 1537; by Akbar, 1575; attempted seizure by Major Munro, 1763. Near fort is tomb of Saint Shah Kasim Sulaimani.

Chandaur, Bombay. 20N. 74E. Taken by the Mogols, 1635; by Aurungzebe, 1665; by Colonel Wallace, 1804; British possession, 1818.

Chanderi, Central India. 25N. 78E. Seized by Ghiyas-ud-din, 1251; by Mahmoud Khilji I., 1438; by Jean Baptiste Filose, 1811; by Sir Hugh Rose, 1858.

Chandernagore ('city of the moon'), Bengal. 23N. 88E. Ceded to French by Aurungzebe, 1688; taken by British, 1757; restored to French, 1816.

Chandragiri, Madras. 14N. 79E. Said to have been f. by Immadi Narashima Yadava Rayalu, 1000. Res. of deposed Vijayanagar kings. Conquered by Hyder Ali, 1782.

Charsadda, Punjab. 34N. 72E. Mentioned by Ptolemy and Arrian; visited by Hieun Tsiang.

Chaul, Bombay. 19N. 73E. Occupied by Portuguese, 1516; pillaged by Gujerat troops, 1529; Ahmadnagar army defeated by Portuguese, 1594; taken by Mahrattas, 1740. 154

Chemulpo, Korea. 37N. 127E. In Russian-Japanese war, Russians defeated by Admiral Urin, 1904. (See McKenzie's 'From Tokyo to Tiflis.')

Chengalput, Madras. 13N. 80E. Said to have been f. by Timmarajah. Captured by French, 1751; by Clive, 1752; place of refuge of British troops, 1780.

Chetwai, Madras. 11N. 76E. Occupied by Dutch, 1717; taken by Hyder Ali, 1776; British possession, 1790.

Chhapia, United Provs. 27N. 82E. Bp. of Swami Narayan, incarnation of Krishna.

Chidambaram ('the atmosphere of wisdom'), Madras. 11N. 80E. Taken by French, 1753; unsuccessfully attacked by British, 1759; captured by Major Monson, 1760; unsuccessfully attacked by Sir Eyre Coote, 1781.

Chi-fu, China. 38N. 122E. Convention held between Sir Thomas Wade and Li Hung Chang, 1876; meeting-place of blockade runners, 1904-5.

Chiknayakanhilli, Madras. 13N. 77E. Pillaged by Mahrattas, 1791. Burial-place of Dodda Deva Rajah.

Chillianwallah, Punjab. 33N. 74E. Sikhs defeated in doubtful battle by Lord Gough, 1849. (See Malleson's 'Decisive Battles of India.')

Chinchvad, Bombay. 19N. 74E. Res. of Moroba, incarnation of Ganpati, and scene of his miracles.

Chin-Kiang, China. 35N. 108E. Partially destroyed by Tai-pings, 1853.

Chinsurah, Bengal. 23N. 88E. F. by Dutch, 1656; routed by British under Colonel Forde, 1758; occupied by British, 1795; restored to Dutch, 1814; ceded to British, 1825.

Chitakul, Bombay. 15N. 74E. Captured by Portuguese, 1752; by Fazl-ullah Khan, 1763.

Chitrakut, United Provs. 25N. 81E. Mentioned in the 'Ramayana' as scene of wanderings of Rama and Sita, and here they were sought out by Bharat.

Chittagong, Burma. 22N. 92E. Visited by Portuguese, 1618; belonged to Mogol empire, 1666; taken by British, 1760.

Chupni, Bengal. 25N. 92E. Bp. of Akhay Kumar Datta, prose-writer of Bengal.

Cnidus, Asia Minor. 37N. 27E. Supposed to have been f. by Triopas. Famous for the worship of Venus. Near the coast of Cnidus Conon defeated the Spartan fleet, 314 B.C. Bp. of Eudoxus, Ctesias, and Sostratus.

Cochin, Madras. 10N. 76E. Taken from the Portuguese by Dutch, 1633; captured by British, 1795; ceded by treaty to British, 1814. Visited by Vasco da Gama, 1502; by St. Francis Xavier, 1530. (See Hakluyt's 'Voyages.')

Coimbatore, Madras. 11N. 77E. Taken by British from Tippoo Sahib, 1799.

Colgong, Bengal. 25N. 87E. Death of Ghiyas-ud-din Mahmoud, last king of Bengal, took place here, 1539.

Colombo, Ceylon. 7N. 80E. Taken by Portuguese, 1517; ousted by Dutch, 1603; conquered by British, 1796.

Colophon, Asia Minor. 38N. 27E. Supposed to have been f. by Andracmon of Pylos or by Mopsus. Bp. of Homer, Mimnermus, and Nicander.

Colossæ, Asia Minor. 38N. 29E. Now represented by Khonas, bp. of Nicetas Khoniates. Mentioned by Xenophon and Herodotus. St. Paul sent a letter to its church during his imprisonment at Rome.

Conjeveram, Madras. 13N. 80E. Captured by Mussulmans, 1310, 1646; by Mahrattas, 1677; by Clive, 1752; burnt by French, 1757.

Coringa, Madras. 17N. 82E. Became British possession, 1759. Inundated and partially destroyed by ocean, 1787, 1832.

Cossimbazar, Bengal. 24N. 88E. British defeated by Surajah Dowlah, 1757. Contains tomb of first wife of Warren Hastings.

Covelong, Madras. 13N. 80E. Captured by French, 1750; by Clive, 1752.

Cranganore, Madras. 10N. 76E. Fortress erected by Portuguese, 1505; ceded to Dutch, 1660; sold to Rajah of Travancore.

Cunaxa, Asiatic Turkey. 33N. 44E. Cyrus the Younger killed here in a battle with his brother, Artaxerxes Mnemon, 401 B.C.

Cydnus, Asia Minor. 37N. 35E. River up which Cleopatra sailed to meet Antony.

Cyprus, Asiatic Turkey. 35N. 33E. Seat of worship of Aphrodite; bp. of Barnabas. Conquered by Arabs, 646; retaken by Greeks, 648; secured by Haroun-al-Raschid, 802; by Comnenus, 1184; ruled by Guy de Lusignan, 1193; occupied by Turks, 1570; ruled by British, 1878. (See Kinglake's 'Eothen,' Hakluyt's 'Voyages.')

Dafar, Arabia. 17N. 54E. Described in 'Travels of Marco Polo' as Dulfar.

Damalcheruvu Pass, Madras. 13N. 79E. Mahrattas defeated and killed Nawab Dost Ali, 1740.

Daman, Bombay. 20N. 73E. Portuguese possession since 1531. 155

Damascus, Syria. 34N. 36E. Supposed to have been f. by Uz. Conquered by David, by Jeroboam II., Tiglath-Pileser, Sennacherib, and Nebuchadnezzar. Subdued by Pompey, 64 B.C.; by Mohammedans, 635; conquered by Nureddin, 1154; Saladin died here, 1193; Egyptians defeated by Tamerlane, 1401; taken from Turks by Selim I., 1516; captured by Ibrahim Pasha, 1832; ceded to Turkey, 1840. Massacre of Jews, 1840; of Christians, 1860. The English historian Buckle died here. (See Kinglake's 'Eothen,' Burton's 'Wanderings in Three Continents,' Twain's 'New Pilgrim's Progress,' Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient,' Hakluyt's 'Voyages,' Burckhardt's 'Travels in Syria and the Holy Land.')

Daminya, Bengal. 25N. 88E. Bp. of Mukunda Ram Chakrabarti.

Daulatabad ('abode of prosperity'), Haidarabad. 20N. 75E. F. by Bhillama I., c. 1187 A.D.; seized by Ala-ud-din Khilji, 1294; by Mohammedans, 1307, 1310; Rajah Harpal flayed alive, 1318; captured by Nijam Shakis from Bahmanis, 1526; from Emperor Akbar, 1595; taken by Malik Amber, 1607; by Shah Jahan, 1633; Abul Hasan imprisoned here by Aurungzebe, 1687.

Dead Sea, Palestine. 32N. 36E. Frequently mentioned in biblical history. (See Kinglake's 'Eothen,' Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient.')

Deglur, Haidarabad. 19N. 78E. Contains tomb of Shah Zia-ud-din Rifai.

Delhi, Punjab. 29N. 77E. Captured by Mohammedans, 1193; by Tamerlane, 1398; Sultan Baber established Mogol dynasty, 1526; burnt by Mahrattas, 1736; taken by Persians, who plundered it of treasures, including Koh-i-noor diamond, 1739; recaptured by Mahrattas, 1789; seized by Lord Lake, 1803; scene of terrible massacre of British in Mutiny, 1857; Durbar of Edward VII. held here, 1903; of George V., 1911. (See Mrs. F. A. Steel's 'On the Face of the Waters' and 'India through the Ages,' Madhu Sudan Datta's 'Captive Ladie,' Moore's 'Lalla Rookh.')

Deogarh, United Provs. 25N. 78E. Contains carvings dating from 1097. Captured by Colonel Baptiste, 1811.

Deogurk, Bengal. 25N. 87E. Contains many temples to Siva, and is famous place of pilgrimage.

Deraiyeh, Arabia. 25N. 46E. Ancient capital of Wahabis; destroyed by Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha, 1818.

Devanhalli, Madras. 15N. 78E. F. in 1501; captured by Lord Cornwallis, 1791. Bp. of Tippoo Sahib.

Devikottai, Madras. 11N. 80E. Taken from Pratap Singh by British, 1749; occupied by British garrison, 1760.

Dhampur, United Provs. 29N. 79E. Captured by Dunde Khan, c. 1750; by Amir Khan, 1805.

Dhar, Central India. 23N. 75E. Destroyed by Jaya Sinha, 1020; yielded to Aurungzebe, 1658. Bp. of Baji Rao II., and contains mausoleum of Abdullah Shah Changal, Mohammedan saint.

Dharapuram, Madras. 11N. 78E. Taken by Colonel Wood, 1768; by Hyder Ali, 1768; by General Medows, 1790.

Dharwar, Bombay. 15N. 75E. Fort said to have been f. by Dhar Rao, 1403; captured by Ali Adil Shah, 1573; by Aurungzebe, 1685; by Hyder Ali, 1778; British possession, 1818.

Dholka, Bombay. 23N. 72E. Captured by Mahrattas, 1736; ceded to British, 1804.

Dholpur ('the town of Dholan'), Rajputana. 27N. 78E. Alleged to have been f. by Dholan Deo. Taken by Sikander Lodi, 1501; by Babar, 1526.

Dhulia, Bombay. 21N. 75E. Devastated by Holkar, 1803; British possession, 1818.

Diarbekr, Asiatic Turkey. 38N. 40E. F. on the site of ancient city of Amida. Fortified by Constantius, 340; captured by Persians, 502; by Arabs, 640; by Sultan Selim I., 1515.

Dig, Rajputana. 27N. 77E. Fell to Najaf Khan, 1776; General Frazer conquered Holkar in the vicinity, 1804.

Dindigull, Madras. 10N. 78E. Overcome by Rajah of Mysore, 1755; taken by British from Tippoo Sahib, 1783, but given back, 1784; ceded to British, 1792.

Dipalpur, Punjab. 31N. 74E. Conquered by Tamerlane, 1398; besieged by Babar, 1524; by Mahrattas, 1758.

Diu, Bombay. 21N. 71E. Occupied by Portuguese, 1515; fortified, 1535; plundered by Arabs, 1670.

Dolon-nor, Mongolia. 42N. 116E. Contains many Buddhist temples, and the ruins of Changtou described by Marco Polo are near this city.

Dondra Head ('island's end'), Ceylon. 6N. 80E. Most southernly point of island, considered sacred by the Hindus. Ibn Batouka, the Arabian geographer, visited this place, 1344. Destroyed by Portuguese, 1587. 156

Dumdum, Bengal. 23N. 88E. Scene of Sepoy rising in Mutiny, 1857.

Dwarka, Bombay. 22N. 69E. Taken by British, 1816. Associated with Krishna, and sometimes said to be his birthplace.

Ecbatana ('an assembly'), Persia. 35N. 48E. Ancient capital of Media, supposed to have been f. by Deioces, c. 705 B.C.; now known as Hamadan. Conquered and plundered by Seleucus, 313; by Alexander, 331 B.C. Contains tombs alleged to be those of Mordecai and Esther, also mosque of Avicenna.

Efsene, Turkestan. 40N. 65E. Bp. of Avicenna, Persian philosopher and physician.

Ekron, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Ancient city of Philistia, frequently mentioned in the Bible. Taken by Thothmes III., c. 1500 B.C.; by Sennacherib, 701 B.C.

Elburz, Persia. 37N. 50E. Mountains, on one of which Saum exposed his son Zalzer. (See Firdausi's 'Sha Name.')

El Elah, Arabia. 26N. 39E. Visited by C. M. Doughty, and described in 'Travels in Arabia Deserta.'

Elephanta, Bombay. 19N. 73E. Sacred island in Hindu mythology, containing many temples.

Ellichpur, Berar. 21N. 77E. F. by Rajah Ellon. Besieged by Mahrattas, 1772; taken by Ala-Eddin, 1794.

Ellora, Haidarabad. 20N. 75E. Contains wonderful temples to Buddha hewn out of rock. The Kailasa temple possesses sculptures of scenes from the 'Ramayana' and the 'Mahabharata.'

Endor, Palestine. 33N. 35E. Place where witch summoned before Saul the spirit of Samuel, who foretold his defeat and death.

Engedi ('goat's spring'), Palestine. 31N. 35E. Frequently mentioned in the Bible, especially as the wilderness to which David fled from Saul. Pliny refers to it as a ruin.

Enoshima, Japan. 35N. 140E. An island near Yokohama containing celebrated shrine. (See Lafcadio Hearn's 'Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan.')

Ephesus, Asia Minor. 38N. 27E. Said to have been f. by Amazons, or by Androcles, son of Codrus. Taken by the Arabs from the Persians, 1283. Famous as a sacred city of Artemis. The first Christian church established here, of which Timothy was bishop. John the Baptist and the Virgin Mary are said to have died in this city. Bp. of Heraclitus, Hermodorus, Hipponax, and Parrhasius. (See Mark Twain's 'New Pilgrim's Progress.')

Erbil, Asiatic Turkey. 36N. 44E. Darius finally defeated by Alexander, 331 B.C.

Erivan, Transcaucasia. 40N. 45E. Taken by the Turks 1582; by Shah Abbas, 1604; stormed by Turks, 1615; unsuccessfully attacked by Heraclius, 1780; by Russians, 1804; taken by Paskevich, 1827; ceded to Russia, 1828. Partially destroyed by earthquake, 1679. (See Bodenstedt's 'Tausend und ein Tage im Orient' for Tatar poem in celebration of Russian victory.)

Erode, Madras. 11N. 78E. Captured by British, 1768; by Hyder Ali, 1768; by General Medows, 1790.

Erzerum, Turkish Armenia. 40N. 41E. Taken by Seljuks, 1201; by Mogols, 1242; by Turks, 1517; by Russians, 1828, 1878; but restored to Turks, 1878. Experienced severe earthquake, 1859.

Erzingan, Asiatic Turkey. 40N. 40E. Home of St. Gregory. Greatly suffered from earthquake, 1774.

Esdraelon ('God has sown'), Palestine. 33N. 35E. Plain frequently occurring in biblical history, notably at the time of Barak's defeat of Sisera, Gideon's victory over Midianites, and Philistines over Saul, also in the time of Ahab.

Eskishehr, Asiatic Turkey. 40N. 30E. Contains several tombs of Mohammedan saints. Near the city Godfrey of Bouillon defeated Soliman.

Etchmiadsin, Transcaucasia. 40N. 44E. Ecclesiastical capital of Armenia, with famous monastery. Taken by Russians during Russo-Persian war, 1827; ceded to Russians, 1828.

Euphrates, Asiatic Turkey. 30N. 48E. Most important river of the world. One of the four rivers of Eden; on its banks Nimrod f. the Babylonian empire, and the Old Testament patriarchs dwelt.

Eurymedon, Asia Minor. 37N. 31E. River at whose mouth Persians were defeated by Cimon, 466 B.C.

Everest, Mount, Nepal. 28N. 87E. Highest known peak in the world, the altitude of which was discovered by Sir George Everest, 1841; named in his honour by Sir Andrew Waugh, 1856.

Falta, Bengal. 22N. 88E. Scene of British retreat after capture of Calcutta, 1756.

Famagousta, Cyprus. 35N. 34E. F. by Ptolemy Philadelphus. Taken by Richard Cœur de Lion, 1191; Guy de Lusignan crowned here. Captured by Genoese, 1376; yielded to Turks, 1571. 157

Fatehgarh, United Provs. 27N. 80E. F. by Nawab Mohammed Khan, c. 1714; stormed by Mahrattas, 1751; Lord Lake defeated Holkar, 1804.

Ferozeshah, Punjab. 31N. 75E. Sir Hugh Gough and Sir Henry Hardinge defeated Sikhs, 1845. (See Malleson's 'Decisive Battles of India.')

Firospur ('city of Firuz'), Punjab. 28N. 77E. Battle fought between Sikhs and British, which gave Punjab to Britain, 1845.

Formosa ('beautiful'), China. 24N. 121E. Portuguese landed, 1590. Dutch f. Fort Zelandia, 1624; withdrew, 1662. Attached to China, 1683; opened to foreigners, 1858; Anping and Zelandia occupied by British, 1868, but restored to China; island invaded by Japanese, 1874; captured by French, 1884; ceded by China to Japan, 1895. (See Diosy's 'New Far East,' Little's 'Far East.')

Fort St. David, Madras. 12N. 80E. F. by Hindu, Chinnia Chetti; purchased by British, 1690; Clive became its governor, 1756; captured by French under Lally, 1758; given up, 1760; recaptured, 1782; restored to British, 1785.

Fu-chau ('happy region'), China. 26N. 119E. The walled capital of Fu-kien. Open to foreign trade, 1842; contains an arsenal constructed by two Frenchmen, 1867; bombarded by French, 1884.

Fuji Yama, Japan. 35N. 139E. Supposed to have sprung up in a single night, 285 B.C. Highest mountain in Japan, held in religious veneration, famous in legend, poetry, and art. It is volcanic, the last outbreak taking place in 1707. (See Lafcadio Hearn's 'Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan.')

Fulia, Bengal. 23N. 88E. Bp. of Krittibas, translator into Bengali of 'Ramayana.'

Furruckabad ('happy abode'), Bengal. 25N. 88E. Lord Lake defeated Mahratta Holkar, 1805.

Futtehghur, Rajputana. 26N. 75E. Nearly entire European inhabitants massacred, 1857.

Futtipur-Sikri ('city of victory'), United Provs. 27N. 78E. F. by Akbar, 1570. Res. and burial-place of Saint Salim Chishti. (See Mrs. F. A. Steel's 'Prince of Dreamers.')

Fyzabad, Afghanistan. 37N. 70E. Destroyed by Murad Beg, 1829; rebuilt by Faiz Muhammed Khan, 1865.

Galle, Ceylon. 6N. 80E. F. by Portuguese, 1518; taken by Dutch, 1642; by British, 1796.

Galna, Bombay. 21N. 75E. Pillaged by Sivaji, 1679; captured by Aurungzebe, 1705; by Colonel Wallace, 1804.

Gamala, Palestine. 33N. 36E. Unsuccessfully besieged by Agrippa; captured by Vespasian in Jewish war, 66-70.

Gaur, Bengal. 25N. 88E. Ancient capital of Bengal. Seized by Mohammedans, 1204; embellished by Akbar, 1575. (See Burton's 'Vikram and the Vampire,' 7th story.)

Gaya, Bengal. 25N. 85E. Sacred city of the Buddhists, being the bp. of Buddha.

Gaza, Palestine. 32N. 34E. City from which Samson is said to have taken the gates. Burnt by Syrian king, Alexander Jannæus, 96 B.C.; captured by Omar, 634; occupied by Templars, 1152; taken by Saladin, 1187. (See Kinglake's 'Eothen,' Thomson's 'Land and the Book,' Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte.')

Gerasa, Palestine. 32N. 36E. Taken by Alexander Jannæus, 83 B.C.; rebuilt by Romans, 65 B.C.

Gethsemane, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Scene of Christ's vigil on the eve of his crucifixion. (See Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient.')

Ghaziabad, United Provs. 29N. 77E. F. by Ghazi-ud-din, 1740. Suraj Mal killed by Rohillas, 1763.

Ghazipur, United Provs. 26N. 84E. Capital of district of Ghazipur; contains many magnificent ruins. Lord Cornwallis died here, 1805. (See Kipling's 'In an Opium Factory.')

Ghazni, Afghanistan. 34N. 68E. Seized by Nadir Shah, 1738; by Lord Keane, 1839; by General Nutt, 1842. Contains tomb of Mahmud of Ghazni, 1030.

Gheriah, Bombay. 17N. 73E. Bombarded by British fleet under Admiral Watson, and captured by Clive, 1756; British possession, 1818.

Ghodbandar, Bombay. 19N. 73E. Mahrattas unsuccessfully stormed town, 1672; captured from Portuguese, 1737.

Ghoraghat, Bengal. 25N. 89E. Mentioned in the 'Mahabharata' as place of refuge of Virat Rajah.

Gibeah, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Res. of King Saul, and alleged to be his birthplace.

Gibeon, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Famous in Old Testament history, especially for Joshua's defence of the city against the Amorites.

Gilboa, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Range of hills, on one of which King Saul and his three sons were killed in battle.

Gingi, Madras. 12N. 79E. Captured by Bandaullah Khan, 1638; by Sivaji, 1677; besieged for eight years by Zulfikar Khan, 158 1690; taken by French, 1750; by British, 1761; abandoned to Hyder Ali, 1780.

Giria, Bengal. 24N. 88E. Celebrated for defeat of Sarfaraz Khan, 1740; and Mir Kasim, 1763.

Giridhi, Bengal. 24N. 86E. Centre of Karharbari coal-fields, and described in Kipling's 'Giridih Coal-Fields.'

Goa, Bombay. 15N. 74E. Taken by Mohammedans, 1469; by Albuquerque, 1510; by British, 1807; recaptured by Portuguese, 1815. Contains tomb of St. Francis Xavier. (See Marryat's 'Phantom Ship,' Burton's 'Goa and the Blue Mountains,' 'Purchas His Pilgrimes,' Hakluyt's 'Voyages.')

Gobardanga, Bengal. 23N. 89E. Alleged place where Krishna guarded his flocks.

Gobardhan, Rajputana. 27N. 77E. Said to have been a favourite res. of Krishna.

Gokana, Punjab. 29N. 77E. Contains tomb of Saint Shah Zia-ud-din Mohammed.

Gokarn, Bombay. 15N. 74E. Place of pilgrimage for Hindus; mentioned in 'Mahabharata' and 'Ramayana.'

Golconda, Haidarabad. 18N. 78E. A ruined city, f. by Rajah of Warangal; destroyed by Aurungzebe, 1687.

Gooruncondah ('horse-hill'), Madras. 14N. 79E. Taken by Hyder Ali, 1768; yielded to Trimbak Rao, 1771; captured by Tippoo Sahib, 1773; British possession, 1800.

Granicus, Asia Minor. 40N. 27E. River on the banks of which Alexander the Great first defeated the Persians, 334 B.C.; Lucullus defeated Mithridates, 74 B.C.

Gujranwala, Punjab. 32N. 74E. Bp. of Ranjit Singh, and burial-place of his father and of himself.

Gujrat, Punjab. 33N. 74E. Sikhs conquered by Sir Hugh Gough, 1849. (See Malleson's 'Decisive Battles of India.')

Gulbarga, Haidarabad. 17N. 77E. Taken by Zafar Khan, 1347; by Mir Jumla, 1657. Contains tomb of Khwaja Band Nawaz, Mussulman saint.

Gumush-Khaneh ('place of silver'), Asiatic Turkey. 41N. 38E. Pasha of Trebizond defeated by Russians, 1829.

Gutti, Madras. 15N. 78E. Res. of Morari Rao. Fell to Hyder Ali, 1775; British possession, 1800.

Gwalior, Central India. 26N. 78E. Contains palace of Man Singh, f. 1486, and Victoria College; also tombs of Sheik Mohammed Ghaus and of Tan Sen. Maharajah faithful to England, though his army rebelled during Mutiny, 1857.

Haidarabad, Haidarabad. 17N. 79E. Capital of the Nizam's dominions; f. by Cuttub-Shah, 1585. Taken and plundered by Aurungzebe, 1687.

Hakata, Japan. 34N. 130E. Formerly an independent town; now forming part of Tukuoka. (See Lafcadio Hearn's 'Out of the East.')

Halicarnassus, Asia Minor. 37N. 27E. Mausoleum erected here by Artemisia in honour of her husband, Mausolus. Bp. of Herodotus and Dionysius.

Hamadan, Persia. 35N. 48E. F. on the site of ancient Ecbatana, containing tombs alleged to be of Mordecai and Esther, also those of Avicenna, Attar, and Abul-Hasi.

Hamah, Syria. 35N. 37E. Often mentioned in the Old Testament. Fell into the hands of Tancred, 1108; of Togtekin, 1115; of Saladin, 1178. Abulfeda, the Arabian geographer, was emir, 1342-54.

Hami, China. 43N. 94E. Described in the 'Travels of Marco Polo.'

Hang-Chau, China. 30N. 120E. Capital of Che-kiang. Visited by Marco Polo and Barrow. Successfully stormed by Taiping rebels, 1861; open to foreign trade and res., 1896. (See 'Travels of Marco Polo,' Little's 'Far East.')

Han-kau ('Han-mouth'), China. 31N. 114E. Greatest commercial city of empire; mentioned by F. J. Little in 'The Far East.'

Hanoi ('within the river'), Indo-China. 21N. 106E. F. by a Chinese governor, c. 767, became capital of Annam. Citadel built in 808. Contains a colossal Buddha, also statue to Paul Bert. French possession since 1882. (See Little's 'Far East.')

Hansi, Punjab. 29N. 76E. Alleged to have been f. by Anang Pal. Seized by Masud, 1036; by Mohammed of Ghor, 1192. Contains tomb of Kulb Jamal-ud-din.

Hanumangarh, Rajputana. 30N. 74E. Tamerlane defeated by Dul Chand, 1398; taken by Kamran, 1549.

Harbin, Manchuria. 46N. 127E. Military base of Russians during Russo-Japanese War. (See Fraser's 'Real Siberia,' Little's 'Far East.')

Hardwar ('gate of Vishnu'), United Provs. 30N. 78E. Famous resort of pilgrims; battle between two rival sects, 1760; terrible epidemic of cholera, 1847.

Harnai, Bombay. 18N. 73E. Attacked by Commodore James, 1755; captured by Colonel Kennedy, 1818.

Hattia, Bengal. 23N. 91E. Captured by Portuguese pirates, 1607. Destroyed by cyclone, 1876. 159

Hayil, Arabia. 28N. 42E. Visited by C. M. Doughty, and described in 'Travels in Arabia Deserta.'

Hebron, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Frequently mentioned in the Bible, especially in connection with David. Traditionally supposed to have been f. by Adam. The cave of Macpelah reputed to be here, containing Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Sarah, Rebecca, and Leah. The tombs are shown of Ruth, Jesse, and Abner. Conquered by Saladin, 1187; destroyed by Ibrahim Pasha, 1834 and 1837. (See Thomson's 'Land and the Book.')

Hei-ku-tai, Manchuria. 42N. 123E. Seized by the Russians, 1904.

Herat, Afghanistan. 34N. 62E. Foundation attributed to Alexander the Great. Taken by Arabs, 661; by Nadir Shah, 1730; Persians defeated by British, 1837; fell to Yar Mohammed Khan, 1842; to Dost Mohammed, 1862. (See Rawlinson's 'England and Russia in the East.')

Heshbon, Palestine. 32N. 36E. Mentioned in the Bible, and described by C. M. Doughty in 'Travels in Arabia Deserta.'

Hikone, Japan. 35N. 137E. Contains remains of ancient Daimio castle. Battle of Sekigahare fought near here, 1600.

Hinomizaki, Japan. 35N. 132E. Described by Lafcadio Hearn in 'Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan.'

Hissar, Punjab. 29N. 76E. F. by Firoz Shah Tughlak, 1356; captured by the adventurer, George Thomas, 1783; mutinied 1857.

Homs, Syria. 35N. 37E. Aurelian conquered Zenobia, 272; city captured by Saracens, 636; by Crusaders, 1099; Turks defeated by Ibrahim Pasha in command of Egyptian forces, 1832. Bp. of Heliogabalus. (See Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte.')

Honawar, Bombay. 14N. 74E. Visited by Ibn Batatu, 1342. Occupied by Portuguese, 1505; captured by British, 1783, 1799.

Hong-Kong ('fragrant streams'), China. 22N. 114E. Occupied by British troops, 1841; ceded to Britain, 1842. (See Kipling's 'From Sea to Sea,' Little's 'Far East.')

Hor ('mountain'), Arabia Petræa. 30N. 36E. Mountain on which tradition relates the death of Aaron took place.

Horeb, Arabia Petræa. 29N. 34E. Mountain on which Moses is said to have seen the burning bush, and to which Elijah fled from Jezebel. (See 'Purchas His Pilgrimes.')

Hsi-ngan ('west tranquil city'), China. 34N. 109E. Visited by Marco Polo; contains oldest mosque in China and tablet with Chinese and Syriac inscription dating from 781. Emperor and dowager empress sought refuge here, 1900.

Hubli ('old village'), Bombay. 15N. 75E. Captured by Muazzam, 1685; by General Munro, 1818.

Hue, Indo-China. 16N. 108E. Capital of Annam; forts taken by French, 1883. (See Little's 'Far East.')

Hugli, Bengal. 22N. 88E. F. by Portuguese, 1537; besieged by Shah Jahan, 1629; Mohammedans made it royal port, 1632; East India Company established factory, 1640; destroyed by fire, 1685.

Ida, Asia Minor. 40N. 27E. Range of mountains celebrated by Homer. In them the Simois, Granicus and Scamander had their origin, and Troy lay in the valley. Supposed scene of rape of Ganymede and judgment of Paris.

Ipsus, Asia Minor. 39N. 31E. Seleucus and Lysimachus conquered Antigonus and Demetrius Poliorcetes, 301 B.C. or 300 B.C.

Irkutsk, Siberia. 52N. 104E. F. by Cossacks, 1653; proclaimed town, and first church built, 1686; government headquarters, 1736; devastated by fire, 1879. (See Fraser's 'Real Siberia.')

Isker, Siberia. 58N. 67E. Captured by Russians under Yermak, 1579.

Ismid, Asia Minor. 41N. 30E. Formerly capital of Bithynia under name of Nicomedia; given to the Romans by Nicomede III. Destroyed by Goths, and by earthquake, 358. Taken by Turks, 1326.

Isnik, Asia Minor. 40N. 30E. F. by Antigone. Nicene creed formed here by a council held against Arius, 325.

Ispahan, Persia. 33N. 52E. Said to have been f. by Jews who were taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar; former capital of Persia. Tamerlane massacred the inhabitants, 1392; besieged and plundered by Afghans, 1722; re-taken by Nadir Shah, 1729. (See Montesquieu's 'Lettres Persanes,' 'Purchas His Pilgrimes.')

Issus, Asia Minor. 37N. 36E. Alexander the Great conquered Darius in a decisive battle, 333 B.C.; Septimus Severus defeated Niger, 194; Heraclius overthrew Persians, 622.

Istalif, Afghanistan. 35N. 69E. Destroyed by British, 1842. 160

Jabbok ('copious river'), Palestine. 32N. 36E. River on the banks of which Jacob is supposed to have wrestled with an angel. (See Doughty's 'Travels in Arabia Deserta.')

Jaffa, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Celebrated in heathen mythology as the scene of the adventure of Perseus and Andromeda, in Scripture history as the port from which Jonas embarked and city in which Peter raised Tabitha. Cæsar yielded town to the Jews, but it returned to Rome, 6; taken by El-Malik el-Adil, Saladin's brother, 1188; ceded to Christians, 1204; restored by Frederick II., 1228; fortified by St. Louis, 1252; dismantled by Beybars, 1267; taken by Napoleon, 1799; by Mehemet Ali, 1832; by Turks, 1840. Partially destroyed by earthquake, 1838. (See Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient,' Thomson's 'Land and the Book,' Hakluyt's 'Voyages.')

Jalalabad, Afghanistan. 34N. 70E. F. by Akbar, 1570. Sir Robert Sale made a successful resistance against Afghans, 1842.

Jalandhar, Punjab. 31N. 76E. Visited by Hiuen Tsiang. Destroyed by Sikhs, 1757; taken by Ranjit Singh, 1811.

Jamalpur, Bengal. 25N. 86E. Chief locomotive centre of East Indian Railway, described by Kipling in 'Among the Railway Folk.'

Jaypur, Rajputana. 27N. 76E. F. by Sawai Jai Singh, 1728; greatest city of Rajputana. (See Kipling's 'Letters of Marque.')

Jericho, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Ancient city frequently mentioned in biblical history, and also by Josephus and Strabo. It was destroyed by Joshua, but rebuilt in Ahab's reign. Here Christ healed blind Bartimæus. (See Twain's 'New Pilgrim's Progress,' Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient,' Thomson's 'Land and the Book.')

Jerusalem, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Ancient capital of Palestine, mentioned in Egyptian record c. 1400 B.C. Destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, 586 B.C.; Jews permitted to return by Cyrus, 536 B.C.; Jews massacred by Antiochus IV., 168 B.C.; fortified by Judas Maccabæus, 165 B.C.; captured by Pompey, 63 B.C.; taken and destroyed by Titus, 70; new city f. by Hadrian, 71; Godfrey de Bouillon reigned, 1099; passed into hands of Ottoman Turks, 1516. (See Kinglake's 'Eothen,' Firdausi's 'Sha Name,' Twain's 'New Pilgrim's Progress,' Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient,' 'Purchas His Pilgrimes,' Thomson's 'Land and the Book,' Hakluyt's 'Voyages.')

Jezreel ('God sows'), Palestine. 33N. 35E. A town near which Saul fell in battle, containing the res. of Jezebel and Ahab.

Jhansi, Central India. 26N. 79E. F. by Bir Singh Deo. Massacre of Europeans in the Mutiny, 1857.

Jhelum, Punjab. 31N. 72E. The Hydaspes of classical literature, on the banks of which Alexander the Great defeated the Indian chief Porus.

Jidda, Arabia. 22N. 39E. Taken by Turks, 1840; massacre of Christian missionaries, 1858. Contains supposed tomb of Eve. (See Doughty's 'Travels in Arabia Deserta,' Burckhardt's 'Travels in Arabia.')

Jind, Punjab. 29N. 76E. Attacked by Gajpat Singh, 1755; Rahim Dad Khan here met his death, 1775.

Joonir, Bombay. 19N. 74E. F. by Malik-ut-Tujar, 1436; pillaged by Sivaji, 1657.

Jordan, Palestine. 32N. 36E. Chief river of Palestine, of which mention occurs frequently in biblical history. (See Kinglake's 'Eothen,' Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient.')

Jugduluk, Afghanistan. 35N. 70E. British troops massacred, 1842.

Kabbaldurga, Madras. 12N. 77E. Chama Rajah imprisoned here in 1734, and Morari Rao by Hyder Ali.

Kabul, Afghanistan. 35N. 69E. Conquered by Nadir Shah, 1739; by British, 1839; massacre of British soldiers, 1842; retaken by British, 1842; by Shere Ali, 1868; massacre of Major Cavagnari, 1879; Lord Roberts subdued city in his campaign, 1878-80. (See Firdausi's 'Sha Name.')

Kagoshima, Japan. 35N. 140E. Destroyed by British fleet, 1863; Satsuma Rebellion had its origin here, but was crushed, 1877.

Kaithal, Punjab. 30N. 76E. Contains tomb of Mohammedan saint Salah-ud-din of Balkh. Captured by Bhai Desu Singh, 1767.

Kalat, Baluchistan. 29N. 67E. Unsuccessfully attacked by Ahmad Shah Durrani, 1758; captured by British, 1839.

Kalgan, China. 41N. 115E. Walled city mentioned by A. J. Little in 'The Far East.'

Kallinjar, Bengal. 25N. 80E. Connected with worship of Siva. Attacked by Mahmoud of Ghazni, 1023; captured by Kutb-ud-din, 1203; besieged by Humayun, 1530; taken by Akbar, 1569; by British, 1812.

Kalpi, United Provs. 26N. 80E. Said to have been f. by Basdeo. Captured by Kutb-ud-din, 1196; by Humayun, 1527; by British, 1798. 161

Kalyan, Bombay. 19N. 73E. Captured by Portuguese, 1536; by Mohammedans, 1660; by British, 1780.

Kamagawa, Japan. 35N. 140E. Town at which treaty was signed opening Japan to Europeans, 1854.

Kamakura, Japan. 35N. 140E. Former capital of Shogunate, and contains colossal statue of Buddha. (See Lafcadio Hearn's 'Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan.')

Kampil, Bengal. 28N. 79E. Mentioned in 'Mahabharata' as scene of wedding of Draupadi.

Kan-chow, China. 39N. 101E. Described in 'Travels of Marco Polo.'

Kanchrapara, Bengal. 22N. 88E. Bp. of Iswar Chandra Gupta.

Kandahar, Afghanistan. 32N. 66E. F. by Ahmed Shah, 1747, near site of city f. by Alexander the Great, 330 B.C. Taken by British, 1839, 1879. Stormed by Ayub Khan, but relieved by Lord Roberts, 1880.

Kandy, Ceylon. 7N. 81E. Contained temple in which was supposed to be a tooth of Buddha; destroyed by Portuguese. Capital of Ceylon, 1592; taken by Portuguese, 1796; entered by British, 1803; became British possession, 1815.

Kang-hwa ('river-flower'), Korea. 38N. 127E. Plundered by French under Admiral Roze, 1866; attacked by Americans, 1871; peace established by treaty, 1875.

Kangra, Punjab. 32N. 76E. Pillaged by Firoz Shah, 1360; taken by Sansar Chand, 1785.

Kapilavastu, Nepal. 28N. 83E. Site of city not definitely known, but was ancient capital of Sakyas, and bp. of Buddha. (See Sir Edwin Arnold's 'Light of Asia.')

Karachi, Sind. 25N. 67E. F. in 1725; ceded by Talpur Amirs to British, 1842.

Karakoram, China. 46N. 102E. Said to be ancient capital of Genghis Khan. (See 'Travels of Marco Polo.')

Karazan, China. 25N. 103E. Capital of province of Yun-Nan. (See 'Travels of Marco Polo.')

Karikal, Madras, 11N. 80E. Ceded to French by Rajah of Tanjaur, 1739; seized by British, 1803; restored to French, 1814.

Karnal, Punjab. 30N. 77E. Contains tomb of Bu-Ali Kalandar. Pillaged by Ibrahim Husain Mirza, 1573; captured by Mahrattas, 1787; by British, 1805.

Kars, Armenia. 41N. 43E. Taken by Turks, 1546; fortified, 1579; conquered by Persians, 1744; by Russians, under Paskevitch, 1828; Ismael Pasha and General Williams held it unsuccessfully against Russians, 1855; stormed by Russians, 1877; and ceded to them, 1878.

Karur ('embryo town'), Madras. 11N. 78E. Seized by British, 1760; by Hyder Ali, 1768; by General Medows, 1790.

Kashgar, Eastern Turkestan. 39N. 76E. Rebelled against China, and became capital of Yakub Beg's dominions, 1865; retaken by Chinese, 1877. (See 'Travels of Marco Polo,' Rawlinson's 'England and Russia in the East,' Little's 'Far East.')

Kashmir, Vale of, Kashmir. 34N. 75E. Scene of the story of 'The Light of the Haram' in Moore's 'Lalla Rookh.'

Kasur, Punjab. 31N. 75E. Alleged to have been f. by Kusa, son of Rama. Besieged by Bhangi chiefs, 1763, 1770; Ranjit Singh defeated Kutb-ud-din Khan, 1807.

Katwa, Bengal. 24N. 88E. Sacred town as res. of apostle Chaitanya.

Kaveripak, Madras. 13N. 79E. Rajah Sahib and French defeated by Clive, 1752. (See Malleson's 'Decisive Battles of India.')

Kaveripatnam, Madras. 12N. 78E. Taken from Hyder Ali by British, 1767.

Kendubilwa, Bengal. 24N. 88E. Bp. and burial-place of Jayadeva, composer of 'Gita Govinda.' (See R. C. Dutt's 'Lit. of Bengal.')

Kerbela, Asiatic Turkey. 33N. 44E. Hosein, son of Caliph Ali, killed in battle with rival Yazid, 680; chief building of the city, visited by many pilgrims, is mosque containing Hosein's tomb. Subdued by Turks, 1843.

Kerkouk, Kurdistan. 35N. 44E. Stormed and taken by Nadir Shah, 1741. Tomb is shown supposed to be of Daniel and other 'children of the furnace.'

Kerman, Persia. 30N. 56E. Taken and plundered by Mahomed Khan, 1794.

Khaiba, Arabia. 26N. 40E. Visited by C. M. Doughty, and described in 'Travels in Arabia Deserta.'

Khaibar Pass, Afghanistan. 34N. 71E. In Afghan wars opposition to British passage overcome, 1839; terrible loss encountered in retreat, 1842; held by neighbouring Afridis, 1879.

Khatmandu, Nepal. 28N. 85E. Believed to have been f. c. 723. Massacre of British, 1846.

Khios, Asiatic Turkey. 38N. 26E. Famous as bp. of Ion, Theocritus, and Theopompus; contained the 'school of Homer.'

Khiva, Russian Turkestan. 42N. 60E. Captured by Russians under General Kaufmann, 1873. (See Rawlinson's 'England and Russia in the East.') 162

Khuldabad, Haidarabad. 20N. 75E. Contains many tombs of famous men, among others those of Nasir Jang and Aurungzebe.

