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Title: The Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States
       Including the District East of the Mississippi and North
              of North Carolina and Tennessee

Author: Asa Gray

Release Date: April 11, 2012 [EBook #39423]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Produced by John Williams and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at







Sixth Edition.





Copyright, 1889,
By the President and Fellows of Harvard College.



The first edition of Gray's Manual was published in 1848. It was to a great extent rewritten and its range extended in 1856, and it was again largely rewritten in 1867. The great advances that have since been made in systematic botany and in the knowledge of our flora have for several years past made another revision desirable, which Dr. Gray before his death was purposing to undertake.

The present editors, acting to the best of their ability in his stead, have endeavored throughout to follow his methods and views. The original plan, so long retained by Dr. Gray and so generally approved, has been closely adhered to, the characters and descriptions of the last edition have been left essentially unchanged so far as possible, and in the numerous alterations and additions that have been considered necessary or advisable, his conclusions and principles have governed in every matter of importance, so far as they could be known. The effort especially has been to maintain that high standard of excellence which has always made the Manual an authority among botanists.

In the treatment of the genera and species, Gray's Synoptical Flora has been made the basis in the revision of the Gamopetalous Orders, and the manuscript in continuation of that work, so far as prepared, for the Polypetalous Orders which precede Leguminosæ (excepting Nuphar, the Cruciferæ, Caryophyllaceæ, Vitis, and the small Orders numbered 18, 22, 23, 25–27, and 29). The genus Salix has been rewritten for this edition by M. S. Bebb, Esq., the genus Carex by Prof. L. H. Bailey, and the Ferns and allied orders by Prof. D. C. Eaton. For the rest, all known available sources of information have been made use of, and much willing help has been received from botanists in all parts of our territory.

The increasing interest that is taken in the study of the Cellular Cryptogams, and the desire to encourage it, have led to the inclusion again of the Hepaticæ, which were omitted in the last edition. These have been prepared through the kindness of Prof. L. M. Underwood, though the limits of the volume have necessitated somewhat briefer descriptions than he considered desirable. The three fine plates illustrating the genera of these Orders, which were used in the early editions, are also added, with a supplementary one, as well as an additional one in illustration of the Grasses, thus increasing the number of plates to twenty-five. A Glossary of botanical terms is appended, to meet an expressed need of those who use the Manual alone, and a Synopsis of the Orders in their sequence is given, to contrast more clearly their characters, and to show the general principles which have determined their present arrangement. This should be a useful adjunct to the more artificially arranged Analytical Key.

Geographical Limits, and Distribution.—The southern limit of the territory covered by the present work is the same as in the later previous editions, viz. the southern boundary of Virginia and Kentucky. This coincides better than any other geographical line with the natural division between the cooler-temperate and the warm-temperate vegetation of the Atlantic States. The rapid increase of population west of the Mississippi River, and the growing need of a Manual covering the flora of that section, have seemed a sufficient reason for the extension of the limits of the work westward to the 100th meridian, thus connecting with the Manual of the Flora of the Rocky Mountain Region by Prof. Coulter. These limits, as well as that upon the north, have been in general strictly observed, very few species being admitted that are not known with some degree of certainty to occur within them. The extreme western flora is no doubt imperfectly represented.

The distribution of the individual species is indicated somewhat more definitely than heretofore in many cases, so far as it could be satisfactorily ascertained. The extralimital range is also sometimes given, but the terms "northward," "southward," and "westward" are more frequently employed, signifying an indefinite range in those directions beyond the limits of the Manual. Where no definite habitat is specified, the species may be understood as found more or less generally throughout the whole area, or at least to near the western limits.

Nomenclature, Accentuation of Names, etc.—In case of question respecting the proper name to be adopted for any species, Dr. Gray's known and expressed views have been followed, it is believed, throughout the work. While reasonable regard has been paid to the claims of priority, the purpose has been to avoid unnecessary changes, in the belief that such changes are in most cases an unmitigated evil. Synonyms are rarely given except where changes have been made. As a guide to correct pronunciation, the long sound of the accented vowel (modified often in personal names) is indicated, as heretofore, by the grave accent (`), and the short sound by the acute (´). In regard to the derivations of generic names, many valuable suggestions have been due to W. R. Gerard, Esq., of New York.

Prominent Characters are indicated by the use of Italic type for the leading distinctions of the Orders, and generally in the specific descriptions for those points by which two or more nearly allied species may be most readily distinguished. The ready discrimination of the genera is provided for by a Synopsis of their leading characters under each order. Whenever a genus comprises several species, pains have been taken to render important differences conspicuous by proper grouping, and when needed by a series of subordinate divisions and subdivisions. The headings of these various groups are to be considered as belonging to and forming a part of the specific characters of the several species under them,—a fact which the student should always bear in mind.

Arrangement of the Orders.—The Natural Orders are disposed in very close accordance with the method followed by Bentham and Hooker in the Genera Plantarum, the principles of which are concisely shown in the Synopsis of Orders which precedes the Analytical Key. The Gymnospermæ are retained as a Subclass following the Angiospermous Dicotyledons, with which they have an obvious relationship, in preference to placing them, as some authorities would do, next before the Pteridophytes, to which their affinity, if no less certain, is nevertheless obscure. A more natural arrangement than either would be the withdrawal of the Endogens, placing them at the beginning, in perhaps an inverse order.

Analytical Key to the Orders.—As stated in Dr. Gray's Preface to the last edition, this is designed to enable the student to refer readily to its proper Order any of our plants, upon taking the pains to ascertain the structure of its flowers, and sometimes of the fruit, and by following out a series of easy steps in the analysis. It is founded upon the most obvious distinctions which will answer the purpose, and is so contrived as to provide for all or nearly all exceptional instances and variant cases. Referring to the Order which the Key leads him to, the student will find its most distinctive points brought together and printed in Italics in the first sentence of the ordinal description, and thus can verify his results. The Synopsis which follows will then lead him to the genus, to be verified in turn by the full generic description in its place; and the progress thence to the species is facilitated, when there are several to choose from, by the arrangement under divisions and subdivisions, as already explained.

It will be seen that the Key directs the inquirer to ascertain, first, the Class of the plant under consideration,—which, even without the seeds, is revealed at once by the plan of the stem, as seen in a cross-section, and usually by the veining of the leaves, and is commonly confirmed by the numerical plan of the flower;—then, if of the first Class, the Subclass is at once determined by the pistil, whether of the ordinary kind, or an open scale bearing naked ovules. If the former, then the choice between the three Divisions is determined by the presence or absence of the petals, and whether separate or united. Each Division is subdivided by equally obvious characters, and, finally, a series of successively subordinated propositions,—each set more indented upon the page than the preceding,—leads to the name of the Order sought for, followed by the number of the page upon which it is described in the body of the work.

The book is now submitted to those for whose benefit it has been prepared, in the trust that its shortcomings will meet with friendly indulgence, and with the earnest request that information be kindly given of any corrections or additions that may appear to be necessary.

Cambridge, Mass., Dec. 26, 1889.


Series I. PHÆNOGAMOUS or FLOWERING PLANTS: those producing real flowers and seeds.


Stems formed of bark, wood, and pith; the wood forming a zone between the other two, and increasing, when the stem continues from year to year, by the annual addition of a new layer to the outside, next the bark. Leaves netted-veined. Embryo with a pair of opposite cotyledons, or in Subclass II. often three or more in a whorl. Parts of the flower mostly in fours or fives.

Subclass I. ANGIOSPERMÆ. Pistil consisting of a closed ovary which contains the ovules and becomes the fruit. Cotyledons only two.

Division I. POLYPETALOUS: the calyx and corolla both present; the latter of separate petals. (Apetalous flowers occur in various Orders, as noted under the subdivisions.)

A. THALAMIFLORÆ. Stamens and petals hypogynous (free both from the calyx and from the superior ovary), upon a usually narrow receptacle (not glandular nor discoid, except in Reseda, sometimes stipe-like). (Stamens and petals upon the partly inferior ovary in some Nymphæaceæ.) Apetalous flowers occur in the Ranunculaceæ and Caryophyllaceæ.

[*] 1. Carpels solitary or distinct (or coherent in Magnoliaceæ); sepals and petals deciduous (except in Nymphæaceæ); leaves alternate or radical, without stipules (sometimes opposite or whorled and rarely stipular in Ranunculaceæ); embryo (except in Nelumbo) small, in fleshy albumen.

1. Ranunculaceæ (p. 34). Sepals (3 or more), petals (as many, in regular flowers, or none), stamens (usually many), and carpels (1–many) all distinct. Fruit achenes, follicles, or berries. Mostly herbs.

2. Magnoliaceæ (p. 49). Sepals and petals colored alike, in three or more rows of three, imbricate. Fruit cone-like, formed of the numerous cohering pistils. Trees.

3. Anonaceæ (p. 50). Sepals (3) and petals (6, in two rows) valvate. Fruit pulpy. Shrubs or small trees.

4. Menispermaceæ (p. 51). Sepals and petals in twos or threes, imbricate. Pistils becoming 1-seeded drupes. Diœcious woody climbers, with palmate or peltate leaves.

5. Berberidaceæ (p. 52). Sepals and petals imbricate, each in two rows of three (rarely in twos or fours). Stamens opposite the petals. Pistil solitary, becoming a berry or pod. Shrubs or low herbs.

6. Nymphæaceæ, in part (p. 54). Sepals and petals each 3, or many in several rows. Pistils becoming coriaceous and indehiscent. Aquatics; floating leaves peltate.

[*] 2. Carpels (2 or more) united into a compound ovary with parietal, often nerve-like placentæ (or the seeds covering the inner surface in Nymphæaceæ, and the placentæ axile in Sarraceniaceæ). Herbs (some Cistaceæ somewhat shrubby).

[+] Fruit 5–many-celled; calyx or whole perianth persistent; embryo small, at the base of fleshy albumen.

6. Nymphæaceæ proper (p. 54). Sepals 2–6. Petals and stamens numerous, on a thick hypogynous receptacle or inserted upon the ovary. Capsule 8–30-celled. Aquatics, with peltate or cordate leaves.

7. Sarraceniaceæ (p. 57). Sepals and petals 5. Capsule 5-celled. Marsh plants, with pitcher-shaped leaves.

[+][+] Fruit 1-celled, or spuriously 2–more-celled by partitions connecting the placentæ.

[++] Embryo minute at the base of fleshy albumen; perianth deciduous; sepals 2.

8. Papaveraceæ (p. 57.) Flowers regular. Sepals fugacious. Petals 4–12. Stamens and seeds numerous. Capsule 2–several-valved. Juice milky or colored.

9. Fumariaceæ (p. 59.) Flowers irregular. Petals 4, in dissimilar pairs. Stamens 6, diadelphous. Fruit 2-valved (indehiscent and 1-seeded in Fumaria). Juice watery; leaves dissected.

[++][++] Albumen none; embryo curved or folded; perianth deciduous (sepals persistent in Resedaceæ).

10. Cruciferæ (p. 61). Sepals and petals 4. Stamens mostly 6, tetradynamous (two inserted lower and shorter). Pod 2-celled by a transverse partition, 2-valved, or sometimes indehiscent or transversely jointed. Bracts and stipules none.

11. Capparidaceæ (p. 74). Sepals and petals 4. Stamens 6 or more, nearly equal. Pod 1-celled, 2-valved. Embryo coiled. Leaves often palmately divided; bracts and stipules often present.

12. Resedaceæ (p. 75). Sepals and petals 4–7, irregular. Stamens indefinite on an hypogynous disk, not covered in the bud. Pod 1-celled, 3–6-lobed, opening at the top.

[++][++][++] Embryo rather large in fleshy albumen; placentæ on the middle of the valves; calyx persistent.

13. Cistaceæ (p. 76). Flowers regular; sepals and petals 5, the two outer sepals minute. Stamens indefinite. Pod 1-celled, 3–5-valved. Ovules orthotropous. Embryo curved. Leaves entire, the lower often opposite.

14. Violaceæ (p. 78). Flowers irregular; sepals and petals 5. Stamens 5, with connivent introrse anthers. Style clavate. Pod 1-celled, 3-valved. Ovules anatropous. Embryo straight. Stipules present.

[*] 3. Ovary compound, 1-celled, with central placentæ; embryo curved around mealy albumen (except in Dianthus); leaves entire; stipules mostly none.

15. Caryophyllaceæ (p. 82). Sepals (5, rarely 4) distinct or united, persistent. Petals as many, rarely none. Stamens as many or twice as many, rarely fewer. Styles 2–5. Leaves opposite.

16. Portulacaceæ (p. 90). Sepals 2. Petals 5. Stamens 5–20. Capsule 3-valved or circumscissile. Fleshy herbs; leaves mostly alternate.

[*] 4. Calyx imbricate; stamens as many or twice as many as the petals or often indefinite; ovary compound, 1-celled with parietal placentæ or several-celled with the placentæ united in the axis; embryo straight or slightly curved; albumen none or scanty.

17. Elatinaceæ (p. 91). Small marsh annuals, with opposite leaves, membranous stipules, minute axillary flowers, few stamens, and pod 2–5-celled.

18. Hypericaceæ (p. 92). Herbs or shrubs, with opposite entire dotted leaves and no stipules. Flowers cymose or panicled. Stamens few or many, usually in 3 or more clusters. Pod 1-celled or 3–5-celled.

19. Ternstrœmiaceæ (p. 95). Trees or shrubs, with alternate leaves and no stipules. Flowers large, axillary, solitary. Stamens numerous, more or less united together and with the base of the petals. Pod 3–5-celled.

[*] 5. Calyx valvate; stamens numerous, usually more or less united together and with the base of the petals; ovary 3–many-celled with the placentæ united in the axis (becoming 1-celled and 1-seeded in Tilia).

20. Malvaceæ (p. 96). Stamens monadelphous; anthers 1-celled. Calyx persistent. Seeds kidney-shaped, with curved embryo and little albumen. Herbs or shrubs, with alternate palmately veined stipular leaves.

21. Tiliaceæ (p. 101). Stamens polyadelphous or nearly distinct; anthers 2-celled. Calyx deciduous. Embryo nearly straight. Trees, with alternate leaves and deciduous stipules.

B. DISCIFLORÆ. Stamens as many as the petals or twice as many or fewer, inserted upon or at the outer or inner base of a more or less tumid hypogynous or perigynous disk, which is cushion-like or annular or divided into glands, sometimes obscure or minute (or none in Linum, Ilex, some Geraniaceæ and Polygala); ovary superior (or half-inferior in some Rhamnaceæ); sepals more usually distinct. Petals wanting in some Rutaceæ, Rhamnaceæ, and Sapindaceæ.

[*] 1. Ovules (mostly 1 or 2 in each cell) pendulous, with the rhaphe toward the axis of the ovary; disk often reduced to glands alternate with the petals or none; ovary often lobed or the carpels nearly distinct.

22. Linaceæ (p. 101). Flowers regular, usually 5-merous. Capsule not lobed, mostly 5-valved, spuriously 10-celled, 10-seeded. Stamens united at base. Disk none or 5 minute glands. Herbs, with entire alternate or opposite leaves; stipules gland-like or none.

23. Geraniaceæ (p. 102). Flowers regular or irregular, 5-merous or 3-merous as to the stamens and pistils. Ovary 3–5-lobed, the cells 1–few-ovuled, and axis persistent. Disk of 5 glands or none. Herbs, with often lobed or divided mostly alternate leaves, with or without stipules.

24. Rutaceæ (p. 106). Flowers mostly regular, 3–5-merous, diœcious or polygamous in our genera. Ovary 2–5-lobed or the carpels nearly distinct, upon a glandular disk; cells 2-ovuled. Mostly shrubs or trees, with glandular-punctate compound leaves, without stipules.

[*] 2. Ovules (1 or 2) pendulous, the rhaphe away from the axis; disk none and ovary not lobed.

25. Ilicineæ (p. 107). Flowers small, diœciously polygamous, axillary, 4–8-merous. Fruit a 4–8-seeded berry-like drupe. Shrubs or trees, with simple alternate leaves and no stipules.

[*] 3. Ovules (1 or 2 in each cell) erect, the rhaphe toward the axis; disk fleshy, covering the base of the calyx; stamens as many as the petals, at the margin of the disk; flowers perfect or polygamo-diœcious; albumen fleshy; shrubs or trees, with simple leaves (compound in some Vitaceæ).

26. Celastraceæ (p. 109). Sepals and petals imbricated, the stamens alternate with the petals. Fruit 2–5-celled; seeds arilled.

27. Rhamnaceæ (p. 111). Calyx valvate. Petals small or none. Stamens alternate with the sepals. Fruit 2–5-celled; seeds solitary, not arilled.

28. Vitaceæ (p. 112). Calyx minute. Stamens opposite the valvate caducous petals. Climbing by tendrils opposite the alternate leaves.

[*] 4. Ovules (1 or 2) ascending or horizontal, or pendulous from a basal funicle; fleshy disk entire or lobed; stamens 5–10; shrubs or trees, with compound leaves (simple in Acer) and mostly polygamo-diœcious and often irregular flowers; petals imbricate (sometimes none in Sapindaceæ).

29. Sapindaceæ (p. 115). Flowers mostly unsymmetrical or irregular. Ovary 2–3-celled and -lobed.

30. Anacardiaceæ (p. 118). Flowers regular, 5-androus. Ovary 1-celled, becoming a small dry drupe. Leaves alternate; juice milky or resinous.

[*] 5. Ovules solitary, pendulous from the summit of the 2-celled ovary; disk none; flowers irregular (subpapilionaceous), hypogynous; stamens monadelphous or diadelphous; anthers 1-celled, opening by an apical pore.

31. Polygalaceæ (p. 120). Herbs, with perfect flowers and alternate or opposite or whorled entire leaves. Stamens 6–8. Seed carunculate.

C. CALYCIFLORÆ. Sepals rarely distinct; disk adnate to the base of the calyx, rarely tumid or conspicuous; petals and stamens on the calyx, perigynous or epigynous, the ovary being often inferior (hypogynous in Drosera and Parnassia, nearly so in some Leguminosæ and Crassulaceæ). Apetalous flowers in Orders 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42, 47, and 50.

[*] 1. Ovary usually superior, the pistils solitary, or several and distinct (sometimes more or less united but at least the styles distinct except in some Saxifragaceæ).

32. Leguminosæ (p. 122). Flowers papilionaceous or regular. Stamens usually 10, and mostly monadelphous or diadelphous. Pistil one, free, becoming a legume; style terminal. Albumen none. Leaves mostly compound, alternate, stipular.

33. Rosaceæ (p. 150). Flowers regular, with usually numerous distinct stamens, and 1–many pistils, distinct or (in Pomeæ) united and combined with the calyx-tube; style often lateral or basal. Calyx-lobes and petals mostly 5. Ovules mostly 1 or 2. Albumen mostly none. Trees, shrubs, or herbs; leaves usually alternate and stipulate, simple or compound.

34. Calycanthaceæ (p. 167). Calyx-lobes, petals, and stamens indefinite. Pistils numerous, becoming achenes in a hollow receptacle. Albumen none. Aromatic shrubs, with opposite entire leaves and no stipules.

35. Saxifragaceæ (p. 168). Flowers regular, with 5–10 stamens (numerous in Philadelphus), few (mostly 2) more or less united, free or partially adnate carpels, and few–many ovules on axile or sometimes parietal placentæ. Seeds albuminous. Herbs or shrubs, with opposite or alternate leaves, with or without stipules.

36. Crassulaceæ (p. 170). Mostly fleshy herbs, with symmetrical flowers, the usually distinct many-seeded carpels as many as the sepals. Seeds albuminous. Leaves alternate or opposite or whorled; stipules none.

37. Droseraceæ (p. 178). Glandular-haired scapose marsh herbs, with regular 5-merous hypogynous flowers. Capsule 1-celled, with 3–5 many-seeded parietal placentæ. Anthers extrorse. Leaves circinate in vernation.

38. Hamamelideæ (p. 179). Shrubs or trees; flowers often polygamo-monœcious, in clusters, heads, or spikes; petals often none. Seeds 2 or more, bony, in a 2-beaked woody pod opening above, the base adnate to the calyx-tube. Stamens few or many. Leaves alternate, simple.

39. Halorageæ (p. 180). Aquatic or marsh herbs; flowers perfect or polygamo-diœcious, small, axillary or spicate; petals often none. Stamens 1–8. Ovary inferior, the calyx-limb obsolete or very short. Fruit small, indehiscent, 1–4-celled, 1–4-seeded. Leaves alternate or opposite, the submersed often dissected.

[*] 2. Ovary inferior (except in Lythraceæ), 1–several-celled; style entire; flowers perfect, regular or nearly so, mostly 4-merous; herbs, with simple and mostly entire leaves without stipules.

40. Melastomaceæ (p. 183). Calyx open. Stamens definite; anthers opening by an apical pore. Leaves opposite, 3–7-nerved; flowers cymose.

41. Lythraceæ (p. 184). Calyx-lobes valvate. Pod free, but enclosed in the calyx, membranous, 1–4-celled, many-seeded with axile placentæ. Leaves mostly opposite; flowers axillary or whorled; petals crumpled, or none.

42. Onagraceæ (p. 186). Calyx-lobes valvate. Ovary 1–4-celled, the cells 1–many-ovuled. Stamens 2, 4, or 8. Petals 2 or 4, convolute, or none. Leaves opposite or alternate.

[*] 3. Ovary inferior (except in Passifloraceæ and Ficoideæ), 1-celled with parietal placentæ or several-celled by the intrusion of the placentæ; flowers regular, perfect or unisexual; styles free or united; herbs.

[+] Embryo straight; cotyledons foliaceous; leaves alternate, often lobed.

43. Loasaceæ (p. 193). Flowers perfect. Stamens indefinite. Style entire or 2–3-cleft. Capsule 1-celled, with 2 or 3 many-seeded placentæ. Pubescence of hooked hairs.

44. Passifloraceæ (p. 194). Climbing by tendrils. Flowers perfect. Stamens 5, monadelphous. Ovary stalked, superior, becoming a 1-celled many-seeded berry with 3 or 4 placentæ. Styles 3, clavate.

45. Cucurbitaceæ (p. 194). Tendril-bearing vines, with diœcious or monœcious flowers. Corolla 5-lobed, often confluent with the calyx. Stamens 3 or 5, usually more or less united and the anthers often tortuous. Fruit fleshy or membranous, 1–5-celled, the placentæ often produced to the axis and revolute. Seeds exalbuminous.

[+][+] Embryo curved or coiled about central albumen; leaves entire.

46. Cactaceæ (p. 196). Fleshy and mostly leafless prickly plants, with solitary sessile perfect flowers. Calyx-lobes and petals indefinite, imbricated, the numerous stamens on the tube. Fruit a 1-celled many-seeded berry.

47. Ficoideæ (p. 198). Calyx-lobes or sepals 5 and petals none in our genera. Capsule 3–5-celled with axile placentæ, loculicidal or circumscissile, many-seeded. Often fleshy; leaves mostly opposite or verticillate.

[*] 4. Flowers small, regular, perfect or polygamous; calyx-limb minute or obsolete; ovary inferior, 2–several-celled, with solitary pendulous ovules; petals and stamens mostly 4 or 5, on the margin of an epigynous disk surrounding the styles; albumen copious.

48. Umbelliferæ (p. 198). Flowers in umbels or heads. Petals (inflexed) and stamens 5. Styles 2. Fruit of 2 dry seed-like carpels, the pericarp usually with oil-tubes. Herbs, with alternate mostly compound leaves.

49. Araliaceæ (p. 212). Flowers mostly in umbels and nearly as in Umbelliferæ; petals not inflexed and styles 2 or more. Fruit a 2–several-celled drupe. Herbs or shrubs, with alternate mostly compound leaves.

50. Cornaceæ (p. 213). Flowers not in umbels; petals (valvate, or none) and stamens 4 or 5. Style 1. Fruit a 1–2-seeded drupe. Trees, shrubs, or rarely herbs, with opposite or alternate simple and mostly entire leaves.

Division II. GAMOPETALOUS: calyx and corolla both present, the latter of united petals (excepting some Ericaceæ, Styracaceæ, and Oleaceæ, Galax, Statice, and Lysimachia). Apetalous flowers occur in Glaux and some Oleaceæ. Stipules present only in Rubiaceæ and Loganiaceæ, or rarely in Caprifoliaceæ.

[*] 1. Ovary inferior; stamens borne upon the corolla, alternate with its lobes.

[+] Stamens distinct; leaves opposite or whorled; seed albuminous except in Valerianaceæ.

51. Caprifoliaceæ (p. 216). Corolla mostly 5-lobed, regular or irregular, the stamens as many (one fewer in Linnæa, doubled in Adoxa). Ovary 1–several-celled; fruit a berry, drupe, or pod, 1–several-seeded. Shrubs or herbs; leaves opposite, rarely stipular, not turning black in drying.

52. Rubiaceæ (p. 222). Flowers regular, 4–5-merous, the corolla mostly valvate. Ovary 2–4-celled. Herbs or shrubs; leaves simple, entire, opposite with stipules, or verticillate, usually turning black in drying.

53. Valerianaceæ (p. 228). Stamens (1–4) fewer than the lobes of the somewhat irregular corolla. Ovary with two abortive or empty cells and one containing a suspended ovule. Fruit dry and indehiscent. Herbs.

54. Dipsaceæ (p. 229). Flowers mostly 4-merous and with 4 (rarely 2) stamens, involucellate in involucrate heads; corolla-lobes imbricate. Ovary simple, 1-celled, with a suspended ovule. Herbs.

[+][+] Anthers connate into a tube.

55. Compositæ (p. 230). Stamens as many as the valvate corolla-lobes. Ovary with a solitary erect ovule, becoming an achene. Albumen none. Calyx-limb reduced to a pappus or none. Flowers in involucrate heads.

[*] 2. Ovary inferior (or superior in most Ericaceæ and in Diapensiaceæ); stamens free from the corolla or nearly so (adnate in some Diapensiaceæ), as many as the lobes and alternate with them, or twice as many; leaves alternate (opposite in some Ericaceæ); style 1.

[+] Juice milky; capsule 2–5-celled, many-seeded; herbs.

56. Lobeliaceæ (p. 305). Corolla irregular, 5-lobed. Stamens united, at least by the anthers. Capsule 2-celled or with two placentæ.

57. Campanulaceæ (p. 307). Corolla regular, 5-lobed, valvate. Stamens usually distinct. Capsule 2–several-celled.

[+][+] Juice not milky nor acrid; capsule 3–10-celled.

58. Ericaceæ (p. 309). Flowers mostly regular, 4–5-merous. Stamens distinct, more usually twice as many as the corolla-lobes or petals. Ovary inferior or superior. Herbs or shrubs.

59. Diapensiaceæ (p. 326). Flowers regular. Stamens 5, on the corolla, or monadelphous with 5 petaloid staminodia. Ovary superior, 3-celled.

[*] 3. Ovary superior; stamens as many as the corolla-lobes and opposite them.

60. Plumbaginaceæ (p. 327). Stamens 5, on the base of the petals. Styles 5. Fruit an achene or 1-seeded utricle. Herbs; leaves radical.

61. Primulaceæ (p. 328). Stamens 4–8, perigynous. Style 1. Fruit a capsule with several seeds on a central placenta. Herbs; leaves radical or opposite or alternate.

62. Sapotaceæ (p. 332). Flowers small, 4–5-merous. Style 1. Ovary few–several-celled; fruit fleshy, bearing a single bony-coated seed. Shrubs or trees, with milky juice and alternate entire leaves.

[*] 4. Ovary superior or more or less adnate to the calyx, few–several-celled, the cells 1-ovuled; stamens twice as many as the corolla-lobes or more; trees or shrubs, with alternate leaves.

63. Ebenaceæ (p. 333). Flowers diœcious or polygamous. Stamens on the corolla. Ovary superior. Styles distinct. Fruit fleshy, few-seeded.

64. Styracaceæ (p. 333). Flowers perfect. Stamens subhypogynous. Ovary more or less inferior. Style 1. Fruit dry or nearly so, 1–4-seeded.

[*] 5. Ovary superior, of two carpels (sometimes by division apparently 4-carpellary, sometimes of 3–5 in Polemoniaceæ, Convolvulaceæ, and Solanaceæ); stamens on the corolla (except in apetalous Oleaceæ), alternate with its lobes, as many or fewer.

[+] Corolla not scarious and nerveless.

[++] Corolla none, or regular and 4-cleft or -parted, the stamens fewer than its lobes; style 1; seeds 1–3.

65. Oleaceæ (p. 335). Trees or shrubs, with opposite and pinnate or simple leaves. Flowers perfect or polygamo-diœcious. Stamens mostly 2, alternate with the usually 2-ovuled carpels.

[++][++] Corolla regular, its lobes 4–5 or rarely more; stamens as many.

[=] Ovaries 2, becoming follicles; stigmas and sometimes the styles united; herbs with milky juice, perfect 5-merous flowers, and simple entire leaves.

66. Apocynaceæ (p. 337). Stamens distinct or the anthers merely connivent, with ordinary pollen. Style 1.

67. Asclepiadaceæ (p. 338). Stamens monadelphous, the anthers permanently attached to a large stigmatic body; pollen mostly in waxy masses. Styles distinct below the stigma.

[=][=] Ovary compound (ovaries two in Dichondra), with 2 or 3 (rarely 4 or 5) cells or placentæ; stamens distinct; mostly herbs.

a. Leaves opposite; corolla-lobes 4 or 5 or more.

68. Loganiaceæ (p. 345). Leaves entire, with stipules or a stipular line joining their bases. Capsule 2-celled, few–many-seeded. Herbs or woody twiners (our species).

69. Gentianaceæ (p. 346). Glabrous herbs; leaves entire, sessile and simple (except in Menyanthes). Capsule 1-celled with 2 parietal placentæ or the whole inner surface ovuliferous, many-seeded.

b. Leaves alternate (sometimes opposite in Polemoniaceæ and Hydrophyllaceæ); corolla-lobes always 5 in our species.

70. Polemoniaceæ (p. 354). Capsule usually 3-celled, loculicidal; seeds 1–many in each cell on the stout placental axis. Style 3-cleft or -lobed. Leaves opposite or alternate, simple or compound.

71. Hydrophyllaceæ (p. 357). Leaves often lobed or divided, and the inflorescence frequently scorpioid. Style 2-parted or 2-lobed. Capsule 1-celled, 2-valved with two parietal or introflexed placentæ, or sometimes 2-celled. Seeds 2 or more on each placenta.

72. Borraginaceæ (p. 360). Leaves mostly entire and plants often rough-hispid; inflorescence commonly scorpioid. Style 1. Ovary 4-ovulate, usually 4-lobed and maturing as 4 separate or separable nutlets, or not lobed, 2–4-celled and separating when ripe into 2 or 4 nutlets.

73. Convolvulaceæ (p. 367). Usually twining or trailing; flowers on axillary peduncles or cymose-glomerate. Corolla 5-lobed or 5-plaited, twisted in the bud. Styles 1 or 2. Ovary 2- (sometimes 3- or spuriously 4-) celled, becoming a globular 4–6-seeded capsule (or ovaries two and distinct in Dichondra). Cotyledons broad-foliaceous.

74. Solanaceæ (p. 373). Style 1. Ovary 2-celled (rarely 3–5-celled), with numerous ovules on axillary placentæ, becoming a pod or berry. Cotyledons narrow.

[++][++][++] Corolla more or less bilabiately irregular (sometimes nearly regular), 5-lobed. Fertile stamens 4 and didynamous, or 2. Style 1. Ovary always of two carpels.

a. Ovules several or many.

75. Scrophulariaceæ (p. 377). Capsule 2-celled, with central placentæ. Seeds small, usually numerous. Herbs; leaves alternate or opposite.

76. Orobanchaceæ (p. 393). Root-parasites with no green foliage. Capsule 1-celled, with 2 simple or double parietal placentæ. Seeds many.

77. Lentibulariaceæ (p. 395). Aquatic or marsh herbs, with scapes or scape-like peduncles, sometimes nearly leafless. Corolla personate and spurred. Capsule globular, 1-celled; placentæ central, free, many-seeded.

78. Bignoniaceæ (p. 398). Large-flowered trees or often climbing shrubs, with usually opposite simple or compound leaves. Capsule 2-celled by a partition between the 2 parietal placentæ. Seeds numerous, large, mostly winged.

79. Pedaliaceæ (p. 399). Herbs, with opposite simple leaves. Ovary 1-celled with two bilamellar parietal placentæ, or 2–4-celled by their union, becoming drupaceous or capsular. Seeds few or many, wingless.

80. Acanthaceæ (p. 399). Herbs, with opposite simple leaves. Capsule 2-celled, loculicidal, with each axile placenta bearing 2–10 flattish seeds.

b. Cells of the ovary 1–2-ovuled; herbs or low shrubs, with opposite leaves.

81. Verbenaceæ (p. 401). Ovary 2–4-celled, not lobed, the dry or drupaceous fruit separating into 2 or 4 1-seeded nutlets (fruit 1-celled and 1-seeded in Phryma). Style terminal.

82. Labiatæ (p. 403). Ovary deeply 4-lobed around the style, the lobes becoming dry seed-like nutlets. Stems square; aromatic.

[+][+] Corolla scarious and nerveless; flowers regular, 4-merous; style 1.

83. Plantaginaceæ (p. 422). Scapose herbs, with perfect or polygamo-diœcious or monœcious flowers in 1–many-flowered spikes. Fruit a circumscissile 2-celled capsule, with one or more peltate seeds in each cell, or an achene.

Division III. APETALOUS EXOGENS. The corolla wanting (except in some Euphorbiaceæ), and sometimes also the calyx.

[*] 1. Ovary superior (though sometimes enclosed within the calyx), 1-celled with a solitary basal ovule (several-celled in Phytolaccaceæ); embryo coiled or curved (nearly straight in Polygonaceæ) in or about mealy albumen (albumen none in some Chenopodiaceæ); herbs.

[+] Fruit the hardened or membranous closed base of the corolla-like perianth enclosing a utricle.

84. Nyctaginaceæ (p. 425). Perianth tubular or funnelform. Stamens hypogynous. Fruit ribbed or winged. Leaves opposite; stipules none.

[+][+] Fruit a utricle; perianth mostly persistent, small, 4–5-lobed or -parted, or none.

85. Illecebraceæ (p. 426). Perianth herbaceous. Stamens perigynous. Leaves opposite; stipules scarious (none in Scleranthus).

86. Amarantaceæ (p. 427). Flowers sessile, bracteate, the bracts (usually 3) more or less dry and scarious, as well as the 3–5 distinct sepals. Stamens 1–5, hypogynous. Utricle indehiscent or circumscissile. Embryo annular. Leaves mostly alternate, entire; stipules none.

87. Chenopodiaceæ (p. 430). Flowers sessile, not scarious-bracteate. Sepals greenish or succulent, 5 or fewer, or none. Stamens 5 or fewer, perigynous or hypogynous. Embryo annular or spiral or conduplicate. Leaves alternate; stipules none.

[+][+][+] Ovary of several 1-ovuled carpels, in fruit a berry (in our genera).

88. Phytolaccaceæ (p. 435). Sepals 4–5, petaloid or herbaceous. Stamens 5–30, hypogynous. Carpels 5–12. Embryo annular. Leaves alternate, entire; stipules none.

[+][+][+][+] Fruit a triangular or lenticular achene.

89. Polygonaceæ (p. 436). Flowers on jointed pedicels. Calyx 3–6-lobed or -parted, more or less corolla-like. Stamens 4–12, on the calyx. Embryo nearly straight. Leaves alternate, with sheathing stipules or none.

[*] 2. Ovary compound, the cells many-ovuled (or 1-ovuled in Piperaceæ); embryo minute in copious albumen; flowers perfect.

90. Podostemaceæ (p. 444). Aquatic, with the aspect of sea-weeds or mosses, with minute naked flowers from a spathe-like involucre. Ovary superior; pod 2–3-celled.

91. Aristolochiaceæ (p. 444). Terrestrial herbs or climbing shrubs. Calyx valvate, adnate at least at base to the 6-celled many-seeded ovary. Stamens 6–12, more or less united with the style. Leaves alternate, mostly cordate; stipules none.

92. Piperaceæ (§ Saurureæ), (p. 446). Marsh herb (our species). Perianth none. Carpels 3–4, distinct, with usually a single ascending seed. Leaves alternate, entire.

[*] 3. Ovary superior, simple, 1-celled, 1-ovuled, forming a berry or drupe; trees or shrubs, with mostly entire leaves and no stipules.

93. Lauraceæ (p. 446). Flowers perfect or diœcious. Sepals 4 or 6, in 2 rows. Stamens 9–12; anthers opening by 2 or 4 uplifted valves. Seed suspended; albumen none. Aromatic; leaves alternate.

94. Thymelæaceæ (p. 448). Flowers perfect. Calyx corolla-like, 4–5-cleft. Stamens twice as many. Seed suspended, with little or no albumen. Acrid shrubs with very tough bark; leaves alternate.

95. Elæagnaceæ (p. 448). Flowers mostly diœcious. Calyx-tube becoming berry-like and enclosing the achene. Seed erect, albuminous. Leaves silvery-scurfy, opposite.

[*] 4. Ovary inferior, 1-celled, 1–3-ovuled (but 1-seeded); albumen without testa, bearing the embryo in a cavity at the apex; calyx-lobes valvate.

96. Loranthaceæ (p. 449). Parasitic on trees, with jointed stems and opposite leaves. Flowers diœcious. Ovule solitary, erect. Fruit a berry.

97. Santalaceæ (p. 450). Flowers perfect. Ovules 2–4, suspended from the apex of a central placenta. Fruit dry, indehiscent. Leaves alternate.

[*] 5. Flowers all unisexual (polygamous in some Urticaceæ and Empetraceæ, apparently perfect in Euphorbia); cells 1–2-ovuled; embryo nearly as long as the albumen or filling the seed; calyx often wanting, corolla-like only in some Euphorbiaceæ and Empetraceæ; stipules often present.

[+] 1. Ovary superior, 3-celled (1-celled in Crotonopsis) with 1 or 2 pendulous ovules in each cell; herbs.

98. Euphorbiaceæ (p. 451). Flowers monœcious or diœcious (involucrate and apparently perfect in Euphorbia). Mostly with milky juice, and usually alternate often stipulate leaves.

[+] 2. Ovary 1-celled, 1-seeded; trees or shrubs (except some Urticaceæ).

[++] Calyx regular, the stamens as many as the lobes and opposite them or fewer; ovary superior.

99. Urticaceæ (p. 461). Flowers monœcious, diœcious, or (in Ulmeæ) perfect. Seeds exalbuminous or nearly so. Inflorescence very various.

[++][++] Perianth mostly none; at least the staminate flowers in aments or spikes or dense heads; albumen none.

100. Platanaceæ (p. 466). Trees, with alternate palmately lobed leaves, sheathing stipules, and monœcious flowers in separate globose heads. Ovary superior; fruit a club-shaped nutlet.

101. Juglandaceæ (p. 467). Trees, with alternate pinnate leaves, no stipules, and monœcious flowers, the staminate in aments. Ovary inferior; fruit a nut.

102. Myricaceæ (p. 469). Shrubs, with resinous-dotted leaves, with or without stipules, and monœcious or diœcious flowers, both kinds in short scaly aments. Ovary superior, becoming a small drupe-like nut.

[+] 3. Ovary 2–7-celled, with 1 or 2 suspended ovules in each cell, becoming 1-celled and 1-seeded; calyx mostly none or adherent to the ovary; trees or shrubs with simple leaves.

103. Cupuliferæ (p. 470). Flowers monœcious. Fruit a nut surrounded by an involucre, or (in Betuleæ) a small winged or angled naked nutlet in the axils of the scales of an ament.

[+] 4. Ovary 1-celled, becoming a 2-valved pod with two parietal or basal placentæ bearing numerous small comose seeds; perianth none.

104. Salicaceæ (p. 480). Diœcious trees or shrubs, with both kinds of flowers in aments, and simple alternate stipulate leaves.

[+] 5. Ovary several-celled, becoming a drupe containing 3–9 1-seeded nutlets; seed erect; low shrubby heath-like evergreens.

105. Empetraceæ (p. 487). Flowers polygamous or diœcious, scaly-bracted. Sepals somewhat petaloid or none. Embryo axile in copious albumen.

[+] 6. Ovary 1-celled with a suspended ovule, becoming an achene; calyx none; aquatic herbs, with finely dissected whorled leaves.

106. Ceratophyllaceæ (p. 488). Flowers monœcious, minute, axillary and sessile. Albumen none; the seed filled with a highly developed embryo.

Subclass II. GYMNOSPERMOUS EXOGENS. Ovules naked upon a scale, bract, or disk. Cotyledons two or more.

107. Coniferæ (p. 489). Resiniferous trees or shrubs, with mostly awl-shaped or needle-shaped and evergreen leaves, and monœcious or diœcious flowers.


Stems without central pith or annular layers, but having the woody fibres distributed irregularly through them (a transverse slice showing the fibres as dots scattered through the cellular tissue). Embryo with a single cotyledon and the early leaves always alternate. Parts of the flower usually in threes (never in fives), and the leaves mostly parallel-veined. Our species herbaceous, excepting Smilax.

[*] Ovary inferior (superior in Bromeliaceæ, nearly so in some Hemodoraceæ); at least the inner lobes of the perianth petal-like.

[+] 1. Seeds without albumen, very numerous and minute.

108. Hydrocharidaceæ (p. 495). Aquatics, with diœcious or polygamous flowers from a spathe; outer perianth calyx-like, the inner sometimes wanting. Stamens 3–12. Ovary 1-celled with 3 parietal placentæ or 6–9-celled with axile placentæ.

109. Burmanniaceæ (p. 496). Terrestrial, with scale-like cauline leaves and regular perfect triandrous flowers. Perianth corolla-like.

110. Orchidaceæ (p. 497). Terrestrial, with very irregular perfect flowers. Stamens and style connate; anthers 1 or 2. Capsule 1-celled; placentæ 3, parietal. Perianth corolla-like.

[+] 2. Seeds albuminous. (Ovary 3-celled and flowers regular in our genera.)

111. Bromeliaceæ (p. 511). Mostly epiphytes, with dry persistent scurfy leaves. Flowers 6-androus; outer perianth calyx-like.

112. Hemodoraceæ (p. 512). Fibrous-rooted, with equitant leaves and perfect 3- or 6-androus flowers. Perianth persistent, woolly or scurfy outside. (Ovary sometimes nearly free; leaves flat in Aletris.)

113. Iridaceæ (p. 513). Root not bulbous; leaves equitant in two ranks. Flowers from a spathe. Stamens 3, opposite the outer lobes of the corolla-like perianth; anthers extrorse.

114. Amaryllidaceæ (p. 515). Often bulbous-rooted and scapose. Perianth corolla-like. Stamens 6; anthers introrse.

115. Dioscoreaceæ (p. 517). Climbing, with net-veined leaves. Flowers diœcious, small, 6-androus; perianth calyx-like. Ovules 1 or 2 in each cell.

[*][*] Ovary superior (very rarely partially adnate to the calyx in Liliaceæ).

[+] 1. At least the inner perianth corolla-like; ovary compound; seeds with copious albumen.

116. Liliaceæ (p. 517). Flowers perfect, 6-androus, the regular perianth corolla-like (diœcious in Smilax, dimerous in Maianthemum, the outer divisions herbaceous in Trillium). Fruit a 3-celled capsule or berry.

117. Pontederiaceæ (p. 535). Aquatic, with more or less irregular perfect flowers from a spathe; perianth corolla-like. Stamens 3 or 6, mostly unequal or dissimilar. Capsule 1-celled or imperfectly 3-celled.

118. Xyridaceæ (p. 536). Rush-like, scapose. Flowers capitate, perfect, 3-androus, the calyx glumaceous. Capsule 1-celled.

119. Mayaceæ (p. 537). Moss-like aquatic. Flowers perfect, axillary, solitary, 3-androus; calyx herbaceous. Capsule 1-celled.

120. Commelinaceæ (p. 538). Flowers perfect, regular or somewhat irregular, with 3 more or less herbaceous persistent sepals and 3 fugacious petals. Stamens 6 or some sterile. Capsule 2–3-celled.

127. Eriocauleæ (p. 566). Scapose aquatic or marsh plants, with linear leaves and dense heads of monœcious (rarely diœcious) minute flowers. Corolla tubular or none. Capsule 2–3-celled, 2–3-seeded.

[+] 2. Perianth small, of 6 equal persistent glumaceous segments; flowers perfect; ovary compound.

121. Juncaceæ (p. 539). Rush-like. Stamens 3 or 6. Capsule 1- or 3-celled, 3-valved.

[+] 3. Flowers without chaffy glumes, the perianth none or reduced to bristles or sepal-like scales; flowers often monœcious or diœcious; carpels solitary or united.

[++] Flowers capitate or upon a spike or spadix, with or without a spathe.

122. Typhaceæ (p. 547). Marsh or aquatic plants, with linear leaves, and monœcious flowers without proper perianth, in heads or a naked spike.

123. Araceæ (p. 548). Flowers perfect or monœcious upon the same spadix, rarely diœcious, with 4 or 6 scale-like sepals or none.

[++][++] Flowers very minute, one or few from the margin of a floating disk-like frond.

124. Lemnaceæ (p. 551). Plants very small, green, mostly lenticular or globose.

[+] 4. Perianth of 4 or 6 segments, the inner often petaloid, or none; carpels solitary or distinct (coherent in Triglochin); seeds without albumen; aquatic or marsh plants, often monœcious or diœcious.

125. Alismaceæ (p. 553). Perianth of 6 segments, the inner petal-like.

126. Naiadaceæ (p. 557). Perianth-segments herbaceous or none.

[+] 5. Flowers in the axils of chaffy scales or glumes arranged in spikes or spikelets, without evident perianth; stamens 1–3; ovary 1-celled, 1-seeded; seed albuminous.

128. Cyperaceæ (p. 567). Scales single. Perianth none or replaced by bristles. Anthers basifixed. Fruit a triangular or lenticular achene. Stem solid, often triangular, with closed sheaths.

129. Gramineæ (p. 623). Glumes in pairs. Perianth replaced by minute scales. Anthers versatile. Fruit a caryopsis. Culm usually hollow, terete; sheaths split to the base.

Series II. CRYPTOGAMOUS or FLOWERLESS PLANTS; destitute of stamens and pistils, in fructification producing spores instead of seeds.


Cryptogamous plants with a distinct axis (stem and branches), growing from the apex only, and furnished for the most part with distinct leaves (sometimes taking the form of an expanded leaf-like usually prostrate thallus); reproduction by means of antheridia and archegonia, sometimes also by gemmation.

Subclass I. VASCULAR ACROGENS, or PTERIDOPHYTES. Stems (and foliage when present) containing both woody fibre and vessels; antheridia or archegonia, or both, borne on a minute prothallus, which is developed from the spore on germination.

[*] Spores of only one kind; prothallus bearing antheridia and archegonia.

130. Equisetaceæ (p. 675). Cylindric jointed hollow-stemmed plants, with toothed sheaths. Fructification in a terminal spike.

131. Filices (p. 678). Ferns, with fronds circinate in vernation, bearing the fructification on the under surface or beneath the margin.

132. Ophioglossaceæ (p. 693). Fronds often fern-like, erect in vernation. Sporangia globose, coriaceous, 2-valved, in special spikes or panicles.

133. Lycopodiaceæ (p. 695). Low moss like plants with elongated stems and small persistent entire several-ranked leaves. Sporangia solitary, axillary, 1–3-celled, 2–3-valved.

[*][*] Spores of two kinds, the macrospore producing a prothallus with archegonia, the microspore smaller and developing antheridia.

134. Selaginellaceæ (p. 697). Low leafy moss-like or marsh plants, with branching stems, and small 4–6-ranked leaves, or with a corm-like stem and basal linear-subulate leaves, the two kinds of spores in distinct solitary axillary 1-celled sporangia.

135. Marsiliaceæ (p. 700). The two kinds of spores in the same or different sporangia which are borne in a coriaceous peduncled sporocarp arising from a slender creeping rhizome. Fronds digitately 4-foliolate or filiform.

136. Salviniaceæ (p. 701). The two kinds of spores in separate thin-walled 1-celled sporocarps or conceptacles clustered beneath the small floating fronds; macrospores solitary.


Plants with cellular tissue only; both antheridia and archegonia borne upon the plant itself.—Including the Musci, or Mosses (which are not treated of here), never thallose, and bearing capsules which usually dehisce by a lid and contain spores only, and the Hepaticæ, which bear capsules which dehisce by valves or irregularly and usually have elaters mingled with the spores. The latter division comprises the following Orders.

[*] Capsule 4-valved; plant a leafy axis or sometimes a branching thallus.

137. Jungermanniaceæ (p. 702). Leaves, when present, without a midrib, 2-ranked, with often a third row beneath; pedicels slender.

[*][*] Capsule 2-valved, or dehiscing irregularly, or indehiscent; plant a thallus or thalloid stem.

138. Anthocerotaceæ (p. 726). Thallus without epidermis, irregularly branching; pedicels stout or none. Capsule with a columella. Elaters mostly without fibres.

139. Marchantiaceæ (p. 727). Thallus radiate or dichotomous, the epidermis usually porose. Capsules borne on the under side of a pedunculate receptacle, irregularly dehiscent. Elaters 2-spiral.

140. Ricciaceæ (p. 730). Thallus radiate or dichotomous, the epidermis eporose. Capsules immersed in the thallus or sessile upon it, indehiscent. Elaters none.



Subclass I. ANGIOSPERMÆ. Pistil consisting of a closed ovary. Cotyledons only two.

Division I. POLYPETALOUS: the calyx and corolla both present; the latter of separate petals.

A. Stamens numerous, at least more than 10, and more than twice the sepals or lobes of the calyx.

1. Calyx entirely free and separate from the pistil or pistils.


Pistils numerous but cohering over each other in a solid mass on an elongated receptacle. Magnoliaceæ, 49

Pistils numerous, separate, but concealed in a hollow receptacle.

Leaves opposite, entire; no stipules. Calycanthaceæ, 167

Leaves alternate, with stipules. Rosa, in Rosaceæ, 162

Pistils several, immersed in hollows of the upper surface of a large top-shaped receptacle. Nelumbo, in Nymphæaceæ, 55

Pistils more than one, separate, not enclosed in the receptacle.

Stamens inserted on the calyx, distinct. Rosaceæ, 150

Stamens united with the base of the petals, monadelphous. Malvaceæ, 96

Stamens inserted on the receptacle.

Filaments much shorter than the anther; trees. Anonaceæ, 50

Filaments longer than the anther.

Flowers diœcious; twiners with alternate leaves. Menispermaceæ, 51

Flowers perfect; if climbers, the leaves opposite.

Leaves not peltate; petals deciduous. Ranunculaceæ, 34

Leaves peltate; petals persistent. Brasenia, in Nymphæaceæ, 55

Pistils several-lobed, the ovaries united below the middle. Resedaceæ, 75

Pistils several, their ovaries cohering in a ring around an axis. Malvaceæ, 96

Pistils strictly one as to the ovary; the styles or stigmas may be several.

Leaves punctate under a lens with transparent dots. Hypericaceæ, 92

Leaves not punctate with transparent dots.

Ovary simple, 1-celled, 2-ovuled. Rosaceæ, 150

Ovary simple, 1-celled, with one parietal many-ovuled placenta.

Leaves 2–3-ternately compound or dissected. Ranunculaceæ, 34

Leaves peltate, simply lobed. Podophyllum, in Berberidaceæ, 52

Ovary compound, 1-celled, with a central placenta. Portulacaceæ, 90

Ovary compound, 1-celled, with two or more parietal placentæ.

Calyx caducous; juice milky or colored. Papaveraceæ, 57

Calyx deciduous, of 4 sepals. Capparidaceæ, 74

Calyx persistent, of 3 or 5 sepals. Cistaceæ, 76

Ovary compound, several-celled.

Calyx valvate in the bud, and

Persistent; stamens monadelphous; anthers 1-celled. Malvaceæ, 96

Deciduous; anthers 2-celled. Tiliaceæ, 101

Calyx imbricated in the bud, persistent.

Shrubs; stamens on the base of the petals. Ternstrœmiaceæ, 95

Aquatic or marsh herbs; ovaries many,

On 5 placentæ in the axis. Sarraceniaceæ, 57

On the 8–30 partitions. Nymphæaceæ, 54

2. Calyx more or less coherent with the surface of the (compound) ovary.

Ovary 8–30-celled; ovules many, on the partitions; aquatic. Nymphæaceæ, 54

Ovary 10-celled; cells 1-ovuled. Amelanchier, in Rosaceæ, 166

Ovary 2–5-celled.

Leaves alternate, with stipules. Pomeæ, in Rosaceæ, 151

Leaves opposite, without stipules. Some Saxifragaceæ, 168

Leaves alternate, without stipules. Styracaceæ, 333

Ovary 1-celled, with the ovules parietal.

Fleshy plants with no true foliage; petals many. Cactaceæ, 186

Rough-leaved plants; petals 5 or 10. Loasaceæ, 193

Ovary one-celled, with the ovules rising from the base. Portulacaceæ, 90

B. Stamens of the same number as the petals and opposite them.

Pistils 3–6, separate; flowers diœcious; woody vines. Menispermaceæ, 51

Pistil only one.

Ovary one-celled; anthers opening by uplifted valves. Berberidaceæ, 52

Ovary one-celled; anthers not opening by uplifted valves.

Style and stigma one; ovules more than one. Primulaceæ, 328

Style 1; stigmas 3; sepals 2; ovules several. Portulacaceæ, 90

Style twice or thrice forked; flowers monœcious. Crotonopsis, in Euphorbiaceæ, 458

Styles 5; ovule and seed only one. Plumbaginaceæ, 327

Ovary 2–4-celled.

Calyx-lobes minute or obsolete; petals valvate. Vitaceæ, 112

Calyx 4–5-cleft, valvate in the bud; petals involute. Rhamnaceæ, 111

C. Stamens not more than twice as many as the petals, when of just the number of the petals then alternate with them.

1. Calyx free from the ovary, i.e. the ovary wholly superior.

[*] Ovaries 2 or more, separate.

Stamens united with each other and with a large and thick stigma common to the two ovaries. Asclepiadaceæ, 338

Stamens unconnected, on the receptacle, free from the calyx.

Leaves punctate with pellucid dots. Rutaceæ, 106

Leaves not pellucid-punctate.

Tree, with pinnate leaves. Ailanthus, in Simarubaceæ, 107

Low shrub, with pinnate leaves. Xanthorrhiza, in Ranunculaceæ, 48

Herbs, not fleshy. Ranunculaceæ, 34

Herbs, with thick fleshy leaves. Crassulaceæ, 176

Stamens unconnected, inserted on the calyx.

Just twice as many as the pistils (flower symmetrical). Crassulaceæ, 176

Not just the number or twice the number of the pistils.

Leaves without stipules. Saxifragaceæ, 168

Leaves with stipules. Rosaceæ, 150

[*][*] Ovaries 2–5, somewhat united at the base, separate above.

Leaves punctate with pellucid dots. Rutaceæ, 106

Leaves not pellucid-punctate.

Shrubs or trees with opposite leaves. Sapindaceæ, 115

Terrestrial herbs; the carpels fewer than the petals. Saxifragaceæ, 168

[*][*][*] Ovaries or lobes of ovary 3 to 5, with a common style. Geraniaceæ, 102

[*][*][*][*] Ovary only one, and

[+] Simple, with one parietal placenta. Leguminosæ, 122

[+][+] Compound, as shown by the number of cells, placentæ, styles, or stigmas.

Ovary one-celled.

Corolla irregular; petals 4; stamens 6. Fumariaceæ, 59

Corolla irregular; petals and stamens 5. Violaceæ, 78

Corolla regular or nearly so.

Ovule solitary; shrubs or trees; stigmas 3. Anacardiaceæ, 118

Ovules solitary or few; herbs. Some anomalous Cruciferæ, 61

Ovules more than one, in the centre or bottom of the cell.

Petals not inserted on the calyx. Caryophyllaceæ, 82

Petals on the throat of a bell-shaped or tubular calyx. Lythraceæ, 184

Ovules several or many, on two or more parietal placentæ.

Leaves punctate with pellucid and dark dots. Hypericaceæ, 92

Leaves beset with reddish gland-tipped bristles. Droseraceæ, 178

Leaves neither punctate nor bristly-glandular.

Sepals 5, very unequal or only 3. Cistaceæ, 76

Sepals and petals 4; stamens 6. Anomalous Cruciferæ, 61

Sepals and petals 5; stamens 5 or 10.

Ovary and stamens raised on a stalk. Passifloraceæ, 194

Ovary sessile. Saxifragaceæ, 168

Ovary 2–several-celled.

Flowers irregular.

Anthers opening at the top,

Six or eight and 1-celled; ovary 2-celled, 2-ovuled. Polygalaceæ, 120

Ten and 2-celled; ovary 5-celled. Rhododendron, in Ericaceæ, 286

Anthers opening lengthwise.

Stamens 12 and petals 6 on the throat of a tubular inflated or gibbous calyx. Cuphea, in Lythraceæ, 186

Stamens 5–8 or 10, and petals hypogynous, or nearly so.

Ovary 3-celled. Sapindaceæ, 115

Ovary 5-celled. Impatiens, &c., in Geraniaceæ, 105

Flowers regular or nearly so.

Stamens neither just as many nor twice as many as the petals,

Triadelphous; petals 5. Hypericaceæ, 92

Tetradynamous (or rarely only 2 or 4); petals 4; pungent herbs. Cruciferæ, 61

Distinct and fewer than the 4 petals. Oleaceæ, 335

Distinct and more numerous than the petals. Sapindaceæ, 115

Stamens just as many or twice as many as the petals.

Ovules and seeds only 1 or 2 in each cell.

Herbs; flowers monœcious or diœcious. Euphorbiaceæ, 451

Herbs; flowers perfect and symmetrical.

Cells of the ovary as many as the sepals, &c. Geraniaceæ, 102

Cells of the (divided) ovary twice as many as the styles, sepals, &c. Linaceæ, 101

Shrubs or trees.

Leaves 3-foliolate, pellucid-punctate. Ptelea, in Rutaceæ, 107

Leaves palmately veined and fruit 2-winged, or pinnate and fruit a berry. Sapindaceæ, 115

Leaves pinnately veined, simple, not punctate.

Calyx not minute; pod colored, dehiscent; seeds enclosed in a pulpy aril. Celastraceæ, 109

Calyx minute; fruit a berry-like drupe. Ilicineæ, 107

Ovules (and usually seeds) several or many in each cell.

Stipules between the opposite and simple leaves. Elatinaceæ, 91

Stipules between the opposite and compound leaves (but they are caducous). Staphylea, in Sapindaceæ, 118

Stipules none when the leaves are opposite.

Stamens 5, monadelphous in a 10-toothed tube or cup; leaves simple, all radical. Galax, in Diapensiaceæ, 326

Stamens 10, monadelphous at the base. Leaflets 3, inversely heart-shaped. Oxalis, in Geraniaceæ, 105

Stamens distinct, free from the calyx.

Style 1, undivided. Ericaceæ, 303

Styles 2–5, separate. Caryophyllaceæ, 82

Stamens distinct, inserted on the calyx.

Styles 2 (or 3), or splitting into 2 in fruit. Saxifragaceæ, 168

Style 1; pod in the calyx, 1-celled. Lythraceæ, 184

2. Calyx-tube adherent to the ovary, at least to its lower half.

Tendril-bearing and often succulent herbs. Cucurbitaceæ, 194

Not tendril-bearing.

Ovules and seeds more than one in each cell.

Ovary 1-celled, many-ovuled from the base. Portulacaceæ, 90

Ovary 1-celled, with 2 or 3 parietal placentæ. Saxifragaceæ, 168

Ovary 2–several-celled.

Anthers opening by pores at the apex; style 1. Melastomaceæ, 183

Anthers not opening by pores.

Stamens on a flat disk which covers the ovary. Celastraceæ, 109

Stamens inserted on the calyx.

Eight or four (rarely five); style 1. Onagraceæ, 186

Five or ten; styles 2–3, distinct. Saxifragaceæ, 168

Ovules and seeds only one in each cell.

Stamens 10 or 5 (instead of many),— rarely in Cratægus, in Rosaceæ, 165

Stamens 2 or 8; style 1; stigma 2–4-lobed; herbs. Onagraceæ, 186

Stamens 4 or 8; aquatics; styles or sessile stigmas 4. Halorageæ, 180

Perfect stamens 4; styles 2; shrub. Hamamelideæ, 179

Stamens 4; style and stigma 1; chiefly shrubs. Cornaceæ, 213

Stamens 5; flowers in umbels, or rarely in heads.

Fruit dry, splitting in two at maturity; styles 2. Umbelliferæ, 193

Fruit berry-like; styles 2–5, separate or united. Araliaceæ, 212

Division II. GAMOPETALOUS calyx and corolla both present; the latter with its petals united more or less into one piece.

A. Stamens more numerous than the lobes of the corolla.

Ovary 1-celled with one parietal placenta. Leguminosæ, 122

Ovary 1-celled with two parietal placentæ. Adlumia, &c., in Fumariaceæ, 60

Ovary 1-celled with the ovules at the centre or base. Styracaceæ, 333

Ovary 2-celled with a single ovule in each cell. Polygalaceæ, 120

Ovary 3–many-celled.

Stamens free or nearly free from the corolla; style single. Ericaceæ, 309

Stamens free from the corolla; styles 5. Oxalis, in Geraniaceæ, 105

Stamens inserted on the base or tube of the corolla.

Filaments monadelphous; anthers 1-celled, kidney-shaped. Malvaceæ, 96

Filaments 1–5-adelphous at base; anthers 2-celled.

Calyx free from the ovary. Ternstrœmiaceæ, 96

Calyx coherent with the ovary or with its base. Styracaceæ, 333

Filaments wholly distinct; calyx free, persistent. Ebenaceæ, 333

Filaments in pairs at each sinus; anthers 1-celled. Caprifoliaceæ, 216

B. Stamens (fertile ones) as many as the lobes of the corolla and opposite them.

Ovary 5-celled; corolla appendaged with scales inside. Sapotaceæ, 332

Ovary 1-celled; pod several–many-seeded; style 1. Primulaceæ, 328

Ovary 1-celled; utricle 1-seeded; styles 5. Plumbaginaceæ, 327

C. Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and alternate with them, or fewer.

1. Ovary adherent to the calyx-tube (inferior).

Tendril-bearing herbs; anthers often united. Cucurbitaceæ, 194

Tendrils none.

Stamens united by their anthers into a ring or tube.

Flowers in an involucrate head. Compositæ, 230

Flowers separate, not involucrate; corolla irregular. Lobeliaceæ, 305

Stamens separate, free from the corolla or nearly so, as many as its lobes; stipules none; juice milky. Campanulaceæ, 307

Stamens separate, inserted on the corolla,

One to three, always fewer than the corolla-lobes. Valerianaceæ, 228

Four or five; leaves opposite or whorled.

Ovary 1-celled; flowers in a dense involucrate head. Dipsaceæ, 229

Ovary 2–5-celled.

Leaves whorled and without stipules. Rubiaceæ, 222

Leaves opposite or whorled, and with stipules. Rubiaceæ, 222

Leaves opposite without stipules (petioles sometimes with stipule-like appendages). Caprifoliaceæ, 216

2. Ovary free from the calyx (superior).

[*] Corolla irregular; stamens (with anthers) 4 and didynamous, or only 2.

Ovules and seeds solitary in the (1–4) cells.

Ovary 4-lobed, the style rising from between the lobes. Labiatæ, 403

Ovary not lobed, the style from its apex. Verbenaceæ, 401

Ovules numerous or at least as many as 2 in each cell.

Ovary and pod 1-celled,

With a free central placenta; stamens 2. Lentibulaceæ, 395

With 2 or more parietal very many-seeded placentæ; stamens 4. Orobanchaceæ, 393

Ovary and fruit more or less 4–5-celled. Pedaliaceæ, 399

Ovary and pod 2-celled, but the 2 placentæ parietal. Bignoniaceæ, 398

Ovary and pod 2-celled; placentæ in the axis.

Seeds rarely few, not on hooks, with albumen. Scrophulariaceæ, 377

Seeds few, borne on hook-like or other projections of the placentæ; no albumen. Acanthaceæ, 399

[*][*] Corolla somewhat irregular; stamens (with anthers) 5.

Stamens free from the corolla; anthers with their cells opening by a hole or chink at the top. Rhododendron, in Ericaceæ, 320

Stamens inserted on the corolla.

Ovary deeply 4-lobed around the style. Echium, in Borraginaceæ, 367

Ovary not lobed; pod many-seeded.

Filaments or some of them woolly. Verbascum, Scrophulariaceæ, 379

Filaments not woolly. Hyoscyamus, Solanaceæ, 376

[*][*][*] Corolla regular.

[+] Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla.

Ovaries 2, separate; their

Styles and stigmas also wholly separate. Dichondra, Convolvulaceæ, 368

Stigmas and sometimes styles united into one.

Filaments distinct; pollen in ordinary grains. Apocynaceæ, 337

Filaments monadelphous; pollen in masses. Asclepiadaceæ, 338

Ovary one, but deeply 4-lobed around the style (or 2-lobed in Heliotropium).

Leaves alternate. Borraginaceæ, 360

Leaves opposite. Mentha, in Labiatæ, 407

Ovary one; pod 2-lobed or 2-horned at the summit. Loganiaceæ, 345

Ovary one; not deeply lobed,

One-celled, one-ovuled, becoming an achene. Plantaginaceæ, 422

One-celled, with ovules parietal or on 2 parietal placentæ.

Leaves (or in Menyanthes three leaflets) entire. Gentianaceæ, 346

Leaves toothed, lobed, or pinnately compound. Hydrophyllaceæ, 357

Two- to ten-celled.

Leafless parasitic twining plants. Cuscuta, in Convolvulaceæ, 370

Leaves opposite, their bases or petioles connected by stipules or a stipular line. Loganiaceæ, 345

Leaves when opposite without stipules.

Stamens free from the corolla or nearly so; style 1. Ericaceæ, 309

Stamens almost free from the corolla; style none. Ilicineæ, 107

Stamens in the sinuses of the corolla; style 1. Diapensiaceæ, 326

Stamens inserted on the tube of the corolla,

Four; pod 2-celled, circumscissile. Plantaginaceæ, 422

Four; ovary 2–4-celled; ovules solitary. Verbenaceæ, 401

Five or rarely more.

Fruit of two or four seed-like nutlets. Borraginaceæ, 360

Fruit a few-seeded pod.

Calyx 5-cleft; style 3-lobed or -cleft. Polemoniaceæ, 354

Sepals 5; styles 1 or 2, entire or 2-cleft; seeds large, only one or two in a cell. Convolvulaceæ, 367

Fruit a many-seeded pod or berry.

Styles 2. Hydrolea, in Hydrophyllaceæ, 360

Style single. Solanaceæ, 373

[+][+] Stamens fewer than the lobes of the corolla.

Stamens 4, didynamous.

Ovary 2-celled; the cells several-seeded. Acanthaceæ, 399

Ovary 2–4-celled; the cells 1-seeded. Verbenaceæ, 401

Stamens only 2 with anthers; ovary 4-lobed. Lycopus, in Labiatæ, 408

Stamens 2, rarely 3; ovary 2-celled.

Low herbs; corolla scarious, withering on the pod. Plantaginaceæ, 422

Herbs; corolla rotate, or somewhat funnelform, and slightly irregular. Veronica, in Scrophulariaceæ, 386

Shrubs or trees; corolla perfectly regular. Oleaceæ, 335

Division III. APETALOUS: corolla (and sometimes calyx) wanting.

A. Flowers not in catkins.

1. Ovary or its cells containing many ovules.

Ovary and pod inferior (i.e. calyx-tube adherent to the ovary),

Six-celled; stamens 6–12. Aristolochiaceæ, 444

Four-celled; stamens 4. Ludwigia, in Onagraceæ, 187

One-celled, with parietal placentæ. Chrysosplenium, in Saxifragaceæ, 172

Ovary and pod wholly naked (there being no calyx),

Two-celled, 2-beaked; flowers capitate; tree. Hamamelideæ, 179

Two-celled, many-ribbed; aquatic herb. Podostemaceæ, 444

Ovary and pod superior, i.e. free from the calyx.

Five-celled and 5-beaked, opening across the beaks, which fall off at maturity; stamens 10. Penthorum, in Crassulaceæ, 176

Three-celled and 3-valved, or 3–5-celled and circumscissile. Ficoideæ, 198

Two-celled or one-celled; placentæ central.

Stamens inserted on the throat or tube of the calyx. Lythraceæ, 184

Stamens inserted on the receptacle or the base of the calyx,

Alternate with the 5 sepals. Glaux, in Primulaceæ, 331

Opposite the sepals when of the same number. Caryophyllaceæ, 82

One-celled, with one parietal placenta. Ranunculaceæ, 34

Ovaries 2 or more, separate, simple. Ranunculaceæ, 34

2. Ovary or its cells containing only 1 or 2, rarely 3 or 4, ovules.

[*] Pistils more than one, and distinct or nearly so.

Stamens inserted on the calyx; leaves with stipules. Rosaceæ, 150

Stamens inserted on the receptacle.

Leaves punctate with pellucid dots. Xanthoxylum, in Rutaceæ, 106

Leaves not dotted.

Calyx present, and usually colored or petal-like. Ranunculaceæ, 34

Calyx absent; flowers entirely naked, perfect, spiked. Piperaceæ, 446

[*][*] Pistil one, either simple or compound.

Ovary partly inferior, the calyx coherent to its lower half, 2-celled; styles 2; stamens many. Hamamelideæ, 179

Ovary wholly inferior (in perfect or pistillate flowers).

Aquatic herbs; ovary 3–4-celled, or (Hippuris) 1-celled. Halorageæ, 180

Mostly woody plants; style or stigma one, entire; ovary 1-celled.

Stigma running down one side of the style. Nyssa, in Cornaceæ, 215

Stigma terminal, with or without a style.

Parasitic on the branches of trees; anthers sessile. Loranthaceæ, 449

Not parasitic above ground; anthers on filaments. Santalaceæ, 450

Ovary really free from the calyx, but permanently invested by its tube, or the base of it, so as to seem inferior.

Shrubs, with scurfy leaves; flowers mostly diœcious. Elæagnaceæ, 448

Herbs, with the calyx colored like a corolla.

Leaves opposite, simple. Nyctaginaceæ, 425

Leaves alternate, pinnate. Poterium, in Rosaceæ, 161

Ovary plainly free from the calyx, which is sometimes wanting.

Stipules (ocreæ) sheathing the stem at the nodes.

Tree; calyx none; flowers monœcious, in heads. Platanaceæ, 466

Herbs; calyx present and commonly petal-like. Polygonaceæ, 436

Stipules not sheathing the stem, or none.

Aquatic herbs, submerged or nearly so.

Leaves whorled and dissected; style single. Ceratophyllaceæ, 488

Leaves opposite, entire; styles 2; ovary 4-celled. Halorageæ, 180

Not aquatics, herbs.

Ovary 10-celled; berry 10-seeded. Phytolaccaceæ, 436

Ovary 3- (rarely 1–2-) celled; juice usually milky. Euphorbiaceæ, 451

Ovary 1-celled; juice not milky.

Style, if any, and stigma only one; leaves simple; no scarious bracts around the flowers. Urticaceæ, 461

Styles 3; embryo straight; flowers involucrate. Eriogonum, in Polygonaceæ, 436

Style or stigmas 2 or 3; embryo coiled or curved.

Stipules not scarious, leaves palmately cleft or palmately compound. Cannabineæ, in Urticaceæ, 461

Stipules scarious (or none); leaves opposite. Illecebraceæ, 426

Stipules none; but flowers with scarious bracts. Amarantaceæ, 427

Stipules and scarious bracts none. Chenopodiaceæ, 430

Shrubs or trees.

Ovules a pair in each cell of the ovary.

Fruit 2-celled, a double samara. Acerineæ, in Sapindaceæ, 115

Fruit a 1-celled and 1-seeded samara or a drupe. Oleaceæ, 335

Ovules single in each cell of the

Three-nine-celled ovary; leaves heath-like. Empetraceæ, 487

Three-celled ovary; leaves broad. Rhamnaceæ, 111

One–two-celled ovary; styles or stigmas 2-cleft. Urticaceæ, 461

One-celled ovary; style and stigma single and entire.

Anthers opening longitudinally. Thymelæaceæ, 448

Anthers opening by uplifted valves. Lauraceæ, 446

B. Flowers monœcious or diœcious, one or both sorts in catkins.

1. Only one sort of flowers in catkins or catkin-like heads.

Fertile flowers in a short catkin, head, or strobile. Urticaceæ, 461

Fertile flowers single or clustered; sterile in slender catkins (except in Fagus).

Leaves pinnate; fertile flowers and fruit naked. Juglandaceæ, 467

Leaves simple; fertile flowers 1–3 in an involucre or cup. Cupuliferæ, 470

2. Both sterile and fertile flowers in catkins or catkin-like heads.

Ovary and pod 2-celled, many-seeded. Liquidambar, in Hamamelideæ, 180

Ovary and pod 1-celled, many-seeded; seeds furnished with a downy tuft at one end. Salicaceæ, 480

Ovary 1–2-celled, only one ovule in each cell; fruit 1-seeded.

Parasitic on trees; fruit a berry. Loranthaceæ, 449

Trees or shrubs, not parasitic.

Calyx regular, in the fertile flower succulent in fruit. Urticaceæ, 461

Calyx none, or rudimentary and scale-like.

Style and stigma one, simple; the flowers in heads. Platanaceæ, 466

Styles or long stigmas 2.

Fertile flowers 2 or 3 at each scale of the catkin. Cupuliferæ, 470

Fertile flowers single under each scale; nutlets naked, waxy-coated or drupe like. Myricaceæ, 469

Subclass II. GYMNOSPERMÆ. Pistil an open scale or altered leaf, bearing naked ovules on its margin or its upper surface, or in Taxus entirely wanting. Flowers monœcious or diœcious. Coniferæ, 489


A. Spadiceous Division. Flowers aggregated on a spadix or fleshy axis, or sometimes scattered, destitute of calyx and corolla (excepting some Araceæ and Naiadaceæ, where, however, they are on a spadix), and also without glumes (husky scales). Leaves sometimes with netted veins.

Little floating aquatics, with no distinction of stem and foliage. Lemnaceæ, 551

Immersed aquatics, branching and leafy. Naiadaceæ, 557

Reed-like or Flag-like marsh herbs, with linear and sessile nerved leaves; flowers in spikes or heads.

Flowers monœcious, and quite destitute of floral envelopes. Typhaceæ, 547

Flowers perfect, on a lateral spadix; sepals 6. Acorus, in Araceæ, 550

Terrestrial or marsh plants; leaves mostly with a distinct netted-veined blade, petioled. Araceæ, 548

B. Petaloideous Division. Flowers not collected on a spadix, furnished with floral envelopes (perianth) answering to calyx or to both calyx and corolla, either herbaceous or colored and petal-like (wholly glumaceous in Juncaceæ).

1. Perianth adherent to the whole surface of the ovary.

Flowers diœcious (or rarely perfect), regular.

Aquatics; ovules and seeds several or numerous. Hydrocharidaceæ, 495

Twiners; ovules and seeds one or two in each cell. Dioscoreaceæ, 517

Flowers perfect; ovules and seeds usually numerous.

Stamens only one or two; flower irregular, gynandrous. Orchidaceæ, 497

Stamens three.

Anthers introrse, opening transversely. Burmanniaceæ, 496

Anthers introrse or versatile, opening lengthwise. Hæmodoraceæ, 512

Anthers extrorse, opening lengthwise. Iridaceæ, 513

Stamens 6; flowers usually on a scape from a bulb. Amaryllidaceæ, 515

2. Perianth adherent only to the base or lower half of the ovary.

Perianth woolly or roughish-mealy; leaves often equitant. Hæmodoraceæ, 512

Perianth smooth; the leaves grass-like. Stenanthium, etc., in Liliaceæ, 517

3. Perianth wholly free from the ovary.

Pistils numerous or few in a head or ring. Alismaceæ, 553

Pistil one, compound (cells or placentæ mostly 3).

Perianth not glumaceous or chaffy; flowers not in dense heads.

Stamens 6 (in Maianthemum 4), similar and perfect.

Scurfy-leaved epiphyte; seeds hairy-tufted. Bromeliaceæ, 511

Marsh herbs; carpels nearly distinct or separating closed from the axis; seed without albumen. Juncagineæ, in Naiadaceæ, 557

Terrestrial, not rush-like; seeds with albumen.

Perianth of similar divisions or lobes, mostly colored. Liliaceæ, 517

Perianth of 3 foliaceous and green sepals and 3 colored withering-persistent petals. Trillium in Liliaceæ, 517

Perianth of 3 persistent green sepals, and 3 ephemeral deliquescent petals. Commelinaceæ, 538

Stamens 6, dissimilar, or only three with perfect anthers.

Sepals 3, herbaceous; ephemeral petals 3, unequal. Commelinaceæ, 538

Perianth tubular, 6-lobed. Pontederiaceæ, 535

Stamens 3, similar. Moss-like aquatic. Mayaceæ, 537

Perianth wholly glumaceous, of 6 similar divisions. Juncaceæ, 539

Perianth partly glumaceous or chaff-like; flowers in very dense heads. Rush-like or aquatic.

Flowers perfect; inner perianth of three yellow petals; perfect stamens and plumose sterile filaments each 3; pod 1-celled, many-seeded on 3 parietal placentæ. Xyridaceæ, 536

Flowers monœcious or diœcious, whitish-bearded; stamens 4 or 3; pod 2–3-celled, 2–3-seeded. Eriocauleæ, 566

C. Glumaceous Division. Flowers destitute of proper perianth, except sometimes small scales or bristles, but covered by scale-like bracts or glumes.

Glume a single scale-like bract with a flower in its axil. Cyperaceæ, 567

Glumes in pairs, of two sorts. Gramineæ, 623


Subclass I. PTERIDOPHYTES: with woody fibres and vessels.

Spores of only one kind; spore-cases

Borne beneath shield-shaped scales in a terminal spike; stems naked, sheathed at the nodes. Equisetaceæ, 675

On the back or margin of fronds circinate in vernation. Filices, 678

Bivalvular, in special spikes or panicles; fronds erect in vernation, from short erect rootstocks. Ophioglossaceæ, 693

Solitary in the axils of leaves, 2–3-valved; low long-stemmed moss-like evergreens; leaves small, in 4–16 ranks. Lycopodiaceæ, 695

Spores of two kinds, large and small; spore-cases

Solitary in the axils of small 4-ranked leaves, or in the bases of linear radical leaves. Selaginellaceæ, 697

Enclosed in peduncled sporocarps; leaves 4-foliolate. Marsiliaceæ, 700

Sporocarps sessile beneath the stem; small, floating, pinnately branched, with minute imbricate leaves. Salviniaceæ, 701

Subclass II. BRYOPHYTES: with cellular tissue only. [Capsules not operculate, containing spores and usually elaters, in the following Orders.]

Capsule 4-valved, pedicellate; plants leafy-stemmed, rarely thallose. Jungermanniaceæ, 702

Capsule 2-valved or valveless; plants thallose.

Thallus without epidermis; capsule with a columella, short-pedicelled or sessile on the thallus. Anthocerotaceæ, 726

Capsules borne beneath a pedunculate receptacle. Marchantiaceæ, 727

Capsules immersed in the thallus or sessile upon it, indehiscent. Ricciaceæ, 730



°, ´,´´ . The sign of degrees (°) is used for feet; of minutes (´), for inches; of seconds (´´), for lines,—the line being the twelfth part of an inch, and very nearly equivalent to two millimetres.

µ. In microscopic measurements, the conventional sign for the micromillimetre or the one-thousandth part of a millimetre = one two-thousandth part of a line.

♂ Bearing only stamens or antheridia.

♀ Pistillate or bearing archegonia.

? A mark of doubt.

! A mark of affirmation or authentication.

Figures or words separated by a short dash (–) indicate the extremes of variation, as "5–10´´ long, few–many-flowered," i.e. varying from 5 to 10 lines in length, and with from few to many flowers.






Vegetables bearing proper flowers, that is, having stamens and pistils, and producing seeds, which contain an embryo.


Stems formed of bark, wood, and pith; the wood forming a layer between the other two, increasing, when the stem continues from year to year, by the annual addition of a new layer to the outside, next the bark. Leaves netted-veined. Embryo with a pair of opposite cotyledons, or rarely several in a whorl. Flowers having their parts usually in fives or fours.


Pistil consisting of a closed ovary, which contains the ovules and forms the fruit. Cotyledons only two.


Floral envelopes consisting of both calyx and corolla; the petals not united with each other. (Several genera or species belonging to Polypetalous Orders are destitute of petals, or have them more or less united.)

Order 1. RANUNCULÀCEÆ. (Crowfoot Family.)

Herbs or some woody plants, with a colorless and usually acrid juice, polypetalous, or apetalous with the calyx often colored like a corolla, hypogynous; the sepals, petals, numerous stamens, and many or few (rarely single) pistils all distinct and unconnected.—Flowers regular or irregular. Sepals 3–15. Petals 3–15, or wanting. Stamens indefinite, rarely few. Fruits either dry pods, or seed-like (achenes), or berries. Seeds anatropous (when solitary and suspended the rhaphe dorsal), with hard albumen and a minute embryo.—Leaves often dissected, their stalks dilated at the base, sometimes with stipule-like appendages. (A large family, including some acrid-narcotic poisons.)

Synopsis of the Genera.

Tribe I. CLEMATIDEÆ. Sepals normally 4, petal-like, valvate in the bud, or with the edges bent inward. Petals none, or small. Achenes numerous, tailed with the feathery or hairy styles. Seed suspended.—Leaves all opposite.

1. Clematis. Climbing by the leafstalks, or erect herbs.

Tribe II. ANEMONEÆ. Sepals 3–20, often petal-like, imbricated in the bud. Stamens mostly numerous. Achenes numerous or several, in a head or spike.—Herbs, never climbing; leaves alternate, or radical, the upper sometimes opposite or whorled.

[*] Petals none (rarely some staminodia). Seed suspended.

[+] All but the lower leaves opposite or whorled. Peduncles 1-flowered.

2. Anemone. Involucre leaf-like, remote from the flower. Leaves compound or dissected. Pistils very many.

3. Hepatica. Involucre close to the flower, of 3 oval bracts, calyx-like. Leaves radical, simple and lobed. Pistils several.

4. Anemonella. Stigma terminal, broad and flat. Radical leaves and involucre compound. Peduncles umbellate. Achenes 4–15, many-ribbed.

[+][+] Leaves alternate, compound. Flowers panicled, often diœcious.

5. Thalictrum. Sepals usually 4, petal-like or greenish, Achenes few.

[*][*] Petals none. Sepals 3–5, caducous. Seed erect. Leaves alternate.

6. Trautvetteria. Achenes numerous, inflated, 4-angled. Flowers corymbose. Filaments white, clavate.

[*][*][*] Petals evident. Sepals usually 5. Achenes many.

7. Adonis. Sepals and petals (5–16, crimson or scarlet) flat, unappendaged. Seed suspended.

8. Myosurus. Sepals spurred. Petals 5, white. Achenes in a long spike. Scapes 1-flowered. Seed suspended.

9. Ranunculus. Petals 5, yellow or white, with a scale or gland at base. Achenes capitate. Seed erect.

Tribe III. HELLEBOREÆ. Sepals imbricated in the bud, rarely persistent, petal-like. Petals often nectariferous or reduced to staminodia or none. Pods (follicles) or berries (in n. 20, 21) few, rarely single, few–many-seeded.—Leaves alternate.

[*] Ovules and commonly seeds more than one pair. Herbs.

[+] Flowers regular, not racemose. Petals inconspicuous nectaries or slender or none. Sepals tardily deciduous.

10. Isopyrum. Petals none. Sepals broad, white. Pods few. Leaves compound.

11. Caltha. Petals none. Sepals broad, yellow. Leaves kidney-shaped, undivided.

12. Trollius. Petals 5–20, narrow, pitted above the base. Pods sessile. Leaves palmately lobed.

13. Coptis. Petals 5–6, small, hollowed at apex, white. Pods long-stalked. Leaves radical, trifoliolate.

14. Helleborus. Petals small, tubular, 2-lipped. Sepals 5, broad, persistent and turning green. Pods sessile.

15. Eranthis. Petals small 2-lipped nectaries. Sepals 5–8, narrow, deciduous. Flower solitary, involucrate.

[+][+] Sepals and large spur-shaped petals regular, each 5.

16. Aquilegia. Pistils 5, with slender styles. Leaves ternately compound.

[+][+][+] Flowers unsymmetrical and irregular. Sepals 5.

17. Delphinium. Upper sepal spurred. Petals 4, of two forms; the upper pair with long spurs, enclosed in the spur of the calyx.

18. Aconitum. Upper sepal hooded, covering the two long-clawed small petals.

[+][+][+][+] Flowers regular, racemose. Sepals caducous. Petals very small, stamen-like, or none. Leaves decompound.

19. Cimicifuga. Flowers in long often paniculate racemes. Pistils 1–8, becoming many-seeded pods.

20. Actæa. Flowers in a single short raceme. Pistil single, forming a many-seeded berry.

[*][*] Ovules a single pair. Flowers regular. Roots yellow and bitter.

21. Hydrastis. Flowers solitary. Sepals 3, petal-like, caducous. Petals none. Stamens numerous. Pistils several, becoming 2-seeded berries. Leaves simple, lobed.

22. Xanthorrhiza. Flowers in compound racemes. Sepals 5. Petals 5, small, 2-lobed, with claws. Stamens 5–10. Pods 1-seeded. Shrub with pinnate leaves.

1. CLÉMATIS, L. Virgin's-Bower.

Sepals 4, or rarely more, colored, the valvate margins turned inward in the bud. Petals none or small. Achenes numerous in a head, bearing the persistent styles as naked, hairy, or plumose tails.—Perennial herbs or vines, mostly a little woody, and climbing by the bending or clasping of the leaf-stalks, rarely low and erect. Leaves opposite. (Κληματίς, a name of Dioscorides for a climbing plant with long and lithe branches.)

§ 1. FLÁMMULA. Flowers cymose-paniculate, rather small, in our species diœcious. Sepals petaloid, whitish, spreading, thin. Petals none. Anthers short, blunt.

1. C. Virginiàna, L. (Common Virgin's-Bower.) Smooth; leaves bearing 3 ovate acute leaflets, which are cut or lobed, and somewhat heart-shaped at the base; tails of the fruit plumose.—River-banks, etc., common; climbing over shrubs. July, August.

2. C. ligusticifòlia, Nutt. Very similar, but the leaves 5-foliolate or quinate-ternate.—Long Pine, Neb., and west to the Pacific.

§ 2. VIÓRNA. Flowers large, solitary on long peduncles, usually nodding. Sepals thick, erect and connivent at base, mostly dull purple. Petals none. Anthers linear.

[+] Stems climbing; leaves pinnate; calyx (and foliage) glabrous or puberulent.

3. C. Viórna, L. (Leather-Flower.) Calyx ovate and at length bell-shaped; the purplish sepals (1´ long) very thick and leathery, wholly connivent or only the tips recurved; long tails of the fruit very plumose; leaflets 3–7, ovate or oblong, sometimes slightly cordate, 2–3-lobed or entire; uppermost leaves often simple.—Rich soil, Penn. to Mo., and southward. May–Aug.

4. C. Pítcheri, Torr. & Gray. Calyx bell-shaped; the dull purplish sepals with narrow and slightly margined recurved points; tails of the fruit filiform and naked or shortly villous; leaflets 3–9, ovate or somewhat cordate, entire or 3-lobed, much reticulated; uppermost leaves often simple.—S. Ind. to Kan., and Tex. June.

5. C. críspa, L. Calyx cylindraceous below, the upper half of the bluish-purple sepals (1–2´ long) dilated and widely spreading, with broad and wavy thin margins; tails of the fruit silky or glabrate; leaflets 5–9, thin, varying from ovate or cordate to lanceolate, entire or 3–5-parted. (C. cylindrica, Sims.)—Va. near Norfolk, and southward. May–Aug.

