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William Kitchiner

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Title: The Art of Invigorating and Prolonging Life
       By Food, Clothes, Air, Exercise, Wine, Sleep, &c. and
              Peptic Precepts, Pointing Out Agreeable and Effectual
              Methods to Prevent and Relieve Indigestion, and to Regulate
              and Strengthen the Action of the Stomach and Bowels

Author: William Kitchiner

Release Date: September 28, 2012 [EBook #40891]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Julia Miller, Thiers Halliwell and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at (This
file was produced from images generously made available
by The Internet Archive/American Libraries.)

Transcriber’s notes:

In this transcription, hyperlinks are indicated by a black dotted underline (plus a coloured highlight when the mouse pointer hovers over them). A red dashed underline indicates the presence of a transcriber’s comment; scrolling the mouse pointer over such text will reveal the comment. Footnote markers in the text are hyperlinked to the footnotes which have been relocated to the end of the book and assigned a page number in the table of contents to help locate them. Page numbers are displayed in the right margin. Because of the very small amount of text on some pages, the page numbers occasionally become superimposed if viewed on a wide screen.

No attempt has been made to standardise the numerous inconsistencies throughout the text with respect to punctuation, [e.g. (No. 490,)/(No. 490.)/(No. 490)/(No. 490).], spelling, case and hyphenation [e.g. P. 36/p. 88, DR. MOFFETT/Dr. MUFFETT, Colton/Coulton, toothach/toothache, Head-Ach/Head-ach/Head-ache, nightmare/Night-Mare/night-mare, mouthsful/mouthfuls, scum/skum, table-spoonful/tablespooonful, Curacoa/Curaçoa, and others]. These and various archaic spellings all remain as in the original. The transcription also replicates the original text in its use of upper case, lower case, small capitals, and italics.

On the other hand, several errors, omissions and uncertainties have been corrected after reference to the subsequent edition (3rd) of the book for clarification: for example, missing characters resulting from incomplete scan images; missing quotation marks; a missing value for ‘Port’ in the table on page 138; and a three-paragraph apparent ‘blockquote’ on page 141 (actually a partial footnote that had become separated from its preceding paragraphs on page 139), has been reunited with the rest of the footnote. A few incorrect page references have been rectified.

The incorrect sequencing of the index replicates that in the original publication. In that era the letters i and j were interchangeable, and words beginning with these letters are grouped together in the index. The words and abbreviations Ditto, ditto, Do., do., are used inconsistently in the index.

Numbered items (sometimes asterisked) of the style (No. 463*) are references to the 3rd edition of “The Cook’s Oracle” as explained on the page that follows the table of contents.

The text contains archaic symbols previously used by apothecaries, namely, ℞ (meaning ‘Prescription take’) on pages 232 and 285 and ℈ (meaning ‘scruple’ – a measure of weight) in Footnote 104. The symbols display correctly with Firefox, Chrome and Safari browsers, but Internet Explorer sometimes fails to display them correctly unless its default font is changed to Lucida Sans Unicode.



L I F E,













Suaviter in modo, sed fortiter in re.



&c. &c. &c.














Art of Invigorating Life1
Reducing Corpulence50
Peptic Precepts156

The Numbers affixed to the various Articles of Food, &c.
are those referred to in the
Third Edition of









Broths, Gravies, Soups, Sauces, Store Sauces,


The Quantity of each Article is



Actual Experiments



“Miscuit utile dulce.”






And sold also by all Booksellers in Town and Country.







Diet and Regimen.

“The choice and measure of the materials of which our Body is composed,—and what we take daily by Pounds,—is at least of as much importance as what we take seldom, and only by Grains and Spoonsful.”—Dr. Arbuthnot on Aliment, pref. p. iii.

The Editor of the following pages had originally an extremely Delicate Constitution;—and at an early period devoted himself to the study of Physic, with the hope—of learning how to make the most of his small stock of Health.

The System he adopted, succeeded, and he is arrived at his forty-third year, in tolerable good Health; and this without any uncomfortable abstinence:—his maxim has ever been, “dum Vivimus, Vivamus.”

He does not mean the Aguish existence of the votary of Fashion—whose Body is burning from voluptuous intemperance to-day, and freezing in miserable collapse to-morrow—not extravagantly consuming in a Day, the animal spirits which Nature intended for the animation of a Week—but keeping the expense of the machinery of Life within the income of Health,—which the Constitution can regularly and comfortably supply.

This is the grand “arcanum duplicatum” for “Living all the days of your Life.”

The Art of Invigorating the Health, and improving the Strength of Man, has hitherto only been considered for the purpose of training1 him for Athletic Exercises—but I have often thought that a similar plan might be adopted with considerable advantage, to animate and strengthen enfeebled Constitutions—prevent Gout—reduce Corpulency—cure Nervous and Chronic Weakness—Hypochondriac and Bilious Disorders, &c.—to increase the Enjoyment, and prolong the duration of Feeble Life—for which Medicine, unassisted by Diet and Regimen,—affords but very trifling and temporary help.

The universal desire of repairing, perfecting, and prolonging Life, has induced many ingenious men to try innumerable experiments on almost all the products of the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral kingdoms, with the hope of discovering Agents, that will not merely increase or diminish the force or frequency of the Pulse; but with an ardour as romantic as the search after the Philosopher’s Stone, they have vainly hoped, that Panaceas might be found possessing the power of curing “all the evils that flesh is heir to.”

This is evident enough to all who have examined the early Pharmacopœias, which are full of heterogeneous compounds, the inventions of interested, and the imaginations of ignorant men.

The liberal and enlightened Physicians of the last and present century have gradually expunged most of these, and made the science of Medicine sufficiently intelligible to those whose business it is to learn it—if Medicine be entirely divested of its Mystery, its power over the Mind, which in most cases forms its main strength, will no longer exist.

It was a favourite remark of the celebrated Dr. John Brown2, that “if a student in Physic employed seven years in storing his memory with the accepted, but,—unfortunately, in nine cases out of ten,—imaginary powers of Medicine, he would, if he did not possess very extraordinary sagacity, lose a much longer time in discovering the multiform delusions his medical oracles had imposed upon him—before he ascertains that, with the exception of Mercury for the Lues,—Bark for Intermittents,—and Sulphur for Psora—the Materia Medica does not furnish many Specifics—and may be almost reduced to Evacuants and Stimuli:”—However, these, skilfully administered, afford all the assistance to Nature, that can be obtained from Art!

Let not the uninitiated in Medical Mysteries imagine for a moment, that the Editor desires to depreciate their Importance—but observe once for all—that he has only one reason for writing this Book—which is, to warn you against the ordinary causes of Disorder—and to teach you the easiest and most salutary method of preventing or subduing it, and of recovering and preserving Health and Strength, when, in spite of all your prudence, you are overtaken by sickness, and have no Medical Friend ready to defend you.

Experience has so long proved the actual importance of Training—that Pugilists will not willingly engage without such preparation.

The principal rules for which are,—to go to Bed early—to Rise early—to take as much Exercise as you can in the open air, without fatigue—to Eat and Drink moderately of plain nourishing Food—and especially,—to keep the Mind diverted3, and in as easy and cheerful a state as possible.

Somewhat such a system is followed at the fashionable watering places—and great would be the improvement of Health that would result from it,—if it was not continually counteracted, by visits to the Ball Room4 and the Card Table.

A residence in the Country will avail little, if you carry with you there, the irregular habits, and late hours of fashionable Life.

Do not expect much benefit from mere change of Air—the purest breezes of the country will produce very little effect, unless accompanied by plenty of regular Exercise5Temperance—and, above all, Tranquillity of Mind.—See Obs. onAir” and “Exercise.”

The following is a brief sketch of the usual Method of Training Persons for Athletic Exercises.

The Alimentary Canal6 is cleansed by an Emetic, and then two or three Purgatives.—See Index.

They are directed to eat Beef and Mutton7—rather under, than over-done, and without either Seasoning or Sauce—Broils, (No. 94), are preferred to either Roasts (No. 19), or Boils—and stale Bread or Biscuit.

Neither Veal—Lamb—Pork—Fish—Milk—Butter—Cheese—Puddings—Pastry—or Vegetables, are allowed.

Beef and Mutton only (fresh, not salted) are ordered;—but we believe this restriction is seldom entirely submitted to.

Nothing tends more to renovate the Constitution, than a temporary retirement to the Country.

The necessity of breathing a pure Air, and the strictest Temperance, are uniformly and absolutely insisted upon by all Trainers;—the striking advantages resulting therefrom, we have heard as universally acknowledged by those who have been trained.

Mild Home-brewed Ale is recommended for Drink—about three pints per day—taken with Breakfast and Dinner, and a little at Supper—not in large draughts—but by mouthfuls, alternately with your food.

Stale Beer often disturbs delicate Bowels—if your Palate warns you that Malt Liquor is inclined to be hard, neutralize it with a little Carbonate of Potash;—that good sound Beer, which is neither nauseous from its newness, nor noxious from its staleness, is in unison with the animating diet of Animal Food, which we are recommending as the most effective antidote to debility, &c. experience has sufficiently proved.—There can be no doubt, that the combination of the tonic power of the Hop, and the nourishment of the Malt, is much more invigorating than any simple vinous spirit,—but the difficulty of obtaining it good, ready brewed—and the trouble of Brewing is so great—that happy are those who are contented with Good Toast and Water (No. 463*), as a diluent to solid food—and a few glasses of wine as a finishing “Bonne Bouche.”

Those who do not like Beer—are allowed Wine and Water—Red wine is preferred to White, and not more than half a pint, (i. e. eight ounces), or four common sized wine glasses, after Dinner—none after Supper—nor any Spirits, however diluted.

Eight hours’ Sleep are necessary—but this is generally left to the previous habits of the Person; those who take active Exercise, require adequate Rest.

Breakfast8 upon meat at eight o’clockDinner at two—Supper is not advised, but they may have a little bit of cold meat about eight o’clock, and take a walk after, between it and ten, when they go to Bed.

The Time requisite to screw a Man up to his fullest Strength, depends upon his previous habits and Age. In the Vigour of Life, between 20 and 35, a Month or two is generally sufficient:—more or less, according as he is older, and as his previous Habits have been in opposition to the above system.

By this mode of proceeding for two or three months—the Constitution of the human frame is greatly improved, and the Courage proportionately increased,—a person who was breathless, and panting on the least exertion—and had a certain share of those Nervous and Bilious Complaints, which are occasionally the companions of all who reside in great Cities—becomes enabled to run with ease and fleetness.

The Restorative Process having proceeded with healthful regularity—every part of the Constitution is effectively invigorated—a Man feels so conscious of the actual augmentation of all his powers, both Bodily and Mental, that he will undertake with alacrity—a task which before he shrunk from encountering.

The clearness of the Complexion is considered the best criterion of a Man’s being in good condition—to which we add the appearance of the Under-Lip—which is plump and rosy, in proportion to the healthy plethora of the constitution:—this is a much more certain symptom of vigorous Health than any indication you can form from the appearance of the Tongue—or the Pulse, which is another very uncertain and deceiving Index,—the strength and frequency of which, not only varies in different persons, but in the same person in different circumstances and positions;—in some Irritable Constitutions the vibration of the Heart varies almost as often as it Beats—when we walk—stand—sit—or lie down—early in the morning—late in the evening—elated with good news—depressed by bad, &c.—when the Stomach is empty—after taking food—after a full meal of Nutritive food—after a spare one of Maigre materials. Moreover, it is impossible to ascertain the degree of deviation from Health by feeling a Pulse—unless we are well acquainted with the peculiarity of it, when the patient is in Health.

The Editor has now arrived at the most difficult part of his work, and needs all the assistance that Training can give, to excite him to proceed with any hope of developing the subject, with that perspicuity and effect—which it deserves, and he desires to give it.

The FoodClothesFireAirExerciseSleepWine, &c. which may be most advisable for invigorating the Health of one individual—may be by no means the best adapted to produce a like good effect with another;—at the time of Life most people arrive at, before they think about these things—they are often become the slaves of habits which have grown with their growth, and strengthened with their strength—and the utmost that can be done after our 40th year, is to endeavour very gradually to correct them.

We caution those who are past the Meridian of Life (see Index)—to beware of suddenly abandoning established Customs, (especially of diminishing the warmth of their Clothing, or the nutritive quality of what they Eat and Drink), which, by long usage, often become as indispensable, as a Mathematical Valetudinarian reckoned his Flannel Waistcoat was—“in the ratio that my Body would be uncomfortable without my Skin—would my Skin be, without my Flannel Waistcoat.”

We recommend those who are in search of Health and Strength, to read the remarks which are classed under the titles Wine,—Siesta,—Clothes,—“Air”—“Fire”—SleepPeptic Precepts, &c.

With the greatest deference, we submit the following sketch, to be variously modified by the Medical Adviser—according to the season of the Year—the Age—Constitution—and previous habits of the Patient,—the purpose it is intended to accomplish—or the Disorder it is intended to prevent or cure.

The first thing to be done, is to put the Principal Viscera into a condition to absorb the pabulum vitæ, we put into the Stomach—as much depends on the state of the Organs of Digestion9 as on the quality of our Diet:—therefore commence with taking, early in the morning, fasting, about half an hour before Breakfast, about two drams of Epsom Salts (i. e. as much as will move the Bowels twice, not more,) in half a pint of warm water.—See Index.

The following day, go into a Tepid Bath, heated to about 95 degrees of Fahrenheit.

The Third day, take another dose of Salts—keeping to a light diet of Fish—Broths, &c. (Nos. 490, 563, 564, and 572). During the next week, take the Tonic Tincture, as directed in (No. 569). See Index. Thus far—any person may proceed without any difficulty,—and great benefit will he derive therefrom, if he cannot pursue the following part of the System:—

Rise early—if the Weather permits, amuse yourself with Exercise in the open air for some time before Breakfast—the material for which, I leave entirely to the previous habit of the Individual.

Such is the sensibility of the Stomach, when recruited by a good night’s rest, that of all alterations in Diet, it will be most disappointed at any change of this Meal—either of the time it is taken—or of the quantity, or quality of it—so much so, that the functions of a delicate Stomach will be frequently deranged throughout the whole Day after.

The Breakfast I recommend, is Good Milk Gruel (No. 572), see Index, or Beef Tea (No. 563), see Index, or Portable Beef Tea (No. 252); a pint of the latter may be made for two-pence halfpenny, as easily as a Basin of Gruel.

The interval between Breakfast and Eleven o’clock, is the best time for Intellectual business—then Exercise again till about Twelve—when probably the Appetite will be craving for a Luncheon, which may consist of a bit of roasted Poultry,—a basin of good Beef Tea, or Eggs poached, (No. 546), or boiled in the Shell, (No. 547), Fish plainly dressed, (No. 144, or 145, &c.), or a Sandwich (No. 504),—stale Bread—and half a pint of good Home-brewed Beer—or Toast and Water, (No. 463*),—see Index,—with about one-fourth or one-third part of its measure of Wine, of which Port is preferred.

The solidity of the Luncheon should be proportionate to the time it is intended to enable you to wait for your Dinner, and the activity of the Exercise you take in the mean-time.

Take Exercise and Amusement as much as is convenient in the open air again, till past Four—then rest, and prepare for Dinner at Five—which should be confined to One Dish, of roasted Beef (No. 19), or Mutton (No. 23), five days in the week—boiled meat one—and roasted Poultry one—with a portion of sufficiently boiled ripe Vegetables—mashed Potatoes are preferred, see (No. 106), and the other fourteen ways of dressing this useful root.

The same restrictions from other articles of Food10, as we have already mentioned in the plan for Training—i. e. if the person trained—has not arrived at that time of Life, when habit has become so strong—that to deprive him of those accustomed Indulgencies, &c. by which his health has hitherto been supported—would be as barbarous—as to take away Crutches from the Lame.

Drink at Dinner, a pint of home-brewed Beer, or Toast and Water (No. 463*), with one-third or one-fourth part Wine, and a few glasses of Wine after—the less, the better—but take as much as custom has made necessary to excite that degree of circulation in your system, without which, you are uncomfortable. Read Obs. onWine.”

After Dinner sit quiet for a couple of hours—the Semi-Siesta is a pleasant position—i. e. the Feet on a stool about eight inches high,—or if your Exercise has fatigued you, lie down, and indulge in Horizontal Refreshment11:—this you may sometimes do with advantage before Dinner, if you have taken more Exercise than usual, and you feel tired:—when the Body is fatigued, the Stomach, by sympathy, will, in proportion, be incapable of doing its business of Digestion.

At Seven, a little Tea, or warmed Milk with a very little Rum, a bit of Sugar, and a little Nutmeg in it—after which, Exercise and Amusement again, if convenient, in the open air.

For Supper, a Biscuit, or a Sandwich, (No. 504), or a bit of cold Fowl, &c. and a glass of Beer, or Wine, and Toast and Water (No. 463*),—and occasionally (No. 572), i. e. as light a Supper as possible—the sooner after Ten you retire to rest, the better.

For those who Dine very late—the best Supper is Gruel (No. 572), or a little Bread and Cheese, or Pounded Cheese (No. 542), and a glass of Beer—but if You have had an early, or a Ban Yan Dinner—or Instinct suggests that the exhaustion, from extraordinary exertion, requires more restorative materials,—furnish your Stomach with a Chop or a Chicken, &c. or some of the easily digestible and nutritive materials referred to in the Index under the article Food for Feeble Stomachs—and as much diffusible stimulus as will animate the Circulation, and ensure the influence of “Nature’s sweet restorer, Balmy Sleep,”—the soundness of which,—depends entirely on the Stomach being in good temper, and the Heart supporting the circulation with Salutary Vigour. See the Art of Sleeping.—Index.

For the Diet to be confined to Beef and Mutton, is a sufficient abridgment of the amusements of the Mouth—it is a barbarous mortification, to insist on these being always cooked the same way12, and we advise an occasional indulgence in the whole range of plain Cookery, from (No. 1) to (No. 98).

Broils (No. 94) are ordered in the plan for Training, probably, because the most convenient manner of obtaining the desired portion Hot,—(Food is then most easy of Digestion—before the process of Digestion can commence, it must take the temperature of the Stomach—which, when in a languid state, has no superfluous Heat to spare—) but as the Lean part is often scorched and dried, and the Fat becomes empyreumatic, from being in immediate contact with the Fire—a slice of well roasted Ribs (No. 20),—or Sir Loin of Beef (No. 19), or a Leg, Neck, Loin, or Saddle of Mutton (No. 23, or 26, or 31), must be infinitely more succulent and nutritive—whether this be rather over, or under-done, the previous habits of the Eater must determine—the Medium, between over and under-dressing—is in general most Agreeable, and certainly most Wholesome.

That Meat which is considerably under-done, contains more Nutriment than that which is over-done, is true enough;—that which is not done at all, contains a great deal more—but, in the ratio that it is Raw13, so is it unfortunately difficult of digestion, as Spallanzani (see Index) has proved by actual and satisfactory experiments.

Our Food must be doneeither by our Cook,—or by our Stomach,—before Digestion can take place—(see 1st page of Obs. on Siesta); surely no man in his senses, would willingly be so wanting in consideration of the comfort, &c. of his Stomach, as to give it the needless trouble of Cooking and Digesting also—and waste its valuable energies in work which a Spit or a Stewpan can do better.

Thoroughly dressed Beef (No. 19), or Mutton (No. 23), is incomparably the most animating Food we can furnish our Stomachs with, and sound Home-brewed Beer, the most invigorating Drink—It is indeed, Gentle Reader, notwithstanding a foolish fashion has banished the natural beverage of Great Britain—as extremely ungenteel.—

“Your Wine tippling, Dram sipping fellows retreat,
But your Beer-drinking Briton can never be beat.”

The best Tests of the Restorative qualities of Food—are a small quantity of it satisfying Hunger,—the strength of the Pulse after it,—and the length of Time which elapses before Appetite returns again:—according to these Rules, the Editor’s own experience gives a decided verdict in favour of Roasted or Broiled Beef (No. 19 or 94), or Mutton (No. 26 or 23), as most nutritive,—then Game and Poultry, of which the meat is Brown, (No. 59, or 61, or 74), next Veal and Lamb and Poultry, of which the meat is White—the Fat kinds of Fish, Eels—Salmon—Herrings, &c. and least nutritive, the white kinds of Fish—such as Whiting, Cod, Soles, Haddocks, &c. For further information, see Oysters, (No. 181).

The celebrated Trainer, Sir Thomas Parkyns, &c., “greatly preferred Beef-eaters—to Sheep-biters, as they called those who ate Mutton.”

By Dr. Stark’s very curious Experiments on Diet, p. 110, it appears, that “when he fed upon Roasted Goose, he was much more vigorous both in Body and Mind, than with any other food.”

That Fish is less nutritive than Flesh—the speedy return of Hunger after a dinner of Fish is sufficient proof—when a Trainer at Newmarket14 wishes to waste a Jockey—he is not allowed Pudding, if Fish can be had.

Crabs,—Lobsters (No. 176), Prawns, &c. unless thoroughly boiled, (which those sold ready boiled seldom are), are tremendously indigestible.

Shell Fish have long held a high rank in the catalogue of easily digestible and speedily restorative Foods:—of these Oysters (No. 181), certainly deserve the best character; but we think that they, as well as Eggs,—Gelatinous Substances,—Rich Broths15, &c. have acquired not a little more reputation for these qualities than they deserve.

Oysters are often cold and uncomfortable to Dyspeptic Stomachs—unless warmed with a certain quantity of Pepper, and good White Wine.

To recruit the Animal Spirits, and produce Strength, there is nothing like Beef and Mutton—moreover, when kept till properly tender, none will give less trouble to the Digestive organs—and more substantial excitement to the Constitution.

The Editor has dined for some years principally upon plainly roasted or boiled Beef and Mutton, and has often observed, that if he changes it for any other Food for several days together—that he suffers a diminution of strength, &c. and is disposed on such days to drink an additional Glass of Wine, &c. See Index.

However, the fitness of various Foods, and Drinks—and the quantity of Nutriment which they afford—depends very much upon how they are prepared, and as much on the inclination and abilities of the concoctive faculties, which have the task of converting them into Chyle.

It is quite as absurd, to suppose, that one kind of Diet, &c. is equally adapted to every kind of Constitution—as that one Remedy will cure all Diseases.

To produce the highest degree of Health and Strength—we must supply the Stomach with not merely that material which contains the greatest quantity of Nourishment—but in making our reckoning, must take into the account, the degree in which it is adapted to the habits and powers of the Organ which is to digest it—the Arms of a Giant are of little use in the Hands of a Dwarf.

The Plan we have proposed, was calculated for Midsummer-day,—when plenty of hard Exercise in the open Air will soon create an Appetite for the substantial Diet we have recommended—it is taken for granted, that a Person has the opportunity of devoting a couple of months to the re-establishment of his Health—and that during that time, he will be content to consider himself in the same state as any other Animal out of condition—and disposed to submit cheerfully to such a modification of the rules recommended, as his Medical Adviser may deem most convenient to the circumstances of the Case, and the Age, the Constitution, and previous habits of the Patient, &c. &c.

Every part of this system must be observed in proportion—and Exercise increased in the same degree, that Nourishment is introduced to the Constitution.

The best General Rule for Diet that I can write, is to Eat and Drink only of such Foods—at such times,—and in such quantities—as Experience has convinced you, agree with your Constitution—and absolutely to avoid all other.

A very different Regimen must be observed by those who live a Life with Labour—or Exercise—or of Indolence,—and at the different Periods of Life.

Human Life may be divided into Three Stages.

The First, The period of Preparation from our birth, till about our 21st year, when the Body has generally attained the acmé of expansion:—till then, a continual and copious supply of Chyle is necessary, not only to keep our machinery in repair, but to furnish material for the increase of it.

The Second from 21 to 42, The period of Active Usefulness; during which, nothing more is wanted, than to restore the daily waste, occasioned by the actions of the Vital and Animal Functions.

The Third, The period of Decline: this comes on and proceeds with more or less celerity, according to the original strength of the Constitution, and the Economy16 with which it has been managed during the second period. (Age is a relative term,—one man is as old at 40 as another is at 60): but after 42, the most vigorous become gradually more passive17—and after 63, pretty nearly quite so.



—Ideas received through the Senses.
—Speaking, and Pronunciation.
—Letters, and Spelling.
—Ideas retained in the Memory.
—Reading and Repeating.
—Grammar of his own Language.
—Memory exercised.
—Moral and Religions Lessons.
—Natural History and Experiments.
10 —Dancing, Music, Drawing, Exercises.
—History of his own Country.
—French and Italian.
15 —Translations.
—Compositions in Verse and Prose.
—Rhetoric and Declamation.
—History and Law.
—Logic and Mathematics.
20 —Rhetorical Exercises.
—Philosophy and Politics.
—Compositions in his own Language.
—Declamations continued.
—Ancient Orators studied.
25 —Travel and Conversation.
—Speeches at the Bar, or in Parliament.
—State Affairs.
—Historical Studies continued.
—Law and Eloquence.
30 —Public Life.
—Private and Social Virtues.
—Habits of Eloquence improved.
—Philosophy resumed at leisure.
—Orations published.
35 —Exertions in State and Parliament.
—Civil Knowledge mature.
—Eloquence perfect.
—National Rights defended.
—The Learned protected.
40 —The Virtuous assisted.
—Compositions published.
—Science improved.
—Parliamentary Affairs.
—Laws enacted, and supported.
45 —Fine Arts patronized.
—Government of his Family.
—Education of his Children.
—Vigilance as a Magistrate.
—Firmness as a Patriot.
50 —Virtue as a Citizen.
—Historical Works.
—Oratorical Works.
—Philosophical Works.
—Political Works.
55 —Mathematical Works.
 }Continuation of former Pursuits.
60  }
—Fruits of his Labour enjoyed.
—A glorious Retirement.
—An amiable Family.
—Universal Respect.
65 —Consciousness of a Virtuous Life.
 }Perfection of Earthly Happiness.
70 —Preparation for ETERNITY.

The most common cause of Dyspeptic Disorders, which are so prevalent at the commencement of the Third Period of Life—is an increasing indolence, inducing us to diminish the degree of the active Exercise we have been in the habit of taking—without in a corresponding degree diminishing the quantity of our Food—on the contrary, people seem to expect the Stomach to grow stronger and to work harder as it gets Older, and to almost entirely support the Circulation without the help of Exercise.—

As the activity of our existence—and the accommodating powers of the Stomach, &c. diminish—in like degree—must we lessen the quantity—and be careful of the quality of our Food, eat oftener and less at a time—or Indigestion—and the multitude of Disorders of which it is the fruitful parent, will soon destroy us.

The System of Cornaro has been oftener quoted, than understood—most people imagine, it was one of rigid Abstinence and comfortless Self-denial—but this was not the case:—his Code of Longevity consisted in steadily obeying the suggestions of Instinct—and Economizing his Vitality, and living under his income of Health,—carefully regulating his temper—and cultivating cheerful habits.

The following is a Compendium of his planin his own words.

He tells us that when Fourscore

“I am used to take in all twelve ounces of solid nourishment, such as Meat, and the yolk of an Egg, &c. and fourteen ounces of drink:—I eat Bread, Soup, New-laid Eggs, Veal, Kid, Mutton, Partridge, Pullets, Pigeons, &c. and some Sea and River Fish.

“I made choice of such Wines and Meats as agreed with my Constitution, and declined all other diet—and proportioned the quantity thereof to the strength of my Stomach, and abridged my Food—as my years increased.

“Every one is the best judge of the food which is most agreeable to his own Stomach,—it is next to impossible, to judge what is best for another;—the Constitutions of men are as different from each other as their complexions.”—p. 36.

“1st. Take care of the quality.

“2dly. Of the quantity—so as to eat and drink nothing that offends the Stomach, nor any more than you can easily digest: your experience ought to be your guide in these two principles when you arrive at Forty: by that time you ought to know that you are in the midst of your life; thanks to the goodness of your Constitution which has carried you so far: but that when you are arrived to this period, you go down the hill apace—and it is necessary for you to change your course of life, especially with regard to the quantity and quality of your diet—because it is on that, the health and length of our days do radically depend. Lastly; if the former part of our lives has been altogether sensual—the latter ought to be rational and regular; order being necessary for the preservation of all things, especially the life of man.—Longevity cannot be attained without continence and sobriety18.”

“At thirty Man suspects himself a Fool,
Knows it at forty, and reforms his plan.”

By the small quantity of Food, and great proportion of his Meat to his Drink, this noble Venetian, at the age of forty, freed himself, by the advice of his Physicians, from several grievous disorders contracted by intemperance, and lived in health of body, and great cheerfulness of mind, to above an hundred.—Briefly, the secret of his Longevity seems to have been, a gradually increasing Temperance “in omnibus”—and probably, after a certain time of Life, abstinence from the “opus magnum.”

The source of physical and moral Health, Happiness, and Longevity,—

“Reason’s whole pleasure, all the Joys of Sense
Lie in three words, Health, peace, and competence.
But Health consists in temperance alone;
And Peace, oh Virtue! Peace is all thy own.”

Intensive Life, can only be purchased at the price of Extensive.

If you force the Heart to gallop as fast during the second, as it does during the first stage of life—and make the steady fire of 42, to blaze as brightly as the flame of 21,—it will very soon be burnt out.

Those who cannot be content to submit to that diminution of action ordained by nature, against which there is no appeal,—as it is the absolute covenant, by the most attentive and implicit observance of which we can only hope to hold our lease of life comfortably,—will soon bring to the diminished energy of the Second Stage of Life—the Paralysis of the Third.

From 40 to 60, a witty French author tells us, is “La belle saison19 pour la Gourmandise;”—for the artificial pleasures of the Palate, it may be, and the Bon Vivant cultivates them as the means of prolonging the vigour of Youth—and procrastinating the approach of Age.

Restoration may certainly be considerably facilitated, by preparing and dressing food so as to render it easily soluble—if the secret of Rejuvenization be ever discovered; it will be found in the Kitchen.

Very soon after we pass the Meridian of Life, (which, according to those who train men for athletic exercises, and to Dr. Jameson,20 is our 28th, and to Dr. Cheyne, about our 35th year,) the elasticity of the Animal System imperceptibly diminishes,—our Senses become less susceptible, and are every hour getting the worse for wear, however Self-Love, assisted by your Hair-dresser, and Tailor, &c. may endeavour to persuade you to the contrary.

Digestion and Sleep are less perfect—the restorative process more and more fails to keep pace with the consuming process—the body is insufficiently repaired, more easily deranged, and with more difficulty brought into adjustment again; till at length the vital power being diminished, and the organs deteriorated,—Nourishment can neither be received, or prepared and diffused through the constitution—and Consumption so much exceeds Renovation, that decay rapidly closes the scene of Life.

