Project Gutenberg's The Baptist Magazine, Vol. 27, May 1835, by Various

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Title: The Baptist Magazine, Vol. 27, May 1835

Author: Various

Editor: George  Wightman

Release Date: July 18, 2012 [EBook #40252]

Language: English

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[Pg 165]


MAY, 1835.

Missionary to the Chinese Empire.
[A] A Sermon has just been published, entitled, "A Voice from China; a Discourse, delivered at New Windsor Chapel, Salford, on Sunday, February 11, 1835, to improve the lamented death of the Rev. Robert Morrison, D.D., F.R.S., &c., &c.; with a Sketch of his Character and Labours, principally compiled from his own correspondence. By John Clunie, LL.D." Of this discourse we are happy to avail ourselves, for the purpose of presenting our readers with a brief memorial of this distinguished servant of Christ; still referring them to the Sermon itself for some interesting extracts, and appropriate reflections, which we are unable to transfer to our pages.—Ed.

The Rev. Dr. Morrison was born at Morpeth, Jan. 5, 1782, but was early removed to Newcastle-upon-tyne. His parents, though in humble circumstances, were industrious and pious members of the Scottish church; and they educated their family in the fear of the Lord. When a boy, he was, with other young persons of the congregation, frequently catechised by the Minister; and this has inadvertently led to an erroneous report, that he was originally a Sunday School scholar. He was afterwards taught a mechanical trade, which he diligently followed till he left home. I believe he "feared the Lord from his youth;" and that the pious instructions of his father's house, and the faithful ministrations of his pastor, were so blessed to him, that at the age of sixteen he solemnly devoted himself to God. When engaged in his secular calling, his mind, thirsting for knowledge, sought its own improvement, first by general reading, and, after a few years, by diligently acquiring the rudiments of Latin. He used to steal hours from rest, and often to work with his book raised before him, so that his eye could cast a rapid glance on its pages, while his hands were actively employed at his daily labour. Thus he at once prepared his lesson for the Minister who kindly instructed him, and discovered the first indications of that diligence and talent for the acquisition of a foreign language, which laid the basis of his future fame.

At this time, in consequence of his manifest love of study, and his ardent desire for usefulness, his mother entertained many fears, that she should soon be deprived of the object of her affections, by his removal from her: but her fears, so far as she herself was concerned, were groundless; for she was called to her rest, the year before he left home for the [Pg 166] Academy. Thus she neither felt the pain of his anticipated absence, nor rejoiced in the participation of his subsequent honours.

On entering Hoxton Academy, January, 1803, I found that Mr. Morrison had arrived a few days before me; and as we both regularly attended, with our friends, the ministry of that eminent servant of God, the Rev. A. (afterwards Dr.) Waugh, we were very soon intimately acquainted with each other: the result was an indissoluble friendship of nearly thirty-two years, during the whole of which period, we frequently interchanged our joys and our sorrows, and reciprocated our congratulations and our sympathies; while fidelity and affection mutually tendered, when necessary, admonition and reproof. His character was even then distinguished by those qualities which subsequently rendered him so illustrious—the most ardent piety, indefatigable diligence, and devoted zeal. His natural disposition was grave and thoughtful; so that, as his mind was often the subject of anxious and desponding views, especially of himself and his attainments, he probably occasionally appeared to some as gloomy and melancholy. But those who knew him best were fully convinced, that most of his anxieties arose from his deep sense of the importance of the work for which he was preparing, of his own utter incompetency for its faithful discharge, and of the consequent obligation under which he was laid, to exert himself to the utmost, to secure the full benefit of every advantage placed within his reach. Hence he was a most exemplary student, and always aimed at distinction, even in some branches of study for which he appeared very little adapted. But his chief reliance to secure success, was not on any effort of his own, however diligently and constantly exerted—but on the divine blessing. Hence few ever entered more fully into the great Luther's favourite axiom, to pray well is to study well; for of him it may be very justly said, that prayer was the element in which his soul delighted to breathe.

His mind had long mourned over the deplorable state of the heathen world, to which he wished to publish "the unsearchable riches of Christ;" though he then knew not how it could possibly be accomplished. But after having attended two Missionary Anniversaries in London, he saw the door effectually opened before him, and instantly resolved to enter on the arduous task. The appeals of Thorpe, Bennet, Dickson, and Scott, the commentator, at the last of these anniversaries, were to him irresistible; and he "immediately conferred not with flesh and blood," but consecrated himself to the work of the Lord among the heathen, saying, Here am I, send me. No sooner, however, had he signified his intention, than every objection was made, and every difficulty thrown in his way; and when these failed, he was tempted by favour and honour, to remain at home; but all proved equally in vain. This opposition doubtless arose from a mistaken estimate of the superior claims of home; as it was manifested by some of the "excellent of the earth," who afterwards most cordially rejoiced in his success abroad. Thus, while faithfully following his own convictions of duty, he not only exhibited that decision of character which he ever displayed, but eventually found the truth of that sacred [Pg 167] declaration, "Them that honour me I will honour; and they that despise me shall be lightly esteemed."

After the usual examination, he was most cheerfully accepted by the Missionary Society; and, having been affectionately commended to the special grace of God, by his fellow-students, he left the Academy at Hoxton for that at Gosport, to enjoy the missionary training of the venerable Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Bogue. Few students ever left the house more irreproachable in their conduct, or more generally respected, by all, for their real worth, and unfeigned piety; or more beloved by those who enjoyed the felicity of their faithful friendship. Though it was little apprehended that he would so soon be called to fill one of the most arduous and important spheres which could be conceived; or, that he would ultimately rise to such an eminence in it, as to command the admiration of all classes of the christian church, and of the community in general; yet, it is impossible to reflect on his diligent and devoted course at Hoxton, without clearly recognizing the incipient elements of all his future success. Others, indeed, possessed more brilliant talents,—a richer imagination, a more attractive delivery, or more graceful manners,—but, I trust I may be permitted to say, that there was no one who more happily concentrated in himself the three elements of moral greatness already enumerated—the most ardent piety, indefatigable diligence, and devoted zeal in the best of all causes.

Thus devoted to the glory of God and the salvation of the heathen, he reached Gosport. To show his feelings and sentiments at that important crisis, I shall quote his own words, from the first letter I ever received from him, dated Gosport, June 9, 1804:

"Dear ——, I expect that my brother would inform you of my safe arrival at Gosport, on the evening of the day I left you. Through the good hand of God upon me, in answer to the prayers of my relatives and Christian friends, I am yet in comfortable circumstances, and enjoy something of the presence of God, and of the hope of glory."

"My dear brother, I hope the conversation we had when we travelled together to Leatherhead, will not soon be forgotten by you or me. Let the sentiment dwell upon our hearts, that it is the great business of our lives, to testify the gospel of the grace of God. Whether or not you and I have the happiness to labour together, as it respects place, we shall, I trust, have the happiness of pursuing the same end, seeking to promote the glory of God, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, in the salvation of men. O that this may be in truth our constant pursuit; so shall we have the happiness of God's approbation through life—at the hour of death—in the day of judgment—and be perfectly happy in his immediate presence through eternity."

And again, July 31st, he thus writes:

"My situation at Gosport is agreeable, and the persons with whom I am connected are kind to me. The Lord, who gives me favour in their eyes, continues me in health. My mind is comfortable, and resigned to the Lord's pleasure concerning me. I, as formerly, have to 'fight with sins, and doubts, and fears.' Such, I expect, will be my experience while I continue in this world."

"My future destination is altogether unknown to me. It is in agitation to send a Mission to China. Mr. Bogue seems quite fond of it. I have had some thoughts about going into the interior of Africa, to Tombuctoo. I give up my concerns to the Lord. I hope he will open a door of useful missionary labour, in some part of the world, and give me souls for my hire."

With such feelings, he said "he would have gone to any quarter of the globe, where the people were as yet without a Divine Revelation." But China, [Pg 168] most happily, was the sphere allotted to him by the Directors of the Missionary Society. To that immense empire their attention had been directed by their first devoted Treasurer, Mr. Hardcastle, who judged it highly important to attempt the acquisition of its difficult language, and the translation of the Scriptures by some competent Missionary. This, be it remarked, was at a time when it was quite uncertain, whether any Briton would be allowed to go thither from England, or permitted to reside even on the borders of China, if he should be able to reach its shores. So strong then were the prejudices, in certain quarters, against attempting to evangelize the East, that the Directors for a time avoided the use of the term Chinese Mission; and actually were obliged to send Dr. Morrison and others round by way of America. For this station, China, he was eminently adapted: as it was well remarked by the lamented Dr. Milne, that "talents rather of the solid than the showy kind, rather I adapted to accomplish important objects by a course of persevering labour, than to astonish by any sudden burst of genius, were the most proper for the first Missionary to China: and such exactly were the talents which the Giver of every good and perfect gift had conferred on him." But it was thought highly desirable that he should have a fellow-labourer, though subsequent events proved that this would then have been quite impracticable in China. But every effort was made, especially by himself, to prevail on some kindred soul to accompany him. And here I must be excused slightly touching on one who was more than half-disposed to respond to the call; but who was ultimately prevented, by what appeared to him imperative duty at home. But he trusts his heart was ever with him: and whatever sympathy and encouragement might be, at any time, in his power to command, were most cheerfully rendered, and the act considered as his highest honour.

What views Dr. M. entertained both of the missionary and ministerial character, will best appear from what he desired for himself and his friend. In a letter dated March 24, 1805, he thus writes:—

"I pray God that he may pour into my soul, in rich abundance, the daily washing of regeneration and the renewing of the Holy Ghost. The gifts of the Holy Spirit, my brother, are radical qualifications in a minister, and in a missionary. Oh that you and I may be blessed with large measures of them! Let us keep in sight, my brother, our obligations to God our Saviour, who has redeemed us from the lowest hell; the short term of service; and the ineffably glorious reward of grace, in the kingdom of heaven; and, animated by the prospect, let us 'spend and be spent' for the sake of our Lord Jesus. Beloved, I wish that thou mayest prosper and be in health, even as thy soul prospereth. Pray God to make me a good man and a good missionary."

And again, May 30:—

"Attend, my dear brother, very particularly, to the state of your own soul. Instead of saying, pray much, as I was just about to say, be very careful that your prayers be spiritual—from the heart: live by faith on Jesus Christ. I would add, I mean examine yourself much on this point; for there is much danger of our—those of us whose concern it is constantly to attend to religious matters—I say there is much danger of our doing things, praying, and exhorting, and reading, &c., as matters of course, without entering into them spiritually and seriously. Allow me to say—not because I am your master, but because I love you—study gravity, humility, and benevolence of deportment. Consider we profess to be the messengers of Jesus Christ to the children of God, and to sinful, guilty man: let us always be grave and serious. You and [Pg 169] I are young, and know but little; let us be humble, considering others better than ourselves. We are the followers of Christ, and therefore should wish well to all, ever pleasing them for their good to edification."

After spending about fifteen months at Gosport, he came to London, to obtain some knowledge of medicine, and to study the elements of astronomy at the Observatory, Greenwich; from a misapprehension that these, especially the last, would be essential to his success in China. But however much they tended to expand his own mind, they were subsequently found almost superfluous in practice: nevertheless, another object was obtained by his residence for nearly eighteen months in the metropolis. An amiable Chinese was found willing to reside with him, to assist him a little in the acquisition of the language, and in transcribing a Chinese Harmony of the Gospels in the British Museum, and a Latino-Chinese Dictionary, borrowed from the Royal Society, both composed by some unknown Roman Catholic missionaries. It was with reference to him, while employed on the former, that an eminent individual afterwards remarked, that he then little thought, as he passed through the Museum, that that stripling sitting at the table transcribing an unknown tongue, would one day translate the Scriptures into Chinese! Well may we exclaim, "Who hath despised the day of small things?"—"Man looketh on the outward appearance, but the Lord looketh on the heart."

When the time of his departure from his native shores drew nigh, as I was then at the University of Glasgow, he thus took his affectionate leave of me by letter, January, 1807—

"The period, my dear brother, has new arrived when I must bid an affectionate, and perhaps a last farewell. On Thursday evening I was solemnly ordained to the ministry of the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ among the heathen. The service was at Swallow Street. Rev. John Townsend opened by prayer and reading the Scriptures. Rev. G. Burder asked the questions. Mr. Waugh offered up the ordination prayer. Mr. Nicol gave a charge, and Mr. Buck closed the service by prayer. It was a very solemn and impressive opportunity. Messrs. Gordon and Lee were ordained with me. We proceed on the 24th inst. in the Remittance, Captain Law, to New York; from thence they take a ship to India, in all probability to Madras; whilst I alone, in another vessel, sail for Canton. If permitted, I intend to reside there; if not, I shall probably return to Malacca. Such, at present, my dear ——, are my external circumstances and prospects. With regard to success, I am not sanguine, nor am I depressed. I hope—I believe I may safely take the comfort of our Lord's words, 'Lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the world;' and, with this persuasion, what have I to fear? If Christ be with me, who can be against me? Let me, my brother, have occasionally an interest in your fervent prayers. Pray that I may not think it hard, if I fare as well as my Master! Farewell, my dear young brother; the God of peace be with you! My love to my dear brother Hooper."

Thus inspired, he departed for China, instructed by the Directors to learn its difficult language, and, if possible, compose a dictionary of it, and, above all, to translate the Scriptures into a language understood by a third part of the human race; and counselled by a beautiful letter, officially signed, but evidently composed by my venerable father, Dr. Waugh. At New York he was very kindly received, and obtained a letter of introduction from Mr. Maddison, then secretary of state, to the American consul at Canton, which proved highly beneficial to him there.

He reached China, Sept. 4, 1807, after a speedy but rough passage and, being a perfect stranger, he landed at Macao, [Pg 170] with the mate of the ship, who left him next day. He was soon known to be a missionary, and became the object of suspicion to the Roman Catholic clergy there. During that season at Canton, he lived in a cellar, in the most retired manner, and laboured incessantly at the language, with very little success, compared with what his subsequent efforts attained; for he then had only an ignoramus for his tutor. But hear himself from Canton, Sept. 14th, addressed to my own beloved mother:—

"I daily converse with Chinese, but dare not so much as hint that I desire to stay here, or what my intention for coming is. Little merchants and tradesmen daily come to me, to know what I have got to sell, or what I wish to buy. I come to vend the pearl of great value, yet without asking money or price; but dare not tell my errand. I know that you will descend to the grave, praying for the success of your son in the faith of Jesus."

He subsequently resided in the factory of some American agents at Canton, who showed him great kindness, and promoted his views to the utmost of their ability. At first he conformed to the Chinese manners, both as to eating and dress, from an erroneous idea that this would recommend him to their kind notice; but when he discovered his error, he resumed the manners of a European. But so anxious was he to learn Chinese, that he prayed even in secret in it, when he was but very imperfectly acquainted with its idioms. He quite secluded himself from society for months, till his health began to suffer; and the first time he ventured out into the fields was in a moonlight night, under the escort of two Chinese.

In the beginning of 1809, he married Miss Morton, the eldest daughter of a medical gentleman there; and, accepted an appointment in the Company's factory, as Chinese translator, which unquestionably facilitated his perfect acquisition of the language, and added much to his domestic comfort. Such diligence and perseverance could not fail of success. From Macao, December 28, 1810, he thus writes:—

"I believe I was in Canton when I last wrote to you, via., the beginning of this year. I continued there till March, carrying on a discussion with the Chinese government respecting the alleged murder of a Chinaman. I obtained great eclât, by the public examination of witnesses. Every body was astonished, that in two years I should be able to write the language, and converse in the Mandarin and vulgar dialects. In consequence of that, three of the Company's servants determined to begin the study of Chinese; and I have during the summer been a regular Chinese tutor. I pray that the Lord may soon grant to me some from among the heathen, who will faithfully join in the promulgation of divine truth. I wish you had come with me to China: I want some humble, persevering fellow-labourer."

He regularly spent six months alternately at Macao and Canton, in compliance with the requisition of the Chinese policy, whose jealousy permits few foreigners to reside in the "celestial empire," as they proudly denominate it; but which, in consideration of an annual revenue, tolerates the Portuguese settlement on the insignificant island of Macao.

In a letter dated December 29, 1811, he states:— [Pg 171]

"Sir George Staunton, who is very friendly to me, leaves the Company's service this year; and I am appointed to his place, as Chinese Secretary. This will confine me in Canton six months of the year. The Missionary Society judge it proper that I should be in this employment. It is far from being congenial with my taste or wishes, considered in itself. I greatly prefer entire devotedness to my missionary labours, and the perfecting, for future missionaries, a dictionary of the language."

This appointment, however, greatly increased his comforts and influence, and enabled him to perform some of those noble acts of Christian benevolence to be hereafter noticed.