[+][+] Low and erect, mostly simple; flowers solitary, terminal; leaves sessile or nearly so, undivided, strongly reticulated.

6. C. ochroleùca, Ait. Leaves ovate, entire or sometimes 3-lobed, silky beneath; peduncles long; tails of the fruit very plumose.—Copses, Long Island to Penn. and Ga.; rare. May.

7. C. Fremónti, Watson. Leaves crowded, thick, often coarsely toothed, sparingly villous-tomentose; peduncles very short; tails villous or glabrate, not plumose.—Mo. and Kan.

§ 3. ATRÁGENE. Some of the outer filaments enlarged and more or less petaloid; peduncles bearing single large flowers; the thin sepals widely spreading.

8. C. verticillàris, DC. Woody-stemmed climber, almost glabrous; leaves trifoliolate, with slender common and partial petioles; leaflets ovate or slightly heart-shaped, pointed, entire, or sparingly toothed or lobed; flower bluish-purple, 2–3´ across; tails of the fruit plumose.—Rocky places in mountainous districts, Maine and W. New Eng. to Va., Minn., and northwestward; rare. May.—A pair of leaves with a peduncle between them, developed in spring from each of the opposite buds, gives the appearance of a whorl, whence the specific name.

2. ANEMÒNE, Tourn. Anémone. Wind-flower.

Sepals few or many, petal-like. Petals none, or in n. 1 resembling abortive stamens. Achenes pointed or tailed, flattened, not ribbed. Seed suspended.—Perennial herbs with radical leaves; those of the stem 2 or 3 together, opposite or whorled, and forming an involucre remote from the flower; peduncles 1-flowered, solitary or umbellate. (The ancient Greek and Latin name, from ἀνεμόω, to be shaken by the wind.)

§ 1. PULSATÌLLA. Carpels numerous in a head, with long hairy styles which in fruit form feathery tails, as in Clematis; flower large, usually with some minute or indistinct gland-like abortive stamens answering to petals.

1. A. pàtens, L., var. Nuttalliàna, Gray. (Pasque-flower.) Villous with long silky hairs; peduncle solitary; flower erect, developed before the leaves, which are ternately divided, the lateral divisions 2-parted, the middle one stalked and 3-parted, the segments deeply once or twice cleft into narrowly linear and acute lobes; lobes of the sessile involucre like those of the leaves, at the base all united into a shallow cup; sepals 5–7, purplish or whitish (1–1½´ long), spreading when in full anthesis.—Prairies, Ill. and Mo., thence northward and westward. March–April.—A span high. Tail of carpels 2´ long. (Eu. Siberia.)

§ 2. ANEMÒNE proper. Styles short, not plumose. Staminodia none.

[*] Achenes densely long-woolly, compressed; involucre far below the flower.

[+] Stem single, from a small tuber; sepals 10–20; style filiform.

2. A. Caroliniàna, Walt. Stem 3–6´ high; root-leaves once or twice 3-parted or cleft; involucre 3-parted, its wedge-shaped divisions 3-cleft; sepals 10–20, oblong-linear, purple or whitish; head of fruit oblong.—Ill. to Neb. and southward. May.

[+][+] Stems several; sepals 5–8; style filiform.

3. A. parviflòra, Michx. Stem 3–12´ high from a slender rootstock, 1-flowered; root-leaves 3-parted, their broadly wedge-shaped divisions crenate-incised or lobed; involucre 2–3-leaved; sepals 5 or 6, oval, white; head of fruit globular.—Lake Superior, northward and westward. May, June.

4. A. multífida, DC. Stems from a branching caudex, silky-hairy (6–12´ high); principal involucre 2–3-leaved, bearing one naked and one or two 2-leaved peduncles; leaves of the involucre short-petioled, similar to the root-leaves, twice or thrice 3-parted and cleft, their divisions linear; sepals obtuse, red, sometimes greenish-yellow or whitish; head of fruit spherical or oval.—Rocks, etc., N. E. Maine to Lake Superior, north and westward; rare. June.

[+][+][+] Taller, commonly branching above or producing two or more peduncles; involucral leaves long-petioled; sepals 5–8, silky or downy beneath (4–6´´ long), oval or oblong; style subulate.

5. A. cylíndrica, Gray. (Long-fruited A.) Slender (2° high), silky-pubescent; flowers 2–6, on very long upright naked peduncles; involucral leaves twice or thrice as many as the peduncles, 3-divided; their divisions wedge-lanceolate, the lateral 2-parted, the middle 3-cleft; lobes cut and toothed at the apex; sepals 5, rather obtuse, greenish-white; head of fruit cylindrical (1´ long).—Dry woods, N. Eng. to Mo., and northwestward. May.—Peduncles 7–12´ long, all from the same involucre and naked throughout, or one involucellate in the middle.

6. A. Virginiàna, L. More loosely pubescent or glabrate; involucral leaves 3, 3-parted; their divisions ovate-lanceolate, pointed, cut-serrate, the lateral 2-parted, the middle 3-cleft; peduncles elongated, the earliest naked, the others with a 2-leaved involucel at the middle, repeatedly proliferous; sepals 5, acute, greenish (in one variety white and obtuse); head of fruit oval or oblong.—Woods and meadows; common. June–August.—Plant 2–3° high; the upright peduncles 6–12´ long.

[*][*] Achenes naked, orbicular, compressed, wing-margined; sepals 5, obovate; involucre sessile.

7. A. Pennsylvánica, L. Hairy, rather low; primary involucre 3-leaved, bearing a naked peduncle, and soon a pair of branches or peduncles with a 2-leaved involucre at the middle, which branch similarly in turn; their leaves broadly wedge-shaped, 3-cleft, cut and toothed; radical leaves 5–7-parted or cleft; sepals white (6–9´´ long); head of fruit spherical.—W. New Eng. to Penn., Ill., and northwestward. June–Aug.

[*][*][*] Achenes rather few, nearly naked, ovate-oblong; stems slender, 1-flowered; leaves radical.

8. A. nemoròsa, L. (Wind-flower. Wood A.) Low, smoothish; stem perfectly simple, from a filiform rootstock; involucre of 3 long-petioled trifoliolate leaves, their leaflets wedge-shaped or oblong, and toothed or cut, or the lateral ones (var. quinquefolia) 2-parted; a similar radical leaf in sterile plants solitary from the rootstock; peduncle not longer than the involucre; sepals 4–7, oval, white, sometimes blue, or tinged with purple outside; carpels only 15–20, oblong, with a hooked beak.—Margin of woods. April, May.–A delicate vernal species; the flower 1´ broad. (Eu.)

9. A. nudicaùlis, Gray. Glabrous, rootstock filiform; radical leaves reniform, 3-parted, the divisions broadly cuneate with rounded crenate-incised or -lobed summit; involucre of a single similar petiolate leaf or wanting; achenes glabrous, tipped with a slender-subulate hooked style.—North shore of Lake Superior near Sand Bay, Minn., in bogs. (Joseph C. Jones.) Imperfectly known.

3. HEPÁTICA, Dill. Liver-leaf. Hepatica.

Involucre simple and 3-leaved, very close to the flower, so as to resemble a calyx; otherwise as in Anemone.—Leaves all radical, heart-shaped and 3-lobed, thickish and persistent through the winter, the new ones appearing later than the flowers, which are single, on hairy scapes. (Name from a fancied resemblance to the liver in the shape of the leaves.)

1. H. tríloba, Chaix. Leaves with 3 ovate obtuse or rounded lobes; those of the involucre also obtuse; sepals 6–12, blue, purplish, or nearly white; achenes several, in a small loose head, ovate-oblong, pointed, hairy.—Woods; common from the Atlantic to Mo., Minn., and northward, flowering soon after the snow leaves the ground in spring. (Eu.)

2. H. acutíloba, DC. Leaves with 3 ovate and pointed lobes, or sometimes 5-lobed; those of the involucre acute or acutish.—Passes into the other and has the same range.


Involucre compound, at the base of an umbel of flowers. Sepals 5–10, white and conspicuous. Petals none. Achenes 4–15, ovoid, terete, strongly 8–10-ribbed, sessile. Stigma terminal, broad and depressed.—Low glabrous perennial; leaves all radical, compound.

1. A. thalictroìdes, Spach. (Rue-Anemone.) Stem and slender petiole of radical leaf (a span high) rising from a cluster of thickened tuberous roots; leaves 2–3-ternately compound; leaflets roundish, somewhat 3-lobed at the end, cordate at the base, long-petiolulate, those of the 2–3-leaved 1–2-ternate involucre similar; flowers several in an umbel; sepals oval (½´ long, rarely pinkish), not early deciduous. (Thalictrum anemonoides, Michx.)—Woods, common, flowering in early spring with Anemone nemorosa, and considerably resembling it. Rarely the sepals are 3-lobed like the leaflets.

5. THALÍCTRUM, Tourn. Meadow-Rue.

Sepals 4–5, petal-like or greenish, usually caducous. Petals none. Achenes 4–15, grooved or ribbed, or else inflated. Stigma unilateral. Seed suspended.—Perennials, with alternate 2–3-ternately compound leaves, the divisions and the leaflets stalked; petioles dilated at base. Flowers in corymbs or panicles, often polygamous or diœcious. (Derivation obscure.)

[*] Flowers diœcious or sometimes polygamous, in ample panicles; filaments slender; stigmas elongated, linear or subulate; achenes sessile or short-stipitate, ovoid, pointed, strongly several-angled and grooved.

1. T. diòicum, L. (Early Meadow-Rue.) Smooth and pale or glaucous, 1–2° high; leaves (2–3) all with general petioles; leaflets drooping, rounded and 3–7-lobed; flowers purplish and greenish, diœcious; the yellowish anthers linear, mucronate, drooping on fine capillary filaments.—Rocky woods, etc.; common. April, May.

2. T. polýgamum, Muhl. (Tall M.) Smooth, not glandular, 4–8° high; stem-leaves sessile; leaflets rather firm, roundish to oblong, commonly with mucronate lobes or tips, sometimes puberulent beneath; panicles very compound; flowers white, the fertile ones with some stamens; anthers not drooping, small, oblong, blunt, the mostly white filaments decidedly thickened upwards. (T. Cornuti, Man., not L.)—Wet meadows and along rivulets, N. Eng. to Ohio and southward; common. July–Sept.

3. T. purpuráscens, L. (Purplish M.) Stem (2–4° high) usually purplish; stem-leaves sessile or nearly so; leaflets more veiny and reticulated beneath, with or without gland-tipped or glandless hairs or waxy atoms; panicles compound; flowers (sepals, filaments, etc.) greenish and purplish, diœcious; anthers linear or oblong-linear, mucronulate, drooping on capillary filaments occasionally broadened at the summit.—Dry uplands and rocky hills, S. New Eng. to Minn., and southward. May, June.

[*][*] Flowers all perfect, corymbed; the filaments strongly club-shaped or inflated under the small and short anther; stigma short; achenes gibbous, long-stipitate.

4. T. clavàtum, DC. Size and appearance of n. 1; leaves only twice ternate; flowers white, fewer; achenes 5–10, flat, somewhat crescent-shaped, tapering into the slender stipe.—Mountains of Va. and southward. June.

6. TRAUTVETTÈRIA, Fisch. & Mey. False Bugbane.

Sepals 3–5, usually 4, concave, petal-like, very caducous. Petals none. Achenes numerous, capitate, membranaceous, compressed-4-angled and inflated. Seed erect.—A perennial herb, with alternate palmately-lobed leaves, and corymbose white flowers. (For Prof. Trautvetter, a Russian botanist.)

1. T. palmàta, Fisch. & Mey. Stems 2–3° high; root-leaves large, 5–11-lobed, the lobes toothed and cut.—Moist ground along streamlets, Md. to S. Ind., and south to Ga.

7. ADÒNIS, Dill.

Sepals and petals (5–16) flat, unappendaged, deciduous. Achenes numerous, in a head, rugose-reticulated. Seed suspended.—Herbs with finely dissected alternate leaves and showy flowers. (Ἄδωνις, a favorite of Venus, after his death changed into a flower.)

A. autumnàlis, L. A low leafy annual, with scarlet or crimson flowers, darker in the centre.—Sparingly naturalized from Europe.

8. MYOSÙRUS, Dill. Mouse-tail.

Sepals 5, spurred at the base. Petals 5, small and narrow, raised on a slender claw, at the summit of which is a nectariferous hollow. Stamens 5–20. Achenes numerous, somewhat 3-sided, crowded on a very long and slender spike-like receptacle (whence the name, from μῦς, a mouse, and οὐρά, a tail), the seed suspended.—Little annuals, with tufted narrowly linear-spatulate root-leaves, and naked 1-flowered scapes. Flowers small, greenish.

1. M. mínimus, L. Fruiting spike 1–2´ long; achenes quadrate, blunt.—Alluvial ground, Ill. and Ky., thence south and west. (Eu.)

9. RANÚNCULUS, Tourn. Crowfoot. Buttercup.

Sepals 5. Petals 5, flat, with a little pit or scale at the base inside. Achenes numerous, in a head, mostly flattened, pointed; the seed erect.—Annuals or perennials; stem-leaves alternate. Flowers solitary or somewhat corymbed, yellow, rarely white. (Sepals and petals rarely only 3, the latter often more than 5. Stamens occasionally few.)—(A Latin name for a little frog; applied by Pliny to these plants, the aquatic species growing where frogs abound.)

R. Ficària, L. (representing the § Ficaria), which has tuberous-thickened roots, Caltha-like leaves, and scape-like peduncles bearing a 3-sepalous and 8–9-petalous yellow flower, has been found as an escape from gardens about New York and Philadelphia.

§ 1. BATRÁCHIUM. Petals with a spot or naked pit at base, white, or only the claw yellow; achenes marginless, transversely wrinkled; aquatic or subaquatic perennials, with the immersed foliage repeatedly dissected (mostly by threes) into capillary divisions; peduncles 1-flowered, opposite the leaves.

[*] Receptacle hairy.

1. R. circinàtus, Sibth. (Stiff Water-Crowfoot.) Leaves all under water and sessile, with broad conspicuous stipules, the divisions and subdivisions short, spreading in one roundish plane, rigid, not collapsing when withdrawn from the water. (R. divaricatus, Man., not Schrank.)—Ponds and slow streams, Maine and Vt., to Iowa, north and westward, much rarer than the next. June–Aug. (Eu.)

2. R. aquátilis, L., var. trichophýllus, Gray. (Common White Water-Crowfoot.) Leaves all under water and mostly petioled, their capillary divisions and subdivisions rather long and soft, usually collapsing more or less when withdrawn from the water; petiole rather narrowly dilated.—Common, especially in slow-flowing waters, the eastern form with more soft and flaccid leaves. June–Aug. (Eu.)

Var. cæspitòsus, DC. A dwarf terrestrial form, rooting at the nodes, the small leaves somewhat fleshy, with broader rigid divisions.—S. Ill. (Schneck), and westward.

[*][*] Receptacle glabrous; no submersed leaves.

R. hederàceus, L. Rooting freely in shallow water; leaves all reniform, angulate-lobed.—Fresh-water marshes at Norfolk, Va. (Nat. from Eu.)

§ 2. HALÒDES. Petals yellow, with nectariferous pit and scale; carpels thin-walled, striate, in an oblong head; scapose, spreading by runners.

3. R. Cymbalària, Pursh. (Sea-side Crowfoot.) Glabrous; scapes 1–6´ high, 1–7-flowered; leaves clustered at the root and on the joints of the long rooting runners, roundish-heart-shaped or kidney-shaped, crenate, rather fleshy, long-petioled; petals 5–8.—Sandy shores, from New Jersey northward, and along the Great Lakes to Ill., Kan. and westward; also at salt springs. June–Aug.

§ 3. RANUNCULUS proper. Petals with a little scale at the base, yellow; achenes nerveless.

[*] Achenes smooth; mostly perennial.

[+] Aquatic; immersed leaves filiformly dissected, as in § Batrachium.

4. R. multífidus, Pursh. (Yellow Water-Crowfoot.) Stems floating or immersed, with the leaves all repeatedly 3-forked into long filiform divisions, or sometimes creeping in the mud (perennial by rooting from the nodes, if at all); emersed leaves with shorter and linear or wedge-shaped divisions, or else kidney-shaped and sparingly lobed or toothed; petals 5–8, deep bright yellow, 4–6´´ long, much larger than the calyx; carpels in a round head, pointed with a straight beak.—E. New Eng. to S. Penn., Mo., and northward. May–July.—Out of water it is often pubescent, especially in

Var. terréstris, Gray. Stem rooting in the mud or ascending from the base; leaves all smaller, coarsely dissected, round-reniform in outline; flowers and fruit twice or thrice smaller.—N. Ohio to N. Ill., Minn., and westward.

[+][+] Terrestrial but growinq in very wet places, glabrous or nearly so; leaves entire or barely toothed, all or else all but the lowest lanceolate or linear; carpels forming a globular head. (Spearwort.)

5. R. ámbigens, Watson. (Water Plantain Spearwort.) Stems ascending (1–2° high), often rooting from the lower joints; leaves lanceolate or the lowest oblong, mostly denticulate (3–5´ long), contracted into a margined half-clasping petiole; petals 5–7, bright yellow, oblong (2–3´´ long); carpels flattened, large (1´´ long), pointed with a long narrow-subulate beak. (R. alismæfolius, Man., not Gey.)—N. Eng. to Ont., Minn. and southward; common, especially at the north. June–Aug.

6. R. Flámmula, L. (Smaller Spearwort.) Stem reclining or ascending, rooting below, leaves lanceolate or linear, or the lowest ovate-oblong to lanceolate, entire or nearly so, mostly petioled (1–2´ long), petals 5–7, much longer than the calyx, bright yellow, carpels small, flattish but turgid, mucronate with a short abrupt point.—Only a small form (var. intermèdius) met with in this country (shore of L. Ontario, and northward), a span high, with flowers 3–5´´ in diameter, passing into

Var. réptans, E. Meyer. (Creeping S.) Small, slender, the filiform creeping stems rooting at all the joints; leaves linear, spatulate, or oblong (¼–1´ long); flowers small.—Gravelly or sandy banks; Newf. to Penn., north and westward. June–Sept. (Eu.)

7. R. oblongifòlius, Ell. Usually annual; stem erect or ascending, often pubescent below, slender (1–2° high), diffusely branched above and many-flowered; leaves serrate or denticulate, lower long-petioled, ovate or oblong (½–1½´ long), uppermost linear; flowers 3–5´´ broad; petals 5, bright yellow, 1–3´´ long; carpels minute, almost globular, the small style deciduous.—Wet prairies, Ill., Mo., and in S. States. June.

8. R. pusíllus, Poir. Stem ascending, weak, loosely branching (6–18´ long); leaves entire or obscurely denticulate, the lowest round-ovate or heart-shaped (½´ long), long-petioled, the upper oblong or lanceolate (1–1½´ long); flowers very small; petals 1–5, yellowish; stamens 3–10; carpels very turgid, smooth or slightly papillose, tipped with a minute sessile stigma.—Wet places, S. New York, and southward along the coast. June–Aug.

[+][+][+] Terrestrial, but often in wet places; leaves mostly cleft or divided.

[++] Root-leaves not divided to the very base; achenes marginless.

9. R. affìnis, R. Br. Somewhat hairy or glabrous; low or slender, 1° high or less; leaves pedately cleft, the cauline with linear or narrow oblanceolate divisions; petals light yellow, 3–4´´ long or smaller; heads oblong; achenes turgid, with small and mostly recurved style, pubescent or glabrous.—And var. validus, Gray, stouter and with more fleshy leaves, the lower mostly undivided and roundish, cordate, truncate or cuneate at base, coarsely crenate or more or less cleft.—Minn., Iowa, north and westward.

10. R. rhomboídeus, Goldie. Low (3–8´ high), hairy; root-leaves roundish or rhombic-ovate, rarely subcordate, toothed or crenate; lowest stem-leaves similar or 3–5-lobed, the upper 3–5-parted, almost sessile, the lobes linear; carpels orbicular with a minute beak, in a globose head; petals large, deep yellow.—Prairies, Mich. to N. Ill., Minn., and northward. April, May.

11. R. abortìvus, L. (Small-flowered C.) Biennial, glabrous, branching, 6´–2° high; primary root-leaves round heart-shaped or kidney-form, barely crenate, the succeeding often 3-lobed or 3-parted; those of the stem and branches 3–5-parted or divided, subsessile, the divisions oblong or narrowly wedge-form, mostly toothed; head globose; carpels mucronate, with a minute curved beak; petals pale yellow, shorter than the small reflexed calyx.—Shady hillsides and along brooks, common. April–June.

Var. micránthus, Gray. Pubescent, roots often fusiform-thickened; root-leaves seldom at all heart-shaped, some 3-parted or 3-divided; peduncles more slender and carpels fewer.—E. Mass. to Ill., Minn., and westward.

12. R. sceleràtus, L. (Cursed C.) Annual, glabrous; root-leaves 3-lobed, rounded; lower stem-leaves 3-parted, the lobes obtusely cut and toothed, the uppermost almost sessile, with the lobes oblong-linear and nearly entire; carpels barely mucronulate, very numerous, in oblong or cylindrical heads; petals scarcely exceeding the calyx.—Wet ditches; appearing as if introduced. June–Aug.—Stem thick and hollow, 1° high; juice acrid and blistering; leaves thickish; flowers small, pale yellow. (Eu.)

[++][++] Leaves variously cleft or divided; achenes in globular heads (except n. 17), compressed, with an evident firm margin; hirsute or pubescent.

[=] Achenes with long recurved beak; root-leaves rarely divided.

13. R. recurvàtus, Poir. (Hooked C.) Hirsute, 1–2° high; leaves of the root and stem nearly alike, long-petioled, deeply 3-cleft, large; the lobes broadly wedge-shaped, 2–3-cleft, cut and toothed toward the apex; petals shorter than the reflexed calyx, pale.—Woods, common. May, June.

[=][=] Style long and attenuate, stigmatose at the tip, persistent or the upper part usually deciduous; early root-leaves only 3-parted, the later 3–5-foliolate; petals bright yellow, much larger than the calyx (except n. 18).

14. R. fasciculàris, Muhl. (Early C.) Low, ascending, 5–9´ high, pubescent with close-pressed silky hairs; root a cluster of thickened fleshy fibres; radical leaves appearing pinnate, the long-stalked terminal division remote from the sessile lateral ones, itself 3–5-divided or parted and 3–5-cleft, the lobes oblong or linear; petals often 6 or 7, spatulate-oblong, twice the length of the spreading calyx; carpels scarcely margined, tipped with a slender straight or rather curved beak.—Dry or moist hills. April, May.

15. R. septentrionàlis, Poir. Low, hairy or nearly glabrous; stems ascending, or in wet ground some of them procumbent or forming long runners; leaves 3-divided, the divisions all stalked (or at least the terminal one), broadly wedge-shaped or ovate, unequally 3-cleft or parted and variously cut, never pinnately compound; petals obovate, much larger than the spreading calyx; carpels strongly margined, pointed by a stout straightish beak. (R. repens, of Manual, mainly.)—Moist or shady places, etc., May–Aug.—Extremely variable in size and foliage, commencing to flower by upright stems in spring before any long runners are formed.

[=][=][=] Style subulate, stigmatose along the inner margin, mostly persistent.

16. R. rèpens, L. In habit and foliage closely similar to the last species; leaves frequently white-variegated or spotted; commencing to flower somewhat later.—In low grounds; generally in waste grounds near the coast and probably introduced from Europe, but indigenous westward.

17. R. Pennsylvánicus, L. f. (Bristly C.) Stout and erect from a usually annual root, hirsute with widely spreading bristly hairs, leafy to the top, 1–2° high; leaves all ternately divided or compound, the stalked leaflets unequally 3-cleft, sharply cut and toothed, acute; flowers inconspicuous; calyx reflexed; head of carpels oblong.—Wet places, common. June–Aug.

18. R. hìspidus, Hook. (not Michx. or DC.). Resembling the last, but the ascending or reclining stems few-leaved, rarely if ever rooting, not always hirsute; petals (about 3´´ long) surpassing the hardly reflexed and soon deciduous calyx; achenes with a stout straight beak, in a globose or oval head.—On the northern shore of Lake Superior, and north and westward; probably in N. Minn.

R. bulbòsus, L. (Bulbous C. or Buttercups.) Hairy; stem erect from a bulb-like base, 1° high; radical leaves 3-divided; the lateral divisions sessile, the terminal stalked and 3-parted, all wedge-shaped, cleft and toothed; peduncles furrowed; petals round, wedge shaped at base; calyx reflexed; carpels tipped with a very short beak.—Fields; very abundant only in E. New England; rare westward. May–July.—Leaves appearing as if pinnate. Petals often 6 or 7, deep glossy yellow, the corolla more than an inch broad. (Nat. from Eu.)

R. àcris, L. (Tall C. or Buttercups.) Hairy; stem erect (2–3° high); leaves 3-divided; the divisions all sessile and 3-cleft or parted, their segments cut into lanceolate or linear crowded lobes; peduncles not furrowed; petals obovate, much longer than the spreading calyx.—Fields; common, especially eastward. June–Aug.—Flower nearly as large as the last, but not so deep yellow.—The Buttercups are avoided by cattle, on account of their very acrid or even blistering juice, which property, however, is dissipated in drying when these plants are cut with hay. (Nat. from Eu.)

[*][*] Achenes beset with rough points or small prickles; annuals.

R. muricàtus, L. Nearly glabrous; lower leaves roundish or reniform, 3-lobed, coarsely crenate; the upper 3-cleft, wedge-form at the base; petals longer than the calyx; carpels flat, spiny-tuberculate on the sides, strongly beaked, surrounded with a wide and sharp smooth margin.—Eastern Virginia and southward. (Nat. from Eu.)

R. parviflòrus, L. Hairy, slender and diffuse; lower leaves roundish-cordate, 3-cleft, coarsely toothed or cut; the upper 3–5-parted; petals not longer than the calyx; carpels minutely hispid and rough, beaked, narrowly margined.—Norfolk, Va., and southward. (Nat. from Eu.)


Sepals 5, petal-like, deciduous. Petals 5, minute, wanting in the American species. Stamens 10–40. Pistils 3–6 or more, pointed with the styles. Pods ovate or oblong, 2–several-seeded.—Slender smooth perennial herbs, with 2–3-ternately compound leaves; the leaflets 2–3-lobed. Flowers axillary and terminal, white. (From ἰσόπυρον, the ancient name of a Fumaria.)

1. I. biternàtum, Torr. & Gray. Petals none; filaments white, club-shaped; pistils 3–6 (commonly 4), divaricate in fruit, 2–3-seeded; seeds smooth.—Moist shady places, Ohio to Minn. and southward. May.—Fibres of the root thickened here and there into little tubers. Aspect and size of the plant much as in Anemonella.

11. CÁLTHA, L. Marsh Marigold.

Sepals 5–9, petal-like. Petals none. Pistils 5–10, with scarcely any styles. Pods (follicles) compressed, spreading, many-seeded.—Glabrous perennials, with round and heart-shaped or kidney-form, large, undivided leaves. (An ancient Latin name for the common Marigold.)

1. C. palústris, L. Stem hollow, furrowed; leaves round or kidney-shaped, either crenate or dentate or nearly entire; sepals broadly oval (bright yellow).—Swamps and wet meadows, common northward. April, May.—Often called incorrectly Cowslips; used as a pot-herb in spring, when coming into flower. C. flabellifolia, Pursh, is a weak slender form, with open-reniform leaves and smaller flowers (1´ broad or less), occurring in cold mountain springs, N. Y. to Md. (Eu.)

12. TRÓLLIUS, L. Globe-flower.

Sepals 5–15, petal-like. Petals numerous, small, 1-lipped, the concavity near the base. Stamens and pistils numerous. Pods 9 or more, sessile, many-seeded.—Smooth perennials with palmately parted and cut leaves, like Ranunculus, and large solitary terminal flowers. (Name thought to be derived from the old German word troll, a globe, or something round.)

1. T. láxus, Salisb. (Spreading Globe-flower.) Leaves 5–7-parted; sepals 5–6, spreading; petals 15–25, inconspicuous, much shorter than the stamens.—Deep swamps, N. H. to Del. and Mich. May.—Flowers twice the size of the common Buttercup; the sepals spreading, so that the name is not appropriate, as it is to the European Globe-flower of the gardens, nor is the blossom showy, being pale greenish-yellow, or nearly white.

13. CÓPTIS, Salisb. Goldthread.

Sepals 5–7, petal-like, deciduous. Petals 5–7, small, club-shaped, hollow at the apex. Stamens 15–25. Pistils 3–7, on slender stalks. Pods divergent, membranaceous, pointed with the style, 4–8-seeded.—Low smooth perennials, with ternately divided root-leaves, and small white flowers on scapes. (Name from κόπτω, to cut, alluding to the divided leaves.)

1. C. trifòlia, Salisb. (Three-leaved Goldthread.) Leaflets 3, obovate-wedge-form, sharply toothed, obscurely 3-lobed, scape 1-flowered.—Bogs, abundant northward, extending south to Maryland along the mountains, and west to Iowa. May.—Root of long, bright yellow, bitter fibres. Leaves evergreen, shining. Scape naked, slender, 3–5´ high. (Eu.)

14. HELLÉBORUS, Tourn. Hellebore.

Sepals 5, petal-like or greenish, persistent. Petals 8–10, very small, tubular, 2-lipped. Pistils 3–10, sessile, forming coriaceous many-seeded pods.—Perennial herbs, with ample palmate or pedate leaves, and large, solitary, nodding, early vernal flowers. (An ancient name of unknown meaning.)

H. víridis, L. (Green Hellebore.) Root-leaves glabrous, pedate; calyx spreading, greenish.—Has been found wild on Long Island, in Penn., and W. Va. (Adv. from Eu.)

15. ERÁNTHIS, Salisb. Winter Aconite.

Sepals 5–8, petal-like, deciduous. Petals small 2-lipped nectaries. Carpels few, stipitate, several-seeded.—Perennial herbs, with palmately multifid radical leaves, the scape bearing a single large yellow flower surrounded by an involucre of a single leaf. (Name from ἦρ, spring, and ἄνθος, flower.)

E. hyemàlis, Salisb. Dwarf; flowers cup-shaped, 1½´ in diameter; petals shorter than the stamens.—Near Philadelphia. (Adv. from Eu.)

16. AQUILÈGIA, Tourn. Columbine.

Sepals 5, regular, colored like the petals. Petals 5, all alike, with a short spreading lip, produced backward into large hollow spurs, much longer than the calyx. Pistils 5, with slender styles. Pods erect, many-seeded.—Perennials, with 2–3-ternately compound leaves, the leaflets lobed. Flowers large and showy, terminating the branches. (Name from aquilegus, water-drawing.)

1. A. Canadénsis, L. (Wild Columbine.) Spurs nearly straight; stamens and styles longer than the ovate sepals.—Rocks, common. April–June.—Flowers 2´ long, scarlet, yellow inside (or rarely all over), nodding, so that the spurs turn upward, but the stalk becomes upright in fruit.

2. A. brevístyla, Hook. Flowers small, blue or purplish or nearly white; spurs incurved.—Red River valley, Dak.; Rocky Mts., northward.

A. vulgàris, L., the common Garden Columbine, of Europe, with hooked spurs, is beginning to escape from cultivation in some places.

17. DELPHÍNIUM, Tourn. Larkspur.

Sepals 5, irregular, petal-like; the upper one prolonged into a spur at the base. Petals 4, irregular, the upper pair continued backward into long spurs which are enclosed in the spur of the calyx, the lower pair with short claws; rarely only 2, united into one. Pistils 1–5, forming many-seeded pods in fruit.—Leaves palmately divided or cut. Flowers in terminal racemes. (Name from Delphin, in allusion to the shape of the flower, which is sometimes not unlike the classical figures of the dolphin.)

[*] Perennials, indigenous; pistils 3.

1. D. exaltàtum, Ait. (Tall Larkspur.) Stem slender, 2–5° high; leaves deeply 3–5-cleft, the divisions narrow wedge-form, diverging, 3-cleft at the apex, acute; racemes wand-like, panicled, many-flowered; flowers purplish-blue, downy; spur straight; pods erect.—Rich soil, Penn. to Minn. and southward. July.

2. D. tricórne, Michx. (Dwarf L.) Leaves deeply 5-parted, their divisions unequally 3–5-cleft; the lobes linear, acutish; raceme few-flowered, loose; spur straightish, ascending; pods strongly diverging.—W. Penn. to Minn. and southward. April, May.—Root a tuberous cluster. Stem simple, 6´–3° high. Flowers bright blue, sometimes white, occasionally numerous.

3. D. azùreum, Michx. Leaves deeply 3–5-parted, the divisions 2–3 times cleft; the lobes all narrowly linear; raceme strict; spur ascending, usually curved upward; pods erect.—Wisc. to Dak. and southward. May, June.—Stem 1–2° high, slender, often softly pubescent. Flowers sky-blue or whitish.

[*][*] Annual, introduced; petals 2, united into one body; pistil single.

D. Consólida, L. (Field L.) Leaves dissected into narrow linear lobes; inflorescence loosely paniculate; pedicels shorter than the bracts; pod glabrous.—Old grain-fields, Penn. and Va.; also sparingly along roadsides farther north. (Nat. from Eu.)

D. Ajàcis, L. Flowers more numerous and spicately racemose; pods pubescent.—Sparingly escaped from gardens in E. Atlantic States. (Nat. from Eu.)

18. ACONÌTUM, Tourn. Aconite. Monkshood. Wolfsbane.

Sepals 5, petal-like, very irregular; the upper one (helmet) hooded or helmet-shaped, larger than the others. Petals 2 (the 3 lower wanting entirely, or very minute rudiments among the stamens), consisting of small spur-shaped bodies raised on long claws and concealed under the helmet. Pistils 3–5. Pods several-seeded. Seed-coat usually wrinkled or scaly.—Perennials, with palmately cleft or dissected leaves, and showy flowers in racemes or panicles. (The ancient Greek and Latin name, of uncertain origin.)

1. A. Noveboracénse, Gray. Erect from tuberous-thickened roots, 2° high, leafy, the summit and strict loosely flowered raceme pubescent; leaves rather deeply parted, the broadly cuneate divisions 3-cleft and incised; flowers blue, the helmet gibbous-obovate with broad rounded summit and short descending beak.—Chenango and Orange Cos., N. Y.

2. A. uncinàtum, L. (Wild Monkshood.) Glabrous; stem slender, from tuberous-thickened roots, erect, but weak and disposed to climb; leaves firm, deeply 3–5-lobed, petioled, the lobes ovate-lanceolate, coarsely toothed; flowers blue; helmet erect, obtusely conical, compressed, slightly beaked in front.—Rich shady soil along streams, Penn., and southward in the mountains; Wisc. June–Aug.

3. A. reclinàtum, Gray. (Trailing Wolfsbane.) Glabrous; stems trailing (3–8° long); leaves deeply 3–7-cleft, petioled, the lower orbicular in outline; the divisions wedge-form, incised, often 2–3-lobed; flowers white, in very loose panicles; helmet soon horizontal, elongated-conical, with a straight beak in front.—Cheat Mountain, Va., and southward in the Alleghanies. Aug.—Lower leaves 5–6´ wide. Flowers 9´´ long, nearly glabrous.

19. CIMICÍFUGA, L. Bugbane.

Sepals 4 or 5, falling off soon after the flower expands. Petals, or rather transformed stamens, 1–8, small, on claws, 2-horned at the apex. Stamens as in Actæa. Pistils 1–8, forming dry dehiscent pods in fruit.—Perennials, with 2–3-ternately-divided leaves, the leaflets cut-serrate, and white flowers in elongated wand-like racemes. (Name from cimex, a bug, and fugo, to drive away.)

§ 1. CIMICIFUGA proper. Pistils 3–8, stipitate; seeds flattened laterally, covered with chaffy scales, in one row in the membranaceous pods; style awl-shaped; stigma minute.

1. C. Americàna, Michx. (American Bugbane.) Stem 2–4° high; racemes slender, panicled, ovaries mostly 5, glabrous; pods flattened, veiny, 6–8-seeded.—Mountains of S. Penn. and southward. Aug.–Sept.

§ 2. MACRÒTYS. Pistil solitary, sometimes 2–3, sessile; seeds smooth, flattened and packed horizontally in the pod in two rows, as in Actæa; stigma broad and flat.

2. C. racemòsa, Nutt. (Black Snakeroot. Black Cohosh.) Stem 3–8° high, from a thick knotted rootstock; racemes in fruit becoming 1–3° long; pods ovoid.—Rich woods, Maine to Wisc., and southward. July.—Var. dissécta, Gray. Leaves irregularly pinnately decompound, the rather small leaflets incised.—Centreville, Del. (Commons.)

20. ACTÆ̀A, L. Baneberry. Cohosh.

Sepals 4 or 5, falling off when the flower expands. Petals 4–10, small, flat, spatulate, on slender claws. Stamens numerous, with slender white filaments. Pistil single; stigma sessile, depressed, 2-lobed. Fruit a many-seeded berry. Seeds smooth, flattened, and packed horizontally in 2 rows.—Perennials, with ample 2–3-ternately compound leaves, the ovate leaflets sharply cleft and toothed, and a short and thick terminal raceme of white flowers. (From ἀκτέα, actæa, ancient names of the elder, transferred by Linnæus.)

1. A. spicàta, L., var. rùbra, Ait. (Red Baneberry.) Raceme ovate; petals rhombic-spatulate, much shorter than the stamens; pedicels slender; berries cherry-red, or sometimes white, oval.—Rich woods, common, especially northward. April, May.—Plant 2° high. (Eu.)

2. A. álba, Bigel. (White Baneberry.) Leaflets more incised and sharply toothed; raceme oblong; petals slender, mostly truncate at the end, appearing to be transformed stamens; pedicels thickened in fruit, as large as the peduncle and red, the globular-oval berries white.—Rich woods, flowering a week or two later than the other, and more common westward and southward.—White berries rarely occur with slender pedicels, also red berries with thick pedicels; but these are perhaps the result of crossing.

21. HYDRÁSTIS, Ellis. Orange-root. Yellow Puccoon.

Sepals 3, petal-like, falling away when the flower opens. Petals none. Pistils 12 or more in a head, 2-ovuled; stigma flat, 2-lipped. Ovaries becoming a head of crimson 1–2-seeded berries in fruit.—A low perennial herb, sending up in early spring, from a thick and knotted yellow rootstock, a single radical leaf and a simple hairy stem, which is 2-leaved near the summit and terminated by a single greenish-white flower. (Name unmeaning.)

1. H. Canadénsis, L. (Golden Seal, etc.) Leaves rounded, heart-shaped at the base, 5–7-lobed, doubly serrate, veiny, when full grown in summer 4–9´ wide.—Rich woods, N. Y. to Minn., and southward.

22. XANTHORRHÌZA, Marshall. Shrub Yellow-root.

Sepals 5, regular, spreading, deciduous. Petals 5, much smaller than the sepals, concave and obscurely 2-lobed, raised on a claw. Stamens 5 to 10. Pistils 5–15, with 2 pendulous ovules. Pods 1-seeded, oblong, the short style becoming dorsal.—A low shrubby plant; the bark and long roots deep yellow and bitter. Flowers polygamous, brown purple, in compound drooping racemes, appearing along with the 1–2-pinnate leaves from large terminal buds in early spring. (Name compounded of ξανθός, yellow, and ῥίζα, root.)

1. X. apiifòlia, L'Her. Stems clustered, 1–2° high; leaflets cleft and toothed.—Shady banks of streams, Penn. to S. W. New York and Ky., and south in the mountains. The rootstocks of this, and also of the last plant, were used as a yellow dye by the aborigines.

Nigélla Damascèna, L., the Fennel-flower, which offers a remarkable exception in having the pistils partly united into a compound ovary, so as to form a several-celled capsule, grows nearly spontaneously around gardens.

Order 2. MAGNOLIÀCEÆ. (Magnolia Family.)

Trees or shrubs, with the leaf-buds covered by membranous stipules, polypetalous, hypogynous, polyandrous, polygynous; the calyx and corolla colored alike, in three or more rows of three, and imbricated (rarely convolute) in the bud.—Sepals and petals deciduous. Anthers adnate. Pistils many, mostly packed together and covering the prolonged receptacle, cohering with each other, and in fruit forming a sort of fleshy or dry cone. Seeds 1 or 2 in each carpel, anatropous; albumen fleshy; embryo minute.—Leaves alternate, not toothed, marked with minute transparent dots, feather-veined. Flowers single, large. Bark aromatic and bitter.


Sepals 3. Petals 6–9. Stamens imbricated, with very short filaments, and long anthers opening inward. Pistils coherent, forming a fleshy and rather woody cone-like red fruit; each carpel at maturity opening on the back, from which the 1 or 2 berry-like seeds hang by an extensile thread composed of unrolled spiral vessels. Inner seed-coat bony.—Buds conical, the coverings formed of the successive pairs of stipules, each pair enveloping the leaf next above, which is folded lengthwise and applied straight against the side of the next stipular sheath, and so on. (Named after Magnol, Professor of Botany at Montpellier in the 17th century.)

[*] Leaves all scattered along the branches; leaf-buds silky.

1. M. glaùca, L. (Small or Laurel Magnolia. Sweet Bay.) Leaves oval to broadly lanceolate, 3–6´ long, obtuse, glaucous beneath; flower globular, white, 2´ long, very fragrant; petals broad; cone of fruit small, oblong.—Swamps, from near Cape Ann and N. Y. southward, near the coast; in Penn. as far west as Cumberland Co. June–Aug.—Shrub 4–20° high, with thickish leaves, which farther south are evergreen.

2. M. acuminàta, L. (Cucumber-tree.) Leaves thin, oblong, pointed, green and a little pubescent beneath, 5–10´ long; flower oblong bell-shaped, glaucous-green tinged with yellow, 2´ long; cone of fruit 2–3´ long, cylindrical.—Rich woods, western N. Y. to Ill., and southward. May, June.—Tree 60–90° high. Fruit when young slightly resembling a small cucumber, whence the common name.

3. M. macrophýlla, Michx. (Great-leaved Magnolia.) Leaves obovate-oblong, cordate at the narrowed base, pubescent and white beneath; flower open bell-shaped, white, with a purple spot at base; petals ovate, 6´ long; cone of fruit ovoid.—S. E. Ky. and southward. May, June.—Tree 20–40° high. Leaves 1–3° long, somewhat clustered on the flowering branches.

[*][*] Leaves crowded on the summit of the flowering branches in an umbrella-like circle; leaf-buds glabrous; flowers white, slightly scented.

4. M. Umbrélla, Lam. (Umbrella-tree.) Leaves obovate-lanceolate, pointed at both ends, soon glabrous, 1–2° long; petals obovate-oblong, 4–5´ long.—S. Penn. to Ky. and southward. May.—A small tree. Fruit rose-color, 4–5´ long, ovoid-oblong.

5. M. Fràseri, Walt. (Ear-leaved Umbrella-tree.) Leaves oblong-obovate or spatulate, auriculate at the base, glabrous, 8–20´ long; petals obovate-spatulate, with narrow claws, 4´ long.—Va. and Ky., along the Alleghanies, and southward. April, May.—A slender tree 30–50° high. Flower more graceful and cone of fruit smaller than in the preceding.

2. LIRIODÉNDRON, L. Tulip-tree.

Sepals 3, reflexed. Petals 6, in two rows, making a bell-shaped corolla. Anthers linear, opening outward. Pistils flat and scale-form, long and narrow, imbricating and cohering together in an elongated cone, dry, separating from each other and from the long and slender axis in fruit, and falling away whole, like a samara or key, indehiscent, 1–2-seeded in the small cavity at the base. Buds flat, sheathed by the successive pairs of flat and broad stipules joined at their edges, the folded leaves bent down on the petiole so that the apex points to the base of the bud. (Name from λίριον, lily or tulip, and δένδρον, tree.)

1. L. Tulipífera, L.—Rich soil, S. New Eng. to Mich., Wisc., and southward. May, June.—A most beautiful tree, sometimes 140° high and 8–9° in diameter in the Western States, where it is wrongly called White Poplar. Leaves very smooth, with 2 lateral lobes near the base, and 2 at the apex, which appears as if cut off abruptly by a broad shallow notch. Petals 2´ long, greenish-yellow marked with orange. Cone of fruit 3´ long.

Order 3. ANONÀCEÆ. (Custard-Apple Family.)

Trees or shrubs, with naked buds and no stipules, a calyx of 3 sepals, and a corolla of 6 petals in two rows, valvate in the bud, hypogynous, polyandrous.—Petals thickish. Anthers adnate, opening outward; filaments very short. Pistils several or many, separate or cohering in a mass, fleshy or pulpy in fruit. Seeds anatropous, large, with a crustaceous seed-coat, and a minute embryo at the base of the ruminated albumen.—Leaves alternate, entire, feather-veined. Flowers axillary, solitary.—A tropical family, excepting the following genus:—

1. ASÍMINA, Adans. North American Papaw.

Petals 6, increasing after the bud opens; the outer set larger than the inner. Stamens numerous in a globular mass. Pistils few, ripening 1–4 large and oblong pulpy several-seeded fruits. Seeds horizontal, flat, enclosed in a fleshy aril.—Shrubs or small trees with unpleasant odor when bruised, the lurid flowers solitary from the axils of last year's leaves. (Name from Asiminier, of the French colonists, from the Indian name assimin.)

1. A. tríloba, Dunal. (Common Papaw.) Leaves thin, obovate-lanceolate, pointed; petals dull-purple, veiny, round-ovate, the outer ones 3–4 times as long as the calyx.—Banks of streams in rich soil, western N. Y. and Penn. to Ill., S. E. Neb., and southward. April, May.—Tree 10–20° high; the young shoots and expanding leaves clothed with a rusty down, soon glabrous. Flowers appearing with the leaves, 1½´ wide. Fruits 3–4´ long, yellowish, sweet and edible in autumn.

Order 4. MENISPERMÀCEÆ. (Moonseed Family.)

Woody climbers, with palmate or peltate alternate leaves, no stipules, the sepals and petals similar, in three or more rows, imbricated in the bud; hypogynous, diœcious, 3–6-gynous; fruit a 1-seeded drupe, with a large or long curved embryo in scanty albumen.—Flowers small. Stamens several. Ovaries nearly straight, with the stigma at the apex, but often incurved in fruiting, so that the seed and embryo are bent into a crescent or ring.—Chiefly a tropical family.

[*] Sepals and petals present. Anthers 4-celled. Seed incurved.

1. Cocculus. Stamens, petals, and sepals each 6.

2. Menispermum. Stamens 12–24, slender. Petals 6–8.

[*][*] Petals none. Anthers 2-celled. Seed saucer-shaped.

3. Calycocarpum. Stamens in the sterile flowers 12; in the fertile flowers 6, abortive.


Sepals, petals, and stamens 6, alternating in threes, the two latter short. Anthers 4-celled. Pistils 3–6 in the fertile flowers; style pointed. Drupe and seed as in Menispermum.—Flowers in axillary racemes or panicles. (An old name, a diminutive of coccus, κόκκος, a berry.)

1. C. Carolìnus, DC. Minutely pubescent; leaves downy beneath, ovate or cordate, entire or sinuately or hastately lobed, variable in shape; flowers greenish, the petals in the sterile ones auriculate-inflexed below around the filaments; drupe red (as large as a small pea).—River-banks, Va. to S. Ill., Kan., and southward. July, Aug.

2. MENISPÉRMUM, L. Moonseed.

Sepals 4–8. Petals 6–8, short. Stamens 12–24 in the sterile flowers, as long as the sepals; anthers 4-celled. Pistils 2–4 in the fertile flowers, raised on a short common receptacle; stigma broad and flat. Drupe globular, the mark of the stigma near the base, the ovary in its growth after flowering being strongly incurved, so that the (wrinkled and grooved) laterally flattened stone takes the form of a large crescent or ring. The slender embryo therefore is horseshoe-shaped; cotyledons filiform.—Flowers white, in small and loose axillary panicles. (Name from μήνη, moon, and σπέρμα, seed.)

1. M. Canadénse, L. Leaves peltate near the edge, 3–7-angled or lobed.—Banks of streams; common. June, July.—Drupes black with a bloom, ripe in September, looking like frost grapes.

3. CALYCOCÁRPUM, Nutt. Cupseed.

Sepals 6, petaloid. Petals none. Stamens 12 in the sterile flowers, short; anthers 2-celled. Pistils 3, spindle-shaped, tipped with a radiate many-cleft stigma. Drupe globular; the thin crustaceous putamen hollowed out like a cup on one side. Embryo foliaceous, heart-shaped.—Flowers greenish-white, in long racemose panicles. (Name from κάλυξ, a cup, and καρπός, fruit.)

1. C. Lyòni, Nutt. Leaves large, thin, deeply 3–5-lobed, cordate at the base; the lobes acuminate; drupe an inch long, black when ripe; the shell crested-toothed on the edge of the cavity.—Rich soil, Ky. to S. Ill. and Kan., and southward. May.—Stems climbing to the tops of trees.

Order 5. BERBERIDÀCEÆ. (Barberry Family.)

Shrubs or herbs, with the sepals and petals both imbricated in the bud, usually in two rows of 3 (rarely 2 or 4) each; the hypogynous stamens as many as the petals and opposite to them; anthers opening by 2 valves or lids hinged at the top. (Podophyllum is an exception, and Jeffersonia as respects the sepals in one row.) Pistil single. Filaments short. Style short or none. Fruit a berry or a pod. Seeds few or several, anatropous, with albumen. Embryo small, except in Berberis. Leaves alternate, with dilated bases or stipulate.

[*] Petals and stamens 6. Fruit few-seeded.

1. Berberis. Shrubs, with yellow flowers and wood; a pair of glandular spots on the base of each petal. Fruit a berry.

2. Caulophyllum. Herb, with greenish flowers; petals thick, much shorter than the sepals. Ovary soon bursting; the two seeds left naked.

3. Diphylleia. Herb with white flowers; petals much longer than the sepals. Berry 2–4-seeded.

[*][*] Petals 6–9. Stamens 8–18. Fruit many-seeded. Herbs.

4. Jeffersonia. Petals and stamens usually 8; anthers opening by uplifted valves. Pod opening by a lid.

5. Podophyllum. Petals 6–9. Stamens 12–18; anthers not opening by uplifted valves. Fruit a large berry.

1. BÉRBERIS, L. Barberry.

Sepals 6, roundish, with 2–6 bractlets outside. Petals 6, obovate, concave, with two glandular spots inside above the short claw. Stamens 6. Stigma circular, depressed. Fruit a 1–few-seeded berry. Seeds erect, with a crustaceous integument.—Shrubs, with yellow wood and inner bark, yellow flowers in drooping racemes, sour berries, and 1–9-foliolate leaves. Stamens irritable. (Derived from Berbêrys, the Arabic name of the fruit.)

1. B. Canadénsis, Pursh. (American Barberry.) Leaves repandly toothed, the teeth less bristly-pointed; racemes few-flowered; petals notched at the apex; berries oval; otherwise as in the next.—Alleghanies of Va. and southward; not in Canada. June.—Shrub 1–3° high.

B. vulgàris, L. (Common Barberry.) Leaves scattered on the fresh shoots of the season, mostly reduced to sharp triple or branched spines, from the axils of which the next season proceed rosettes or fascicles of obovate-oblong closely bristly-toothed leaves (the short petiole jointed!), and drooping many-flowered racemes; petals entire; berries oblong, scarlet.—Thickets and waste grounds in E. New Eng., where it has become thoroughly wild; elsewhere occasionally spontaneous. May, June. (Nat. from Eu.)

2. CAULOPHÝLLUM, Michx. Blue Cohosh.

Sepals 6, with 3 or 4 small bractlets at the base, ovate-oblong. Petals 6 thick and gland-like somewhat kidney-shaped or hooded bodies, with short claws, much smaller than the sepals, one at the base of each of them. Stamens 6; anthers oblong. Pistil gibbous; style short; stigma minute and unilateral; ovary bursting soon after flowering by the pressure of the 2 erect, enlarging seeds, and withering away; the spherical seeds naked on their thick seed-stalks, looking like drupes, the fleshy integument turning blue; albumen horny.—A perennial glabrous herb, with matted knotty rootstocks, sending up in early spring a simple and naked stem, terminated by a small raceme or panicle of yellowish-green flowers, and a little below bearing a large triternately compound sessile leaf (whence the name, from καυλός, stem, and φύλλον, leaf, the stem seeming to form a stalk for the great leaf.)

1. C. thalictroìdes, Michx. (Also called Pappoose-root.) Stems 1–2½° high; leaflets obovate wedge-form, 2–3-lobed, a smaller biternate leaf often at the base of the panicle; flowers appearing while the leaf is yet small.—Deep rich woods; common westward. April, May.—Whole plant glaucous when young, as also the seeds, which are as large as peas.

3. DIPHYLLÈIA, Michx. Umbrella-leaf.

Sepals 6, fugacious. Petals 6, oval, flat, larger than the sepals. Stamens 6; anthers oblong. Ovary oblong; style hardly any; stigma depressed. Ovules 5 or 6, attached to one side of the cell below the middle. Berry globose, few-seeded. Seeds oblong, with no aril.—A perennial glabrous herb, with thick horizontal rootstocks, sending up each year either a huge centrally peltate and cut-lobed, rounded, umbrella-like radical leaf, on a stout stalk, or a flowering stem bearing two similar (but smaller and more 2-cleft) alternate leaves which are peltate near one margin, and terminated by a cyme of white flowers. (Name composed of δίς, double, and φύλλον, leaf.)

1. D. cymòsa, Michx. Root-leaves 1–2° in diameter, 2-cleft, each division 5–7-lobed; lobes toothed; berries blue.—Wet or springy places, mountains of Va. and southward. May.

4. JEFFERSÒNIA, Barton. Twin-leaf.

Sepals 4, fugacious. Petals 8, oblong, flat. Stamens 8, anthers oblong-linear, on slender filaments. Ovary ovoid, soon gibbous, pointed, stigma 2-lobed. Pod pear-shaped, opening half-way round horizontally, the upper part making a lid. Seeds many in several rows on the lateral placenta, with a fleshy lacerate aril on one side.—A perennial glabrous herb, with matted fibrous roots, long-petioled root-leaves, parted into 2 half-ovate leaflets, and simple naked 1-flowered scapes. (Named in honor of Thomas Jefferson.)

1. J. diphýlla, Pers. Low; flower white, 1´ broad, the parts rarely in threes or fives.—Woods, western N. Y. to Wisc. and southward. April, May.—Called Rheumatism-root in some places.

5. PODOPHÝLLUM, L. May-apple. Mandrake.

Flower-bud with three green bractlets, which early fall away. Sepals 6, fugacious. Petals 6 or 9, obovate. Stamens twice as many as the petals in our species; anthers linear-oblong, not opening by uplifted valves. Ovary ovoid; stigma sessile, large, thick and undulate. Fruit a large fleshy berry. Seeds covering the very large lateral placenta, in many rows, each seed enclosed in a pulpy aril, all forming a mass which fills the cavity of the fruit.—Perennial herbs, with creeping rootstocks and thick fibrous roots. Stems 2-leaved, 1-flowered. (Name from ποῦς, a foot, and φύλλον, a leaf, probably referring to the stout petioles.)

1. P. peltàtum, L. Stamens 12–18; leaves 5–9-parted, the lobes oblong, rather wedge-shaped, somewhat lobed and toothed at the apex.—Rich woods, common. May.—Flowerless stems terminated by a large round 7–9-lobed leaf, peltate in the middle like an umbrella. Flowering stems bearing two one-sided leaves, with the stalk fixed near their inner edge; the nodding white flower from the fork nearly 2´ broad. Fruit ovoid, 1–2´ long, ripe in July, sweet and slightly acid, edible. The leaves and roots are drastic and poisonous!—Found occasionally with from 2 to 6 carpels!

Order 6. NYMPHÆÀCEÆ. (Water-Lily Family.)

Aquatic perennial herbs, with horizontal rootstocks and peltate or sometimes only cordate leaves floating or emersed; the ovules borne on the sides or back (or when solitary hanging from the summit) of the cells, not on the ventral suture; the embryo enclosed in a little bag at the end of the albumen next the hilum, except in Nelumbium, which has no albumen. Radicle hardly any; cotyledons thick and fleshy, enclosing a well-developed plumule.—Flowers axillary, solitary. Vernation involute. Rootstocks apparently endogenous.—The few genera differ so much in the flower and fruit that they are separated into the three following suborders.

Suborder I. Cabómbeæ. Sepals and petals each 3 or sometimes 4, hypogynous and persistent. Stamens definite (3–18). Pistils 2–18, free and distinct, coriaceous and indehiscent, 1–3-seeded on the dorsal suture.—Stems slender, leafy, coated with mucilage. Flowers small.

1. Cabomba. Stamens 3–4. Carpels 2–3. Submersed leaves capillary-multifid.

2. Brasenia. Stamens 12–18. Carpels 4–18. Leaves all peltate.

Suborder II. Nelumbòneæ. Sepals and petals numerous in several rows, passing gradually into each other, and with the indefinitely numerous stamens hypogynous and deciduous. Pistils several, 1-ovuled, separately immersed in the obconical receptacle, which is much enlarged and broadly top-shaped at maturity, the imbedded nut-like fruits resembling small acorns. Embryo large; no albumen.—Petioles and peduncles all from the tuberous rootstock, the centrally peltate leaves and the flowers large.

3. Nelumbo. Character of the Suborder.

Suborder III. Nymphæaceæ proper. Sepals 4–6, and petals numerous in many rows, persistent or decaying away, either hypogynous or variously adnate to the surface of the compound 8–30-celled ovary, which is formed by the union of as many carpels; the numerous ovules inserted over the whole inner face of the cells, except at the ventral suture. Stigmas radiate as in Poppy. Fruit baccate, with a firm rind. Petioles and peduncles from a thick rootstock.

4. Nymphæa. Petals adnate to the ovary, large; the stamens on its summit.

5. Nuphar. Petals (very small and stamen-like) and stamens inserted under the ovary.

1. CABÓMBA, Aublet.

Sepals 3. Petals 3, oval, bi-auriculate above the very short claw. Stamens 3–6; anthers short, extrorse. Pistils 2–4, with small terminal stigmas. Seeds 3, pendulous.—Slender, mainly submersed, with opposite or verticillate capillary-dissected leaves, a few floating, alternate and centrally peltate. Flowers single on long axillary peduncles. (Probably an aboriginal name.)

1. C. Caroliniàna, Gray. Floating leaves linear-oblong or -obovate, often with a basal notch; flowers 6–8´´ broad, white with yellow spots at base; stamens 6.—Ponds, S. Ill. (May–Sept., Schneck) to Fla. and Tex.

2. BRASÈNIA, Schreber. Water-Shield.

Sepals 3 or 4. Petals 3 or 4, linear, sessile. Stamens 12–18; filaments filiform; anthers innate. Pistils 4–18, forming little club-shaped indehiscent pods; stigmas linear. Seeds 1–2, pendulous on the dorsal suture!—Rootstock creeping. Leaves alternate, long-petioled, centrally peltate, oval, floating. Flowers axillary, small, dull-purple. (Name of uncertain origin.)

1. B. peltàta, Pursh. Leaves entire, 1–4´ across.—Ponds and slow streams. June–Aug. (Asia, Africa and Australia.)

3. NELÚMBO, Tourn. Sacred Bean.

The only genus of the suborder. (Nelumbo is the Ceylonese name of the East Indian species, the pink-flowered N. speciosum.)

1. N. lùtea, Pers. (Yellow Nelumbo, or Water Chinquapin.) Leaves usually raised high out of the water, circular, with the centre depressed or cupped, 1–2° in diameter; flower pale yellow, 5–10´ broad; anthers tipped with a slender hooked appendage. (Nelumbium luteum, Willd.)—S. Conn. (probably of Indian introduction) to Lake Ontario, Mich., Minn., E. Neb., and southward; rare in the Middle States.—Tubers farinaceous and edible. Seeds also eatable. Embryo like that of Nymphæa on a large scale; cotyledons thick and fleshy, enclosing a plumule of 1 or 2 well-formed young leaves, enclosed in a delicate stipule-like sheath.

4. NYMPHÆ̀A, Tourn. Water-Nymph. Water-Lily.

Sepals 4, green outside, nearly free. Petals numerous, in many rows, the innermost gradually passing into stamens, imbricately inserted all over the ovary. Stamens indefinite, inserted on the ovary, the outer with dilated filaments. Ovary 12–35-celled, the concave summit tipped with a globular projection at the centre, around which are the radiate stigmas; these project at the margin, and are extended into linear and incurved sterile appendages. Fruit depressed-globular, covered with the bases of the decayed petals, maturing under water. Seeds enveloped by a sac-like aril.—Flowers white, pink, yellow, or blue, very showy. (Dedicated by the Greeks to the Water-Nymphs.)

1. N. odoràta, Ait. (Sweet-scented Water-Lily.) Rootstock with few and persistent branches; leaves orbicular, cordate-cleft at the base to the petiole (5–9´ wide), the margin entire; stipules broadly triangular or almost kidney-shaped, notched at the apex, appressed to the rootstock; flower white, very sweet scented (often as much as 5½´ in diameter when fully expanded, opening early in the morning, closing in the afternoon); petals obtuse; anthers blunt; aril much longer than the distinctly stipitate oblong seeds (these about 1½´´ long).—Ponds and still or slow-flowing water; common. June–Sept.—Varies with pinkish-tinged and rarely with bright pink-red flowers (especially at Barnstable, Mass.), the leaves often crimson underneath,—and in size by gradations into

Var. mìnor, Sims., with leaves only 2–5´ and flowers 2–3´ broad.—Shallow water, in cold bogs and in sandy soil.

2. N. renifórmis, DC. (Tuber-bearing W.) Leaves reniform-orbicular, mostly larger (8–15´ wide) and more prominently ribbed than the last, rarely purplish beneath; rootstock bearing numerous spontaneously detaching often compound tubers; flower scentless (or with a slight odor as of apples), white, never pinkish, 4½–9´ in diameter, the petals proportionally broader and blunter than in n. 1; the fruit more depressed, and with fewer but much larger (i.e. twice as broad) globular-ovoid seeds, which when mature are barely enclosed by the aril and not stipitate. (N. tuberosa, Paine.)—Lakes, slow rivers, etc., western N. Y. (from Oneida Lake, Paine) and near Meadville, Penn., to Mich., E. Neb., and probably in the Southern States. July–Sept.

5. NÙPHAR, Smith. Yellow Pond-Lily. Spatter-Dock.

Sepals 5, 6, or sometimes more, colored, or partly green outside, roundish, concave. Petals numerous, small and thickish, stamen-like or scale-like, inserted with the very numerous short stamens on the receptacle under the ovary, not surpassing the disk-like 8–24-rayed sessile stigma, persistent and at length recurved. Fruit ovoid, naked, usually ripening above water. Aril none.—Rootstock creeping, cylindrical. Leaves with a deep sinus at the base. Flowers yellow or sometimes tinged with purple, produced all summer. (Name said to be of Arabic origin.)

1. N. ádvena, Ait. f. Sepals 6, unequal; petals shorter than the stamens and resembling them, thick and fleshy, truncate; stigma nearly entire, 12–24-rayed, pale red; ovary and fruit (1½´ long) ovate, not contracted above into a narrow neck; thin submersed leaves seldom present; floating or emersed and erect leaves thick (6–12´ long), from roundish to ovate or almost oblong, the sinus open, or closed or narrow.—Very common, in still or stagnant water; stout and coarse; flower often partly purplish (var. variegàtum, Engelm.).

Var. mìnus, Morong. More slender; leaves somewhat smaller (3–8´ long); flowers usually smaller (sepals 12–15´´ long); petals spatulate; stigmas 9–13-rayed, crenately toothed, bright red or crimson; fruit 1´ long, contracted above. (N. rubrodiscum, Morong. N. luteum, Man.; not Smith.)—N. Vt. to Mich. and Penn. Probably a hybrid between this and the next species.

2. N. Kalmiànum, Ait. Very slender and with slender rootstock; submersed leaves thin, round-reniform, the floating broadly elliptical with a deep narrow sinus, 2–4´ long; sepals usually 5, the flowers an inch broad or less; petals spatulate or obovate; stigmas 7–10-rayed, dark red; fruit globular with a short neck (6–9´´ in diameter). (N. luteum, var. pumilum, Man.)—Maine to Penn. and Minn., and northward.

3. N. sagittifòlium, Pursh. Rootstock stout; leaves narrowly oblong to oblong-lanceolate with a short sinus, 6–15´ long; flowers small (1´ broad).—S. Ind. and Ill. (Schneck), and southward.

Order 7. SARRACENIÀCEÆ. (Pitcher-Plants.)

Polyandrous and hypogynous bog-plants, with hollow pitcher-form or trumpet-shaped leaves,—comprising one plant in the mountains of Guiana, another (Darlingtonia, Torr.) in California, and the following genus in the Atlantic United States.

1. SARRACÈNIA, Tourn. Side-saddle Flower.

Sepals 5, with 3 bractlets at the base, colored, persistent. Petals 5, oblong or obovate, incurved, deciduous. Stamens numerous, hypogynous. Ovary compound, 5-celled, globose, crowned with a short style, which is expanded at the summit into a very broad and petal-like, 5-angled, 5-rayed, umbrella-shaped body, the 5 delicate rays terminating under the angles in as many little hooked stigmas. Capsule with a granular surface, 5-celled, with many-seeded placentæ in the axis, loculicidally 5-valved. Seeds anatropous, with a small embryo at the base of fleshy albumen.—Perennials, yellowish-green and purplish; the hollow leaves all radical, with a wing on one side, and a rounded arching hood at the apex. Scape naked, 1-flowered; flower nodding. (Named by Tournefort in honor of Dr. Sarrasin of Quebec, who first sent our Northern species, and a botanical account of it, to Europe.)

1. S. purpùrea, L. (Side-saddle Flower. Pitcher-Plant. Huntsman's Cup.) Leaves pitcher-shaped, ascending, curved, broadly winged; the hood erect, open, round heart-shaped; flower deep purple; the fiddle-shaped petals arched over the greenish-yellow style.—Varies rarely with greenish-yellow flowers, and without purple veins in the foliage.—Peat-bogs; common from N. Eng. to Minn., N. E. Iowa, and southward east of the Alleghanies. June.—The curious leaves are usually half filled with water and drowned insects. The inner face of the hood is clothed with stiff bristles pointing downward. Flower globose, nodding on a scape a foot high; it is difficult to fancy any resemblance between its shape and a side-saddle, but it is not very unlike a pillion.

2. S. flàva, L. (Trumpets.) Leaves long (1–3°) and trumpet-shaped, erect, with an open mouth, the erect hood rounded, narrow at the base; wing almost none; flower yellow, the petals becoming long and drooping.—Bogs, Va. and southward. April.

Order 8. PAPAVERÀCEÆ. (Poppy Family.)

Herbs with milky or colored juice, regular flowers with the parts in twos or fours, fugacious sepals, polyandrous, hypogynous, the ovary 1-celled with two or more parietal placentæ.—Sepals 2, rarely 3, falling when the flower expands. Petals 4–12, spreading, imbricated and often crumpled in the bud, early deciduous. Stamens rarely as few as 16, distinct. Fruit a dry 1-celled pod (in the Poppy imperfectly many-celled, in Glaucium 2-celled). Seeds numerous, anatropous, often crested, with a minute embryo at the base of fleshy and oily albumen.—Leaves alternate, without stipules. Peduncles mostly 1-flowered. Juice narcotic or acrid.

[*] Petals 8–12, not crumpled in the bud, white. Pod 1-celled, 2-valved.

1. Sanguinaria. Petals white. Leaves and 1-flowered scape from a short rootstock.

[*][*] Petals 4, crumpled in the bud. Pod 2-valved or more.

[+] Pod 2–4-valved, the valves separating to the base from the placentas. Leaves pinnately parted. Flowers yellow.

2. Stylophorum. Pod bristly; style distinct; stigmas and placentas 3–4.

3. Chelidonium. Pod linear, smooth; style almost none; stigmas and placentas 2.

4. Glaucium. Pod rough, long-linear, 2-celled by a spongy partition; style none.

[+][+] Pod 4–20-valved, dehiscent only at the top or to the middle.

5. Papaver. Ovary incompletely many-celled; stigmas united into a radiate sessile crown.

6. Argemone. Stigmas (sessile) and placentas 4–6. Pod and leaves prickly.

1. SANGUINÀRIA, Dill. Blood-root.

Sepals 2. Petals 8–12, spatulate-oblong, the inner narrower. Stamens about 24. Style short; stigma 2-grooved. Pod oblong, turgid, 1-celled, 2-valved. Seeds with a large crest.—A low perennial, with thick prostrate premorse rootstocks, surcharged with red-orange acrid juice, sending up in earliest spring a rounded palmate-lobed leaf, and a 1-flowered naked scape. Flower white, handsome, the bud erect, the petals not crumpled. (Name from the color of the juice.)

1. S. Canadénsis, L.—Open rich woods; common. April, May.

2. STYLÓPHORUM, Nutt. Celandine Poppy.

Sepals 2, hairy. Petals 4. Style distinct, columnar; stigma 2–4-lobed. Pods bristly, 2–4-valved to the base. Seeds conspicuously crested.—Perennial low herbs, with stems naked below and oppositely 2-leaved, or sometimes 1–3-leaved, and umbellately 1–few-flowered at the summit; the flower-buds and the pods nodding. Leaves pinnately parted or divided. Juice yellow. (From στύλος, style, and φέρω, to bear, one of the distinctive characters.)

1. S. diphýllum, Nutt. Leaves pale or glaucous beneath, smoothish, deeply pinnatifid into 5 or 7 oblong sinuate-lobed divisions, and the root-leaves often with a pair of smaller and distinct leaflets; peduncles equalling the petioles; flower deep yellow (2´ broad); stigmas 3 or 4; pod oval.—Damp woods, W. Penn. to Wisc. and Tenn. May.—Foliage and flower resembling Celandine.

3. CHELIDÒNIUM, L. Celandine.

Sepals 2. Petals 4. Stamens 16–24. Style nearly none; stigma 2-lobed. Pod linear, slender, smooth, 2-valved, the valves opening from the bottom upward. Seeds crested.—Biennial herb with brittle stems, saffron-colored acrid juice, pinnately divided or 2-pinnatifid and toothed or cut leaves, and small yellow flowers in a pedunculate umbel; buds nodding. (Ancient Greek name from χελιδών, the swallow, because its flowers appear with the swallows.)

C. màjus, L. (Celandine.) Waste grounds near dwellings. May–Aug. (Adv. from Eu.)

4. GLAÙCIUM, Tourn. Horn-Poppy.

Sepals 2. Petals 4. Style none; stigma 2-lobed or 2-horned. Pod very long and linear, completely 2-celled by a spongy false partition; seeds crestless.—Annuals or biennials, with saffron-colored juice, clasping leaves, and solitary yellow flowers. (The Greek name, γλαύκιον, from the glaucous foliage.)

G. lùteum, Scop. Lower leaves pinnatifid; upper ones sinuate-lobed and toothed, cordate-clasping; pods rough (6–10´ long).—Waste places S. E. New Eng., Md., and Va.; not common. (Adv. from Eu.)

5. PAPÀVER, Tourn. Poppy.

Sepals mostly 2. Petals mostly 4. Stigmas united in a flat 4–20-rayed crown, resting on the summit of the ovary and capsule; the latter short and turgid, with 4–20 many-seeded placentæ projecting like imperfect partitions, opening by as many pores or chinks under the edge of the stigma.—Herbs with a white juice; the flower-buds nodding. (Derivation obscure.)—Three annual species of the Old World are sparingly adventive; viz.:

P. somníferum, L. (Common Poppy.) Smooth, glaucous; leaves clasping, wavy, incised and toothed; pod globose; corolla mostly white or purple.—Near dwellings in some places. (Adv. from Eu.)

P. dùbium, L. (Smooth-fruited Corn-Poppy.) Pinnatifid leaves and the long stalks bristly; pods club-shaped, smooth; corolla light scarlet.—Cult. grounds, Westchester, Penn., and southward; rare. (Adv. from Eu.)

P. Argemòne, L. (Rough-fruited C.) Smaller, with finer-cut leaves and paler flowers than the last; pods club-shaped and bristly.—Waste grounds, near Philadelphia. (Adv. from Eu.)

6. ARGEMÒNE, L. Prickly Poppy.

Sepals 2 or 3, often prickly. Petals 4–6. Style almost none; stigmas 3–6, radiate. Pod oblong, prickly, opening by 3–6 valves at the top. Seeds crested.—Annuals or biennials, with prickly bristles and yellow juice. Leaves sessile, sinuate-lobed, and with prickly teeth, often blotched with white. Flower-buds erect, short-peduncled. (Name from ἄργεμα, a disease of the eye, for which the juice of a plant so called by the Greeks was a supposed remedy.)

1. A. platýceras, Link & Otto. Setose-hispid all over; petals white, 1½–2´ long; capsule armed with stout spines.—Central Kan. and Neb., south and westward.

A. Mexicàna, L. (Mexican P.) Flowers yellow, rarely white.—Waste places, southward. July–Oct. (Adv. from trop. Amer.) (Addendum)—Argemone Mexicana. Collected at Merodosia, Ill., with white flowers, by A. B. Seymour.

Order 9. FUMARIÀCEÆ. (Fumitory Family.)

Delicate smooth herbs, with watery juice, compound dissected leaves, irregular flowers, with 4 somewhat united petals, 6 diadelphous stamens, and 2-merous pods and seeds like those of the Poppy Family.—Sepals 2, small and scale-like. Corolla flattened, closed; the 4 petals in two pairs; the outer with spreading tips, and one or both of them spurred or saccate at the base; inner pair narrower, and their callous crested tips united over the stigma. Stamens in two sets of 3 each, placed opposite the larger petals, hypogynous; their filaments often united; middle anther of each set 2-celled, the lateral ones 1-celled. Pod 1-celled, either 1-seeded and indehiscent, or several-seeded with 2 parietal placentæ and deciduous valves.—Leaves delicate, usually alternate, without stipules. Slightly bitter, innocent plants.

[*] Corolla bigibbous or 2-spurred, the 2 outer petals alike. Pod several-seeded.

1. Adlumia. Petals united into a spongy persistent subcordate corolla. Seeds crestless.

2. Dicentra. Corolla cordate or 2-spurred at base, less united. Seeds crested.

[*][*] Corolla with but one petal spurred at base, deciduous.

3. Corydalis. Pod with few to many crested or arilled seeds.

4. Fumaria. Fruit a globular 1-seeded nutlet. Seed crestless.

1. ADLÙMIA, Raf. Climbing Fumitory.

Petals all permanently united in a cordate-ovate corolla, becoming spongy-cellular and persistent, enclosing the small, few-seeded pod. Seeds not crested. Stigma 2-crested. Filaments monadelphous below in a tube which is adherent to the corolla, diadelphous at the summit.—A climbing biennial, with thrice-pinnate leaves, cut-lobed delicate leaflets, and ample panicles of drooping white or purplish flowers. (Dedicated by Rafinesque to Major Adlum.)

1. A. cirrhòsa, Raf.—Wet woods; N. Eng. to Mich., E. Kan., and southward. June–Oct.—A handsome vine, with delicate foliage, climbing by the slender young leaf-stalks over high bushes; often cultivated.

2. DICÉNTRA, Borkh. Dutchman's Breeches.

Petals slightly cohering into a heart-shaped or 2-spurred corolla, either deciduous or withering-persistent. Stigma 2-crested and sometimes 2-horned. Filaments slightly united in two sets. Pod 10–20-seeded. Seeds crested.—Low, stemless perennials (as to our wild species) with ternately compound and dissected leaves, and racemose nodding flowers. Pedicels 2-bracted. (Name from δίς, twice, and κέντρον, a spur;—accidentally printed Diclýtra in the first instance, which by an erroneous conjecture was afterwards changed into Diélytra.)

[*] Raceme simple, few-flowered.

1. D. Cucullària, DC. (Dutchman's Breeches.) Scape and slender-petioled leaves from a sort of granulate bulb; lobes of leaves linear; corolla with 2 divergent spurs longer than the pedicel; crest of the inner petals minute.—Rich woods, especially westward.—A very delicate plant, sending up in early spring, from the cluster of grain-like tubers crowded together in the form of a scaly bulb, the finely cut leaves and the slender scape, bearing 4–10 pretty, but odd, white flowers tipped with cream-color.

2. D. Canadénsis, DC. (Squirrel Corn.) Subterranean shoots bearing scattered grain-like tubers (resembling peas or grains of Indian corn, yellow); leaves as in n. 1; corolla merely heart-shaped, the spurs very short and rounded; crest of the inner petals conspicuous, projecting.—Rich woods, especially northward. April, May.—Flowers greenish-white tinged with rose, with the fragrance of Hyacinths.

[*][*] Racemes compound, clustered.

3. D. exímia, DC. Subterranean shoots scaly; divisions and lobes of the leaves broadly oblong; corolla oblong, 2-saccate at the base; crest of the inner petals projecting.—Rocks, western N. Y., rare, and Alleghanies of Va. May–Aug.—Coarser-leaved than the others; scapes 6–10´ high.


Corolla 1-spurred at the base (on the upper side), deciduous. Style persistent. Pod many-seeded. Seeds crested or arilled. Flowers in racemes. Our species are biennial, leafy-stemmed, and pale or glaucous. (The ancient Greek name for the crested lark.)

[*] Stem strict; flowers purplish or rose-color with yellow tips.

1. C. glaùca, Pursh. (Pale Corydalis.) Racemes panicled; spur of the corolla very short and rounded; pods erect, slender, elongated.—Rocky places; common; 6´–2° high. May–Aug.

[*][*] Low, ascending; flowers yellow.

[+] Outer petals wing-crested on the back.

2. C. flávula, DC. Pedicels slender, conspicuously bracted; corolla pale yellow, 3–4´´ long, spur very short; tips of the outer petals pointed, longer than the inner; crest 3–4-toothed; pods torulose, pendulous or spreading; seeds acutely margined, rugose-reticulated; aril loose.—Penn. to Minn., and southward.

3. C. micrántha, Gray. Pedicels short and bracts small; corolla pale yellow, 4´´ long, with short spur and entire crest, or flowers often cleistogamous and much smaller, without spur or crest; pods ascending, torulose; seeds obtuse-margined, smooth and shining.—N. Car., Mo., Minn., and southward.

4. C. crystállina, Engelm. Pedicels short, erect; corolla bright yellow, 8´´ long, the spur nearly as long as the body; crest very broad, usually toothed; pods terete, erect, densely covered with transparent vesicles, seeds acutely margined, tuberculate.—S. W. Mo. and southward.

[+][+] Outer petals merely carinate on the back, not crested.

5. C. aùrea, Willd. (Golden C.) Corolla golden-yellow, ½´ long, the slightly decurved spur about half as long, shorter than the pedicel; pods spreading or pendulous, becoming torulose; seeds obtuse-margined.—Rocky banks, Vt. to Penn., Mo., Minn., and westward.

Var. occidentàlis, Engelm. Flowers rather larger, the spur nearly as long as the body; pods less torulose, on short pedicels; seeds acutish on the margin.—Neb. and Kan. to W. Tex. and westward.

4. FUMÀRIA, Tourn. Fumitory.

Corolla 1-spurred at the base. Style deciduous. Fruit indehiscent, small, globular, 1-seeded. Seeds crestless.—Branched and leafy-stemmed annuals, with finely dissected compound leaves, and small flowers in dense racemes or spikes. (Name from fumus, smoke.)

F. officinàlis, L. (Common Fumitory.) Sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute, sharply toothed, narrower and shorter than the corolla (which is flesh-color tipped with crimson); fruit slightly notched.—Waste places, about dwellings. (Adv. from Eu.)

Order 10. CRUCÍFERÆ. (Mustard Family.)

Herbs, with a pungent watery juice and cruciform tetradynamous flowers; fruit a silique or silicle.—Sepals 4, deciduous. Petals 4, hypogynous, regular, placed opposite each other in pairs, their spreading limbs forming a cross. Stamens 6, two of them inserted lower down and shorter (rarely only 4 or 2). Pod usually 2-celled by a thin partition stretched between the two marginal placentæ, from which when ripe the valves separate, either much longer than broad (a silique), or short (a silicle), sometimes indehiscent and nut-like (nucumentaceous), or separating across into 1-seeded joints (lomentaceous). Seeds campylotropous, without albumen, filled by the large embryo, which is curved or folded in various ways: i.e. the cotyledons accumbent, viz., their margins on one side applied to the radicle, so that the cross-section of the seed appears thus o==; or else incumbent, viz., the back of one cotyledon applied to the radicle, thus o||. In these cases the cotyledons are plane; but they may be folded upon themselves and round the radicle, as in Mustard, where they are conduplicate, thus o>>. In Leavenworthia alone the whole embryo is straight.—Leaves alternate, no stipules. Flowers in terminal racemes or corymbs; pedicels rarely bracted.—A large and very natural family, of pungent or acrid, but not poisonous plants. (The characters of the genera are taken almost wholly from the pods and seeds; the flowers being nearly alike in all.)

SERIES I. Pod 2-celled, regularly dehiscent by 2 valves.

[*] Pod compressed parallel to the broad partition. Seeds flat or flattish, orbicular or oval; cotyledons accumbent or nearly so.

[+] Pod large, oblong-elliptical, valves nerveless. Seeds in 2 rows. Flowers yellow.

1. Selenia. Leaves pinnatisect. Raceme leafy-bracteate. Seeds winged.

[+][+] Pod linear; valves nerveless. Seeds in one row. Flowers yellow only in n. 3.

2. Leavenworthia. Seed winged; embryo straight or nearly so. Annual; stem often scapose, 1–few-flowered.

3. Dentaria. Stem naked below, 2–3-leaved. Pod coriaceous, with thick placentas, long-styled. Seeds wingless; cotyledons thick, very unequal.

4. Cardamine. Stem leafy. Pod coriaceous, with thick placentas. Seeds wingless; cotyledons flattened, equal.

[+][+][+] Pod linear, or oblong, or orbicular; valves 1-nerved or nerveless. Seeds in 2 rows (except in species of n. 4).

5. Arabis. Pod long-linear, the flat or flattish valves more or less 1-nerved. Seeds winged or wingless. Flowers white to purple. Stems leafy, at least below.

6. Draba. Pod oval to narrowly oblong or lanceolate; valves flat or flattish, faintly nerved or veined. Seeds wingless, numerous.

7. Alyssum. Pod orbicular; valves veinless, somewhat convex with flattened margin. Seeds wingless, 2–4.

[*][*] Pod terete or turgid, or 4-angled by the prominent midnerves. Seeds wingless, more or less turgid.

[+] Pods short. (See also n. 10.)

8. Lesquerella. Pod globular-inflated, about 4-seeded; valves nerveless. Cotyledons accumbent. Flowers yellow.

9. Camelina. Pod obovoid, many-seeded; valves 1-nerved; style slender. Cotyledons incumbent. Flowers yellow.

10. Subularia. Pod ovoid or globular, few-seeded, valves 1-nerved; style none. Cotyledons long, folded transversely. Flowers white. Dwarf stemless aquatic.

[+][+] Pod linear (or oblong or even globular in n. 10).

[++] Cotyledons accumbent.

11. Nasturtium. Pod often short; valves strongly convex, nerveless. Seeds small, in 2 rows in each cell. Flowers yellow or white.

12. Barbarea. Pod somewhat 4-sided; valves strongly 1-nerved. Seeds in 1 row. Flowers yellow.

[++][++] Cotyledons incumbent or partially so.

13. Hesperis. Pod terete, elongated; stigma-lobes narrow, erect. Flowers large, purple.

14. Erysimum. Pod 4-sided; valves strongly 1-nerved; stigma broadly 2-lobed. Pubescence of appressed 2–3-parted hairs. Flowers yellow.

15. Sisymbrium. Pod angled or teretish; valves 1–3-nerved; stigma small. Flowers yellow or white, small.

16. Thelypodium. Pod teretish; valves 1-nerved; stigma entire. Cotyledons obliquely incumbent. Flowers rose-color. Leaves auricled.

[++][++][++] Cotyledons conduplicate.

17. Brassica. Pod beaked or pointed beyond the end of the valves, or tipped with a rigid style, nearly terete, or 4-sided. Flowers yellow or whitish.

[*][*][*] Pod short; the boat-shaped valves conduplicate or much flattened contrary to the narrow partition. Flowers white.

18. Capsella. Pod many-seeded, obcordate-triangular, wingless. Cotyledons incumbent.

19. Thlaspi. Pod several-seeded, obovate or obcordate, winged. Cotyledons accumbent.

20. Lepidium. Pod 2-seeded, flat, scale-shaped. Cotyledons incumbent or accumbent.

21. Senebiera. Pod 2-seeded, didymous; the valves rugose, separating at maturity from the little partition as 2 closed 1-seeded nutlets. Cotyledons incumbent, narrow.

SERIES II. Pods indehiscent, continuous or transversely jointed; joints 1-celled.

22. Cakile. Pod short, 2-jointed; joints 1-seeded. Cotyledons plane, accumbent.

23. Raphanus. Pod elongated, several-seeded, continuous, or constricted between the seeds and moniliform. Cotyledons conduplicate.

1. SELÈNIA, Nutt.

Pod large, oblong-elliptical, flat; the valves nerveless. Seeds in 2 rows in each cell, rounded, broadly winged; cotyledons accumbent; radicle short.—A low annual, with once or twice pinnatifid leaves and leafy-bracteate racemes of yellow flowers. (Name from σελήνη, the moon, with allusion to Lunaria, which it somewhat resembles in its pods.)

1. S. aùrea, Nutt. Lobes of the simply pinnatifid leaves entire or toothed; pod ½´ long, on elongated spreading pedicels, beaked by the long slender style.—Mo. and Kan. to Tex.


Pod broadly linear or oblong, flat; the valves nerveless, but minutely reticulate-veined. Seeds in a single row in each cell, flat, surrounded by a thick wing. Embryo straight! or the short radicle only slightly bent in the direction which if continued would make the orbicular cotyledons accumbent.—Little winter annuals, glabrous and often stemless, with lyrate leaves and short 1–few-flowered scape-like peduncles. (Named in honor of the late M. C. Leavenworth.)

1. L. Michaùxii, Torr. Scapes 2–6´ high; leaf-lobes usually numerous (7–15); petals purplish or nearly white with a yellowish base, obtuse; pods not torulose, oblong to linear (6–15´´ long); style short.—S. Ind to Tenn. and Mo.

2. L. torulòsa, Gray. Similar, but pods torulose even when young, linear; style 1–2´´ long; seeds acutely margined rather than winged; petals emarginate.—Barrens of Ky. and Tenn.

3. DENTÀRIA, Tourn. Toothwort. Pepper-root.

Pod lanceolate, flat, as in Cardamine. Style elongated. Seeds in one row, wingless, the stalks broad and flat. Cotyledons petioled, thick and very unequal, their margins somewhat infolding each other.—Perennials, of damp woodlands, with long, horizontal, fleshy, sometimes interrupted, scaly or toothed rootstocks, of a pleasant pungent taste; the simple stems leafless below, bearing 2 or 3 petioled compound leaves about or above the middle, and terminated by a single corymb or short raceme of large white or purple flowers. Flowers larger, pods broader, and seeds larger than is usual in Cardamine. (Name from dens, a tooth.)

[*] Rootstock elongated; leaves 3-foliolate.

1. D. diphýlla, L. Rootstock long and continuous, often branched, toothed; stem-leaves 2, similar to the radical ones, close together; leaflets rhombic-ovate or oblong-ovate, shortly petiolate, coarsely crenate, the teeth abruptly acute; petals white.—Rich woods, Maine to Minn. and Ky. May.—Rootstocks 5–10´ long, crisp, tasting like Water-Cress.

[*][*] Rootstock tuberous, more or less moniliform; leaves 3-foliolate or 3-parted.

2. D. laciniàta, Muhl. Tubers deep-seated, usually not jointed nor prominently tubercled; root-leaves often none; stem-leaves 3-parted, the lateral segments often 2-lobed, all broadly oblong to linear, more or less gash-toothed; flowers white or rose-color.—N. Eng. to Minn., Kan., and southward. April, May.—Var. multífida, a slender form with the narrowly linear segments usually more or less divided into linear lobes. (D. multifida, Muhl.) Southward, scarcely if at all within our limits.