One may form some Idea of the Self-consumption of the human body, by reflecting that the pulsation of the Heart, and the motion of the Blood connected with it, takes place 100,000 times every day; i. e. on an average

the pulse21 beats70 times in a minute,
multiplied by60 minutes in an hour,
24 hours in a day,
100800 pulsations in a day.

What Machine, of the most adamantine material, will not soon be the worse for wear, from such incessant vibration—especially if the Mainsprings of it are not preserved in a state of due regulation?

The generative faculties, which are the last that Nature finishes—are the first that fail.—Economy in the exercise of them—especially before and after the second period of Life—is the grand precept for the restoration and accumulation of Strength, the preservation of Health, and the prolongation of Life;—we are vigorous, in proportion to the perfection of the performance of the Restorative process, i. e. as we Eat hearty, and Sleep soundly—as our Body loses the power of renovating itself, in like ratio, fails its faculty of creating—what may be a salutary subduction of the superfluous health of the Second—during the Third period of life, will be a destructive sacrifice of the strength of both the Mind and the Body.—See also the 9th chapter of the First Edition of Willich on Diet. 8vo. 1799.

The next organical defect, (we perceive too plainly for our self-love to mistake it,) is manifested by the Eye22. To read a small print—you must remove it from the Eye further than you have been accustomed to do—and place it in a better light.

The Falsetto Voice now begins to fail, and the Ear loses some of its quickness—several extraordinary Musicians have been able till then, if a handful of the keys of a Harpsichord were put down so as to produce the most irrelative combinations—to name each half note without a mistake.—When I mentioned this to that excellent Organ Player, Mr. Charles Wesley, he said, “At the age of twenty, I could do it myself—but I can’t now.” He was then in his 55th year.

About the same time, the Palate is no longer contented with being employed as a mere shovel to the Stomach,—and as it finds its master becomes every day more difficult to please—learns to be a more watchful Purveyor.

After 40,—the strongest People begin to talk about being Bilious, or Nervous, &c. &c. and the Stomach will no longer do its duty properly—unless the Food offered to it is perfectly agreeable to it—when offended, Indigestion brings with it, all that melancholy depression of the Animal Spirits, which disables a Man from either thinking with precision, or acting with vigour—during the distressing suspension of the restorative process—arise all those miseries of Mind and Body, which drive Fools to get drunk, and make Madmen commit suicide:—without due attention to Diet, &c. the Third period of Life is little better than a Chronic Disease.

As our assimilating powers become enfeebled, we must endeavour to entertain them with food so prepared, as to give them the least trouble, and the most nourishment23.

In the proportion that our Food is restorative, and properly digested—our bodies are preserved in Health and Strength—and all our faculties continue vigorous and perfect.

If it is unwholesome, ill-prepared, and indigestible—the Body languishes, and is exhausted even in its youth—its strength and faculties daily decrease, and it sinks beneath the weight of the painful sensations attendant on a state of Decay.

Would to Heaven that a Cook could help our Stomachs, as much as an Optician can our Eyes: our Existence would be as much more perfect than it now is, as our Sight is superior to our other Senses.

“The vigour of the Mind decays with that of the Body—and not only Humour and Invention, but even Judgment and Resolution, change and languish, with ill constitution of Body and of Health.”—Sir William Temple.

The following account of the successful REDUCTION OF CORPULENCE AND IMPROVEMENT OF HEALTH, the Editor can vouch for being a faithful statement of Facts.

30 January, 1821.


In consequence of the Conversation I had with you, upon the advantages I had derived from Exercise and attention to Diet in the reduction of Weight, and your desire that I should communicate as far as I recollect them, the particulars of my Case; I have great pleasure in forwarding to you the following Statement.

I measure in height six Feet and half an Inch,—possess a sound Constitution and considerable activity.—At the age of Thirty I weighed about 18 Stone—two years afterwards I had reached the great weight of nineteen Stone, in perfect Health, always sleeping well and enjoying good Appetite and Spirits—soon after, however, I began to experience the usual attendants on fullness of Habit, a disinclination to rise in the morning from drowsiness, heaviness about the Forehead after I had risen, and a disposition to Giddiness;—I was also attacked by a complaint in one of my Eyes, the Symptoms of which it is unnecessary to describe, but it proved to be occasioned by fullness of blood, as it was removed by cupping in the temple. I lost four ounces of blood from the temple; and thinking that the loss of a little more might be advantageous, I had eight ounces taken from the back; and in order to prevent the necessity, as far as possible, of future bleeding, I resolved to reduce the system—by increasing my Exercise and diminishing my Diet.

I therefore took an early opportunity of seeing Mr. Jackson, (whose respectability and skill as a teacher of sparring is universally acknowledged,) and after some Conversation with him, determined upon acting under his Advice.

I accordingly commenced Sparring, having provided myself with flannel Dresses, which I always used, being extremely careful on changing them to avoid the risk of cold, and I recollect no instance in which I was not successful.

I also had recourse to Riding Schools, riding without stirrups, so as to have the advantage of the most powerful exercise the Horse could give;—these exercises I took in the morning in the proportion probably of sparring twice a week, and riding three or four times.

Frequently at night I resumed my Exercise,—Walking and sometimes Running, generally performing about five miles an hour, till I again produced perspiration; every other Opportunity I could resort to of bodily exercise I also availed myself of.

In respect to diet, I had accustomed myself to Suppers and drinking excellent Table Beer in large quantities, and for probably ten Years, had indulged myself with Brandy and Water after Supper:—this practice I entirely discontinued, substituting Toast and Water with my Dinner, and Tea and a good allowance of Toast for Supper, always avoiding copious Draughts.

I left off drinking malt Liquor as a habit, and indeed, very seldom drank it at all.—I took somewhat less meat at Dinner, avoiding Pies and Puddings as much as possible, but always took three or four Glasses of Port after dinner.

During the time I was under this training, I took the opinion of an eminent Physician upon the subject, who entirely approved of my Plan, and recommended the occasional use of Aperient medicine, but which I seldom resorted to.

The Result of all this, was a reduction of my Weight of upwards of three Stone, or about Forty-five Pounds, in about six or seven months.—I found my activity very much increased, and my wind excellent, but, I think, my Strength not quite so great, though I did not experience any material Reduction of it: my Health was perfect throughout.

I then relaxed my System a little, and have up to the present time, being a period of ten Years, avoided the necessity of bleeding, and have enjoyed an almost uninterrupted continuance of good Health, although my Weight has gradually increased; sometimes, however, fluctuating between 7 or 8 Pounds and a Stone, according to my means of Exercise,—always increasing in Winter, and losing in Summer;—and at this moment (January 29th, 1821,) I am about a Stone more than I ought to be, having ascertained, that my best bodily Strength, is at sixteen Stone and a half.

When the object is to Reduce Weight, rest and moderate Food will always sufficiently restore the exhaustion arising from Exercise;—if an additional quantity of Food and nourishing Liquors be resorted to, the Body will in general be restored to the weight it was before the Exercise.

I have sometimes lost from ten ounces to a Pound in weight by an Hour’s sparring. If the object be not to reduce the weight, the Food may safely be proportioned to the Exercise.

You will readily perceive, that the plan I adopted, ought only to be resorted to by Persons of sound Constitution and of athletic bodily Frame,—it would be absurd to lay down a general rule for the adoption of all fat men.

I think, with all lusty men, the drinking of malt Liquor of any kind is injurious,—Meat taken more than once a day is liable to the same Objection. I still persevere in the disuse of malt Liquors and Spirits, and Suppers, seldom taking more than four Glasses of Wine as a habit,—although I do not now deem it necessary to make myself so far the Slave of habit, as to refuse the Pleasures of the Table when they offer.

I am, dear Sir,

Yours very truly,

The following are the most interesting Facts in Dr. Bryan Robinson’s Essay on the Food and Discharges of the Human Body, 8vo. 1748, which has become scarce.

“I am now, in May 1747, in the 68th year of my age. The length of my Body is 63 Inches: I am of a sanguine but not robust constitution—and am at present neither lean nor fat. In the year 1721 the Morning weight of my body without Clothes, was about 131 Avoirdupois pounds, the daily weight of my food at a medium was about 85 Avoirdupois ounces, and the proportion of my Drink to my Meat, I judge was at that time about 2.5—to 1.

“At the latter end of May 1744, my weight was above 164 pounds, and the proportion of my Drink to my Meat was considerably greater than before, and had been so for some time. I was then seized with a Paralytic disorder, which obliged me to make an alteration in my diet. In order to settle the proportion of my Drink to my Meat, I considered what others have said concerning this proportion.

“According to Sanctorius, though he reckons it a disproportion, the drink to the meat in his time, was about 10 to 3 in temperate bodies.

Cornaro’s drink to his Meat, was as7 to 6.
Mr. Rye’s, in winter, as4 to 3.
Dr. Lining’s, at a medium11 to 3.
And my drink to my meat5 to 2.
A mean taken from all these makes the
Drink to the Meat—about
2 to 1.

B. Robinson on Food and Discharges, p. 34.

“At the age of 64, by lessening my food, and increasing the proportion of my meat to my drink, i. e. by lessening my drink about a third part, (i. e. to 20 ounces) and my meat about a sixth, (i. e. 38 ounces) of what they were in 1721, I have freed myself for these two years past from the returns of a Sore throat and Diarrhœa,—Disorders I often had, though they were but slight, and never confined me. I have been much more costive than I was before, when I lived more fully, and took more Exercise, and have greatly, for my age, recovered the paralytic weakness I was seized with three years ago.

“Hence we gather, that good and constant Health consists in a just quantity of food; and a just proportion of the meat to the drink: and that to be freed from chronical disorders contracted by Intemperance—the quantity of food ought to be lessened; and the proportion of the meat to the drink increased—more or less, according to the greatness of the disorders, p. 61.

“I commonly ate four ounces of Bread and Butter, and drank half a pound of a very weak infusion of Green Tea for Breakfast. For Dinner I took two ounces of Bread, and the rest Flesh-meat,—Beef, Mutton, Pork, Veal, Hare, Rabbit, Goose, Turkey, Fowl tame and wild, and Fish. I generally chose the strongest meats as fittest, since they agreed well with my stomach, to keep up the power of my body under this great diminution of my food; I seldom took any Garden stuff—finding that it commonly lessened perspiration and increased my weight.—I drank four ounces of water with my meat and a pound of Claret after I had done eating. At night I ate nothing, but drank 12 ounces of water with a pipe of Tobacco, p. 63.

“There is but one Weight, under which a grown body can enjoy the best and most uninterrupted Health. p. 91. That Weight is such as enables the Heart to supply the several parts of the body with just quantities of Blood. p. 100.

“The weight under which an Animal has the greatest strength and activity—which I shall call its Athletic weight,—is that weight under which the Heart—and the proportion of the weight of the Heart to the weight of the body are greatest: the strength of the Muscles is measured by the strength of the Heart, p. 117.

“If the weight of the body of an Animal be greater than its Athletic Weight, it may be reduced to that weight by evacuations, dry food and exercise. These lessen the weight of the Body, by wasting its fat, and lessening its Liver; and they increase the weight of the Heart, by increasing the quantity and motion of the blood. Thus a game Cock in ten days is reduced to his athletic weight, and prepared for fighting.

“If the Food, which with Evacuations and Exercise, reduced the Cock to his athletic weight in ten days, be continued any longer, the Cock will not have that strength and activity which he had before under his athletic weight; which may be owing to the loss of weight going on after he arrives at his athletic weight.

“It is known by experiment, that a Cock cannot stand above 24 hours at his athletic weight, and that a Cock has changed very much for the worse in 12 hours.

“When a Cock is at the top of his condition, that is, when he is at his athletic weight, his Head is of a glowing red colour, his Neck thick, and his Thigh thick and firm;—the day after his complexion is less glowing, his Neck thinner, and his Thigh softer;—and the third day his Thigh will be very soft and flaccid. p. 119.

“If the increase of weight in a small compass of time, rise to above a certain quantity, it will cause disorders.

“I can bear an increase of above a pound and a half in one day, and an increase of three or four pounds in six or seven days, without being disordered; but think I should suffer from an increase of five or six pounds in that time.

“An increase of weight may be carried off by lessening the Food,—or by increasing the Discharges.—The discharges may be increased either by exercise, or by evacuations procured by art.

“By lessening the daily quantity of my food to 23 ounces, I have lost 26 ounces;—by fasting a whole day, I lost 48 ounces, having gained 27 the day before.

“Mr. Rye was a strong, well set, corpulent man, of a sanguine complexion; by a brisk walk for one hour before breakfast he threw off, by insensible perspiration, one pound of increased weight; by a walk of three hours, he threw off two pounds of increased weight. The best way to take off an increase of weight which threatens a distemper, is either by fasting or exercise. p. 84.

“The mean loss of weight by several grown bodies caused by a purging medicine composed of a drachm of Jalap and ten grains of Calomel, was about 2¾ Avoirdupois pounds; and the mean quantity of Liquor, drank during the time of Purging, was about double the loss of Weight.”—Robinson on the Animal Economy, p. 458.

“I have lost, by a spontaneous Diarrhœa, two pounds in twenty-four hours; and Mr. Rye lost twice that quantity in the same time.”—On the Food and Discharges of Human Bodies, by B. Robinson, p. 84.

“Most Chronic Diseases—arise from too much Food and too little Exercise,—both of which lessen the weight of the Heart and the quantity of Blood;—the first by causing fatness; the second by a diminution of the blood’s motion.

“Hence, when the Liver is grown too large by Intemperance and Inactivity, it may be lessened and brought to a healthful magnitude by Temperance and Exercise.—It may be emptied other ways by art; but nothing can prevent its filling again, and consequently secure good and constant Health—but an exact Diet and Exercise. Purging and Vomiting may lessen the Liver, and reduce it to its just magnitude;—but these evacuations cannot prevent its increasing again, so long as persons live too fully, and use too little exercise—and can only be done by lessening the Food and increasing the Exercise.

“Much sleep, much food, and little exercise, are the principal things which make animals grow fat. If the Body, on account of Age or other Infirmities, cannot use sufficient Exercise, and takes much the same quantity of Sleep, its weight must be lessened by lessening the Food, which may be done by lessening the Drink, without making any change in the Meat; as I have proved myself by experience.”—p. 90.

On this subject, see also—Dr. Stark on Diet, and Sanctorius’ Medecina Statica. Dr. Heming on Corpulency.—Mr. Wadd on Corpulency.—Dr. Arbuthnot on Aliment.


“When tired with vain rotations of the Day,
Sleep winds us up for the succeeding dawn.”

Health may be as much injured by interrupted and insufficient Sleep, as by luxurious indulgence.

Valetudinarians who regularly retire to rest, and arise at certain hours, are unable, without injurious violence to their feelings—to resist the inclination to do so.

“Pliant Nature more or less demands
As Custom forms her; and all sudden change
She hates, of Habit even from bad to good.
If faults in Life—or new emergencies
From Habits24 urge you by long time confirm’d,
Slow must the change arrive, and stage by stage,
Slow as the stealing progress of the Year.”
Armstrong’s Art of Preserving Health.

How important it is, then, to cultivate good and convenient Habits:—Custom will soon render the most rigid rules, not only easy, but agreeable.—

“The Strong, by bad habits, grow weaker, we know;
And by good ones, the Weak will grow stronger also.”

The Debilitated require much more rest than the Robust:—nothing is so restorative to the nerves, as sound, and uninterrupted Sleep, which is the chief source of both Bodily and Mental Strength.

The Studious need a full portion of Sleep, which seems to be as necessary nutriment to the Brain, as Food is to the Stomach.

Our Strength and Spirits are infinitely more exhausted by the exercise of our Mental, than by the labour of our Corporeal faculties—let any person try the effect of Intense Application for a few hours—He will soon find how much his Body is fatigued thereby, although He has not stirred from the Chair He sat on.

Those who are candidates for Health—must be as circumspect in the task they set their mind,—as in the exercise they give to their Body.

Dr. Armstrong, the Poet of Health, observes,

“’Tis the great Art of Life to manage well
The restless Mind.”

The grand secret seems to be, to contrive that the exercise of the Body, and that of the Mind, may serve as relaxations to each other.

Over Exertion, or Anxiety of Mind, disturbs Digestion infinitely more than any fatigue of Body—the Brain demands a much more abundant supply of the Animal Spirits, than is required for the excitement of mere Legs and Arms.

“’Tis the Sword that wears out the Scabbard.”

Of the two ways of fertilizing the Brain—by Sleep, or by Spirituous Stimulus—(for some write best in the Morning, others when wound up with Wine, after Dinner or Supper:) the former is much less expensive—and less injurious to the constitution than either Port, or Brandy, whose aid it is said that some of our best Authors have been indebted to, for their most brilliant productions.

Calling one day on a literary friend, we found him reclining on a Sofa—on expressing our concern to find him indisposed, he said, “No, I was only hatching,—I have been writing till I was quite tired—my paper must go to Press to day—so I was taking my usual restorative—A Nap—which if it only lasts five minutes, so refreshes my Mind—that my Pen goes to work again spontaneously.”

Is it not better Economy of Time, to go to sleep for half an hour,—than to go on noodling all day in a nerveless and semi-superannuated state—if not asleep, certainly not effectively Awake—for any purpose requiring the Energy of either the Body, or the Mind.

A Forty Winks Nap,” in an horizontal posture, is the best preparative for any extraordinary exertion of either.

Those who possess, and employ the powers of the Mind most—seldom attain the greatest Age25:—see Brunaud de L’Hygiene des Gens de Lettres, Paris, 8vo. 1819:—the Envy their Talent excites,—the Disappointment they often meet with in their expectations of receiving the utmost attention and respect, (which the world has seldom the gratitude to pay them while they live,) keep them in a perpetual state of irritation and disquiet—which frets them prematurely to their Grave26.

To rest a whole Day—under great fatigue of either Body or Mind, is occasionally extremely beneficial—it is impossible to regulate Sleep by the hour;—when the Mind and the Body have received all the refreshment which Sleep can give, people cannot lie in Bed, and till then, they should not Rise27.

“Preach not me your musty Rules
Ye Drones, that mould in idle cell;
The Heart is wiser than the Schools,
The Senses always reason well.”

Our Philosophical Poet here gives the best practical maxim on the subject for Valetudinarians—who, by following his advice, may render their Existence, instead of a dull unvaried round of joyless, useless self-denial,—a circle of agreeable sensation;—for instance, go not to your Bed till You are tired of sitting up—then remain in an Horizontal posture,—till You long to change it for a Vertical: thus, by a little management, the inevitable business of Life may be converted into a source of continual Enjoyment.

All-healing Sleep soon neutralizes the corroding caustic of Care—and blunts even the barbed arrows of the marble-hearted Fiend, Ingratitude.

When the Pulse is almost paralysed by Anxiety,—half an hour’s repose, will cheer the circulation, restore tranquillity to the perturbed spirit—and dissipate those heavy clouds of Ennui, which sometimes threaten to eclipse the brightest Minds, and best Hearts.—Child of Woe, lay thy Head on thy pillow, (instead of thy Mouth to the bottle,) and bless me for directing Thee to the true source of Lethe—and most sovereign Nepenthé for the Sorrows of Human Life.

The Time requisite to restore the waste occasioned by the action of the Day—depends on the activity of the habits, and on the Health of the Individual,—in general it cannot be less than Seven—and need not be more than Nine hours28.

Invalids will derive much benefit from indulging in the Siesta whenever they feel languid.

A Sailor will tell you, that a Seaman can sleep as much in five hours, as a Landsman can in ten.

Whether rising very early lengthens Life we know not,—but think that sitting up very late shortens it,—and recommend you to rise by eight, and retire to rest by eleven; your feelings will bear out the adage, that “one Hour’s rest before midnight, is worth two after.”

When Old People have been examined with a view to ascertain the causes of their Longevity, they have uniformly agreed in one thing only,—that they ALL went to Bed early, and rose early.

“Early to bed, and early to rise,
Will make you healthy, wealthy, and wise.”

Dr. Franklin published an ingenious Essay on the advantage of early rising—He called it “an Economical Project,” and calculated, that the saving that might be made in the City of Paris, by using Sunshine instead of Candles—at no less than £4,000,000 Sterling.

If the Delicate, and the nervous, the very Young, or the very Old—sit up beyond their usual hour, they feel the want of artificial aid, to raise their spirits to what is no more than the ordinary pitch of those who are in the vigour of their Life—and must fly from the festive board—or purchase a few hours of hilarity at the heavy price of Head-Ach and Dyspepsia for many days after; and a terrible exasperation of any Chronic Complaint they are afflicted with.

When the Body and Mind are both craving repose—to force their action, by the spur of spirituous stimulus, is the most extravagant waste of the “Vis Vitæ,” that Fashion ever invented to consume her foolish Votaries—for Fools they certainly are, who mortgage the comfort of a Week, for the conviviality of an Hour—with the certainty of their term of Life being speedily foreclosed by Gout, Palsy, &c.

Among the most distressing miseries of this “Elysium of Bricks and Mortar,” may be reckoned how rarely we enjoy “the sweets of a Slumber unbroke.”

Sound passes through the thin Party Walls of modern Houses, (which of the first rate, at the Fire Place, are only four inches in thickness;) with most unfortunate facility; this is really an evil of the first magnitude,—if You are so unlucky as to have for next door neighbours—fashionable folks who turn night into day, or such as delight in the sublime Economy of Cindersaving, or Cobweb catching,—it is in vain to seek repose, before the former has indulged in the Evening’s recreation of raking out the Fire, and has played with the Poker till it has made all the red coals black; or, after Molidusta, the Tidy One, has awoke the Morn—with “the Broom, the bonny, bonny Broom.”

A determined Dusthunter, or Cindersaver, murders its neighbour’s sleep—with as little mercy, as Macbeth did Malcolm’s—and bangs doors, and rattles Window shutters, till the “Earth trembles, and Air is aghast!”

All attempts to conciliate a Savage who is in this fancy—will be labour in vain—the arrangement of its fire29 is equally the occupation of the morning, and the amusement of the evening; the preservation of a Cinder and the destruction of a Cobweb, are the main business of its existence:—the best advice we can give you, gentle Reader—is to send it this little Book—and beseech it to place the following pages opposite to its Optic nerves some morning—after you have diverted it from Sleep every half hour during the preceding Night30.

Counsellor Scribblefast, a Special Pleader, who lived on a ground-floor in the Temple—about the time that Sergeant Ponder who dwelt on the first floor, retired to rest, began to practise his Violoncello, “And his loud voice in Thunder spoke.”—The Student above—by way of giving him a gentle hint, struck up “Gently strike the warbling Lyre,” and Will. Harmony’s favourite Hornpipes of “Dont Ye,” and “Pray be Quiet:” however, the dolce and pianissimo of poor Ponder produced no diminution of the prestissimo and fortissimo of the indefatigable Scribblefast.

Ponder, prayed “silence in the Court,” and complained in most pathetic terms—but, alas! his “lowly suit and plaintive ditty” made not the least impression on him who was beneath him.—He at length procured a set of Skettles, and as soon as his musical neighbour had done fiddling, he began con strepito, and bowled away merrily till the morning dawned.—The enraged Musician did not wait long after daylight, to put in his plea against such proceedings, and received in reply, that such exercise had been ordered by a Physician, as the properest Paregoric, after being disturbed by the thorough Bass of the Big Fiddle below—this soon convinced the tormentor of Catgut, who dwelt on the Ground-Floor, that He could not annoy his superior with Impunity, and produced silence on both sides.

People are very unwisely inconsiderate how much it is their own Interest to attend to the comforts of their Neighbours, for which we have a divine command “to love our neighbour as ourself.” “Sic utere tuo, ut alienum non lædas,” is the maxim of our English law. Interrupting one’s Sleep is as prejudicial to Health, as any of the nuisances Blackstone enumerates as actionable.

The majority of the Dogs,—Parrots,—Piano-Fortes, &c. in this Metropolis, are Actionable Nuisances!!!

However inferior in rank and fortune, &c. your next door neighbour may be—there are moments when He may render you the most valuable service.—“A Lion owed his life to the exertions of a Mouse.”

Those who have not the power to please—should have the discretion not to offend;—the most humble may have opportunities to return a Kindness, or resent an Insult.

It is Madness to wantonly annoy any one.

There is plenty of Time for the performance of all offensively noisy operations, between 10 in the Morning and 10 at Night—during which the industrious Housemaid may indulge her Arms in their full swing—and while she polishes her black-leaded grate to the lustre which is so lovely in the eyes of “the Tidy,” the Tat-Too her brush strikes up against its sides may be performed without distressing the irritable ears of her Nervous Neighbours—to whom undisturbed Repose is the most Vital Nourishment.

Little Sweep Soot Ho is another dreadful disturber.—The shrill screaming of these poor boys, “making night hideous,” (indeed at any time) at five or six o’clock in cold dark weather, is a most barbarous custom, and frequently disturbs a whole street before they rouse the drowsy sluggard who sent for him—his Row dy Dow when he reaches the top of the Chimney, and his progress down again, awaken the soundest sleepers, who often wish, that, instead of the Chimney,—he was smiting the skull of the Barbarian who set the poor Child to work at such an unseasonable hour.

The Editor’s feelings are tremblingly alive on this subject.

“Finis coronat opus.”

However soundly he has slept during the early part of the night—if the finishing Nap in the morning is interrupted from continuing to its natural termination—his whole System is shook by it, and all that sleep has before done for him, is undone in an instant;—he gets up distracted and languid, and the only part of his head that is of any use to him, is the hole between his Nose and Chin.

The firm Health of those who live in the Country, arises not merely from breathing a purer Air,—but from quiet and regular habits, especially the enjoyment of plenty of undisturbed Repose,—this enables them to take Exercise, which gives them an Appetite, and by taking their food at less distant and more equally divided intervals—they receive a more regular supply of that salutary nourishment, which is necessary to restore the wear of the system, and support it in an uniform state of excitement,—equally exempt from the languor of inanition, and the fever of repletion.

Thus, the Animal Functions are performed with a perfection and regularity, the tranquillity of which, in the incessantly irregular habits of a Town-life, is continually interrupted,—some ridiculous Anxiety or other consumes the Animal Spirits, and the important process of Restoration is imperfectly performed.

Dyspeptic and Nervous disorders, and an inferior degree of both extensive and intensive Life31 are the inevitable consequence, and are the lowest price for (what are called) the Pleasures of Fashionable Society.

Dr. Cadogan has told us (very truly) that Chronic diseases, (and we may add, most of those equivocal Disorders, which are continually teasing people, but are too insignificant to induce them to institute a medical process to remove them,) are caused by Indolence—Intemperance—and Vexation.

It is the fashion to refer all these Disorders to Debility—but Debility is no more than the effect of Indolence, Intemperance, and Vexation—the two first are under our own immediate control—and Temperance, Industry, and Activity, are the best remedies to prevent, or remove the Debility which reduces our means of resisting the third.

During the Summer of Life32, i. e. the second period of it, (see page 34,) while we hope that every thing may come right, the Heart bounds with vigour, and the Vital flame burns too brightly to be much, or long subdued by vexation.

This originally least cause, soon becomes the greatest, and in the Autumn of our existence, when Experience has dissipated the theatric illusion with which Hope varnished the expectations of our earlier days, we begin to fear that every thing will go wrong.

“The whips and scorns of Time,
The oppressor’s wrong, the proud man’s contumely,
The pangs of despis’d Love, the Law’s delay,
The insolence of office, and the spurns
That patient merit of the unworthy takes.”

The insatiable ruling passions of the second and third periods of Life,—Ambition and Avarice,—the loss of our first and best friends, our Parents,—regret for the past, and anxiety about the future, prevent the enjoyment of the present,—and are the cause of those Nervous and Bilious Disorders, which attack most of us at the commencement of the third period of Life—these precursors of Palsy and Gout, may generally be traced to Disappointments and Anxiety of mind33; and

People need not groan about the Insanities and Absurdities of others—it is surely quite sufficient to suffer for our own, of which most of us have plenty—we ought to endeavour to convert those of others, into causes of comfort and consolation, instead of fretting about them—if you receive rudeness in return for civility—and ingratitude for kindness, it may move your Pity—but should never excite your Anger—instead of murmuring at Heaven for having created such Crazy Creatures! be fervently thankful that you are not equally inconsistent and ridiculous—and Pray, that your own Mind, may not be afflicted with the like aberrations.

Indigestion34, is the chief cause of perturbed Sleep, and often excites the imaginary presence of that troublesome Bedfellow the Nightmare. On this subject see Peptic Precepts

Some cannot Sleep if they eat any Supper—and certainly the lighter this meal is, the better—Others, need not put on their Night cap, if they do not first bribe their Stomachs to good behaviour by a certain quantity of Bread and Cheese and Beer, &c. &c., and go to Bed almost immediately after.

As to the wholesomeness of a Solid Supper, per se, we do not think it advisable,—but habit may have made it indispensable, and we know it is often the most comfortable Meal among the middle ranks of Society, who have as large a share of Health as any.

We caution Bad sleepers to beware how they indulge in the habit of exciting sleep, by taking any of the preparations of Opium—they are all injurious to the Stomach—and often inconvenient in their effects upon the Bowels:—

Repose by small fatigue is earned, and Weariness can snore upon the flint, when nesty Sloth, finds a down pillow hard.”

As there can be no good Digestion without diligent Mastication,—so there can be no sound Sleep, without sufficient Exercise.

The most inoffensive and agreeable Anodyne is to drink some good White Wine, or Mulled Wine, by way of a supplement to your Night cap.—One glass, taken when in Bed, immediately before lying down, is as effective as two or three if you sit up any time after.—(See Tewahdiddle, No. 467.)

Many people, if awoke during their first sleep, are unsettled all that night—and uncomfortable and nervous the following day.—The first sleep of those who eat Suppers, commonly terminates when the food passes from the Stomach.—Invalids then awake, and sometimes remain so, in a Feverish state,—the Stomach feeling discontented from being unoccupied, and having nothing to play with:—a small crust of Bread, or a bit of Biscuit well chewed, accompanied or not, as Experience and Instinct will suggest, with a few mouthsful of Mutton or Beef Broth (No. 564), or Toast and Water (No. 463*), or single Grog35, (i. e. one Brandy to nine Waters), will often restore its tranquillity, and catch Sleep again, which nothing invites so irresistibly, as introducing something to the Stomach,—that will entertain it, without fatiguing it.

We have heard persons say they have been much distressed by an intemperate craving for Food when they awoke out of their first sleep, and have not got to sleep soundly again after—and risen in the morning as tired as when they went to bed at night—but without any appetite for Breakfast—such will derive great benefit from the foregoing Advice.

A Broth (No. 564), or Gruel (No. 572) Supper, is perhaps the best for the Dyspeptic,—and those who have eaten and drank plentifully at Dinner.