About this time, though he had before been turned out of a miserable house, because its owner said he had converted it into a chapel, he commenced his exercises on the Lord's-day, by reading the "Harmony of the Gospels;" and afterwards continued it, by exhorting a few Chinese who attended, principally from his own household. These humble efforts were rendered, under the Divine blessing, the means of enlightening and converting several who are now actively engaged in the dissemination of Christian knowledge among their pagan countrymen. In 1810, he tried the practicability of printing the Scriptures, by revising and publishing the Acts of the Apostles, which he had brought out with him; for printing which he had paid the large sum of a dollar per copy—the price at which the whole New Testament has since been published—on account of the personal risk which those who engaged in it were supposed to run. Yet he was encouraged; and next year he finished his Grammar, and sent it to the press at Serampore, where the East India Company afterwards honourably defrayed the expense of its publication. About the same time he published his own translation of Luke's Gospel, and a tract which the Missionary Society had requested him to write, on "The Redemption of the World," and a catechism for the use of the Chinese. Thus he proceeded, step by step, till, in 1813, he finished his translation of the New Testament, having thus successfully toiled six years alone at the most difficult language on earth, and done what was quite enough to immortalize his name. The whole expense of the mission and translation had hitherto been borne by the Missionary Society; but about this time, on the presentation of a copy, first of one of the Epistles, and then of Luke's Gospel, translated into Chinese, the British and Foreign Bible Society twice voted £500. And soon after, on the presentation of the whole New Testament, they voted the noble sum of £1000; and this was subsequently munificently repeated, at different times, till, on the completion of the whole Bible, it amounted to the princely sum of £5000, without which, the work of translating the entire Scriptures would, probably, not have been accomplished.

Just before this, Mr. Milne rejoiced his heart and strengthened his hands by coming out from England and joining the mission; and having commenced under very different circumstances, he soon acquired the language, and greatly assisted Dr. M. in his subsequent translations and labours. But the jealousy of the Portuguese very soon drove Mr. Milne from his embrace, and obliged him to retire, first to Canton, and then to Malacca. This, however, eventually turned out for the furtherance of the gospel, by the establishment of the Malayan mission, and thus preparing the way for the establishment of the Anglo-Chinese College there, for the instruction of Chinese youths in the principles of Christianity and the cultivation of Chinese literature in general, which, by the numerous publications that have issued from its press, has proved of incalculable [Pg 172] value to the populous nations around. From Canton, December 19, 1812, he thus writes:—

"The Chinese receive with much readiness the books which I distribute among them. I can give but few with my own hands, as I am not admitted to the interior; nor could I give them openly in the streets. The method which I take is, to give them to the booksellers, who will not destroy them, but be induced to put them into the hands of persons, for the sake of what they can make by them."

In 1814, he happily completed the first part of his Chinese dictionary; and the whole work was generously published at the expense of the East India Company, in three thick quarto volumes. It was the first ever published in the English language; and it must remain a lasting memorial of his astonishing diligence.

In 1816, he went as interpreter with our ambassador, Lord Amherst, to the imperial court of Pekin; and subsequently published an account of that unsuccessful embassy. He founded the Anglo-Chinese College, already mentioned, in 1818, and liberally presented £1000 for its establishment, and £100 per annum, for five years from its actual commencement. In 1819, he completed the translation of the whole Bible, having been assisted in several parts of the Old Testament by his late excellent colleague, Dr. Milne. With great propriety he once observed in conversation, "I could have died, when I had finished the Bible."—On that memorable day he wrote a long memoir, in which he described the principles which he had adopted, and the plan which he had pursued, in its execution; and concluded thus:

"To have Moses, David, and the prophets—Jesus Christ and his apostles—declaring to the inhabitants of China, in their own language, the wonderful works of God, indicates, I hope, the speedy introduction of a happier era, in these parts of the world; and I trust that the gloomy darkness of pagan scepticism will be dispelled by the day-spring from on high; and the gilded idols of Budh, and the numberless images which fill this land, will one day assuredly fall to the ground, before the force of God's word, as the idol Dagon fell before the ark.

It is painful to observe here, that during a considerable portion of his unwearied labours, he was visited by the heaviest afflictions. His own health suffered exceedingly at different periods, under a most painful disorder; his beloved wife also was, for several years, still more grievously afflicted; and just before he had the happiness of finishing his Bible, the wife of his colleague was early taken away, leaving four fatherless children to mourn their unspeakable loss.

As Mrs. Morrison's complaint appeared to baffle the medical skill there, and as it was quite impossible for Dr. Morrison to leave the sphere of his important labours, she was obliged, in 1815, to visit England, accompanied only by her two children. Having sojourned amongst us several years, and finding herself greatly improved in health and spirits, she returned with the same charge to China in 1820, to his unspeakable delight. But the following year, she was suddenly removed, after an illness of a few hours, and he was once more, and for ever here, separated from "the wife of his youth." He had formerly lost his first-born, on the very day it saw the light; and the Portuguese had cruelly refused permission to inter the child of a heretic in their consecrated ground. He was therefore obliged, under the shades of night, to carry his own babe under his arm, attended only by a servant; and to fee some of the [Pg 173] Chinese, to let him pass the brow of a hill which was behind his house; where he dug a grave, and buried his dead, purposing in future an occasional visit to the interesting spot. And now he wished to lay his beloved wife by the side of her babe; but the Chinese threatened to oppose force, if he attempted it; and the Roman Catholics were as inveterate as ever. But that kind Providence which had in so many instances appeared for him, roused the indignation of the gentlemen of the factory at Macao; and they subscribed and purchased a plot of ground, just outside the walls, and devoted it as a perpetual Protestant burial-ground. There he honourably buried her.

Next year, 1822, he was deprived of his able and beloved colleague, Dr. Milne, who, on the 2nd of June, fell a sacrifice to his close and unwearied application, and left the Anglo-Chinese College, of which he was the Principal, the mission in general, and Dr. Morrison in particular, to mourn his almost irreparable loss.

Having visited the College, and made every possible arrangement for its present emergencies; and having some time before fully accomplished the three great duties assigned him—either of which was almost enough for any ordinary man—to learn the language, to translate the Bible, and to compose a Dictionary, Dr. M. felt himself now at perfect liberty to visit his native country, which he reached in the spring of 1824.

As Dr. Morrison had been so much and so deservedly anticipated by his fame, an intense anxiety was every where manifested to see and hear him. Hence he was expected to appear at every public meeting of the Missionary and Bible Societies: and to preach on almost every occasion. From the long prevalence of retired and studious habits, and I may add of Asiatic manners, this was no easy or pleasant task for him; and it is not wonderful, if, on some occasions, he disappointed the expectations excited. But you, my Christian friends, can testify the powerful appeals which he made here, and how much his soul was evidently inspired with zeal for China; wherever he was, this was his ruling passion. Hence he wished all to love China, and to seek her evangelization by every means in their power; and not to mind silver or gold, friends or comforts, except as they might become the honoured means of promoting the Redeemer's kingdom. And it is highly gratifying to state, that his visit was productive of considerable zeal and exertion on behalf of the same. The greatest attention and kindness were every where shown him, by all ranks of the community. He was honoured by being introduced at court, where he presented to his Sovereign a copy of his Chinese Bible, which was most graciously received, as was also a large Map of China, which he subsequently transmitted. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and of several other literary institutions, both at home and abroad; and he had, some years before, in the most handsome manner, been created Doctor in Divinity by the University of Glasgow, for his distinguished labours. He prolonged his stay in England a second year, in order to instruct some missionaries and others in Chinese; and to promote the interests of Oriental literature, in connexion with missionary efforts. [Pg 174]

About this time, he again entered into the marriage state, by leading to the altar Miss Armstrong, of Liverpool, well known to many of you: in whose recent and unspeakable sorrows, I am fully convinced, you will most deeply sympathize.

Having sent to the press his "Parting Memorial," he left, for the last time, his native shores, with Mrs. Morrison, now his disconsolate widow, and an infant, and his two elder children, in January, 1826, to return to China, "the land of his adoption," as he called it; with the intention of preparing a short Commentary on certain portions of the Scriptures, and such other elementary Christian Essays as appeared desirable for the right understanding of the word of God, now in extensive circulation there. These works he was enabled, to a very considerable extent, to accomplish before his decease.

But I must read you an extract from his last letter to myself, which I received only eight days before his death, dated Macao, February 24, 1834:—

"My dear friend,

"Two days ago, your welcome letter, accompanied by a report of your kind Association for our poor college, arrived and afforded me much joy; for I had several months been wondering at your silence. The death of Milne and Collie, and the removal of Kidd and Tomlin, were impediments to the prosperity of the institution. But I am happy to say that, judging from Mr. Evans's letters from the College, he will soon restore it to all that piety, learning, and zeal can do for it. I have been depressed about it of late, but my hopes now revive.—The American missionaries in Canton are persevering in the good work, without any immediately great results. They are more zealously supported from America, than we are from England.—The church of Christ on earth, and also in heaven, is from all nations, and kindreds, and peoples, and tongues. It should know nothing of earthly nationalities. The kingdom under the whole heaven belongs to Christ, our blessed Saviour, of which I hope, my dear—we are citizens. I love the land of my descent, 'Canny Scotland;' the land of my birth, 'Old England;' and the land of my sojourn—my adoption, although not recognized by it—China. I would not set up one against the other. O that in point of fact (as in point of right they are) all the kingdoms of this world may soon become the kingdoms of our God and of his Christ! At present I am engaged on Notes on the Gospels, with marginal references in Chinese. My progress is but slow. My strength for labour has much diminished; and I have many calls on my time from various quarters. Adieu.

"My dear brother and faithful friend, ever yours affectionately,

Robert Morrison."

This was his last salutation: and the spirit of the whole is so truly worthy of him, that to offer any comment would only be to weaken that impression which I am convinced it has made so powerfully, as not soon to be forgotten by many—for he, being dead, yet speaketh.

The particulars of Dr. M.'s lamented decease, were announced in the Canton Gazette, and in an excellent letter from his son,[B] who long worshipped with us here, to the Directors.

He expired at his residence in the Danish Hong, on the 1st of August, 1834. His remains were followed from thence to the river side by Lord Napier,[C] and all the Europeans, Americans, and Asiatic British subjects in Canton. The corpse was forwarded to Macao, and attended to the grave by about forty European gentlemen, on Tuesday evening, August 5th, and interred in the private Protestant burial ground in that settlement. [Pg 175] The service of the church of England was read by the Rev. Mr. Stevens, seaman's chaplain in the port of Canton, who was present at his decease, and affectionately ministered to his comfort in that trying hour.

[B] An extract from this letter—supplying the melancholy part of this memorial—will be found in our number for March, p. 107.—Ed.

[C] How singular, that he should so soon follow him to "the house appointed for all living," and earnestly request to be buried near him!

Hear then the voice from the tomb: Be ye also ready! His work of faith and labour of love were ended. The day of Jubilee to Africa, was the day of mourning to China! Then its first Protestant Missionary—its first translator of the sacred volume—its devoted apostle—not to say, he who unlocked the treasures of its literature to the western world, was summoned to his glorious rest—his eternal reward! Then he was hailed by the voice of his Saviour: "Well done, good and faithful servant: enter thou into the joy of thy Lord:" while he joined the chorus of the redeemed; "Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto thy name give glory, for thy mercy and thy truth's sake." Only a month before, the venerable Carey, the apostle of India, ascended to his glory; and with what rapture must they have embraced each other, in the presence of their common Lord!—But, if no talents, no zeal, no labours, no usefulness, can elude the sentence of death—should not we then "prepare to meet our God?


To the Editor of the Baptist Magazine.

How admirable is the candour and frankness of Christianity! In other systems and pursuits it is usual to conceal difficulties and dangers, and to exhibit nothing, openly, but prospects of advantage. Not so the Captain of our salvation, and those who had learned of him. They call for self-denial, engage in a life of conflict, and glory in having the cross to bear. Like an experienced general, the apostle, having rallied his fellow-soldiers to the onset, reminds them that they had to contend against no ordinary competitors: not against flesh and blood, (q. d.) not against them only, or chiefly, but against beings who were originally of a higher order, and even now, in their fallen state, are powerful, crafty, and malignant. Whether we consider their nature, their number, or employments, they are formidable adversaries to man.

Their nature. They are wicked spirits, who once were in the presence and in the service of God; but "they kept not their first estate;" having fallen by rebellion, and being reserved for the judgment of the great day, they, like their prince, are "going about seeking whom they may devour." Still they are angels that excel in strength, whose wisdom is corrupted into cunning and craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive. Being spirits, they are invisible, and tempt without being tired. Were they seen, they might be shunned: were they flesh and blood, they might become weary in their work; but these "rulers of darkness" have continued the work of wickedness ever since they were cast down from the heavenly places.

Their number also renders them a terror to the children of men; and although under restraint, they are permitted to unite their counsels and force against us. If, in the days of our Lord, seven had en [Pg 176] tered the person of one unhappy sufferer, and legions into another, we may conclude the gross number greatly exceeds that of the human race.

The devil and his angels are represented as a king and his subjects; whence we may infer that they act in concert, and that, whilst they sow discord among men, there is an awful concentration of power and of policy amongst themselves.

Their usurped dominion, and constant employment, are often referred to in the holy Scriptures; and not an instance of extraordinary degradation of character, of disaster of condition, but is traced to the influence of the wicked one, who is emphatically called the "ruler of the dark ages of this world." He blinds the mind—hardens the heart—leads captive at his will—resists the prayers of the saints—stifles the cry of the sinner—and (as in the case of Job) puts forth a dreadful power by the destructive elements of nature: and were it not for the restraints of divine Providence, and the operations of grace, the history of man would be a record of continual crime, and consequent misery.

We are here particularly admonished to "stand against the wiles of the devil." Open violence might excite alarm, especially were it understood from whence it proceeded; but secret stratagem has proved more successful, both in drawing men into sin, and preventing their return to God.

In presenting temptation, he diligently studies human character, and, observing the weakest side, and waiting the unguarded moment, obtains advantage over us without awakening suspicion.

Thus, in the case of Eve, the only thing she could desire in Paradise was more knowledge; of Judas, more money; and of Ananias, more honour; and for these objects, Satan, by his wily representation, induced the first to eat the forbidden fruit; the second, to betray the Lord of glory; and the third, to lie unto the Holy Ghost.

Hence the proud, the passionate, the polluted, the timid, and the melancholy, are easily approached through the medium of some common failing, or constitutional infirmity; and no one suspects that a devil is near them, till the iniquity is committed: and the deed once done, the tempter laughs at their calamity, and becomes their tormentor. The same policy may be observed in the seasons selected by him to ensnare and overthrow the unwary. As a cunning adversary considers when the troops are fatigued, scattered, asleep, or intoxicated; so the devil assaulted the Saviour when alone, after fasting forty days, and just before his crucifixion. As the pirate and the robber pass by and spare the empty vessels, and the poor, but watch for those that return laden with treasure; so this malignant foe resisted Joshua at the throne of grace, sifted Peter as he descended from the mount, and sent his messenger to buffet Paul when he had been caught up into the third heavens. His wiles may be also seen in the instruments employed: they are such as have authority, influence, or reputation; so that a man's deceiver shall be among his friends, "and his foes those of his own house."

The artifice of this great adversary is not less manifest in the means employed to prevent our return to God. Like a strong man armed, he keeps his palace, [Pg 177] and his goods are in peace; and to secure the captive, he more frequently has recourse to fraud than to force, and succeeds rather by stratagem than by strength.

To prevent alarm, he will suggest every mitigating circumstance respecting their guilt; represent that it is an easy matter to repent and obtain mercy at the last moment of life; or, if he cannot compose the alarmed conscience with such opiates, he will change his course, and represent their sins as peculiarly aggravated; their case as singular and desperate; their day of grace as past; and that, having committed the sin against the Holy Ghost, it is in vain for them to repent, or expect forgiveness! Thus, from the pinnacle of presumption, he will precipitate them into the gulf of despondency. Were it in his power to prevent it, there would be no more joy in heaven at the repentance of a sinner, and the light of hope, on earth, would be extinguished for ever.

Nor does he rest with having misrepresented the character and condition of the sinner to himself; he will distort and conceal the true character of God: at one time representing him as too merciful to punish any one eternally for such faults as theirs; at another, that the insulted Majesty of heaven meditates vengeance, and his holiness and justice would be dishonoured if their multiplied and heinous offences were forgiven; diverting their attention from the peculiar discoveries of the gospel, he will, as in the conflict of our blessed Lord, bring the Scriptures themselves to confirm his wicked suggestions, and, by a false application of difficult and detached passages, hide from us the divine perfections, as harmonizing and glorified in our redemption by Jesus Christ.

One other stratagem may be mentioned, which, for the subtlety of its nature, and the frequency of its use, requires especial notice. Satan will often transform himself into an angel of light, and by means of some popular minister, or talkative professor, promise a speedy growth in divine life, but, in reality, will divert from all proper thoughts of God, and of themselves. He will draw the young convert into some matter of doubtful disputation, either of doctrine or discipline in the church. He will either explode some important truth, or carry it into an improper extreme, turning spirituality into mysticism, or liberty into licentiousness. Having thus entangled the inexperienced in some labyrinth of error, Satan cares not, if, under a profession of religion he can but lead away from the simplicity that is in Christ; and substitute for the spirit of the gospel a spirit of pride, and of discord, in which all the angry passions find their element, and the souls of men are lost for ever, amidst furious contentions about religion. "Where-fore, take unto you the whole armour of God." Seeing you are placed in circumstances that will require the faithful use of every part of it, see that nothing be wanting to your steadfastness.