3. D. heterophýlla, Nutt. Tubers near the surface, jointed, narrowly oblong or thick-clavate, prominently tubercled; leaves 3-foliolate, the leaflets distinctly petiolate, oblong-lanceolate to linear, entire to rather deeply crenate, rarely laciniate or lobed; root-leaves with ovate or lanceolate and usually lobed leaflets.—Penn. to Ky. and southward. Blooming a little later than the last.

4. D. máxima, Nutt. Tubers jointed, strongly tubercled; stem-leaves usually alternate, 3-foliolate; leaflets ovate or oblong-ovate, coarsely toothed and somewhat cleft or lobed.—Vt. to western N. Y. and Penn. May.

4. CARDAMÌNE, Tourn. Bitter Cress.

Pod linear, flattened, usually opening elastically from the base; the valves nerveless and veinless, or nearly so; placentas and partition thick. Seeds in a single row in each cell, wingless; their stalks slender. Cotyledons accumbent, flattened, equal or nearly so, petiolate.—Mostly glabrous perennials, leafy-stemmed, growing along watercourses and in wet places. Flowers white or purple. (A Greek name, in Dioscorides, for some cress, from its cordial or cardiacal qualities.)

[*] Root perennial; leaves simple.

1. C. rhomboídea, DC. (Spring Cress.) Stems upright from a tuberous base and slender rootstock bearing small tubers, simple; root-leaves round and often heart-shaped; lower stem-leaves ovate or rhombic-oblong, somewhat petioled, the upper almost lanceolate, sessile, all often sparingly toothed; pods linear-lanceolate, pointed with a slender style tipped with a conspicuous stigma; seeds round-oval.—Wet meadows and springs; common. April–June.—Flowers large, white.

Var. purpùrea, Torr. Lower (4–6´ high), and usually slightly pubescent; flowers rose-purple, appearing earlier.—Along streams in rich soil. Western N. Y. to Md. and Wisc.

2. C. rotundifòlia, Michx. (Mountain Water-Cress.) Stems branching, weak or decumbent, making long runners; root fibrous; leaves all much alike, roundish, somewhat angled, often heart-shaped at the base, petioled; pods small, linear-awl-shaped, pointed with the slender style; stigma minute; seeds oval-oblong.—Cool shaded springs, N. J. (Middletown, Willis) to Ky., and southward along the mountains. May, June.—Flowers white, smaller than in n. 1.

3. C. bellidifòlia, L. Dwarf (2–3´ high), alpine, tufted; leaves ovate, entire, or sometimes with a blunt lateral tooth (4´´ long), on long petioles; pods 1´ long, upright, linear; style nearly none, stout.—Summits of the White Mountains and Katahdin, Maine. July.—Flowers 1–5, white. (Eu.)

[*][*] Root perennial; leaves pinnate; flowers showy.

4. C. praténsis, L. (Cuckoo Flower.) Stem ascending from a short rootstock, simple; leaflets 7–13, those of the lower leaves rounded and stalked, of the upper oblong or linear, entire, or slightly angled-toothed; petals (white or rose-color) thrice the length of the calyx; pod 9–15´´ long, 1´´ broad; style short.—Wet places and bogs, Vt. to N. J., Wisc., and northward; rare. May. (Eu.)

[*][*][*] Root mostly biennial or annual; leaves pinnate; flowers small, white.

5. C. hirsùta, L. (Small Bitter Cress.) Glabrous or beset with scattered hairs; stems (3´–2° high) erect or ascending from the spreading cluster of root-leaves; their leaflets rounded, those of the upper leaves oblong or linear and often confluent, all either toothed, angled, or entire; pods linear, very narrow, erect or ascending; style variable.—Wet places; common. May–July. The ordinary form corresponds closely to the European var. sylvática, Gaud. The typical imperfectly developed annual form, with only 4 stamens and rather strict pods, occurs very rarely. A form answering to C. parviflora of Europe, with mostly linear leaflets and pods often erect on spreading pedicels, is occasionally found in drier localities. (Eu., Asia.)

5. ÁRABIS, L. Rock Cress.

Pod linear, flattened; placentas not thickened; the valves plane or convex, more or less 1-nerved in the middle, or longitudinally veiny. Seeds usually margined or winged. Cotyledons accumbent or a little oblique.—Leaves seldom divided. Flowers white or purple. (Name from the country, Arabia. See Linn. Phil. Bot. § 235.)

§ 1. ARABIS proper. Seeds in one row in each cell, orbicular or nearly so, more or less wing-margined; cotyledons strictly accumbent.

[*] Low, chiefly biennials, diffuse or spreading from the base.

1. A. Ludoviciàna, Meyer. Nearly glabrous, often annual; leaves all pinnately parted into oblong or linear few-toothed or entire divisions, those of the lower leaves numerous; pedicels very short; flowers small, white; pods rather broadly linear, spreading, flat; seeds winged.—Open grounds, Va. to Mo., and southward.

[*][*] Erect and simple leafy-stemmed biennials, with simple leaves, white or whitish flowers, narrow but flattened ascending or erect pods, and nearly wingless seeds.

2. A. pàtens, Sulliv. Downy with spreading hairs, erect (1–2° high); stem-leaves oblong-ovate, acutish, coarsely toothed or the uppermost entire, partly clasping by the heart-shaped base; petals (bright white, 4´´ long) twice the length of the calyx; pedicels slender, spreading; pods spreading or ascending, tipped with a distinct style.—Penn. to central Ohio and southward; Minn. April, May.

3. A. hirsùta, Scop. Rough-hairy, sometimes smoothish, strictly erect (1–2° high); stem-leaves oblong or lanceolate, entire or toothed, partly clasping by a somewhat arrow-shaped or heart-shaped base; petals (greenish-white) small, but longer than the calyx; pedicels and pods strictly upright; style scarcely any; immature seeds somewhat 2-rowed.—Rocks, common, especially northward. May, June. (Eu.)

[*][*][*] Erect and simple leafy-stemmed biennials (1–3° high), with small whitish flowers, recurved-spreading or pendulous flat pods (3–4´ long), and broadly winged seeds, their stalks adherent to the partition; root-leaves rarely lyrate.

4. A. lævigàta, Poir. Smooth and glaucous, upright; stem-leaves partly clasping by the arrow-shaped base, lanceolate or linear, sparingly cut-toothed or entire; petals scarcely longer than the calyx; pods long and narrow, recurved-spreading on ascending or merely spreading pedicels.—Rocky places, Maine to Minn. and southward. May.

5. A. Canadénsis, L. (Sickle-pod.) Stem upright, smooth above; stem-leaves pubescent, pointed at both ends, oblong-lanceolate, sessile, the lower toothed; petals twice the length of the calyx, oblong-linear; pods very flat, scythe-shaped, hanging on rough-hairy pedicels (2´´ wide).—Woods and ravines; not rare, especially westward. June–Aug.

§ 2. TURRÌTIS. Seeds not so broad as the partition, in two more or less distinct rows in each cell, at least when young; strict and very leafy-stemmed biennials; cauline leaves partly clasping by a sagittate base. (Our species very glabrous, except the mostly hirsute base of the stem and the lower leaves.)

6. A. perfoliàta, Lam. (Tower Mustard.) Tall (2–4° high), glaucous; stem-leaves oblong or ovate-lanceolate, entire; petals yellowish-white, little longer than the calyx; pods very narrow (3´ long) and pedicels strictly erect; seeds marginless; cotyledons often oblique.—Rocks and fields, N. Eng. to Minn. (rare), north and westward. (Eu.)

7. A. confìnis, Watson. Scarcely glaucous, 1–3° high; pubescence below finely stellate; stem-leaves lanceolate or oblong-linear, entire (1–2´ long), with narrow auricles, or the lowest spatulate and toothed; petals white or rose-color, fully twice the length of the calyx; pedicels and flat pods loosely erect, or ascending, or even spreading; seeds wing-margined, when mature little narrower than the partition. (A. Drummondii, Man.)—From the lower St. Lawrence to Minn., south to Conn., N. Y., and Ill.—Pods 2½–3½´ long, or in a var. (T. brachycarpa, Torr. & Gray) only 1–2´ long.

§ 3. PSEUDÁRABIS. Seeds oblong or elliptical, very small, wingless, in one row; cotyledons often more or less oblique. Biennial or perennial, branching from the base.

8. A. lyràta, L. Mostly glabrous, except the lyrate-pinnatifid root-leaves; stem-leaves scattered, spatulate or linear with a tapering base, sparingly toothed or entire; petals white, much longer than the yellowish calyx; pods long and slender, flat, ascending or spreading.—On rocks or sandy shores, New Eng. to Ky. along the mountains, Minn., and northward. April–July.—Usually biennial, but southward in the mountains decidedly perennial.

9. A. dentàta, Torr. & Gray. Roughish pubescent, slender (1–2° high); leaves oblong, very obtuse, unequally and sharply toothed; those of the stem numerous, half-clasping and eared at the base, of the root broader and tapering into a short petiole; petals (whitish) scarcely exceeding the calyx; pods widely spreading, very slender, short-stalked; style scarcely any.—N. Y. to Mich., Minn., and southward. May, June.

6. DRÀBA, Dill. Whitlow-Grass.

Pod oval, oblong, or even linear, flat; the valves plane or slightly convex; the partition broad. Seeds several or numerous, in 2 rows in each cell, marginless. Cotyledons accumbent. Filaments not toothed.—Low herbs with entire or toothed leaves, and white or yellow flowers; pubescence often stellate. (Name from δράβη, applied by Dioscorides to some cress; meaning unknown.)

§ 1. DRABÆ̀A. Petals not notched or cleft; perennial or biennial, leafy-stemmed, flowers white, pods twisted when ripe.

1. D. ramosíssima, Desv. Diffusely much branched and forming many radical tufts, perennial (5–8´ high), pubescent; leaves laciniate-toothed, linear-lanceolate, the lower oblanceolate, racemes corymbosely-branched; pods hairy, oval-oblong or lanceolate (2–5´´ long), on slender spreading pedicels, tipped with a long style.—Cliffs, Harper's Ferry, Natural Bridge, etc., Va., to Kentucky River, and southward. April, May.

2. D. incàna, L. Hoary-pubescent, biennial or somewhat perennial, the radical tuft seldom branching; leaves oblanceolate or the cauline lanceolate to ovate, few-toothed or entire; pods oblong to lanceolate, usually acute and straight, often pubescent, on short erect pedicels; style very short or none.—Dry rocks, Willoughby Mountain, Vt.; also northward and far westward. (Eu.)

Var. arábisans, Watson. Caudex much branched; pod glabrous, acuminate or acute, twisted, beaked with a longer distinct style. (D. arabisans, Michx.)—N. Vt. to western N. Y. and the shores of the upper lakes.

§ 2. DRABÉLLA. Winter annuals; leafy stems short; flowers white (yellow in n. 5); style none. (Leaves oblong or obovate, hairy, sessile.)

3. D. Caroliniàna, Walt. Small (1–5´ high); leaves obovate, entire; peduncles scape-like; petals usually twice the length of the calyx; raceme short or corymbose in fruit (½–1´ long); pods broadly linear, smooth, much longer than the ascending pedicels.—Sandy and waste fields, E. Mass. to Minn., and southward. March–May.—Petals often wanting in the later racemes, especially in the var. micrántha, Gray, with minutely rough-hairy pods, which is found with the other, westward.

4. D. cuneifòlia, Nutt. Leaves obovate, wedge-shaped, or the lowest spatulate, toothed; raceme somewhat elongated in fruit (1–3´), at length equalling the naked peduncle; petals emarginate, much longer than the calyx; pods oblong-linear, minutely hairy, longer than the horizontal pedicels.—Grassy places, Ill. to E. Kan., and southward. March, April.

5. D. brachycárpa, Nutt. Low (2–4´ high), minutely pubescent; stems leafy to the base of the dense at length elongated raceme; leaves narrowly oblong or the lowest ovate (2–4´´ long), few toothed or entire; flowers small; pods smooth, narrowly oblong, acutish (2´´ long), about the length of the ascending or spreading pedicels.—Dry hills, Ill., Ky., Va. (A. H. Curtiss), and southward. April.—Petals sometimes minute, sometimes none.

6. D. nemoròsa, L. Leaves oblong or somewhat lanceolate, more or less toothed; racemes elongated (4–8´ long in fruit); petals emarginate, small; pods elliptical-oblong, half the length of the horizontal or widely-spreading pedicels, pubescent or smooth.—Fort Gratiot, Mich., N. Minn., and westward. (Eu.)

§ 3. ERÓPHILA. Petals 2-cleft. (Annual or biennial; flowers white.)

D. vérna, L. (Whitlow-Grass.) Small (scapes 1–3´ high); leaves all radical, oblong or lanceolate; racemes elongated in fruit; pods varying from round-oval to oblong-lanceolate, smooth, shorter than the pedicels.—Sandy waste places and roadsides. April, May. (Nat. from Eu.)

7. ALÝSSUM, Tourn.

Pod small, orbicular, with only one or two wingless seeds in a cell; valves nerveless, somewhat convex, the margin flattened. Flowers yellow or white. Filaments often toothed. Cotyledons accumbent. (Greek name of a plant reputed to check the hiccup, as the etymology denotes.)

A. marítimum, L. (Sweet Alyssum), with green or slightly hoary linear leaves, honey-scented small white flowers, and 2-seeded pods, commonly cult., begins to be spontaneous southward. (Adv. from Eu.)

A. calycìnum, L., a dwarf hoary annual, with linear-spatulate leaves, pale yellow or whitish petals little exceeding the persistent calyx, and orbicular sharp margined 4-seeded pod, the style minute, occurs occasionally in grassland. (Adv. from Eu.)


Pod mostly globular or inflated, with a broad orbicular to ovate hyaline partition nerved to the middle, the hemispherical or convex thin valves nerveless. Seeds few or several, in 2 rows, flat. Cotyledons accumbent. Filaments toothless.—Low herbs, hoary with stellate hairs or lepidote. Flowers mostly yellow. (Named for Leo Lesquereux.)

1. L. globòsa, Watson. Minutely hoary all over; stems spreading or decumbent from an annual or biennial root; leaves oblong or lanceolate with a tapering base, repand-toothed or nearly entire; raceme at length elongated, with filiform diverging pedicels; petals light yellow; style filiform, much longer than the small globose, acutish, about 4-seeded pod; seeds marginless. (Vesicaria Shortii, Torr.)—Rocky banks, Ky. to Tenn. and Mo. May, June.

2. L. grácilis, Watson. Annual, slender; pubescence very fine; leaves narrowly oblanceolate; pods glabrous, suberect on ascending or curved pedicels, stipitate; style long. (Vesicaria gracilis, Hook.)—S. Kan. to Tex.

3. L. Ludoviciàna, Watson. Biennial or perennial; pubescence compact; leaves linear-oblanceolate, mostly entire; pods pubescent, pendulous on recurved pedicels; style long. (Vesicaria Ludoviciana, DC.)—Minn. to Neb. and southwestward.

9. CAMÉLINA, Crantz. False Flax.

Pod obovoid or pear-shaped, pointed, flattish parallel to the broad partition; valves 1-nerved. Seeds numerous, oblong. Cotyledons incumbent. Style slender. Flowers small, yellow. (Name from χαμαί, dwarf, and λίνον, flax.)

C. satìva, Crantz. Annual; leaves lanceolate and arrow-shaped; pods margined, large. A weed in flax-fields, etc. (Adv. from Eu.)

10. SUBULÀRIA, L. Awlwort.

Pod ovoid or globular, with a broad partition; the turgid valves 1-nerved. Seeds several. Cotyledons long and narrow, incumbently folded transversely, i.e., the cleft extending to the radicular side of the curvature. Style none.—A dwarf stemless perennial, aquatic; the tufted leaves awl-shaped (whence the name). Scape naked, few-flowered, 1–3´ high. Flowers minute, white.

1. S. aquática, L. Margin of lakes in Maine; Echo Lake, Franconia, N. H.; also in alpine regions of the western mountains. June, July. (Eu.)

11. NASTÚRTIUM, R. Br. Water-Cress.

Pod a short silique or a silicle, varying from oblong-linear to globular, terete or nearly so; valves strongly convex, nerveless. Seeds usually numerous, small, turgid, marginless, in 2 irregular rows in each cell (except in N. sylvestre). Cotyledons accumbent.—Aquatic or marsh plants, with yellow or white flowers, and commonly pinnate or pinnatifid leaves, usually glabrous. (Name from Nasus tortus, a convulsed nose, alluding to the effect of its pungent qualities.)

§ 1. Petals white, twice the length of the calyx; pods linear; leaves pinnate.

N. officinàle, R. Br. (True Water-Cress.) Perennial; stems spreading and rooting; leaflets 3–11, roundish or oblong, nearly entire; pods (6–8´´ long) ascending on slender widely spreading pedicels.—Brooks and ditches; escaped from cultivation. (Nat. from Eu.)

§ 2. Petals yellow or yellowish, seldom much exceeding the calyx; pods linear, oblong, or even ovoid or globular; leaves mostly pinnatifid.

[*] Perennial from creeping or subterranean shoots; flowers rather large, yellow.

N. sylvéstre, R. Br. (Yellow Cress.) Stems ascending; leaves pinnately parted, the divisions toothed or cut, lanceolate or linear; pods (½´ long) on slender pedicels, linear and narrow, bringing the seeds into one row; style very short.—Wet meadows, Mass. to Va.; rare. (Nat. from Eu.)

1. N. sinuàtum, Nutt. Stems low, diffuse; leaves pinnately cleft, the short lobes nearly entire, linear-oblong; pods linear-oblong (4–6´´ long), on slender pedicels; style slender.—Banks of the Mississippi and westward. June.

[*][*] Annual or biennial, rarely perennial (?), with simple fibrous roots; flowers small or minute, greenish or yellowish; leaves somewhat lyrate.

2. N. sessiliflòrum, Nutt. Stems erect, rather simple; leaves obtusely incised or toothed, obovate or oblong; flowers minute, nearly sessile; pods elongated-oblong (5–6´´ long), thick; style very short.—W. Ill. to E. Kan., Tenn., and southward. April–June.

3. N. obtùsum, Nutt. Stems much branched, diffusely spreading; leaves pinnately parted or divided, the divisions roundish and obtusely toothed or repand; flowers minute, short-pedicelled; pods longer than the pedicels, varying from linear-oblong to short-oval; style short.—With n. 1 and 2.

4. N. palústre, DC. (Marsh Cress.) Stem erect; leaves pinnately cleft or parted, or the upper laciniate; the lobes oblong, cut-toothed; pedicels about as long as the small flowers and mostly longer than the oblong, ellipsoid, or ovoid pods; style short.—Wet places or in shallow water; common. June–Sept.—Flowers only 1–1½´´ long. Stems 1–3° high.—The typical form with oblong pods is rare. Short pods and hirsute stems and leaves are common. Var. híspidum is a form with ovoid or globular pods. (Eu.)

§ 3. Petals white, much longer than the calyx; pods ovoid or globular; leaves undivided, or the lower ones pinnatifid; root perennial.

5. N. lacústre, Gray. (Lake Cress.) Aquatic; immersed leaves 1–3-pinnately dissected into numerous capillary divisions; emersed leaves oblong, entire, serrate, or pinnatifid; pedicels widely spreading; pods ovoid, 1-celled, a little longer than the style.—Lakes and rivers, N. E. New York to N. J., Minn., and southwestward. July–Aug.—Near N. amphibium.

N. Armoràcia, Fries. (Horseradish.) Root-leaves very large, oblong, crenate, rarely pinnatifid, those of the stem lanceolate; fruiting pedicels ascending; pods globular (seldom formed); style very short. (Cochlearia Armoracia, L.)—Roots large and long; a well-known condiment. Escaped from cultivation into moist ground. (Adv. from Eu.)

12. BARBARÈA, R. Br. Winter Cress.

Pod linear, terete or somewhat 4-sided, the valves being keeled by a mid-nerve. Seeds in a single row in each cell, marginless. Cotyledons accumbent.—Mostly biennials, resembling Nasturtium; flowers yellow. (Anciently called the Herb of St. Barbara.)

1. B. vulgàris, R. Br. (Common Winter Cress. Yellow Rocket.) Smooth; lower leaves lyrate, the terminal division round and usually large, the lateral 1–4 pairs or rarely wanting; upper leaves obovate, cut-toothed, or pinnatifid at the base; pods erect or slightly spreading; or in var. stricta, appressed; in var. arcuàta, ascending on spreading pedicels.—Low grounds and roadsides; apparently introduced, but indigenous from L. Superior northward and westward. (Eu.)

B. præ̀cox, R. Br. (Early Winter C.), with 5–8 pairs of lateral lobes to the leaves, and longer pods on very thick pedicels,—yet probably only a variety of the other,—somewhat cultivated from N. Y. southward as a winter salad, under the name of Scurvy-Grass,—is beginning to run wild. (Eu.)

13. HÉSPERIS, Tourn. Rocket.

Pod linear, nearly cylindrical; stigma lobed, erect. Seeds in 1 row in each cell, oblong, marginless. Cotyledons incumbent.—Biennial or perennial, with serrate sessile or petiolate leaves, and large purple flowers. (Name from ἑσπέρα, evening, from the evening fragrance of the flowers.)

H. matronàlis, L. (Dame's Violet.) Tall; leaves lanceolate, acuminate, mostly petiolate; pods 2–4´ long, spreading.—Sparingly naturalized. (Nat. from Eu.)

14. ERÝSIMUM, Tourn. Treacle Mustard.

Pod linear, 4-sided, the valves keeled with a strong midrib; stigma broadly lobed. Seeds in 1 row in each cell, oblong, marginless. Cotyledons (often obliquely) incumbent.—Chiefly biennials, with yellow flowers; the leaves not clasping. Pubescence of appressed 2–3-parted hairs. (Name from ἐρύω, to draw blisters.)

1. E. ásperum, DC. (Western Wall-flower.) Minutely roughish-hoary; stem simple, leaves lanceolate to linear, entire or somewhat toothed; pods nearly erect or widely spreading on short pedicels, elongated (3–4´ long), exactly 4-sided; stigma 2-lobed.—Ohio (on limestone cliffs) to Ill., Ark., Dak., and common westward. June, July.—Plant stout, 1–2° high; the crowded bright orange-yellow flowers as large as those of the Wall-flower. Petals orbicular, on very slender claws.

2. E. cheiranthoìdes, L. (Worm-seed Mustard.) Minutely roughish, branching, slender; leaves lanceolate, scarcely toothed; flowers small; pods small and short (7–12´´ long), very obtusely angled, ascending on slender divergent pedicels.—Banks of streams, Mass. to Penn., Minn., and northward. July. (Eu.)

3. E. parviflòrum, Nutt. Stem erect, often simple; leaves linear-oblanceolate, entire or the lowest coarsely toothed; flowers small (3´´ long); pods narrow, 1–2½´ long, ascending on short pedicels.—Minn. to Kan. and westward.

15. SISÝMBRIUM, Tourn. Hedge Mustard.

Pod terete, flattish or 4–6-sided, the valves 1–3-nerved; stigma small, entire. Seeds oblong, marginless, in 1 or 2 rows in each cell. Cotyledons incumbent. Calyx open.—Flowers small, white or yellow. Pubescence spreading. (An ancient Greek name for some plant of this family.) Ours are mostly annuals or biennials.

1. S. hùmile, Meyer. Perennial, branching from the base, sparingly pubescent, 6´ high or less; leaves narrowly oblanceolate, mostly coarsely and sharply toothed; flowers white or rose-color; pods very narrow, subterete, 4–9´´ long, ascending on short pedicels, beaked with a short style, seeds 1-ranked. (Arabis petræa, Man., not Lam.)—Willoughby Mountain, Vt.; Canada and westward. (N. Asia.)

2. S. canéscens, Nutt. (Tansy Mustard.) Leaves 2-pinnatifid, often hoary or downy, the divisions small and toothed; flowers yellowish, very small; pods in long racemes, oblong-club-shaped or oblong-linear, shorter than their mostly horizontal pedicels; seeds 2-ranked in each cell.—Penn. and N. Y. to Lake Superior, thence southward and westward. June–Aug.

S. Sóphia, L. A similar hoary species, with decompound leaves; pods slender, 6–15´´ long, ascending; seeds 1-ranked.—Sparingly naturalized from Europe.

S. officinàle, Scop. (Hedge Mustard.) Leaves runcinate; flowers very small, pale yellow; pods awl-shaped, close pressed to the stem, scarcely stalked.—Waste places. May–Sept.—An unsightly branched weed, 2–3° high. (Nat. from Eu.)

S. Thaliàna, Gaud. (Mouse-ear Cress.) Leaves obovate or oblong, entire or barely toothed; flowers white; pods linear, somewhat 4-sided, longer than the slender spreading pedicels.—Old fields and rocks, Mass. to Kan. April, May.—A span high, slender, branched, hairy at the base. (Nat. from Eu.)

S. Alliària, Scop. Stout, erect; leaves reniform to ovate-cordate, coarsely repand-dentate; flowers white; pods tapering, 1–2´ long, ascending on very stout spreading pedicels.—Near Georgetown, D. C. (Nat. from Eu.)


Pod terete or teretish; valves 1-nerved; stigma mostly entire. Seeds in 1 row in each cell, oblong, marginless. Cotyledons obliquely incumbent.—Stout biennials or perennials, with mostly large purplish or white flowers. Leaves or petioles often auricled at base. (Name from θῆλυς, female, and πούς, foot, the ovary in some species being stipitate.)

1. T. pinnatífidum, Watson. Glabrous (1–3° high), often branched above; root-leaves round or heart-shaped, on slender petioles; stem-leaves auricled, ovate-oblong and ovate-lanceolate (2–6´ long), sharply and often doubly toothed, tapering to each end, the lower into a winged petiole, rarely bearing a pair or two of small lateral lobes; flowers purplish; pods 1–1½´ long, on short diverging pedicels, pointed by a short style. (Arabis hesperidoides, Gray.) Alluvial river-banks, Ohio to Minn., Mo., and southwestward. May, June.

17. BRÁSSICA (Brassica and Sinàpis), Tourn.

Pod linear or oblong, nearly terete or 4-sided, with a stout 1-seeded beak or a rigid style; valves 1–5-nerved. Seeds globose, 1-rowed. Cotyledons incumbent, folded around the radicle.—Annuals or biennials, with yellow flowers. Lower leaves mostly lyrate, incised, or pinnatifid. (The Latin name of the Cabbage. Sinapis is the Greek σίναπι, which is said to come from the Celtic nap, a turnip.)

B. Sinapístrum, Boiss. (or Sinàpis arvénsis, L., the English Charlock), with knotty pods, fully one third occupied by a stout 2-edged beak (which is either empty or 1-seeded), the upper leaves barely toothed, is a noxious weed in grain-fields, from N. Eng. to Penn. and N. Y. westward. (Adv. from Eu.)

B. (or Sinàpis) álba. (White Mustard.) Pods bristly, ascending on spreading pedicels, more than half its length occupied by the sword-shaped 1-seeded beak; leaves all pinnatifid; seeds pale. (Cult. and adv. from Eu.)

B. (or Sinàpis) nìgra, Koch. (Black Mustard.) Pods smooth (½´ long), 4-cornered (the valves only 1-nerved), erect on appressed pedicels forming a slender raceme, tipped with a stout persistent style; seeds dark brown, smaller and more pungent than in the last; lower leaves with a large terminal lobe and a few small lateral ones.—Fields and waste places. (Adv. from Eu.)

B. campéstris, L., in the form of the Rutabaga and the Turnip, sometimes persists a year or two in neglected grounds.

18. CAPSÉLLA, Medic. Shepherd's Purse.

Pod obcordate-triangular, flattened contrary to the narrow partition; the valves boat-shaped, wingless. Seeds numerous. Cotyledons incumbent.—Annuals; flowers small, white. (Name a diminutive of capsa, a box.)

C. Bursa-pastòris, Moench. Root-leaves clustered, pinnatifid or toothed; stem-leaves arrow-shaped, sessile.—Waste places; the commonest of weeds. April–Sept. (Nat. from Eu.)

19. THLÁSPI, Tourn. Pennycress.

Pod orbicular, obovate, or obcordate, flattened contrary to the narrow partition, the midrib or keel of the boat-shaped valves extended into a wing. Seeds 2–8 in each cell. Cotyledons accumbent. Petals equal.—Low plants, with root-leaves undivided, stem-leaves arrow-shaped and clasping, and small white or purplish flowers. (Ancient Greek name, from θλάω, to crush, from the flattened pod.)

T. arvénse, L. (Field P. or Mithridate Mustard.) A smooth annual, with broadly winged pod ½´ in diameter, several seeded, deeply notched at top; style minute.—Waste places; rarely naturalized. (Nat. from Eu.)

20. LEPÍDIUM, Tourn. Pepperwort. Peppergrass.

Pod roundish, much flattened contrary to the narrow partition; the valves boat-shaped and keeled. Seeds solitary in each cell, pendulous. Cotyledons incumbent, or in n. 1 accumbent! Flowers small, white or greenish. (Name from λεπίδιον, a little scale, alluding to the small flat pods.)—Ours are annuals or biennials, except the last.

[*] Leaves all with a tapering base, the upper linear or lanceolate and entire, the lower and often the middle ones incised or pinnatifid; pods orbicular or oval, with a small notch at the top; the style minute or none; stamens only 2.

1. L. Virgínicum, L. (Wild Peppergrass.) Cotyledons accumbent and seed minutely margined; pod marginless or obscurely margined at the top; petals present, except in some of the later flowers.—June–Sept. A common roadside weed, which has immigrated from farther south.

2. L. intermèdium, Gray. Cotyledons incumbent as in the following; pod minutely wing-margined at the top; petals usually minute or wanting; otherwise nearly as in n. 1.—Dry places, from western N. Y. and N. Ill., north and westward.

L. ruderàle, L. More diffuse, the smaller and oval pods and the seeds marginless; petals always wanting.—Roadsides, near Boston, Philadelphia, etc.; not common. (Adv. from Eu.)

[*][*] Stem-leaves with a sagittate partly clasping base, rather crowded.

L. campéstre, Br. Minutely soft downy; leaves arrow-shaped, somewhat toothed; pods ovate, winged, rough, the style longer than the narrow notch.—Old fields, Mass. and N. Y. to Va.; rare. (Nat. from Eu.)

L. Dràba, L. Perennial, obscurely hoary; leaves oval or oblong, the upper with broad clasping auricles; flowers corymbose; pods heart-shaped, wingless, thickish, entire, tipped with a conspicuous style.—Astoria, near New York, D. C. Eaton. (Adv. from Eu.)

21. SENEBIÈRA, DC. Wart-Cress. Swine-Cress.

Pod flattened contrary to the narrow partition; the two cells indehiscent and falling away at maturity from the partition as closed nutlets, strongly wrinkled or tuberculate, 1 seeded. Cotyledons narrow and incumbently folded transversely. Low and diffuse or prostrate annuals or biennials, with minute whitish flowers. Stamens often only 2. (Dedicated to J. Senebier, a distinguished vegetable physiologist.)

S. dídyma, Pers. Leaves 1–2-pinnately parted; pods notched at the apex, rough-wrinkled.—Waste places, at ports, E. Mass. to Va., etc.; an immigrant from farther south.

S. Coronòpus, DC. Leaves less divided, with narrower lobes; pods not notched at the apex, tubercled.—At ports, R. I. to Va., etc. (Adv. from Eu.)

22. CAKÌLE, Tourn. Sea-Rocket.

Pod short, 2-jointed across, fleshy, the upper joint separating at maturity; each indehiscent, 1-celled and 1-seeded, or the lower sometimes seedless. Seed erect in the upper, suspended in the lower joint. Cotyledons obliquely accumbent.—Seaside fleshy annuals. Flowers purplish. (An old Arabic name.)

1. C. Americàna, Nutt. (American Sea-Rocket.) Leaves obovate, sinuate and toothed; lower joint of the fruit obovoid, emarginate; the upper ovate, flattish at the apex.—Coast of the Northern States and of the Great Lakes. July–Sept.—Joints nearly even and fleshy when fresh; the upper one 4-angled and appearing more beaked when dry.

23. RÁPHANUS, Tourn. Radish.

Pods linear or oblong, tapering upward, indehiscent, several-seeded, continuous and spongy within between the seeds, or necklace-form by constriction between the seeds, with no proper partition. Style long. Seeds spherical and cotyledons conduplicate, as in Brassica.—Annuals or biennials. (The ancient Greek name from ῥαι, quickly, and φαίνω, to appear, alluding to the rapid germination.)

R. Raphanístrum, L. (Wild Radish. Jointed Charlock.) Pods necklace-form, long-beaked; leaves lyre-shaped, rough; petals yellow, turning whitish or purplish, veiny.—A troublesome weed in fields, E. New Eng. to Penn. (Adv. from Eu.)

Order 11. CAPPARIDÀCEÆ. (Caper Family.)

Herbs (when in northern regions), with cruciform flowers, but 6 or more not tetradynamous stamens, a 1-celled pod with 2 parietal placentæ, and kidney-shaped seeds.—Pod as in Cruciferæ, but with no partition; seeds similar, but the embryo coiled rather than folded. Leaves alternate, mostly palmately compound.—Often with the acrid or pungent qualities of Cruciferæ (as in capers, the flower-buds of Cápparis spinòsa).

1. Polanisia. Stamens 8 or more. Pod many-seeded, not or scarcely stipitate.

2. Cleome. Stamens 6. Pod linear, many-seeded, long stipitate.

3. Cleomella. Stamens 6. Pod very short, rhomboidal, few-seeded, long-stipitate.


Petals with claws, notched at the apex. Stamens 8–32, unequal. Receptacle not elongated, bearing a gland behind the base of the ovary. Pod linear or oblong, veiny, turgid, many-seeded.—Fetid annuals, with glandular or clammy hairs. Flowers in leafy racemes. (Name from πολύς, many, and ἄνισος, unequal, points in which the genus differs in its stamens from Cleome.)

1. P. gravèolens, Raf. Leaves with 3 oblong leaflets; stamens about 11, scarcely exceeding the petals; style short; pod slightly stipitate.—Gravelly shores, from Conn. and W. Vt. to Minn. and Kan. June–Aug.—Flowers small (2–3´´ long); calyx and filaments purplish; petals yellowish-white.

2. P. trachyspérma, Torr. & Gray. Flowers larger (4–5´´ long), the stamens (12–16) long-exserted; style 2–3´´ long; pod sessile; seeds usually rough.—Iowa to Kan. and westward.


Petals entire, with claws. Stamens 6. Receptacle somewhat produced between the petals and stamens, and bearing a gland behind the stipitate ovary. Pod linear to oblong, many-seeded.—Our species a glabrous annual, with 3-foliolate leaves, leafy-bracteate racemes, and rose-colored or white flowers. (Name of uncertain derivation, early applied to some mustard-like plant.)

1. C. integrifòlia, Torr. & Gray. Calyx 4-cleft; petals with very short claws, leaflets narrowly lanceolate to oblong; bracts simple; pod oblong to linear, 1–2´ long, the stipe as long as the pedicel.—Minn. to Kan. and westward; N. Ill. Flowers showy; 2–3° high.

(Addendum) C. spinòsa, L. Viscid-pubescent, 3–4° high; a pair of short stipular spines under the petiole of each leaf; leaflets 5–7, oblong-lanceolate; flowers large, rose-purple to white; stamens 2–3´ long; stipe of the linear pod about 2´ long. (C. pungens, Willd.)—An escape from cultivation, near Mt. Carmel, Ill. (Schneck), and in waste grounds southward; also on ballast. (Int. from Trop. Amer.)


Differing from Cleome in the clawless petals, glandless receptacle, and the short few-seeded pod with more or less distended or even conical valves. Flowers small, yellow. (Name a diminutive of Cleome.)

1. C. angustifòlia, Torr. Glabrous, 1–2° high; leaflets (3) and simple bracts linear to linear-lanceolate, acute; pod rhomboidal, the valves very bluntly conical; stipe shorter than the pedicel.—Kan. to Tex. and westward.

Order 12. RESEDÀCEÆ. (Mignonette Family.)

Herbs, with unsymmetrical 4–7-merous small flowers, a fleshy 1-sided hypogynous disk between the petals and the (3–40) stamens, bearing the latter. Calyx not closed in the bud. Capsule 3–6-lobed, 3–6-horned, 1-celled with 3–6-parietal placentæ, opening at the top before the seeds (which are as in Order 11) are full grown.—Leaves alternate, with only glands for stipules. Flowers in terminal spikes or racemes.—A small and unimportant family, of the Old World, represented by the Mignonette (Reseda odorata) and the Dyer's Weed.

1. RESÈDA, Tourn. Mignonette. Dyer's Rocket.

Petals 4–7, cleft, unequal. Stamens 12–40, on one side of the flower. (Name from resedo, to calm, in allusion to supposed sedative properties.)

R. Lutèola, L. (Dyer's Weed or Weld.) Leaves lanceolate; calyx 4-parted; petals 4, greenish-yellow; the upper one 3–5-cleft, the two lateral 3-cleft, the lower one linear and entire; capsule depressed.—Roadsides, N. Y., etc.—Plant 2° high. Used for dyeing yellow. (Adv. from Eu.)

R. Lùtea, L. Leaves irregularly pinnately parted or bipinnatifid; sepals and petals 6, stamens 15–20.—Nantucket, Mass., and ballast-grounds.

Order 13. CISTÀCEÆ. (Rock-rose Family.)

Low shrubs or herbs, with regular flowers, distinct and hypogynous mostly indefinite stamens, a persistent calyx, a 1-celled 3–5-valved capsule with as many parietal placentæ borne on the middle of the valves, and orthotropous albuminous seeds.—Sepals 5; the two external much smaller, bract-like, or sometimes wanting; the three others a little twisted in the bud. Petals 3 or 5, convolute in the opposite direction from the calyx in the bud. Anthers short, innate, on slender filaments. Style single or none. Ovules few or many, on slender stalks, with the orifice at the apex. Embryo long and slender, straightish or curved, in mealy albumen; cotyledons narrow.—Leaves simple and mostly entire, the lower usually opposite, and the upper alternate. Inert plants.

1. Helianthemum. Petals 5, crumpled in the bud, fugacious (or none). Stigma nearly sessile. Stamens and ovules numerous in the petal-bearing flowers.

2. Hudsonia. Petals 5, fugacious. Stamens 9–30. Style long and slender. Pod strictly 1-celled, 2–6-seeded. Heath-like.

3. Lechea. Petals 3, persistent. Stamens 3–12. Style none. Pod partly 3-celled, the imperfect partitions bearing broad 2-seeded placentæ.

1. HELIÁNTHEMUM, Tourn. Rock-rose.

Petals 5, crumpled in the bud, fugacious. Styles short or none in our species; stigma 3-lobed. Capsule strictly 1-celled. Embryo curved in the form of a hook or ring.—Flowers in most N. American species of two sorts, viz., primary or earlier ones, with large petals, indefinitely numerous stamens and many-seeded pods; and secondary, or later ones, which are much smaller and in clusters, with small petals or none, 3–10 stamens, and much smaller 3–few-seeded pods. The yellow flowers open only once, in sunshine, and cast their petals by the next day. (Name from ἥλιος, the sun, and ἄνθεμον, flower.)

1. H. Canadénse, Michx. (Frost-weed.) Petal-bearing flowers solitary; the small secondary flowers clustered in the axils of the leaves, nearly sessile; calyx of the large flowers hairy-pubescent, of the small ones hoary, like the stem and lower side of the lanceolate-oblong leaves.—Sandy or gravelly dry soil, Maine to Minn. and southward. June–Aug.—Stems at first simple. Corolla of the large flowers 1´ wide, producing pods 3´´ long; pods of the smaller flowers not larger than a pin's head. A variety is more hoary, and with a stronger tendency to multiply the minute clustered flowers. Late in autumn crystals of ice shoot from the cracked bark at the root, whence the popular name.

2. H. corymbòsum, Michx. Flowers all clustered at the summit of the stem or branches, the petal-bearing ones at length on slender stalks; calyx woolly.—Pine barrens, N. J. and southward along the coast.


Petals 5, fugacious (lasting but a day), much larger than the calyx. Stamens 9–30. Style long and slender; stigma minute. Pod oblong, enclosed in the calyx, strictly 1-celled, with 1 or 2 seeds attached near the base of each nerve-like placenta. Embryo coiled into the form of a closed hook.—Bushy heath-like little shrubs (seldom a foot high), covered all over with the small awl-shaped or scale-like alternate persistent downy leaves, producing numerous (small but showy) bright yellow flowers crowded along the upper part of the branches. (Named in honor of Wm. Hudson, an early English botanist.)

1. H. ericoìdes, L. Downy but greenish; leaves slender, awl-shaped, loose; flowers on slender naked stalks; ovary hairy.—Dry sandy soil near the coast, E. Maine to Va.; N. Conway, N. H. (Miss Minns.) May.

2. H. tomentòsa, Nutt. Hoary with down; leaves oval or narrowly oblong, 1´´ long, close-pressed and imbricated; flowers sessile or some short-peduncled.—Sandy shores, Maine to Md., and along the Great Lakes to Minn.; rarely on banks of streams inland. May, June.

3. LÉCHEA, Kalm. Pinweed.

Petals 3, narrow, flat in the bud, not longer than the calyx, withering-persistent. Stamens 3–12. Style scarcely any; stigmas 3, plumose. Pod globular, partly 3-celled; the 3 broad and thin placentæ borne on imperfect partitions, each bearing 2 seeds on the face toward the valve; in our species the placentæ curve backward and partly enclose the seeds. Embryo straightish.—Homely perennial herbs, with very small greenish or purplish flowers, in summer. (Named in honor of John Leche, a Swedish botanist.)

[*] Pubescence villous, spreading; leaves oblong; flowers very short-pedicelled in cymulose clusters.

1. L. màjor, Michx. Stem upright (1–2° high), stout, simple, very leafy, producing slender prostrate branches from the base; leaves elliptical, mucronate-pointed, alternate and opposite or sometimes whorled; flowers densely crowded; pedicels shorter than the very small depressed-globose pod; sepals narrower than its valves.—Sterile grounds; common, especially southward.

[*][*] Pubescence appressed, leaves narrower; flowers paniculate.

[+] Leaves comparatively short, broad, and thin; panicles leafy.

2. L. thymifòlia, Michx. Erect, about 2° high; stem-leaves oval or oblong (3–6´´ long), commonly somewhat hairy, some whorled or opposite, those of the rather crowded panicles more linear; pod obovate-globose, one of the narrow outer sepals often longer. (L. Novæ-Cæsareæ, Austin.)—Dry grounds near the coast, E. Mass. to Fla.

[+][+] Leaves firmer, narrow, the cauline linear to slender-subulate; panicles more naked and racemiform.

[++] Fruiting calyx globular or broadly ovoid; pod rather large, nearly globose.

3. L. mìnor, L. Rather strict, 1° high or more, usually glabrate in age; leaves of radical shoots lanceolate, rigid, 2–3´´ long, the cauline linear, 6–9´´ long; pod about 1´´ high.—Dry and sterile ground; common.

Var. marítima, Gray in herb. Stouter and more rigid, leaves of radical shoots thicker, linear, hoary, the cauline puberulent or glabrous, calyx canescent. (L. thymifolia, Pursh.; L. maritima, Leggett.)—Sandy soil near the coast, Mass. to Ga.

4. L. tenuifòlia, Michx. Low, slender and diffuse, minutely pubescent or glabrous; leaves all small and very narrow; flowers mostly on very short pedicels, diffusely racemose-paniculate; sepals without lateral ribs; pod ovoid-globose.—Dry, sterile soil, E. Mass. to Mo., and southward.

[++][++] Smaller-flowered; fruiting calyx narrower; pod ellipsoidal.

5. L. racemulòsa, Lam. Erect, soft-pubescent when young, soon nearly glabrous; leaves of radical shoots narrowly oblong, the cauline oblong-linear, 4–6´´ long; inflorescence loose and diffuse; fruiting calyx glabrous.—Dry and rocky soil, Long Island to Ky., and southward.

Order 14. VIOLÀCEÆ. (Violet Family.)

Herbs, with a somewhat irregular 1-spurred corolla of 5 petals, 5 hypogynous stamens with adnate introrse anthers conniving over the pistil, and a 1-celled 3-valved pod with 3 parietal placentæ.—Sepals 5, persistent. Petals imbricated in the bud. Stamens with their short and broad filaments continued beyond the anther-cells, and often coherent with each other. Style usually club-shaped, with the simple stigma turned to one side. Valves of the capsule bearing the several-seeded placentæ on their middle; after opening, each valve as it dries folds together lengthwise firmly, projecting the seeds. Seeds anatropous, rather large, with a hard seed-coat, and a large and straight embryo nearly as long as the albumen; cotyledons flat.—Leaves alternate, with stipules. Flowers axillary, nodding. (Roots slightly acrid or emetic.)

1. Viola. Sepals auricled. Lower petal spurred. Stamens distinct, the 2 lower spurred.

2. Solea. Sepals not auricled. Petals equal in length. Stamens united into a sheath.

3. Ionidium. Sepals not auricled. Petals very unequal. Filaments distinct, the anthers merely connivent.

1. VÌOLA, Tourn. Violet. Heart's-ease.

Sepals extended into ears at the base. Petals somewhat unequal, the lower one spurred at the base. Stamens closely surrounding the ovary, often slightly cohering with each other; the two lower bearing spurs which project into the spur of the corolla. Besides these conspicuous blossoms, which appear in spring, others are produced later (especially in the stemless species), on shorter peduncles or on runners, usually concealed under the leaves; these never open nor develop petals, but are fertilized in the bud, and are far more fruitful than the ordinary blossoms. (The ancient Latin name of the genus.)

§ 1. Perennials; stipules never leaf-like, the lower more or less scarious.

[*] Stemless, the leaves and scapes directly from a rootstock or from runners.

[+] Stigma large, naked, not beaked; stolons none; rootstock short and thick.

1. V. pedàta, L. (Bird-foot V.) Nearly smooth; rootstock erect, not scaly; leaves all 3–5-divided, or the earliest only parted, the lateral divisions 2–3-parted, all linear or narrowly spatulate, sometimes 2–3-toothed or cut at the apex; flower large, 1´ broad, pale or deep lilac-purple or blue.—Sandy or gravelly soil, New Eng. to Minn., and southward.—Var. bícolor, Pursh, a very handsome variety, with the two upper petals deep violet, and as it were velvety, occurs sparingly from Mass. to Md.; most common in N. J., on shale.

[+][+] Stigma small, naked, often beaked or pointed.

[++] Rootstock fleshy and thickened, never filiform nor producing runners; flowers violet or purple (rarely white); lateral petals bearded.

2. V. pedatífida, G. Don. Leaves all palmately or pedately 5–7-parted; divisions 2–3-cleft; lobes linear; otherwise like n. 3. (V. delphinifolia, Nutt.)—Rich prairies, or more often in dry poor land, Ill. to Kan. and Minn.

3. V. palmàta, L. (Common Blue V.) Glabrous to villous-pubescent; early leaves roundish-cordate or reniform and merely crenate, the sides rolled inward when young, the later very various, palmately or pedately or hastately lobed or parted, the segments obovate to linear. (V. cucullata, var. palmata, Gray.)—Moist or dryish, especially sterile, ground; very common.

Var. cucullàta, Gray. Later leaves merely crenate, not lobed. (V. cucullata, Ait.)—Low grounds; common everywhere. Both forms are very variable in the size and shape of the leaves and sepals, and in the size and color of the flowers, which are deep or pale violet-blue or purple, sometimes white or variegated with white.

4. V. sagittàta, Ait. (Arrow-leaved V.) Smoothish or hairy; leaves on short and margined, or the later often on long and naked petioles, varying from oblong-heart-shaped to halberd-shaped, arrow-shaped, oblong-lanceolate or ovate, denticulate, sometimes cut-toothed near the base, the lateral or occasionally all the (rather large purple-blue) petals bearded; spur short and thick; stigma beaked.—Dry or moist sandy places, New Eng. to Minn., and southward. Some forms pass into the last.

[++][++] Rootstocks long and filiform, extensively creeping.

[=] Flowers blue or purple.

5. V. Selkírkii, Pursh. (Great-spurred V.) Small and delicate; the filiform rootstock fibrose-rooted, no runners above ground; smooth, except the round-heart-shaped crenate leaves, which are minutely hairy on the upper surface and have a deep narrowed sinus; spur very large, thickened at the end, almost as long as the beardless pale violet petals.—Damp and shady soil, N. Maine to W. Mass., central N. Y., L. Superior (Robbins), and northward; rare.—Scapes and petioles 1–2´, the leaf ½–1¼´ long, thin; the spur 3´´ long. (Eu.)

6. V. palústris, L. (Marsh V.) Smooth; leaves round-heart-shaped and kidney-form, slightly crenate; flowers (small) pale lilac with purple streaks, nearly beardless; spur very short and obtuse.—Alpine summits of the White Mountains, N. H., and high northward. June. (Eu.)

V. odoràta, L. (Sweet Violet), cultivated in gardens, from Europe, belongs near this group, and is sparingly spontaneous in some places.

[=][=] Flowers white (small, short-spurred), mostly with brown-purple veins; lateral petals bearded or beardless. Species apparently confluent.

7. V. blánda, Willd. (Sweet White V.) Commonly glabrous; leaves round-heart-shaped or kidney-form; petals mostly beardless, the lower strongly veined.—Damp places, everywhere. Flowers faintly sweet-scented.

Var. palustrifórmis, Gray. The larger form; upper surface of the leaves sparsely and finely hairy; petals 5´´ long, oftener bearded, less distinctly veined.—Shaded mossy ground, N. Eng. to Del., and westward.

Var. renifòlia, Gray. Slightly or strongly pubescent with soft spreading hairs; leaves round-reniform; petals usually beardless. (V. renifolia, Gray.)—Maine to Mass., western N. Y., Lake Superior, etc.

8. V. primulæfòlia, L. (Primrose-leaved V.) Smooth or a little pubescent; leaves oblong or ovate, abrupt or somewhat heart-shaped at the base; petals often acute, the lateral ones usually sparingly bearded.—Damp or dry soil, N. Eng. to Fla., toward the coast.

9. V. lanceolàta, L. (Lance-leaved Violet.) Smooth; leaves lanceolate, erect, blunt, tapering into a long-margined petiole, almost entire; petals beardless.—Damp soil; common, especially eastward.

[=][=][=] Flowers yellow.

10. V. rotundifòlia, Michx. (Round-leaved Violet.) Leaves round-ovate, heart-shaped, slightly crenate; lateral petals bearded and marked with brown lines; spur very short.—Cold woods, Maine to Minn., and south along the Alleghanies.—Smoothish; leaves 1´ broad at flowering, increasing to 3 or 4´ in the summer, then lying flat on the ground, shining above.

[*][*] Leafy-stemmed; all perennial with short rootstocks.

[+] Low, at first nearly stemless; flowers yellow; stigma concave, bearded.

11. V. Nuttàllii, Pursh. Pubescent or nearly glabrous; leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, entire or slightly crenate, decurrent on the petiole.—Central Kansas and westward.

[+][+] Stems erect, without root-leaves; stipules entire; spur very short; stigma beakless, pubescent.

[++] Stems naked below; flowers yellow.

12. V. pubéscens, Ait. (Downy Yellow V.) Softly pubescent (6–12´ high); leaves very broadly heart-shaped, toothed, somewhat pointed; stipules ovate or ovate-lanceolate, large; lower petals veined with purple, capsule oblong to globular, glabrous or tomentose.—Woods; common.—Var. scabriúscula, Torr. & Gray, smaller and greener, slightly pubescent (4–10´ high).—R. I. to Ky., and southwestward.

13. V. hastàta, Michx. (Halberd-leaved V.) Nearly glabrous, slender (4–10´ high); stem-leaves halberd-shaped or oblong-heart-shaped, slightly serrate, acute; stipules ovate, small.—Woods, N. Ohio (near Painesville, Miss Shattuck), mountains of Penn., and southward; rare.

[++][++] Stems more leafy and prolonged; flowers white or purplish.

14. V. Canadénsis, L. (Canada V.) Upright (1–2° high); leaves heart-shaped, pointed, serrate; stipules ovate-lanceolate, entire; petals white or whitish inside, the upper ones mostly tinged with violet beneath, the lateral bearded.—Rich woods; common northward and along the Alleghanies. May–Aug.

[+][+][+] Stems erect or spreading (at first nearly acaulescent); stipules fringe-toothed; spur oblong to cylindrical; stigma naked.

15. V. striàta, Ait. (Pale V.) Stems angular, ascending (6–10´ high); leaves heart-shaped, finely serrate, often acute; stipules oblong-lanceolate, large; spur thickish, much shorter than the cream-colored or white petals, the lateral ones bearded, the lower striped with purplish lines; stigma beaked.—Low grounds, W. New Eng. to Minn. and Mo., and southward in the mountains. April–Oct.

16. V. rostràta, Pursh. (Long-spurred V.) Stems ascending (3–6´ high); leaves roundish-heart-shaped, serrate, the upper acute; stipules lanceolate, large; spur slender (½´ long), longer than the pale violet beardless petals; style straight and slender; stigma terminal, beakless.—Shaded hillsides, N. New Eng. to Mich., and southward in the Alleghanies; rather rare. June, July.

17. V. canìna, L., var. Muhlenbérgii, Gray. (Dog V.) Low (3–8´ high), mostly glabrous; stems ascending, mostly simple, from the base at length producing creeping branches; leaves heart-shaped, or the lowest kidney-form, crenate, the uppermost slightly pointed; stipules lanceolate; spur cylindrical, half the length of the light violet petals, the lateral ones slightly bearded; stigma beaked.—Damp or wet shady places; common. May–July. (Eu.)—Var. pubérula, Watson in herb. Finely puberulent; leaves mostly ovate and acutish with a cordate base, often small; flowers small and mostly cleistogamous.—Sandy or stony shores and islands of Lakes Huron and Superior. (Robbins, Engelmann, etc.)—Var. multicaùlis, Gray. Depressed and stoloniferous; flowers mostly cleistogamous; leaves small, suborbicular to reniform.—Ky. to Fla. and Tex.

§ 2. Leaf-bearing throughout from an annual, biennial, or sometimes short-lived perennial root; the stipules large, leaf-like and lyrate-pinnatifid.

V. trícolor, L. (Pansy. Heart's-ease.) Stem angled and branched; leaves roundish, or the upper oval and the lowest heart-shaped, crenate or entire; petals variable in color or variegated (yellow, whitish, violet-blue and purple);—in var. arvénsis shorter or little longer than the calyx.—Dry or sandy soil, N. Y. to Iowa, Kan., and southward; the variety sometimes seeming like a native plant. April–Sept. (Nat. from Eu.)

2. SÒLEA, Spreng., in part. Green Violet.

Sepals not prolonged at the base. Petals nearly equal in length, but the lower one larger and gibbous or saccate at the base, more notched than the others at the apex. Stamens completely united into a sheath enclosing the ovary, and bearing a broad gland on the lower side. Style hooked at the summit.—A homely perennial herb, with stems leafy to the top, and 1–3 small greenish-white flowers in the axils, on short recurved pedicels. (Named in honor of W. Sole, author of an essay on the British Mints.)

1. S. cóncolor, Ging. Plant 1–2° high; leaves oblong, pointed at both ends, entire; pod 1´ long.—Woods, N. Y. to Kan., and southward. June.

3. IONÍDIUM, Vent.

Sepals not prolonged at base. Petals very unequal, the two upper shorter, the lower longest and largest, concave at base, contracted in the middle. Filaments distinct, the two lower with a scale-like gland or spur at base; anthers merely connivent.—Perennials, branching and leafy, with alternate and opposite leaves, and small axillary flowers. (Name from ἴον, violet, and εἶδος, appearance.)

1. I. polygalæfòlium, Vent. Stems low, from a woody base; leaves linear to oblanceolate, or the lower obovate, entire, the stipules leaf-like or small or none; flowers solitary, nodding, 2´´ long, white. (I. lineare, Torr.)—Kan. and southwestward.

Order 15. CARYOPHYLLÀCEÆ. (Pink Family.)

Herbs, with opposite entire leaves, symmetrical 4–5-merous flowers, with or without petals, the distinct stamens no more than twice the number of the sepals, either hypogynous or perigynous, styles 2–5 (or rarely united into one); seeds several or usually many, attached to the base or to the central column of the 1-celled (rarely 3–5-celled) pod, with a slender embryo coiled or curved around the outside of mealy albumen, in Dianthus nearly straight.—Bland herbs; the stems usually swollen at the joints; uppermost leaves rarely alternate. Leaves often united at the base. Calyx persistent. Styles stigmatic along the inside. Seeds amphitropous or campylotropous.

Tribe I. SILENEÆ. Sepals united into a tube or cup. Petals (mostly convolute in the bud) and stamens (10) borne on the stipe or stalk of the ovary, the former with slender claws, to the base of which the corresponding filaments often adhere, included in the calyx tube. Seeds numerous.—Stipules none. Flowers often large and showy.

[*] Calyx with scaly bractlets or small leaves at the base. Seeds flattened on the back, attached by their face; embryo nearly straight.

1. Dianthus. Calyx terete, mostly cylindrical. Styles 2.

[*][*] Calyx naked. Seeds globular or kidney-shaped; embryo curved or coiled.

2. Gypsophila. Calyx top-shaped or campanulate. Pod deeply 4-valved. Styles 2.

3. Saponaria. Calyx oblong-cylindrical, obscurely nerved, terete or 5-angled. Pod shortly 4-valved. Styles 2.

4. Silene. Calyx 5-toothed, 10-nerved. Styles 3.

5. Lychnis. Calyx 5-toothed, 10-nerved. Styles 5, rarely 4.

Tribe II. ALSINEÆ. Sepals distinct or nearly so, imbricated in the bud. Petals when present without claws, mostly imbricated, and with the stamens inserted at the base of the sessile ovary, or into a little disk. Pod splitting into valves or teeth several–many-seeded. Stamens opposite the sepals, when not more in number.—Low herbs.

[*] Stipules none.

[+] Styles opposite the sepals, or, when fewer, opposite those which are exterior in the bud.

[++] Pod short, splitting into as many valves as styles; valves often bifid or 2-parted.

6. Arenaria. Petals entire. Styles usually 3. Valves of the pod entire, bifid or 2-parted.

7. Stellaria. Petals 2-cleft or none. Styles usually 3. Valves bifid or 2-parted.

[++][++] Pod cylindrical, dehiscent by twice as many equal teeth as styles.

8. Holosteum. Petals denticulate or notched. Styles usually 3. Seeds fixed by the face.

9. Cerastium. Petals notched or 2-cleft. Styles 5 or 4. Seeds fixed edgewise.

[+][+] Styles alternate with the sepals. Stamens as many, or twice as many.

10. Sagina. Petals 4 or 5, entire, or none. Styles 4 or 5. Pod short, 4–5-valved.

[*][*] Stipules present. Pod short.

11. Buda. Styles 3. Pod 3-valved. Leaves opposite.

12. Spergula. Styles 5. Valves of the pod opposite the sepals. Leaves whorled.

1. DIÁNTHUS, L. Pink. Carnation.

Calyx cylindrical, nerved or striate, 5-toothed, subtended by 2 or more imbricated bractlets. Stamens 10. Styles 2. Pod 1-celled, 4-valved at the apex. Seeds flattish on the back; embryo scarcely curved.—Ornamental plants, of well-known aspect and value in cultivation. (Name from Διός, of Jupiter, and ἄνθος flower, i.e., Jove's own flower.)

D. Armèria, L. (Deptford Pink.) Annual; flowers clustered; bractlets of the calyx and bracts lance-awl-form, herbaceous, downy, as long as the tube; leaves linear, hairy; petals small, rose-color with white dots, crenate.—Fields, etc., eastward. July. (Adv. from Eu.)

D. pròlifer, L. Annual, smooth, slender; flowers clustered; bractlets ovate, dry, concealing the calyx; leaves few, narrow, linear, erect; petals small, pink.—N. J. and E. Penn. (Adv. from Eu.)

D. deltoìdes, L. (Maiden Pink.) Perennial; leaves short, narrowly lanceolate, downy and roughish; flowers solitary; bracts ovate, half as long as the tube; petals rose-color or white, toothed.—Mich., L. H. Bailey. (Nat. from Eu.)

D. barbàtus, L. (Sweet William.) Perennial; flowers fascicled; leaves large, lanceolate; bracts filiform-attenuate, equalling the calyx.—Sparingly spontaneous. (Adv. from Eu.)


Calyx narrowly top shaped or campanulate, 5-nerved, 5-toothed, naked at base. Petals not crowned. Stamens 10. Styles 2. Pod 1-celled, 4-valved at the apex, sessile.—Slender glaucous annuals or perennials, with numerous small flowers. (Name from γύψος, gypsum, and φιλεῖν, to love.)

G. muràlis, L. Annual, much branched; leaves very narrowly linear; flowers on slender pedicels, solitary in the forks; calyx turbinate, the teeth short, obtuse; petals purplish, crenate or emarginate.—Sparingly naturalized. (Nat. from Eu.)


Calyx narrowly ovoid or oblong, 5-toothed, obscurely nerved, naked. Stamens 10. Styles 2. Pod 1-celled, or incompletely 2–4-celled at base, 4-toothed at the apex.—Coarse annuals or perennial, with large flowers. (Name from sapo, soap, the mucilaginous juice forming a lather with water.)

S. officinàlis, L. (Soapwort. Bouncing Bet.) Flowers in corymbed clusters; calyx terete; petals crowned with an appendage at the top of the claw; leaves oval-lanceolate.—Roadsides, etc. July–Sept.—A stout perennial, with large rose-colored flowers, commonly double. (Adv. from Eu.)

S. Vaccària, L. Annual, glabrous; flowers in corymbed cymes; calyx 5-angled, enlarged and wing-angled in fruit; petals pale red, not crowned; leaves ovate-lanceolate. (Vaccaria vulgaris, Host.)—Occasionally spontaneous. (Adv. from Eu.)

4. SILÈNE, L. Catchfly. Campion.

Calyx 5-toothed, 10–many-nerved, naked at the base. Stamens 10. Styles 3, rarely 4. Pod 1-celled, sometimes 3-celled at least at the base, opening by 3 or 6 teeth at the apex.—Flowers solitary or in cymes. Petals mostly crowned with a scale at the base of the blade. (Name from σίαλον, saliva, from the viscid exudation on the stems and calyx of many species. The English name Catchfly alludes to the same peculiarity.)

[*] Dwarf, alpine, tufted, smooth, perennial; flowering shoots 1-flowered.

1. S. acaùlis, L. (Moss Campion.) Tufted like a moss (1–2´ high); leaves linear, crowded; flowers almost sessile, or rarely on a naked peduncle; petals purple or rarely white, notched or entire, crowned.—Alpine summits of the White Mountains, N. H. July. (Eu.)

[*][*] Calyx bladdery-inflated; perennial; flowers panicled, white, in summer.

2 S. Stellàta, Ait. (Starry Campion.) Leaves in whorls of 4, ovate-lanceolate, taper-pointed; calyx bell-shaped; petals cut into a fringe, crownless.—Wooded banks, R. I. to Minn., and southward.—Stem 3° high, with a large and open pyramidal panicle. Corolla ¾´ broad.

3. S. nívea, Otth. Leaves opposite, lanceolate or oblong, taper-pointed; calyx oblong; petals wedge-form, 2-cleft, minutely crowned.—Penn. to Iowa and Minn.; rare.—Stem 1–2° high, almost smooth. Flowers few, larger than in the last.

S. Cucùbalus, Wibel. (Bladder Campion.) Glaucous; leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate; calyx globular, much inflated, elegantly veined; petals 2-cleft, nearly crownless. (S. inflata, Smith.)—Fields and roadsides, E. New Eng. to Ill.—A foot high. Flowers loosely cymose. (Nat. from Eu.)

[*][*][*] Calyx elongated or club-shaped, not inflated except by the enlarging pod; flowers cymose or clustered; perennial, pubescent with viscid hairs, especially the calyx; petals crowned, red or rose-color.

4. S. Pennsylvánica, Michx. (Wild Pink.) Stems low (4–8´); root-leaves narrowly spatulate, nearly glabrous, tapering into hairy petioles; stem-leaves (2 or 3 pairs) lanceolate; flowers clustered, short-stalked; calyx club-shaped; petals wedge-form, slightly notched and eroded, pink.—Gravelly places, E. New Eng. to N. Y., Ky., and southward. April–June.

5. S. Virgínica, L. (Fire Pink. Catchfly.) Steins slender (1–2° high); leaves thin, spatulate, or the upper oblong-lanceolate; flowers few and loosely cymose, peduncled; calyx oblong-cylindrical, soon obconical; petals oblong, 2-cleft, deep crimson; the limb 1´ long.—Open woods, western N. Y. to Minn., and southward. June–Aug.

6. S. règia, Sims. (Royal Catchfly.) Stem roughish, erect (3–4° high); leaves thickish, ovate-lanceolate, acute; flowers numerous, short-stalked, in clusters, forming a strict panicle; calyx ovoid-club-shaped in fruit; petals spatulate-lanceolate, mostly undivided, deep scarlet.—Prairies, Ohio to Mo., and southward. July.

7. S. rotundifòlia, Nutt. (Round-leaved Catchfly.) Viscid-hairy; stems weak, branched, decumbent (2° long); leaves thin, round, abruptly pointed, the lower obovate; flowers few, loosely cymose, stalked; calyx elongated; petals 2-cleft and cut-toothed, deep scarlet.—Shaded banks of the Ohio, and in Ky. June–Aug.—Leaves and flowers large.

[*][*][*][*] Calyx not inflated, except by the enlarging pod; annuals.

[+] Glabrous, a portion of each joint of the stem glutinous; flowers pink.

8. S. antirrhìna, L. (Sleepy C.) Stem slender (8–30´ high); leaves lanceolate or linear; flowers small, paniculate; calyx ovoid; petals obcordate, crowned, opening transiently in sunshine.—Dry soil; common in waste places. June–Sept.

S. Armèria, L. (Sweet-William Catchfly.) Glaucous; leaves ovate-lanceolate; flowers in flat cymes, open in sunshine; calyx club-shaped; petals notched, crowned with awl-shaped scales.—Escaped from gardens; rare. (Adv. from Eu.)

[+][+] Viscid-pubescent; flowers white or nearly so, opening at night, sweet-scented.

S. noctúrna, L. (Night C.) Leaves short, the lower spatulate, the upper linear; flowers small, alternate in a 1-sided spike; petals 2-parted.—Introduced sparingly in Pa., according to Schweinitz. (Adv. from Eu.)

S. noctiflòra, L. (Night-flowering C.) Viscid-hairy, tall (1–3° high); lower leaves large and spatulate, the upper lanceolate; flowers few, peduncled; calyx-tube elongated (over 1´ long), soon ovoid, with awl-shaped teeth; petals rather large, 2-parted, crowned.—Cultivated grounds.

5. LÝCHNIS, Tourn. Cockle.

Styles 5, rarely 4, and pod opening by as many or twice as many teeth; otherwise nearly as in Silene. Calyx in one species with leaf-like lobes. (Ancient Greek name for a scarlet or flame-colored species, from λύχνος, a light or lamp.)

L. vespertìna, Sibth. (Evening L.) Biennial, usually diœcious, viscid-pubescent, in foliage, etc., like Silene noctiflora; but 5 styles, calyx much shorter (7–9´´ long), with lance-linear teeth, and flowers white or pinkish, opening at evening.—Cult. or waste grounds; scarce. (Adv. from En.)

L. diúrna, Sibth. (Red Lychnis.) Resembling L. vespertina, but less viscid, the calyx usually shorter (4–6´´ long), and the flowers red, opening in the morning.—Rarely spontaneous. (Adv. from Eu.)

L. Githàgo, Lam. (Corn Cockle.) Annual, clothed with long soft appressed hairs; flowers long-peduncled; calyx-lobes similar to the long and linear leaves, surpassing the broad and crownless purple-red petals, falling off in fruit. (Agrostémma Githago, L.)—In wheat-fields. (Adv. from Eu.)

L. Flos-cùculi, L. (Ragged Robin.) Perennial, erect, slightly downy below, viscid above; leaves narrowly lanceolate; flowers in loose panicles; calyx short, glabrous; petals red, 4-lobed, lobes linear.—Moist or marshy places; New Eng. and N. Y. (Adv. from Eu.)

6. ARENÀRIA, L. Sandwort.

Sepals 5. Petals 5, entire, sometimes barely notched, rarely wanting. Stamens 10. Styles 3, rarely more or fewer, opposite as many sepals. Pod short, splitting into as many or twice as many valves as there are styles, few–many-seeded.—Low, usually tufted herbs, with sessile exstipulate leaves and small white flowers. (Name from arena, sand, in which many of the species grow.)—The following sections are by many botanists taken for genera.

§ 1. ARENARIA proper. Pod splitting wholly or part-way down into 3 or at length into 6 valves; seeds many, naked at the hilum.

A. serpyllifòlia, L. (Thyme-leaved Sandwort.) Diffusely branched, roughish (2–6´ high); leaves ovate, acute, small; cymes leafy; sepals lanceolate, pointed, 3–5-nerved, about equalling the petals and 6-toothed pod.—A low annual; sandy waste places. June–Aug. (Nat. from Eu.)

§ 2. ALSÌNE. Pod splitting to the base into 3 entire valves; seeds many, usually rough, naked at the hilum; flowers solitary and terminal or cymose; root in our species perennial, except in n. 4.

[*] Leaves small, rigid, awl-shaped or bristle-shaped.

1. A. Caroliniàna, Walt. (Pine-barren S.) Densely tufted from a deep perpendicular root; leaves closely imbricated, but spreading, awl-shaped, short, channelled; branches naked and minutely glandular above, several-flowered; sepals obtuse, ovate, shorter than the pod. (A. squarrosa, Michx.)—In pure sand, S. New York, N. J., and southward along the coast. May–July.

2. A. Michaùxii, Hook. f. Erect, or usually diffusely spreading from a small root, smooth; leaves slender, between awl-shaped and bristle-form, with many others clustered in the axils; cyme diffuse, naked, many-flowered; sepals pointed, 3-ribbed, ovate, as long as the pod. (A. stricta, Michx.)—Rocks and dry wooded banks, Vt. and Penn. to Minn., Mo., and southwestward. July.

3. A. vérna, L. Dwarf, alpine, densely matted, glabrous or (var. hirta) somewhat pubescent, 1–3´ high; leaves narrowly linear or awl-shaped; flowers loosely cymose; sepals lanceolate, pointed, 3-nerved, shorter than the pod. —Smuggler's Notch, Vt. (Pringle); north and westward. (Eu.)

[*][*] Leaves soft and herbaceous, filiform-linear; petals retuse or notched.

4. A. pátula, Michx. Diffusely branched from the slender root; stems filiform (6–10´ long); branches of the cyme diverging; peduncles long; sepals lanceolate, acuminate, 3–5-nerved. (A. Pitcheri, Nutt.)—S. W. Va. to Ky., Ill., Kan., and southward.

5. A. Grœnlándica, Spreng. (Mountain S.) Densely tufted from slender roots, smooth; flowering stems filiform, erect (2–4´ high), few-flowered; sepals oblong, obtuse, nerveless.—Summit of the Shawangunk, Catskill, and Adirondack Mountains, N. Y., of the higher mountains of New Eng., and northward; alpine or subalpine. At Bath, Maine, on river-banks near the sea, and near Middletown, Ct. June–Aug.—Leaves and peduncles 3–6´´ long; flowers large in proportion. (Addendum)—Arenaria Grœnlandica. Found on Mt. Desert Island, Maine (Rand).

§ 3. MŒHRÍNGIA. Parts of the flower sometimes in fours; pod as in § 1, but the young ovary 3-celled; seeds rather few, smooth, with a thickish appendage (strophiole) at the hilum; perennials, with flaccid broadish leaves.

6. A. lateriflòra, L. Sparingly branched, erect, minutely pubescent; leaves oval or oblong, obtuse (½–1´ long); peduncles 2- (rarely 3–4) flowered, soon becoming lateral; sepals oblong, obtuse.—Gravelly shores, etc., New Eng. to Penn., Mo., Minn., and northward. May, June. (Eu.)

§ 4. AMMADÈNIA. Styles, cells of the ovary, and valves of the fleshy pod 3, rarely 4 or 5; seeds few, smooth, short-beaked at the naked hilum; disk under the ovary more prominent than usual, glandular, 10-lobed; flowers almost sessile in the axils, sometimes diœcious or polygamous; root perennial.

7. A. peploìdes, L. Stems (simple or forking from long rootstocks, 6–10´ high) and ovate partly-clasping leaves (8–10´´ long) very fleshy. (Honkenya peploides, Ehrh.)—Sands of the sea-shore, N. J. to Maine and northward. June. (Eu.)

7. STELLÀRIA, L. Chickweed. Starwort.

Sepals 4–5. Petals 4–5, deeply 2-cleft, sometimes none. Stamens 8, 10, or fewer. Styles 3, rarely 4 or 5, opposite as many sepals. Pod ovoid, 1-celled, opening by twice as many valves as there are styles, several–many-seeded. Seeds naked.—Flowers (white) solitary or cymose, terminal, or appearing lateral by the prolongation of the stem from the upper axils. (Name from stella, a star, in allusion to the star-shaped flowers.)

[*] Stems spreading, flaccid, marked longitudinally with one or two pubescent lines; leaves ovate or oblong, ½–2½´ long.

S. mèdia, Smith. (Common Chickweed.) Annual or nearly so; lower leaves on hairy petioles, petals shorter than the calyx, 2-parted, stamens 3–10.—Everywhere in damp grounds. (Nat. from Eu.)

1. S. pùbera, Michx. (Great Chickweed.) Root perennial; leaves all sessile; petals longer than the calyx, deeply 2-cleft; stamens 10.—Shaded rocks, Penn. to Ind., and southward. May.

[*][*] Stems erect or spreading; wholly glabrous perennials, with sessile and narrow or small leaves; stamens usually 10, perigynous.

[+] Scaly-bracted; petals 2-parted, equalling or surpassing the calyx.

2. S. longifòlia, Muhl. (Long-leaved Stitchwort.) Stem erect, weak, often with rough angles (8–18´ high); leaves linear, acutish at both ends, spreading; cymes naked and at length lateral, peduncled, many-flowered, the slender pedicels spreading; petals 2-parted, longer than the calyx; seeds smooth.—Grassy places; common, especially northward. June, July. (Eu.)

3. S. lóngipes, Goldie. (Long-stalked S.) Shining or somewhat glaucous, very smooth; leaves ascending, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acute, broadest at the base, rather rigid; cyme terminal, few-flowered, the long pedicels strictly erect; petals longer than the calyx; seeds smooth.—Maine to Minn., rare; common farther north. (Eu.)

S. gramínea, L. Resembling the last; leaves linear-lanceolate, broadest above the base; pedicels widely spreading; seeds strongly but minutely rugose.—Becoming rather frequent. (Int. from Eu.)

4. S. uliginòsa, Murr. (Swamp S.) Stems weak, decumbent or diffuse, at length prolonged, leaving the naked and usually sessile cymes lateral; leaves lanceolate or oblong, veiny; petals and ripe pods as long as the calyx; seeds roughened.—Swamps and rills, Md. to N. Eng., and northward; rare. (Eu.)

[+][+] Flowers terminal or in the forks of the stem or of leafy branches; bracts foliaceous; petals 2-parted, small or often none; styles 3–4; pod longer than the calyx.

5. S. crassifòlia, Ehrh. Stems diffuse or erect, flaccid; leaves rather fleshy, varying from linear-lanceolate to oblong; petals longer than the calyx, or wanting; seeds rugose-roughened.—Springy places, eastern Ky. (Short), Ringwood, Ill. (Vasey), and northward. April–June. (Eu.)

6. S. boreàlis, Bigel. (Northern S.) Stems erect or spreading, flaccid, many times forked, at length resolved into a leafy cyme; leaves varying from broadly lanceolate to ovate-oblong; petals 2–5, shorter than the calyx, or oftener none; sepals acute; styles usually 4; seeds smooth.—Shaded or wet places, R. I. to Minn., and northward. June–Aug.—Var. alpéstris has the later flowers more cymose, and their bracts small and partly scarious, also the seeds obscurely reticulated or roughish.—Lake Superior, Dr. Robbins. (Eu.) (Addendum)—Stellaria borealis. In the mountains of northern N. J.

7. S. humifùsa, Rottb. Spreading or creeping; stems or branches (2´ high) 1–3-flowered; leaves fleshy, ovate or oblong (2–3´´ long); petals a little longer than the calyx; seeds smooth.—Northern border of Maine on the St. John's (G. L. Goodale), and high northward. June. (Eu.) (Addendum) S. humifusa. This species has also been found on Cranberry Island, near Mt. Desert, Maine, by J. H. Redfield.

8. HOLÓSTEUM, L. Jagged Chickweed.

Sepals 5. Petals 5, usually jagged or denticulate at the point. Stamens 3–5, rarely 10. Styles mostly 3. Pod ovoid, 1-celled, many-seeded, opening at the top by 6 teeth. Seeds rough, flattened on the back, attached by the inner face.—Annuals or biennials, with several (white) flowers in an umbel, borne on a long terminal peduncle. (Name composed of ὅλος, all, and ὀστέον, bone, by antiphrasis, these plants being soft and tender.)

H. umbellàtum, L. Leaves oblong; peduncle and upper part of the stem glandular-pubescent; pedicels reflexed after flowering.—Hills around Lancaster, Penn., Prof. Porter, and Morris Co., N. J., C. F. Austin. (Nat. from Eu.)

9. CERÁSTIUM, L. Mouse-ear Chickweed.

Sepals 5, rarely 4. Petals as many, 2-lobed or cleft, rarely entire. Stamens twice as many, or fewer. Styles equal in number to the sepals and opposite them. Pod 1-celled, usually elongated, membranaceous, opening at the apex by twice as many teeth as there were styles, many-seeded. Seeds rough.—Flowers white, in terminal cymes. Our species have the petals 2-cleft or obcordate, the parts of the flower always in fives, and the exserted pods more or less curved. (Name from κέρας, a horn, alluding to the shape of the pod in many species.)

C. viscòsum, L. (Mouse-ear Chickweed.) Annual, hairy and rather clammy, nearly erect (4–9´ high); leaves ovate or obovate to oblong-spatulate; bracts herbaceous; flowers small in close clusters at first, pedicels even in fruit not longer than the acute sepals; petals shorter than the calyx. (C. vulgatum, L. Herb., and Man. The names of this and the next were transposed in the Linnæan herbarium, which has caused much confusion. They are here applied as originally by Linnæus, and by many recent botanists. Others substitute for this the later name, C. glomeràtum, Thuill.)—Grassy places, eastward and southward; not common. May–July.—Stamens often 5. (Nat. from Eu.)

C. vulgàtum, L. (Larger M.) Perennial; stems clammy-hairy, spreading (6–15´ long); leaves oblong; upper bracts scarious-margined; flowers larger (sepals 2–3´´ long), at first clustered, the fruiting pedicels longer, the earlier ones mostly much longer than the obtuse sepals; petals equalling the calyx. (C. viscosum, L. Herb., and Man. C. triviàle, Link.)—Fields and copses; common, perhaps indigenous. May–July. (Nat. from Eu.)

1. C. nùtans, Raf. Annual, very clammy-pubescent; stems erect, slender, grooved, diffusely branched (6–20´ high); cyme loose and open, many-flowered; leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, the lowest spatulate; peduncles mostly elongated; petals longer than the calyx; pods nodding on the stalks, curved upward, thrice the length of the calyx.—Moist places, Vt. to Minn., and southward. May–July.

2. C. arvénse, L. (Field Chickweed.) Perennial; stems ascending or erect, tufted, downy or nearly smooth, slender (4–8´ high), naked and few–several-flowered at the summit; leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate; petals obcordate, more than twice the length of the calyx; pods scarcely longer than the calyx.—Dry or rocky places. May–July. (Eu.)

Var. oblongifòlium, Holl. & Britt. Usually taller, pubescent; leaves narrowly or broadly oblong or oblong-lanceolate; pod about twice longer than the calyx. (C. oblongifolium, Torr.)—Rocky places, N. Y. to Minn., and southward.—Var. villòsum, Holl. & Britt. Similar but densely villous-pubescent, and the leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate.—E. Penn.

10. SAGÌNA, L. Pearlwort.

Sepals 4 or 5. Petals 4 or 5, undivided, or often none. Stamens as many as the sepals, rarely twice as many. Styles as many as the sepals and alternate with them. Pod many-seeded, 4–5-valved to the base; valves opposite the sepals.—Little, matted herbs, with thread-like or awl-shaped leaves, no stipules, and small flowers terminating the stems or branches; in summer. (Name from sagina, fattening; previously applied to the spurry.)

[*] Parts of the flower in fours, rarely with some few in fives.

1. S. procúmbens, L. Annual or perennial, depressed or spreading on the ground, glabrous; leaves linear-thread-shaped; apex of the peduncle often hooked soon after flowering; petals shorter than the broadly ovate obtuse sepals, sometimes none.—Springy places and damp rocks, coast of Maine to Penn. (Eu.)

2. S. apétala, L. Annual, erect or ascending; leaves ciliate at base or glabrous; petals none or very small; peduncles always erect.—Dry soil, Mass. to Penn.; scarce, seemingly native? (Eu.)

[*][*] Parts of the flower in fives, the stamens not rarely 10.

3. S. decúmbens, Torr. & Gray. Annual, ascending; the peduncles and calyx with the margins of the upper leaves at first glandular-pubescent; leaves short, often bristly-tipped, not fascicled in the axils; peduncles slender; petals equalling or shorter than the calyx; pod oblong-ovate, nearly twice longer than the acutish sepals. (S. subulata, Man., not Wimm.)—E. Mass., to Ill., Mo., and southward.—Var. Smíthii, a slender form, apetalous, at least in the later flowers.—Near Philadelphia, in waste ground, and in sandy fields at Somers' Point, N. J., C. E. Smith. Seeds minutely roughened.

4. S. nodòsa, Fenzl. Perennial, tufted, glabrous, or glandular above; stems ascending (3–5´ high); lower leaves thread-form, the upper short and awl-shaped, with minute ones fascicled in their axils so that the branchlets appear knotty, petals much longer than the calyx.—Wet sandy soil, along the coast of Maine and N. H., also Lake Superior, and northward. (Eu.)

11. BÙDA, Adans. Sand-Spurrey.

Sepals 5. Petals 5, entire. Stamens 2–10. Styles and valves of the many-seeded pod 3, very rarely 5, when the valves alternate with the sepals! Embryo not coiled into a complete ring.—Low herbs, mostly on or near the seacoast, with filiform or linear somewhat fleshy opposite leaves, and smaller ones often clustered in the axils; stipules scaly-membranaceous; flowering all summer. (Named probably for the city so called.)—Genus also known as Tissa, Adans., Spergularia, Presl., and Lepigonum, Wahlb. The species are very variously understood by European botanists, and are much confused, as well as the synonymy. Our forms are annual, or at the most biennial.

1. B. rùbra, Dumort. Nearly glabrous, the summit of the prostrate or ascending slender stems, peduncles, and sepals usually glandular-pubescent; leaves linear, flat, scarcely fleshy; stipules lanceolate, entire or cleft; pedicels longer than the bracts; pods and pink-red corolla small (1½´´), hardly equalling or exceeding the calyx; seeds rough with projecting points, semi-obovate or gibbous-wedge-shaped, wingless. (Spergularia rubra, Presl.)—Dry sandy soil, New Eng. to Va., along and near the coast, but rarely maritime. (Eu.)

2. B. marìna, Dumort. More decidedly fleshy than the preceding, erect or ascending, usually pubescent, with ovate stipules, terete leaves, and pedicels 2–4´´ long; sepals usually becoming 2–2½´´ long, little shorter than the pod; petals pale; seeds obovate-rounded and roughened with points, wingless or narrow-winged. (Spergularia salina, Presl. Tissa marina, Britt.)—Brackish sands, etc., coast of N. Eng. to Va., and southward. A form with smooth seeds is var. leiospérma, N. E. Brown. (S. media, Presl.) (Eu.)

Var.(?) mìnor, Watson. Small, ascending or decumbent; flowers smaller, on shorter pedicels (rarely 2´´ long), the sepals and pod 1–1½´´ long; seeds wingless, usually papillose.—Coast of N. H. and Mass.

3. B. boreàlis, Watson. Diffusely branched, glabrous; pedicels usually 2–4´´ long; petals white; pod ovate, 2´´ long, about twice longer than the sepals; seeds usually wingless, smooth or nearly so. (Tissa salina, Britt.)—On the coast, E. Maine to Labrador.

12. SPÉRGULA, L. Spurrey.

Stamens 5 or 10. Styles 5. The 5 valves of the pod opposite the sepals. Embryo spirally annular. Leaves in whorls. Otherwise as in Buda. (Name from spargo, to scatter, from the seeds.)

S. arvénsis, L. (Corn Spurrey.) Annual; leaves numerous in the whorls, thread-shaped (1–2´ long); stipules minute; flowers white, in a stalked panicled cyme; seeds rough.—Grain-fields. (Adv. from Eu.)

Order 16. PORTULACÀCEÆ. (Purslane Family.)

Herbs, with succulent leaves, and regular but unsymmetrical flowers; viz., sepals fewer than the petals; the stamens opposite the petals when of the same number, but often indefinite, otherwise nearly as Chickweeds.—Sepals 2. Petals 5, or sometimes none. Stamens mostly 5–20. Styles 2–8, united below, or distinct, stigmatic along the inside. Pod 1-celled, with few or many campylotropous seeds rising on stalks from the base. Embryo curved around mealy albumen.—Insipid and innocent herbs, with entire leaves. Corolla opening only in sunshine, mostly ephemeral, then shrivelling.

1. Portulaca. Stamens 7–20, on the partly adherent calyx. Pod opening by a lid.

2. Talinum. Stamens more numerous than the petals, hypogynous. Calyx deciduous. Pod many-seeded.

3. Claytonia. Stamens as many as the hypogynous petals, and attached to their base. Calyx persistent. Pod 3–6-seeded.

1. PORTULÀCA, Tourn. Purslane.

Calyx 2-cleft; the tube cohering with the ovary below. Petals 5, rarely 6, inserted on the calyx with the 7–20 stamens, fugacious. Style mostly 3–8-parted. Pod 1-celled, globular, many-seeded, opening transversely, the upper part (with the upper part of the calyx) separating as a lid.—Fleshy annuals, with mostly scattered leaves. (An old Latin name, of unknown meaning.)

P. oleràcea, L. (Common Purslane.) Prostrate, very smooth; leaves obovate or wedge-form; flowers sessile (opening only in sunny mornings); sepals keeled; petals pale yellow; stamens 7–12; style deeply 5–6-parted; flower-bud flat and acute.—Cultivated and waste grounds; common. Seemingly indigenous west and southwestward. (Nat. from Eu.)

1. P. retùsa, Engelm. Leaves often retuse; calyx-lobes obtuse in the bud; petals small or minute; style shorter, 3–4-cleft; seeds larger, sharply tuberculate; otherwise like the last.—Ark. to Tex. and westward; reported from Kan., Iowa, and Minn.

2. P. pilòsa, L. Ascending or spreading, copiously hairy in the axils; leaves linear-subulate, nearly terete, 3–6´´ long; petals red or purple.—Kan. to Tex., etc.

2. TALÌNUM, Adans.

Sepals 2, distinct and free, deciduous. Petals 5, ephemeral. Stamens 10–30. Style 3-lobed at the apex. Pod 3-celled at the base when young, 3-valved, with many seeds on a globular stalked placenta. (Derivation obscure.)

1. T. teretifòlium, Pursh. Perennial; leafy stems low, tuberous at base; leaves linear, cylindrical; peduncle long (3–6´) and naked, bearing an open cyme of pink flowers ({2/3}´ broad); stamens 15–20.—Serpentine rocks, Penn., to Ind., Minn., and southward. June–Aug. (Addendum) Style equalling the stamens.