The Bed Room should be in the quietest situation possible, as it were “the Temple of Silence,”—and, if possible, not less than 16 feet square—the height of this Apartment, in which we pass almost half of our Time, is in modern houses absurdly abridged, to increase that of the Drawing Room, which is often not occupied once in a month:—instead of living in the pleasant part of the House, where they might enjoy Light and Air, how often we find people squeezing themselves into “a nice snug Parlour,” where Apollo cannot spy.

We do not recommend either Curtains or Tester, &c. to the Bed, especially during the Summer;—by the help of these, those who might have the benefit of the free circulation of air in a large Room, very ingeniously contrive to reduce it to a small Closet:—Chimney-Boards and Window-Curtains are also inadmissible in a Bed Room; but Valetudinarians who are easily awoke, or very susceptible of Cold, will do wisely to avail themselves of well made Double36 Windows and Doors, these exclude both Noise and Cold in a very considerable degree.

The best Bed is a well stuffed and well curled Horsehair Mattress, six inches thick at the Head, gradually diminishing to three at Feet, on this another Mattress five or six inches in thickness: these should be unpicked and exposed to the air, once every Year. An elastic Horsehair mattress, is incomparably the most pleasant, as well as the most wholesome Bed.

Bed Rooms should be thoroughly ventilated by leaving both the Window and the Door open every day when the weather is not cold or damp—during which the Bed should remain unmade, and the Clothes be taken off and spread out for an hour, at least, before the Bed is made again.

In very Hot Weather, the temperature becomes considerably cooler every minute after ten o’clock—between eight o’clock and twelve, the Thermometer often falls in Sultry weather—from ten to twenty degrees—and those who can sit up till twelve o’clock, will have the advantage of sleeping in an Atmosphere many degrees cooler, than those who go to bed at ten:—this is extremely important to Nervous Invalids—who however extremely they may suffer from heat, we cannot advise to sleep with the smallest part of the window open during the night—in such sultry days, the Siesta (see page 94,) will not only be a great support against the heat, but will help You to sit up to enjoy the advantage above stated.

A Fire in the Bed Room, is sometimes indispensable—but not as usually made—it is commonly lighted only just before bed-time, and prevents Sleep by the noise it makes, and the unaccustomed stimulus of its light.

Chimneys frequently smoke when a fire is first lighted, particularly in snowy and frosty weather; and an Invalid has to encounter not only the damp and cold of the Room—but has his Lungs irritated with the sulphureous puffs from the fresh lighted Fire.

A Fire should be lighted about three or four hours before, and so managed that it may burn entirely out half an hour before you go to Bed—then the air of the room will be comfortably warmed—and certainly more fit to receive an Invalid who has been sitting all day in a parlour as hot as an Oven,—than a damp chamber, that is as cold as a Well.


The Power of Position and Temperature to alleviate the Paroxysms of many Chronic Disorders, has not received the consideration it deserves—a little attention to the variations of the Pulse, will soon point out the effect they produce on the Circulation, &c.—extremes of Heat and Cold, with respect to Food, Drink, and Air, are equally to be guarded against.

Old and Cold Stomachs—The Gouty—and those whose Digestive Faculties are Feeble—should never have any thing Cold37, or Old, put into them—especially in Cold Weather.

Food must take the temperature of our Stomach, (which is probably not less than 120,) before Digestion can commence.

When the Stomach is feeble, Cold Food frequently produces Flatulence—Palpitation of the Heart, &c.—and all the other troublesome accompaniments of Indigestion.—The immediate remedy for these is Hot Brandy and Water, and the horizontal Posture.

Dyspeptic Invalids will find 75 a good temperature for their drink at Dinner, and 120 for Tea, &c.

Persons who are in a state of Debility from Age,—or other causes,—will derive much benefit from laying down, and seeking Repose whenever they feel fatigued, especially during (the first half-hour at least of) the business of Digestion—and will receive almost as much refreshment from half an hour’s Sleep—as from Half a Pint of Wine.

The Restorative influence of the recumbent Posture, cannot be conceived—the increased energy it gives to the circulation, and to the organs of Digestion, can only be understood by those Invalids who have experienced the comforts of it.

The Siesta is not only advisable, but indispensable to those whose occupations oblige them to keep late hours.

Actors especially, whose profession is, of all others, the most fatiguing—and requires both the Mind and the Body to be in the most intense exertion between 10 and 12 o’clock at Night,—should avail themselves of the Siesta—which is the true source of Energy—half an hour’s repose in the horizontal posture, is a most beneficial Restorative.

Good Beef Tea38, (No. 563), with a little bit of slightly toasted Bread taken about nine o’clock—is a comforting restorative, which will support You through exertions that, without such assistance, are exhausting—and you go to bed fatigued—get up fevered, &c.

When Performers feel Nervous, &c.—and fear the circulation is below Par,—and too languid to afford the due excitement, half an hour before they sing, &c.—they will do wisely, to wind up their System, with a little “Balsamum Vitæ.”—See “Peptic Precepts.”—Or tune their throats to the pitch of healthy vibration with a small glass of Johnson’s39Witte Curacoa,” see (No. 474) and Index, a glass of Wine, or other stimulus.—

To “Wet your Whistle,” is occasionally, as absolutely necessary, as “to rosin the Bow of a Violin.”—See “Observations on Vocal Music,” prefixed to the Opera of Ivanhoe.

Actors and Singers are continually assailed by a variety of circumstances extremely unfavourable to Health—especially from sitting up late at night—to counteract which, we recommend the Siesta, and plenty of Exercise in a pure Air.

When they feel NervousBilious, &c. i. e. that their whole System is so deranged by fatigue and anxiety, that they cannot proceed effectively and comfortably,—they must give their Throats two or three days’ rest—cleanse the Alimentary Canal with Peristaltic Persuaders—see Index—and corroborate the Organs of Digestion with the Tonic Tincture (No. 569), see Index.

Strong Peppermint Lozenges, made by Smith, Fell Street, Wood Street, Cheapside, are very convenient portable Carminatives:—as soon as they are dissolved, their influence is felt from the beginning to the end of the Alimentary Canal—they dissipate Flatulence so immediately, that they well deserve the name of Vegetable Ether; and are recommended to Singers and Public Speakers—as giving effective excitement to the Organs of Voice—as a support against the distressing effects of Fasting too long—and to give energy to the Stomach between Meals.

The Power of the Voice depends upon the vigorous state of the circulation supplying the Organs of Voice, with energy to execute the intentions of the Singer or Speaker—without which—the most accurate Ear and experienced Throat, will sometimes fail in producing the exact quality and quantity of Tone they intend.

That the Voice is sometimes too Flat, or too Sharp, &c. is not a matter of astonishment—to those who really understand how arduous a task Singers have sometimes to perform;—it would only be wonderful if it was not—how is the Throat exempted from those collapses which occasionally render imperfect the action of every other fibre and function of our Body?

The Dyspeptic, who Tries the effect of Recumbency after Eating,—will soon be convinced that Tristram Shandy was right enough, when he said, that “both pain, and pleasure, are best supported in an horizontal posture.”

“If after Dinner the Poppies of repletion shed their influence on thy Eyelids—indulge thou kind Nature’s hint.”—“A quiet slumber in a comfortable warm room, favoureth the operation of Digestion—and thou shalt rise, refreshed, and ready for the amusements of the Evening.”

The Semi-Siesta is a pleasant position—(i. e. putting up the feet on a stool about eight inches high;) but catching a nap in a Chair is advisable only as a substitute when the Horizontal posture is not convenient—when you can, lie down on a Sofa—loosen all ligatures—and give your Bowels fair play.

These opinions,—which are the results of Personal experience—are exactly in unison with those of the following Medical Professors.

“From Eating comes Sleep—from Sleep Digestion.”—Sanctorius, Sec. iv. Aph. 59.

“Perhaps one of the uses of Sleep, and of the horizontal posture during that period—may be to facilitate the introduction of Chyle into the Blood.”—Cruickshank on the Absorbents, p. 95.

“The Brute Creation invariably lay down and enjoy a state of rest, the moment their stomachs are filled. People who are feeble, digest their Dinner best, if they lie down and sleep as most Animals do, when their stomachs are full.”—Darwin’s Zoonomia, vol. iv. p. 137.

“Dr. Harwood, Professor of Anatomy at Cambridge, took two pointers who were equally hungry, and fed them equally well,—one he suffered to follow the promptings of Instinct—curled himself round till he was comfortable—and went to sleep, as animals generally do after eating—the other was kept for about two hours in constant exercise. On his return home—the two Dogs were killed.—In the Stomach of the one who had been quiet and asleep, all the food was digested; in the Stomach of the other, that process was hardly begun.”

“Quiet of Body and Mind for two hours after Dinner, is certainly useful to the Studious, the Delicate, and the Invalid.”—Adair on Diet, p. 44.

“After Dinner, rest for three hours.”—Abernethy’s Surgical Obs. 8vo. 1817, p. 93.

“After Dinner sit a while.”—Eng. Prov.

“If you have a strong propensity to Sleep after Dinner—indulge it, the process of Digestion goes on much better during Sleep, and I have always found an irresistible propensity to it—whenever Dyspeptic symptoms were considerable.”—Waller on Incubus, 1816, p. 109.

“Aged Men—and weake bodies, a short Sleepe after Dinner doth help to nourish.”—Lord Bacon’s Nat. Hist. Cent. I. 57.


Of all the Customs of Clothing, the most extremely absurd is the usual arrangement of Bed Clothes, which in order as the chambermaid fancies to make the Bed look pretty in the Day time—are left long at the head, that they may cover the Pillows; when they are turned down, You have an intolerable load on your Lungs, and that part of the Body which is most exposed during the day—is smothered at night—with double the quantity of Clothes that any other part has.

Sleep is prevented by an unpleasant degree of either Heat or Cold; and in this ever-varying climate, where often “in one monstrous day all seasons mix,” delicate Thermometrical persons will derive much comfort from keeping a Counterpane in reserve for an additional covering in very Cold Weather: when some extra clothing is as needful by Night,—as a great coat is by Day.

A Gentleman who has a mind to carry the adjustment of his Clothes to a nicety—may have the shelves of his Wardrobe numbered 30, 40, 50, 60, &c. and according to the degree of Cold pointed to by his Fahrenheit40, he may wear a corresponding defence against it:—This mode of adjusting Dress according to the vicissitudes of the weather, &c. is as rational as the ordinary practice of regulating it by the Almanack, or the Fashion, which in this uncertain Climate and capricious Age—will as often lead us wrong, as right.

Leave off your Winter Clothes late in the Spring;—put them on early in the Autumn. By wearing your Winter Clothes during the first half dozen warm days—You get some fine perspirations—which are highly salutary in removing obstructions in the cutaneous pores, &c.

Delicate and Dyspeptic persons are often distressed by changing their Dress,—which must be as uniform as possible,—in thickness—in quality—and in form,—especially (Flannel, or indeed) whatever is worn next to the Skin.

The change of a thick Waistcoat for a thin one—or a long one for a shorter one—not putting on Winter garments soon enough, or leaving them off too soon,—will often excite a violent disorder in the Lungs—or Bowels, &c. and exasperate any constitutional complaint.

Those who wear Flannel Waistcoats, are recommended to have their new ones about the middle of November, with sleeves to them coming down to the wrist—the shortening these sleeves in the warm weather, is as effective an antidote against extreme Heat—as lengthening them, and closing the Cuff of the Coat, is against intense Cold.

Our Coat41 should be made so large—that when buttoned we may be as easy as when it is unbuttoned, so that without any unpleasant increase of pressure on the Chest, &c. we can wear it closely buttoned up to the Chin—the power of doing this is a convenient provision against the sudden alternations from heat to cold—buttoning up this outer garment, will protect the delicate from many mischiefs which so often arise in this inconstant climate from the want of such a defence; and the additional warmth it produces will often cure slight Colds, &c.

Another way of accumulating Caloric, is to have two sets of button holes to the Cuff of the Coat, (especially of your Great Coat,) one of which will bring it quite close round the wrist.

When the Circulation is languid, and your Feet are Cold—wear worsted Stockings, have your Shoes well warmed—and when you take them from the Fire—put your Slippers42 to it—that they may be warm and comfortable for you on your return home.

In Wet Weather wear Shoes with double upper-leathers—- two thin leathers will keep you much drier than one thick one, and are more pliable—the Currier’s Dubbing is the best nourisher of Leather—and renders it as soft as satin, and impervious to Water.

The mean temperature of England is about 50 degrees of Fahrenheit—it sometimes rises 25 degrees above this, in the height of Summer,—falls about as much below, in the depth of Winter—and in Summer frequently varies from 20 to 30 degrees between Mid-day and Midnight.

The restoration, and the preservation of the Health, especially of those who have passed their Fortieth Year,—depends upon minute and unremitting attentions to Food,—Clothes,—Exercise, &c. which taken singly may appear trifling—but combined, are of infinite importance.

If you are careful of it, Glass will last as long as Iron.” By a regular observance of a few salutary precepts, a delicate Constitution will last as long, and afford its Proprietor as many Amusements, as a Strong Body,—whose Mind takes but little care of it.

Invalids are advised to put on a Great Coat when they go out, and the temperature of the external air is not higher than 40. Some susceptible Constitutions require this additional clothing when the Thermometer falls below 50; especially at the commencement of the Cold weather.

A Great Coat must be kept in a Room where there is a Fire,—if it has been hung up in a cold damp Hall, as it often is, it will contribute about as much to your Calorification,—as if You wrapped a Wet Blanket about You.

Clothes should be warm enough to defend us from Cold43,—and large44 enough to let every movement be made with as much ease when they are on,—as when they are off.

Those whose employments are sedentary,—especially hard Students—who often neglect taking sufficient Exercise45, suffer extremely from the pressure of tight WaistbandsGarters, &c. which are the cause of many of the mischiefs that arise from long sitting—during which they should be loosened.

Braces have been generally considered a great improvement in modern dress—because they render the pressure of the Waistband unnecessary, which when extremely close is certainly prejudicial—but we have always thought they have produced more inconvenience than they have removed—for if the inferior Viscera get thereby more freedom of action—the superior suffer for it—and, moreover, Ruptures are much more frequent—the Girdle which formerly prevented them being removed,—and, instead of that useful and partial horizontal pressure, in spite of the elastic springs which have been attached to the Braces, the whole body is grievously oppressed by the Vertical Bands.

The best material for Breeches, is the elastic worsted stocking stuff.

Tight Stays—and Braces—obstruct the circulation of the Blood, &c. are the cause of many Chronic Complaints, and often create Organic Diseases46.


As we advance in Age—the force of the circulation being lessened, the warmth of our Clothes and our coverings at night should be gradually increased. “After the age of 35, it may be better to exceed, rather than be deficient in clothing.”—Adair’s Cautions, p. 390.

Cold often kills the infirm and the aged, and is the proximate cause of most Palsies;—it is extremely desirable that Bed and Sitting Rooms for Winter occupation, should have a Southern aspect—when the Thermometer is below 30, the proper place for people beyond 60, is their own Fire-side:—many of the disorders and Deaths of persons at this period of Life—originate from irregularity in Diet, Temperature, &c. by Dining out, and frisking about, joining in Christmas Gambols, &c. in Cold weather.

The Art of making a room comfortably warm, does not consist merely in making a very large Fire in it—but depends as much on the keeping of cold air out—this is best done by Double Windows, see page 91, and double Doors,—at least take care that your Sashes fit close,—that the beads of the window frames are tight—stop the aperture between the skirting boards and the floor with putty—and list the Doors.

We suppose it almost needless to say that every room in the house should be thoroughly ventilated47 by a current of fresh Air—at least once every day, when the weather is not very damp—or cold. By making a Fire accordingly—this may be done almost every Day in the Year.

If You leave the Door open for Five minutes—it will let in more cold air than your Fire can make warm in Fifteen—therefore, initiate your Domestics in these first principles of the Economy of Caloric,—and when the Weather is cold, caution them to keep Doors shut.

A regular Temperature may be preserved by a simple contrivance attached to a Thermometer, which will open an aperture to admit the external air—when the apartment is heated above the degree desired (i. e. about 60 for common constitutions,) and exclude it when it falls below it.

A Room, which is in constant occupation all day—may be occasionally pumped by moving the door backward and forward for several minutes.

We do not advise Invalids to indulge themselves in heating their rooms to a higher temperature48 than from 60 to 65.—Those who have resided the best part of their Life in warm climates—will like the latter best. While we recommend the Aged and Infirm to be kept comfortably warm—they must at the same time cautiously avoid excess of heat.

When the Thermometer tells them that the external air is under 60,—whether it be in July, or in January,—those who are susceptible of Cold, must tell their Servants to keep a small fire—especially if the Weather be at the same time damp.

Those who, from caprice, or parsimony,—instead of obeying this comfortable and salutary precept, sit shivering and murmuring, and refuse to employ the Coal-merchant, as a substitute for the Sun—may soon spend in Physic, more than they have saved in Fuel.

By raising the temperature of my Room to about 65, taking a full dose of Epsom Salts, and a Broth Diet, and retiring to rest an hour sooner than usual, I have often very speedily got rid of Colds, &c.

The following Plan of Lighting and managing a Fire, has been attended with great comfort and convenience to myself, (particularly at the beginning and the end of winter, when a very small fire is sufficient), and I think considerable saving of coals.

Fill your Grate with fresh coals quite up to the upper bar but one, then lay in your faggot of wood in the usual manner, rather collected in a mass, than scattered, that a body of concentrated heat may be produced as soon as possible; over the faggot place the cinders of the preceding day—piled up as high as the grate will admit, and placed loosely in rather large fragments—in order that the draft may be free—a bit or two of fresh coal may be added to the cinders when once they are lighted, but no small coal must be thrown on at first, for the reason above stated:—when all is prepared, light the wood, when the cinders becoming in a short time thoroughly ignited—the gas rising from the coals below, which will now be effected by the heat, will take fire as it passes through them, leaving a very small portion of smoke to go up the Chimney.

The advantage of this mode of lighting a fire is, that small coal is better suited to the purpose than large—except a few pieces in front to keep the small from falling out of the Grate—it may be kept in reserve, to be put on afterwards if wanted. I have frequently known my fire lighted at 8 o’clock in the morning, continue burning till 11 at night, without any thing being done to it: when apparently quite out, on being stirred, you have in a few minutes a glowing fire: it will sometimes be necessary to loosen, or stir slightly the upper part of the fire if it begins to cake—but the lower part must not be touched, otherwise it will burn away too soon.


Many Invalids are hurried into their Grave—by the indiscreet kindness of their friends forcing them from the comforts of Home—for the sake of Air more abounding with Oxygen, i. e. the vivifying part of the atmosphere:—that great benefit is received from what is called change of air is true enough—it is seldom considered that there is also a change in most of the other circumstances of the patient—many, of infinitely more importance, than that which derives all the credit of the Cure.

For instance, if a person living in a confined part of the City—neglecting exercise, harassed all day by the anxieties of Business, and sitting up late at Night, &c. be removed to the tranquillity of rural scenes, which invite him to be almost constantly taking Exercise in the open Air, and retiring to rest at an early hour—and thus, instead of being surrounded by irritations unfavourable to Health, enjoying all the “jucunda oblivia vitæ” which are favourable to it—such a Change will often do wonders, and sufficiently account for the miraculous cures attributed to—Change of Air.

Chemical Philosophers assert indeed—that a Gallon of the unsavoury Gas from Garlick Hill, gives as high a proportion of Oxygen, as the like quantity of the ethereal element of Primrose Hill:—this seems incredible, and must arise either from the imperfection of the Eudiometer giving erroneous results, or from the air being impregnated with matter unfriendly to Health, which the instruments employed to analyze it, have not the power of denoting:—let any one thread the mazes of a crowded city, and walk for the same space of time in a pleasant Country—the animal spirits will soon testify, which is the most exhilarating.

However, people certainly do live long, and enjoy Health, in situations apparently very unfavourable to Animal Life.

Our Omniscient Creator has given to our Lungs, the same faculty of extracting nutriment from various kinds of Air—as the Stomach has from various kinds of Aliment:—the Poor man who feeds on the coarsest food, is supported by it in as sound Health, as the Rich man who fares sumptuously every day.

Well then, in nine cases out of ten, to change the Atmosphere we have been long accustomed to, is as unadvisable as a change in the Food we have been used to—unless other circumstances make it so, than the mere change of Place.

The Opulent Invalid who has been long indulged with a Home arranged to his humour—must beware (especially during any exacerbation of his infirmity) of leaving it—it would be almost as desperate a procedure as to eject an Oyster from his Shells.


“By ceaseless action, all that is subsists,
Constant rotation of the unwearied wheel
That nature rides upon, maintains her health,
Her beauty, her fertility. She dreads an instant’s pause,
And lives but while she moves.”—Cowper’s Task.
“The wise, for Health on Exercise depend;
God never made his work for Man to mend.”

The more luxuriously you live, the more Exercise49 you require,—the “Bon Vivant may depend upon the truth of the advice which Sir Charles Scarborough gave to the Duchess of Portsmouth, “You must Eat less,—or take more Exercise50—or take Physic,—or be Sick.”

Exercise is the grand power to promote the Circulation through the capillary vessels, by which the constitution is preserved from obstructions,—Appetite increased, and Digestion improved in all its stages,—the due distribution of nourishment, invigorates the Nervous System, gives firmness and elasticity to the Muscles, and strength to every part of the System.

Exercise, to have its full effect, must be continued till we feel a sensible degree of Perspiration,—(which is the Panacea for the prevention of Corpulence)—see page 50—and should, at least once a-day, proceed to the borders of fatigue, but never pass them,—or we shall be weakened instead of strengthened.

Health depends upon perpetual Secretion and Absorption, and Exercise only can produce this.

After Exercise, take care to get cool gradually—when your Head perspires, rub it, and your Face, &c. dry with a cloth:—this is better for the Hair than the best “Bear’s Grease,” and will beautify the Complexion beyond “La Cosmétique Royale,” or all the Red and White Olympian Dew that was ever imported.

One of the most important precepts for the preservation of Health, is to take care of the Skin51.

In Winter, the surface of the Body, the Feet, &c. should be washed twice or thrice a Week, with water of the temperature of about 98, and wiped every Day with a wet towel;—a Tepid Bath of the like temperature once a fortnight will also conduce much to both health and comfort. Some advise that the surface of the Body be wiped every morning with a wet sponge, and rubbed dry after, with not too fine a cloth.


“Le Vin est l’un des produits de la nature les plus difficiles à juger et à bien choisir: et les plus habiles gourmets sont souvent mis en défaut.”—Manuel du Sommelier, Paris, 1817, p. 1.

Wine, especially Port, is generally twice spoiled—before it is considered fit to be drank!!!

The Wine-Maker spoils it first, by over-loading it with Brandy to make it keep.—

The Wine-Drinker keeps it till time has not only dissipated the superabundant spirit,—but even until the acetous fermentation begins to be evident,—this, it is the taste now to call “Flavour,”—and Wine is not liked, till it has lost so much of its exhilarating power, that you may drink a Pint of it, before receiving that degree of excitement,—which the Wine-drinker requires to make him Happy. We mean a legal Pint containing 16 ounces.

The measure of a Bottle of Wine ought to be as definitive, as that of a Pot Of Porter:—is it not astonishing that the Legislature have not ordered a Standard and Stamped Quart, for the Wine-merchant—as they have a Pot for the Publican?

This would be equally as desirable to the respectable Wine-merchant,—as to the Public.

It would protect the former against the injurious competition of those who at present, by vending Wine in Bottles of inferior dimension, impose on the unwary purchaser under pretence of selling at a lower than the Market price.

The purchaser of a Dozen Bottles of Wine expects to receive Three Gallons of Wine.

Proportions of the Wine Gallon, according to the last London Pharmacopœia:—

Gallon.Pints.Fluid Ounces.Drachms.Minims or Drops.
There are32 ounces in a legal wine quart.
Multiply by12 quarts in three gallons.
384 ounces in ditto.

Measure the number of ounces your bottle holds—divide 384 by it, and the quotient will give you the number of such bottles required to contain three gallons of wine.

Some Bottles do not contain more than 26 ounces.

26) 384 (14 Bottles, 1 Pint, and a Quarter.


 Multiply26  i. e. the number of ounces
 By12 your bottle will contain.
312  the number of ounces
 contained in your dozen
 bottles, which
 Ought to hold384  the number of ounces in
 Subtract312 Three Gallons.
Divide by the number} 32) 72 (2 Quarts and half a Pint
of ounces in a Quart,}64 short of measure.
8  ounces.

So, instead of Three Gallons—you have only Two Gallons, one Quart, and a Pint and a half.

The Quantity a Bottle will contain, may easily be accurately ascertained, by Lynes’s graduated Glass measure, which holds half a pint, and is divided into ounces, &c.—it is a convenient vessel to mix Grog in.

A Pipe of Port contains, on the average, 138 Gallons, of which three must be allowed for Lees, &c.—This is enough for waste, if the Wine has been properly fined, and steadily bottled.

 A Butt of Sherry contains 130 gallons.
Madeira,110 ditto.
Hogshead of Claret,55 ditto.

It is convenient for small Families to have part of their Wine in Pint Bottles.

That Wine is much best when quite fresh opened, is a fact it is needless to observe,—half a Pint of Wine (i. e. 8 ounces, i. e. 4 ordinary wine-glasses) is as much as most people (who have not spoiled their stomachs by intemperance) require.

The Rage for Superannuated Wine,—is one of the most ridiculous Vulgar Errors of Modern Epicurism,—“the Bee’s Wing,” “thick Crust52 on the Bottle,” “loss of strength, &c.” which Wine-fanciers consider the Beauty of their tawny favourite, “fine Old Port,”—are forbidding manifestations of decomposition, and the departure of some of the best qualities of the Wine.

The Age53 of maturity for exportation from Oporto, is said to be the second year after the Vintage, (probably sometimes not quite so long.)

Our Wine-merchants keep it in Wood from two to six years longer, according to its original strength, &c.—surely this must be long enough to do all that can be done by keeping it—what crude Wine it must be to require even this time to ameliorate it—the necessity for which, must arise either from some error in the original manufacture,—or a false taste, which does not relish it, till Time has changed its original characteristics.

Ordinary Port is a very uncleansed, fretful Wine—and experienced judges have assured us, that the Best Port is rather impoverished than improved, by being kept in Bottle longer than Two54 Years, i. e. supposing it to have been previously from two to four years in the Cask in this Country,—observing, that all that the outrageous advocates for “vin passé”—really know about it, is, that Sherry is Yellow,—and Port is Black,—and that if they drink enough of either of them,—it will make them Drunk.

White Wines, especially Sherry and Madeira, being more perfectly fermented, and thoroughly fined before they are bottled—if kept in a cellar of uniform temperature, are not so rapidly deteriorated by Age.

The Temperature of a Good Cellar is nearly the same throughout the year. Double Doors help to preserve this. It must be dry, and be kept as clean as possible.

The Art of preserving Wines, is to keep them from fretting, which is done by keeping them in the same degree of heat, and careful Corking55. “If persons wish to preserve the fine flavour of their Wines, they ought on no account to permit any Bacon, Cheese, Onions, Potatoes, or Cider, in their wine-cellars. Or, if there be any disagreeable stench in the Cellar, the wine will indubitably imbibe it; consequently, instead of being fragrant and charming to the nose and palate, it will be extremely disagreeable.”—Carnell on Wine Making, 8vo. 1814, p. 124. See also Manuel du Sommelier, par A. Jullien, Paris, 1817.

That Madeira (if properly matured before) improves in quality by being carried to the East Indies and back, by which Voyage it loses from 8 to 10 Gallons,—or to the West, by which about 5 are wasted56,—however these round-about manœuvres may tickle the fancy of those folks who cannot relish any thing that is not far-fetched, dear-bought, and hard to be had, and to whom rarity is the “sine qua non” of recommendation—it is one of those inconvenient prejudices, from which common sense preserve us!

The Vulgar objection to New Wine—(by which we mean Wine that has been maturing in Wood two years in Portugal—two in England—and in Bottle more than twelve months), is, that its exhilarating qualities are too abundant, and intoxicate in too small a dose—those “Bons Vivants,” to whom “the Bottle, the Sun of the table,” and who are not in the habit of crying to go home to Bed while they can see it shining,—require Wines weaker than those which are usually imported from Spain and Portugal,—however Port and Sherry may be easily reduced to the standard desired by the long-sitter,—“paululum aceti acetosi,” will give the Acid Goût,—“aqua pura” will subdue their Spirit “ad libitum,”—and produce an imitation of the flavour acquired by Age, extempore—and You can thus very easily make fine fruity nutritious new Wine,—as Light,—and as Old57,—and as Poor, as you please—and fit it exactly to your customer’s palate, whether “Massa drinky for Drinky,—or drinky for Drunky Massa.

To ameliorate very new, or very old Wine—mix a bottle of the one with a bottle of the other—or to a bottle of very old Port add a glass or two of good new Claret—to very new, a glass of Sherry.

Of all our Senses,—the Taste, especially for Liquids, is the most sophisticated Slave of Habit—“De gustibus, non est disputandum.”

The Astringent matter, and Alcohol—which render Port Wine the prop of an Englishman’s Heart—are intolerable to the palate of an Italian, or Frenchman.—But a Stomach which has been accustomed to be wound up by the double stimulus of Astringents, and Alcohol also,—will not be content with the latter only,—especially if that be in less quantity—as it is in the Italian and French Wines; which, therefore, for the generality of Englishmen, are insufficiently excitant.

He who has been in the habit of drinking Porter at Dinner,—and Port after—will feel uncomfortable with Home-brewed Ale, and Claret.

Mr. Accum, the chemist, analyzed for the Editor, some Port and Sherry of the finest quality—the Port58 yielded 20 per cent—and the Sherry 19-25 per cent, of Alcohol of 825 specific gravity—i. e. the strongest Spirit of Wine that can be drawn, full double the strength of Brandy, which seldom has 40 per Cent, and common Gin59 not more than 30—or 25.

Some people have a notion that if they go to the Docks, they can purchase a Pipe of Wine for twenty pounds less, than they must pay to a regular Wine Merchant—and, moreover, have it neat as imported—as if all Wines of the same Name, were of the same Quality.

Port varies at Oporto in quality and price as much as Porter does in London—it is needless to say how difficult it is to obtain the best Beer at any price—it is quite as difficult to obtain the best Port Wine at Oporto, where the very superior wine is all bought up at a proportionately high price by the agents for the London Wine Merchants.

Brandies and Wines vary in quality quite as much as they do in Price: not less than twenty pounds per Pipe in the country where they are made.

The only way to obtain genuine wholesome liquor, is to apply to a respectable Wine Merchant—and beg of him to send you the best wine at the regular market price.