Kiakhta, Siberia. 50N. 107E. Described by Bishop Sheepshanks in 'My Life in Mongolia and Siberia.'

Kidron, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Valley which was the scene of many incidents in biblical narratives; David crossed the River Kidron when fleeing from Absalom. Believed will be scene of Last Judgment. Mentioned by Jerome and Eusebius.

Kin-chau, Manchuria. 39N. 121E. Japanese defeated Russians, 1904.

King-te-shen, China. 29N. 117E. Partially destroyed by Tai-ping rebels, 1855.

Kioto, Japan. 35N. 136E. F. by Kuwammu. Former capital of Japan. (See Lafcadio Hearn's 'Out of the East,' Kipling's 'From Sea to Sea.')

Kirtipur, Punjab. 32N. 75E. Nanek, founder of Sikh religion, and compiler of 'Adi-Granth' died here.

Kishon, Palestine. 33N. 35E. Scene of defeat of Sisera, and Elijah's destruction of the prophets of Baal. Battle fought on banks of river between Turks and French, 1799.

Kizuki, Japan. 35N. 133E. Great centre of Shinto religion in Japan. (See Lafcadio Hearn's 'Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan.')

Kobe, Japan. 35N. 135E. Formerly an independent town, but united to Hiogo, 1892. (See Kipling's 'From Sea to Sea.')

Kolar, Mysore. 13N. 78E. Contains tomb of father of Hyder Ali. Given to Hyder Ali, 1761; captured by British, 1768; by Mahrattas, 1770; by British, 1791.

Kondapalli, Madras. 17N. 81E. F. c. 1360. Seized by Krishna Deva, c. 1515; by Aurungzebe, 1687; by British, 1766.

Konieh, Asia Minor. 38N. 33E. City in which Paul and Barnabas preached. Taken by Seljuks 1075; by Frederick Barbarossa, 1190; by Mohammed II., 1466. Mentioned by Xenophon in the 'Anabasis.'

Kos, Asia Minor. 37N. 27E. Site of famous temple of Æsculapius. Bp. of Hippocrates, Apelles, Philetas, Ariston. Theocritus also lived here.

Kotagherry, Madras. 11N. 77E. Res. of Sir R. Burton, described in 'Goa and the Blue Mountains.'

Koum, Persia. 29N. 56E. Celebrated place of pilgrimage and contains shrine of Fatima, sister of Reza. (See Montesquieu's 'Lettres Persanes.')

Kuldja, East Turkestan. 44N. 81E. City f. after destruction of Tatar Kulja, 1865; taken by Russians, 1871; restored to China, 1881.

Kumarhatta, Bengal. 24N. 89E. Bp. of poet Ram Prasad Sen.

Kunnoj, United Provs. 27N. 80E. Contains two Mohammedan mausoleums in memory of Bala Pir and his son, 1650. King of Kanauj conquered by Sultan of Delhi, 1193.

Lahore, Punjab. 32N. 74E. Taken by Mahmoud, 1013, 1021; by Mohammed the Gouride, 1186; plundered and destroyed by Moguls, 1241; rebuilt, 1269; conquered by Baber, 1522; by Sikhs, 1758; Sikhs defeated by British, 1846; became incorporated with British Empire, 1849. (See 'Purchas His Pilgrimes,' Kipling's 'Kim.')

Lampsacus, Asia Minor. 40N. 27E. Ancient centre of worship of Priapus. Bp. of Charon, Anaximenus, and Metrodorus.

Lang-son, Indo-China. 22N. 107E. Taken by the French under General de Négrier, 1885.

Laswari, Rajputana. 28N. 77E. Total defeat of Mahrattas by British, 1803. (See Malleson's 'Decisive Battles of India.')

Latakia, Syria. 36N. 36E. Scene of Dolabella's last siege, 43 B.C.; taken by Tancred, 1102; by Saladin, 1188. Experienced severe earthquakes, 1170, 1287, 1822. (See Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte.')

Lebanon, Mounts., Palestine. 34N. 36E. Mountain range mentioned in the Bible as famous for cedars. Visited by Lamartine, 1832. (See 'Voyage en Orient,' Thomson's 'Land and the Book,' Burckhardt's 'Travels in Syria and the Holy Land.')

Leh, Kashmir. 34N. 78E. Contains tomb of Stolitzka, the Austrian geologist, who died here, 1874.

Leiah, Punjab. 31N. 71E. F. by Kamal Khan, c. 1550; Humayun Shah captured near here, 1794.

Lhasa ('God's house'), Tibet. 31N. 91E. Sacred city of Lamas, containing famous statue of Buddha. Forbidden to European explorers, but has been entered several times. (See Little's 'Far East.')

Liao-yang, Manchuria. 41N. 123E. Japanese secured a victory over Russians, 1904. (See McKenzie's 'From Tokyo to Tiflis.')

Ligor, Siam. 8N. 100E. Taken by Burmese, 1760, 1785.

Lohogarh, Bombay. 19N. 73E. Mentioned by Ptolemy. Taken by Sivaji, 1648; by British, 1818. 163

Lonar, Berar. 20N. 77E. Scene of struggle between Lonasur and an incarnation of Vishnu.

Lucknow, United Provs. 27N. 81E. Contains mausoleum of Asaf-ud-Daula. Seized by Humayun, 1526; by Babar, 1528; native insurrection against British, 1857; recaptured by British, 1858. (See Mrs. F. A. Steel's 'On the Face of the Waters,' Kipling's 'Kim.')

Macao, China. 22N. 114E. Portuguese bought right to settle here, 1557; Chinese barricaded it from rest of island, 1573; occupied by British, 1802, 1808; port declared free, 1846. Camöens res. here in exile, and wrote part of his 'Lusiad.'

Madakasira, Madras. 14N. 77E. Captured by Mahrattas, 1728; by Hyder Ali, 1762; by Morari Rao, 1764; recaptured by Hyder Ali, 1776.

Madras, Madras. 13N. 80E. British established here, 1639; besieged by Aurungzebe's general, 1702; by the Mahrattas, 1741; Fort George f. by Francis Day, 1744; taken by French, 1746; recovered by British, 1748; San Thomé, Portuguese settlement, f. in 1504, annexed, 1749; unsuccessfully attacked by French under General Lally, 1758, 1759. Cathedral of Saint Thomé supposed to contain remains of Saint Thomas.

Madura, Madras, 10N. 78E. Taken by Malik Kafur, 1324; by Nawab of Carnatic, 1736; held by British for Mohammed Ali, 1764; ceded to British, 1801.

Mahaban, Bengal. 27N. 78E. Alleged scene of childhood of Krishna.

Mahe, Madras. 12N. 76E. Taken by French, 1722; by British, 1761, 1779, 1793; restored to French, 1815.

Malatiyeh, Asiatic Turkey. 38N. 38E. Khosros I. defeated by Romans, 577; taken by Bajazet, 1396; by Tamerlane, 1401. Polyeuctus martyred here; great massacre of Christians, 1895. (See Corneille's 'Polyeucte.')

Mandalay, Upper Burma. 22N. 96E. F. in 1859; became capital of Burma, 1878; occupied by British, 1885; partially destroyed by fire, 1892.

Mandawar, United Provs. 29N. 78E. Taken by Tamerlane, 1399; plundered by Amir Khan, 1805.

Mangalore, Madras. 13N. 75E. Visited by Ibn Batatu. Occupied by Portuguese, 1596; sustained terrible siege against Tippoo Sahib, 1782-3; taken by British, 1799.

Manila, Luzon. 15N. 121E. Capital of Philippine Islands; f. by Spaniard, Legazpi, 1571. Plundered by Chinese pirates, 1574; blockaded by Dutch, 1602; taken by British, 1762; Spanish fleet destroyed by Dewey off coast, 1898. Severe earthquakes, 1675, 1824, 1863.

Manissa, Asiatic Turkey. 39N. 27E. Ancient Magnesia, near which were supposed to be kingdom of Tantalulus, and scene of Niobe's sorrow. Antiochus the Great defeated by Romans, 190 B.C.; city occupied by Osman Turks, 1398.

Maraglak, Persia. 37N. 46E. Contains tomb of Hulaka Khan, and remains of observatory built by him for the great astronomer, Nasr-ud-din of Tus.

Masulipatam, Madras. 16N. 81E. British settled here, 1611; successfully stormed by Colonel Forde, 1759. (See Malleson's 'Decisive Battles of India,' 'Purchas His Pilgrimes.')

Matsuye, Japan. 36N. 133E. Former capital of Idzumo, and contains numerous temples. (See Lafcadio Hearn's 'Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan.')

Mecca, Arabia. 21N. 40E. Bp. of Mohammed, c. 570. Contains the Kaaba, said to be built by Abraham and Ishmael with help from Angel Gabriel. Taken by Wahabis, 1803, 1807; by Mehemet Ali, 1813. (See Sir R. Burton's 'Wanderings in Three Continents' and 'Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah,' Hakluyt's 'Voyages,' Burckhardt's 'Travels in Arabia.')

Medina ('the city'), Arabia. 25N. 40E. Sacred city of Islam, whence Mohammed fled from Mecca, 622; contains tomb supposed to hold remains of the prophet, his daughter Fatima, Abu Bekr, and Omar. Forbidden city to all not Mohammedans, but visited by Burckhardt, 1811; Burton, 1852. (See Sir R. Burton's 'Wanderings in Three Continents' and 'Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah,' Burckhardt's 'Travels in Arabia.')

Meerut, United Provs. 29N. 78E. Plundered by Mahmud of Ghazni, 1017; by Tamerlane, 1399; taken by British, 1803; first outbreak of Indian Mutiny, 1857.

Megiddo, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Ancient city of Syria. Mentioned in Bible as being fortified by Solomon; refuge of Ahaziah fleeing from Jehu, 843 B.C.; Necho overcame Josiah, c. 609 B.C.

Menderes, Asia Minor. 38N. 28E. Said to be ancient Scamander, flowing past Troy, and sung of by Homer. 164

Merta, Rajputana. 27N. 74E. F. by Duda, c. 1488. Captured by Akbar, 1562.

Merv, Turkestan. 38N. 62E. Colonised by Alexander the Great, occupied by Arabs, 666; taken by Mongols, 1221; by Bokharians from Persians, 1787; occupied by Tekke-Turkomans, 1856; under Russian authority, 1884.

Meshed, Persia. 36N. 59E. Contains magnificent mausoleum of Imam Riza and Caliph Haroun-al-Raschid.

Meshed Ali, Asiatic Turkey. 32N. 44E. Contains tomb of Ali.

Miana, Persia. 37N. 47E. The French traveller, Thévenot, died here, 1667.

Miani, Sind. 26N. 68E. Sir Charles Napier twice defeated Mohammedan emirs, 1843.

Michmash, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Mentioned by Josephus and Eusebius, and in the Old Testament as the camping-place of the Philistines in the early part of reign of Saul.

Midagesidurga, Madras. 14N. 77E. Seized by Hyder Ali, 1761; by Mahrattas, 1767; by Tippoo Sahib, 1774.

Miletus, Asia Minor. 38N. 27E. Cyrus defeated, 548 B.C.; city destroyed by Persians, 494 B.C. Res. of St. Paul for several days. Bp. of historians Cadmus and Hecatæus, philosophers Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes; also of poet Timothy, of Aristides, Æschines, and Aspasia.

Mionoseki, Japan. 36N. 132E. Described by Lafcadio Hearn in 'Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan.'

Mityleni, Asiatic Turkey. 39N. 27E. Rebellion crushed by Athenians, 428 B.C.; ceded to Genoese family, 1355; taken by Mohammed II., 1462; unsuccessful rebellion against Turks, 1468; Venetian naval victories over Turks, 1690, 1698; Greek victory, 1821. Bp. of Sappho, Alcæus, Terpander, and Theophrastus; place of retirement of Agrippa.

Monghyr, Bengal. 25N. 86E. Taken by Mohammedans, 1195; became res. of Todar Mal, 1590; taken by British from Nawab Mir Kasim, 1763.

Mosul, Asiatic Turkey. 36N. 43E. Taken by Moslems, 636; stormed by Saladin, 1182; occupied by Persians, 1623; unsuccessfully besieged by Nadir Shah, 1741.

Mukden, Manchuria. 42N. 124E. Contains relics of Nurhachu, and near town is his tomb. Boxer outbreak, 1900; in Russo-Japanese War, Russians defeated and Japanese occupied Mukden, 1905. (See Père Amiot for French translation of Emperor K'ien Lung's poem 'En Mukden.')

Multan, Punjab. 30N. 71E. Contains tombs of Rukn-i-Alam, Bhawal Hakk and Shams-i-Tabriz. Mahmud of Ghazni took it, 1005; Ranjit Singh, 1818; British, in Sikh War, 1849.

Murshidabad, Bengal. 24N. 88E. Contains tomb of Jagath Singh. Last Mohammedan capital of Bengal; plundered by Mahrattas, 1742; entered by Clive, 1757; Warren Hastings removed civil and criminal courts to Calcutta, 1772.

Muscat, Arabia. 24N. 59E. Occupied by Albuquerque, 1507; besieged by Imam of Oman, 1648; Portuguese expelled by Oman, 1650.

Mush, Asiatic Turkey. 39N. 42E. Turks massacred Armenians, 1894. Visited by Xenophon, and supposed burial-place of Moses of Chorene.

Muttra, United Provs. 27N. 78E. Contains ruins of Jey Singh's observatory and of Akbar's fort. Supposed bp. of Krishna, whose childhood was spent here, and Balarama. Pillaged by Mahmud of Ghazni, 1017; taken by British, 1803; Sepoys murdered British officers, 1857.

Nabadwip, Bengal. 23N. 88E. Bp. of Chaitanya, supposed to be incarnation of Krishna; res. of Nityananda, Vasudeb, and Raghumath.

Nabulus, Palestine. 32N. 33E. On site of ancient Shechem mentioned in biblical history; later was rebuilt as Neapolis by Vespasian. (See Kinglake's 'Eothen,' Mark Twain's 'New Pilgrim's Progress,' Thomson's 'Land and the Book,' Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte.')

Nagar ('the city'), Madras. 14N. 75E. Captured by Hyder Ali, 1763; taken by British, 1783.

Nagasaki, Japan. 33N. 130E. Scene of Pierre Loti's 'Madame Chrysanthème.' (See also Kipling's 'From Sea to Sea,' Little's 'Far East.')

Nagpur ('town of serpents'), Central Provs. 21N. 79E. Former capital of Mahratta principality, crushed by British, 1817.

Nain, Palestine. 33N. 35E. Scene of Christ's miracle of raising from the dead the widow's son. (See Mark Twain's 'New Pilgrim's Progress.')

Najibabad, United Provs. 30N. 78E. F. by Najib-ud-dowlah, 1755. Destroyed by Mahrattas, 1772.

Nakhitchevan, Asiatic Russia. 40N. 45E. 165 Said to be oldest city in world, f. by Noah. Taken by Seljuk Sultan, 1064; ceded to Russia by Persia, 1828.

Nandidrug, Madras. 13N. 78E. Captured by Lord Cornwallis, 1791.

Nan-king ('southern capital'), China. 32N. 119E. Treaty which ended Opium War signed, 1842; city taken by Taipings, 1853; by Imperialists, 1864. (See 'Purchas His Pilgrimes,' Little's 'Far East.')

Nannur, Bengal. 24N. 88E. Bp. of Chandidas, the poet.

Narnaul, Punjab. 28N. 76E. Said to have been f. by Rajah Launkarn, and to be bp. of Sher Shah.

Nasik, Bombay. 20N. 74E. Noted for Lena caves with Buddhistic sculptures. Here, according to the 'Ramayana,' Ravana carried away Siva, Rama's wife.

Nazareth, Palestine. 33N. 35E. Res. of the Virgin Mary and of Christ; Church of Annunciation f., c. 1620. Town captured by Moslems, 1291; Junot vanquished combined army of Turks and Arabs, 1799. (See Kinglake's 'Eothen,' Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient,' Thomson's 'Land and the Book.')

Negapatam, Madras. 11N. 80E. Conquered by Dutch, 1660; by British, 1781. (See 'Purchas His Pilgrimes.')

Nehavend, Persia. 34N. 48E. Great victory of Saracens which brought Persia under their sway, 641.

Nellore, Madras. 14N. 80E. Ancient fort of Sinhapur, 'the lion city;' repulsed British, 1757.

Nertchinsk, Siberia. 52N. 117E. Treaty signed between Russians and Chinese, 1689. (See Fraser's 'Real Siberia.')

Nicæa ('city of victory'), Asia Minor. 40N. 30E. F. by Antigonus, c. 316 B.C. Taken by Seljuks, 1078; by Crusaders, 1097; by the Osmanlis, 1326. Bp. of historian Dion Cassius and astronomer Hipparchus. Council met, 325.

Nicomedia, Asiatic Turkey. 41N. 30E. F. by Nicomedes I., 264 B.C.; contains ruins of which Pliny the Younger boasted. Bp. of Arrian; res. of Diocletian, and of Constantine who died here; scene of Hannibal's suicide.

Nicosia, Cyprus. 35N. 33E. Capital of Cyprus since time of Lusignan kings. Taken by Richard Cœur de Lion, 1191; besieged by Turks, 1570.

Nikaria, Asiatic Turkey. 38N. 26E. Island near which it is fabled Icarus met his death.

Nikko ('sun's brightness'), Japan. 37N. 140E. Contains tomb of Iyeyasu, 1617; and that of his grandson, Iyemitsu, slain while visiting tomb of Iyeyasu, 1650. (See Kipling's 'From Sea to Sea.')

Nineveh, Asiatic Turkey. 36N. 43E. Said to have been f. c. 2680 B.C.; enlarged by Ninus, 1968 B.C. Conquered by Arbaces, 759 B.C.; by Nabopolassar, 625 B.C.; destroyed by Medes and Babylonians, c. 607 B.C. Excavations by Botta, 1842; Layard, 1845; also by Hormuzd Rassam and George Smith. Tobit said to have died here. (See 'Apocrypha.')

Ning-po ('calm waves'), China. 30N. 121E. Occupied by Portuguese, 1522; Portuguese massacred, 1545; taken by British, 1842. (See 'Travels of Marco Polo.')

Nishapur, Persia. 36N. 59E. Famous as bp. of Omar Khayyam, whose tomb is also here. Res. of Nidhami-i-Arudi.

Nisib, Asiatic Turkey. 37N. 38E. Turks defeated by Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha, 1839.

Nisibin, Asiatic Turkey. 37N. 41E. Captured by Parthians, 149 B.C.; by Lucullus, 68 B.C.; by Trajan, 116; by Lucius Verus, 165; given to Persians by Jovian, 363.

Oki Shima, Japan. 36N. 133E. An island off the west coast of Houdo, fully described by Lafcadio Hearn in 'Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan.'

Omsk, Asiatic Russia. 55N. 74E. Capital of Akmolinsk. (See Fraser's 'Real Siberia.')

Ophir, Mount, Malay Peninsula. 2N. 103E. Gold-producing mountain often identified with the Ophir of the Bible. (See 'Purchas His Pilgrimes.')

Opon, Philippine Islands. 11N. 124E. Magellan killed here by natives, 1521.

Ormuz, Persia. 27N. 56E. Visited by Nearchus, 325 B.C. Captured by Albuquerque, 1507, 1514; by Shah Abbas and British, 1622. (See 'Purchas His Pilgrimes,' 'Travels of Marco Polo,' Hakluyt's 'Voyages.')

Osaka, Japan. 35N. 136E. F. by Rennio Shonin, 1495; captured by Hideyoshi, 1580; castle secured by Iyeyasu, 1615; burnt by Tokugawa retainers, 1868. (See Lafcadio Hearn's 'Out of the East,' Diosy's 'New Far East,' Kipling's 'From Sea to Sea.')

Padang, Sumatra. 1S. 100E. First Dutch settlement in Sumatra, 1666; captured by British, 1781; surrendered to Dutch, 1783; recaptured, 1794; yielded to Dutch, 1814. 166

Padmanabham, Madras. 18N. 83E. British defeated and killed Rajah of Vizianagram, 1794.

Pakpatan ('the holy ferry'), Punjab. 30N. 73E. Contains tomb of saint Farid-ul-Hakkwa-ud-din. Visited by Ibn Batuta; in subjection to Tamerlane, 1398.

Palakkat, Madras. 11N. 77E. Fort f. by Hyder Ali taken by British, 1768.

Palembang, Sumatra. 3S. 105E. Visited by Marco Polo, and contains an alleged tomb of Alexander the Great. Taken by British, 1812; by Dutch, 1821.

Palmyra ('city of palms'), Syria. 34N. 39E. Supposed to have been f. by Solomon; rebuilt by Hadrian, 130; Queen Zenobia conquered by Aurelian, 273; city taken by Arabs, 634; pillaged by Tamerlane, 1401. (See Burton's 'Wanderings in Three Continents,' Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte.')

Pandavgarh, Bombay. 18N. 74E. Seized by Sivaji, 1673; by Aurungzebe, 1701; by British, 1818.

Pandharpur, Bombay. 18N. 75E. Contains famous temple of Vishnu incarnation.

Pandua, Bengal. 25N. 88E. Bp. of poet Bharat Chandra Rai. Contains tombs of Jalal-ud-din Tabrizi and of Mir Kutb Alam.

Panipat, Punjab. 29N. 77E. Afghans under Ibrahim Lodi defeated by Mogols under Baber, 1526; Afghans under Hermu defeated by Akbar, 1556; Ahmed Shah conquered Mahrattas, 1761.

Panjim, Bombay. 15N. 74E. (See Sir Richard Burton's 'Goa and the Blue Mountains.')

Paphos, Cyprus. 35N. 32E. Scene of conversion of Sergius Paulus by Saint Paul. Famous for worship of Aphrodite and scene of story of Pygmalion.

Pasargada, Persia. 30N. 53E. Ancient capital of Persia; said to have been f. by Cyrus, c. 555 B.C. Alleged tomb of Cyrus in vicinity.

Patan, Baroda. 24N. 72E. F. by Vanarajah, c. 746. Conquered by Mahmoud of Ghazni, 1024; by Ulugh Khan, 1298. Contains many Jain temples and has fine collection of Jain MSS.

Patna, Bengal. 26N. 85E. Buddha said to have assisted in foundation of city; mentioned by Strabo, Pliny, and Arrian; contains shrine of Shah Arzani. Entered by Clive, 1759; captured by Major Adam, 1761; massacre of British, 1763; conspiracy of Sepoys, 1857; of Wahabis, 1864.

Pegu, Burma. 18N. 96E. Destroyed by Alompra, 1757; occupied by British, 1852.

Peking ('the northern capital'), China. 40N. 116E. Seized by Ghengis Khan, 1215; res. of Kubla Khan, 1264; occupied by British and French, 1860; by British and Americans in Boxer rising, 1900. (See Little's 'Far East.')

Penukonda, Madras. 14N. 78E. Res. of Krishna Deva. Seized by Hyder Ali, 1762.

Perambakkam, Madras. 13N. 80E. Hyder Ali overcame British, 1780.

Petra, Syria. 30N. 36E. Mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, and probably Sela of the Bible. (See Doughty's 'Travels in Arabia Deserta,' Whittier's '"The Rock" in El Ghor.')

Petropavlovsk, Kamtchatka. 53N. 159E. French and British allies engaged in naval battle with Russians under Muravieff, 1854.

Phyeng-yang, Korea. 39N. 126E. Japanese won a victory over Chinese, 1894. (See Diosy's 'New Far East,' McKenzie's 'From Tokyo to Tiflis.')

Pinjaur, Punjab. 31N. 77E. Besieged by Patiala, 1769; taken by Bourquin, 1793.

Plassy, Bengal. 24N. 88E. Siraj-ud-Daula suffered great defeat at hands of Clive, 1757. (See Malleson's 'Decisive Battles of India.')

Pollanarrua, Ceylon. 8N. 82E. Capital of Ceylon, 769; taken by Malabars, c. 1204.

Pondicherri, Madras. 12N. 80E. First French settlement, 1674; taken by Dutch, 1693; unsuccessfully besieged by Admiral Boscawen, 1748; taken by Eyre Coote, 1761; restored to French, 1763; recaptured by Sir Hector Monro, 1778; restored, 1783; retaken by British, 1793; finally restored to French, 1816.

Poona, Bombay. 19N. 74E. Destroyed by Nizam Ali, 1763; captured by British, 1818.

Port Arthur, Manchuria. 39N. 121E. Fortified by Chinese, 1891; seized by Japanese, 1894; leased to Russia, 1898; besieged during Russo-Japanese War, 1904; surrendered to Japanese, 1905. (See Diosy's 'New Far East.')

Porto Novo, Madras. 11N. 80E. Occupied by Danes and English, 1682; Sir Eyre Coote defeated Hyder Ali, 1781; ceded to British by Dutch, 1823. (See Malleson's 'Decisive Battles of India.')

Pratapgarh, Bombay. 18N. 74E. Res. of Sivaji, and scene of his murder of Afzal Khan, 1659.

Priene, Asia Minor. 38N. 27E. One of twelve cities of Ionian League, supposed to have been f. by Æpytus. Bp. of Bias and Achelaus. 167

Prome, Burma. 19N. 95E. Captured by British, 1825, 1852; partially destroyed by fire, 1856.

Pulicat, Madras. 13N. 80E. Occupied by Dutch, 1609; conquered by British, 1781; ceded to Dutch, 1818; to British, 1825.

Punna, Rajputana. 25N. 80E. Besieged by Sikander Lodi, 1494; taken by Ram Chandra Deo, 1563. Here Pran Nath is held sacred, and his tomb exists.

Puri, Bengal. 20N. 86E. Contained Gold Tooth of the Buddha for many centuries; now famous for the temple of Vishnu in his incarnation of Juggernaut.

Quilon, Madras. 9N. 77E. Visited by Marco Polo; Portuguese residents defeated by Dutch, 1662.

Radhanagar, Bengal. 23N. 88E. Bp. of Ram Mohan Rai, first writer of Bengali prose.

Rahun, Punjab. 31N. 76E. Believed to have been f. by Rajah Raghab. Taken by Tara Singh, 1759.

Rajgir, Bengal. 25N. 85E. Visited by Fa Hian and Hiuen Tsiang. Identified with Rajagriha, res. of Buddha. (See Sir Edwin Arnold's 'Light of Asia.')

Rajpur ('the royal town'), United Provs. 30N. 78E. Scene of story entitled 'The Potter's Thumb,' by Mrs. Flora Annie Steel.

Ramleh, Syria. 32N. 35E. Visited by W. M. Thomson, and described in 'The Land and the Book.' (See Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte.')

Ramnad, Madras. 9N. 79E. Captured by British, 1772.

Ramnagar, Punjab. 32N. 74E. Besieged by Ranjit Singh, 1795; Lord Gough defeated Sikhs, 1848.

Rangoon ('the end of the war'), Burma. 17N. 96E. F. as Dagon, c. 588 B.C.; rebuilt by Alompra, 1755; captured by British, 1824, 1852. (See Kipling's 'From Sea to Sea.')

Ranibennur, Bombay. 15N. 76E. Seized by Colonel Wellesley, 1800; occupied by British, 1818.

Rattihalli, Bombay. 14N. 76E. Defeat of Hyder Ali by Mahrattas, 1764.

Rawal Pindi, Punjab. 34N. 73E. Scene of surrender of Sikhs after Sir Hugh Gough's defeat at Gujrat, 1849.

Rhodes, Asia Minor. 36N. 28E. F. in 408 B.C. Citizens massacred by Cassius, 42 B.C.; held by knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 1309; besieged by Mohammed II., 1480; taken by Solyman the Magnificent, 1522. Bp. of Panaetius, Stratocles, Andronicus, Eudemus, Hieronymus, Pisander, Simmias, and Aristides. Res. of Apollonius Rhodius and Posidionius. (See Hakluyt's 'Voyages.')

Rohanked, Berar. 21N. 76E. Nasir Khan defeated, 1437; Jamal Khan here slain in battle, 1590.

Rohtak, Punjab. 29N. 77E. Scene of murder of Kai Khusru, c. 1286; besieged by Khizr Khan, 1410.

Rungpur ('abode of bliss'), Bengal. 26N. 89E. Alleged res. of Rajah Bhagadatta. Taken by British, 1765.

Sabraon, Punjab. 31N. 75E. First Sikh War ended by Sir Hugh Gough's defeat of Sikhs, 1846. (See Malleson's 'Decisive Battles of India.')

Safed, Palestine. 33N. 36E. Believed by Jews Messiah will make city his capital. Scene of siege of Holophernes and murder of Judith. Bp. of Tobias. Castle f. by Christians, 1140; taken by Saladin, 1189; destroyed by Sultan of Damascus, 1220; rebuilt by Templars, 1240; destroyed by Bibars of Egypt, 1266. (See Thomson's 'Land and the Book,' Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte.')

Sagandari, Bengal. 23N. 89E. Bp. of Madhu Sudan Datta, writer of 'Meghanad-Badh' and 'Krishna Kumari.'

Saigon, Cochin-China. 11N. 107E. Captured by French, 1858. (See Little's 'Far East.')

St. Thomé, Madras. 13N. 80E. Suburb of Madras; scene of victory of French under Paradis over Maphuz Khan, 1746. (See Malleson's 'Decisive Battles of India.')

Salem, Madras. 12N. 78E. Seized by British, 1768; ceded to British by treaty of Seringapatam, 1792.

Samana, Punjab. 30N. 76E. Conquered by Mohammed of Ghor, 1192; by Banda Bairagi, 1708.

Samaria, Palestine. 32N. 35E. F. by Omri, 912 B.C.; captured by Sargon, 722 B.C.; by Alexander the Great, 331 B.C.; by Antiochus the Great, 203 B.C.; by John Hyrcanus, 120 B.C.; given by Augustus to Herod the Great.

Samarkand, Turkestan. 40N. 67E. Bp. of Nidhami-i-Arudi, author of 'Chahar Maqala.' Ancient city destroyed by Alexander the Great, 329 B.C.; conquered by Kotaiba ibn Moslim, 711; by Genghis Khan, 1220; by Amir of Bokhara, 1504; by Russians, 1868. Contains mosque of 168 Shah-Zindeh, and tomb of Tamerlane. Bp. of Aboul-Mansour-Matoudiri. (See 'Travels of Marco Polo.')

Sambhal, United Provs. 29N. 79E. Bp. of Amir Khan.

Samiaveram, Madras. 11N. 78E. Occupied by Clive, 1752.

Samsat, Asiatic Turkey. 38N. 39E. Bp. of Bishop Paul of Samosata and of Lucian.

Sana, Arabia. 15N. 45E. Capital of Yemen, captured by Turks, 1872.

San-de-pu, Manchuria. 42N. 123E. Unsuccessfully attacked by Russians under General Grippenberg, 1904.

Sanjan, Bombay. 20N. 73E. Visited by Polish scholar, Hove, 1787. Taken by Portuguese, 1534.

Sante Bennur, Madras. 14N. 76E. Taken by Hyder Ali, 1761; by Mahrattas, 1791.

Santipur, Bengal. 23N. 88E. Res. of Chaitanya, and bp. of Adyaita.

Sarafand, Syria. 33N. 35E. Ancient city, known in the Bible as Zareptath. (See Thomson's 'Land and the Book.')

Sardhana, United Provs. 29N. 78E. Celebrated as res. of Begam Sumru.

Sardis, Asia Minor. 39N. 28E. Occupied by Cyrus, 548 B.C.; burned by Ionians, c. 409 B.C.; destroyed by Tamerlane, 1402. Mentioned by Æschylus and Herodotus; res. of Xerxes; contains ruins of temple of Cybele and tomb of Alyattes.

Sasseram ('one thousand toys'), Bengal. 25N. 84E. Contains tombs of Sher Shah and his father.

Satyamangalam, Madras. 11N. 77E. Taken by Hyder Ali, 1768; by Tippoo Sahib, 1790.

Savandurga, Madras. 13N. 77E. Captured by Lord Cornwallis, 1791.

Selefke, Asiatic Turkey. 36N. 34E. F. by Seleucus Nicator; bp. of Xenarchus.

Seleucia Pieria, Asia Minor. 36N. 36E. F. by Seleucus Nicator; captured by Ptolemy Euergetes, 246 B.C.; by Antiochus the Great, 219 B.C.

Seoul, Korea. 38N. 127E. Capital of Korea since 1392. Contains fine temple of Confucius. (See Diosy's 'New Far East,' McKenzie's 'From Tokyo to Tiflis,' Little's 'Far East.')

Sephora, Palestine. 33N. 35E. Mentioned in the Bible; visited by Lamartine, 1832.

Seringapatam ('city of Vishnu'), Mysore. 12N. 77E. Besieged by Lord Cornwallis, 1792; taken by British and Tippoo Sahib killed, 1799. Contains ancient temple of Vishnu, and tombs of Hyder Ali and Tippoo Sahib.

Seroda, Bombay. 15N. 74E. Res. of Sir R. Burton; described in 'Goa and the Blue Mountains.'

Sha River, Manchuria. 42N. 123E. Russians under General Kuropatkin conquered by Japanese, 1904.

Shahabad, United Provs. 28N. 80E. F. by Diler Khan, whose tomb is here, 1677; visited by Bishop Heber, 1824.

Shang-hai ('above the sea'), China. 31N. 121E. Taken by Triads, 1853; occupied by British and French, 1860. (See Little's 'Far East.')

Shehr, Arabia. 15N. 50E. City described in 'Travels of Marco Polo' as Escier.

Shehr-i-Sebz, Turkestan. 39N. 67E. F. on site of Kesh, bp. of Tamerlane.

Shimoga, Madras. 14N. 76E. Captured by Mahrattas, 1798; destroyed by Dhundia Wagh, 1799.

Shimonosoki, Japan. 34N. 131E. Bombarded by American, British, Dutch, and French fleet, 1864; treaty signed here, 1895. (See McKenzie's 'From Tokyo to Tiflis,' Little's 'Far East.')

Shiraz, Persia. 30N. 53E. F. c. 697; capital of Persia, 1760. Near by are tombs of Saadi and Hafiz.

Shivner, Bombay. 19N. 74E. Bp. of Sivaji.

Sholapur, Bombay. 18N. 76E. The Baji Rao suffered defeat at hands of British, 1818.

Shwebo, Upper Burma. 23N. 96E. Bp. of Maung Aung Zeya.

Sidon, Syria. 34N. 35E. Taken by Crusaders, 1110; by Saladin, 1187; recaptured by Crusaders, 1197; destroyed by Mongols, 1260; captured by Mussulmans, 1291; bombarded by Napier, 1840; persecution of Christians, 1860. (See Thomson's 'Land and the Book,' Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte.')

Sikandarabad, United Provs. 28N. 78E. F. by Sikandar Lodi, 1498; suffered during Mutiny, 1857.

Sikandra, United Provs. 27N. 78E. Res. of Sikandar Lodi, and contains tomb of Akbar.

Siloam, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Pool near Jerusalem mentioned in the Bible. (See Mark Twain's 'New Pilgrim's Progress,' Thomson's 'Land and the Book.')

Simla, Punjab. 31N. 77E. Fashionable health-resort of Europeans in India, frequently the scene of Kipling's stories, e.g., 'Under the Deodars,' 'The Phantom 'Rickshaw.'

Sinai, Mount, Arabia Petræa. 28N. 34E. 169 Mentioned in the Bible as the mountain on which God revealed himself to Moses. (See Flinders Petrie's 'Researches in Sinai,' also 'Purchas His Pilgrimes,' Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte,' Burckhardt's 'Travels in Syria and the Holy Land.')

Singapore, Malay Peninsula. 1N. 104E. F. by Sir Stamford Raffles, 1819; ceded to British by Sultan of Johore, 1824. (See Kipling's 'From Sea to Sea.')

Singarh ('lion's fort'), Bombay. 18N. 74E. Taken by Sivaji, 1647; by Tanaji Malusre, 1670; by British, 1818.

Singi, Bengal. 28N. 81E. Bp. of Kasiram Das, translator into Bengali of 'Mahabharata.' (See R. C. Dutt's 'Lit. of Bengal.')

Sinhur, Rajputana. 23N. 77E. Jaswaut Rao here attacked Captain Jean Baptiste Filose, 1814.

Sinope, Asia Minor. 42N. 35E. F. by Ionians of Miletus, 630 B.C.; unsuccessfully attacked by Mithradates IV., 220 B.C.; captured by Pharnaces, 183 B.C.; by Lucullus, 70 B.C.; fleet and town partially destroyed by Russians, 1853. Bp. of Diogenes.

Sira, Madras. 14N. 77E. Taken by Mahrattas, 1757; by Hyder Ali; recaptured by Mahrattas, 1766; by Tippoo Sahib, 1774.

Sirhind, Punjab. 31N. 76E. Sarang Khan overcome by Khizr Khan, 1420; Bazid Khan killed by Banda Bairagi, 1708.

Sivas, Asiatic Turkey. 40N. 37E. Destroyed by Tamerlane, 1400.

Skutari, Asia Minor. 41N. 29E. Scene of Florence Nightingale's activities during Crimean War, 1854-6; destroyed by fire, 1872.

Smyrna, Asia Minor. 38N. 27E. Ancient city celebrated by Pindar, Aristides, and Himerius, containing famous relics of Homer. Destroyed by Alyattes, c. 575 B.C.; rebuilt by Antigonus and Lysimachus, but suffered from earthquake, 179; seized by Turks, 1084; conquered by Aidin, c. 1330; by Tamerlane, 1402. (See Kinglake's 'Eothen,' Twain's 'New Pilgrim's Progress,' Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient,' Montesquieu's 'Lettres Persanes.')

Sohar, Arabia. 24N. 57E. Visited by Marco Polo and Ibn Batatu. Occupied by Portuguese, 1508.

Somnath, Bombay. 21N. 70E. Pillaged by Mahmud of Ghazni, 1025. Alleged place in which Krishna died.

Sopara, Bombay. 19N. 73E. Sacred place of Buddha, and mentioned in the 'Mahabharata.'

Su-Chau, China. 31N. 121E. F. c. 500 B.C.; captured by Taiping rebels, 1860; became treaty-port, 1896.

Sukkur, Sind. 28N. 69E. Talpurs defeated by Shah Shuja, 1833; British possession, 1842.

Sur ('rock'), Palestine. 33N. 35E. Ancient Tyre. Besieged by Nebuchadnezzar II., 572 B.C.; by Alexander the Great, 332 B.C.; captured by Crusaders, 1124; destroyed by Malik al-Ashraf, 1291; suffered from earthquake, 1837. (See Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient,' Thomson's 'Land and the Book,' Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte,' Hakluyt's 'Voyages.')

Surat, Bombay. 21N. 73E. Overcome by Akbar, 1572; British settlement, 1612; under British rule, 1800. (See 'Purchas His Pilgrimes.')

Susa, Persia. 32N. 48E. Capital of Elamite kingdom, c. 2280 B.C.; conquered by Assyrians, 645 B.C. Contains tomb alleged to be of Daniel.

Tabariah, Syria. 33N. 36E. F. by Herod Antipas, c. 16; Saladin defeated Christians, 1187; given to France, 1240; taken by Mussulmans, 1247. Mentioned by Josephus; contains tomb of Arabian philosopher Lokman; Mishna compiled here, 190, and part of Talmud. (See Burckhardt's 'Travels in Syria and the Holy Land.')

Tabor, Mount, Palestine. 33N. 35E. Scene of assembly of army of Barak and Deborah against Sisera; alleged scene of Christ's Transfiguration. Gabinius overcame Jews, 53 B.C.; fortified by Malik-el-Adil, 1212; French victory over British and Turks, 1799. (See Burckhardt's 'Travels in Syria and the Holy Land.')

Tabreez, Persia. 38N. 46E. Foundation attributed to Zobeida, wife of Haroun-al-Raschid, 791. Destroyed by Tamerlane, 1392; taken from Turks by Nadir Shah, 1730; by Russians, 1827. The Bab here put to death, 1850.

Taif, Arabia. 22N. 41E. Visited by Burckhardt, and described in 'Travels in Arabia.'

Talwaudy, Punjab. 32N. 75E. Village near Lahore which is bp. of Nanek, founder of Sikh religion.

Tanjore, Madras. 11N. 79E. Unsuccessfully attacked by Lally, 1758; taken by British, 1773; under British control, 1799.

Tarsus, Asia Minor. 37N. 35E. Traditionally f. by Sennacherib. Meeting-place of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, 38 B.C. Contains tomb of Sardanapalus, and is bp. of St. Paul, Athenodorus, and Hermogenes. 170

Tchesme, Asia Minor. 38N. 27E. Turkish fleet defeated by Russian under Orloff and Elphinstowe, 1770.

Teheran, Persia. 36N. 51E. Treaty signed between British and Persians, 1857. Near city are ruins of Rhages, bp. of Haroun-al-Raschid.

Teima, Arabia. 28N. 39E. The Tema of the Bible. Visited by C. M. Doughty, and described in 'Travels in Arabia Deserta.'

Tekrit, Asiatic Turkey. 35N. 44E. Bp. of Saladin.

Tiberias, Sea of, Palestine. 33N. 36E. Frequently mentioned in the Bible as Lake of Galilee or Gennesaret, and by Josephus. Bp. of disciples Simon, Andrew, James the Great, and John. Visited by Lamartine, 1832. (See Kinglake's 'Eothen,' Twain's 'New Pilgrim's Progress,' 'Purchas His Pilgrimes,' Adam Smith's 'Historical Geography of the Holy Land,' Thomson's 'Land and the Book,' Burckhardt's 'Travels in Syria and the Holy Land.')

Tien-tsin ('Heaven's ford'), China. 39N. 117E. Besieged by Taiping rebels, 1853; treaty signed with French and British, 1858; occupied by French and British, 1860; foreign inhabitants murdered, 1870; res. of Li Hung-Chang for 20 years, 1874.