(Addendum) 2. T. calycìnum, Engelm. Leaves somewhat broader; flowers and capsules larger; stamens 30 or more; style twice longer than the stamens, declined.—Central Kan. to W. Tex.

3. CLAYTÒNIA, Gronov. Spring-Beauty.

Sepals 2, ovate, free, persistent. Stamens 5, adhering to the short claws of the petals. Style 3-cleft at the apex. Pod 1-celled, 3-valved, 3–6-seeded.—Our two species are perennials, sending up simple stems in early spring from a small deep tuber, bearing a pair of opposite leaves, and a loose raceme of pretty flowers. Corolla rose-color with deeper veins, opening for more than one day! (Named in honor of Dr. John Clayton, one of our earliest botanists, who contributed to Gronovius the materials for the Flora Virginica.)

1. C. Virgínica, L. Leaves linear-lanceolate, elongated (3–6´ long).—Moist open woods; common, especially westward and southward.

2. C. Caroliniàna, Michx. Flowers rather smaller and fewer; leaves spatulate-oblong or oval-lanceolate (1–2´ long).—Maine to Minn., and southward along the Alleghanies.

(Addendum) 3. C. Chamissònis, Esch. Weak, procumbent or ascending, rooting below and perennial by lateral and terminal filiform runners; leaves several pairs, oblong-spatulate, 1–2´ long; inflorescence racemosely 1–9-flowered; petals pale rose-color; capsule small, 1–3-seeded.—In a cold ravine, Winona Co., Minn.; in the mountains from Colorado north and westward.

Order 17. ELATINÀCEÆ. (Water-wort Family.)

Little marsh annuals, with membranaceous stipules between the opposite dotless leaves, minute axillary flowers like those of the Chickweeds, but the pod 2–5-celled, and the seeds as in St. John's-wort. The principal genus is

1. ELATÌNE, L. Water-wort.

Sepals 2–4, persistent. Petals 2–4, hypogynous. Stamens as many, rarely twice as many, as the petals. Styles, or sessile capitate stigmas, 2–4. Pod membranaceous, globose, 2–4-celled, several–many-seeded, 2–4-valved; the partitions left attached to the axis, or evanescent. Seeds cylindrical, straightish or curved, marked by both longitudinal and transverse lines.—Dwarf glabrous plants, usually rooting at the nodes, aquatic or terrestrial. (A Greek name for some obscure herb.)

1. E. Americàna, Arn. Tufted, 1´ high; leaves obovate, obtuse, 1–3´´ long; flowers sessile, rarely opening in the aquatic form; sepals, petals, stamens, and stigmas 2, rarely 3; seeds 5 or 6 in each cell, rising from the base, marked by 9 or 10 longitudinal lines and 20–30 crossbars.—Margin of ponds, etc., N. H. to Ill., Va., and southwestward. Pod very thin and delicate; the seeds large in proportion, straightish.

2. E. triándra, Schkuhr. Leaves oblanceolate or nearly lanceolate; petals and stamens commonly 3; seeds more slender, covering the axis.—Ponds, Ill., Neb., and westward. (Eu.)

3. E. brachyspérma, Gray. Leaves oblong or oval with narrowed base; flowers mostly dimerous; seeds short-oblong, with 6 or 7 longitudinal lines and 10–12 crossbars.—Ill. and southwestward.

Order 18. HYPERICÀCEÆ. (St. John's-wort Family.)

Herbs or shrubs, with opposite entire dotted leaves and no stipules, regular hypogynous flowers, the petals mostly oblique and convolute in the bud, and many or few stamens commonly collected in 3 or more clusters or bundles. Pod 1-celled with 2–5 parietal placentæ, and as many styles, or 3–7-celled by the union of the placentæ in the centre; dehiscence mostly septicidal.—Sepals 4 or 5, imbricated in the bud, herbaceous, persistent. Petals 4 or 5, mostly deciduous. Styles persistent, at first sometimes united. Seeds numerous, small, anatropous, with no albumen. Embryo cylindrical.—Plants with a resinous juice, dotted with pellucid or dark glands, usually smooth. Leaves mostly sessile. Flowers solitary or cymose.

[*] Petals oblique, convolute, yellow; hypogynous glands none.

1. Ascyrum. Sepals 4, in 2 very unequal pairs. Petals 4. Stamens many, distinct.

2. Hypericum. Sepals 5, alike. Petals 5. Stamens usually many and in 3 or 5 clusters.

[*][*] Petals equal, imbricate, purplish; glands alternating with the 3 stamen-clusters.

3. Elodes. Sepals and petals 5. Stamens usually 9. Ovary 3-celled.

1. ÁSCYRUM, L. St. Peter's-wort.

Sepals 4; the two outer very broad and leaf-like; the inner much smaller. Petals 4, oblique, very deciduous, convolute in the bud. Stamens numerous; the filaments distinct and scarcely in clusters. Pod strictly 1-celled, 2–4-valved.—Low, rather shrubby, smooth plants, with pale black-dotted leaves, and nearly solitary light yellow flowers. (An ancient Greek name of some plant, from α-, without, and σκύρος, roughness.)

1. A. stáns, Michx. (St. Peter's-wort.) Stem rather simple, 2-edged, 1–2° high, stout; leaves oval or oblong, somewhat clasping, thickish; flowers showy; outer sepals round-cordate, inner lanceolate; petals obovate; styles 3 or 4.—Pine barrens, Long Island to Penn., and southward. July, Aug.

2. A. Crux-Ándreæ, L. (St. Andrew's Cross.) Low, much branched and decumbent; leaves narrowly obovate-oblong, contracted at the base, thin; petals linear-oblong; styles 2, very short; pod flat.—Nantucket; pine barrens of N. J. to S. Ill., Neb., and southward. July–Sept.—Petals scarcely exceeding the outer sepals, approaching each other in pairs over them, in the form of a St. Andrew's cross.

2. HYPÉRICUM, Tourn. St. John's-wort.

Sepals 5, somewhat equal. Petals 5, oblique, convolute in the bud. Stamens commonly united or clustered in 3–5 parcels; no interposed glands. Pod 1-celled or 3–5-celled. Seeds usually cylindrical.—Herbs or shrubs, with cymose yellow flowers. (An ancient Greek name, of obscure meaning.)

§ 1. Stamens very numerous, 5-adelphous; styles 5, united below, the stigmas capitate; pod 5-celled, the placentæ turned far back into the cells; perennial herb; flowers very large.

1. H. Áscyron, L. (Great St. John's-wort.) Stems 2–5° high; branches 2–4-angled; leaves (2–5´ long) ovate-oblong, partly clasping; petals narrowly obovate (1´ long), not deciduous until after they wither; pod ¾´ long, conical. (H. pyramidatum, Ait.)—Banks of rivers, New Eng. and Penn. to Iowa and Minn. July.

§ 2. Stamens very numerous, obscurely if at all clustered; styles 3 (n. 2 excepted), more or less united into one, the stigmas not capitate except in n. 10; sepals mostly foliaceous.

[*] Bushy shrubs, 1–6° high, leafy to the top.

[+] Styles 5; pod completely 5-celled.

2. H. Kalmiànum, L. (Kalm's St. John's-wort.) Branches 4-angled; branchlets 2-edged; leaves crowded, glaucous, linear to oblanceolate (1–2´ long); flowers few in a cluster (1´ wide); pods ovate.—Wet rocks, Niagara Falls and northern lakes. Aug.

[+][+] Styles 3; pod completely 3-celled.

3. H. prolíficum, L. (Shrubby St. John's-wort.) Branchlets 2-edged; leaves narrowly oblong (1–2´ long), mostly obtuse, narrowed at the base; flowers numerous, in single or compound clusters; pods lanceolate to ovate, 4–6´´ long.—N. J. to Mich., Minn., and southward. July–Sept.—Varies greatly in size, etc.

4. H. densiflòrum, Pursh. Exceedingly branched above, 1–6° high, the branches slender and crowded with smaller leaves; flowers smaller (½–{2/3}´ in diameter) and more numerous, in crowded compound cymes; pod 2–3´´ long. (H. prolificum, var. densiflorum, Gray.)—Pine barrens of N. J. to glades of Ky., Ark., and southward.

[*][*] Perennial herbs or a little woody at the base.

[+] Pod incompletely 3–4-celled.

5. H. galioìdes, Lam. Slender, branching, woody below; leaves linear-oblanceolate, narrowed downward, ½–3´ long, mostly acute; flowers small in terminal and axillary cymes; sepals very narrow, 1½–3´´ long; pod as long, ovate.—Del. to Ga. and E. Tenn.

6. H. adpréssum, Barton. Stem simple, herbaceous, from a slightly woody creeping base (1–2° high), obscurely 4-angled below and 2-edged above; leaves ascending, lanceolate or linear-oblong, often acute, thin; cyme terminal, leafy at the base, few-flowered; sepals linear-lanceolate, pods ovoid-oblong.—Moist places, Nantucket and R. I. to Penn., and southwestward. July–Aug.—Leaves 1½´ long. Petals bright yellow, 3–5´´ long.

[+][+] Pod 1-celled with 3 parietal placentæ.

7. H. dolabrifórme, Vent. Stems branched from the decumbent base, woody below (6–20´ high), terete; leaves linear-lanceolate, widely spreading, veinless; cyme leafy, few-flowered; sepals oblong or ovate-lanceolate, about the length of the very oblique petals (5–6´´ long); pods ovate-conical, pointed, the walls very thick and hard.—Dry hills and rocks, barrens of Ky. and Tenn. June–Aug.

8. H. cistifòlium, Lam.! Stems mostly simple, herbaceous, with a somewhat woody base, angled with 4 very narrow salient lines (1–2° high); leaves narrowly oblong to nearly linear (1–3´ long), sessile with a somewhat clasping base; the cyme naked, compound, usually many-flowered; sepals ovate; pods depressed-globular or ovoid-conical; seeds large, oblong, very rough-pitted. (H. sphærocarpon, Michx.)—Rocky river-banks, S. W. Ohio, to Iowa and southward. July–Sept.—Flowers small.

9. H. ellípticum, Hook. Stem simple, herbaceous (10–20´ high), obscurely 4-angled; leaves spreading, elliptical-oblong, obtuse, usually narrower toward the subclasping base, thin; cyme nearly naked, rather few-flowered; sepals oblong; pods ovoid, very obtuse; seeds minutely striate.—Wet places, New Eng. and Penn. to Minn., and northward. July, Aug.—Petals light yellow, 3´´ long.

10. H. virgàtum, Lam. Stem slender, strict, simple, sharply 4-angled, herbaceous (1–2° high); leaves ascending, opaque, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, acute (½–1´ long), closely sessile by a broad base; cyme compound, naked, the scattered flowers racemose on its ascending branches; sepals herbaceous, erect, enclosing the ovoid pod; styles 3, separate, with capitate stigmas. (H. angulosum, Michx.)—Wet pine barrens of N. J. and southward; Ky. July–Sept.—Petals copper-yellow, 4–5´´ long.

§ 3. Stamens very many, in 3 or 5 clusters; styles 3, separate and usually diverging; pod 3-celled; calyx erect; petals and anthers with black dots; perennials.

H. perforàtum, L. (Common St. John's-wort.) Stem much branched and corymbed, somewhat 2-edged (producing runners from the base); leaves elliptical-oblong or linear-oblong, with pellucid dots; petals (deep yellow) twice the length of the lanceolate acute sepals; flowers numerous, in open leafy cymes.—Fields, etc. June–Sept.—Too well known as a pernicious weed, which it is difficult to extirpate. Juice very acrid. (Nat. from Eu.)

11. H. maculàtum, Walt. Conspicuously marked with both black and pellucid dots; stem terete, sparingly branched; leaves oblong or lance-ovate, the base either obtuse or somewhat clasping; flowers crowded (small); petals pale yellow, much longer than the oblong sepals, styles mostly not longer than the pod. (H. corymbosum, Muhl.)—Damp places; common. July–Sept.—Leaves larger and flowers much smaller than in the last; petals 2–3´´ long, marked with black lines as well as dots. The ordinary northern form differs from the typical southern one in the shorter style and the more oblong less clasping leaves.

§ 4. Stamens 5–12, distinct or in 3 clusters; pod 1-celled, with 3 strictly parietal placentæ; styles short, distinct, with capitate stigmas; petals oblong or linear; sepals narrow, erect; slender annuals, with 4-angular branches; flowering all summer.

[*] Stem simple or loosely branched; leaves linear to ovate, spreading.

12. H. mùltilum, L. Stem flaccid, widely branching (6–20´ high); leaves ovate to narrowly oblong, obtuse, partly clasping, 5-nerved; cymes leafy; flowers 2´´ broad; pods ovate-conical, rather longer than the calyx.—Low grounds, everywhere.

13. H. gymnánthum, Engelm. & Gray. Almost simple, with strict stem and branches (1–3° high); leaves clasping, heart-shaped, acute or obtuse; cyme naked, the floral leaves reduced to small awl-shaped bracts; in aspect approaching the next. (H. mutilum, var. gymnanthum, Gray.)—Del. and Penn. to Minn., and southward.

14. H. Canadénse, L. Stem strict (6–15´ high), with the branches erect; leaves linear, 3-nerved at the base, obtuse; cymes naked; flowers deep yellow, 2–3´´ broad when expanded; pods conical-oblong, usually much longer than the calyx.—Wet, sandy soil; common. June–Oct.—Var. màjus, Gray, is a large form, 1–2° high, with lanceolate leaves 1½´ long, 3´´ wide, the upper acute. L. Superior, Robbins; S. New York and southward.—Var. minimum, Chois., a simple few-flowered form, 1–3´ high, with oblong obtuse leaves. On wet rocks, Wisc., and northward.

[*][*] Stems fastigiately branched; leaves linear or bract-like, ascending or appressed.

15. H. Drummóndii, Torr. & Gray. Stem and the mostly alternate bushy branches rigid, erect (10–18´ high); leaves linear-subulate, nearly erect, 1-nerved (3–9´´ long); flowers scattered along the upper part of the leafy branches, short-pedicelled; pods ovoid, not longer than the calyx.—W. Ill., Iowa, Kan., and southward, in dry soil.

16. H. nudicaùle, Walt. (Orange-grass. Pine-weed.) Stem and bushy branches thread-like, wiry (4–9´ high); leaves minute awl-shaped scales, appressed; flowers minute, mostly sessile and scattered along the erect branches; pods ovate-lanceolate, acute, much longer than the calyx. (H. Sarothra, Michx.)—Sandy fields, N. Eng. to Ill., Mo., and southward; common. June–Oct.

3. ELÒDES, Adans. Marsh St. John's-wort.

Sepals 5, equal, erect. Petals 5, equal-sided, oblong, naked, imbricated in the bud. Stamens 9 (rarely more), united in 3 sets; the sets separated by as many large orange-colored glands. Pod 3-celled, oblong, styles distinct.—Perennial herbs, in marshes or shallow water, with small close clusters of flesh-colored flowers in the axils of the leaves and at the summit of the stem. (Name ἑλώδης, growing in marshes, accidentally changed to Elodèa by Jussieu, who was followed by Pursh, etc.)

1. E. campanulàta, Pursh. Leaves closely sessile or clasping by a broad base, oblong or ovate, very obtuse; filaments united below the middle. (E. Virginica, Nutt.)—Common in swamps; 1–2° high. July, Aug.

2. E. petiolàta, Pursh. Taller, more branching; leaves tapering into a short petiole, oblong; filaments united beyond the middle.—From Va. south and westward.

Order 19. TERNSTRŒMIÀCEÆ. (Tea Or Camellia Family.)

Trees or shrubs, with alternate simple feather-veined leaves, and no stipules, the regular flowers hypogynous and polyandrous, the sepals and petals both imbricated in æstivation, the stamens more or less united at the base with each other (monadelphous or 3–5-adelphous) and with the base of the petals.—Anthers 2-celled, introrse. Fruit a woody 3–5-celled loculicidal pod. Seeds few, with little or no albumen. Embryo large, with broad cotyledons.—A family with showy flowers, the types of which are the well-known Camellia and the more important Tea Plant,—represented in this country by the two following genera.


Sepals 5, rarely 6, ovate or lanceolate. Petals 5, rarely 6, obovate, crenulate. Stamens monadelphous below. Pod 5-celled. Seeds 1 or 2 in each cell, crustaceous, anatropous, ascending. Embryo straight, nearly as long as the albumen; radicle longer than the cotyledons.—Shrubs with membranaceous deciduous oblong-ovate serrulate leaves, soft-downy beneath, and large short-peduncled flowers solitary in their axils. (Named for John Stuart, Marquis of Bute.)

1. S. Virgínica, Cav. Petals 5, white (1´ long); sepals ovate; style 1; stigma 5-toothed; pod globular, blunt; seeds not margined.—Woods, Va., and southward.

2. S. pentágyna, L'Her. Leaves larger, 5–6´ long; sepals acute; petals often 6; styles 5, distinct; pod angled, pointed; seeds wing-margined.—Mountains of Ky., Car., and southward.

2. GORDÒNIA, Ellis. Loblolly Bay.

Sepals 5, rounded, concave. Petals 5, obovate. Stamens 5-adelphous, one cluster adhering to the base of each petal. Style 1. Pod ovoid, 5-valved; the valves separating from the persistent axis; cells 2–8-seeded. Seeds pendulous. Embryo straightish, with a short radicle, and thin longitudinally plaited cotyledons.—Shrubs or small trees, with large and showy white flowers on axillary peduncles. (Dedicated by Dr. Garden to his "old master, Dr. James Gordon of Aberdeen," and by Ellis to a London nurseryman of the same name.)

1. G. Lasiánthus, L. (Loblolly Bay.) Leaves coriaceous and persistent, lanceolate-oblong, narrowed at the base, minutely serrate, smooth and shining; pod pointed; seeds winged above.—Swamps near the coast, Va. and southward. May–July.—Petals 1½´ long.

Order 20. MALVÀCEÆ. (Mallow Family.)

Herbs or shrubs, with alternate stipulate leaves and regular flowers, the calyx valvate and the corolla convolute in the bud, numerous stamens monadelphous in a column, and united at base with the short claws of the petals, 1-celled anthers, and kidney-shaped seeds.—Sepals 5, united at base, persistent, often involucellate with a whorl of bractlets forming a sort of exterior calyx. Petals 5. Anthers kidney-shaped, opening along the top. Pistils several, the ovaries united in a ring or forming a several-celled pod. Seeds with little albumen; embryo curved, the leafy cotyledons variously doubled up.—Mucilaginous, innocent plants, with tough bark and palmately-veined leaves. Flower-stalks with a joint, axillary.

Tribe I. MALVEÆ. Columns of stamens anther-bearing at the top. Ovaries and carpels 5–20 or more, closely united in a ring around a central axis, from which they separate after ripening.

[*] Stigmas occupying the inner face of the styles; carpels 1-seeded, falling away separately.

1. Althæa. Involucel of 6 to 9 bractlets.

2. Malva. Involucel of 3 bractlets. Petals obcordate. Carpels rounded, beakless.

3. Callirrhoe. Involucel of 1–3 bractlets or none. Petals truncate. Carpels beaked.

4. Napæa. Involucel none. Flowers diœcious. Stamens few (15–20). Carpels beakless.

[*][*] Stigmas terminal, capitate; carpels 1–few-seeded, usually dehiscent.

5. Malvastrum. Involucel of 3 bractlets or none. Seed solitary, filling the cell, ascending.

6. Sida. Involucel none. Seed solitary in the cells, pendulous.

7. Sphæralcea. Bractlets 3. Seeds 2 or 3 in each cell.

8. Abutilon. Involucel none. Seeds 3–9 in each cell.

9. Modiola. Bractlets 3. Seeds 2 in each cell, with a transverse partition between them.

Tribe II. HIBISCEÆ. Column of stamens anther-bearing for a considerable part of its length, naked and 5-toothed at the very apex. Pod mostly 5-celled, loculicidal, leaving scarcely any axis in the centre after opening.

10. Kosteletzkya. Involucel of several bractlets. Pod 5-celled, 5-seeded.

11. Hibiscus. Involucel of many bractlets. Pod 5-celled, many-seeded.

1. ALTHÆ̀A, L. Marsh-Mallow.

Calyx surrounded by a 6–9-cleft involucel. Otherwise as in Malva. (Old Greek and Latin name, from ἄλθω, to cure, in allusion to its healing properties.)

A. officinàlis, L. (Marsh-Mallow.) Stem erect, 2–4° high; leaves ovate or slightly heart-shaped, toothed, sometimes 3-lobed, velvety-downy; peduncles axillary, many-flowered; flowers pale rose-color.—Salt marshes, coast of N. Eng. and N. Y. Aug., Sept.—Perennial root thick, abounding in mucilage, the bases of the Pâtes de Guimauve. (Nat. from Eu.)

2. MÁLVA, L. Mallow.

Calyx with a 3-leaved involucel at the base, like an outer calyx. Petals obcordate. Styles numerous, stigmatic down the inner side. Fruit depressed, separating at maturity into as many 1-seeded and indehiscent round kidney-shaped blunt carpels as there are styles. Radicle pointing downward. (An old Latin name, from the Greek name, μαλάχη, having allusion to the emollient leaves.)

[*] Flowers fascicled in the axils.

M. rotundifòlia, L. (Common Mallow.) Stems procumbent from a deep biennial root; leaves round-heart-shaped, on very long petioles, crenate, obscurely-lobed; petals twice the length of the calyx, whitish; carpels pubescent, even.—Waysides and cultivated grounds; common. (Nat. from Eu.)

M. sylvéstris, L. (High M.) Biennial; stem erect, branched (2–3° high); leaves sharply 5–7-lobed; petals thrice the length of the calyx, large, purple and rose-color; carpels wrinkled-veiny.—Waysides. (Adv. from Eu.)

M. críspa, L. (Curled M.) A tall, erect annual, with round and angled toothed and crisped leaves, and small sessile flowers crowded in the axils.—Sparingly escaped from old gardens. (Adv. from Eu.)

[*][*] Flowers only in the upper axils, somewhat racemose or paniculate.

M. moschàta, L. (Musk M.) A low perennial, with the stem-leaves 5-parted, and the divisions once or twice parted or cleft into linear lobes, faintly musky-scented, the flowers rose-color or white (1½´ in diameter) on short peduncles crowded on the stem and branches, the fruit downy.—Escaped from gardens to waysides. (Adv. from Eu.)

M. Álcea, L., with the stem-leaves only once 5-parted or cleft, the lobes incised, large flowers like the last, but the fruit smooth, and bractlets of the involucel ovate, has escaped from gardens. (Adv. from Eu.)


Calyx either naked or with a 3-leaved involucel at its base. Petals wedge-shaped and truncate (usually red-purple). Styles, etc., as in Malva. Carpels 10–20, straightish, with a short empty beak, separated within from the 1-seeded cell by a narrow projection, indehiscent or partly 2-valved. Radicle pointing downward. (Name drawn from Greek mythology.)

[*] Involucel 3-leaved.

1. C. triangulàta, Gray. Hairy-pubescent; stems nearly erect (2° high) from a tuberous root; leaves triangular or halberd-shaped, or the lowest rather heart-shaped, coarsely crenate; the upper incised or 3–5-cleft; flowers panicled, short-pedicelled (purple); involucel as long as the 5-cleft 5-nerved calyx; carpels not rugose.—Dry prairies, Ind. to Minn., and southward.

2. C. involucràta, Gray. Hirsute or hispid, procumbent; leaves rounded, 5–7-parted or -cleft, the segments incisely lobed; peduncles elongated, 1-flowered; calyx 5-parted, the lanceolate 3–5-nerved sepals twice as long as the involucel; petals red or purplish, carpels indehiscent, rugose-reticulated.—Minn. to Tex.

[*][*] Involucel none; calyx 5-parted; carpels strongly rugose.

3. C. alcæoìdes, Gray. Strigose-pubescent; stems slender (1° high), erect from a perennial root; lower leaves triangular-heart-shaped, incised, the upper 5–7-parted, laciniate, the uppermost divided into linear segments; flowers (rose-color or white) corymbose, on slender peduncles—Barren oak-lands, S. Ky. to Kan. and Neb.

4. C. digitàta, Nutt. Sparsely hirsute or glabrous, erect; leaves few, round-cordate, 5–7-parted, the cauline commonly with linear divisions; peduncles subracemose, long, filiform; flowers red-purple to white.—Kan. to Tex.

4. NAPÆ̀A, Clayt. Glade Mallow.

Calyx naked at the base, 5-toothed. Petals entire. Flowers diœcious; the staminate flowers destitute of pistils, with 15–20 anthers; the fertile with a short column of filaments but usually no anthers. Styles 8–10, stigmatic along the inside. Fruit depressed-globular, separating when ripe into as many kidney-shaped 1-seeded beakless and scarcely dehiscent carpels as there are styles. Radicle pointing downward.—A tall roughish perennial herb, with very large 9–11-parted lower leaves, the pointed lobes pinnatifid-cut and toothed, and with small white flowers in panicled clustered corymbs. (Named from νάπη, a glade or dell, or, poetically, a nymph of the glades.)

1. N. diòica, L. Stems nearly simple, 5–9° high.—Penn. to Va., and west to Iowa and Minn.; rare. July.

5. MALVÁSTRUM, Gray. False Mallow.

Calyx with an involucel of 2 or 3 bractlets, or none. Petals notched at the end or entire. Styles 5 or more; stigmas capitate. Carpels as in Malva, or else as in Sida, but the solitary kidney-shaped seed ascending and the radicle pointing downward, as in the former. (Name altered from Malva.)

1. M. angústum, Gray. Annual, slightly hairy, erect (6´–1° high); leaves lance-oblong or linear, with scattered fine callous teeth; flowers in the upper axils, on peduncles shorter than the broadly ovate-triangular sepals; bractlets and stipules setaceous; petals yellow, scarcely exceeding the calyx; carpels 5, kidney-shaped, smooth, at length 2-valved.—W. Tenn. to Iowa and Kan. Aug.

2. M. coccíneum, Gray. Perennial, low and hoary; leaves 5-parted or pedate, flowers in short spikes or racemes, the pink-red petals very much longer than the calyx; carpels 10 or more, reticulated on the sides and indehiscent.—Minn. to W. Tex., and westward.

6. SÌDA, L.

Calyx naked at the base, 5-cleft. Petals entire, usually oblique. Styles 5 or more, tipped with capitate stigmas; the ripe fruit separating into as many 1-seeded carpels, which are closed, or commonly 2-valved at the top, and tardily separate from the axis. Seed pendulous. Embryo abruptly bent; the radicle pointing upward. (A name used by Theophrastus.)

1. S. Napæ̀a, Cav. A smooth, tall (4–10° high) perennial; leaves 3–7-cleft, the lobes oblong and pointed, toothed; flowers (white) umbellate-corymbed, 1´ wide; carpels 10, pointed.—Rocky river-banks, along the Alleghanies, Penn. to Va., rare. (Cultivated in old gardens.)

2. S. Ellióttii, Torr. & Gray. A smooth, erect perennial (1–4° high); leaves linear, serrate, short-petioled; peduncles axillary, 1-flowered, short; flowers (yellow) rather large; carpels 9–10, slightly and abruptly pointed, forming a depressed fruit.—Sandy soil, S. Va. and southward. May–Aug.

S. spinòsa, L. Annual weed, minutely and softly pubescent, low (10–20´ high), much branched; leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong, serrate, rather long-petioled; peduncles axillary, 1-flowered, shorter than the petiole; flowers (yellow) small; carpels 5, combined into an ovate fruit, each splitting at the top into 2 beaks.—A little tubercle at the base of the leaves on the stronger plants gives the specific name, but it cannot be called a spine.—Waste places, S. New York to Iowa, and common southward. (Nat. from the tropics.)


Ovules and seeds usually 2 or 3 in each cell. Characters otherwise as in Malvastrum. (Name from σφαῖρα, a sphere, and ἀλκέα, a mallow—from the commonly spherical fruit.)

1. S. acerifòlia, Nutt. Perennial, erect, 2–6° high, stellately pubescent or glabrate; leaves maple-shaped, 3–7-cleft; flowers clustered in the upper axils and subspicate, rose-color to white.—Kankakee Co., Ill., E. J. Hill; Dak. and westward.

8. ABÙTILON, Tourn. Indian Mallow.

Carpels 2–9-seeded, at length 2-valved. Radicle ascending or pointing inward. Otherwise as in Sida. (Name of unknown origin.)

A. Avicénnæ, Gaertn. (Velvet-Leaf.) Tall annual (4° high); leaves roundish-heart-shaped, taper-pointed, velvety; peduncles shorter than the leaf-stalks; corolla yellow; carpels 12–15, hairy, beaked.—Waste places, escaped from gardens. (Adv. from India.)

9. MODÌOLA, Moench.

Calyx with a 3-leaved involucel. Petals obovate. Stamens 10–20. Stigmas capitate. Carpels 14–20, kidney-shaped, pointed, and at length 2-valved at the top; the cavity divided into two by a cross partition, with a single seed in each cell.—Humble, procumbent or creeping annuals or biennials, with cut leaves and small purplish flowers solitary in the axils. (Name from modiolus, the broad and depressed fruit resembling in shape the Roman measure of that name.)

1. M. multífida, Moench. Hairy; leaves 3–5-cleft and incised; stamens 15–20; fruit hispid at the top.—Low grounds, Va. and southward.


Pod depressed, with a single seed in each cell. Otherwise as Hibiscus. (Named after V. F. Kosteletzky, a Bohemian botanist.)

1. K. Virgínica, Gray. Roughish-hairy perennial (2–4° high); leaves halberd-shaped and heart-shaped, the lower 3-lobed; corolla 2´ wide, rose-color; column slender.—Marshes on the coast, N. Y. and southward. Aug.

11. HIBÍSCUS, L. Rose-Mallow.

Calyx involucellate at the base by a row of numerous bractlets, 5-cleft. Column of stamens long, bearing anthers for much of its length. Styles united, stigmas 5, capitate. Fruit a 5-celled loculicidal pod. Seeds several or many in each cell.—Herbs or shrubs, usually with large and showy flowers. (An old Greek and Latin name of unknown meaning.)

[*] Indigenous tall perennials (4–8° high), flowering late in summer.

1. H. Moscheùtos, L. (Swamp Rose-Mallow.) Leaves ovate, pointed, toothed, the lower 3-lobed, the uppermost oblong-lanceolate, all whitened underneath with a fine soft down, glabrous or slightly downy above; the 1-flowered peduncles sometimes united at the base with the petioles; bractlets not hairy; calyx not inflated; pod and seeds smooth or nearly so.—Brackish marshes along the coast, from E. Mass. southward, and lake shores and swamps westward to Ill. and Mo., especially within the influence of salt springs.—Corolla 5–6´ in diameter, light rose-color or white, with or without a crimson eye.

2. H. lasiocárpus, Cav. Leaves soft-downy both sides, the lower broadly ovate and heart-shaped; bractlets ciliate; pod hirsute;—otherwise resembling the last. (H. grandiflorus, Michx.)—Ind. to Mo., and southward.

3. H. militàris, Cav. (Halberd-Leaved R.) Smooth throughout; lower leaves ovate-heart-shaped, toothed, 3-lobed; upper leaves halberd-form, the short lateral lobes spreading at the base, the middle one prolonged and taper-pointed; peduncles slender; fruiting calyx inflated; seeds hairy.—River-banks, Penn. to Minn., and southward.—Corolla 2–3´ long, flesh-color with purple base.

[*][*] Escaped from gardens or grounds.

H. Triònum, L. (Bladder Ketmia.) A low, rather hairy annual; upper leaves 3-parted, with lanceolate divisions, the middle one much the longest; fruiting calyx inflated, membranaceous, 5-winged; corolla sulphur-yellow with a blackish eye, ephemeral; hence the name flower-of-an-hour. (Adv. from Eu.)

H. Syrìacus, L. (Shrubby Althæa of gardeners.) Tall shrub, smooth; leaves wedge-ovate, pointed, cut-toothed or lobed; corolla usually rose-color.—Escaped rarely from cultivation, Penn., etc. Sept. (Adv. from Eu.)

Order 21. TILIÀCEÆ. (Linden Family.)

Trees (rarely herbs), with the mucilaginous properties, fibrous bark, valvate calyx, etc., of the Mallow Family; but the sepals deciduous, petals imbricated in the bud, the stamens usually polyadelphous, and the anthers 2-celled. Represented in Northern regions only by the genus,

1. TÍLIA, Tourn. Linden. Basswood.

Sepals 5. Petals 5, spatulate-oblong. Stamens numerous; filaments cohering in 5 clusters with each other (in European species), or with the base of a spatulate petal-like body placed opposite each of the real petals. Pistil with a 5-celled ovary, and 2 half-anatropous ovules in each cell, a single style, and a 5-toothed stigma. Fruit dry and woody, indehiscent-globular, becoming 1-celled and 1–2-seeded. Embryo in hard albumen; cotyledons broad and thin, 5-lobed, crumpled.—Fine trees, with soft and white wood, very fibrous and tough inner bark, more or less heart-shaped and serrate alternate leaves (oblique and often truncate at the base), deciduous stipules, and small cymes of flowers, hanging on an axillary peduncle which is united to a ligulate membranaceous bract. Flowers cream-color, honey-bearing, fragrant. (The classical Latin name.)

1. T. Americàna, L. (Basswood.) Leaves large, green and glabrous or nearly so, thickish; floral bract usually tapering at base; fruit ovoid.—Rich woods. May, June.—Here rarely called Lime-tree, oftener White-wood, commonly Basswood; the latter name now obsolete in England.

2. T. pubéscens, Ait. Leaves smaller (2–3´ long), thinner, and rather pubescent beneath; floral bract usually rounded at base; fruit globose, smaller (3´´ broad). (T. Americana, var. pubescens, Man.)—N. Y. to Fla., and westward.

3. T. heterophýlla, Vent. (White Basswood.) Leaves larger, smooth and bright green above, silvery-whitened with a fine down underneath.—Mountains of Penn. to S. Ill., and southward.

T. Europæ̀a, the European Linden, several varieties of which are planted in and near our cities for shade, is at once distinguished from any native species by the absence of the petal-like scales among the stamens. This tree (the Lin) gave the family name to Linnæus.

Order 22. LINÀCEÆ. (Flax Family.)

Herbs (rarely shrubs) with the regular and symmetrical hypogynous flowers 4–6-merous throughout, strongly imbricated calyx and convolute petals, 5 stamens monadelphous at base, and an 8–10-seeded pod, having twice as many cells as there are styles. Represented by the genus,

1. LÌNUM, Tourn. Flax.

Sepals (persistent), petals, stamens, and styles 5, regularly alternate with each other. Pod of 5 united carpels (into which it splits in dehiscence) and 5-celled, with 2 seeds hanging from the summit of each cell, which is partly or completely divided into two by a false partition projecting from the back of the carpel, the pod thus becoming 10-celled. Seeds anatropous, mucilaginous, flattened, containing a large embryo with plano-convex cotyledons.—Herbs, with tough fibrous bark, simple and sessile entire leaves (alternate or often opposite), without stipules, but often with glands in their place, and with corymbose or panicled flowers. Corolla usually ephemeral. (The classical name of the Flax.)

[*] Flowers rather small, yellow; glabrous, 1–2° high.

1. L. Virginiànum, L. Stem erect from the base and with the corymbose spreading or recurving branches terete and even; no stipular glands; leaves oblong or lanceolate, or the lower spatulate and often opposite; flowers scattered, small (barely 3´´ long); sepals ovate, pointed, smooth-edged or nearly so, equalling the depressed 10-celled pod; styles distinct.—Dry woods; common.—Root apparently annual; but the plant propagates by suckers from the base of the stem.

L. Floridànum, Trelease, of rather stricter habit and the pods broadly ovate and obtuse, appears to have been found in S. Ill.

2. L. striàtum, Walt. Stems gregarious, erect or ascending from a creeping or decumbent base, slightly viscid, and with the mostly racemose short branches striate with about 4 sharp wing-like angles decurrent from the leaves; these broader than in the last, and mostly oblong, usually with all the lower ones opposite; flowers more crowded; sepals scarcely equalling the very small subglobose brownish pod; otherwise nearly as n. 1.—Wet or boggy grounds, E. Mass. to Lakes Ontario and Huron, Ill., and southward.

3. L. sulcàtum, Riddell. Stem strictly erect from an annual root, and with the upright or ascending branches wing-angled or grooved; leaves alternate, linear, acute, the upper subulate and glandular-serrulate; a pair of dark glands in place of stipules; sepals ovate-lanceolate and sharp-pointed, strongly 3-nerved and with rough-bristly-glandular margins, scarcely longer than the ovoid-globose incompletely 10-celled pod; styles united almost to the middle.—Dry soils, E. Mass. to Minn., and southwestward.—Flowers and pods twice as large as in the preceding.

4. L. rígidum, Pursh. Glaucous, sometimes slightly puberulent, often low and cespitose, the rigid branches angled; leaves narrow, erect, usually with stipular glands; flowers large; sepals lanceolate, glandular-serrulate; styles united; capsule ovoid, 5-valved.—Minn. to Kan., and southward.

[*][*] Flowers large, blue.

5. L. perénne, L., var. Lewísii, Eat. & Wright. Perennial, glabrous and glaucous, 1–3° high; leaves linear, acute; flowers rather few on long peduncles; sepals obtuse or acutish, not glandular-serrulate; styles distinct; pod ovate.—Minn. to Neb., and westward. (Eu., Asia.)

L. usitatíssimum, L. (Common Flax.) Annual; stem corymbosely branched at top; sepals acute, ciliate.—Occasionally spontaneous in fields. (Adv. from Eu.)

Order 23. GERANIÀCEÆ. (Geranium Family.)

Plants (chiefly herbs) with perfect and generally symmetrical hypogynous flowers; the stamens, counting sterile filaments, as many or commonly twice as many, and the lobes or cells (1–few-ovuled) of the ovary as many, as the sepals, the axis of the dry fruit persisting.—Seeds without albumen except in Oxalis. Flowers mostly 5-merous and the sepals usually distinct. Leaves never punctate. An order not easily defined, and including several strongly marked tribes or suborders which have been regarded by many botanists as distinct.

Tribe I. GERANIEÆ. (Geranium Family proper.) Flowers regular, 5-merous, the sepals imbricate in the bud, persistent. Glands of the disk 5, alternate with the petals. Stamens somewhat united. Ovary deeply lobed; carpels 5, 2-ovuled, 1-seeded, separating elastically with their long styles, when mature, from the elongated axis. Cotyledons plicate, incumbent on the radicle.—Herbs (our species) with more or less lobed or divided leaves, stipules, and astringent roots.

1. Geranium. Stamens with anthers 10, rarely 5. The recurving bases of the styles or tails of the carpels in fruit naked inside.

2. Erodium. Stamens with anthers only 5. Tails of the carpels in fruit bearded inside, often spirally twisted.

Tribe II. LIMNÁNTHEÆ. Flowers regular, 3-merous (in Flœrkea), the persistent sepals valvate. Glands alternate with the petals. Stamens distinct. Carpels nearly distinct, with a common style, 1-ovuled, 1-seeded, at length fleshy and indehiscent, not beaked, separating from the very short axis. Embryo straight, cotyledons very thick, radicle very short.—Low tender annuals, with alternate pinnate leaves and no stipules.

3. Flœrkea. Sepals, minute pistils, and lobes of the ovary 3, stamens 6.

Tribe III. OXALÍDEÆ. (Sorrel Family.) Flowers regular, 5-merous, the persistent sepals imbricate. Glands none. Stamens 10, often united at base. Stigmas capitate. Fruit a 5-celled loculicidal pod (in Oxalis); cells 2–several-seeded. Embryo straight, in a little fleshy albumen.—Leaves compound (3-foliolate in our species); juice sour.

4. Oxalis. Styles 5, separate. Pod oblong, the valves not falling away. Leaflets usually obcordate.

Tribe IV. BALSAMÍNEÆ. (Balsam Family.) Flowers irregular (5-merous as to the stamens and pistil); the petals and colored sepals fewer in number, deciduous, the larger sepal with a large sac or spur. Glands none. Stamens 5, distinct, short. Fruit a fleshy 5-celled pod (in Impatiens), cells several-seeded. Embryo straight.—Tender and very succulent herbs, with simple leaves and no stipules.

5. Impatiens. Lateral petals unequally 2-lobed. Pod bursting elastically into 5 valves.

1. GERANIUM, Tourn. Cranesbill.

Stamens 10 (sometimes only 5 in n. 3), all with perfect anthers, the 5 longer with glands at their base (alternate with the petals). Styles smooth inside in fruit when they separate from the axis.—Stems forking. Peduncles 1–3-flowered. (An old Greek name from γέρανος, a crane, the long fruit bearing beak thought to resemble the bill of that bird.)

[*] Rootstock perennial.

1. G. maculàtum, L. (Wild Cranesbill.) Stem erect, hairy; leaves about 5-parted, the wedge-shaped divisions lobed and cut at the end, sepals slender-pointed, petals entire, light purple, bearded on the claw (½´ long).—Open woods and fields. April–July.—Leaves somewhat blotched with whitish as they grow old.

[*][*] Root biennial or annual; flowers small.

[+] Leaves ternately much dissected, heavy-scented.

2. G. Robertiànum, L. (Herb Robert.) Sparsely hairy, diffuse, strong-scented, leaves 3-divided or pedately 5-divided, the divisions twice pinnatifid; sepals awned, shorter than the (red-purple) petals; carpels wrinkled; seeds smooth.—Moist woods and shaded ravines; N. Eng. to Mo., and northward. June–Oct. (Eu.)

[+][+] Leaves palmately lobed or dissected.

3. G. Caroliniànum, L. Stems at first erect, diffusely branched from the base, hairy; leaves about 5-parted, the divisions cleft and cut into numerous oblong-linear lobes; peduncles and pedicels short; sepals awn-pointed, as long as the emarginate (pale rose-colored) petals; carpels hairy; seeds ovoid-oblong, very minutely reticulated.—Barren soil and waste places; common. May–Aug.—Depauperate forms, except by the seeds, are hardly distinguishable from

G. disséctum, L. More slender and spreading, with narrower lobes to the crowded leaves, and smaller red-purple petals notched at the end; seeds short-ovoid or globular, finely and deeply pitted.—Waste grounds, rare. (Nat. from Eu.)

G. rotundifòlium, L. With the habit of the next but the fruit and seed of the last; villous with long white hairs tipped with purple glands, leaves short-lobed.—Rare. (Nat. from Eu.)

G. pusíllum, L. Stems procumbent, slender, minutely pubescent; leaves rounded kidney-form, 5–7-parted, the divisions wedge-shaped, mostly 3-lobed, sepals awnless, about as long as the (purplish) petals; stamens 5; fruit pubescent; seeds smooth.—Waste places, Mass. to Penn.; rare. (Nat. from Eu.)

G. mólle, L. Like the last; more pubescent; flowers dark purple; stamens 10; carpels transversely wrinkled, seed slightly striate.—Occasionally spontaneous. (Nat. from Eu.)

G. columbìnum. (Long-stalked C.) Minutely hairy, with very slender decumbent stems; leaves 5–7-parted and cut into narrow linear lobes; peduncles and pedicels filiform and elongate; sepals awned, about equalling the purple petals, enlarging after flowering; carpels glabrous; seeds nearly as in G. dissectum.—Rarely introduced; Penn. and southward. June, July. (Nat. from Eu.)

G. Sibíricum, L. Slender, repeatedly forked, short-villous; leaves 3-cleft with serrate divisions; flowers dull-white, mostly solitary; sepals awned; seeds minutely reticulate.—Rare. (Nat. from Eu.)

2. ERÒDIUM, L'Her. Storksbill.

The 5 shorter stamens sterile or wanting. Styles in fruit twisting spirally, bearded inside. Otherwise as Geranium. (Name from ἑρωδιός, a heron.)

E. cicutàrium, L'Her. Annual, hairy; stems low, spreading; stipules acute; leaves pinnate, the leaflets sessile, 1–2-pinnatifid; peduncles several-flowered.—N. Y., Penn., etc.; scarce. (Adv. from Eu.)

3. FLŒ́RKEA, Willd. False Mermaid.

Sepals 3. Petals 3, shorter than the calyx, oblong. Stamens 6. Ovaries 3, opposite the sepals, united only at the base; the style rising in the centre; stigmas 3. Fruit of 3 (or 1–2) roughish fleshy achenes. Seed anatropous, erect, filled by the large embryo with its hemispherical fleshy cotyledons.—A small and inconspicuous annual, with minute solitary flowers on axillary peduncles. (Named after Floerke, a German botanist.)

1. F. proserpinacoìdes, Willd. Leaflets 3–5, lanceolate, sometimes 2–3-cleft.—Marshes and river-banks, W. New Eng. to Penn., Ky., Wisc., and westward. April–June. Taste slightly pungent.

4. ÓXALIS, L. Wood-Sorrel.

Sepals 5, persistent. Petals 5, sometimes united at base, withering after expansion. Stamens 10, usually monadelphous at base, alternately shorter. Styles 5, distinct. Pod oblong, membranaceous, 5-celled, more or less 5-lobed, each cell opening on the back; valves persistent, being fixed to the axis by the partitions. Seeds 2 or more in each cell, pendulous from the axis, anatropous, their outer coat loose and separating. Embryo large and straight in fleshy albumen; cotyledons flat.—Herbs, with sour watery juice, alternate or radical leaves, mostly of 3 obcordate leaflets, which close and droop at nightfall. Several species produce small peculiar flowers, precociously fertilized in the bud and particularly fruitful; and the ordinary flowers are often dimorphous or even trimorphous in the relative length of the stamens and styles. (Name from ὀξύς, sour.)

[*] Stemless perennials; leaves and scapes arising from a rootstock or bulb; leaflets broadly obcordate; flowers nearly 1´ broad; cells of the pod few-seeded.

1. O. Acetosélla, L. (Common Wood-Sorrel.) Rootstock creeping and scaly-toothed; scape 1-flowered (2–5´ high); petals white with reddish veins, often notched.—Deep cold woods, Mass. to Penn., L. Superior, and northward; also southward in the Alleghanies. June. (Eu.)

2. O. violàcea, L. (Violet W.) Nearly smooth; bulb scaly; scapes umbellately several-flowered (5–9´ high), longer than the leaves; petals violet.—Rocky places and open woods; most common southward. May, June.

[*][*] Stems leafy, branching; peduncles axillary; flowers yellow; cells several-seeded.

3. O. corniculàta, L. (Yellow W.) Annual or perennial by running subterranean shoots, erect or procumbent, strigose-pubescent; stipules round or truncate, ciliate; peduncles 2–6-flowered, longer than the leaves; pods elongated, erect in fruit.—Rare; on ballast, etc.; indigenous in Mo. (Bush), and southwestward. (Cosmopolitan.)

Var. strícta, Sav. Stem erect, somewhat glabrous to very villous; stipules none. (O. stricta, L.)—Common. May–Sept. Varies greatly.

4. O. recúrva, Ell. Like var. stricta of n. 3; leaflets larger (½–1½´ broad), usually with a brownish margin; flowers larger (6–8´´ long).—Penn. to S. Ill., and southward.

5. IMPÀTIENS, L. Balsam. Jewel-weed.

Calyx and corolla colored alike and not clearly distinguishable. Sepals apparently only 4; the anterior one notched at the apex and probably consisting of two combined; the posterior one (appearing anterior as the flower hangs on its stalk) largest, and forming a spurred sac. Petals 2, unequal-sided and 2-lobed (each consisting of a pair united). Stamens 5, short; filaments appendaged with a scale on the inner side, the 5 scales connivent and united over the stigma; anthers opening on the inner face. Ovary 5-celled; stigma sessile. Pod with evanescent partitions, and a thick axis bearing several anatropous seeds, 5-valved, the valves coiling elastically and projecting the seeds in bursting. Embryo straight; albumen none.—Leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, in our species ovate or oval, coarsely toothed, petioled. Flowers axillary or panicled, often of two sorts, viz.,—the larger ones, which seldom ripen seeds;—and very small ones, which are fertilized early in the bud; their floral envelopes never expand, but are forced off by the growing pod and carried upward on its apex. (Name from the sudden bursting of the pods when touched, whence also the popular appellation, Touch-me-not, or Snap-weed.)

1. I. pállida, Nutt. (Pale Touch-me-not.) Flowers pale-yellow, sparingly dotted with brownish-red; sac dilated and very obtuse, broader than long, tipped with a short incurved spur.—Moist shady places and along rills, in rich soil; most common northward. July–Sept.—Larger and greener than the next, with larger flowers, and less frequent.

2. I. fúlva, Nutt. (Spotted Touch-me-not.) Flowers orange-color, thickly spotted with reddish-brown; sac longer than broad, acutely conical, tapering into a strongly inflexed spur half as long as the sac.—Rills and shady moist places; common, especially southward. June–Sept.—Plant 2–4° high; the flowers loosely panicled, hanging gracefully on their slender nodding stalks, the open mouth of the cornucopiæ-shaped sepal upward. Spur rarely wanting. Spotless forms of both species occur.

Order 24. RUTÀCEÆ. (Rue Family.)

Plants with simple or compound leaves, dotted with pellucid glands and abounding with a pungent or bitter-aromatic acrid volatile oil, producing hypogynous almost always regular 3–5-merous flowers, the stamens as many or twice as many as the sepals (rarely more numerous); the 2–5 pistils separate or combined into a compound ovary of as many cells, raised on a prolongation of the receptacle (gynophore) or glandular disk.—Embryo large, curved or straight, usually in fleshy albumen. Styles commonly united or cohering, even when the ovaries are distinct. Fruit usually capsular. Leaves alternate or opposite. Stipules none.—A large family, chiefly of the Old World and the southern hemisphere; our two indigenous genera are

1. Xanthoxylum. Flowers diœcious; ovaries 3–5, separate, forming fleshy pods.

2. Ptelea. Flowers polygamous; ovary 2-celled, forming a samara, like that of Elm.

1. XANTHÓXYLUM, L. Prickly Ash.

Flowers diœcious. Sepals 4 or 5, obsolete in one species. Petals 4 or 5, imbricated in the bud. Stamens 4 or 5 in the sterile flowers, alternate with the petals. Pistils 2–5, separate, but their styles conniving or slightly united. Pods thick and fleshy, 2-valved, 1–2-seeded. Seed-coat crustaceous, black, smooth and shining. Embryo straight, with broad cotyledons.—Shrubs or trees, with mostly pinnate leaves, the stems and often the leafstalks prickly. Flowers small, greenish or whitish. (From ξανθός, yellow, and ξύλον, wood.)

1. X. Americànum, Mill. (Northern Prickly Ash. Toothache-tree.) Leaves and flowers in sessile axillary umbellate clusters; leaflets 2–4 pairs and an odd one, ovate-oblong, downy when young; calyx none; petals 4–5; pistils 3–5, with slender styles; pods short-stalked.—Rocky woods and river-banks; common, especially northward. April, May.—A shrub, with yellowish-green flowers appearing before the leaves. Bark, leaves, and pods very pungent and aromatic.

2. X. Clàva-Hérculis, L. (Southern P.) Glabrous; leaflets 3–8 pairs and an odd one, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, oblique, shining above; flowers in an ample terminal cyme, appearing after the leaves; sepals and petals 5; pistils 2–3, with short styles; pods sessile. (X. Carolinianum, Lam.)—Sandy coast of Virginia, and southward. June.—A small tree with very sharp prickles.

2. PTÈLEA, L. Shrubby Trefoil. Hop-tree.

Flowers polygamous. Sepals 3–5. Petals 3–5, imbricated in the bud. Stamens as many. Ovary 2-celled; style short; stigmas 2. Fruit a 2-celled and 2-seeded samara, winged all round, nearly orbicular.—Shrubs, with 3-foliolate leaves, and greenish-white small flowers in compound terminal cymes. (The Greek name of the Elm, here applied to a genus with similar fruit.)

1. P. trifoliàta, L. Leaflets ovate, pointed, downy when young.—Rocky places, Long Island to Minn., and southward. June.—A tall shrub. Fruit bitter, used as a substitute for hops. Odor of the flowers disagreeable.

Ailánthus glandulòsus, Desf., called Tree of Heaven,—but whose blossoms, especially the staminate ones, are redolent of anything but "airs from heaven,"—is much planted as a shade-tree, especially in towns, and is inclined to spread from seed. It belongs to the order Simarubaceæ, which differs from Rutaceæ in the absence of dots in the leaves. The tree is known by its very long pinnate leaves of many leaflets, and small polygamous greenish flowers in panicles, the female producing 2–5 thin, linear-oblong, veiny samaras. (Adv. from China.)

Order 25. ILICÌNEÆ. (Holly Family.)

Trees or shrubs, with small axillary 4–8-merous flowers, a minute calyx free from the 4–8-celled ovary and the 4–8-seeded berry-like drupe, the stamens as many as the divisions of the almost or quite 4–8-petalled corolla and alternate with them, attached to their very base.—Corolla imbricated in the bud. Anthers opening lengthwise. Stigmas 4–8, or united into one, nearly sessile. Seeds suspended and solitary in each cell, anatropous, with a minute embryo in fleshy albumen. Leaves simple, mostly alternate. Flowers white or greenish.—A small family, nearly related to the Gamopetalous order Ebenaceæ.

1. Ilex. Petals or corolla-lobes oval or obovate. Pedicels mostly clustered.

2. Nemopanthes. Petals linear. Pedicels solitary.

1. ÌLEX, L. Holly.

Flowers more or less diœciously polygamous. Calyx 4–6-toothed. Petals 4–6, separate, or united only at the base, oval or obovate, obtuse, spreading. Stamens 4–6. The berry-like drupe containing 4–6 little nutlets.—Leaves alternate. Fertile flowers inclined to be solitary, and the sterile or partly sterile flowers to be clustered in the axils. (The ancient Latin name of the Holly-Oak, rather than of the Holly.)

§ 1. AQUIFÒLIUM. Parts of the flower commonly in fours, sometimes in fives or sixes; drupe red, its nutlets ribbed, veiny, or 1-grooved on the back; leaves (mostly smooth) coriaceous and evergreen.

[*] Leaves armed with spiny teeth; trees.

1. I. opàca, Ait. (American Holly.) Leaves oval, flat, the wavy margins with scattered spiny teeth; flowers in loose clusters along the base of the young branches and in the axils; calyx-teeth acute.—Moist woodlands, Maine to Va., near the coast, and more common southward. June.—Tree 20–40° high; the deep green foliage less glossy than in the European Holly (I. Aquifolium, L.), the berries not so bright red, and nutlets not so veiny.

[*][*] Leaves serrate or entire, not spiny; shrubs.

2. I. Cassìne, L. (Cassena. Yaupon.) Leaves lance-ovate or elliptical, crenate (1–1½´ long); flower-clusters nearly sessile, smooth; calyx-teeth obtuse.—Virginia and southward along the coast. May.—Leaves used for tea by the people along the coast, as they were to make the celebrated black drink of the North Carolina Indians.

3. I. Dahòon, Walt. (Dahoon Holly.) Leaves oblanceolate or oblong, entire, or sharply serrate toward the apex, with revolute margins (2–3´ long), the midrib and peduncles pubescent; calyx-teeth acute.—Swamps, coast of Va. and southward. May, June.

Var. myrtifòlia, Chapm. Leaves smaller (1´ long or less) and narrower. (I. myrtifolia, Walt.)—Same habitat. May.

§ 2. PRINOÌDES. Parts of the (polygamous or diœcious) flowers in fours or fives (rarely in sixes); drupe red or purple, the nutlets striate-many-ribbed on the back; leaves deciduous; shrubs.

4. I. decídua, Walt. Leaves wedge-oblong or lance-obovate, obtusely serrate, downy on the midrib beneath, shining above, becoming thickish; peduncles of the sterile flowers longer than the petioles, of the fertile short; calyx-teeth smooth, acute.—Wet grounds, Va. to Mo., Kan., and southward. May.

5. I. montícola, Gray. Leaves ovate or lance-oblong, ample (3–5´ long), taper-pointed, thin-membranaceous, smooth, sharply serrate; fertile flowers very short-peduncled; calyx ciliate.—Damp woods, Taconic and Catskill Mountains, and Cattarangus Co., N. Y., through Penn. (east to Northampton Co.), and southward along the Alleghanies. May.

6. I. móllis, Gray. Leaves soft downy beneath, oval, ovate, or oblong, taper-pointed at both ends, especially at the apex, thin-membranaceous, sharply serrulate; sterile flowers very numerous in umbel-like clusters, the pedicels shorter than the petiole and (with the calyx) soft-downy, the fertile peduncles very short.—Burgoon's Gap, Alleghanies of Penn. (J. R. Lowrie, Porter), and along the mountains in the Southern States.—Resembles the last.

§ 3. PRÌNOS. Parts of the sterile flowers commonly in fours, fives, or sixes, those of the fertile flowers commonly in sixes (rarely in fives, sevens, or eights); nutlets smooth and even; shrubs.

[*] Leaves deciduous; flowers in sessile clusters, or the fertile solitary; fruit bright red.

7. I. verticillàta, Gray. (Black Alder. Winterberry.) Leaves oval, obovate, or wedge-lanceolate, pointed, acute at base, serrate, downy on the veins beneath; flowers all very short-peduncled.—Low grounds; common. May, June.

8. I. lævigàta, Gray. (Smooth Winterberry.) Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, pointed at both ends, appressed-serrulate, shining above, beneath mostly glabrous; sterile flowers long-peduncled.—Wet grounds, Maine to the mountains of Va. June.—Fruit larger than in the last, ripening earlier in the autumn.

[*][*] Leaves coriaceous, evergreen and shining, often black-dotted beneath; fruit black.

9. I. glàbra, Gray. (Inkberry.) Leaves wedge-lanceolate or oblong, sparingly toothed toward the apex, smooth; peduncles (½´ long) of the sterile flowers 3–6-flowered, of the fertile 1-flowered; calyx-teeth rather blunt.—Sandy grounds, Cape Ann, Mass., to Va., and southward near the coast. June.—Shrub 2–3° high.

2. NEMOPÁNTHES, Raf. Mountain Holly.

Flowers polygamo-diœcious. Calyx in the sterile flowers of 4–5 minute deciduous teeth, in the fertile ones obsolete. Petals 4–5, oblong-linear, spreading, distinct. Stamens 4–5; filaments slender. Drupe with 4–5 bony nutlets, light red.—A much-branched shrub, with ash-gray bark, alternate and oblong deciduous leaves on slender petioles, entire or slightly toothed, smooth. Flowers on long slender axillary peduncles, solitary or sparingly clustered. (Name said by the author to mean "flower with a filiform peduncle," therefore probably composed of νῆμα, a thread, πούς, foot, and ἄνθος, flower.)

1. N. fasciculàris, Raf. (N. Canadensis, DC.)—Damp cold woods, from the mountains of Va. to Maine, Ind., Wisc., and northward. May.

Order 26. CELASTRÀCEÆ. (Staff-tree Family.)

Shrubs with simple leaves, and small regular flowers, the sepals and the petals both imbricated in the bud, the 4 or 5 perigynous stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them, inserted on a disk which fills the bottom of the calyx and sometimes covers the ovary. Seeds arilled.—Ovules one or few (erect or pendulous) in each cell, anatropous; styles united into one. Fruit 2–5-celled, free from the calyx. Embryo large, in fleshy albumen; cotyledons broad and thin. Stipules minute and fugacious. Pedicels jointed.

[*] Leaves alternate. Flowers in terminal racemes.

1. Celastrus. A shrubby climber. Fruit globose, orange, 3-valved. Aril scarlet.

[*][*] Leaves opposite. Flowers in axillary cymes or solitary.

2. Euonymus. Erect shrubs. Leaves deciduous. Fruit 3–5-lobed. 3–5-valved. Aril red.

3. Pachystima. Dwarf evergreen shrub. Flowers very small. Fruit oblong, 2-valved. Aril white.

1. CELÁSTRUS, L. Staff-tree. Shrubby Bitter-sweet.

Flowers polygamo-diœcious. Petals (crenulate) and stamens 5, inserted on the margin of a cup-shaped disk which lines the base of the calyx. Pod globose (orange-color and berry-like), 3-celled, 3-valved, loculicidal. Seeds 1 or 2 in each cell, erect, enclosed in a pulpy scarlet aril.—Leaves alternate. Flowers small, greenish, in raceme-like clusters terminating the branches. (An ancient Greek name for some evergreen, which our plant is not.)

1. C. scándens, L. (Wax-work. Climbing Bitter-sweet.) Twining shrub; leaves ovate-oblong, finely serrate, pointed.—Along streams and thickets. June.—The opening orange-colored pods, displaying the scarlet covering of the seeds, are very ornamental in autumn.

2. EUÓNYMUS, Tourn. Spindle-tree.

Flowers perfect. Sepals 4 or 5, united at the base, forming a short and flat calyx. Petals 4–5, rounded, spreading. Stamens very short, inserted on the edge or face of a broad and flat 4–5-angled disk, which coheres with the calyx and is stretched over the ovary, adhering to it more or less. Style short or none. Pod 3–5-lobed, 3–5-valved, loculicidal. Seeds 1–4 in each cell, enclosed in a red aril.—Shrubs, with 4-sided branchlets, opposite serrate leaves, and loose cymes of small flowers on axillary peduncles. (Derivation from εὖ, good, and ὄνομα, name, because it has the bad reputation of poisoning cattle. Tourn.)

1. E. atropurpùreus, Jacq. (Burning-bush. Waahoo.) Shrub tall (6–14° high) and upright; leaves petioled, oval-oblong, pointed; parts of the (dark-purple) flower commonly in fours; pods smooth, deeply lobed.—N. Y. to Wisc., Neb., and southward; also cultivated. June.—Ornamental in autumn, by its copious crimson fruit, drooping on long peduncles.

2. E. Americànus, L. (Strawberry Bush.) Shrub low, upright or straggling (2–5° high); leaves almost sessile, thickish, bright green, varying from ovate to oblong-lanceolate, acute or pointed; parts of the greenish-purple flowers mostly in fives; pods rough-warty, depressed, crimson when ripe; the aril and dissepiments scarlet.—Wooded river-banks, N. Y. to Ill., and southward. June.

Var. obovàtus, Torr. & Gray. Trailing, with rooting branches; flowering stems 1–2° high; leaves thin and dull, obovate or oblong.—Low or wet places; the commoner form.


Flowers perfect. Sepals and petals 4. Stamens 4, on the edge of the broad disk lining the calyx-tube. Ovary free; style very short. Pod small, oblong, 2-celled, loculicidally 2-valved. Seeds 1 or 2, enclosed in a white membranaceous many-cleft aril.—Low evergreen shrubs, with smooth serrulate coriaceous opposite leaves and very small green flowers solitary or fascicled in the axils. (Derivation obscure.)

1. P. Cánbyi, Gray. Leaves linear to linear-oblong or oblong-obovate, obtuse, 3´´–1´ long; pedicels very slender, often solitary, shorter than the leaves; fruit 2´´ long.—Mountains of S. W. Va.

Order 27. RHAMNÀCEÆ. (Buckthorn Family.)

Shrubs or small trees, with simple leaves, small and regular flowers (sometimes apetalous), with the 4 or 5 perigynous stamens as many as the valvate sepals and alternate with them, accordingly opposite the petals! Drupe or pod with only one erect seed in each cell, not arilled.—Petals folded inwards in the bud, hooded or concave, inserted along with the stamens into the edge of the fleshy disk which lines the short tube of the calyx and sometimes unites it to the lower part of the 2–5-celled ovary. Ovules solitary, anatropous. Stigmas 2–5. Embryo large, with broad cotyledons, in sparing fleshy albumen.—Flowers often polygamous, sometimes diœcious. Leaves mostly alternate; stipules small or obsolete. Branches often thorny. (Slightly bitter and astringent; the fruit often mucilaginous, commonly rather nauseous or drastic.)

[*] Calyx and disk free from the ovary.

1. Berchemia. Petals sessile, entire, as long as the calyx. Drupe with thin flesh and a 2-celled bony putamen.

2. Rhamnus. Petals small, short-clawed, notched, or none. Drupe berry-like, with 2–4 separate seed-like nutlets.

[*][*] Calyx with the disk adherent to the base of the ovary.

3. Ceanothus. Petals long-clawed, hooded. Fruit dry, at length dehiscent.

1. BERCHÈMI, Necker. Supple-Jack.

Calyx with a very short and roundish tube; its lobes equalling the 5 oblong sessile acute petals, longer than the stamens. Disk very thick and flat, filling the calyx-tube and covering the ovary. Drupe oblong, with thin flesh and a bony 2-celled putamen.—Woody high-climbing twiners, with the pinnate veins of the leaves straight and parallel, the small greenish-white flowers in small panicles. (Name unexplained, probably personal.)

1. B. volùbilis, DC. Glabrous; leaves oblong-ovate, acute, scarcely serrulate; style short.—Damp soils, Va. to Ky. and Mo., and southward. June.—Ascending tall trees. Stems tough and very lithe, whence the popular name.

2. RHÁMNUS, Tourn. Buckthorn.

Calyx 4–5-cleft; the tube campanulate, lined with the disk. Petals small, short-clawed, notched at the end, wrapped around the short stamens, or sometimes none. Ovary free, 2–4-celled. Drupe berry-like (black), containing 2–4 separate seed-like nutlets, of cartilaginous texture.—Shrubs or small trees, with loosely pinnately veined leaves, and greenish polygamous or diœcious flowers, in axillary clusters. (The ancient Greek name.)

§ 1. RHAMNUS proper. Flowers usually diœcious; nutlets and seeds deeply grooved on the back; rhaphe dorsal; cotyledons foliaceous, the margins revolute.

[*] Calyx-lobes and stamens 5; petals wanting.

1. R. alnifòlia, L'Her. A low shrub; leaves oval, acute, serrate, nearly straight-veined; fruit 3-seeded.—Swamps, Maine to Penn., Neb., and northward. June.

[*][*] Calyx-lobes, petals, and stamens 4.

R. cathártica, L. (Common Buckthorn.) Leaves ovate, minutely serrate; fruit 3–4-seeded; branchlets thorny.—Cultivated for hedges; sparingly naturalized eastward. May, June. (Nat. from Eu.)

2. R. lanceolàta, Pursh. Leaves oblong-lanceolate and acute, or on flowering shoots oblong and obtuse, finely serrulate, smooth or minutely downy beneath; petals deeply notched; fruit 2-seeded.—Hills and river-banks, Penn. (Mercersburg, Green) to Ill., Tenn., and westward. May.—Shrub tall, not thorny; the yellowish-green flowers of two forms on distinct plants, both perfect; one with short pedicels clustered in the axils and with a short included style; the other with pedicels oftener solitary, the style longer and exserted.

§ 2. FRÁNGULA. Flowers perfect; nutlets and seeds not furrowed; cotyledons flat, thick; rhaphe lateral.

3. R. Caroliniàna, Walt. Thornless shrub or small tree; leaves (3–5´ long) oblong, obscurely serrulate, nearly glabrous, deciduous; flowers 5-merous, in one form umbelled, in another solitary in the axils, short peduncled; drupe globose, 3-seeded. (Frangula Caroliniana, Gray.)—Swamps and river banks, N. J., Va. to Ky., and southward. June.

3. CEANOTHUS, L. New Jersey Tea. Red-root.

Calyx 5-lobed, incurved; the lower part cohering with the thick disk to the ovary, the upper separating across in fruit. Petals hooded, spreading, on slender claws longer than the calyx. Filaments elongated. Fruit 3-lobed, dry and splitting into its 3 carpels when ripe. Seed as in § Frangula.—Shrubby plants; flowers in little umbel-like clusters, forming dense panicles or corymbs at the summit of naked flower-branches; calyx and pedicels colored like the petals. (An obscure name in Theophrastus, probably misspelled.)

1. C. Americànus, L. (New Jersey Tea.) Leaves ovate or oblong-ovate, 3-ribbed, serrate, more or less pubescent, often slightly heart-shaped at base; common peduncles elongated.—Dry woodlands. July.—Stems 1–3° high from a dark red root; branches downy. Flowers in pretty white clusters, on leafy shoots of the same year. The leaves were used for tea during the American Revolution.

2. C. ovàtus, Desf. Leaves narrowly oval or elliptical-lanceolate, finely glandular-serrate, glabrous or nearly so, as well as the short common peduncles. (C. ovalis, Bigel.)—Dry rocks, W. Vt. and Mass. to Minn., Ill., and southwestward; rare eastward. May.

Order 28. VITÀCEÆ. (Vine Family.)

Shrubs with watery juice, usually climbing by tendrils, with small regular flowers, a minute or truncated calyx, its limb mostly obsolete, and the stamens as many as the valvate petals and opposite them! Berry 2-celled, usually 4-seeded.—Petals 4–5, very deciduous, hypogynous or perigynous. Filaments slender; anthers introrse. Pistil with a short style or none, and a slightly 2-lobed stigma; ovary 2-celled, with 2 erect anatropous ovules from the base of each cell. Seeds bony, with a minute embryo at the base of the hard albumen, which is grooved on one side.—Stipules deciduous. Leaves alternate, palmately veined or compound; tendrils and flower-clusters opposite the leaves. Flowers small, greenish, commonly polygamous. (Young shoots, foliage, etc., acid.)

[*] Ovary surrounded by a nectariferous or glanduliferous disk; plants climbing by the coiling of naked-tipped tendrils.

1. Vitis. Corolla caducous without expanding. Hypogynous glands 5, alternate with the stamens. Fruit pulpy. Leaves simple.

2. Cissus. Corolla expanding. Disk cupular. Berry with scanty pulp, inedible. Leaves simple or pinnately compound.

[*][*] No distinct hypogynous disk; plants climbing by the adhesion of the dilated tips of the tendril-branches.

3. Ampelopsis. Corolla expanding. Leaves digitate.

1. VÌTIS, Tourn. Grape.

Flowers polygamo-diœcious (some plants with perfect flowers, others staminate with at most a rudimentary ovary), 5-merous. Calyx very short, usually with a nearly entire border or none at all. Petals separating only at base and falling off without expanding. Hypogynous disk of 5 nectariferous glands alternate with the stamens. Berry pulpy. Seeds pyriform, with beak-like base.—Plants climbing by the coiling of naked-tipped tendrils. Flowers in a compound thyrse, very fragrant; pedicels mostly umbellate-clustered. Leaves simple, rounded and heart-shaped. (The classical Latin name.)

§ 1. VITIS proper. Bark loose and shreddy; tendrils forked; nodes solid.

[+] A tendril (or inflorescence) opposite each leaf.

1. V. Labrúsca, L. (Northern Fox-Grape.) Branchlets and young leaves very woolly; leaves large, entire or deeply lobed, slightly dentate, continuing rusty-woolly beneath; fertile panicles compact; berries large.—Moist thickets, N. Eng. to the Alleghany Mountains, and south to S. Car. June. Fruit ripe in Sept. or Oct., dark purple or amber-color, with a tough musky pulp. Improved by cultivation, it has given rise to the Isabella, Catawba, Concord and other varieties.

[+][+] Tendrils intermittent (none opposite each third leaf).

[++] Leaves pubescent and floccose, especially beneath and when young.

2. V. æstivàlis, Michx. (Summer Grape.) Branchlets terete; leaves large, entire or more or less deeply and obtusely 3–5-lobed, with short broad teeth, very woolly and mostly red or rusty when young; berries middle-sized, black with a bloom, in compact bunches.—Thickets; common. May, June. Berries pleasant, ripe in Sept.—V. bicolor, LeConte, has its leaves smoothish when old and pale or glaucous beneath; common north and westward.

3. V. cinèrea, Engelm. (Downy Grape.) Branchlets angular; pubescence whitish or grayish, persistent; leaves entire or slightly 3-lobed; inflorescence large and loose; berries small, black without bloom.—Central Ill. to Kan. and Tex.

[++][++] Leaves glabrous and mostly shining, or short-hairy especially on the ribs beneath, incisely lobed or undivided.

4. V. cordifòlia, Michx. (Frost or Chicken Grape.) Leaves 3–4´ wide, not lobed or slightly 3-lobed, cordate with a deep acute sinus, acuminate, coarsely and sharply toothed; stipules small; inflorescence ample, loose; berries small, black and shining, very acerb, ripening after frosts; seeds 1 or 2, rather large, with a prominent rhaphe.—Thickets and stream-banks, New Eng. to central Ill., Mo., Neb., and southward. May, June.

5. V. ripària, Michx. Differing from the last in the larger and more persistent stipules (2–3´´ long), more shining and more usually 3-lobed leaves with a broad rounded or truncate sinus and large acute or acuminate teeth, smaller compact inflorescence, and berries (4–5´´ broad) with a bloom, sweet and very juicy, ripening from July to Sept.; seeds very small; rhaphe indistinct. (V. cordifolia, var. riparia, Gray.)—Stream-banks or near water, W. New Eng. to Penn., west to Minn. and Kan. Eastward the berries are sour and ripen late.

6. V. palmàta, Vahl. Branches bright red; leaves dark green and dull, 3–5-lobed, with a broad sinus, the lobes usually long-acuminate; inflorescence large and loose; berries black, without bloom, ripening late; seeds very large and rounded; otherwise like n. 5. (V. rubra, Michx.)—Ill. and Mo.

7. V. rupéstris, Scheele. (Sand or Sugar Grape.) Usually low and bushy, often without tendrils; leaves rather small, shining, broadly cordate, abruptly pointed, with broad coarse teeth, rarely slightly lobed; berries rather small, sweet, in very small close bunches, ripe in Aug.—Mo. to Tex.; also found in Tenn., and reported from banks of the Potomac, near Washington.

§ 2. MUSCADÍNIA. Bark closely adherent on the branches; pith continuous through the nodes; tendrils simple, intermittent; seeds with transverse wrinkles on both sides.

8. V. rotundifòlia, Michx. (Muscadine, Bullace, or Southern Fox-Grape.) Leaves shining both sides, small, rounded with a heart-shaped base, very coarsely toothed with broad and bluntish teeth, seldom lobed; panicles small, densely flowered; berries large (½–¾´ in diameter), musky, purplish without a bloom, with a thick and tough skin, ripe early in autumn. (V. vulpina, Man., not L.?)—River-banks, Md. to Ky., Mo., Kan., and southward. May.—Branchlets minutely warty. This is the original of the Scuppernong Grape, etc.


Flowers perfect or sometimes polygamous, 4-merous or (in ours) 5-merous. Petals expanding. Disk cup-shaped, surrounding the base of the ovary. Berry inedible, with scanty pulp. Seeds usually triangular-obovate.—Tendrils in our species few and mostly in the inflorescence. A vast genus, mainly tropical. (Greek name of the Ivy.)

1. C. Ampelópsis, Pers. Nearly glabrous; leaves heart-shaped or truncate at the base, coarsely and sharply toothed, acuminate, not lobed; panicle small and loose; style slender; berries of the size of a pea, 1–3-seeded, bluish or greenish. (Vitis indivisa, Willd.)—River-banks, Va. to Ill., and southward. June.

2. C. stans, Pers. Nearly glabrous, bushy and rather upright; leaves twice pinnate or ternate, the leaflets cut-toothed; flowers cymose; calyx 5-toothed; disk very thick, adherent to the ovary; berries black, obovate. (Vitis bipinnata, Torr. & Gray.)—Rich soils, Va. to Mo., and southward.

3. AMPELÓPSIS, Michx. Virginian Creeper.

Calyx slightly 5-toothed. Petals concave, thick, expanding before they fall. Disk none.—Leaves digitate, with 5 (3–7) oblong-lanceolate sparingly serrate leaflets. Flower-clusters cymose. Tendrils fixing themselves to trunks or walls by dilated sucker-like disks at their tips. (Name from ἄμπελος, a vine, and ὄψις, appearance.)

1. A. quinquefòlia, Michx. A common woody vine, in low or rich grounds, climbing extensively, sometimes by rootlets as well as by its disk-bearing tendrils, blossoming in July, ripening its small blackish berries in October. Also called American Ivy, and still less appropriately, Woodbine. Leaves turning bright crimson in autumn.

Order 29. SAPINDÀCEÆ. (Soapberry Family.)

Trees or shrubs, with simple or compound leaves, mostly unsymmetrical and often irregular flowers; the 4–5 sepals and petals imbricated in æstivation; the 5–10 stamens inserted on a fleshy (perigynous or hypogynous) disk; a 2–3-celled and -lobed ovary, with 1–2 (rarely more) ovules in each cell; and the embryo (except Staphylea) curved or convolute, without albumen.—A large and diverse order.

Suborder I. Sapindeæ. Flowers (often polygamous) mostly unsymmetrical and irregular. Stamens commonly more numerous than the petals, rarely twice as many. Ovules 1 or 2 in each cell. Embryo curved or convolute, rarely straight; cotyledons thick and fleshy.—Leaves alternate or sometimes opposite, without stipules, mostly compound.

1. Æsculus. Flowers irregular. Calyx 5-lobed. Petals 4 or 5. Stamens commonly 7. Fruit a leathery 3-valved pod. Leaves opposite, digitate.

2. Sapindus. Flowers regular. Sepals 4–5, in two rows. Petals 4–5. Stamens 8–10. Fruit a globose or 2–3-lobed berry. Leaves alternate, pinnate.

Suborder II. Acerineæ. (Maple Family.) Flowers (polygamous or diœcious) small, regular, but usually unsymmetrical. Petals often wanting. Ovary 2-lobed and 2-celled, with a pair of ovules in each cell. Fruits winged, 1-seeded. Embryo coiled or folded; the cotyledons long and thin.—Leaves opposite, simple or compound.

3. Acer. Flowers polygamous. Leaves simple.

4. Negundo. Flowers diœcious. Leaves pinnate, with 3–5 leaflets.

Suborder III. Staphyleæ. (Bladder-Nut Family.) Flowers (perfect) regular; stamens as many as the petals. Ovules 1–8 in each cell. Seeds bony, with a straight embryo in scanty albumen.—Shrubs with opposite pinnately compound leaves, both stipulate and stipellate.

5. Staphylea. Lobes of the colored calyx and petals 5, erect. Stamens 5. Fruit a 3-celled bladdery-inflated pod.

1. ǼSCULUS, L. Horse-chestnut. Buckeye.

Calyx tubular, 5-lobed, often oblique or gibbous at base. Petals 4–5, more or less unequal, with claws, nearly hypogynous. Stamens 7 (rarely 6 or 8); filaments long, slender, often unequal. Style 1; ovary 3-celled, with 2 ovules in each cell. Fruit a leathery pod, 3-celled and 3-seeded, or usually by abortion 1-celled and 1-seeded, loculicidally 3-valved. Seed very large, with thick shining coat, and a large round pale scar. Cotyledons very thick and fleshy, their contiguous faces coherent, remaining under ground in germination; plumule 2-leaved; radicle curved.—Trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite, digitate; leaflets serrate, straight-veined, like a Chestnut-leaf. Flowers in a terminal thyrse or dense panicle, often polygamous, most of them with imperfect pistils and sterile; pedicels jointed. Seeds farinaceous, but imbued with a bitter and narcotic principle. (The ancient name of some Oak or other mast-bearing tree.)

§ 1. ÆSCULUS proper. Fruit covered with prickles when young.

Æ. Hippocàstanum, L. (Common Horse-chestnut.) Corolla spreading, white spotted with purple and yellow, of 5 petals; stamens declined; leaflets 7.—Commonly planted. (Adv. from Asia via Eu.)

1. Æ. glàbra, Willd. (Fetid or Ohio Buckeye.) Stamens curved, longer than the pale yellow corolla of 4 upright petals; leaflets usually 5.—River-banks, W. Penn. to Mich., Mo., Kan., and southward. June.—A large tree; the bark exhaling an unpleasant odor, as in the rest of the genus. Flowers small, not showy.

§ 2. PÀVIA. Fruit smooth; petals 4, conniving; the 2 upper smaller and longer than the others, with a small rounded blade on a very long claw.

2. Æ. flàva, Ait. (Sweet Buckeye.) Stamens included in the yellow corolla; calyx oblong-campanulate; leaflets 5, sometimes 7, glabrous, or often minutely downy underneath.—Rich woods, Va. to Ohio, Mo., and southward. May. A large tree or a shrub.

Var. purpuráscens, Gray. Calyx and corolla tinged with flesh-color or dull purple; leaflets commonly downy beneath.—From W. Va., south and westward.

3. Æ. Pàvia, L. (Red Buckeye.) Stamens not longer than the corolla, which is bright red, as well as the tubular calyx; leaflets glabrous or soft-downy beneath.—Fertile valleys, Va., Ky., Mo., and southward. May. A shrub or small tree.

2. SAPÌNDUS, L. Soap-berry.

Flowers regular, polygamous. Sepals 4–5, imbricated in 2 rows. Petals 4–5, with a scale at the base. Stamens 8–10, upon the hypogynous disk. Ovary 3-celled, with an ascending ovule in each cell. Fruit a globose or 2–3-lobed berry, 1–3-seeded. Seed crustaceous, globose.—Trees or shrubs, with alternate abruptly pinnate leaves, and small flowers in terminal or axillary racemes or panicles. (Name a contraction of Sapo Indicus, Indian soap, having reference to the saponaceous character of the berries.)

1. S. acuminàtus, Raf. A tree 20–60° high; leaflets 4–9 pairs, obliquely lanceolate, sharply acuminate, entire, 1½–3´ long; the rhachis of the leaf not winged; flowers white, in a large panicle, fruit mostly globose, 6´´ broad. (S. marginatus of authors, not Willd.)—S. Kan. to La., Fla., and Mex.

3. ÀCER, Tourn. Maple.

Flowers polygamo-diœcious. Calyx colored, 5- (rarely 4–12-) lobed or parted. Petals either none or as many as the lobes of the calyx, equal, with short claws if any, inserted on the margin of the lobed disk, which is either perigynous or hypogynous. Stamens 3–12. Ovary 2-celled, with a pair of ovules in each cell; styles 2, long and slender, united only below, stigmatic down the inside. From the back of each carpel grows a wing, converting the fruit into two 1-seeded, at length separable samaras or keys. Embryo variously coiled or folded, with large and thin cotyledons.—Trees, or sometimes shrubs, with opposite palmately-lobed leaves, and small flowers. Pedicels not jointed. (The classical name, from the Celtic ac, hard.)

[*] Flowers in terminal racemes, greenish, appearing after the leaves; stamens 6–8.

1. A. Pennsylvánicum, L. (Striped Maple.) Leaves 3-lobed at the apex, finely and sharply doubly serrate, the short lobes taper-pointed and also serrate; racemes drooping, loose; petals obovate; fruit with large diverging wings.—Rich woods, Maine to Minn., and southward to Va., Ky., and Mo. June.—A small and slender tree, with light-green bark striped with dark lines, and greenish flowers and fruit. Also called Striped Dogwood and Moose-Wood.

2. A. spicàtum, Lam. (Mountain M.) Leaves downy beneath, 3- (or slightly 5-) lobed, coarsely serrate, the lobes taper-pointed; racemes upright, dense, somewhat compound; petals linear-spatulate; fruit with small erect or divergent wings.—Moist woods, with the same range as n. 1. June.—A tall shrub, forming clumps.

[*][*] Flowers in nearly sessile terminal and lateral umbellate-corymbs, greenish-yellow, appearing with the leaves.

3. A. saccharìnum, Wang. (Sugar or Rock M.) Leaves 3–5-lobed, with rounded sinuses and pointed sparingly sinuate toothed lobes, either heart-shaped or nearly truncate at the base, whitish and smooth or a little downy on the veins beneath; flowers from terminal leaf-bearing and lateral leafless buds, drooping on very slender hairy pedicels; calyx hairy at the apex; petals none; wings of the fruit broad, usually slightly diverging.—Rich woods, especially northward and along the mountains southward. April, May.—A large and handsome tree.

Var. nìgrum, Torr. & Gray. (Black Sugar-M.) Leaves scarcely paler beneath, but often minutely downy, the lobes wider, often shorter and entire, the sinus at the base often closed.—With the ordinary form; quite variable, sometimes appearing distinct.

[*][*][*] Flowers in umbel-like clusters arising from separate lateral buds, and much preceding the leaves; stamens 3–6.

4. A. dasycárpum, Ehrh. (White or Silver M.) Leaves very deeply 5-lobed with the sinuses rather acute, silvery-white (and when young downy) underneath, the divisions narrow, cut-lobed and toothed; flowers (greenish-yellow) on short pedicels; petals none; fruit woolly when young, with large divergent wings.—River-banks; most common southward and westward. March–April.—A fine ornamental tree.

5. A. rùbrum, L. (Red or Swamp M.) Leaves 3–5 lobed, with acute sinuses, whitish underneath; the lobes irregularly serrate and notched, acute, the middle one usually longest; petals linear-oblong; flowers (scarlet, crimson, or sometimes yellowish) on very short pedicels; but the smooth fruit on prolonged drooping pedicels.—Swamps and wet woods. April.—A small tree, with reddish twigs; the leaves varying greatly in shape, turning bright crimson in early autumn.

4. NEGÚNDO, Moench. Ash-leaved Maple. Box-Elder.

Flowers diœcious. Calyx minute, 4–5-cleft. Petals none. Stamens 4–5. Disk none.—Sterile flowers in clusters on capillary pedicels, the fertile in drooping racemes, from lateral buds. Leaves pinnate, with 3 or 5 leaflets. Fruit as in Acer. (Name unmeaning.)

1. N. aceroìdes, Moench. Leaflets smoothish when old, very veiny, ovate, pointed, toothed; fruit smooth, with large rather incurved wings.—River-banks, W. New Eng. to Dak., south and westward. April.—A small but handsome tree, with light-green twigs, and very delicate drooping clusters of small greenish flowers, rather earlier than the leaves.

5. STAPHYLÈA, L. Bladder-Nut.

Calyx deeply 5-parted, the lobes erect, whitish. Petals 5, erect, spatulate, inserted on the margin of the thick perigynous disk which lines the base of the calyx. Stamens 5, alternate with the petals. Pistil of 3 several-ovuled carpels, united in the axis, their long styles lightly cohering. Pod large, membranaceous, inflated, 3-lobed, 3-celled, at length bursting at the summit; the cells containing 1–4 bony anatropous seeds. Aril none. Embryo large and straight, in scanty albumen, cotyledons broad and thin.—Upright shrubs, with opposite pinnate leaves of 3 or 5 serrate leaflets, and white flowers in drooping raceme-like clusters, terminating the branchlets. Stipules and stipels deciduous. (Name from σταφυλή, a cluster.)

1. S. trifòlia, L. (American Bladder-nut.) Leaflets 3, ovate, pointed.—Thickets, in moist soil. May.—Shrub 10° high, with greenish striped branches.

Order 30. ANACARDIÀCEÆ. (Cashew Family.)

Trees or shrubs, with resinous or milky acrid juice, dotless alternate leaves, and small, often polygamous, regular, 5-merous flowers, but the ovary 1-celled and 1-ovuled, with 3 styles or stigmas.—Petals imbricated in the bud. Fruit mostly drupaceous. Seed without albumen, borne on a curved stalk that rises from the base of the cell. Stipules none. Juice or exhalations often poisonous.

1. RHÚS, L. Sumach.

Calyx small, 5-parted. Petals 5. Stamens 5, inserted under the edge or between the lobes of a flattened disk in the bottom of the calyx. Fruit small and indehiscent, a sort of dry drupe.—Leaves usually compound. Flowers greenish-white or yellowish. (The old Greek and Latin name.)

§ 1. RHUS proper. Fruit symmetrical, with the styles terminal.

[*] Flowers polygamous, in a terminal thyrsoid panicle; fruit globular, clothed with acid crimson hairs; stone smooth; leaves odd-pinnate. (Not poisonous.)—(§ Sumac, DC.)

1. R. týphina, L. (Staghorn Sumach.) Branches and stalks densely velvety-hairy; leaflets 11–31, pale beneath, oblong-lanceolate, pointed, serrate, rarely laciniate.—Hillsides. June.—Shrub or tree 10–30° high, with orange-colored wood. Apparently hybridizes with the next.

2. R. glàbra, L. (Smooth S.) Smooth, somewhat glaucous; leaflets 11–31, whitened beneath, lanceolate-oblong, pointed, serrate.—Rocky or barren soil. June, July.—Shrub 2–12° high. A var. has laciniate leaflets.