If you are particular about the Quality of what you buy—the less You ask about the price of it the better—if you are not, bargain as hard as you please.

The Editor buys his Wines of Messrs. Danvers and Clarke, No. 122, Upper Thames Street; his Brandy and Liqueurs60 of Messrs. Johnson, in Pall Mall; and his Spirits, &c. of Mr. Rickards, Piccadilly.

A Moral and Physical Thermometer; or, a Scale of the Progress of Temperance and Intemperance, by J. C. Lettsom, M. D.

Liquors, with their Effects, in their usual Order.

70 WATERHealth, Wealth,
Serenity of Mind,
60 Milk and Water.– 
Reputation, long Life, and
50 Small Beer.Happiness.
40 Cyder and Perry.Cheerfulness,
Strength, and
30 Wine.
– Nourishment, when taken
20 Porter.
 only at Meals, and in
 moderate Quantities.
10 Strong Beer.
10 Punch.Idleness.Sickness,
Puking, and
Tremors of theDebt.
Peevishness. Hands in the
20 Toddy and Crank.Black Eye.
 {Grog, andInflamed Eyes.
30 {Brandy andFighting.Rags.
 {Water.Red Nose and Face.
Lying.Sore and swelledHunger.
40 Flip and Shrub.– Swearing.– Jaundice.– Hospital.
 {Bitters infusedObscenity.Pains in the Limbs,Poor-house.
 {in Spirits. and burning in
50 {Usquebaugh.Swindling. the Palms of the
 {Hystericwater. Hands, and SolesJail.
 of the Feet.
 {Gin, Anniseed,Perjury.Dropsy.Whipping.
60 {Rum, andBurglary.Melancholy.The Hulks.
 {Whisky in theMadness.
 {Morning.Palsy.Botany Bay.
Murder. Apoplexy.
 {Do, during
70 {the Day and

Those who drink Wine61, &c. for the purpose it was given, as a Cordial, to cheer the Circulation, when it falters from Fatigue, Age, or profuse Evacuations of any kind, “for the Stomach’s sake,” as St. Paul recommends it, and for our “often infirmities” as a medicine—will understand, that of all the ways of saving, to run any risk of buying inferior Wine, is the most ridiculously unwise Economy.

To Ice Wine is another very unprofitable and inconvenient custom—and not only deteriorates its flavour, but by rendering it dull in the mouth—people are induced to drink too much, as they are deprived of the advantage of knowing when they have got enough—for as soon as the Wine becomes warm in their Stomachs,—the dose they have taken merely to exhilarate them—makes them drunk.

The true Economy of Drinking,—is to excite as much Exhilaration as may be,—with as little Wine.

We deprecate the custom of sitting for Hours after Dinner, and keeping the Stomach in an incessant state of irritation by sipping Wine,—nothing can be more prejudicial to Digestion62—it is much better to mix Food and Drink—and to take them by alternate mouthsful.—See page 11.

Our “Vinum Britannicum”—good Home-brewed Beer—which has been very deservedly called “Liquid Bread,” is preferable to any other Beverage during Dinner or Supper—or Port or Sherry diluted with about three or four times their quantity of Toast and Water—(No. 463*): undiluted, these Wines are too strong to be drank during Dinner,—they act so powerfully on the feelings of the Stomach, that they dull the desire for solid Food, by producing the sensation of Restoration,—and the System, instead of receiving material to repair and strengthen it,—is merely stimulated during the action of the Vinous spirit.

However, the dull stimulus of Distention, is insufficient for some delicate Stomachs, which do absolutely require to be screwed up with a certain quantity of diffusible Stimulus63,—without which, they cannot proceed effectively to the business of Digestion,—or indeed any other business—we do not recommend such, especially if they have passed the Meridian of Life, to attempt to entirely wean themselves of it—but advise them, immediately after Dinner, to drink as much as is necessary to excite that degree of action in their System, without which they are uncomfortable, and then to stop.—See Observations on Siesta.

Now-a-days, Babies are brought to table after Dinner by Children of larger growth—to drink Wine,—which has as bad an effect on their tender susceptible stomachs, as the like quantity of Alcohol would produce upon an Adult.

Wine has been called “the Milk of Old Age,” so “Milk is the Wine of Youth.” As Dr. Johnson observed, it is much easier to be abstinent than to be temperate—and no man should habitually take Wine as Food till he is past 30 years of age64 at least;—happy is He who preserves this best of Cordials in reserve, and only takes it to support his Mind and Heart when distressed by anxiety and fatigue. That which may be a needful stimulus at 40 or 50, will inflame the Passions into madness at 20 or 30—and at an earlier period is absolute Poison.

Among other innumerable Advantages which the Water-drinker enjoys, remember he saves at least Fifty Guineas per annum—which the Beer and Wine drinker wastes—as much to the detriment of his health, as the diminution of his Finances: moreover, nothing deteriorates the sense of Taste so soon as strong liquors—the Water-drinker enjoys an exquisite sensibility of Palate, and relish for plain food, that a Wine-drinker has no idea of.

Some people make it a rule to drink a certain number of Glasses of Wine during and after dinner, whether they are dry, or languid, or not—this is as ridiculous as it would be to eat a certain number of Mutton Chops whether you are hungry or not. The effect produced by Wine is seldom the same, even in the same person—and depends on the state of the animal spirits at the time—whether the stomach be full or empty, &c.

The more simply Life is supported, and the less Stimulus we use, the better—and Happy are the Young and Healthy who are wise enough to be convinced that Water is the best drink, and Salt the best sauce.

But in Invalids past the Meridian of Life, we believe as much mischief is going on when our Pulse hobbles along as if the Heart was too tired to carry on the Circulation, as can possibly be done to the constitution by taking such a portion of Wine as will remove the collapse—and excite the mainspring of Life to vibrate with healthful vigour.

The following is the Editor’s plan of taking liquid food at Dinner,—when he cannot get Good Beer:—he has two wine glasses of Sherry, or one of Whiskey65, or Brandy, (No. 471), and three-fourths of a pint of good Toast and Water, (No. 463), (which when Dyspeptic he has warmed to about Summer Heat, i. e. 75 of Fahrenheit,) and puts a wine-glass of Sherry, or half a glass of Whiskey, &c. into half a pint of the water, and the other glass of Sherry, or half glass of Whiskey, &c. into the remaining quarter pint—thus increasing the strength of the liquid towards the conclusion of Dinner, after which he drinks from two to four glasses of Port or Sherry—as Instinct suggests the state of the circulation requires—if it be very languid, a Liqueur glass of Johnson’s66 Witte Curaçoa67 is occasionally recommended as a renovating Bonne Bouche—about a quarter of an hour after dinner, he lies down on a Sofa, and sleeps for about half an hour—this has been his custom for the last twenty years—half an hour’s horizontal posture is more restorative to him—than if he had sat up and drank three or four more glasses of wine.

As to the Wholesomeness of various Wines68,—that depends on the integrity and skill of the Wine-maker,—and upon the peculiar state of the stomach of the Wine-drinker:—when my Stomach is not in Good Temper,—it generally desires to have Red Wine,—but when in best Health,—nothing affronts it more than to put Port into it—and one of the first symptoms of its coming into adjustment, is a wish for White Wine.

One of the chief causes of that derangement of the Stomach, which delicate and aged persons so constantly complain of after Dining out—is the drinking of Wines, &c. which they are unused to.

White, deserve to be preferred to Red Wines,—because the latter being harder pressed, and subjected to a stronger fermentation to extract the colouring matter from the husks of the Grape, are more loaded with feculence.

Of Red Wines, Claret is the best; and it is to be lamented, that the Duty imposed upon it is so great, that to moderate fortunes it amounts to a prohibition—when we make this observation, we do not mean to impeach the prudence which has induced those who no doubt best understand the subject,—to determine that political necessity imperatively decrees that the delightful and salubrious wines of France—must be taxed twice as high as the coarse unwholesome wines of Portugal.

Of the White Wines, we believe that Sherry is the most easy—and Madeira the most difficult to obtain genuine—most of the Sweet Wines are as artificially compounded, as the Beers of this country; the addition of Capillaire to Port wine, makes what is commonly called Tent. Mountain, Calcavella, &c. are made up in the same manner.

For further Illustrations of this subject, see Accum on Adulterations, 2d Edition, 12mo. 1820.

An Inquiry into the Effects of Fermented Liquors, by a Water-drinker, 2d Edit. 1818.

Sandford’s Remarks on Wine. Worcester, 1799.

Lettsom, on the Effects of Hard Drinking.

Trotter, on Drunkenness, 1804.

Accum’s Art of making English Wine, 1820.

Carnell, on Family Wine Making, 1814.

Accum, on Brewing, 1820.

Rawlinson, on Brewing in Small Quantities,—printed for Johnson, 1807, price 1s.; and Home Brewed Ale, printed for Robinson, 1804, price 2s.

Facts Proving Water the best Beverage. Printed by Smeeton, in St. Martin’s Lane.

Manuel de Sommelier, par A. Jullien, Paris, 1817.


“Suaviter in modo, sed fortiter in re.”

Not one Constitution in a thousand, is so happily constructed or is constantly in such perfect adjustment, that the operations of the Abdominal Viscera (on which every other movement of the system depends) proceed with healthful regularity.

The following hints will point out to the Reader, how to employ Art to afford that assistance to Nature, which in Indisposition and Age, is so often required, and will teach him to counteract in the most prompt and agreeable manner—the effects of those accidental deviations from strict Temperance,—which sometimes overcome the most abstemious philosopher—when the seducing charms of Conviviality tempt him to forego the prudent maxims of his cooler moments.

They will help those who have delicate Constitutions, to obtain their fair share of Health and Strength,—and instruct the Weak, so to economize the powers they have, that they may enjoy Life as well as the Strong.

To humour that desire for the marvellous, which is so universal in medical (as well as in other) matters,—the makers of Aperient Pills generally select the most Drastic Purgatives, which operating considerably in a dose of a few grains, excite admiration in the Patient, and faith in their powers, in proportion as a small dose produces a great effect,—who seldom considers how irritating such materials must be,—and consequently how injurious to a Stomach in a state of Debility, and perhaps deranged by indulging Appetite beyond the bounds of moderation.

Indigestion will sometimes overtake the most experienced Epicure;—when the gustatory nerves are in good humour, Hunger and Savoury Viands will sometimes seduce the Tongue of a “Grand Gourmand” to betray the interest of his Stomach69 in spite of his Brains.

On such an unfortunate occasion,—whether the intestinal commotion be excited by having eaten too much, or too strong food—lie down—have your Tea early after Dinner—and drink it warm.

This is a hint to help the Invalid, whose digestion is so delicate, that it is sometimes disordered by a Meal of the strictest Temperance. If the anxiety, &c. about the Stomach does not speedily abate, apply the “Stomach Warmer.” This valuable companion to Aged and Gouty Subjects, may be procured at No. 58, Haymarket.

A certain degree of Heat is absolutely necessary to excite and support a regular process of Digestion;—when the Circulation is languid, and the food difficult of solution, in Aged persons and Invalids,—External Heat will considerably assist Concoction, and the application of this califacient concave will enable the Digestive organs to overcome refractory materials,—and convert them into laudable Chyle.

Unless the Constitution is so confoundedly debilitated, that the Circulation cannot run alone—Abstinence70 is the easiest—cheapest—and best cure for the disorders which arise from Indigestion or Intemperance. I do not mean what Celsus calls the first degree of it, “when the sick man takes nothing,” but the second, “when he takes nothing but what he ought.”

The Chylopoietic organs are uncomfortable when entirely unoccupied,—when the Stomach is too tired to work, and too weak to be employed on actual service,—it desires something to be introduced to it, that will entertain it till it recovers its energy.

After intemperate Feasting one day, let the food of the following day be Liquid, or of such materials as are easy of solution.

Various expedients have been recommended for preventing and relieving the disorders arising from too copious libations of “the Regal purple Stream.”

When a good fellow has been sacrificing rather too liberally at the shrine of the Jolly God, the best remedy to help the Stomach to get rid of its burthen, is to take for Supper some Gruel, (No. 572, see Index,) with half an ounce of Butter, and a teaspoonful of Epsom Salt in it; or two or three Peristaltic Persuaders,—which some Gastropholists take as a provocative to appetite, about an hour before Dinner.

Some persons take as a “sequitur” a drachm of Carbonate of Soda.

Others a teaspoonful of Calcined Magnesia:—when immediate relief is required, never administer this uncertain medicine, which, if the Stomach has no Acid ready to dissolve it,—will remain inert; it must be taken, only when Heart-burn and symptoms of Acidity are manifest.

As a Finale to the day of the Feast, or the Overture of the day after, take (No. 481*,) or two drachms of Epsom Salt in half a pint of Beef Tea,—or some Tincture of Rhubarb in hot water,—the first thing to be done, is to endeavour to get rid of the offending material.

A Breakfast of Beef Tea71 (No. 563,) is an excellent Restorative;—when the Languor following Hard Drinking is very distressing, indulge in the horizontal posture; (see Siesta, p. 94;) nothing relieves it so effectually, or so soon cheers the Circulation, and sets all right;—get an early Luncheon of restorative Broth or Soup.

Hard Drinking is doubly debilitating, when pursued beyond the usual hour of retiring to Rest.

Those devotees to the Bottle, who never suffer the orgies of Bacchus to encroach on the time which Nature demands for Sleep,—escape with impunity, many of the evils which soon—and irreparably—impair the Health of the Midnight reveller.

A facetious observer of the inordinate degree in which some people will indulge their Palate, to the gratification of which they sacrifice all their other senses,—recommends such to have their Soup seasoned with a tasteless purgative, as the Food of insane persons sometimes is, and so prepare their bowels for the hard work they are going to give them!!

To let the Stomach have a holiday occasionally—i. e. a Liquid diet, of Broth and Vegetable Soup, is one of the most agreeable and most wholesome ways of restoring its Tone.

If your Appetite72 be languid, take additional Exercise in a pure open Air,—or Dine half an hour later than usual, and so give time for the Gastric Juices to assemble in full force;—or dine upon Fish—or Chinese Soup, i. e. Tea.

If these simple means are ineffectual,—the next step, is to produce energetic vibration in the Alimentary tube, without exciting inordinate action, or debilitating depletion; and to empty the Bowels, without irritating them.

Sometimes when the languor occasioned by Dyspepsia, &c. is extreme, the Torpor of the System becomes so tremendous—that no Stimulus will help it, and the Heart feels as if it was tired of beating—a moderate dose of a quickly operating Aperient, i. e. half an ounce of Tincture of Rhubarb, and two drachms of Epsom Salts in a tumbler of hot water—will speedily restore its wonted energy.

The Stomach is the centre of Sympathy;—if the most minute fibre of the human frame be hurt, intelligence of the injury instantaneously arrives;—and the Stomach is disturbed, in proportion to the importance of the Member, and the degree in which it is offended.

If either the Body or the Mind be fatigued,—the Stomach invariably sympathizes;—if the most robust do any thing too much, the Stomach is soon affronted,—and does too little:—unless this mainspring of Health be in perfect adjustment, the machinery of life will vibrate with languor;—especially those parts which are naturally weak, or have been injured by Accidents, &c. Constipation is increased in costive habits—and Diarrhœa in such as are subject thereto—and all Chronic complaints are exasperated, especially in persons past the age of 35 years.

Of the various helps to Science, none perhaps more rapidly facilitate the acquirement of knowledge, than analogical reasoning; or illustrating an Art we are ignorant of, by one we are acquainted with.

The Human Frame may be compared to a Watch, of which the Heart is the Mainspring—the Stomach the regulator,—and what we put into it, the Key by which the machine is wound up;—according to the quantity,—quality,—and proper digestion of what we Eat73 and Drink, will be the pace of the Pulse, and the action of the System in general:—when we observe a due proportion between the quantum of Exercise and that of Excitement, all goes well.—If the machine be disordered, the same expedients are employed for its re-adjustment, as are used by the Watch-maker; it must be carefully cleaned, and judiciously oiled.

Eating Salads after Dinner,—and chilling the Stomach, and checking the process of digestion by swilling cold Soda Water—we hold to be other Vulgar Errors.

It is your superfluous Second Courses,—and ridiculous variety of Wines,—Liqueurs,—Ices, Desserts, &c.—which (are served up more to gratify the pride of the Host, than the appetite of the Guests that) overcome the Stomach, and paralyze Digestion, and seduce “Children of larger Growth” to sacrifice the health and comfort of several days—for the Baby-pleasure of tickling their tongue for a few minutes, with Trifles and Custards!!

Most of those who have written on what—by a strange perversion of language—are most non-naturally termed the non-naturals,—have merely laid before the Public a nonsensical register of the peculiarities of their own Palate, and the idiosyncracies of their own Constitution74.

Some omnivorous Cormorants have such an ever-craving Appetite, that they are raging with hunger as soon as they open their Eyes,—and bolt half a dozen hard Eggs before they are well awake;—Others are so perfectly restored by that “chief nourisher in Life’s feast,” Balmy Sleep, that they do not think about Eating,—till they have been up and actively employed for several hours.

The strong Food, which the strong action of strong bodies requires—would soon destroy weak ones,—if the latter attempt to follow the example of the former,—instead of feeling invigorated, their Stomachs will be as oppressed, as a Porter is with a load that is too heavy for him,—and, under the idea of swallowing what are called strengthening nourishing things,—will very soon make themselves ready for the Undertaker.

Some people seem to think, that the more plentifully they stuff themselves, the better they must thrive, and the stronger they must grow.

It is not the quantity that we swallow,—but that which is properly digested, which nourishes us.

A Moderate Meal well digested, renders the body vigorous,—glutting it with superfluity, (which is only turned into excrement instead of aliment, and if not speedily evacuated,) not only oppresses the System, but produces all sorts of Disorders.

Some are continually inviting Indigestion,—by eating Water-cresses, or other undressed Vegetables75, “to sweeten their Blood,”—or Oysters “to enrich it.”—Others fancy their Dinner cannot digest till they have closed the orifice of their Stomachs with a certain portion of Cheese,—if the preceding Dinner has been a light one, a little bit of Cheese after it may not do much harm, but its character for encouraging concoction is undeserved,—there is not a more absurd Vulgar Error, than the often quoted proverb, that

“Cheese is a surly Elf,
Digesting all things, but itself.”

A Third never eats Goose, &c. without remembering that Brandy or Cayenne is the Latin for it.

A much less portion of Stimulus is necessary after a hearty meal of califactive materials, such as good Beef or Mutton—than after a maigre Dinner of Fish, &c.

Another Vulgar Error in the school of Good Living, is, that “Good eating requires Good drinking.”—Good eating generally implies high seasoned Viands,—the savoury Herbs, and stimulating Spices with which these Haut-Gouts are sprinkled and stuffed, &c. are sufficient to encourage the digestive faculties to work “con amore” without any “douceur” of Vinous irrigation,—but many persons make it a rule, after eating Pig, &c. to take a glass of Liqueur, or Eau de Vie, &c.—or, as when used in this manner, it would be as properly called, “eau de mort.”

Indigestion, or, to use the term of the day, A Bilious Attack,—as often arises from over-exertion, or Anxiety Of Mind,—as from refractory Food; it frequently produces Flatulence76, and flatulence produces Palpitation of the Heart; which is most difficult to stop, when it comes on about an hour or two after a Meal;—the Stomach seems incapable of proceeding in its business, from being over-distended with wind, which pressing on the Heart and larger vessels, obstructs the Circulation:—as soon as this flatulence is dispelled, all goes well again:—inflating the Lungs to the utmost, i. e. taking in as much breath as you can, and holding it as long as you can, will sometimes act as a counterbalance, and produce relief.

This is the first thing to do when this distressing Spasm attacks you,—if it is not immediately checked; take a strong Peppermint, or Ginger Lozenge, (see page 99,) sit, —or if possible lie down and loosen all ligatures; the horizontal posture and perfect quiet are grand Panaceas in this disorder;—if these do not soon settle it, drink some stimulus: sometimes a teacupful of Hot water, with a teaspoonful of common salt in it, will suffice,—or a couple of glasses of Wine,—or one of Brandy in one of hot water: either of these will generally soon restore sufficient energy to the Stomach, to enable it to expel the enemy that offends it, and set the circulation to work freely again.—If these means are not immediately efficacious, take half an ounce of Tincture of Rhubarb in a quarter pint of hot water,—or three or four Peristaltic Persuaders, with half a pint of hot water.

If this complaint comes on when the Bowels are costive,—they must be put into motion as speedily as possible, by some of the means recommended in the following pages.

It will sometimes come on during the collapsed state of the system, from FASTING TOO LONG.

Those who take no Food between an early Breakfastand a late Dinner,—for fear, as they term it, of spoiling the latter meal,—generally complain of Flatulence,—Languor, Lowness of Spirits, &c. (and those who are troubled by a Cough, have often a paroxysm of it,) for the hour or more before Dinner;—and Heartburn, &c. after it:—the former arising from fasting too long, the latter from indulging an Appetite so over excited, that a Baron of Beef, a Pail of Port Wine, and a Tubful of Tea, will hardly satisfy it.

The languor of Inanition, and the fever of Repletion, may be easily avoided by eating a Luncheon,—solid and nutritive, in proportion as the Dinner is protracted, and the activity of the Exercise to be taken in the mean-time.

The oftener you eat, the less ought to be eaten at a time; and the less you eat at a time, the oftener you ought to eat:—a weak Stomach has a much better chance of digesting two light meals, than one heavy one.

The Stomach should be allowed time to empty itself, before we fill it again.

There is not only a considerable difference in the digestibility of various Foods,—but also of the time required by different Stomachs to digest them—the sign of which, is the return of Appetite.

The digestion of Aliment is perfect, and quickly performed, in proportion to the keenness of our Appetite at the time of taking it—more or less perfect Mastication—and the vigorous state of the organs of Digestion,—as a general rule, the interval of Fasting should seldom be less than three, nor more than five hours77,—Digestion being generally completed within that time.

The Fashion of A.D. 1820 has introduced a much longer fast (“a windy recreation,” as father Paul assures the lay brother) than even the elasticity of robust Health can endure, without distressing the adjustment of the System,—and creating such an over-excited appetite, that the Stomach does not feel it has had enough,—till it finds that it has been crammed too much78.

“When Hunger79 calls, obey, nor often wait
Till hunger sharpen to corrosive pain;
For the keen appetite will feast beyond
What nature well can bear.”

This important truth—we would most strongly press on the consideration of Those who attend our Courts of Law, and Parliament.

Many industrious Professional men, in order to add a few pounds to their Income—in a few years are quite worn out—from their digestive faculties being continually disordered and fretted for want of regular supplies of Food; and sufficient Sleep.

An Egg boiled in the shell for five minutes, or Les Tablettes de Bouillon (No. 252), and a bit of Bread, is a convenient provision against the former—the Siesta (see page 94) is the best Antidote for the latter.

The sensation of Hunger arises from the Gastric juices acting upon the coats of the Stomach—how injurious it must be to fast so long, that by neglecting to supply it with some alimentary substance which this fluid was formed to dissolve,—the Stomach becomes in danger of being digested itself!!!

Those who feel a gnawing, as they call it, in their Stomach, should not wait till the stated hour of dinner, but eat a little forthwith, that the Stomach may have something to work upon.

By too long Fasting, Wind accumulates in the Stomach, especially of those who have passed the meridian of Life—and produces a distressing Flatulence—Languor—Faintness—Giddiness—Palpitation of the Heart, &c.

If the Morning has been occupied by anxiety in Business,—or the Mind or Body is fatigued by over-exertion—these symptoms will sometimes come on about an hour or two before the usual time of Dining,—well masticating a bit of Biscuit, and letting a strong Peppermint Lozenge (see page 99) dissolve in the mouth as soon as you feel the first symptoms of Flatulence,—will often pacify the Stomach, and prevent the increase of these complaints.

Dr. Whytt, whose observations on Nervous Disorders, (like this work), are valuable, inasmuch as they are the authentic narrative of his own Experience—says, page 344, “When my Stomach has been weak, after I have been indisposed, I have often found myself much better for a glass of Claret and a bit of bread, an hour or more before Dinner, and I have ordered it in the same way to others, and again in the evening, an hour or more before Supper, with advantage.”

There is no doubt of the propriety of Dr. W.’s prescription, the Editor’s own feelings bear witness to it. For those who are just recovering from Diseases which have left them in a state of great Debility, a glass of Wine and a bit of Bread,—or a cup of good Beef Tea, (see page 96) are perhaps as good Tonics as any,—they not only remove Languor, but at the same time furnish Nutriment.

We have known weak Stomachs, when kept fasting beyond the time they expected,—become so exhausted—they would refuse to receive any solid Food,—until restored to good temper,—and wound up by some Wine, or other stimulus—as Instinct proposed.

Feeble Persons, who are subject to such sudden attacks, should always travel armed with a Pocket Pistol charged with a couple of glasses of White Wine, or, “Veritable Eau de Vie,”—a Biscuit, and some strong Peppermint or Ginger Lozenges, or see “Tablettes de Bouillon” (No. 252):—when their Stomach is uneasy from emptiness, &c. these crutches will support the Circulation,—and considerably diminish, and sometimes entirely prevent the distressing effects which Invalids suffer from too long a Fast80.

What a contrast there is between the materials of the morning meal A.D. 1550, when Queen Elizabeth’s Maids of Honour began the day with a Round of Beef,—or a Red Herring, and a flaggon of Ale—and in 1821, when the Sportsman, and even the day-Labourer, breakfast on what Cooks call “Chinese Soup,” i. e. Tea.

Swift has jocosely observed, such is the extent of modern Epicurism, that “the World81 must be encompassed—before a Washerwoman can sit down to Breakfast,” i. e. by a voyage to the East for Tea, and to the West for Sugar.

In The Northumberland Household Book for 1512, we are informed that “a Thousand Pounds was the sum annually expended in Housekeeping,—this maintained 166 Persons,—and the Wheat was then 5s. 8d. per quarter.

“The Family rose at six in the morning,—my Lord and my Lady had set on their Table for Breakfast, at Seven o’clock in the morning,

A quart of Beer,
A quart of Wine,
Two pieces of Salt Fish,
Half a dozen Red Herrings,
Four White ones, and
A Dish of Sprats!!!

“They DINED at TenSupped at Four in the afternoon,—The Gates were all shut at nine, and no further ingress or egress permitted.”—See pages 314 and 318.

But now, A.D. 1821,

“The Gentleman who dines the latest
Is, in our Street, esteemed the greatest:
But surely greater than them all,
Is he who never Dines82 at all.”

Dinners at Night,


Suppers in the Morning,

A few Cautionary Hints to Modern Fashionables.—

“The Ancients did delight, forsooth,
To sport in allegoric Truth;
Apollo, as we long have read since,
Was God of Music, and of Med’cines.
In Prose, Apollo is the Sun,
And when he has his course begun,
The allegory then implies
’Tis Time for wise men to arise;
For ancient sages all commend
The morning, as the Muses friend;
But modern Wits are seldom able
To sift the moral of this fable;—
But give to Sleep’s oblivious power
The treasures of the morning hour,
And leave reluctant, and with Pain,
With feeble nerve, and muddy Brain,
Their favorite couches late at noon,
And quit them then perhaps too soon,
Mistaking by a sunblind sight
The Night for Day—and Day for Night.
Quitting their healthful guide Apollo,
What fatal follies do they follow!
Dinners at night—and in the Morn
Suppers, serv’d up as if in scorn
Of Nature’s wholesome regulations,
Both in their Viands and Potations.
Besides, Apollo is M. D.
As all Mythologists agree,
And skill’d in Herbs and all their virtues,
As well as Ayton is, or Curtis.
No doubt his excellence would stoop
To dictate a Receipt for Soup,
Show as much skill in dressing Salad,
As in composing of a Ballad,
’Twixt Health and Riot draw a line,
And teach us How—and When—to dine.
The Stomach, that great Organ, soon,
If overcharg’d, is out of tune,
Blown up with Wind that sore annoys
The Ear with most unhallow’d noise!!
Now all these Sorrows and Diseases
A man may fly from if he pleases;
For rising early will restore
His powers to what they were before,
Teach him to Dine at Nature’s call,
And to Sup lightly, if at all;
Teach him each morning to preserve
The active brain, and steady nerve;
Provide him with a share of Health
For the pursuit of fame, or wealth;
And leave the folly of Night Dinners
To Fools and Dandies, and Old Sinners!!!”

That distressing interruption of the Circulation, which is called “Nightmare,” “Globus Hystericus,” “Spasms,” “Cramp,” or “Gout,” in the Stomach, with which few who have passed the Meridian of Life83, are so fortunate as not to be too well acquainted, we believe to arise from the same causes—which in the day produce Palpitation of the Heart.

The Editor is now in his forty-third year, and has been from his youth occasionally afflicted with both these disorders; sometimes without being able to imagine what has produced them:—sometimes he has not been attacked with either of these complaints for many months; they have then seized him for a week or more,—and as unaccountably ceased.

The Nightmare has generally come on about three o’clock in the morning,—at the termination of the first, or rather at the commencement of the second sleep;—quite as often when he has taken only a liquid or very light supper,—as when he has eaten some solid food, and gone to bed soon after;—and most frequently after he has Dined84 out: not from the quantity, but the quality of the food and drink he has taken, the change of the time of taking it. The fatigue attending his performance of Amphytrion at his own table, has also occasionally produced it.

It appears to be occasioned by want of Action in the System, being generally preceded by Languor—(which, if not removed, may proceed to produce—Palsy—or Death,) caused either by depression of the power of the Heart by anxiety,—obstruction of the peristaltic motion by the oppression of indigestible matter,—or interruption of the performance of the Restorative Process.

It is certainly not to be prevented by Abstinence, for during the time that the Editor was trying the effect of a spare diet, he was most frequently afflicted with it.—See Obs. on Sleep, &c. It is only to be relieved by Stimulants, and in an extreme case—by quickly acting Aperients, &c. See following pages.

Some persons are peculiarly subject to it when they lie on their back,—others if on their left side:—when the Editor has any disposition to this malady, it is certainly exasperated if he lays upon his right side,—especially during the first part of the Night,—it is a good Custom to lay one half of the Night on one side, and the other half on the other.

When this appalling pause of the Circulation takes place—he wakes, with the idea that another minute of such suspended action will terminate his Existence:—his first recourse is to force the action of the Lungs by breathing as quick and as deep as possible.—He feels very languid,—and to prevent a return of the fit, drinks a couple of glasses of White Wine,—or half a wine-glass of Brandy, in a wine-glass of Peppermint Water.

Sometimes the Disorder does not terminate with one paroxysm, but recurs as soon as Sleep returns:—when this is the case, get half a tumbler of Hot Water, add to it a wine-glass of Peppermint Water, and half that quantity of Tincture of Rhubarb, or fifty drops of Sal Volatile, or both.