Tokat, Asiatic Turkey. 40N. 37E. Severely damaged by earthquake, 1825; massacre of Armenians, 1895.

Tokio, Japan. 36N. 140E. Seat of government for Tokugawa Ieyasu, 1603; eastern capital of Japan, 1868; opened to foreign res., 1869. (See Diosy's 'New Far East,' McKenzie's 'From Tokyo to Tiflis.')

Tomsk, Siberia. 56N. 85E. F. in 1604; capital of Tomsk. Contains university f. in 1888. (See Fraser's 'Real Siberia,' Tolstoi's 'Resurrection.')

Tortosa, Syria. 35N. 36E. Ceded to Templars, c. 1161; taken by Saladin, 1188; by Mussulmans, 1291.

Tottori, Japan. 36N. 134E. Visited by Lafcadio Hearn, and described in 'Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan.'

Tranquebar, Madras. 11N. 80E. Bought by Dutch, 1620; taken by British, 1787; sold to British, 1845.

Trebizond ('a table'), Asiatic Turkey. 41N. 40E. F. by Greeks from Sinope, 700 B.C.; scene of Xenophon's retreat with ten thousand; capital of empire of Trebizond under Alexius Comnenus, 1204; taken by Mohammed II., 1461.

Trichinopoli, Madras. 11N. 79E. British possession, 1801. Contains tomb of Bishop Heber.

Trichoor, Madras. 11N. 76E. Occupied by Hyder Ali, 1776; by Tippoo Sahib, 1789.

Trincomali, Ceylon. 9N. 81E. Contains ruins of famous Temple of a Thousand Columns destroyed by Portuguese, 1622. Taken by storm by British, 1795.

Tripoli, Syria. 34N. 36E. Destroyed by earthquakes, 450, 550; captured by Saracens, 638; by Crusaders, who destroyed celebrated Arabian collection of books, 1109; by Egyptians, 1289. (See Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte,' Hakluyt's 'Voyages,' Burckhardt's 'Travels in Syria and the Holy Land.')

Troy, Asia Minor. 40N. 26E. Said to have been f. by Dardanus, walls built by Apollo and Poseidon; centre of Greek legends. Visited by Alexander the Great, 334 B.C.; Roman possession, 189 B.C.; destroyed by Turks, 1306. (See Homer's 'Iliad,' Virgil's 'Æneid,' Tacitus' 'Annals,' Kinglake's 'Eothen.')

Tsing-tao, China. 36N. 120E. Seized by Germany, 1897.

Turkestan, Asiatic Russia. 44N. 68E. Resort of pilgrims to mosque of Hazret-Yassavi, built by Tamerlane. Occupied by Russian troops, 1864.

Umarkot, Sind. 25N. 70E. Alleged to have been f. by Umar. Bp. of Akbar.

Ur, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Contains ruins of temple to moon-god Sin. Frequently mentioned in Bible, especially as spot from which Abraham's father moved westward.

Ura-tyube, Russian Turkestan. 41N. 68E. Alleged to have been f. by Cyrus; captured by Russians, 1866.

Urfah, Asiatic Turkey. 37N. 39E. Captured by Seljuk Turks, 1040; by Crusaders, 1097; by Mussulmans, 1144. Ancient centre of Syrian learning; bp. of St. Ephraim Syrus, and said to have been res. of Abraham.

Urga, Mongolia. 48N. 106E. Sacred city of Mongols, and is the seat of the Kutuktu, deified Lama. Contains famous temple of Maidar. (See Sheepshanks' 'My Life in Mongolia and Siberia.')

Urumiyah, Persian Armenia. 37N. 45E. Alleged bp. of Zoroaster.

Utakamand, Madras. 11N. 77E. Town in which Sir R. Burton resided, described in 'Goa and the Blue Mountains.'

Utch ('high place'), Punjab. 29N. 71E. Contains fort built by daughter of Deo Singh. Captured by Mahmud of Ghazni, 1006. Res. of Persian historian, Minhaj-ud-din. 171

Van, Asiatic Turkey. 38N. 43E. Alleged to have been f. by Semiramis; rebuilt by Van; by Valarsaces, 149 B.C.; taken by Arabs, c. 640; by Osmanlis, 1514; by Persians, 1636; by Kurds, 1845.

Vellore, Madras. 13N. 79E. Said to have been f. by Bommi Reddi, c. 1274; besieged by Mahrattas, 1676; taken by Daud Khan, 1708; Safdar Ali murdered here by Murtaza Ali, 1742; occupied by British, 1760; by Hyder Ali, 1780.

Vijayanagar ('city of victory'), Madras. 15N. 76E. F. in 1336; contains celebrated ruins, and is famous as res. of Sayana, the Vedic commentator.

Vladivostok, Asiatic Russia. 43N. 132E. Occupied by Russians, 1860; free port, 1873; capital of Littoral, 1888. (See Fraser's 'Real Siberia,' Little's 'Far East.')

Wady Hammanah, Syria. 34N. 36E. Gorge near which Lamartine lived.

Wa-fang-kou, Manchuria. 40N. 122E. Russians under General Stackelberg conquered by Japanese, 1904.

Wakayama, Japan. 34N. 135E. Contains castle of princes of Kishu, f. 1850, and near by is temple of Kumudera, said to be f. 770.

Wandewash, Madras. 12N. 80E. Lally-Tollendal defeated by Sir Eyre Coote 1760.

Wei-hai-wei, China. 37N. 122E. Great Chinese arsenal established, 1883; seized by Japanese, 1895; leased to British, 1898. (See Diosy's 'New Far East.')

Wi-ju, Korea. 40N. 125E. Here Manchus entered Korea, 1627; Japanese entered Manchuria, 1894, 1904. (See McKenzie's 'From Tokyo to Tiflis.')

Wu-chang, China. 30N. 114E. Captured by Taiping rebels, 1853.

Yakutsk, Eastern Siberia. 62N. 130E. F. by Cossacks, 1632.

Yalu, Korea. 40N. 125E. Japanese under Admiral Ito defeated Chinese fleet at mouth of Yalu, 1894; passage forced by Japanese during Russo-Japanese War, 1904. (See McKenzie's 'From Tokyo to Tiflis.')

Yamaguchi, Japan. 34N. 131E. Mission established by St. Francis Xavier, 1550.

Yanbo, Arabia. 24N. 38E. Landing-place for Egyptian pilgrims. (See Burton's 'Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah,' Burckhardt's 'Travels in Arabia.')

Yarkand, Chinese Turkestan. 38N. 78E. Annexed to Chinese Empire, 1757; captured by Dungans, 1864; recaptured by Chinese, 1877. (See 'Travels of Marco Polo.')

Yokasuka, Japan. 35N. 140E. Will Adams, the English pilot, landed here, 1600; tomb in vicinity of town.

Yokohama, Japan. 35N. 140E. Became residential treaty port, 1858; totally destroyed by fire, 1866. (See Lafcadio Hearn's 'Out of the East' and 'Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan,' Kipling's 'From Sea to Sea.')

Zebulon, Palestine. 33N. 35E. Mentioned several times in the Bible; visited by Lamartine, 1832.

Zileh, Asia Minor. 40N. 36E. Formerly celebrated for worship of Anaitis. Here Julius Cæsar defeated Pharnaces, and uttered famous words, 'Veni, vidi, vici.' (See Suetonius' 'De Vita Cæsarum,' I. 37.)

INDEX

INDEX

175

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

B.   Bay| Is.   Island| Pk.   Peak| R.   River|
C.   Cape| L.   Lake| Pen.   Peninsula| Str.   Strait|
G.   Gulf| Mt.   Mountain| Pt.   Point| Vol.   Volcano|

Those places marked with an asterisk (*) appear also in the Gazetteer

  PAGE
Abakansk, Siberia. 54N. 92E.94
Abarim Mts., Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
Abashiri, Japan. 43N. 144E.88
Abazbi, N.W. Frontier Provs. 34N. 72E.58
Abbottabad, N.W. Frontier Provs. 34N. 73E.58
Abdon, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Abel-beth-Maachah, Pales. 33N. 36E.12
Abel Shittim, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
[*]Abila, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Abistadah, Lake, Afghanistan. 33N. 68E.58
[*]Abohar, Punjab. 30N. 74E.58
Aboo Mt., Rajputana. 25N. 73E.59
Abra River, Philippine Is. 18N. 120E.77
Abreojos, East Indies. 23N. 130E.75
Abring, Kashmir. 34N. 77E.58
Abu Arish, Arabia. 17N. 43E.44
Accho, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Achin Prov., East Indies. 5N. 96E.74
Achzib, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Actinia Haven, Siberia. 76N. 98E.94
[*]Adalia, Asia Minor. 36N. 31E.46
Adalia, Gulf of, Asia Minor. 36N. 31E.46
Adam's Bridge, Ceylon. 9N. 80E.63
[*]Adam's Peak, Ceylon. 7N. 80E.63
Adana, Asia Minor. 37N. 36E.46
[*]Aden, Arabia. 13N. 45E.44
Adi Is., East Indies. 5S. 134E.75
Adipar, Rajputana. 29N. 74E.59
Adipur, Rajputana. 28N. 75E.59
Adiyaman, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 38E.47
[*]Adoni, Madras. 16N. 77E.62
Adoraim, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Adullam, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Aeng Pass, Burma. 20N. 94E.67
Afioom, Asia Minor. 38N. 30E.46
Agartulla, Bengal. 24N. 91E.61
Agincourt Is., China. 26N. 122E.89
[*]Agra, United Provs. 27N. 78E.59
Agrigan, East Indies. 19N. 145E.75
Agung, Mt., Bali. 8S. 116E.76
[*]Ahmadabad, Bombay. 23N. 73E.56
[*]Ahmadnagar, Bombay. 19N. 75E.57
Ahmadpur, Punjab. 29N. 71E.59
Ahmudpur, Punjab. 28N. 70E.59
Ahor, Persia. 39N. 47E.47
Ahwaz, Persia. 31N. 49E.47
Aidin, Asia Minor. 38N. 28E.46
Aikawa, Japan. 38N. 138E.88
Aintab, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 37E.46
Ai-shan, China. 38N. 121E.83
Aivalik, Asia Minor. 39N. 27E.46
Ajalon, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Ajer Itam Bay, Borneo. 3S. 111E.76
Ajigasawa, Japan. 41N. 140E.88
[*]Ajmere, Rajputana. 27N. 75E.59
Akaba, Arabia. 30N. 35E.44
Akanogawa, Japan. 37N. 139E.91
Akaoka, Japan. 34N. 134E.91
Akaogi, Japan. 31N. 131E.89
[*]Akashi, Japan. 35N. 135E.91
Akcha, Afghanistan. 37N. 66E.45
Ak Dagh, Asia Minor. 37N. 30E.46
Ak Dagh, Asia Minor. 39N. 30E.46
Akhissar, Asia Minor. 39N. 28E.46
Akhlat, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 42E.47
Aki, Japan. 35N. 133E.91
Akita, Japan. 40N. 140E.88
Akkeshi, Japan. 43N. 145E.88
Akkeshi Bay, Japan. 43N. 145E.88
Ako, Formosa. 22N. 121E.89
Ako, Japan. 35N. 134E.91
Akola, Berar. 21N. 77E.60
Akote, Berar. 21N. 77E.60
Akserai, Asia Minor. 38N. 34E.46
Akshehr, Asia Minor. 38N. 31E.46
Aktan, Asiatic Russia. 48N. 72E.94
Ak Tepe, Turkestan. 36N. 62E.45
Akumi-Shima, Lu-Chu Is. 27N. 127E.89
Akune, Japan. 32N. 130E.89
Akuseki Is., Lu-Chu Is. 30N. 130E.89
Akyab, Burma. 20N. 93E.67
Alabat, Philippine Islands. 14N. 122E.77
Alacham, Asia Minor. 42N. 36E.46
Ala Dagh, Asia Minor. 40N. 33E.46
Aladana, S., N.W. Frontier Provs. 35N. 72E.58
Ala Kul, Asiatic Russia. 46N. 82E.94
Alamaguan, East Indies. 18N. 145E.75
Ala Shan, Inner Mongolia. 38N. 106E.82
Alaya, Asia Minor. 36N. 32E.46
Alaykan, Burma. 20N. 95E.67
Alazeisk Mts., Siberia. 67N. 150E.95
Alazeisk River, Siberia. 71N. 154E.95
Albay, Philippine Islands. 13N. 124E.77
Albistan, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 37E.46 176
Aldan, River, Siberia. 60N. 135E.95
Aldansk, Siberia. 62N. 134E.95
[*]Aleppo, Turkey in Asia. 36N. 37E.46
Aleppy, Madras. 10N. 76E.63
Alexandretta, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 36E.46
Alfonso XII., Philippine Is. 6N. 121E.77
Alibagh, Bombay. 19N. 73E.57
[*]Aligarh, United Provs. 28N. 78E.59
Ali Khel, Afghanistan. 34N. 70E.58
Alingar River, Afghanistan. 35N. 70E.58
Aliwal, Punjab. 31N. 75E.58
Allahabad, N.W. Provs. 26N. 82E.60
Allahabad, Punjab. 29N. 71E.59
[*]Allahabad, United Provs. 25N. 82E.60
[*]Allah_Shehr, Asia Minor. 38N. 29E.46
Allanmyo, Burma. 19N. 95E.67
Allas Strait, East Indies. 9S. 116E.74
Almora, United Provs. 30N. 80E.60
Alon, Burma. 22N. 95E.67
Alor Star, Malay Pen. 6N. 100E.68
Alupu Cape, Asia Minor. 36N. 28E.46
Alutgama, Ceylon. 7N. 80E.63
Alwar, Rajputana. 27N. 77E.59
Alwye River, Madras. 10N. 76E.63
Amadnagar, Bombay. 24N. 73E.56
Amaga, River, Siberia. 62N. 134E.95
Amakusa Nada, Japan. 33N. 130E.89
Amakusashima, Japan. 32N. 130E.89
Amallapuram, Madras. 17N. 82E.62
Amalner, Bombay. 21N. 75E.56
Amamioshima, Lu-Chu Is. 29N. 129E.89
[*]Amarapura, Burma. 22N. 96E.67
Amarpur, Nepal. 27N. 87E.61
[*]Amasia, Asia Minor. 41N. 36E.46
Amathus, Palestine. 32N. 36E.13
Ambala, Punjab. 30N. 77E.58
Ambgaon, Central Provs. 20N. 80E.60
Ambir, Rajputana. 27N. 76E.59
Amblan, Philippine Islands. 9N. 123E.77
Amboina, East Indies. 4S. 128E.75
Amherst, Burma. 16N. 98E.67
Amjerah, Central India. 23N. 75E.56
Ammon, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
[*]Amoy, China. 24N. 118E.85
Ampani, Madras. 20N. 83E.62
Ampenam, East Indies. 8S. 116E.74
Amraoti, Berar. 21N. 78E.60
Amreeli, Bombay. 22N. 71E.56
[*]Amritsar, Punjab. 32N. 75E.58
[*]Amroha, United Provs. 29N. 78E.60
Amur, Siberia. 52N. 132E.95
Amurang, East Indies. 1N. 124E.75
Amur, Gulf of, Siberia. 54N. 142E.95
Amur, River, Siberia. 53N. 141E.95
Anadirsk, Siberia. 65N. 168E.95
Anadyr, Siberia. 67N. 176E.95
Anadyr, Gulf of, Siberia. 64N. 176W.95
Anadyr, River, Siberia. 65N. 176W.95
Anah, Turkey in Asia. 34N. 42E.47
Anakara Chattram, Madras. 11N. 80E.63
Anakkangean Is., E. Indies. 7S. 116E.76
Anamalli Mt., Madras. 10N. 77E.63
Anamba Is., East Indies. 3N. 106E.74
Anambar, Baluchistan. 30N. 69E.58
Anamur Cape, Asia Minor. 36N. 33E.46
Anand, Bombay. 23N. 73E.56
[*]Anantapur, Madras. 15N. 78E.62
Anaphi, Asia Minor. 36N. 26E.46
Anatayan, East Indies. 16N. 145E.75
Anathoth, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Anatolia, Asia Minor. 39N. 29E.46
Anchorite Is., East Indies. 0. 145E.75
Andidshan, Turkestan. 41N. 72E.45
Andjar, Bombay. 23N. 70E.56
Andkhui, Afghanistan. 37N. 65E.45
An-dong, Korea. 36N. 128E.90
Andrene, Turkey in Asia. 35N. 37E.46
[*]Aneysa, Arabia. 26N. 45E.44
Angara, River, Siberia. 56N. 110E.94
Ang Bay, Indo-China. 18N. 106E.70
Anger, Java. 6S. 106E.76
Angirtu Nor, Mongolia. 43N. 115E.83
[*]Angkor, Indo-China. 13N. 104E.71
[*]Angora, Asia Minor. 40N. 33E.46
Angora, River, Siberia. 56N. 103E.94
Angul, Bengal. 21N. 85E.60
Anguli Nor, China. 42N. 115E.83
[*]Anjengo, Madras. 9N. 77E.63
Anjer, East Indies. 6S. 106E.74
An-ju, Korea. 40N. 126E.90
Ankkswar, Bombay. 22N. 73E.56
Ankola, Bombay. 15N. 74E.57
Ankula, Siberia. 62N. 109E.94
An-min-do, Korea. 36N. 126E.90
Annam, Indo-China. 17N. 107E.71
Annie Florence Reef, E. Indies. 5S. 113E.76
Anopgarh, Rajputana. 29N. 73E.59
Anor Aeng, Burma. 20N. 94E.67
An-ping, Formosa. 23N. 120E.89
An-shan-chan, Manchuria. 41N. 123E.90
Anson, East Indies. 13N. 141E.75
Antakia, Turkey in Asia. 36N. 36E.46
[*]Antioch, Turkey in Asia. 36N. 36E.46
Antipatris, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Anti Taurus, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 37E.46
[*]An-tung, Manchuria. 40N. 125E.90
Anuradhapura, Ceylon. 8N. 80E.63
Aomori, Japan. 41N. 141E.88
Aparri, Philippine Islands. 18N. 122E.77
Aphek, Palestine. 33N. 36E.12
Apollonia, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Apo Vol, Philippine Islands. 7N. 125E.77
Arab, Palestine. 31N. 35E.12
Arabi, Turkey in Asia. 32N. 45E.47
Arabkir, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 39E.47
Arad, Palestine. 31N. 35E.12 177
Arafura Sea, East Indies. 10S. 135E.75
Arai, Japan. 35N. 138E.91
Arakan Hill Tracts, Burma. 21N. 93E.67
Arakan Yoma Mts., Burma. 21N. 94E.67
[*]Arantangi, Madras. 10N. 79E.63
Ararat, Mt., Turkey in Asia. 40N. 44E.47
Aras River, Persia. 40N. 48E.47
Aravalli Mts., Rajputana. 26N. 74E.59
Arconum, Madras. 13N. 80E.63
[*]Arcot, Madras. 13N. 79E.63
Ardabil, Persia. 38N. 48E.47
Ardilan, Persia. 36N. 47E.47
Ardinga, Madras. 16N. 80E.62
Arends Is., East Indies. 5S. 115E.76
Argaeus Mount, Asia Minor. 38N. 35E.46
Argun, River, Siberia. 53N. 121E.95
Ariakeno-ura, Japan. 31N. 131E.89
Arimathea, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Aripo, Ceylon. 9N. 80E.63
Arjesh, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 43E.47
Armenia, Turkey in Asia. 40N. 42E.47
Aroer, Palestine. 31N. 35E.12
[*]Arrah, Bengal. 26N. 85E.60
Arrank, Siam. 13N. 103E.71
Arrogant Reef, E. Indies. 5S. 113E.76
Aru Island, East Indies. 6S. 135E.75
Arut, River, Borneo. 3S. 111E.76
Arwapalli, Haidarabad. 17N. 79E.62
Asakusa Ya, Japan. 37N. 139E.91
Asama Ya, Japan. 36N. 139E.91
Ascalon, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Ashan, Inner Mongolia. 41N. 108E.82
[*]Ashdod, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Ashe-ho, Manchuria. 46N. 127E.90
Asher, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Asheri, Bombay. 20N. 73E.57
Ashtagram, Mysore. 13N. 76E.63
Ashtaroth, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Asir, Arabia. 20N. 43E.44
Aska, Madras. 20N. 85E.62
Askabad, Turkestan. 37N. 58E.45
[*]Askelon, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Asoh, Bay, Malay Pen. 3N. 103E.69
[*]Assaye, Haidarabad. 20N. 76E.62
Astara, Persia. 39N. 49E.47
Astor, Kashmir. 35N. 75E.58
Astrabad, Persia. 37N. 55E.45
Astropalia, Asia Minor. 36N. 27E.46
Asuncion, East Indies. 20N. 145E.75
Atbasarsk, Asiatic Russia. 52N. 68E.94
Atgyn-aila, Mongolia. 43N. 116E.83
[*]Athni, Bombay. 17N. 75E.57
Atrek River, Persia. 37N. 54E.45
Atsuta, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
[*]Attock, Punjab. 34N. 72E.58
Atto-pen, Indo-China. 15N. 107E.70
Atur, Madras. 12N. 79E.63
Auckland, Mount, Korea. 33N. 127E.90
Aurora Bk., East Indies. 5S. 117E.76
Aurangabad, Haidarabad. 20N. 75E.62
[*]Aurungabad, Bengal. 26N. 90E.61
Ausa, Haidarabad. 18N. 76E.62
Auwuradah, Madras. 18N. 83E.62
[*]Ava, Burma. 22N. 96E.67
Ava, Persia. 36N. 49E.47
Avanashi, Madras. 11N. 77E.63
Avid River, East Indies. 7S. 144E.75
Awa, Japan. 34N. 134E.91
Awa, Japan. 35N. 140E.91
Awah, Persia. 35N. 50E.47
Awaji Sa., Japan. 34N. 135E.91
Awoshima Island, Japan. 38N. 139E.88
Ayabe, Japan. 35N. 135E.91
[*]Ayuthia, Siam. 14N. 101E.71
Azamgurh, United Provs. 26N. 83E.60
Azekah, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Azerbijan, Persia. 38N. 46E.47
Aziz, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 38E.47
Azotus, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
 