3. R. copallìna, L. (Dwarf S.) Branches and stalks downy; petioles wing-margined between the 9–21 oblong or ovate-lanceolate (often entire) leaflets, which are oblique or unequal at the base, smooth and shining above.—Rocky hills. July.—Shrub 1–7° high, with running roots.

[*][*] Flowers polygamous, in loose and slender axillary panicles; fruit globular, glabrous, whitish or dun-colored; the stone striate; leaves odd-pinnate or 3-foliolate, thin. (Poisonous.)—(§ Toxicodendron, DC.)

4. R. venenàta, DC. (Poison S. or Dogwood.) Smooth, or nearly so; leaflets 7–13, obovate-oblong, entire.—Swamps. June.—Shrub 6–18° high. The most poisonous species; also called Poison Elder.

5. R. Toxicodéndron, L. (Poison Ivy. Poison Oak.) Climbing by rootlets over rocks, etc., or ascending trees, or sometimes low and erect; leaflets 3, rhombic-ovate, mostly pointed, and rather downy beneath, variously notched, sinuate, or cut-lobed,—high-climbing plants (R. radìcans, L.) having usually more entire leaves.—Thickets, low grounds, etc. June.

[*][*][*] Flowers polygamo-diœcious, in small solitary or clustered spikes or heads which develop in spring before the leaves; leaves 3-foliolate; fruit as in first group. (Not poisonous).—(§ Lobadium, Torr. & Gray.)

6. R. Canadénsis, Marsh. Leaves soft-pubescent when young, becoming glabrate; leaflets rhombic-obovate or ovate, unequally cut-toothed, 1–3´ long, the terminal one cuneate at base and sometimes 3-cleft; flowers pale yellow. (R. aromatica, Ait.)—Dry rocky banks, W. Vt. to Minn., and southward.—A straggling bush, 3–7° high; the crushed leaves not unpleasantly scented.

Var. trilobàta, Gray. With smaller leaflets (½–1´ long), crenately few-lobed or incised toward the summit.—Long Pine, Neb., and common westward. Unpleasantly scented.

§ 2. CÒTINUS. Ovary becoming very gibbous in fruit, with the remains of the styles lateral; flowers in loose ample panicles, the pedicels elongating and becoming plumose; leaves simple, entire.

7. R. cotinoìdes, Nutt. Glabrous or nearly so; leaves thin, oval, 3–6´ long; flowers and fruit as in the cultivated Smoke-tree (R. Cotinus).—Mo. to Tenn., and southward.—A tree, 25–40° high.

Order 31. POLYGALÀCEÆ. (Milkwort Family.)

Plants with irregular hypogynous flowers, 4–8 diadelphous or monadelphous stamens, their 1-celled anthers opening at the top by a pore or chink, the fruit a 2-celled and 2-seeded pod.

1. POLÝGALA, Tourn. Milkwort.

Flower very irregular. Calyx persistent, of 5 sepals, of which 3 (the upper and the 2 lower) are small and often greenish, while the two lateral or inner (called wings) are much larger, and colored like the petals. Petals 3, hypogynous, connected with each other and with the stamen-tube, the middle (lower) one keel-shaped and often crested on the back. Stamens 6 or 8; their filaments united below into a split sheath, or into 2 sets, cohering more or less with the petals, free above; anthers 1-celled, often cup-shaped, opening by a hole or broad chink at the apex. Ovary 2-celled, with a single anatropous ovule pendulous in each cell; style prolonged and curved; stigma various. Fruit a small, loculicidal 2-seeded pod, usually rounded and notched at the apex, much flattened contrary to the very narrow partition. Seeds carunculate. Embryo large, straight, with flat and broad cotyledons, in scanty albumen.—Bitter plants (low herbs in temperate regions), with simple entire often dotted leaves, and no stipules; sometimes (as in the first two species) bearing cleistogamous flowers next the ground. (An old name composed of πολύς, much, and γάλα, milk, from a fancied property of its increasing this secretion.)

[*] Perennial or biennial; flowers purple or white; leaves alternate.

[+] Flowers showy, rose-purple, conspicuously crested; also bearing inconspicuous colorless cleistogamous flowers on subterranean branches.

1. P. paucifòlia, Willd. Perennial; flowering stems short (3–4´ high), from long slender prostrate or subterranean shoots, which also bear concealed fertile flowers; lower leaves small and scale-like, scattered, the upper ovate, petioled, crowded at the summit; flowers 1–3, large, peduncled; wings obovate, rather shorter than the fringe-crested keel; stamens 6; caruncle of 2 or 3 awl-shaped lobes longer than the seed.—Woods, in light soil, N. Eng. to Minn., Ill., and southward along the Alleghanies. May.—A delicate plant, with very handsome flowers, 9´´ long, rose-purple, or rarely pure white. Sometimes called Flowering Wintergreen, but more appropriately Fringed Polygala.

2. P. polýgama, Walt. Stems numerous from the biennial root, mostly simple, ascending, very leafy (6–9´ high); leaves oblanceolate or oblong; terminal raceme loosely many-flowered, the broadly obovate wings longer than the keel; stamens 8; radical flowers racemed on short subterranean runners; lobes of the caruncle 2, scale-like, shorter than the seed.—Dry sandy soil; common. July.

[+][+] Flowers white, in a solitary close spike; none cleistogamous.

3. P. Sénega, L. (Seneca Snakeroot.) Stems several from thick and hard knotty rootstocks, simple (6–12´ high); leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, with rough margins; wings round-obovate, concave; crest short; caruncle nearly as long as the seed.—Rocky soil, W. New Eng. to Minn., and southward. May, June.

Var. latifòlia, Torr. & Gray. Taller, sometimes branched; leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2–4´ long, tapering to each end.—Md. to Mich. and Ky.

4. P. álba, Nutt. Stems several from a hard rootstock, 1° high; leaves narrowly linear, 3–12´´ long, acute; wings oblong-obovate; crest small; lobes of the caruncle half the length of the appressed-silky seed.—Neb. and Kan. to Tex.

[*][*] Annuals, with all the leaves alternate; flowers in terminal spikes, heads or racemes, purple or rose-color, in summer; none subterranean.

[+] Keel conspicuously crested; claws of the true petals united into a long and slender cleft tube much surpassing the wings.

5. P. incarnàta, L. Glaucous; stem slender, sparingly branched; leaves minute and linear-awl-shaped; spike cylindrical; flowers flesh-color; caruncle longer than the narrow stalk of the hairy seed.—Dry soil, Penn. to Wisc., Iowa, Neb., and southward; rather rare.

[+][+] Keel minutely or inconspicuously crested; the true petals not longer but mostly shorter than the wings; seed pear-shaped.

6. P. sanguínea, L. Stem sparingly branched above, leafy to the top; leaves oblong-linear; heads globular, at length oblong, very dense (4–5´´ thick), bright red-purple (rarely paler or even white); pedicels scarcely any; wings broadly ovate, closely sessile, longer than the pod; the 2-parted caruncle almost equalling the seed.—Sandy and moist ground; common.

7. P. fastigiàta, Nutt. Stem slender, at length corymbosely branched; leaves narrowly linear, acute, 3–8´´ long; spikes short and dense (3´´ in diameter); the small rose-purple flowers on pedicels of about the length of the pod; wings obovate- or oval-oblong, narrowed at the base, scarcely exceeding the pod; bracts deciduous with the flowers or fruits, caruncle as long as and nearly enveloping the stalk-like base of the minutely hairy seed.—Pine barrens of N. J. and Del. to Ky., and southward.

8. P. Nuttàllii, Torr. & Gray. Resembles the last, but usually lower; spikes cylindrical, narrow; flowers duller or greenish purple, on very short pedicels; the awl-shaped scaly bracts persistent on the axis after the flowers or fruits fall; seed very hairy, the caruncle smaller.—Dry sandy soil, coast of Mass. to Mo., and southward.—Spike sometimes rather loose.

9. P. Curtíssii, Gray. Slender (9´ high), leaves, etc., as in the two preceding, flowers rose-purple, in usually short racemes; pedicels about equalling or exceeding the persistent bracts; the narrow oblong erect wings fully twice the length of the pod; caruncle small, on one side of the stalk-like base of the very hairy seed, which is conspicuously apiculate at the broader end.—Md. to Ga.—The species was founded upon an abnormal form with elongated racemes and pedicels.

[*][*][*] Annuals with at least the lower stem-leaves whorled in fours, sometimes in fives; spikes terminating the stem and branches; fl. summer and autumn.

[+] Spikes short and thick (4–9´´ in diameter); bracts persisting after the fall of the (middle-sized) rose or greenish purple flowers; crest small.

10. P. cruciàta, L. Stems (3–10´ high) almost winged at the angles, with spreading opposite branches; leaves nearly all in fours, linear and somewhat spatulate or oblanceolate; spikes sessile or nearly so; wings broadly deltoid-ovate, slightly heart-shaped, tapering to a bristly point or rarely pointless; caruncle nearly as long as the seed.—Margin of swamps, Maine to Va. and southward near the coast, and west to Minn. and Neb.

11. P. brevifòlia, Nutt. Rather slender, branched above; leaves scattered on the branches, narrower; spikes peduncled; wings lanceolate-ovate, pointless or barely mucronate.—Margin of sandy bogs, R. I., N. J. and southward.

[+][+] Spikes slender (about 2´´ thick), the bracts falling with the flowers, which are small, greenish-white or barely tinged with purple, the crest of the keel larger.

12. P. verticillàta, L. Slender (6–10´ high), much branched; stem-leaves all whorled, those of the (mostly opposite) branches scattered, linear, acute; spikes peduncled, usually short and dense, acute; wings round, clawed; the 2-lobed caruncle half the length of the seed.—Dry soil; common.

Var. ambígua. Leaves (and branches) all scattered or the lowest in fours; spikes long-peduncled, more slender, the flowers often purplish and scattered. (P. ambigua, Nutt.)—N. Y. to Mo., and southward.

[*][*][*][*] Biennials or annuals, with alternate leaves, and yellow flowers, which are disposed to turn greenish in drying; crest small; flowering all summer.

13. P. lùtea, L. Low; flowers (bright orange-yellow) in solitary ovate or oblong heads (¾´ thick) terminating the stem or simple branches; leaves (1–2´ long) obovate or spatulate; lobes of the caruncle nearly as long as the seed.—Sandy swamps, N. J. and southward, near the coast.

14. P. ramòsa, Ell. Flowers (citron-yellow) in numerous short and dense spike-like racemes collected in a flat-topped compound cyme; leaves oblong-linear, the lowest spatulate or obovate; seeds ovoid, minutely hairy, twice the length of the caruncle.—Damp pine-barrens, Del. and southward.

15. P. cymòsa, Walt. Stem short, naked above, the numerous racemes in a usually nearly simple cyme, leaves narrow, acuminate; seeds globose, without caruncle.—Del. and southward.

Order 32. LEGUMINÒSÆ. (Pulse Family.)

Plants with papilionaceous or sometimes regular flowers, 10 (rarely 5 and sometimes many) monadelphous, diadelphous, or rarely distinct stamens, and a single simple free pistil, becoming a legume in fruit. Seeds mostly without albumen. Leaves alternate, with stipules, usually compound. One of the sepals inferior (i.e. next the bract); one of the petals superior (i.e. next the axis of the inflorescence).—A very large order (nearly free from noxious qualities), of which the principal representatives in northern temperate regions belong to the first of the three suborders it comprises.

Suborder I. Papilionaceæ. Calyx of 5 sepals, more or less united, often unequally so. Corolla inserted into the base of the calyx, of 5 irregular petals (or very rarely fewer), more or less distinctly papilionaceous, i.e. with the upper or odd petal (vexillum or standard) larger than the others and enclosing them in the bud, usually turned backward or spreading; the two lateral ones (wings) oblique and exterior to the two lower, which last are connivent and commonly more or less coherent by their anterior edges, forming the carina or keel, which usually encloses the stamens and pistil. Stamens 10, very rarely 5, inserted with the corolla, monadelphous, diadelphous (mostly with 9 united into a tube which is cleft on the upper side, and the tenth or upper one separate), or occasionally distinct. Ovary 1-celled, sometimes 2-celled by an intrusion of one of the sutures, or transversely 2–many-celled by cross-division into joints; style simple; ovules amphitropous, rarely anatropous. Cotyledons large, thick or thickish; radicle incurved.—Leaves simple or simply compound, the earliest ones in germination usually opposite, the rest alternate; leaflets almost always quite entire. Flowers perfect, solitary and axillary, or in spikes, racemes, or panicles.

I. Stamens (10) distinct.

[*] Leaves palmately 3-foliolate or simple; calyx 4–5-lobed; herbs. (Podalyrieæ.)

1. Baptisia. Pod inflated.

2. Thermopsis. Pod flat, linear.

[*][*] Leaves pinnate; calyx-teeth short. (Sophoreæ.)

3. Cladrastis. Flowers panicled, white. Pod flat. A tree.

4. Sophora. Flowers racemose, white. Pod terete, moniliform. Herbaceous.

II. Stamens monadelphous, or diadelphous (9 and 1, rarely 5 and 5); nearly distinct in n. 14.

[*] Anthers of two forms; stamens monadelphous; leaves digitate or simple; leaflets entire. (Genisteæ.)

5. Crotalaria. Calyx 5-lobed. Pod inflated. Leaves simple.

6. Genista. Calyx 2-lipped. Pod flat. Seed estrophiolate. Leaves simple. Shrubby.

7. Cytisus. Calyx 2-lipped. Pod flat. Seed strophiolate. Leaves 1–3-foliolate. Shrubby.

8. Lupinus. Calyx deeply 2-lipped. Pod flat. Leaves 7–11-foliolate.

[*][*] Anthers uniform (except in n. 13 and 29).

[+] Leaves digitately (rarely pinnately) 3-foliolate; leaflets denticulate or serrulate; stamens diadelphous, pods small, 1–few-seeded, often enclosed in the calyx or curved or coiled. (Trifolieæ.)

9. Trifolium. Flowers capitate. Pods membranaceous, 1–6-seeded. Petals adherent to the stamen-tube.

10. Melilotus. Flowers racemed. Pod coriaceous, wrinkled, 1–2-seeded.

11. Medicago. Flowers racemed or spiked. Pods curved or coiled, 1–few-seeded.

[+][+] Leaves unequally pinnate (or digitate in n. 13); pod not jointed; not twining nor climbing (except n. 20).

[++] Flowers umbellate (solitary in ours) on axillary peduncles. (Loteæ.)

12. Hosaekia. Leaves 1–3-foliolate. Peduncle leafy-bracteate. Pod linear.

[++][++] Flowers in spikes, racemes, or heads. (Galegeæ.)

[=] Herbage glandular-dotted; stamens mostly monadelphous; pod small, indehiscent, mostly 1-seeded; leaves pinnate (except in n. 13).

13. Psoralea. Corolla truly papilionaceous. Stamens 10, half of the anthers often smaller or less perfect. Leaves mostly palmately 3–5-foliolate.

14. Amorpha. Corolla of one petal! Stamens 10, monadelphous at base.

15. Dalea. Corolla imperfectly papilionaceous. Stamens 9 or 10; the cleft tube of filaments bearing 4 of the petals about its middle.

16. Petalostemon. Corolla scarcely at all papilionaceous. Stamens 5; the cleft tube of filaments bearing 4 of the petals on its summit.

[=][=] Herbage not glandular-dotted (except in n. 23); stamens mostly diadelphous; pod 2-valved, several-seeded; leaves pinnately several-foliolate; flowers racemose.

a. Wings cohering with the keel; pod flat or 4-angled; hoary perennial herbs.

17. Tephrosia. Standard broad. Pod flat. Leaflets pinnately veined.

18. Indigofera. Calyx and standard small. Pod 4-angled. Leaflets obscurely veined.

b. Flowers large and showy; standard broad; wings free; woody; leaflets stipellate.

19. Robinia. Pod flat, thin, margined on one edge. Trees or shrubs.

20. Wistaria. Pod tumid, marginless. Woody twiners; leaflets obscurely stipellate.

c. Standard narrow, erect; pod turgid or inflated; perennial herbs.

21. Astragalus. Keel not tipped with a point or sharp appendage. Pod with one or both the sutures turned in, sometimes dividing the cell lengthwise into two.

22. Oxytropis. Keel tipped with an erect point; otherwise as Astragalus.

23. Glycyrrhiza. Flowers, etc., of Astragalus. Anther-cells confluent. Pod prickly or muricate, short, nearly indehiscent.

[+][+][+] Herbs with pinnate or pinnately 1–3-foliolate leaves; no tendrils; pod transversely 2–several-jointed, the reticulated 1-seeded joints indehiscent, or sometimes reduced to one such joint. (Hedysareæ.)

[=] Leaves pinnate, with several leaflets, not stipellate.

24. Æschynomene. Stamens equally diadelphous (5 and 5). Calyx 2-lipped. Pod several-jointed; joints square.

25. Coronilla. Stamens unequally diadelphous (9 and 1). Calyx 5-toothed. Joints oblong, 4-angled. Flowers umbellate.

26. Hedysarum. Stamens unequally diadelphous (9 and 1). Calyx 5-cleft. Pod several-jointed; joints roundish.

[=][=] Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, rarely 1-foliolate.

27. Desmodium. Stamens diadelphous (9 and 1) or monadelphous below. Calyx 2-lipped. Pod several-jointed. Flowers all of one sort and complete. Leaflets stipellate.

28. Lespedeza. Stamens diadelphous (9 and 1); anthers uniform. Pod 1–2-jointed. Flowers often of 2 sorts, the more fertile ones apetalous. Leaflets not stipellate.

29. Stylosanthes. Stamens monadelphous; anthers of 2 sorts. Pod 1–2-jointed. Calyx deciduous, the tube narrow and stalk-like. Leaflets not stipellate.

[+][+][+][+] Herbs with abruptly pinnate leaves, terminated by a tendril or bristle; stamens diadelphous; pod continuous, 2-valved, few–several-seeded. (Vicieæ.)

30. Vicia. Wings adherent to the keel. Style filiform, bearded with a tuft or ring of hairs at the apex.

31. Lathyrus. Wings nearly free. Style somewhat dilated and flattened upwards, bearded down the inner face.

[+][+][+][+][+] Twining (sometimes only trailing) herbs, leaves pinnately 3- (rarely 1- or 5–7-) foliolate; no tendrils; peduncles or flowers axillary, pod not jointed, 2-valved. (Phaseoleæ.)

[=] Leaves pinnate.

32. Apios. Herbaceous twiner; leaflets 5–7. Keel slender and much incurved or coiled.

[=][=] Leaves 3-foliolate. Ovules and seeds several. Flowers not yellow.

33. Phaseolus. Keel spirally coiled; standard recurved-spreading. Style bearded lengthwise. Flowers racemose. Seeds round-reniform.

34. Strophostyles. Keel long, strongly incurved. Style bearded lengthwise. Flowers sessile, capitate, few. Seeds oblong, mostly pubescent.

35. Centrosema. Calyx short, 5-cleft. Standard with a spur at the base; keel broad, merely incurved. Style minutely bearded next the stigma.

36. Clitoria. Calyx tubular, 5-lobed. Standard erect, spurless; keel scythe-shaped. Style bearded down the inner face.

37. Amphicarpæa. Calyx tubular, 4–5-toothed. Standard erect; keel almost straight. Style beardless. Some nearly apetalous fertile flowers next the ground.

38. Galactia. Calyx 4 cleft, the upper lobe broadest and entire. Style beardless. Bract and bractlets minute, mostly deciduous.

[=][=][=] Leaves 1–3-foliolate. Ovules and seeds only one or two. Flowers yellow.

39. Rhynchosia. Keel scythe shaped. Calyx 4–5-parted. Pod short.

Suborder II. Cæsalpinieæ. (Brasiletto Family.) Corolla perfectly or not at all papilionaceous, sometimes nearly regular, imbricated in the bud, the upper or odd petal inside and enclosed by the others, Stamens 10 or fewer, commonly distinct, inserted on the calyx. Seeds anatropous, often with albumen. Embryo straight.

[*] Flowers imperfectly papilionaceous, perfect. Trees.

40. Cercis. Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed. Pod flat, wing-margined. Leaves simple.

[*][*] Flowers not at all papilionaceous, perfect. Calyx 5-parted. Herbs.

41. Cassia. Leaves simply and abruptly pinnate, not glandular-punctate.

42. Hoffmanseggia. Leaves bipinnate, glandular-punctate.

[*][*][*] Flowers not at all papilionaceous, polygamous or diœcious. Trees.

43. Gymnocladus. Leaves all doubly pinnate. Calyx-tube elongated, at its summit bearing 5 petals resembling the calyx lobes. Stamens 10.

44. Gleditschia. Thorny; leaves simply and doubly pinnate. Calyx tube short; its lobes, petals, and the stamens 3–5.

Suborder III. Mimoseæ. (Mimosa Family.) Flower regular, small. Corolla valvate in æstivation, often united into a 4–5-lobed cup, hypogynous, as are the (often very numerous) exserted stamens. Embryo straight. Leaves twice pinnate.

45. Desmanthus. Petals distinct. Stamens 5 or 10. Pod smooth.

46. Schrankia. Petals united below into a cup. Stamens 8 or 10. Pod covered with small prickles or rough projections.

1. BAPTÍSIA, Vent. False Indigo.

Calyx 4–5-toothed. Standard not longer than the wings, its sides reflexed; keel-petals nearly separate, and, like the wings, straight. Stamens 10, distinct. Pod stalked in the persistent calyx, roundish or oblong, inflated, pointed, many seeded.—Perennial herbs, with palmately 3-foliolate (rarely simple) leaves, which generally blacken in drying, and racemed flowers. (Named from βαπτίζω, to dye, from the economical use of some species, which yield a poor indigo.)

[*] Racemes many, short and loose, terminal, often leafy at base, flowers yellow.

1. B. tinctòria, R. Br. (Wild Indigo.) Smooth and slender (2–3° high), rather glaucous; leaves almost sessile, leaflets rounded wedge-obovate (½–1½´ long), stipules and bracts minute and deciduous, pods oval-globose, on a stalk longer than the calyx.—Sandy dry soil, N. Eng. to Fla., west to Minn. and La.

[*][*] Racemes fewer, opposite the leaves.

[+] Flowers yellow.

2. B. villòsa, Ell. Sometimes soft-hairy, usually minutely pubescent when young, erect (2–3° high) with divergent branches; leaves almost sessile, leaflets wedge-lanceolate or obovate, lower stipules lanceolate and persistent, on the branchlets often small and subulate, racemes many-flowered; pedicels short; bracts subulate, mostly deciduous; pods ovoid-oblong and taper-pointed, minutely pubescent.—Va. to N. C. and Ark.

[+][+] Flowers white or cream-color.

3. B. leucophæ̀a, Nutt. Hairy, low (1° high), with divergent branches; leaves almost sessile, leaflets narrowly oblong-obovate or spatulate; stipules and bracts large and leafy, persistent; racemes long (often 1°), reclined; flowers on elongated pedicels, cream-color; pods pointed at both ends, hoary.—Mich. to Minn., south to Tex. April, May.

4. B. leucántha, Torr. & Gray. Smooth; stems, leaves, and racemes as in n. 6; stipules early deciduous; flowers white; pods oval-oblong, raised on a stalk fully twice the length of the calyx.—Alluvial soil, Ont. and Ohio to Minn., south to Fla. and La.

5. B. álba, R. Br. Smooth (1–3° high), the branches slender and widely spreading; petioles slender; stipules and bracts minute and deciduous; leaflets oblong or oblanceolate; racemes slender on a long naked peduncle; pods linear-oblong (1–1½´ long), short-stalked.—Dry soil, S. Ind. and Mo., to La., N. C., and Fla. July.

[+][+][+] Flowers indigo-blue.

6. B. austràlis, R. Br. (Blue False-Indigo.) Smooth, tall and stout (4–5°); leaflets oblong-wedge-form, obtuse; stipules lanceolate, as long as the petioles, rather persistent; raceme elongated (1–2°) and many-flowered, erect; bracts deciduous; stalk of the oval-oblong pods about the length of the calyx.—Alluvial soil, Penn. to Ga., west to S. Ind., Mo., and Ark.


Pod sessile or shortly stipitate in the calyx, flat, linear, straight or curved. Otherwise nearly as Baptisia.—Perennial herbs, with palmately 3-foliolate leaves and foliaceous stipules, not blackening in drying, and yellow flowers in terminal racemes. (Name from θέρμος, the lupine, and ὄψις resemblance.)

1. T. móllis, M. A. Curtis. Finely appressed-pubescent, 2–3° high; leaflets rhombic-lanceolate, 1–3´ long; stipules narrow, mostly shorter than the petiole; raceme elongated; pods narrow, short stipitate, somewhat curved, 2–4´ long.—Mountains of S. Va. and N. C.

2. T. rhombifòlia, Nutt. Low, with smaller leaves and broad conspicuous stipules; racemes short, few-flowered; pods broadly linear, spreading, usually strongly curved.—Sask. to E. Col., near or in the mountains, reported from central Kan.

3. CLADRÁSTIS, Raf. Yellow-Wood.

Calyx 5-toothed. Standard large, roundish, reflexed; the distinct keel-petals and wings straight, oblong. Stamens 10, distinct; filaments slender, incurved above. Pod short-stalked above the calyx, linear, flat, thin, marginless, 4–6-seeded, at length 2-valved.—A handsome tree, with yellow wood, smooth bark, nearly smooth pinnate leaves of 7–11 oval or ovate leaflets, and ample panicled racemes (10–20´ long) of showy white flowers drooping from the ends of the branches. Stipules obsolete. Base of the petioles hollow, enclosing the leaf buds of the next year. Bracts minute and fugacious. (Name from κλάδος, a branch, and θραυστός, brittle.)

1. C. tinctòria, Raf. Sometimes 50° high; pods 3–4´ long.—Rich hillsides, central Ky. and Tenn. to N. C. Also in cultivation. The wood yields a yellow dye.


Calyx bell-shaped, shortly 5-toothed. Standard rounded; keel nearly straight. Stamens distinct or nearly so. Pod coriaceous, stipitate, terete, more or less constricted between the seeds, indehiscent. Seeds subglobose.—Shrubby or ours an herbaceous perennial, the leaves pinnate with numerous leaflets, and flowers white or yellow in terminal racemes. (Said by Linnæus to be the ancient name of an allied plant.)

1. S. serícea, Nutt. Silky canescent, erect, 1° high or less; leaflets oblong-obovate, 3–6´´ long; flowers white; pods few-seeded.—Central Kan. to Col., Tex., and Ariz.

5. CROTALÀRIA, L. Rattle-box.

Calyx 5-cleft, scarcely 2-lipped. Standard large, heart-shaped; keel scythe-shaped. Sheath of the monadelphous stamens cleft on the upper side; 5 of the anthers smaller and roundish. Pod inflated, oblong, many-seeded.—Herbs with simple leaves. Flowers yellow. (Name from κρόταλον, a rattle; the loose seeds rattling in the coriaceous inflated pods.)

1. C. sagittàlis, L. Annual, hairy (3–6´ high); leaves oval or oblong-lanceolate, scarcely petioled, stipules united and decurrent on the stem, so as to be inversely arrow-shaped; peduncles few-flowered; corolla not longer than the calyx; pod blackish.—Sandy soil; Maine to Ill., Minn., Kan., and southward.

6. GENÍSTA, L. Woad-Waxen. Whin.

Calyx 2-lipped. Standard oblong-oval, spreading; keel oblong, straight, deflexed. Stamens monadelphous, the sheath entire; 5 alternate anthers shorter. Pod mostly flat and several-seeded.—Shrubby plants, with simple leaves, and yellow flowers. (Name from the Celtic gen, a bush.)

G. tinctòria, L. (Dyer's Green-weed.) Low, not thorny, with striate-angled erect branches; leaves lanceolate; flowers in spiked racemes.—Established on sterile hills, eastern N. Y. and Mass. (Adv. from Eu.)

7. CÝTISUS, Tourn. Broom.

Calyx campanulate, with 2 short broad lips. Petals broad, the keel obtuse and slightly incurved. Stamens monadelphous. Pod flat, much longer than the calyx. Seeds several, with a strophiole at the hilum.—Shrubs, with stiff green branches, leaves mostly digitately 3-foliolate, and large bright yellow flowers. (The ancient Roman name of a plant, probably a Medicago.)

C. scopàrius, Link. (Scotch Broom.) Glabrous or nearly so (3–5° high); leaflets small, obovate, often reduced to a single one; flowers solitary or in pairs, on slender pedicels, in the axils of the old leaves, forming leafy racemes along the upper branches; style very long and spirally incurved.—Va. and southward. (Nat. from Eu.)

8. LUPÌNUS, Tourn. Lupine.

Calyx very deeply 2-lipped. Sides of the standard reflexed; keel scythe-shaped, pointed. Sheath of the monadelphous stamens entire; anthers alternately oblong and roundish. Pod oblong, flattened, often knotty by constrictions between the seeds. Cotyledons thick and fleshy.—Herbs, with palmately 1–15-foliolate leaves, stipules adnate to base of the petiole, and showy flowers in terminal racemes or spikes. (Name from Lupus, a wolf, because these plants were thought to devour the fertility of the soil.)

1. L. perénnis, L. (Wild Lupine.) Perennial, somewhat hairy; stem erect (1–2°); leaflets 7–11, oblanceolate; flowers in a long raceme, showy, purplish-blue (rarely pale); pods broad, very hairy, 5–6-seeded.—Sandy soil, N. Eng. to Minn., Mo., and south to the Gulf.—Var. occidentàlis, Watson, has stems and petioles more villous.—Mich. and Wisc.

2. L. pusíllus, Pursh. Annual, low, villous; leaflets usually 5; racemes short, sessile; flowers purple or rose-color; pods oval, hirsute, 2-seeded.—Central Dak. and Kan., and westward.

9. TRIFÒLIUM, Tourn. Clover. Trefoil.

Calyx persistent, 5-cleft, the teeth bristle-form. Corolla mostly withering or persistent; the claws of all the petals, or of all except the oblong or ovate standard, more or less united below with the stamen-tube; keel short and obtuse. Tenth stamen more or less separate. Pods small and membranous, often included in the calyx, 1–6-seeded, indehiscent, or opening by one of the sutures.—Tufted or diffuse herbs. Leaves mostly palmately, sometimes pinnately 3-foliolate; leaflets usually toothed. Stipules united with the petiole. Flowers in heads or spikes. (Name from tres, three, and folium, a leaf.)

[*] Flowers sessile in dense heads; corolla purple or purplish, withering away after flowering, tubular below, the petals more or less coherent with each other.

[+] Calyx-teeth silky-plumose, longer than the whitish corolla; root annual.

T. arvénse, L. (Rabbit-foot or Stone Clover.) Silky, branching (5–10´ high); leaflets oblanceolate; heads becoming very soft-silky and grayish, oblong or cylindrical.—Old fields, etc. (Nat. from Eu.)

[+][+] Calyx scarcely hairy except a bearded ring in the throat, shorter than the rose-purple elongated-tubular corolla. (Short-lived perennials; flowers sweet-scented.)

T. praténse, L. (Red C.) Stems ascending, somewhat hairy; leaflets oval or obovate, often notched at the end and marked on the upper side with a pale spot; stipules broad, bristle-pointed; heads ovate, sessile.—Fields and meadows; largely cultivated. (Adv. from Eu.)

T. mèdium, L. (Zigzag C.) Stems zigzag, smoothish; leaflets oblong, entire, and spotless; heads mostly stalked; flowers deeper purple, otherwise too like the last.—Dry hills, N. Scotia to E. Mass. (Adv. from Eu.)

[*][*] Flowers pedicelled in umbel-like round heads on a naked peduncle, their short pedicels reflexed when old; corolla white or rose-color, withering-persistent and turning brownish in fading; the tubular portion short.

1. T. refléxum, L. (Buffalo C.) Annual or biennial; stems ascending, downy; leaflets obovate-oblong, finely toothed; stipules thin, ovate; standard rose-red, wings and keel whitish; calyx-teeth hairy; pods 3–5-seeded.—Western N. Y. and Ont. to Iowa, Kan., and southward.

2. T. stoloníferum, Muhl. (Running Buffalo-C.) Smooth, perennial; stems with long runners from the base; leaflets broadly obovate or obcordate, minutely toothed; heads loose; flowers white, tinged with purple; pods 2-seeded.—Open woodlands and prairies, Ohio and Ky., west to Iowa and Kan.

3. T. rèpens, L. (White C.) Smooth, perennial; the slender stems spreading and creeping; leaflets inversely heart-shaped or merely notched, obscurely toothed; stipules scale-like, narrow; petioles and especially the peduncles very long; heads small and loose; calyx much shorter than the white corolla; pods about 4-seeded.—Fields and copses, everywhere. Indigenous only in the northern part of our range, if at all.

4. T. Caroliniànum, Michx. Somewhat pubescent small perennial, procumbent, in tufts; leaflets wedge-obovate and slightly notched; stipules ovate, foliaceous; heads small on slender peduncles; calyx-teeth lanceolate, nearly equalling the purplish corolla; standard pointed; pods 4-seeded.—Waste ground near Philadelphia, south to Va., Fla., and Tex.

T. hýbridum, L. (Alsike C.) Resembling T. repens, but the stems erect or ascending, not rooting at the nodes; flowers rose-tinted.—Becoming common. (Nat. from Eu.)

[*][*][*] Flowers short-pedicelled in close heads, reflexed when old; corolla yellow, persistent, turning dry and chestnut-brown with age, the standard becoming hood-shaped; annuals, fl. in summer.

T. agràrium, L. (Yellow or Hop-C.) Smoothish, somewhat upright (6–12´ high); leaflets obovate-oblong, all three from the same point (palmate) and nearly sessile; stipules narrow, cohering with the petiole for more than half its length.—Sandy fields and roadsides; N. Scotia to Va.; also in western N. Y. (Nat. from Eu.)

T. procúmbens, L. (Low Hop-C.) Stems spreading or ascending, pubescent (3–6´ high); leaflets wedge-obovate, notched at the end, the lateral at a small distance from the other (pinnately 3-foliolate); stipules ovate, short.—Sandy fields and roadsides, common.—Var. mìnus, Gray, has smaller heads, the standard not much striate with age. (Nat. from Eu.)

10. MELILÒTUS, Tourn. Melilot. Sweet Clover.

Flowers much as in Trifolium, but in spike-like racemes, small; corolla deciduous, free from the stamen-tube. Pod ovoid, coriaceous, wrinkled, longer than the calyx, scarcely dehiscent, 1–2-seeded.—Annual or biennial herbs, fragrant in drying, with pinnately 3-foliolate leaves, leaflets toothed. (Name from μέλι, honey, and λωτός, some leguminous plant.)

M. officinàlis, Willd. (Yellow Melilot.) Upright (2–4° high); leaflets obovate-oblong, obtuse; corolla yellow; the petals nearly of equal length.—Waste or cultivated grounds. (Adv. from Eu.)

M. álba, Lam. (White M.) Leaflets truncate; corolla white; the standard longer than the other petals.—In similar places. (Adv. from Eu.)

11. MEDICÀGO, Tourn. Medick.

Flowers nearly as in Melilotus. Pod 1–several-seeded, scythe-shaped, incurved, or variously coiled.—Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; leaflets toothed; stipules often cut. (Μηδική, the name of Lucerne, because it came to the Greeks from Media.)

M. satìva, L. (Lucerne. Alfalfa.) Upright, smooth, perennial; leaflets obovate-oblong, toothed; flowers (purple) racemed; pods spirally twisted.—Cultivated for green fodder; spontaneous from Mass. to Minn. and Kan. (Adv. from Eu.)

M. lupulìna, L. (Black Medick. Nonesuch.) Procumbent, pubescent, annual; leaflets wedge-obovate, toothed at the apex; flowers in short spikes (yellow); pods kidney-form, 1-seeded.—Waste places, N. Eng. to Fla., west to Mich., Iowa, and Mo. (Adv. from Eu.)

M. maculàta, Willd. (Spotted Medick.) Spreading or procumbent annual, somewhat pubescent; leaflets obcordate, with a purple spot, minutely toothed; peduncles 3–5-flowered; flowers yellow; pods compactly spiral, of 2 or 3 turns, compressed, furrowed on the thick edge, and fringed with a double row of curved prickles.—N. Brunswick to Mass. (Adv. from Eu.)

M. denticulàta, Willd. Nearly glabrous; pods loosely spiral, deeply reticulated, and with a thin keeled edge; otherwise like the last, and with the same range. (Adv. from Eu.)

12. HOSÁCKIA, Douglas.

Calyx-teeth nearly equal. Petals free from the diadelphous stamens; standard ovate or roundish, its claw often remote from the others; wings obovate or oblong; keel incurved. Pod linear, compressed or somewhat terete, sessile, several-seeded.—Herbs, with pinnate leaves (in ours 1–3-foliolate, with gland-like stipules), and small yellow or reddish flowers in umbels (ours solitary) upon axillary leafy-bracteate peduncles. (Named for Dr. David Hosack, of New York.)

1. H. Purshiàna, Benth. Annual, more or less silky-villous or glabrous, often 1° high or more; leaves nearly sessile, the 1–3 leaflets ovate to lanceolate (3–9´´ long); peduncles often short, bracteate with a single leaflet.—N. C.; S. W. Minn. to Ark., and west to the Pacific. Very variable.


Calyx 5-cleft, persistent, the lower lobe longest. Stamens diadelphous or sometimes monadelphous. Pod seldom longer than the calyx, thick, often wrinkled, indehiscent, 1-seeded.—Perennial herbs, usually sprinkled all over or roughened (especially the calyx, pods, etc.) with glandular dots or points. Leaves mostly 3–5-foliolate. Flowers spiked or racemed, white or mostly blue-purplish. Root sometimes tuberous and farinaceous. (Name, ψωραλέος, scurfy, from the glands or dots.)

[*] Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate.

1. P. Onóbrychis, Nutt. Nearly smooth and free from glands, erect (3–5° high); leaflets lanceolate-ovate, taper-pointed (3´ long); stipules and bracts awl-shaped; racemes elongated; peduncle shorter than the leaves; pods roughened and wrinkled.—River-banks, Ohio to Ill. and Mo.; also south and east to S. C. July.

2. P. stipulàta, Torr. & Gray. Nearly smooth and glandless; stems diffuse; leaflets ovate-elliptical, reticulated; stipules ovate; flowers in heads on rather short peduncles; bracts broadly ovate, sharp-pointed.—Rocks, S. Ind. and Ky. June, July.

3. P. melilotoìdes, Michx. Somewhat pubescent, more or less glandular; stems erect (1–2° high), slender; leaflets lanceolate or narrowly oblong; spikes oblong, long-peduncled; stipules awl-shaped; bracts ovate or lanceolate, taper-pointed; pods strongly wrinkled transversely.—Dry soil, Fla. to Tenn., S. Ind. and Kan. June.

[*][*] Leaves palmately 3–5-foliolate; roots not tuberous.

4. P. tenuiflòra, Pursh. Slender, erect, much branched and bushy (2–4° high), minutely hoary-pubescent when young; leaflets varying from linear to obovate-oblong (½–1½´ long), glandular-dotted; flowers (2–3´´ long) in loose racemes; lobes of the calyx and bracts ovate, acute; pod glandular. (P. floribunda, Nutt.)—Prairies, Minn. to Ill., Tex., and westward. June–Sept.

5. P. argophýlla, Pursh. Silvery silky-white all over, erect, divergently branched (1–3° high); leaflets elliptical-lanceolate; spikes interrupted; lobes of the calyx and bracts lanceolate.—High plains, N. Wisc. to Iowa, Kan., and westward. June.—Flowers 4–5´´ long.

6. P. digitàta, Nutt. More slender and less hoary, 1–2° high; leaflets linear-oblanceolate; bracts of the interrupted spike obcordate; calyx-lobes oblong, acute.—Central Kan. to Col. and Tex.

7. P. lanceolàta, Pursh. Glabrous or nearly so, yellowish green, densely punctate; leaflets 3, linear to oblanceolate; flowers small, in very short spikes; calyx 1´´ long, with short broad teeth.—Central Kan. to the Sask. and westward.

[*][*][*] Leaves palmately 5-foliolate; root tuberous; spike-like racemes dense.

8. P. esculénta, Pursh. Roughish hairy all over; stem stout (5–15´ high) and erect from a tuberous or turnip-shaped farinaceous root; leaflets obovate- or lanceolate-oblong; spikes oblong, long-peduncled; lobes of the calyx and bracts lanceolate, nearly equalling the corolla (½´ long).—High plains, Sask. to Wisc., Iowa, and Tex. June. The Pomme blanche, or Pomme de Prairie, of the voyageurs.

9. P. hypogæ̀a, Nutt. Tuber small; nearly acaulescent, hoary with appressed hairs; leaflets linear; spikes short-capitate, on peduncles ½–2´ long; calyx narrow, 3–6´´ long.—Central Kan. to Col. and Tex.

10. P. cuspidàta, Pursh. Stout, tall, from a deep-seated tuber, hoary with appressed hairs; leaflets usually broadly oblanceolate, obtuse; flowers large, the petals (6–8´´ long) exceeding the lanceolate-lobed calyx.—Central Kan. to Col. and Tex.

14. AMÓRPHA, L. False Indigo.

Calyx inversely conical, 5-toothed, persistent. Standard (the other petals entirely wanting!) wrapped around the stamens and style. Stamens 10, monadelphous at the very base, otherwise distinct. Pod oblong, longer than the calyx, 1–2-seeded, roughened, tardily dehiscent.—Shrubs, with odd-pinnate leaves; the leaflets marked with minute dots, usually stipellate, the midvein excurrent. Flowers violet or purple, crowded in clustered terminal spikes. (Name, ἄμορφος, deformed, from the absence of four of the petals.)

[*] Pods 1-seeded; leaflets small (½´ long or less), crowded.

1. A. canéscens, Nutt. (Lead-Plant.) Whitened with hoary down (1–3° high); leaflets 15–25 pairs, oblong-elliptical, becoming smoothish above; spikes usually clustered at the summit.—Sask. to Ind. and Tex., west to the Rocky Mts.; also eastward to Ga.

2. A. microphýlla, Pursh. Nearly glabrous throughout, 1° high or less; leaflets rather rigid; spikes usually solitary.—Sask. to Minn. and Iowa, west to the Rocky Mts.

[*][*] Pods 2-seeded; leaflets larger, scattered.

3. A. fruticòsa, L. (False Indigo.) A tall shrub, rather pubescent or smoothish, leaflets 8–12 pairs, oblong to broadly elliptical.—River-banks, S. Penn. to Fla., west to Sask., Tex., and the Rocky Mts. Very variable.

15. DÀLEA, L.

Calyx 5-cleft or toothed. Corolla imperfectly papilionaceous; petals all on claws; the standard heart-shaped, inserted in the bottom of the calyx; the keel and wings borne on the middle of the monadelphous sheath of filaments, which is cleft down one side. Stamens 10, rarely 9. Pod membranaceous, 1-seeded, indehiscent, enclosed in the persistent calyx.—Mostly herbs, more or less glandular-dotted, with minute stipules; the small flowers in terminal spikes or heads. (Named for Samuel Dale, an English botanist.)

[*] Glabrous; flowers white or rose-color; leaflets 4–20 pairs; annuals.

1. D. alopecuroìdes, Willd. Erect (1–2° high); leaflets 10–20 pairs, linear-oblong; flowers light rose-color or whitish, in cylindrical spikes; bracts ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, deciduous; calyx very villous, with long slender teeth.—Alluvial soil, Minn. to Ill. and Ala., west to the Rocky Mts.

2. D. laxiflòra, Pursh. Erect (1–4° high), branching; leaflets 3–5 pairs, linear, 2–3´´ long; spikes loosely-flowered; bracts conspicuous, persistent, almost orbicular and very obtuse; petals white; calyx densely villous, the long teeth beautifully plumose.—Iowa and Mo. to Tex., west to Col.

[*][*] Pubescent; leaflets 3–4 pairs; perennial herbs.

3. D. aùrea, Nutt. Stems erect and simple, 1–3° high; leaflets oblong-obovate to linear-oblong, more or less silky-pubescent; spikes solitary, oblong-ovate, very compact and densely silky; bracts short, rhombic-ovate; petals yellow.—On the plains, Mo. to Tex., and westward.

4. D. lanàta, Spreng. Very pubescent throughout, 1–2° high, branching; leaflets obovate to oblong-obovate, 2–3´´ long; spikes slender, rather loose, the obovate acute bracts equalling the small short-toothed calyx; petals short, purple.—Central Kan. to Tex., and westward.

16. PETALOSTÈMON, Michx. Prairie Clover.

Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla indistinctly papilionaceous; petals all on thread-shaped claws, 4 of them nearly similar and spreading, borne on the top of the monadelphous and cleft sheath of filaments, alternate with the 5 anthers; the fifth (standard) inserted in the bottom of the calyx, heart-shaped or oblong. Pod membranaceous, enclosed in the calyx, indehiscent, 1–2 seeded.—Chiefly perennial herbs, upright, glandular-dotted, with crowded odd-pinnate leaves, minute stipules, and small flowers in very dense terminal and peduncled heads or spikes. (Name combined of the two Greek words for petal and stamen, alluding to the peculiar union of these organs in this genus.)

1. P. violàceus, Michx. Smoothish; leaflets 5, narrowly linear; heads globose-ovate, or oblong-cylindrical when old; bracts pointed, not longer than the silky-hoary calyx; corolla rose-purple.—Dry prairies, Minn. to Ind. and Tex., west to the Rocky Mts. July.

2. P. cándidus, Michx. Smooth; leaflets 7–9, lanceolate or linear-oblong; heads oblong, when old cylindrical; bracts awned, longer than the nearly glabrous calyx; corolla white.—With n. 1.

3. P. villòsus, Nutt. Soft-downy or silky all over; leaflets 13–17, linear or oblong, small (4–5´´ long); spikes cylindrical (1–5´ long), short-peduncled, soft-villous; corolla rose-color.—Wisc. to Mo., west to the Rocky Mts.

4. P. foliòsus, Gray. Smooth, very leafy; leaflets 15–29, linear-oblong; spikes cylindrical, short-peduncled; bracts slender-awned from a lanceolate base, exceeding the glabrous calyx; petals rose-color.—River-banks, Ill. and Tenn.

5. P. multiflòrus, Nutt. Glabrous throughout, erect, branching; leaflets 3–9, linear to oblong; spikes globose, the subulate setaceous bracts much shorter than the acutely toothed calyx, petals white.—Kan. to Tex.

17. TEPHRÒSIA, Pers. Hoary Pea.

Calyx about equally 5-cleft. Standard roundish, usually silky outside, turned back, scarcely longer than the coherent wings and keel. Stamens monadelphous or diadelphous. Pod linear, flat, several seeded, 2-valved.—Hoary perennial herbs, with odd-pinnate leaves, and white or purplish racemed flowers. Leaflets mucronate, veiny. (Name from τεφρός, ash-colored or hoary.)

1. T. Virginiàna, Pers. (Goat's Rue. Catgut.) Silky-villous with whitish hairs when young; stem erect and simple (1–2° high), leafy to the top; leaflets 17–29, linear-oblong; flowers large and numerous, clustered in a terminal oblong dense raceme or panicle, yellowish-white marked with purple.—Dry sandy soil. June, July.—Roots long and slender, very tough.

2. T. spicàta, Torr. & Gray. Villous with rusty hairs; stems branched below, straggling or ascending (2° long), few-leaved; leaflets 9–15, obovate or oblong-wedge-shaped, often notched; flowers few, in a loose and interrupted very long-peduncled spike, reddish.—Dry soil, from Del. and Va. to Fla. and Miss. July.

3. T. hispídula, Pers. Hairy with some long and rusty or only minute and appressed pubescence; stems slender (9–24´ long), divergently branched, straggling; leaflets 5–15, oblong, varying to obovate-wedge-shaped and oblanceolate; peduncles longer than the leaves, 2–4-flowered, flowers reddish-purple.—Dry sandy soil, Va. to Fla. and Ala.

18. INDIGÒFERA, L. Indigo.

Calyx small, equally 5-cleft. Standard roundish, silky outside, wings coherent; keel erect, gibbous or spurred at base. Stamens diadelphous; connective gland-like. Pod 1–several-seeded, septate within between the seeds.—Herbs or shrubs, mostly canescent with appressed hairs fixed by the middle, with odd-pinnate faintly-nerved leaves, and pink or purplish flowers in naked axillary spikes. (So named because some of the species yield the indigo of commerce.)

1. I. leptosépala, Nutt. A perennial herb, ½–2° high; leaflets 5–9, oblanceolate; spikes very loose; pods linear, 6–9 seeded, obtusely 4-angled, reflexed, 1´ long.—Kan. to Tex. and Fla.

19. ROBÍNIA, L. Locust-tree.

Calyx short, 5-toothed, slightly 2-lipped. Standard large and rounded, turned back, scarcely longer than the wings and keel. Stamens diadelphous. Pod linear, flat, several-seeded, margined on the seed-bearing edge, at length 2-valved.—Trees or shrubs, often with prickly spines for stipules. Leaves odd-pinnate, the ovate or oblong leaflets stipellate. Flowers showy, in hanging axillary racemes. Base of the leaf-stalks covering the buds of the next year. (Named in honor of John Robin, herbalist to Henry IV. of France, and his son Vespasian Robin, who first cultivated the Locust-tree in Europe.)

1. R. Pseudacàcia, L. (Common Locust or False Acacia.) Branches naked; racemes slender, loose; flowers white, fragrant; pod smooth.—S. Penn. to Ind., Iowa, and southward. Commonly cultivated as an ornamental tree, and for its valuable timber; naturalized in many places. June.

2. R. viscòsa, Vent. (Clammy L.) Branchlets and leaf-stalks clammy; flowers crowded in oblong racemes, tinged with rose-color, nearly inodorous; pod glandular-hispid.—Va. to N. C. and Ga., in the mountains. Cultivated, like the last, and often escaped. June.

3. R. híspida, L. (Bristly L. or Rose Acacia.) Shrub 3–8° high; branchlets and stalks bristly; flowers large and deep rose-color, inodorous; pods glandular-hispid.—Varies with less bristly or nearly naked branchlets; also with smaller flowers, etc.—Mts. of Va. to N. C. and Ga. May, June.

20. WISTÀRIA, Nutt.

Calyx campanulate, somewhat 2-lipped; upper lip of 2 short teeth, the lower of 3 longer ones. Standard roundish, large, turned back, with 2 callosities at its base; keel scythe-shaped; wings doubly auricled at the base. Stamens diadelphous. Pods elongated, thickish, knobby, stipitate, many-seeded, at length 2-valved. Seeds large.—Woody twiners, climbing high, with minute stipules, pinnate leaves of 9–13 ovate-lanceolate leaflets, with or without minute stipels, and dense racemes of large and showy lilac-purple flowers. (Dedicated to the late Professor Wistar, of Philadelphia.)

1. W. frutéscens, Poir. Downy or smoothish when old; wings of the corolla with one short auricle and an awl-shaped one as long as the claw.—Alluvial grounds, Va. to Fla., west to S. Ind., Kan. and La. May.—Sometimes cultivated for ornament, as is the still handsomer Chinese species.

21. ASTRÁGALUS, Tourn. Milk-Vetch.

Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla usually long and narrow; standard narrow, equalling or exceeding the wings and blunt keel, its sides reflexed or spreading. Stamens diadelphous. Pod several–many-seeded, various, mostly turgid, one or both sutures usually projecting into the cell, either slightly or so as to divide the cavity lengthwise into two.—Chiefly herbs (ours perennials), with odd-pinnate leaves and spiked or racemed flowers. Mature pods are usually necessary for certain identification of the species. (The ancient Greek name of a leguminous plant, as also of the ankle-bone; but the connection between the two is past all guess.)

I. Pod turgid, completely or imperfectly 2-celled by the intrusion of the dorsal suture, the ventral suture being not at all or less deeply inflexed.Astragalus proper.

[*] Pod plum-shaped, succulent, becoming thick and fleshy, indehiscent, not stipitute, completely 2-celled.

1. A. caryocárpus, Ker. (Ground Plum.) Pale and minutely appressed-pubescent; leaflets narrowly oblong; flowers in a short spike-like raceme; corolla violet-purple; fruit glabrous, ovate-globular, more or less pointed, about {2/3}´ in diameter, very thick-walled, cellular or corky when dry.—Sask. and Minn. to Mo., Col., and Tex. May.

2. A. Mexicànus, A. DC. Smoother, or pubescent with looser hairs, larger; leaflets roundish, obovate, or oblong; flowers larger (10–12´´ long); calyx softly hairy; corolla cream-color, bluish only at the tip; fruit globular, very obtuse and pointless, 1´ or more in diameter; otherwise like the last.—Prairies and open plains, Ill. to Kan., south to Tex. The unripe fruits of both resemble green plums—whence the popular name—and are eaten, raw or cooked, by travellers.

3. A. Platténsis, Nutt. Loosely villous; stipules conspicuous; leaflets oblong, often glabrous above; flowers crowded in a short spike or oblong head, cream-color often tinged or tipped with purple; fruit ovate, pointed, and with the calyx villous.—Gravelly or sandy banks, Minn. to Ind. and Ala., west to Col. and Tex.—Var. Tennesseénsis, Gray, has the pod oblong and slightly curved, and much less fleshy. May.

[*][*] Pod dry, coriaceous, cartilaginous or membranous, dehiscent.

[+] Pod completely 2-celled, sessile.

4. A. mollíssimus, Torr. Stout, decumbent, densely silky-villous throughout and tomentose; leaflets 19–29, ovate-oblong; peduncles elongated; spikes dense, with rather large violet flowers (6–12´´ long); pod narrow-oblong (5–9´´ long), glabrous, somewhat obcompressed and sulcate at both sutures, at length incurved.—Neb. to Kan. and Tex., west to Col. The most common "loco"-plant, and said to be very poisonous to cattle.

5. A. Canadénsis, L. Tall and erect (1–4° high), somewhat pubescent or glabrate; leaflets 21–27, oblong; flowers greenish cream-color, very numerous, in long dense spikes, pods crowded, oblong (6´´ long), glabrous, terete, scarcely sulcate and only on the back, nearly straight.—River-banks, western N. Y. to N. Ga., and far westward.

6. A. adsúrgens, Pall. Ascending or decumbent (4–18´ high), cinereous with minute appressed pubescence or glabrate; leaflets about 21, narrowly or linear-oblong; spike dense, with medium-sized pale or purplish flowers; pubescence of calyx appressed; pod oblong (4–5´´ long), finely pubescent, triangular-compressed, with a deep dorsal furrow, straight.—Red River valley, Minn., to W. Kan., and westward. (Asia.)

7. A. hypoglóttis, L. Slender (6´–2° long), diffusely procumbent or ascending, with a rather loose pubescence or nearly glabrous; leaflets 15–21, oblong, obtuse or retuse; flowers violet, capitate; calyx loosely pubescent; pod as in the last, but ovate and silky-villous.—Red River valley, Minn., to central Kan. and westward.

[+][+] Pod not completely 2-celled.

[++] Pod stipitate, pendent.

8. A. alpìnus, L. Diffuse (6–12´ high), smooth or slightly hairy; leaflets 13–25; flowers violet-purple, or at least the keel tipped with violet or blue; calyx campanulate; pod narrowly oblong, short-acuminate, black-pubescent, triangular-turgid, deeply grooved on the back, straight or curved, its stipe usually rather exceeding the calyx.—Rocky banks, Lab. to Maine and N. Vt.

9. A. Robbínsii, Gray. Nearly smooth and erect (1° high), slender; leaflets 7–11; calyx more oblong; flowers white; pod oblong (6´´ long), obtuse or acutish, minutely darkish-pubescent, somewhat laterally compressed, not dorsally sulcate or obsoletely so, straight or somewhat incurved, rather abruptly narrowed at base into the often included stipe.—Rocky ledges, Vt.

10. A. racemòsus, Pursh. Stout (1–2° high), erect or ascending, appressed-pubescent or glabrate; leaflets 13–25; flowers numerous, white, pendent; calyx campanulate, gibbous, white-pubescent; pod straight, narrow, 1´ long, acute at both ends, triangular-compressed, deeply grooved on the back, the ventral edge acute.—Neb. to Mo., and westward.

[++][++] Pod sessile.

11. A. grácilis, Nutt. Subcinereous, slender (1° high or more); leaflets 11–17, linear, obtuse or retuse; racemes loose; flowers small (3´´ long); pods pendent, 2–3´´ long, coriaceous, elliptic-ovate, concave on the back, the ventral suture prominent, white-hairy, at length glabrous, transversely veined.—Minn. to Neb. and Mo., and westward.

12. A. distórtus, Torr. & Gray. Low, diffuse, many-stemmed, subglabrous; leaflets 17–25, oblong, emarginate; flowers in a short spike, pale-purple; pod ovate- or lance-oblong, curved, 6–9´´ long, glabrous, thick-coriaceous, somewhat grooved on the back, the ventral suture nearly flat.—Ill. to Iowa, Mo., Ark. and Tex.

13. A. lotiflòrus, Hook. Hoary or cinereous with appressed hairs; stems very short; leaflets 7–13, lance-oblong; flowers yellowish, in few-flowered heads, with peduncles exceeding the leaves or very short; calyx campanulate, the subulate teeth exceeding the tube; pod oblong-ovate, 9–12´´ long, acuminate, acute at base, canescent, the back more or less impressed, the acute ventral suture nearly straight.—Sask. to Neb. and Tex., west to the mountains.

14. A. Missouriénsis, Nutt. Short-caulescent, hoary with a closely appressed silky pubescence; leaflets 5–15, oblong, elliptic or obovate; flowers few, capitate or spicate, 5–8´´ long, violet; calyx oblong, the teeth very slender; pod oblong (1´ long), acute, obtuse at base, pubescent, nearly straight, obcompressed or obcompressed-triangular, depressed on the back and the ventral suture more or less prominent, transversely rugulose.—Sask. to Neb. and N. Mex.

II. Pod 1-celled, neither suture being inflexed or the ventral more intruded than the dorsal.Phaca.

15. A. Coòperi, Gray. Nearly smooth, erect (1–2° high); leaflets 11–21, elliptical or oblong, somewhat retuse, minutely hoary beneath; flowers white, rather numerous in a short spike; calyx dark-pubescent; pod coriaceous, inflated, ovate-globose (6–9´´ long), acute, glabrous, slightly sulcate on both sides, cavity webby.—Ont. and western N. Y. to Minn. and Iowa.

16. A. flexuòsus, Dougl. Ashy-puberulent, ascending (1–2° high); leaflets 11–21, mostly narrow; flowers small, in loose racemes; pod thin-coriaceous, cylindric (8–11´´ long, 2´´ broad), pointed, straight or curved, puberulent, very shortly stipitate.—Red River Valley, Minn., to Col.


Keel tipped with a sharp projecting point or appendage; otherwise as in Astragalus. Pod often more or less 2-celled by the intrusion of the ventral suture.—Our species are low, nearly acaulescent perennials, with tufts of numerous very short stems from a hard and thick root or rootstock, covered with scaly adnate stipules; pinnate leaves of many leaflets; peduncles scape-like, bearing a head or short spike of flowers. (Name from ὀξύς, sharp, and τρόπις, keel.)

[*] Leaves simply pinnate.

1. O. campéstris, DC., var. cærùlea, Koch. Pubescent or smoothish; leaflets lanceolate or oblong; flowers violet or blue, sometimes pure white; pods ovate or oblong-lanceolate, of a thin or papery texture.—N. Maine to Labrador.

2. O. Lambérti, Pursh. Silky with fine appressed hairs; leaflets mostly linear; flowers larger, purple, violet, or sometimes white; pods cartilaginous or firm-coriaceous in texture, silky-pubescent, strictly erect, cylindraceous-lanceolate and long-pointed, almost 2-celled by intrusion of the ventral suture.—Dry plains, Sask. and Minn. to Mo. and Tex., west to the mountains.

[*][*] Leaflets numerous, mostly in fascicles of 3 or 4 or more along the rhachis.

3. O. spléndens, Dougl. Silvery silky-villous (6–12´ high); scape spicately several to many-flowered; flowers erect-spreading; pod ovate, erect, 2-celled, hardly surpassing the very villous calyx.—Plains of Sask. and W. Minn., to N. Mex. and the Rocky Mts.

23. GLYCYRRHÌZA, Tourn. Liquorice.

Calyx with the two upper lobes shorter or partly united. Anther-cells confluent at the apex, the alternate ones smaller. Pod ovate or oblong-linear, compressed, often curved, clothed with rough glands or short prickles, scarcely dehiscent, few-seeded. The flower, etc., otherwise as in Astragalus.—Long perennial root sweet (whence the name, from γλυκύς, sweet, and ῥίζα, root); herbage glandular-viscid; leaves odd-pinnate, with minute stipules; flowers in axillary spikes, white or bluish.

1. G. lepidòta, Nutt. (Wild Liquorice.) Tall (2–3° high); leaflets 15–19, oblong-lanceolate, mucronate-pointed, sprinkled with little scales when young, and with corresponding dots when old; spikes peduncled, short; flowers whitish; pods oblong, beset with hooked prickles, so as to resemble the fruit of Xanthium on a smaller scale.—Minn. to Iowa and Mo., and westward; Ft. Erie, Ont.

24. ÆSCHYNÓMENE, L. Sensitive Joint-Vetch.

Calyx 2-lipped; the upper lip 2-, the lower 3-cleft. Standard roundish; keel boat-shaped. Stamens diadelphous in two sets of 5 each. Pod flattened, composed of several easily separable joints.—Leaves odd-pinnate with several pairs of leaflets, sometimes sensitive, as if shrinking from the touch (whence the name, from αἰσχυνομένη, being ashamed.)

1. Æ. híspida, Willd. Erect, rough-bristly annual; leaflets 37–51, linear; racemes few-flowered; flowers yellow, reddish externally; pod stalked, 6–10-jointed.—Along rivers, S. Penn. to Fla. and Miss. Aug.


Calyx 5-toothed. Standard orbicular; keel incurved. Stamens diadelphous, 9 and 1. Pod terete or 4-angled, jointed; the joints oblong.—Glabrous herbs or shrubs, with pinnate leaves, and the flowers in umbels terminating axillary peduncles. (Diminutive of corona, a crown, alluding to the inflorescence.)

C. vària, L. A perennial herb with ascending stems; leaves sessile; leaflets 15–25, oblong; flowers rose-color; pods coriaceous, 3–7-jointed, the 4 angled joints 3–4´´ long.—Conn. to N. J. (Nat. from Eu.)

26. HEDÝSARUM, Tourn.

Calyx 5-cleft, the lobes awl-shaped and nearly equal. Keel nearly straight, obliquely truncate, not appendaged, longer than the wings. Stamens diadelphous, 5 and 1. Pod flattened, composed of several equal-sided separable roundish joints connected in the middle.—Perennial herbs; leaves odd-pinnate. (Name composed of ἡδύς, sweet, and ἄρομα, smell.)

1. H. boreàle, Nutt. Leaflets 13–21, oblong or lanceolate, nearly glabrous; stipules scaly, united opposite the petiole; raceme of many deflexed purple flowers; standard shorter than the keel; joints of the pod 3 or 4, smooth, reticulated.—Lab. to northern Maine and Vt.; north shore of L. Superior, and north and westward.

27. DESMÒDIUM, Desv. Tick-Trefoil.

Calyx usually more or less 2 lipped. Standard obovate; wings adherent to the straight or straightish and usually truncate keel, by means of a little transverse appendage on each side of the latter. Stamens diadelphous, 9 and 1, or monadelphous below. Pod flat, deeply lobed on the lower margin, separating into few or many flat reticulated joints (mostly roughened with minute hooked hairs, by which they adhere to the fleece of animals or to clothing).—Perennial herbs, with pinnately 3-foliolate (rarely 1-foliolate) leaves, stipellate. Flowers (in summer) in axillary or terminal racemes, often panicled, and 2 or 3 from each bract, purple or purplish, often turning green in withering. Stipules and bracts scale-like, often striate. (Name from δεσμός, a bond or chain, from the connected joints of the pods.)

§ 1. Pod raised on a stalk (stipe) many times longer than the slightly toothed calyx and nearly as long as the pedicel, straightish on the upper margin, deeply sinuate on the lower; the 1–4 joints mostly half-obovate and concave on the back; stamens monadelphous below; plants nearly glabrous; stems erect or ascending; raceme terminal, panicled; stipules bristle-form, deciduous.

1. D. nudiflòrum, DC. Leaves all crowded at the summit of sterile stems; leaflets broadly ovate, bluntish, whitish beneath; raceme elongated on an ascending mostly leafless stalk or scape from the root, 2° long.—Dry woods, common.

2. D. acuminàtum, DC. Leaves all crowded at the summit of the stem from which arises the elongated naked raceme or panicle; leaflets round-ovate, taper-pointed, green both sides, the end one round (4–5´ long).—Rich woods, from Canada to the Gulf.

3. D. pauciflòrum, DC. Leaves scattered along the low (8–15´ high) ascending stems; leaflets rhombic-ovate, bluntish, pale beneath; raceme few-flowered, terminal.—Woods, Ont. to Penn., Mich., Kan., and southward.

§ 2. Pod raised on a stalk (stipe) little if at all surpassing the deeply deft calyx; stems long and prostrate or decumbent; racemes axillary and terminal.

[*] Stipules conspicuous, ovate, attenuate, striate, persistent; racemes mostly simple.

4. D. rotundifòlium, DC. Soft-hairy all over, truly prostrate; leaflets orbicular, or the odd one slightly rhomboid; flowers purple; pods almost equally sinuate on both edges, 3–5-jointed; the joints rhomboid-oval.—Dry rocky woods, N. Eng. to Fla., west to Minn., Mo., and La.

Var. glabràtum, Gray, is almost glabrous, otherwise nearly as the ordinary form.—Mass. and N. Y.

5. D. ochroleùcum, M. A. Curtis. Stems sparsely hairy, decumbent; leaflets nearly glabrous, ovate, acute or obtuse, transversely reticulated beneath, the lateral ones smaller or sometimes wanting; racemes much elongated; corolla whitish; pods twisted, 2–4-jointed, the large rhomboid joints smooth and reticulated but the margins downy.—Woodlands, Md. and Va.

[*][*] Stipules smaller, lanceolate and awl-shaped, less persistent; racemes panicled.

6. D. humifùsum, Beck. Glabrous or nearly so, procumbent; leaflets ovate or ovate-oblong, rather obtuse, much smaller than in the two preceding (1¼–2´ long), corolla purple; pods 2–4-jointed, flat, the oval-rhomboid joints minutely scabrous throughout.—Dry sandy soil, S. Penn. to Md.

§ 3. Pod slightly if at all stalked in the calyx; racemes panicled.

[*] Stems tall (3–5°) and erect; the persistent stipules and deciduous bracts large and conspicuous, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, taper-pointed; flowers rather large.

[+] Pods of 4–7 unequal-sided rhombic joints, which are considerably longer than broad (about 6´´ long).

7. D. canéscens, DC. Stem loosely branched, hairy; leaflets ovate, bluntish, about the length of the petioles, whitish and reticulated beneath, both sides roughish with a close fine pubescence; joints of the pod very adhesive.—Moist grounds, Mass. and Vt. to Minn. and southward, chiefly westward. Branches clothed with both minute and hooked, and longer, spreading, rather glutinous hairs.—Var. villosíssimum, Torr. & Gray, has the panicle and upper part of the stem very villous, and leaflets oblong-ovate.—Mo.

8. D. cuspidàtum, Torr. & Gray. Very smooth except the panicle; stem straight; leaflets lanceolate-ovate and taper-pointed, green both sides, longer than the petiole (3–5´); joints of the pod rhomboid-oblong, smoothish.—Thickets, common. The conspicuous bracts and stipules ¾´ long.

[+][+] Pods of 3–5 oval joints (not over 3´´ long).

9. D. Illinoénse, Gray. Erect (3–5° high); stem and leaves with short rough pubescence; leaflets ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate (2–4´ long), obtuse, subcoriaceous, cinereous beneath, veins and veinlets prominent, strongly reticulated, the lower leaflets nearly equalling the petiole; pods scarcely over 1´ long, sinuate on both margins (deeper below).—Dry ground, Ill. to Iowa and Kan.

[*][*] Stems (2–5° high) erect; stipules and bracts mostly deciduous, small and inconspicuous; joints of the pod 3–5, triangular or half-rhombic or very unequal-sided rhomboidal, longer than broad, 3´´ or less in length; flowers middle-sized.

10. D. lævigàtum, DC. Smooth or nearly so throughout; stem straight; leaflets ovate, bluntish, pale beneath (2–3´ long); panicles minutely rough-pubescent.—Pine woods, N. J. to Fla., west to Mo. and Tex.

11. D. viridiflòrum, Beck. Stem very downy, rough at the summit; leaflets broadly ovate, very obtuse, rough above, whitened with a soft velvety down underneath (2–3´ long).—Southern N. Y. to N. J. and Fla., west to Mich., Mo., and Tex.

12. D. Dillènii, Darlingt. Stem pubescent; leaflets oblong or oblong-ovate, commonly bluntish, pale beneath, softly and finely pubescent, mostly thin (2–3´ long).—Open woodlands, common.

13. D. paniculàtum, DC. Nearly smooth throughout; stem slender, tall; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, or narrowly lanceolate, tapering to a blunt point, thin (3–5´ long); racemes much panicled.—Copses, common.

14. D. stríctum, DC. Stem very straight and slender, simple (2–3° high), the upper part and narrow panicle rough-glandular; leaflets linear, blunt, strongly reticulated, thickish, very smooth (1–2´ long, ¼´ wide); joints of the pod 1–3, semi-obovate or very gibbous (only 2´´ long).—Pine woods, N. J. to Fla. and La.

[*][*][*] Stipules small and inconspicuous, mostly deciduous; pods of few roundish or obliquely oval or sometimes roundish-rhomboidal joints, 1½–2½´´ long.

[+] Stems erect; bracts before flowering conspicuous; racemes densely flowered.

15. D. Canadénse, DC. Stem hairy (3–6° high); leaflets oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, with numerous straightish veins, much longer than the petiole (1½–3´ long); flowers showy, larger than in any other species (½–{1/3}´ long).—Dry rich woods, N. Brunswick to N. C., Minn., and Kan.

16. D. sessilifòlium, Torr. & Gray. Stem pubescent (2–4° high); leaves nearly sessile; leaflets linear or linear-oblong, blunt, thickish, reticulated, rough above, downy beneath; branches of the panicle long; flowers small.—Copses, Penn. and Ky., west to Mich., Iowa, Mo., and Tex.

[+][+] Stems ascending (1–3° high); bracts small; racemes or panicles elongated and loosely flowered; flowers small.

17. D. rígidum, DC. Stem branching, somewhat hoary, like the lower surface of the leaves, with a close roughish pubescence; leaflets ovate-oblong, blunt, thickish, reticulated-veiny, rather rough above, the lateral ones longer than the petiole.—Dry hillsides, Mass. to Fla., west to Mich., Mo., and La.

18. D. ciliàre, DC. Stem slender, hairy or rough-pubescent; leaves crowded, on very short hairy petioles; leaflets round-ovate or oval, thickish, more or less hairy on the margins and underneath (½–1´ long).—Dry hills and sandy fields, N. Eng. to Fla., west to Mich., Mo., and Tex.

19. D. Marilándicum, F. Boott. Nearly smooth throughout, slender; leaflets ovate or roundish, very obtuse, thin, the lateral ones about the length of the slender petiole; otherwise resembling the preceding.—Copses, N. Eng. to Fla., west to Mich., Mo., and La.

[+][+][+] Stems reclining or prostrate; racemes loosely flowered.

20. D. lineàtum, DC. Stem minutely pubescent, striate-angled; leaflets orbicular, smoothish (½–1´ long), much longer than the petiole; pod scarcely stalked in the calyx.—Dry soil, Md. and Va. to Fla. and La.

28. LESPEDÈZA, Michx. Bush-Clover.

Calyx 5-cleft; the lobes nearly equal, slender. Stamens diadelphous (9 and 1); anthers all alike. Pods of a single 1-seeded joint (sometimes 2 jointed, with the lower joint empty and stalk-like), oval or roundish, flat, reticulated.—Herbs with pinnately 3-foliolate leaves, not stipellate. Flowers often polygamous, in summer and autumn. (Dedicated to Lespedez, the Spanish governor of Florida in the time of Michaux.)

§ 1. Stipules subulate-setaceous; bracts minute; calyx-lobes attenuate; perennial.

[*] Flowers of two sorts, the larger (violet-purple) perfect, but seldom fruitful, panicled or clustered; with smaller pistillate and fertile but mostly apetalous ones intermixed or in small subsessile clusters; calyx 1–2´´ long; pod exserted.

1. L. procúmbens, Michx. Slender, trailing and prostrate, minutely appressed-hairy to soft-downy; leaflets oval or obovate-elliptical, 3–9´´ long; peduncles very slender, few-flowered; keel equalling the wings; pod small, roundish, obtuse or acute. (Incl. L. repens, Bart.)—Dry sandy soil; common.

2. L. violàcea, Pers. Stems upright or spreading, slender, branched, rather sparsely leafy and sparingly pubescent; leaflets thin, broadly oval or oblong, finely appressed-pubescent beneath; peduncles very slender, loosely few-flowered, mostly longer than the leaves; flowers 3–4´´ long, the keel often the longest; pod ovate, 2–3´´ long, nearly glabrous.—Dry copses, N. Eng. to Minn. and E. Kan., south to Fla. and La.

3. L. reticulàta, Pers. Stouter, erect, very leafy; leaflets thickish, linear to linear-oblong, 6–15´´ long, finely appressed-pubescent; flowers (scarcely 3´´ long) clustered on peduncles much shorter than the leaves, the keel shorter than the standard; pods ovate, acute, 2´´ long, appressed-subpubescent. (L. violacea, var. angustifolia, Torr. & Gray.)—Mass. to Minn., and southward.

4. L. Stùvei, Nutt. Stems upright-spreading, very leafy, simple or somewhat branched, downy with spreading pubescence; leaflets oval or roundish varying to oblong or rarely linear-oblong, silky or white-woolly beneath and sometimes above; flowers as in the last, often numerous and crowded; pods ovate, acuminate, mostly 3´´ long, downy.—Mass. to Mich., and south to Va. and Tex.

Var. intermèdia, Watson. Pubescence more scanty and usually fine and appressed as in n. 3, but the leaflets oval to oblong; inflorescence often more open; pod of n. 4 or of n. 3. (L. violacea, var. sessiliflora, of Man., mainly.)—Mass. to Fla., and west to Mich., Ill., E. Kan., and Ark.

[*][*] Flowers all alike and perfect, in close spikes or heads; corolla whitish or cream-color with a purple spot on the standard, about the length of the downy 5-parted calyx; pod included; stems upright, wand-like (2–4° high).

5. L. polystàchya, Michx. Stem with mostly spreading pubescence; petioles 2–6´´ long; leaflets from orbicular to oblong-ovate, hairy; spikes oblong, on elongated peduncles; pod (at maturity) oblong-ovate, pubescent, nearly 3´´ long, hardly shorter than the calyx. (L. hirta, Ell.)—Dry hills, common.

6. L. capitàta, Michx. Stems rigid, woolly; petioles very short; leaflets oblong to narrowly oblong, thickish, reticulated and mostly smooth above, silky or sometimes downy beneath; heads of flowers globular, on peduncles shorter than the leaves; pod oblong-ovate, pubescent, much shorter than the calyx.—Dry and sandy soil, N. Eng. to Fla., west to Minn., Mo., and La.

7. L. angustifòlia, Ell. Like the last, but mostly appressed-silky, the leaflets linear, the smaller often oblong heads on distinct and sometimes slender peduncles, the pod round-ovate, acutish, 1½–2´´ long, hardly shorter than the calyx. (L. capitata, var. angustifolia, Pursh.)—N. J. to Fla., west to Mich., Iowa, and La.

8. L. leptostàchya, Gray. Clothed with appressed silky pubescence; stems often branched, slender; leaflets linear to narrowly oblong; spikes slender, somewhat loosely-flowered, on peduncles as long as the leaves; pod ovate, small (1½´´ long), about equalling the calyx, densely pubescent.—Ill., Iowa, and Minn.

§ 2. Stipules and bracts broad and scarious; calyx-lobes broad; annual.

L. striàta, Hook. & Arn. Diffusely branched, decumbent, subpubescent; petioles very short; leaflets oblong-obovate, 6´´ long or less; peduncles very short, 1–5-flowered; pod small, little exceeding the calyx.—Common in the Southern States, extending into Mo. (Nat. from E. Asia.)


Calyx early deciduous; tube slender and stalk-like; limb unequally 4–5-cleft, the lower lobe more distinct. Corolla and monadelphous stamens inserted at the summit of the calyx-tube; standard orbicular; keel incurved. Anthers 10, the 5 longer ones fixed near their base, and the 5 alternate shorter ones fixed by the middle. Style filiform, its upper part falling off after flowering, the lower part incurved or hooked, persistent on the 1–2-jointed small and short reticulated pod; the lower joint when present empty and stalk-like.—Low perennials, branched from the base, with wiry stems, pinnately 3-foliolate leaves, the sheathing stipules united to the petiole, no stipels, and small, yellow flowers in terminal heads or short spikes. (Name composed of στύλος, a column, and ἄνθος, a flower, from the stalk-like calyx-tube.)

1. S. elàtior, Swartz. Tufted; leaflets lanceolate, strongly straight-veined; heads or clusters small and few-flowered.—Pine barrens, Long Island and N. J. to Fla., west to S. Ind., Kan., and Ark.

30. VÍCIA, Tourn. Vetch. Tare.

Calyx 5-cleft or 5-toothed, the 2 upper teeth often shorter, or the lowest longer. Wings of the corolla adhering to the middle of the keel. Stamens more or less diadelphous (9 and 1); the orifice of the tube oblique. Style filiform, hairy all round or only on the back at the apex. Pod flat, 2-valved, 2–several-seeded. Seeds globular. Cotyledons very thick, remaining under ground in germination.—Herbs, mostly climbing more or less by the tendril at the end of the pinnate leaves. Stipules half-sagittate. Flowers or peduncles axillary. (The classical Latin name.)

[*] Annual; flowers 1 or 2 in the axils, nearly sessile, large, violet-purple.

V. satìva, L. (Common Vetch or Tare.) Somewhat pubescent; stem simple; leaflets 5–7 pairs, varying from obovate-oblong to linear, notched and mucronate at the apex; pod linear, several-seeded.—Cultivated fields and waste places, N. Eng. to N. J. and southward, west to Mich. and Minn.—Var. angustifòlia, Seringe, has longer and narrow leaflets. (Adv. from Eu.)

[*][*] Annual, slender; peduncles elongated; flowers small.

V. tetraspérma, L. Peduncles 1–2-flowered; leaflets 4–6 pairs, linear-oblong, obtuse; calyx-teeth unequal; corolla whitish; pods narrow, 4-seeded, smooth.—Waste places, near the coast, N. Scotia to N. J. (Nat. from Eu.)

V. hirsùta, Koch. Peduncles 3–6-flowered; leaflets 6–8 pairs, truncate; calyx-teeth equal; corolla bluish; pods oblong, 2-seeded, hairy.—N. Brunswick to Mass. and Va. (Nat. from Eu.)

[*][*][*] Perennial; peduncles elongated; calyx-teeth unequal; pod several-seeded.

1. V. Crácca, L. Downy-pubescent; leaflets 20–24, oblong-lanceolate, strongly mucronate; spikes densely many-flowered, 1-sided; flowers blue, turning purple, 6´´ long, reflexed; calyx-teeth shorter than the tube.—Borders of thickets, Newf. to N. J., west to Ky., Iowa, and Minn. (Eu.)

2. V. Caroliniàna, Walt. Nearly smooth; leaflets 8–24, oblong, obtuse, scarcely mucronate; peduncles loosely-flowered; flowers small, more scattered than in the preceding, whitish, the keel tipped with blue; calyx-teeth very short.—River-banks, Ont. and N. Y. to Ga., west to Minn. and Kan.

3. V. Americàna, Muhl. Glabrous; leaflets 10–14, elliptical or ovate-oblong, very obtuse, many-veined; peduncles 4–8-flowered; flowers purplish (8´´ long).—Moist soil, N. Y. and N. J., to Kan., Minn., and westward.—Var. lineàris, Watson, a low form with linear leaflets, occurs in Kan. and Neb., and is common westward.

31. LÁTHYRUS, Tourn. Vetchling. Everlasting Pea.

Style flattish, dilated and flattish (not grooved) above, hairy along the inner side (next the free stamen). Sheath of the filaments scarcely oblique at the apex. Otherwise nearly as in Vicia.—Our species are perennial and mostly smooth plants, the rhachis of the leaves in some not produced into a tendril. (Λάθυρος, a leguminous plant of Theophrastus.)

[*] Tendrils present; stipules large and broad; leaflets 3–5 pairs.

1. L. marítimus, Bigelow. (Beach Pea.) Stout (1° high or more); stipules broadly ovate and halberd-shaped, nearly as large as the leaflets, the lower lobe larger and usually coarsely toothed; leaflets thick, ovate-oblong (1–2´ long); peduncles a little shorter than the leaves, 6–10-flowered, flowers large (9´´ long), purple.—Seashore from N. J. and Oregon to the Arctic Sea; also on the Great Lakes. (Eu.)

2. L. ochroleùcus, Hook. Stem slender (1–3° high); stipules semi-cordate, half as large as the thin ovate leaflets; peduncles 7–10-flowered; flowers smaller, yellowish-white.—Hillsides, N. Eng. to Minn., Iowa, and westward.

[*][*] Tendrils present; stipules narrow, semi-sagittate, acuminate.

[+] Flowers purple; leaflets several pairs.

3. L. venòsus, Muhl. Stout, climbing, usually somewhat downy; stipules very small and mostly slender; leaflets 4–6 pairs, oblong ovate, mostly obtuse (about 2´ long); peduncles many-flowered; flowers 6–8´´ long.—Shady banks, Penn. to Ga., west to Kan. and Minn.

4. L. palústris, L. Slender, glabrous or somewhat pubescent; stem often winged; stipules lanceolate, sharp-pointed at both ends; leaflets 2–4 pairs, narrowly oblong to linear, acute (1–2´ long); peduncles 2–6-flowered; flowers 6´´ long.—Moist places, N. Scotia to N. J., and westward across the continent. (Eu.)

Var. myrtifòlius, Gray. Stipules usually broader and larger; leaflets ovate to oblong (1´ long or less).—Same range, and extending south to N. C.

[+][+] Flowers yellow; leaflets a single pair.

L. pratènsis, L. Low and straggling; leaflets narrowly lanceolate to linear, acute; peduncles several-flowered.—Spontaneous in Mass., N. Y., and Ont. (Nat. from Eu.)

[*][*][*] Tendrils usually wanting; low, mostly erect; stipules semi-sagittate; flowers very large, purple; pod stipitate in the calyx.

5. L. polymórphus, Nutt. Leaflets 3–6 pairs, narrowly oblong to linear, thick and strongly nerved, 1–2´ long; seeds with a narrow footstalk and short hilum.—Mo., Kan., and westward.

6. L. ornàtus, Nutt. Like the last, but leaflets always narrow, 3–12´´ long; seeds with a very broad footstalk and long hilum.—Kan. to Col. and Dak. Scarcely 1° high.

32. ÁPIOS, Boerhaave. Ground-nut. Wild Bean.

Calyx somewhat 2-lipped, the 2 lateral teeth being nearly obsolete, the upper very short, the lower one longest. Standard very broad, reflexed; the long scythe-shaped keel strongly incurved, at length coiled. Stamens diadelphous. Pod straight or slightly curved, linear, elongated, thickish, many-seeded.—A perennial herb (with some milky juice!), twining and climbing over bushes, and bearing edible tubers on underground shoots. Leaflets 3–7, ovate-lanceolate, obscurely stipellate. Flowers in dense and short, often branching racemes. (Name from ἄπιον, a pear, from the shape of the tubers.)

1. A. tuberòsa, Moench. Flowers brown-purple or chocolate-color, violet-scented.—Low grounds, N. Brunswick to Fla., west to Minn., Kan., and La.

33. PHASÈOLUS, Tourn. Kidney Bean.

Calyx 5-toothed or 5-cleft, the two upper teeth often higher united. Keel of the corolla, with the included stamens and style, spirally coiled. Stamens diadelphous. Style bearded along the upper side; stigma oblique or lateral. Pod scythe-shaped, several–many-seeded, tipped with the hardened base of the style. Seeds round-reniform, with very short hilum. Cotyledons thick and fleshy, rising out of the ground nearly unchanged in germination.—Twining herbs, with pinnately 3-foliolate stipellate leaves. Flowers racemose, produced in summer and autumn. (The ancient name of the Kidney Bean.)

1. P. perénnis, Walt. (Wild Bean.) Stem climbing high from a perennial root; leaflets roundish-ovate, short-pointed; flowers purple, handsome, but small; pods drooping, strongly curved, 4–5-seeded.—Copses, N. Eng. to Fla., west to Minn. and La.


Keel of the corolla with the included stamens and style elongated, strongly incurved, not spirally coiled. Pod linear, terete or flattish, straight or nearly so. Seeds quadrate or oblong with truncate ends, mealy-pubescent or glabrate; hilum linear. Flowers few, sessile and capitate clustered on the mostly long peduncles. Otherwise as Phaseolus.—Stems prostrate or climbing, more or less retrorsely hairy. Stipules and bracts striate. (Name from στροφή, a turning, and στῦλος, a style.)

1. S. angulòsa, Ell. Annual; stems branched, 1–6° long; leaflets ovate to oblong-ovate (rarely linear-oblong), with a more or less prominent rounded lobe toward the base (the terminal 2-lobed), or some or all often entire, about 1´ (6–20´´) long; corolla greenish-white and purplish; pod terete, 2–3´ long by 3´´ wide, 4–8-seeded, nearly glabrous; seeds oblong, about 3´´ long, usually very pubescent. (Phaseolus diversifolius, Pers. P. helvolus, L.)—Sandy shores and river-banks; coast of Mass. and southward, along the Great Lakes to Minn., and south to Kan. and Tex.

Var. Missouriénsis, Watson in herb. Climbing high (10–30°); leaves often 3´ long, rhombic-ovate, rarely at all lobed; seeds 3–4´´ long.—River-bottoms near Independence, Mo.; nearly two months later. (F. Bush.)

2. S. pedunculàris, Ell. Stems more slender, from a perennial rootstock, 2–4° long; leaflets ovate to oblong-linear, rarely at all lobed, 1´ long or less; pod 1½–2´ long and scarcely 2´´ wide; seeds much smaller, 1½–2´´ long, short-oblong to quadrate. (Phaseolus helvolus, Man., etc., not L.)—Sandy ground, Long Island and N. J. to Fla., west to S. Ind., Ky., and La.

3. S. pauciflòrus, Watson in herb. Annual, slender, low-climbing, pubescent; leaflets oblong-lanceolate or ovate-oblong to linear, not lobed, 1´ long; pod pubescent, 1´ long, flattish; seeds as in the last, very finely mealy, soon glabrate. (Phaseolus pauciflorus, Benth.)—River-banks, Ind. to Minn., south to Miss. and Tex.

35. CENTROSÈMA, DC. Spurred Butterfly-Pea.

Calyx short, 5-cleft. Corolla, etc., much as in Clitoria, but the spreading standard with a spur-shaped projection on the back near the base; keel broad. Style bearded at the apex around the terminal stigma. Pod long and linear, flat, pointed with the awl-shaped style, many-seeded, thickened at the edges, the valves marked with a raised line on each side next the margin.—Twining perennials, with 3-foliolate stipellate leaves, and large showy flowers. Stipules, bracts, and bractlets striate, the latter longer than the calyx. (Name from κέντρον, a spur, and σήμα, a standard.)

1. C. Virginiànum, Benth. Rather rough with minute hairs; leaflets varying from oblong-ovate to lanceolate and linear, very veiny, shining; peduncles 1–4-flowered; calyx-teeth linear-awl-shaped; corolla violet, 1´ long; pods straight, 4–5´ long.—Sandy woods, Md. to Fla. and Ark. (Trop. Am.)