The symptom of security from a repetition of the Fit, is a vermicular sensation, betokening that the peristaltic motion, and the Circulation is restored to its regular pace again.

His belief that many sudden and unaccountable Deaths in the night have arisen from Invalids not knowing how to manage this Disorder, induces the Editor to relate his own personal experience concerning it—and the Remedies which he has found effectual to remove it.

“Non ignara mali, miseris succurrere disco.”

The case is very similar to what Dr. Whytt relates of himself, in his Observations on Nervous, Hysteric, and Hypochondriac Disorders, 8vo. 176785; by which, Dr. Cullen, in p. 10 of his Clinical Lectures, says, “he has done more than all his predecessors.”

Mr. Waller has written a very sensible Essay on the Nightmare—those who are much afflicted with it, cannot lay out 3s. 6d. better, than in buying his book—12mo. 1816. He says, “it most frequently proceeds from acidity in the Stomach, and recommends Carbonate of Soda, to be taken in the Beer you Drink at dinner.” He tells us “he derived his information, as to the cause, and cure of this distressing disorder, from a personal acquaintance with it for many years.”

How devoutly it is to be wished that all Authors would follow good old Sydenham and Mr. Waller’s example,—and give us a register of the progress of those chronic complaints which they have themselves been afflicted with, and the regimen, &c. which they have found most effectual to alleviate and cure them;—and, instead of what they think,—write only what they know,—as the pains-taking SanctoriusSpallanzaniBryan Robinson,—and the persevering and minutely accurately observing Dr. Stark have in their Dietetical Experiments.

Dr. Whytt has immortalized himself by the candid relation of his own infirmities, and his circumstantial account of the Regimen, &c. which enabled him to bear up against them,—which forms the most valuable collection of observations on Nervous Complaints, that experience and liberality have yet presented to the public.

One page of PERSONAL EXPERIENCE, is worth folios of theoretic Fancies,—or Clinical Cases, which can only be illuminated by the twilight of conjecture:—they may be faithful narratives of the accounts given by Patients, yet, as these are very often imposed upon by their imagination attributing effects to very different causes than those which produce them, they are often very inaccurate deductions.

The Delicate and the Nervous, will derive the greatest advantage from keeping a Register of their Health,—they should note, and avoid whatever disagrees with them,—and endeavour to ascertain, what kind and quantity of Food—Exercise—Occupation and Pleasures, &c. are most agreeable to their constitution, and take them at those regular periods which appear most convenient to them. However this advice may excite the smiles of those who are swelling “in all the pride of superfluous Health,” such methodical movements will considerably improve the enjoyment, and prolong the life of the Valetudinary and the Aged: for whom, Instinct is the best Guide in the choice of Aliment.

None but the most obstinately ignorant Visionary, would dream of laying down absolute Rules86 for governing the caprice and whims of the infirm Stomachs of Crazy Valetudinarians. Codes of Dietetics87 are almost useless,—the suggestions of Reason are often in direct opposition to the desires of Appetite.

In most matters regarding the adjustment of that supreme organ of existence,—the Stomach,—“honest Instinct88 comes a Volunteer.”—Ventriloquism seldom falls to make out a fair title, to be called “unerring.” A due respect to the suggestions of Instinct, every Invalid will find highly advantageous,—natural longing has frequently pointed out Food—by which Acute Diseases have been cured, when the most consummate medical skill was at fault, and Life at its lowest ebb.

It is needless to insist upon the importance of Diet and Regimen in Chronic Disorders.

Be content with One89 Dish,—from want of submission to this salutary rule of Temperance—as many men dig their Grave with their Teeth, as with the Tankard;—Drunkenness is deplorably destructive, but her demurer sister Gluttony destroys an hundred to her one.

Instinct speaks pretty plainly to those whose instruments of Digestion are in a delicate state—and is an infinitely surer guide than any Dietetic rules that can be contrived.

That the Food which we fancy most—generally sits easiest on the Stomach—is a fact which the experience of almost every individual can confirm.

The functions of Digestion go on merrily when exercised by Aliment which the Stomach asks for—they often labour in vain when we eat merely because it is the usual hour of Dining—or out of necessity, to amuse the Gastric juices, and “lull the grinding stomach’s hungry rage.”

To affirm that any thing is wholesome, or unwholesome,—without considering the subject in all the circumstances to which it bears relation, and the unaccountable peculiarities of different Constitutions,—is, with submission, talking nonsense.

Let every Man consult his Stomach;—to eat and drink such things—and in such quantities—as agree with that perfectly well, is wholesome for him, whilst they continue to do so90:—that which satisfies and refreshes us, and causes no uneasiness after, may safely be taken in moderation—whenever the Appetite is keen—whether it be at Dinner or Supper.

What we have been longest used to, is most likely to agree with us best.

The wholesomeness, &c. of all Food, depends very much on the quality of it—and the way in which it is cooked.

Those who are poor in Health, must live as they can;—certainly the less Stimulus any of us use the better, provided it be sufficient to properly carry on the Circulation:—I sometimes hold it lawful to excite Appetite when it is feeble by Age, or debilitated by Indisposition.

Those Stimuli which excite the circulation at the least expense of nervous irritation—and afford the greatest quantity of nutriment, must be most acceptable to the Stomach, when it demands restorative diet.

A healthful impetus may be given to the System by a well seasoned Soup, or a restorative Ragout, at half the expense to the machinery of Life, than by the use of those Spirituous Stimuli—which fan a feverish fire—exciting action without supplying the expenditure of the principle producing it—and merely quicken the circulation for a few minutes, without contributing any material to feed the Lamp of Life—which, if it be originally or organically defective—or is impaired by Time or Disease—will sometimes not burn brightly, unless it be supplied with the best oil, and trimmed in the most skilful manner.

Good Mock Turtle, see (No. 246, or 247*,) will agree with weak stomachs surprisingly well; so will that made by Birch in Cornhill, and by Kay at Albion House, Aldersgate Street.—This excellent Soup, is frequently ordered for Dyspeptic patients, by the senior Physician to one of the largest hospitals in this Metropolis: as a man of science and talent, certainly in as high estimation as any of his cotemporaries.

Ox-tail Soup (No. 240,) Giblet Soup (No. 244,) and (No. 87,) and (No. 89,) (No. 489,) and (No. 503,) are very agreeable extempore Restoratives,—so easy of digestion, that they are a sinecure to the Stomach, and give very little trouble to the chylopoietic organs—those whose Teeth are defective—and those whose Circulation is below par,—will find them acceptable Foods. “Experto crede,”—the reader will remember Baglivi’s chapter “de Idolis Medicorum,” wherein he tells us, that “Physicians always prescribe to others, what they like themselves.” The learned Mandeville has favoured us with five pages on the incomparably invigorating virtues of Stock Fish!! a kind of Cod which is dried without being salted. See pages 316, &c. of his Treatise on Hypochondriasis.

The best Answers, to all inquiries about The Wholesomes, are the following Questions;—“Do you like it?” “Does it agree with you?”—“then eat in moderation, and you cannot do very wrong.”

Those who have long lived luxuriously, to be sufficiently nourished, must be regularly supplied with Food that is nutritive, and Drink that is stimulating91,—Spice and Wine, are as needful to the “Bon Vivant” of a certain Age—as its Mother’s Milk, is to a New-born Babe.

The decrease of the energy of Life arises from the decrease of the action of the organs of the Body—especially those of Digestion,—which in early life is so intense and perfect, that a Child, after its common unexcitant meal of Bread and Milk, is as hilarious and frolicsome as an Adult person is after a certain quantity of Roast Beef and Port.

The infirm stomachs of Invalids, require a little indulgence92—like other bad instruments, they often want oiling, and screwing, and winding up and adjusting with the utmost care, to keep them in tolerable order;—and will receive the most salutary Stimulus, from now and then making a full meal of a favourite dish. This is not a singular notion of my own, though it may not exactly agree with the fastidious fancy of Dr. Sangrado’s disciples,—that Starvation and Phlebotomy, are Sovereign Remedies for all Disorders.

Those philanthropic Physicians, Dr. Diet,—Dr. Quiet,—and Dr. Merryman,—hold the same doctrine as the Magnus Coquusi. e. the Author of “the Cook’s Oracle,” to whose culinary skill we have been so repeatedly indebted in the composition of this work.

As excessive Eating and Drinking is certainly the most frequent cause of the disorders of the Rich,—so privation is the common source of complaints among the Poor;—the cause of the one, is the cure of the other—but where one of the latter dies of Want, how many thousands of the former are destroyed by Indigestion!

If strong Spices and savoury Herbs excite appetite—they (in an increased ratio,) accelerate the action of the Bowels—and hurry the food through the alimentary canal, too rapidly to allow the Absorbents to do their work properly.

Salt is the most salubrious and easily obtainable relish which Nature has given us to give sapidity to other substances; and has this advantage over all other Sauces, that if taken to excess—it carries its remedy with it in its Aperient quality.

We suspect that most mischief is done by the immoderate and constant use of the Common Condiments.—We have seen some puritanical folks, who are for ever boasting that They never touch Made Dishes, &c. (one would suppose they had the Tongue of Pityllus93,) so be-devil every morsel they put into their Mouth—with Pepper, and Mustard, &c. that they made their common food ten times more piquante—than the burn-gullet Bonne Bouche of an eastern Nabob, or a Broiled Devil, enveloped in “veritable Sauce d’Enfer.”—See (No. 355 and 538).

We do not condemn the moderate use of Spices, but the constant and excessive abuse of them,—by which the papillary nerves of the tongue become so blunted, that in a little time they lose all relish for useful nourishing food, and the Epicure is punished with all the sufferings of incessant and incurable Indigestion,—perturbed Sleep—and the horrors of the Night-Mare, &c. &c.—However, enough has been written by a thousand cautionists, to convince any rational creature of the advantage resulting to both the Body and the Mind from a simple and frugal fare:—the great secret of Health and Longevity is to keep up the sensibility of the Stomach.

No Regimen94 can be contrived that will suit every body.

“Try all the bounties of this fertile Globe,
There is not such a salutary Food
As suits with every Stomach.”
Dr. Armstrong’s Art of Preserving Health, book ii. line 120.

“I knew a black servant of Mr. Pitt, an Indian Merchant in America, who was fond of Soup made of Rattle Snakes,—in which the Head, without any regard to the Poison, was boiled along with the rest of the animal.”—Dr. G. Fordyce, on Digestion, &c. 8vo. 1791, p. 119.

No food is so delicious that it pleases all palates,—nothing can be more correct than the old adage, “one man’s meat is another man’s poison.”

It would be as difficult for a Laplander, or an earth-eating Ottomaque, to convince our good citizens that Train Oil, and gutter-mud, is a more elegant relish than their favourite Turtle—as for the former to fancy that Kay or Birch’s Soup can be as agreeable as the Grease and Garbage which custom has taught them to think delicious.

“Man differs more from Man
Than Man from Beast.”—Colman.

Celsus95 very sensibly says, that “a healthy man, under his own government, ought not to tie himself up by strict rules,—nor to abstain from any sort of food; that he ought sometimes to fast, and sometimes to feast.” Sanis, sunt omnia Sana.

When the Stomach sends forth eructant signals of distress, for help against Indigestion, the Peristaltic Persuaders (see the end of this Essay) are as agreeable and effectual assistance as can be offered; and for delicate Constitutions, and those that are impaired by Age or Intemperance, are a valuable Panacea.

They derive, and deserve this name, from the peculiar mildness of their operation96. One or two very gently increase the action of the principal viscera, help them to do their work a little faster,—and enable the Stomach to serve with an ejectment whatever offends it,—and move it into the Bowels.

Thus Indigestion is easily and speedily removed,—Appetite restored,—(the mouths of the absorbing vessels being cleansed) Nutrition is facilitated,—and Strength of Body, and Energy of Mind97, are the happy results.

If an immediate operation be desired, take some Tincture of Rhubarb—as a Pill is the most gentle and gradually operating form for a drug—a Tincture in which it is as it were ready digested, is the most immediate in its action.

To Make Tincture of Rhubarb.—Steep three ounces of the best Rhubarb (pounded) and half an ounce of Carraway Seeds, (pounded) in a bottle of Brandy, for ten days. A table-spoonful in a wine-glass of hot water will generally be enough.

Compound Tincture of Senna, has been recommended, especially to those who have accustomed themselves to the use of spirituous Liquors and high living. Several similar preparations are sold under the name of Daffy’s Elixir—or as much Epsom Salt, in half a pint of hot water, as experience has informed you, will produce one motion,—a Tea-spoonful (i. e. from one to two drachms) will generally do this—especially if it be taken in the morning, fasting, i. e. at least half an hour before Breakfast.

The best way of covering the taste of Salt, is to put a lump of Sugar and a bit of thin-cut Lemon Peel98 into the hot water, for a few minutes before you stir the Salt into it,—to which you may add a few grains of grated Ginger.

Epsom Salt is a very speedy laxative, often operating within an hour,—does the business required of it with great regularity,—and is more uniform in what it does,—and when it does it,—than any Aperient;—ten minutes after you have taken it, encourage its operation by drinking half a pint, or more, of warm water—weak Broth—Tea—thin Gruel (No. 572), with some salt and butter in it—or Soda Water (No. 481.*) See Index.

Nil tam ad sanitatem, et longevitatem conducit, quam crebræ et domesticæ purgationes.”—Lord Bacon.i. e. “Nothing contributes so much to preserve Health, and prolong Life, as frequently cleansing the alimentary canal with gentle laxatives.”

We perfectly agree with Lord Bacon, and believe that in nine cases out of ten, for which Tonic Medicines are administered, Peristaltic Persuaders will not only much more certainly improve Appetite,—but invigorate the Constitution; by facilitating the absorption of nutriment,—which, in aged and debilitated people, is often prevented by the mouths of the vessels being half closed by the accumulation of viscid mucus, &c.

Aperient Medicine does enough, if it increases the customary Evacuation,—and does too much,—if it does more,—than excite one additional motion.

Bowels which are forced into double action to-day—must, consequently, be costive to-morrow, and Constipation will be caused by the remedy you have recourse to to remove it,—this has given rise to a Vulgar Error,—that the use of even the mildest Laxative is followed by Costiveness.

Rhubarb is particularly under this prejudice,—because it has been more frequently employed as a domestic remedy,—and unadvisedly administered in either too little, or too large a Dose. It has, however, been recommended by a Physician of acknowledged Ability, and extensive Experience.

“If the Bowels are constipated, they should be kept regular by a Pill of Rhubarb of five grains every morning.”—Pemberton on the Abdominal Viscera, p. 113.

People are often needlessly uneasy about the Action of their Bowels.—If their general Health is good, and they have neither Head-ach nor other deranged sensations, and they live temperately, during the second period of Life, whether they have two motions in one day, or one in two days, perhaps is not of much consequence;—however, that the Alvine Exoneration should take place regularly is certainly most desirable;—especially after Thirty-Five years of age99, when the elasticity of the machinery of Life begins to diminish.

To acquire a Habit of Regularity, Mr. Locke, who was a Physician as well as a Philosopher, advises that “if any person, as soon as he has breakfasted, would presently solicit nature, so as to obtain a stool, he might in time, by a constant application, bring it to be habitual.” He says “I have known none who have been steady in the prosecution of this plan, who did not in a few months obtain the desired success.”—On Education, p. 23, &c.

“It is well known that the alvine evacuation is periodical, and subjected to the power of habit; if the regular call is not obeyed, the necessity for the evacuation passes away; and the call being again and again neglected, habitual costiveness is the consequence.”—Hamilton on Purgatives, p. 72.

It will facilitate the acquirement of this salutary evacuation,—to take at night—such a dose of an Aperient medicine, as Experience has pointed out, as just sufficient to assist nature to produce a Motion in the Morning.

Habitual Costiveness is not curable by Drugs alone,—and is most agreeably corrected by Diet and Regimen, those most important, and only effectual, although much neglected (because little understood) means of permanently alleviating Chronic Complaints, for which

“Coquina est optima Medicina.”

Strong Constitutions are generally Costive100,—that perfect and vigorous action of the absorbents, which is the cause of their strength, is also the cause of their Constipation:—

“Oportet sanorum, sedes esse figuratas.”

This ought to make them content,—but the Constipated are for ever murmuring about a habit—which, if managed with moderate care,—is the fundamental basis of Health and Long Life. A little attention to Regimen will generally prevent it—a simple Laxative will suffice to remove it—and neither will be often necessary, for those who observe a deobstruent Diet—take proper Exercise in a pure Air—sufficient liquid Food—and eat freely of Butter, Salt, and Sugar.

The peculiarity of most Constitutions is so convenient, that almost all Costive persons—by attending to the effects which various things produce upon their Bowels—may find, in their usual Food and Drink, the means of persuading their sluggish Viscera to vibrate with healthful celerity.

A Supper or Breakfast of thin Gruel, (No. 572,) with plenty of Butter and Salt in it,—ripe Fruits, particularly Grapes101,—Oranges,—Strawberries,—Raspberries,—Mulberries,—Marmalade,—Honey,—Treacle,—roasted Apples,—stewed Prunes,—Figs,—Raisins,—Tamarinds,—French Plumbs, &c.;—will almost always produce the desired effect.

Two or three strong Cinnamon or Ginger Lozenges, (see page 234,) gradually dissolved in the mouth when the Stomach is empty, will act as an Aperient on many persons.

Salad Oil is a very pleasant Peristaltic Persuader:—by the following means it may be introduced (as a supper) to the most delicate Stomach,—without any offence to the most fastidious Palate.

Put a table-spoonful of Sherry into a wine-glass—on this a table-spoonful of Olive Oil—on this another table-spoonful of Sherry—or rub together a table-spoonful or two of Oil, with the yolk of an Egg boiled hard, (No. 547,) add a little Vinegar and Salt to it, and eat it at Supper as a Sauce to a Salad (No. 138*) of Mustard and Cresses,—or Lettuce,—Radishes,—Button Onions,—Celery,—Cucumber, &c.;—or cold boiled Asparagus,—Brocoli,—Cauliflower,—Carrot,—or Turnip,—Kidney or French Beans,—or Pease;—or Pickled Salmon, (No. 161,) Lobster, (No. 176,) Shrimps, Herrings, Sprats, (No. 170**,) or Mackarel, (No. 168,) or as a Sauce to cold Meat, &c.

You may give it an infinite variety of agreeable flavours; the ingredients to produce which are enumerated in (No. 372) of “the Cook’s Oracle.”

Hypochondriac people are fond of taking Medicine at certain times, the spring and fall,—at the full or the new Moon, &c. whether they want it or not.—For those in Health to attempt to improve it by taking Physic, is absurd indeed. Remember the epitaph on the Italian Count—

“I was well—
Wished to be better—
Took Physic—and died.”

Hypochondriasis—Spleen—Vapours—the Blue Devils—the Bile—Nervous Debility, &c. are but so many different names for those Disorders which arise either from Chronic Weakness of the Constitution—or an inconsiderate management of it.—A man who has a strong stamina will bear irregularities with impunity—which will soon destroy a more delicate frame.

We do not laugh at the melancholy of the Hypochondriac,—or consider his Complaints as merely the hallucinations of un Malade Imaginaire; but trace the cause of them to either some Indigestion interrupting the functions of the Alimentary Canal—which a gentle Aperient would immediately remove—or the ineffective performance of the Restorative Process—insufficiently nutritive Diet—or depression of the vital and animal functions from anxiety or over-exertion of either the Mind or the Body:—which nothing but Rest and nutritive Food can repair.

The Editor of this little treatise has had from his Youth to bear up against an highly irritable nervous system,—the means he has found useful to manage and support it, he is now recording for the benefit of other Nervous Invalids.

We advise our Friends—never to call in even the gentle aid of Peristaltic Persuaders,—but when Instinct absolutely insists upon it—some of the Indications of which are, “A disagreeable taste in the Mouth—Eructations—Want of Appetite—Sensations of distention in the Stomach and Bowels—Pains in the Stomach or Head—Vertigo—Feverishness—Restlessness—Peevishness,” &c.—but these will often disappear by taking a liquid meal, instead of a solid one, or using more exercise, will often answer the purpose.—Mr. Jones very sensibly observes, “if people will by no means rest from constantly tampering with laxatives, instead of using exercise, the habit of using the Lavement every evening cannot be so destructive, as it irritates only twelve inches of intestine, and spares raking down the other thirty-nine feet.”—See Med. Vul. Errors, p. 44.

Relaxed Bowels102 are often extremely unmanageable, and difficult to regulate—and are the principal cause of that Chronic Weakness which is so generally complained of, and of many other distressing Nervous Disorders.

If the Bowels are unfaithful to the Stomach, and, instead of playing fair,—let go their hold of the “Pabulum Vitæ,” before the Absorbents have properly performed the process which that grand organ has prepared for them—Nutrition will be deficient; and Flatulence, &c. &c. Giddiness,—Spasms,—Head-ache,—and Back-ache,—and what are called Bilious and Nervous Disorders,—and all the Diseases incident to Debility, will attack you on the slightest cause.

Those who are afflicted with a relaxation of the Bowels, are advised to a Dry diet, rather than a Liquid one, and must submit to a Regimen diametrically contrary to that we have recommended to cure Constipation.

“Since I lessened my Drink I have been much more costive than I was before, and have for two years past freed myself from a Diarrhœa. Costiveness generally attends dry food in other animals as well as men.”—B. Robinson, on Food and Discharges, p. 82 and 64.

Live principally upon Animal Food sufficiently cooked, and Stale Bread, or biscuit;—instead of Malt liquor (unless it be very mild and good Homebrewed Beer, which is the best of all Beverages) drink Beef-Tea, (No. 563), or well made Toast and Water103 (No. 463*), with about one-fourth part of Wine, and a little Sugar and grated Nutmeg or Ginger in it;—if the Stomach be troubled with Acidity, or great Flatulence, one-eighth part of Brandy may agree with it better:—whatever You eat and drink should be Warmed.—See page 94 on Siesta, and page 158.

Be watchful of the effects of the Food which you take,—avoid whatever appears to irritate, and eat only that which experience has proved acceptable.

Irritable Bowels are excited to inconveniently increased action by any thing that the Stomach has either not the ability, or the inclination, to prepare for them,—and Diarrhœa is the consequence.

The easiest and most effectual method of restoring tranquillity in the Bowels—is to be content with a light diet of Gruel, Broth, or Fish, &c. till the return of a keen Appetite assures you, that the Stomach has recovered its powers, and being ready for action, requires its usual supply of solid food.

When the Bowels get a trick of emptying themselves too often,—a teaspoonful of Compound Powder of Chalk in your Tea,—or a wine-glassful of the following mixture, taken twice or thrice a day, will generally cure them of it very speedily:—

℞ Chalk mixture, six ounces.
Tincture of Cinnamon (No. 416*), one ditto.
Opiate Confection, one drachm.
Mixed together.

If Diarrhœa continues obstinate, more powerful Astringents104 may be necessary.

Tincture of Cinnamon (No. 416*) is one of the best cordial tonics—see also (No. 569) and (Nos. 413 & 15.)

Opium Lozenges, containing a quarter of a grain each, and strongly flavoured with Oil of Peppermint, are recommended to those who are troubled with relaxed Bowels.

Strong Peppermint Lozenges are the most convenient portable carminative:—as soon as they are dissolved, their influence is felt from the beginning, to the end of the Alimentary Canal;—they dissipate flatulence so immediately, that they well deserve the name of Vegetable Æther; and are recommended to Singers105 and Public Speakers, as giving effective excitement to the organs of the Voice,—as a support against the distressing effects of fasting too long—and to give energy to the Stomach between meals.

N.B. Sixty different sorts of Lozenges, are made in the most superlative manner, by Mr. Smith, Fell Street, Wood Street, Cheapside.

His Rose Jujubes—are a very elegant preparation, which those who have not a remarkably Sweet Breath, are recommended to take the last thing at night, and the first in the morning—the breath smells faintest when the Stomach is emptiest.

His Mellifluous Aromatics are so delicately flavoured, they moisten the mouth and throat without cloying the Palate, Stomach, &c., which is more than can be said of most Lozenges.

To make Forty Peristaltic Persuaders.

Turkey Rhubarb, finely pulverized, two drachms.
Syrup (by weight) one drachm.
Oil of Carraway, ten drops (minums).
Made into Pills, each of which will contain Three Grains of Rhubarb.

The Dose of the Persuaders must be adapted to the constitutional peculiarity of the Patient:—when you wish to accelerate or augment the Alvine Exoneration—take two, three, or more, according to the effect you desire to produce—two Pills will do as much for one person as five or six will for another; they generally will very regularly perform what you wish to-day,—without interfering with what you hope will happen to-morrow;—and are, therefore, as convenient an argument against Constipation as any we are acquainted with.

The most convenient opportunity to introduce them to the Stomach—is early in the Morning, when it is unoccupied,—and has no particular business to attend to, i. e. at least half an hour before Breakfast.

Physic should never interrupt the Stomach, when it is engaged in digesting Food—perhaps the best time to take it, is when you awake out of your first Sleep—or as soon as you awake in the morning. Moreover, such is the increased sensibility of some Stomachs at that time, that half the quantity of Medicine will suffice.

From two to four Persuaders will generally produce one additional motion within twelve hours.

They may be taken at any time—by the most delicate Females, whose Constitutions are so often distressed by Constipation106, and destroyed by the drastic purgatives they take to relieve it. See also page 224.

Their agreeable flavour recommends them as the most convenient aperient for Children, whose indispositions most frequently arise from obstructions in the Bowels;—it is not always a very easy task to prevail upon a spoiled Child to take Physic;—therefore—we have made our Pill to taste exactly like Gingerbread.

For Infants, too young to swallow a Pill, pound it, and mix it with Currant Jelly, Honey, or Treacle.

On the first attack of Disease—it may generally be disarmed by discharging the contents of the Bowels:—in every Disorder107 the main point is carefully to watch, and constantly to keep up the activity of the Alimentary Canal—for want of due attention to this, Millions (especially of Children) HAVE DIED OF MEDICABLE DISORDERS!!

For Bilious or Liver108 Complaints, (which are now the fashionable names for all those deranged sensations of the Abdominal Viscera—which as often arise from the want, as from the excess of Bile—and perhaps most frequently from Indigestion)—and for expelling Worms109, for which it is the fashion to administer Mercury110 (which, because it is the only remedy for one Disease, people suppose must be a panacea for every disorder) and other drastic mineral medicines, which are awfully uncertain both in their strength and in their operation.

If, instead of two or three times a week tormenting your Bowels with Corrosive Cathartics,—Hydragogues,—Phlegmagogues, &c., you take one or two gentle Persuaders, twice or thrice a day;—they will excite a gradual and regularly increased action of the Viscera—restore the tone of the Alimentary tube—and speedily and effectually cure the disorder, without injuring the Constitution.

There is not a more universal or more mischievous Vulgar Error, than the notion, that Physic is efficacious, in proportion as it is extremely disagreeable to take, and frightfully violent in its operation,—unless a medicine actually produces more Distress in the System, than the Disorder it is administered to remove—in fact, if the Remedy be not worse than the Disease, the million have no faith in it—and are not satisfied that they can be perfectly cured if they escape Phlebotomy,—unless put to extreme pain, and plentifully supplied with Black Doses, and drastic Drugs;—they have the best opinion of that Doctor who most furiously

VomitsPurgesBlistersBleeds, and Sweats ’em.”

To perfectly content them that you have most profoundly considered their case, you must to such Prescription—add a Proscription of every thing they appear particularly partial to!!!

People who in all other respects appear to be very rational—and are apt to try other questions by the rules of Common Sense, in matters relating to their Health, surrender their understanding to the fashion of the Day,—and in the present Century, on all occasions take Calomel as coolly as in the last, their Grandfathers inundated their poor Stomachs with Tar-Water.

Tonic Tincture, (No. 569) is

Peruvian Bark, bruised, one ounce and a half.
Orange Peel, do. one ounce.
Brandy, or Proof Spirit, one pint.

Let these ingredients steep for ten days, shaking the bottle every day—let it remain quiet two days—and then decant the clear liquor.

Dose—one teaspoonful in a wineglass of water, twice a day, when you feel languid, i. e. when the Stomach is empty, about an hour before Dinner, and in the Evening. Twenty grains of the Powder of Bark may be added to it occasionally.

To this agreeable Aromatic Tonic we are under personal obligations, for frequently putting our Stomach into good temper, and procuring us good Appetite and good Digestion.

In low Nervous affections, arising from a languid Circulation—and, when the Stomach is in a state of shabby debility from age—intemperance, or other causes—this is a most acceptable restorative.

N.B. Tea made with dried and bruised Seville Orange Peel, (in the same manner as common Tea,) and drank with milk and sugar, has been taken for Breakfast by Nervous and Dyspeptic persons with great benefit.

Chewing a bit of Orange Peel twice a day when the Stomach is empty, will be found very grateful, and strengthening to it.—

Stomachic Tinctures.

Two ounces of Cascarilla Bark (bruised)—or dried Orange Peel,—or Colomba Root—infused for a fortnight in a pint of Brandy, will give you the Tinctures called by those names.

Dose—one or two teaspoonsful in a wine-glass of water.

Tincture of Cinnamon, (No. 416*).

This excellent Cordial is made by pouring a bottle of genuine Cogniac (No. 471) on three ounces of bruised Cinnamon (Cassia will not do). This cordial restorative was more in vogue formerly, than it is now;—a teaspoonful of it, and a lump of Sugar, in a glass of good Sherry or Madeira, with the yolk of an Egg beat up in it—was called “Balsamum Vitæ.”

Cur moriatur homo, qui sumit de Cinnamomo?”—“Cinnamon is verie comfortable to the Stomacke, and the principall partes of the bodie.”

Ventriculum, Jecur, Lienem Cerebrum, nervosque juvant et roborat.”—“I reckon it a great treasure for a student to have by him, in his closet, to take now and then a spoonfull.”—Cogan’s Haven of Health, 4to. 1584, p. 111.

Obs.—Two teaspoonsful in a wineglass of water—are a present and pleasant remedy in Nervous Languors—and in relaxations of the Bowels—in the latter case five drops of Laudanum may be added to each dose.

Soda Water, (No. 481*.)

The best way of producing agreeable Pneumatic Punch, as a learned Chemist has called this refreshing refrigerant, is to fill two half-pint Tumblers half full of Water,—stir into one 30 grains of Carbonate of Potash,—into the other 25 grains of Citric111 Acid, (both being previously finely pounded,)—when the powders are perfectly dissolved—pour the contents of one tumbler into the other—and sparkling Soda Water is instantaneously produced.

To make Double Soda Water, use double the quantity of the Powder.