Baal Hazor, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Baal-meon, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
Ba-an-susu, Manchuria. 46N. 130E.90
Baba, East Indies. 7S. 130E.75
Bab-el-Mandeb, Strait of, Arabia. 13N. 43E.44
Babelthuap, East Indies. 8N. 135E.75
Baburgan Claro, Philippine Is. 20N. 122E.77
Baburgan Is., Philippine Is. 19N. 122E.77
Babuyanes Is., East Indies. 20N. 121E.74
[*]Babylon, Turkey in Asia. 33N. 45E.47
Bachian, East Indies. 1S. 126E.75
Bac-lieu, Indo-China. 9N. 106E.71
Bacninh, Indo-China. 21N. 106E.70
Bacolor, Philippine Islands. 15N. 121E.77
Bacolot, Philippine Islands. 11N. 123E.77
Bactrang, Indo-China. 10N. 106E.71
Badakhshan, Afghanistan. 37N. 70E.45
Badina, Rajputana. 28N. 74E.59
Badjistan, Persia. 34N. 59E.45
Badmur, Central Provs. 22N. 78E.60
[*]Badnera, Berar. 21N. 78E.60
Badwelu, Madras. 15N. 79E.62
Bafira, Asia Minor. 41N. 36E.46
Bagan, Sumatra. 2N. 100E.69
Bagan Api Api, Sumatra. 2N. 101E.69
Baganga, Philippine Islands. 7N. 127E.77
Bagh, Baluchistan. 29N. 68E.59
[*]Baghdad, Turkey in Asia. 33N. 44E.47
Bagu, Rajputana. 27N. 73E.59
Bahawalpur, Punjab. 29N. 72E.59
[*]Bahera, Punjab. 33N. 73E.58
[*]Bahraich, United Provs. 28N. 82E.60
Bahranghat, United Provs. 27N. 82E.60
Bahrein Island, Arabia. 26N. 51E.45
Bahr el Benat Is., Arabia. 25N. 53E.45 178
Baiburt, Turkey in Asia. 40N. 40E.47
Baik Peninsula, East Indies. 4S. 133E.75
Baikal, Lake, Siberia. 54N. 108E.94
Baikal Mts., Siberia. 53N. 108E.94
Bain-tuchum, Inner Mongolia. 41N. 105E.82
Bairag, Bengal. 27N. 85E.60
Baithulwaddi, Haidarabad. 20N. 75E.62
Bakargang, Bengal. 22N. 90E.61
Bakau Mt., Malay Pen. 4N. 103E.68
Bake, Cape, Indo-China. 11N. 108E.71
Bakhasar, Sind. 25N. 71E.59
Bakhta River, Siberia. 63N. 89E.94
Balabac, Philippine Islands. 8N. 117E.77
Balabac Is., Philippine Is. 8N. 117E.77
Balabac Strait, N., Philippine Is. 8N. 117E.77
Balagansk, Siberia. 55N. 103E.94
Balaghat, Central Provs. 22N. 80E.60
Bala Murghab, Afghanistan. 36N. 63E.45
Balanga, Philippine Is. 15N. 120E.77
Balangiungui, Philippine Is. 6N. 122E.77
Balante, East Indies. 1S. 124E.75
Balasinur, Bombay. 23N. 73E.56
Balasor, Bengal. 22N. 87E.61
Balayan, Philippine Islands. 14N. 121E.77
Baler, Philippine Islands. 16N. 122E.77
Balfrush, Persia. 36N. 53E.45
Bali, East Indies. 9S. 115E.74
Baliari, Sind. 24N. 70E.59
Balikesri, Asia Minor. 40N. 28E.46
Baling, Malay Peninsula. 6N. 101E.68
Balipara, Assam. 27N. 93E.67
Balipura, Assam. 27N. 93E.61
Bali Strait, Java. 8S. 114E.76
Balkash, Lake, As. Russia. 46N. 75E.94
[*]Balkh, Afghanistan. 37N. 67E.45
Balkondah, Haidarabad. 19N. 78E.62
Ballia, United Provs. 26N. 84E.60
Balloah, Bengal. 23N. 91E.61
Balotra, Rajputana. 26N. 72E.59
Baltistan, Kashmir. 35N. 76E.58
Balut, Philippine Islands. 5N. 125E.77
Bam, Persia. 29N. 58E.45
Bamanwas, Rajputana. 27N. 77E.59
Bami, Turkestan. 38N. 56E.45
Bampton Reef, E. Indies. 5S. 115E.76
Bampur, Persia. 27N. 60E.45
Ban, Malay Peninsula. 10N. 99E.71
Banaganapalli, Madras. 15N. 78E.62
Banam, Indo-China. 12N. 105E.71
Banas River, Rajputana. 26N. 77E.59
Ban-buri, Indo-China. 13N. 103E.71
Banchar, Java. 7S. 112E.76
Banda, N.W. Provinces. 26N. 80E.60
Banda Island, East Indies. 5S. 128E.75
Banda Sea, East Indies. 5S. 126E.75
Bandai San, Japan. 38N. 140E.91
Bandar, Malay Peninsula. 3N. 101E.69
Bandarawela, Ceylon. 7N. 81E.63
Bandar Maharami, Malay Pen. 2N. 103E.69
[*]Bander Abbas, Persia. 27N. 56E.45
Bandikui, Rajputana. 27N. 77E.59
Bandon, Malay Peninsula. 9N. 100E.71
Bandon Bight, Malay Pen. 9N. 77E.71
Bandra Las, Sind. 24N. 70E.59
Bandung, Java. 7S. 108E.76
[*]Bangalore, Mysore. 13N. 78E.63
Bangaya Is., East Indies. 2S. 122E.74
Bangkalan, Java. 7S. 113E.76
Bangkalis, East Indies. 2N. 102E.74
[*]Bangkok, Siam. 14N. 101E.71
Bang-pa-kong, Siam. 14N. 101E.71
Bang-pla-soi, Siam. 13N. 101E.71
Bang-pra, Siam. 13N. 101E.71
Bangsdara River, Madras. 18N. 84E.62
Bang-son, Indo-China. 14N. 109E.71
Bang Tapan, Malay Pen. 11N. 100E.71
Banjermassin, East Indies. 4S. 115E.74
Banjumas, Java. 8S. 109E.76
Banjuwangi, Java. 8S. 114E.76
Banka Island, East Indies. 3S. 106E.74
Banki, Bengal. 20N. 86E.60
Bankot, Bombay. 18N. 73E.57
Bankura, Bengal. 23N. 87E.61
Ban-muk, Siam. 16N. 105E.70
Bannu, N.W. Frontier Provs. 33N. 70E.58
Ban-pao, Siam. 16N. 100E.70
Bansda, Bombay. 21N. 73E.56
[*]Bantam, Java. 6S. 106E.76
Bantam, Cape, Indo-China. 16N. 109E.70
Banton, Philippine Is. 13N. 122E.77
Bantwal, Madras. 13N. 75E.63
Banyumas, East Indies. 7S. 109E.74
Banyuwangi, East Indies. 8S. 114E.74
Baotsir, Rajputana. 29N. 75E.59
Bap, Rajputana. 27N. 72E.59
Bap-nom, Indo-China. 11N. 105E.71
Baquba, Turkey in Asia. 34N. 45E.47
Baragua Point, Burma. 16N. 95E.67
Barak River, Assam. 25N. 92E.61
Barakar, Bengal. 24N. 87E.61
Baran, Rajputana. 25N. 76E.59
[*]Bardwan, Bengal. 23N. 88E.61
[*]Bareilly, United Provs. 28N. 79E.60
Barguzinsk, Siberia. 54N. 110E.94
Baria, Indo-China. 10N. 107E.71
Bari Doab Canal, Punjab. 31N. 74E.58
Barin, Mongolia. 43N. 118E.83
Barisal, Bengal. 23N. 90E.61
Barito River, East Indies. 2S. 115E.74
Barkur, Madras. 14N. 75E.63
Barmer, Rajputana. 26N. 71E.59
Barnaul, Siberia. 54N. 83E.94
[*]Baroda, Bombay. 22N. 73E.56
Barongan, Philippine Is. 12N. 125E.77 179
[*]Barrackpur, Bengal. 23N. 88E.61
Barren Island, Korea. 35N. 126E.90
Barsi, Bombay. 18N. 76E.57
Bartan, Asia Minor. 42N. 32E.46
Barung Island, Java. 8S. 113E.76
[*]Barwani, Central India. 22N. 75E.56
Bashi Channel, East Indies. 21N. 123E.74
Bashi Island, East Indies. 20N. 121E.74
Basilan, Philippine Islands. 6N. 122E.77
Basilan Is., Philippine Is. 6N. 122E.77
Basilan Str., Philippine Is. 6N. 122E.77
Basim, Berar. 20N. 77E.57
Bassak, Indo-China. 15N. 106E.71
[*]Bassein, Bombay. 19N. 73E.57
Bassein, Burma. 17N. 95E.67
Bassein River, Burma. 16N. 94E.67
Basses, Great, Ceylon. 6N. 81E.63
Basses, Little, Ceylon. 6N. 82E.63
Bassia, Bengal. 23N. 85E.60
Basta, Turkey in Asia. 31N. 48E.47
Bastar, Central Provs. 19N. 81E.60
Basti, United Provinces. 27N. 83E.60
Bastion, Cape, China. 18N. 110E.84
Batag, Philippine Islands. 13N. 125E.77
[*]Batala, Punjab. 32N. 75E.58
Batam Is., Str. of Singapore. 1N. 104E.69
Batangan, Cape, Indo-China. 15N. 109E.70
Batangas, Philippine Is. 14N. 121E.77
[*]Batavia, Java. 6S. 107E.76
Bathinda, Punjab. 30N. 75E.58
Batil Mt., Malay Peninsula. 5N. 103E.68
Battambang, Indo-China. 13N. 103E.71
Batticalva, Ceylon. 8N. 82E.63
Batu, East Indies. 4N. 96E.74
Batu Bar, Malay Pen. 3N. 103E.69
Batu Island, East Indies. 0. 98E.74
Batu Pahat, Malay Pen. 2N. 103E.69
Batur, Mount, Bali. 8S. 116E.76
Baun River, Rajputana. 27N. 77E.59
Bawean Is., East Indies. 6S. 113E.76
Bay Lake, Philippine Is. 14N. 121E.77
Bayan Aulsk, As. Russia. 51N. 76E.94
Bayan-Mu, Manchuria. 46N. 128E.90
Bayan-su-su, Manchuria. 46N. 127E.90
Bayard, Fort, China. 21N. 110E.84
Bayas, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 36E.46
[*]Bayazid, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 44E.47
Bear Island, Siberia. 71N. 164E.95
Beawar, Rajputana. 26N. 74E.59
Beayan, Philippine Islands. 7N. 124E.77
Beeroth, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
[*]Beer-Sheba, Palestine. 31N. 35E.12
Begum, Rajputana. 25N. 75E.59
[*]Behar, Bengal. 25N. 86E.60
Behesni, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 38E.47
Bei D., Asia Minor. 36N. 31E.46
Beibasar, Asia Minor. 40N. 32E.46
Beishehr, Asia Minor. 38N. 32E.46
Beitarki River, Bengal. 21N. 87E.61
Beji River, Baluchistan. 30N. 68E.58
Bekal, Madras. 12N. 75E.63
Bekok, Malay Peninsula. 2N. 103E.69
[*]Bela, Baluchistan. 26N. 66E.45
[*]Belgaum, Bombay. 16N. 75E.57
[*]Bellary, Madras. 15N. 77E.62
Belloor, Mysore. 13N. 77E.63
[*]Benares, N.W. Provinces. 25N. 83E.60
Bendamurlanka, Madras. 16N. 82E.62
Bengal, Bay of, Bengal. 18N. 90E.67
[*]Bencoolen, East Indies. 4S. 102E.74
Bengawanior, Java. 7S. 112E.76
Bengkalis, Malacca Strait. 2N. 102E.69
Beni, Rajputana. 29N. 75E.59
Bennet Land, Siberia. 76N. 148E.95
Bentinck Island, Burma. 12N. 98E.71
Bentong River, Malay Pen. 3N. 102E.69
Bera River, Malay Peninsula. 3N. 102E.69
Berba River, Malay Pen. 3N. 103E.69
Berembun, Malay Peninsula. 3N. 103E.69
[*]Berezov, Siberia. 64N. 65E.94
[*]Berghama, Asia Minor. 39N. 27E.46
[*]Berhampur, Madras. 19N. 85E.62
Bering Strait, Siberia. 68N. 172W.95
Berlin Harbour, East Indies. 3S. 142E.75
Bernam River, Malay Pen. 4N. 101E.69
Beru, Rajputana. 27N. 72E.59
Besar, Bawean. 6S. 113E.76
Besar Mt., Malay Peninsula. 5N. 101E.68
Besuki, Java. 8S. 114E.76
Besut, River, Malay Pen. 6N. 103E.68
Bethabara, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
[*]Bethany, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Beth-arbel, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Beth Dagon, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
[*]Bethel, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Beth Haran, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
[*]Beth-horon, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Beth Jeshimoth, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
[*]Bethlehem, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
[*]Bethlehem, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Beth-Nimrah, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
Bethsaida, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Bethshan, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Beth Shemesh, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Beth Tappuah, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Bethzur, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Betowa R., Central India. 26N. 80E.60
Bettia, Bengal. 27N. 84E.60
Betul, Central Provinces. 22N. 78E.60
Beypoor River, Madras. 11N. 76E.63
Beypur, Madras. 11N. 76E.63
Beyt, Bombay. 22N. 69E.56
Bezek, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Bezwada, Madras. 16N. 81E.62
Bhadar, Bombay. 22N. 70E.56
Bhadarwa, Kashmir. 33N. 76E.58 180
Bhadrachalam, Madras. 18N. 81E.62
[*]Bhagalpur, Bengal. 25N. 87E.61
Bhakar, Punjab. 32N. 71E.58
Bhamo, Burma. 24N. 97E.67
Bhandara, Central Provs. 21N. 80E.60
[*]Bhartpur, Rajputana. 27N. 78E.59
[*]Bhatner, Punjab. 30N. 74E.58
Bhawalgarh, Punjab. 30N. 73E.58
Bhawani River, Madras. 12N. 78E.63
[*]Bhilsa, Rajputana. 24N. 78E.60
Bhima River, Haidarabad. 16N. 77E.62
Bhind River, United Provs. 26N. 79E.60
Bhir, Haidarabad. 19N. 76E.62
Bhiwani, Punjab. 29N. 76E.59
Bhopal, Central India. 23N. 78E.60
Bhor, Bombay. 18N. 74E.57
Bhor Ghat, Bombay. 19N. 73E.57
[*]Bhuj, Bombay. 23N. 70E.56
Bhusawal, Bombay. 21N. 76E.56
Biak, East Indies. 1S. 136E.75
Bias Bay, China. 22N. 115E.85
Bias River, Punjab. 31N. 75E.58
Bichiu, Japan. 35N. 133E.91
[*]Bidar, Haidarabad. 18N. 78E.62
Bien Ho, Indo-China. 13N. 104E.71
Bien-hoa, Indo-China. 11N. 107E.71
Bien-son Is., Indo-China. 19N. 106E.70
Bigha, Asia Minor. 40N. 27E.46
Bihac, Punjab. 30N. 74E.58
[*]Bijapur, Bombay. 17N. 76E.57
Bijapur, Nepal. 27N. 88E.61
Bijnaur, United Provs. 29N. 78E.60
Bijowar, Central India. 24N. 79E.60
Bikampur, Rajputana. 28N. 72E.59
Bikaner, Rajputana. 28N. 73E.59
Bikna Thori, United Provs. 28N. 84E.60
Bila River, Sumatra. 2N. 100E.69
Bilaspur, Central Provs. 22N. 82E.60
Bilgi, Bombay. 14N. 75E.57
Bilin, Burma. 17N. 97E.67
Billiton, East Indies. 3S. 107E.74
Bimi, East Indies. 8S. 119E.74
[*]Bimlipatam, Madras. 18N. 83E.62
Bingat, East Indies. 1S. 102E.74
Bingo, Japan. 35N. 133E.91
Bingol Dagh, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 42E.47
Binh-dinh, Indo-China. 14N. 109E.71
Binh Thuan, Indo-China. 11N. 109E.71
Bintula, East Indies. 3N. 113E.74
Bink-kang Bay, Indo-China. 12N. 109E.71
Bintang Is., Str. of Singapore. 1N. 104E.69
Bird Island, East Indies. 16N. 145E.75
Birejik, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 38E.47
Birjand, Persia. 33N. 59E.45
Birsilpur, Rajputana. 28N. 72E.59
Biru, Japan. 42N. 143E.88
Birur, Mysore. 14N. 76E.63
Birwi, Rajputana. 28N. 74E.59
Bisa, Burma. 27N. 96E.67
Bisalnagar, Bombay. 24N. 73E.56
Bishnapur, Bengal. 23N. 87E.61
Bislig, Philippine Islands. 8N. 126E.77
Bismarck Archipelago, East Indies. 3S. 148E.75
[*]Bitlis, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 42E.47
Bitul River, Malay Peninsula. 3N. 102E.69
Biwa Ko, Japan. 35N. 136E.91
Bizen, Japan. 35N. 134E.91
Black Mts., N.W. Frontier Provs. 35N. 73E.58
Black River, Indo-China. 21N. 105E.70
Black Sea. 43N. 31E.46
Blagovehansk, Siberia. 50N. 127E.95
Blambangan Pen., Java. 9S. 114E.76
Blimbing Mountains, Malay Pen. 5N. 102E.68
Blitar, Java. 8S. 112E.76
Blonde Island, Manchuria. 39N. 123E.90
Blora, Java. 7S. 111E.76
Blue Mountains, Assam. 23N. 93E.67
Bluff Point, Burma. 18N. 94E.67
Blumut, Great, Malay Pen. 2N. 104E.69
Boa-lam, China. 22N. 107E.84
Boath, Haidarabad. 19N. 78E.62
Bod, Bengal. 21N. 84E.60
[*]Bodinayakkanur, Madras. 10N. 77E.63
Bodune, Manchuria. 45N. 125E.90
Boelang Besar, Malacca Str. 1N. 104E.69
Bogeador C., Philippine Is. 18N. 121E.77
Bogra, Bengal. 25N. 89E.61
Boguchansk, Siberia. 58N. 98E.94
Bohol, Philippine Islands. 10N. 124E.77
Bokan, Afghanistan. 34N. 68E.58
[*]Bokhara, Bokhara. 40N. 65E.45
Bokie, Burma. 22N. 93E.67
Bojeador C., East Indies. 19N. 120E.74
Bolan Junction, Baluchistan. 30N. 68E.58
Bolan Pass, Baluchistan. 30N. 67E.58
Bolio, East Indies. 6S. 124E.75
Boloven, Indo-China. 15N. 107E.70
Bolsheretsk, Siberia. 53N. 157E.95
Boly, Asia Minor. 41N. 31E.46
[*]Bombay, Bombay. 19N. 73E.57
Bo-mu, Inner Mongolia. 39N. 107E.82
Bongon, East Indies. 7N. 116E.74
Boni, East Indies. 5S. 120E.74
Bontaeng, East Indies. 6S. 120E.74
Bookit Duri, Malay Pen. 3N. 103E.69
Bookit Sablah, Malay Pen. 6N. 101E.68
Bookit Serudom, Malay Pen. 4N. 103E.69
Bookit Tung, Malay Pen. 7N. 101E.68
Boompjes Is., East Indies. 6S. 108E.76
Boreyda, Arabia. 27N. 45E.44
Borikan, Indo-China. 19N. 104E.70
Borneo, East Indies. 0. 113E.74
Borneo, British N., E. Indies. 6N. 116E.74 181
Borobalgassun, Inner Mongolia. 38N. 108E.82
Borzon, Inner Mongolia. 43N. 105E.82
Bostan, Baluchistan. 30N. 67E.58
Boudrouet Rock, Formosa. 24N. 123E.89
Boulgourlou, Asia Minor. 37N. 35E.46
Bowringpet, Mysore. 13N. 78E.63
Brahmaputra R., Bengal. 24N. 90E.61
Brindaban, United Provs. 28N. 78E.59
[*]Broach, Bombay. 22N. 73E.56
Brosot, Java. 8S. 110E.76
Brothers Is., The, Malacca Strait. 3N. 100E.69
Broughton Bay, Korea. 39N. 128E.90
Broughton Strait, Japan. 35N. 129E.89
Brouwer Strait, Sumatra. 1N. 102E.69
Bruit, East Indies. 3S. 111E.74
Brunei, East Indies. 5N. 115E.74
[*]Brusa, Turkey in Asia. 40N. 29E.46
Bua Sum, Siam. 15N. 101E.70
Bubbaie R., United Provs. 28N. 81E.60
Bubdar, Asia Minor. 38N. 30E.46
Bubian Island, Persian Gulf. 30N. 48E.44
Bucas, Philippine Islands. 10N. 126E.77
Budihaul, Mysore. 14N. 76E.63
Budra River, Mysore. 14N. 76E.63
[*]Budrum, Asia Minor. 37N. 27E.46
Budulla, Ceylon. 7N. 81E.63
Bugti Country, Baluchistan. 29N. 69E.59
Buitenzorg, Java. 7S. 107E.76
Bukit Batu, Sumatra. 1N. 102E.69
Bulacan, Philippine Islands. 15N. 121E.77
Bulangan, East Indies. 3N. 117E.74
Bulawadin, Asia Minor. 39N. 31E.46
Buldana, Berar. 20N. 76E.60
Buleleng, East Indies. 8S. 115E.74
Bulghar Dagh, Asia Minor. 37N. 34E.46
Bulsar, Bombay. 21N. 73E.56
Buluan Lake, Mindanao, Philippine Is. 6N. 125E.77
Bulun, Siberia. 70N. 126E.95
Bu-mu-ba Lake, China. 42N. 113E.82
Bunarbashi, Asia Minor. 40N. 26E.46
Bunauan, Mindanao, Philippine Is. 8N. 126E.77
Bundelcund, Central India. 25N. 79E.60
Bundi, Rajputana. 25N. 75E.59
Bungo Strait, Japan. 33N. 132E.89
Buni, Bombay. 24N. 70E.56
Bunji, Kashmir. 35N. 75E.58
Bunli, Rajputana. 26N. 76E.59
Burghi, Bombay. 17N. 76E.57
Burgusto-ula, Inner Mongolia. 40N. 105E.82
[*]Burhanpur, Central Provinces. 21N. 76E.56
Burhi, Bengal. 24N. 85E.60
Burias, Philippine Islands. 13N. 123E.77
Burka, Arabia. 24N. 58E.45
Bursi, Kashmir. 35N. 78E.58
Buru, East Indies. 4S. 126E.75
Buru Cape, East Indies. 2N. 103E.74
Burujird, Persia. 34N. 49E.47
Burwahnugur, Bengal. 23N. 84E.60
Burwalla, Bombay. 22N. 72E.56
Busk, Siberia. 53N. 85E.94
Busuanga, Philippine Is. 12N. 120E.77
Buton Island, East Indies. 7N. 99E.75
Butuan, Philippine Islands. 9N. 126E.77
Butulan Vol., Philippine Is. 6N. 126E.77
Caboosa Island, Burma. 13N. 98E.71
Cabul, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Cabuly Pt., Philippine Is. 12N. 119E.77
[*]Cæsarea, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Cæsarea Philippi, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Cagayan R., Philippine Is. 8N. 125E.77
Cagayanes Is., Philippine Is. 9N. 122E.77
Cagua Vol., Philippine Is. 18N. 122E.77
Calaguas Is., Philippine Is. 15N. 123E.77
Calamian, Philippine Is. 12N. 120E.77
Calamianes, Philippine Is. 12N. 120E.77
Calar River, Bombay. 20N. 75E.57
Calayan, Philippine Is. 19N. 122E.77
Calbayog, Philippine Is. 12N. 125E.77
[*]Calcutta, Bengal. 23N. 88E.61
[*]Calicut, Madras. 11N. 76E.63
Calimere Point, Madras. 10N. 80E.63
Calingapatam, Madras. 18N. 84E.62
Callianee, Haidarabad. 18N. 77E.62
Calpi, United Provinces. 26N. 80E.60
Camao Cape, Indo-China. 9N. 105E.71
Camarines, Philippine Is. 13N. 123E.77
Ca-mau, Indo-China. 9N. 105E.71
[*]Cambay, Bombay. 22N. 73E.56
Cambay, Gulf of, Bombay. 21N. 72E.56
Cambodia, Indo-China. 12N. 105E.71
Cam-hoa, Indo-China. 22N. 106E.70
Camiguin, Philippine Is. 19N. 122E.77
Camotes Is., Philippine Is. 11N. 124E.77
Campbellpur, Punjab. 34N. 72E.58
Camranh Har., Indo-China. 12N. 109E.71
[*]Cana, Palestine. 33N. 35E.13
Candavi, Bombay. 21N. 73E.56
Candaya Is., Philippine Is. 15N. 121E.77
[*]Cannanore, Madras. 12N. 75E.63
Canning Town, Bengal. 22N. 89E.61
Cantho, Indo-China. 10N. 106E.71
[*]Canton, China. 23N. 113E.85
Canton River, China. 22N. 114E.85
Cao-bang, Indo-China. 22N. 106E.70
Cao-sorol, Indo-China. 18N. 106E.70
[*]Capernaum, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Capitolias, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Capiz, Philippine Islands. 11N. 122E.77
Caraga, Philippine Islands. 7N. 127E.77
Cardamum Mts., Madras. 10N. 77E.63
Carmel, Palestine. 31N. 35E.12 182
[*]Carmel, Mount, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Caroline Is., East Indies. 9N. 140E.75
Carteret Reef, East Indies. 3N. 135E.75
Castries Bay, Siberia. 52N. 141E.95
Catanduanes, Philippine Is. 14N. 124E.77
Catbalongan, Philippine Is. 12N. 125E.77
Catel Viejo (S. Nicolas), Philippine Is. 8N. 127E.77
Cauli River, Bombay. 15N. 74E.57
Cauvery River, Madras. 11N. 80E.63
Cavite, Philippine Islands. 15N. 121E.77
[*]Cawnpur, United Provs. 26N. 80E.60
Cayan, Philippine Islands. 17N. 121E.77
Celebes, East Indies. 4S. 121E.74
Celebes Sea, East Indies. 4N. 120E.74
Ceram, East Indies. 4S. 130E.75
Chahar, China. 42N. 114E.83
Chaiapun, Siam. 16N. 102E.70
Chaibassa, Bengal. 22N. 86E.60
Chainat, Siam. 15N. 100E.70
Chaiya, Malay Peninsula. 9N. 99E.71
Chakar River, Baluchistan. 30N. 68E.58
Chakdara, N.W. Frontier Provs. 35N. 72E.58
Chakesar, N.W. Frontier Provs. 35N. 73E.58
Chakwal, Punjab. 33N. 73E.58
Cha-ling, China. 27N. 114E.85
Chalo, Mongolia. 44N. 120E.83
Chamar, Kashmir. 33N. 78E.58
Chamba, Punjab. 33N. 76E.58
Chamlung, Kashmir. 35N. 78E.58
Chana, Malay Peninsula. 7N. 101E.68
Chanagur, Central Provs. 19N. 80E.60
[*]Chanar, Bengal. 25N. 83E.60
Chance Island, Malay Pen. 9N. 98E.71
Chanda, Central Provs. 20N. 79E.60
[*]Chandaur, Bombay. 20N. 74E.56
Chandaur Chain, Bombay. 20N. 75E.56
Chandausi, United Provs. 29N. 79E.60
[*]Chandernagore, Bengal. 23N. 88E.61
Chandode, Bombay. 22N. 73E.56
Chandpur, Bengal. 23N. 91E.61
Chandra River, Kashmir. 33N. 75E.58
Chang-chau, China. 32N. 120E.85
Chang-chau, China. 24N. 118E.85
Chang-chun, Manchuria. 44N. 125E.90
Chang-chwen Is., China. 21N. 113E.85
Chang-hs-tao, China. 40N. 121E.83
Chang-hwa, China. 19N. 109E.84
Chang-i, China. 37N. 120E.83
Chang-jin, Korea. 41N. 127E.90
Chang-kia-kau, China. 41N. 115E.83
Chang-kwan-tsai, Manchuria. 45N. 129E.90
Chang-le, China. 30N. 111E.84
Chang-lo, China. 24N. 116E.85
Chang-lo, China. 26N. 120E.85
Chang-ning, China. 25N. 116E.85
Chang-pai-shan, Manchuria. 42N. 127E.90
Chang-ping, China. 26N. 118E.85
Chang-ping, China. 40N. 116E.83
Chang-pu, China. 24N. 118E.85
Chang-sha, China. 23N. 115E.85
Chang-sha, China. 28N. 113E.85
Chang-shan-tao, China. 38N. 121E.83
Chang-te, China. 29N. 111E.84
Chang-te, China. 36N. 114E.83
Chang-tsing, China. 36N. 117E.83
Chang-tu, Manchuria. 43N. 124E.90
Chang-yang, China. 30N. 111E.84
Chaniot, Punjab. 32N. 73E.58
Chan-sha, China. 32N. 121E.83
Chantabun, Siam. 13N. 102E.71
Chantakam, Siam. 14N. 102E.71
Chao, China. 38N. 115E.83
Chao-chau, China. 24N. 117E.85
Chao-king, China. 23N. 112E.84
Chao-lien-tao, China. 36N. 121E.83
Chao-yang, China. 23N. 117E.85
Chao-yang, China. 42N. 120E.83
Chapel Island, China. 24N. 118E.85
Chapra, Bengal. 26N. 84E.60
Charjui, Turkestan. 39N. 63E.45
Charles Louis Mts., E. Indies. 4S. 136E.75
Charuk Su, Turkey in Asia. 41N. 40E.47
Chatarpur, Central India. 25N. 80E.60
Chatrapur, Madras. 19N. 85E.62
Chattisgarh, Central Provs. 21N. 83E.60
Chaturat, Siam. 16N. 102E.70
Chau-dok, Indo-China. 11N. 105E.71
Chau-hu, China. 32N. 117E.85
Chaukan Point, Burma. 27N. 97E.67
Chau-tung, China. 27N. 104E.84
Che-cheng, China. 34N. 116E.83
Cheduba, Burma. 19N. 94E.67
Cheduba Island, Burma. 19N. 94E.67
Che-ju, Korea. 34N. 126E.90
Che-Kiang, China. 29N. 120E.85
Chek-jem Island, Korea. 37N. 126E.90
Chel-La, North, Korea. 36N. 127E.90
Chel-La, South, Korea. 35N. 126E.90
Chelong, Indo-China. 12N. 106E.71
Chelyuskin Cape, Siberia. 77N. 102E.94
[*]Chemulpo, Korea. 37N. 127E.90
Chenab River, Punjab. 29N. 71E.59
Chen-chau, China. 28N. 110E.84
Chen-chau, China. 34N. 115E.83
Chendras, Malay Peninsula. 2N. 102E.69
Chen-feng, China. 25N. 106E.84
Cheng, China. 35N. 114E.83
[*]Chengalput, Madras. 13N. 80E.63
Cheng-ju, Korea. 37N. 127E.90
Cheng-ju, Korea. 40N. 125E.90
Cheng-kau, China. 32N. 109E.84
Cheng-ngan, China. 28N. 107E.84
Cheng-pu, China. 26N. 110E.84 183
Cheng-shan, China. 38N. 123E.83
Cheng-te, China. 41N. 118E.83
Cheng-ting, China. 38N. 115E.83
Cheng-tu, China. 31N. 104E.84
Chen-hiung, China. 27N. 105E.84
Chen-hsi, China. 28N. 110E.84
Chen-ju, Korea. 36N. 127E.90
Chen-kiang, China. 32N. 119E.83
Chen-ngan, China. 23N. 106E.84
Chen-ping, China. 25N. 116E.85
Chen-yiien, China. 27N. 108E.84
Chen-yiien, China. 36N. 107E.82
Chepon, Indo-China. 17N. 106E.70
Cheribon, Java. 7S. 109E.76
Cherrapunji, Assam. 25N. 92E.61
Che-yang-pau, China. 27N. 120E.85
Chhang-seng, Korea. 40N. 125E.90
Chhindwara, Central Provs. 22N. 79E.60
Chho-san, Korea. 41N. 126E.90
Chhota Udepur, Bombay. 22N. 74E.56
Chhun-chhen, Korea. 38N. 128E.90
Chhung, Korea. 37N. 128E.90
Chhung-Chheng, E., Korea. 36N. 127E.90
Chhung-Chheng, W., Korea. 36N. 126E.90
Chiamis, Java. 7S. 108E.76
Chiba, Japan. 36N. 140E.91
Chiburi, Japan. 36N. 133E.91
Chicacole, Madras. 18N. 84E.62
Chichalengha, Java. 7S. 108E.76
Chi-chau, China. 31N. 117E.85
Chichawatu, Punjab. 30N. 73E.58
Chi-cheng, China. 41N. 116E.83
Chidzu, Japan. 35N. 134E.91
Chieng-hai, Siam. 20N. 100E.70
Chieng Kong, Siam. 20N. 100E.70
Chieng Mai, Siam. 19N. 99E.70
Chieng Saan, Siam. 20N. 100E.70
Chi-feng, China. 42N. 118E.83
[*]Chi-fu, China. 38N. 122E.83
Chigar Sarai, Afghanistan. 35N. 71E.58
Chijulang, Java. 8S. 108E.76
Chi-kau, China. 39N. 118E.83
Chik-ching, China. 22N. 110E.84
Chikmagalur, Mysore. 13N. 76E.63
Chilachap, Java. 8S. 109E.76
Chilas, Kashmir. 35N. 74E.58
Chilaw, Ceylon. 8N. 80E.63
Chi-li, China. 40N. 117E.83
Chi-li, Gulf of. 39N. 119E.83
Chi-li, Strait of. 38N. 121E.83
Chilka Lake, Bengal. 20N. 85E.60
[*]Chillianwallah, Punjab. 33N. 74E.58
Chi-lung, China. 23N. 115E.85
Chimishgadsek, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 39E.47
Chin Hills State, Burma. 23N. 94E.67
China Bakier River, Burma. 16N. 96E.67
China Sea, S., Indo-China. 9N. 108E.71
Chin-do, Korea. 35N. 126E.90
Chindwin River, Burma. 22N. 95E.67
Chindwin Shan States, Burma. 26N. 96E.67
Chin-hai, China. 30N. 121E.85
Chini, Punjab. 32N. 78E.58
Chin-ju, Korea. 35N. 128E.90
Chinnampo, Korea. 39N. 125E.90
Chinnereth, Sea of, Palestine. 33N. 36E.12
Chinur, Haidarabad. 19N. 80E.62
Chiokai-san, Japan. 39N. 140E.88
Chiremai, Java. 7S. 108E.76
Chisloth Tabor, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Chitaldrug, Mysore. 14N. 76E.63
Chitor, Rajputana. 25N. 75E.59
Chitral, N.W. Frontier Provs. 36N. 72E.58
Chitral R., N.W. Frontier Provs. 36N. 72E.58
[*]Chittagong, Burma. 22N. 92E.61
Chittapet, Madras. 12N. 79E.63
Chittur, Madras. 11N. 77E.63
Chittur, Madras. 13N. 79E.63
Chivril, Asia Minor. 38N. 30E.46
Choatilloh, Sind. 26N. 69E.59
Cho-bo, Indo-China. 21N. 105E.70
Chobr, China. 41N. 113E.82
Cho-chau, China. 40N. 116E.83
Cho-don, Indo-China. 18N. 107E.70
Cholar, Indo-China. 10N. 107E.71
Chon-kan, Indo-China. 14N. 104E.71
Chorazin, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Choreshiri Island, Japan. 44N. 141E.88
Choshi, Japan. 36N. 141E.91
Choshjal, China. 42N. 114E.83
Chotiali, Baluchistan. 30N. 69E.58
Chotun, Rajputana. 26N. 71E.59
Chou-tsun, China. 37N. 118E.83
Chu, China. 32N. 118E.83
Chu-chau, China. 28N. 120E.85
Chu-cheng, China. 36N. 120E.83
Chukairei Mt., Formosa. 24N. 121E.89
Chu-ki, China. 30N. 120E.85
Chumay Bay, Indo-China. 16N. 108E.70
Chung, China. 30N. 108E.84
Chung-chang, China. 37N. 104E.82
Chung-kia-kau, China. 37N. 116E.83
Chung-king, China. 29N. 106E.84
Chung-ming, China. 32N. 121E.85
Chung-pa, China. 32N. 105E.84
Chung-wei, China. 37N. 105E.82
Chu-san, China. 30N. 122E.85
Chu-shan, China. 32N. 110E.82
Chu-tze-chieh, Manchuria. 43N. 129E.90
Cilicia, Asia Minor. 36N. 34E.46
Clara Island, Burma. 11N. 98E.71
Cleopatra's Needle, Philippine Is. 10N. 119E.77
Clifford Island, Korea. 37N. 126E.90
Cocanada, Madras. 17N. 82E.62 184
[*]Cochin, Madras. 10N. 76E.63
Cochin China, Indo-China. 11N. 106E.71
Codoor, Madras. 14N. 79E.63
Coguiga, Madras. 17N. 82E.62
[*]Coimbatore, Madras, 11N. 77E.63
Colleroon River, Madras, 11N. 80E.63
Colnett Strait, Japan. 30N. 130E.89
[*]Colombo, Ceylon. 7N. 80E.63
Combermere Bay, Burma. 20N. 94E.67
Comillah, Bengal. 23N. 91E.61
Comorin, Cape, Madras. 8N. 77E.63
Concepcion, Philippine Is. 11N. 123E.77
Congun, Persia. 29N. 52E.45
[*]Conjeveram, Madras. 13N. 80E.63
Constantinovsk, Siberia. 49N. 140E.95
Cook Channel, Philippine Is. 10N. 120E.77
Coonoor, Madras, 11N. 77E.63
Cord del Norte, Philippine Is. 18N. 122E.77
Coromandel Coast, Madras. 13N. 80E.63
Coronado Pt., Philippine Is. 8N. 122E.77
Coronge Island, Burma. 17N. 94E.67
Cotabato, East Indies. 7N. 124E.75
Cotta Bato, Philippine Is. 7N. 124E.77
Craig Island, China. 25N. 122E.89
Cuddalore, Madras. 12N. 80E.63
Cumbum, Madras. 16N. 79E.62
Cundapur, Madras. 14N. 75E.63
Cuntuda, Arabia. 19N. 41E.44
Current Island, East Indies. 5N. 132E.75
Cutch, Bombay. 23N. 70E.56
Cutch, Runn of, Bombay. 24N. 71E.56
Cuttack, Bengal. 21N. 86E.60
Cuttack Mehal, Bengal. 21N. 85E.60
Cuttani River, Mysore. 12N. 77E.63
Cuyos Is., Philippine Is. 11N. 121E.77
Cyclops Mts., East Indies. 3S. 140E.75
Dabbasheth, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Daberath, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Dabhai, Bombay. 22N. 73E.56
Dabla, Rajputana. 26N. 75E.59
Dabsatu, Mongolia. 44N. 120E.83
Dacca, Bengal. 24N. 90E.61
Dahan, Siam. 16N. 105E.70
Dahira, Arabia. 24N. 56E.45
Dahna, Arabia. 25N. 48E.44
Dahna, Arabia. 21N. 50E. 4445
Dairen, China. 39N. 122E.83
Dairen, Manchuria. 39N. 122E.90
Daishoji, Japan. 36N. 136E.91
Daiwurconda, Haidarabad. 17N. 79E.62
Dakar, Bombay. 23N. 73E.56
Dakka, Afghanistan. 34N. 71E.58
Daksam, Bengal. 23N. 91E.61
Dalai Nor, Mongolia. 43N. 117E.83
Dalhousie, Burma. 16N. 94E.67
Dalhousie, Punjab. 32N. 76E.58
Daltonganj, Bengal. 24N. 84E.60
Dalupiri, Philippine Is. 19N. 121E.77
[*]Daman, Bombay. 20N. 73E.56
Daman-i-Kuh, Turkestan. 38N. 57E.45
Damar, Arabia. 15N. 44E.44
[*]Damascus, Palestine. 34N. 36E.12
Dambulla, Ceylon. 8N. 81E.63
Dammer, East Indies. 6S. 128E.75
Damoh, Central Provs. 24N. 80E.60
Dampier Island, East Indies. 5S. 146E.75
Dampier Strait, East Indies. 1S. 130E.75
Dan, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Danu, Bombay. 20N. 73E.57
D'Anville Gulf, Siberia. 43N. 131E.95
Dapean, Indo-China. 21N. 106E.70
Dapitan, Philippine Is. 8N. 123E.77
Dapsang Mount, Kashmir. 35N. 77E.58
Dapuli, Bombay. 18N. 73E.57
Darak, Persia. 32N. 58E.45
Darbah, Punjab. 29N. 75E.59
Darbhangah, Bengal. 26N. 86E.61
Dardanelles, Asia Minor. 40N. 26E.46
Dare-bhyn River, Burma. 16N. 95E.67
Dargai, N.W. Frontier Provs. 34N. 72E.58
Dargai Peak, N.W. Frontier Provs. 33N. 71E.58
Darjiling, Bengal. 27N. 89E.61
Darrang, Assam. 86N. 92E.61
Darvel Bay, East Indies. 5N. 118E.74
Dasa, Turkey in Asia. 34N. 42E.47
Dasuruan, Java. 8S. 113E.76
Data, Burma. 16N. 95E.67
Data Mt., Philippine Is. 17N. 122E.77
Datrapur, Bengal. 26N. 90E.61
Dattiah, Central India. 26N. 78E.60
Daude, East Indies. 9S. 142E.75
[*]Daulatabad, Haidarabad. 20N. 75E.62
Daulatpur, Sind. 26S. 68E.59
Davao, Philippine Island. 7N. 126E.77
Davao Bay, Philippine Is. 6N. 126E.77
Davilacan, East Indies. 17N. 122E.74
Davis Island, Burma. 10N. 98E.71
Dawunakonda, Madras. 16N. 78E.62
Dayang Bunting, Malacca Str. 6N. 100E.68
Dazan Bandida, Mongolia. 44N. 116E.83
Dazol Bay, Philippine Is. 16N. 120E.77
[*]Dead Sea, Palestine. 31N. 35E.13
Debar Lake, Rajputana. 24N. 74E.59
Debari, Rajputana. 25N. 74E.59
Debir, Palestine. 31N. 35E.12
Dedicas Vol., Philippine Is. 19N. 122E.77
Deeg, Rajputana. 27N. 77E.59
Degode, Rajputana. 25N. 75E.59
Dehra, United Provs. 30N. 78E.58
Deir, Turkey in Asia. 35N. 40E.47
Delhi, East Indies. 8S. 126E.75
[*]Delhi, Punjab. 29N. 77E.59
Deli, East Indies. 4N. 99E.74
Delidge Irmak R., Asia Minor. 39N. 35E.46 185
Demavend, Persia. 35N. 52E.45
Demavend Mount, Persia. 36N. 52E.45
Dengiz, Lake, As. Russia. 53N. 73E.94
Denisli, Asia Minor. 38N. 29E.46
D'Entrecasteaux Is., East Indies. 10S. 150E.75
[*]Deogarh, Central Provs. 22N. 79E.60
Deogurh, Bengal. 25N. 87E.61
Deogurh, Bombay. 16N. 73E.57
Deoniagarh, Nepal. 28N. 84E.60
Dera Bugti, Baluchistan. 29N. 69E.59
Dera Futti Khan, Punjab. 31N. 71E.58
Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab. 30N. 71E.58
Dera Ishmail Khan, N.W. Frontier Provs. 32N. 71E.58
Derajat, Punjab. 31N. 71E.58
Desht River, Persia. 25N. 62E.45
Dhalkot, Kashmir. 34N. 74E.58
Dhamtari, Central Provs. 21N. 81E.60
[*]Dhar, Central India. 23N. 75E.56
Dharampur, Bombay. 20N. 73E.56
[*]Dharmapuri, Madras. 12N. 78E.63
Dharmawaram, Madras. 15N. 78E.62
Dharumsala, Punjab. 32N. 76E.58
Dharur, Haidarabad. 19N. 76E.62
[*]Dharwar, Bombay. 16N. 75E.57
Dhat-Irk, Arabia. 22N. 41E.44
Dhaulagiri Mt., Nepal. 29N. 84E.60
Dheiell, Bombay. 21N. 74E.56
Dhola, Bombay. 22N. 72E.56