36. CLITÒRIA, L. Butterfly-Pea.

Calyx tubular, 5-toothed. Standard much larger than the rest of the flower, erect, rounded, notched at the top, not spurred on the back; keel small, shorter than the wings, incurved, acute. Stamens monadelphous below. Style bearded down the inner face. Pod linear-oblong, flattish, knotty, several-seeded, pointed with the base of the style.—Erect or twining perennials, with mostly pinnately 3-foliolate stipellate leaves, and very large flowers. Peduncles 1–3-flowered; bractlets opposite, striate. (Derivation recondite.)

1. C. Mariàna, L. Low, ascending or twining, smooth; leaflets oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate; stipules and bracts awl-shaped; peduncles short; the showy pale-blue flowers 2´ long.—Dry banks, N. Y. to Va. and Fla., west to Mo. and Tex.

37. AMPHICARPÆ̀A, Ell. Hog Pea-nut.

Flowers of 2 kinds; those of the racemes from the upper branches perfect, but seldom ripening fruit; those near the base and on filiform creeping branches with the corolla none or rudimentary, and few free stamens, but fruitful. Calyx about equally 4- (rarely 5-) toothed; bractlets none or minute. Keel and wing-petals similar, almost straight; the standard partly folded round them. Stamens diadelphous. Style beardless. Pods of the upper flowers, when formed, somewhat scymetar-shaped, stipitate, 3–4-seeded; of the lower ones commonly subterranean and fleshy, obovate or pear-shaped, ripening usually but one large seed.—Low and slender perennials; the twining stems clothed with brownish hairs. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; leaflets rhombic-ovate, stipellate. Flowers in simple or compound racemes, purplish. Bracts persistent, round, partly clasping, striate, as well as the stipules. (Name from ἀμφί, both, and καρπός, fruit, in allusion to the two kinds of pods.)

1. A. monòica, Nutt. Leaflets thin, ½–2´ long; racemes nodding; calyx of upper flowers 2´´ long, the ovary glabrous except the hairy margin; pod 1´ long; ovary and pod of the rudimentary flowers hairy.—Rich damp woodlands, common. Aug., Sept.

2. A. Pítcheri, Torr. & Gray. Leaflets usually 2–4´ long; rhachis of the racemes usually villous; calyx 3´´ long, the teeth acuminate; ovary hairy.—Western N. Y. to Ill., Mo., La., and Tex. The upper flowers more commonly fertile; apparently producing subterranean fruit but rarely.

38. GALÁCTIA, P. Browne. Milk-Pea.

Calyx 4-cleft; the lobes acute, the upper one broadest, entire. Keel scarcely incurved. Stamens diadelphous or nearly so. Style beardless. Pod linear, flat, several-seeded (some few of them rarely partly subterranean and fleshy or deformed).—Low, mostly prostrate or twining perennial herbs. Leaflets usually 3, stipellate. Flowers in somewhat interrupted or knotty racemes, purplish; in summer. (Name from γάλα, -ακτος, milk; some species being said to yield a milky juice, which is unlikely.)

1. G. glabélla, Michx. Stems nearly smooth, prostrate; leaflets elliptical or ovate-oblong, sometimes slightly hairy beneath; racemes short, 4–8-flowered; pods somewhat hairy.—Sandy woods, southern N. Y. to Va., Fla., and Miss.

2. G. pilòsa, Ell. Stems (decumbent and somewhat twining) and leaves beneath soft-downy and hoary; leaflets oval; racemes many-flowered, pods very downy. (G. mollis, Gray, Manual; not Michx.)—Penn. to Fla. and Miss.


Calyx somewhat 2-lipped, or deeply 4–5-parted. Keel scythe-shaped, or incurved at the apex. Stamens diadelphous. Ovules only 2. Pod 1–2-seeded, short and flat, 2-valved.—Usually twining or trailing perennial herbs, pinnately 3-foliolate, or with a single leaflet, not stipellate. Flowers yellow, racemose or clustered. (Name from ῥύγχος, a beak, from the shape of the keel.)

1. R. tomentòsa, Hook. & Arn. Trailing and twining, the stem and leaves more or less pubescent with spreading hairs; leaflets 3, roundish or round-rhombic, acute or acutish; racemes few-flowered, almost sessile in the axils; calyx about as long as the corolla, 4-parted, the upper lobe 2-cleft; pod oblong. (R. tomentosa, var. volubilis, Torr. & Gray.)—Dry soil, Va. to Fla. and Tex.

2. R. erécta, DC. Erect, 1–2° high; stem and leaves more or less tomentose; leaflets 3, oval to oblong, obtuse or acutish; racemes short and shortly pedunculate. (R. tomentosa, var. erecta, Torr. & Gray.)—Del. to Fla. and Miss.

3. R. renifórmis, DC. Dwarf and upright, 3–8´ high; pubescence spreading; leaflets solitary (rarely 3), round-reniform, very obtuse or apiculate; racemes few-flowered, sessile in the axils. (R. tomentosa, var. monophylla, Torr. & Gray.)—Va. to Fla. and Miss.

40. CÉRCIS, L. Red-bud. Judas-tree.

Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla imperfectly papilionaceous; standard smaller than the wings, and enclosed by them in the bud; the keel-petals larger and not united. Stamens 10, distinct, declined. Pod oblong, flat, many-seeded, the upper suture with a winged margin. Embryo straight.—Trees, with rounded heart-shaped simple leaves, caducous stipules, and red-purple flowers in umbel-like clusters along the branches of the last or preceding years, appearing before the leaves, acid to the taste. (The ancient name of the Oriental Judas-tree.)

1. C. Canadénsis, L. (Red-bud.) Leaves pointed; pods nearly sessile above the calyx.—Rich soil, N. Y. and N. J. to Fla., west to S. Minn., Kan., and La. A small ornamental tree, often cultivated.

41. CÁSSIA, Tourn. Senna.

Sepals 5, scarcely united at base. Petals 5, little unequal, spreading. Stamens 5–10, unequal, and some of them often imperfect, spreading; anthers opening by 2 pores or chinks at the apex. Pod many-seeded, often with cross partitions.—Herbs (in the United States), with simply and abruptly pinnate leaves, and mostly yellow flowers. (An ancient name of obscure derivation.)

[*] Leaflets large; stipules deciduous; the three upper anthers deformed and imperfect; flowers in short axillary racemes, the upper ones panicled; herbage glabrous.

1. C. Marilándica, L. (Wild Senna.) Stem 3–4° high; leaflets 6–9 pairs, lanceolate-oblong, obtuse; petiole with a club-shaped gland near the base; pods linear, slightly curved, flat, at first hairy (2–4´ long); root perennial.—Alluvial soil, N. Eng. to Fla., west to Mich., S. E. Neb., Kan., and La.

2. C. Tòra, L. Annual; leaflets 3 or rarely 2 pairs, obovate, obtuse, with an elongated gland between those of the lower pairs or lowest pair; pods slender, 6´ long, curved. (C. obtusifolia, L.)—River-banks, S. Va. to Fla., west to S. Ind., Mo., and Ark.

C. occidentàlis, L. Annual; leaflets 4–6 pairs, ovate-lanceolate, acute; an ovate gland at the base of the petiole; pods long linear (5´ long) with a tumid border, glabrous.—Va., S. Ind., and southward. (Adv. from Trop. Amer.)

[*][*] Leaflets small, somewhat sensitive to the touch; stipules striate, persistent; a cup-shaped gland beneath the lowest pair of leaflets; anthers all perfect; flowers in small clusters above the axils; pods flat; root annual.

3. C. Chamæcrísta, L. (Partridge Pea.) Stems spreading (1° long); leaflets 10–15 pairs, linear-oblong, oblique at the base; flowers (large) on slender pedicels, 2 or 3 of the showy yellow petals often with a purple spot at base; anthers 10, elongated, unequal (4 of them yellow, the others purple); style slender.—Sandy fields; common, especially southward.

4. C. níctitans, L. (Wild Sensitive-plant.) Leaflets 10–20 pairs, oblong-linear; flowers (very small) on very short pedicels; anthers 5, nearly equal; style short.—Sandy fields, N. Eng. to Fla., west to Ind., Kan., and La.


Calyx 5-parted. Petals 5, nearly equal, oblong or oval. Stamens 10, distinct, slightly declined; anthers dehiscing longitudinally. Pod flat, oblong, often falcate, few–several-seeded.—Low perennial herbs, or woody at base, punctate with black glands, with bipinnate leaves, and naked racemes of yellow flowers opposite the leaves or terminal. (Named for Count von Hoffmansegg, a German botanist.)

1. H. Jamèsii, Torr. & Gray. Herbaceous, finely pubescent; pinnæ 2 or 3 pairs with an odd one, the small oblong leaflets 5–9 pairs; pods broad, falcate, 1´ long, 2–3-seeded.—Central Kan. to Tex., Ariz., and Mex.

43. GYMNÓCLADUS, Lam. Kentucky Coffee-tree.

Flowers diœcious or polygamous, regular. Calyx elongated-tubular below, 5-cleft. Petals 5, oblong, equal, inserted on the summit of the calyx-tube. Stamens 10, distinct, short, inserted with the petals. Pod oblong, flattened, hard, pulpy inside, several seeded. Seeds flattish.—A large tall tree, with rough bark, stout branchlets, not thorny, and large unequally twice-pinnate leaves; the leaflets standing vertically.—Flowers whitish, in terminal racemes. (Name from γυμνός, naked, and κλάδος, a branch, alluding to the stout branches destitute of spray.)

1. G. Canadénsis, Lam. Leaves 2–3° long, with several large partial leafstalks bearing 7–13 ovate stalked leaflets, the lowest pair with single leaflets; stipules wanting; pod 6–10´ long, 2´ broad; the seeds over ½´ across.—Rich woods, western N. Y. and Penn. to Minn., E. Neb., and Ark.

44. GLEDÍTSCHIA, L. Honey-Locust.

Flowers polygamous. Calyx short, 3–5-cleft, the lobes spreading. Petals as many as the sepals and equalling them, the 2 lower sometimes united. Stamens 3–10, distinct, inserted with the petals on the base of the calyx. Pod flat, 1–many-seeded. Seeds flat.—Thorny trees, with abruptly once or twice pinnate leaves, and inconspicuous greenish flowers in small spikes. Thorns above the axils. (Named in honor of J. G. Gleditsch, a botanist contemporary with Linnæus.)

1. G. triacánthos, L. (Three-thorned Acacia, or Honey-Locust.) Thorns stout, often triple or compound; leaflets lanceolate-oblong, somewhat serrate; pods linear, elongated (1–1½° long), often twisted, filled with sweet pulp between the seeds.—Rich woods, western N. Y. and Penn. to Ga., west to Mich., E. Neb., Kan., and La. A large tree, common in cultivation, with very hard and heavy wood.

2. G. aquática, Marsh. (Water-Locust.) Thorns slender, mostly simple; leaflets ovate or oblong; pods oval, 1-seeded, pulpless. (G. monosperma, Walt.)—Deep swamps, Mo. to S. Ind., S. Car., and southward. A smaller tree, 30–40° high.

45. DESMÁNTHUS, Willd.

Flowers perfect or polygamous, regular. Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed. Petals 5, distinct. Stamens 5 or 10. Pod flat, membranaceous or somewhat coriaceous, several-seeded, 2-valved, smooth.—Herbs, with twice-pinnate leaves of numerous small leaflets, and with one or more glands on the petiole, setaceous stipules, and axillary peduncles bearing a head of small greenish-white flowers. (Name composed of δέσμα, a bond, and ἄνθος, flower.)

1. D. brachýlobus, Benth. Nearly glabrous perennial, erect (1–4° high); pinnæ 6–15 pairs; leaflets 20–30 pairs; peduncles 1–3´ long; stamens 5; pods numerous in dense globose heads, oblong or lanceolate, curved, scarcely 1´ long, 2–6-seeded.—Prairies and alluvial banks, Ind. and Ky. to Minn., Mo., and Tex.; also in Fla.

2. D. leptólobus, Torr. & Gray. Pinnæ 5–8 pairs; leaflets 10–20 pairs; peduncles 1´ long or less; heads rather loose, stamens 5; pods usually few, narrowly linear, erect, 1–2´ long.—Central Kan. to Tex.

46. SCHRÁNKIA, Willd. Sensitive Briar.

Flowers polygamous, regular. Calyx minute, 5-toothed. Petals united into a funnel-form 5-cleft corolla. Stamens 10–12, distinct, or the filaments united at base. Pods long and narrow, rough-prickly, several-seeded, 4-valved, i.e., the two narrow valves separating on each side from a thickened margin.—Perennial herbs, nearly related to the true Sensitive Plants (Mimosa); the procumbent stems and petioles recurved-prickly, with twice-pinnate sensitive leaves of many small leaflets, and axillary peduncles bearing round heads of small rose-colored flowers. (Named for F. P. Schrank, a German botanist.)

1. S. uncinàta, Willd. Prickles hooked; pinnæ 4–6 pairs; leaflets elliptical, reticulated with strong veins beneath; pods oblong-linear, nearly terete-short-pointed, densely prickly (2´ long).—Dry sandy soil, Va. to Fla., west to S. Ill., Kan., and Tex.

2. S. angustàta, Torr. & Gray. Leaflets oblong-linear, scarcely veined; pods slender, taper-pointed, sparingly prickly (about 4´ long).—S. Va. (?) to Fla., Tenn., and Tex.

Order 33. ROSÀCEÆ. (Rose Family.)

Plants with regular flowers, numerous (rarely few) distinct stamens inserted on the calyx, and 1–many pistils, which are quite distinct, or (in the last tribe) united and combined with the calyx tube. Seeds (anatropous) 1–few in each ovary, almost always without albumen. Embryo straight, with large and thick cotyledons. Leaves alternate, with stipules, these sometimes caducous, rarely obsolete or wanting.—Calyx of 5 or rarely 3–4–8 sepals (the odd one superior), united at the base, often appearing double by a row of bractlets outside. Petals as many as the sepals (rarely wanting), mostly imbricated in the bud, and inserted with the stamens on the edge of a disk that lines the calyx tube. Trees, shrubs, or herbs.—A large and important order, almost destitute of noxious qualities, and producing the most valuable fruits. Very intimately connected with Leguminosæ on one hand, and with Saxifragaceæ on the other.

I. Ovary superior and not enclosed in the calyx tube at maturity.

[*] Calyx deciduous, without bractlets, pistil solitary, becoming a drupe.

Tribe I. PRUNEÆ. Trees or shrubs, with simple mostly serrate leaves. Ovules 2, pendulous, but seed almost always solitary. Style terminal.

1. Prunus. Flowers perfect. Lobes of calyx and corolla 5. Stone of the drupe bony.

[*][*] Calyx mostly persistent; pistils few to many (rarely solitary).

[+] Calyx without bractlets; ovules 2–many.

Tribe II. SPIRÆEÆ. Pistils mostly 5, becoming 2–several seeded follicles. Shrubs or perennial herbs.

a. Calyx short, 5 cleft. Petals obovate, equal.

2. Spiræa. Flowers perfect or diœcious. Pods 1-valved. Herbs or shrubs; leaves simple or pinnate.

3. Physocarpus. Pods inflated, 2-valved. Shrub; leaves palmately lobed.

b. Calyx elongated, 5-toothed. Petals slender, unequal.

4. Gillenia. Herbs; leaves 3-foliolate.

Tribe III. RUBEÆ. Pistils several or numerous, becoming drupelets in fruit. Ovules 2 and pendulous, but seed solitary. Perennials, herbaceous or with biennial soft-woody stems.

5. Rubus. Pistils numerous, fleshy in fruit, crowded upon a spongy receptacle.

6. Dalibarda. Pistils 5–10 in the bottom of the calyx, nearly dry in fruit.

[+][+] Calyx lobes mostly with bractlets; ovule solitary.

Tribe IV. POTENTILLEÆ. Pistils few–many, 1-ovuled, becoming dry achenes. Herbs.

a. Styles persistent and elongated after anthesis, often plumose or jointed.

7. Geum. Calyx lobes usually with 5 alternating small bractlets. Stamens and carpels numerous, styles becoming plumose or hairy tails, or naked and straight or jointed.

b. Styles not elongated after anthesis, mostly deciduous.

8. Waldsteinia. Petals and calyx lobes 5; small or no bractlets. Stamens numerous. Achenes 2–6; styles deciduous from the base.

9. Fragaria. Flower as in Potentilla. Receptacle much enlarged and pulpy in fruit.

10. Potentilla. Petals 5 (rarely 4) conspicuous. Calyx lobes as many, with an alternating set of bractlets. Stamens and achenes numerous; the latter heaped on a dry receptacle. Styles commonly more or less lateral, deciduous or not enlarging in fruit.

11. Sibbaldia. Petals minute; stamens and achenes 5–10; otherwise as Potentilla.

II. Ovaries inferior or enclosed in the calyx-tube.

Tribe V. POTERIEÆ. Pistils 1–4, becoming achenes, completely enclosed in the dry and firm calyx-tube, which is constricted or nearly closed at the throat. Herbs with compound or lobed leaves. Petals often none.

12. Alchemilla. Calyx urceolate, bracteolate. Petals none. Stamens 1–4. Flowers minute, clustered.

13. Agrimonia. Calyx turbinate, with a margin of hooked prickles. Stamens 5–12. Flowers yellow, in long racemes.

14. Poterium. Calyx lobes petaloid; tube 4-angled, naked. Petals none. Flowers densely capitate or spicate.

Tribe VI. ROSEÆ. Pistils many, becoming bony achenes, enclosed in the globose or urn-shaped fleshy calyx-tube, which resembles a pome. Petals conspicuous. Stamens numerous.

15. Rosa. The only genus. Prickly shrubs with pinnate leaves.

Tribe VII. POMEÆ. Carpels 2–5, enclosed in and coalescent with the fleshy or berry-like calyx, in fruit becoming a 2–several-celled pome. Trees or shrubs, with stipules free from the petiole.

a. Cells of the compound ovary as many as the styles (2–5), each 2- (rarely several-) ovuled.

16. Pyrus. Pome containing 2–5 papery or cartilaginous carpels.

17. Cratægus. Pome drupe-like, with 1–5 bony stones or kernels. Usually thorny.

b. Cells of the compound ovary becoming twice as many as the styles, each 1-ovuled.

18. Amelanchier. Pome usually of 5 carpels; each becomes incompletely 2-celled by a projection from its back; otherwise as Pyrus.

1. PRÙNUS, Tourn. Plum, Cherry, etc.

Calyx 5-cleft, the tube bell-shaped, urn-shaped, or tubular-obconical, deciduous after flowering. Petals 5, spreading. Stamens 15–20. Pistil solitary, with 2 pendulous ovules. Drupe fleshy, with a bony stone.—Small trees or shrubs, with mostly edible fruit. (The ancient Latin name.)

§ 1. PRUNUS proper (and Cerasus). Drupe smooth, and the stone smooth or somewhat rugged; flowers (usually white) from separate lateral scaly buds in early spring, preceding or coetaneous with the leaves; the pedicels few or several in simple umbel-like clusters.

1. P. Americàna, Marshall. (Wild Yellow or Red Plum.) Tree thorny, 8–20° high; leaves ovate or somewhat obovate, conspicuously pointed, coarsely or doubly serrate; very veiny, glabrous when mature; fruit nearly destitute of bloom, roundish oval, yellow, orange, or red, ½–{2/3}´ in diameter, with the turgid stone more or less acute on both margins, or in cultivated states 1´ or more in diameter, the flattened stone with broader margins; pleasant-tasted, but with a tough and acerb skin.—Woodlands and river banks, common.

2. P. marítima, Wang. (Beach Plum.) Low and straggling (1–5°); leaves ovate or oval, finely serrate, softly pubescent underneath; pedicels short, pubescent; fruit globular, purple or crimson with a bloom (½–1´ in diameter); the stone very turgid, acute on one edge, rounded and minutely grooved on the other.—Sea beaches and the vicinity, N. Brunswick to Va. It varies, when at some distance from the coast (N. J. and southward), with the leaves smoother and thinner and the fruit smaller.

3. P. Alleghaniénsis, Porter. A low straggling shrub or small tree (3–15° high), seldom thorny; leaves lanceolate to oblong-ovate, often long-acuminate, finely and sharply serrate, softly pubescent when young, glabrate with age; fruit globose-ovoid, very dark purple with a bloom (less than ½´ in diameter); stone turgid, a shallow groove on one side and a broad flat ridge on the other.—Bluffs of the Alleghany Mts., Penn.

4. P. Chicàsa, Michx. (Chickasaw Plum.) Stem scarcely thorny (8–15° high); leaves nearly lanceolate, finely serrulate, glabrous; fruit globular, red, nearly destitute of bloom (½–{2/3}´ in diameter); the ovoid stone almost as thick as wide, rounded at both sutures, one of them minutely grooved.—Md. to Fla., west to S. Ind., Kan., and Tex.

5. P. grácilis, Engelm. & Gray. Soft-pubescent, 1–4° high; leaves oblong-lanceolate to ovate, acute, sharply serrate, becoming nearly glabrous above, 1–2´ long; pedicels and calyx pubescent; fruit less than ½´ in diameter; stone rather turgid, suborbicular.—Prairies and sandy places, S. Kan. to Tex. and Tenn.

6. P. pùmila, L. (Dwarf Cherry. Sand C.) Smooth, depressed and trailing (6´–6° high); leaves obovate-lanceolate, tapering to the base, somewhat toothed near the apex, pale underneath; flowers 2–4 together; fruit ovoid, dark red or nearly black when ripe, without bloom; stone ovoid, marginless, of the size of a large pea.—Rocks or sandy banks, N. Brunswick to Va., west to Minn. and Kan. Fruit usually sour and astringent.

7. P. Pennsylvánica, L. f. (Wild Red Cherry.) Tree 20–30° high, with light red-brown bark; leaves oblong-lanceolate, pointed, finely and sharply serrate, shining, green and smooth both sides; flowers many in a cluster, on long pedicels; fruit globose, light red, very small, with thin and sour flesh; stone globular.—Rocky woods, Newf. to N. C., west to Minn. and Mo.

P. spinòsa, L. (Sloe. Black Thorn.) Branches thorny; leaves obovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, sharply serrate, at length glabrous; pedicels glabrous; fruit small, globular, black with a bloom, the stone turgid, acute on one edge.—Var. insitítia (Bullace-Plum), is less spiny, the pedicels and lower side of the leaves pubescent.—Roadsides and waste places, N. Eng. to Penn. and N. J. (Adv. from Eu.)

§ 2. PADUS. Drupe small, globose, without bloom; the stone turgid-ovate, marginless; flowers in racemes terminating leafy branches, therefore appearing after the leaves, late in spring.

8. P. Virginiàna, L. (Choke-Cherry.) A tall shrub, with grayish bark; leaves oval, oblong, or obovate, abruptly pointed, very sharply (often doubly) serrate with slender teeth, thin; petals roundish; fruit red turning to dark crimson; stone smooth.—River-banks, Newf. to Ga., west to Minn., E. Neb., and Tex.—Fruit very austere and astringent. A variety with very short dense racemes and sweeter yellowish fruit has been found at Dedham, Mass.

9. P. seròtina, Ehrh. (Wild Black Cherry.) A large tree, with reddish-brown branches; leaves oblong or lanceolate-oblong, taper-pointed, serrate with incurved short and callous teeth, thickish, shining above; racemes elongated; petals obovate; fruit purplish-black.—Woods, N. Scotia to Fla., west to Minn., E.  Neb., and La.—Fruit slightly bitter, but with a pleasant vinous flavor.

10. P. demíssa, Walp. Low but tree-like in habit, 3–12° high, resembling n. 8 in foliage, but the leaves rather thick and the teeth less slender; racemes often elongated; fruit purplish-black, sweet and but slightly astringent.—Central Kan. and Neb. to New Mex., Dak., and westward.

2. SPIRÆ̀A, L. Meadow-Sweet.

Calyx 5-cleft, short, persistent. Petals 5, obovate, equal, imbricated in the bud. Stamens 10–50. Pods (follicles) 5–8, not inflated, few–several-seeded. Seeds linear, with a thin or loose coat and no albumen.—Shrubs or perennial herbs, with simple or pinnate leaves, and white or rose-colored flowers in corymbs or panicles. (The Greek name, from σπειράω, to twist, from the twisting of the pods in the original species.)

§ 1. SPIRÆA proper. Erect shrubs, with simple leaves; stipules obsolete; pods mostly 5, several-seeded.

1. S. betulæfòlia, Pall., var. corymbòsa, Watson. Nearly smooth (1–2° high); leaves oval or ovate, cut-toothed toward the apex; corymbs large, flat, several times compound; flowers white. (S. corymbosa, Raf.)—Mountains of Penn. and N. J. to Ga., west to Ky. and Mo.

2. S. salicifòlia, L. (Common Meadow-Sweet.) Nearly smooth (2–3° high); leaves wedge-lanceolate, simply or doubly serrate; flowers in a crowded panicle, white or flesh-color; pods smooth.—Wet or low grounds, Newf. to the mountains of Ga., west to Minn. and Mo.; also to the far northwest. (Eu.)

3. S. tomentòsa, L. (Hardhack. Steeple-Bush.) Stems and lower surface of the ovate or oblong serrate leaves very woolly; flowers in short racemes crowded in a dense panicle, rose-color, rarely white; pods woolly.—Low grounds, N. Scotia to the mountains of Ga., west to Minn. and Kan.

§ 2. ULMÀRIA. Perennial herbs, with pinnate leaves and panicled cymose flowers; stipules kidney-form; pods 5–8, 1–2-seeded.

4. S. lobàta, Jacq. (Queen of the Prairie.) Glabrous (2–8° high); leaves interruptedly pinnate; the terminal leaflet very large, 7–9-parted, the lobes incised and toothed; panicle compound-clustered, on a long naked peduncle; flowers deep peach-blossom color, handsome, the petals and sepals often in fours.—Meadows and prairies, Penn. to Ga., west to Mich., Ky., and Iowa.

§ 3. ARÚNCUS. Perennial herbs, with diœcious whitish flowers in many slender spikes, disposed in a long compound panicle; leaves thrice pinnate; stipules obsolete; pods 3–5, several-seeded; pedicels reflexed in fruit.

5. S. Arúncus, L. (Goat's-Beard.) Smooth, tall; leaflets thin, lanceolate-oblong, or the terminal ones ovate-lanceolate, taper-pointed, sharply cut and serrate.—Rich woods, N. Y. and Penn. to Ga. in the mountains, west to Iowa and Mo.

3. PHYSOCÁRPUS, Maxim. Nine-bark.

Carpels 1–5, inflated, 2-valved; ovules 2–4. Seeds roundish, with a smooth and shining crustaceous testa and copious albumen. Stamens 30–40. Otherwise as Spiræa.—Shrubs, with simple palmately-lobed leaves and umbel-like corymbs of white flowers. (Name from φῦσα, a bladder, and καρπός, fruit.)

1. P. opulifòlius, Maxim. Shrub 4–10° high, with long recurved branches, the old bark loose and separating in numerous thin layers; leaves roundish, somewhat 3-lobed and heart-shaped; the purplish membranaceous pods very conspicuous. (Spiræa opulifolia, L. Neillia opulifolia, Benth. & Hook.)—Rocky banks of streams, N. Eng. to Fla., west to Mo., and the Pacific northward. Often cultivated.

4. GILLÈNIA, Moench. Indian Physic.

Calyx narrow, somewhat constricted at the throat, 5-toothed; teeth erect. Petals 5, rather unequal, linear-lanceolate, inserted in the throat of the calyx, convolute in the bud. Stamens 10–20, included. Pods 5, included, at first lightly cohering with each other, 2–4-seeded. Seeds ascending, with a close coriaceous coat, and some albumen.—Perennial herbs, with almost sessile 3-foliolate leaves; the thin leaflets doubly serrate and incised. Flowers loosely paniculate-corymbed, pale rose-color or white. (Dedicated to an obscure German botanist or physician, A. Gille, or Gillenius.)

1. G. trifoliàta, Moench. (Bowman's Root.) Leaflets ovate-oblong, pointed, cut-serrate; stipules small, awl-shaped, entire.—Rich woods, N. Y. to N. J. and Ga., west to Mich., Ind., and Mo.

2. G. stipulàcea, Nutt. (American Ipecac.) Leaflets lanceolate, deeply incised; stipules large and leaf-like, doubly incised.—Western N. Y. and Penn. to S. Ind. and Kan., south to Ala. and La.

5. RÙBUS, Tourn. Bramble.

Calyx 5-parted, without bractlets. Petals 5, deciduous. Stamens numerous. Achenes usually many, collected on a spongy or succulent receptacle, becoming small drupes; styles nearly terminal.—Perennial herbs, or somewhat shrubby plants, with white (rarely reddish) flowers, and edible fruit. (The Roman name, kindred with ruber, red.)

§ 1. Fruit, or collective mass of drupes, falling off whole from the dry receptacle when ripe, or of few grains which fall separately.Raspberry.

[*] Leaves simple; flowers large; prickles none; fruit and receptacle flat and broad.

1. R. odoràtus, L. (Purple Flowering-Raspberry.) Stem shrubby (3–5° high); branches, stalks, and calyx bristly with glandular clammy hairs; leaves 3–5-lobed, the lobes pointed and minutely toothed, the middle one prolonged; peduncles many-flowered; flowers showy (2´ broad); calyx-lobes tipped with a long narrow appendage; petals rounded, purple rose-color; fruit reddish.—N. Scotia to N. J. and Ga., west to Mich.

2. R. Nutkànus, Moçino. (Salmon-berry.) Glandular, scarcely bristly; leaves almost equally 5-lobed, coarsely toothed; peduncles few-flowered; petals oval, white.—Upper Mich., Minn., and westward.

3. R. Chamæmòrus, L. (Cloud-berry. Baked-apple Berry.) Herbaceous, low, diœcious; stem simple, 2–3-leaved, 1-flowered; leaves roundish-kidney-form, somewhat 5-lobed, serrate, wrinkled; calyx-lobes pointless; petals obovate, white; fruit of few grains, amber-color.—In sphagnous swamps, highest peaks of White Mts., coast of E. Maine, and north and west to the Arctic regions. (Eu.)

[*][*] Leaflets (pinnately or pedately) 3–5; petals small, erect, white.

[+] Stems annual, herbaceous, not prickly; fruit of few separate grains.

4. R. triflòrus, Richardson. (Dwarf Raspberry.) Stems ascending (6–12´ high) or trailing, leaflets 3 (or pedately 5), rhombic-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute at both ends, coarsely doubly serrate, thin, smooth; peduncle 1–3-flowered.—Wooded hillsides, Lab. to N. J., west to Minn. and Iowa. Sepals and petals often 6 or 7. This appears to be more properly a blackberry.

[+][+] Stems biennial and woody, prickly; receptacle oblong; fruit hemispherical.

5. R. strigòsus, Michx. (Wild Red Raspberry.) Stems upright, and with the stalks, etc., beset with stiff straight bristles (or a few becoming weak hooked prickles), glandular when young, somewhat glaucous; leaflets 3–5, oblong-ovate, pointed, cut-serrate, whitish-downy underneath, the lateral ones sessile; petals as long as the sepals; fruit light red.—Thickets and hills, Lab. to N. J., and south in the mountains to N. C., west to Minn. and Mo.

6. R. occidentàlis, L. (Black Raspberry. Thimbleberry.) Glaucous all over; stems recurved, armed like the stalks, etc., with hooked prickles, not bristly; leaflets 3 (rarely 5), ovate, pointed, coarsely doubly serrate, whitened-downy underneath, the lateral ones somewhat stalked; petals shorter than the sepals; fruit purple-black (rarely a whitish variety), ripe early in July.—Common, especially northward.—An apparent hybrid (R. neglectus, Peck) between this and the last species occurs, with characters intermediate between the two, and growing with them.

§ 2. Fruit, or collective drupes, not separating from the juicy prolonged receptacle, mostly ovate or oblong, blackish; stems prickly and flowers white.Blackberry.

7. R. villòsus, Ait. (Common or High Blackberry.) Shrubby (1–6° high), furrowed, upright or reclining, armed with stout curved prickles; branchlets, stalks, and lower surface of the leaves hairy and glandular; leaflets 3 (or pedately 5), ovate, pointed, unequally serrate, the terminal ones somewhat heart-shaped, conspicuously stalked; flowers racemed, numerous; bracts short; sepals linear-pointed, much shorter than the obovate-oblong spreading petals.—Borders of thickets, etc., common, and very variable in size, aspect, and shape of fruit.—Var. frondòsus, Torr., is smoother and much less glandular, with flowers more corymbose, leafy bracts and roundish petals. With the type, more common at the north.—Var. humifùsus, Torr. & Gray, is smaller and trailing, with peduncles few-flowered. More common southward, and connecting with the next species.

8. R. Canadénsis, L. (Low Blackberry. Dewberry.) Shrubby, extensively trailing, slightly prickly; leaflets 3 (or pedately 5–7), oval or ovate-lanceolate, mostly pointed, thin, nearly smooth, sharply cut-serrate; flowers racemed, with leaf-like bracts.—Dry fields, common; Newf. to Va., west to central Minn. and E. Kan.

9. R. híspidus, L. (Running Swamp-Blackberry.) Stems slender, scarcely woody, extensively procumbent, beset with small reflexed prickles; leaflets 3 (or rarely pedately 5), smooth, thickish, mostly persistent, obovate, obtuse, coarsely serrate, entire toward the base; peduncles leafless, several-flowered, often bristly; flowers small; fruit of few grains, black.—In low woods or swampy grassy ground, N. Scotia to Ga., west to Minn. and E. Kan.

10. R. cuneifòlius, Pursh. (Sand Blackberry.) Shrubby (1–3° high), upright, armed with stout recurved prickles, branchlets and lower side of the leaves whitish-woolly; leaflets 3–5, wedge-obovate, thickish, serrate above; peduncles 2–4-flowered; petals large.—Sandy woods, southern N. Y. and Penn. to Fla., west to Mo. and La.

11. R. triviàlis, Michx. (Low Bush-blackberry.) Shrubby, procumbent, bristly and prickly; leaves evergreen, coriaceous, nearly glabrous; leaflets 3 (or pedately 5), ovate-oblong or lanceolate, sharply serrate; peduncles 1–3-flowered; petals large.—Sandy soil, Va. to Fla., west to Mo. and Tex.


Calyx deeply 5–6-parted, 3 of the divisions larger and toothed. Petals 5, sessile, deciduous. Stamens many. Ovaries 5–10, becoming nearly dry seed-like drupes; styles terminal, deciduous.—Low perennials, with creeping and densely tufted stems or rootstocks, and roundish-heart-shaped crenate leaves on slender petioles. Flowers 1 or 2, white, on scape-like peduncles. (Named in honor of Thomas Dalibard, a French botanist of the time of Linnæus.)

1. D. rèpens, L. Downy; sepals spreading in the flower, converging and enclosing the fruit.—Wooded banks; common northward. June–Aug.—In aspect and foliage resembling a stemless Violet.

7. GÈUM, L. Avens.

Calyx bell-shaped or flattish, deeply 5-cleft, usually with 5 small bractlets at the sinuses. Petals 5. Stamens many. Achenes numerous, heaped on a conical or cylindrical dry receptacle, the long persistent styles forming hairy or naked and straight or jointed tails. Seed erect; radicle inferior.—Perennial herbs, with pinnate or lyrate leaves. (A name used by Pliny, of unknown meaning.)

§ 1. GEUM proper. Styles jointed and bent near the middle, the upper part deciduous and mostly hairy, the lower naked and hooked, becoming elongated; head of fruit sessile in the calyx; calyx-lobes reflexed.

[*] Petals white or pale greenish-yellow, small, spatulate or oblong; stipules small.

1. G. álbum, Gmelin. Smoothish or softly pubescent; stem slender (2° high); root-leaves of 3–5 leaflets, or simple and rounded, with a few minute leaflets on the petiole below; those of the stem 3-divided or lobed, or only toothed; hairs upon the long slender peduncles ascending or spreading; receptacle of the fruit densely bristly-hirsute.—Borders of woods, etc.; common. May–Aug.

2. G. Virginiànum, L. Bristly-hairy, especially the stout stem; lower and root-leaves pinnate, very various, the upper mostly 3-parted or divided, incised; petals inconspicuous, shorter than the calyx; heads of fruit larger, on short stout peduncles hirsute with reflexed hairs; receptacle glabrous or nearly so.—Borders of woods and low grounds; common. June–Aug.

[*][*] Petals golden-yellow, conspicuous, broadly-obovate, exceeding the calyx; stipules larger and all deeply cut.

3. G. macrophýllum, Willd. Bristly-hairy, stout (1–3° high); root-leaves lyrately and interruptedly pinnate, with the terminal leaflet very large and round-heart-shaped; lateral leaflets of the stem-leaves 2–4, minute, the terminal roundish, 3-cleft, the lobes wedge-form and rounded; receptacle nearly naked.—N. Scotia and N. Eng. to Minn., Mo., and westward. June. (Eu.)

4. G. stríctum, Ait. Somewhat hairy (3–5° high); root-leaves interruptedly pinnate, the leaflets wedge-obovate; leaflets of the stem-leaves 3–5, rhombic-ovate or oblong, acute; receptacle downy.—Moist meadows, Newf. to N. J., west to Minn., Kan., and westward. July, Aug. (Eu.)

§ 2. STÝLIPUS. Styles smooth; head of fruit conspicuously stalked in the calyx; bractlets of the calyx none, otherwise nearly as § 1.

5. G. vérnum, Torr. & Gray. Somewhat pubescent; stems ascending, few-leaved, slender; root-leaves roundish-heart-shaped, 3–5-lobed, or some of them pinnate, with the lobes cut; petals yellow, about the length of the calyx; receptacle smooth.—Thickets, Penn. to Ill., south to Ky. and Tex. April–June.

§ 3. CARYOPHYLLÀTA. Style jointed and bent in the middle, the upper joint plumose; flowers large; calyx erect or spreading; petals erect.

6. G. rivàle, L. (Water, or Purple Avens.)—Stems nearly simple, several-flowered (2° high); root-leaves lyrate and interruptedly pinnate, those of the stem few, 3-foliolate or 3-lobed; petals dilated-obovate, retuse, contracted into a claw, purplish-orange; head of fruit stalked in the brown-purple calyx.—Bogs and wet meadows, Newf. to N. J., west to Minn. and Mo.—Flowers nodding; pedicels erect in fruit. (Eu.)

§ 4. SIEVÉRSIA. Style not jointed, wholly persistent and straight; head of fruit sessile; flowers large; calyx erect or spreading. (Flowering stems simple, and bearing only bracts or small leaves.)

7. G. triflòrum, Pursh. Low, softly-hairy; root-leaves interruptedly pinnate; leaflets very numerous and crowded, oblong-wedge-form, deeply cut-toothed; flowers 3 or more on long peduncles; bractlets linear, longer than the purple calyx, as long as the oblong purplish erect petals; styles very long (2´), strongly plumose in fruit.—Rocks, Lab. and northern N. Eng., to Minn. and Mo., rare. April–June.

8. G. radiàtum, Michx. Hirsutely hairy or smoothish; root-leaves rounded-kidney-shaped, radiate-veined (2–5´ broad), doubly or irregularly cut-toothed and obscurely 5–7-lobed, also a set of minute leaflets down the long petiole; stems (8–18´ high) 1–5-flowered; bractlets minute; petals yellow, round-obovate and more or less obcordate, exceeding the calyx (½´ long), spreading; styles naked except the base. (High mountains of N. C.)

Var. Péckii, Gray. Nearly glabrous, or the stalks and veins of the leaves sparsely hirsute.—Alpine tops of the White Mts.

Dryas Octopetala, L., a dwarf matted slightly shrubby plant, with simple toothed leaves and large white solitary flowers, has the characters of this section excepting its 8–9-parted calyx and 8 or 9 petals. It was said by Pursh to have been found on the White Mountains, N. H., ninety years ago, but it is not known to have been seen there since.


Calyx-tube inversely conical; the limb 5-cleft, with 5 often minute and deciduous bractlets. Petals 5. Stamens many, inserted into the throat of the calyx. Achenes 2–6, minutely hairy; the terminal slender styles deciduous from the base by a joint. Seed erect; radicle inferior.—Low perennial herbs, with chiefly radical 3–5-lobed or divided leaves, and small yellow flowers on bracted scapes. (Named in honor of Francis von Waldstein, a German botanist.)

1. W. fragarioìdes, Tratt. (Barren Strawberry.) Low; leaflets 3, broadly wedge-form, cut-toothed, scapes several-flowered; petals longer than the calyx.—Wooded hillsides, N. Eng. to Ga., west to Ind., Mich., and Minn.

9. FRAGÀRIA, Tourn. Strawberry.

Flowers nearly as in Potentilla. Styles deeply lateral. Receptacle in fruit much enlarged and conical, becoming pulpy and scarlet, bearing the minute dry achenes scattered over its surface.—Stemless perennials, with runners, and with white cymose flowers on scapes. Leaves radical; leaflets 3, obovate-wedge-form, coarsely serrate, stipules cohering with the base of the petioles, which with the scapes are usually hairy. (Name from the fragrance of the fruit.)—Flowering in spring. (The species are indiscriminately called Wild Strawberry.)

1. F. Virginiàna, Mill. Achenes imbedded in the deeply pitted fruiting receptacle, which usually has a narrow neck, calyx becoming erect after flowering and connivent over the hairy receptacle when sterile or unfructified; leaflets of a firm or coriaceous texture; the hairs of the scapes, and especially of the pedicels, silky and appressed.—Moist or rich woodlands, fields, etc.; common.

Var. Illinoénsis, Gray, is a coarser or larger plant, with flowers more inclined to be polygamo-diœcious, and the villous hairs of the scape and pedicels widely spreading.—Rich soil, western N. Y. to Minn., and westward.

2. F. vésca, L. Achenes superficial on the glabrous conical or hemispherical fruiting receptacle (not sunk in pits); calyx remaining spreading or reflexed; hairs on the scape mostly widely spreading, on the pedicels appressed; leaflets thin, even the upper face strongly marked by the veins.—Fields and rocky places; less common. (Eu.)

F. Índica, L., differing from the true strawberries in having leafy runners, a calyx with incised leafy bractlets larger than the sepals, yellow petals, and insipid fruit, has become somewhat established near Philadelphia and in the S. States; an escape from cultivation. Flowers and fruit produced through the summer and autumn. (Adv. from India.)

10. POTENTÍLLA, L. Cinque-foil. Five-finger.

Calyx flat, deeply 5-cleft, with as many bractlets at the sinuses, thus appearing 10-cleft. Petals 5, usually roundish. Stamens many. Achenes many, collected in a head on the dry mostly pubescent or hairy receptacle; styles lateral or terminal, deciduous. Radicle superior.—Herbs, or rarely shrubs, with compound leaves, and solitary or cymose flowers; their parts rarely in fours. (Name a diminutive from potens, powerful, originally applied to P. Anserina, from its once reputed medicinal powers.)

§ 1. Styles thickened and glandular toward the base; achenes glabrous, numerous; inflorescence cymose.

[*] Style nearly basal; stamens 25–30; perennial glandular-villous herbs, with pinnate leaves, and rather large white or yellow flowers.

1. P. argùta, Pursh. Stems erect, usually stout (1–4° high), brownish-hairy, clammy above; leaflets 7–11, oval or ovate, cut-serrate, downy beneath; cyme strict and rather close; stamens mostly 30, on a thick glandular disk.—Rocky hills, N. Brunswick to N. J., Minn., Kan., and westward.

[*][*] Style terminal; flowers small, yellow; leaves pinnate or ternate.

[+] Annual or biennial; leaflets incisely serrate, not white-tomentose; stamens 5–20.

2. P. Norvégica, L. Stout, erect, hirsute (½–2° high); leaves ternate; leaflets obovate or oblong-lanceolate; cyme rather close, leafy; calyx large; stamens 15 (rarely 20).—Lab. to N. J., west to Minn. and Kan. (Eu.)

3. P. rivàlis, Nutt. More slender and branched, softly villous; leaves pinnate, with two pairs of closely approximate leaflets, or a single pair and the terminal leaflet 3-parted; leaflets cuneate-obovate or -oblong; cyme loose, often diffuse, less leafy; calyx small; petals minute; stamens 10–20 (rarely 5).—Neb. to Mo. and N. Mex., and westward.

Var. millegràna, Watson. Leaves all ternate; stems erect, or weak and ascending; achenes often small and light-colored.—Minn. to Mo., N. Mex., and westward.

Var. pentándra, Watson. Leaves ternate, the lateral leaflets of the lower leaves parted nearly to the base; stamens 5, opposite to the sepals.—Iowa, Mo., and Ark.

4. P. supìna, L. Stems decumbent at base or erect, often stout, leafy, subvillous; leaflets pinnately 5–11, obovate or oblong; cyme loose, leafy; stamens 20; achenes strongly gibbous on the ventral side. (P. paradoxa, Nutt.)—Minn. to Mo., and westward; also eastward along the Great Lakes.—Var. Nicollétii, Watson. Slender; leaflets mostly but 3; inflorescence much elongated, leafy, and falsely racemose.—Devil's Lake, Minn.

[+][+] Herbaceous perennials, more or less white-tomentose; leaflets incisely pinnatifid; bractlets and sepals nearly equal; stamens 20–25.

5. P. Pennsylvánica, L. Stems erect or decumbent at base (½–2° high); leaflets 5–9, white-tomentose beneath, short-pubescent and greener above, oblong, obtuse, the linear segments slightly or not at all revolute; cyme fastigiate but rather open.—Coast of Maine, N. H., and the lower St. Lawrence, L. Superior, and westward. July, Aug.—Var. strigòsa, Lehm. Stems 6–12´ high; silky-tomentose throughout; leaflets deeply pinnatifid, the margins of the narrow lobes revolute; cyme short and close.—Minn. and westward.

§ 2. Styles filiform, not glandular at base; inflorescence cymose.

[*] Style terminal; achenes glabrous; stamens 20; herbaceous perennials, with rather large yellow flowers.

[+] Leaves pinnate.

6. P. Hippiàna, Lehm. Densely white-tomentose and silky throughout, the upper surface of the leaves a little darker; stems ascending (1–1½° high), slender, branching above into a diffuse cyme; leaflets 5–11, cuneate-oblong, incisely toothed at least toward the apex, diminishing uniformly down the petiole; carpels 10–30.—N. W. Minn., and westward.

7. P. effùsa, Dougl. Tomentose throughout, with scattered villous hairs; stems ascending (4–12´ high), diffusely branched above; leaflets 5–11, interruptedly pinnate, the alternate ones smaller, cuneate-oblong, coarsely-incised-serrate or dentate; carpels 10.—W. Minn. to Mont. and Col.

[+][+] Leaves palmate, of 3 or 5 leaflets; tomentose or villous.

8. P. argéntea, L. (Silvery Cinque-foil.) Stems ascending, paniculately branched at the summit, many-flowered, white-woolly; leaflets 5, wedge-oblong, almost pinnatifid, entire toward the base, with revolute margins, green above, white with silvery wool beneath.—Dry barren fields, etc., N. Scotia to N. J., west to Dak. and E. Kan. June–Sept. (Eu.)

9. P. frígida, Vill. Dwarf (1–3' high), tufted, villous when young; leaflets 3, broadly cuneate-obovate, deeply 3–5-toothed at summit, nearly glabrous above; flowers mostly solitary, small, on very slender stems; bractlets and sepals equal.—Alpine summits of the White Mts. (Eu.)

[*][*] Style lateral; purple petals (shorter than the broad calyx) somewhat persistent; disk thick and hairy; achenes glabrous; hairy receptacle becoming large and spongy.

10. P. palústris, Scop. (Marsh Five-Finger.) Stems stout, ascending from a decumbent rooting perennial base (½–2° long), glabrous below; leaves pinnate; leaflets 5–7, oblong, serrate, lighter colored and more or less pubescent beneath; flowers few in an open cyme; calyx (1´ broad) dark purple inside.—Cool bogs, N. J. to N. Ind., Ill., Minn., and northward. (Eu.)

[*][*][*] Style attached below the middle; achenes and receptacle densely villous; woody perennials.

11. P. fruticòsa, L. (Shrubby Cinque-foil.) Stem erect, shrubby (1–4° high), much branched; leaves pinnate, leaflets 5–7, crowded, oblong-lanceolate, entire, silky, usually whiter beneath and the margins revolute; petals yellow, orbicular.—Wet grounds, Lab. to N. J., west to Minn., northern Iowa, and north and westward. June–Sept. (Eu.)

12. P. tridentàta, Ait. (Three-toothed C.) Stems low (1–10´ high), rather woody at base, tufted, ascending, cymosely several-flowered; leaves palmate; leaflets 3, wedge-oblong, nearly smooth, thick, coarsely 3-toothed at the apex; petals white; achenes and receptacle very hairy.—Coast of N. Eng. from Cape Cod northward, Norfolk, Ct. (Barbour), and mountain-tops of the Alleghanies; also shores of the upper Great Lakes, and N. Iowa, Wisc., and Minn.

§ 3. Styles filiform, lateral; peduncles axillary, solitary, 1-flowered; achenes glabrous; receptacle very villous; herbaceous perennials, with yellow flowers.

13. P. Anserìna, L. (Silver-Weed.) Spreading by slender many-jointed runners, white-tomentose and silky-villous; leaves all radical, pinnate; leaflets 7–21, with smaller ones interposed, oblong, sharply serrate, silky tomentose at least beneath; bractlets and stipules often incisely cleft; peduncles elongated.—Brackish marshes, river-banks, etc., New Eng. to N. J., N. Ind., Minn., and northward. (Eu.)

14. P. Canadénsis, L. (Common Cinque-foil or Five-Finger.) Stems slender and decumbent or prostrate, or sometimes erect; pubescence villous, often scanty; leaves ternate, but apparently quinate by the parting of the lateral leaflets; leaflets cuneate-oblong or -obovate, incisely serrate, nearly glabrous above; bractlets entire.—Dry soil; common and variable. Apr.–July.—Often producing summer runners.


Calyx flattish, 5-cleft, with 5 bractlets. Petals 5, linear-oblong, minute. Stamens 5, inserted alternate with the petals into the margin of the woolly disk which lines the base of the calyx. Achenes 5–10; styles lateral.—Low and depressed mountain perennials; included by some in Potentilla. (Dedicated to Dr. Robert Sibbald, professor at Edinburgh at the close of the 17th century.)

1. S. procùmbens, L. Leaflets 3, wedge-shaped, 3-toothed at the apex; petals yellow.—Alpine summits of the White Mts., and northward. (Eu.)

12. ALCHEMÍLLA, Tourn. Lady's Mantle.

Calyx-tube inversely conical, contracted at the throat; limb 4-parted with as many alternate accessory lobes. Petals none. Stamens 1–4. Pistils 1–4; the slender style arising from near the base; achenes included in the tube of the persistent calyx.—Low herbs, with palmately lobed or compound leaves, and small corymbed greenish flowers. (From Alkemelyeh, the Arabic name, having reference to the silky pubescence of some species.)

A. arvénsis, Scop. (Parsley Piert.) Small annual (3–8´ high), leafy; leaves 3-parted, with the wedge-shaped lobes 2–3-cleft, pubescent; flowers fascicled opposite the axils.—Va. and N. C. (Adv. from Eu.)

13. AGRIMÒNIA, Tourn. Agrimony.

Calyx-tube top-shaped, contracted at the throat, beset with hooked bristles above, indurated in fruit and enclosing the 2 achenes; the limb 5-cleft, closed after flowering. Petals 5. Stamens 5–15. Styles terminal. Seed suspended.—Perennial herbs, with interruptedly pinnate leaves, and yellow flowers in slender spiked racemes; bracts 3-cleft. (Name a corruption of Argemonia, of the same derivation as Argemone, p. 59.)

1. A. Eupatòria, L. (Common Agrimony.) Leaflets 5–7 with minute ones intermixed, oblong-obovate, coarsely toothed; petals twice the length of the calyx.—Borders of woods, common. July–Sept. (Eu.)

2. A. parviflòra, Ait. (Small-flowered A.) Leaflets crowded, 11–19, with smaller ones intermixed, lanceolate, acute, deeply and regularly cut-serrate, as well as the stipules; petals small.—Woods and glades, N. Y. and N. J. to Ga., west to Mich., Kan., and La.

14. POTÈRIUM, L. Burnet.

Calyx with a top-shaped tube, constricted at the throat, persistent; the 4 broad petal-like spreading lobes imbricated in the bud, deciduous. Petals none. Stamens 4–12 or more, with flaccid filaments and short anthers. Pistils 1–3; the slender terminal style tipped with a tufted or brush-like stigma. Achene (commonly solitary) enclosed in the 4-angled dry and thickish closed calyx-tube. Seed suspended.—Chiefly perennial herbs, with unequally pinnate leaves, stipules coherent with the petiole, and small, often polygamous or diœcious flowers crowded in a dense head or spike at the summit of a long and naked peduncle, each bracteate and 2-bracteolate. (Name ποτήριον, a drinking-cup, the foliage of Burnet having been used in the preparation of some medicinal drink.)

1. P. Canadénse, Benth. & Hook. (Canadian Burnet.) Stamens 4, long-exserted, club-shaped, white, as is the whole of the elongated and cylindrical spike; stem 3–6° high; leaflets numerous, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, coarsely serrate, obtuse, heart shaped at base, as if stipellate; stipules serrate.—Bogs and wet meadows, Newf. to mountains of Ga., west to Mich.

P. Sanguisórba, L. (Garden Burnet.) Stamens 12 or more in the lower flowers of the globular greenish head, with drooping capillary filaments, the upper flowers pistillate only; stems about 1° high; leaflets numerous, small, ovate, deeply cut.—Fields and rocks, N. Y. to Md. (Adv. from Eu.)

15. RÒSA, Tourn. Rose.

Calyx-tube urn-shaped, contracted at the mouth, becoming fleshy in fruit. Petals 5, obovate or obcordate, inserted with the many stamens into the edge of the hollow thin disk that lines the calyx-tube and within bears the numerous pistils below. Ovaries hairy, becoming bony achenes in fruit.—Shrubby and usually spiny or prickly, with odd-pinnate leaves, and stipules cohering with the petiole; stalks, foliage, etc., often bearing aromatic glands. Many of the species are very variable in their characters, and are often indeterminable upon imperfect specimens. (The ancient Latin name.)

[*] Styles cohering in a protruding column, as long as the stamens.

1. R. setígera, Michx. (Climbing or Prairie Rose.) Stems climbing, armed with stout nearly straight scattered prickles, not bristly; leaflets 3–5, ovate, acute, sharply serrate, smooth or downy beneath; stalks and calyx glandular; flowers corymbed; sepals pointed; petals deep rose-color changing to white; fruit (hip) globular.—Borders of prairies and thickets, Ont. to Ohio, S. C., and Fla., west to Wisc., Neb., and Tex.; also cultivated. July.—The only American climbing rose, or with united protruding styles; strong shoots growing 10–20° in a season.

[*][*] Styles distinct; sepals connivent after flowering and persistent; pedicels and receptacles naked.

[+] Fruit oblong-obovate to oblong; infrastipular spines usually none.

2. R. Engelmánni, Watson. Stems usually 3–4° high or less; infrastipular spines, when present, straight and slender; prickles often abundant; leaflets 5–7, often somewhat resinous-puberulent beneath and the teeth serrulate; flowers solitary; sepals entire, naked or hispid; fruit 6–12´´ long.—Whisky Island, L. Huron, shores of L. Superior, and west to the Red River valley, and in the mountains from N. Mont, and N. Idaho to Col.

[+][+] Fruit globose; infrastipular spines none; acicular prickles often present.

3. R. blánda, Ait. Stems 1–3° high, wholly unarmed (occasionally with a few or very rarely numerous prickles); stipules dilated, naked and entire, or slightly glandular-toothed; leaflets 5–7, usually oblong-lanceolate, cuneate at base and petiolulate, simply serrate, not resinous; flowers usually large, corymbose or solitary; sepals hispid, entire.—On rocks and rocky shores, Newf. to N. Eng., central N. Y., Ill. (La Salle Co.), and the region of the Great Lakes.

4. R. Sàyi, Schwein. Stems usually low (1–2° high), very prickly; stipules usually dilated, glandular-ciliate and resinous; leaflets 3–7, broadly elliptical to oblong-lanceolate, sessile and obtuse or subcordate at base, resinous-puberulent and teeth serrulate; flowers large, solitary (very rarely 2 or 3); outer sepals usually with 1 or 2 narrow lateral lobes, not hispid.—N. Mich. and Wisc. to Minn. and Col.

5. R. Arkansàna, Porter. Stems low, very prickly; stipules narrow, more or less glandular-toothed above (or even glandular-ciliate); leaflets 7–11, broadly elliptical to oblong-oblanceolate, subcuneate at base, sessile or petiolulate, simply toothed, not resinous; flowers corymbose; sepals rarely hispid, the outer lobed.—Minn. to Mo. and W. Tex., west to Col.

[+][+][+] Fruit globose; infrastipular spines present.

6. R. Woòdsii, Lindl. Stems usually low (¼–3° high), with slender straight or recurved spines, sometimes with scattered prickles, or wholly unarmed above; leaflets 5–7, obovate to oblong or lanceolate, more or less toothed; flowers corymbose or solitary; sepals naked or hispid, the outer usually lobed; fruit globose with a short neck.—Minn. to Mo., west to Col.

[*][*][*] Styles distinct; sepals spreading after flowering and deciduous; infrastipular spines usually present, often with scattered prickles; sepals, globose receptacle, and pedicel usually hispid; teeth simple; pubescence not resinous.

[+] Leaflets mostly finely many-toothed.

7. R. Carolìna, L. Stems usually tall (1–7° high), with stout straight or usually more or less curved spines; stipules long and very narrow; leaflets dull green, 5–9 (usually 7), usually narrowly oblong and acute at each end and petiolulate, but often broader, usually pubescent beneath.—Borders of swamps and streams, N. Scotia to Fla., west to Minn. and Miss.

[+][+] Leaflets coarsely toothed.

8. R. lùcida, Ehrh. Stems often tall and stout (a few inches to 6° high), with at length stout and usually more or less hooked spines; stipules usually naked, more or less dilated; leaflets (mostly 7) dark green, rather thick, smooth and often shining above; flowers corymbose or solitary; outer sepals frequently with 1 or 2 small lobes.—Margins of swamps or moist places, Newf. to N. Eng., N. Y., and E. Penn.

9. R. hùmilis, Marsh. Stems usually low (1–3°) and more slender, less leafy, with straight slender spines, spreading or sometimes reflexed; stipules narrow, rarely somewhat dilated; leaflets as in the last, but usually thinner and paler; flowers very often solitary; outer sepals always more or less lobed. (R. lucida of most authors.)—Mostly in dry soil or on rocky slopes, Maine to Ga., west to Minn., Mo., Ind. Terr., and La.

10. R. nítida, Willd. Low, nearly or quite glabrous throughout, the straight slender spines often scarcely stouter than the prickles which usually thickly cover the stem and branches; stipules mostly dilated; leaflets bright green and shining, usually narrowly oblong and acute at each end; flowers solitary (rarely 2 or 3); sepals entire.—Margins of swamps, Newf. to N. Eng.

Naturalized species.

R. canìna, L. (Dog Rose.) Stems armed with stout recurved spines, without prickles, the branches sometimes unarmed; leaflets 5–7, elliptical or oblong-ovate, glabrous or somewhat pubescent, simply toothed, not resinous-puberulent; flowers solitary (or 2–4) on usually naked pedicels; sepals pinnatifid, deciduous; fruit oblong-ovate to nearly globular.—Roadsides, E. Penn., Tenn., etc. (Int. from Eu.)

R. rubiginòsa, L. (Sweetbrier. Eglantine.) Resembling the last, but of more compact habit, the leaflets densely resinous beneath and aromatic, and doubly serrate; the short pedicels and pinnatifid sepals hispid. (Incl. R. micrantha, Smith; less aromatic, with oblong fruit and glabrous styles.)—N. Scotia and Ont. to S. C. and Tenn. (Int. from Eu.)

16. PỲRUS, L. Pear. Apple.

Calyx-tube urn-shaped, the limb 5-cleft. Petals roundish or obovate. Stamens numerous. Styles 2–5. Pome fleshy or berry-like; the 2–5 carpels or cells of a papery or cartilaginous texture, 2-seeded.—Trees or shrubs, with handsome flowers in corymbed cymes. (The classical name of the Pear-tree.)

§ 1. MÀLUS (Apple). Leaves simple; cymes simple and umbel-like; pome fleshy, globular, sunk in at the attachment of the stalk.

1. P. coronària, L. (American Crab-Apple.) Leaves ovate, often rather heart-shaped, cut-serrate or lobed, soon glabrous; styles woolly and united at base.—Glades, Ont. and W. New York to N. C., west to Minn., Kan., and La. May.—Tree 20° high, somewhat thorny, with large rose-colored very fragrant blossoms, few in a corymb; fruit fragrant and greenish.

2. P. angustifòlia, Ait. Resembling the last, but with leaves oblong or lanceolate, often acute at base, mostly toothed, glabrous; styles distinct.—Glades, Penn. to Fla., west to S. Ind., Kan., and La. April.

§ 2. ADENÒRHACHIS. Leaves simple, the midrib glandular along the upper side; cymes compound; styles united at base; fruit berry-like, small.

3. P. arbutifòlia, L. f. (Choke-berry.) A shrub usually 1–3° high; leaves oblong or oblanceolate, mostly acute or acuminate, finely glandular-serrate, tomentose beneath; cyme tomentose; flowers white or reddish; fruit pear-shaped, or globose when ripe, small, red or purple, astringent.—Swamps and damp thickets; common, from N. Scotia to Fla., and west to Minn., Ill., Mo., and La.

Var. melanocárpa, Hook. Nearly smooth throughout, with larger black fruit; leaves usually less acute.—Of apparently the same range.

§ 3. SÓRBUS. Leaves odd-pinnate, with rather numerous leaflets; cymes compound; styles separate; pome berry-like, small.

4. P. Americàna, DC. (American Mountain-Ash.) Tree or tall shrub, nearly glabrous or soon becoming so; leaflets 13–15, lanceolate, taper-pointed, sharply serrate with pointed teeth, bright green; cymes large and flat; berries globose, bright red, not larger than peas; leaf-buds pointed, glabrous and somewhat glutinous.—Swamps and mountain-woods, Newf. to mountains of N. C., west to N. Mich, and Minn. Often cultivated.

5. P. sambucifòlia, Cham. & Schlecht. Leaflets oblong, oval, or lance-ovate, mostly obtuse or abruptly short-pointed, serrate (mostly doubly) with more spreading teeth, often pale beneath; cymes smaller; flowers and berries larger, the latter (4´´ broad) when young ovoid, at length globose; leaf-buds sparingly hairy; otherwise nearly as the preceding.—Lab. to northern N. Eng. and Lake Superior, and westward.

17. CRATÆ̀GUS, L. Hawthorn. White Thorn.

Calyx-tube urn-shaped, the limb 5-cleft. Petals 5, roundish. Stamens many, or only 10–15. Styles 1–5. Pome drupe-like, containing 1–5 bony 1-seeded stones.—Thorny shrubs or small trees, with simple and mostly lobed leaves, and white (rarely rose-colored) blossoms. (Name from κράτος, strength, on account of the hardness of the wood.)

[*] Corymbs many-flowered.

[+] Fruit small, depressed-globose (not larger than peas), bright red; flowers mostly small; calyx-teeth short and broad (except in n. 3); styles 5; glabrous (except C. Pyracantha) and glandless.

C. Pyracántha, Pers. (Evergreen Thorn.) Leaves evergreen, shining (1´ long), oblong or spatulate-lanceolate, crenulate; the short petioles and young branchlets pubescent; corymbs small.—Shrub, spontaneous near Washington and Philadelphia. (Adv. from Eu.)

1. C. spathulàta, Michx. Shrub or tree, 10–25° high; leaves thickish, shining, deciduous, spatulate or oblanceolate, with a long tapering base, crenate above, rarely cut-lobed, nearly sessile.—Va. to Fla., west to Mo. and Tex.

2. C. cordàta, Ait. (Washington Thorn.) Trunk 15–25° high; leaves broadly ovate or triangular, mostly truncate or a little heart-shaped at the base, on a slender petiole, variously 3–5-cleft or cut, serrate.—Va. to Ga. in the mountains, west to Mo.

3. C. víridis, L. A small tree, often unarmed; leaves ovate to ovate-oblong or lanceolate, or oblong-obovate, mostly acute at both ends, on slender petioles, acutely serrate, often somewhat lobed, and often downy in the axils; flowers larger, numerous; fruit bright red or rarely orange. (C. arborescens, Ell.)—Mississippi bottoms from St. Louis to the Gulf, and from S. Car. to Tex.

[+][+] Fruit small (¼–{1/3}´ long), ovoid, deep red; flowers rather large; styles 1–3.

C. Oxyacántha, L. (English Hawthorn.) Smooth; leaves obovate, cut-lobed and toothed, wedge-form at the base; calyx not glandular. More or less spontaneous as well as cultivated. (Adv. from Eu.)

4. C. apiifòlia, Michx. Softly pubescent when young; leaves roundish, with a broad truncate or slightly heart-shaped base, pinnately 5–7-cleft, the crowded divisions cut-lobed and sharply serrate; petioles slender; calyx-lobes glandular-toothed, slender.—S. Va. to Fla., west to Mo. and Tex.

[+][+][+] Fruit large (½–1´ long), red; flowers large; styles and stones even in the same species 1–3 (when the fruit is ovoid or pear-shaped) or 4–5 (in globular fruit); stipules, calyx-teeth, bracts, etc., often beset with glands; shrubs or low trees. [Species as characterized by Prof. C. S. Sargent.]

5. C. coccínea, L. Branches reddish; spines stout, chestnut-brown; villous-pubescent on the shoots, glandular peduncles, and calyx; leaves on slender petioles, thin, pubescent beneath or often glabrous, round-ovate, cuneate or subcordate at base, acutely glandular-toothed, sometimes cut-lobed; flowers ½´ broad; fruit coral-red, globose or obovate, ½´ broad.—Newf. to Minn. and southward.—Var. macracántha, Dudley; spines longer; leaves thicker, cuneate at base, on stout petioles, often deeply incised; cymes broader; flowers and fruit rather larger.—From the St. Lawrence and E. Mass. to Minn.

Var. móllis, Torr. & Gray. Shoots densely pubescent; leaves large, slender-petioled, cuneate, truncate or cordate at base, usually with acute narrow lobes, often subscabrous above, more or less densely pubescent beneath; flowers 1´ broad, in broad cymes; fruit bright scarlet with a light bloom, 1´ broad. (C. tomentosa, var. mollis, Gray. C. subvillosa, Schrad.)—E. Mass, to Mo. and Tex. Sometimes 20–30° high, blooming two weeks before the type.

6. C. tomentòsa, L. Branches gray, rarely with stout gray spines; shoots, peduncles, and calyx villous-pubescent; glands none; leaves large, pale, prominently veined, densely pubescent beneath, ovate or ovate-oblong, sharply serrate, usually incisely lobed, contracted into a margined petiole; flowers small, ill-scented; fruit dull red, obovate, rarely globose (½´ broad), upright.—Western N. Y. to Mich., Mo., and Ga. In flower 2–3 weeks after n. 3.

7. C. punctàta, Jacq. Branches horizontal; glands none; leaves smaller, mostly wedge-obovate, attenuate and entire below, unequally toothed above, rarely lobed, villous-pubescent becoming smooth but dull, the many veins more impressed, prominent beneath; fruit globose (1´ broad), red or bright yellow. (C. tomentosa, var. punctata, Gray.)—Quebec to Ont. and south to Ga.

8. C. Crus-gálli, L. (Cockspur Thorn.) Branches horizontal, with slender thorns often 4´ long; glabrous; leaves thick, dark green, shining above, wedge-obovate and oblanceolate, tapering into a very short petiole, serrate above the middle; fruit globular, dull red ({1/3}´ broad).—Thickets, common.

[*][*] Corymbs simple, few- (1–6-) flowered; calyx, bracts, etc., glandular.

9. C. flàva, Ait. (Summer Haw.) Tree 15–20° high, somewhat pubescent or glabrous; leaves wedge-obovate or rhombic-obovate, narrowed into a glandular petiole, unequally toothed and somewhat cut above the middle, rather thin, the teeth glandular; styles 4–5; fruit somewhat pear-shaped, yellowish, greenish, or reddish (½´ broad).—Sandy soil, Va. to Mo., and southward.

Var. pubéscens, Gray. Downy or villous-pubescent when young; leaves thickish, usually obtuse or rounded at the summit; fruit larger (¾´ broad), scarlet or sometimes yellow.—Va. to Fla.

10. C. parvifòlia, Ait. (Dwarf Thorn.) Shrub 3–6° high, downy; leaves thick, obovate-spatulate, crenate-toothed (½–1½´ long), almost sessile, the upper surface at length shining; flowers solitary or 2–3 together on very short peduncles; calyx-lobes as long as the petals; styles 5; fruit globular or pear-shaped, yellowish.—Sandy soil, N. J. to Fla. and La.

18. AMELÁNCHIER, Medic. June-berry.

Calyx 5-cleft; lobes downy within. Petals oblong, elongated. Stamens numerous, short. Styles 5, united below. Ovary 5-celled, each cell 2-ovuled, but a projection grows from the back of each and forms a false cartilaginous partition; the berry-like pome thus 10-celled, with one seed in each cell (when all ripen).—Small trees or shrubs, with simple sharply serrated leaves, and white racemose flowers. (Amelancier is the name of A. vulgaris in Savoy.)

1. A. Canadénsis, Torr. & Gray. (Shad-bush. Service-berry.) A tree 10–30° high, nearly or soon glabrous; leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, usually somewhat cordate at base, pointed, very sharply serrate, 1–3½´ long; bracts and stipules very long-silky-ciliate; flowers large, in drooping nearly glabrous racemes; petals oblong, 6–8´´ long; fruit on elongated pedicels, globose, crimson or purplish, sweet and edible. (Var. Botryapium, Torr. & Gray.)—Dry open woodlands; Newf. to Fla., west to Minn., E. Kan., and La. Fruit ripening in June.—Var. rotundifòlia, Torr. & Gray, appears to be only a broad-leaved form.

Var. (?) oblongifòlia, Torr. & Gray. A smaller tree or shrub (6–10° high), the young leaves and racemes densely white-tomentose; leaves oblong or sometimes rather broadly elliptical, acute, mostly rounded at base, finely serrate, 1–2´ long; flowers in denser and shorter racemes; petals 3–4´´ long, oblong-spatulate; fruit similar but more juicy, on shorter pedicels.—Low moist grounds or swampy woods; N. Brunswick to Va., west to Minn. and Mo.—A form of this with broader leaves (broadly elliptical or rounded), often very obtuse at the summit, and rounded, subcordate or acute at base, and usually coarsely toothed, is common from Manitoba to Minn. and Iowa, and is sometimes cultivated for its fruit.

2. A. oligocárpa, Roem. A low shrub 2–4° high, soon glabrous; leaves thin, oblong, acute at both ends, finely serrate, 1–2´ long; flowers few (1–4), rather long-pedicelled; petals oblong-obovate; fruit broad-pyriform, dark purple with a dense bloom. (A. Canadensis, var. oligocarpa, Torr. & Gray.)—Cold swamps and mountain bogs; Lab. to northern N. Eng. and N. Y., and the shores of Lake Superior.

3. A. alnifòlia, Nutt. A shrub 3–8° high, usually glabrate or nearly so; leaves somewhat glaucous and thickish, broadly elliptical or roundish, very obtuse or rarely acute, often subcordate at base, coarsely toothed toward the summit, ½–2´ long; raceme short and rather dense; petals cuneate-oblong, 3–8´´ long; fruit globose, purple. (A. Canadensis, var. alnifolia, Torr. & Gray.)—A western mountain species, which occurs in Minn. and N. Mich., and which the broad-leaved form of A. Canadensis sometimes closely simulates.

Order 34. CALYCANTHÀCEÆ. (Calycanthus Family.)

Shrubs with opposite entire leaves, no stipules, the sepals and petals similar and indefinite, the anthers adnate and extrorse, and the cotyledons convolute; the fruit like a rose-hip. Chiefly represented by the genus

1. CALYCÁNTHUS, L. Carolina Allspice. Sweet-Scented Shrub.

Calyx of many sepals, united below into a fleshy inversely conical cup (with some leaf-like bractlets growing from it); the lobes lanceolate, mostly colored like the petals, which are similar, in many rows, thickish, inserted on the top of the closed calyx-tube. Stamens numerous, inserted just within the petals, short; some of the inner ones sterile (destitute of anthers). Pistils several or many, enclosed in the calyx-tube, inserted on its base and inner face, resembling those of the Rose; but the enlarged hip dry when ripe, enclosing the achenes.—The lurid purple flowers terminating the leafy branches. Bark and foliage aromatic; the crushed flowers exhaling more or less the fragrance of strawberries. (Name composed of κάλυξ, a cup or calyx, and άνθος, flower, from the closed cup which contains the pistils.)

1. C. flóridus, L. Leaves oval, soft-downy underneath.—Virginia(?) and southward, on hillsides in rich soil. Common in gardens. April–Aug.

2. C. lævigàtus, Willd. Leaves oblong, thin, either blunt or taper-pointed, bright green and glabrous or nearly so on both sides, or rather pale beneath; flowers smaller.—Mountains of Franklin Co., Penn. (Prof. Porter), and southward along the Alleghanies. May–Aug.

3. C. glaùcus, Willd. Leaves oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, conspicuously taper-pointed, glaucous-white beneath, roughish above, glabrous, large (4–7´ long), probably a variety of the preceding.—Virginia (?) near the mountains and southward. May–Aug.

Order 35. SAXIFRAGÀCEÆ. (Saxifrage Family.)

Herbs or shrubs, of various aspect, distinguishable from Rosaceæ by having copious albumen in the seeds, opposite as well as alternate leaves, and usually no stipules; the stamens mostly definite, and the carpels commonly fewer than the sepals, either separate or partly so, or all combined into one compound pistil. Calyx either free or adherent, usually persistent or withering away. Stamens and petals almost always inserted on the calyx. Ovules anatropous.

Tribe I. SAXIFRAGEÆ. Herbs. Leaves alternate (rarely opposite in n. 2 and 6). Fruit dry, capsular or follicular, the styles or tips of the carpels distinct.

[*] Ovary 2- (rarely 3-) celled with axile placentas, or of as many nearly distinct carpels.

1. Astilbe. Flowers polygamous, panicled. Stamens (8 or 10) twice as many as the small petals. Seeds few. Leaves decompound.

2. Saxifraga. Flowers perfect. Petals 5. Stamens 10. Seeds numerous, with a close coat.

3. Boykinia. Flowers perfect. Stamens only as many as the petals, which are convolute in the bud and deciduous. Calyx-tube adherent to the ovary. Seed-coat close.

4. Sullivantia. Flowers perfect. Stamens 5. Calyx nearly free. Seeds wing-margined.

[*][*] Ovary 1-celled, with 2 parietal placentas alternate with the stigmas. Sterile stamens none.

5. Tiarella. Calyx nearly free from the slender ovary. Petals entire. Stamens 10. Placentas nearly basal.

6. Mitella. Calyx partly cohering with the depressed ovary. Petals small, pinnatifid. Stamens 10.

7. Henchera. Calyx bell-shaped, coherent with the ovary below. Petals small, entire. Stamens 5.

8. Chrysosplenium. Calyx-tube coherent with the ovary. Petals none. Stamens 10.

[*][*][*] Ovary 1-celled, with 3–4 parietal placentas opposite the sessile stigmas. A cluster of united sterile filaments at the base of each petal.

9. Parnassia. Sepals, petals and proper stamens 5. Peduncle scape-like, 1-flowered.

Tribe II. HYDRANGEÆ. Shrubs. Leaves opposite, simple. Ovary 2–5-celled; the calyx coherent at least with its base. Fruit capsular.

[*] Stamens 8 or 10.

10. Hydrangea. Calyx-lobes minute in complete flowers. Petals valvate in the bud.

[*][*] Stamens 20–40.

11. Decumaria. Calyx-lobes small. Petals 7–10, valvate in the bud. Filaments subulate. Style 1.

12. Philadelphus. Calyx-lobes conspicuous. Petals 4–5, convolute in the bud. Filaments linear. Styles 3–5.

Tribe III. ESCALLONIEÆ. Shrubs. Leaves alternate and simple. Ovary 2–5-celled. Fruit capsular.

13. Itea. Calyx 5-cleft, free from the 2-celled ovary, which becomes a septicidal capsule.

Tribe IV. RIBESIEÆ. Shrubs. Leaves alternate and simple, with stipules adnate to the petiole or wanting. Fruit a berry.

14. Ribes. Calyx-tube adnate to the 1-celled ovary. Placentas 2, parietal, many-seeded.

1. ASTÍLBE, Don. False Goatsbeard.

Flowers diœciously polygamous. Calyx 4–5-parted, small. Petals 4–5, spatulate, small, withering-persistent. Stamens 8 or 10. Ovary 2-celled, almost free, many-ovuled; styles 2, short. Capsule 2-celled, separating into 2 follicles, each ripening few seeds. Seed-coat loose and thin, tapering at each end.—Perennial herbs, with twice or thrice ternately-compound ample leaves, cut-lobed and toothed leaflets, and small white or yellowish flowers in spikes or racemes, which are disposed in a compound panicle. (Name composed of - privative and στίλβη, a bright surface, because the foliage is not shining.)

1. A. decándra, Don. Somewhat pubescent (3–5° high); leaflets mostly heart-shaped; petals minute or wanting in the fertile flowers, stamens 10.—Rich woods; mountains of S. W. Va. to N. C. and Ga. Closely imitating Spiræa Aruncus, but coarser.

2. SAXÍFRAGA, L. Saxifrage.

Calyx either free from or cohering with the base of the ovary, 5-cleft or parted. Petals 5, entire, imbricated in the bud, commonly deciduous. Stamens 10. Styles 2. Capsule 2-beaked, 2-celled, opening down or between the beaks, or sometimes 2 almost separate follicles. Seeds numerous, with a close coat.—Chiefly perennial herbs, with the root-leaves clustered, those of the stem mostly alternate. (Name from saxum, a rock, and frango, to break; many species rooting in the clefts of rocks.)

[*] Stems prostrate, in tufts, leafy; leaves opposite; calyx free from the capsule.

1. S. oppositifòlia, L. (Mountain Saxifrage.) Leaves fleshy, ovate, keeled, ciliate, imbricated on the sterile branches (1–2´´ long); flowers solitary, large; petals purple, obovate, much longer than the 5-cleft-calyx.—Rocks, Willoughby Mountain, Vt., and northward. (Eu.)

[*][*] Stems ascending; leaves alternate; calyx coherent below with the capsule.

2. S. rivulàris, L. (Alpine Brook-S.) Small, stems weak, 3–5-flowered; lower leaves rounded, 3–5-lobed, on slender petioles, the upper lanceolate; petals white, ovate.—Alpine region of the White Mts., to Lab. (Eu.)

3. S. aizoìdes, L. (Yellow Mountain-S.) Low (3–5´ high), in tufts, with few or several corymbose flowers; leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, fleshy, distantly spinulose-ciliate; petals yellow, spotted with orange, oblong.—N. Vt. to S. W. New York, N. Mich., and northward. June. (Eu.)

4. S. tricuspidàta, Retz. Stems tufted (4–8´ high), naked above; flowers corymbose, leaves oblong or spatulate, with 3 rigid sharp teeth at the summit; petals obovate-oblong, yellow.—Shore of L. Superior, and northward. (Eu.)

[*][*][*] Leaves clustered at the root; scape many-flowered, erect, clammy-pubescent.

[+] Petals all alike.

5. S. Aizòon, Jacq. Scape 5–10´ high; leaves persistent, thick, spatulate, with white cartilaginous toothed margins; calyx partly adherent; petals obovate, cream-color, often spotted at the base.—Moist rocks, Lab. to N. Vt., L. Superior, and northward. (Eu.)

6. S. Virginiénsis, Michx. (Early S.) Low (4–9´ high); leaves obovate or oval-spatulate, narrowed into a broad petiole, crenate-toothed, thickish; flowers in a clustered cyme, which is at length open and loosely panicled; lobes of the nearly free calyx erect, not half the length of the oblong obtuse (white) petals; follicles united merely at the base, divergent, purplish.—Exposed rocks and dry hillsides; N. Brunswick to Ga., and west to Minn., Ohio, and Tenn.; common, especially northward. April–June.

7. S. Pennsylvánica, L. (Swamp S.) Large (1–2° high); leaves oblanceolate, obscurely toothed (4–8´ long), narrowed at base into a short and broad petiole; cymes in a large oblong panicle, at first clustered; lobes of the nearly free calyx recurved, about the length of the linear-lanceolate (greenish) small petals; filaments awl-shaped, follicles at length divergent.—Bogs, N. Eng. to Va., west to Minn. and Iowa.

8. S. eròsa, Pursh. (Lettuce S.) Leaves oblong or oblanceolate, obtuse, sharply toothed, tapering into a margined petiole (8–12´ long); scape slender (1–3° high); panicle elongated, loosely flowered; pedicels slender; calyx reflexed, entirely free, nearly as long as the oval obtuse (white) petals; filaments club-shaped; follicles nearly separate, diverging, narrow, pointed, 2–3´´ long.—Cold mountain brooks, Penn. to Va. and N. C.

9. S. Forbèsii, Vasey. Stem stout, 2–4° high; leaves denticulate, oval to elongated oblong (4–8´ long); filaments filiform; follicles short, ovate; otherwise as in the last.—Shaded cliffs, near Makanda, S. Ill. (Forbes); E. Mo. (Lettermann.)

[+][+] Petals unequal, with claws, white, all or some of them with a pair of yellow spots near the base; leaves oblong, wedge-shaped or spatulate; calyx free and reflexed.

10. S. leucanthemifòlia, Michx. Leaves coarsely toothed or cut, tapering into a petiole; stems (5–18´ high) bearing one or more leaves or leafy bracts and a loose, spreading corymbose or paniculate cyme; petals lanceolate, the 3 larger ones with a heart-shaped base and a pair of spots, the 2 smaller with a tapering base and no spots.—Mts. of Va. to N. C. and Ga.

11. S. stellàris, L., var comòsa, Willd. Leaves wedge-shaped, more or less toothed; scape (4–5´ high) bearing a small contracted panicle, many or most of the flowers changed into little tufts of green leaves, petals all lanceolate and tapering into the claw.—Mt. Katahdin, Maine, north to Lab. and Greenland. (Eu.)

3. BOYKÍNIA, Nutt.

Calyx-tube top-shaped, coherent with the 2-celled and 2-beaked capsule. Stamens 5, as many as the deciduous petals, these mostly convolute in the bud. Otherwise as in Saxifraga.—Perennial herbs, with alternate palmately 5–7-lobed or cut petioled leaves, and white flowers in cymes. (Dedicated to the late Dr. Boykin of Georgia.)

1. B. aconitifòlia, Nutt. Stem glandular (6–20´ high); leaves deeply 5–7-lobed.—Mountains of southwestern Va. to Ga. and Tenn. July.

4. SULLIVÁNTIA, Torr. & Gray.

Calyx bell-shaped, cohering below only with the base of the ovary, 5-cleft. Petals 5, oblanceolate, entire, acutish, withering-persistent. Stamens 5, shorter than the petals. Capsule 2-celled, 2-beaked, many-seeded, opening between the beaks, the seeds wing-margined, imbricated upward.—A low and reclined-spreading perennial herb, with rounded and cut-toothed or slightly lobed smooth leaves, on slender petioles, and small white flowers in a branched loosely cymose panicle, raised on a nearly leafless slender stem (6–12´ long). Peduncles and calyx glandular; pedicels recurved in fruit. (Dedicated to the distinguished bryologist who discovered our species.)

1. S. Ohiònis, Torr. & Gray.—Limestone cliffs, Ohio to Ind., Iowa, and Minn. June.

5. TIARÉLLA, L. False Mitre-wort.

Calyx bell-shaped, nearly free from the ovary, 5-parted. Petals 5, with claws, entire. Stamens 10, long and slender. Styles 2. Capsule membranaceous, 1-celled, 2-valved; the valves unequal. Seeds few, at the base of each parietal placenta, globular, smooth.—Perennials; flowers white. (Name a diminutive from τιάρα, a tiara, or turban, from the form of the pod, or rather pistil, which is like that of Mitella, to which the name of Mitre-wort properly belongs.)

1. T. cordifòlia, L. Leaves from the rootstock or summer runners heart-shaped, sharply lobed and toothed, sparsely hairy above, downy beneath; stem leafless or rarely with 1 or 2 leaves (5–12´ high); raceme simple; petals oblong, often subserrate.—Rich rocky woods, N. Eng. to Minn. and Ind., and southward in the mountains. April, May.

6. MITÉLLA, Tourn. Mitre-wort. Bishop's-Cap.

Calyx short, coherent with the base of the ovary, 5-cleft. Petals 5, slender, pinnatifid. Stamens 5 or 10, included. Styles 2, very short. Capsule short, 2-beaked, 1-celled, with 2 parietal or rather basal several-seeded placentæ, 2-valved at the summit. Seeds smooth and shining.—Low and slender perennials, with round heart-shaped alternate leaves on the rootstock or runners, on slender petioles; those on the flowering stems opposite, if any. Flowers small, in a simple slender raceme or spike. Fruit soon widely dehiscent. (Diminutive of mitra, a cap, alluding to the form of the young pod.)

1. M. diphýlla, L. Hairy; leaves heart-shaped, acute, somewhat 3–5-lobed, toothed, those on the many-flowered stem 2, opposite, nearly sessile, with interfoliar stipules; flowers white, in a raceme 6–8´ long; stamens 10.—Hillsides in rich woods; N. Eng. to N. C., west to Minn. and Mo. May.

2. M. nùda, L. Small and slender; leaves rounded or kidney-form, deeply and doubly crenate; stem usually leafless, few-flowered, very slender (4–6´ high); flowers greenish; stamens 10.—Deep moist woods, in moss, N. Eng. to N. Y., Mich., Minn., and northward. May–July.

7. HEÙCHERA, L. Alum-root.

Calyx bell-shaped, the tube cohering at the base with the ovary, 5-cleft. Petals 5, spatulate, small, entire. Stamens 5. Styles 2, slender. Capsule 1-celled, with 2 parietal many-seeded placentæ, 2-beaked, opening between the beaks. Seeds oval, with a rough and close seed-coat.—Perennials, with the round heart-shaped leaves principally from the rootstock; those on the stems, if any, alternate. Petioles with dilated margins or adherent stipules at their base. Flowers in small clusters disposed in a prolonged and narrow panicle, greenish or purplish. (Named in honor of John Henry Heucher, a German botanist of the beginning of the 18th century.)

[*] Flowers small, loosely panicled; stamens and styles exserted; calyx regular.

1. H. villòsa, Michx. Stems (1–3° high), petioles, and veins of the acutely 7–9-lobed leaves villous with rusty hairs beneath; calyx 1½´´ long; petals spatulate-linear, about as long as the stamens, soon twisted.—Rocks, Md. to Ga., west to Ind. and Mo. Aug., Sept.

2. H. Rugélii, Shuttlw. Stems slender, ½–2° high, glandular-hirsute, as well as the petioles, etc.; leaves round-reniform, with 7–9 short and broad rounded lobes; flowers very small (1´´ long); petals linear-spatulate, twice as long as the calyx-lobes; fruit narrow.—Shaded cliffs, S. Ill. to Tenn. and N. C.

3. H. Americàna, L. (Common Alum-root.) Stems (2–3° high), etc., glandular and more or less hirsute with short hairs; leaves roundish, with short rounded lobes and crenate teeth; calyx very broad, 2´´ long, the spatulate petals not longer than its lobes.—Rocky woodlands, Conn. to N. C., west to Minn., Mo., and Miss.

[*][*] Flowers larger, in a very narrow panicle; calyx (3–4´´ long) more or less oblique; stamens short; leaves rounded, slightly 5–9-lobed.

4. H. híspida, Pursh. Stems 2–4° high; hispid or hirsute with long spreading hairs (occasionally almost glabrous), scarcely glandular; stamens soon exserted, longer than the spatulate petals.—Mountains of Va. and N. C., west to Minn. and E. Kan. May, June.