Single Soda Water is a delightful drink in sultry weather—and may be very agreeably flavoured by dissolving a little Raspberry or Red Currant Jelly in the Water, (before you add the Carbonate of Potash to it), or a little Tincture of Ginger, (No. 411,)—or Syrup of Ginger, (No. 394,)—or Syrup of Lemon Peel, (No. 393,)—or infuse a roll of fresh and thin-cut Lemon Peel, and a bit of Sugar in the water—or rub down a few drops of (No. 408,) with a bit of Lump Sugar, with or without a little grated Ginger;—a glass of Sherry or a tablespoonful of Brandy is sometimes added.

The addition of a teaspoonful of the Tonic Tincture (No. 569,) will give you a very refreshing Stomachic—and ten drops of Tinct. Ferri Muriati put into the water in which you dissolve the Citric Acid—a fine effervescing Chalybeate.

The day after a Feast, if you feel fevered and heated, you cannot do better than drink a half-pint glass or two of Single Soda Water between Breakfast and Dinner.

Double Soda Water (especially if made with tepid water) is an excellent auxiliary to accelerate the operation of Aperient Medicine—and, if taken in the Morning fasting, will sometimes move the Bowels without further assistance.

If some good Cogniac or Essence of Ginger (No. 411) be added to it, it is one of the best helps to set the Stomach to work—and remove the distressing languor which sometimes follows hard drinking.

Essence of Ginger, (No. 411).

The fragrant aroma of Ginger is so extremely volatile, that it evaporates almost as soon as it is pounded—the fine Lemon peel goût flies off presently.

If Ginger is taken to produce an immediate effect—to warm the Stomach—dispel Flatulence, &c., or as an addition to Aperient Medicine—the following is the best preparation of it:—

Steep three ounces of fresh grated Ginger, and one ounce of fresh Lemon Peel, (cut thin) in a quart of Brandy—or Proof Spirit, for ten days, shaking it up each day.

N.B. Tincture of Allspice, which is sometimes called Essence of Bishop, for making Mulled Wine, &c. extempore, is prepared in the same manner.

Gruel, (No. 252).

1st. Ask those who are to eat it, if they like it THICK or thin; if the latter, mix well together by degrees, in a pint basin, one tablespoonful of Oatmeal with three of cold water;—if the former, two spoonsful.

Have ready, in a Stewpan, a pint of boiling water or milk—pour this by degrees to the Oatmeal you have mixed—return it into the Stewpan—set it on the fire—and let it boil for five minutes—stirring it all the time to prevent the Oatmeal from burning at the bottom of the Stewpan—skim—and strain it through a Hair Sieve.

2d. To convert this into Caudle—add a little Ale—Wine—or Brandy—with Sugar—and if the Bowels are disordered, a little Nutmeg or Ginger grated.

Gruel may be made with Broth112 (No. 490,) or (No. 252,) or (No. 564,) instead of Water—(to make Crowdie, see No. 205*,)—and may be flavoured with Sweet HerbsSoup Roots and Savoury Spices—by boiling them for a few minutes in the water you are going to make the Gruel with—or Zest (No. 255)—Pea Powder (No. 458)—or dried Mint—Mushroom Catsup (No. 439)—or a few grains of Curry Powder (No. 455)—or Savoury Ragout Powder (No. 457)—or Cayenne (No. 404)—or Celery Seed bruised—or Soup Herb Powder (No. 459)—or an Onion minced very fine and bruised in with the Oatmeal—or a little Eschalot Wine (No. 402)—or Essence of Celery (No. 409)—or (No. 413)—(No. 417)—or (No. 420),&c.

Plain Gruel, such as is directed in the first part of this Recipe, is one of the best Breakfasts and Suppers that we can recommend to the rational Epicure;—is the most comforting soother of an irritable Stomach that we know—and particularly acceptable to it after a hard day’s work of Intemperate Feasting—when the addition of half an ounce of Butter, and a teaspoonful of Epsom Salt will give it an aperient quality, which will assist the principal Viscera to get rid of their burden.

Water Gruel” (says Tryon in his Obs. on Health, 16mo. 1688, p. 42,) is “the King of Spoon Meats,” and “the Queen of Soups,” and gratifies nature beyond all others.

In the “Art of Thriving,” 1697, p. 8, are directions for preparing Fourscore Noble and Wholesome Dishes, upon most of which a Man may live excellent well for Twopence a day: the author’s Obs. on Water Gruel is, that “Essence of Oatmeal” makes “a noble and exhilarating meal!”

Dr. Franklin’s favourite Breakfast was a good basin of warm Gruel, in which there was a small slice of Butter with Toasted Bread and Nutmeg—the expense of this, he reckoned at three half-pence.

“Mastication is a very necessary Preparation of solid Aliment, without which there can be no good Digestion.”—The above are the first lines in Arbuthnot’s Essay on Aliment.

This first act of the important process of Digestion, is most perfectly performed, when the flavour, &c. of our Food is agreeable to our Taste;—we naturally detain upon our Palate those things which please it,—and the Meat we relish most, is consequently most broken down by chewing, and most intimately incorporated with the Saliva—this is the reason why what we desire most, we digest best.

Here, is a sufficient answer, to the Folios which have sprung from the Pens of cynical and senseless Scribblers—on whom Nature not having bestowed a Palate, they have proscribed those pleasures they had not Sense113 to taste, or comprehend the wise purposes for which they were given to us, and

“Compound for Sins they are inclin’d to,
By damning those they have no mind to.”

How large a share of the business of Digestion is managed by Mastication, has been shown by the experiments of Spallanzani114.

To Chew long, and leisurely, is the only way to extract the essence of our food—to enjoy the taste of it, and to render it easily convertible into laudable Chyle, by the facility it gives to the gastric juices to dissolve it without trouble.

The pleasure of the Palate, and the health of the Stomach, are equally promoted by this salutary habit, which all should be taught to acquire in their infancy.

The more tender meat is, the more we may eat of it.—That which is most difficult to Chew, is of course most difficult to Digest.

From 30 to 40 (according to the tenderness of the meat) has been calculated as the mean number of Munches, that solid meat requires, to prepare it for its journey down the Red Lane; less will be sufficient for tender, delicate, and easily digestible white meats.

The sagacious Gourmand, will calculate this precisely,—and not waste his precious moments in useless Jaw-work, or invite an Indigestion by neglecting Mastication.

I cannot give any positive rules for this, it depends on the state of the Teeth115; every one, especially the Dyspeptic, ought to ascertain the condition of these useful working tools; and to use them with proportionate diligence, is an indispensable exercise which every rational Epicure will most cheerfully perform, who has any regard for the welfare of his Stomach116.

It has been recommended, that those whose Teeth are defective, should mince their meat—this will certainly save trouble to both Teeth and Stomach—nevertheless, it is advisable, let the meat be minced ever so fine, to endeavour to mumble it into a pulp before it be introduced to the Stomach—on account of the advantage derived from its admixture with the Saliva.

“By experiment, I determined the quantity of Saliva secreted in half an hour, to be whilst the parts were at rest, four drachms,—whilst eating, five ounces four drachms.”—Stark on Diet, p. 99.

Mastication is the source of all good Digestion;—with its assistance, almost any thing may be put into any stomach with impunity:—without it, Digestion is always difficult, and often impossible: and be it always remembered, it is not merely what we eat, but what we digest well, that nourishes us.

The sagacious Gourmand is ever mindful of his motto—

“Masticate, Denticate, Chump, Grind, and Swallow.”

The four first acts, he knows he must perform properly,—before he dare attempt the fifth.

Those who cannot enjoy a savoury morsel on account of their Teeth, or rather on account of the want of them, we refer to the note at the foot of p. 260, and also have the pleasure to inform them, that Patent Masticators are made by Palmer, Cutler, in St. James’s Street.

To those who may inadvertently exercise their Masticative faculties on unworthy materials—or longer on worthy ones than nature finds convenient, we recommend “Peristaltic Persuaders.” See page 235.

When either the Teeth or Stomach are extremely feeble, especial care must be taken to keep Meat till it is tender—before it is cooked—and call in the aid of the Pestle and Mortar.—And see Nos. 10,—18,—87,—89,—175,—178; from 185 to 250,—502—542—and especially 503. Or dress in the usual way whatever is best liked—mince it—put it into a Mortar—and pound it with a little Broth or melted Butter,—Vegetable,—Herb,—Spice,—Zest, No. 255, &c.—according to the taste, &c. of the Eater.—The business of the Stomach is thus very materially facilitated.

“Mincing or Pounding Meat—saveth the grinding of the Teeth; and therefore (no doubt) is more nourishing, especially in Age,—or to them that have weak teeth; but Butter is not proper for weak bodies,—and therefore, moisten it in pounding with a little Claret Wine, and a very little Cinnamon or Nutmeg.”—Lord Bacon’s Natural History, Century 1.—54.

This is important Advice for those who are afflicted with “Tic Douloureux,”—the paroxysm of which is generally provoked by the exercise of Eating,—and the Editor has known that dreadful disorder cured by the Patient frequently taking food thus prepared in small portions, instead of a regular meal.

The Teeth should be cleaned after every meal with a “Tooth Preserver,” (i. e. a very soft brush,) and then rinsed with tepid water—never neglect this at night;—nothing destroys the Teeth so fast as suffering food to stick between them—those who observe this rule, will seldom have any occasion for DentifricesEssences of IvoryIndurating Liquid Enamels, &c.

But it is the rage just now with some Dentists, to recommend Brushes so hard, that they fetch Blood like a Lancet wherever they touch; and instead of “Teeth Preservers,” these should rather be termed “Gum Bleeders.”

Not even a Philosopher can endure the Toothach patiently—what an overcoming agony then it must be to a Grand Gourmand!—depriving him of the means of enjoying an amusement which to him is the grand solace for all sublunary cares.—To alleviate, and indeed generally to cure this intolerable pain—we recommend

Toothache and Anti-rheumatic Embrocation, (No. 567.)

Sal Volatile—three parts.
Laudanum—one part.

Mix and rub the part in pain therewith frequently. If the Tooth which aches is hollow, drop some of this on a bit of cotton, and put it into the Tooth,—if the pain does not abate within an hour—take out the cotton, and put another piece in—changing it every hour four or five times, till the pain ceases.

In a general Face-ach, or sore Throat—moisten a piece of flannel with it and put it to the part affected,—rub any part afflicted with Rheumatism night and morning, and in the middle of the day. I have frequently cured old and inveterate Rheumatic affections with this Liniment.


Actors, Hints to, concerning their Health, 96
Ale, 11, 144
—— Stale ditto, how to make fresh, 11
Abernethy, Mr., quoted, 9, 41, 49, 102, 159, 178, 238
Abstinence, cheapest Cure for Intemperance, 159
Athletic weight, what, 59
Air, on the change of, 8
—— Do. Note at foot of, 66
—— Stagnant, Dr. Struve’s Obs. on, 114
—— General Obs. on change of, &c., 119
—— not always advisable, 121
Animal Food, 10
Alcohol, proportion of, in Wines, Brandy, Gin, &c., 138
—— Dr. Philips’s Obs. on, 145
Arbuthnot, Dr., quoted, 1, 19
—— Obs. on Mastication, 250
Anxiety of Mind, Evils arising from, 85 to 87
—— Do. Sir John Sinclair on, Note to, 86
—— Do. Dr. Whytt, do., 86
—— Do. Sir Thomas Barnard, do., 86
—— Do. Dr. Colton, do., 86
Appetite, to refresh, 163
—— Three Sorts of, in Note to, 163
—— Varieties of, 169
—— Montaigne’s Obs. on, 200
Aperients, what the best, 215
—— what they ought to do, 219
—— Lord Bacon’s Obs, 219
—— Mr. Locke’s do., 221
—— Dr. Hamilton’s do., 221
—— best time to introduce them to the Stomach, 235
—— for Children, 237
Astringents, 232

Bacon, Lord, his Obs. on Aperients, 219
—— on Food for those whose Teeth are defective, 263
Barclay, Captain, quoted, 3, 7
—— his Diet during his extraordinary walk, 13
Balsamum Vitæ, 97
Brown, Dr., his Obs. on the Materia Medica, &c., 5
Bath, tepid, 126
Brain, the two ways of fertilizing, 68
Bed Room, 90
—— Curtains, 91
Bed, best, 91
—— ventilated, 92
—— Do. in hot weather, 92
—— A Fire in, 93
—— Clothes, 103
—— Ditto, ditto, in cold weather, 104
Beef, 10, 22, 31
—— eaters preferred to Sheep-biters, 29
—— Tea, how to make, 96, 182
—— a good Tonic, 182
—— on the digestibility of, 177
—— Obs. on, by Bryan Robinson. By the Editor. By Mr. Astley Cooper, 177
Beer, 11, 23, 28, 144
Breakfast, 20
—— Do. of Beef Tea recommended after hard drinking, 161
—— of Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1550, 184
—— of a Washerwoman in A.D. 1821, 184
Bread, Liquid, 144
—— Crust of, wonderful virtues of, 169
Broils, 26
Broths, in what degree nutritive, 30
—— excellent Mutton, 254
Breath, Rose Jujubes for those who have not a remarkable sweet, 234
Blumenbach on the Pulse, 45
Bowels, constipated, how to regulate, 220
—— relaxed, do., 228
Braces, 111
Bons Vivants, hint to, 122
—— Do. do., 207 and 208
Brandy, how much it wastes in keeping, 135
—— where to buy it, 141
Bilious Attack, 172
—— Disorders, 238
Bishop, Essence of, 248
Bouillon, Tablettes de, 179
—— Do. how to make, 251

Cadogan, Dr., Address to him quoted, 169
—— quoted, 83
Calcavella Wine, 154
Calomel, 242
Cellar, the temperature of a good, 133
—— on the management of, 134
Cheyne, Dr., quoted, 87, 216
Corpulency, to reduce, 29, 50, 64
—— Authors who have written thereon, 64
—— by walking, 62
—— by fasting, 62
—— by purging, 62
—— Panacea for, 125
Customs, 17
—— Dr. Armstrong’s Obs. on. Struve’s do., 65
Crabs, 30
Colton, his Obs. on Intemperance, 34
Cornaro, a compendium of his system in his own words, 38
—— liked New Wine, 136
Cold Food and Drink, bad for the Dyspeptic and Gouty, 94
Cold, the frequent cause of Palsy, 113
—— an easy way to get rid of one, 117
Chronic Disorders, common cause of, 63
—— importance of Regimen in, 202
Cooper, Mr. Astley, quoted, 177
Condiments, the excessive use of common, 210
Chimney Sweeping, 81
—— Boards, 91
Clothes, 103
—— how to adjust them to a nicety, 104
—— Disorders arising from change of, 106
—— J. Stewart’s Obs. on, 106
—— tight and thin very injurious, 110
Coat, 106
—— Great one, where to keep, 110
Corks, Obs. on, 134
Cosmetic, 125
Crowdie, 250
Curaçoa, 141
—— how to make, 150
Cucumber, how to eat, 171
Claret, 153
Cheese, 171
Chyle, Dr. Moore’s Obs. on the, 212
—— Sir John Sinclair’s do., 213
Cinnamon Lozenges, aperient, 224
—— Tincture, 233
—— —— how to make, 244
Cramp in the Stomach, remedy for, 189
Costiveness, habitual, how to cure, 222
—— Do. by a Supper or Breakfast, 224
—— Do. by Grapes, 224
—— Do. fresh or dried Fruits, 224
—— Do. Cinnamon or Ginger Lozenges, 224
—— Do. Salad Oil, &c., 225

Darwin, Dr., quoted, 178
Diet, a general rule for, 33
—— The proportion of Meat to Drink, 57
—— Facts relative to, 213
Death, sudden in the night, a common cause of, 193
Digestibility of various Foods, 176
Digestion, the process of, how long about, 176
—— Spallanzani’s Obs. thereon, 176
—— when it goes on merrily, 203
—— how exquisitely perfect in Children, 208
Dinner, 21to 24
—— a Ban Yan, 24
—— best time for, 179
—— Hour of, A.D. 1570, 183
—— Dr. Cogan’s Obs. on, 183
—— Mr. Warner’s do., 183
—— Mr. Pye’s do., 183
—— in the Northumberland Household Book for A.D. 1512, 184
—— Hour of in 1821, Verses on, 186
—— at Night, and Supper in the Morning, 186
Dining out, 114 & 153
—— bad effects from, 191
Doors, double, 91
Dogs, 80
Dyspeptic Disorders, the common cause of, 38
—— Do., 83
—— Persons should have warm Food, 94 & 95
—— when extreme, remedy for, 164
—— Hint to, 260
Drinkers, three sorts of, Footnote 59
—— Thermometer for, 142
—— Hints for hard, 162
—— Do., 164
Drinking, the Economy of, 144
Diarrhœa, 228
—— Rules for those subject to, 230

Eating, good, 172
Ear, instance of a fine one, 47
Edmonds, Mr. the Dentist, 260
Eggs, how nutritive, 30
Ennui, remedy for, 73
Exercise, the indispensable importance of, 8
—— Mr. Abernethy on, 9
—— Dr. Cheyne, 9
—— must be increased, &c., 33
—— Neglect of, the great cause of Indigestion, 38
—— Obs. on the importance of, 122
—— Do. by Cowper, 122
—— Do. by Armstrong, 122
—— Do. by Dr. Cadogan, 123
—— Do. Sir Chas. Scarborough, 123
English Melodies, 233
Epicurism, Dr. Swift’s Obs. on, 185
Eudiometer, 120
Economy of Drinking, 144
Epsom Salt, 217
—— the most agreeable way to take it, 218
Essence of Meat, how to obtain, 251
—— Oatmeal, 256

Fat, what makes animals, 64
Fasting a day, effect of, 62
—— too long, the bad effects of, and how to avoid them, 175, 180, 182
Feasting, intemperate, to remove the disorders arising from, 160
Falconer, Dr. quoted, 25
Fish not so nutritive as Flesh, 29 and 30
—— Shell, do., 30
Forty-Winks, a nap of, 23
Forty, a Man at, 199
Food, what easiest of Digestion, 26
—— Test of the relative restorative powers of Meat, Poultry, and Fish, 28
—— Scale of, do., 28
—— Gelatinous, 30
—— what most invigorating, 31, 32
—— the Editor’s own experience, 31
—— how important to Health, &c., 49
—— for those whose Teeth are defective, 263
Flannel Waistcoats, 106
Franklin, Dr. his Economical Project, 75
Fashionable Society, disorders of, 83
Fitzgerald, Mr. quoted, 84
Flatulence, the common cause of,
—— and how to prevent and remove it, 99, 172, and 175
Feet, when cold, 108
—— should be kept very clean, 126
Fire, on the management of a, 113
—— plan of lighting, 117

Garters, 111
Goose roasted, how invigorating, 29
—— the Latin for it, 171
Grog, the strength of, 89
Gruel, various ways of making and flavouring, 248
—— Tryon’s Obs. on, 255
Gin, proportion of Spirit in, 139
Ginger Lozenges, 173
—— Aperient, 224
Ginger, Tincture of, how to make,
—— preferable and more convenient than the powder, 247
Gourmand’s motto, 262
Gum-bleeders, 264

Hatching, 68
Health, Happiness, and Longevity, Pope’s recipe for, 42
Heat, external, promotes Digestion, 158 and 159
Heartburn, remedy for, 161
Heart, palpitation of, 173
Horizontal Refreshment, 23
Heberden, Dr. his Obs. on Regimen, 198
Hunter, J. on digestibility of dressed and raw Meats, 27
Hunger, 180
Heidelburgh Tun, 131
Hours, early one’s, how Healthful, 74
—— late, the bane of the delicate and nervous, 75
Huffeland quoted, 126

Jackson, Mr. teacher of Sparring, 51
Jameson, Dr. quoted, 35
Ice after Dinner, 167
Jones, Sir William, his Andrometer, 36
Jellies, in what degree nutritive, 30
Jockey, to waste one, 29
Inebriation, how to relieve the indispositions arising from, 160
—— when doubly debilitating, 162
Indigestion, 48
—— common cause of, 38
—— how to relieve, 157
—— Do. when extreme, 164
—— often caused by Anxiety of Mind, 172
—— Daubenton recommends Ipecacuanha for, 189
Ivanhoe, the preface to it quoted, 98
Johnson, his Curaçoa, 98, 141
—— Brandy, &c., 141
Irish Whiskey, 149
Intemperance, how to cure the Chronic complaints occasioned by it, 58
Instinct, the best guide in the choice of Aliment, 198
—— Dr. Heberden’s Obs. on, 198
—— Mr. Abernethy, do., 198
—— from Domestic Management, 199
—— from Evylyn, 200
—— from Young, 200
—— from Montaigne, 200
—— from Dr. W. Hunter, 200
—— from J. Hunter, 201
—— from Dr. Armstrong, 201
—— from Dr. Smith, 201
—— from Dr. Adair, 201
—— from Dr. Withers, 202
—— from Dr. Sydenham, 202
—— from Spectator, 202
—— from Dr. Mandeville, 203

Kitchiner, Dr. quoted, 47

Life, how to live all the Days of, 2 and 42
—— the Meridian of, 17, 43
—— divided into Three Stages, 33 and 34
—— calculation showing the rate of Self-Consumption, 44
—— Do. of the expectations of, at various ages, 45
—— Do. note at foot of p., 83
—— what the great Art of, 67
—— Literary men, not long-lived, 69
—— a country, 82
Lavement, 228
Lettsom, Dr. his moral and physical Thermometer, 142
Lemon Peel, how to make Quintessence of, 218
Lip, under, plump and rosy, the most certain criterion of Health, 15
Liver, how to render Healthful, 63
—— Complaints, 239
Liver, Mr. Carlisle’s Observations on, 239
Lobsters, 30
Locke, Mr. quoted, 221
Liquid Bread, 144
Luncheon, 21, 175
Lungs, 121
Longings, especially in Acute Diseases, 202
—— Withers’ Obs. on, 202
Lozenges, 60 sorts made by Mr. Smith,
—— Fell Street, Wood Street, Cheapside, 234

Magnesia, an uncertain Medicine, 161
Mastication, how important to Digestion, 88
—— Dr. Arbuthnot Obs. on, 256
—— Spallanzani ditto, 258
—— calculation of the mean number of Munches requisite, 259
Masticators, patent, where to buy, 262
Mathematical Valetudinarian, a calculation of, 18
Mattress, of Horse-hair, 91
Matrimony, 70
—— best ages for, 70
Meat under-done, 27
—— over-done, 27
—— thoroughly done most digestible, 27
—— Essence of, 251
—— Minced, recommended by Lord Bacon, 263
Mercury, Obs. on, 240
Measure, Lyne’s glass, 129
Madeira, 134
—— Obs., 154
Mind, how important tranquillity of, 9
—— the vigour of, decays with that of the Body, 50
—— exertion of, more exhausting than that of the Body, 66, 67, and 87
—— Anxiety of, paralyses Digestion, 67
—— Anxiety of, a common cause of Indigestion, 172
Mellifluous Aromatics, 234
Mutton, 10-22
—— Digestibility of, 177
—— Chops, delicately stewed, 254
—— Broth, excellent, 254
Midnight, one hour’s rest before, worth two after, 74
Mock Turtle recommended, 206
—— Birch’s ditto, 206
—— Kay’s ditto, 206
Mountain Wine, 154
Mulled Wine, to make extempore, 248

Nap of 40 winks, 69
Noisy Neighbours, hints to, 76 to 82
—— Actionable Nuisances, 80
Nervous Disorders, 83
—— Dr. Whytt’s Obs. on, 181
—— people should keep a register of their Health, 197
Nightmare, chief cause of, 87
—— Obs. on, 189 and following pages.
—— the Editor’s case of, 190
—— remedies for, 192, 193
—— Dr. Whytt’s case of, 194
—— Mr. Waller’s Essay on, 195
Northumberland Household Book, 185

Oysters, 30
—— not so nutritive as supposed, 30, 171
Opium, Obs. on, 88
—— Lozenges, 233
Orange Peel, for nervous people, 243

Palpitation of the Heart, the cause and cure of, 173
—— Do. oftener arises from Indigestion, than from Organic Disease, 173
Pocket Pistol, how to charge a, 182
Parkins, Sir Thomas, preferred Beef-Eaters to Sheep-Biters, 29
Parliament, hints to Members of, 179
Portable Soup, 249
Party-Walls, their thinness, 76
Peppermint Lozenges, 99, 173, 233
Peptic Precepts, 156
Prawns, 30
Perspiration, the panacea for Corpulence, 125
Pulse, an uncertain Index, 16
—— Scale of its pace at various ages, 45
—— when languid, 73
Peck, Mr., his Geographie de la Gourmandise, 185
Piano-Fortes, 80
Position, the influence of, in alleviating Disease, 97
Port, the contents of a Pipe of, 130
—— Obs. on, 137
—— how to purchase, 140
Purgatives, bad effects of violent, 157
—— Ditto, 240
—— Ditto, 241
Peristaltic Persuaders, 215, 219
—— how to make, 235
—— when to take, 227, 236
—— for Children, 237
Pills, the advantages of, 216

Ragout, a restorative, when advisable, 204
Regimen, Dr. Heberden’s Obs. on, 198
—— Dr. Armstrong’s Do., 213
—— Celsus’ Do., 215
—— Dr. Arbuthnot’s Do., 215
—— importance in chronic Complaints, 202
Restorative, Extempore, 206
Ratcliffe, Dr., quoted, 172
Riding, useful to reduce Corpulence, 52
Robinson, Dr. Bryan, extract from his Essay on Food and Discharges, 56
—— his own regimen, 58
Rhubarb, tincture of, to make, 217
Rhubarb Pill, recommended by Dr. Pemberton, 220
Rheumatism, remedy for, 265
Ruptures, 112
Relaxed Bowels, 228
—— Locke on, 228
—— Cheyne on, 229

Salad Oil, remedy for Constipation, 225
Salt, the best Sauce, 210
Sanctorius, the proportion of his Meat to his Drink, 57
Sauces recommended by Dr. Moffet, 208
Siesta, the, 68
—— recommended, 94
—— Do. by Sanctorius, 101
—— Do. Cruickshank, 101
—— Do. Dr. Darwin, 102
—— Do. Dr. Harwood, 102
—— Do. Dr. Adair, 102
—— Do. Mr. Abernethy, 102
—— Do. Eng. Proverb, 103
—— Do. Waller, 103
—— Do. Lord Bacon, 103
Semi-Siesta, 23, 101
Senna, tincture of, 217
Second Courses, Obs. on, 167
Scribblefast, Counsellor, his case, 78
Shell Fish, 30
Scudamore, Dr., quoted, 177
Sleep, 12 to 65
—— Struve, Dr., Obs. on the importance of, 71
—— time required to, 73
—— Dr. Cheyne’s remark on, note to, 87
—— Exercise, the best source of it, 88
—— other means of inviting it, 88
Senses, few people have one perfect, 257
—— Mr. Stewart’s division of, into noxious and innocent, 257
Supper, 24
—— the best for those who dine late, 24
—— Do. for those who dine early, 24
—— Obs. on its influence on Sleep, 87
—— Obs. on a solid one, 88
Supper, best for the Dyspeptic, 90
—— in the Morning, 186
Singers, hints respecting their Health, 96
Stark, his experiments on Diet, 29
—— Obs. on the Saliva, 261
Sparring, the exercise of recommended, 52
—— weight reduced during an hour, 55
Salads, 167
Soup, how to season, 163
—— Mock Turtle, 206
—— of Rattle Snakes, 214
—— Portable, to make, 249
Sun-shine preferred by Dr. Franklin to Candle-light, 75
Stock Fish, recommended by Dr. Mandeville, 207
Skin, the, 125
Sherry, the contents of a Butt of, 130
—— analysed for the Editor, 138
—— Obs. on, 154
Scotch and Irish Whiskey, 149
Soda Water, various ways of making, 245
—— Obs. on, 167
Stomach Warmers, where to be had, 158
—— how much it will hold, note under, 158
—— must occasionally have a Holiday, 163
—— centre of Sympathy, 165
—— Wind in the, 173
—— put out of temper by fasting too long, 182
—— Dr. Hunter says, tells the Head what it wants, 200
—— Dr. Smith Do., 201
—— Dr. Adair Do., 201
—— let it have what it asks for, 203
—— Dr. Whytt’s Obs. on how much its disposition, &c. varies, 204
—— of Invalids require screwing up, 208
—— Cheyne’s Obs. on the importance of a clean one, 216
Stomachic Tinctures, 244
Spice and Wine, 207
Spasms in Stomach, how to manage, 173, 189
Smith, Mr., his 60 sorts of Lozenges, 234
Stewart, John, the traveller, his Obs. on Clothes, 106
—— Do. on the Senses, 257
Spallanzani quoted, 258
Sweet Wines, 154

Tar Water, 242
Temperature, to preserve that of a room regular, 115
—— best for sitting rooms, 116
—— the influence of in alleviating Disease, 94
—— the mean of England, 108
—— Observations, &c., 113
Thermometers, where to be placed, 105
Tent Wine, 154
Training, Captain Barclay’s Obs. on, 3
—— Do. quoted, 7
—— principal rules for, 7
—— rules, 9
—— Diet ordered, 10
—— time required to screw a Man up to his fullest strength, 14
—— Criterions of Good Condition, 15
—— first preparation for, 18
—— on the mode of Cookery, &c. most invigorating, 25
—— Food must be taken warm, 26
—— Do., and thoroughly done, 27
—— John Hunter’s Obs. on Do., 27
—— Spallanzani, experiment to prove it, 27
—— diet in wasting a Jockey, 29
Teeth, to take care of, 260
—— the value of, 261
—— Food for those whose Teeth are defective, 263
—— Preservers, 264
—— Ache, remedy for, 265
Tic Douloureux, 264
Tewahdiddle, 89
Tongue of Pityllus, 210
Time, the Economy of, 69
Tonic Medicines, 182, 219
—— Tincture, 242
Toast and Water, to make, 230
Tablettes de Bouillon, how to make, 251
Thriving, the art of, quoted, 255

Valetudinarians, maxim for, from Comus, 72
Vegetables, undressed, 171
Voice, when the falsetto begins to fail, 47
—— what the power of depends upon, 99
Ventriloquism, 173, 200
Vinum Britannicum, 144

Wadd on Corpulency, 29
Waistbands, 111
Walking, how it reduces weight, 62
Water-Cresses, 171
Water-drinking, the advantages of, 147
Weather, wet, 108
Wesley, Mr. Chas., his extraordinary Ear, 47
Windows, Double, 91
—— Curtains, 91
Wine, 127
—— ounces in a Quart of, 128
—— how to measure the contents of a bottle of, 128, 129
—— Port, how old it ought to be, 132
—— the art of preserving, 133
—— White, why preferable to Red, 133, 153
—— when to bottle, 133
—— New, objection to, 135
—— Do. to make old, 136
—— Cornaro, Obs. on old, 136
—— proportion of Alcohol in, 138
—— Do. to Brandy, 138
—— Do. in Gin, 139
—— recommended by St. Paul, 143
—— Iceing Wine, 143
—— no man must drink it habitually before 30, 147
—— Do. Dr. Trotter’s Obs. on, 147
—— silly rule of some people about drinking, 148
—— the relative wholesomeness of, 151
—— only three sorts of Wine, note under, 151
—— three sorts of drinkers, Footnote 59
—— Sweet Wines, Tent, &c., how made, 154
—— Vinum Britannicum, 144
—— Writers on, a list of, 154
Whiskey, 149
Wind in the Stomach, 173
Whytt, Dr., quoted, 181
—— his case of night-mare, 194
Wholesomes, the, 207
Worms, remedies for, 240

Young, his Obs. on Sleep, 65




1 The advantages of the training system are not confined to pedestrians and pugilists alone—they extend to every man; and were training generally introduced instead of medicines, as an expedient for the prevention and cure of diseases, its beneficial consequences would promote his happiness and prolong his life. “Our Health, Vigour, and Activity, must depend upon regimen and exercise; or, in other words, upon the observance of those rules which constitute the theory of the training process.”—Capt. Barclay on Training, p. 239.