The armour is chiefly of the defensive kind, by which we may maintain our standing in the Christian warfare.

There is an "helmet" for the head, a "breastplate" for the heart, "shoes" (or greaves) for the feet, a "girdle" for the loins, a "shield" that may be moved for the defence of every part that may require it, and a "sword" by which deadly wounds may be inflicted on the enemy. Of these we cannot now speak particu [Pg 178] larly, but shall hereafter, if God permit.

We close with three observations:—1. There is no preparation for the back: hence we are to understand that we are to face the foe; and should any think to flee for safety, they expose the unprotected part to the enemy, and become an easy prey. 2. No direction is given for those who shall use this armour aright, and yet be vanquished: from which we infer that such a case cannot occur. This is an armour of proof, which never has failed, and, if used in the strength of the Lord, is sure to be effectual. Let the Christian army know that Satan, with all his power and subtlety, shall never finally prevail against them. Thus armed, their head shall be preserved from error, their heart from iniquity, and their feet from falling. 3. This is expressly God's armour, and we can receive it at the hands of no one but the Captain of our salvation. As, when God decreed the destruction of Babylon, we are told that "the Lord opened his armoury, and brought forth the weapons of his indignation;" so, when Christians are called to fight the good fight, to resist Satan, and overcome the world, a suitable armour is provided, and we are directed to put it on, that we may war a good warfare,—

"Till, crowned with victory, at his feet
We lay our laurels down."

J. E.


To the Editor of the Baptist Magazine.

In your last month's magazine I was not a little pleased to meet once more the signature of my late excellent friend, John Sutcliff, of Olney. The story, also, related by him concerning the pious Mr. Berridge, delighted me much; to see such zeal and firmness in his great Master's cause, persevered in, even to the end; and to perceive how wonderfully the Lord protected and delivered him, amidst the most inveterate enemies. Is not here a striking display of a good Master, and a faithful servant?

On reading this pleasing and interesting anecdote, it immediately occurred to my mind, that a long time since I paid a visit to this excellent man, of a most pleasant kind; it was in the summer of 1777, when on a journey from Yorkshire to London, through St. Neot's, where I stopped to supply the congregation of Independents two Sabbaths. Everton being but a short distance from thence, I felt a strong inclination to take that opportunity of paying a visit to this good old man, who I had several times heard preach at the Tabernacle in London, and for whom I felt no small degree of respect. Consequently I rode over to Everton, and was kindly invited by the old gentleman to dine with him; on this occasion, I well remember requesting him to inform me of his adventures as an itinerant preacher, for I knew he was employed in such services. The following case Mr. Berridge narrated to me: "I had been preaching in a village near Cambridge, at a time when there was a strong opposition in that neighbourhood to preaching out of doors. Having fixed upon the place, and being furnished with a little table for my pulpit, while I was engaged, I thought I felt something moving under me, but was not so much incommoded as to interrupt or hinder me in my work. [Pg 179] Having concluded the service, I retired, safely, from the crowd, into the cottage of a poor woman. I had not been there long, before some person came to the door, who wished to see me; but the poor woman was so alarmed, that she dared not at first open the door, for fear I should be ill-treated. I desired her immediately to open the door, and not be afraid. Soon after a man came in, trembling, and most earnestly and humbly begged my pardon, for he fully intended to throw me down, but felt himself powerfully restrained from doing so." Mr. Berridge was not a little affected by his confession, and said to me, I had him under my table as my prisoner, for he dared not stir to hurt me: and he hoped this might be followed by happy results to this convicted culprit.

As he rode upon a high horse, which he showed me, he was often discovered at a considerable distance: and the rude people commonly cried out, "Here comes the old devil of Everton!"

On the top of Mr. B.'s clock, this remarkable motto was written, "Pay me short visits." This, I think, was no bad caution to his numerous visitants.

To conclude my story: Soon, soon all these oppositions to the invaluable gospel will cease, and the faithful labourer will enter upon his everlasting rest, when the truly wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament, and they that have turned many to righteousness (which, I doubt not, was the happy case of this faithful servant of God) shall shine as the stars for ever and ever.

R. H.


To the Editor of the Baptist Magazine.

Two pieces have lately appeared in your excellent periodical on this subject. Though the former considered the use of Instrumental Music, in Dissenting Chapels, inconsistent with the simplicity of our worship, the ground is fairly open, I conceive, for further investigation. Believing that truth is promoted by free discussion, and that your magazine is friendly to both, I also rely upon your candour, for the admission of the following observations on the impropriety of Instrumental Music in the worship of God.

It is, in my opinion, opposed to the spirituality of the New Testament worship. When the Christian dispensation took the place of the Jewish, it swept away the load of carnal rites and ceremonies with which that nation was burdened. Of these carnal ordinances it is universally agreed that Instrumental Music was a part: with them, therefore, it is finally abolished; nor do I see how we can reinstate it in the worship of God, without violating his kingly prerogative, and impairing the spirituality of his worship, by the introduction of grosser materials, which he has, by direct appointment, excluded.

Instrumental music appears to me to be a departure from the practice of the primitive church, as well as a soil upon the spirituality of the New Testament worship. It has, from time immemorial, been the custom of innovators upon divine worship to construe the silence of the scriptures, concerning their innovations, into consent. Every one who understands the principles of Protestant Dissenters knows that [Pg 180] their silence in such a case is a loud condemnation. No better reason, I believe, can be assigned for banishing any thing from the worship of the sanctuary, than the fact, that it is not sanctioned by the command of the apostles, nor by the example of the early Christians. Where, allow me to ask, is Instrumental Music sanctioned in the worship of the Christian dispensation? The apostle Paul exhorts us to "teach and admonish one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs." The same apostle, when in jail with Silas at Phillippi, "prayed and sang praises unto God." Pliny, in his celebrated letter to Trajan, A. D. 106, or 107, says of the Christians in his time, that they were "accustomed, on a stated day, to assemble before sunrise, and to join together in singing hymns to Christ, as to a deity."

But where have the apostles sanctioned Instrumental Music, by precept or example? When and where did the primitive Christians employ it in the worship of God? The truth is, as all who are acquainted with ecclesiastical records know, Instrumental Music is a piece of popish tinsel and show; and moreover a comparatively recent invention of popery itself. That musical Instruments were not used, says the author of the Biblical Cyclopædia, even in the Popish Church, in Thomas Aquinas's time, about the year 1250, appears from the passage in his questions: "In the old law, God was praised both with musical instruments and human voices; but the Christian church does not use instruments to praise him, lest she should seem to judaize."

If, Mr. Editor, there is any justness in these observations; if instrumental music is an inroad upon the spirituality of the New Testament worship, and a departure from the example of the primitive church; then it is not its "tendency to create a unison of voices, which must tend so materially to produce a unity of feeling;" nay, it is nothing less than the direct command of God that can authorize its introduction into his worship.

Some may think this paper attaches too much importance to Instrumental Music, especially when discreetly and soberly used, in divine worship. But the use of it at all, involves a dangerous principle; and if the church of Christ allows one erroneous form to encrust itself upon her, that will soon attract to itself other evils of the same kind, until the whole is degenerated into one common mass of corruption.

Anti Musicus.



While, through the regions of the skies,
Unceasing Alleluias rise,
Why are the songs on earth so few?
And why not here unceasing too?
O Thou, whom there they praise, once slain,
But, living, and shall ever reign,
In copious streams thy Spirit pour,
And waken man from shore to shore;
Then universal joy shall rise,
And earth shall emulate the skies.
Oh! the glad morning! when the song
Of heavenly praise shall flow along,
From beauteous field, and hill, and dale!
When cedar mount, and olive vale,
Shall burst in glorious singing forth;
When east and west, and south and north,
Have but one theme, The Lamb who died!
The Conqueror, though crucified!
Then rays from heaven on earth shall shine,
And make these regions too—divine!

James Edmeston.
Homerton. [Pg 181]


Memoir of the Late Rev. Joseph Hughes, A.M., one of the Secretaries of the British and Foreign Bible Society. By John Leitchild. pp. 498.—Ward.

We are not aware that we can commence our notice of this instructing volume better than by citing the words with which it concludes: "The memory of the just is blessed." But then "memory" must be enriched and refreshed by the knowledge of facts which illustrate the principles and character of "the just;" and if, with such assistance, it becomes strengthened and sanctified to enlarge and perpetuate the exercise of practical piety, it must be "blessed" indeed.

That the perusal, even of the most eminently pious biography, may have its disadvantages, we are prepared to admit; yet, judicious reflection, accompanied with progressive experience, will effect much towards preserving the considerate and devout reader from concluding that human excellence in the present state, however elevated, can be entirely detached from some qualifying alloy, or that the less distinguished may not be raised to the possession of "the best gifts," by that sovereign benevolence to which every creature, whether in earth or in heaven, is indebted, for whatever measure of natural superiority or moral greatness he may obtain.

It remains, therefore, our unshaken conviction, that, upon the whole, the amount of benefit arising from a suitable regard to such works as this now before us, vastly preponderates over the influence of certain objections which, were they allowed to operate beyond suggesting a salutary caution to the reader, might deprive us of some of the most powerful stimuli to noble enterprise, and some of the richest sources of sacred enjoyment.

Mr. Hughes was born, we learn from his own account contained in this memoir, in London, Jan. 1, 1769. His father was a native of Wales; his mother, of Lancaster. A few months after his birth, he was put, for the benefit of country air, to Mrs. Edwards, a nurse residing at Cuffley, on Enfield Chase, with whom he remained several years. Afterwards his parents placed him under the instruction of an ancient matron, of the name of Hudson. At a very early period he assumed a manner and appearance far above his years. "Joseph," one said to him, "do you love play?" to which the grotesque little urchin, as he calls himself, demurely replied, "I did, formerly!"

In his tenth year he was received as a pupil and boarder in the family of Mr. Smalley, minister of a Presbyterian congregation at Darwen, near Blackburn, in Lancashire. Here he continued for a few of the most important years of his life. From Darwen he was removed to a free school at Rivington in the same county. He was baptized by the late Dr. Stennett, and a few months afterwards was placed upon Dr. Ward's trust as a theological student in the Academy at Broadmead, Bristol. Dr. Caleb Evans was President; Mr. James Newton, A.M., Classical Tutor. Here he continued the usual term, with a view of completing his course in Scotland. Mr. Hughes thus speaks for himself:—

"Before quitting Bristol for Scotland, I enjoyed the advantage of hearing, as the assistant of Dr. Evans, Robert Hall, who also took part in the tuition of the students. The genius and attainments of the last individual would be ill pourtrayed by me. They command admiration wherever he is known; and if his pen had been as busy as his mind is capacious, ardent, and sublime, they would have commanded the admiration of distant ages. No one, before I had listened to him, had translated the classics in my hearing, with equal grace and spirit; [Pg 182] no one had given me such an impression of intellectual nature: but he seems never to have formed the same lofty estimate of himself as he must have known that all his acquaintance held most tenaciously. The paucity of his publications must be ascribed to this. 'On what subject,' he has substantially said, 'can you recommend me to write, on which better things have not already appeared than it is in my power to produce?' Hence we may account for his diffidence, amounting to anxiety, when he has espied among his public auditors, a Parr, or a Mackintosh. Having been asked what he thought of the famed John Henderson, he said, 'I felt myself to be a mere child in his presence.'" p. 37.

In October, 1787, Mr. Hughes set out for Aberdeen, with his fellow-student, Mr. (afterwards Dr.) John Evans. Here his literary acquisitions were enriched, and his religious character much improved. Some attachments and friendships were formed, which, in following years, were ripened to maturity. Having taken his degree, he spent one session at Edinburgh, where he was most affectionately received by the venerable Dr. Erskine.

In 1791, he was solemnly called to the ministry, by the church at Wild Street, and invited to fill the situation of Classical Tutor at the Bristol Academy. Dr. Evans dying in August this year, Mr. H. continued to preach at Broadmead during the remainder of that and nearly the whole of the following year. About this time he renewed an attachment formed while a student at Bristol, between himself and Miss Esther Rolph, youngest daughter of George Rolph, Esq., a respectable solicitor at Thornbury: who afterwards became his wife, and who lives to lament her loss.

In December, 1792, Mr. Hughes accepted the office of assistant minister at Broadmead; Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Ryland, having become the Pastor and President of the Academy. In this connexion, however, after a time, Mr. H. encountered difficulties and discouragements which at length terminated in his removal to Battersea in July, 1796. In the following year, he was ordained: the service was attended to in the Independent chapel, at Clapham. Mr. Josiah Thompson, his early patron, delivered the charge, and Mr. Dore preached to the people. Other parts were taken on the interesting occasion by Mr. Liddon, of Hemel Hempstead, and Dr. Rippon, who has survived them all.

The "Religious Tract Society" was instituted in 1799, of which Mr. Hughes was appointed Secretary, and which office he retained to the period of his death. But it was as the Secretary of the "British and Foreign Bible Society" that he was universally known and admired. This noble institution, which he seems, in conversation with the Rev. T. Waters, of Worcester, to have admitted originated in a suggestion from himself, was publicly formed March 7th, 1804, at the London Tavern, Cheapside; Granville Sharp, Esq., in the chair. To the discharge of the delightful but onerous duties of this honourable office, he consecrated his distinguished talents and eminent piety, during nearly the last thirty years of his life.

Towards the close of his life, in consequence of some trying occurrences at Battersea, certain efforts were made to remove him into the metropolis. This movement, however, called forth renewed feelings and expressions of mutual attachment between himself and the persons who had so long enjoyed his ministration; and he respectfully declined the overture which had been made to him from London.

For a considerable time before his death, Mr. Hughes had been afflicted with a pain in one part of his foot. This did not at first occasion any alarm; but early in July 1833, having set out on a long journey to Wales, and other places, on behalf of the Bible Society, the affection in his foot so increased, and, by the necessary exertion in prosecuting the object of his journey, became so aggravated, that he was obliged to retire to the house of a friend in the vale of Abbey Tintern, and give up what remained of his projected tour. This sickness was to be unto death; rest and retirement did not mitigate the symptoms of his complaint. Amidst great suffering he was removed to [Pg 183] Bath; and when it was found that little hope remained of a cure being obtained, he was conveyed in an invalid carriage from Bath to the house of his son, where, after continuing a few days, he was taken to his own residence. Throughout his affliction, though his sufferings appear often to have been exceedingly acute, he discovered the most exemplary patience and resignation; the frame of his mind seems to have been uniformly devout and serene, and his confidence in the person and work of the divine Redeemer, strong and unwavering. At length, the time of his departure arrived. On the evening of October the 3rd, 1833, in the sixty-fifth year of his age, he peacefully left these mortal shores.

The character of his mind, of his studies, of his conversation, of his oratory on the platform, and of his sermons from the pulpit, Mr. Leifchild has delineated with the hand of a master, having possessed all the advantages of personal and confiding friendship. The mental and moral excellences of Mr. Hughes were unquestionably very exalted; but his communications often appeared to suffer from what, perhaps, might not improperly be denominated, a constitutional coldness of manner, which seemed to impose a sort of reluctant constraint on his own feelings. We remember a gentleman of the Tract Committee remarking, "I admire Mr. Hughes—I hear him,—I see him—I want to feel him." It was evident that, in himself, he felt intensely here; and, doubtless, he now burns with all the holy ardour of a seraph in the celestial world.

Were it practicable, we should have peculiar satisfaction in gratifying our readers, and enriching our columns, with lengthened extracts from this interesting volume; but we must confine ourselves to two, which, we are sure, both on account of what they contain, and the high respect in which the writers of them have been long and deservedly held, will be most acceptable to our readers. The first is from the pen of Mr. Jay.

"Mr. Hughes was often and much at Bath, formerly, supplying several years at Argyle Chapel, for six weeks together, while I was in town. I have been intimately acquainted with him for upwards of forty-three years, and have exchanged more mind with him than with any man I ever knew, except my friend and tutor, Cornelius Winter. With regard to religious things, we only differed as to baptism; and if we did not love each other the more for this difference, I am sure we did not love each other the less. We disagreed, too, a little with regard to composition and preaching: he too squeamish, and I too careless; he labouring for correctness, and I for impression (in grasping which I sometimes erred); he too satisfied if he could abide criticism, and I too careless of critical judgement, if I could secure effect. Yet, though he was often kindly finding fault with me when we were alone, he was always seeking opportunities to hear me; and I cannot be ignorant how much I shared his commendation, as an author and a preacher. I am thankful for my intimacy with him. My esteem of him always grew with my intercourse. I never knew a more consistent, correct, and unblemished character. He was not only sincere, but without offence, and adorned the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.