5. H. pubéscens, Pursh. Stem (1–3° high) and petioles granular-pubescent or glandular above, not hairy, below often glabrous; stamens shorter than the lobes of the calyx and the spatulate petals.—Rich woods, in the mountains, from Penn. to Ky., and southward. June, July.

8. CHRYSOSPLÈNIUM, Tourn. Golden Saxifrage.

Calyx-tube coherent with the ovary; the blunt lobes 4–5, yellow within. Petals none. Stamens 8–10, very short, inserted on a conspicuous disk. Styles 2. Capsule inversely heart-shaped or 2-lobed, flattened, very short, 1-celled with 2 parietal placentæ, 2-valved at the top, many-seeded.—Low and small smooth herbs, with tender succulent leaves, and small solitary or leafy-cymed flowers. (Name compounded of χρυσός, golden, and σπλήν, the spleen; probably from some reputed medicinal qualities.)

1. C. Americànum, Schwein. Stems slender, decumbent and forking; leaves principally opposite, roundish or somewhat heart-shaped, obscurely crenate-lobed; flowers distant, inconspicuous, nearly sessile (greenish tinged with yellow or purple).—Cold wet places, N. Scotia to N. Ga., west to Minn.

2. C. alternifòlium, L. Stems erect; leaves alternate, reniform-cordate, doubly crenate or somewhat lobed; flowers corymbose.—Decorah, Iowa, west to the Rocky Mts., and north through Brit. Amer. (Eu., Asia.)

9. PARNÁSSIA, Tourn. Grass of Parnassus.

Sepals 5, imbricated in the bud, slightly united at the base, and sometimes also with the base of the ovary, persistent. Petals 5, veiny, spreading, at length deciduous, imbricated in the bud; a cluster of somewhat united gland-tipped sterile filaments at the base of each. Proper stamens 5, alternate with the petals, persistent; anthers introrse or subextrorse. Ovary 1-celled, with 4 projecting parietal placentæ; stigmas 4, sessile, directly over the placentæ. Capsule 4-valved, the valves bearing the placentæ on their middle. Seeds very numerous, anatropous, with a thick wing-like seed-coat and little if any albumen. Embryo straight; cotyledons very short.—Perennial smooth herbs, with entire leaves, and solitary flowers on long scape-like stems, which usually bear a single sessile leaf. Petals white, with greenish or yellowish veins. (Named from Mount Parnassus; called Grass of Parnassus by Dioscorides.)

1. P. parviflòra, DC. Petals sessile, little longer than the calyx (3´´ long); sterile filaments about 7 in each set, slender; leaves ovate or oblong, tapering at base.—Sandy banks, Lab. to Mich., N. Minn., and westward.

2. P. palústris, L. Scapes 3–10´ high; leaves heart-shaped; flower nearly 1´ broad; petals sessile, rather longer than the calyx, few-veined; sterile filaments 9–15 in each set, slender.—Same range as the last. (Eu.)

3. P. Caroliniàna, Michx. Scapes 9´–2° high; flower 1–1½´ broad; petals sessile, more than twice as long as the calyx, many-veined; sterile filaments 3 in each set, stout, distinct almost to the base; leaves thickish, ovate or rounded, often heart shaped, usually but one low down on the scape and clasping.—Wet banks, N. Brunswick to Fla., west to Minn., Iowa, and La.

4. P. asarifòlia, Vent. Petals abruptly contracted into a claw at base; sterile filaments 3 in each set; leaves rounded, kidney-shaped; otherwise as in the foregoing.—High mountains of Va. and N. C.

10. HYDRÀNGEA, Gronov.

Calyx-tube hemispherical, 8–10 ribbed, coherent with the ovary, the limb 4–5-toothed. Petals ovate, valvate in the bud. Stamens 8–10, slender. Capsule 15-ribbed, crowned with the 2 diverging styles, 2-celled below, many-seeded, opening by a hole between the styles.—Shrubs, with opposite petioled leaves, no stipules, and numerous flowers in compound cymes. The marginal flowers are usually sterile and radiant, consisting merely of a showy membranaceous and colored flat and dilated calyx. (Name from ὕδωρ, water, and ἄγγος, a vase, from the shape of the capsule.)

1. H. arboréscens, L. (Wild Hydrangea.) Glabrous or nearly so, 1–8° high; leaves ovate, rarely heart-shaped, pointed, serrate, green both sides; cymes flat; flowers often all fertile, rarely all radiant.—Rocky banks, Penn. to Fla., west to Iowa and Mo.

2. H. radiàta, Walt. Leaves densely tomentose and paler or white beneath.—S. C. and Ga. to Tenn. and Mo.


Flowers all fertile. Calyx-tube turbinate, 7–10-toothed, coherent with the ovary. Petals oblong, valvate in the bud. Stamens 20–30. Styles united into one, persistent. Stigma thick, 7–10-rayed. Capsule 10–15-ribbed, 7–10-celled, many-seeded, bursting at the sides, the thin partitions at length separating into numerous chaffy scales.—A smooth climbing shrub, with opposite ovate or oblong entire or serrate leaves, no stipules, and numerous fragrant white flowers in compound terminal cymes. (Name said to be derived from decem, ten, referring to the fact of its being often 10-merous.)

1. D. bárbara, L. Leaves shining, sometimes pubescent; capsule with the persistent style and stigma urn-shaped, pendulous.—Banks of streams; Dismal Swamp, Va., to Fla. and La.

12. PHILADÉLPHUS, L. Mock Orange or Syringa.

Calyx-tube top-shaped, coherent with the ovary; the limb 4–5-parted, spreading, persistent, valvate in the bud. Petals rounded or obovate, large, convolute in the bud. Stamens 20–40. Styles 3–5, united below or nearly to the top. Stigmas oblong or linear. Capsule 3–5-celled, splitting at length into as many pieces. Seeds very numerous, on thick placentæ projecting from the axis, pendulous, with a loose membranaceous coat prolonged at both ends.—Shrubs, with opposite often toothed leaves, no stipules, and solitary or cymose-clustered showy white flowers. (An ancient name, applied by Linnæus to this genus for no obvious reason.)

1. P. inodòrus, L. Glabrous; leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, pointed, entire or with some spreading teeth; flowers single or few at the ends of the diverging branches, pure white, scentless; calyx-lobes acute, scarcely longer than the tube.—Mountains of Va. to Ga. and Ala.

2. P. grandiflòrus, Willd. A tall shrub, with long and recurved branches; like the last, but somewhat pubescent, with larger flowers, and the calyx-lobes long and taper-pointed. (P. modorus, var. grandiflorus, Gray.)—Along streams, Va. to Fla. Often cultivated.

P. coronàrius, L., the common Mock Orange or Syringa of cultivation, from S. Eu., with cream-colored odorous flowers, has sometimes escaped.

13. ÍTEA, Gronov.

Calyx 5-cleft, free from the ovary or nearly so. Petals 5, lanceolate, much longer than the calyx, and longer than the 5 stamens. Capsule oblong, 2-grooved, 2-celled, tipped with the 2 united styles, 2-parted (septicidal) when mature, several-seeded.—Shrubs, with simple, alternate, petioled leaves, without stipules, and small white flowers in simple racemes. (Greek name of the Willow.)

1. I. Virgínica, L. Leaves deciduous, oblong, pointed, minutely serrate; seeds oval, flattish, with a crustaceous coat.—Wet places, Penn. and N. J. to Fla., west to Mo. and La.

14. RÌBES, L. Currant. Gooseberry.

Calyx 5-lobed, often colored; the tube coherent with the ovary. Petals 5, inserted in the throat of the calyx, small. Stamens 5, alternate with the petals. Ovary 1-celled, with 2 parietal placentæ and 2 distinct or united styles. Berry crowned with the shrivelled remains of the calyx, the surface of the numerous seeds swelling into a gelatinous outer coat investing a crustaceous one. Embryo minute at the base of hard albumen.—Low, sometimes prickly shrubs, with alternate and palmately-lobed leaves, which are plaited in the bud (except in one species), often fascicled on the branches; the small flowers from the same clusters, or from separate lateral buds. (From riebs, a German popular name for the currant. Grossularia was the proper name to have been adopted for the genus.)

§ 1. GROSSULÀRIA. (Gooseberry.) Stems mostly bearing thorns at the base of the leafstalks or clusters of leaves, and often with scattered bristly prickles; berries prickly or smooth. (Our species are indiscriminately called Wild Gooseberry; the flowers greenish.)

[*] Peduncles 1–3-flowered; calyx as high as broad; leaves roundish-heart-shaped, 3–5-lobed.

[+] Calyx-lobes decidedly shorter than the tube; berries apt to be prickly.

1. R. Cynósbati, L. Stamens and undivided style not longer than the broadly bell-shaped calyx; berries large, armed with long prickles or rarely smooth.—Rocky woods, N. Brunswick to the mountains of N. C., and west to Minn. and Mo.

[+][+] Calyx-lobes decidedly longer than the short and rather narrow tube; berries smooth, purple, sweet and pleasant.

2. R. grácile, Michx. (Missouri Gooseberry.) Spines often long, stout and red; peduncles long and slender; flowers white or whitish; filaments capillary, 4–6´´ long, generally connivent or closely parallel, soon conspicuously longer than the oblong-linear calyx-lobes. (R. rotundifolium, Man., in part.)—Mich. to Tenn., west to Tex., Minn., and the Rocky Mts.

3. R. rotundifòlium, Michx. Spines short; peduncles short; flowers greenish or the lobes dull purplish; filaments slender, 2–3´´ long, more or less exceeding the narrowly oblong-spatulate calyx-lobes.—W. Mass, and N. Y., south in the Alleghanies to N. C.

4. R. oxyacanthoìdes, L. Peduncles very short, flowers greenish or dull purplish; stamens usually scarcely equalling the rather broadly oblong calyx-lobes. (R. hirtellum, Michx.)—Newf. to N. J., west to Ind., Minn., and westward. The common smooth-fruited gooseberry of the north, the whitish spines often numerous.

[*][*] Flowers several in a nodding raceme, small and flattish, greenish.

5. R. lacústre, Poir. Young stems clothed with bristly prickles and with weak thorns; leaves heart-shaped, 3–5-parted, with the lobes deeply cut; calyx broad and flat; stamens and style not longer than the petals; fruit bristly (small, unpleasant).—Cold woods and swamps, Newf. to N. Eng., west to N. Y., Mich., and Minn.

§ 2. RIBÈSIA. (Currant.) Thornless and prickless; racemes few–many-flowered, stamens short.

6. R. prostràtum, L'Her. (Fetid Currant.) Stems reclined; leaves deeply heart-shaped, 5–7-lobed, smooth, the lobes ovate, acute, doubly serrate; racemes erect, slender, calyx flattish; pedicels and the (pale red) fruit glandular-bristly.—Cold damp woods and rocks, Lab. to mountains of N. C., west to Mich., Minn., and the Rocky Mts.

7. R. flóridum, L'Her. (Wild Black Currant.) Leaves sprinkled with resinous dots, slightly heart-shaped, sharply 3–5-lobed, doubly serrate; racemes drooping, downy; bracts longer than the pedicels; flowers large, whitish; calyx tubular-bell-shaped, smooth; fruit round-ovoid, black, smooth.—Woods, N. Eng. to Va., west to Ky., Iowa, and Minn.

8. R. rùbrum, L., var. subglandulòsum, Maxim. (Red Currant.) Stems straggling or reclined; leaves somewhat heart-shaped, obtusely 3–5-lobed, serrate, downy beneath when young; racemes from lateral buds distinct from the leaf-buds, drooping, calyx flat (green or purplish); fruit globose, smooth, red.—Cold bogs and damp woods, N. Eng. to N. J., west to Ind. and Minn.

§ 3. SIPHÓCALYX. Thornless and prickless; leaves convolute in the bud; racemes several-flowered; calyx-tube elongated; berry naked and glabrous.

9. R. aúreum, Pursh. (Missouri or Buffalo Currant.) Shrub 5–12° high; leaves 3–5-lobed, rarely at all cordate; racemes short; flowers golden-yellow, spicy-fragrant; tube of salverform calyx (6´´ long or less) 3 or 4 times longer than the oval lobes; stamens short; berries yellow or black.—Banks of streams, Mo. and Ark. to the Rocky Mts., and westward. Common in cultivation.

Order 36. CRASSULÀCEÆ. (Orpine Family.)

Succulent herbs, with perfectly symmetrical flowers; viz., the petals and pistils equalling the sepals in number (3–20), and the stamens the same or double their number,—technically different from Saxifrageæ only in this complete symmetry, and in the carpels (in most of the genera) being quite distinct from each other. Also, instead of a perigynous disk, there are usually little scales on the receptacle, one behind each carpel. Fruit dry and dehiscent; the pods (follicles) opening down the ventral suture, many-rarely few-seeded.—Stipules none. Flowers usually cymose, small. Leaves mostly sessile, in Penthorum not at all fleshy.

[*] Not succulent; the carpels united, forming a 5-celled capsule.

1. Penthorum. Sepals 5. Petals none. Stamens 10. Pod 5-beaked, many-seeded.

[*][*] Leaves, etc., thick and succulent. Carpels distinct.

2. Tillæa. Sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils 3 or 4. Seeds few or many.

3. Sedum. Sepals, petals, and pistils 4 or 5. Stamens 8–10. Seeds many.

1. PÉNTHORUM, Gronov. Ditch Stone-crop.

Sepals 5. Petals rare, if any. Stamens 10. Pistils 5, united below, forming a 5-angled, 5-horned, and 5-celled capsule, which opens by the falling off of the beaks, many-seeded.—Upright weed-like perennials (not fleshy like the rest of the family), with scattered leaves, and yellowish-green flowers loosely spiked along the upper side of the naked branches of the cyme. (Name from πέντε, five, and ὅρος, a mark, from the quinary order of the flower.)

1. P. sedoìdes, L. Leaves lanceolate, acute at both ends.—Open wet places, N. Brunswick to Fla., west to Minn., E. Kan., and Tex. July–Oct. Parts of the flower rarely in sixes or sevens.

2. TILLÆ̀A, Mich.

Sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils 3 or 4. Pods 2–many-seeded.—Very small tufted annuals, with opposite entire leaves and axillary flowers. (Named in honor of Michael Angelo Tilli, an early Italian botanist.)

1. T. símplex, Nutt. Rooting at the base (1–2´ high); leaves linear-oblong; flowers solitary, nearly sessile; calyx half the length of the (greenish-white) petals and the narrow 8–10-seeded pods, the latter with a scale at the base of each.—Muddy river-banks, Mass. to Md. July–Sept.

3. SÉDUM, Tourn. Stone-crop. Orpine.

Sepals and petals 4 or 5. Stamens 8 or 10. Follicles many-seeded; a little scale at the base of each.—Chiefly perennial, smooth, and thick-leaved herbs, with the flowers cymose or one-sided. Petals almost always narrow and acute or pointed. (Name from sedeo, to sit, alluding to the manner in which these plants fix themselves upon rocks and walls.)

[*] Flowers perfect and sessile, as it were spiked along one side of spreading flowering branches or of the divisions of a scorpioid cyme, the first or central flower mostly 5-merous and 10-androus, the others often 4-merous and 8-androus.

[+] Flowers white or purple.

1. S. pulchéllum, Michx. Stems ascending or trailing (4–12´ high); leaves terete, linear-filiform, much crowded; spikes of the cyme several, densely flowered; petals rose-purple.—Va. to Ga., west to Ky., E. Kan., and Tex.; also cultivated in gardens. July.

2. S. Névii, Gray. Stems spreading, simple (3–5´ high); leaves all alternate, those of the sterile shoots wedge-obovate or spatulate, on flowering stems linear-spatulate and flattish; cyme about 3-spiked, densely flowered; petals white, more pointed than in the next; the flowering 3 or 4 weeks later; leaves and blossoms smaller.—Rocky cliffs, mountains of Va. to Ala.

3. S. ternàtum, Michx. Stems spreading (3–6´ high); leaves flat, the lower whorled in threes, wedge-obovate, the upper scattered, oblong; cyme 3-spiked, leafy; petals white.—Rocky woods, N. Y. to Ga., west to Ind. and Tenn.

[+][+] Flowers yellow.

S. àcre, L. (Mossy Stone-crop.) Spreading on the ground, moss-like; leaves very small, alternate, almost imbricated on the branches, ovate, very thick; petals yellow.—Escaped from cultivation to rocky roadsides, etc. July. (Nat. from Eu.)

4. S. Torrèyi, Don. Annual; stems simple or branched from the base (2–4´ high); leaves flat or teretish, scattered, oblong, 2–3´´ long; petals rather longer than the ovate sepals; carpels at length widely divergent.—Mo. to Ark. and Tex.

[*][*] Flowers in a terminal naked and regular cyme or cluster, more or less peduncled; leaves flat, obovate or oblong, mostly alternate.

[+] Flowers perfect, 5-merous, 10-androus.

5. S. telephioìdes, Michx. Stems ascending (6–12´ high), stout, leafy to the top; leaves oblong or oval, entire or sparingly toothed; cyme small; petals flesh-color, ovate-lanceolate, taper-pointed; follicles tapering into a slender style.—Dry rocks, N. J. to Ga., west to western N. Y. and S. Ind. June.

S. Teléphium, L. (Garden Orpine or Live-for-ever.) Stems erect (2° high), stout; leaves oval, obtuse, toothed; cymes compound; petals purple, oblong-lanceolate; follicles abruptly pointed with a short style.—Rocks and banks, escaped from cultivation in some places. July. (Adv. from Eu.)

S. refléxum, L. Glabrous, erect, 1° high; leaves crowded, cylindric, subulate-tipped, spreading or reflexed; flowers yellow, pedicelled.—Coast of Mass.; western N. Y.; rare. (Nat. from Eu.)

[+][+] Flowers diœcious, mostly 4-merous and 8-androus.

6. S. Rhodìola, DC. (Roseroot.) Stems erect (5–10´ high); leaves oblong or oval, smaller than in the preceding; flowers in a close cyme, greenish-yellow, or the fertile turning purplish.—Throughout Arctic America, extending southward to the coast of Maine, and cliffs of Delaware River; also in the western mountains. May, June. (Eu.)

Order 37. DROSERÀCEÆ. (Sundew Family.)

Bog-herbs, mostly glandular-haired, with regular hypogynous flowers, pentamerous and withering-persistent calyx, corolla, and stamens, the anthers fixed by the middle and turned outward, and a 1-celled capsule with twice as many styles or stigmas as there are parietal placentæ.—Calyx imbricated. Petals convolute. Seeds numerous, anatropous, with a short and minute embryo at the base of the albumen.—Leaves circinate in the bud, i.e., rolled up from the apex to the base as in Ferns. A small family of insectivorous plants.

1. DRÓSERA, L. Sundew.

Stamens 5. Styles 3, or sometimes 5, deeply 2-parted so that they are taken for 6 or 10, slender, stigmatose above on the inner face. Capsule 3- (rarely 5-) valved; the valves bearing the numerous seeds on their middle for the whole length.—Low perennials or biennials; the leaves clothed with reddish gland-bearing bristles, in our species all in a tuft at the base; the naked scape bearing the flowers in a 1-sided raceme-like inflorescence, which nods at the undeveloped apex, so that the fresh-blown flower (which opens only in sunshine) is always highest. The plants yield a purple stain to paper. (The glands of the leaves exude drops of a clear glutinous fluid, glittering like dew-drops, whence the name, from δροσερός, dewy.)

1. D. rotundifòlia, L. (Round-leaved Sundew.) Leaves orbicular, abruptly narrowed into the spreading hairy petioles; seeds spindle-shaped, the coat loose and chaff-like; flowers white, the parts sometimes in sixes.—Peat-bogs, Lab. to Minn., Ind., and southward; common. July, Aug. (Eu.)

2. D. intermèdia, Hayne, var. Americàna, DC. Leaves spatulate-oblong, tapering into the long rather erect naked petioles; seeds oblong, with a rough close coat; flowers white. (D. longifolia, Gray, Manual.)—Bogs, with the same range but less common. June–Aug.—Plant raised on its prolonged caudex when growing in water. (Eu.)

3. D. lineàris, Goldie. (Slender Sundew.) Leaves linear, obtuse, the blade (2–3´ long, scarcely 2´´ wide) on naked erect petioles about the same length; seeds oblong, with a smooth and perfectly close coat; flowers white.—Shore of L. Superior, Mich., and Minn.

4. D. filifórmis, Raf. (Thread-leaved Sundew.) Leaves very long and filiform, erect, with no distinction between blade and stalk; seeds spindle-shaped; flowers numerous, purple rose-color (½´ broad).—Wet sand, near the coast, Mass. to N. J. and Fla.

Dionæ̀a muscípula, Ellis, the Venus's Fly-trap,—so noted for the extraordinary irritability of its leaves, closing quickly at the touch,—is a native of the sandy savannas of the eastern part of N. C. It differs in several respects from the character of the order given above; the stamens being 15, the styles united into one, and the seeds all at the base of the pod.

Order 38. HAMAMELÍDEÆ. (Witch-Hazel Family.)

Shrubs or trees, with alternate simple leaves and deciduous stipules; flowers in heads or spikes, often polygamous or monœcious; the calyx cohering with the base of the ovary, which consists of 2 pistils united below, and forms a 2-beaked, 2-celled woody capsule, opening at the summit, with a single bony seed in each cell, or several, only one or two of them ripening.—Petals inserted on the calyx, narrow, valvate or involute in the bud, or often none at all. Stamens twice as many as the petals, and half of them sterile and changed into scales, or numerous. Seeds anatropous. Embryo large and straight, in scanty albumen; cotyledons broad and flat.

[*] Flowers with a manifest calyx, or calyx and corolla, and a single ovule suspended from the summit of each cell.

1. Hamamelis. Petals 4, strap-shaped. Stamens and scales each 4, short.

2. Fothergilla. Petals none. Stamens about 24, long; filaments thickened upward.

[*][*] Flowers naked, with barely rudiments of a calyx and no corolla, crowded into catkin-like heads. Ovules several or many in each cell.

3. Liquidambar. Monœcious or polygamous. Stamens very numerous. Capsules consolidated by their bases in a dense head.

1. HAMAMÈLIS, L. Witch-Hazel.

Flowers in little axillary clusters or heads, usually surrounded by a scale-like 3-leaved involucre. Calyx 4-parted, and with 2 or 3 bractlets at its base. Petals 4, strap-shaped, long and narrow, spirally involute in the bud. Stamens 8, very short; the 4 alternate with the petals anther-bearing, the others imperfect and scale-like. Styles 2, short. Capsule opening loculicidally from the top; the outer coat separating from the inner, which encloses the single large and bony seed in each cell, but soon bursts elastically into two pieces.—Tall shrubs, with straight-veined leaves, and yellow, perfect or polygamous flowers. (From ἅμα, at the same time with, and μηλίς, an apple-tree; a name anciently applied to the Medlar, or some similar tree.)

1. H. Virginiàna, L. Leaves obovate or oval, wavy-toothed, somewhat downy when young; blossoming late in autumn, when the leaves are falling, and maturing its seeds the next summer.—Damp woods, N. Scotia to Fla., west to E. Minn. and La.


Flowers in a terminal catkin-like spike, mostly perfect. Calyx bell-shaped, the summit truncate, slightly 5–7-toothed. Petals none. Stamens about 24, borne on the margin of the calyx in one row, all alike; filaments very long, thickened at the top (white). Styles 2, slender. Capsule cohering with the base of the calyx, 2-lobed, 2-celled, with a single bony seed in each cell.—A low shrub; the oval or obovate leaves smooth, or hoary underneath, toothed at the summit; the flowers appearing rather before the leaves, each partly covered by a scale-like bract. (Dedicated to the distinguished Dr. John Fothergill.)

1. F. Gardèni, L. (F. alnifolia, L. f.)—Low grounds, Va. to N. C. April, May.

3. LIQUIDÁMBAR, L. Sweet-Gum Tree.

Flowers usually monœcious, in globular heads or catkins; the sterile arranged in a conical cluster, naked; stamens very numerous, intermixed with minute scales; filaments short. Fertile flowers consisting of many 2-celled 2-beaked ovaries, subtended by minute scales in place of a calyx, all more or less cohering together and hardening in fruit, forming a spherical catkin or head; the capsules opening between the 2 awl-shaped beaks. Styles 2, stigmatic down the inner side. Ovules many, but only one or two perfecting. Seeds with a wing-angled seed-coat.—Catkins racemed, nodding, in the bud enclosed by a 4-leaved deciduous involucre. (A mongrel name, from liquidus, fluid, and the Arabic ambar, amber; in allusion to the fragrant terebinthine juice which exudes from the tree.)

1. L. Styracíflua, L. (Sweet Gum. Bilsted.) Leaves rounded, deeply 5–7-lobed, smooth and shining, glandular-serrate, the lobes pointed.—Moist woods, from Conn. to S. Ill., and south to Fla. and Tex. April.—A large and beautiful tree, with fine-grained wood, the gray bark commonly with corky ridges on the branchlets. Leaves fragrant when bruised, turning deep crimson in autumn. The woody pods filled mostly with abortive seeds, resembling sawdust.

Order 39. HALORÀGEÆ. (Water-Milfoil Family.)

Aquatic or marsh plants (at least in northern countries), with the inconspicuous symmetrical (perfect or unisexual) flowers sessile in the axils of leaves or bracts, calyx-tube coherent with the ovary (or calyx and corolla wanting in Callitriche), which consists of 2–4 more or less united carpels (or in Hippuris of only one carpel), the styles or sessile stigmas distinct. Limb of the calyx obsolete or very short in fertile flowers. Petals small or none. Stamens 1–8. Fruit indehiscent, 1–4-celled, with a single anatropous seed suspended from the summit of each cell. Embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen; cotyledons minute.

1. Myriophyllum. Flowers monœcious or polygamous, the parts in fours, with or without petals. Stamens 4 or 8. Leaves often whorled, the immersed pinnately dissected.

2. Proserpinaca. Flowers perfect, the parts in threes. Petals none. Leaves alternate, the immersed pinnately dissected.

3. Hippuris. Flowers usually perfect. Petals none. Stamen, style, and cell of the ovary only one. Leaves entire, in whorls.

4. Callitriche. Flowers monœcious. Calyx and petals none. Stamen 1. Ovary 4-celled, with 2 filiform styles. Leaves entire, opposite.

1. MYRIOPHÝLLUM, Vaill. Water-Milfoil.

Flowers monœcious or polygamous. Calyx of the sterile flowers 4-parted, of the fertile 4-toothed. Petals 4, or none. Stamens 4–8. Fruit nut-like, 4-celled, deeply 4-lobed; stigmas 4, recurved.—Perennial aquatics. Leaves crowded, often whorled; those under water pinnately parted into capillary divisions. Flowers sessile in the axils of the upper leaves, usually above water in summer; the uppermost staminate. (Name from μυρίος, a thousand, and φύλλον, a leaf, i.e., Milfoil.)

[*] Stamens 8; petals deciduous; carpels even; leaves whorled in threes or fours.

1. M. spicàtum, L. Leaves all pinnately parted and capillary, except the floral ones or bracts; these ovate, entire or toothed, and chiefly shorter than the flowers, which thus form an interrupted spike.—Deep water, Newf. to N. Eng. and N. Y., west to Minn., Ark., and the Pacific. (Eu.)

2. M. verticillàtum, L. Floral leaves much longer than the flowers, pectinate-pinnatifid; otherwise nearly as n. 1.—Ponds, etc., common. (Eu.)

[*][*] Stamens 4; petals rather persistent; carpels 1–2-ridged and roughened on the back; leaves whorled in fours and fives, the lower with capillary divisions.

3. M. heterophýllum, Michx. Stem stout; floral leaves ovate and lanceolate, thick, crowded, sharply serrate, the lowest pinnatifid; fruit obscurely roughened.—Lakes and rivers, Ont. and N. Y. to Fla., west to Minn. and Tex.

4. M. scabràtum, Michx. Stem rather slender; lower leaves pinnately parted with few capillary divisions; floral leaves linear (rarely scattered), pectinate-toothed or cut-serrate; carpels strongly 2-ridged and roughened on the back.—Shallow ponds, S. New Eng. to S. C., west to Mo. and La.

[*][*][*] Stamens 4; petals rather persistent; carpels even on the back, leaves chiefly scattered, or wanting on the flowering stems.

5. M. ambíguum, Nutt. Immersed leaves pinnately parted into about 10 very delicate capillary divisions; the emerging ones pectinate, or the upper floral linear and sparingly toothed or entire; flowers mostly perfect; fruit (minute) smooth.—Ponds and ditches, Mass. to N. J. and Penn.; also in Ind.—Var. capillàceum, Torr. & Gray, has stems floating, long and very slender, and leaves all immersed and capillary. Var. limòsum, Torr., is small, rooting in the mud, with leaves all linear, incised, toothed, or entire.

6. M. tenéllum, Bigelow. Flowering stems nearly leafless and scape-like (3–10´ high), erect, simple; the sterile shoots creeping and tufted, bracts small, entire; flowers alternate, monœcious; fruit smooth.—Borders of ponds, Newf. to N. Eng., west to Mich.

2. PROSERPINÀCA, L. Mermaid-weed.

Flowers perfect. Calyx-tube 3-sided, the limb 3-parted. Petals none. Stamens 3. Stigmas 3, cylindrical. Fruit bony, 3-angled, 3-celled, 3-seeded, nut-like.—Low, perennial herbs, with the stems creeping at base, alternate leaves, and small flowers sessile in the axils, solitary or 3–4 together, in summer. (Name applied by Pliny to a Polygonum, meaning pertaining to Proserpine.)

1. P. palústris, L. Leaves lanceolate, sharply serrate, the lower pectinate when under water; fruit sharply angled.—Wet swamps, N. Eng. to Fla., west to Minn. and Tex.

2. P. pectinàcea, Lam. Leaves all pectinate, the divisions linear-awl-shaped; fruit rather obtusely angled.—Sandy swamps, near the coast, Mass. to Fla. and La.

3. HIPPÙRIS, L. Mare's Tail.

Flowers perfect or polygamous. Calyx entire. Petals none. Stamen one, inserted on the edge of the calyx. Style single, thread-shaped, stigmatic down one side, received in the groove between the lobes of the large anther. Fruit nut-like, 1-celled, 1-seeded.—Perennial aquatics, with simple entire leaves in whorls, and minute flowers sessile in the axils in summer. (Name from ἵππος a horse, and οὐρά, a tail.)

1. H. vulgàris, L. Stems simple (1–2° high); leaves in whorls of 8 or 12, linear, acute; fruit nearly 1´´ long.—Ponds and springs, Penn. to Ind. and Minn., and northward. (Eu.)

4. CALLÍTRICHE, L. Water-Starwort.

Flowers monœcious, solitary or 2 or 3 together in the axil of the same leaf, wholly naked or between a pair of membranaceous bracts. Sterile flower a single stamen; filament bearing a heart-shaped 4-celled anther, which by confluence becomes 1-celled, and opens by a single slit. Fertile flower a single 4-celled ovary, either sessile or pedicelled, bearing 2 distinct and filiform sessile, usually persistent stigmas. Fruit nut-like, compressed, 4-lobed, 4-celled, separating at maturity into as many closed 1-seeded portions. Seed pendulous, filling the cell; embryo slender, straight or slightly curved, nearly the length of the oily albumen.—Low, slender and usually tufted, glabrous, or beset with minute (microscopic) stellate scales, with spatulate or linear entire leaves, both forms of leaves often occurring on the same stem. (Name from καλός, beautiful, and θρίξ, hair, from the often almost capillary stems.)

[*] Small annuals, forming tufts on moist soil, destitute of stellate scales; leaves uniform, very small, obovate or oblanceolate, 3-nerved, crowded; bracts none.

1. C. defléxa, Braun. var. Austìni, Hegelm. Stems ½–1´ high; fruit small ({1/3}´´ broad), broader than high, deeply notched above and below, on a pedicel often nearly of its own length or nearly sessile; lobes of the fruit narrowly winged and with a deep groove between them; persistent stigmas shorter than the fruit, spreading or reflexed; leaves 1–2´´ long. (C. Austini, Engelm)—On damp soil, N. Y. and N. J. to Ill., Mo., and Tex. (S. Am.)

[*][*] Amphibious perennials; leaves with stellate scales, the floating ones obovate and 3-nerved, the submersed linear (all uniform and narrow in terrestrial forms) flowers usually between a pair of bracts.

2. C. vérna, L. Fruit (½´´ long) higher than broad, obovate, slightly obcordate, usually thickest at the base, sessile, its lobes sharply keeled or very narrowly winged above, and with a wide groove between them; stigmas shorter than the fruit, almost erect, usually deciduous; floating leaves crowded in a tuft, obovate, narrowed into a petiole.—Common in stagnant waters, Penn. and N. J. to Fla., west to Minn., Tex., and the Pacific. (Eu.)

3. C. heterophýlla, Pursh. Fruit smaller, as broad or broader than high, deeply emarginate, thick, almost ventricose, sessile or nearly so, its lobes obtusely angled, with a small groove between them; stigmas as long as the fruit, erect, persistent; floating leaves crowded in a tuft, broadly spatulate, often retuse, abruptly narrowed into a long petiole.—Stagnant water, N. Y. and N. J. to S. Ind. and Mo.

[*][*][*] Submersed perennial, with numerous uniform linear 1-nerved leaves; flowers without bracts; carpels separate nearly to the axis.

4 C. autumnàlis, L. Stems 3–6´ high; fruit large (1´´ wide or more), flattened, circular, deeply and narrowly notched, sessile or nearly so, its lobes broadly winged, and with a very deep and narrow groove between them; stigmas very long, reflexed, deciduous; leaves all linear from a broader base, retuse or notched at the tip (2–6´´ long).—W. Mass., Lake Champlain and N. New York, Lake Superior, and westward. (Eu.)

Order 40. MELASTOMÀCEÆ. (Melastoma Family.)

Plants with opposite 3–7-ribbed leaves, and definite stamens, the anthers opening by pores at the apex; otherwise much as in the Onagraceæ.—All tropical, except the genus

1. RHÉXIA, L. Deer-Grass. Meadow-Beauty.

Calyx-tube urn-shaped, coherent with the ovary below, and continued above it, persistent, 4-cleft at the apex. Petals 4, convolute in the bud, oblique, inserted along with the 8 stamens on the summit of the calyx-tube. Anthers long, 1-celled, inverted in the bud. Style 1; stigma 1. Capsule invested by the permanent calyx, 4-celled, with 4 many-seeded placentæ projecting from the central axis. Seeds coiled like a snail shell, without albumen.—Low perennial herbs, often bristly, with mostly sessile 3–5-nerved and bristly-edged leaves, and large showy cymose flowers; in summer; the petals falling early. (A name in Pliny for some unknown plant, probably from ῥῆξις, a crevice, from the place of growth.)

[*] Anthers linear, curved, with a minute spur on the back at the attachment of the filament above its base; flowers cymose, peduncled.

1. R. Virgínica, L. Stem square, with wing-like angles; leaves oval-lanceolate, sessile, acute; calyx-tube and pedicels more or less hispid with gland-tipped hairs; petals bright purple.—Sandy swamps; coast of Maine to Fla., west to northern N. Y., Ind., Mo., and La. Slender rootstocks tuberiferous.

2. R. aristòsa, Britt. Branches somewhat wing-angled; leaves linear-oblong, sessile, not narrowed at base, naked or very sparsely hairy; hairs of the calyx mostly below the throat, not gland-tipped; petals sparsely villous, bright purple.—Egg Harbor City, N. J. (J. E. Peters); also Sumter Co., S. C. (J. D. Smith).

3. R. Mariàna, L. Stems cylindrical; leaves linear-oblong, narrowed below, mostly petiolate; petals paler.—Sandy swamps; N. J. to Fla., west to Mo. and La.

[*][*] Anthers oblong, straight, without any spur; flowers few, sessile.

4. R. ciliòsa, Michx. Stem square, glabrous; leaves broadly ovate, ciliate with long bristles; calyx glabrous.—Md. to Fla. and La.

Order 41. LYTHRÀCEÆ. (Loosestrife Family.)

Herbs, with mostly opposite entire leaves, no stipules, the calyx enclosing but free from the 1–4-celled many-seeded ovary and membranous capsule, and bearing the 4–7 deciduous petals and 4–14 stamens on its throat; the latter lower down. Style 1; stigma capitate, or rarely 2-lobed.—Flowers axillary or whorled, rarely irregular, perfect, sometimes dimorphous or even trimorphous, those on different plants with filaments and style reciprocally longer and shorter. Petals sometimes wanting. Capsule often 1-celled by the early breaking away of the thin partitions; placentæ in the axis. Seeds anatropous, without albumen.—Branches usually 4-sided.

[*] Flowers regular or nearly so.

[+] Flowers mostly solitary in the axils of the leaves, sessile or nearly so.

1. Didiplis. Calyx short, without appendages. Petals none. Stamens 4. Capsule indehiscent. Small aquatic.

2. Rotala. Calyx short, the sinuses appendaged. Petals and stamens 4. Capsule septicidal, with 3–4 valves.

3. Ammannia. Flowers not trimorphous. Petals generally 4 or none. Stamens 4. Capsule bursting irregularly.

[+][+] Flowers in 3–many-flowered axillary cymes (rarely solitary).

4. Lythrum. Calyx tubular. Petals usually 6. Stamens mostly 6 or 12. Flowers cymose-spicate in one species.

5. Decodon. Flowers trimorphous. Petals 5 (rarely 4). Stamens 8–10. Capsule 3–4-valved, loculicidal.

[*][*] Flowers irregular and unsymmetrical, with 6 petals and 11 stamens.

6. Cuphea. Calyx spurred or enlarged on one side at base. Petals unequal.

1. DIDÍPLIS, Raf. Water Purslane.

Calyx short-campanulate or semiglobose, with no appendages at the sinuses (or a mere callous point). Petals none. Stamens 4, short. Capsule globular, indehiscent, 2-celled.—Submersed aquatic (sometimes terrestrial), rooting in the mud, with opposite linear leaves, and very small greenish flowers solitary in their axils. ("Didiplis means two doubling;" from δíς, twice, and διπλóος, double.)

1. D. lineàris, Raf. Leaves when submersed elongated, thin, closely sessile by a broad base, when emersed shorter and contracted at base; calyx with broad triangular lobes; style very short; capsules very small. (Ammannia Nuttallii, Gray.)—From Minn. and Wisc. to Tex., east to N. C. and Fla.


Calyx short-campanulate or semiglobose, with tooth-like appendages at the sinuses (abnormally, in our species). Petals 4 (in ours). Stamens 4, short. Capsule globular, 4-celled, septicidal, the valves (under a strong lens) transversely and densely striate. (Name a diminutive of rota, a wheel, from the whorled leaves of the original species.)

1. R. ramòsior, Koehne. Leaves tapering at base or into a short petiole, linear-oblanceolate or somewhat spatulate; flowers solitary (rarely 3) in the axils and sessile; accessory teeth of calyx as long as the lobes or shorter. (Ammannia humilis, Michx.)—Low or wet ground, Mass. to Fla., west to Ind., Kan., and Tex.—With Ammannia-like habit, an exception in the genus.

3. AMMÁNNIA, Houston.

Flowers in 3–many-flowered axillary cymes. Calyx globular or bell-shaped, 4-angled, 4-toothed, usually with a little horn-shaped appendage at each sinus. Petals 4 (purplish), small and deciduous, sometimes wanting. Stamens 4–8. Capsule globular, 2–4-celled, bursting irregularly.—Low and inconspicuous smooth herbs, with opposite narrow leaves, and small flowers in their axils, produced all summer. (Named after Paul Ammann, a German botanist anterior to Linnæus.)

1. A. coccínea, Rottb. Leaves linear-lanceolate (2–3´ long), with a broad auricled sessile base; cymes subsessile, dense; petals purplish; stamens more or less exserted; style usually slender; capsule included. (A. latifolia, Gray, Manual, not L.)—N. J. to Fla., west to S. Ind., Kan., and Tex. The style varies much in length, sometimes in the same specimen. Apparently the more developed form of the southern A. latifolium, L., which, as limited by Koehne, has apetalous flowers, with included stamens and short style.

4. LÝTHRUM, L. Loosestrife.

Calyx cylindrical, striate, 5–7-toothed, with as many little processes in the sinuses. Petals 5–7. Stamens as many as the petals or twice the number, inserted low down on the calyx, commonly nearly equal. Capsule oblong, 2-celled.—Slender herbs, with opposite or scattered mostly sessile leaves, and purple (rarely white) flowers; produced in summer. (Name from λύθρον, blood; perhaps from the styptic properties of some species.)

[*] Stamens and petals 5–7; flowers small, solitary and nearly sessile in the axils of the mostly scattered upper leaves; proper calyx-teeth often shorter than the intermediate processes; plants smooth.

1. L. Hyssopifòlia, L. Low annual (6–10´ high), pale; leaves oblong-linear, obtuse, longer than the inconspicuous flowers; petals pale-purple; stamens usually 4–6, included.—Marshes, near the coast, Maine to N. J. (Eu.)

2. L. lineàre, L. Stem slender and tall (3–4° high), bushy at top, with 2 margined angles; leaves linear, chiefly opposite; petals whitish; flowers with 6 included stamens and a short style, or the stamens exserted and style short; ovary on a thick short stalk; no fleshy hypogynous ring.—Brackish marshes, N. J. to Fla. and Tex.

3. L. alàtum, Pursh. Tall and wand-like perennial; branches with margined angles; leaves oblong-ovate to linear-lanceolate, acute, with a cordate or rounded base, the upper mostly alternate; calyx 2–4´´ long; petals rather large, deep-purple; stamens of the short-styled flowers exserted; fleshy hypogynous ring prominent.—Ont. to Minn., south to Ga., Ark., and Col.; also near Boston.

[*][*] Stamens 12 (rarely 8 or 10), twice the number of the petals, 6 longer and 6 shorter; flowers large, crowded and whorled in an interrupted spike.

L. Salicària, L. (Spiked Loosestrife.) More or less downy and tall; leaves lanceolate, heart-shaped at base, sometimes whorled in threes; flowers purple, trimorphous in the relative lengths of the stamens and style.—Wet meadows, N. Scotia to Del. (Nat. from Eu.)

5. DÉCODON, Gmel. Swamp Loosestrife.

Calyx short, broadly bell-shaped or hemispherical, with 5–7 erect teeth, and as many longer and spreading horn-like processes at the sinuses. Petal 5. Stamens 10 (rarely 8), exserted, of two lengths. Capsule globose, 3–5-celled, loculicidal.—Perennial herbs or slightly shrubby plants, with opposite or whorled leaves, and axillary clusters of trimorphous flowers. (Name from δέκα, ten, and ὀδούς, tooth.)

1. D. verticillàtus, Ell. Smooth or downy; stems recurved (2–8° long), 4–6-sided; leaves lanceolate, nearly sessile, opposite or whorled, the upper with clustered flowers in their axils on short pedicels; petals 5, wedge-lanceolate, rose-purple (½´ long); stamens 10, half of them shorter. (Nesæa verticillata, HBK.)—Swampy grounds, N. Eng. to Fla., west to Ont., Minn., and La. Bark of the lower part of the stem often spongy-thickened.

6. CÙPHEA, Jacq.

Calyx tubular, 12-ribbed, somewhat inflated below, gibbous or spurred at the base on the upper side, 6-toothed at the apex, and usually with as many little processes in the sinuses. Petals 6, very unequal. Stamens mostly 12, approximate in 2 sets, included, unequal. Ovary with a curved gland at the base next the spur of the calyx, 1–2-celled; style slender; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule oblong, few-seeded, early ruptured through one side.—Flowers solitary or racemose, stalked. (Name from κυφός, gibbous, from the shape of the calyx.)

1. C. viscosíssima, Jacq. (Clammy Cuphea.) Annual, very viscid-hairy, branching; leaves ovate-lanceolate; petals ovate, short-clawed, purple; seeds flat, borne on one side of the placenta, which is early forced out of the ruptured capsule.—Dry fields, R. I. to Ga., west to Kan. and La.

Order 42. ONAGRÀCEÆ. (Evening-Primrose Family.)

Herbs, with 4-merous (sometimes 2–3- or 5–6-merous) perfect and symmetrical flowers; the tube of the calyx cohering with the 2–4-celled ovary, its lobes valvate in the bud, or obsolete, the petals convolute in the bud, sometimes wanting; and the stamens as many or twice as many as the petals or calyx-lobes, inserted on the summit of the calyx-tube. Style single, slender; stigma 2–4-lobed or capitate. Pollen grains often connected by cobwebby threads. Seeds anatropous, small, without albumen.—Mostly herbs, with opposite or alternate leaves. Stipules none or glandular.

[*] Parts of the flower in fours or more.

[+] Fruit a many-seeded pod, usually loculicidal.

[++] Calyx-limb divided to the summit of the ovary, persistent.

1. Jussiæa. Petals 4–6. Stamens twice as many. Capsule elongated.

2. Ludwigia. Petals 4 or none. Stamens 4. Capsule short.

[++][++] Calyx-tube prolonged beyond the ovary (scarcely so in n. 3) and deciduous from it. Flowers 4-merous.

3. Epilobium. Seeds silky-tufted. Flowers small, not yellow. Lower leaves often opposite.

4. Œnothera. Seeds naked. Flowers mostly yellow. Leaves alternate.

[+][+] Fruit dry and indehiscent, 1–4-seeded. Leaves alternate.

5. Gaura. Calyx-tube obconical. Filaments appendaged at base.

6. Stenosiphon. Calyx-tube filiform. Filaments not appendaged.

[*][*] Parts of the flower in twos. Leaves opposite.

7. Circæa. Petals 2, obcordate or 2-lobed. Stamens 2. Fruit 1–2-seeded, bristly.


Calyx-tube elongated, not at all prolonged beyond the ovary; the lobes 4–6, herbaceous and persistent. Petals 4–9. Stamens twice as many as the petals. Capsule 4–6-celled, usually long, opening between the ribs. Seeds very numerous.—Herbs (ours glabrous perennials), with mostly entire and alternate leaves, and axillary yellow flowers, in summer. (Dedicated to Bernard de Jussieu, the founder of the Natural System of Botany.)

1. J. decúrrens, DC. Stem erect (1–2° high), branching, winged by the decurrent lanceolate leaves; calyx-lobes 4, as long as the petals; capsule oblong-club-shaped, wing-angled; seeds in several rows in each cell.—Wet places, Va. to Fla., west to S. Ill., Ark., and La.

2. J. rèpens, L. Stem creeping, or floating and rooting; leaves oblong, tapering into a slender petiole; flowers large, long-peduncled; calyx-lobes and obovate petals 5; pod woody, cylindrical, with a tapering base; seeds quadrate, in 1 row in each cell, adherent to the spongy endocarp.—In water, Ill. and Ky. to E. Kan., Ark., and Tex.

2. LUDWÍGIA, L. False Loosestrife.

Calyx-tube not at all prolonged beyond the ovary; the lobes 4, usually persistent. Petals 4, often small or wanting. Stamens 4. Capsule short or cylindrical, many-seeded. Seeds minute, naked.—Perennial herbs, with axillary (rarely capitate) flowers, through summer and autumn. (Named for C. G. Ludwig, Professor of Botany at Leipsic, contemporary with Linnæus.)

[*] Leaves all alternate, sessile or nearly so.

[+] Flowers peduncled in the upper axils, with conspicuous yellow petals (4–8´´ long), equalling the ovate or lanceolate foliaceous lobes of the calyx.

1. L. alternifòlia, L. (Seed-box.) Smooth or nearly so, branched (3° high); leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, acute or pointed at both ends; capsules cubical, rounded at base, wing-angled.—Swamps, E. Mass. to Fla., west to Mich., E. Kan., and La.

2. L. hirtélla, Raf. Hairy all over; stems nearly simple (1–2° high); leaves oblong, or the upper lanceolate, blunt at both ends; capsules nearly as in the last, but scarcely wing-angled.—Moist pine barrens, N. J. to Fla. and Tex.

[+][+] Flowers small, sessile (solitary or sometimes clustered) in the axils, with very small greenish petals (in n. 5) or mostly none; leaves mostly lanceolate or linear on the erect stems (1–3° high) and numerous branches; but prostrate or creeping sterile shoots often produced from the base, thickly beset with shorter obovate or spatulate leaves. (Our species glabrous, except n. 3.)

3. L. sphærocárpa, Ell. Minutely pubescent, especially the calyx, or nearly glabrous; leaves lanceolate or linear, acute, tapering at base, those of runners obovate with a wedge-shaped base and glandular-denticulate; bractlets minute, obsolete, or none; capsules globular or depressed (sometimes acute at base), not longer than the calyx-lobes (less than 2´´ long).—Water or wet swamps, E. Mass. to Fla. and La. Bark below often spongy-thickened.

4. L. polycárpa, Short & Peter. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, acute at both ends, those of the runners oblong-spatulate, acute, entire; bractlets linear-awl-shaped and conspicuous on the base of the 4-sided somewhat top-shaped capsule, which is longer than the calyx-lobes.—Wet places, E. Mass. and Conn. to Mich., Minn., E. Kan., and Ky.

5. L. lineàris, Walt. Slender, mostly low; leaves narrowly linear, those of the short runners obovate; minute petals usually present; bractlets minute at the base of the elongated top-shaped 4-sided capsule, which is 3´´ long and much longer than the calyx-lobes.—Bogs, pine barrens of N. J., and southward.

6. L. cylíndrica, Ell. Much branched; leaves oblong- or spatulate-lanceolate, much tapering at the base or even petioled; bractlets very minute at the base of the cylindrical capsule, which is 3´´ long, and several times exceeds the calyx-lobes.—Swamps, S. Ill. to Fla. and Tex.

[*][*] Leaves all opposite; stems creeping or floating.

7. L. palústris, Ell. (Water Purslane.) Smooth; leaves ovate or oval, tapering into a slender petiole; petals none, or small and reddish when the plant grows out of water; calyx-lobes very short; capsules oblong, 4-sided, not tapering at base, sessile in the axils (2´´ long).—Ditches, common. (Eu.)

8. L. arcuàta, Walt. Smooth, small and creeping; leaves oblanceolate, nearly sessile; flowers solitary, long-peduncled; petals yellow, exceeding the calyx (3´´ long); capsules oblong-club-shaped, somewhat curved ({1/3}´ long).—Swamps, Va. to Fla.

3. EPILÒBIUM, L. Willow-herb.

Calyx-tube not or scarcely prolonged beyond the ovary; the limb 4-cleft or -parted, deciduous. Petals 4. Stamens 8; anthers short. Capsule linear, many-seeded. Seeds with a tuft of long hairs at the end.—Mostly perennials, with nearly sessile leaves, and violet, purple, or white flowers; in summer. A large genus, many of its species of difficult limitation. The following provisional arrangement has been made by Prof. W. Trelease, mainly in accordance with Haussknecht's revision of the genus. (Name composed of ἐπί, upon, and λόβιον, a little pod.)

§ 1. Flowers large, purple, in a long raceme; calyx-limb deeply parted; petals entire; stamens and style successively deflexed; stigma of 4 long lobes.

1. E. angustifòlium, L. (Great Willow-herb. Fire-weed.) Stem simple, tall (4–7°); leaves scattered, ample, lanceolate, nearly entire.—Low grounds, especially in newly cleared lands; N. Eng. to N. C., west to Minn. and E. Kan., and far north and westward. (Eu., Asia.)

§ 2. Flowers mostly small and corymbed or panicled; calyx-limb 5-cleft; petals mostly deeply notched; stamens and style erect.

[*] Stigma 4-parted; stem terete.

E. hirsùrum, L. Densely soft-hairy, stout, branching (3–5° high); leaves mostly opposite, lance-oblong, serrulate, sessile; flowers in the upper axils or in a leafy short raceme; petals 6´´ long, rose-purple.—Waste grounds, Mass. to N. Y. and Ont. (Nat. from Eu.)

[*][*] Stigma clavate; stem terete, without decurrent lines (or with traces in n. 2); leaves numerous, the lower opposite, subentire, with revolute margins.

2. E. lineàre, Muhl. Usually much branched above and minutely hoary-pubescent, 1–2° high; leaves linear-lanceolate, tapering to a short but distinct petiole, acutish; flowers numerous, pale; capsules hoary, on pedicels as long as the leaves. (E. palustre, var. lineare, Gray, mainly.)—Bogs, N. Eng. to Penn., Iowa, and northward.

3. E. stríctum, Muhl. Erect, 1–2½° high, densely beset with soft spreading somewhat glandular white hairs; leaves broader, more obtuse and with evident veins, very short-petioled or sessile; pubescence of the capsule soft and spreading. (E. molle, Torr.)—Bogs, Mass. to Minn., south to Va. and Ill.

[*][*][*] Stigma clavate; stem somewhat quadrangular with 2–4 ridges or hairy lines decurrent from some of the leaves.

[+] Tall and mostly branching, many-flowered; leaves rather large, toothed, not revolute, the lower opposite; seeds papillose.

4. E. coloràtum, Muhl. Somewhat hoary-pubescent above or glandular, 1–3° high; leaves lanceolate, sharply serrulate or denticulate, acute, narrowed to conspicuous petioles; flowers pale, more or less nodding; peduncles shorter than the leaves; seeds dark, unappendaged; coma cinnamon-color.—Wet places, common.

5. E. adenocaùlon, Haussk. Differs in its more glandular pubescence above, the often blunter and less toothed leaves abruptly contracted to shorter petioles, flowers erect, paler seeds with a slight prolongation at top, and a merely dingy coma.—Wet places through the Northern States.

6. E. glandulòsum, Lehm. Subsimple; pubescence above not glandular; leaves ovate-lanceolate, mostly abruptly rounded to a sessile base and more glandular-toothed; seeds larger.—Canada to the mountains of N. C. (fide Haussknecht). (Asia.)

[+][+] Mostly low, slender and simple (except forms of n. 10); leaves chiefly opposite, less toothed; flowers few, nodding; seeds appendaged at the apex.

[++] Seeds areolate but not papillose; leaves not revolute.

7. E. anagallidifòlium, Lam. Glabrate, a span high or less; leaves erect or ascending, about equalling the internodes, elliptical-oblong to narrowly obovate, entire or the upper denticulate, tapering to short petioles; flowers purple; sepals rather obtuse; capsules glabrous on peduncles exceeding the leaves.—White Mts. and Adirondacks (fide Haussknecht). (Eu.)

8. E. lactiflòrum, Haussk. Glabrous except the pubescent lines, 6–12´ high, with elongated internodes; leaves elliptical or the lowest round-obovate, slightly repand-denticulate, obtuse, tapering into mostly elongated petioles; flowers smaller, white; sepals more acute; seeds more prominently appendaged.—White Mts., and northward (fide Haussknecht). (Eu.)

[++][++] Seeds papillose-roughened.

9. E. Hornemánni, Reichenb. Glabrate, 8–18´ high; leaves mostly horizontal, ovate, the upper acutish, remotely denticulate, abruptly contracted to winged petioles, not revolute; seeds often only slightly roughened, short and shortly appendaged. (E. alpinum, Man.)—White Mts., dells of the Wisconsin River (Lapham), and northward. (Eu.)

10. E. palústre, L. Slender, 1° high or less, often branched, finely pubescent; leaves erect or ascending, about equalling or longer than the internodes, sessile, linear to linear-lanceolate or elliptic-oblong, obtuse, with revolute margins; capsules pubescent to nearly glabrous, mostly shorter than the slender peduncles; seeds fusiform, with long beak. (E. palustre, var. lineare, Man., in part.)—Penn. to Minn. and the White Mts., north and westward. (Eu.)

4. ŒNOTHÈRA, L. Evening Primrose.

Calyx-tube prolonged beyond the ovary, deciduous; the lobes 4, reflexed. Petals 4. Stamens 8; anthers mostly linear and versatile. Capsule 4-valved, many-seeded. Seeds naked.—Leaves alternate. Flowers yellow, white or rose-color. (An old name, of unknown meaning, for a species of Epilobium.)

§ 1. Stigma-lobes linear, elongated (except in n. 7); calyx-tube linear, slightly dilated at the throat; anthers linear.

[*] Caulescent annuals or biennials; flowers erect in the bud, nocturnal, yellow, the calyx-tips free; capsules sessile, coriaceous; seeds in two rows in each cell.

[+] Flowers in a leafy spike; capsules stout, oblong, slightly narrowed above.

1. Œ. biénnis, L. (Common Evening Primrose.) Rather stout, erect (1–5° high), usually simple, more or less pubescent and hairy; leaves lanceolate to oblong- or rarely ovate-lanceolate (2–6´ long), acute or acuminate, repandly denticulate, the lowest petioled; calyx-tube 1–2½´ long, the tips of the sepals contiguous; petals ½–¾´ long; capsule more or less pubescent or hirsute.—Throughout the U. S.—Var. cruciàta, Torr. & Gray, with small narrow petals, appears to be merely a rare garden (?) sport. E. Mass.

Var. grandiflòra, Lindl., has petals as long as the calyx-tube (1–2½´ long).—Same range as the type, but not so common east.

2. Œ. Oakesiàna, Robbins. Annual, more slender, not hairy, the puberulence mainly appressed; calyx-tips not contiguous at base; otherwise nearly as in the typical form of the last. (Œ. biennis, var. Oakesiana, Gray.)—Dry places, E. Mass., R. I., and Conn.

[+][+] Flowers in a leafy spike or axillary; capsules linear.

3. Œ. rhombipétala, Nutt. Rarely branching, appressed-puberulent and subcanescent; leaves narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, denticulate, the lowest attenuate to a petiole and rarely pinnatifid, diminishing upward into the close, elongated, conspicuously bracted spike; calyx silky-canescent (tube 1½´ long); petals rhombic-ovate (6–10´ long).—Ind. to Minn. and Ark.

4. Œ. humifùsa, Nutt. Stems decumbent or ascending (½–2° long); hoary-pubescent with short dense appressed hairs; leaves narrowly lanceolate or oblanceolate (¼–1´ long), sparingly repand-dentate or entire, the radical leaves pinnatifid, the floral not reduced; capsule ½–1´ long, silky, curved; seeds smooth.—On the sea-coast, N. J. to Fla.

5. Œ. sinuàta, L. Stems ascending or decumbent, simple or branched (1° high or more), more or less strigose-pubescent and puberulent; leaves oblong or lanceolate (1–2´ long), sinuately toothed or often pinnatifid, the floral similar; capsule 1–1½´ long; seeds strongly pitted.—N. J. to Fla., west to E. Kan. and Tex. Very variable.

[*][*] Caulescent perennial; flowers axillary, nodding in the bud, white turning rose-color; capsules sessile, linear; seeds in a single row.

6. Œ. albicaùlis, Nutt. Stems erect (½–4° high), simple or branched, white and often shreddy, glabrous or puberulent; leaves linear to oblong-lanceolate (1–3´ long), entire or repand-denticulate, or sinuate-pinnatifid toward the base; calyx-tips free, throat naked; pods ½–2´ long, often curved or twisted; seeds lance-linear, smooth.—W. Minn. to N. Mex., and westward.

[*][*][*] Caulescent; flowers diurnal, yellow and erect in the bud (except in n. 11); capsules obovate or clavate, quadrangular, the valves ribbed and the angles more or less strongly winged (except in n. 7).

7. Œ. linifòlia, Nutt. Annual or biennial, erect, very slender, simple or diffuse (6–15´ high), glabrous, the branchlets and capsules puberulent; radical leaves oblanceolate, cauline linear-filiform ½–1´ long; spikes loosely flowered; corolla 2–3´´ long; stigmas short; capsules obovate to oblong-clavate, 2–3´´ long, not winged, nearly sessile.—Ill. to E. Kan., La., and Tex.

8. Œ. pùmila, L. Biennial, puberulent, 1–2° high; leaves mostly glabrous, entire, obtuse, the radical spatulate, the cauline narrowly oblanceolate; flowers loosely spiked; corolla 4–12´´ long; capsule glabrous, oblong-clavate, 3–6´´ long, sessile or on a short pedicel, slightly winged. (Incl. Œ. chrysantha, Michx.)—Dry fields, N. Scotia to N. J., west to Minn. and Kan. June.

9. Œ. fruticòsa, L. (Sundrops.) Biennial or perennial, erect, often tall and stout (1–3° high), villous-pubescent or puberulent or nearly glabrous; leaves oblong- to linear-lanceolate, mostly denticulate; raceme corymbed or loose; petals 9–12´´ long; capsule subsessile or with a pedicel shorter than itself, prominently ribbed and strongly winged.—Common and very variable.

Var. lineàris, Watson. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate; capsule usually shorter than the pedicel, rather less broadly winged. (Œ. linearis of Man., in part. Œ. riparia, Nutt.)—Conn. to Fla., west to Mo. and La.

Var. humifùsa, Allen. Low, decumbent, somewhat woody, diffusely branched, puberulent; branches slender, flexuous; leaves narrow; flowers few, small; capsules pubescent, about equalling the pedicel. (Œ. linearis of Man., in part.)—Suffolk Co., L. Island.

10. Œ. glaùca, Michx. Perennial, erect (2–3° high), glabrous and glaucous; leaves ovate to ovate-oblong (2–4´ long), repand-denticulate; flowers in short leafy corymbs; petals 9–15´´ long; capsule glabrous, ovoid-oblong, very broadly winged, usually abruptly contracted into a pedicel equalling or shorter than itself.—Mountains of Va. to Ala., west to Ky. and E. Kan.

11. Œ. speciòsa, Nutt. Perennial, erect or subdecumbent, finely pubescent; leaves oblong-lanceolate to linear, repand-denticulate, or more or less deeply sinuate-pinnatifid; flowers large, white or rose; capsule clavate-obovate, strongly 8-ribbed, rigid, acute, stoutly pedicelled.—Mo. to Kan. and Tex.

[*][*][*][*] Capsule oblong to ovate or orbicular, broadly winged, rigid and sessile.

[+] Acaulescent or nearly so; flowers white or rose-color.

12. Œ. tríloba, Nutt. Biennial or perennial, nearly glabrous; leaves 2–10´ long, somewhat ciliate, long-petioled, runcinate-pinnatifid or oblanceolate and only sinuate-toothed; calyx-tips free, the tube slender (2–4´ long); petals 6–12´´ long; capsule ovate, ½–1´ long, strongly winged, net-veined.—Ky. to Miss. and Tex., west to the Pacific.

Var. (?) parviflòra, Watson. Flowers very small (1–2´ long), fertilized in the bud and rarely fully opening; fruit abundant, forming at length a densely crowded hemispherical or cylindrical mass nearly 2´ in diameter and often 2–3´ high.—Plains of Kan. and Neb.

[+][+] Low caulescent perennials; flowers axillary, yellow.

13. Œ. Missouriénsis, Sims. Stems decumbent; pubescence short and silky, closely appressed, sometimes dense or wholly wanting; leaves thick, oval to linear, mostly narrowly lanceolate (2–5´ long), acuminate, entire or repand-denticulate; calyx-tube 2–5´ long; petals broad, 1–2½´ long; capsules orbicular, very broadly winged (1–3´ long).—Mo. and Kan. to Tex.

14. Œ. Fremóntii, Watson. Hoary with appressed silky pubescence; leaves linear, pointed, entire; calyx-tube 1–2´ long; petals ½–1´ long; capsule hoary, oblong, narrowed at base, 9´´ long.—Central Kan.

§ 2. Stigma discoid; calyx-tube more broadly dilated above; anthers oblong-linear; capsule mostly sessile, linear-cylindric; perennial, somewhat woody, with axillary yellow flowers.

15. Œ. Hartwègi, Benth., var. lavandulæfòlia, Watson. Stems numerous from a woody base, 3–6´ high; leaves numerous, hoary-puberulent, mostly linear, ¼–1´ long; calyx-tube 1–2´ long; capsule 8–10´´ long.—Central Kan. to Col. and N. Mex.

16. Œ. serrulàta, Nutt. Slender (3–15´ high), simple or branched, canescent or glabrous; leaves linear to lanceolate (1–3´ long), irregularly and sharply denticulate; calyx-tube broadly funnnelform (2–4´ long), strongly nerved; petals broadly obovate (3–4´´ long), crenulate; capsule 9–15´´ long.—Wisc. and Minn. to Mo., Tex., and N. Mex.

5. GAÙRA, L.

Calyx-tube much prolonged beyond the ovary, deciduous; the lobes 4 (rarely 3), reflexed. Petals clawed, unequal or turned to the upper side. Stamens mostly 8, often turned down, as is also the long style. A small scale-like appendage before the base of each filament. Stigma 4-lobed, surrounded by a ring or cup-like border. Fruit hard and nut-like, 3–4-ribbed or angled, indehiscent or nearly so, usually becoming 1-celled and 1–4-seeded. Seeds naked.—Leaves alternate, sessile. Flowers rose-color or white, changing to reddish in fading, in spikes or racemes, in our species quite small (so that the name, from γαῦρος, superb, does not seem appropriate).

[*] Fruit sessile or nearly so.

1. G. biénnis, L. Soft-hairy or downy (3–8° high); leaves oblong-lanceolate, denticulate; spikes wand-like; fruit oval or oblong, acute at both ends; 2–3´´ long, ribbed, downy.—Dry banks, N. Y. to Minn., and southward. Aug.

2. G. parviflòra, Dougl. Soft-villous and puberulent, 2–5° high; leaves ovate-lanceolate, repand-denticulate, soft-pubescent; spikes dense; fruit oblong-clavate, narrowed to both ends, 4-nerved, obtusely angled above, 3–4´´ long.—Mo. to La. and westward.

3. G. coccínea, Nutt. Canescent, puberulent or glabrate (6–12´ high), very leafy; leaves lanceolate, linear-oblong or linear, repand-denticulate or entire; flowers in simple spikes, rose-color turning to scarlet; fruit terete below, 4-sided and broader above, 2–3´´ long.—Minn. to Kan., and westward.

[*][*] Fruit slender-pedicelled.

4. G. fílipes, Spach. Nearly smooth; stem slender (2–4° high); leaves linear, mostly toothed, tapering at base; branches of the panicle very slender, naked; fruit obovate-club-shaped, 4-angled at the summit.—Open places, Va. to Fla., west to Ill., Kan., and Ark.


Calyx prolonged beyond the ovary into a filiform tube. Filaments (8) not appendaged at base. Fruit 1-celled, 1-seeded. Otherwise as Gaura, which it also resembles in habit. (From στενός, narrow, and σίφων, a tube.)

1. S. virgàtus, Spach. Slender, 2–4° high, glabrous, leafy, leaves narrowly lanceolate to linear, pointed, entire, much reduced above; flowers numerous in an elongated spike, white, ½´ long; fruit pubescent, oblong-ovate, 8-ribbed, small.—E. Kan. to Col. and Tex.

7. CIRCÆ̀A, Tourn. Enchanter's Nightshade.

Calyx-tube slightly prolonged, the end filled by a cup-shaped disk, deciduous; lobes 2, reflexed. Petals 2, inversely heart-shaped. Stamens 2. Fruit indehiscent, small and bur-like, bristly with hooked hairs, 1–2-celled; cells 1-seeded.—Low and inconspicuous perennials, in cool or damp woods, with opposite thin leaves on slender petioles, and small whitish flowers in racemes, produced in summer. (Named from Circe, the enchantress.)

1. C. Lutetiàna, L. Taller (1–2° high); leaves ovate, slightly toothed; bracts none; hairs of the roundish 2-celled fruit bristly.—Very common. (Eu.)

2. C. alpìna, L. Low (3–8´ high), smooth and weak; leaves heart-shaped, thin, shining, coarsely toothed; bracts minute; hairs of the obovate-oblong 1-celled fruit soft and slender.—Deep woods, N. Eng. to Ga., Ind., and Minn. (Eu.)

Order 43. LOASÀCEÆ. (Loasa Family.)

Herbs, with a rough or stinging pubescence, no stipules, the calyx-tube adherent to a 1-celled ovary with 2 or 3 parietal placentæ;—represented here only by the genus

1. MENTZÈLIA, Plumier.

Calyx-tube cylindrical or club-shaped; the limb 5-parted, persistent. Petals 5 or 10, regular, spreading, flat, convolute in the bud, deciduous. Stamens indefinite, rarely few, inserted with the petals on the throat of the calyx. Styles 3, more or less united into one; stigmas terminal, minute. Capsule at length dry and opening by valves or irregularly at the summit, few–many-seeded. Seeds flat, anatropous, with little albumen.—Stems erect. Leaves alternate, very adhesive by the barbed pubescence. Flowers terminal, solitary or cymose-clustered. (Dedicated to C. Mentzel, an early German botanist.)

[*] Seeds few, oblong, not winged; petals 5, not large; filaments all filiform.

1. M. oligospérma, Nutt. Rough and adhesive (1–3° high), much branched, the brittle branches spreading; leaves ovate and oblong, cut-toothed or angled, often petioled; flowers yellow (7–10´´ broad), opening in sunshine; petals wedge-oblong, pointed; stamens 20 or more; capsule small, about 9-seeded.—Prairies and plains, Ill. to Kan. and Col., south to Tex.

[*][*] Seeds numerous, rounded and wing-margined; petals 10, large and showy; outer filaments petaloid in n. 3; capsule large, oblong; leaves sessile.

2. M. ornàta, Torr. & Gray. Stout, 1–2° high; leaves oblong-lanceolate, deeply repand-toothed or pinnatifid, the segments acute; calyx-tube leafy-bracteate; petals 2–3´ long, yellowish-white; filaments all filiform or the outer dilated below; capsule 1{½}–2´ long; seeds narrowly margined.—On the plains, W. Dak. to central Kan. and Tex.

3. M. nùda, Torr. & Gray. More slender, 1–5° high; leaves somewhat lanceolate, rather bluntly or shortly repand-dentate; flowers half as large as in the last; calyx not bracteate; outer filaments narrowly dilated, sterile; capsule about 1´ long; seeds plainly winged.—Plains of Dak. to central Kan. and Tex.

Order 44. PASSIFLORÀCEÆ. (Passion-Flower Family.)

Herbs or woody plants, climbing by tendrils, with perfect flowers, 5 monadelphous stamens, and a stalked 1-celled ovary free from the calyx, with 3 or 4 parietal placentæ, and as many club-shaped styles.

1. PASSIFLÒRA, L. Passion-Flower.

Calyx of 5 sepals united at the base into a short cup, imbricated in the bud, usually colored like the petals, at least within; the throat crowned with a double or triple fringe. Petals 5, on the throat of the calyx. Stamens 5; filaments united in a tube which sheathes the long stalk of the ovary, separate above; anthers large, fixed by the middle. Berry (often edible) many-seeded; the anatropous albuminous seeds invested by a pulpy covering. Seed-coat brittle, grooved.—Leaves alternate, generally palmately lobed, with stipules. Peduncles axillary, jointed. Ours are perennial herbs. (An adaptation of flos passionis, a translation of fior della passione, the popular Italian name early applied to the flower from a fancied resemblance of its parts to the implements of the crucifixion.)

1. P. lùtea, L. Smooth, slender; leaves obtusely 3-lobed at the summit, the lobes entire; petioles glandless; flowers greenish-yellow (1´ broad); fruit ½´ in diameter.—Damp thickets, S. Penn. to Fla., west to Ill., Mo., and La.

2. P. incarnàta, L. Pubescent; leaves 3–5-cleft, the lobes serrate, the base bearing 2 glands; flower large (2´ broad), nearly white, with a triple purple and flesh-colored crown; involucre 3-leaved; fruit as large as a hen's egg.—Dry soil, Va. to Fla., west to Mo. and Ark. Fruit called maypops.

Order 45. CUCURBITÀCEÆ. (Gourd Family.)

Mostly succulent herbs with tendrils, diœcious or monœcious (often gamopetalous) flowers, the calyx-tube cohering with the 1–3-celled ovary, and the 5 or usually 2½ stamens (i.e., 1 with a 1-celled and 2 with 2-celled anthers) commonly united by their often tortuous anthers, and sometimes also by the filaments. Fruit (pepo) fleshy, or sometimes membranaceous.—Limb of the calyx and corolla usually more or less combined. Stigmas 2 or 3. Seeds large, usually flat, anatropous, with no albumen. Cotyledons leaf-like. Leaves alternate, palmately lobed or veined.—Mostly a tropical or subtropical order; represented in cultivation by the Gourd (Lagenària vulgàris), Pumpkin and Squash (species of Cucurbita), Muskmelon (Cùcumis Mèlo), Cucumber (C. satìvus), and Watermelon (Citrúllus vulgàris).

[*] Fruit prickly. Seeds few, erect or pendulous. Flowers white. Annual.

[+] Ovary 1-celled. Seed solitary, pendulous.

1. Sicyos. Corolla of the sterile flowers flat and spreading, 5-lobed. Fruit indehiscent.

[+][+] Ovary 2–3-celled. Seeds few, erect or ascending.

2. Echinocystis. Corolla of the sterile flowers flat and spreading, 6-parted. Anthers 3. Fruit bladdery, 2-celled, 4-seeded, bursting at the top.

3. Cyclanthera. Corolla 5-parted. Anther 1, annular. Fruit oblique and gibbous.

[*][*] Fruit smooth. Seeds numerous, horizontal, attached to the 3–5 parietal placentæ. Perennial.

4. Melothria. Flowers small, greenish; corolla 5-parted. Slender, climbing. Fruit small.

5. Cucurbita. Flowers large, yellow, tubular-campanulate. Prostrate. Fruit large.

1. SÍCYOS, L. One-seeded Bur-Cucumber.

Flowers monœcious. Petals 5, united below into a bell-shaped or flattish corolla. Anthers cohering in a mass. Ovary 1-celled, with a single suspended ovule; style slender; stigmas 3. Fruit ovate, dry and indehiscent, filled by the single seed, covered with barbed prickly bristles which are readily detached.—Climbing annuals, with 3-forked tendrils, and small whitish flowers; the sterile and fertile mostly from the same axils, the former corymbed, the latter in a capitate cluster, long-peduncled. (Greek name for the Cucumber.)

1. S. angulàtus, L. Leaves roundish heart-shaped, 5-angled or lobed, the lobes pointed; plant clammy-hairy.—River-banks, and a weed in damp yards, N. H. and Quebec to Fla., west to Minn., E. Kan., and Tex. July–Sept.

2. ECHINOCÝSTIS, Torr. & Gray. Wild Balsam-apple.

Flowers monœcious. Petals 6, lanceolate, united at the base into an open spreading corolla. Anthers more or less united. Ovary 2-celled, with 2 erect ovules in each cell; stigma broad. Fruit fleshy, at length dry, clothed with weak prickles, bursting at the summit, 2-celled, 4-seeded, the inner part fibrous-netted. Seeds large, flat, with a thickish hard and roughened coat.—Tall climbing annual, nearly smooth, with 3-forked tendrils, thin leaves, and very numerous small greenish-white flowers; the sterile in compound racemes often 1° long, the fertile in small clusters or solitary, from the same axils. (Name composed of ἐχῖνος, a hedgehog, and κύστις, a bladder, from the prickly fruit.)

1. E. lobàta, Torr. & Gray. Leaves deeply and sharply 5-lobed; fruit oval (2´ long); seeds dark-colored.—Rich soil along rivers, W. New Eng. and Penn. to Minn., E. Kan., and Tex. Also cult. for arbors. July–Oct.


Flowers monœcious. Corolla rotate, deeply 5-parted. Stamens united into a central column, the anther solitary in our species and annular. Ovary (1–3-) usually 2-celled and 4-locellate with 4 erect or ascending ovules. Fruit spiny, obliquely ovoid and gibbous, beaked, bursting irregularly. Seeds flattened.—Slender glabrous climbing annuals or perennials, with very small racemose or panicled white sterile flowers and a solitary fertile one in the same axil. (Name from κύκλος, a circle, and ἀνθήρα, anther.)

1. C. dissécta, Arn. Annual; leaves digitately 3–7-foliolate, the oblong divisions somewhat lobed or toothed; tendrils simple or bifid; fruit 1´ long, on a short peduncle.—Central Kan. to Tex. and Mex.


Flowers polygamous or monœcious; the sterile campanulate, the corolla 5-lobed; the fertile with the calyx-tube constricted above the ovary, then campanulate. Anthers more or less united. Berry small, pulpy, filled with many flat and horizontal seeds.—Tendrils simple. Flowers very small. (Altered from μήλωθρον, an ancient name for a sort of white grape.)

1. M. péndula, L. Slender, from a perennial root, climbing; leaves small, roundish and heart-shaped, 5-angled or lobed, roughish; sterile flowers few in small racemes; the fertile solitary, greenish or yellowish; berry oval, green, 4–6´´ long.—Copses, Va. to Fla., west to S. Ind. and La.


Flowers monœcious, mostly solitary. Calyx-tube campanulate; corolla campanulate, 5-lobed to the middle. Filaments distinct; anthers linear, united, sigmoid. Ovary oblong, with short thick style, 3–5 2-lobed stigmas, and 3–5 parietal placentas; ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruit smooth, fleshy with a hard rind, indehiscent.—Prostrate scabrous vines, rooting at the joints, with large yellow flowers and large fruit. (The Latin name for the Gourd.)

1. C. fœtidíssima, HBK. Root very large, fusiform; leaves thick, triangular-cordate; flowers 3–4´ long; fruit globose or obovoid, 2–3´ in diameter. (C. perennis, Gray.)—Central Neb. to Tex., and westward.

Order 46. CACTÀCEÆ. (Cactus Family.)

Fleshy and thickened mostly leafless plants, of peculiar aspect, globular or columnar and many-angled, or flattened and jointed, usually with prickles. Flowers solitary, sessile; the sepals and petals numerous, imbricated in several rows, the bases adherent to the 1-celled ovary.—Stamens numerous, with long and slender filaments, inserted on the inside of the tube or cup formed by the union of the sepals and petals. Style 1; stigmas numerous. Fruit a 1-celled berry, with numerous campylotropous seeds on several parietal placentæ.

1. Mamillaria. Globose or oval plants, covered with spine-bearing tubercles. Flowers from between the tubercles. Ovary naked; berry succulent.

2. Opuntia. Branching or jointed plants; the joints flattened or cylindrical.


Flowers about as long as wide, the tube campanulate or funnel-shaped. Ovary often hidden between the bases of the tubercles, naked, the succulent berry exserted. Seeds yellowish-brown to black, crustaceous.—Globose or oval plants, covered with spine-bearing cylindrical, oval, or conical tubercles, the flowers from distinct woolly or bristly areoles at their base. (Name from mamilla, a nipple, referring to the tubercles.)

1. M. vivípara, Haw. Simple or cespitose, 1–5´ high, the almost terete tubercles bearing bundles of 5–8 reddish-brown spines (10´´ long or less), surrounded by 15–20 grayish ones in a single series, all straight and very rigid; flowers purple, with lance-subulate petals and fringed sepals; berry oval, green; seeds pitted, light brown.—Plains of Dak. to Kan., and westward.

2. M. Missouriénsis, Sweet. Smaller, globose, with fewer (10–20) weaker ash-colored spines; flowers yellow, 1–2´ broad; berry subglobose, scarlet; seeds few, black, pitted. (M. Nuttallii, Engelm.)—S. Dak. to central Kan., Tex., and westward.

2. OPÚNTIA, Tourn. Prickly Pear. Indian Fig.

Sepals and petals not united into a prolonged tube, spreading, regular, the inner roundish. Berry often prickly. Seeds flat and margined, covered with a white bony arillus. Embryo coiled around albumen; cotyledons large, foliaceous in germination.—Stem composed of joints (flattened in ours), bearing very small awl-shaped and usually deciduous leaves arranged in a spiral order, with clusters of barbed bristles and often spines also in their axils. Flowers in our species yellow, opening in sunshine for more than one day. (A name of Theophrastus, originally belonging to some different plant.)

[*] Spines small or none; fruit pulpy.

1. O. vulgàris, Mill. Prostrate or spreading, light green; joints broadly obovate (2–4´ long); leaves minute (2–2½´´ long), ovate-subulate, generally appressed, bristles short, greenish yellow, rarely with a few small spines; flowers pale yellow (about 2´ broad), with about 8 petals; fruit 1´ long.—Sandy fields and dry rocks, Nantucket to S. C., near the coast; Falls of the Potomac.

2. O. Rafinésquii, Engelm. Prostrate, deep green; joints broadly obovate or orbicular (3–5´ long); leaves (3–4´´ long), spreading; bristles bright red-brown, with a few small spines and a single strong one (9–12´´ long) or none; flowers yellow (2½–3½´ broad), sometimes with a reddish centre; petals 10–12; fruit 1½´ long, with an attenuated base.—Sterile soil, Nantucket and southward along the coast to Fla., and in the Mississippi valley, from Mich. to Minn., and south to Ky. and Ark.

[*][*] Very spiny, fruit dry and prickly.

3. O. Missouriénsis, DC. Prostrate, joints light green, broadly obovate, flat and tuberculate (2–6´ long), leaves small (1½–2´´ long); their axils armed with a tuft of straw-colored bristles and 5–10 slender radiating spines (1–2´ long); flowers light yellow (2–3´ broad), fruit with spines of variable length.—Wisc. to Mo., westward across the plains, very variable.

4. O. frágilis, Haw. Subdecumbent; joints small (1–2´ long or less), ovate, compressed or tumid, or even terete; leaves hardly 1´´ long, red; bristles few, larger spines 1–4, cruciate, with 4–6 smaller white radiating ones below; flowers yellow.—Minn. to Iowa and Kan., and westward.

Order 47. FICOÍDEÆ.

A miscellaneous group, chiefly of fleshy or succulent plants, with mostly opposite leaves and no stipules. Differing from Caryophyllaceæ and Portulacaceæ by having the ovary and capsule 2–several-celled, and the stamens and petals sometimes numerous, as in Cactaceæ (but the latter wanting in most of the genera), seeds, as in all these orders, with the slender embryo curved about mealy albumen. Our genera are apetalous and with the calyx free from the ovary.

1. Sesuvium. Calyx-lobes 5, petaloid. Stamens 5–60. Capsule circumscissile. Succulent.

2. Mollugo. Sepals 5. Stamens 3 or 5. Capsule 3-valved. Not succulent.

1. SESÙVIUM, L. Sea Purslane.

Calyx 5-parted, purplish inside, persistent, free. Petals none. Stamens 5–60, inserted on the calyx. Styles 3–5, separate. Pod 3–5-celled, many-seeded, circumscissile, the upper part falling off as a lid.—Usually prostrate maritime herbs, with succulent stems, opposite leaves, and axillary or terminal flowers. (An unexplained name.)

1. S. pentándrum, Ell. Annual, procumbent or sometimes erect; leaves oblong- to obovate-spatulate, obtuse; flowers sessile, stamens 5. (S. Portulacastrum, Gray, Manual, not L.)—Sea coast, N. J. to Fla.

2. MOLLÙGO, L. Indian-Chickweed.

Sepals 5, white inside. Stamens hypogynous, 5 and alternate with the sepals, or 3 and alternate with the 3 cells of the ovary. Stigmas 3. Capsule 3-celled, 3-valved, loculicidal, the partitions breaking away from the many-seeded axis.—Low homely annuals, much branched, the stipules obsolete. (An old Latin name for some soft plant.)

M. verticillàta, L. (Carpet-weed.) Prostrate, forming patches; leaves spatulate, clustered in whorls at the joints, where the 1-flowered pedicels form a sort of sessile umbel, stamens usually 3.—Sandy river-banks, and cultivated grounds. June–Sept. (An immigrant from farther south.)

Order 48. UMBELLÍFERÆ. (Parsley Family.)

Herbs, with small flowers in umbels (or rarely in heads), the calyx entirely adhering to the 2-celled and 2-ovuled ovary, the 5 petals and 5 stamens inserted on the disk that crowns the ovary and surrounds the base of the 2 styles. Fruit consisting of 2 seed-like dry carpels. Limb of the calyx obsolete, or a mere 5-toothed border. Petals either imbricated in the bud or valvate with the point inflexed. The two carpels (called mericarps) cohering by their inner face (the commissure), when ripe separating from each other and usually suspended from the summit of a slender prolongation of the axis (carpophore); each carpel marked lengthwise with 5 primary ribs, and often with 4 intermediate (secondary) ones; in the interstices or intervals between them are commonly lodged the oil-tubes (vittæ), which are longitudinal canals in the substance of the fruit, containing aromatic oil. (These are best seen in slices made across the fruit.) Seed suspended from the summit of the cell, anatropous, with a minute embryo in hard albumen.—Stems usually hollow. Leaves alternate, mostly compound, the petioles expanded or sheathing at base, rarely with true stipules. Umbels usually compound, in which case the secondary ones are termed umbellets; the whorl of bracts which often subtends the general umbel is the involucre, and those of the umbellets the involucels. The base of the styles is frequently thickened and cushion-like, and called the stylopodium. In many the flowers are dichogamous, i.e. the styles are protruded from the bud some time before the anthers develop,—an arrangement for cross-fertilization.—A large family, some of the plants innocent and aromatic, others with very poisonous (acrid-narcotic) properties. The flowers are much alike in all, and the fruits, inflorescence, etc., likewise exhibit comparatively small diversity. The family is consequently difficult for the young student.

I. Fruit with the secondary ribs the most prominent, winged and armed with barbed or hooked prickles, the primary ribs filiform and bristly.

1. Daucus. Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit flattened dorsally. Seed-face flat.

2. Caucalis. Calyx-teeth prominent. Fruit flattened laterally. Seed-face deeply sulcate.

II. Fruit with primary ribs only (hence but 3 dorsal ones on each carpel).

[*] Fruit strongly flattened dorsally, with the lateral ribs prominently winged.

[+] Caulescent branching plants, with white flowers.

[++] Lateral wings distinct; oil-tubes usually more than one in the intervals.

3. Angelica. Stylopodium mostly depressed, but the disk prominent and crenulate. Dorsal ribs strong. Stout perennials, with mostly coarsely divided leaves.

4. Conioselinum. Stylopodium slightly conical. Dorsal ribs prominent. Tall slender glabrous perennial; leaves thin, finely pinnately compound.

[++][++] Lateral wings closely contiguous; oil-tubes solitary; stylopodium thick-conical.

5. Tiedemannia. Dorsal ribs apparently 5, filiform. Smooth swamp herbs with leaves few or reduced to hollow cylindrical petioles.

6. Heracleum. Dorsal ribs filiform, the broad wings with a marginal nerve. Oil-tubes obclavate. Petals conspicuous. Tall stout perennials, with large leaves.

[+][+] Caulescent branching plants, with depressed stylopodium and yellow flowers.

7. Pastinaca. Fruit with filiform dorsal ribs, thin wings, and solitary oil-tubes.

8. Polytænia. Fruit with a thick corky margin, obscure dorsal ribs, and very numerous oil-tubes.

[+][+][+] Acaulescent or nearly so, with filiform dorsal ribs, thin wings, and no stylopodium.

9. Peucedanum. Flowers white or yellow. Low western plants, of dry ground, with thick roots and finely dissected leaves.

[*][*] Fruit not flattened either way or but slightly, neither prickly nor scaly.

[+] Ribs all conspicuously winged; stylopodium depressed or wanting.

10. Cymopterus. Low and glabrous, mostly cespitose perennials, with pinnately compound leaves and white flowers. Oil-tubes 1 to several. Western.

11. Thaspium. Tall perennials, with ternately divided or simple leaves, and yellow flowers (rarely purple). Oil-tubes solitary.

[+][+] Ribs all prominent and equal but not winged; flowers white.

12. Ligusticum. Ribs acute, with broad intervals. Stylopodium conical. Oil-tubes numerous. Smooth perennials, with large compound leaves.

13. Æthusa. Ribs very broad and corky, acute. Stylopodium depressed. Oil-tubes solitary. Introduced annual.

14. Cœlopleurum. Ribs thick, corky (mostly obtuse). Oil-tubes solitary, adherent to the seed, which is loose in the pericarp. Stout glabrous sea-coast perennial.

[+][+][+] Dorsal ribs filiform, the lateral very thick and corky; oil-tubes solitary.

15. Crantzia. Small glabrous creeping perennials, rooting in the mud, with small simple umbels and leaves reduced to hollow cylindrical jointed petioles.

[*][*][*] Fruit flattened laterally.

[+] Carpels depressed dorsally; fruit short.