Dholarra, Bombay. 22N. 72E.56
[*]Dholka, Bombay. 23N. 72E.56
[*]Dholpur, Rajputana. 27N. 78E.59
Dhond, Bombay. 18N. 75E.57
Dhoraji, Bombay. 22N. 70E.56
Dhrangadra, Bombay. 23N. 71E.56
[*]Dhulia, Bombay. 21N. 75E.56
Dhuri River, Punjab. 30N. 76E.58
Diamond Harbour, Bengal. 22N. 88E.61
[*]Diarbekr, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 39E.47
Diarmer Mount, Kashmir. 35N. 74E.58
Dibon, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
Dibrugarh, Assam. 27N. 95E.67
Dickson Island, Siberia. 73N. 81E.94
Dickson, Point, Malay Pen. 3N. 102E.69
Dien-Bien, Indo-China. 21N. 103E.70
[*]Diggi, Rajputana. 27N. 75E.59
Dihang River, Tibet. 28N. 95E.61
Dihing River, Assam. 27N. 96E.67
Dilasac Bay, Philippine Is. 16N. 122E.77
Dilawar, Punjab. 29N. 71E.59
Dilman, Persia. 38N. 45E.47
Dinagat, Philippine Islands. 10N. 126E.77
Dinajpur, Bengal. 24N. 88E.61
Dinapur, Bengal. 26N. 85E.60
Dindi River, Haidarabad. 17N. 79E.62
[*]Dindigull, Madras. 10N. 78E.63
Dindings, Malay Peninsula. 4N. 101E.68
Dineir, Asia Minor. 38N. 31E.46
Dingarh, Punjab. 29N. 72E.59
Diomede Island, Siberia. 66N. 172W.95
Dion, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Discovery Reef, E. Indies. 4S. 109E.76
Diu Fort, Bombay. 21N. 71E.56
Diu Island, Bombay. 21N. 71E.56
Divy, Point, Madras. 16N. 81E.62
Diwanieh, Turkey in Asia. 32N. 45E.47
Dizful, Persia. 32N. 49E.47
Djahampur, Punjab. 30N. 71E.58
Djambu, East Indies. 2S. 104E.74
Djanik, Asia Minor. 41N. 36E.46
Djering, Cape, Malacca Str. 2N. 102E.69
Dohad, Bombay. 23N. 74E.56
Doktawadi River, Burma. 23N. 97E.67
Dolar, Central India. 24N. 82E.60
[*]Dolon-nor, China. 42N. 116E.83
Dolon-shirke, Inner Mongolia. 40N. 107E.82
Dolphin, Cape, Malay Pen. 9N. 98E.71
Dome Island, Burma. 12N. 98E.71
Donahyu, Burma. 17N. 96E.67
[*]Dondra Head, Ceylon. 6N. 81E.63
Dong-hoi, Indo-China. 18N. 107E.70
Dong Rek, Siam. 14N. 102E.71
Don-nai River, Indo-China. 11N. 107E.71
Dor, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Dorak, Persia. 31N. 49E.47
Dornakal, Haidarabad. 17N. 80E.62
Dothan, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Douglas, East Indies. 20N. 136E.75
Dourga Strait, East Indies. 7S. 139E.75
Dowhali, Central Provs. 21N. 80E.60
Dowlaishwardin, Madras. 17N. 82E.62
Dounggyi, Burma. 17N. 96E.67
Dras, Kashmir. 34N. 76E.58
Drug, Central Provs. 21N. 82E.60
Dsergile, Mongolia. 44N. 115E.83
Duda, Haidarabad. 17N. 77E.62
Dudhna River, Haidarabad. 19N. 77E.62
Dudinsh, Siberia. 69N. 87E.94
Dudwa, United Provs. 29N. 81E.60
Dulmera, Rajputana. 28N. 74E.59
Dumaran Is., Philippine Is. 11N. 120E.77
Dunbula, Ceylon. 7N. 81E.63
Dungarpur, Rajputana. 24N. 74E.59
Dungun, River, Malay Pen. 5N. 103E.68
Dupadu, Madras. 16N. 79E.62
Durbot, Inner Mongolia. 42N. 111E.82
Duroch, Cape, Korea. 39N. 128E.90
D'Urville Island, E. Indies. 3S. 143E.75
D'Urville Point, E. Indies. 2S. 138E.75
Dwana Hills, Burma. 17N. 98E.67
[*]Dwarka, Bombay. 22N. 69E.56
Eap, East Indies. 10N. 136E.75
East Cape, Siberia. 66N. 170W.95 186
Ebal, Mount, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Echigo, Japan. 37N. 139E.91
Echisen, Japan. 36N. 136E.91
Edrei, Palestine. 33N. 36E.12
Edremid, Asia Minor. 40N. 27E.46
Edwardesabad, N.W. Frontier Provs. 33N. 70E.58
Egerdir, Asia Minor. 38N. 31E.46
Egin, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 39E.47
Eglon, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
[*]Ekron, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
El Batna, Arabia. 25N. 57E.45
El Bedda, Arabia. 25N. 52E.45
[*]Elburz Mountains, Persia. 36N. 51E.45
Elealeh, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
[*]Elephanta, Bombay. 19N. 73E.57
El Hadhr, Turkey in Asia. 36N. 43E.47
El Hasa, Arabia. 28N. 48E.44
El Hejaz, Arabia. 25N. 38E.44
El Hofuf, Arabia. 25N. 50E.44
El Jezireh or Mesopotamia, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 40E.47
El Katif, Arabia. 27N. 50E.45
[*]Ellichpur, Berar. 21N. 78E.60
Elliot Island, Manchuria. 39N. 122E.90
Ellore, Madras. 17N. 81E.62
Elmaly, Asia Minor. 36N. 30E.46
Elphinstone, Burma. 12N. 98E.71
El Wedj, Arabia. 26N. 36E.44
Elwend Mountain, Persia. 35N. 49E.47
El Yemen, Arabia. 16N. 43E.44
Emamgarh, Sind. 27N. 69E.59
Emmaus, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Enciam Island, Madras. 8N. 77E.63
Endau River, Malay Pen. 3N. 104E.69
Enderes, Turkey in Asia. 40N. 38E.47
[*]Endor, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Engannim, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Engano Cape, East Indies. 19N. 122E.74
Engano Island, East Indies. 5S. 103E.74
Engedi, Palestine. 31N. 35E.12
English Bazar, Bengal. 25N. 88E.61
Ennore, Madras. 13N. 80E.63
En-Rimmon, Palestine. 31N. 35E.12
Enzeli, Persia. 38N. 49E.47
Ephraim, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Ephraim, Mount, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
[*]Erbil, Turkey in Asia. 36N. 44E.47
Eregli, Asia Minor. 37N. 34E.46
Eregli, Asia Minor. 41N. 32E.46
Erinpura, Rajputana. 25N. 73E.59
Ernakolam, Madras. 10N. 76E.63
[*]Erode, Madras. 11N. 78E.63
[*]Erzerum, Turkey in Asia. 40N. 41E.47
[*]Erzingan, Turkey in Asia. 40N. 40E.47
Esanzaki, Japan. 41N. 141E.88
Esashi, Japan. 41N. 140E.88
Esasta, Japan. 44N. 143E.88
[*]Esdraelon, Plain of, Palestine. 33N. 35E.13
Eshtemod, Palestine. 31N. 35E.12
Eskihissar, Asia Minor. 37N. 28E.46
[*]Eskishehr, Asia Minor. 40N. 30E.46
Etah, United Provinces. 28N. 79E.60
Etna, Mount, China. 19N. 109E.84
Etwali, United Provs. 27N. 79E.60
[*]Euphrates R., Turkey in Asia. 30N. 48E.47
Euripik, East Indies. 6N. 142E.75
[*]Everest, Mount, Nepal. 28N. 87E.61
Fais, East Indies, 10N. 141E.75
Faizabad, United Provs. 27N. 82E.60
Fak-chan, Burma. 11N. 99E.71
Fakumen, Manchuria. 42N. 123E.90
Fakuoka, Japan. 34N. 130E.89
Falam, Burma. 23N. 94E.67
Falan, Indo-China. 17N. 106E.70
False Cape, East Indies. 8S. 137E.75
Fan, China. 36N. 116E.83
Fan-cheng, China. 32N. 112E.82
Fao, Turkey in Asia. 30N. 48E.47
Farallon de Pajaros, E. Indies. 20N. 145E.75
Faraulep, East Indies. 9N. 145E.75
Faridkot, Punjab. 31N. 75E.58
Farrah, Afghanistan. 32N. 62E.45
Farridabad, Punjab. 28N. 77E.59
Fars, Persia. 28N. 53E.45
Farsan Kebeer, Red Sea. 17N. 42E.44
Farukhabad, United Provs. 27N. 79E.60
Farukhnagar, Punjab. 28N. 77E.59
Fasa, Persia. 29N. 54E.45
Fatehabad, Punjab. 30N. 75E.58
Fatehpur, United Provs. 26N. 81E.60
Fat-shan, China. 23N. 113E.85
Fattehpur, Punjab. 29N. 70E.59
Fazilka, Punjab. 30N. 74E.58
Fei, China. 35N. 118E.83
Fen-chau, China. 37N. 112E.82
Feng, China. 35N. 117E.83
Feng-chan, China. 29N. 112E.84
Feng-cheng, China. 28N. 116E.85
Feng-hsiang, China. 34N. 108E.82
Feng-hwa, China. 30N. 121E.85
Feng-hwa, Manchuria. 43N. 124E.90
Feng-kwang-chen, Manchuria. 40N. 124E.90
Feng-ning, China. 41N. 117E.83
Feng-shan-shan, China. 26N. 117E.85
Feng-tu, China. 30N. 107E.84
Feng-yang, China. 33N. 117E.83
Fen-ho, China. 37N. 112E.82
Ferahan, Persia. 34N. 50E.47
Filias River, Asia Minor. 42N. 32E.46
Filipovskoi Korennoi, Siberia. 71N. 97E.94
Firospur, Punjab. 28N. 77E.59
Firozpur, Punjab. 31N. 75E.58 187
Fitze-long Bay, Indo-China. 21N. 307E.70
Flores, East Indies. 9S. 121E.74
Fly River, East Indies. 8S. 142E.75
Fo-ki, Formosa. 25N. 121E.89
Fo-kien, China. 26N. 118E.85
[*]Formosa, China. 24N. 121E.74
Formosa Strait, Formosa. 25N. 120E.89
Fou, China. 30N. 107E.84
Foul Island, Burma. 18N. 94E.67
Frederick Henry Is., E. Indies. 8S. 137E.75
Frederick Wilhelm Harbour, E. Indies. 5S. 145E.75
Freewill, East Indies. 1N. 135E.75
Fu, China. 36N. 109E.82
[*]Fu-chau, China. 26N. 119E.85
Fu-chau, China. 28N. 116E.85
Fu-chou, Manchuria. 40N. 122E.90
Fuga, Philippine Islands. 18N. 121E.77
[*]Fuji Yama, Japan. 35N. 139E.91
Fu-kang, China. 24N. 114E.85
Fukaye Island, Japan. 33N. 129E.89
Fu-kiang River, China. 31N. 106E.84
Fu-ku, China. 39N. 111E.82
Fukui, Japan. 36N. 136E.91
Fukushima, Japan. 36N. 138E.91
Fukushima, Japan. 38N. 140E.91
Fukuyama, Japan. 35N. 133E.91
Fukuyama, Japan. 41N. 140E.88
Funatsiu, Japan. 36N. 137E.91
Fu-ngan, China. 27N. 120E.85
Fu-ning, China. 27N. 120E.85
Fu-niu-shan, China. 34N. 112E.82
Fu-ping, China. 34N. 108E.82
Furidpur, Bengal. 24N. 90E.61
Fusan, Korea. 35N. 129E.90
Fu-shan, China. 38N. 121E.83
Fushiki, Japan. 37N. 137E.91
Fushimi, Japan. 35N. 136E.91
Fu-tsing, China. 26N. 120E.85
Futtehpur, Punjab. 30N. 72E.58
Fyzabad, Afghanistan. 37N. 70E.45
Gad, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
Gadak, Bombay. 16N. 76E.57
Gadara, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Gaddari, Haidarabad. 18N. 78E.62
Galas River, Malay Pen. 5N. 102E.68
Galbyn-Gobi, In. Mongolia. 42N. 106E.82
Gali, Malay Peninsula. 4N. 102E.69
Galilee, Palestine. 33N. 35E.13
Galilee, Sea of, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
[*]Galle, Ceylon. 6N. 80E.63
[*]Gamala, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Gandava, Baluchistan. 28N. 67E.59
Ganges, Bengal. 22N. 89E.61
Gangpur, Bengal. 22N. 84E.60
Ganh-rai Bay, Indo-China. 10N. 107E.71
Ganjam, Madras. 19N. 85E.62
Ganju-san, Japan. 40N. 141E.88
Gao-tin, Manchuria. 45N. 129E.90
Garampi, Formosa. 21N. 121E.89
Gares, Kashmir. 35N. 75E.58
Garhwal, United Provs. 31N. 79E.60
Garo Hills, Assam. 26N. 91E.61
Garut, Java. 7S. 108E.76
Gath, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Gatkau, Bombay. 22N. 69E.56
Gaurisankar Mt., Nepal. 28N. 87E.61
Gautier Mts., East Indies. 3S. 137E.75
Gawalgarh, Berar. 21N. 77E.60
[*]Gaya, Bengal. 25N. 85E.60
[*]Gaza, Palestine. 32N. 34E.12
Geba, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Gede, Mount, Java. 7S. 107E.76
Gedis Chai R., Asia Minor. 38N. 28E.46
Gedor, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Geelvink Bay, East Indies. 3S. 135E.75
Geelvink Strait, East Indies. 1S. 135E.75
Geik Dagh, Asia Minor. 36N. 33E.46
Gelam Island, Borneo. 3S. 110E.76
Genkai, Japan. 34N. 131E.89
Gensan, Korea. 39N. 127E.90
Genteng, Cape, Java. 8S. 106E.76
Geok Tepe, Turkestan. 38N. 58E.45
Georgetown, Penang. 5N. 100E.68
Gerar, Palestine. 31N. 34E.12
[*]Gerasa, Palestine. 32N. 36E.13
Gergesenes, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Gerizim, Mount, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Geuk Su, Asia Minor. 36N. 34E.46
Ghaggan River, Punjab. 30N. 76E.58
Ghagra R., United Provs. 26N. 84E.60
Gharrah, Sind. 25N. 68E.59
[*]Ghaziabad, United Provs. 29N. 77E.59
[*]Ghazipur, United Provs. 26N. 84E.60
[*]Ghazni, Afghanistan. 34N. 68E.58
Ghijinsk, Siberia. 62N. 162E.95
Ghijinsk, Gulf of, Siberia. 61N. 160E.95
Ghilan, Persia. 38N. 49E.47
Ghubbet el Kamar, Arabia. 16N. 53E.45
Ghunnapura, Haidarabad. 17N. 78E.62
Giamda, Tibet. 30N. 93E.61
Giaur Dagh, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 37E.46
[*]Gibeon, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Gifu, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
Gigasar, Rajputana. 28N. 73E.59
[*]Gilboa, Mount, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Gilead, Mount, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
Gilgal, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Gilolo, East Indies. 1N. 127E.75
Gilolo Island, East Indies. 1N. 128E.75
Gilolo Pass, East Indies. 0. 129E.75
Gimzo, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Gioda, Japan. 36N. 139E.91
Giran, Formosa. 25N. 122E.89
Girap, Rajputana. 26N. 70E.59 188
Girari, Central Provs. 23N. 82E.60
[*]Giridhi, Bengal. 24N. 86E.61
Girishk, Afghanistan. 32N. 65E.45
Girna, Bombay. 21N. 75E.56
Girri River, Punjab. 31N. 78E.58
Girwari, Central India. 26N. 77E.60
[*]Goa, Bombay. 15N. 74E.57
Goa Goa Is., East Indies. 7S. 115E.76
Goalpara, Assam. 26N. 91E.61
Goalundo, Bengal. 24N. 90E.61
Gobi, Inner Mongolia. 42N. 105E.82
Godavari River, Madras. 17N. 82E.62
Goderi, Madras. 19N. 84E.62
God-i-Sirreh, Baluchistan. 30N. 62E.45
Godra, Bombay. 23N. 74E.56
Godwar, Rajputana. 25N. 73E.59
Goghe, Bombay. 22N. 72E.56
Gokak, Bombay. 16N. 75E.57
Golan, Palestine. 33N. 36E.12
[*]Golconda, Haidarabad. 18N. 78E.62
Golden Throne Mt., Kashmir. 35N. 77E.58
Golok River, Malay Pen. 6N. 102E.68
Golra, Punjab. 34N. 73E.58
Golugonda, Madras. 18N. 82E.62
Gonda, United Provs. 27N. 82E.60
Gonokawa, Japan. 35N. 133E.91
Good Hope, Cape of, China. 23N. 117E.85
Goona, Central India. 24N. 77E.60
[*]Gooruncondah, Madras. 14N. 79E.63
Gopalpur, Madras. 19N. 85E.62
Gopanur, Madras. 16N. 79E.62
Gorakhpur, United Provs. 27N. 83E.60
Gorkha, Nepal. 28N. 84E.60
Gorontalo, East Indies. 0. 124E.75
Gosaigaon, Assam. 27N. 94E.67
Gosgarh, Punjab. 28N. 72E.59
Gotoshima, Japan. 33N. 129E.89
Gowada, Madras. 16N. 81E.62
Gowhatty, Assam. 26N. 92E.61
Grajagan Bay, Java. 9S. 114E.76
Granville, East Indies. 10S. 147E.75
Great Gatwick Is., Indo-China. 10N. 109E.71
Great Gorge, China. 31N. 110E.84
Great Karimon, Malacca Str. 1N. 103E.69
Great Lake, Indo-China. 14N. 109E.71
Great Zab, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 44E.47
Grik, Malay Peninsula. 5N. 101E.68
Guam, East Indies. 13N. 145E.75
Gudam, Madras. 18N. 82E.62
Gudur, Madras. 14N. 80E.63
Gugara, Punjab. 31N. 73E.58
Guguan, East Indies. 18N. 145E.75
Guie-chau Island, China. 21N. 109E.84
Guimaras Is., Philippine Is. 11N. 123E.77
[*]Gujranwala, Punjab. 32N. 74E.58
[*]Gujrat, Punjab. 33N. 74E.58
[*]Gulbarga, Haidarabad. 17N. 77E.62
Guma, Bombay. 22N. 72E.56
Gumal Pass, N.W. Frontier Provs. 32N. 70E.58
Gumal River, N.W. Frontier Provs. 32N. 70E.58
Gumri, Bombay. 19N. 75E.57
Gumsur, Madras. 20N. 85E.62
Gumti River, Bengal. 23N. 91E.61
Gunaidio, Sind. 26N. 70E.59
Gundakamma River, Madras. 16N. 80E.62
Gunong Hantu, Malay Pen. 3N. 102E.69
Gunong Tahan, Malay Pen. 5N. 102E.68
Guntakal, Madras. 15N. 77E.62
Guntur, Madras. 16N. 81E.62
Gunung Api, East Indies. 6S. 126E.75
Gunungtua, Sumatra. 1N. 100E.69
Gurdaspur, Punjab. 32N. 75E.58
Gurgaon, Punjab. 28N. 77E.59
Gurla Mountain, Tibet. 30N. 82E.60
Gurrah, Rajputana. 25N. 72E.59
Gurun, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 37E.46
Gutah, Punjab. 30N. 75E.58
[*]Gutti, Madras. 15N. 78E.62
Gwa, Burma. 18N. 94E.67
Gwadur, Baluchistan. 25N. 62E.45
Gwaja-shima, Lu-Chu Is. 30N. 129E.89
Gwal, Punjab. 31N. 69E.58
[*]Gwalior, Central India. 26N. 78E.60
Gwas-san, Japan. 39N. 140E.88
Gwettur, Persia. 25N. 61E.45
Gya, Kashmir. 34N. 78E.58
Gya Peak, Kashmir. 32N. 78E.58
Gyaing, Burma. 17N. 98E.67
Habban, Arabia. 15N. 47E.44
Hachinohe, Japan. 40N. 142E.88
Hachirogata, Japan. 40N. 141E.88
Hachoji, Japan. 36N. 139E.91
Hadad Rimmon, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Ha-dong, Indo-China. 16N. 109E.70
Hadramaut, Arabia. 17N. 50E. 4445
Hadramaut Mahrah, Arabia. 17N. 50E. 4445
Hagi, Japan. 34N. 131E.89
Hagiang, Indo-China. 23N. 105E.70
Hagui, Japan. 37N. 137E.91
Hai, China. 35N. 119E.83
Hai-an, China. 20N. 110E.84
Hai-cheng, China. 36N. 106E.82
Hai-cheng, Manchuria. 41N. 123E.90
Hai-chwen Island, China. 21N. 113E.85
[*]Haidarabad, Haidarabad. 17N. 79E.62
Haidarabad, Sind. 25N. 68E.59
Hai-duong, Indo-China. 21N. 106E.70
Hai-ju, Korea. 38N. 126E.90
Hai-ling Island, China. 21N. 112E.84
Hai-nan Island, China. 19N. 110E.84
Hai-nan Strait, China. 20N. 110E.84 189
Hai-ning, China. 31N. 121E.85
Hai-pang, Korea. 33N. 126E.90
Hai-phong, Indo-China. 21N. 107E.70
Hai-tau Bay, China. 24N. 118E.85
Hai-yang, China. 37N. 122E.83
Hai-yong, Korea. 43N. 130E.90
Hajin, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 36E.46
[*]Hakata, Japan. 34N. 130E.89
Hakodate, Japan. 41N. 141E.88
Haku San, Japan. 36N. 137E.91
Halcon Mt., Mindoro, Philippine Is. 16N. 118E.77
Haleb, Turkey in Asia. 36N. 37E.46
Haleb, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 38E.46
Halhul, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Halla, Sind. 26N. 68E.59
Hal-la-san, Korea. 3N. 127E.90
Halli, Arabia. 19N. 41E.44
Halmaheira, East Indies. 2N. 129E.75
Halys Cape, Asia Minor. 42N. 36E.46
Hamad, Arabia. 31N. 40E.44
Hamada, Japan. 35N. 132E.91
[*]Hamadan, Persia. 35N. 48E.47
Hamamatsu, Japan. 35N. 138E.91
Hambantotta, Ceylon. 6N. 81E.63
Ham-Gyeng, North, Korea. 41N. 129E.90
Ham-Gyeng, South, Korea. 40N. 128E.90
Ham-leung, Korea. 40N. 127E.90
Hamirpur, United Provs. 26N. 80E.60
Hammam Ali, Turkey in Asia. 36N. 43E.47
Hammath, Palestine. 33N. 36E.12
Hamun, Persia. 31N. 60E.45
Hamun Marsh, Persia. 28N. 62E.45
Han, China. 31N. 104E.84
Han River, Korea. 37N. 127E.90
Ha-nam, Indo-China. 21N. 106E.70
Hanarikonda, Haidarabad. 18N. 80E.62
Han-cheng, China. 36N. 110E.82
Han-chung, China. 33N. 107E.82
Handa, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
Hangal, Bombay. 15N. 75E.57
Hang-chau, China. 30N. 120E.85
Hang-chau Bay, China. 30N. 121E.85
[*]Han-kau, China. 31N. 114E.85
Han-kiang, China. 32N. 110E.82
Han-kiang River, China. 32N. 112E.84
Hannathon, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
[*]Hanoi, Indo-China. 21N. 106E.70
[*]Hansi, Punjab. 29N. 76E.59
Han-yang, China. 31N. 114E.85
Han-yin, China. 33N. 109E.82
Haranhalli, Mysore. 13N. 76E.63
[*]Harbin, Manchuria. 46N. 127E.90
Hardanhulli, Mysore. 12N. 77E.63
Hardoi, United Provinces. 27N. 80E.60
[*]Hardwar, United Provinces. 30N. 78E.60
Harihar, Mysore. 14N. 76E.62
Harima, Japan. 35N. 135E.91
Hari Rud River, Persia. 35N. 61E.45
Harnai, Punjab. 30N. 68E.58
Harran, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 39E.47
Hasah, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 42E.47
Hasdu River, Central Provs. 22N. 83E.60
Hasora, Kashmir. 35N. 75E.58
Hassan, Mysore. 13N. 76E.63
Hassan Dagh, Asia Minor. 38N. 34E.46
Hathnur, Haidarabad. 20N. 79E.62
Hathras, United Provs. 28N. 78E.60
Ha-tien, Indo-China. 10N. 104E.71
Ha-tinh, Indo-China. 18N. 106E.70
Haut, Siam. 18N. 99E.70
Hawaii, Cape, Siberia. 71N. 178W.95
[*]Hayil, Arabia. 28N. 42E.44
Hazaribagh, Bengal. 24N. 85E.60
Hazor, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Hazro, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 40E.47
[*]Hebron, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Hedie, Arabia. 26N. 39E.44
Hei-shui, China. 43N. 118E.83
Helmand River, Afghanistan. 34N. 67E.58
Heng-chau, China. 27N. 112E.84
Heng-shan, China. 27N. 112E.84
Heng-shan Mt., China. 27N. 112E.84
Heng-shi, China. 24N. 112E.85
Heng-yang Pen., Korea. 34N. 127E.90
Henzada, Burma. 17N. 95E.67
Herald Island, Siberia. 72N. 175W.95
[*]Herat, Afghanistan. 34N. 62E.45
Hermon, Mount, Palestine. 33N. 36E.12
[*]Heshbon, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
He-tan Island, China. 26N. 120E.85
Hetozaki, Lu-Chu Island. 27N. 128E.89
Hida, Japan. 36N. 137E.91
Hidaka Mountains, Japan. 42N. 143E.88
[*]Hikone, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
Hilleh, Turkey in Asia. 33N. 45E.47
Himalaya Mts., Kashmir. 33N. 77E.58
Himeji, Japan. 35N. 135E.91
Hime Thuan, Indo-China. 11N. 108E.71
Hin, Siam. 18N. 101E.70
Hindiah, Turkey in Asia. 32N. 45E.47
Hindon, Rajputana. 27N. 77E.59
Hindu Kush Mts., Afghanistan. 36N. 70E.45
Hindupur, Madras. 14N. 77E.63
Hinganghat, Central Provs. 20N. 79E.60
Hingoli, Haidarabad. 20N. 77E.62
Hiogo, Japan. 35N. 135E.91
Hippos, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Hirado-shima, Japan. 33N. 130E.89
Hira-shima, Lu-Chu Island. 30N. 130E.89
Hirijuru, Mysore. 14N. 77E.63
Hirosaki, Japan. 40N. 141E.88
Hiroshima, Japan. 34N. 133E.91
Hissar, Bokhara. 38N. 68E.45
Hissar, Punjab. 29N. 76E.59 190
Hit, Turkey in Asia. 34N. 43E.47
Hitachi, Japan. 36N. 140E.91
Hitoyoshi, Japan. 32N. 131E.89
Hiwase, Japan. 34N. 135E.91
Ho, China. 32N. 118E.85
Ho, China. 36N. 112E.82
Hoa-binh, Indo-China. 21N. 105E.70
Hoa-glu, Indo-China. 12N. 109E.71
Hoa-pin-su Island, China. 26N. 134E.89
Ho-chi, China. 25N. 108E.84
Hodal, Punjab. 28N. 77E.59
Hodeida, Arabia. 15N. 43E.44
Ho-feng, China. 30N. 110E.84
Hoi-hou, China. 20N. 110E.84
Hoi-tung, China. 19N. 111E.84
Hoi-yang, Korea. 39N. 128E.90
Ho-kau, China. 40N. 111E.82
Hoki, Japan. 35N. 134E.91
Ho-kiang, China. 29N. 106E.84
Ho-kien, China. 38N. 116E.83
Hoko-to, Formosa. 23N. 120E.89
Ho-kow, Indo-China. 22N. 104E.70
Hokubu-Shoto Is., Lu-Chu Is. 28N. 130E.89
Hokurokudo, Japan. 37N. 138E.91
Homalin, Burma. 25N. 95E.67
Honan, China. 34N. 113E. 8283
Ho-nan, China. 35N. 112E.82
[*]Honawar, Bombay. 14N. 74E.57
Honda B., Palawan, Philippine Is. 10N. 118E.77
Hong-ju, Korea. 37N. 127E.90
[*]Hong-kong, China. 22N. 114E.85
Hong-yen, Indo-China. 21N. 106E.70
Honjio, Japan. 39N. 140E.88
Hon-koe Bay, Indo-China. 13N. 109E.71
Hon-Mat Is., Indo-China. 19N. 106E.70
Hon Ne Island, Indo-China. 20N. 106E.70
Hootah, Arabia. 24N. 48E.44
Hope Bay, China. 23N. 117E.85
Horeimele, Arabia. 25N. 46E.44
Hosan, Formosa. 22N. 121E.89
Hosdarg, Madras. 12N. 75E.63
Ho-shan, China. 22N. 113E.84
Ho-shan, China. 37N. 112E.82
Hoshiarpur, Punjab. 32N. 76E.58
Ho-shui, China. 36N. 108E.82
Hosur, Madras. 13N. 78E.63
Ho-tsin, China. 36N. 111E.82
Howrah, Bengal. 23N. 88E.61
Ho-yuen, China. 24N. 115E.85
Hpazaung, Burma. 19N. 97E.67
Hsi, China. 36N. 111E.82
Hsiang-chau, China. 24N. 110E.84
Hsiang-cheng, China. 34N. 114E.83
Hsiang River, China. 27N. 113E.85
Hsiang-tan, China. 28N. 113E.85
Hsiang-yang, China. 32N. 112E.84
Hsiang-yin, China. 28N. 113E.85
Hsiao-kan, China. 31N. 114E.85
Hsiau-nor, Inner Mongolia. 40N. 110E.82
Hsiau-yi, China. 34N. 109E.82
Hsiau-wu-tai, China. 40N. 115E.83
Hsi-chi-chin Bay, China. 23N. 116E.85
Hsi-chwan, China. 33N. 112E.82
Hsien-hsia-ling, China. 28N. 119E.85
Hsi-hsiang, China. 33N. 108E.82
Hsi-kiang River, China. 23N. 111E.84
Hsi-lin, China. 24N. 106E.84
Hsiling, China. 39N. 115E.83
Hsiling Tombs, China. 39N. 115E.83
Hsi-lung, China. 25N. 106E.84
Hsin-chang, China. 29N. 121E.85
Hsin-chau, China. 23N. 110E.84
Hsin-feng, China. 25N. 115E.85
Hsing, China. 39N. 111E.82
[*]Hsi-ngan, China. 34N. 109E.82
Hsing-hwa, China. 26N. 119E.85
Hsing-hwa Sound, China. 25N. 119E.85
Hsing-i, China. 25N. 105E.84
Hsing-kwo, China. 30N. 115E.85
Hsing-ngan, China. 32N. 109E.82
Hsin-hsiang, China. 35N. 114E.83
Hsin-hsing, China. 22N. 112E.84
Hsin-hwa, China. 27N. 111E.84
Hsin-i, China. 22N. 111E.84
Hsin-kan, China. 27N. 115E.85
Hsin-king, Manchuria. 42N. 124E.90
Hsin-ning, China. 22N. 108E.84
Hsin-tu, China. 31N. 104E.84
Hsin-yang, China. 32N. 114E.83
Hsi-ping, China. 33N. 114E.83
Hsiung-erh-shan, China. 34N. 110E.82
Hsiung-yao, Manchuria. 40N. 122E.90
Hsiu-yen, Manchuria. 40N. 123E.90
Hsi-ying-tze, China. 41N. 114E.83
Hsu, China. 34N. 114E.83
Hsu-chau, China. 34N. 117E.83
Hsuen-hwa, China. 41N. 115E.83
Hsuen-wei, China. 26N. 104E.84
Hsun-yang, China. 33N. 110E.82
Hsu-yang, China. 28N. 106E.84
Htayan, Malay Peninsula. 11N. 99E.71
Hua-muong, Indo-China. 20N. 104E.70
[*]Hubli, Bombay. 15N. 75E.57
Hu-chau, China. 31N. 120E.85
[*]Hue, Indo-China. 16N. 108E.70
Hugli, Bengal. 23N. 88E.61
[*]Hugli River, Bengal. 22N. 88E.61
Hu-hun-ho, China. 42N. 122E.83
Hui-fa, Manchuria. 43N. 126E.90
Hui-fa-ho R., Manchuria. 43N. 127E.90
Hu-kou, China. 30N. 116E.85
Hulu Plus Mt., Malay Pen. 5N. 102E.68
Hulu Temengoh Mt., Malay Pen. 5N. 102E.68
Humboldt B., East Indies. 3S. 141E.75 191
Humnabad, Haidarabad. 18N. 77E.62
Hun, Indo-China. 22N. 102E.70
Hu-nan, China. 27N. 112E.84
Hun-chun, Manchuria. 43N. 130E.90
Hung-cheng, China. 36N. 104E.82
Hung-hai, China. 23N. 115E.85
Hung-ho, China. 33N. 114E.83
Hunghoa, Indo-China. 21N. 105E.70
Hung-shui, China. 25N. 107E.84
Hung-tse-hu, China. 33N. 118E.83
Hung-tung, China. 36N. 112E.82
Hun-ho, China. 42N. 123E.83
Hun-ho River, Manchuria. 41N. 123E.90
Huni, Indo-China. 22N. 104E.70
Hunter Bay, Burma. 20N. 93E.67
Hun-yuen, China. 40N. 114E.83
Huon Gulf, East Indies. 7S. 147E.75
Hu-peh, China. 31N. 113E.84
Hu-pu, Mongolia. 44N. 119E.83
Hurapa, Punjab. 31N. 73E.58
Hurda, Central Provs. 22N. 77E.60
Hursola, Bombay. 23N. 73E.56
Hurupirayama, Japan. 43N. 140E.88
Hushungabad, Central India. 23N. 78E.60
Hu-tau Bay, China. 24N. 118E.85
Hu-to-ho, China. 38N. 114E.83
Hu-to-ho, China. 38N. 116E.83
Huttah, Haidarabad. 19N. 77E.62
Hu-yang-pu, China. 37N. 107E.82
Hwa, China. 21N. 110E.84
Hwai, China. 33N. 117E.83
Hwai-ho, China. 32N. 115E.83
Hwai-king, China. 35N. 113E.82
Hwai-ngan, China. 34N. 119E.83
Hwai-to, Manchuria. 44N. 125E.90
Hwai-yang-shan, China. 32N. 114E.83
Hwai-yin, Manchuria. 41N. 126E.90
Hwai-yuen, China. 25N. 109E.84
Hwai-yuen, China. 38N. 109E.82
Hwa-ma-chi, China. 38N. 107E.82
Hwan, China. 36N. 107E.82
Hwang, China. 22N. 109E.84
Hwang, China. 38N. 121E.83
Hwang-chau, China. 30N. 115E.85
Hwang-Hai, Korea. 38N. 126E.90
Hwang-ho, China. 38N. 118E.83
Hwang-hwa-shan, China. 40N. 113E.82
Hwang-ngan, China. 31N. 115E.85
Hwang-shan Mt., China. 30N. 118E.85
Hwanh-ho, Indo-China. 21N. 107E.70
Hwan-ho, China. 36N. 107E.82
Hwa-ping, China. 35N. 106E.82
Hwei-chang, China. 25N. 116E.85
Hwei-chau, China. 23N. 114E.85
Hwei-chau, China. 30N. 119E.85
Hwei-ho, China. 34N. 120E.83
Hwei-lai, China. 23N. 116E.85
Hyang-ju, Korea. 39N. 126E.90
Iamsk, Siberia. 60N. 155E.95
Iba, Philippine Islands. 16N. 120E.77
Ibi Gamin, United Provs. 31N. 80E.60
Icarog Mt., Philippine Is. 14N. 123W.77
I-chang, China. 31N. 111E.84
I-chau, China. 35N. 118E.83
I-chau, China. 42N. 121E.83
I-chhen, Korea. 38N. 127E.90
Ichibusayama, Japan. 32N. 131E.89
Ichinomiya, Japan. 35N. 141E.91
I-chwan, China. 36N. 110E.82
Ida, Japan. 35N. 138E.91
[*]Ida Mountains, Asia Minor. 40N. 27E.46
Idar, Bombay. 24N. 73E.56
Idzuhara, Japan. 34N. 130E.89
Idzumi, Japan. 34N. 135E.91
Idzumo, Japan. 35N. 133E.91
Ieros, Asia Minor. 41N. 39E.47
Ifalik, East Indies. 6N. 145E.75
Ihiya-shima, Lu-Chu Is. 27N. 128E.89
Ikeda, Japan. 34N. 134E.91
Iki Island, Japan. 34N. 130E.89
I-kiang River, China. 25N. 110E.84
Ikuno, Japan. 35N. 135E.91
Ilgun, Asia Minor. 38N. 32E.46
Iligan, Mindanao, Philippine Is. 8N. 124E.77
Iligan B., Mindanao, Philippine Is. 8N. 124E.77
Ili, River, Asiatic Russia. 46N. 75E.94
Illana B., Mindanao, Philippine Is. 8N. 123E.77
Iloilo, Philippine Islands. 11N. 123E.77
Imaharu, Japan. 34N. 133E.91
Imbro Island, Asia Minor. 40N. 26E.46
Imen-po, Manchuria. 45N. 128E.90
Inaba, Japan. 35N. 134E.91
Inaba Sound, Japan. 34N. 139E.91
Inawashiro, Japan. 38N. 140E.91
Indapur, Bombay. 18N. 75E.57
Indigirka River, Siberia. 71N. 150E.95
Indore, Haidarabad. 19N. 78E.62
Indramayu, Java. 6S. 108E.76
Indrawutty R., Central Provs. 19N. 81E.60
Indus River, Sind. 24N. 68E.59
Ineboli, Asia Minor. 42N. 34E.46
I-ning, China. 29N. 115E.85
Injeh Cape, Asia Minor. 42N. 35E.46
Insarevo, Siberia. 62N. 88E.94
Inuboye Cape, Japan. 36N. 141E.91
Iot Point, Philippine Is. 14N. 124E.77
Iott-so-tone, Siam. 16N. 104E.70
Ipoh, Malay Peninsula. 5N. 101E.68
Irawadi, Burma. 17N. 95E.67
Irawadi River, Burma. 16N. 95E.67
Iren Dubassu, Inner Mongolia. 44N. 111E.82
Iren Lake, Inner Mongolia. 44N. 112E.82 192
Iren-tala Steppe, Inner Mongolia. 44N. 113E.82
Iriomoto-shima, Lu-Chu Is. 24N. 124E.89
[*]Irkutsk, Siberia. 52N. 104E.94
Iro Cape, Japan. 35N. 139E.91
Irtish, River, Siberia. 61N. 70E.94
Isabela, Basilan, Philippine Is. 7N. 122E.77
Isakhet, Punjab. 33N. 71E.58
Isbarta, Asia Minor. 38N. 30E.46
Ise, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
I-shan, China. 36N. 118E.83
Ishigaki, Lu-Chu Island. 24N. 124E.89
Ishigaki-shima, Lu-Chu Is. 24N. 124E.89
Ishikari Bay, Japan. 43N. 141E.88
Ishikari River, Japan. 43N. 141E.88
Ishim, Siberia. 56N. 70E.94
Ishimo Cape, Japan. 34N. 136E.91
Ishinomaki, Japan. 38N. 141E.88
Iskelib, Asia Minor. 41N. 35E.46
Iskenderun, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 36E.46
Iskenderun, G. of, Asia Minor. 37N. 36E.46
Islamabad, Burma. 22N. 92E.61
Islamabad, Kashmir. 34N. 75E.58
Islamgurh, Punjab. 28N. 71E.59
Islamkot, Sind. 25N. 70E.59
[*]Ismid, Asia Minor. 41N. 30E.46
[*]Isnik, Asia Minor. 40N. 30E.46
[*]Ispahan, Persia. 33N. 52E.45
Issachar, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Issyk Kul, Lake, As. Russia. 43N. 78E.94
Itaburi, Siam. 15N. 100E.70
Itako, Japan. 36N. 141E.91
Itchapur, Madras. 19N. 85E.62
Itoigawa, Japan. 37N. 138E.91
I-tu, China. 30N. 111E.84
I-tung, Manchuria. 43N. 125E.90
Ituræa, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Iwaki, Japan. 37N. 141E.91
Iwakuni, Japan. 34N. 132E.91
Iwami, Japan. 35N. 132E.91
Iwanuma, Japan. 38N. 141E.88
Iwashiro, Japan. 38N. 140E.91
Iwoshima, Japan. 31N. 130E.89
Iyama, Japan. 37N. 138E.91
I-yang, China. 34N. 112E.82
Iyeshima, Lu-Chu Island. 27N. 128E.89
Iyo, Japan. 34N. 133E.91
Iyo Nada, Japan. 34N. 132E.89
Izu, Japan. 35N. 139E.91
Jabalpur, Central Provs. 23N. 80E.60
[*]Jabbok, River, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
Jabesh Gilead, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
Jabneh, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Jacobabad, Sind. 28N. 68E.59
Jacob's Well, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Jafarabad, Bombay. 21N. 71E.56
Jafarabad, Haidarabad. 20N. 76E.62
Jaffua, Ceylon. 10N. 80E.63
Jagannath, Bengal. 20N. 86E.60
Jagdalpur, Central Provs. 19N. 82E.60
Jahla R., Turkey in Asia. 34N. 45E.47
Jaintia Hills, Assam. 26N. 92E.61
Jaintiapuri, Assam. 25N. 92E.61
Jaintu, Bengal. 27N. 90E.61
Jaipur, Assam. 27N. 95E.67
Jaisalmer, Rajputana. 27N. 71E.59
Jajepur, Bengal. 21N. 86E.61
Jakhau, Bombay. 23N. 69E.56
J-Akhdar, Arabia. 23N. 57E.45
[*]Jalalabad, Afghanistan. 34N. 70E.58
Jalalpur, United Provinces. 26N. 80E.60
[*]Jalandhar, Punjab. 31N. 76E.58
Jalandhar, Punjab. 32N. 77E.58
Jalaun, United Provinces. 26N. 79E.60
Jalk, Persia. 27N. 62E.45
Jalna, Haidarabad. 20N. 76E.62
Jalpaiguri, Bengal. 27N. 89E.61
Jalurpetta, Haidarabad. 17N. 80E.62
Jamba, Malay Peninsula. 7N. 101E.68
Jambusar, Bombay. 22N. 73E.56
Jammu, Kashmir. 33N. 75E.58
Jamnagar, Bombay. 23N. 70E.56
Jamnia, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Jamrud, N.W. Frontier Prov. 34N. 72E.58
Janjira, Bombay. 18N. 73E.57
Janmir, Bombay. 21N. 72E.56
Jano, Punjab. 34N. 72E.58
Jao-chau, China. 29N. 117E.85
Japara, Java. 6S. 111E.76
Japha, Nepal. 28N. 87E.61
Japhia, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Japho, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Jappen, East Indies. 2S. 136E.75
Jaraila, Rajputana. 27N. 71E.59
Jaratai-dabassu, Inner Mongolia. 40N. 105E.82
Jasak, Inner Mongolia. 39N. 110E.82
Jask, Persia. 26N. 58E.45
Jath, Bombay. 17N. 75E.57
Jattir, Palestine. 31N. 35E.12
Jaunpur, United Provs. 26N. 82E.60
Java Head, Java. 7S. 105E.76
Java Island, East Indies. 7S. 110E.74
Java Sea, East Indies. 5S. 110E.74
Jawad, Rajputana. 25N. 75E.59
Jawhar, Bombay. 20N. 73E.57
Jaypur, Madras. 19N. 83E.62
[*]Jaypur, Rajputana. 27N. 76E.59
Jazer, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
Jeat, Haidarabad. 19N. 76E.62
Jebel Shomer, Arabia. 28N. 42E.44
Jehlam, Punjab. 33N. 74E.58
Jelapur, Bombay. 15N. 75E.57
Jelei River, Malay Peninsula. 4N. 102E.68 193