"His mind was full of information; his conversation, singularly instructive, and very edifying; and while others talked of candour and moderation, he exemplified them. In his theological sentiments he was firm, yet sober and liberal, and not too orthodox (as I have often known this,) to be evangelical. But why do I write this? you know it as well as I, and will describe it better." p. 143.

Thus Mr. Jay, concerning the lamented Mr. Hughes. But now we introduce Mr. Foster's letter, addressed to him while languishing into death. "The letter referred to," says Mr. Leifchild, "as forwarded to him by his friend, Mr. Foster, the editor is happy in being permitted to subjoin;—a letter which leaves it hard to determine, whether the feelings of the writer, or of the receiver, were most to be envied."

"Stapleton, September 18, 1833.

"In conveying a few sentences for the last time to my dear old friend, I wish to be allowed to say why such a token of sympathy and affection is so late.

"Returning from a long excursion in North Wales, very near the time of your removal to London, I was surprised and grieved at the report of your [Pg 184] seyerely afflicted situation at Bath. My impulse to go thither was repressed by the information that no one was admitted to see you. After hearing successive accounts, I wrote a few lines of inquiry to Mr. Evill; and was answered that you had just been removed to London,—with a promise of sending me the information they should receive; which has been done. During the subsequent time, I have withheld from writing to you, partly by information that your great weakness rendered every unusual intervention painful to you, and partly by a report confidently affirming that you had left this world. But at last, and previously to receiving yesterday a message from you through the hands of Mr. R. Cottle, I had determined to write to Mr. George, and put it at his discretion whether to show you the letter.

"The thought of my dear and ever faithful friend as now standing at the very verge of life, has repeatedly carried me back in memory to the period of our youth, when, more than forty years since, we were brought into habitual society, and the cordial esteem and attachment which have survived, undiminished, through so long a lapse of time, and so much separation. Then we sometimes conjectured—but in vain—what might be the course appointed us to run; and how long; and which might first come to the termination. Now the far greater part of that appointment has been unfolded and accomplished. To me a little stage further remains under the darkness; you, my dear friend, have a clear sight almost to the concluding point. And while I feel the deepest pensiveness in beholding where you stand, with but a step between you and death, I cannot but emphatically congratulate you. I have often felt great complacency in your behalf, in thinking of the course through which Providence has led you,—complacency in regard to the great purpose of life, its improvement, its usefulness, and its discipline and preparation for a better world. You are, I am sure, grateful to the Sovereign Disposer in the review of it. You have had the happiness of faithfully and zealously performing a great and good service, and can rejoice to think that your work is accomplished, with a humble confidence that the Master will say, "Well done, good and faithful servant," while you will gratefully exult in ascribing all to his own sovereign mercy in Jesus Christ.

"But, oh, my dear friend, whither is it that you are going? Where is it that you will be a few short weeks or days hence? I have affecting cause to think and to wonder concerning that unseen world; to desire, were it permitted to mortals, one glimpse of that mysterious economy; to ask innumerable questions to which there is no answer: What is the manner of existence—of employment—of society—of remembrance—of anticipation—of all the surrounding revelations to our departed friends. How striking to think that she[D] so long and so recently with me here, so beloved, but now so totally withdrawn and absent—that she experimentally knows all that I am in vain inquiring!

"And a little while hence, you, my friend, will be an object of the same solemn meditations and wondering inquiries. It is most striking to consider—to realize the idea—that you, to whom I am writing these lines, who continue yet among mortals, who are on this side of the awful and mysterious veil—that you will be in the midst of these grand realities, beholding the marvellous manifestation, amazed and transported at your new and happy condition of existence, while your friends are feeling the pensiveness of your absolute and final absence, and thinking how, but just now as it were, you were with them.

"But we must ourselves follow you to see what it is that the emancipated spirits, who have obtained their triumph over death and all evil through the blood of the Lamb, find awaiting them in that nobler and happier realm of the Great Master's empire; and I hope that your removal will be, to your other friends and to me; a strong additional excitement, under the influence of the Divine Spirit, to apply ourselves with more earnest zeal to the grand business of our high calling.

"It is a delightful thing to be assured on the authority of revelation, of the perfect consciousness, the intensely awakened faculties, and all the capacities and causes of felicity of the faithful in that mysterious separate state and on the same evidence, together with every other rational probability, to be confident of the re-union of those who have loved one another and their Lord on earth. How gloomy, beyond all expression, were a contrary anticipation!

"My friend feels, in this concluding day of his sojourn on earth, the infinite value of that blessed faith which confides alone in the great Sacrifice for all the sole medium of pardon and reconcilement, and the ground of immortal [Pg 185] hope. This has always been to you the very vitality of the Christian religion: and it is so—it is emphatically so—to me also.

"I trust you will be mercifully supported,—the heart serene, and, if it may be, the bodily pain mitigated, during the remaining hours, and the still sinking weakness of the mortal frame; and I would wish for you also, and in compassion to the feelings of your attendant relatives, that you may be favoured so far as to have a gentle dismission; but as to this, you will humbly say, 'Thy will be done.'

"I know that I shall partake of your kindest wishes and remembrance in your prayers—the few more prayers you have yet to offer before you go. When I may follow you, and, I earnestly hope, rejoin you in a far better world, must be left to a decision that cannot at the most be very remote; for yesterday completed my sixty-third year. I deplore before God my not having lived more devotedly to the grand purpose; and do fervently desire the aid of the good Spirit, to make whatever of my life may remain much more effectually true to that purpose than all the preceding.

"But you, my friend, have accomplished your business—your Lord's business—on earth. Go, then, willing and delighted, at his call.

"Here I conclude, with an affecting and solemn consciousness that I am speaking to you for the last time in this world. Adieu, then, my ever dear and faithful friend. Adieu—for a while! May I meet you, ere long, where we shall never more say, farewell!

"J. Foster."

[D] Mrs. Foster.

A Beacon to the Society of Friends. By Isaac Crewdson.—Hamilton, Adams, and Co. pp. 155. 12mo.

A Defence of the Doctrines of Immediate Revelation, and Universal and Saving Light: in Reply to some Remarks contained in a work, entitled "A Beacon to the Society of Friends." By Thomas Hancock, M. D. pp. 92. 12mo.

The Beacon ought to be read with serious attention, and with an honest desire to know "what is truth," by every member of the society, to whom it is addressed. Members of that society cannot need to be informed by us of the absurd and impious vagaries, advocated with an air of solemnity, as shocking as it is ridiculous, by certain members of their body in America, the leader of whom was Elias Hicks, a man of considerable acuteness and energy, but who evinced a degree of mental perversity truly appalling. Members of other societies cannot be expected to feel any great interest in the sentiments,—if sentiments they can be called,—avowed with so much complacency by that fanatic, or even in the rapid progress which they made in America. It were wholly unnecessary, therefore, even if our limits allowed it, to furnish our readers with any account of the ultra-mystic theology of Hicks. It will suffice to say, that there is scarcely a doctrine of revelation which it does not discard or explain away. The peculiar tenets of this sect were publicly denounced by the English Quakers at their yearly meeting, held in London, May, 1832; but we hesitate not to affirm—what we can easily prove—that the tracts of Elias Hicks are clearly deduced from the fundamental principles of Quakerism; that many of his statements bear a very close resemblance to those of the early Friends; and that, however they may be opposed to those writings which possess divine authority, they are fully borne out by others, which are of almost equal authority in the estimation of some members of the Society of Friends, and which, although that sect acknowledges no creed, are generally regarded amongst them as standards of religious doctrine.

Let us illustrate this: Elias Hicks speaks with great apparent devoutness, as well as energy, of a way of salvation, which Christians in general would imagine peculiarly his own, of which the most assiduous and prayerful student of the Scriptures would have no conception, and which, as far as we can learn, never entered the minds of Paul, and Peter, and John. He says, "It is only by gathering to this light (the light within) that we can gain a place in his favour; and by endeavouring that all our actions should proceed from the movings of this life in the immortal soul; and as this comes to be our case, we gain [Pg 186] reconciliation with the Father." This short sentence will appear to our readers to contain a sufficient quantity of mysticism for any purpose, and what is worse, a capital error on a point of vital importance. The Scriptures represent, not the light within, but Christ, "who was delivered for our offences, and rose again for our justification;" as "our peace, who hath made both (Jews and Gentiles) one," and hath "reconciled both unto God in one body by the cross." When the apostles were asked, by an awakened sinner, "What shall I do to be saved?" they, without any hesitation, replied, "Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved." They always directed men to Jesus Christ for salvation, for pardon, and for purity, for light and for life; they believed that Christians are complete in him; but that, separated from him, they can do nothing. They affirmed that "there is salvation in none other; neither is there any other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved." But, if Elias Hicks were asked by a poor sinner, conscious of his pollution and guilt, but ignorant of the hope set before us in the gospel, "What shall I do to be saved?" he would reply, "It is only by gathering to the light—this saving light that is within us all, that we gain a place in his favour." He never thought of directing sinners to Jesus Christ for salvation; his directions uniformly pointed another way: "Oh, then, let us be individually endeavouring to gather to the light, and wait on the Lord, that we may see his counsel." But this anti-christian statement, this opposition to the word of the truth of the gospel, is in perfect accordance with the avowed and acknowledged principles of Quakerism.

One of the fundamental principles of the system is, "that there is an evangelical and saving light and grace in all," and that "this light enlighteneth the hearts of all in a day, in order to salvation, if not resisted; nor is it less universal than the seed of sin, being the purchase of his death, who tasted death for every man; for as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive." This is the language of Robert Barclay, the able apologist of Quakerism; and, perhaps, some of the Friends may tell us, how many degrees below the authority of Paul and Jesus they hold the Apologist. It must be evident to every one, at all conversant with the past history and the present state of the society, that the Friends have ever been, and are still, in many instances (by far too many), accustomed to direct men, not to Jesus Christ, who is able to save unto the uttermost all that come to God by him: but to the principle of light and life within, which "enlighteneth the hearts of all in a day, in order to salvation, if not resisted."

Closely connected with the doctrine of inward light, is that of immediate revelation. But the veneration of men for the authority of Scripture decreases in exact proportion to their zeal for immediate revelation. Elias Hicks received revelations quite as important in their nature, as abundant in their measure, and as immediate in their mode of communication, as any with which the apostle Paul was favoured. He is therefore entitled to disregard the authority of Scripture! He has in himself a higher authority! and he is commissioned to direct men to a better, in every respect a better, guide, than that sure word of prophecy to which the first Christians were exhorted to take heed, as to a light shining in a dark place! This is his language: "It is through this comforter that all our knowledge of God must come; and all that ever was among rational beings under heaven, came through this medium, and none other. But, by our believing that we can help ourselves to heaven by the aid of the Scriptures, a mere written book, at the same time that we understand it so diversely, sets us to warring and quarrelling. Has not this been long enough the case, for every rational being to be instructed and to see, that instead of its being a sufficient rule of faith, and practice, it is the reverse, for [Pg 187] while it is depended on as such, it hinders from coming to the truth. The Scriptures never told us that they were a sufficient rule, but they recommend us to that from which they themselves bad their origin—the Spirit of truth." If this be not infidelity, we really know not what is. Hicks does not even speak of the sacred Scriptures with that decent respect which one would consider due to the writings of a brother prophet: "The Scriptures a mere written word, which, instead of being a sufficient rule of faith and practice, is the reverse, and hinders from coming to the truth!" Such language must draw a sigh from every Christian breast. But is such language utterly strange in the annals of Quakerism? Is it unusual in that society to speak of the Scriptures in terms of disparagement, compared with the teaching of the Spirit, and immediate revelation? Barclay affirms, that "the Scriptures, 'being outwardly written,' are the law which brings condemnation, and kills; but that the gospel is the inward spiritual law which gives life." He affirms, that "inward, immediate, objective revelation is the only sure, certain, and immovable foundation of all Christian faith;" and that "the principal rule of Christians under the gospel is not an outward letter, but an inward spiritual law; therefore the letter of Scripture is not, nor can be, the chief or principal rule of Christians:" and our good friend, Dr. Hancock, represents those in the society, who "are turning the eye of the mind outward instead of inward;" that is to say, who are looking to the Scriptures, instead of to the light within; as "after beginning in the Spirit going back to the letter," and thus "leaving the fountain of life itself, and 'hewing out to themselves broken cisterns, that can hold no water?'" Are these the words which are able to save our souls, to make us wise unto salvation through faith in Christ Jesus? or are these the terms which a Christian feels himself authorized to apply to those words?

Much might be said, and most justly, of the evil tendencies, and the pernicious fruits, of this capital error, respecting immediate revelation, and the consequent disparagement of the living oracles of God; but we can now simply advert to that grand axiom, which is in the mouth of all orthodox Friends, and which, they fancy, renders their notion of the Scriptures as stable as the pillars of the creation, and as clear as the light of heaven. The axiom, in simple terms, is this: "The author is greater than his work; the Spirit which gave the Scriptures is greater than the Scriptures which he gave; therefore the Spirit, and not the Scriptures, is the first and chief foundation of truth, ground of faith, and rule of conduct." This would seem all very plain; but it is very fallacious. The author is greater than his work: very true; but when you (if we may for a moment address ourselves to Friends), when you plead for "immediate revelation," as the surest foundation of all Christian faith, and "the principal rule" of Christian conduct, you are not placing the author above his work, but one work of the author above another of the works of the same author; you are not placing the Spirit above the Scriptures, but you are placing the private and personal revelations of the Spirit to you, above those revelations of the same Spirit which he gave to apostles and prophets, for the instruction and salvation of the human race. It is generally admitted by you, that the "Scriptures were given by inspiration of God;" that they are a revelation from God to man; that they are words which "holy men of God spake and penned as they were moved by the Holy Spirit." Though we were to admit, therefore, that you have in reality—we believe no such thing—revelations from the Spirit of truth, it would be absurd to say, that because the author is greater than his work, these private revelations are a firmer foundation of faith, and a more certain rule of conduct, than the revelations contained in the inspired volume: it is not the Spirit which you have, but, at best, a revelation from the Spirit; and this [Pg 188] revelation you place above the Scriptures, which you acknowledge to be divine—which you admit to be a revelation from God to man.

It may be vain in us, but we think this remark worthy the attention of Friends: if we are mistaken in our view of this subject, we should be happy to be put right; but if we are correct, the main pillar of Quakerism is overthrown, and the edifice must, as in that case it would deserve to, fall.

Of Dr. Hancock's work, it may, perhaps, be enough to say, that it affords a poor defence of notions which many of our readers will believe do not merit a better. Like some other "defenders of the faith," the Doctor makes up for a lack of argument, not indeed by an exhibition of the sword, or the stake, but by positive assertions, by dogmatism, and by a condemnatory spirit. The unfortunate author of "The Beacon" appears, in Dr. H.'s opinion, to have committed an almost unpardonable offence against the society, and, in this opinion, we are sorry to find the Doctor is by no means singular. It is melancholy to witness the bitter spirit of intolerance and persecution, which the well-intended effort of Mr. Crewdson has raised in the Society of Friends—the peaceable, the nonresisting Friends. It is questionable, even now, whether the publication of his little volume may not lead—in violation of one of the fundamental principles of the Society, as stated and advocated by William Penn, in his address to Protestants, and in contempt of the spirit of religion, and, happily, of the age in which we live,—to the exclusion of Mr. Crewdson from the Society of Friends. Alas for poor human nature! whatever else may change, this is always the same—the same, whether under a bishop's mitre, or a Quaker's broad-brim. The "Defence" may certainly appear a powerful thing to those who entirely agree with the author: those who differ from him will probably be of another mind. A few short extracts will suffice to show the clearness and consistency of the author's statements. In page 17, he says, "I consider every opinion which has not their (the Scriptures') support must fall to the ground;" but in page 8 he says, "If nothing of divine influence, in the days of Fox and Penn—nothing, I say, but the light and knowledge of Scripture, had operated on the minds of men, then, I believe, our religious Society would never have had existence, for they were taught immediately by Christ, and they directed all to Christ." Every opinion not supported by Scripture must fall to the ground: then Quakerism must necessarily sink; for, according to the Doctor's own showing, that system owes its very existence, not to the Scriptures, but to something else—to immediate revelation. In page 22, he says, "Neither the opinion of Robert Barclay, nor that of any other man, would weigh with me, if I did not consider that it was founded on a correct and enlarged view of Scripture doctrine:" very good; but then, in the very next sentence, he adds, "I quote the Apology of Robert Barclay, concluding, that one who is now a minister (Mr. Crewdson), in outward fellowship in the same society with myself, can hardly be supposed TO HAVE THROWN OFF THE AUTHORITY OF A WORK so justly esteemed as it is amongst us; for this would imply, that his departure from the ground of our testimonies was greater than I am yet willing to believe it to be." The opinion of Barclay has no weight: yet no man in the Society of Friends can be supposed to have thrown off the authority of Barclay's Apology! We cordially congratulate the Society of Friends on the appearance of the "Beacon;" and sincerely pray, that a spirit of inquiry may be universally excited, and that the divine authority of the Scriptures, as the sole and sufficient rule of faith and practice, may eventually, and even speedily, be established in the mind of every individual amongst them. Of Dr. Hancock we know nothing; and of that gentleman, personally, we cannot, and will not, say anything bordering on disrespect; but we heartily wish the Mystics and Quietists all the joy, to which they are fairly entitled from his Defence. [Pg 189]



The Rev. Robert Compton, late minister of the General Baptist church and congregation, at Isleham, Cambridgeshire, was born at Withybrook, near Monk's Kirby, in Warwickshire, on the 21st of February, 1780. He had the unspeakable privilege of being the son of parents decidedly pious. His father died more than thirty years ago; but his mother, whom he visited for the last time in August, 1833, survived until some time early in the spring of the last year; when, in a good old age, she slept in Jesus, and entered into her rest, preceding her son to glory only a few months.