“It has been made a question, whether Training produces a lasting, or only a temporary effect on the constitution? It is undeniable, that if a man be brought to a better condition; if corpulency, and the impurities of his body disappear; and if his wind and strength be improved by any process whatever, his good state of health will continue, until some derangement of his frame shall take place from accidental or natural causes. If he shall relapse into intemperance, or neglect the means of preserving his health, either by omitting to take the necessary exercise, or by indulging in debilitating propensities, he must expect such encroachments to be made on his constitution, as must soon unhinge his system. But if he shall observe a different plan—the beneficial effects of the training process will remain until the gradual decay of his natural functions shall, in mature old age, intimate the approach of his dissolution.”—Capt. Barclay on Training, p. 240.

2 See the 338th aphorism in Coulton’s Lacon. 1820. 5th Edition.

3 “Besides his usual or regular Exercise, a person under training ought to employ himself, in the intervals, in every kind of exertion which tends to activity, such as cricket, bowls, throwing quoits, &c. that during the whole day, both body and mind may be constantly occupied.”—Capt. Barclay on Training, p. 231.

“The nature of the disposition of the person trained should also be known, that every cause of irritation may be avoided; for, as it requires great patience and perseverance to undergo training, every expedient to soothe and encourage the mind should be adopted.”—Capt. Barclay on Training, p. 237.

4 Forty years ago, Balls, &c. used to begin in the Evening, i. e. at seven, and end at Night, i. e. twelve; now it is extremely ungenteel to begin before Midnight, or finish till the Morning.

5 “The Studious, the Contemplative, the Valetudinary, and those of weak nerves—if they aim at Health and Long Life, must make Exercise in a good air, a part of their Religion.”—Cheyne on Long Life, p. 98.

“Whenever circumstances would permit, I have recommended patients to take as much exercise as they could, short of producing fatigue; to live much in the open air; and, if possible, not to suffer their minds to be agitated by anxiety or fatigued by exertion.”—p. 90.

“I do not allow the state of the weather to be urged as an objection to the prosecution of measures so essential to Health, since it is in the power of every one to protect themselves from cold by clothing, and the exercise may be taken in a chamber with the windows thrown open, by actively walking backwards and forwards, as sailors do on ship-board.”—p. 93. See Abernethy’s Surgical Observations. 1817.

6 One of the invariable consequences of training is to increase the solidity, and diminish the frequency of the alvine exoneration, and persons become costive as they improve in condition:—if this disposition takes place to an inconvenient degree,—see Peptic Precepts, Index.

7 “Animal Food being composed of the most nutritious parts of the food on which the animal lived, and having been already digested by the proper organs of an animal—requires only solution and mixture—whereas vegetable food must be converted into a substance of an animal nature by the proper action of our own viscera, and consequently requires more labour of the stomach, and other digestive organs.”—Burton on the Non-Naturals, p. 213.

8 The following was the Food taken by Capt. Barclay in his most extraordinary walk of 1000 miles in 1000 successive hours, June 1, 1809. “He Breakfasted after returning from his walk, at five in the morning. He ate a roasted Fowl, and drank a pint of strong Ale, and then took two cups of Tea with Bread and Butter.

“He Lunched at twelve; the one day on Beef Steaks, and the other on Mutton Chops, of which he ate a considerable quantity.

“He Dined at six, either on Roast Beef, or Mutton Chops. His drink was Porter, and two or three glasses of wine.

“He Supped at eleven, on a cold fowl. He ate such vegetables as were in season; and the quantity of Animal food he took daily, was from five to six pounds.”—See Pedestrianism, p. 6.

His style of Walking is to bend forward the body, and to throw its weight on the knees. His step is short, and his feet are raised only a few inches from the ground. Any person who will try this plan, will find that his pace will be quickened, at the same time he will walk with more ease to himself, and be better able to endure the fatigue of a long journey, than by walking in a posture perfectly erect, which throws too much of the weight of the body on the ankle-joints. He always uses thick-soled shoes, and lamb’s wool stockings. It is a good rule to shift the stockings frequently during the performance of a long distance; but it is indispensably requisite to have shoes with thick soles, and so large, that all unnecessary pressure on the feet may be avoided.”—p. 208.

9 “According to the force of the Chylopoetic Organs, a larger or less quantity of Chyle may be abstracted from the same quantity of Food.”—Arbuthnot on Aliment, p. 24.

10 “Nothing comes to perfection under a stated period of growth; and till it attains this, it will, of course, afford inferior nutriment. Beef and Mutton are much easier of digestion, and more nutritious, than Veal or Lamb. If the flesh of Mutton and Lamb, Beef and Veal, are compared, they will be found of a different texture, the two young meats of a more stringy indivisible nature than the others, which makes them harder of digestion.”—Domestic Management, 12mo. 1813. p. 151.

11A 40 Winks Nap,” in an Horizontal posture, is the most reviving preparative for any great exertion of either the Mind or the Body;—to which it is as proper an Overture as it is a Finale.—See Siesta, Index.

12 “Few persons, even in the best health, can, without disgust, bear to be confined to a peculiar food, or way of living, for any length of time, (which is a strong argument that variety of food is natural to mankind); and if so,—the debilitated stomachs of Valetudinarians cannot be expected to be less fastidious.”—Falconer on Diet, p. 8.

13 “It appears from my experiments, that boiled, and roasted, and even putrid meat, is easier of digestion than raw.”—See J. Hunter on the Animal Economy, p. 220.

14 “Newmarket affords abundant proofs, how much may be done by training; Jockies sometimes reduce themselves a Stone and a half in a week.”—Wadd on Corpulency, 8vo. 1816.—p. 35.

15 “A Dog was fed on the Richest Broth, yet could not be kept alive; while another, which had only the Meat boiled to a Chip, (and water), throve very well. This shows the folly of attempting to nourish Men by concentrated Soups, Jellies, &c.”—Sinclair’s Code of Health.

If this experiment be accurate—what becomes of the theoretic visions of those who have written about Strengthening Jellies, Nourishing Broths, &c.?

16 “The excesses of our Youth, are drafts upon our old Age, payable with interest, about twenty years after date.”—Colton’s Lacon. 5th Edition, 1820. p. 51.

17 The Teeth are renewed at the 7th year.
Puberty arrives at twice seven 14.
Full stature at three times seven 21.
The vigour of growth at four times seven 28.
The greatest vigour of Body and Mind at five times seven 35.
The commencement of decay at six times seven 42.
General Decay, and decrease of energy, at seven times seven 49.
Old Age at eight times seven 56.
And the grand climacteric of the Ancients at nine times seven 63.
Dr. Jameson on the Changes of the Human Body, p. 31.

18 “Cornaro found that as the powers of his stomach declined with the powers of Life in general, that it was necessary that he should diminish the quantity of his food; and by so doing, he retained to the last the feelings of Health.”—Abernethy’s Surg. Obs. p. 71.

19 And for Culinary Operators from 25 to 40. Before the former, they can hardly accumulate sufficient experience; and after the latter, they every day lose a portion of their “bon goût” and activity.

20 See his sensible Essay on the Changes of the Human Body at different Ages. 8vo. 1811.—p. 89.

21 “The Pulse in the new-born Infant, while
placidly sleeping, is about 140 in a minute.
Towards the end of the first Year 124
Towards the end of the second Year 110
Towards the end of the third and fourth Years 96
When the first Teeth drop out 86
At Puberty 80
At Manhood 75
At Sixty, about 60”
Blumenbach’s Physiology, p. 40.

The expectations of Life are thus calculated by De Moivre—Subtract the age of the person from 86, half the remainder will be the expectation of that Life.

22 See the history of a case of Spectacles, &c. in page 61 of Dr. Kitchiner’s Practical Observations on Telescopes, Opera Glasses, &c.—Third Edition.

23 “In proportion as the powers of the Stomach are weak, so ought we to diminish the quantity of our food, and take care that it be as nutritive, and as easy of digestion as possible.”—Abernethy’s Surgical Observations, p. 67.

24 “Nothing is a greater Enemy to feeble life, than laying aside old habits—or leaving a climate, or place, to which one has been long accustomed: the irritation occasioned by such changes is highly prejudicial.

“Even pernicious habits, insalubrious air, &c. must be abandoned with great caution—or we shall thereby hasten the end of our Patient.”—Struve’s Asthenology, p. 398.

25 “Those who have lived longest, have been persons without either Avarice or Ambition, enjoying that tranquillity of Soul, which is the source of the happiness and health of our early days—and strangers to those torments of mind which usually accompany more advanced years, and by which the Body is wasted and consumed.”—Code of Health, vol. i. p. 60-63, &c.

“In the return made by Dr. Robertson, (and published by Sir John Sinclair, in the 164th page of the second volume of the Appendix to his Code of Health,) from Greenwich Hospital, of 2410 In-Pensioners, ninety-six—i. e. about one-twenty-fifth are beyond eighty—thirteen beyond ninety—and one beyond one hundred. They almost all used Tobacco—and most of them acknowledged the habit of Drinking freely. Some of them had no teeth for twenty years—and fourteen only had good ones—one who was one hundred and thirteen years old, had lost all his Teeth upwards of thirty years.

“The organ of Vision was impaired in about one-half—that of Hearing in only one-fifth: this may be accounted for—the Eye is a more delicate organ than the Ear—and the least deterioration of its action is more immediately observed.—Of the ninety-six they almost all had been married, and four of them after eighty years of age—only nine were Batchelors—this is a strong argument in favour of Matrimony.

The Best Ages for Marriage, all other circumstances being favourable, are between the eighteenth and twenty-fifth year for Females, and between the twenty-fifth and thirty-sixth for Males. The body is then in the most complete state to propagate a healthy Offspring—the Ages when the prolific powers begin to cease in both sexes will nearly correspond—and the probable expectation of Life will be sufficiently long, for parents to provide for their children.”—Jameson on the Human Body, p. 336.

26 “Regular and sufficient Sleep, serves on the one hand, for repairing the lost powers, and on the other, for lessening consumption, by lessening vital activity. Hence the lives of people who are exposed to the most debilitating fatigue, are prolonged to a considerable age, when they enjoy Sleep in its fullest extent.”—Struve’s Asthenology, 8vo. 1801, p. 199.

27 “It is a perfect barbarism to awake any one, when Sleep, that “balm of hurt minds,” is exerting its benign influence, and the worn body is receiving its most cheering restorative.”—Hints for the Preservation of Health, 12mo.

28 In high Health seven or eight hours will complete this refreshment, and hence arises the false inference drawn from an observation probably just, that long-lived persons are always early risers: not that early rising makes them long-lived, but that people in the highest vigour of Health are naturally early risers—- because they sleep more soundly, and all that repose can do for them, is done in less time, than with those who sleep less soundly. A disposition to lie in Bed beyond the usual hour, generally arises from some derangement of the Digestive Organs.—Hints for the Preservation of Health, p. 32.

29 The best Fire-feeder is a pair of Steak Tongs.

30 The method taken to tame unruly Colts, &c. is to walk them about the whole of the night previous to attempting to break them:—want of Sleep speedily subdues the spirit of the wildest, and the strength of the strongest creatures, and renders savage animals tame and tractable.

31 In Vienna, Berlin, Paris, and London, the twentieth or twenty-third person dies annually; while, in the Country around them, the proportion is only one in thirty or forty; in remote country villages, from one in forty to one in fifty—the smallest degree of human mortality on record is one in sixty.


“When warm with Hope, in Life’s aspiring morn,
The Tints of Fancy every scene adorn,
The glowing landscape charms the poet’s view,
And Youth believes the fairy prospect true.
But soon, Experience proves his Eye betray’d,
And all the picture darkens into shade.”

Beautifully Set to Music by Shield,
and printed in his Cento.

33 “Above all,—it is of essential importance to Health, to preserve the tranquillity of the mind,—and not to sink under the disappointments of life, to which all, but particularly the old, are frequently exposed.—Nothing ought to disturb the mind of an individual who is conscious of having done all the good in his power.”—Sinclair’s Code of Health, p. 459.

“Nothing hurts more the nervous System, and particularly the concoctive powers, than fear, grief, or anxiety.”—Whytt on Nerves, p. 349.

“I shall add to my list, as the eighth deadly sin, that of Anxiety of Mind; and resolve not to be pining and miserable, when I ought to be grateful and happy.”—Sir Thomas Barnard, Bt. on the Comforts of Old Age, p. 135.

“Anguish of mind has driven thousands to suicide; anguish of body, none.

“This proves that the health of the Mind, is of far more consequence to our happiness than the health of the Body;—both are deserving of much more attention than either of them receive.”—Coulton’s Lacon. 1820, p. 240.

34 “Sleep is soundsweet—and refreshing, according as the alimentary organs are easy, quiet, and clean.”—Cheyne on Long Life, p. 79.

35 “The Grog on board a ship is generally one Spirit and three waters—this is too strong.”—See the Hon. John Cochrane’s Seaman’s Guide, 8vo. 1797, p. 37.

36 If they are not extremely well made, by a superior workman—and of seasoned Wood,—they are of little or no use.

37Cold Drink is an enemy to Concoction, and the parent of Crudities.”—Essay on Warm Beer, 8vo. p. 15.

38 To make Beef Tea.—Cut a pound of lean gravy Meat into thin slices,—put it into a quart and half a pint of cold water, set it over a gentle fire where it will become gradually warm—when the scum rises catch it, cover the saucepan close, and let it continue boiling for about two hours,—skim the fat off, strain it through a sieve or napkin, skim it again—let it stand ten minutes to settle, and then pour off the clear Tea.

To make half a pint of Beef Tea in five minutes for three halfpence, see (No. 252),—and to make good Mutton Broth for nothing, (No. 490), of the third Edition of the “Cook’s Oracle.”

N.B. An Onion, and a few grains of Black Pepper, are sometimes added. If the meat is boiled till it is thoroughly tender, mince it, and pound it as directed in (No. 503) of the Cook’s Oracle, and you may have a dish of Potted Beef for the trouble of making it.

39 Brandy and Liqueur Merchant, No. 2, Colonnade, Pall Mall.

40 Thermometers intended to give the temperature of Rooms, should be so placed as to be equally removed from the radiant heat of the Fire—and from currents of Air from the Door.

Out of Doors they should be in a northern situation, sheltered from Sunshine, or reflected Heat, &c.

41 The following Observations on Clothing, are copied from the life of John Stewart, the Traveller, printed for Egerton, 1813, p. 9.—“I clothed myself at all times very warm, and by buttoning and unbuttoning I could accommodate to the sudden change of climate and season, and preserved thereby that equilibre of the secretions and excrements on which Health and Life depends; for clothing forms a factitious heat, as a substitute to the muscular heat, declining with age or sickness; on which action of heat vitality and all the other functions of vital organism depend.”

42 The best Slippers are a pair of old shoes—the worst, those of plaited cloth—which make the feet tender—and are a hotter covering for them in the House—than you give them when you go out.

43 “Only Fools and Beggars suffer from Cold, the latter not being able to procure sufficient clothes, the former not having the sense to wear them.”—Boerhaave.

44 “Narrow sleeves are a very great check on the muscular exercise of the Arms—the Waistcoat, in its present fashionable form, may be very properly termed a strait one. The Waistcoat should be long enough to cover the breeches two or three inches all round. The wrists and knees, but more particularly the latter, are braced with ligatures, or tight buttoning; and the Legs, which require the utmost freedom of motion, are secured into leathern cases or Boots—though the wearer perhaps is never mounted on Horseback.

“To complete the whole, as the Head is confined by a tight Hat, but rarely suited to its natural shape, so in regard to shoes the shape of the foot and the easy expansion of the Toes are never consulted—but the shape regulated by the fashion of the Day, however tight and uncomfortable.”—Sinclair’s Code of Health, 4th Edit. p. 357.

45 “Those who do not take a sufficient quantity of Exercise—soon suffer from a number of Disorders,—want of Appetite—want of Sleep—flatulence, &c. &c. Obstruction—relaxation of the Bowels—and all the diversified symptoms of Nervous Complaints. Men of Letters suffer much, and from neglecting to take Exercise, are often the most unhealthy of human beings—even that Temperance by which many of them are distinguished, is no effectual remedy against the mischiefs of a sedentary life, which can only be counteracted by a proper quantity of Exercise and Air.”

46 “Stays and stiff Jackets are most pernicious; they disfigure the beautiful and upright shape of a Woman, and injure the Breast and Bowels; obstruct the breathing and digestion; hurt the breast and nipples so much that many Mothers have been prevented by their use from suckling their Children; many hence get Cancers, and at last lose both Health and Life—for they render the delivery of Women very difficult and dangerous both to Mother and Child.”—From Dr. Faust’s Catechism of Health, 12mo. p. 39. Edinburgh, 1797.

47 “Stagnant air becomes corrupted in the same manner as stagnant water,—opening windows and making currents of air, are the best means of purifying it.”—Struve’s Asthenology, p. 348.

48 “The natural heat of the Human Body is 98 of Fahrenheit’s Thermometer—any temperature applied to it lower than 98, gives a sensation of Cold, but if the temperature applied is not below 62, the sensation of cold will not continue long, but be soon changed to a sensation of heat, and in this climate, Air, &c. applied to the living man, does not diminish the temperature of his Body, unless the temperature of it be below 62; if it is above that, it increases it.”—Cullen’s First Lines, vol. i. p. 130.

49 “The Cordials, Volatiles, Bracers, Strengtheners, &c. given by common practitioners, may keep up an increased circulation for a few hours, but their action soon subsides.

“The Circulation of the Blood can only be properly carried on through the medium of Exercise or labour.—See page 38.

“Art cannot come up to Nature in this most salutary of all her operations. That sprightly Vigour, and alacrity of Health, which we enjoy in an active course of Life—that Zest in appetite, and refreshment after eating, which sated Luxury seeks in vain from art, is owing wholly to new blood made every day from fresh food, prepared and distributed by the joint action of all the parts of the Body.”—Cadogan on Gout, p. 34.

50 “There is no rule more essential to those who are advanced in Life, than never to give way to a remission of Exercise. By degrees the demand for exercise may shrink, in extreme old age, to little more than a bare quit-rent; but that quit-rent must be paid, since life is held by the tenure.

“Whoever examines the accounts handed down to us of the Longest Livers, will generally find, that to the very last they used some exercise, as walking a certain distance every day, &c. This is mentioned as something surprising in them, considering their great age; whereas the truth is, that their living to such an age, without some such exercise, would have been the wonder. Exercise keeps off obstructions, which are the principal sources of diseases, and ultimately of death. Motion then is the tenure of life; and old people who humour or indulge an inclination to sloth and inactivity, (which is too apt to grow upon them on the least encouragement), act as unwisely as the poor traveller, who, bewildered in trackless snow, and surprised by a chilling frost, instead of resisting the temptation to sleep, suffers it to steal upon him, though he knows, that, by its fatal blandishments, he can never expect to wake again, but must inevitably perish.”—Institutes of Health, p. 24.

51 “The most ignorant person knows, that proper care of the skin is indispensably necessary for the well-being of horses, &c.

“The Groom often denies himself rest, that he may dress and curry his horses sufficiently; it is, therefore, wonderful, that the enlightened people of these days should neglect the care of their own skin so much, that I think I may, without exaggeration, assert, that among the greater part of men,—the Pores of the Skin are half closed and unfit for use.”—From p. 235 of Huffeland’s Art of Prolonging Life,—which persons of all ages may peruse with much advantage.

52 A thick Crust is not always the consequence of the Wine having been very long time in the Bottle—but is rather a sign that it was too little time in the Cask, or has been kept in a very cold cellar.

53 “Had the man that first filled the Heidelburgh Tun, been placed as sentinel to see that no other Wine was put into it, I believe that he would have found it much better at 25 or 30 years old, than at 100 or 150, had he lived so long—retained his senses, and been permitted now and then to taste it—a privilege with which the natives are seldom indulged.

“To give a great price for Wine, and keep it till it begins to perish, is a great pity.” I cannot believe that very aged Wine, when bordering on Acid, is wholesome, though some Wine-drinkers seem to prefer it in that state. “Respecting Port Wine, there is a great fuss made by some about its age, and the crust on the bottle; as if the age and crust on the bottle constituted the quality of the Wine.” “Such crusty gentlemen shall not select Wine for me.”—Young’s Epicure, 8vo. 1815, p. 23, 28, &c.

54 “Wines bottled in good order, may be fit to drink in six months, (especially if bottled in October), but they are not in perfection before twelve. From that to two years they may continue so; but it would be improper to keep them longer.”—Edinburgh Encyclop. Britan. vol. xviii. p. 72, Article Wine.

55 “Cork the bottles very closely with good Cork, and lay them on their sides, that the Cork may not dry and facilitate the access of the air. For the greater safety, the Cork may be covered with a coating of cerement applied by means of a Brush, or the neck of the bottle may be immersed in a mixture of melted wax, rosin, or pitch.”—Accum on making Wine, 1820, p. 40.

56 A Puncheon Of Brandy containing 130 Gallons, after remaining in Cask in a Merchant’s Cellar for three years, lost two Gallons in measure, and ten Gallons in strength. The stronger the Spirit, the sooner it evaporates.

The London Dock Company are not answerable for any decrease of quantity in a Pipe of Wine left under their care, provided it does not exceed one Gallon for each year—which it is supposed to waste in that time.

57 Cornaro complains that old Wine was very disagreeable to his Stomach, and new wine very grateful; his dose was fourteen ounces, (i. e. seven wine-glasses) per day.

58 “Fermented liquors furnish very different proportions of Alcohol—and it has been sometimes supposed that it does not pre-exist to the amount in which it is obtained by distillation; but some experiments I made upon the subject in 1811 and 1813, and which are printed in the Phil. Trans. for three years, tend to show that it is a real educt, and not formed by the action of heat upon the elements existing in the fermented liquor. The following table exhibits the proportion of Alcohol by measure, existing in one hundred pints of Wine.”—Brande’s Manual of Chemistry, 8vo. 1819, p. 400.

Madeira24 per cent Alcohol.

59 “It would save many lives if Gin, &c. was not allowed to be sold until reduced to one third the strength of Proof Spirit. People do not at first drink from any liking or desire, but being cold, or faint with hunger or fatigue, they find immediate comfort and refreshment from the use of Spirits—and as they can purchase a dram with less money than they can cover their back, or fill their belly, so they gratify the strongest and least expensive appetite—and insensibly become drunkards.”

“Ardent Spirits are not only eminently destructive to the Body, but are the most powerful incentives to Vice of every kind; Drunkenness engenders all other Crimes. Does the Robber pause in his Trade? Does the Murderer hesitate?—they are presently wound up at the Gin shop. Has the Seducer tried his arts in vain? The Brothel is more indebted to this source, than to all the other lures to Seduction.”—From Hints for the Preservation of Health.—Callow, 1813, 12mo. p. 2.

“There are Three sorts of Drinkers: one drinks to satisfy Nature, and to support his Body, and requires it as necessary to his Being.

“Another drinks a degree beyond this, and takes a larger dose to exhilarate and cheer his mind, and help him to sleep—these two are lawful drinkers.

“A third drinks neither for the good of the Body or the Mind, but to stupify and drown both.”—Maynwaringe on Health, &c. 12mo. 1683, p. 123.

60 Johnson’s Witte Curaçoa takes precedence of all the Liqueurs we have ever tasted.

61 “The Blood of the Grape appeareth to be Blood, in it is Life, it is from the Vine, and that the Plant of life; and that the difference between this Plant, and the Tree of Life in Paradise, were but magis and minus, is not so improbable as to be rejected by any, for they will be both granted Plants of Life, and they very much respond in their nature as well as Appellation. What the fruit was that sprang from that in Paradise, is not as yet known, or not so perfectly understood as that of the Vine, the nature of which is so lively as that Galen will affirm it to augment radical heat, which is the way to live for ever.”—See Dr. Whitaker on the Blood of the Grape, 16mo. 1654, p. 3 and 31.

62 In our Peptic Precepts, we have pointed out the most convenient ways of counteracting the dilapidating effects of excessive vinous irrigation, which is doubly debilitating,—when you suffer the fascinations of the festive Bowl to seduce You to sacrifice to Bacchus, those hours which are due to the drowsy God of Night.

63 “More or less Alcohol is necessary to support the usual vigour of the greater number of people even in Health—nothing therefore can be more injudicious than wholly to deprive them of this support when they are weakened by disease—Dyspeptics who have been accustomed to its use, cannot be deprived of it—a very moderate use of Wine can hardly be said to be injurious: we see those who use it in this way, live as long, and enjoy as good health, as those who wholly abstain from it.”—Dr. Philip, on Indigestion, 8vo. 1821, pp. 139 and 144.

64 “No man in health can need Wine till he arrives at 40: he may then begin with two glasses in the day: at 50 he may add two more.”—See Trotter on Drunkenness, 1804, p. 151.

65 Scotch or Irish Whiskey is an infinitely purer spirit than English Gin—which is an uncertain compound of various Essential Oils, &c.

66 Brandy and Liqueur Merchant, No. 2, Colonnade, Pall Mall.

67 To make a Quart of Curaçoa.—To a pint of the cleanest and strongest Rectified Spirit, (sold by Rickards, Piccadilly,) add two drachms and a half of the Sweet Oil of Orange Peel, (sold by Stewart, No. 11, Old Broad Street, near the Bank,) shake it up,—dissolve a pound of good Lump Sugar in a pint of cold water, make this into a Clarified Syrup, (No. 475), which add to the Spirit, shake it up, and let it stand till the following day—then line a funnel with a piece of muslin, and that with filtering paper, and filter it two or three times till it is quite bright;—or dissolve a drachm and a half of Carbonate of Potash in about a quarter pint of the Liqueur by rubbing it together in a mortar—adding it to the Liqueur, and shaking it well up—then incorporate a like quantity of pounded Alum in another quarter pint of the Liqueur—and return it to the Liqueur, shake it well up—and in a little time it will become fine. This Liqueur is an admirable cordial—and a tea-spoonful in a Tumbler of water, is a very refreshing Summer drink, and a great improvement to Punch.

Obs. We do not offer this Receipt as a Rival to Mr. Johnson’s Curaçoa—it is only proposed as an humble substitute for that incomparable Liqueur.

68 “Il y a pour le Gourmet plus de soixante sortes de vins;—il n’y en a que trois pour le Chimiste;—savoir, les vins mousseux, les vins faits, les vins sucrés. Le sucre existe tout formé par la nature dans les raisins mûrs de tous les pays; sa proportion fait la principale différence des vins; c’est le sucre seul qui établit la fermentation vineuse: si l’on enferme le vin avant qu’elle soit terminée, le gaz, qui était sur le point de s’échapper, reste dans la liqueur, et le vin est mousseux. Ce gaz est de l’acide carbonique, le même air qui fait mousser le cidre, la bière, l’hydromel, et les eaux minérales de Seltz, de Chateldon. Il est dangereux à respirer en quantité, puisqu’il asphyxie les animaux; mais il est très-salubre à boire ainsi combiné. Si, au contraire, la fermentation est terminée, le sucre s’est changé dans le vin, en eau de vie, qui tient en dissolution le tartre, le principe colorant, et le principe extractif du raisin. Voilà, ce qui constitue les vins faits; ils ne moussent plus, et ils sont plus ou moins généreux suivant les proportions de leurs principes.

“Enfin, quand le sucre naturel au raisin est trop abondant pour fermenter en totalité, une portion reste dans la liqueur sous forme de Sirop, et constitue les vins sucrés d’Espagne, de Constance, etc.—La différence de saveur dépend d’un arôme particulier, propre au raisin de chaque climat.”—Cours Gastronomique, 8vo. 1809. p. 289.

69 “The human Stomach is capable, in the adult, of containing about three quarts of water.”—Blumenbach’s Physiology, p. 145.

70 “By adopting an abstinent plan of diet, even to a degree that produces a sensation of want in the System, we do that which is most likely to create appetite and increase the powers of digestion.”—Abernethy’s Surg. Obs. 68.

71 To make Beef or Mutton Tea.—Cut a pound of lean gravy-meat into thin slices—put it into a quart and half a pint of cold water—set it over a gentle fire where it will become gradually warm—when the skum rises catch it, cover the Saucepan close, and let it continue boiling for about two hours—skim the fat off, strain it through a sieve or a napkin—skim it again—let it stand ten minutes to settle, and then pour off the clear Tea. To make half a pint of Beef Tea in five minutes for three half-pence, see No. 252; and to make good Mutton Broth for Nothing, No. 490.

N.B.—An Onion, and a few grains of Black Pepper, &c. are sometimes added. If the Meat is boiled till it is thoroughly tender, mince it and pound it as directed in No. 503 of the Cook’s Oracle—and you may have a dish of Potted Beef for the trouble of making it.

72 “Il y a trois sortes d’appétits; celui que l’on éprouve à jeûn; sensation impérieuse qui ne chicane point sur le mets, et qui vous fait venir l’eau à la bouche, à l’aspect d’un bon ragoût. Je le compare au désir impétueux d’un jeune homme qui voit sourire la beauté qu’il aime.—Le second appétit est celui que l’on ressent lorsque, s’étant mis à table sans faim, on a déjà goûté d’un plat succulent, et qui a consacré le proverbe, l’appétit vient en mangeant. Je l’assimile à l’état d’un mari dont le cœur tiède s’échauffe aux premières caresses de sa femme.—Le troisième appétit est celui qu’excite un mets délicieux qui paraît à la fin d’un repas, lorsque, l’estomac satisfait, l’homme sobre allait quitter la table sans regret. Celui-là trouve son emblème dans les feux du libertinage, qui quoique illusoires, font naître cependant quelques plaisirs réels. La connaissance de cette métaphysique de l’appétit doit guider le Cuisinier habile dans la composition du premier, du second et du troisième service.”—Cours Gastronomique, p. 64.