Jellei River, Borneo. 3S. 111E.76
Jelo Dagh, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 44E.47
Jen-hwai, China. 28N. 106E.84
[*]Jericho, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Jerraguntha, Madras. 15N. 79E.62
Jerrahi, Persia. 31N. 49E.47
[*]Jerusalem, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Jesselton, East Indies. 6N. 116E.74
Jessore, Bengal. 23N. 89E.61
Jezreel, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
[*]Jezreel, Valley of, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Jhal, Baluchistan. 28N. 67E.59
Jhalore, Rajputana. 25N. 73E.59
Jhalrapatam, Rajputana. 24N. 76E.59
Jhang Maghiana, Punjab. 31N. 72E.58
[*]Jhansi, Central India. 26N. 79E.60
[*]Jhelum River, Punjab. 31N. 72E.58
Jhow, Baluchistan. 26N. 66E.45
Jhudo, Sind. 25N. 69E.59
Jhunjhnu, Rajputana. 28N. 75E.59
[*]Jidda, Arabia. 22N. 39E.44
Jigansk, Siberia. 67N. 123E.95
Jijurt, Bombay. 18N. 74E.57
[*]Jind, Punjab. 29N. 76E.59
Jizou Cape, Japan. 36N. 133E.91
Jodhpur, Rajputana. 26N. 73E.59
Jof, Arabia. 31N. 41E.44
Jogbani, Bengal. 26N. 87E.61
Johor, Malay Peninsula. 2N. 103E.69
Johor Bharu, Malay Pen. 2N. 104E.69
Johore, East Indies. 2N. 104E.74
Johor Lama, Malay Pen. 2N. 104E.69
Johor River, Malay Pen. 2N. 104E.69
Jokneam, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Jokyakarta, Java. 8S. 110E.76
Jollarpett, Madras. 13N. 79E.63
[*]Joonir, Bombay. 19N. 74E.57
Joppa, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Jorhat, Assam. 27N. 94E.67
Joseph's Tomb, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Jubeileh, Turkey in Asia. 32N. 47E.47
Judi Dagh, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 43E.47
Julamerk, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 43E.47
Julfa, Persia. 32N. 52E.45
Jumba, Nepal. 29N. 82E.60
Jumkundi, Bombay. 17N. 75E.57
Jumna R., United Provs. 26N. 82E.60
Jumpul, Cape, Sumatra. 3N. 100E.69
Junagarh, Bombay. 22N. 70E.56
Junagarh, Central Provs. 20N. 83E.60
Jungar, Inner Mongolia. 40N. 111E.82
Junkseylon Is., Malay Pen. 8N. 98E.71
Jurah, Rajputana. 25N. 73E.59
Jushpur, Bengal. 22N. 84E.60
Juttah, Palestine. 31N. 35E.12
Kabadian, Bokhara. 37N. 68E.45
Kabarovski, Siberia. 48N. 135E.95
Kabend, Persia. 27N. 53E.45
Kabin, Siam. 14N. 102E.71
Kabul R., N.W. Frontier Provs. 34N. 72E.58
Kachar, Assam. 25N. 93E.67
Kachhi, Baluchistan. 29N. 68E.59
Kachin, Burma. 26N. 97E.67
Kachiyama, Japan. 35N. 140E.91
Kadarpur, Punjab. 32N. 72E.58
Kadiri, Madras. 14N. 78E.63
Kadraman, Bombay. 21N. 73E.56
Kadsa, Rajputana. 27N. 73E.59
Kadur, Mysore. 14N. 76E.63
Kafiristan, Afghanistan. 35N. 70E.58
Kaga, Japan. 36N. 137E.91
Kagi, Formosa. 23N. 120E.89
Kagoshima, Japan. 31N. 131E.89
Kagoshima, Great, Japan. 31N. 131E.89
Kaha River, Punjab. 30N. 70E.58
Kai, China. 27N. 107E.84
Kai, Japan. 36N. 139E.91
Kai-feng, China. 35N. 114E.83
Kai-ho, Manchuria. 43N. 130E.90
Kai-hua, China. 23N. 104E.84
Kain, Persia. 33N. 59E.45
Kainsk, Siberia. 56N. 78E.94
Kai-ping, Manchuria. 40N. 122E.90
Kai-ping Island, China. 22N. 114E.85
Kaira, Bombay. 23N. 73E.56
Kaisarieh, Asia Minor. 39N. 35E.46
Kai-seng, Korea. 38N. 126E.90
Kaiser Wilhelm's Land, East Indies. 5S. 143E.75
[*]Kaithal, Punjab. 30N. 76E.58
Kai-yuen, Manchuria. 43N. 124E.90
Kajang, Malay Peninsula. 3N. 102E.69
Kajikazawa, Japan. 36N. 139E.91
Kajiki, Japan. 32N. 130E.89
Kakya, Burma. 25N. 98E.67
Kakeroma-shima, Lu-Chu Island. 29N. 129E.89
Kalabagh, Punjab. 33N. 72E.58
Kaladji, Bombay. 16N. 75E.57
Kala Drosh, N.W. Frontier Provs. 35N. 72E.58
Kalam, N.W. Frontier Provs. 35N. 73E.58
Kala Nao, Afghanistan. 35N. 63E.45
Kalapa Island, Java. 7S. 105E.76
Kalapani, Punjab. 33N. 73E.58
Kalassim, Siam. 17N. 104E.70
[*]Kalat, Baluchistan. 29N. 67E.45
Kalat, Turkey in Asia. 36N. 38E.47
Kalat en Nejm, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 38E.47
Kalat Ramadi, Turkey in Asia. 34N. 43E.47
Kalegouk Island, Burma. 16N. 98E.67
Kalessi, Asia Minor. 40N. 27E.46 194
Kalewa, Burma. 23N. 94E.67
Kali River, United Provs. 29N. 79E.60
Kaliganj, Bengal. 25N. 90E.61
Kali Sind R., Central India. 25N. 76E.60
Kaliuchin Bay, Siberia. 67N. 176W.95
Kalivan, Siberia. 56N. 82E.94
Kalka, Punjab. 31N. 77E.58
Kalpentyn, Ceylon. 8N. 80E.63
Kalurkot, Punjab. 32N. 71E.58
Kalutura, Ceylon. 7N. 80E.63
[*]Kalyan, Bombay. 19N. 73E.57
Kama, Burma. 19N. 95E.67
Kama, Burma. 26N. 96E.67
[*]Kamagawa, Japan. 36N. 140E.91
Kamaishi, Japan. 39N. 142E.88
Kamamet, Haidarabad. 17N. 80E.62
Kamaran Island, Red Sea. 15N. 43E.44
Kambangan, Java. 8S. 109E.76
Kambing, Port, East Indies. 8S. 125E.75
Kametsu, Lu-Chu Islands. 28N. 129E.89
Kamitsu Shima, Japan. 34N. 139E.91
Kamla River, Bengal. 26N. 87E.61
Kamok, Punjab. 32N. 74E.58
Kamon-taung, Burma. 26N. 97E.67
Kampali, Haidarabad. 15N. 77E.62
Kampang, Siam. 16N. 100E.70
Kamparg, Siam. 17N. 99E.70
Kampot, Indo-China. 11N. 104E.71
Kamta, Bombay. 14N. 74E.57
Kamtchatka, Siberia. 58N. 160E.95
Kamtchatka, G. of, Siberia. 55N. 163E.95
Kamthi, Central Provinces. 21N. 79E.60
Kamuizaki, Japan. 43N. 140E.88
Kanah, Palestine. 33N. 35E.13
Kanah, Brook, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Kanazawa, Japan. 37N. 137E.91
Kanburi, Siam. 14N. 100E.71
Kan-chau, China. 26N. 115E.85
Kanchinjinga, Mt., Sikkim. 28N. 88E.61
[*]Kandahar, Afghanistan. 32N. 66E.45
[*]Kandy, Ceylon. 7N. 81E.63
Kanga, Malay Peninsula. 6N. 100E.68
Kangall, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 37E.46
Kangawa, Japan. 35N. 140E.91
Kangean Island, E. Indies. 7S. 115E.76
Kang-ge, Korea. 41N. 126E.90
[*]Kang-hwa, Korea. 38N. 127E.90
[*]Kang-ping, China. 43N. 123E.83
Kangra, Punjab. 32N. 76E.58
Kang-seng, Korea. 38N. 128E.90
Kang-wen, Korea. 37N. 128E.90
Kani, Burma. 22N. 95E.67
Kanigurum, N.W. Frontier Provs. 33N. 70E.58
Kankari, Asia Minor. 41N. 34E.46
Kankasanturia, Ceylon. 10N. 80E.63
Kanker, Central Provs. 20N. 82E.60
Kan-kiang River, China. 27N. 115E.85
Kankupa, Mysore. 15N. 76E.62
Kanmitake, Japan. 42N. 143E.88
Kan-ngen, China. 19N. 109E.84
Kanpetlet, Burma. 21N. 94E.67
Kansaw, Burma. 25N. 96E.67
Kan-su, China. 36N. 105E.82
Kan-tung-shan, China. 31N. 116E.85
Kanuma, Japan. 37N. 140E.91
Kan-yu, China. 35N. 119E.83
Kao-chau, China. 22N. 111E.84
Kao Kwang, Malay Pen. 9N. 100E.71
Kao Luong, Malay Peninsula. 8N. 99E.71
Kao-mi, China. 36N. 120E.83
Kao-pan-tzu, Manchuria. 42N. 122E.90
Kao Prong, Malay Peninsula. 9N. 99E.71
Kao-yu-hu, China. 33N. 119E.83
Kapalu, Kashmir. 35N. 76E.58
Kap-san, Korea. 41N. 128E.90
Kapsi, Haidarabad. 19N. 77E.62
Kapuas River, East Indies. 0. 110E.74
Kara Sea, Siberia. 73N. 65E.94
Karaboghaz G., Turkestan. 43N. 54E.45
[*]Karachi, Sind. 25N. 67E.59
Kara Dagh, Asia Minor. 37N. 33E.46
Karadagh, Persia. 39N. 47E.47
Karafuto Island, Siberia. 50N. 143E.95
Karaginski Island, Siberia. 59N. 164E.95
Kara Hissar, Asia Minor. 38N. 30E.46
Karahissar, Turkey in Asia. 40N. 39E.47
Kara Magora, Asia Minor. 39N. 36E.46
Karaman, Asia Minor. 37N. 33E.46
Karang, Java. 6S. 106E.76
Karanpur, Punjab. 33N. 73E.58
Karar, Bombay. 17N. 74E.57
Kararizaki, Lu-Chu Island. 29N. 130E.89
Karasu, Persia. 35N. 50E.47
Kara su, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 40E.47
Karategin, Bokhara. 38N. 70E.45
Karatsu, Japan. 33N. 130E.89
Karauli, Rajputana. 26N. 77E.59
Karenko, Formosa. 24N. 122E.89
Karenni, Burma. 19N. 97E.67
Kargil, Kashmir. 35N. 76E.58
[*]Karikal, Madras. 11N. 80E.63
Karimata Is., East Indies. 1S. 109E.74
Karimnagar, Haidarabad. 18N. 79E.62
Karimon Java Is., Java. 6S. 110E.76
Kariya, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
Karkalinsk, As. Russia. 50N. 75E.94
Karnal, Punjab. 30N. 77E.58
Karnaphuti River, Burma. 22N. 92E.61
Karnul, Madras. 16N. 78E.62
Karpathos, Asia Minor. 36N. 27E.46
Karshi, Bokhara. 38N. 66E.45
Karskaya Gulf, Siberia. 69N. 68E.94
Kartaksho, Kashmir. 35N. 76E.58
[*]Karur, Madras. 11N. 78E.63
Karwar, Bombay. 15N. 74E.57 195
Kas, Gulf of, Asia Minor. 37N.46
Kasai River, Bengal. 22N. 88E.61
Kasaoka, Japan. 35N. 133E.91
Kasara, Bombay. 20N. 74E.57
Kashan, Persia. 34N. 52E.45
Kashiwasaki, Japan. 37N. 139E.91
[*]Kashmir, Kashmir. 34N. 75E.58
Kashoto, Formosa. 22N. 121E.89
Kasim, Arabia. 27N. 45E.44
Kasmore, Sind. 28N. 70E.59
Kasos, Asia Minor. 35N. 27E.46
Kasri-Shirin, Persia. 35N. 46E.47
Kassabi, Asia Minor. 38N. 27E.46
Kassot, Malay Peninsula. 6N. 101E.68
Kastamuni, Asia Minor. 41N. 34E.46
Kasukabe, Japan. 36N. 140E.91
[*]Kasur, Punjab. 31N. 75E.58
Katapang, East Indies. 7S. 115E.76
Katar, Sind. 27N. 69E.59
Katar, Arabia. 25N. 51E.45
Katarnai Ghat, United Provs. 28N. 81E.60
Katha, Burma. 24N. 96E.67
Kathiawar Pen., Bombay. 22N. 71E.56
Katiuchin Bay, Siberia. 67N. 176E.95
Katmandu, Nepal. 28N. 86E.60
Katni, Central India. 24N. 80E.60
Katolli, Rajputana. 26N. 76E.59
Katsura, Japan. 35N. 140E.91
Katsuyama, Japan. 36N. 137E.91
Kattaria, Bombay. 23N. 71E.56
Kauer, East Indies. 5S. 103E.74
Kau-yu, China. 33N. 120E.83
Kawabe-Shichi-to Is., Lu-Chu Is. 30N. 129E.89
Kawachi, Japan. 35N. 136E.91
Kawanoye, Japan. 34N. 134E.91
Kawardha, Central Provs. 22N. 81E.60
Kawe, Burma. 24N. 95E.67
Kawra, Bombay. 24N. 70E.56
Kayeli, East Indies. 3S. 127E.75
Kazbin, Persia. 37N. 50E.47
Kazusa, Japan. 35N. 140E.91
Kebao, Indo-China. 21N. 107E.70
Kebatu Island, East Indies. 4S. 108E.76
Kebumen, Java. 8S. 110E.76
Kechau River, Malay Pen. 4N. 102E.68
Kedah River, Malay Pen. 6N. 100E.68
Kedesh, Palestine. 33N. 36E.12
Kediri, Java. 8S. 112E.76
Kedron, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Kedu, Java. 7S. 110E.76
Kega, Cape, Indo-China. 11N. 108E.71
Keilah, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Kejeri, Bengal. 22N. 88E.61
Kekri, Rajputana. 26N. 75E.59
Kelantan, Malay Peninsula. 5N. 102E.68
Kelantan River, Malay Pen. 6N. 102E.68
Kelenderi, Asia Minor. 36N. 33E.46
Kelkit, Asia Minor. 40N. 37E.46
Ke-lung, Formosa. 25N. 122E.89
Kema, East Indies. 2N. 125E.75
Kemmarat, Siam. 16N. 105E.70
Ken River, United Provinces. 26N. 80E.60
Kendal, Java. 7S. 110E.76
Kendari, East Indies. 4S. 122E.74
Ken Lao, Siam. 18N. 101E.70
Kentei-alin, Manchuria. 45N. 130E.90
Keonjurgurh, Bengal. 22N. 86E.60
Kerama-shima, Lu-Chu Is. 26N. 127E.89
Keramian Is., East Indies. 5S. 115E.76
Kerasun, Asia Minor. 41N. 39E.47
Keratong, Malay Peninsula. 3N. 103E.69
[*]Kerbela, Turkey in Asia. 33N. 44E.47
Kerempeh Cape, Asia Minor. 42N. 33E.46
Kerioth, Palestine. 31N. 35E.12
Kerkesiyeh, Turkey in Asia. 35N. 40E.47
Kerkhad, Persia. 32N. 48E.47
[*]Kerkouk, Turkey in Asia. 35N. 44E.47
Kerman, Persia. 30N. 56E.45
Kermanshad, Persia. 34N. 47E.47
Kermes, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 37E.46
Keshin, Arabia. 15N. 52E.45
Ketapang, East Indies. 2S. 110E.74
Keum-kang-san, Korea. 38N. 128E.90
Kevir, Persia. 35N. 55E.45
Khabour, Turkey in Asia. 36N. 41E.47
[*]Khaibar Pass, Afghanistan. 34N. 71E.58
Khaiber, Arabia. 26N. 40E.44
Khair, Haidarabad. 19N. 77E.62
Khairagarh, Central Provs. 21N. 81E.60
Khairi, Bombay. 19N. 74E.57
Khairpur, Sind. 27N. 69E.59
Khakhi, Persia. 34N. 59E.45
Khamar Mts., Mongolia. 44N. 120E.83
Khamgaon, Berar. 20N. 77E.60
Khamh-hoa, Indo-China. 12N. 109E.71
Khamiab, Afghanistan. 37N. 66E.45
Khamir, Arabia. 16N. 44E.44
Kham-kheul, Indo-China. 18N. 104E.70
Kham-num, Indo-China. 18N. 105E.70
Kham-tong-lai, Indo-China. 16N. 106E.70
Khana Abasa, Mongolia. 44N. 115E.83
Khandwa, Central Provs. 22N. 76E.60
Khanekin, Turkey in Asia. 34N. 45E.47
Khanewal, Punjab. 30N. 72E.58
Khangarh, Punjab. 28N. 71E.59
Khanpur, Punjab. 29N. 71E.59
Kharaghova, Bombay. 23N. 72E.56
Khara-mangnai Lake, Inner Mongolia. 40N. 108E.82
Khara-morito, Inner Mongolia. 40N. 105E.82
Kharan, Baluchistan. 28N. 65E.45
Khara-narin-ula, Inner Mongolia. 41N. 106E.82
Khara Nor, Inner Mongolia. 39N. 104E.82 196
Khara-obo, Inner Mongolia. 42N. 105E.82
Kharapat, Burma. 24N. 94E.67
Kharasom, Assam. 25N. 95E.67
Kharbin, Manchuria. 46N. 127E.90
Kharder, Punjab. 28N. 70E.59
Kharfa, Arabia. 24N. 46E.44
Khariar, Central Provs. 20N. 83E.60
Kharikar, Afghanistan. 35N. 69E.45
Kharpat, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 39E.47
Kharroh, Sind. 27N. 70E.59
Kharsawan, Bengal. 23N. 86E.60
Khas, Indo-China. 14N. 108E.71
Khasi Hills, Assam. 26N. 92E.61
Khatanga Gulf, Siberia. 75N. 110E.94
Khatanga, River, Siberia. 71N. 108E.94
Khatangsk, Siberia. 72N. 102E.94
Khatchi, Nepal. 28N. 83E.60
Khatsir, Mongolia. 44N. 120E.83
Khawak Ft., Afghanistan. 35N. 70E.58
Khazr, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 43E.47
Khenka, Lake, Siberia. 45N. 132E.95
[*]Khios, Asia Minor. 38N. 26E.46
[*]Khiva, Turkestan. 42N. 60E.45
Khobido daban, Mongolia. 44N. 117E.83
Khoi, Persia. 39N. 45E.47
Kholu, Baluchistan. 30N. 69E.58
Khong, Indo-China. 14N. 106E.71
Khongmalong, Burma. 27N. 98E.67
Khora, Kashmir. 35N. 77E.58
Khorasan, Persia. 34N. 59E.45
Khoremabad, Persia. 34N. 47E.47
Khost, Afghanistan. 33N. 70E.58
Khuduluk, Mongolia. 44N. 118E.83
Khulan-chen, Manchuria. 46N. 127E.90
Khulm, Afghanistan. 37N. 68E.45
Khurir, Bombay. 24N. 70E.56
Khurkhu Range, Inner Mongolia. 43N. 105E.82
Khusalgarh, Punjab. 34N. 72E.58
Khyrpur, Punjab. 30N. 72E.58
Ki, China. 30N. 115E.85
Ki, China. 36N. 111E.82
Ki, China. 37N. 116E.83
Ki, China. 38N. 115E.83
Ki, China. 40N. 117E.83
Ki Island, East Indies. 6S. 133E.75
Kia, China. 38N. 110E.82
Kia-hsing, China. 31N. 121E.85
Kiai, China. 33N. 105E.82
Kiai, China. 35N. 111E.82
[*]Kiakhta, Siberia. 50N. 107E. 94
Kiang, China. 36N. 111E.82
Kiang-hai, Siam. 20N. 100E.70
Kiang-Khan, Siam. 18N. 102E.70
Kiang Kheng, Burma. 21N. 101E.67
Kiang-Khong, Siam. 20N. 100E.70
Kiang Kwang, Indo-China. 19N. 103E.70
Kiang-pei, China. 30N. 106E.84
Kiang-Sen, Siam. 20N. 100E.70
Kiang-shan, China. 29N. 119E.85
Kiang-si, China. 27N. 116E.85
Kiang-su, China. 33N. 120E.83
Kiang-tan-ho River, China. 29N. 108E.84
Kiang Tung, Burma. 21N. 100E.67
Kiao-chau, China. 36N. 120E.83
Kiao-chau Bay, China. 36N. 120E.83
Kia-ting, China. 30N. 104E.84
Kia-ting-kiang R., China. 31N. 106E.84
Kia-ying, China. 24N. 116E.85
Kidarnath Mt., United Provs. 31N. 79E.60
Kidzuki, Japan. 35N. 133E.91
Kien, China. 32N. 106E.84
Kien, China. 34N. 108E.82
Kien-chang, China. 27N. 117E.85
Kien-chang, China. 29N. 116E.85
Kien-chang, China. 41N. 119E.83
Kien-chau, China. 28N. 109E.84
Kien-ning, China. 27N. 118E.85
Kien-shi, China. 31N. 110E.84
Kien-te, China. 30N. 117E.85
Kien-yang, China. 27N. 118E.85
Kie-shi, China. 23N. 116E.85
Kii, Japan. 34N. 136E.91
Kii Chan, Japan. 34N. 135E.91
Ki-kiang, China. 29N. 107E.84
Kil-ju, Korea. 41N. 129E.90
Ki-men, China. 30N. 118E.85
Kin-chang-kau, China. 42N. 120E.83
Kin-chau, China. 22N. 108E.84
Kin-chau, China. 41N. 121E.83
Kin-chau, Manchuria. 39N. 121E.90
Kindat, Burma. 24N. 95E.67
King, China. 35N. 107E.82
King, China. 38N. 116E.83
King Island, Burma. 12N. 98E.71
Kinga, Cape, Siberia. 63N. 180E.95
Ki-ngan, China. 27N. 115E.85
King-chau, China. 30N. 112E.84
King-men, China. 31N. 112E.84
[*]King-te-shen, China. 29N. 117E.85
King-yang, China. 36N. 108E.82
King-yuen, China. 24N. 108E.84
Kin-hwa, China. 29N. 120E.85
Kinibalu Mt., East Indies. 6N. 116E.74
Kin-kiang River, China. 28N. 117E.85
Kinkwazan, Japan. 38N. 142E.88
Kinsan, Afghanistan. 33N. 67E.58
Kinta S., Malay Peninsula. 4N. 101E.68
Kioga Cape, Japan. 36N. 135E.91
Kiong-heung, Korea. 42N. 130E.90
[*]Kioto, Japan. 35N. 136E.91
Kirenga, River, Siberia. 58N. 108E.94
Kirensk, Siberia. 58N. 108E.94
Kirin, Manchuria. 44N. 127E.90
Kirin, Manchuria. 45N. 128E.90
Kirishima, Japan. 32N. 132E.89 197
Kir Moab, Palestine. 31N. 36E.12
Kisanto, Formosa. 25N. 122E.89
Kishangarh, Rajputana. 27N. 75E.59
Kishangarh, Rajputana. 28N. 71E.59
Kishani River, Afghanistan. 32N. 67E.58
Kishen River, Kashmir. 34N. 74E.58
Kishim Island, Persia. 26N. 56E.45
Kishinowada, Japan. 34N. 135E.91
Kishnagherry, Madras. 13N. 78E.63
[*]Kishon, River, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Ki-shui, China. 27N. 115E.85
Kislim Is., Persian Gulf. 27N. 56E.45
Kisogawa, Japan. 36N. 138E.91
Kissengunge, Bengal. 26N. 88E.61
Kistawar, Kashmir. 33N. 76E.58
Kitab, Bokhara. 39N. 67E.45
Kitakami, Japan. 40N. 141E.88
Kit-tha-reng, Burma. 12N. 99E.71
Kitur, Bombay. 16N. 75E.57
Kiu-chau, China. 29N. 119E.85
Kiu-kiang, China. 30N. 116E.85
Kiu-kung-shan, China. 29N. 115E.85
Kiu-lung-kiang R., China. 24N. 118E.85
Kiung-chau, China. 20N. 111E.84
Kiyamuzaki, Lu-Chu Is. 26N. 128E.89
Kizil Arvat, Turkestan. 39N. 56E.45
Kizil Irmak R., Asia Minor. 40N. 34E.46
Kizil Uzen, Persia. 37N. 48E.47
Klaung Pak-chau R., Burma. 10N. 99E.71
Klong Doang, Malay Pen. 8N. 99E.71
[*]Kobe, Japan. 35N. 135E.91
Kochi, Japan. 34N. 133E.91
Kodaka, Japan. 38N. 141E.91
Koemari, Ceylon. 7N. 82E.63
Kofu, Japan. 36N. 139E.91
Koga, Japan. 36N. 140E.91
Kohat, N.W. Frontier Provs. 34N. 71E.58
Koh Chang, Siam. 12N. 102E.71
Koh Gram, Malay Pen. 10N. 100E.71
Koh Kong, Indo-China. 11N. 103E.71
Koh Kut, Siam. 12N. 103E.71
Koh Pennan, Malay Pen. 10N. 100E.71
Koh Rong, Indo-China. 11N. 103E.71
Koh Samuie, Malay Pen. 9N. 100E.71
Koh Si-chang, Siam. 13N. 101E.71
Koh Tang, Indo-China. 10N. 103E.71
Koh Tau, Malay Peninsula. 10N. 100E.71
Koh Tron, Indo-China. 10N. 104E.71
Koilah, Rajputana. 28N. 73E.59
Koilkonda, Haidarabad. 17N. 78E.62
Ko-je-do, Korea. 35N. 129E.90
Kokan, Turkestan. 40N. 71E.45
Kokarit, Burma. 17N. 98E.67
Kokelay, Ceylon. 9N. 81E.63
Koktechavsk, As. Russia. 53N. 69E.94
Kokura, Japan. 34N. 131E.89
Kolaba, Bombay. 19N. 73E.57
Ko-lan, China. 39N. 112E.82
Kolapur, Bombay. 17N. 74E.57
[*]Kolar, Mysore. 13N. 78E.63
Kolima Mts., Siberia. 64N. 158E.95
Kolima River, Siberia. 69N. 162E.95
Kolleru Lake, Madras. 17N. 81E.62
Komagatahe, Japan. 36N. 138E.91
Komatsu, Japan. 36N. 136E.91
Komchuk, China. 23N. 113E.85
Komodo Is., East Indies. 8S. 120E.74
Kompong-chenang, Indo-China. 12N. 105E.71
Kompong Thom, Indo-China. 13N. 105E.71
Komta, Central Provs. 22N. 80E.60
Ko-mung B., Indo-China. 14N. 109E.71
Konadah, Madras. 18N. 84E.62
Konda, Kashmir. 35N. 75E.58
[*]Kondapalli, Madras. 17N. 81E.62
Kong-ju, Korea. 36N. 127E.90
Kong-mun, China. 22N. 113E.85
[*]Konieh, Asia Minor. 38N. 33E.46
Kon-ken, Siam. 16N. 103E.70
Kon-tum, Indo-China. 14N. 108E.71
Kopah, Malay Peninsula. 9N. 98E.71
Kopah Inlet, Malay Pen. 9N. 98E.71
Kopal, Asiatic Russia. 45N. 80E.94
Korat, Siam. 15N. 102E.71
Korea, Bengal. 23N. 82E.60
Korea Strait, Japan. 34N. 130E.89
Korean Archipelago, Korea. 34N. 127E.90
Korido, East Indies. 1S. 135E.75
Korinar, Bombay. 21N. 71E.56
Korinchi Mt., East Indies. 2S. 101E.74
[*]Kos, Asia Minor. 37N. 27E.46
Koshab, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 43E.47
Koshi River, Bengal. 25N. 87E.61
Koshiki-shima, Japan. 32N. 130E.89
Koshun, Formosa. 21N. 121E.89
Kota Bharu, Malay Pen. 6N. 101E.68
Kotah, Rajputana. 25N. 76E.59
Kotaintan, Sumatra. 1N. 100E.69
Kota Jalor, Malay Peninsula. 7N. 101E.68
Kotakara, Lu-Chu Island. 30N. 130E.89
Kota Krunei, Malay Pen. 6N. 101E.68
Kotal, Punjab. 30N. 67E.58
Kota Pana, Malay Peninsula. 5N. 103E.68
Kotar, United Provinces. 28N. 80E.60
Kota Raja, East Indies. 5N. 95E.74
Kota Tek, Malay Peninsula. 4N. 102E.68
Kotelroi Island, Siberia. 75N. 140E.95
Kothupilli, Madras. 17N. 82E.62
Kotiam, Madras. 10N. 76E.63
Kotli, Kashmir. 34N. 74E.58
Kotour, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 44E.47
Kotri, Sind. 25N. 68E.59
Kotsuke, Japan. 36N. 139E.91
Kottur, Madras. 15N. 76E.62
Kouznitz, Siberia. 54N. 83E.94 198
Kow, Malay Peninsula. 7N. 101E.68
Koweit, Arabia. 29N. 48E.44
Kowlas, Haidarabad. 18N. 78E.62
Kra, Malay Peninsula. 11N. 99E.71
Kra, Isthmus of, Malay Pen. 10N. 99E.71
Krakatoa Is., East Indies. 6S. 105E.74
Kranji, Malay Peninsula. 1N. 104E.69
Krasnoiarsk, Siberia. 56N. 93E.94
Krasnovodsk, Turkestan. 40N. 53E.45
Krat, Siam. 12N. 102E.71
Kratie, Indo-China. 12N. 106E.71
Krawang, Java. 6S. 107E.76
Krian River, Malay Pen. 5N. 100E.68
Krio Cape, Asia Minor. 36N. 27E.46
Krishna River, Madras. 16N. 81E.62
Krishnagar, Bengal. 23N. 89E.61
Kronotski, Cape, Siberia. 54N. 163E.95
Krusenstern Strait, Japan. 34N. 130E.89
Ku, China. 31N. 107E.84
Ku, China. 36N. 119E.83
Kua Bassac R., Indo-China. 10N. 106E.71
Kua Ham-long R., Indo-China. 10N. 107E.71
Kua Ko-kien R., Indo-China. 10N. 107E.71
Kuala Kangsar, Malay Pen. 5N. 101E.68
Kuala Klang, Malay Pen. 3N. 101E.69
Kuala Klawang, Malay Pen. 3N. 102E.69
Kuala Kubu, Malay Pen. 3N. 102E.69
Kuala Lipis, Malay Pen. 4N. 102E.68
Kuala Lumpur, Malay Pen. 3N. 102E.69
Kuala Pilah, Malay Pen. 3N. 102E.69
Kuala Semantan, Malay Pen. 3N. 102E.69
Kuala Sembrong, Malay Pen. 2N. 104E.69
Kuantan River, Malay Pen. 4N. 103E.69
Kubaritake, Japan. 43N. 142E.88
Kubessa, Turkey in Asia. 34N. 43E.47
Kuchaman Road, Rajputana. 27N. 75E.59
Kuch Behar, Bengal. 26N. 90E.61
Kuching, East Indies. 2N. 110E.74
Kuchino-erabu-shima, Japan. 30N. 130E.89
Kuchino-shima, Japan. 30N. 130E.89
Kuchinotsu, Japan. 33N. 130E.89
Kudo-khuduk, Inner Mongolia. 41N. 104E.82
Kudri Mukh, Madras. 13N. 75E.63
Ku-fau, China. 36N. 117E.83
Kuhak, Persia. 27N. 62E.45
Ku-ho River, China. 31N. 107E.84
Kuiten, Mount, China. 42N. 114E.83
Kui-ting-shan Mt., China. 32N. 104E.84
Kuji, Japan. 40N. 142E.88
Kuju-san, Japan. 33N. 131E.89
Ku-kan, Siam. 14N. 104E.71
Ku-la-dan, Burma. 21N. 93E.67
Ku-la-dan River, Burma. 20N. 93E.67
Kulna, Bengal. 23N. 90E.61
Ku-lu-shan, China. 41N. 114E.83
Kum, Persia. 35N. 51E.45
Kumai, Borneo. 3S. 112E.76
Kumai Bay, Borneo. 3S. 112E.76
Kumalmer, Rajputana. 25N. 74E.59
Kumamoto, Japan. 33N. 131E.89
Kumanogawa, Japan. 34N. 136E.91
Kumbakonam, Madras. 11N. 79E.63
Kume-shima, Lu-Chu Is. 26N. 127E.89
Kumisheh, Persia. 32N. 52E.45
Kumple, Madras. 13N. 75E.63
Kumpol, Borneo. 3S. 110E.76
Kumpu-wapi, Siam. 17N. 103E.70
Kun, China. 33N. 112E.82
Kundgol, Bombay. 15N. 76E.62
Kunduz, Afghanistan. 36N. 69E.45
Kung-chang, China. 35N. 105E.82
Kungit Island, East Indies. 4S. 116E.76
Kun-kiang River, Korea. 36N. 127E.90
Kunlong, Burma. 23N. 99E.67
Kun-lun-shan, China. 37N. 121E.83
Kunsan, Korea. 36N. 127E.90
Kupang, East Indies. 10S. 124E.75
Ku-pei-kou, China. 41N. 117E.83
Kuram, Afghanistan. 34N. 70E.58
Kuram Ft., N.W. Frontier Provs. 34N. 70E.58
Kuram Pass, N.W. Frontier Provs. 33N. 71E.58
Kuram R., N.W. Frontier Provs. 33N. 71E.58
Kurd Dagh, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 37E.46
Kurdistan, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 43E.47
Kurdo, Inner Mongolia. 42N. 104E.82
Kure, Japan. 34N. 133E.91
Kuren, Persia. 31N. 49E.47
Kurhurbari, Bengal. 24N. 86E.61
Kurgan, Siberia. 55N. 65E.94
Kuri River, Rajputana. 26N. 75E.59
Kuria Muria Is., Arabia. 18N. 56E.45
Kurigram River, Bengal. 26N. 90E.61
Kurmegala, Ceylon. 7N. 80E.63
Kurna, Turkey in Asia. 31N. 47E.47
Kurohane, Japan. 37N. 140E.91
Kuroshima, Japan. 31N. 130E.89
Kurtle Strait, Siberia. 51N. 157E.95
Kurume, Japan. 33N. 131E.89
Kushiro, Japan. 43N. 144E.88
Kushiro, Japan. 43N. 145E.88
Kushiro, Lake, Japan. 43N. 144E.88
Kushk, Afghanistan. 35N. 62E.45
Kushkan, Persia. 31N. 56E.45
Kushkizerd, Persia. 31N. 52E.45
Kusupchi Sands, Inner Mongolia. 40N. 108E.82
Kutaya, Asia Minor. 39N. 50E.46
Kutei River, East Indies. 1N. 116E.74
Ku-tsing, China. 25N. 104E.84 199
Kuwana, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
Ku-wu, China. 36N. 111E.82
Ku-yuen, China. 36N. 106E.82
Kwa, Burma. 18N. 94E.67
Kwa, Indo-China. 21N. 102E.70
Kwala Banka, Sumatra. 2N. 101E.69
Kwalu River, Sumatra. 3N. 100E.69
Kwan, China. 31N. 104E.84
Kwang, China. 32N. 115E.83
Kwang-binh-dinh, Indo-China. 18N. 107E.70
Kwang-chau-wan B., China. 21N. 111E.84
Kwang-hai, China. 22N. 113E.85
Kwang-hsin, China. 28N. 118E.85
Kwang-ju, Korea. 35N. 127E.90
Kwang-kiang R., China. 26N. 115E.85
Kwang-nam, Indo-China. 16N. 108E.70
Kwang-nan, China. 24N. 105E.84
Kwang-ngai, Indo-China. 15N. 109E.70
Kwang-ping, China. 37N. 115E.83
Kwang-si, China. 24N. 109E.84
Kwang-Suong, Indo-China. 20N. 106E.70
Kwang-te, China. 31N. 120E.85
Kwang-tsi, China. 30N. 116E.85
Kwang-tu, Indo-China. 17N. 107E.70
Kwang-tung, China. 23N. 114E.85
Kwang-tung Pen., China. 39N. 121E.83
Kwang-yuen, China. 32N. 106E.82
Kwan-tien, Manchuria. 41N. 125E.90
Kwei, China. 23N. 110E.84
Kwei, China. 31N. 111E.84
Kwei-chau, China. 27N. 107E.84
Kwei-chau, China. 31N. 110E.84
Kwei-kiang River, China. 24N. 111E.84
Kwei-kwa-cheng, China. 41N. 112E.82
Kwei-lin, China. 25N. 111E.84
Kwei-tung, China. 26N. 114E.85
Kwei-yang, China. 26N. 107E.84
Kwi, Korea. 37N. 127E.90
Kwi-chu, Indo-China. 19N. 105E.70
Kyan-kin, Burma. 18N. 95E.67
Kyauk-chaing-gale, Burma. 17N. 95E.67
Kyaukkyi, Burma. 19N. 97E.67
Kyauk-pyu, Burma. 19N. 94E.67
Kyaukse, Burma. 22N. 96E.67
Kyauktaga, Burma. 18N. 97E.67
Kyeng-ju, Korea. 36N. 129E.90
Kyeng-San, North, Korea. 36N. 128E.90
Kyeng-San, South, Korea. 35N. 128E.90
Kyeng-seng, Korea. 42N. 130E.90
Kyithi Bansan, Burma. 22N. 98E.67
Kyondon, Burma. 16N. 95E.67
Labot Mt., Philippine Is. 14N. 123E.77
Labuan Batu, Sumatra. 2N. 100E.69
Labuan Bilik, Sumatra. 2N. 100E.69
Labuan Is., East Indies. 5N. 115E.74
Lachish, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Lacon Bight, Malay Pen. 8N. 100E.71
Ladak, Kashmir. 34N. 78E.58
Ladik, Asia Minor. 38N. 32E.46
Ladno, Rajputana. 28N. 74E.59
Ladrone Is., East Indies. 17N. 143E.75
Lagree Peak, Indo-China. 15N. 106E.70
La-han, Indo-China. 20N. 102E.70
Lahijan, Persia. 37N. 50E.45
[*]Lahore, Punjab. 32N. 74E.58
Lai-chau, China. 37N. 120E.83
Lai-chou, Indo-China. 22N. 103E.70
Lai-feng, China. 29N. 109E.84
Laish, Palestine. 33N. 36E.12
Lai-yang, China. 37N. 121E.83
Lakam, Kashmir. 34N. 78E.58
Lakhon, Siam. 17N. 105E.70
Lakhone, Siam. 18N. 100E.70
Lakhpat, Bombay. 24N. 69E.56
Laki, Sind. 26N. 68E.59
Laki River, Baluchistan. 30N. 68E.58
Lala Musa, Punjab. 33N. 74E.58
Lalang, Sumatra. 1N. 102E.69
Lalin, Manchuria. 45N. 127E.90
La-lin-ho River, Manchuria. 45N. 126E.90
Lallatpur, Central Provs. 25N. 78E.60
Lambay Island, Formosa. 22N. 120E.89
Lamloam, Turkey in Asia. 32N. 45E.47
Lamotrek, East Indies. 7N. 145E.75
Lampun, Siam. 19N. 99E.70
Lamu, Burma. 19N. 94E.67
Lanao Lake, Mindanao, Philippine Is. 8N. 124E.77
Lan-chau, China. 36N. 104E.82
Lancon, Malay Peninsula. 8N. 100E.71
Lang Bian, Indo-China. 12N. 108E.71
Langdao, Burma. 27N. 98E.67
Langlam Mts., Burma. 28N. 97E.67
Lang-shan, Inner Mongolia. 41N. 107E.82
[*]Lang-son, Indo-China. 22N. 107E.70
Lang-suan, Malay Pen. 10N. 99E.71
Lang Xuyen, Indo-China. 10N. 105E.71
Lan-ha-ho, China. 43N. 121E.83
Lanjut, Malay Peninsula. 2N. 103E.69
Lan-shan, China. 25N. 112E.84
Lan-tien, China. 34N. 109E.82
Lan-tsi-kala, China. 42N. 118E.83
Lan-yi Island, China. 25N. 120E.85
Lao-chang-ho, China. 38N. 117E.83
Lao-ho, China. 32N. 112E.82
Lao-kay, Indo-China. 22N. 104E.70
Laos, Indo-China. 19N. 103E.70
Laos, West, Siam. 19N. 99E.70
Lao-shan Bay, China. 36N. 121E.83
La Perouse Strait, Japan. 45N. 142E.88
Lappa, China. 22N. 114E.85
Lar, Persia. 27N. 54E.45
Lara River, Afghanistan. 32N. 67E.58
Larantuca, East Indies. 8S. 121E.74 200
Larkhana, Sind. 27N. 68E.59
Lash, Afghanistan. 31N. 62E.45
Lashio, Burma. 23N. 98E.67
Las Islas B., Philippine Is. 9N. 123E.77
Lauag, Philippine Islands. 18N. 121E.77
Laut, East Indies. 4S. 116E.76
Laut Island, East Indies. 4S. 116E.74
Laut Kechil Is., East Indies. 5S. 116E.76
Laut Strait, Borneo. 4S. 116E.76
Lawn Mountain, Java. 8S. 111E.76
Lay, Cape, Indo-China. 17N. 107E.70
Lay-Thuy, Indo-China. 17N. 107E.70
Lazistan, Asia Minor. 41N. 40E.47
[*]Lebanon, Mounts., Palestine. 34N. 36E.12
Lebeh River, Malay Pen. 6N. 102E.68
Lebonah, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Lebos, Asia Minor. 39N. 26E.46
Ledo, Assam. 27N. 96E.67
Ledung Bay, Sumatra. 3N. 100E.69
Legeh, Malay Peninsula. 6N. 102E.68
Le-gnya, Burma. 11N. 99E.71
Legya, Burma. 21N. 98E.67
[*]Leh, Kashmir. 34N. 78E.58
[*]Leiah, Punjab. 31N. 71E.58
Lei-chau, China. 21N. 110E.84
Lei-chau Peninsula, China. 21N. 110E.84
Lei-po, China. 28N. 104E.84
Lei-yang, China. 26N. 113E.85
Lem Kolang Puk, Malay Pen. 8N. 100E.71
Lemnos, Asia Minor. 40N. 25E.46
Le-mro River, Burma. 20N. 94E.67
Le-myet-hua, Burma. 18N. 95E.67
Len, Siam. 19N. 101E.70
Lena River, Siberia. 73N. 128E.95
Lenga, Malay Peninsula. 2N. 103E.69
Leontes River, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Leo Porgial Mt., Kashmir. 32N. 78E.58
Leros, Asia Minor. 37N. 27E.46
Leyte Island, Philippine Is. 11N. 125E.77
Lhasa, Tibet. 31N. 91E.61
Li, China. 34N. 105E.82
Lia-chau Bay, China. 38N. 119E.83
Liakov Island, Siberia. 76N. 148E.95
Liangan, Philippine Islands. 9N. 126E.77
Liant, Cape, Siam. 13N. 101E.71
Liao-ho, China. 42N. 123E.83
Liao-tie-shan Chan, China. 39N. 121E.83
Liao-tung, Manchuria. 40N. 123E.90
Liao-yang, Manchuria. 41N. 123E.90
Lien, China. 25N. 113E.85
Lien River, China. 28N. 112E.84
Lien-chau, China. 21N. 109E.84
Lien-hwa, China. 26N. 114E.85
Lien-kiang, China. 26N. 120E.85
Lien-ping, China. 24N. 114E.85
Lien-shan, China. 25N. 112E.84
Ligor, Isthmus of, Malay Pen. 8N. 100E.71
Lilma, Rajputana. 26N. 70E.59
Li-ma Island, China. 22N. 114E.85
Limri, Bombay. 23N. 72E.56
Lin, China. 38N. 111E.82
Linao B., Philippine Islands. 7E. 124E.77
Linapacan, Philippine Is. 11N. 120E.77
Linawara, Bombay. 23N. 74E.56
Lindsay, East Indies. 20N. 140E.75
Ling, China. 26N. 114E.85
Ling, China. 38N. 106E.82
Linga Island, East Indies. 0. 105E.74
Lingah, Persia. 26N. 55E.45
Lingayen, Philippine Is. 16N. 120E.77
Lingayen B., Philippine Is. 16N. 120E.77
Ling-kiang River, China. 29N. 111E.84
Ling-shui, China. 19N. 110E.84
Ling-shui Bay, China. 19N. 110E.84
Lingsugur, Haidarabad. 16N. 77E.62
Ling-tsing, China. 37N. 116E.83
Lin-kao, China. 20N. 110E.84
Linkhera, Bombay. 23N. 74E.56
Lin-kiang, China. 28N. 115E.85
Linping, China. 31N. 120E.85
Lio-yang, China. 33N. 106E.82
Li-ping, China. 26N. 109E.84
Li-po, China. 25N. 108E.84
Li-shin River, China. 29N. 112E.84
Liu-chau, China. 24N. 109E.84
Liu-kiang River, China. 25N. 109E.84
Liu Kiu Is., East Indies. 25N. 126E.75
Liu-ngan, China. 32N. 116E.85
Liu-pa, China. 34N. 107E.82
Liu-pin Pass, China. 35N. 106E.82
Liu-pin-shan, China. 36N. 106E.82
Llao-hsi, China. 41N. 121E.83
Lo-cheng, China. 25N. 109E.84
Lo-chwan, China. 36N. 109E.82
Lodhran, Punjab. 30N. 72E.58
Loey, Siam. 18N. 102E.70
Lo-fu, China. 25N. 107E.84
Lohaia, Arabia. 16N. 43E.44
Lo-ho, China. 35N. 109E.82
Lo-ho, China. 35N. 112E.82
Loikaw, Burma. 20N. 97E.67
Lo-jung, China. 24N. 110E.84
Lo-ling, China. 38N. 117E.83
Lo-ma-hu, China. 34N. 118E.83
Lomblen Is., East Indies. 8S. 123E.75
Lombok, East Indies. 9S. 116E.74
Lombok Strait, East Indies. 9S. 116E.76
Lo-min, China. 21N. 110E.84
Londa, Bombay. 16N. 74E.57
Londang, Malay Peninsula. 2N. 103E.69
Long Island, East Indies. 5S. 147E.75
Long Strait, Siberia. 70N. 180E.95
Lopatka, Cape, Siberia. 51N. 157E.95