Mrs. Compton, lik Eunice, possessing "unfeigned faith," discovered great concern for the spiritual welfare of her children, not only praying for them, but conversing with them on the most important and deeply interesting subject that can engage the thoughts of young persons,—the way in which mercy is extended to sinners. Her anxiety that her children might walk in the paths of peace led her, in conversation with Christian friends, freely to express her views in reference to their religion. When about seventeen years of age, our late friend overheard his mother telling a person that she had some hopes of the piety of her son George, but had none respecting her son Robert. This, connected with the circumstance of his brother John, about the same time, becoming decided for the Lord, very powerfully wrought upon his mind, and he could not dislodge the thought—"If my brothers should go to heaven, and I should perish!" From this time he began to seek the Lord by prayer, and reading the holy Scriptures with a new and peculiar delight. Before he was eighteen years old, he made a public profession of his repentance and faith, being baptized in company with his brother John, and several other persons; and became a member of the General Baptist church at Hinckley, in Leicestershire.

Having now found a Saviour suited to his own circumstances as a guilty ruined sinner, he was anxious to direct other guilty and ruined sinners to the same refuge; and being encouraged by his friends, he began to preach the gospel in the neighbouring villages.

A few years after Mr. Compton began to explain the Scriptures in the vicinity of his native place, he removed into Cambridgeshire, residing first at Harston, then at Sawston; and preaching frequently to the congregations at Ashwell, in Hertfordshire, and at the latter mentioned place of his residence. From Sawston, he came to reside at Isleham, in the year 1816, and was ordained pastor over the General Baptist church and congregation here, October the 29th, 1817, where, with fidelity and great affection, he continued to labour almost to the time of his death.

Soon after Mr. Compton came to Isleham, he was called to mourn under a sudden and most painful stroke, in the death of his kind and endeared companion, who left behind her five children, at an age when they were almost unconscious of their loss. A kind Providence, however, soon repaired his loss, by leading him to contract a second marriage with the highly esteemed lady who survives him.

Mr. Compton was, a few years ago, a strong man; formed as if for vigorous, persevering, and unwearied effort. A little more than three years since, evident symptoms of consumption appeared; and in each succeeding spring they increased, and threatened to put an end to his faithful and successful labours. During the spring and summer of 1834, he appeared fast hastening to the grave. His emaciated countenance, his feeble and almost inaudible voice, and his increasing debility, clearly indicated the near approach of death. Not only did his weakened frame show the nearness of the last enemy, but the detachment of his mind from the world—the calm and serene composure of soul which he enjoyed—the strength and firmness of his hope and confidence in the righteousness of Jesus Christ, gave satisfying evidence that he was ripening for glory.

He did not attempt to preach for some weeks before he died, but was not prevented; the whole of any Lord's-day during his affliction, from going to the meeting-house. Only two days previous to his death, he administered the solemn and interesting, but too much neglected, ordinance of the Lord's Supper to his beloved people. Oh! it was a time not to be forgotten, when he took his affectionate farewell of all the members of the of the church who were present! The writer of this memorial well remembers seeing several of Mr. C.'s [Pg 190] friends returning home from the meeting-house on this occasion, whose countenances evidenced a strong persuasion that they should never see the face or hear the voice of their beloved pastor again in this world. The pleasing and delightful state of his mind, in the last days of his life, will be discovered in the following communication to the writer of this sketch from the pen of a near relative.

"During the whole of his illness he maintained the greatest calmness and composure; the enemy was not once permitted to disturb his peace, or to shake his confidence in God. On one occasion, a short time before his departure, he said to a friend, 'The Lord is very kind to me; for while he afflicts me with one hand, he supports me with the other; yes, he always has been good to me, he never has forsaken me;' and with his characteristic energy added, 'And nobody shall make me believe that he will ever forsake me now.' When conversing with another friend on the bright and glorious prospect he had of future bliss, he said, 'I am very ambitious, for I am striving for a crown; and it is one which will never fade away.' His family did not perceive him to be materially worse, until the Saturday previous to his death; but from the evident change which then took place, they urged his staying at home on the sabbath-day; to this he replied, 'I have a great wish to go, perhaps, for the last time.' His wish was complied with, and, propped up with pillows in an easy chair, he, for the last time, distributed to his weeping church the memorials of the Saviour's death; and, with wonderful composure, although with feeble steps, he walked round the aisles of the chapel, and took leave of all the persons present. On the Monday he appeared fast sinking into the arms of death; and, on a friend saying to him, 'The conflict will soon be over,' he replied, 'Do you think so?—I'm afraid not.' The restlessness of death was evidently now upon him, and on being assisted up stairs, a distressing fit of coughing came on, accompanied by difficulty of respiration, and the loss of all power to expectorate: this continued with but little cessation during the night. A highly esteemed friend visiting him early in the morning of Tuesday (the day on which he died), he said, 'Well, Madam, we have often talked together about heaven, I hope I shall soon be there,' adding, 'but, perhaps, you will pray with me once more on earth?' This was most kindly complied with. My mother asked what passage of Scripture she should read; he promptly replied, 'The 116th Psalm;' many parts of which were strikingly and beautifully adapted to his own circumstances at that moment. After prayer, he said to the same friend, 'If I get safe to heaven, and should hear that you are coming (and am permitted) I will welcome you there.' On being asked if Christ was precious to him, he said, 'More than any thing else; the world is nothing to me now; death has lost its sting, and the grave has no terrors.' Repeatedly, during the day, he said, 'Oh! how gladly could I lie down and die!—O that I had wings like a dove!' &c. To his highly esteemed brother, Mr. Reynolds, he said, 'Well, Sir, when I am gone, I shall want you to bury me;—do not say much about me, preach to the people, and tell them to be stedfast,' &c. On one of his family coming to his bedside, he said: 'Love not the world, nor the things that are in it; set your affections on things that are above, and trust in the Lord at all times.' To another, 'Live near to God, put your trust in him, and he will carry you through.' To his youngest daughter he affectionately said, 'Remember your Creator, my dear Betsy, in the days of your youth, perhaps you may not live to be old.'—His end was peace: he was not the subject of ecstasies; but he possessed a stable confidence, of which the approach of the last enemy could not deprive him."

At the comparatively early age of fifty-four years, this devoted servant of Christ left this transitory world, about five o'clock in the afternoon of Tuesday, the 5th day of August, 1834; calmly and serenely falling asleep in Jesus.

On Monday, the 11th, his mortal remains were conveyed to the burying-ground belonging to the meeting-house, and there interred and left to moulder into dust, until the voice of the archangel and the trump of God shall raise them.

Agreeably to the request of our departed brother, Mr. Saunders, of Barton-Mills, delivered an address at the grave; and the people then assembled in the meeting-house to hear the funeral sermon, which, at the request of his beloved brother, was preached by the Particular Baptist minister residing in the same village, from 1 Cor. xv. 58: "Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye stedfast;" &c. Prayer was offered at the grave by the Rev. J. Jarrom, of [Pg 191] Wisbeach; and the brethren Mays, of Fordham, and Buckpitt, of Burwell, prayed in the meeting-house. As an evidence of the high esteem in which Mr. Compton was deservedly held, these services were numerously attended from the neighbouring congregations, although it was in the midst of harvest, when every hour is of great importance.

There was in Mr. Compton, a combination of excellences; a happy temperament of mind, a cheerfulness of disposition, and a great flow of animal spirits; these being under the influence and regulation of divine grace, he was calm and unmoved by events that would have overwhelmed many other men.

As a neighbour, benignity and kindness emanated from his heart, dwelt upon his countenance, and were expressed in his words and actions.

As a Christian, integrity and uprightness, consistency of character, deep humility, fervent devotion, liberality of feeling and conduct towards those who differed from him on some points of doctrine, an ardent love to Jesus Christ, to his word, and to his people, were features by which he was eminently distinguished.

Zeal for his Master's cause, love to the souls of men, active, persevering, and laborious efforts to make known the word of life to his perishing fellow-creatures, characterized the public ministry of our departed friend.

As a pastor, he was diligent, faithful, and affectionate. As a husband and a father, his worth was known and appreciated by his bereaved widow and children.

Mr. Compton had the unusual pleasure and satisfaction to know, before he left this world, that all his children were walking in the fear of the Lord. Six of his own, and five others, for whose spiritual and eternal well-being he most deeply felt and most fervently prayed, were all devoted to the Lord! O ye Christian parents! let this encourage you to pray earnestly and constantly for your children.

The above is, much of it, extracted from the funeral sermon, the preacher of which did not know, when he referred to six of Mr. C.'s children as walking in the fear of the Lord, that his eldest daughter had entered into heaven more than three weeks before her father, and was then with his glorified spirit in the presence of Jesus, where hope and fear had issued in never ending fruition.

Mrs. Mary Ann Goadby, eldest daughter of our departed brother, and wife of the Rev. J. Goadby, General Baptist Missionary at Cuttack, in Orissa, left England, with her husband, in July, 1833, and landed in India some time in the month of December.

During the months of May and June last year, she experienced great languor and debility from the influence of the climate, and on the 13th of July her deathless spirit took its flight into the presence of Jesus, there in triumph to welcome the arrival of her father's on the 5th of August.

J. R.



We have great pleasure in informing our readers, that the Rev. Dr. Cox, Professor of Theology at Auburn seminary, in the state of New York, has been deputed by the Executive Committee of the American Anti-slavery Society to visit Europe, in conjunction with the Rev. Joshua Leavitt, the talented editor of the New York Evangelist, for the purpose of effecting a union of the abolitionists of the two Continents, in efforts to extinguish slavery and the slave trade throughout the world. Dr. Cox is already well known to the Christian public of this country by his previous visit. His distinguished companion enjoys the reputation among Christians of all denominations in the United States. The paper he so ably conducts stands first among the religious journals of his country. These gentlemen are expected in London the beginning of this month; and we are informed that, as soon after their arrival as possible, the Committee of the BRITISH AND FOREIGN SOCIETY FOR THE UNIVERSAL ABOLITION OF SLAVERY AND THE SLAVE TRADE will convene a public meeting to receive them, of which due notice will be given.

To the Christian philanthropist it will afford the greatest satisfaction to learn, that the glorious cause of emancipation is rapidly advancing to its consummation in the United States. "The people [Pg 192] are rousing—the pulpits are opening—the cities are shaking—the press is speaking—the Congress is acting; and, soon, the topic of slavery will be the text of the clergyman—the theme of the patriot—and the subject of prayer and exertion of the philanthropist and the Christian." Thus writes a distinguished individual from America, whose labours have been eminently blessed in this field of Christian benevolence. May the Lord hasten the time when every yoke shall be broken, and the oppressed in every land shall go free!


It is the opinion of many of the wisest and best of men, that the besetting sin of professors of christianity is the love of money; and yet, there is no subject on which so little has been written well. The late Andrew Fuller says, "It will, in all probability, prove the eternal overthrow of more characters among professing people, than any other sin; because it is almost the only crime which can be indulged, and a profession of religion at the same time supported."

One Hundred Guineas, besides the profits of its publication, will be presented to the author of the best essay on this subject. Preference will be given to the most spiritual, poignant, and affectionate appeal to the judgment and consciences of those who professedly recognize the authority of revelation, on avaricious hoarding, and unchristian-like expenditure, to gratify the lust of the eye, and pride of life, whilst they avow their obligations to redeeming mercy, and profess that themselves, and all they have, is not their own, but belongs, and must be accounted for, to Him who has said, "Occupy till I come," and then "Give an account of thy stewardship, for thou mayest be no longer steward." The work wanted, is one that will bear upon selfishness, as it leads to live to ourselves, and not for God and our fellow-men.

It is requested that reference may be made to the different estimates of man who blesseth, and of God, who abhorreth, the covetous (Ps. x. 3); and to the tremendous consequences of this sin, which is associated with the vilest of crimes which exclude from the kingdom of heaven. (Eph. v. 5.) The manuscript is to be sent to Dr. Conquest, 13, Finsbury Square, on or before the 1st of November, 1835; with a sealed letter, containing the address of the writer. The Hon. and Rev. Baptist Noel and the Rev. Dr. Pye Smith have kindly engaged to be the arbitrators. The reward will be adjudged on the 1st of May, 1836.


The Baptists were first introduced into Keighley by a Mr. John Town, who was a member of the Baptist church at Haworth, under the care of the venerable and Rev. Miles Oddy. Keighley was at that time beginning to be a large and populous place. The clergyman in the establishment was an irreligious character, and the Independent church and congregation were nearly extinct.

At first the ministers were permitted to preach in the Independent meeting-house; but after some time a Mrs. Sunderland offered her house, until Mr. Town could fit up a room for constant worship. The ministers who kindly assisted in the formation of the infant cause were, Messrs. Steadman, D. D., Shuttleworth, Trickett, and Shaw.

In the year 1809, or 1810, four persons were baptized by Mr. Shuttleworth, pastor of the church at Cowlinghill: and on the third of June, 1810, a large upper room in the house of Mr. Town was opened for worship by Mr. Shepherd, from Bradford, who preached on this occasion from Solomon's Song, vi. 10. The congregation increased; others were baptized; and in the year 1812 the church was formed. In 1813 it was deemed necessary to erect a chapel. A piece of ground was provided by Mr. Town; and on Easter Monday, 1813, the first stone was laid; but the chapel was not opened until the 29th of March, 1815; when Mr. Lister, of Liverpool, Mr. Stephens, of Rochdale, and the venerable Dr. Steadman, of Bradford, were engaged. At this period the church consisted of eighteen members. The chapel cost something more than £990; and will seat about 615 persons.

The first pastor of the church was Mr. Joseph Shaw, who came to Keighley in 1814. During the years 1816, 1817, and 1818, little is said: but in 1819 the members amounted to 33; and some uneasiness originating with a part of the church and the minister, a separation took place, and a new chapel was erected by the party attached to Mr. Shaw, at Slacklane, from two to three miles from Keighley. This circumstance left the church at Keighley very small, and greatly diminished the congregation. [Pg 193]

In 1820 Mr. Thomas Blundell took the oversight of the people in the Lord. The members again numbered 32. In 1824 a large portion of the debt was removed; soon after which, the pastor was taken ill, and on July 1st, 1824, resigned his spirit into the hands of Him who gave it. During this year four members were also removed to the world of spirits; among whom were Mr. Town and his wife, who died within ten days of each other; and whose remains were deposited in the burial-ground adjoining the chapel; and to whose memory a handsome tombstone has been erected by the family.

These strokes of mortality appear to have been sanctified—a spirit of prayer has been excited—and a morning prayer-meeting established to seek divine direction in the choice of a pastor. And on Sunday, Aug. 15th, 1824, the present pastor, Mr. Abraham Nichols, then under the care of Dr. Steadman, and a member of the church at Rawden, under the care of Mr. Hughes, preached his first sermons at Keighley, and baptized two persons at Turkeymill. From this time his visits to Keighley became frequent; and on the first of November, he received an invitation to become pastor. On the 30th of January, 1825, he accepted the invitation, and preached from Rom. xv. 30, to the end.

Things now began to wear rather an animating appearance. Some gentlemen were at the expense of fitting up a baptistry; and Mr. Jos. Town, youngest son of the above-mentioned Mr. Town, presented the minister with a Bible and hymn book for the pulpit. This gentleman is a deacon of the Baptist church at Leeds, under the care of the Rev. J. Acworth, A.M.

A subscription was also entered into for the liquidation of the debt upon the chapel; and on the 25th of December, 1825, the friends, at the close of two sermons by Mr. Stephens of Rochdale, realized the sum of £166 0s. 6d., including £30 each from the two Mr. Towns, £15 from a sister, and £10 from a brother-in-law; with many other equally noble sums, according to the ability of the parties.

On the 15th of August, 1826, Mr. Nichols was ordained, when Mr. Mann, late of Mazepond, London, stated the nature of a gospel church; Mr. Hughes offered the ordination prayer; Dr. Steadman delivered the charge, from 2 Sam. x. 12; and Mr. Godwin addressed the church, from 1 Thess. v. 12, 13.