73 “It is but INCREASING or diminishing the velocity of certain fluids in the animal machine,—to elate the Soul with the gayest hopes,—or to sink her into the deepest despair; to depress the Hero into a Coward— or advance the Coward into a Hero.”—Fitzosborne’s Letters, 1. viii.


Salt, Pepper, and Mustard, ay, Vinegar too,
Are quite as unwholesome as Curry I vow,
All lovers of Goose, Duck, or Pig, he’ll engage,
That eat it with Onion, Salt, Pepper or Sage,
Will find ill effects from t’,” and therefore no doubt
Their prudence should tell them,—best eat it without!
But, alas! these are subjects on which there’s no reas’ning,
For you’ll still eat your Goose, Duck, or Pig, with its seas’ning;
And what is far worse—notwithstanding his huffing,
You’ll make for your Hare and your Veal a good stuffing:
And I fear, if a Leg of good Mutton you boil
With Sauce of vile Capers, that Mutton you’ll spoil;
And tho’, as you think, to procure good Digestion,
A mouthful of Cheese is the best thing in question:
“In Gath do not tell, nor in Askalon blab it,
You’re strictly forbidden to eat a Welsh Rabbit.”
And Bread, “the main staff of our life,” some will call
No more nor no less,—than “the worst thing of all.”—

See The Lady’s Address to Willy Cadogan in his Kitchen, 4to. 1771.

Some Minute Philosopher has published an 8vo. pamphlet of 56 pages! on the omnipotent “virtues of a Crust of Bread eaten early in the morning fasting!!” We have no doubt it is an admirable Specific for that grievous disorder of the Stomach called Hunger.

75 Are very crude indigestible materials for a weak Stomach, unless warmed by (No. 372);—with the assistance of which, and plenty of Pepper, you may eat even Cucumber with impunity.

76 Dr. Radcliffe, who succeeded better by speaking plainly to his Patients, than some of his successors have by the most subtle Politeness,—when asked what was the best Remedy for Wind in the Stomach, replied, “That which will expel it quickest”—inquiring of the Ventose subject whether the Wind passed per Ascensum, vel per Descensum, observing,—that the former is the most aggravated state of Ventriloquism, the latter a sign that the Bowels are recovering their Healthful Tone.

77 “My Stomach digests food so slowly, that I cannot study for five or six hours after a very sparing dinner.”—Spallanzani on Digestion, &c., vol. i. p. 280.

“If the quantity of Food be given, its Quality will cause a difference in the time of digesting; for instance, slimy and viscid meats are longer in digesting in the Stomach than meats of a contrary nature; the flesh of some young animals is not so soon digested as the flesh of the same animals arrived at their full growth; thus Veal and Lamb are not so soon digested as Beef and Mutton.

“A man who took a vomit every second night for some months, observed, that when he had taken Chicken for Dinner, he always threw it up undigested, but never threw up any of his Food undigested when he made his Dinner of Beef or Mutton.”—Bryan Robinson on the Food and Discharges of Human Bodies, 1748, p. 95.

Beef and Mutton seem to give less trouble to the Editor’s Stomach than any kind of Poultry.

The following is copied from Dr. Scudamore on Gout, 2d Edition, p. 509, being some of the Experiments related by Mr. Astley Cooper in his lecture delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1814, which have only been published in Dr. S.’s book, who informs us, they were performed upon Dogs, with a view to ascertain the comparative solvent power of the gastric juice upon different articles of food.

Experiment 5.

Food.Form.Quantity.Animal killed.Loss by Digestion.
Cheese.Square.100 pints.4 hours.76.

Experiment 6.

Food.Form.Quantity.Animal killed.Loss by Digestion.
Beef.Long & Nar.100 pints.2 hours.  0.
Rabbit.——————  0.
Cod Fish.——————74.

Experiment 9.

Roast VealDo.100 pints.4 hours.  7.
Boiled do.Do.————30.

78 “Those who have weak stomachs, will be better able to digest their food, if they take their meals at regular hours; because they have both the stimulus of the aliment they take, and the periodical habit to assist digestion.”—Darwin’s Zoonomia, vol. i. p. 454.

“We often tease and disorder our Stomachs by fasting for too long a period, and when we have thus brought on what I may call a discontented state of the organ, unfitting it for its office, we set to a meal, and fill it to its utmost, regardless of its powers or its feelings.”—Abernethy’s Surg. Obs. p. 70.

79 “A Philosopher being asked what was the best time to dine, answered,—For a Rich man, when he could get a Stomach;—for a Poor man, when he could get Meat.”

80 “When four hours be past, after Breakfast, a man may safely taste his Dinner,—the most convenient time for dinner, is about eleven of the clocke before noone,—in 1570, this was the usual time of serving it in the University of Oxford,—elsewhere about noone,—it commonly consisted of boyled biefe, with pottage, bread and beere, and no more,—the quantity of biefe was in value an halfe-penny for each mouth,—they supped at five of the clocke in the Afternoon.”—Vide Cogan’s Haven of Health, 1584, p. 187.

Early hours were as Genteel in Dr. Cogan’s time, as late ones are now, 1821.

“Perhaps none of our Old English customs have undergone so thorough a change, as the hours of rising,—taking refreshment—the number of meals per day—and the time of retiring to rest.

“The stately dames of Edward IV.’s Court, rose with the Lark, despatched their dinner at eleven o’clock in the forenoon, and shortly after eight were wrapt in slumber.—How would these reasonable people (reasonable at least in this respect) be astonished could they but be witnesses to the present distribution of time among the Children of Fashion!—Would they not call the perverse conduct of those who rise at one or two, dine at eight,—and retire to bed when the morning is unfolding all its glories, and nature putting on her most pleasing aspect,—absolute insanity!!”—Warner’s Antiq. Cul. p. 134.

“The modern hours of eating are got to an excess that is perfectly ridiculous. Now, what do people get by this? If they make Dinner their principal Meal, and do not wish to pall their appetite by eating before it—they injure their health. Then in Winter they have two hours of candlelight before Dinner, and in Summer they are at table during the pleasantest part of the Day; and all this, to get a Long Morning,—for Idle People, to whom one would suppose the shortest morning would seem too Long.”—Pye’s Sketches, 12mo. 1797, p. 174.

81 Mr. Peck, Grocer, &c., No. 175, Strand, has printed a very ingenious chart of the “Geographie de la Gourmandise.”—“A Map of the four quarters of the World, intended to show the different parts from whence all the articles in his catalogue are imported.”—See also “Carte Gastronomique de la France,” prefixed to that entertaining work, “Cours Gastronomique,” 8vo. 1809.

82 “A Wag, on being told it was the fashion to dine later and later every day, said, He supposed it would end at last in not dining till to-morrow!!”

83 “It is at the commencement of Decline, i. e. about our 40th year, that the Stomach begins to require peculiar care and precaution. People who have been subject to Indigestions before, have them then more frequent and more violent; and those who have never been so afflicted, begin to suffer them from slight causes: a want of attention to which too frequently leads to the destruction of the best constitutions, especially of the studious, who neglect to take due exercise. The remedy proposed is Ipecacuanha, in a dose that will not occasion any nausea; but enough to excite such an increased action of the vermicular movement of the stomach, that the phlegm may be separated and expelled from that organ.

“The effects of it surpassed his most sanguine hopes: by the use of it, notwithstanding he had naturally a delicate constitution, he weathered the storms of the Revolution,” &c., and lived to be 84.

The above is an extract from Dr. Buchan’s translation of Mr. Daubenton’s Observations on Indigestion. This treatise brought Ipecacuanha Lozenges into fashion, as the most easy and agreeable manner of taking it: they contain about one-sixth of a grain, and are prepared and sold by Savory and Moore, Chemists, in Bond Street.

84 Delicate people, who are accustomed to dine at a certain hour, on certain food, &c., are generally deranged as often as they dine out, and change the hour, &c.

The Editor has a patient who never Dines out without suffering severely for several days after—not from over-eating or drinking, &c., but from the change of Diet, and the time of taking it. His habit is to make a hearty meal off one dish at Five o’clock, and drink with it some good heartening home-brewed Beer, and two or three glasses of Wine—that has not been kept till it has lost its best qualities.

85 Dr. W. says: “When the Stomach is in a sound state, and Digestion is properly performed, the spirits are good, and the Body is light and easy; but when that organ is out of order, a languor, debility, discontent, melancholy watchfulness, or troublesome dreams, the nightmare, &c. are the consequences. I have often been seized with a slight Incubus, attended with a faintness, as if the circulation was a good deal obstructed, before I was fully asleep, which has made me get up suddenly: while I lay awake I felt nothing of these symptoms, except some degree of uneasiness about my stomach; but when I was just about to fall asleep, they began to return again.” “In this way I have gone on for two or three hours or more, in the beginning of the night. At last, I found that a dram of Brandy, after the first attack, kept me easy the whole night,” p. 312.

“When affected with uneasy sensation from wind, I have not only been sensible of a general debility and flatness of spirits, but the unexpected opening of a door, or any such trifling unforeseen accident, has instantly occasioned an odd sensation about my heart, extending itself to my head and arms, &c. At other times, when my stomach is in a firmer state, I have no such feeling: at least, in a very small degree, from causes which might be thought more apt to produce them. Fainting, Tremors, Palpitations of the Heart, convulsive motions, and all those disorders which are called nervous, &c. &c. are often owing more to the infirm state of the first passages, than to any fault either in the Brain or Heart,” p. 132, &c.

Dr. Whytt died A.D. 1766, in his 52d year.

86 “Physicians appear to be too strict and particular in their rules of diet and regimen; too anxious attention to those rules hath often hurt those who were well, and added unnecessarily to the distresses of the sick.—Whether meat should be boiled or roasted, or dressed in any other plain way, and what sort of vegetables should be eaten with it, I never yet met with any person of common sense (except in an acute illness) whom I did not think much fitter to choose for himself, than I was to determine for him.”—Dr. Heberden on Diet.

“When the Stomach is weak, it seems particularly necessary that our food should be nutritive and easy of digestion.

“I may further observe, that its qualities should be adapted to the feelings of the stomach.

“In proof of this proposition, numerous instances might be mentioned of apparently unfit substances agreeing with the Stomach, being digested and even quieting an irritable state of the stomach, merely because they were suitable to its feelings. Instances might also be mentioned of changes in Diet producing a tranquil and healthy state of stomach in cases where medicines had been tried in vain.”—Abernethy, Surg. Obs. p. 68.

87A Fool, or a Physician at Forty, is an adage containing more truth than is commonly believed.—He who has not by that time learned to observe the causes of self-disorder—shows little signs of wisdom; and He who has carefully noted the things which create disorder in himself, must by his own experience possess much knowledge, that a Physician at a pop visit ought not to pretend to.”—Domestic Management, 1813, p. xxxvi.

88Grillus, who, according to the doctrine of Transmigration, (as Plutarch tells us) had, in his turn, been a Beast, discourses how much better he fed and lived then, than when he was turned to Man again, as knowing then what food was best and most proper for him, which Sarcophagists (flesh-eaters) in all this time were yet to seek.”—Evylyn’s Acetana, 12mo. 1699, p. 86.

“Instinct than Reason makes more wholesome Meals.”—Young.

“My Appetite is in several things of itself happily enough accommodated to the health of my Stomach; whatever I take against my liking does me harm; but nothing hurts me that I eat with appetite and delight.”—Vide honest Montaigne’s Essay on Experience, book iii. chap. xiii.

“The Stomach gives information when the supplies have been expended, and represents with great exactness the quantity and quality of whatever is wanted in the present state of the machine, and, in proportion as it meets with neglect, rises in its demand, and urges its petition with a louder voice.”—Dr. Wm. Hunter’s Introductory Lecture, 4to. p. 81.

“Take Food in proportion to the quantity of nourishment contained in it, of which the Stomach appears from Instinct to be capable of judging.”—J. Hunter on the Animal Economy, 4to. p. 221.

“Prompted by Instinct’s never erring power,
Each creature knows its proper aliment,
Directed, bounded by this power within,
Their cravings are well aimed; Voluptuous Man,
Is by superior faculties misled;
Misled from pleasure—even in quest of Joy.”
Armstrong’s Art of Preserving Health.

“Our stomach is, in general, a pretty good Judge of what is best for it,—thousands have perished for being inattentive to its calls—for one who has implicitly obeyed them.”—Dr. Smith’s Guide in Sickness, 8vo. p. 59.

“In every case wherein we wish to preserve strength, (as in most chronical complaints) we should be extremely cautious in prescribing a rigid regimen,—especially if it is intended to be long continued.”—“Things disagreeable to the palate, seldom digest well, or contribute to the nourishment of the Body.”—Falconer on Diet, pp. 7, and 8.

“What is most grateful to the Palate, sits most easy on the Stomach.”—Adair on Diet, p. 28.

Longings directed by the pure guidance of Instinct, and not arising merely from opinion, may not only be satisfied with Impunity, but generally be indulged in with advantage.”—Withers on the Abuse of Medicine, 8vo. p. 233.

89 “As to the quality of food, although whatever is easy of digestion, singly considered, deserves the preference, yet regard must be had to the palate and to the appetite, because it is frequently found, that what the Stomach earnestly covets, though of difficult digestion, does nevertheless digest better than what is esteemed of easier digestion if the Stomach nauseates it: I am of opinion the patient ought to eat only of one dish at a meal.”—Sydenham on Gout.

“Every Animal but Man keeps to one dish—Herbs are the food of this species—Fish of that—and Flesh of a third.”—Spectator, No. 95.

“Be content with one dish at a meal, in the choice of that consult your palate.”—Mandeville on Hypochondriasis, p. 316.

90 “It is surprising how much the condition and disposition of the Stomach and Intestines will vary in the same person at different times.”—Whytt on the Nerves; p. 127.

91 “Many people, to be sufficiently nourished, must be supplied with food exceedingly stimulating.”—Struve’s Asthenology, 8vo. 1801, p. 280.

92 “Whosoever dreameth that no Sick Man should be allured to meat, by delightful and pleasant Sauces, seemeth as froward and fantastical as He that would never whet his knife.

“Why hath nature brought forth such variety of Herbs, Roots, Spices, &c. fit for nothing but Sauces, &c. but that by them, the Sick should be allured to feed.

“Abstinence is as dangerous, as Fulness and Satiety is inconvenient.”—Dr. Moffett on Foods, 12mo. 1746, p. 343.

93 “This gentleman had so cold a Stomach, (saith Suidas,) that he made a sheath for his Tongue, that he might swallow down his Pottage scalding hot; yea, I myself have known a Shropshire Gentleman of the like quality.”—Dr. Muffett on Food, 4to. 1655, p. 287.

94 “The Chyle appears to be of the same nature, from whatever aliment it has been extracted; if the medical people in different countries were questioned, each would probably approve of the diet used in their own—and would find plausible arguments to prove its superiority, with numerous and admirable examples among their countrymen in support of their theory.

“An Englishman would probably be of opinion that wheat-bread, and a large portion of animal food, gives the strongest and most substantial nourishment.

“An Irishman, or a Scotsman, would probably maintain that a small portion of animal food,—with plenty of potatoes and oatmeal, is far better adapted to form a vigorous and hardy race. The Laplanders live almost entirely upon Animal food—the Hindoos, Gentoos, &c. never taste any thing but Vegetables.”—Moore’s Mat. Med. p. 70.

“In the course of a few years, the produce of several acres of land, a number of large oxen, and many tuns of liquor, are consumed by one individual; whilst he continues nearly the same, whether he drinks the pure stream, or beverage the most skilfully compounded; whether he feeds on a variety of articles produced from the animal and vegetable kingdom, or confines himself to one particular substance; and whether his food is prepared in the most simple manner, or by the most refined and artificial modes that luxury has invented.”—Code of Health, vol. i. p. 402.

Facts relative to Diet.—“Dr. B. Franklin, of Philadelphia, informed me that he himself, when a journeyman printer, lived a fortnight on bread and water, at the rate of ten pennyworth of bread per week, and that he found himself stout and hearty with this diet.”

“By Sir John Pringle I was told that he knew a lady now 90 years of age, who eat only the pure fat of meat.”

“Dr. Cirelli says, that the Neapolitan Physicians frequently allow their patients in fevers, nothing but water for forty days together.”—Dr. Stark, on Diet, &c. 4to. 1788, p. 92, a work well worth the purchase of any person curious upon this subject. As is also Dr. Bryan Robinson, on Food and Discharges of Human Bodies.

95 “A constant adherence to one sort of Diet, may have bad effects on any Constitution. Nature has provided a great Variety of Nourishment for Human Creatures, and furnished us with Appetites to desire, and Organs to digest them.

“An unerring Regularity is almost impracticable, and the swerving from it, when it has grown habitual, dangerous; for every unusual thing in a human body becomes a stimulus, as Wine or Flesh Meat to one not used to them; therefore Celsus’s Rule, with proper moral restrictions, is a good one.”—Arbuthnot on Aliment, pp. 218 and 219.

96 A Pill is the mildest form of administering Medicine, because of its gradual solution in the Stomach, and the same quantity of the same material, taken in a draught, produces a very different effect.

97 “He that would have a clear Head, must have a clean Stomach.”—Cheyne on Health, p. 34.

98 Quintessence of Lemon Peel, (No. 418).—Best oil of Lemon, one drachm,—strongest rectified Spirit, two ounces, introduced by degrees, till the spirit kills and completely mixes with the oil. This elegant and useful preparation, possesses all the delightful fragrance and flavour of the freshest Lemon Peel—for which you will find it a satisfactory substitute. A few drops on the Sugar you make Punch with, will instantly impregnate it with as much flavour as the troublesome and tedious method of rubbing the sugar on the rind.

99 “I have observed that in mature Age, and in the decline of Life, symptoms which are attributed to previous irregularities, to idiosyncracy, to hereditary disposition, to disease, and to approaching old age, frequently arise from Constipation of the Bowels.”—Hamilton on Purgative Medicines, 1806, p. 7.

100Astriction of the Belly is commonly a sign of strong Chylopoetick Organs.”—Arbuthnot on Aliment, p. 24.

101 Beautiful and full ripe Hot-house Grapes may be procured in the greatest perfection at the Fruit Shops in Covent Garden, almost all the year round—and the Editor has frequently given them to delicate women, who have been afflicted with feverish complaints, to the quantity of a Pound per day, with the most satisfactory effect—they were extremely grateful in cooling their parched mouths, and at once most agreeably and effectually supplied the place of both Saline Draughts and Aperient Medicine.

102 “People who have Relaxed Bowels have seldom strong thoughts or strong bodies.”—Locke on Education, sec. 23.

“The cure for relaxed Nerves (the source of all chronic disorders) must necessarily begin at the Stomach. He who attempts to cure a Nervous distemper without firm Bowels—labours in vain; for it is impossible that the Constitution of those who have Slippery Bowels—should ever be braced.”—Cheyne on Long Life, p. 107.

103 “To make Toast and Water.—Cut a bit of the upper crust of Bread, about twice the thickness Toast is usually cut—toast it carefully, till it be completely browned all over, but not at all blackened or burnt: put this into a jug, and pour upon it as much boiling water as you wish to make into drink—cover the jug—let it stand till cold. The fresher made—the better. Obs.—A roll of fresh thin cut Lemon Peel or dried Orange Peel, infused with the Bread, is a grateful addition, and makes a very refreshing Summer drink—and when the proportion of the fluids is destroyed by profuse perspiration, may be drank plentifully. Let a large jug be made early in the day, it will then become warm by the heat of the Air, and may be drank freely with impunity; cold Water fresh drawn from a well cannot without danger.”

104 Dr. Pemberton recommends the following Bolus:—

℞ Kino. pulv. j.
Confect. Opiat. gr. xii.
Misc. Fiat bolus, ter quotidie sumendus.

See his Observations on the Diseases of the Abdominal Viscera, 8vo. 1807, p. 140.

105 Here followed, in the first Edition, some Observations on Singing. See page 98 of this book—But most of them are taken out, and will shortly be published by Messrs. Hurst and Robinson, No. 90, Cheapside, as part of the Prefatory matter of “The English Melodies,” selected by the Author of this work, from the Library of Wm. Kitchiner, M. D.

106 “A knowledge how to regulate the alvine evacuation, constitutes much of the prophylactic part of Medicine; hence, how necessary it is to advise those who either wish to preserve good Health, or are in quest of the lost treasure, to attend to this circumstance.”—Hamilton on Purgatives, p. 7.

“How much it behoves those who have the charge of young people, particularly of the female sex, to impress them with the propriety, nay with the absolute necessity of attention to the regular state of the Bowels; and to put it in their power, by the use of proper means, to guard against constipation; and at the same time to watch over them, lest, through indolence, they neglect a circumstance which, promoting in the gay season of youth, the enjoyment of health and happiness, opposes a sure barrier against the inroads of chlorosis, &c., always a distressing, and sometimes a fatal complaint.”—Ibid. p. 76.

107 “There are three things which I consider as necessary to the cure of disorder.

1st, That the Stomach should thoroughly digest all the food that is put into it.

“The patient perceiving the necessity of obtaining this end, becomes attentive to his Diet, and observes the effect which the quantity and quality of his food and medicines have upon his feelings, and the apparent powers of his Stomach.

2dly, That the residue of the food should be daily discharged from the Bowels: here, too, the patient, apprised of the design, notes what kind and dose of purgative medicine best effect the intention, and whether it answers better if taken at once, or at intervals.

3dly, That the secretion of Bile should be right, both with respect to quantity and quality. In cases wherein the secretion of Bile has been for a long time deficient or faulty, I recommend unirritating and undebilitating doses of Mercury, (i. e. pil. hydrarg.) to be taken every second or third night till the stools become of the wet rhubarb colour.”—P. 90.

“Any kind of Brown, which dilution will not convert into yellow, I should consider as unhealthy.”—P. 36.

See Mr. Abernethy’s Surgical Observations.

108 “A popular hypothesis is now very prevalent, which attributes nearly all Diseases to a disturbed state of the Liver—for which, Mercurial drugs are lavished almost indiscriminately. The folly of expecting to repel this, or any other opinion which is favourable to the natural indolence of mankind, is obvious, especially when it is at the same time upholden by the empirical interests of greedy individuals.”—A. Carlisle on Old Age, 2d edit. p. 88.

109 “It is a dubious question, whether Worms or the Violent Purgatives which are forced into the human Stomach, by the decisive energy of medical logic, to destroy and expel them, have been most destructive to the human species.”—Withers on the Abuse of Medicine, 8vo. 1794, p. 19 and 117.

110Mercury and Antimony, elaborated into Poisons by Chemistry—i. e. Calomel, Emetic Tartar, James’s Powders, &c. have torn many a Stomach into rags, so that it could never bear common food after.”—Cadogan on Gout, 8vo. 1771, p. 79.

111 The flavour of Coxwell’s Citric Acid is much more agreeable than the Tartaric, which, being cheaper, is sometimes substituted for it.

112 Portable Soup, or Glaze.—(No. 252.)—Desire the Butcher to break the bones of a Leg or a Shin of Beef, of 10 pounds weight (the fresher killed the better), put it into a Soup-pot (a Digester is the best utensil for this purpose) that will well hold it; just cover it with cold water, and set it on the fire to heat gradually till it nearly boils, (this should be at least an hour);—skim it attentively while any scum rises,—pour in a little cold water, to throw up the scum that may remain,—let it come to a boil again, and again skim it carefully: when no more scum rises, and the broth appears clear, (put in neither Roots nor Herbs nor Salt,) let it boil for eight or ten hours, and then strain it through a hair sieve into a brown stone pan; set the Broth where it will cool quickly; put the meat into a sieve, let it drain, make Potted Beef (No. 503),—or it will be very acceptable to many poor families. Next day remove every particle of Fat from the top of it, and pour it through a Tammis or fine sieve as quietly as possible into a Stewpan, taking care not to let any of the settlings at the bottom of the stone pan go into the Stewpan, which should be of thick Copper, perfectly well tinned; add a quarter of an ounce of whole Black Pepper to it, let it boil briskly, with the stewpan uncovered, on a quick fire: if any scum rises, take it off with a skimmer; when it begins to thicken, and is reduced to about a quart, put it into a smaller stewpan; set it over a gentler fire, till it is reduced to the thickness of a very thick Syrup; take care that it does not burn,—a moment’s inattention now will lose you all your labour, and the soup will be spoiled:—take a little of it out in a spoon and let it cool; if it sets into strong Jelly, it is done enough;—if it does not, boil it a little longer, till it does;—have ready some little pots, such as are used for Potted Meats, about an inch and a half deep, taking care that they are quite dry;—we recommend it to be kept in these pots, if it is for home consumption—(the less it is reduced, the better is the flavour of the Soup)—if it be sufficiently concentrated to keep for six months;—if you wish to preserve it longer, put it into such bladders as are used for German Sausages,—or if you prefer it in the form of Cakes, pour it into a dish about a quarter of an inch deep; when it is cold, turn it out and weigh the Cake, and divide it with a paste-cutter into pieces of half an ounce and an ounce each; place them in a warm room, and turn them frequently till they are thoroughly dried;—this will take a week or ten days; turn them twice a day;—when well hardened, if kept in a dry place, they may be preserved for several years in any climate.

This extract of Meat makes excellent “Tablettes de Bouillon,” for those who are obliged to endure long fasting.

Obs.—The uses of this concentrated Essence of Meat are numerous. It is equally economical and convenient for making extempore Broths, Sauces and Gravies for Hashed or Stewed Meat, Game, or Poultry, &c.

You may thicken it and flavour it as directed in (No. 329);—to make Gravy, Sauces, &c. take double the quantity ordered for Broth.

If you have time and opportunity, as there is no seasoning in the Soup, either of Roots, Herbs, or Spice, boil an Onion with or without a bit of Parsley, and Sweet Herbs, and a few corns of Allspice, or other Spice, in the water you melt the Soup in, which may be flavoured with Mushroom Catsup (No. 439),—or Eschalot Wine (No. 402),—Essence of Sweet Herbs (No. 417),—Savoury Spice (Nos. 421, or 457),—Essence of Celery (No. 409), &c. or Zest (No. 255);—these may be combined in the proportions most agreeable to the palate of the Eater—and are as portable as Portable Soup, for a very small portion will flavour a Pint.

The Editor adds nothing to the solution of this Soup, but a very little ground Black Pepper and some Salt.

Mem. This Portable Soup is a most convenient article in Cookery—especially in Small Families, where it will save a great deal of time and trouble. It is also Economical, for no more will be melted than is wanted—so there is no waste.

Shin of Beef, weighing nine pounds, and costing 1s. 10½d. produced nine ounces of concentrated Soup, sufficiently reduced to keep for several months. After the boiling, the Bones in this joint weighed two pounds and a quarter, and the Meat two pounds and a quarter.

As it is difficult to obtain this ready-made of good quality—and we could not find any proper and circumstantial directions for making it, which on trial answered the purpose,—and it is really a great acquisition to the Army and Navy—to Travellers, Invalids, &c.—the Editor has bestowed some time, &c. in endeavouring to learn—and to teach how it may be prepared in the easiest,—most economical and perfect manner.

The ordinary selling price is from 10s. to 12s.—but you may make it according to the above Receipt for 3s. 6d. per Pound—i. e. for 2½d. per Ounce, which will make you a Pint of Broth.

Those who do not regard the expense, and like the flavour, may add the lean of Ham, in the proportion of a pound to eight pounds of Leg of Beef.

It may also be flavoured, by adding to it, at the time you put the Broth into the smaller Stewpan, Mushroom Catsup, Shallot Wine, Essences of Spice or Herbs, &c.;—we prefer it quite plain—it is then ready to be converted in an instant into a basin of Beef Tea for an Invalid, and any flavour may be immediately communicated to it by the Magazine of Taste (No. 463.)

Mutton Chops delicately Stewed, and good Mutton Broth.—(No. 490.)—Put a Pound of Chops into a stewpan with cold water enough to cover them, and half a pint over, and an Onion,—when it is coming to a boil, skim it, cover the pan close, and set it over a very slow Fire till the Chops are tender,—if they have been kept a proper time, they will take about three quarters of an hour’s very gentle simmering. Send up Turnips with them, (No. 130), they may be boiled with the chops, skim well, and then send all up in a deep dish, with the Broth they were stewed in.

N.B. The Broth will make an Economist one,—and the Meat another wholesome and comfortable meal.

113 Men are but rarely “framed so in the prodigality of Nature,” as to have all their Senses in perfection—very few have a single one, that approximates within many degrees of it—the Eye of Raphael, the Ear of Handel, the Palate of Apicius—or the sensitive touch of the blind Girl, who could feel Colours—are pancratic faculties which are seldom produced.

The following division of the Senses is so excellent, that I copy it from the scarce Book referred to below:—

“I distinguish the Six Senses by the character of noxious and innocent. The first three, ThinkingSeeing—and Hearing—are the innocent. The last three, FeelingTasting—and Smelling—the noxious.

“I pursue Happiness, or systematic pleasurable sensation, in the cultivation of the first class—and in the control of the latter.”—See the Life of John Stewart the Traveller, p. 12.

114 “I took two pieces of Mutton, each weighing 45 grains, and having chewed one as much as I used to chew my food—enclosed them in two separate spheres—and swallowed them at the same time—these tubes were voided at the same time—of the masticated meat there remained only 4 grains—of the other there were 18 left.”

The necessity of Mastication is sufficiently known—there is perhaps no person who has not, some time or other, suffered from Indigestion, for want of having chewed his food properly. The reason is obvious. Not to mention the saliva which moistens the food, and predisposes it to be dissolved, it cannot be doubted, that when it is reduced to pieces by the action of the Teeth, the gastric fluid penetrates, and attacking it at more points, dissolves it more speedily than when it was whole. This is true of menstrua in general, which always dissolve bodies sooner when they have been previously broken to pieces. This is also the reason why, in other experiments, masticated bread and dressed flesh were more readily dissolved than unchewed bread and raw flesh. The boiling had made it tenderer, and consequently disposed it to allow ingress to the gastric fluid.”—Spallanzani on Digestion, vol. i. p. 277.

115 In no branch of the practice of Physic, is there more Dangerous Quackery, than in this department—the only means we can furnish our friends with to avoid this—is to recommend them to apply to a scientific Dentist of acknowledged integrity and experience.—Our own Mouth is under considerable obligations to Mr. Edmonds, of Conduit Street, Hanover Square.

116 “Slave-dealers are well acquainted with the characteristic signs of perfect Health—any defect of which much diminishes the value of a Slave. The want of a Tooth makes a Slave worth two Dollars less.”—Finke’s Medical Geography, vol. i. p. 449.

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