Lopburi, Siam. 15N. 101E.71
Lo-ping, China. 25N. 104E.84
Lora River, Afghanistan. 30N. 65E.45 201
Loralai, Punjab. 30N. 69E.58
Lord North Is., East Indies. 4N. 131E.75
Los Jardines, East Indies. 22N. 150E.75
Loth, Arabia. 20N. 41E.44
Lo-ting, China. 23N. 111E.84
Lo-ting, China. 39N. 119E.83
Lo-to-kan-tsze, Manchuria. 44N. 129E.90
Loughborough Is., Burma. 10N. 98E.71
Lu, China. 29N. 106E.84
Lu, China. 36N. 113E.83
Luang Prabang, Indo-China. 20N. 102E.70
Lubang Is., Philippine Is. 14N. 120E.77
Lubok Serampang, Malay Pen. 3N. 102E.69
Lubuk Batu, Sumatra. 1N. 101E.69
Lu-chau, China. 32N. 117E.85
Luckimpur, Assam. 27N. 94E.67
[*]Lucknow, United Provs. 27N. 81E.60
Ludhiana, Punjab. 31N. 76E.58
Lu-feng, China. 23N. 116E.85
Lughi, Indo-China. 11N. 108E.71
Lulfabad, Persia. 37N. 59E.45
Lumut, Malay Peninsula. 4N. 101E.68
Lung-chau, China. 22N. 107E.84
Lung-ching-tsun, Manchuria. 43N. 128E.90
Lung-kiang River, China. 24N. 109E.84
Lung-kou, China. 38N. 120E.83
Lung-men, China. 36N. 110E.82
Lung-men, China. 24N. 114E.85
Lung-men-kau, China. 35N. 115E.83
Lung-ngan, China. 32N. 104E.82
Lungu, Malay Peninsula. 7N. 100E.68
Lung-yen, China. 25N. 117E.85
Luni River, Rajputana. 25N. 71E.59
Lunkaransar, Rajputana. 29N. 74E.59
Luristan, Persia. 34N. 47E.47
Lushai Hills, Burma. 24N. 93E.61
Lu-shan Mountain, China. 29N. 116E.85
Lu-shi, China. 34N. 111E.82
Lusi, Java. 7S. 111E.76
Lut Desert, Persia. 31N. 58E.45
Lu-tien, China. 27N. 104E.84
Luzon, Philippine Islands. 16N. 121E.77
Lwan, China. 40N. 119E.83
Lwan-ho, China. 41N. 117E.83
Lyallpur, Punjab. 31N. 73E.58
Lydda, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Macajalar B., Philippine Is. 9N. 125E.77
[*]Macao, China. 22N. 114E.85
Macassar, East Indies. 5S. 119E.74
Macassar, Str. of, E. Indies. 0. 119E.74
McCluer Inlet, East Indies. 2S. 131E.75
Mach, Baluchistan. 30N. 67E.58
Mackau Island, Korea. 35N. 125E.90
Macton Is., Philippine Is. 10N. 124E.77
Madawatchi, Ceylon. 9N. 80E.63
Madeya, Burma. 22N. 96E.67
Madgiri, Mysore. 14N. 77E.63
Madhawipalem, Madras. 16N. 82E.62
Madhupur, Bengal. 24N. 87E.61
Madinn, Java. 8S. 112E.76
[*]Madras, Madras. 13N. 80E.63
Madura, Madras. 10N. 78E.63
Madura, Java. 7S. 113E.76
Madura Strait, Java. 7S. 113E.76
Magahan, Rajputana. 29N. 74E.59
Magdala, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Maghribi, Sind. 24N. 68E.59
Magwe, Burma. 20N. 95E.67
Mahamonec, Burma. 21N. 93E.67
Mahanadi River, Bengal. 20N. 86E.60
Mahanaim, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
Mahavilla River, Ceylon. 8N. 81E.63
Mahbubnagar, Haidarabad. 17N. 78E.62
Mahdi River, Bombay. 23N. 73E.56
[*]Mahe, Madras. 12N. 76E.63
Mahim, Bombay. 20N. 73E.57
Mahore, Haidarabad. 20N. 78E.62
Mahran, Persia. 35N. 49E.47
Maia River, Siberia. 58N. 136E.95
Maiaco, East Indies. 25N. 124E.75
Mai-ko River, Manchuria. 46N. 129E.90
Maimana, Afghanistan. 36N. 65E.45
Maing-Kaing, Burma. 22N. 98E.67
Maingkat, Burma. 23N. 98E.67
Maingkyeng, Burma. 23N. 99E.67
Maing-long, Burma. 23N. 97E.67
Maingma, Burma. 23N. 98E.67
Maingnaung, Burma. 22N. 98E.67
Maingpan, Burma. 20N. 99E.67
Maingpat, Burma. 23N. 98E.67
Maingpon, Burma. 21N. 98E.67
Maingpyin, Burma. 21N. 97E.67
Maingsat, Burma. 21N. 99E.67
Maingshu, Burma. 22N. 99E.67
Mainpuri, United Provs. 27N. 79E.60
Maisana, Bombay. 23N. 72E.56
Makallah, Arabia. 15N. 49E.44
Makhlaf, Arabia. 18N. 45E.44
Makhowal, Punjab. 31N. 76E.58
Ma-kia-ho, China. 38N. 118E.83
Makkarinupuri, Japan. 42N. 141E.88
Makrai, Central Provs. 22N. 78E.60
Makri, Asia Minor. 36N. 29E.46
Maktal, Haidarabad. 17N. 77E.62
Maku, Persia. 39N. 45E.47
Makum, Assam. 28N. 96E.67
Malabar, Java. 7S. 107E.76
Malabar Coast, Madras. 12N. 75E.63
Malacca, Malay Peninsula. 2N. 102E.69
Malacca Strait, E. Indies. 3N. 100E.74
Malakand, N.W. Frontier Provs. 35N.72E.58
Malakwal, Punjab. 32N. 73E.58 202
Malalayor, Cape, Borneo. 4S. 114E.76
Malampaya B. (Palawan Is.), Philippine Islands. 11N. 119E.77
Malang, Java. 8S. 113E.76
Malanud Kot, Punjab. 30N. 71E.58
[*]Malatiyeh, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 38E.47
Malay Pen., East Indies. 10N. 100E.74
Mal Bazar, Bengal. 27N. 89E.61
Maldah, Bengal. 25N. 88E.61
Male, Burma. 23N. 96E.67
Maler Katla, Punjab. 31N. 76E.58
Malhou Is., Philippine Is. 11N. 124E.77
Mali-Kha River, Burma. 26N. 98E.67
Malin, Burma. 26N. 95E.67
Malkher, Haidarabad. 17N. 77E.62
Malki, Madras. 13N. 75E.63
Mallia, Bombay. 23N. 71E.56
Malligaum, Bombay. 21N. 75E.56
Malucca Passage, E. Indies. 0. 126E.75
Malwan, Bombay. 16N. 73E.57
Mamures, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 39E.47
Manaar, Ceylon. 9N. 80E.63
Manaar, Gulf of, Madras. 9N. 79E.63
Manantaudi, Madras. 12N. 76E.63
Manasseh, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Man-aung Island, Burma. 19N. 94E.67
Mancheri, Rajputana. 27N. 77E.59
[*]Mandalay, Burma. 22N. 96E.67
Mandan River, Sumatra. 1N. 102E.69
Mandarin Road, Indo-China. 17N. 107E.70
Mandarin's Cap., China. 21N. 113E.84
Mandelika, Java. 6S. 111E.76
Mandella, Borneo. 3S. 116E.76
Mandlah, Central Provs. 22N. 80E.60
Mandvi, Bombay. 23N. 69E.56
Mandwa, Bombay. 22N. 70E.56
[*]Mangalore, Madras. 13N. 75E.63
Mangalpur, Bombay. 21N. 70E.56
Mangampet, Haidarabad. 18N. 80E.62
Manikpur, N.W. Provinces. 25N. 82E.60
[*]Manila, Philippine Islands. 15N. 121E.77
Manipur, Assam. 25N. 94E.67
Manipur River, Burma. 24N. 94E.67
[*]Manissa, Asia Minor. 39N. 27E.46
Maniyachi, Madras. 9N. 78E.63
Manjerra R., Haidarabad. 19N. 78E.62
Mankera, Punjab. 31N. 71E.58
Manmad, Bombay. 20N. 74E.56
Mannagur, Haidarabad. 18N. 81E.62
Mannargudi, Madras. 11N. 80E.63
Mansak, Burma. 23N. 99E.67
Mansaraur, Lake, Thibet. 31N. 81E.60
Mantalingajan Mt., Philippine Is. 8N. 118E.77
Mantotottama, Ceylon. 9N. 80E.63
Manus Island, 2S. 146E.75
Maon, Palestine. 31N. 35E.12
Mao-shan, Manchuria. 45N. 127E.90
Maragah, Persia. 38N. 46E.47
Marand, Persia. 39N. 46E.47
Marash, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 37E.46
Marat, Rajputana. 27N. 75E.59
Mardan, N.W. Frontier Provs. 34N. 72E.58
Mardin, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 41E.47
Mardodi, Haidarabad. 18N. 79E.62
Marella, Madras. 15N. 80E.62
Mareshah, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Margaum, Bombay. 15N. 74E.57
Margelan, Turkestan. 41N. 72E.45
Mari, Punjab. 33N. 72E.58
Mari River, Sind. 28N. 69E.59
Mariani, Assam. 27N. 94E.67
Marianne Is., East Indies. 17N. 143E.75
Marianne Strait, E. Indies. 8S. 139E.75
Marikuppam, Mysore. 13N. 78E.63
Marimsk, Siberia. 56N. 88E.94
Marinduque Is., Philippine Is. 13N. 122E.77
Marmara, Sea of, Asia Minor. 41N. 28E.46
Marmarice, Asia Minor. 37N. 28E.46
Marri Country, Baluchistan. 30N. 68E.58
Marshall Is., East Indies. 22N. 150E.75
Marsiwan, Asia Minor. 41N. 35E.46
Martaban, Burma. 17N. 98E.67
Martaban, Gulf of, Burma. 16N. 97E.67
Martapura, Borneo. 4S. 115E.76
Marudha, Turkestan. 36N. 62E.45
Marugame, Japan. 34N. 134E.91
Marunsk, Siberia. 52N. 140E.95
Marwar Junc., Rajputana. 26N. 74E.59
Masada, Palestine. 31N. 35E.13
Masampo, Korea. 35N. 128E.90
Masbate Is., Philippine Is. 12N. 124E.77
Mascat, Arabia. 24N. 59E.45
Mashake, Japan. 43N. 142E.88
Mashaki, Afghanistan. 33N. 68E.58
Mastung, Baluchistan. 30N. 67E.58
[*]Masulipatam, Madras. 16N. 81E.62
Mataram, Lombok. 8S. 116E.76
Matella, Ceylon. 8N. 81E.63
Ma-tien, China. 36N. 108E.82
Ma-tsu, China. 26N. 120E.85
Matsumoto, Japan. 36N. 138E.91
Matsusaka, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
Matsushiro, Japan. 37N. 138E.91
Matsuyama, Japan. 34N. 133E.91
[*]Matsuye, Japan. 36N. 133E.91
Mattancheri, Madras. 10N. 76E.63
Matun, N.W. Frontier Provs. 33N. 70E.58
Matura, Ceylon. 6N. 81E.63
Matutum Mt., Philippine Is. 6N. 125E.77
Matuva, Borneo. 3S. 111E.76
Mau, China. 32N. 104E.84
Maubin, Burma. 17N. 96E. 67
Maukadaw, Burma. 23N. 95E.67
Maukme, Burma. 20N. 98E.67 203
Maulia, Rajputana. 27N. 77E.59
Maulmein, Burma. 16N. 98E.67
Maung-daw, Burma. 21N. 92E.67
Maung Mai, Siam. 19N. 99E.70
Maung Nan, Siam. 19N. 101E.70
Maung Prai, Siam. 18N. 100E.70
Maurits Reef, P., E. Indies. 6S. 116E.76
Mawlu, Burma. 24N. 96E.67
Mayait L., Philippine Is. 10N. 125E.77
Mayavaram, Madras. 11N. 80E.63
Mayehashi, Japan. 36N. 139E.91
Mayhlaung, Siam. 13N. 100E.71
Mayo Bay, Philippine Is. 7N. 126E.77
Mayon, Philippine Islands. 13N. 127E.77
Mayu River, Burma. 20N. 93E.67
Mazanderan, Persia. 36N. 52E.45
Meakantake Island, Japan. 43N. 144E.88
Mears, East Indies. 24N. 147E.75
[*]Mecca, Arabia. 21N. 40E.44
Me-che, Burma. 19N. 98E.67
Medak, Haidarabad. 18N. 78E.62
Medebah, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
[*]Medina, Arabia. 25N. 40E.44
[*]Meerut, United Provs. 29N. 78E.59
Meester Cornelis, Java. 6S. 107E.76
Meezan, Burma. 17N. 98E.67
[*]Megiddo, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Megna River, Bengal. 23N. 90E.61
Mehkar, Berar. 20N. 76E.60
Mei, China. 30N. 104E.84
Mei, China. 34N. 108E.82
Mei-kiang River, China. 24N. 116E.85
Meiktila, Burma. 21N. 96E.67
Mei-ling Mountain, China. 25N. 114E.85
Me Ing, Siam. 20N. 100E.70
Meis, Asia Minor. 36N. 29E.46
Mei-tan, China. 28N. 108E.84
Me Khoke, Siam. 20N. 100E.70
Me-klong, Siam. 13N. 100E.71
Me-kong River, Indo-China. 10N. 106E.70
Mekran, Baluchistan. 25N. 62E.45
Melasgerd, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 42E.47
Melkapur, Berar. 21N. 76E.56
Melsir, Rajputana. 29N. 74E.59
Me Lu, Siam. 20N. 100E.70
Melu Prey, Indo-China. 14N. 105E.71
Menado, East Indies. 2N. 125E.75
Menam, Siam. 14N. 101E.71
Menama, Arabia. 26N. 51E.45
Menam-kway-nauna, Siam. 13N. 100E.71
Me Nam Wang, Siam. 17N. 99E.70
Menam Yome, Siam. 16N. 100E.70
Menara, River, Malay Pen. 6N. 102E.68
Mendawe, Borneo. 3S. 113E.76
[*]Menderes River, Asia Minor. 38N. 28E.46
Meng-cheng, China. 33N. 117E.83
Meng-yin, China. 36N. 118E.83
Mentawei Is., East Indies. 2S. 98E.74
Menyo, Burma. 18N. 96E.67
Me Ping, Siam. 16N. 100E.70
Merapi Mount, Java. 8S. 111E.76
Merbau, Malay Peninsula. 6N. 100E.68
Mergui, Burma. 12N. 98E.71
Mergui Archipelago. 12N. 98E.71
Merom, Waters of, Palestine. 33N. 36E.12
Mersina, Asia Minor. 37N. 35E.46
[*]Merta, Rajputana. 27N. 74E.59
Merta Road, Rajputana. 27N. 74E.59
Meru Bay, Java. 9S. 114E.76
[*]Merv, Turkestan. 38N. 62E.45
Merwara, Rajputana. 26N. 74E.59
Mesana, Bombay. 24N. 72E.56
Mesandum, Cape, Arabia. 26N. 56E.45
[*]Meshed, Persia. 36N. 59E.45
Meskineh, Turkey in Asia. 36N. 38E.47
Mesopotamia, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 40E.47
Mettapolliam, Madras, 11N. 77E.63
Meyhere, Central India. 24N. 81E.60
Miandoab, Persia. 37N. 46E.47
Miani, Bombay. 22N. 69E.56
Miankalai, N.W. Frontier Provs. 35N. 72E.58
Mianwali, Punjab. 33N. 71E.58
Miao-tao Island, China. 38N. 121E.83
Michailovsk, Turkestan. 40N. 54E.45
[*]Michmash, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Middle Island, Malay Pen. 9N. 98E.71
Midnapore, Bengal. 22N. 88E.61
Midzusawa, Japan. 39N. 141E.88
Mien, China. 31N. 105E.84
Mien-yang, China. 30N. 113E.85
Mihara, Japan. 34N. 133E.91
Miharu, Japan. 37N. 141E.91
Mikawa, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
Mikuni Toge, Japan. 37N. 139E.91
Mikura Shima, Japan. 34N. 140E.91
Milasa, Asia Minor. 37N. 28E.46
Mimasaka, Japan. 35N. 134E.91
Min, China. 34N. 104E.82
Minahassa, East Indies. 1N. 124E.75
Minato, Japan. 36N. 141E.91
Minato, Japan. 40N. 142E.88
Minbu, Burma. 20N. 95E.67
Mindanao, East Indies. 8N. 124E.75
Mindoro Is., Philippine Is. 13N. 121E.77
Mindoro Str., Philippine Is. 13N. 121E.77
Mingin, Burma. 23N. 94E.67
Minhla, Burma. 18N. 96E.67
Min-ho River, China. 29N. 105E.84
Min-kiang River, China. 26N. 119E.85
Mino, Japan. 36N. 137E.91
Min-tsing, China. 26N. 119E.85
Miraj, Bombay. 17N. 75E.57
Miran Shah, N.W. Frontier Provs. 33N. 70E.58
Miri, Baluchistan. 26N. 63E.45 204
Mirkhan Tana, Sind. 26N. 68E.59
Mirpur, Kashmir. 33N. 74E.58
Mirpur, Sind. 25N. 68E.59
Mirpur, Sind. 25N. 69E.59
Mirs Bay, China. 22N. 114E.85
Mirzapur, N.W. Provinces. 25N. 82E.60
Misol Island, East Indies. 2S. 130E.75
Misumi, Japan. 33N. 131E.89
Mithan Kot, Punjab. 29N. 70E.59
Mito, Japan. 36N. 141E.91
Mitsuna-shima, Lu-Chu Is. 25N. 124E.89
Mitta, Punjab. 32N. 72E.58
[*]Mityleni, Asia Minor. 39N. 27E.46
Miyagam, Bombay. 22N. 73E.56
Miyaka Shima, Japan. 34N. 140E.91
Miyako, Japan. 40N. 142E.88
Miyako Is., Lu-Chu Island. 24N. 126E.89
Miyakoshima, Lu-Chu Is. 25N. 125E.89
Miyazaki, Japan. 32N. 131E.89
Miyoshi, Japan. 35N. 133E.91
Mi-yun, China. 40N. 117E.83
Moa, East Indies. 8S. 128E.75
Mobarakpur, Punjab. 30N. 73E.58
Mocha, Arabia. 13N. 43E.44
Modeste Island. 35N. 125E.90
Mogami River, Japan. 39N. 140E.88
Mogaung, Burma. 25N. 97E.67
Moghal Sarai, United Provs. 25N. 83E.60
Mogok, Burma. 23N. 96E.67
Mohammerah, Persia. 30N. 48E.47
Mohangarh, Rajputana. 27N. 71E.59
Moi, Indo-China. 19N. 102E.70
Moirang, Assam. 24N. 94E.67
Mois, Indo-China. 15N. 108E.70
Mojarh, Punjab. 29N. 72E.59
Moji, Japan. 34N. 131E.89
Mojma, Arabia. 26N. 46E.44
Molangur, Haidarabad. 18N. 79E.62
Mollacallamuru, Mysore. 15N. 77E.62
Molpo, Korea. 35N. 126E.90
Molsi, Punjab. 30N. 72E.58
Moluccas, East Indies. 3S. 127E.75
Mombetsu, Japan. 44N. 143E.88
Momeit, Burma. 23N. 97E.67
Mominabad, Haidarabad. 19N. 76E.62
Monda, Rajputana. 26N. 74E.59
Mone, Burma. 20N. 98E.67
Mong-cy, Indo-China. 21N. 108E.70
[*]Monghyr, Bengal. 25N. 86E.61
Monhyin, Burma. 25N. 97E.67
Montgomery, Punjab. 31N. 73E.58
Montgomery Is., Lu-Chu Is. 27N. 128E.89
Monywa, Burma. 22N. 95E.67
Mopani, Central Provs. 23N. 79E.60
Moradabad, United Provs. 29N. 79E.60
Morbat, Arabia. 17N. 55E.45
Moresly Port, East Indies. 10S. 146E.75
Moresses Island, E. Indies. 4S. 116E.76
Mori, Japan. 42N. 141E.88
Morioka, Japan. 40N. 141E.88
Mormugao, Bombay. 15N. 74E.57
Morne, Cape, China. 19N. 109E.84
Mororan, Japan. 42N. 141E.88
Morotai Island. 3N. 129E.75
Morvi, Bombay. 23N. 71E.56
Moscos Island, Burma. 14N. 97E.71
Moseirah Island, Arabia. 20N. 59E.45
[*]Mosul, Turkey in Asia. 36N. 43E.47
Mo-tien-ling, Manchuria. 41N. 124E.90
Motihara, Bengal. 27N. 85E.60
Motoyoshi, Japan. 39N. 142E.88
Moyoro, Japan. 42N. 143E.88
Mozuffurabad, Kashmir. 34N. 73E.58
Muakhom, Burma. 26N. 97E.67
Mualitch, Asia Minor. 40N. 28E.46
Muang Ang Tong, Siam. 14N. 101E.71
Muang Fang, Siam. 20N. 99E.70
Muanglem, Burma. 22N. 99E.67
Muang Lim, Burma. 21N. 100E.67
Muang Lom, Siam. 17N. 101E.70
Muang Ta, Burma. 20N. 99E.67
Muang Yong, Burma. 21N. 100E.67
Muar River, Malay Pen. 2N. 103E.69
Mubarriz, Arabia. 26N. 50E.44
Muda River, Malay Pen. 6N. 100E.68
Mudamatt River, Bengal. 22N. 90E.61
Mudera, Haidarabad. 19N. 78E.62
Mudgul, Haidarabad. 16N. 76E.62
Muding, Asia Minor. 41N. 29E.46
Mudki, Punjab. 31N. 75E.58
Mugla, Asia Minor. 37N. 28E.46
Mu-ju, Korea. 36N. 128E.90
[*]Mukden, Manchuria. 42N. 124E.90
Mulapumok, Indo-China. 14N. 107E.71
Mulda, Central Provs. 23N. 82E.60
[*]Multan, Punjab. 30N. 71E.58
Munapaud, Madras. 8N. 78E.63
Mundra, Bombay. 23N. 70E.56
Mungulvera, Bombay. 18N. 75E.57
Muntok, East Indies. 2S. 105E.74
Muradkot, Punjab. 28N. 71E.59
Murad su, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 40E.47
Murakami, Japan. 38N. 139E.88
Muren, Manchuria. 44N. 130E.90
Murghab, Persia. 30N. 53E.45
Murghab River, Turkestan. 36N. 62E.45
Muria Mountain, Java. 6S. 111E.76
Muroto Cape, Japan. 33N. 134E.91
Murri, Punjab. 34N. 73E.58
[*]Murshidabad, Bengal. 24N. 88E.61
Musa Khel, Baluchistan. 31N. 70E.58
Mu-sang, Korea. 42N. 129E.90
Musashi, Japan. 36N. 139E.91
[*]Mush, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 42E.47
Musi River, Haidarabad. 17N. 80E.62
Mussuri, United Provs. 30N. 78E.60 205
Mutan-kiang R., Manchuria. 46N. 129E.90
Mutapet, Madras. 10N. 80E.63
Mutri, Baluchistan. 29N. 68E.59
Muttra, Arabia. 24N. 59E.45
[*]Muttra, United Provs. 27N. 78E.59
Muzaffargarh, Punjab. 30N. 71E.58
Muzaffarnaggar, United Provs. 29N. 78E.60
Muzaffarpur, Bengal. 26N. 85E.60
Myadaung, Burma. 24N. 96E.67
Myanaung, Burma. 18N. 95E.67
Myaunguya, Burma. 17N. 95E.67
Myawaddy, Burma. 17N. 98E.67
Myedu, Burma. 23N. 95E.67
Myeng, Burma. 17N. 98E.67
Myingyan, Burma. 22N. 95E.67
Myitkyina, Burma. 25N. 98E.67
Myo-haung, Burma. 21N. 93E.67
Myotha, Burma. 22N. 96E.67
Myra, Asia Minor. 36N. 30E.46
Mysore, Mysore. 12N. 77E.63
Mytho, Indo-China. 10N. 106E.71
Na, Siam. 17N. 99E.70
Naashahra, Punjab. 28N. 70E.59
Na-Cham, China. 22N. 107E.84
Nada, Japan. 34N. 130E.89
Nadaun, Punjab. 32N. 76E.58
Nafa, Lu-Chu Islands. 26N. 128E.89
Naga, Philippine Islands. 14N. 124E.77
Naga Hills, Assam. 26N. 95E.67
Nagano, Japan. 37N. 138E.91
Nagaoka, Japan. 37N. 139E.91
[*]Nagar, Mysore. 14N. 75E.63
Nagar Karnul, Haidarabad. 16N. 78E.62
Nagar Parkar, Sind. 24N. 71E.59
[*]Nagasaki, Japan. 33N. 130E.89
Naga-shima, Japan. 32N. 130E.89
Nagathana, Bombay. 19N. 73E.57
Nagawalli, River, Madras. 18N. 84E.62
Nagercoil, Madras. 8N. 77E.63
Nagor, Rajputana. 27N. 74E.59
Nagoya, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
Nagpur, Bengal. 23N. 86E.61
[*]Nagpur, Central Provinces. 21N. 79E.60
[*]Nain, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Nain River, Sind. 28N. 69E.59
Naini Tal, United Provs. 29N. 79E.60
Naipalgang, United Provs. 28N. 81E.60
Nakano-shima, Japan. 30N. 130E.89
Nakatorishima, Japan. 33N. 129E.89
Nakatsu, Japan. 34N. 131E.89
Nakatsugawa, Japan. 35N. 138E.91
Naki Shima, Japan. 36N. 133E.91
Nakon Sawan, Siam. 16N. 100E.70
Naldurg, Haidarabad. 18N. 76E.62
Na-le, Indo-China. 19N. 102E.70
Nalgonda, Haidarabad. 17N. 79E.62
Nalhati, Bengal. 24N. 88E.61
Nambu-shoto Is., Lu-Chu Is. 24N. 126E.89
Nam-dinh, Indo-China. 20N. 106E.70
Namine, Japan. 35N. 133E.91
Namiteruma Is., Lu-Chu Is. 24N. 124E.89
Namkal Droog, Madras. 11N. 78E.63
Namka River, Burma. 22N. 97E.67
Nam Kho River, Burma. 22N. 99E.67
Nam Lui, Burma. 21N. 101E.67
Nam-maw River, Burma. 24N. 96E.67
Namonuito, East Indies. 9N. 150E.75
Nam Pat, Siam. 17N. 100E.70
Nam Si, Siam. 15N. 105E.70
Nana, Rajputana. 25N. 73E.59
Nanao, Japan. 37N. 137E.91
Nanatsu Shima, Japan. 37N. 137E.91
Nan-chang, China. 28N. 116E.85
Nan-chwan, China. 29N. 107E.84
Nandadebi, United Provs. 30N. 80E.60
Nandair, Haidarabad. 19N. 77E.62
Nanderbar, Bombay. 21N. 74E.56
Nandgaon, Central Provs. 21N. 81E.60
[*]Nandidrug, Mysore. 13N. 78E.63
Naneh, Bombay. 19N. 74E.57
Nan-feng, China. 27N. 116E.85
Nangamessi, East Indies. 10S. 120E.74
Nan-hai-do, Korea. 35N. 128E.90
Nan-hsung, China. 25N. 114E.85
Nan-hu, Manchuria. 44N. 129E.90
Nanjangad, Mysore. 12N. 77E.63
Nankaido, Japan. 34N. 134E.91
Nan-kang, China. 29N. 116E.85
Nan-kau Mts., China. 40N. 115E.83
Nan-ki, China. 29N. 105E.84
Nan-kiang, China. 32N. 107E.82
Nan-ki Island, China. 27N. 121E.85
[*]Nan-king, China. 32N. 119E.85
Nan-kwan, China. 27N. 120E.85
Nan-ling, China. 25N. 112E.84
Nan-ling, China. 31N. 118E.85
Nan Mun, Siam. 15N. 104E.70
Nan-ngan, China. 26N. 114E.85
Nan-ngan Island, China. 23N. 117E.85
Nan-ning, China. 23N. 108E.84
Nan-shan, China. 22N. 110E.84
Nan-yang, China. 33N. 113E.82
Naoyetsu, Japan. 37N. 138E.91
Napa, East Indies. 26N. 128E.75
Naphtali, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Nara, Japan. 35N. 136E.91
Narabet, Bombay. 24N. 71E.56
Narbada River, Bombay. 22N. 73E.56
Narglah, Rajputana. 25N. 77E.59
Nariad, Bombay. 23N. 73E.56
[*]Narnaul, Punjab. 28N. 76E.59
Narra River, Sind. 27N. 69E.59
Narrulah, Central Provs. 20N. 83E.60
Narsinghgarh, Central India. 24N. 77E.60 206
Narsingpur, Central Provs. 23N. 79E.60
Naryn, Asiatic Russia. 42N. 74E.94
Nase, Lu-Chu Islands. 20N. 129E.89
Nasera, Bombay. 17N. 75E.57
[*]Nasik, Bombay. 20N. 74E.57
Nasirabad, Bengal. 25N. 90E.61
Nasirabad, Bombay. 21N. 76E.56
Nasirabad, Rajputana. 26N. 75E.59
Nassau Is., East Indies. 3S. 100E.74
Natal, East Indies, 1N. 99E.74
Natmouk, Burma. 20N. 95E.67
Natu, Malay Peninsula. 7N. 100E.68
Natuna Island, East Indies. 4N. 108E.74
Naupada, Madras. 19N. 84E.62
Nausari, Sind. 27N. 68E.59
Navalupitya, Ceylon. 7N. 80E.63
Navanagar, Bombay. 23N. 70E.56
Nawagam, Madras. 20N. 84E.62
Naya Dumka, Bengal. 24N. 87E.61
Nayor, Japan. 43N. 142E.88
[*]Nazareth, Palestine. 33N. 35E.13
Nebo, Mount, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
Nefud, Arabia. 25N. 43E.44
Nefud or Dahna, Arabia. 25N. 48E.44
Nefud Desert, Arabia. 29N. 42E.44
[*]Negapatam, Madras, 11N. 80E.63
Negara, Bali. 8S. 115E.76
Negombo, Ceylon. 7N. 80E.63
Negrais, Cape, Burma. 16N. 94E.67
Negros, Philippine Islands, 10N. 123E.77
Neh, Persia. 31N. 60E.45
[*]Nehavend, Persia. 34N. 48E.47
Nehbandan Mts., Persia. 30N. 60E.45
Nehbendan, Persia. 32N. 58E.45
Nejd, Arabia. 26N. 45E.44
Nejef, Turkey in Asia. 32N. 44E.47
Nejran Jauf, Arabia. 18N. 46E.44
[*]Nellore, Madras. 14N. 80E.62
[*]Nertchinsk, Siberia. 52N. 117E.95
Netrawati River, Madras. 13N. 75E.63
Neumuro, Japan. 43N. 145E.88
Neun, Indo-China. 19N. 104E.70
Neung-ju, Korea. 35N. 126E.90
Nevshehr, Asia Minor. 38N. 34E.46
New Chaman, Punjab. 31N. 67E.58
New Guinea, East Indies. 5S. 141E.75
New Pind Sultani, Punjab. 34N. 72E.58
New Pommern, East Indies. 6S. 149E.75
New Siberia Is., Siberia. 76N. 148E.95
Nezib, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Ngai, Siam. 20N. 99E.70
Ngan, China. 39N. 116E.83
Ngan-hwa, China. 28N. 112E.84
Ngan-hwei, China. 31N. 117E.85
Ngan-hwei, China. 32N. 118E.83
Ngan-ki, China. 25N. 118E.85
Ngan-king, China. 31N. 117E.85
Ngan-lu, China. 31N. 113E.85
Ngan-nan, China. 26N. 105E.84
Ngan-shun, China. 26N. 106E.84
Ngan-ting, China. 36N. 104E.82
Ngan-ting, China. 37N. 109E.82
Ngan-tung, China. 34N. 119E.83
Ngan-yo, China. 30N. 105E.84
Nga-pu-taw, Burma. 17N. 95E.67
Ngen-ping, China. 22N. 112E.84
Ngoi, Indo-China. 21N. 103E.70
Ngoli, East Indies. 9N. 137E.75
Ngo-shan, China. 36N. 111E.82
Nha-trang, Indo-China. 12N. 109E.71
Nho-Lam, Indo-China. 22N. 107E.70
Nhuong Har., Indo-China. 18N. 106E.70
Nias Island, East Indies, 1N. 97E.74
Nigde, Asia Minor. 38N. 35E.46
Nightingale Is., Indo-China. 20N. 108E.70
Niigata, Japan. 38N. 139E.91
Niitakayama, Formosa. 23N. 121E.89
Nijni Kamtchatsk, Siberia. 56N. 164E.95
Nijni Kolimsk, Siberia. 68N. 160E.95
Nijni Udinsk, Siberia. 55N. 99E.94
[*]Nikaria, Asia Minor. 38N. 26E.46
Nikkomachi, Japan. 37N. 139E.91
Nikolaevsk, Siberia. 54N. 141E.95
Niksar, Asia Minor. 41N. 37E.46
Nilgiri Hills, Madras, 11N. 77E.63
Nimach, Rajputana. 25N. 75E.59
Nimrud D., Turkey in Asia. 39N. 42E.47
Nin-binh, Indo-China. 20N. 106E.70
[*]Nineveh, Turkey in Asia. 36N. 43E.47
Ning, China. 36N. 108E.82
Ning-ho, China. 39N. 118E.83
Ning-hsia, China. 38N. 106E.82
Ning-hwa, China. 26N. 117E.85
Ning-kiang, China. 33N. 106E.82
Ning-kwo, China. 31N. 119E.85
[*]Ning-po, China. 30N. 121E.85
Ning-shen, China. 33N. 109E.82
Ning-te, China. 27N. 119E.85
Ning-tu, China. 26N. 116E.85
Ninguta, Manchuria. 44N. 129E.90
Ning-wu, China. 39N. 112E.82
Ning-yuen, China. 41N. 121E.83
Ninh-hoa, Indo-China. 13N. 109E.71
Ninh Thuan, Indo-China. 11N. 109E.71
Nipani, Bombay. 16N. 74E.57
Nira River, Bombay. 18N. 74E.57
Nirayama, Japan. 35N. 139E.91
Niris Lake, Persia. 29N. 54E.45
Nirmal, Haidarabad. 19N. 78E.62
[*]Nishapur, Persia. 36N. 59E.45
Nishikata, Japan. 32N. 130E.89
Nishio, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
Nishi Shima, Japan. 36N. 133E.91
[*]Nisibin, Turkey in Asia. 37N. 41E.47
Nitaka Mountains, Formosa. 24N. 121E.89 207
Nitchbo, Rajputana. 28N. 75E.59
Niu-chwang, Manchuria. 41N. 122E.90
Nizamabad, Haidarabad. 19N. 78E.62
Nizampatnam, Madras. 16N. 81E.62
Nmai Kha, Burma. 27N. 99E.67
Noagarh, Central Provinces. 20N. 82E.60
Nobeoka, Japan. 33N. 132E.89
Nong-han, Siam. 17N. 103E.70
Nong-khai, Siam. 18N. 103E.70
Nong-Son, Indo-China. 16N. 108E.70
Nordwick, Gulf of, Siberia. 74N. 112E.94
Norot, China. 43N. 120E.83
North, Cape, Siberia. 69N. 180E.95
North-East Cape, Siberia. 77N. 102E.94
North-East Point, Malay Pen. 9N. 100E.71
Nor-to Mountains, China. 42N. 116E.83
Nosari, Bombay. 21N. 73E.56
Noshiro, Japan. 40N. 140E.88
Noto Shima, Japan. 37N. 137E.91
Nottam, East Indies. 2S. 132E.75
Novgorod, Siberia. 43N. 131E.95
Novgorodski, Manchuria. 43N. 130E.90
Nowgong, Assam. 26N. 93E.67
Nowgong, Central India. 25N. 80E.60
Noycund, Madras, 10N. 77E.63
Nsentaru, Burma. 26N. 98E.67
Nubra, Kashmir. 35N. 78E.58
Nubra River, Kashmir. 34N. 78E.58
Nudun, Inner Mongolia. 41N. 105E.82
Nu-hsi River, China. 27N. 118E.85
Numazu, Japan. 35N. 139E.91
Numi, Japan. 35N. 133E.91
Nundijal, Madras. 16N. 78E.62
Nushki, Baluchistan. 30N. 66E.45
Nusumu, Madras. 15N. 78E.62
Nusu Pemida, East Indies. 9S. 116E.76
Nutapkanshipe Is., Japan. 43N. 144E.88
Nwangchik, Malay Peninsula. 7N. 101E.68
Nwedaung, Burma. 20N. 97E.67
Nyaungywe, Burma. 21N. 97E.67
Nysirus, Asia Minor. 36N. 27E.46
Obama, Japan, 35N. 136E.91
Obdorsk, Siberia. 66N. 67E.94
Obi, East Indies. 2S. 127E.75
Obi, Gulf of, Siberia. 68N. 72E.94
Obi, River, Siberia. 66N. 68E.94
Odate, Japan. 40N. 141E.88
Odawara, Japan. 35N. 139E.91
Odemish, Asia Minor. 38N. 27E.46
Ogali, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
Ogi Cape, Japan. 37N. 137E.91
Ogi Minato, Japan. 38N. 138E.91
Ohod, Arabia. 24N. 41E.44
Ohorji, Rajputana. 25N. 74E.59
Oita, Japan. 33N. 132E.89
Oka, River, Siberia. 54N. 102E.94
Okayama, Japan. 35N. 134E.91
Okazaki, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
Okhotsk, Siberia. 60N. 144E.95
Okhotsk, Sea of, Siberia. 54N. 150E.95
Okhut, Siberia. 56N. 156E.95
Okinawa-shima, Lu-Chu Is. 27N. 128E.89
Okinoerabu-shima, Lu-Chu Is. 28N. 129E.89
Oki Shima, Japan. 36N. 133E.91
Okpo, Burma. 18N. 96E.67
Okushiri Island, Japan. 42N. 140E.88
Okushiri Strait, Japan. 42N. 140E.88
Old Kedah, Malay Peninsula. 6N. 100E.68
Olekima, River, Siberia. 60N. 121E.95
Olekminsk, Siberia. 60N. 120E.95
Olele, East Indies. 5N. 95E.74
Olenek River, Siberia. 68N. 118E.94
Olgantorsky, Cape, Siberia. 60N. 170E.95
Olives, Mount of, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Oman, Arabia. 23N. 57E.45
Oman, Gulf of, Arabia. 25N. 58E.45
Olympus Mt., Asia Minor. 40N. 30E.46
Ombay Island, East Indies. 8S. 125E.75
Omerkot, Punjab. 29N. 70E.59
Ominato, Japan. 41N. 141E.88
Omogun, River, Siberia. 52N. 136E.95
Omol hotun, Mongolia. 44N. 115E.83
Omon, River, Siberia. 52N. 114E.95
O-mo-so, Manchuria. 44N. 128E.90
[*]Omsk, Asiatic Russia. 55N. 74E.94
Omuta, Japan. 33N. 131E.89
Ongin, Inner Mongolia. 39N. 108E.82
Ongole, Madras. 16N. 80E.62
Onim, East Indies. 3S. 133E.75
Onimechi, Japan. 34N. 133E.91
Onmaye Cape, Japan. 35N. 138E.91
Ono, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
On-song, Korea. 43N. 130E.90
[*]Ophir, Mount, Malay Pen. 2N. 103E.69
Ordos, Inner Mongolia. 40N. 109E.82
Orissa, Bengal. 21N. 86E.61
[*]Ormuz Island, Persia. 27N. 56E.45
Ormuz Strait, Persia. 26N. 57E.45
Orr-tau-ho R., Manchuria. 43N. 127E.90
[*]Osaka, Japan. 35N. 136E.91
Oshima, Japan. 35N. 139E.91
Oshima Island, Japan. 41N. 140E.88
Osmanabad, Haidarabad. 18N. 76E.62
Osmanjik, Asia Minor. 41N. 35E.46
Ota, Manchuria. 45N. 129E.90
Otaru, Japan. 43N. 141E.88
O-to-cheng, Manchuria. 43N. 128E.90
Ot-po, Burma. 18N. 95E.67
Otsu, Japan. 35N. 136E.91
Ottok, Inner Mongolia. 39N. 108E.82
Oudh, United Provinces. 27N. 83E.60
Oukin Island, Lu-Chu Is. 28N. 129E.89
Owajima, Japan. 33N. 133E.91
Owari, Japan. 35N. 137E.91 208
Owari Bay, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
Owashi, Japan. 34N. 136E.91
Owen Island, Burma, 11N. 98E.71
Owen Stanley Mt., E. Indies. 9S. 149E.75
Oyama, Japan. 35N. 134E.91
Ozerni, Cape, Siberia. 58N. 164E.95
Pa, China. 32N. 107E.84
Pa, China. 39N. 116E.83
Pabna, Bengal. 24N. 89E.61
Pachim, Siam. 14N. 101E.71
Pachitan, Java. 8S. 111E.76
Pachpadra, Rajputana. 26N. 72E.59
Pa-chum, Indo-China. 18N. 104E.70
Padam, Kashmir. 33N. 77E.58
[*]Padang, East Indies, 1S. 100E.74
Padang, East Indies. 2S. 107E.74
Padaram, Cape, Indo-China. 11N. 109E.71
Padaung, Burma. 19N. 95E.67
Pagan, Burma. 21N. 95E.67
Pagatan, Borneo. 4S. 116E.76
Pagattan, Borneo. 3S. 113E.76
Pagoda Point, Burma. 16N. 94E.67
Pahang, Malay Peninsula. 4N. 102E.69
Pahang River, Malay Pen. 3N. 103E.69
Pahtia, Malay Peninsula, 11N. 99E.71
Pai-ho, China. 41N. 116E.83
Paik-un-san, Korea. 40N. 128E.90
Pai-lu-shan, China. 25N. 116E.85
Pain River, Berar. 20N. 79E.57
Pai-shui, China. 32N. 106E.82
Pajam, Madras. 18N. 84E.62
Pajapur, Bombay. 16N. 75E.57
Pakal, Madras. 13N. 79E.63
Pa-kau, China. 41N. 119E.83
Pakhan-nge, Burma. 21N. 95E.67
Pakhangyi, Burma. 22N. 95E.67
Pak-hoi, China. 21N. 109E.84
Paklai, Indo-China. 18N. 102E.70
Paklan, Malay Peninsula. 9N. 99E.71
Pak-mon, Indo-China. 19N. 102E.70
Paknam, Fort, Siam. 13N. 101E.71
Paknampo, Siam. 16N. 100E.70
Pakokku, Burma. 21N. 95E.67
[*]Pakpatan, Punjab. 30N. 73E.58
Pakta, Indo-China. 20N. 101E.70
[*]Palakkat, Madras. 11N. 77E.63
Palakonda, Madras. 19N. 84E.62
Palaman, Bengal. 24N. 84E.60
Palana, Rajputana. 28N. 73E.59
Palanan, Philippine Islands. 17N. 122E.77
Palaos, East Indies. 9N. 135E.75
Palas, N.W. Frontier Provs. 35N. 73E.58
Palatupane, Ceylon. 6N. 81E.63
Palawan, Philippine Islands, 10N. 118E.77
Palean, Malay Peninsula. 7N. 100E.71
[*]Palembang, East Indies. 3S. 105E.74
Paletwa, Burma. 21N. 93E.67
Pali, Bombay. 23N. 73E.56
Pali, Rajputana. 26N. 73E.59
Palk Strait, Madras. 10N. 80E.63
Palkot, Bengal. 23N. 85E.60
Pallamcottah, Madras. 9N. 78E.63
Pallas Mt., Malay Peninsula. 4N. 103E.68
[*]Palmyra, Turkey in Asia. 34N. 39E.47
Palmyra Point, Ceylon. 10N. 80E.63
Palmyras Point, Bengal. 21N. 87E.61
Palni, Madras. 10N. 78E.63
Palni Hills, Madras. 10N. 77E.63
Palo, Burma. 19N. 95E.67
Palos, East Indies. 1S. 119E.74
Paltee Lake, Tibet. 29N. 91E.61
Palu, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 40E.47
Pamara, Sind. 27N. 69E.59
Pamekasan, Java. 7S. 113E.76
Pameungpeuk, Java. 8S. 108E.76
Pamir Plateau, Central Asia. 38N. 74E.45
Panay, Philippine Islands. 11N. 122E.77
[*]Pandharpur, Bombay. 18N. 75E.57
Pane River, Sumatra. 2N. 100E.69
Pangal, Haidarabad. 16N. 78E.62
Panganur, Madras. 13N. 79E.63
Pangkok, Borneo. 3S. 114E.76
Pangul, Java. 8S. 111E.76
Pangutarang Is., Philippine Is. 6N. 120E.77
[*]Panipat, Punjab. 29N. 77E.59
Panjang, Malay Peninsula. 8N. 99E.71
Panjang Is., East Indies. 7S. 116E.76
Panjar River, Bombay. 21N. 75E.56
[*]Panjim, Bombay. 15N. 74E.57
Panjkora River, N.W. Frontier Provs. 36N. 72E.58
Pannealla, Haidarabad. 18N. 78E.62
Panom, Siam. 17N. 105E.70
Pan-ta-naw, Burma. 17N. 96E.67
Pantar Island, East Indies. 8S. 124E.75
Pao-kang, China. 32N. 112E.84
Pao-king, China. 27N. 111E.84
Pao-ngan, China. 37N. 109E.82
Pao-ngan, China. 40N. 115E.83
Pao-ning, China. 31N. 106E.84
Pao-te, China. 39N. 111E.82
Pao-ting, China. 39N. 116E.83
Pao-tu, Inner Mongolia. 41N. 110E.82
Papandajan, Java. 8S. 108E.76
Papra Strait, Malay Pen. 8N. 98E.71
Papua, East Indies. 5S. 141E.75
Papua, Gulf of, East Indies. 8S. 144E.75