In 1829 the singing gallery was altered, and the bottom of the chapel pewed; also, a very substantial and convenient house was built for the minister, which cost about £260, towards the expense of which there was £188 (duty off) left as an endowment by J. Holmes, Esq., of Stanbury, near Haworth, and which could be appropriated to no purpose but for the advantage of the minister.

In 1830, the burial-ground having been enlarged on each side, a portion of the debt was removed.

In 1834 and 1835, the ground was again enlarged, by the addition of 312 yards; and a new school-room erected, towards which, including a grant through the British and Foreign School Society, the subscriptions and collections, &c., have amounted to about £220.

The Sabbath-school contains near 100 children; the congregation, including 91 families or parts of families, will average from 300 to 400; the number of members, near 70.

The following persons have been deacons of the church, viz.:

John Beadley, who died July 20th, 1827; funeral sermon from 1 Cor. vii. 29, 30. Jonas Rhodes, who died Oct. 11th, 1832. Samuel Clapham, who died March 24th, 1833. (There is a short account of each of the two latter in the Baptist Tract Magazine, for 1833.) Joseph Milner, who died April, 1834; and who had been deacon from the formation of the church.

The present deacons are,—Mr. John Town, Turkey-Mills; Mr. Joseph Laycock, Knowl; and Mr. Joseph Hall, North-street.


From our personal knowledge of Mr. Poile, and of the circumstances of the following case, we respectfully recommend the perusal of it to all who feel the necessity, and who are in any measure enabled to assist in the support of a sound evangelical exhibition of the unsearchable riches of Christ.

W. H. Murch, Stepney College.
W. Brock, St. Mary's, Norwich.

It is extensively known that the Baptist interest at Lynn Regis has been for many years in a depressed condition—a fact which has been much deplored by the friends of the denomination on the spot, and by those who have been acquainted with the circumstances of the case. In presenting it to the notice of the friends of the Redeemer, with the hope of securing their Christian sympathies and assistance, a brief outline of the case will not be deemed unnecessary. [Pg 194]

The Baptist church at Lynn appears to have been formed about the year 1760, by Mr. Chesterton, who was succeeded in the pastoral office by the Rev. W. Richards, M.A., and afterwards by Mr. Durrant, who gratuitously laboured among the people for several years. The place of worship, occupied until nearly the close of Mr. Durrant's ministry, was a small hired chapel in Broad-street, which was afterwards purchased. About this time it was deemed advisable by the friends to erect a new meeting-house; and for this purpose a piece of land was bought adjoining the old place. The purchase of the ground and the erection of the building, capable of seating 300 persons, amounted to £1269 8s.; to the reduction of which, Messrs. Durrant and Brindley gave £200 each; £47 16s. were collected in Lynn; leaving a debt on the place of £821 12s. The pulpit having been occupied for a short period by different ministers, the church was induced to invite one of respectable talents to become their pastor, whose connexion with them, in consequence of his adoption of doctrinal errors, extended to no longer a period than twelve months. During that period a large and respectable congregation was attracted; the greater part of whom, however, having imbibed the errors which have been referred to, left the place with the minister, and erected a Socinian chapel; thus giving occasion for regret, not only that error was propagated, but by those to whom the Baptist cause was looking for support. From that period to the present many efforts have been made to revive the cause; and the debt, in 1812, by means of an appeal to the friends at Lynn, Dereham, Yarmouth, and Norwich, was reduced to £702 9s. A great variety of ministers have laboured, with more or less success, some of whom are now occupying important stations in different parts of the country.

A combination of causes occasioned the removal of many, apparently well suited to raise the interest; but that which seems more than any thing else to have deprived the church and town of the labours of devoted servants of Christ, was the legal and pecuniary embarrassments of the place. It will easily be conceived that, amidst events thus adverse, the church was frequently threatened with extinction, and the cause nearly given up for lost by those who hoped even against hope.

In September, 1832, the writer of this article acceded to the request of the church to pay them a visit, by the advice of his tutors, and received, at the expiration of a month, an unanimous invitation to spend a longer period, with a view to a settlement. An assurance that the legal difficulties would speedily be settled, and the hope that his labours might be blessed, induced him to comply. Various efforts were made to hasten this, without avail, until July, 1833, when it was thought by the friends generally, that it would be much to the advantage of the cause if a new place could be erected in a more eligible part of the town; and it was determined, by the advice of the Rev. W. H. Murch, president of Stepney College, to ascertain its practicability. The smallness, however, of the resources at home, and the promises from abroad, rendered such an attempt unjustifiable; so that nothing could be done, but either to use every effort to secure the old place, or to give up the cause entirely. The former step was finally decided on; and the writer consented to struggle, with the church, until a faithful God should answer the prayers of his people. After much trouble and anxiety, the legal business was settled on February 19th, 1835, and £100 was paid, which had been collected in the town. Lord's-day, 21st, was held as a day of thanksgiving, and the season improved by sermons from Ps. cxv. 1, and Ps. cxviii. 25. It was a day that will long be remembered by many present.

The number in the church in 1832 was 30; since that time 27 have been baptized, to whom several others expect shortly to be added, who are affording proofs that they have given themselves to the Lord. The congregation is now good, and harmony prevails in the church. There is a Sunday school of 250 children, an adult class, two Bible classes, and an ecclesiastical history class. On Friday, March 6, the foundation-stone of a Sunday school-room, 44 ft. by 34 ft. (to be used also as a day-school), was laid by Mr. Wilson, missionary of the Sunday School Union. The cost of the building will be £170, of which £60 have been collected, principally in Lynn; and it is earnestly hoped that the friends of scriptural education will give their generous aid towards so desirable an object amidst 15,000 inhabitants. The necessity of repairing and cleaning the chapel, to make it tenantable, will be obvious when it is stated, that scarcely any thing has been done to it since it was built, 26 years ago. To do this, and render it commodious, will require upwards of £200. The debt which the friends will be obliged to remove as speedily as pos [Pg 195] sible, so as to be able to carry on the cause, is £500, leaving a mortgage on the place of £600, at 4 per cent., the interest of which the rents of property will nearly meet.

As nothing now appears needful to render the Baptist cause at Lynn, under the Divine blessing, a useful and respectable interest, but the united aid of the friends of the Redeemer, it is earnestly hoped that a faithful statement of facts will not only meet the eye of those who have it in their power to assist, but that the evil so much and so greatly to be deprecated—a minister leaving his people to travel for money, may in this case be dispensed with; and that, instead of the cause at Lynn being a matter of deep regret to the Christian church, it may become a praise in the earth.

W. F. Poile.



Was held at Bewley, April 8th, 1835. The afternoon was spent by the brethren in conference and prayer.

The public service took place in the evening. Brother Burt, the pastor, began by solemn prayer. Brother Turquand read the Scriptures, prayed, and spoke on "Perseverance in doing Good." Brother Burnett followed him in prayer, and mentioned some of "The principal Sources of Encouragement and Consolation." Brother Yarnold succeeded him in prayer, and illustrated "The Practical Influence of the Gospel." Brother Ford addressed the Divine Majesty, and made some remarks "On the Importance of Growing in Grace." Brother Adams, also, offered supplication, and showed the intimate connexion between doctrinal and practical godliness. And brother Draper closed the protracted but interesting services of the evening, by prayer, and a brief address "On the Blessings entreated for the Ephesians by the Apostle,—that they might 'know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge; and be filled with all the fulness of God.'"

The next meeting to be held, by the Divine blessing, at Romsey, Wednesday, Sept. 9th, 1835.


The Annual Meeting of this Association was held on Wednesday, April 22, at the Rev. Mr. Overbury's chapel, in Eagle-street, Red Lion Square. Letters from the associated churches were read by their respective pastors, detailing their circumstances during the past year; after which a circular letter, drawn up by the Rev. Mr. Steane, was read, approved, and ordered to be printed for the use of the churches. The Rev. J. E. Giles was chosen Secretary, and T. Pewtress, Esq., Treasurer, for the year ensuing.

In the evening, a public service was held in the same place; when the Rev. Mr. Price delivered a serious and practical sermon, "On the Duties of Church Members towards the Young."

The next Quarterly Meeting to be held at Camberwell, July 23rd. Mr. Davies, of Tottenham, to preach.


The Southern Association of Hants. will take place this year in Meeting House Alley, Portsea, June the 9th and 10th. On Tuesday evening the letters from the churches will be read; and brother Hancock, of Yarmouth, will preach. Wednesday morning, brother Millard is expected to preach; and some other brother in the evening.

T. Tilly, Secretary.
Portsea, April 15, 1835.

The Annual Meeting of the Bedfordshire Association of Baptist churches will be held at the Old Baptist Meeting, Rushden, in Northamptonshire, on Tuesday, May 19th; on which occasion the Rev. Messrs. S. Fordham, of Hale Weston, J. Upton, of London, and J. Jenkinson, of Kettering, are engaged to preach.

The ministers and messengers of the churches are requested to meet at half-past nine o'clock.

The Association of Baptist Congregational Churches, in Oxfordshire and adjacent counties, will hold their next annual meeting at Cirencester, instead of Fairford, on Tuesday and Wednesday in the Whitsun week, June 9th and 10th. The letters from the churches will be read on the Tuesday evening, at half-past 5 o'clock.

The next meeting of the Northamptonshire Association will be held at Kettering, on the Tuesday and Wednesday in Whitsun week. The services will be conducted as usual, commencing at 6 o'clock on the Tuesday evening, when the letters from the churches will be read. Mr. Gray, of Northampton, and Mr. Craps, of Lincoln, have engaged to preach. Put up at the White Hart (not [Pg 196] the White Horse, as misprinted in the last year's Circular Letter).

The churches connected with the Bristol Association are respectfully informed, their next meeting will be held at Counterslip, Bristol, on the Tuesday and Wednesday in Whitsun week, June 9th and 10th, 1835 (instead of Wednesday and Thursday), in consequence of the annual meeting of the Bristol Education Society, on Thursday, 11th of June. Brother Jones, of Frome, to preach the Association sermon. Brethren Saffery, of Salisbury, and Newman, of Shortwood, to be the other preachers. Brother Summers to write the Circular Letter; the subject, The Second Coming of Christ.

The fifty-sixth Anniversary of the Kent and Sussex Association of Baptist Churches will be held (Providence permitting), at Lewes, Sussex, on Tuesday and Wednesday, June 2nd and 3rd. The brethren Rogers and Matthews to preach. The Annual Meeting of the Kent Auxiliary Baptist Missionary Society will be held on Wednesday evening. Put up at the Crown Inn, Market Street.

The Anniversary of the Baptist chapel at Staines, Middlesex, will be held (D.V.) on Wednesday, the 20th of May. The Rev. T. Binney stands engaged to preach in the morning; the Rev. Edw. Steane in the afternoon; and the Rev. J. Smith in the evening.

The next Anniversary meeting of the Bedfordshire Union of Christians will be held at Bedford, on Wednesday, May 27th; when the Rev. J. J. Davies, of Tottenham, is expected to preach in the morning; and the Rev. G. B. Phillips, of Harrold, in the evening.

The annual meeting of "The Protestant Society for the Protection of Religious Liberty" will be held at the City of London Tavern, on Saturday, May 16th, at 11 o'clock precisely. Some distinguished Peer is expected to preside.

On Wednesday, the 20th of May, the Rev. C. B. Woodman will be set apart to the pastoral office over the church assembling in Artillery-street chapel, Bishopsgate, London. The Rev. Messrs. Isaiah Birt, Thomas Price, of Devonshire Square, J. E. Giles, of Salter's Hall, with other ministers, have engaged to officiate on the occasion. Service to commence at 6 o'clock in the evening.



Died, on Friday, the 27th of March, aged 62, the Rev. J. Wheeler, pastor of the Baptist church, Bugbrook, Northamptonshire. His funeral took place on Wednesday, the 1st of April. The Rev. T. Wake, of Thislingbury, read a suitable portion of the Scriptures, and prayed; the Rev. W. Gray, of Northampton, delivered the address, and on the following Sabbath, to a crowded congregation, preached the funeral sermon, from Jude 21: "Looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life." A text expressly chosen by the deceased.

Mr. Wheeler had been settled with his people for nearly 32 years; and it is pleasing to notice, that some of the last years of his ministry were the most successful. Twelve months he was laid aside from his public labours; and in the sick room, and on the bed of pain, illustrated and magnified those principles which, for successive years, he had preached to others.


Just Published.

Memoir of the Life and Writings of the Rev. Joseph Ivimey, late pastor of the church in Eagle-street, London, and twenty years Gratuitous Secretary to the Baptist Irish Society. By Rev. George Pritchard.

Parts I. to VI. of the Biographical Sketch of the Rev. Edward Irving. Edited by William Jones, M.A. To which is added, Thirty Sermons, preached by Mr. Irving, during the first three years of his residence in London.

In 32mo. A Memoir of J. Howard Hinton, who died at Reading, Jan. 10, 1835, aged thirteen years and seven months. By his Father.

In the Press.

Reminiscences relating to the Rev. John Ryland, A.M., of Northampton, the father of the late Rev. Dr. Ryland, of Bristol. By William Newman, D.D.

Preparing for Publication.

The History of Protestant Nonconformity in England, from the Reformation, under Henry VIII., to the Accession of the House of Hanover. In two volumes, 8vo. By Thomas Price. The Work will be founded on an extensive and careful investigation of Original Authorities, and will be designed to exhibit the Progress of Opinion as well as the Course of Events.

Erratum: P. 141, l. 6, for a final read an efficient.[Pg 197]


MAY, 1835.

At the particular request of the Rev. J. Allen, and for the satisfaction of those friends who have kindly and liberally assisted towards defraying the debt incurred by the erection of the Chapel at Ballina, the statement of the entire account, and the several sums contributed, appear in this number of the Chronicle. As the funds of the Society are not at all applicable to the building of places of worship, but as their erection has, in more instances than one, become indispensable, and such necessity, it is hoped, may recur again and again; it is certainly due to those liberal persons, who thus aid the cause of the Redeemer, distinctly and gratefully to acknowledge their Christian benevolence.

To the Secretary.

Ballina, March 19, 1835.

My dear Brother,

In this packet, I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your kind favour of the 10th instant, and herewith forward to you the Journal of the Readers for the past month, as also the account of schools, &c., for the present quarter. I have also to acknowledge the receipt of several sums of money, towards the liquidation of the debt upon the Meeting-house in this town, which you will find upon another part of this sheet. The sum actually expended is now £328 10s., and the contract for finishing, £91 10s., making in all £420. Of this I have received, clear of expenses, £232, for which, as well as for the acts of personal kindness shown to me when in England, I beg, through the medium of the Chronicle, to present my warmest thanks. I had hoped to have heard, ere this, what sum the Building Fund, on which this case has been admitted, was likely to produce. My best thanks are due to Mrs. Holland, of Bristol, especially, who kindly, and without any solicitation, forwarded us £5. If some of our wealthy friends in England, bearing in mind how injurious it must be for an individual to be absent for any length of time from a missionary station, and an infant cause, would imitate her example, it would not only confer a personal favour, but essentially serve the interests of the Redeemer's kingdom in this place. The trust deed, by which the property has been made over to the Baptist denomination, has been examined by the respectable solicitor of the London Building Fund, and is approved.

It is in your recollection, probably, that the late Government ordered, some time before they left office, a new census of the population of Ireland; in which was to be shown the relative numbers of Protestants, Roman Catholics, and Dissenters; as also the number and kind of schools in each union or parish. One of the Commissioners was here on Tuesday last, and, as a proof of the awful extent to which superstition prevails, it appeared, soon after an amended census had been produced and sworn to, by the Protestant clergyman, that not more than one out of thirty, in this large union, can be considered even as nominal Protestants. And, in a conversation with the priest, on the following day, as a confirmation of what I have frequently stated, "I am perfectly sure," said he, "that if you go round any day to all your schools, and ours, and the minister's, you will not find in the whole of them 100 poor Protestant children." In the examination of our schools, before the commissioners, though we have invariably insisted upon the introduction of the Scriptures, yet they were scarcely inferior to any, and, in the general, superior to most, both in numbers and regular attendance. Let it not be said in future, then that the Roman Catholics, the children of whom compose the bulk of our scholars, would not, unless violently opposed by the priesthood, be anxious to possess and study the word of God. And let our friends, whilst they have it upon the testimony of the priest himself, that it is his flock we are educating in our schools, be more earnest and zealous in this good cause; hoping and praying that through the instrumentality [Pg 198] of these schools, the present race of children may be delivered from the superstition of their fathers.

I have, since my return, preached at Easky, Mullifarry, and Crossmolina; at the two former places to large and attentive audiences. The people on all sides are exceedingly desirous to hear. On Sunday last, I again administered the ordinance of Baptism in Ballina. The Lord, I trust, is preparing others to submit to the dictates of his blessed word. Oh that he would make us, who are engaged in this blessed work, more humble, circumspect, watchful, and zealous! and then we might hope for larger and more extensive success. Pray for us, that the word of the Lord may have free course and be glorified.

I am, dear Sir, affectionately your's,

James Allen.

To the Secretary of the Baptist Irish Society.

Limerick, March 20th, 1835.

My dear Sir,

I just returned from Croagh, about sixteen miles from here, in the county of Limerick, to inspect the Koppel-street school; the poor children were delighted to see me, and I was greatly pleased to see them go through their school discipline with such precision and order. They spelled remarkably well in three different ways. I am not aware that you are acquainted with the plan of spelling and reading, particularly spelling, which I have devised long since, which arrests the undeviating attention of the children, and almost wonderfully facilitates their progress. A fine testament class of 36 got up and read, in general, very well, and repeated 224 chapters, which they committed to memory since the last quarterly inspection. There are 148 on the list, 98 spelling, 50 reading the scriptures, 8 protestants and 4 reformed, who are the master's children, of whose attention to his school, and good conduct, I cannot say too much; He is also a sabbath reader, and, I believe, very useful. A number of the girls got before me to the door, and requested a female school; they showed me some very nice work, taught them by the master's daughter. I said I would lay their request before their friends in England. The progress some of them made in writing and figures rather surprised me: the little premiums I gave them the last time had a great effect upon them, in removing prejudice, and convincing them who their real friends are, and in winning their affections to the love of the truth, in spite of priestly influence. The countenances of the children, in all the schools, brighten up, and smile, when they see me. I lectured in the evening, at Finchley, the seat of their worthy and pious patrons, Mr. and Mrs. Finch, who pay for a good school-house for them, and subscribe to the society. The society has done inconceivable good. How much more if it had sufficient means!

I was going to say, the Bristol school, at Balleycar, county of Clare, sixteen miles north west from Limerick, is a tremendous one. I went there immediately after my last communication; gave several lectures to Roman Catholics and Protestants, in the house of our afflicted friend, Major Colpoys; I tried to comfort and encourage his mind in the prospect of eternity—he is "looking unto Jesus." The school is in a very flourishing state; 224 on the list, 146 present, 120 spelling, 104 reading the Scriptures; about 30 committed to memory, and repeated 153 chapters this quarter: they made great progress also in writing and figures, which they are very fond of learning. There are only two or three Protestant children in this school. It often excites the warmest gratitude in my heart to God, that has put it into the hearts of his people, to afford such great and important blessings to those who would perish in ignorance and superstition. Oh what a mercy to see so many children rise to read the word of life, and to commit it to memory, and read it in the hearing of their poor benighted parents! At the close of the examinations I give a little lecture on the advantages of a Scripture education, on the love of God, on the sufferings of the Saviour, and on the influence of the Holy Spirit, to bless all to their present benefit, and eternal salvation. I find I can say a great deal, and go a great length, without endangering the schools, which I know, and am informed, would not be borne with from others. I try, also, to impress their minds with gratitude to their kind friends in England, and they appear very grateful and pray for them.

The Seven Oaks school, at Bushy Park, county of Tipperary, about thirty-five English miles north east from Limerick is in a prosperous state: the number of chapters the children repeat from memory frequently surprises me: the children of a poor Baptist brother [Pg 199] there, near Burris O' Kane, are mighty in the Scriptures. The school discipline gave me great satisfaction, and the spelling, reading, writing, and figures, very pleasing: 74 on the list, 66 present; 62 spelling, 12 reading the Testament, and repeated 63 chapters from memory. The master is a very inoffensive and attentive man; I trust, truly pious.

In the Mary's Philanthropic school, Mount Shannon, county of Galway, about thirty-five English miles from Limerick, north north east, there are 98 on the list; 60 present, 39 spelling, 21 reading the Testament, and repeated from memory this quarter 150 chapters: always a good school, having more very poor Protestants in that village and neighbourhood than many others, and not so subject to vary from priestly attacks as some others.

In the Norwich school, at Birr, fifty English miles east from Limerick, 56 gross; 34 spelling, 22 reading the Testament; they repeated 47 chapters from memory. It was not so numerous this quarter as usual, from the extreme severity of the weather, and the nakedness and want of the children, still it is a good school, and taught by a worthy, pious, poor woman, with a large family.

The Cardigan school, at Kilbaron, is doing as well as could be expected, from the unceasing exertions of the priest there, more than usually excited in consequence of obtaining a complete victory over his champion in controversy, in presence of a number of people. The master was a very intelligent, clever man.

My dear Sir, your time and mine would not admit of my writing an account of each school under my superintendence. I send the quarterly statement, in which you see them with one view. The above I send for the satisfaction of those kind friends who support or contribute to the congregational schools. I also want time, and, indeed, inclination, to give any statement of my own humble labours. Though the weather has been extremely severe, since the 1st of February, I have been out the greater part of the time, and preached in very distant places, and in various counties, and sometimes under very trying circumstances. I preached at Benagher, King's county, sixty miles from Limerick, twice to the house full, at Walshpark, after travelling fifty miles, and preaching and administering the ordinance at Cloughjordan; gave a lecture at Ormandview, county of Galway; preached at O'Brien's Bridge, and several times at Castle Connell.

Ever yours, most affectionately,
William Thomas.

To the Secretary.

Ballina, March 20th, 1835.

My dear Sir,

I shall feel obliged to you, at your earliest convenience, to acknowledge the receipt of the following articles, kindly sent for the schools in this district.

A box of articles collected by Mrs. Thomas Allen, Birmingham, containing two packets of books from Mr. Groom; some tracts, workbags, &c. from Mrs. Glover and Miss Mansfield, Spring Hill; books, rug-worsted, and patterns, from Mrs. S. Cocks, Camp Hill; a small round stand, from Ann Husband; pin-cushions, from Mrs. Rogers, Bull-street; canvass, from Mrs. Johnson, Deritend; cotton-balls, from Mrs. Warner; patchwork, from Mrs. White; a blue bag, from Miss R. Simmons; a number of small books, from a "Well-wishing Friend to Ireland;" and numerous little rewards, from Mr. Thomas Allen and family; and from Rev. J. Smith and Sons, Astwood, 1000 needles. Since the above articles were kindly forwarded to me, Mr. Allen has received a parcel from Mr. West, containing some useful books, from "Dorcas," for the Library at Ballina; a parcel of books from Mrs. Hawkins, Stroud; and a number of pin-cushions, balls of rug-worsted, and a few workbags, and boxes of little fancy articles.

N. B. I regret to say, that in the last acknowledgment of articles from Birmingham, I omitted to mention some poetical cards, kindly sent by Mr. F. Deakin. The pair of six-inch globes, kindly offered by Mr. Mogridge, and the patchwork by Mrs. White, will be very acceptable; and if sent to Rev. J. West, 26, Little James's street, Dublin, will be forwarded by him to Ballina as soon as he has an opportunity of sending them.

Wishing you every blessing, both of a spiritual and temporal nature,

I remain, my dear Sir,    
Yours very respectfully,  
A. Cave.
[Pg 200]


By Rev. J. Dyer:

  £ s. d.
Haworth, first Church, by Rev. Jas. Flood 3 0 0
Friend in Somersetshire 1 0 0

By the Secretary:

"A Friend to Missions," by the General Post 5 0 0
"A small per centage, upon last year's profits," do. 5 0 0

By the Treasurer:

E. D., by W. Cozens, Esq. 10 0 0
For the Rye School, by Mrs. Crosskey, Treasurer 5 0 0

Collected by the Rev. S. Davis, for the Society:

At Devizes 11 5 0
Downton 6 9 0
Romsey 3 12 2
Stockbridge 2 0 0
Andover 4 9 6
Whitchurch 4 9 6
Newbury 15 2 0
Abingdon 3 0 0
Farringdon 2 10 0
Fairford 0 10 0
Circencester 8 5 6
Tewkesbury 13 17 11
Cheltenham 13 14 6


An account of Money collected for this purpose, by Mr. Allen, in 1833, 1834, and 1835.

  £ s. d.
Ballina 45 10 0
Sligo 12 18 6
Dublin 26 3 0
Birmingham 14 6 0
St. Albans 4 0 0
London 7 5 0
Arnsby 2 0 0
Oadby 1 13 0
Guilsborough 1 0 0
Naseby 0 16 0
Clipstone 1 14 6
Theddinworth 1 0 0
Bugbrook 3 6 0
Kettering 6 11 6
Cambridge 3 0 0
Market Harborough 1 0 0
St. Ives 2 4 0
Thrapstone 2 19 6
Leicester 13 18 0
Coventry 7 11 3
Leamington 0 5 0
Stratford-on-Avon 3 16 0
Alcester 2 9 6
Astwood 2 8 10
Pershore 2 7 6
Worcester, with friends from Bourton 6 9 0
Bilston 3 7 6
Coseley 0 16 6
Dudley 1 2 6
Bradford 18 18 6
Leeds 6 15 0
Middleton Teesdale 4 10 0
Hamsterley, Rev. Mr. D. 0 5 0
Romalkirk 1 0 0
Barnard Castle 1 0 0
Stockton 7 5 0
Darlington 8 16 0
Manchester 19 8 6
Saladine Nook 12 0 0
Liverpool 16 8 6
Bristol, Mrs. Holland, per Rev. S. Davis 5 0 0

Subscriptions received by S. Marshall, Esq., 181, High Holborn; Mr. P. Millard, Bishopsgate Street; Messrs. Burks, 56 Lothbury; Rev. G. Pritchard, 4 York Place, Pentonville, gratuitous Secretary; by Messrs. Ladbrokes and Co., Bankers, Bank Buildings; by Mr. H. D. Dickie, 13 Bank Street, and Rev. Mr. Innes, Frederick Street, Edinburgh; and P. Brown, Esq., Cardigan.



CXCVII. MAY, 1835.

The Treasurers of Auxiliary Societies, and other Friends who may have Monies in hand on account of the Society, are respectfully reminded that the Treasurer's account for the year will close on the 31st instant, which renders it necessary that all payments intended to appear in the Appendix to the next Report, should be made in the course of the present month. It is requested, therefore, that the respective accounts may be sent, properly balanced, to the Secretary, No. 6, Fen Court, Fenchurch Street, accompanied by the list of Subscribers, &c., in alphabetical order.

Particular attention is solicited to this notice; for as all the Society's accounts for the year are examined and audited, by the gentlemen appointed for that purpose, in the first week in June, and the Report will, it is expected, leave the press in a few days after the Annual Meeting, it is clearly impossible that payments can be included, or lists of particulars inserted, which come to hand after the time specified.

The Committee have pleasure in stating that their esteemed brethren, the Rev. Samuel Summers, of Bristol, and the Rev. Benjamin Godwin, of Bradford, have engaged to preach the Sermons at our next Annual Meeting. Full particulars, as usual, may be expected in our next Number.



From Mr. William Carey to the Secretary, dated Cutwa, October 26, 1834.

I am sorry to find that it is a long time, and much longer than it ought to have been, since I wrote to you last. The only reason is, that I have had to go through much affliction. Mrs. Carey has been very ill at times, and I have not been well. Our beloved father has also been removed to a better state, and one or two others connected with the family. In such things, and at different times, has the Lord seen fit to afflict us; but the Lord is good, and his strokes are lighter than we have deserved; yea, all his ways are mercy.

I am happy to say that since I wrote last the work of the Lord has been going on as usual. I think I have baptized eleven persons, some belonging to the Christian families, and some from the heathen. The Mella's have also been visited, and the surrounding villages as usual; great numbers of tracts and books have been distributed; people upon the whole have been very attentive. The native preachers are out almost every day, and are well received. I have now two inquirers; an Hindoo woman and a Mussulman man; how they may turn out I cannot say.

[Pg 202]


From Mr. Williamson to Mr. Dyer, dated Soory, October 14, 1834.

You will be gratified to hear that we have been meeting with some little more encouragement of late. A short time ago I had the pleasure of baptizing seven persons; three young men, and four young women. They are all of Christian parentage. One young woman (a Miss W.) is the daughter of the head English writer at this station. After finishing her education in Calcutta, she returned with us to Beerbhoom, about three years ago; and was then a very thoughtless girl, but for some time past she seems to have undergone a decided change of mind. She has been in the habit of attending our English worship on Lord's day and Thursday evenings; and occasionally at other times. These opportunities, together with reading of religious books and tracts, and occasional converse with us, appear to have been blessed to her. I trust she has made a sincere profession of faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, and that she will continue to walk in him. All the others belong to our native Christians, and have given us reason to hope well concerning them. Two of the young men having received a superior education, may therefore be expected to be of more eminent service in this land of darkness.

You will also be happy to learn that one of the highest or monitor class girls of the Central School, from conviction of the Christian being the only true religion, has given up her caste as a thing in her estimation of no value, and cast in her lot with the followers of Christ. A short time ago, when she first made known her intention, Mrs. W. examined her respecting her motives; she said that our shasters were good, and our people were good; and that she could not live among her relations, who were idolaters and drunkards, &c. When Mrs. W. again asked her whether she thought she would be better off by becoming a Christian, the girl replied that she was already sufficiently well provided for, and that her sole intention in becoming a Christian was to obtain salvation. The first time she came with the intention of giving up her caste (which was just as the noise of the doorga pooja commenced), her parents dragged her away, and watched her narrowly for a few days, during which period she had no opportunity of making her escape; but as soon as their vigilance relaxed a little, she improved the first opportunity granted her of regaining her liberty. Her father threw away all her books and tracts, and is highly displeased with me for having betrayed the trust he had reposed in me. The girl is about sixteen years of age, and is pretty well versed in the gospels and scripture history. She has been latterly under a Christian teacher, and was employed as a monitor, which accounts, in part, for her having remained so long in the school. Another girl, belonging to the same class has a good mind, we hear, to follow her example, but has not as yet been able to muster sufficient resolution. May the Lord draw her and many others to himself, with the cords of his divine love!

Our three schools (Bengalee boys', Bengalee girls', and English school) were all lately examined by the ladies and gentlemen of the station, who, I am happy to inform you, expressed themselves highly gratified with the progress the children and youth had made during the year; particularly with that of the higher classes of the English school: one class, in the course of six months only, having made themselves perfectly masters of the principles of English Grammar. I am inclined to hope much from the English school. As for the two Bengalee schools, on account of what has lately taken place, I am afraid they will be much diminished for some time, especially the girls' school.

To aid me in the great work of preaching the gospel among the heathen, I have now four native assistants, for whom I draw 25 Rs. in addition to my salary of 150 Rs. per month. They are out daily, morning and evening, in the neighbouring villages, preaching and distributing tracts. They tell me that prejudice is fast declining, and that they have had repeated proofs of the tracts they give away having been read. I always take one of them with me, in my daily visits to the bazar of this place, when we have generally a pretty good congregation of attentive hearers. The season for our more distant excursions is now approaching, and will allow us to extend on all sides our hitherto confined labours. May the Lord assist us faithfully and fully to make known his glorious gospel among those who are perishing for lack of knowledge, and make us the savour of life unto life, unto many precious souls! "The harvest truly is great, but the labourers are few."

[Pg 203]


In the following extract of a letter from Mr. Bruckner, dated Samarang, November 12, 1834, our readers will observe an affecting allusion to the massacre of two missionaries from the American board, who lately fell victims to the revenge or the suspicions of the Battas, in the northern parts of Sumatra. When our late friend, Mr. Burton, resided, for many months, among the same people, he felt quite secure, and made long journeys into the interior of the country. But the power is now wielded by other than British hands; and we greatly fear the change will operate as a very serious obstruction to the cause of the gospel in these beautiful islands for many years to come. But we rejoice in the assurance that every obstacle must in the end be surmounted; and in the belief that events, in different parts of the world, are concurring to hasten onward that blessed event.

Since I wrote you last, I have drawn up another tract in Javanese, under the title, "The Son of God in the World." 1500 copies have been printed of it, as we had no more paper for a larger edition. A translation of this tract has been sent to the committee of the Tract Society. It is true the prohibitions, as to a free circulation of tracts among the native inhabitants of this island, have not yet fully been removed, although several applications have been made on this subject to the men in power. And this is rather a disappointment and an impediment to a more extensive communication of the principles of the gospel at large; yet a goodly number of tracts have found their way, notwithstanding, among the people. The power of darkness in this country appears so great, that it would quite dishearten me, were it not for Him who is with and in us, who is more powerful than he that is in the world. When I shall have the pleasure to see that this general darkness of ignorance as to divine things, and of superstition and sinful lusts, shall give way to the light of truth and godliness, is not for me to say; under present circumstances, this period seems to be still afar off. It would seem, however, as if the truth of the gospel was gaining ground: now and then instances appear of this. Last Sunday, when I went out among the natives, to take a New Testament to one who had asked me for it,—and when I had preached the gospel to two small companies of people, and was still walking about for some more,—I came to a house in which I saw several persons sitting together. I entered, and began a conversation on religion. One of them expressed soon his Mussulman sentiments, on the power and glory of Mahomed; that he was the person to whom we had to look, as he bore all things. I asked him, in return, if Mahomed were so powerful, how it came that he, even at this moment, was still lying in the dust? from which it was evident, added I, that he was no more than any common man. A young man who was present, and who had read some of the tracts, then took up the subject with him, and told him that Jesus was the All-powerful, which was evident from his having left the grave, and ascended to heaven, and would come again at the last day to raise all the dead from their graves. I wanted to apply the subject further to the consciences of the hearers, particularly to that of the first man, by proving that all men are in a most lamentable condition on account of their sins, and needed therefore an Almighty Saviour to save them. But this man had so much to tell, like one of old, of his own goodness, that all further reasoning with him on the subject seemed to be in vain.