Papun, Burma. 18N. 97E.67
Parachinar, N.W. Frontier Provs. 34N. 70E.58
Paragarh, Madras. 20N. 83E.62
Paranda, Haidarabad. 18N. 75E.62
Parantij, Bombay. 24N. 73E.56
Parbaini, Haidarabad. 19N. 77E.62
Parbati River, Rajputana. 26N. 77E.59 209
Pardi, Bombay. 22N. 73E.56
Pare Pare, East Indies. 4S. 120E.74
Pargarh, Bombay. 17N. 73E.57
Parigi, Java. 8S. 108E.76
Partabgarh, Rajputana. 24N. 75E.59
Partur, Haidarabad. 20N. 76E.62
Pase, Siam. 13N. 102E.71
Passani, Baluchistan. 25N. 62E.45
Passin, East Indies. 2S. 116E.74
Passir, East Indies. 5N. 97E.74
Pa-ta-ho River, China. 24N. 105E.84
Patalung, Malay Peninsula. 8N. 100E.71
Patan, Nepal. 28N. 86E.60
Patan, Rajputana. 28N. 76E.59
Patani, Malay Peninsula. 7N. 101E.68
Patani, Cape, Malay Pen. 7N. 101E.68
Pataudi, Punjab. 28N. 77E.59
Pathai-sung, Siam. 15N. 103E.70
Pathankot, Punjab. 32N. 76E.58
Pati, Java. 7S. 111E.76
Patiala, Punjab. 30N. 76E.58
Patience Bay, Siberia. 49N. 143E.95
Patience, Cape, Siberia. 49N. 144E.95
Patjitan, East Indies. 8S. 111E.74
Patkai Hills, Burma. 27N. 96E.67
Patmos, Asia Minor. 37N. 27E.46
[*]Patna, Bengal. 26N. 85E.60
Patna, Central Provinces. 21N. 83E.60
Patrang, Siam. 14N. 102E.71
Patri, Bombay. 23N. 72E.56
Patri, Haidarabad. 19N. 76E.62
Pa-tung, China. 31N. 110E.84
Paumben Island, Ceylon. 9N. 79E.63
Paungdeh, Burma. 19N. 96E.67
Pawgurh, Mysore. 14N. 77E.63
Pawn, Burma. 20N. 100E.67
Paygan, East Indies. 19N. 145E.75
Pechabun, Siam. 16N. 101E.70
Pechaburi, Siam. 13N. 100E.71
Pechai, Siam. 17N. 100E.70
Pedrotallagalla, Mt., Ceylon. 7N. 81E.63
[*]Pegu, Burma. 18N. 96E.67
Pei, China. 34N. 118E.83
Pei-hai, China. 21N. 109E.84
Pei-kiang River, China. 25N. 113E.85
Pei-ling-shan, China. 34N. 105E.82
Peint, Bombay. 20N. 74E.56
Pei-shan Mt., Manchuria. 42N. 128E.90
Pei-tang, China. 39N. 118E.83
Pei-tuan-lin-tsu, Manchuria. 46N. 127E.90
Pe-kai, China. 27N. 106E.84
Pekalongan, Java. 7S. 110E.76
Pekan, Malay Peninsula. 3N. 103E.69
Peking, China. 40N. 116E.83
Pelew, East Indies. 9N. 135E.75
Peling Island, East Indies. 1S. 124E.75
Pella, Palestine. 32N. 36E.13
Pemalang, Java. 7S. 110E.76
Pemanggil, South China Sea. 3N. 104E.69
Pembuang, Cape, Borneo. 4S. 112E.76
Penang, Malacca Strait. 5N. 100E.68
Pendjeh, Turkestan. 36N. 62E.45
Pengaron, Borneo. 3S. 115E.76
Peng-shui, China. 29N. 108E.84
Peng-tsz, China. 30N. 117E.85
Penjinsk, Gulf of, Siberia. 62N. 162E.95
Penjinskoe, Siberia. 62N. 164E.95
Pennan Channel, Malay Pen. 10N. 100E.71
Pennar River, Madras. 12N. 80E.63
Pennar River, Madras. 15N. 80E.62
Peper Bay, Java. 6S. 106E.76
Peræa, Palestine. 32N. 36E.13
Perak, East Indies. 4N. 101E.74
Perak Mt., Malay Peninsula. 6N. 101E.68
Perak R., Malay Peninsula. 5N. 101E.68
Perforated Is., Malay Pen. 9N. 98E.71
Perhentian Is., S. China Sea. 6N. 103E.68
Perlis, Malay Peninsula. 6N. 100E.68
Persepolis, Persia. 30N. 53E.45
Persian Baluchistan, Persia. 25N. 60E.45
Persian Gulf. 28N. 52E. 4445
Peru Island, East Indies. 21N. 141E.75
Pescadores Chan., Formosa. 23N. 120E.89
Pescadores Island, China. 24N. 119E.89
Peshawar, N.W. Frontier Provs. 34N. 72E.58
Petlad, Bombay. 22N. 73E.56
Petrieu, Siam. 14N. 101E.71
Petropavlovsk, Siberia. 53N. 159E.95
Phalera, Rajputana. 27N. 75E.59
Phalian, Punjab. 32N. 74E.58
Phalodi, Rajputana. 27N. 72E.59
Phaltan, Bombay. 18N. 74E.57
Philadelphia, Palestine. 32N. 56E.13
Philippine Is., East Indies. 14N. 123E.75
Phillour, Punjab. 31N. 76E.58
Phineka Bay, Asia Minor. 36N. 30E.46
Phrayow, Siam. 19N. 100E.70
Phu-lang-thuong, Indo-China. 21N. 106E.70
Phu-li, Indo-China. 21N. 106E.70
Phu-my, Indo-China. 14N. 109E.71
Phung-chhen, Korea. 38N. 125E.90
Phuyen, Indo-China. 13N. 109E.71
Phyeng-An, North, Korea. 40N. 126E.90
Phyeng-An, South, Korea. 39N. 126E.90
Phyeng-san, Korea. 38N. 126E.90
Phyeng-yang, Korea. 39N. 126E.90
Piasini, River, Siberia. 74N. 86E.94
Pichit, Siam. 17N. 100E.70
Piju, Lombok. 9S. 117E.76
Pi-kau, China. 33N. 105E.82
Pilibhit, United Provinces. 29N. 80E.60
Pimai, Siam. 15N. 102E.70
Pimun, Siam. 15N. 105E.70
Pin, China. 35N. 108E.82 210
Pin, China. 37N. 118E.83
Pinan, Formosa. 22N. 121E.89
Pin-chau, China. 23N. 109E.84
Ping-fan, China. 37N. 104E.82
Ping-kiang, China. 28N. 114E.85
Ping-liang, China. 35N. 106E.82
Ping-lo, China. 24N. 111E.84
Ping-lo, China. 39N. 106E.82
Pingmar, Cape, China. 20N. 109E.84
Ping-nan, China. 27N. 119E.85
Ping-shan, China. 29N. 104E.84
Ping-siang River, China. 27N. 113E.85
Ping-ting, China. 38N. 114E.83
Ping-tu, China. 37N. 120E.83
Ping-yang, China. 28N. 120E.85
Ping-yang, China. 36N. 112E.82
Ping-yang, China. 37N. 106E.82
Ping-yang, Korea. 39N. 125E.90
Ping-yao, China. 37N. 112E.82
Ping-yue, China. 27N. 107E.84
Pipar, Rajputana. 26N. 74E.59
Pippli, Bengal. 22N. 88E.61
Pirate Island, Indo-China. 21N. 108E.70
Pishin, Baluchistan. 31N. 67E.58
Pishpek, Asiatic Russia. 44N. 75E.94
Pitsanulok, Siam. 17N. 100E.70
Pi-tse-wo, Manchuria. 39N. 122E.90
Pi-tsie, China. 27N. 106E.84
Plassy, Bengal. 24N. 88E.61
Plothistche Stroenia, Siberia. 63N. 149E.95
Plus River, Malay Peninsula. 5N. 101E.68
Pnom Dong Rek, Indo-China. 14N. 104E.71
Pnom Penh, Indo-China. 12N. 105E.71
Po, China. 34N. 116E.83
Po-hai, Inner Mongolia. 38N. 104E.82
Poi-tsao-kao, Manchuria. 43N. 129E.90
Pokaran, Rajputana. 27N. 72E.59
Polawaram, Madras. 17N. 82E.62
Polet, Rajputana. 25N. 76E.59
Polgahawela, Ceylon. 7N. 80E.63
Polillo, Philippine Islands. 15N. 122E.77
Polloc, Philippine Islands. 8N. 126E.77
Pon, Siam. 20N. 101E.70
Pondicherri, Madras. 12N. 80E.63
Pong, China. 31N. 106E.84
Po-ngan, China. 24N. 106E.84
Ponnani, Madras, 11N. 76E.63
Pon-pissai, Siam. 18N. 103E.70
Pontianak, East Indies. 0. 109E.74
Pontic Ra, Turkey in Asia. 40N. 38E.47
Poona, Bombay. 19N. 74E.57
Popa Hill, Burma. 21N. 95E.67
Po-pai, China. 22N. 110E.84
Pora, North, East Indies. 1S. 98E.74
Pora, South, East Indies. 3S. 100E.74
Por Bandar, Bombay. 22N. 70E.56
Port Adams, Manchuria. 40N. 122E.90
Port Aian, Siberia. 57N. 138E.95
Port Arthur, Manchuria. 39N. 121E.90
Port Lasarev, Korea. 39N. 127E.90
Porto Novo, Madras. 11N. 80E.63
Porto Princesa, East Indies. 9N. 118E.74
Po-se, China. 24N. 106E.84
Po-shan, China. 36N. 118E.83
Posolskoi, Siberia. 52N. 106E.94
Poudella, Madras. 16N. 80E.62
Po-yang-hu, China. 29N. 117E.85
Prai, Malay Peninsula. 5N. 100E.68
Pran, Siam. 12N. 100E.71
Preanger, Java. 7S. 107E.76
Prince Harbour, Korea. 36N. 127E.90
Princes Island, Asia Minor. 41N. 29E.46
Princess Island, Java. 7S. 105E.76
Probolingo, Java. 8S. 113E.76
[*]Prome, Burma. 19N. 95E.67
Prome, Siam. 15N. 100E.71
Providence Reef, Lu-Chu Is. 25N. 125E.89
Ptolemais, Palestine. 33N. 35E.13
Pu-chau, China. 35N. 110E.82
Puding, Cape, Borneo. 4S. 112E.76
Pudukattai, Madras. 10N. 79E.63
Puerto Princeso, Philippine Is. 9N. 123E.77
Puger, Java. 8S. 114E.76
Pu-hua, Indo-China. 17N. 105E.70
Puhur, Berar. 20N. 78E.60
Pu-kau, China. 32N. 119E.83
Puk-chung, Korea. 40N. 128E.90
Pu-ki, China. 30N. 114E.85
Pulaodo, Bombay. 24N. 70E.56
Pulau Berhala, S. China Sea. 3N. 104E.69
Pulau Galang, Malacca Strait. 1N. 104E.69
Pulau Jara, Malacca Strait. 4N. 100E.68
Pulau Kapas, S. China Sea. 5N. 103E.68
Pulau Klang, Malacca Strait. 3N. 101E.69
Pulau Koendoer, Malacca Str. 1N. 103E.69
Pulau Kukub, Malacca Strait. 1N. 103E.69
Pulau Langkawi, Malacca Str. 6N. 100E.68
Pulau Lantai, Malay Pen. 8N. 99E.71
Pulau Mendol, Malacca Strait. 1N. 103E.69
Pulau Mohea, Malay Pen. 7N. 99E.71
Pulau Padang, Malacca Strait. 1N. 102E.69
Pulau Pangkor, Malacca Str. 4N. 100E.68
Pulau Rajah, Malay Pen. 8N. 98E.71
Pulau Rangsang, Malacca Str. 1N. 103E.69
Pulau Rantau, Malacca Strait. 1N. 103E.69
Pulau Rempang, Malacca Str. 1N. 104E.69
Pulau Rupat, Malacca Strait. 2N. 102E.69
Pulau Telibun, Malay Pen. 7N. 100E.71
Pulau Tenggol, S. China Sea. 5N. 104E.68
Pulau Terutau, Malacca Str. 7N. 100E.68
Pulau Tinggi, S. China Sea. 2N. 104E.69
Pulau Tuman, S. China Sea. 3N. 104E.69
[*]Pulicat, Madras. 13N. 80E.63
Pulicat Lake, Madras. 14N. 80E.63 211
Pulo Ceicer de Mer, Indo-China. 11N. 109E.71
Pulo Ceicer de Terre, Indo-China. 11N. 109E.71
Pulo Condore, Indo-China. 9N. 107E.71
Pulo Dama, Indo-China. 10N. 104E.71
Pu-loi, Indo-China. 20N. 103E.70
Pulo Lawang, East Indies. 0. 103E.74
Pulo Tanjang, Indo-China. 9N. 103E.71
Pulo Wai, Indo-China. 10N. 103E.71
Pu Luong, Indo-China. 19N. 104E.70
Punakal, Haidarabad. 19N. 79E.62
Pungal, Rajputana. 28N. 73E.59
Pu-ngan, China. 26N. 105E.84
Pu-ning, China. 23N. 116E.85
Punjnad River, Punjab. 29N. 71E.59
[*]Punna, Rajputana. 25N. 80E.60
Purbatipur, Bengal. 26N. 89E.61
[*]Puri, Bengal. 20N. 86E.60
Purlakimedi, Madras. 19N. 84E.62
Purna River, Berar. 21N. 76E.60
Purna River, Haidarabad. 19N. 77E.62
Purniah, Bengal. 26N. 88E.61
Pursat, Indo-China. 13N. 104E.71
Purtaligurh, United Provs. 26N. 82E.60
Purulia, Bengal. 23N. 86E.61
Purwakarta, Java. 6S. 107E.76
Purworejo, Java. 8S. 110E.76
Pu-sau Mt., Indo-China. 20N. 103E.70
Pushti Kuh, Persia. 34N. 47E.47
Pu-tai, China. 37N. 118E.83
Putchum, Bombay. 24N. 70E.56
Putlam, Ceylon. 8N. 80E.63
Puttanapur, Madras. 9N. 77E.63
Puttocottah, Madras. 11N. 79E.63
Pya-ma-law River, Burma. 16N. 95E.67
Pya-pon, Burma. 16N. 96E.67
Pyawbwe, Burma. 21N. 96E.67
Pyen-kwan, China. 40N. 111E.82
Pyinmana, Burma. 20N. 96E.67
Pyton, Haidarabad. 20N. 75E.62
Pyu, Burma. 18N. 97E.67
Quang-yen, Indo-China. 21N. 107E.70
Quelpart Island, Korea. 33N. 126E.90
Quetta, Punjab. 30N. 67E.58
[*]Quilon, Madras. 9N. 77E.63
Qui-Nhon, Indo-China. 14N. 109E.71
Qust Viliusk, Siberia. 64N. 121E.95
Raas Island, Java. 7S. 114E.76
Rabbath-Ammon, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
Rabbath Moab, Palestine. 31N. 36E.12
Rabigh, Arabia. 23N. 39E.44
Rachel's Tomb, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Rach-gia, Indo-China. 10N. 104E.71
Rachutt, Madras. 14N. 79E.63
[*]Radhan, Sind. 27N. 68E.59
Raewind, Punjab. 31N. 74E.58
Ragaba, Palestine. 32N. 36E.13
Ragay Bay, Philippine Is. 13N. 123E.77
Raheng, Siam. 17N. 99E.70
Rahoki Junction, Sind. 25N. 69E.59
Rahori, Bombay. 19N. 75E.57
[*]Rahun, Punjab. 31N. 76E.58
Rai Bareli, United Provs. 26N. 81E.60
Raiboka, Bengal. 22N. 84E.60
Raichur, Haidarabad. 16N. 77E.62
Rai Droog, Madras. 15N. 77E.62
Raigarh, Central Provinces. 22N. 83E.60
Raigarh, Madras. 20N. 82E.62
Raik-to-san, Manchuria. 42N. 128E.90
Raipur, Central Provinces. 21N. 82E.60
Raishahi, Bengal. 25N. 89E.61
Rajagudi, Madras. 19N. 83E.62
Rajamahendri, Madras. 17N. 82E.62
Rajapalayam, Madras. 9N. 77E.63
Rajar, Sind. 27N. 69E.59
Rajaur, Kashmir. 33N. 74E.58
Rajgarh, Rajputana. 29N. 75E.59
Rajim, Central Provinces. 21N. 82E.60
Rajkot, Bombay. 22N. 71E.56
Rajmahal, Bengal. 25N. 88E.61
Rajpipla, Bombay. 22N. 74E.56
Rajpur, Central India. 22N. 74E.56
Rajpura, Punjab. 30N. 77E.58
Ra-ju Island, Korea. 35N. 126E.90
Rajura, Haidarabad. 20N. 79E.62
Rakapulli, Madras. 18N. 81E.62
Rakka, Turkey in Asia. 36N. 39E.47
Ramah, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Ramas, Cape, Bombay. 15N. 74E.57
Rameswaram Island, Madras. 9N. 79E.63
Ramgarh, Bengal. 24N. 85E.60
Ramgarh, Central India. 22N. 75E.56
Ramgarh, Central Provs. 23N. 81E.60
Ramgir, Haidarabad. 19N. 80E.62
Ramjapatnam, Madras. 15N. 80E.62
[*]Ramnad, Madras. 9N. 79E.63
[*]Ramnagar, Punjab. 32N. 74E.58
Ramoo, Burma. 21N. 92E.61
Ramoth Gilead, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
Rampur, Bengal. 24N. 89E.61
Rampur, Punjab. 31N. 78E.58
Rampur, United Provinces. 29N. 79E.60
Rampura, Rajputana. 26N. 76E.59
Ramri, Burma. 19N. 94E.67
Ramri Island, Burma. 19N. 94E.67
Ramshai Hai, Bengal. 27N. 89E.61
Ranawri, Malay Peninsula. 10N. 99E.71
Ranchi, Bengal. 23N. 86E.60
Ranga, Malay Peninsula. 6N. 102E.68
Rangamati, Bengal. 26N. 90E.61
Rangamati, Burma. 23N. 93E.61
[*]Rangoon, Burma. 17N. 96E.67
Rangoon River, Burma. 17N. 96E.67 212
Rangpur, Bengal. 26N. 89E.61
Rangpur, Punjab. 31N. 71E.58
Rania, Punjab. 30N. 75E.58
Raniganj, Bengal. 24N. 87E.61
Ranikhet, United Provinces. 30N. 79E.60
Ranipur, Sind. 27N. 68E.59
Rannipur, Bombay. 22N. 74E.56
Rantau, Borneo. 3S. 115E.76
Rantau Panjang, Malay Pen. 2N. 103E.69
Rasan, Sumatra. 2N. 100E.69
Ras el Hadd, Arabia. 23N. 60E.45
Ras Fartak, Arabia. 16N. 52E.45
Rashin, Bombay. 19N. 75E.57
Ras Madrack, Arabia. 19N. 58E.45
Rass, Arabia. 26N. 42E.44
Ratburi, Siam. 14N. 100E.71
Ratnagiri, Bombay. 17N. 73E.57
Rattangarh, Rajputana. 28N. 75E.59
Raub, Malay Peninsula. 4N. 102E.69
Raung Mountain, Java. 8S. 114E.76
Ravi River, Punjab. 31N. 72E.58
[*]Rawal Pindi, Punjab. 34N. 73E.58
Rawnina-golyb Gobi, Inner Mongolia. 43N. 107E.82
Rawra, Bombay. 20N. 74E.56
Raxoul, Bengal. 27N. 85E.60
Rayapur, Bombay. 17N. 73E.57
Ra-yong, Siam. 13N. 101E.71
Redang, Great, S. China Sea. 6N. 103E.68
Redang, Little, S. China Sea. 6N. 103E.68
Reducto, Yolo, Philippine Is. 6N. 121E.77
Rembang, Java. 7S. 111E.76
Repally, Madras. 16N. 81E.62
Repunshiri Island, Japan. 45N. 141E.88
Resht, Persia. 38N. 50E.47
Reti, Punjab. 28N. 70E.59
Reuben, Palestine. 32N. 36E.12
Rewah, Central India. 24N. 81E.60
Rewari, Punjab. 28N. 77E.59
Rhadanpur, Bombay. 24N. 71E.56
Rhaman, Malay Peninsula. 6N. 101E.68
[*]Rhodes, Asia Minor. 36N. 28E.46
Riad, East, Arabia. 25N. 47E.44
Riassi, Kashmir. 33N. 75E.58
Rikuoko, Japan. 41N. 141E.88
Rimmon, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Rindli, Baluchistan. 30N. 68E.58
Rinjami, Mount, Lombok. 8S. 117E.76
Rio, East Indies. 1N. 104E.74
Ri Shima, Japan. 35N. 139E.91
Rishiri Island, Japan. 45N. 141E.88
Rivandere, Persia. 36N. 47E.47
Roba-el-Khali, Sandy Desert of, Arabia. 21N. 50E. 4445
Rohri, Sind. 28N. 69E.59
[*]Rohtak, Punjab. 29N. 77E.59
Rokan River, North, Sumatra. 2N. 101E.69
Rokan River, South, Sumatra. 2N. 101E.69
Rokko, Formosa. 24N. 120E.89
Roma, East Indies. 7S. 127E.75
Romanzov Bay, Japan. 45N. 142E.88
Romblon, Philippine Islands. 13N. 122E.77
Ross Island, Korea. 34N. 125E.90
Rota, East Indies. 14N. 145E.75
Rotasgurh, Bengal. 25N. 84E.60
Rotti, East Indies. 11S. 124E.75
Ruhtas, Punjab. 33N. 74E.58
Rukshu, Kashmir. 33N. 78E.58
Rumenia, Cape, Malay Pen. 1N. 104E.69
Rumpin River, Malay Pen. 3N. 103E.69
Rupa, Punjab. 31N. 77E.58
Rupat Strait, Sumatra. 2N. 102E.69
Rupti River, United Provs. 26N. 84E.60
Rurumoppe, Japan. 43N. 142E.88
Russelkonda, Madras. 20N. 85E.62
Ruttunpur, Central Provs. 22N. 82E.60
Sa, Siam. 19N. 101E.70
Saba, East Indies. 5N. 116E.74
Sabanrika River, Bengal. 22N. 88E.61
Sabara, Arabia. 26N. 52E.45
Sab Asphal, Turkey in Asia. 36N. 44E.47
[*]Sabraon, Punjab. 31N. 75E.58
Saccol, Philippine Islands. 7N. 122E.77
Sachad, Sind. 28N. 69E.59
Sadakam, East Indies. 6N. 118E.74
Sadargarh, Rajputana. 27N. 70E.59
Sadazaki, Japan. 33N. 133E.89
Sadiya, Assam. 28N. 96E.67
Sado, Japan. 38N. 138E.88
Sadwan, Arabia. 19N. 43E.44
Safed Koh, Afghanistan. 34N. 71E.58
Safed Koh, Afghanistan. 35N. 64E.45
Saga, Burma. 20N. 97E.67
Saga, Japan. 33N. 130E.89
Sagaing, Burma. 22N. 96E.67
Sagami, Japan. 35N. 139E.91
Sagar, Haidarabad. 17N. 77E.62
Sagar, Central Provinces. 24N. 79E.60
Sagwe, Burma. 20N. 97E.67
Saharanpur, United Provs. 30N. 78E.60
Sahund Mountain, Persia. 38N. 46E.47
Sai, Indo-China. 21N. 102E.70
Sai, Kashmir. 35N. 75E.58
Saibai Island, East Indies. 9S. 124E.75
Saiburi, Malay Peninsula. 6N. 102E.68
Saidapet, Madras. 13N. 80E.63
[*]Saigon, Indo-China. 11N. 107E.71
Saigon River, Indo-China. 11N. 107E.71
Sai-kao, Siam. 17N. 102E.70
Saiki, Japan. 33N. 132E.89
St. Andrew Is., East Indies. 5N. 133E.75
St. Augustin C., Philippine Is. 6N. 126E.77
St. Augustino Is., E. Indies. 24N. 140E.75
St. Bern Strait, East Indies. 13N. 125E.75 213
St. Bernardino Strait, Philippine Is. 14N. 121E.77
St. David Is., East Indies. 1N. 135E.75
St. Jacques, Cape, Indo-China. 10N. 107E.71
St. John Island, China. 21N. 113E.85
St. John Island, Siberia. 56N. 144E.95
St. Lucia Bay, East Indies. 4N. 118E.74
St. Mathias Is., East Indies. 1S. 149E.75
St. Matthew Island, Burma. 10N. 98E.71
St. Paul Island, Siberia. 76N. 112E.94
St. Sen, Indo-China. 13N. 105E.71
Sakai, Japan. 35N. 133E.91
Sakai, Japan. 34N. 135E.91
Sakai, Japan. 36N. 136E.91
Sakaria River, Asia Minor. 41N. 31E.46
Sakata, Japan. 39N. 140E.88
Sakhalin Island, Siberia. 50N. 143E.95
Sakhne, Turkey in Asia. 35N. 39E.47
Sak-ju, Korea. 40N. 125E.90
Sakon-Lakon, Siam. 17N. 104E.70
Sakri, Rajputana. 25N. 72E.59
Salang Island, Malay Pen. 8N. 98E.71
Salawatti Island, East Indies. 1S. 132E.75
Salayer Island, East Indies. 6S. 120E.74
[*]Salem, Madras. 12N. 78E.63
Salgera, Haidarabad. 19N. 77E.62
Salher, Bombay. 21N. 74E.56
Salimpur, United Provinces. 26N. 84E.60
Salin, Burma. 21N. 95E.67
Salmi, Madras. 19N. 82E.62
Salset Island, Bombay. 19N. 73E.57
Salt Plain, Persia. 36N. 55E.45
Salt Range Mts., Punjab. 33N. 72E.58
Salumbar, Rajputana. 24N. 74E.59
Saluru, Madras. 18N. 83E.62
Salwin River, Burma. 17N. 98E.67
Samagarn, Siberia. 50N. 137E.95
Samalkotta, Madras. 17N. 82E.62
Samar, Philippine Islands. 12N. 125E.77
Samara, Turkey in Asia. 34N. 44E.47
Samarang, Java. 7S. 111E.76
Samargha, Afghanistan. 32N. 69E.58
[*]Samaria, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Samarinda, East Indies. 0. 117E.74
[*]Samarkand, Turkestan. 40N. 67E.45
Samasata, Punjab. 29N. 72E.59
Sambalpur, Central Provs. 22N. 84E.60
Sambar, Rajputana. 27N. 75E.59
Sambar, Cape, Borneo. 3S. 110E.76
Sambar Lake, Rajputana. 27N. 75E.59
[*]Sambhal, United Provinces. 29N. 79E.60
Sambiliung, East Indies. 2N. 117E.74
Sambor, Indo-China. 13N. 106E.71
Sam-chhek, Korea. 37N. 129E.90
Samit Cape, Indo-China. 11N. 103E.71
Samit Island, Siam. 13N. 102E.71
Samos, Asia Minor. 37N. 27E.46
Sampang, Java. 7S. 113E.76
Sampit River, Borneo. 3S. 113E.76
[*]Samsat, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 39E.47
Samshui, China. 23N. 113E.85
Samsun, Asia Minor. 41N. 36E.46
Samuie Strait, Malay Pen. 9N. 100E.71
[*]Sana, Arabia. 15N. 45E.44
San-cha, China. 34N. 107E.82
San-chau Island, China. 22N. 114E.85
Sandalwood Is., East Indies. 10S. 120E.74
Sandeman, Fort, Punjab. 31N. 69E.58
Sandon Island, Lu-Chu Is. 29N. 130E.89
Sandoway, Burma. 18N. 94E.67
Sandur, Kysore. 15N. 77E.62
San-fa River, Manchuria. 44N. 127E.90
San Fernando, Philippine Is. 17N. 121E.77
Sangamner, Bombay. 20N. 74E.57
Sanganer, Rajputana. 25N. 75E.59
Sanga Pass, Punjab. 31N. 71E.58
Sangareddipet, Haidarabad. 18N. 78E.62
Sang-chi, China. 29N. 110E.84
Sangir Island, East Indies. 3N. 125E.75
Sang-ju, Korea. 36N. 128E.90
Sangkapura, East Indies. 6S. 113E.74
Sang-kou, China. 37N. 123E.83
Sangla, Kashmir. 34N. 77E.58
Sangod, Rajputana. 25N. 76E.59
Sangrur, Punjab. 30N. 76E.58
San-ho, Cape, Indo-China. 14N. 109E.71
Saniaburi, Siam. 18N. 104E.70
San Ildefonso Cape, Philippine Islands. 16N. 122E.77
Sanindo, Japan. 35N. 134E.91
Sanjo, Japan. 38N. 139E.91
San Jose de Buenavista, Philippine Is. 11N. 122E.77
Sankasala, Madras. 16N. 78E.62
San-kio, China. 26N. 108E.84
San-mun Bay, China. 29N. 122E.85
Sano, Japan. 36N. 140E.91
San Pedro B., Philippine Is. 11N. 125E.77
San-sa Inlet, China. 26N. 120E.85
San-shui, China. 35N. 108E.82
San-sin, Manchuria. 46N. 129E.90
Santa Maria, Philippine Is. 8N. 122E.77
San-tao-ho, Inner Mongolia. 40N. 107E.82
San Tomas Mt., Philippine Is. 16N. 121E.77
San-tuao, China. 27N. 120E.85
Sanuki, Japan. 34N. 134E.91
Sanyodo, Japan. 35N. 134E.91
Sao, Formosa. 25N. 122E.89
Sapat, Indo-China. 16N. 106E.70
Sapporo, Japan. 42N. 141E.88
Sapudi Island, Java. 7S. 114E.76
Sapudi Strait, Java. 7S. 114E.76
Saraga, Japan. 35N. 138E.91
Saraikalu, Bengal. 23N. 86E.60
Sarangani, Philippine Is. 5N. 125E.77
Sarangani B., Philippine Is. 6N. 125E.77 214
Sarap River, Kashmir. 34N. 77E.58
Saraswati, Bombay. 24N. 72E.56
Saratsi, China. 41N. 111E.82
Saravan, Indo-China. 16N. 106E.70
Sarawak, East Indies. 2N. 110E.74
Sarawak Prov., East Indies. 3N. 112E.74
Sarawan, Baluchistan. 28N. 65E.45
Saree, Persia. 36N. 53E.45
Sarepta, Palestine. 33N. 35E.13
Sarifah, Turkey in Asia. 34N. 42E.47
Sariguan, East Indies. 17N. 145E.75
Sart, Asia Minor. 38N. 28E.46
Sartu, Manchuria. 46N. 125E.90
Saru, Japan. 42N. 142E.88
Sasayama, Japan. 35N. 135E.91
Saschiveisk, Siberia. 66N. 142E.95
Sasebo, Japan. 33N. 130E.89
[*]Sasseram, Bengal. 25N. 84E.60
Sassun, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 41E.47
Sasuna, Japan. 35N. 130E.89
Satara, Bombay. 18N. 74E.57
Sathalanu, Rajputana. 26N. 73E.59
Satpura Range, Bombay. 22N. 75E.56
Satui, Borneo. 4S. 115E.76
Satun, Malay Peninsula. 7N. 100E.68
Satur, Madras. 9N. 78E.63
Saura, Bombay. 23N. 73E.56
Sauton, Indo-China. 12N. 103E.71
Sava, Persia. 35N. 51E.45
Savalan Dagh, Persia. 38N. 48E.47
Savanur, Bombay. 15N. 75E.57
Savarnadurg, Bombay. 18N. 73E.57
Saw, Burma. 21N. 94E.67
Sawa, Arabia. 16N. 47E.44
Sawal, Java. 7S. 108E.76
Sawankalok, Siam. 17N. 100E.70
Sawant Wari, Bombay. 16N. 74E.57
Sawara, Japan. 36N. 141E.91
Sawase-Muninto-shima, Japan. 30N. 130E.89
Sawu, East Indies. 11S. 121E.74
Sayer Island, Malay Peninsula. 9N. 98E.71
Scala Nova, Asia Minor. 38N. 27E.46
Schouten Island, East Indies. 1S. 136E.75
Schouten Island, East Indies. 4S. 145E.75
Scythopolis, Palestine. 32N. 35E.13
Se Bang Fai R., Indo-China. 17N. 105E.70
Se Bang Khan, Indo-China. 13N. 106E.71
Se Bang Hien, Indo-China. 16N. 105E.70
Sedili Besar, Malay Peninsula. 2N. 104E.69
Sefid, Persia. 34N. 49E.47
Sefid Rud, Persia. 37N. 50E.45
Segaro, Malacca Strait. 2N. 102E.69
Sehaf River, Baluchistan. 29N. 68E.59
Seheh, Malay Peninsula. 8N. 100E.71
Sehwan, Sind. 26N. 68E.59
Seira-kei River, Formosa. 24N. 120E.89
Seistan, Persia. 30N. 61E.45
Seki, Japan. 35N. 137E.91
Sekiz, Persia. 37N. 46E.47
Sekudi, Malacca Strait. 1N. 102E.69
Selangor, Malay Peninsula. 3N. 101E.69
Selangor River, Malay Pen. 3N. 101E.69
Selatan, Cape, Borneo. 4S. 115E.76
Selapum, Siam. 16N. 104E.70
[*]Selefke, Asia Minor. 36N. 34E.46
Selenginsk, Siberia. 50N. 107E.94
Seleucia, Palestine. 33N. 36E.13
Selin Kong Buyu, Malay Pen. 7N. 102E.68
Se Mam, Siam. 15N. 105E.70
Semantan River, Malay Pen. 3N. 102E.69
Sembilan Island, Malacca Str. 4N. 100E.68
Semerara, Philippine Islands. 12N. 122E.77
Semeru, Mount, Java. 8S. 113E.76
Semipolatinsk, Asiatic Russia. 51N. 80E.94
Semiretchensk, As. Russia. 45N. 78E.94
Sempu, Java. 8S. 113E.76
Senbo, Burma. 25N. 97E.67
Sendai, Japan. 38N. 141E.88
Sengora, Malay Peninsula. 7N. 101E.71
Senna, Persia. 35N. 47E.47
Seoni, Central Provinces. 22N. 80E.60
Sepphoris, Palestine. 33N. 35E.13
Sequevras Is., East Indies. 9N. 130E.75
Serakhs, Persia. 36N. 61E.45
Serang, Java. 6S. 106E.76
Serangani Is., East Indies. 5N. 126E.75
Seraor, Bombay. 19N. 74E.57
Serau River, Malay Peninsula. 4N. 102E.68
Seremban, Malay Peninsula. 3N. 102E.69
Sergiopot, Asiatic Russia. 48N. 80E.94
Serindah, Malay Peninsula. 3N. 102E.69
[*]Seringapatam, Mysore. 12N. 77E.63
Sermatten, East Indies. 8S. 129E.75
Serpur, Haidarabad. 20N. 80E.62
Serua, East Indies. 6S. 130E.75
Se San, Indo-China. 13N. 106E.71
Se-su-phon, Indo-China. 14N. 103E.71
Setsu, Japan. 35N. 135E.91
Setsu-san, Formosa. 25N. 121E.89
Sewasmudram, Madras. 12N. 77E.63
Seypan, East Indies. 15N. 145E.75
Shabeh Khel, Punjab. 32N. 68E.58
Shabkadar, N.W. Frontier Prov. 34N. 72E.58
Shadipalli, Sind. 26N. 69E.59
Shaggera, Arabia. 26N. 46E.44
Shahabad, Haidarabad. 17N. 77E.62
Shahabad, Rajputana. 25N. 77E.59
[*]Shahabad, United Provinces. 28N. 80E.60
Shah Bundur, Sind. 24N. 68E.59
Shahgarh, Central Provs. 24N. 79E.60
Shahgarh, Rajputana. 27N. 70E.59
Shahjahanpur, United Provs. 28N. 80E.60
Sha-ho, China. 33N. 115E.83
Shaho, Manchuria. 42N. 123E.90 215
Shahpur, Punjab. 32N. 72E.58
Shaikhawati, Rajputana. 28N. 75E.59
Shaikh Othman, Arabia. 13N. 45E.44
Shaiwal, Punjab. 32N. 72E.58
Shalkar, Punjab. 32N. 78E.58
Shan, China. 35N. 111E.82
Shang, China. 34N. 110E.82
Shang-cheng, China. 32N. 115E.83
Shang-hai, China. 31N. 122E.83
[*]Shang-hai, China. 31N. 121E.85
Shang-hang, China. 25N. 117E.85
Shang-sze, China. 22N. 108E.84
Shan-hai-kwan, China. 40N. 120E.83
Shankeridroog, Madras. 12N. 78E.63
Shan-si, China. 38N. 113E. 8283
Shan States, North, Burma. 22N. 98E.67
Shan States, South, Burma. 21N. 99E.67
Shantarski Island, Siberia. 55N. 138E.95
Shan-tung, China. 36N. 118E.83
Shao-chau, China. 25N. 113E.85
Shao-hsing, China. 30N. 121E.85
Shao-wu, China. 27N. 118E.85
Shara-khada, China. 41N. 113E.82
Shara-muren, Mongolia. 44N. 120E.83
Sharjah, Arabia. 25N. 55E.45
Sharon, Plain of, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Sha-shi, China. 30N. 112E.84
Shatt el Arab, Turkey in Asia. 31N. 48E.47
Shau, China. 32N. 117E.83
Shayok River, Kashmir. 35N. 76E.58
She, China. 37N. 114E.83
Shechem, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Sheiten, Inner Mongolia. 41N. 109E.82
Sheiten-ula, Inner Mongolia. 41N. 109E.82
Shekhabad, Afghanistan. 34N. 69E.58
Shemaga, Burma. 22N. 96E.67
Shen, China. 38N. 116E.83
Sheng, China. 42N. 122E.83
Sheng-King, Manchuria. 41N. 123E.90
Shen-si, China. 35N. 109E.82
Sheo, Rajputana. 26N. 71E.59
Sheopur, Central India. 26N. 77E.60
Shergarh, Punjab. 31N. 74E.58
Sherghaty, Bengal. 25N. 85E.60
Shibam, Arabia. 16N. 49E.44
Shibata, Japan. 38N. 139E.91
Shibetsu, Japan. 43N. 145E.88
Shibushi, Japan. 31N. 131E.89
Shi-chao, China. 35N. 120E.83
Shi-cheng, China. 26N. 116E.85
Shichi To, Japan. 34N. 139E.91
Shi-chu, China. 30N. 108E.84
Shie-tie-tien, China. 39N. 119E.83
Shigatze, Tibet. 29N. 89E.61
Shikami, Japan. 34N. 129E.89
Shikaripur, Mysore. 14N. 75E.63
Shikarpur, Sind. 28N. 69E.59
Shikotsu-to, Japan. 42N. 142E.88
Shiljin-gol, Mongolia. 44N. 116E.83
Shilka, River, Siberia. 54N. 121E.95
Shillong, Assam. 26N. 92E.61
Shiloh, Palestine. 32N. 35E.12
Shi-lung, China. 23N. 114E.85
Shimabara, Japan. 33N. 130E.89
Shi-men, China. 29N. 111E.84
Shimidsu, Japan. 35N. 139E.91
Shimochuke, Japan. 37N. 140E.91
[*]Shimoga, Mysore. 14N. 76E.63
[*]Shimonosoki, Japan. 34N. 131E.89
Shimosa, Japan. 36N. 140E.91
Shi-nan, China. 30N. 109E.84
Shinano, Japan. 36N. 138E.91
Shinchiku, Formosa. 25N. 121E.89
Shindwa, Central India. 22N. 75E.56
Shingu, Japan. 34N. 136E.91
Shinjo, Japan. 39N. 140E.88
Shin-mu, China. 39N. 110E.82
Shin-san, Japan. 40N. 140E.88
Shin Shima, Japan. 34N. 139E.91
Shiobado, Tibet. 31N. 96E.61
Shi-pu, China. 29N. 122E.85
Shirakawa, Japan. 37N. 140E.91
[*]Shiraz, Persia. 30N. 53E.45
Shiretokozaki, Japan. 44N. 145E.88
Shiri Bay, Japan. 43N. 144E.88
Shiriyazaki, Japan. 41N. 142E.88
Shiro, Japan. 35N. 136E.91
Shi-shan, China. 29N. 117E.85
Shi-tsien, China. 27N. 108E.84
Shi-tsui-tze, China. 39N. 106E.82
Shivarai Hills, Madras. 12N. 78E.63
Shiwo Cape, Japan. 33N. 136E.91
Shizuoka, Japan. 35N. 138E.91
Shoal Gulf, Korea. 36N. 126E.90
Shoka, Formosa. 24N. 121E.89
[*]Sholapur, Bombay. 18N. 76E.57
Shorapur, Haidarabad. 17N. 77E.62
Shorkot, Punjab. 31N. 72E.58
Shozu South, Japan. 35N. 134E.91
Shuan-chen-tin, Manchuria. 45N. 126E.90
Shugshut, Asia Minor. 40N. 30E.46
Shu-ho, China. 35N. 119E.83
Shu-ho, China. 34N. 113E.82
Shui-chau, China. 28N. 115E.85
Shui-ho, Inner Mongolia. 39N. 103E.82
Shui-tung, China. 21N. 111E.84
Shu-kao, China. 32N. 121E.83
Shun-chang, China. 27N. 118E.85
Shunem, Palestine. 33N. 35E.12
Shung-pu, China. 36N. 109E.82
Shu-ning, China. 33N. 114E.83
Shun-king, China. 31N. 106E.84
Shun-te, China. 37N. 115E.83
Shuram River, Punjab. 32N. 69E.58
Shuri, Lu-Chu Island. 26N. 128E.89
Shuster, Persia. 32N. 49E.47 216
[*]Shwebo, Burma. 23N. 96E.67
Shwegyin, Burma. 18N. 97E.67
Shwe-in, Burma. 25N. 97E.67
Siak, East Indies. 1N. 102E.74
Siak Sri Indrapura, Sumatra. 1N. 102E.69
Siak Koh, Afghanistan. 34N. 64E.45
Siak River, Sumatra. 1N. 102E.69
Sialkot, Punjab. 33N. 75E.58
Siao, East Indies. 3N. 125E.75
Siao-ho, China. 32N. 104E.82
Siargo, Philippine Islands. 10N. 126E.77
Siassi, Philippine Islands. 5N. 121E.77
Siaton Point, Philippine Is. 9N. 123E.77
Sibay, Philippine Islands. 12N. 122E.77
Siberui Island, East Indies. 1S. 98E.74
Sibi, Punjab. 30N. 68E.58
Sibiriakof Island, Siberia. 73N. 80E.94
Siboga, East Indies. 3N. 99E.74
Siboku Island, East Indies. 3S. 100E.74
Sibsagar, Assam. 27N. 95E.67
Sibuguey Bay, Philippine Is. 7N. 122E.77
Sibuyan, Philippine Islands. 12N. 122E.77
Sidavu, Java. 7S. 113E.76
Sidoarjo, Java. 7S. 113E.76
[*]Sidon, Palestine. 34N. 35E.12
Siempang, Indo-China. 14N. 106E.70
Siemreap, Indo-China. 13N. 104E.71
Sierra Madre, Philippine Is. 17N. 122E.77
Sifa, Cape, China. 19N. 111E.84
Sihoon River, Asia Minor. 37N. 36E.46
Sikanderabad, Haidarabad. 17N. 78E.62
Sikhota Alin Mts., Siberia. 46N. 136E.95
Si-kiang River, China. 22N. 108E.84
Siktach, Siberia. 69N. 124E.95
Silaymyo, Burma. 21N. 95E.67
Silchar, Assam. 25N. 93E.67
Siller River, Madras. 18N. 82E.62
Silong Belamak B., Lombok. 9S. 116E.76
Sim, Siam. 19N. 101E.70
Simalur Island, East Indies. 3N. 96E.74
[*]Simla, Punjab. 31N. 77E.58
Simoda, Japan. 35N. 139E.91
Sinagawa, Japan. 36N. 140E.91
Sinah River, Bombay. 18N. 75E.57
Sindang Barang, Java. 8S. 107E.76
Sindh River, United Provs. 26N. 79E.60
Sindjio, Lu-Chu Islands. 24N. 123E.89
Sindri, Rajputana. 25N. 72E.59
[*]Singapore, Malay Peninsula. 1N. 104E.69
Singapur, Madras. 19N. 83E.62
Singaraji, Bali. 8S. 115E.76
Singareni, Haidarabad. 18N. 80E.62
Singhjani, Bengal. 25N. 90E.61
Singhpur, United Provs. 24N. 83E.60
Singkawang, East Indies. 1N. 109E.74
Singkel, East Indies. 3N. 98E.74
Sinjai, East Indies. 5S. 120E.74
Sinjar, J., Turkey in Asia. 37N. 41E.47
Sin-min-fu, Manchuria. 42N. 123E.90
Sinocoan Mt., Philippine Is. 15N. 121E.77
[*]Sinope, Asia Minor. 42N. 35E.46
Sipan Dagh, Turkey in Asia. 39N. 43E.47
Sipiongot, Sumatra. 2N. 100E.69
Sipri, Central India. 26N. 78E.60
Siquijor, Philippine Islands. 9N. 124E.77
Sirahama, Japan. 35N. 140E.91
Siran, Sind. 24N. 68E.59
Sircilla, Haidarabad. 18N. 79E.62
Sirguja, Bengal. 23N. 83E.60
[*]Sirhind, Punjab. 31N. 76E.58
Sir James Hall Is., Korea. 38N. 125E.90
Sirmoor, Punjab. 31N. 78E.58
Sirohi, Rajputana. 25N. 73E.59
Sironj, Central India. 24N. 78E.60
Sirpur, Bombay. 21N. 75E.56
Sirsa, Punjab. 29N. 75E.59
Sirt, Turkey in Asia. 38N. 42E.47
Sirui, Cape, Java. 8S. 112E.76
Sis, Asia Minor. 37N. 36E.46
Sisaket, Siam. 15N. 104E.70
Sisarah, Rajputana. 29N. 72E.59
Sisuro Point, Korea. 42N. 130E.90
Sita River, Punjab. 32N. 78E.58
Sitapur, United Provs. 28N. 81E.60
Sittaung, Burma. 17N. 97E.67
Sittaung River, Burma. 17N. 97E.67
Situbondo, Java. 8S. 114E.76
Siu-ho River, China. 29N. 116E.85
[*]Sivas, Asia Minor. 40N. 37E.46
Sivrihissar, Asia Minor. 39N. 32E.46
Siwai Madhopur, Rajputana. 26N. 76E.59
Siwana, Rajputana. 26N. 72E.59
Skardo, Kashmir. 35N. 76E.58
[*]Skutari, Asia Minor. 41N. 29E.46
Slamat Mountain, Java. 7S. 109E.76
Slim, Malay Peninsula. 4N. 101E.69
Sloko, Cape, Java. 9S. 114E.76
[*]Smyrna, Asia Minor. 38N. 27E.46
So-an Island, Korea. 34N. 126E.90
Society Bay, China. 39N. 122E.<