With all the weakening effects of the climate on my constitution, and which I have particularly felt already for some time on my lungs, God has enabled me to go out four or five times every week into the native villages; and although my endeavours do not produce the desired effects, yet I cannot persuade my mind that all the precious seed sown in this way will be lost.

You will perhaps have heard of the dreadful event, before this, which has happened to two American missionaries, Messrs. Manson and Lyman, in Sumatra, among the Battas, now about two months ago. These good men went thither to explore the country. They fell in with a troop of wild Battas, on one of their excursions, who fired at them, and over-powered them. Mr. Lyman was wounded by a shot. They then began to cut off his arms and his legs, and ate him up. While they were doing this, he petitioned the cannibals to spare his brother Manson alive; but the following day he was cut to pieces and eaten, as also the interpreter whom they had brought with them. Their wives were still at Batavia when the news of their husbands arrived.

Sumatra is still in a state of war; yet Padang, where Mr. Ward lives, seems to [Pg 204] have been always safe. I have not had any letters from Mr. Ward for a considerable time: as far as I can hear, he is still well.


Mr. Tinson, having met the other brethren at Falmouth early in February, writes as follows on his return to Kingston. We are persuaded our readers will be gratified by the deliberate and candid opinions expressed by this experienced missionary. His letter is dated Feb. 25th, 1835.

Since I last addressed you I have seen more of our mission field than I had ever before an opportunity of visiting. We found it not only gratifying, but profitable, thus to visit our brethren, who all appear to be faithfully labouring in the vineyard of Christ. From them we received much kindness, and returned home, after an absence of six weeks, with improved health and increased desire to labour for God, from witnessing what he is doing by his servants. Such intercourse, occasionally enjoyed, could hardly fail to promote brotherly love, stimulate to exertion, and strengthen our confidence in God, as we behold the triumphs of his truth.

In my last I mentioned the desire manifested by many in Mr. Knibb's congregation to obtain the Scriptures, and the large attendance on religious worship. The same may be said of Montego Bay, and, in proportion, of other stations I had the privilege of visiting. I spent one sabbath at Lucea, and intended going to Savannah la Mar, but was prevented by the rain. Of the interesting services at Montego Bay and Falmouth, which took place on the 7th and 14th of this month, on laying the corner-stones of the new chapels, I need not write, as our brethren at those stations will send you all the particulars. On our way home we passed through Stewart Town, Brown's Town, and called at Jericho, brother Clarke's residence and principal station. I should have mentioned that we spent a night with brother Coultart; and in every place we were refreshed in seeing or hearing of the grace of God. I have more than once expressed my conviction that God is about to do some great work in this land. In this opinion I am confirmed by what he is doing. We know that He does nothing in vain; therefore to any person at all observant of Divine Providence, it must manifestly appear, that God's thoughts are thoughts of good and not of evil concerning the inhabitants of this country. Look at the noble gift of his word which he has recently sent to the people! Upwards of 40,000 copies of the New Testament and Psalms, now circulating, like so many streamlets of the water of life, through the whole length and breadth of the land! Then there is the desire to read, and to possess the word of God; the spirit of hearing, which prevails in almost every part of the island; the great accession of spiritual strength in the arrival of new missionaries—Episcopal, Methodists, Baptists, and Independents; and the preservation and increase of good men on the island. Mr. S., the rector of Lucea, mentioned a fact worth recording: that, during his residence in the colony of sixteen years, he had not lost, by death, one of his evangelical friends, which was the same as saying that not one had died; for he is a truly pious man himself, and consequently is acquainted with all the good men in the church throughout the island. He further stated, that several clergymen, who had never before manifested any concern for the spiritual welfare of the people, were now coming out as active and laborious helpers in the good cause. Surely, my dear Sir, these are signs of the times not to be overlooked.


We adverted, in our last number, to the unexpected calamity which had befallen the British possessions to the north-east of the Cape, towards the end of last year, by a violent irruption of the Caffres. The measures promptly taken by the governor have, we trust, proved effectual to the preservation of Graham's Town; but the loss of life and property in the surrounding district has been very serious. We have been favoured with a communication, sent from a lady at Graaff Reinet to her mother in this country, under date of 20th January last, which conveys a striking picture of the scene; and as many of our readers are interested in that colony, we avail ourselves of the permission to insert it for their information.

Graaff Reinet, January 20, 1835.

My dear Mother,

As I cannot help thinking, that when news from this colony arrives in England, you will feel some anxiety about our state, I must tell you that we are plunged into the greatest distress and trouble by internal war. The Caffres have made an [Pg 205] attack on the whole line of frontier, burning and destroying every thing before them, and murdering, in the most barbarous manner, the unhappy residents. They have done incalculable mischief; and should they not soon be stopped, the destruction of the colony is inevitable.

On the 24th of December, 1834, we were made uneasy by a commando being called out to assist against the Caffres. But this was soon followed by the most distressing accounts I ever read. They first proceeded to murder all the men (and in some cases whole families), to plunder all the cattle, and burn the dwellings.

On the 26th, news arrived from my dear children in Graham's Town, viz. A——, my eldest son, and G——, who, with her husband (Mr. D. Mahoney), were in the utmost anguish, his father and brother-in-law having been murdered under the following melancholy circumstances:—Mr. Mahoney, sen., had a fine farm near Graham's Town. His son-in-law, Mr. Henderson (a truly respectable young Scotchman, married to Mr. M.'s only daughter), had gone out with his wife and sweet family to spend the Christmas at the farm, and were to have been joined by my dear children and Mr. D. Mahoney. On the Monday preceding Christmas-day, Major O'Reilly advised Mr. M. sen., rather to bring his family into Graham's Town, as some cattle had been stolen, and the Caffres appeared in a disturbed state. He determined to follow this advice, and on Wednesday morning started for Graham's Town with his wife, their two grandchildren, Mr. Henderson, and a slave servant, Mr. M. sen. following the waggon himself on horseback. They had not gone more than a mile, when they were attacked by about twenty Caffres, who began stabbing poor Henderson: he had fifty assagais in his body! and the poor father shared the same fate. The old lady escaped with one child, and the slave woman with the other; and after wandering about, separately, thirty-one hours on foot, without food or water, having lost their way, they at length met at Graham's Town.

This was only the beginning of sorrows; for every day's tidings are more dreadful. Graham's Town is totally surrounded, and every farm either destroyed or deserted. The most barbarous murders are continually committed.

January 2nd. Our tidings are truly appalling. My poor children cannot come out to us. E—— is now near her confinement. Her dear little babe, with my son ——, are obliged to sleep in the church, or in flat-roofed houses near it, as they all concentrate, in order to be the better protected. All the men are under arms. This village has been stripped also. The few who remain are formed into patrols.

The Caffres have extended themselves over the whole line of frontier from Uitenhage to the Winter Field. Somerset has been also in the same state of danger. Fort Beaufort, Wiltshire, Caffer's Drift, Gualana, Bathurst, and Salem, have been left to their mercy, having remained as long as resistance was of any avail. Those who are spared have escaped only with life: in short, I can give you no adequate description of our present distress. The outcry for provisions is grievous: no supplies can be sent in by the farmers; they have it not, nor could they send it in if they had. We have had no market here since December 22. The Bay, I believe, has as yet escaped. We hear that the governor and troops are on their way to the frontier. May God grant them success! On Sunday, Jan. 4, all the places of worship were closed till 9 o'clock at night. In St. George's church, the galleries being filled with women and children, and the body with the men (under arms), the minister read the thirty-seventh of Isaiah, and commented upon the most striking passages. I assure you my spirits sink within me when I reflect on the probable consequences. Oh, how much you have to be thankful for in happy England! Pray for us, that, amidst all the wreck of time and fortune, our minds may be stayed upon God. Believe me, without the consolations of religion I should be totally cast down; but although clouds and darkness are round about us, yet it is the Lord that reigneth. True, indeed, these dispensations of his providence are dark and mysterious. Why so many valuable lives are cut off, and such a dreadful blow is given to our poor countrymen, after fifteen years' hard labour, we know not. Many of the missionaries have been in the greatest danger. We have not heard of the murder of any of them; but all the English who lately traded with the Caffres have been murdered but one, who came out, and told the fate of the rest. He states that one who was sitting at breakfast with a missionary was dragged out and killed before his eyes. They have told the missionaries they may go if they will: they do not appear to intend to destroy them.

The cattle they have already captured is beyond all belief. I wish we could get away as far as Cape Town: I shall never feel at peace on the frontiers again. My school had been very good, and I fondly [Pg 206] hoped to be a little more comfortable; but we are again reminded that this is not our rest. The reflection on my last birthday was, "Hitherto the Lord hath helped me." On the retrospect I have much to be thankful for, and much cause to be humbled under his mighty hand. As to ourselves, we have not much reason to wish many days to be added to our lives; but we have still a large family dependant on our exertions, having yet seven to provide for. At all events, I trust I shall be resigned to the Lord's will.

Since writing the above, another post has arrived. We have received news of the arrival of Colonel Smith. The Governor and troops have embarked for Algea Bay. He has placed us under martial law. Are you aware what that entails? No lights after 8 o'clock. If any disregard be paid to orders, or disaffection evinced, you must be tried by court-martial—flogged—or even shot! Our little village is as yet unattacked. Our streets are regularly patrolled. No shops are open but butchers' and bakers'—provisions are dreadfully dear—no money to be obtained—no courts of law open—no licenses have been granted this year, so neither beer, nor wine, nor spirits can be sold—and in the midst of all this distress my dear husband's health is visibly wasting. If, in addition to all my other troubles, he is to be removed, I know not how I shall be able to bear up, as I shall be totally destitute. Oh, that I was near enough to hear one word of consolation from your lips! I do now feel bitterly where I am—truly banished.

Farewell, my dearest mother, pray for your afflicted daughter.


East Indies Rev. W. H. Pearce Calcutta Oct. 22.
  A. Leslie Monghyr Oct. 13.
  J. Williamson Soory Oct. 14.
  W. Carey Cutwa Oct. 26.
  John Lawrence Digah Nov. 22.
  G. Bruckner Samarang Nov. 12.
West Indies H. C. Taylor Spanish Town Feb. 11.
  J. Clarke Jericho Feb. 26.
  T. F. Abbott Lucea Feb. 17.
  John Kingdon Manchioneal Feb. 21.
  W. Knibb Falmouth Feb. 24.
  T. Burchell Montego Bay Feb. 24.
  Walter Dendy Salter's Feb. 16.
  Joshua Tinson Kingston Feb. 25, & March 6.
  F. Gardner ditto Feb. 26, & March 6.
  Joseph Burton Nassau, N. P. March 6.
  Joseph Bourn Belize Feb. 8.


In consequence of the lamented decease of our Missionary brother, Mr. Pearson, the Committee have determined to send Mr. Ebenezer Quant to the Bahamas, instead of Jamaica, as previously designed. Mr. Quant, who is a native of Bury St. Edmunds, and has for some time been engaged [Pg 207] in ministerial labour in connexion with the church under the pastoral care of the Rev. Cornelius Elven, was designated to foreign service at the chapel in that town on Tuesday, March 24th. This commodious place of worship, which will seat more than a thousand persons, was crowded in every part, and the service of the evening proved deeply interesting. Rev. W. Reynolds, of Sudbury, began with reading the Scriptures and prayer. Mr. Quant then gave an account of his own religious experience, and a brief statement of his doctrinal views; at the close of which his respected pastor gave him the right hand of fellowship, and congratulated him on his entrance into the office of a Christian Missionary. Mr. Ellington, of West Row, offered up the designation prayer; the charge was delivered by Mr. Elven, from 2 Tim. iv. 5; and the service of the evening was closed in prayer by Mr. Fuller, of Harston, nephew of the revered Andrew Fuller, of Kettering, and himself uncle to our young Missionary brother. A passage to Nassau has been engaged for Mr. and Mrs. Quant, by the Little Catherine, Captain Kopp, and they are expected to sail in a few days.

Mr. William Shotton, late of Darlington, is also about to sail to Kingston, with a view to take charge of the School at Spanish Town, under the direction of Mr. Phillippo, and Mr. John Clark, a member of the church at Devonshire Square, has been accepted as an assistant Missionary for the same colony, and will probably be engaged in connexion with Mr. Coultart, in the parish of St. Ann's.

These new efforts, as well as all preceding operations of the Society, are earnestly commended to the supplications of all our Christian friends.

Contributions received on account of the Baptist Missionary Society, from March 20, 1835, to April 20, 1835, not including individual subscriptions.

Mitcham, collected by Mrs. Pratt       2 2 0
Princes Risborough, Missionary Association, by Mr. Hughes       13 16 10
Perth, for Female Education, by Rev. R. Thompson       8 0 0
Harpole, collected at Prayer-meeting, by Rev. W. Gray       2 0 0
Cambridge, Ladies, by Mrs. Foster, Female Education       10 0 0
Gosley, Rev. B. Hall and Friends       2 0 0
Leeds, Ladies, by Rev. J. Acworth, for Female Education       6 14 0
Wilts. and East Somerset Auxiliary, by Mr. Anstie:--            
Bratton 11 14 3      
Devizes 31 16 7      
Do. by Miss Blackwell 2 3 6      
Bradford 14 9 2      
Westbury 1 1 0      
Warminster, by Miss Jutson 0 18 6      
Frome 50 9 0      
Beckington 1 5 0      
Laverton 7 6 1      
Corsham 3 10 0      
Crockerton 2 4 8      
Melksham 10 3 7      
Chippenham 5 0 0      
  --- --- --- 142 1 4
Hunts. Auxiliary, by Mr. T. D. Paul:--            
St. Neot's 1 13 3      
Huntingdon 7 14 8      
St. Ives 62 12 6      
Bluntisham 38 6 0      
Somersham 16 6 0      
Ramsey 9 5 8      
Swavesey 2 6 5      
  --- --- ---      
  137 18 7      
Previously remitted, &c. 103 19 11      
  --- --- --- 33 18 8
Hull and East Riding Auxiliary, by J. Thornton, Esq.:--            
Hull 98 10 3      
Beverley 7 12 0      
Bishop Barton 7 7 7      
Hedon 1 11 0      
Burlington 20 9 7      
Cottingham 4 0 0      
Skidby 1 0 0      
Driffield 2 13 1      
  --- --- --- 143 3 6
Beaulieu, Rev. J. B. Burt and friends, by Rev. B. H. Draper       5 0 0
Leighton Buzzard, Friends, by Mr. T. Matthews       4 11 3
Bath, Collection at York-street, by Rev. E. Carey       7 2 6
North of England Auxiliary, by Rev. R. Pengilly:--            
Berwick and Tweedmouth 4 3 0      
Workington 4 7 0      
Sunderland 6 5 0      
Hetton 5 0 0      
Newcastle, sundries 2 4 6      
  --- --- --- 21 19 6
Manchester, York-street Sabbath School,            
for _West Indies_       2 2 0
_Schools_       2 2 0
Yorkshire, collected on a Journey, by Rev. James Flood:--            
Stanningley 3 0 0      
Rawden 4 10 0      
Horsforth 5 4 0      
Bramley 7 4 5      
Bradford 22 0 9      
Gildersome 5 17 3      
Salendine Nook 6 0 0      
Bingley 1 17 6      
Keighley 2 5 0      
Haworth, 1st Church 10 0 0      
Do. 2nd do. 17 9 1      
Batley, J. Burnley, Esq. 2 0 0      
  --- --- --- 87 5 0


Rev. R. W. Sibthorp, _Ryde_, for Mrs. Coultart's School 2 2 0
---- Jaques, Esq.    do.    for    do. 2 2 0
Miss Rust and Friends, _Greenwich_, for Mr. Phillippo's School 8 8 0
Friend at _Leicester_, by Mr. Collier 5 0 0
S. P. 1 0 0

_On Account of Jamaica Chapels._

Farnham, Friends, by Mr. Bird 0 7 4


The thanks of the Committee are presented to Mr. Winks, of Leicester, Editor of the Baptist Tract Magazine, for a valuable packet of elementary books for Jamaica: as also to Mr. Carpenter, of Greenwich, and Mr. Morris, of Morton Pinkney, for magazines, and other books. The work-bags, &c., kindly forwarded by Esther W——, have been sent to their destination, and will no doubt prove acceptable.


Transcriber's Notes:

Typesetting on this book was poor, especially with respect to punctuation. All inconsistencies are as in the original.

End of Project Gutenberg's The Baptist Magazine, Vol. 27, May 1835, by Various


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