[++] Seed-face flat; flowers mostly yellow.

16. Fœniculum. Ribs prominent. Oil-tubes solitary. Stout aromatic herb, with filiform-dissected leaves.

17. Pimpinella. Ribs filiform. Oil-tubes numerous. Glabrous perennials, with compound leaves.

[++][++] Seed-face concave; flowers white (yellow in n. 20); ribs filiform or obsolete.

18. Eulophus. Oil-tubes numerous. Stylopodium conical. Glabrous perennials from fascicled tubers, with pinnately compound leaves.

19. Anthriscus. Fruit linear, long-beaked, without ribs or oil-tubes, and with conical stylopodium. Leaves ternately decompound.

20. Bupleurum. Fruit oblong, with slender ribs, no oil-tubes, and prominent flat stylopodium. Leaves simple, perfoliate.

[+][+] Carpels terete or slightly flattened laterally; flowers white (except n. 24).

[++] Seed-face flat (or somewhat concave in n. 28); fruit short.

[=] Leaves 3-foliolate; stylopodium conical; oil-tubes solitary.

21. Cryptotænia. Ribs obtuse, equal; fruit linear-oblong.

[=][=] Leaves once pinnate; stylopodium depressed; oil-tubes numerous. Aquatic perennials.

22. Sium. Fruit ovate to oblong; ribs prominent, corky, nearly equal.

23. Berula. Fruit nearly globose; ribs inconspicuous; pericarp thick and corky.

[=][=][=] Leaves decompound. Oil-tubes solitary (none in n. 27). Perennials.

24. Zizia. Ribs filiform; stylopodium none. Flowers yellow.

25. Carum. Ribs filiform or inconspicuous; stylopodium short-conical. Leaf-segments filiform. Roots tuberous.

26. Cicuta. Ribs flattish, corky, the lateral largest. Marsh perennials, with serrate leaflets, the veins often running to the notches.

27. Ægopodium. Ribs filiform; oil-tubes none; stylopodium conical. Leaves biternate.

[=][=][=][=] Leaves finely dissected; oil-tubes solitary. Very slender annuals.

28. Leptocaulis. Fruit bristly or tuberculate, with rather prominent equal ribs.

29. Discopleura. Dorsal ribs filiform, the lateral very thick and corky.

[++][++] Seed-face concave; fruit ovate, glabrous, with depressed stylopodium, and no oil-tubes.

30. Conium. An introduced biennial, with spotted stems, and large decompound leaves.

[++][++][++] Seed-face concave. Fruit linear-oblong, with conical stylopodium.

31. Chærophyllum. Fruit glabrous, with small mostly solitary oil-tubes.

32. Osmorrhiza. Fruit bristly, with oil-tubes obsolete.

[+][+][+] Carpels (as well as fruit) strongly flattened laterally.

[++] Seed lunate, deeply sulcate on the face; umbels compound, leafy-bracted.

33. Erigenia. Fruit nearly orbicular, with numerous oil-tubes. Low, nearly acaulescent from a deep-seated tuber. Leaves ternately decompound.

[++][++] Seed straight, not sulcate; umbels simple.

34. Hydrocotyle. Fruit more or less orbicular, with no oil-tubes. Low perennials, in or near water, with creeping stems, and peltate or reniform leaves.

[*][*][*][*] Fruit obovoid or globose, densely prickly or scaly.

35. Eryngium. Flowers sessile in dense bracteate heads, white or blue. Leaves mostly rigid and more or less spinose.

36. Sanicula. Flowers in irregularly compound few-rayed umbels, yellow. Leaves palmate.

1. DAÙCUS, Tourn. Carrot.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit oblong, flattened dorsally; stylopodium depressed; carpel with 5 slender bristly primary ribs and 4 winged secondary ones, each of the latter bearing a single row of barbed prickles; oil-tubes solitary under the secondary ribs, two on the commissural side; seed-face somewhat concave or almost flat.—Bristly annuals or biennials, with pinnately decompound leaves, foliaceous and cleft involucral bracts, and white flowers in compound umbels which become strongly concave. (The ancient Greek name.)

D. Caròta, L. Biennial; stem bristly; ultimate leaf-segments lanceolate and cuspidate; rays numerous.—Naturalized everywhere, from Eu.


Calyx-teeth prominent. Fruit ovate or oblong, flattened laterally; stylopodium conical; prickles barbed or hooked; seed-face deeply sulcate. Otherwise as Daucus.—Our species annual. (The ancient Greek name.)

C. nodòsa, Hudson. Decumbent, branching only at base, stems 1–2° long, retrorsely hispid; umbels naked, opposite the leaves and nearly sessile, of 2 or 3 very short rays.—Md., Iowa, and southward. (Nat. from Eu.)

C. Anthríscus, Hudson, has 1–2-pinnate leaves with broad leaflets, and more regularly compounded umbels.—Ohio, etc. (Nat. from Eu.)


Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit strongly flattened dorsally; primary ribs very prominent, the laterals extended into broad distinct wings, forming a double-winged margin to the fruit; oil-tubes one to several in the intervals or indefinite, 2 to 10 on the commissure.—Stout perennials, with ternately or pinnately compound leaves, large terminal umbels, scanty or no involucres, small many-leaved involucels, and white or greenish flowers. (Named angelic from its cordial and medicinal properties.)

[*] Seed adherent to the pericarp; oil-tubes one to several in the intervals; uppermost leaves mostly reduced to large inflated petioles.

1. A. Curtísii, Buckley. Glabrous; leaves twice ternate or the divisions quinate; leaflets thin, ovate-lanceolate (1–3´ broad), sharply and irregularly toothed; fruit glabrous, 1½–3´´ broad; oil-tubes mostly one in the intervals (sometimes 2 or 3).—Along the Alleghanies from Penn. to N. C. Aug.

2. A. hirsùta, Muhl. Pubescent above; leaves twice pinnately or ternately divided; leaflets thickish, lanceolate to oblong (5–10´´ broad), serrate; fruit pubescent, 2´´ broad; oil-tubes 3–6 in the intervals. (Archangelica hirsuta, Torr. & Gray.)—Dry ground, Conn. to Minn., Tenn., and Fla. July.

[*][*] Seed loose; oil-tubes indefinite (25–30); upper petioles not so prominent.

3. A. atropurpùrea, L. Very stout, glabrous throughout, with dark purple stem; leaves 2–3-ternately divided, the pinnate segments of 5–7 lanceolate to ovate leaflets (1–1½´ broad), sharply mucronate-serrate. (Archangelica atropurpurea, Hoffm.)—River-banks, Lab. to Del., Ill. and Minn. June.

4. CONIOSELÌNUM, Fisch. Hemlock-Parsley.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Stylopodium slightly conical. Fruit oval, flattened dorsally, glabrous, the dorsal ribs very prominent, the lateral ones extended into broad wings; oil-tubes 1–4 in the intervals, 4–8 on the commissure; seed slightly concave on the inner face.—Tall slender glabrous perennial, with finely 2–3-pinnately compound leaves, few-leaved involucre or none, involucels of elongated linear-setaceous bractlets, and white flowers. (Compounded of Conium and Selinum, from its resemblance to these genera.)

1. C. Canadénse, Torr. & Gray. Leaflets pinnatifid; wings nearly as broad as the seed; oil-tubes 2–3 in the intervals, sometimes 1 or 4.—Swamps and cold cliffs, from Maine to Minn., southward to N. C. (in the higher mountains), Ind., Ill., and Mo. Aug.–Oct.


Calyx-teeth evident. Fruit ovate to obovate, flattened dorsally; dorsal ribs filiform, the lateral broadly winged, closely contiguous and strongly nerved next to the body (giving the appearance of 5 dorsal ribs); oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2–6 on the commissure; stylopodium short, thick-conical.—Glabrous erect aquatic herbs, with leaves reduced to petioles or of few narrow leaflets; involucre and involucels present, and flowers white. (Dedicated to the anatomist Prof. Tiedemann, of Heidelberg.)

1. T. teretifòlia, DC. Stem hollow, 2–6° high; leaves reduced to cylindrical hollow pointed nodose petioles; oil-tubes filling the intervals.—Ponds and swamps, Del. to Fla., and west to La. Aug., Sept.

2. T. rígida, Coult. & Rose. (Cowbane.) Stem 2–5° high; leaves simply pinnate, with 3–9 linear to lanceolate entire or remotely toothed leaflets; oil-tubes mostly small. (Archemora rigida, DC.)—Swamps, N. Y. to Minn., south to the Gulf. Aug. Poisonous; roots tuberiferous.

6. HERACLÈUM, L. Cow-Parsnip.

Calyx-teeth minute. Fruit broadly oval or obovate, like Pastinaca, but with a thick conical stylopodium, and the conspicuous obclavate oil-tubes extending scarcely below the middle.—Tall stout perennial, with large ternately compound leaves, broad umbels, deciduous involucre, and many-leaved involucels, white flowers, and obcordate petals, the outer ones commonly larger and 2-cleft. (Dedicated to Hercules.)

1. H. lanàtum, Michx. Woolly; stem grooved, 4–8° high; leaflets broad, irregularly cut-toothed.—Wet ground, Newf. to the Pacific, and southward to N. C., Ky., and Kan. June.

7. PASTINÀCA, L. Parsnip.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit oval, very much flattened dorsally; dorsal ribs filiform, the lateral extended into broad wings, which are strongly nerved toward the outer margin; oil-tubes small, solitary in the intervals, 2–4 on the commissure; stylopodium depressed.—Tall stout glabrous biennial, with pinnately compound leaves, mostly no involucre or involucels, and yellow flowers. (The Latin name, from pastus, food.)

P. satìva, L. Stem grooved; leaflets ovate to oblong, cut-toothed.—Introduced everywhere. (Adv. from Eu.)


Calyx-teeth conspicuous. Fruit obovate to oval, much flattened dorsally; dorsal ribs small or obscure in the depressed back, the lateral with broad thick corky closely contiguous wings forming the margin of the fruit; oil-tubes 12–18 about the seed and many scattered through the thick corky pericarp.—A perennial mostly glabrous herb, with 2-pinnate leaves (upper opposite and 3-cleft), the segments cuneate and incised, no involucre, narrow involucels, and bright yellow flowers in May. (Named from πολύς, many, and ταινία, a fillet, alluding to the numerous oil-tubes.)

1. P. Nuttàllii, DC. Plant 2–3° high; pedicels and involucels pubescent.—Barrens, Mich, to N. Ala., west to the Rocky Mts.


Calyx-teeth mostly obsolete. Fruit roundish to oblong, much flattened dorsally; dorsal ribs filiform and approximate; the lateral extended into broad closely coherent wings; oil-tubes 1–4 in the intervals, 2–6 on the commissure.—Dry ground acaulescent (or short caulescent) herbs, with fusiform roots, dissected leaves, no involucre, yellow or white flowers, and stylopodium depressed or wanting. (The ancient Greek name.)

1. P. nudicaùle, Nutt. Pubescent, with peduncles 3–8´ high; leaves bipinnate, the small oblong segments entire or toothed; involucels of scarious-margined (often purplish) lanceolate bractlets; flowers white or pinkish; fruit almost round, emarginate at base, glabrous, with wings hardly as broad as the body, and indistinct or obsolete dorsal ribs; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals.—Minn. to Iowa and Kan., and westward. One of the earliest spring bloomers.

2. P. fœniculàceum, Nutt. Tomentose or glabrous, with peduncles 8–12´ long; leaves finely dissected, with short filiform segments; involucels gamophyllous, 5–7-cleft, with conspicuously hairy margins; flowers yellow; fruit broadly oblong, glabrous, with wings half as broad as the body, and prominent dorsal ribs; oil-tubes 1–3 in the intervals.—Minn. to Tex. March–April.

3. P. villòsum, Nutt. More or less pubescent throughout, 3–8´ high; leaves finely dissected, with very numerous narrow crowded segments; involucels of ovate to linear bractlets; flowers yellow; fruit oval, with wings half as broad as the body, and prominent dorsal ribs; oil-tubes 3 or 4 in the intervals.—Minn. to Neb. and Dak., southwestward to Ariz. Root much elongated.


Calyx-teeth more or less prominent. Fruit usually globose, with all the ribs conspicuously winged; oil-tubes one to several in the intervals, 2–8 on the commissure. Stylopodium depressed. Seed-face slightly concave.—Mostly low (often cespitose) glabrous perennials, from a thick elongated root, more or less pinnately compound leaves, with or without an involucre, prominent involucels, and white flowers (in ours). (From κῦμα, a wave, and πτερόν, a wing, referring to the often undulate wings.)

1. C. glomeràtus, Raf. Low (3–8´), with a short erect caudex bearing leaves and peduncles at the summit, glabrous; rays and pedicels very short, making a compact cluster; involucre none; involucel of a single palmately 5–7-parted bractlet; fruit globose (3–4´´ in diam.); wings rather corky; oil-tubes 4 or 5 in the intervals.—Minn. and Wisc. to Iowa and Ark., and westward.

2. C. montànus, Torr. & Gray. Of similar habit (1–6´ high), glaucous and mostly glabrous; rays 3–9´´ long, pedicels very short; involucre and involucels of mostly broad membranaceous usually green-veined bracts (more or less united); fruit oblong to orbicular in outline (3–6´´ long); wings thin; oil-tubes 1–3 in the intervals.—Neb. to central Kan., Tex., and westward. April.

11. THÁSPIUM, Nutt. Meadow-Parsnip.

Calyx-teeth conspicuous. Fruit ovoid to oblong, slightly flattened dorsally; carpel with 3 or 4 or all the ribs strongly winged; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2 on the commissure. Stylopodium wanting; styles long.—Perennials (2–5° high), with ternately divided leaves (or the lower simple) and broad serrate or toothed leaflets, mostly yellow flowers, and all the fruit pedicelled. (Name a play upon Thapsia, so called from the island of Thapsus.)

1. T. aùreum, Nutt. Glabrous; root-leaves mostly cordate, serrate; stem-leaves simply ternate (rarely biternate); leaflets ovate to lanceolate, round or tapering at base, serrate; flowers deep yellow; fruit globose-ovoid, about 2´´ long, all the ribs equally winged.—Thickets and woodlands, throughout the Atlantic States and west into the Miss. Valley. Fl. in summer and maturing fruit in late summer or autumn. Very variable, an extreme form being

Var. trifoliàtum, Coult. & Rose. Leaves or leaflets crenate or crenately toothed. (T. trifoliatum, Gray, Man., in part.)—Ohio to Ill., westward to Oregon. The common western form.

Var. atropurpùreum, Coult. & Rose. Petals dark-purple. (T. trifoliatum, var. atropurpureum, Gray, Man.)—Same range as the species.

2. T. barbinòde, Nutt. Loosely branched, pubescent on the joints, sometimes puberulent in the umbels; leaves 1–3-ternate; leaflets ovate to lanceolate, acute, with cuneate base, coarsely cut-serrate, often ternately cleft or parted; flowers light yellow; fruit broadly oblong, about 3´´ long and 2´´ broad, with mostly 7 prominent wings.—Banks of streams, N. Y. to Minn., and southward. May–June.—Var. angustifòlium, Coult. & Rose, has narrower, more sharply cut leaflets, and fruit more or less puberulent.—Penn. to Ill.

3. T. pinnatífidum, Gray. Resembling the last, but puberulent on the branchlets, umbels, and fruit, with fewer leaves; leaflets 1–2-pinnatifid, the lobes linear or oblong; one or two leaves near the base often very large and long-petioled; flowers light yellow; fruit oblong, 1½–2½´´ long and 1–1½´´ broad, all the ribs winged, generally three of them narrowly so. (T. Walteri, Shuttlew. in herb.)—Barrens and mountains, Ky. to Tenn. and N. C.

12. LIGÚSTICUM, L. Lovage.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit oblong or ovate, flattened laterally if at all, glabrous; carpels with prominent equal acute ribs and broad intervals; oil-tubes 2–6 in the intervals, 6–10 on the commissure. Stylopodium conical.—Smooth perennials, from large aromatic roots, with large ternately compound leaves, mostly no involucre, involucels of narrow bractlets, and white flowers in large many-rayed umbels. (Named from the country Liguria, where the officinal Lovage of the gardens abounds.)

1. L. actæifòlium, Michx. (Nondo. Angelico.) Stem stout, branched above (2–6° high); leaves very large, 3–4-ternate; leaflets broadly oblong (2–5´ long), coarsely serrate; fruit ovate (2–3´´ long); seed with angled back.—Rich ground, S. Penn. to Ky., southward to the Gulf.

2. L. Scóticum, L. (Scotch Lovage.) Stem simple (1–2° high); leaves biternate; leaflets ovate (1–2´ long), coarsely toothed; fruit narrowly oblong (4–5´´ long); seed with round back.—Salt marshes, along the coast from Nantucket northward. Aug. (Eu.)

13. ÆTHÙSA, L. Fool's Parsley.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit ovate-globose, slightly flattened dorsally; carpel with 5 thick sharp ribs; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2 on the commissure.—Poisonous annuals, with 2–3-ternately compound leaves, divisions pinnate, ultimate segments small and many cleft, no involucre, long narrow involucels, and white flowers. (Name from αἴθω, to burn, from the acrid taste.)

Æ. Cynàpium, L. A fetid, poisonous European herb, in cultivated grounds, from N. Eng. and Penn. to Minn. June–Aug.


Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit globose to oblong, with very prominent nearly equal thick corky ribs (none of them winged); oil-tubes solitary in the intervals and under the ribs, 2 on the commissure. Seed loose in the pericarp.—Stout glabrous (or inflorescence puberulent) sea-coast perennial, with 2–3-ternate leaves on very large inflated petioles, few-leaved deciduous involucre, involucels of numerous small linear-lanceolate bractlets (rarely conspicuous or even leaf-like), and greenish-white flowers in many-rayed umbels. (From κοῖλος, hollow, and πλευρόν, a rib.)

1. C. Gmélini, Ledeb. Stem 1–3° high; leaflets ovate, irregularly cut-serrate (2–2½´ long); fruit 2–3½´´ long. (Archangelica Gmelini, DC.)—Rocky coasts, Mass. to Greenland.

15. CRÁNTZIA, Nutt.

Calyx-teeth small. Fruit globose or slightly flattened laterally; dorsal ribs filiform, the lateral thick and corky; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2 on the commissure.—Small perennials, creeping and rooting in the mud, with hollow cylindrical or awl-shaped nodose petioles in place of leaves, simple few-flowered umbels, and white flowers. (Named for Prof. Henry John Crantz, an Austrian botanist of the 18th century.)

1. C. lineàta, Nutt. Leaves very obtuse, 1–3´ long, 1–2´´ broad; fruit 1´´ long, the thick lateral wings forming a corky margin.—In brackish marshes along the coast, from Mass. to Miss. July. Very widely distributed.

16. FŒNÍCULUM, Adans. Fennel.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit oblong, glabrous, with prominent ribs and solitary oil-tubes.—Stout glabrous aromatic herb, with leaves dissected into numerous filiform segments, no involucre nor involucels, and large umbels of yellow flowers. (The Latin name, from fœnum, hay.)

F. officinàle, All., the cultivated fennel from Europe, has become naturalized along the shores of Md. and Va., and is a common escape.


Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit oblong to ovate, glabrous, with slender equal ribs, numerous oil-tubes, and depressed or cushion-like stylopodium.—Glabrous perennials, with ternately or pinnately compound leaves, involucre and involucels scanty or none, and white or yellow flowers. (Name said to be formed from bipinnula, referring to the bipinnate leaves.)

1. P. integérrima, Benth. & Hook. Glaucous, 1–3° high, slender, branching; leaves 2–3-ternate, with lanceolate to ovate entire leaflets; flowers yellow; fruit broadly oblong, 2´´ long; stylopodium small or wanting. (Zizia integerrima, DC.)—Rocky hillsides, Atlantic States to Minn., E. Kan., and Ark. May.

P. Saxífraga, L., var. màjor, Koch. Leaves simply pinnate, with sharply toothed leaflets; flowers white; fruit oblong, 1´´ long; stylopodium cushion-like.—Rocky shores of Delaware River; Sycamore, Ohio. (Nat. from Eu.)

18. EÙLOPHUS, Nutt.

Calyx-teeth prominent. Fruit ovate or oblong, glabrous, with equal filiform ribs; oil-tubes 1–5 in the intervals; stylopodium conical, with long recurved styles; seed-face broadly concave, with a central longitudinal ridge.—Glabrous perennials (3–5° high) from deep-seated fascicled tubers, with pinnately or ternately compound leaves, involucels of numerous narrowly lanceolate acuminate bractlets, and long-peduncled umbels of white flowers. (Name from εὖ, well, and λόφος, a crest,—not well applied to a plant with no crest at all.)

1. E. Americànus, Nutt. Radical and lower stem-leaves large, 1–2-pinnately compound, with leaflets cut into short narrow segments; upper stem-leaves ternate, with narrowly linear elongated leaflets; fruit 2–3´´ long.—Ohio to Ill. and Mo., south to Tenn. and Ark. July.

19. ANTHRÍSCUS, Hoffm. Chervil.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit linear, notched at base, long-beaked, glabrous, without ribs (but beak ribbed); oil-tubes none, stylopodium conical, seed-face sulcate.—Resembling Chærophyllum in vegetative characters. (The ancient Roman name.)

A. Cerefòlium, Hoffm. Mature fruit smooth and shining. (Chærophyllum sativum, L.)—Naturalized in E. Penn. (From Eu.)

20. BUPLEÙRUM, L. Thorough-wax.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit oblong, with very slender ribs, no oil-tubes, depressed stylopodium, and seed-face somewhat concave.—Smooth annual, with ovate perfoliate entire leaves, no involucre, involucels of 5 very conspicuous ovate mucronate bractlets, and yellow flowers. (Name from βοῦς, an ox, and πλευρόν, a rib.)

B. rotundifòlium, L., is very common in fields and cultivated ground, N. Y. to N. C., west to Mo. and Ark. (Nat. from Eu.)

21. CRYPTOTÆ̀NIA, DC. Honewort.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit linear-oblong, glabrous, with obtuse equal ribs; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals and beneath each rib; stylopodium slender-conical; seed-face plane.—A glabrous perennial, with thin 3-foliolate leaves, no involucre, involucels of minute bractlets or none, and white flowers. (Name from κρυπτός, hidden, and ταινία, a fillet, referring to the concealed oil-tubes.)

1. C. Canadénsis, DC. Plant 1–3° high; leaflets large, ovate (2–4´ long), pointed, doubly serrate, often lobed; umbels irregular and unequally few-rayed; pedicels very unequal; fruit 2–3´´ long, often becoming curved.—N. Brunswick to Ga., west to Minn., E. Kan., and Tex. June–Sept.

22. SÌUM, Tourn. Water Parsnip.

Calyx-teeth minute. Fruit ovate to oblong, glabrous, with prominent corky nearly equal ribs; oil-tubes 1–3 in the intervals; stylopodium depressed; seed-face plane.—Smooth perennials, growing in water or wet places, with pinnate leaves and serrate or pinnatifid leaflets, involucre and involucels of numerous narrow bracts, and white flowers. (From σίον, the Greek name of some marsh plant.)

1. S. cicutæfòlium, Gmelin. Stout, 2–6° high; leaflets 3–8 pairs, linear to lanceolate, sharply serrate and mostly acuminate, 2–5´ long (lower leaves sometimes submersed and finely dissected, as in the next); fruit 1½´´ long, with prominent ribs. (S. lineare, Michx.)—Throughout N. America.

2. S. Carsònii, Durand. Weak, 1–2° high; leaflets 1–3 pairs, linear, sharply serrate, 1–2´ long; when submersed or floating, very thin, ovate to oblong, usually laciniately toothed or dissected, the leaf sometimes reduced to the terminal leaflet; fruit about 1´´ long.—Mass., R. I., Conn., and Penn.

23. BÉRULA, Koch.

Calyx-teeth minute. Fruit nearly round, emarginate at base, glabrous; carpels nearly globose, with very slender inconspicuous ribs and thick corky pericarp; oil-tubes numerous and contiguous about the seed-cavity; seed terete.—Smooth aquatic perennial, with simply pinnate leaves and variously cut leaflets, usually conspicuous involucre and involucels of narrow bracts, and white flowers. (The Latin name of the Water-cress, of Celtic origin.)

1. B. angustifòlia, Koch. Erect, ½–3° high, leaflets 5–9 pairs, linear to oblong or ovate, serrate to cut-toothed, often laciniately lobed, sometimes crenate (½–3´ long); fruit scarcely 1´´ long. (Sium angustifolium, L.)—Throughout the U. S. July, Aug.

24. ZÍZIA, Koch.

Calyx-teeth prominent. Fruit ovate to oblong, glabrous, with filiform ribs; oil-tubes large and solitary in the broad intervals, and a small one in each rib; stylopodium wanting; seed terete.—Smooth perennials (1–3° high), with mostly Thaspium-like leaves, no involucre, involucels of small bractlets, yellow flowers, and the central fruit of each umbellet sessile. Flowering in early spring in open prairies and upland meadows. (Named for I. B. Ziz, a Rhenish botanist.)

1. Z. aùrea, Koch. Leaves (except the uppermost) 2–3-ternate the radical very long-petioled; leaflets ovate to lanceolate, sharply serrate; rays 15–25, stout (1–2´ long); fruit oblong, about 2´´ long. (Thaspium aureum, var. apterum, Gray, Manual.)—Atlantic States, west to Minn. and Tex.

Var. Bébbii, Coult. & Rose. A more slender mountain form, with leaflets more coarsely serrate, the radical leaves smaller and more simple; rays 2–8, slender (2–3´ long); fruit oval, 1–1½´´ long.—W. Va. and Va. to Ga.

2. Z. cordàta, DC. Radical leaves mostly long-petioled, cordate or even rounder, crenately toothed, very rarely lobed or divided; stem-leaves simply ternate or quinate, with the ovate or lanceolate leaflets serrate, incised, or sometimes parted; fruit ovate, 1½´´ long. (Thaspium trifoliatum, var. apterum, Gray, Manual.)—Same range as the preceding, but extending farther westward.

25. CÀRUM, L. Caraway.

Calyx-teeth small. Fruit ovate or oblong, glabrous, with filiform or inconspicuous ribs; oil-tubes solitary; stylopodium conical; seed-face plane or nearly so.—Smooth erect slender herbs, with fusiform or tuberous roots, pinnate leaves, involucre and involucels of few to many bracts, and white (or yellowish) flowers. (Name perhaps from the country, Caria.)

C. Cárui, L. (Caraway.) Leaves pinnately compound, with filiform divisions.—Naturalized in many places, especially northward. (Nat. from Eu.)

C. Petroselìnum, Benth., the common Parsley, from Europe, with 3-pinnate leaves, ovate 3-cleft leaflets, and greenish yellow flowers, is occasionally found as an escape from cultivation. (Petroselinum sativum, Hoffm.)

26. CICÙTA, L. Water-Hemlock.

Calyx-teeth prominent. Fruit oblong to nearly orbicular, glabrous, with strong flattish corky ribs (the lateral largest); oil-tubes conspicuous, solitary; stylopodium depressed; seed nearly terete.—Smooth marsh perennials, very poisonous, with pinnately compound leaves and serrate leaflets, involucre usually none, involucels of several slender bractlets, and white flowers. (The ancient Latin name of the Hemlock.)

1. C. maculàta, L. (Spotted Cowbane. Musquash Root. Beaver-Poison.) Stem stout, 2–6° high, streaked with purple; leaves 2–3-pinnate, the lower on long petioles; leaflets lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate (1–5´ long), acuminate, coarsely serrate, the veins passing to the notches; pedicels in the umbellets numerous, very unequal; fruit broadly ovate to oval, 1–1½´´ long.—Throughout the U. S. Aug.

2. C. bulbífera, L. Rather slender, 1–3° high; leaves 2–3-pinnate (sometimes appearing ternate); leaflets linear, sparsely toothed (1–2´ long); upper axils bearing clustered bulblets; fruit (rare) scarcely 1´´ long.—Common in swamps, N. Scotia to Del., west to Minn. and Iowa.

27. ÆGOPÒDIUM, L. Goutweed.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit ovate, glabrous, with equal filiform ribs, and no oil-tubes; stylopodium conical and prominent; seed nearly terete.—A coarse glabrous perennial, with creeping rootstock, biternate leaves, sharply toothed ovate leaflets, and rather large naked umbels of white flowers. (Name from αἴξ, goat, and πόδιον, a little foot, probably from the shape of the leaflets.)

Æ. Podagrària, L., a common and troublesome weed in Europe, is reported from R. I. to Del. and E. Penn.


Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit very small, ovate, usually bristly or tuberculate, with somewhat prominent ribs; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals; stylopodium conical; seed-face plane or somewhat concave.—Very slender smooth branching annuals, with finely dissected leaves (segments filiform or linear), and small white flowers in very unequally few-rayed pedunculate umbels. (Name from λεπτός, slender, and καυλός, a stem.)

1. L. divaricàtus, DC. Plant 1–2° high, with branches and umbels diffusely spreading, the very slender rays ½–1´ long and the longer pedicels often 3–6´´ long; fruit tuberculate, ½´´ long. (Apium divaricatum, Benth. & Hook.)—N. C. to Fla., west to Ark. and Tex.; reported from Kan. April.

2. L. pàtens, Nutt. Of similar habit, but the umbels shorter and more strict, the rays 3–6´´ long or less and the pedicels short; fruit densely sharp-tuberculate or nearly smooth. (Apiastrum patens, Coult. & Rose.)—Central Neb. to Tex. and N. Mex.

29. DISCOPLEÙRA, DC. Mock Bishop-weed.

Calyx-teeth small or obsolete. Fruit ovate, glabrous; carpel with dorsal ribs filiform to broad and obtuse, the lateral very thick and corky, those of the two carpels closely contiguous and forming a dilated obtuse or acute corky band; oil-tubes solitary, stylopodium conical; seed nearly terete.—Smooth branching annuals, with finely dissected leaves, involucre of foliaceous bracts, involucels of prominent or minute bractlets, and white flowers. (Name from δίσκος, a disk, and πλευρόν, a rib.)

1. D. capillàcea, DC. Plant 1–2° high (or even 5–6°); leaves dissected into filiform divisions; umbel 5–20-rayed, involucre of filiform bracts usually cleft or parted, and involucels more or less prominent, fruit 1–1½´´ long, ovate, acute.—Wet ground, Mass. to Fla., west to Ill., Mo., and Tex. June–Oct.

2. D. Nuttàllii, DC. Similar in habit; involucral bracts short and entire; fruit very small (½´´ long), as broad as high, blunt.—Ill. (?) to Ark., La., and Tex.

30. CONÌUM, L. Poison Hemlock.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit ovate, somewhat flattened at the sides, glabrous, with prominent wavy ribs; oil-tubes none, but a layer of secreting cells next the seed, whose face is deeply and narrowly concave.—Poisonous biennial, with spotted stems, large decompound leaves with lanceolate pinnatifid leaflets, involucre and involucels of narrow bracts, and white flowers. (Κώνειον, the Greek name of the Hemlock, by which criminals and philosophers were put to death at Athens.)

C. maculàtum, L. A large branching European herb, in waste places, N. Eng. to Penn., and west to Iowa and Minn.


Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit narrowly oblong to linear, notched at base, with short beak or none, and equal ribs; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, seed-face more or less deeply grooved.—Moist ground annuals, with ternately decompound leaves, pinnatifid leaflets with oblong obtuse lobes, mostly no involucre, involucels of many bractlets, and white flowers. (Name from χαίρω, to gladden, and φύλλον, a leaf, alluding to the agreeable odor of the foliage.)

1. C. procúmbens, Crantz. More or less hairy; stems slender, spreading (6–18´ high); umbels few-rayed; fruit narrowly oblong (2½–3½´´ long), glabrous, contracted but not tapering at the summit, the intervals broader than the ribs.—N. Y. to N. C., west to Mich., Iowa, Ark., and Miss.

Var. Shórtii, Torr. & Gray, has more broadly oblong to ovate (often somewhat pubescent) fruit, not at all contracted at the summit.—Ky. to Ark. and La.

32. OSMORRHÌZA, Raf. Sweet Cicely.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit linear to linear-oblong, with prominent caudate attenuation at base, very bristly, with equal ribs; oil-tubes obsolete; seed-face concave.—Glabrous to hirsute perennials (1–3° high) from thick aromatic roots, with ternately compound leaves, ovate variously toothed leaflets, few-leaved involucres and involucels, and white flowers in few-rayed and few-fruited umbels. (Name from ὀσμή, a scent, and ῥίζα, a root.)

1. O. brevístylis, DC. Rather stout, villous-pubescent; leaves 2–3-ternate; leaflets 2–3´ long, acuminate; fruit (not including the caudate attenuation) 6´´ long; stylopodium and style ½´´ long.—From N. Scotia westward through the Northern States, and in the mountains to N. C. May, June.

2. O. longístylis, DC. Glabrous or slightly pubescent; like the last, but with the style 1´´ long or more, and the seed-face more deeply and broadly concave.—N. Scotia to Va., and west to Tenn., E. Kan., and Dak.

33. ERIGÈNIA, Nutt. Harbinger-of-Spring.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Petals obovate or spatulate, flat, entire. Fruit didymous, nearly orbicular and laterally flattened, the carpels incurved at top and bottom, nearly kidney-form, with 5 very slender ribs, and several (1–3) small oil-tubes in the intervals; inner face of the seed hollowed into a broad deep cavity.—A small glabrous vernal plant, producing from a deep round tuber a simple stem, bearing one or two 2–3-ternately divided leaves, and a somewhat imperfect and leafy-bracted compound umbel. Flowers few, white. (Name from ἠριγένεια, born in the spring.)

1. E. bulbòsa, Nutt. Stem 3–9´ high; leaf-segments linear-oblong; fruit 1´´ long, 1½´´ broad.—W. New York to Md. and Tenn., and west to Wisc., S. E. Minn., and Kan.

34. HYDROCÓTYLE, Tourn. Water Pennywort.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit strongly flattened laterally, orbicular or shield-shaped; the carpels 5-ribbed, two of the ribs enlarged and often forming a thickened margin; oil-tubes none, but usually a conspicuous oil-bearing layer beneath the epidermis.—Low, mostly smooth, marsh or aquatic perennials, with slender creeping stems, and round shield-shaped or kidney-form leaves, with scale-like stipules. Flowers small, white, in simple umbels or clusters, which are either single or proliferous (one above another), appearing all summer. (Name from ὕδωρ, water, and κοτύλη, a flat cup, the peltate leaves of several species being somewhat cup-shaped.)

[*] Pericarp thin except at the broad corky dorsal and lateral ribs; leaves round-peltate, crenate; peduncles as long as the petioles, from creeping rootstocks.

[+] Fruit notched at base and apex; intermediate ribs corky.

1. H. umbellàta, L. Umbels many-flowered, simple (sometimes proliferous); pedicels 2–6´´ long; fruit about 1½´´ broad, strongly notched, the dorsal ribs prominent but obtuse.—Mass. to Minn., south to the Gulf.

2. H. Cánbyi, Coult. & Rose. Umbels 3–9-flowered, generally proliferous; pedicels very short, but distinct; fruit about 2 lines broad; carpels broader and more flattened than in the preceding, sharper margined, the dorsal and lateral ribs much more prominent; seed-section much narrower. (H. umbellata, var.? ambigua, Gray, Manual).—N. J. to Md.

[+][+] Fruit not notched; intermediate ribs not corky.

3. H. verticillàta, Thunb. Umbels few-flowered, proliferous, forming an interrupted spike; pedicels very short or none; fruit 1½–2´´ broad; dorsal and lateral ribs very prominent. (H. interrupta, Muhl.)—Mass. to Fla.

[*][*] Pericarp uniformly corky-thickened and ribs all filiform; leaves not peltate; peduncles much shorter than the petioles.

[+] Fruit small, without secondary ribs or reticulations; involucre small or none.

4. H. Americàna, L. Stems filiform, branching and creeping; leaves thin, round-reniform, crenate-lobed and the lobes crenate, shining; few-flowered umbels axillary and almost sessile; fruit less than 1´´ broad; intermediate ribs prominent; no oil-bearing layer; seed-section broadly oval.—Common. (Addendum) Propagating by filiform tuberiferous stolons.

5. H. ranunculoìdes, L. f. Usually floating; leaves thicker, round-reniform, 3–7-cleft, the lobes crenate; peduncles 1–3´ long, reflexed in fruit; capitate umbel 5–10-flowered; fruit 1–1½´´ broad; ribs rather obscure; seed-section oblong.—E. Penn. to Fla., thence westward.

[+][+] Fruit larger (2–2½´´ broad), with prominent secondary ribs and reticulations; the 2–4-flowered umbel subtended by two conspicuous bracts.

6. H. Asiática, L. Petioles and peduncles (1–2´ long) clustered on creeping stems or runners; leaves ovate-cordate, repand-toothed, thickish; seed-section narrowly oblong. (H. repanda, Pers.)—Md. to Fla. and Tex. (Widely distributed in the tropics and southern hemisphere.)

35. ERÝNGIUM, Tourn. Eryngo.

Calyx-teeth prominent, rigid and persistent. Styles slender. Fruit ovate or obovate, covered with little hyaline scales or tubercles, with no ribs, and usually 5 slender oil-tubes on each carpel.—Chiefly perennials, with coriaceous, toothed, cut, or prickly leaves, and blue or white bracted flowers closely sessile in dense heads. (A name used by Dioscorides, of uncertain origin.)

[*] Stout, with parallel-veined elongated linear thick leaves.

1. E. yuccæfòlium, Michx. (Rattlesnake-Master. Button Snake-root.) Branching above, 1–6° high; leaves rigid, tapering to a point (lower sometimes 2–3° long), the margins remotely bristly; heads ovate-globose (9´´ long), with ovate-lanceolate mostly entire cuspidate-tipped bracts shorter than the head, and similar bractlets.—Dry or damp soil, N. J. to Minn., south to Fla. and Tex. July–Sept.

[*][*] Tall and often stout; leaves thick, not parallel-veined.

2. E. Virginiànum, Lam. Slender (1–3° high); radical and lower stem-leaves linear- to oblong-lanceolate, on long (sometimes 1° long) fistulous petioles, entire or with small hooked teeth; upper leaves sessile, spiny-toothed or laciniate; heads ovate-oblong (6´´ long), with spiny-toothed or entire reflexed bracts, and bractlets with 3 spiny cusps (the middle one largest).—Margins of ponds and streams, N. J. to Fla. and Tex., near the coast. Aug., Sept.

3. E. Leavenwórthii, Torr. & Gray. Stout (1–3° high); lowest stem-leaves broadly oblanceolate, spinosely toothed, the rest sessile and deeply palmately-parted into narrow incisely-pinnatifid spreading pungent segments; heads ovate-oblong (1–1½´ long), with pinnatifid spinose bracts and 3–7-cuspidate bractlets, the terminal ones very prominent and resembling the bracts.—Dry soil, E. Kan., Ark., and Tex.

[*][*][*] Prostrate and slender, rooting at the joints, diffusely branched, with small thin unarmed leaves and very small heads.

4. E. prostràtum, Nutt. Lower leaves oblong, entire, few-toothed, or lobed at base; upper leaves smaller, clustered at the rooting joints, ovate, few-toothed or entire (occasionally some additional trifid ones); reflexed bracts longer than the oblong heads (2–4´´ long).—Wet places, S. Mo. to Fla. and Tex.

36. SANÍCULA, Tourn. Sanicle. Black Snakeroot.

Calyx-teeth manifest, persistent. Fruit globular; the carpels not separating spontaneously, ribless, thickly clothed with hooked prickles, each with 5 oil-tubes.—Perennial rather tall glabrous herbs, with few palmately-lobed or parted leaves, those from the root long-petioled. Umbels irregular or compound, the flowers (greenish or yellowish) capitate in the umbellets, perfect, and with staminate ones intermixed. Involucre and involucels few-leaved. (Name said to be from sano, to heal; or perhaps from San Nicolas.)

1. S. Marylándica, L. Stem 1–3° high; leaves 3–7-parted, the divisions mostly sharply cut and serrate; sterile flowers numerous and long-pedicelled; fruit 1½–2´´ long, the styles longer than the prickles.—Throughout our range, south to Ga. and Tenn., west to E. Kan. and Minn. May–Aug.

Var. Canadénsis, Torr., has comparatively few and short-pedicelled sterile flowers, and styles shorter than the prickles. (S. Canadensis, L.)—With the last, but westward only to Minn. and E. Kan.

Order 49. ARALIÀCEÆ. (Ginseng Family.)

Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with much the same characters as Umbelliferæ, but with usually more than 2 styles, and the fruit a few–several-celled drupe.—Albumen mostly fleshy. Petals not inflexed.

1. ARÀLIA, Tourn. Ginseng. Wild Sarsaparilla.

Flowers more or less polygamous. Calyx-tube coherent with the ovary, the teeth very short or almost obsolete. Petals 5, epigynous, oblong or obovate, lightly imbricated in the bud, deciduous. Stamens 5, epigynous, alternate with the petals. Styles 2–5, mostly distinct and slender, or in the sterile flowers short and united. Ovary 2–5-celled, with a single anatropous ovule suspended from the top of each cell, ripening into a berry-like drupe, with as many seeds as cells. Embryo minute.—Leaves compound or decompound. Flowers white or greenish, in umbels. Roots (perennial), bark, fruit, etc., warm and aromatic. (Derivation obscure.)

§ 1. ARALIA. Flowers monœciously polygamous or perfect, the umbels usually in corymbs or panicles; styles and cells of the (black or dark purple) fruit 5; stems herbaceous or woody; ultimate divisions of the leaves pinnate.

[*] Umbels numerous in a large compound panicle; leaves very large, decompound.

1. A. spinòsa, L. (Angelica-tree. Hercules' Club.) Shrub, or a low tree; the stout stem and stalks prickly; leaflets ovate, pointed, serrate, pale beneath.—River-banks, Penn. to Ind., and south to the Gulf. July, Aug.

2. A. racemòsa, L. (Spikenard.) Herbaceous; stem widely branched; leaflets heart-ovate, pointed, doubly serrate, slightly downy; umbels racemose; styles united.—Rich woodlands, N. Brunswick to Minn., south to the mountains of Ga. July. Well known for its spicy-aromatic large roots.

[*][*] Umbels 2–7, corymbed; stem short, somewhat woody.

3. A. híspida, Vent. (Bristly Sarsaparilla. Wild Elder.) Stem (1–2° high) bristly, leafy, terminating in a peduncle bearing several umbels; leaves twice pinnate; leaflets oblong-ovate, acute, cut-serrate.—Rocky and sandy places, Newf. to Dak., south to the mountains of N. C. June.

4. A. nudicaùlis, L. (Wild Sarsaparilla.) Stem scarcely rising out of the ground, smooth, bearing a single long-stalked leaf (1° high) and a shorter naked scape, with 2–7 umbels; leaflets oblong-ovate or oval, pointed, serrate, 5 on each of the 3 divisions.—Moist woodlands; range of n. 3. May, June. The long horizontal aromatic roots a substitute for officinal Sarsaparilla.

§ 2. GÍNSENG. Flowers diœciously polygamous; styles and cells of the red or reddish fruit 2 or 3; stem herbaceous, low, simple, bearing a whorl of 3 palmately 3–7-foliolate leaves, and a simple umbel on a slender peduncle.

5. A. quinquefòlia, Decsne. & Planch. (Ginseng.) Root large and spindle-shaped, often forked (4–9´ long, aromatic); stem 1° high; leaflets long-stalked, mostly 5, large and thin, obovate-oblong, pointed; styles mostly 2; fruit bright red.—Rich and cool woods, Vt. and W. Conn. to Minn., south to the mountains of Ga. July.

6. A. trifòlia, Decsne. & Planch. (Dwarf Ginseng. Ground-nut.) Root or tuber globular, deep in the ground (pungent to the taste, not aromatic); stems 4–8´ high; leaflets 3–5, sessile at the summit of the leafstalk, narrowly oblong, obtuse; styles usually 3; fruit yellowish.—Rich woods, N. Scotia to Minn., south to Ga. April, May.

Order 50. CORNÀCEÆ. (Dogwood Family.)

Shrubs or trees (rarely herbaceous), with opposite or alternate simple leaves, the calyx-tube coherent with the 1–2-celled ovary, its limb minute, the petals (valvate in the bud) and as many stamens borne on the margin of an epigynous disk in the perfect flowers; style one; a single anatropous ovule hanging from the top of the cell; the fruit a 1–2-seeded drupe; embryo nearly as long as the albumen, with large foliaceous cotyledons.—Including two genera, of which Nyssa is partly apetalous. Bark bitter and tonic.

1. Cornus. Flowers perfect, 4-merous. Leaves mostly opposite.

2. Nyssa. Flowers diœciously polygamous, 5-merous. Leaves alternate.

1. CÓRNUS, Tourn. Cornel. Dogwood.

Flowers perfect (or in some foreign species diœcious). Calyx minutely 4-toothed. Petals 4, oblong, spreading. Stamens 4; filaments slender. Style slender; stigma terminal, flat or capitate. Drupe small, with a 2-celled and 2-seeded stone.—Leaves opposite (except in one species), entire. Flowers small, in open naked cymes, or in close heads surrounded by a corolla-like involucre. (Name from cornu, a horn; alluding to the hardness of the wood.)

§ 1. Flowers greenish, in a head or close cluster, surrounded by a large and showy, 4-leaved, corolla-like, white or rarely pinkish involucre; fruit bright red.

1. C. Canadénsis, L. (Dwarf Cornel. Bunch-berry.) Stems low and simple (5–7´ high) from a slender creeping and subterranean rather woody trunk; leaves scarcely petioled, the lower scale-like, the upper crowded into an apparent whorl in sixes or fours, ovate or oval, pointed; leaves of the involucre ovate; fruit globular.—Damp cold woods, N. J. to Ind. and Minn., and the far north and west. June.

2. C. flórida, L. (Flowering Dogwood.) Tree 12–40° high; leaves ovate, pointed, acutish at the base; leaves of the involucre obcordate (1½´ long); fruit oval.—Dry woods, from S. New Eng. to Ont. and S. Minn., south to Fla. and Tex. May, June. Very showy in flower, scarcely less so in fruit.

§ 2. Flowers white, in open flat spreading cymes; involucre none; fruit spherical; leaves all opposite (except in n. 9).

[*] Pubescence woolly and more or less spreading.

3. C. circinàta, L'Her. (Round-leaved Cornel or Dogwood.) Shrub 6–10° high; branches greenish, warty-dotted; leaves round-oval, abruptly pointed, woolly beneath (2–5´ broad); cymes flat; fruit light blue.—Copses, in rich or sandy soil, or on rocks, N. Scotia to Dak., south to Va. and Mo. June.

4. C. serícea, L. (Silky Cornel. Kinnikinnik.) Shrub 3–10° high; branches purplish; the branchlets, stalks, and lower surface of the narrowly ovate or elliptical pointed leaves silky-downy (often rusty), pale and dull; cymes flat, close; calyx-teeth lanceolate; fruit pale blue.—Wet places, Canada to Dak., south to Fla. and La. June.

5. C. asperifòlia, Michx. Branches brownish; the branchlets, etc., rough-pubescent; leaves oblong or ovate, on short petioles, pointed, rough with a harsh pubescence above, and downy beneath; calyx-teeth minute; fruit white. (C. Drummondii, Mey.)—Dry or sandy soil, N. shore of L. Erie to Minn. and the Gulf. May, June. A rather tall shrub.

[*][*] Pubescence closely appressed, straight and silky, or none.

6. C. stolonífera, Michx. (Red-osier Dogwood.) Branches, especially the osier-like shoots of the season, bright red-purple, smooth; leaves ovate, rounded at base, abruptly short-pointed, roughish with a minute close pubescence on both sides, whitish underneath; cymes small and flat, rather few-flowered, smooth; fruit white or lead-color.—Wet places; common, especially northward. Multiplies freely by prostrate or subterranean suckers, and forms broad clumps, 3–6° high. June.

7. C. strícta, Lam. (Stiff Cornel.) A shrub 8–15° high; branches brownish or reddish, smooth; leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, taper-pointed, acutish at base, glabrous, of nearly the same hue both sides; cymes loose, flattish; anthers and fruit pale blue.—Swamps, Va. to Ga. and Fla. April, May.

8. C. paniculàta, L'Her. (Panicled Cornel.) Shrub 4–8° high, much branched; branches gray, smooth; leaves ovate-lanceolate, taper-pointed, acute at base, whitish beneath but not downy; cymes convex, loose, often panicled; fruit white, depressed-globose.—Thickets and river-banks. June.

9. C. alternifòlia, L. f. Shrub or tree 8–25° high; branches greenish streaked with white, the alternate leaves clustered at the ends, ovate or oval, long-pointed, acute at base, whitish and minutely pubescent beneath; cymes very broad and open; fruit deep blue on reddish stalks.—Hillsides in copses, N. Brunswick to Minn., south to Ga. and Ala. May, June.

2. NÝSSA, L. Tupelo. Pepperidge. Sour-Gum Tree.

Flowers diœciously polygamous, clustered or rarely solitary at the summit of axillary peduncles. Stam. Fl. numerous in a simple or compound dense cluster of fascicles. Calyx small, 5-parted. Petals as in fertile flower or none. Stamens 5–12, oftener 10, inserted on the outside of a convex disk; filaments slender; anthers short. No pistil. Pist. Fl. solitary, or 2–8, sessile in a bracted cluster, much larger than the staminate flowers. Calyx with a very short repand-truncate or minutely 5-toothed limb. Petals very small and fleshy, deciduous, or often wanting. Stamens 5–10, with perfect or imperfect anthers. Style elongated, revolute, stigmatic down one side. Ovary 1-celled. Drupe ovoid or oblong, with a bony and grooved or striate 1-celled and 1-seeded stone.—Trees with entire or sometimes angulate-toothed leaves, which are alternate, but mostly crowded at the ends of the branchlets, and greenish flowers appearing with the leaves. (The name of a Nymph: "so called because it [the original species] grows in the water.")

1. N. sylvática, Marsh. (Tupelo. Pepperidge. Black or Sour Gum.) Middle-sized tree, with horizontal branches; leaves oval or obovate, commonly acuminate, glabrous or villous pubescent when young, at least on the margins and midrib, shining above when old (2–5´ long); fertile flowers 3–8, at the summit of a slender peduncle; fruit ovoid, acid, bluish-black (about ½´ long). (N. multiflora, Wang.)—Rich soil, either moist or nearly dry, S. Maine and N. Vt. to Mich., south to Fla. and Tex. April, May. Leaves turning bright crimson in autumn. Wood firm, close-grained and very unwedgeable, on account of the oblique direction and crossing of its fibres.

2. N. uniflòra, Wang. (Large Tupelo.) A large tree; leaves oblong or ovate, sometimes slightly cordate at base, long-petioled, entire or angulate-toothed, pale and downy-pubescent beneath, at least when young (4–12´ long); fertile flower solitary on a slender peduncle; fruit oblong, blue (1´ or more in length).—Deep swamps, S. Va. to S. Ill. and Mo., south to Fla. and Tex. April. Wood soft; that of the roots very light and spongy.


Floral envelopes consisting of both calyx and corolla, the latter composed of more or less united petals, that is, gamopetalous.[A]

[Footnote A: In certain families, as in Ericaceæ, etc., the petals in some genera are nearly or quite separate. In Compositæ and some others, the calyx is mostly reduced to a pappus, or a mere border, or even to nothing more than a covering of the surface of the ovary. The student might look for these in the first or the third division; but the artificial analysis prefixed to the volume provides for such anomalies, and will lead him to the proper order.]

Order 51. CAPRIFOLIÀCEÆ. (Honeysuckle Family.)

Shrubs, or rarely herbs, with opposite leaves, no (genuine) stipules, the calyx-tube coherent with the 2–5-celled ovary, the stamens as many as (one fewer in Linnæa, doubled in Adoxa) the lobes of the tubular or rotate corolla, and inserted on its tube.—Fruit a berry, drupe, or pod, 1–several-seeded. Seeds anatropous, with small embryo in fleshy albumen.

Tribe I. SAMBUCEÆ. Corolla wheel-shaped or urn-shaped, regular, deeply 5-lobed. Stigmas 3–5, sessile or nearly so. Inflorescence terminal and cymose.

[*] Dwarf herb, with stamens doubled and flowers in a capitate cluster.

1. Adoxa. Fruit a dry greenish drupe, with 3–5 cartilaginous nutlets. Cauline leaves a single pair and ternate.

[*][*] Shrubs, with stamens as many as corolla-lobes and flowers in broad compound cymes.

2. Sambucus. Fruit berry-like, containing three small seed-like nutlets. Leaves pinnate.

3. Viburnum. Fruit a 1-celled 1-seeded drupe, with a compressed stone. Leaves simple.

Tribe II. LONICEREÆ. Corolla tubular, often irregular, sometimes 2-lipped. Style slender; stigma capitate.

[*] Herbs, with axillary flowers.

4. Triosteum. Stamens 5. Corolla gibbous at the base. Fruit a 3-celled drupe. Erect; flowers sessile.

5. Linnæa. Stamens 4, one fewer than the lobes of the corolla. Fruit dry, 3-celled, but only 1-seeded. Creeping, with long-pedunculate twin flowers.

[*][*] Erect or climbing shrubs, with scaly winter-buds.

6. Symphoricarpos. Stamens 4 or 5, as many as the lobes of the bell-shaped regular corolla. Berry 4-celled, but only 2-seeded; two of the cells sterile.

7. Lonicera. Stamens 5, as many as the lobes of the tubular and more or less irregular corolla. Berry several-seeded; all the 2 or 3 cells fertile.

8. Diervilla. Stamens 5. Corolla funnel-form, nearly regular. Pod 2-celled, 2-valved, many-seeded, slender.

1. ADÓXA, L. Moschatel.

Calyx-tube reaching not quite to the summit of the 3–5-celled ovary; limb of 3 or more teeth. Corolla wheel-shaped, 4–6-cleft, bearing at each sinus a pair of separate or partly united stamens with 1-celled anthers. Style 3–5-parted. Dry drupe greenish, with 3–5 cartilaginous nutlets.—A dwarf perennial herb with scaly rootstock and ternately divided leaves, the cauline a single pair. An anomalous genus. (From ἄδοξος, obscure or insignificant.)

1. A. Moschatéllina, L. Smooth, musk-scented; radical leaves 1–3-ternate, the cauline 3-cleft or 3-parted; leaflets obovate, 3-cleft; flowers several in a close cluster on a slender peduncle, greenish or yellowish.—N. Iowa, Wisc., and Minn., and northward. (Eu., Asia.)

2. SAMBÙCUS, Tourn. Elder.

Calyx-lobes minute or obsolete. Corolla open urn-shaped, with a broadly spreading 5-cleft limb. Stamens 5. Stigmas 3. Fruit a berry-like juicy drupe, containing 3 small seed-like nutlets.—Shrubby plants, with a rank smell when bruised, pinnate leaves, serrate-pointed leaflets, and numerous small and white flowers in compound cymes. (The Latin name, perhaps from σαμβύκη, an ancient musical instrument.)

1. S. Canadénsis, L. (Common Elder.) Stems scarcely woody (5–10° high); leaflets 5–11, oblong, mostly smooth, the lower often 3-parted; cymes flat; fruit black-purple.—Rich soil, in open places, throughout our range, and south and west. June, July.—Pith white.

2. S. racemòsa, L. (Red-berried Elder.) Stems woody (2–12° high), the bark warty; leaflets 5–7, ovate-lanceolate, downy underneath; cymes panicled, convex or pyramidal; fruit bright red (rarely white). (S. pubens, Michx.)—Rocky woods, N. Scotia to Ga., and westward across the continent. May; the fruit ripening in June.—Pith brown. Both species occur with the leaflets divided into 3–5 linear-lanceolate 2–3-cleft or laciniate segments.

3. VIBÚRNUM, L. Arrow-wood. Laurestinus.

Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla spreading, deeply 5-lobed. Stamens 5. Stigmas 1–3. Fruit a 1-celled, 1-seeded drupe, with soft pulp and a thin-crustaceous (flattened or tumid) stone.—Shrubs, with simple leaves, and white flowers in flat compound cymes. Petioles sometimes bearing little appendages which are evidently stipules. Leaf-buds naked, or with a pair of scales. (The classical Latin name, of unknown meaning.)

§ 1. Cyme radiant, the marginal flowers neutral, with greatly enlarged flat corollas as in Hydrangea; drupes coral-red turning darker, not acid; stone sulcate; leaves pinnately veined; winter-buds naked.

1. V. lantanoìdes, Michx. (Hobble-bush. American Wayfaring-tree.) Leaves (4–8´ across) round-ovate, abruptly pointed, heart-shaped at the base, closely serrate, the veins and veinlets beneath with the stalks and branchlets very rusty-scurfy; cymes sessile, very broad and flat.—Cold moist woods, N. Brunswick to Ont. and Penn., and in the mountains to N. C. May. A straggling shrub; the reclining branches often taking root.

§ 2. Cyme peduncled, radiant in n. 2; drupe light red, acid, globose; stone very flat, orbicular, not sulcate; leaves palmately veined; winter-buds scaly.

2. V. Ópulus, L. (Cranberry-tree.) Nearly smooth, upright (4–10° high); leaves 3–5-ribbed, strongly 3-lobed, broadly wedge-shaped or truncate at base, the spreading lobes pointed, mostly toothed on the sides, entire in the sinuses; petioles bearing 2 glands at the apex.—Low ground, along streams, from N. Brunswick far westward, and south to Penn. June, July.—The acid fruit is a substitute for cranberries, whence the names High Cranberry-bush, etc. The well-known Snow-ball Tree, or Guelder-Rose, is a cultivated state, with the whole cyme turned into showy sterile flowers. (Eu.)

3. V. pauciflòrum, Pylaie. A low straggling shrub; leaves glabrous or loosely pubescent beneath, 5-ribbed at base, unequally serrate nearly all round, with 3 short lobes at the summit; cyme few-flowered; stamens shorter than the corolla.—Cold woods, Newf. and Lab. to the mountains of N. Eng., westward to N. Mich. and the Rocky Mts.

§ 3. Cyme never radiant; drupes blue, or dark-purple or black at maturity.

[*] Leaves 3-ribbed from the rounded or subcordate base, somewhat 3-lobed; stipules bristle-shaped.

4. V. acerifòlium, L. (Dockmackie. Arrow-wood.) Shrub 3–6° high; leaves soft-downy beneath, the pointed lobes diverging, unequally toothed; cymes small, slender-peduncled; stamens exserted; fruit crimson turning purple; stone lenticular, hardly sulcate.—Cool rocky woods, from N. Brunswick to N. C., and west to S. Minn.

[*][*] Leaves (with base inclined to heart-shaped) coarsely toothed, prominently pinnately veined; stipules narrowly subulate; no rusty scurf; fruit ovoid, blue or purple; the stone grooved; cymes peduncled.

[+] Stone flat; leaves all short-petioled or subsessile.

5. V. pubéscens, Pursh. (Downy A.) A low, straggling shrub; leaves ovate or oblong-ovate, acute or taper-pointed, the veins and teeth fewer and less conspicuous than in the next, the lower surface and very short petioles soft-downy, at least when young; fruit dark-purple; the stone lightly 2-sulcate on the faces.—Rocks, etc., Lower Canada to the mountains of Ga., west to Iowa and Minn. June.

[+][+] Stone very deeply sulcate ventrally; leaves rather slender-petioled.

6. V. dentàtum, L. (Arrow-wood.) Smooth, 5–15° high, with ash-colored bark; leaves broadly ovate, very numerously sharp-toothed and strongly veined; fruit 3´´ long; cross-section of stone between kidney- and horseshoe-shaped.—Wet places, N. Brunswick to N. Ga., and west to Minn. June.—The pale leaves often with hairy tufts in the axils of the straight veins.

7. V. mólle, Michx. Leaves broadly oval, obovate or ovate, scarcely pointed, coarsely crenate or repand-toothed, the lower surface, branchlets and cymes soft-downy, the latter with stellate pubescence; fruit oily, larger and more pointed, the stone as in n. 6, but less deeply excavated.—Coast of N. Eng. (Martha's Vineyard), to Tex.

[*][*][*] Leaves finely serrate or entire, bright green; veins not prominent; stipules none; whole plant glabrous or with some minute rusty scurf; fruit black or with a blue bloom, sweet, stone very flat and even, broadly oval or orbicular.

[+] Cymes peduncled, about 5-rayed; drupes globose-ovoid, 3´´ long, shrubs 5–12° high, in swamps.

8. V. cassinoìdes, L. (Withe-rod.) Shoots scurfy-punctate; leaves thickish and opaque or dull, ovate to oblong, mostly with obtuse acumination, obscurely veiny (1–3´ long), with margins irregularly crenulate-denticulate or sometimes entire; peduncle shorter than the cyme. (V. nudum, var. cassinoides, Torr. & Gray.)—Newf. to N. J. and Minn. Flowers earlier than the next.

9. V. nùdum, L. Obscurely scurfy-punctate; leaves more veiny, thickish, oval, oblong or lanceolate, entire or obsoletely denticulate, lucid above (2–4´ long); peduncle usually equalling the cyme.—N. J. to Fla.

[+][+] Compound cymes sessile, 3–5-rayed; drupes oval, 5–7´´ long.

10. V. Lentàgo, L. (Sweet Viburnum. Sheep-berry.) Leaves ovate, strongly pointed, closely and very sharply serrate; petioles long and margined; cyme large; fruit oval, ½´ long or more, ripe in autumn, edible; tree 15–30° high.—Woods and banks of streams, from the Atlantic to Mo., Minn., and northward. Fl. in spring.

11. V. prunifòlium, L. (Black Haw.) Leaves oval, obtuse or slightly pointed, finely and sharply serrate, smaller than in the preceding (1–2´ long); fruit similar or rather smaller.—Dry or moist ground, N. Y. to Mich., Kan., and southward. Flowering early.—A tall shrub or small tree.

12. V. obovàtum, Walt. Shrub 2–8° high; leaves obovate or spatulate, obtuse, entire or denticulate, thickish, small (1–1½´ long), shining; cymes small; fruit 5´´ long, black.—River-banks and swamps, Va. to Fla. May.

4. TRIÓSTEUM, L. Fever-wort. Horse-Gentian.

Calyx-lobes linear-lanceolate, leaf-like, persistent. Corolla tubular, gibbous at base, somewhat equally 5-lobed, scarcely longer than the calyx. Stamens 5. Ovary mostly 3-celled, in fruit forming a rather dry drupe, containing as many ribbed 1-seeded bony nutlets.—Coarse, hairy, perennial herbs, leafy to the top; the ample entire pointed leaves tapering to the base, but connate round the simple stem. Flowers sessile, solitary or clustered in the axils. (Name an abbreviation of Triosteospermum, alluding to the three bony nutlets.)

1. T. perfoliàtum, L. Softly hairy (2–4° high); leaves oval, abruptly narrowed below, downy beneath; flowers brownish-purple, mostly clustered; fruit orange-color, ½´ long.—Rich woodlands, Canada and N. Eng. to Minn., Iowa, and Ala. June. Also called Tinker's-weed, Wild Coffee, etc.

2. T. angustifòlium, L. Smaller, bristly-hairy; leaves lanceolate, tapering to the base; flowers greenish-cream-color, mostly single in the axils.—Shady grounds, Va. to Ill., Mo., and Ala. May.

5. LINNÆ̀A, Gronov. Twin-flower.

Calyx-teeth 5, awl-shaped, deciduous. Corolla narrow bell-shaped, almost equally 5-lobed. Stamens 4, two of them shorter, inserted toward the base of the corolla. Ovary and the small dry pod 3-celled, but only 1-seeded, two of the cells having only abortive ovules.—A slender creeping and trailing little evergreen, somewhat hairy, with rounded-oval sparingly crenate leaves contracted at the base into short petioles, and thread-like upright peduncles forking into 2 pedicels at the top, each bearing a delicate and fragrant nodding flower. Corolla purple and whitish, hairy inside. (Dedicated to the immortal Linnæus, who first pointed out its characters, and with whom this pretty little plant was a special favorite.)

1. L. boreàlis, Gronov.—Moist mossy woods and cold bogs, N. Eng. to N. J. and the mountains of Md., west to Minn.; also far north and west. June. (Eu.)

6. SYMPHORICÁRPOS, Dill. Snowberry.

Calyx-teeth short, persistent. Corolla bell-shaped, regularly 4–5-lobed, with as many short stamens inserted into its throat. Ovary 4-celled, only 2 of the cells with a fertile ovule; the berry therefore 4-celled but only 2-seeded. Seeds bony.—Low and branching upright shrubs, with oval short-petioled leaves, which are downy underneath and entire, or wavy toothed or lobed on the young shoots. Flowers white tinged with rose-color, in close short spikes or clusters. (Name composed of συμφορέω, to bear together, and καρπός, fruit; from the clustered berries.)

[*] Style bearded; fruit red; flowers all in short dense axillary clusters.

1. S. vulgàris, Michx. (Indian Currant. Coral-berry.) Flowers in the axils of nearly all the leaves; corolla sparingly bearded; berries small.—Rocky banks, western N. Y. and Penn. to Dak., Neb., and Tex. July.

[*][*] Style glabrous; fruit white; flowers in clusters or sometimes solitary.

2. S. occidentàlis, Hook. (Wolfberry.) Flowers in dense terminal and axillary spikes; corolla much bearded within; stamens and style protruded.—Rocky ground, N. Mich. and Ill., west to the Rocky Mts.—Flowers larger and more funnel-form, and stamens longer, than in the next.

3. S. racemòsus, Michx. (Snowberry.) Flowers in a loose and somewhat leafy interrupted spike at the end of the branches; corolla bearded inside; berries large.—Rocky banks, N. New Eng. and Penn., to Minn. and westward; common in cultivation. June–Sept. Berries ripe in autumn.—Var. pauciflòrus, Robbins. Low, diffusely branched and spreading; leaves smaller (about 1´ long), the spike reduced to one or two flowers in the uppermost axils.—Mountains of Vt. and Penn. to Minn., Dak., and westward.

7. LONÍCERA, L. Honeysuckle. Woodbine.

Calyx-teeth very short. Corolla tubular or funnel-form, often gibbous at the base, irregularly or almost regularly 5-lobed. Stamens 5. Ovary 2–3-celled. Berry several-seeded.—Leaves entire. Flowers often showy and fragrant. (Named in honor of Adam Lonitzer, latinized Lonicerus, a German herbalist of the 16th century.)

§ 1. XYLÓSTEON. Upright bushy shrubs; leaves all distinct; peduncles axillary, single, 2-flowered at the summit; the two berries sometimes united into one; calyx-teeth not persistent.

[*] Bracts (2 or sometimes 4) at the base of the ovaries minute.

1. L. ciliàta, Muhl. (Fly-Honeysuckle.) Branches straggling (3–5° high); leaves oblong-ovate, often heart-shaped, petioled, thin, downy beneath; filiform peduncles shorter than the leaves; corolla funnel-form, almost spurred at the base (greenish-yellow, ¾´ long), the lobes nearly equal; berries separate (red).—Rocky woods, N. Brunswick to Penn. and Minn. May.

2. L. cærùlea, L. (Mountain F.) Low (1–2° high); branches upright; leaves oval, downy when young; peduncles very short; bracts awl-shaped, longer than the ovaries, which are united into one (blue) berry; flowers yellowish.—Mountain woods and bogs, Lab. to R. I., Minn., and northward. May. (Eu.)

3. L. oblongifòlia, Muhl. (Swamp F.) Shrub 2–5° high, branches upright; leaves (2–3´ long) oblong, downy when young, smooth when old; peduncles long and slender; bracts minute or deciduous; corolla deeply 2-lipped (½´ long, yellowish-white); berries (purple) united or nearly distinct.—Bogs, N. New Eng. and N. Y., to Minn. June.

[*][*] The two flowers involucrate by 4 conspicuous and broad foliaceous bracts.

4. L. involucràta, Banks. Pubescent, or becoming glabrous; branches 4-angular; leaves (2–5´ long) ovate-oblong, mostly pointed, petioled, and with a strong midrib, exceeding the peduncle; corolla yellowish, viscid-pubescent, cylindraceous (6–8´´ long); ovaries and globose dark-purple berries distinct.—Deep woods; shores of L. Superior, and north and westward.

§ 2. CAPRIFÒLIUM. Twining shrubs, with the flowers in sessile whorled clusters from the axils of the (often connate) upper leaves, forming interrupted terminal spikes; calyx-teeth persistent on the (red or orange) berry.

[*] Corolla trumpet-shaped, almost regular; stamens and style little exserted.

5. L. sempérvirens, Ait. (Trumpet Honeysuckle.) Flowers in somewhat distant whorls, scentless, nearly 2´ long, deep red outside, yellowish within or rarely throughout; leaves oblong, smooth, the lower petioled, the uppermost pairs connate.—Copses, Conn. to Ind., and southward; common in cultivation. May–Oct.—Leaves deciduous at the north.

[*][*] Corolla ringent; the lower lip narrow, the upper broad and 4-lobed; stamens and style conspicuously exserted.

[+] Corolla-tube an inch long, glabrous inside; stamens and style glabrous.

6. L. gràta, Ait. (American Woodbine.) Leaves smooth, glaucous beneath, obovate, the 2 or 3 upper pairs united; flowers whorled in the uppermost axils; corolla whitish with a purple tube, fading yellowish, not gibbous at base, fragrant.—Rocky woodlands, N. J. and Penn. to Mich. and Mo., and southward; also cultivated. May.

[+][+] Corolla hairy within, the tube 6´´ long or less.

7. L. hirsùta, Eaton. (Hairy Honeysuckle.) Twining and rather high-climbing; leaves deep green above, downy-hairy beneath, as well as the branches, veiny, dull, broadly oval, the uppermost united, the lower short-petioled; flowers in approximate whorls; tube of the (orange-yellow) clammy-pubescent corolla gibbous at base, slender.—Damp copses and rocks, Maine to Penn., Mich., and Minn. July.—A coarse large-leaved species.

8. L. Sullivántii, Gray. At length much whitened with glaucous bloom, 3–6° high, glabrous; leaves oval and obovate-oblong (2–4´ long), sessile and mostly connate on the flowering stems, the uppermost into an orbicular disk; corolla pale yellow; filaments nearly glabrous. (L. flava of former edition, mainly.)—Ohio to Ill., Minn., and L. Winnipeg; also in Tenn. and N. C.

9. L. glaùca, Hill. Glabrous, or lower leaf surface sometimes puberulent, 3–5° high; leaves oblong (2–3´ long), glaucous but less whitened than in the last, the 1–4 upper pairs connate; corolla greenish-yellow or purplish; tube only 3–4´´ long, within and also style and base of filaments hirsute. (L. parviflóra, Lam., and part of var. Douglásii, Gray.)—Rocky grounds, N. Eng. and Penn. to Minn., and northward.

8. DIERVÍLLA, Tourn. Bush-Honeysuckle.

Calyx-tube tapering at the summit; the lobes slender, awl-shaped, persistent. Corolla funnel-form, 5-lobed, almost regular. Stamens 5. Pod ovoid-oblong, pointed, 2-celled, 2-valved, septicidal, many-seeded.—Low upright shrubs, with ovate or oblong pointed serrate leaves, and cymosely 3–several-flowered peduncles, from the upper axils or terminal. (Named in compliment to Dr. Dierville, who brought it from Canada to Tournefort.)

1. D. trífida, Moench. Leaves oblong-ovate, taper-pointed, petioled; peduncles mostly 3-flowered; pod long-beaked.—Rocks, Newf. to the mountains of N. C., west to Minn. June–Aug.—Flowers honey-color, not showy, as are the Japanese species cultivated under the name of Weigela.

Order 52. RUBIÀCEÆ. (Madder Family.)

Shrubs or herbs, with opposite entire leaves connected by interposed stipules, or in whorls without apparent stipules, the calyx coherent with the 2–4-celled ovary, the stamens as many as the lobes of the regular corolla (4–5), and inserted on its tube.—Flowers perfect, but often dimorphous (as in Mitchella and Houstonia). Fruit various. Seeds anatropous or amphitropous. Embryo commonly pretty large, in copious hard albumen.—A very large family, the greater part, and all its most important plants (such as the Coffee and Peruvian-Bark trees), tropical.

I. CINCHONEÆ. Ovules numerous in each cell; leaves opposite.

1. Houstonia. Corolla salver-form or funnel-form, 4-lobed. Seeds rather few, thimble-shaped or saucer-shaped. Low herbs.

2. Oldenlandia. Corolla wheel-shaped in our species, 4-lobed. Seeds very numerous and minute, angular. Low herbs.

II. COFFEINEÆ. Ovules solitary in the cells; leaves mostly opposite.

[+] Flowers in a close and globose long-peduncled head. Fruit dry. Shrubs.

3. Cephalanthus. Corolla tubular; lobes 4. Fruit inversely pyramidal, 2–4-seeded.

[+][+] Flowers twin; their ovaries united into one. Fruit a 2-eyed berry.

4. Mitchella. Corolla funnel-form; its lobes 4. A creeping herb.

[+][+][+] Flowers axillary, separate. Fruit dry when ripe. Herbs.

5. Spermacoce. Corolla funnel-form or salver-form; lobes 4. Fruit separating when ripe into 2 carpels, one or both of them opening.

6. Diodia. Fruit separating into 2 or 3 closed and indehiscent carpels; otherwise as n. 5.

III. STELLATÆ. Ovules solitary; leaves in whorls, without stipules.

7. Galium. Corolla wheel-shaped, 4- (or rarely 3-) parted. Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit twin, separating into 2 indehiscent 1-seeded carpels.

8. Sherardia. Corolla funnel-form. Calyx-lobes lanceolate. Flowers subsessile, involucrate.


Calyx 4-lobed, persistent; the lobes in fruit distant. Corolla salver-form or funnel-form, usually much longer than the calyx-lobes, 4-lobed, the lobes valvate in the bud. Stamens 4; anthers linear or oblong. Style 1; stigmas 2. Ovary 2-celled. Pod top-shaped, globular, or didymous, thin, its summit or upper half free from and projecting beyond the tube of the calyx, loculicidal across the top. Seeds rather few (4–20 in each cell), peltate and saucer-shaped or globular-thimble-shaped, pitted.—Small herbs, with short entire stipules connecting the petioles or narrowed bases of the leaves, and cymose or solitary and peduncled flowers. These are dimorphous, in some individuals with exserted anthers and short included style; in others the anthers included and the style long, the stigmas therefore protruding. (Named for Dr. Wm. Houston, an English botanist who collected in Central America.)

[*] Small and delicate, vernal-flowering; peduncles 1-flowered; corolla salver-form; upper half of the broad and somewhat 2-lobed pod free; seeds globular, with a very deep round cavity occupying the inner face.

[+] Perennial by delicate filiform creeping rootstocks or creeping stems; peduncles filiform, 1–2´ long.

1. H. cærùlea, L. (Bluets. Innocence.) Glabrous; stems erect, slender, sparingly branched from the base (3–5´ high); leaves oblong-spatulate (3–4´´ long); peduncle filiform, erect; corolla light blue, pale lilac or nearly white with a yellowish eye, with tube much longer than its lobes or than those of the calyx.—Moist and grassy places, N. Eng. to Ga., west to Mich. and Ala.; producing from early spring to midsummer its delicate little flowers.

2. H. serpyllifòlia, Michx. Like the last, but filiform stems prostrate, extensively creeping and rooting; leaves orbicular to ovate (2–4´´ long); corolla rather larger, and deep violet-blue.—Along streamlets and on mountain-tops, Va. to Tenn. and S. C.

[+][+] Winter-annuals, branching from the simple root; peduncles much shorter.

3. H. pàtens, Ell. An inch to at length a span high, with ascending branches and erect peduncles; leaves spatulate to ovate; corolla much smaller than that of n. 1, violet-blue or purplish without yellowish eye, the tube longer than its lobes, twice the length of the calyx-lobes.—Dry or sandy soil, S. Va. to Tex. and Ill. (?)

4. H. mínima, Beck. More diffuse, commonly scabrous; stems at length much branched and spreading (1–4´ high); lowest leaves ovate or spatulate, the upper oblong or nearly linear; earlier peduncles elongated and spreading in fruit, the later ones short; tube of the purplish corolla not longer than its lobes or the ample calyx-lobes (1½´´ long).—Dry hills, Mo. to Tex. March–May.

[*][*] Erect, mostly perennial herbs (6–20´ high), with stem-leaves sessile, and flowers in small terminal cymes or clusters; corolla funnel-form, purplish, often hairy inside; seeds meniscoidal, with a ridge across the hollowed inner face.

5. H. purpùrea, L. Pubescent or smooth (8–15´ high); leaves varying from roundish-ovate to lanceolate, 3–5-ribbed; calyx-lobes longer than the half-free globular pod.—Woodlands, Md. to Ark., and southward. May–July.—Varying wonderfully, as into—

Var. ciliolàta, Gray. A span high; leaves only ½´ long, thickish; cauline oblong-spatulate; radical oval or oblong, rosulate, hirsute-ciliate; calyx-lobes a little longer than the pod.—Rocky banks, from the Great Lakes and Minn. to Ky.; passing into

Var. longifòlia, Gray. A span or two high, mostly glabrous, thinner-leaved; leaves oblong-lanceolate to linear (6–20´´ long); radical oval or oblong, less rosulate, not ciliate.—Rocky or gravelly ground, Maine to Minn., south to Ga. and Mo.; also northward.

Var. tenuifòlia, Gray. Slender, lax, diffuse, 6–12´ high, with loose inflorescence, and almost filiform branches and peduncles; cauline leaves all linear, hardly over 1´´ wide.—S. E. Ohio to Va., N. C., and Tenn.

Var. calycòsa, Gray. Almost 1° high; leaves broadly lanceolate, thickish; calyx-lobes elongated (2–4´´ long), much surpassing the pod.—From Ill. (Hall) to Ark. and N. Ala.

6. H. angustifòlia, Michx. Stems tufted from a hard or woody root; leaves narrowly linear, acute, 1-ribbed, many of them fascicled; flowers crowded, short-pedicelled; lobes of the corolla densely bearded inside; pod obovoid, acute at base, only its summit free, opening first across the top, at length through the partition.—Barrens, Ill. to Kan., south to Tex., Tenn., and Fla.

2. OLDENLÁNDIA, Plumier.

Calyx 4-lobed, persistent. Corolla short, in our species wheel-shaped; the limb 4-parted, valvate in the bud. Stamens 4; anthers short. Style 1 or none; stigmas 2. Pod thin, 2-celled, many-seeded, opening loculicidally across the summit. Seeds very numerous, minute and angular.—Low herbs, with small stipules united to the petioles. (Dedicated to the memory of Oldenland, a German physician and botanist, who died early at the Cape of Good Hope.)

1. O. glomeràta, Michx. An inconspicuous, pubescent or smoothish, branched and spreading annual (2–12´ high); leaves ovate to oblong; flowers in sessile axillary clusters; corolla nearly wheel-shaped (white), much shorter than the calyx.—Wet places, near the coast, N. Y. to Fla. and Tex.

3. CEPHALÁNTHUS, L. Button-bush.

Calyx-tube inversely pyramidal, the limb 4-toothed. Corolla tubular, 4-toothed; the teeth imbricated in the bud. Style thread-form, much protruded. Stigma capitate. Fruit dry and hard, small, inversely pyramidal, 2–4-celled, at length splitting from the base upward into 2–4 closed 1-seeded portions.—Shrubs, with the white flowers densely aggregated in spherical peduncled heads. (Name composed of κεφαλή, a head, and ἄνθος, a flower.)

1. C. occidentàlis, L. Smooth or pubescent; leaves petioled, ovate or lanceolate-oblong, pointed, opposite or whorled in threes, with short intervening stipules.—Swamps and along streams, throughout the continent. July, Aug.

4. MITCHÉLLA, L. Partridge-berry.

Flowers in pairs, with their ovaries united. Calyx 4-toothed. Corolla funnel-form, 4-lobed; the lobes spreading, densely bearded inside, valvate in the bud. Stamens 4. Style 1; stigmas 4, linear. Fruit a berry-like double drupe, crowned with the calyx-teeth of the two flowers, with 4 small seed-like bony nutlets to each flower.—A smooth and trailing small evergreen herb, with round-ovate and shining petioled leaves, minute stipules, white fragrant flowers often tinged with purple, and scarlet edible (but nearly tasteless) berries, which remain over winter. Flowers occasionally 3–6-merous, always dimorphous; all those of some individuals having exserted stamens and included stigmas; of others, included stamens and exserted style. (This very pretty plant commemorates Dr. John Mitchell, an early correspondent of Linnæus, and an excellent botanist, who resided in Virginia.)

1. M. rèpens, L.—Dry woods, creeping about the foot of trees, especially Coniferæ, throughout our range and southward. June, July.—Leaves often variegated with whitish lines. Rarely the two flowers are completely confluent into one, with a 10-lobed corolla.

5. SPERMACÒCE, Dill. Button-weed.

Calyx-tube short; the limb parted into 4 teeth. Corolla funnel-form or salver-form, valvate in the bud. Stamens 4. Stigma or style 2-cleft. Fruit small and dry, 2-celled, 2-seeded, splitting when ripe into 2 carpels, one of them usually carrying with it the partition, and therefore closed, the other open on the inner face.—Small herbs, the bases of the leaves or petioles connected by a bristle-bearing stipular membrane. Flowers small, whitish, crowded into sessile axillary whorled clusters or heads. (Name compounded of σπέρμα, seed, and ακωκή, a point, probably from the pointed calyx-teeth on the fruit.)

1. S. glàbra, Michx. Glabrous perennial; stems spreading (9–20´ long); leaves oblong-lanceolate; heads many-flowered; corolla little exceeding the calyx, bearded in the throat, bearing the anthers at its base; filaments and style hardly any.—River-banks, S. Ohio to Ark., Tex., and Fla. Aug.

6. DIÒDIA, Gronov. Button-weed.

Calyx-teeth 2–5, often unequal. Fruit 2- (rarely 3-) celled; the crustaceous carpels into which it splits all closed and indehiscent. Flowers 1–3 in each axil. Otherwise resembling Spermacoce. Flowering all summer. (Name from δίοδος, a thoroughfare; the species often growing by the wayside.)

1. D. Virginiàna, L. Smooth or hairy perennial; stems spreading (1–2° long); leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, sessile; corolla white (½´ long), the slender tube abruptly expanded into the large limb; style 2-parted; fruit oblong, strongly furrowed, crowned mostly with 2 slender calyx-teeth.—Low grounds along streams, southern N. J. to Fla., west to Ark. and Tex.

2. D. tères, Walt. Hairy or minutely pubescent annual; stem spreading (3–9´ long), nearly terete; leaves linear-lanceolate, closely sessile, rigid; corolla funnel-form (2–3´´ long, whitish), with short lobes, not exceeding the long bristles of the stipules; style undivided; fruit obovate-turbinate, not furrowed, crowned with 4 short calyx-teeth.—Sandy soil, N. J. to W. Ill., Fla., and Tex.

7. GÀLIUM, L. Bedstraw. Cleavers.

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Corolla 4-parted, rarely 3-parted, wheel-shaped, valvate in the bud. Stamens 4, rarely 3, short. Styles 2. Fruit dry or fleshy, globular, twin, separating when ripe into the 2 seed-like, indehiscent, 1-seeded carpels.—Slender herbs, with small cymose flowers (produced in summer), square stems, and whorled leaves, the roots often containing a red coloring matter. (Name from γάλα, milk, which some species are used to curdle.)

§ 1. Naturalized species; fruit dry.

G. vèrum, L. (Yellow Bedstraw.) Perennial; stems smooth, erect; leaves 8 or sometimes 6 in the whorls, linear, roughish, soon deflexed; flowers very numerous, paniculate, yellow; fruit usually smooth.—Dry fields, E. Mass. (Nat. from Eu.)

G. Mollùgo, L. Perennial, smooth throughout; stems erect or diffuse, 2 or 3° long; leaves 8, or 6 on the branchlets, oblanceolate to nearly linear; flowers very numerous in ample almost leafless panicles; fruit smooth.—Roadsides and fields, N. Y. and Penn. (Nat. from Eu.)

G. Ánglicum, Huds. Annual, slender, diffuse, seldom 1° high, glabrous; leaves 5–7, oblanceolate to nearly linear (3´´ long), their margins and the angles of the stem spinulose-scabrous; flowers rather few, cymulose on leafy branches, greenish-white, very small; fruit glabrous, more or less tuberculate.—Roadsides, Bedford Co., Va. (Curtiss). (Nat. from Eu.)

G. tricórne, With. Annual, resembling G. Aparine, rather stout, with simple branches; leaves 6 or 8, oblanceolate, cuspidate-mucronate, the margins and stem retrorsely prickly-hispid; flowers mostly in clusters of 3, dull white; fruits rather large, tuberculate-granulate, not hairy, pendulous.—Fields, eastward. (Nat. from Eu.)

§ 2. Indigenous species; fruit dry.

[*] Annual; leaves about 8 in a whorl; peduncles 1–3-flowered, axillary; fruit bristly with hooked prickles.

1. G. Aparìne, L. (Cleavers. Goose-Grass.) Stem weak and reclining, bristle-prickly backward, hairy at the joints; leaves lanceolate, tapering to the base, short-pointed, rough on the margins and midrib (1–2´ long); flowers white.—Shaded grounds, throughout the continent; probably as an introduced plant eastward.

[*][*] Perennials; leaves in 4's, comparatively large, and broad (narrower in n. 7 and 8), not cuspidate-pointed, more or less distinctly 3-nerved; fruit uncinate-hispid (except in n. 6 and 7).

[+] Peduncles loosely 3–several-flowered; flowers dull purple to yellowish-white.

2. G. pilòsum, Ait. Hairy; leaves oval, dotted, hairy (1´ long), the lateral nerves obscure; peduncles 2–3-forked, the flowers all pedicelled.—Dry copses, R. I. and Vt. to Ill., E. Kan., and southward.

Var. puncticulòsum, Torr. & Gray. Almost glabrous; leaves varying to elliptical-oblong, hispidulous-ciliate.—Va. to Tex.

3. G. Kamtscháticum, Steller. Stems weak, mainly glabrous (1° high); leaves orbicular to oblong-ovate, thin (½–1´ long), slightly pilose; flowers slenderly pedicellate; corolla glabrous, yellowish-white, not turning dark, its lobes merely acute. (G. circæzans, var. montanum, Torr. & Gray.)—Higher mountains of N. Eng., L. Canada, and far westward. (Asia.)

4. G. circæ̀zans, Michx. (Wild Liquorice.) Smooth or downy (1° high); leaves oval, varying to ovate-oblong, mostly obtuse, ciliate (1–1½´ long); peduncles usually once forked, the branches elongated and widely diverging in fruit, bearing several remote flowers on very short lateral pedicels, reflexed in fruit; lobes of the greenish corolla hairy outside, acute or acuminate.—Rich woods, N. Eng. to Minn., south to Fla. and Tex.

5. G. lanceolàtum, Torr. (Wild Liquorice.) Nearly glabrous; leaves (except the lowest) lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, tapering to the apex (2´ long); corolla glabrous, yellowish turning dull purple, lobes more acuminate; otherwise like the last.—Dry woods, N. Eng. to N. Mich. and Minn.

6. G. latifòlium, Michx. Smooth (1–2° high); leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acute (2´ long), the midrib and margins rough; cymes panicled, loosely many-flowered, the purple flowers on slender spreading pedicels; fruit smooth, rather fleshy.—Dry woods, mountains of Penn. to N. C. and Tenn.

7. G. Arkansànum, Gray. Similar but lower; leaves lanceolate to linear (1´ long or less), the lateral nerves obscure or none.—S. Mo. and Ark.

[+][+] Leaves narrow; flowers bright white, numerous in a compact panicle.

8. G. boreàle, L. (Northern Bedstraw.) Smooth (1–2° high); leaves linear-lanceolate; fruit minutely bristly, sometimes smooth.—Rocky banks of streams, Maine to Penn., Iowa, Minn., and westward. (Eu., Asia.)

[*][*][*] Leaves in 4's, 5's, or 6's, small, 1-nerved; flowers white; fruit smooth (flowers greenish and fruit hispid in n. 12.)

[+] Leaves pointless.

9. G. trífidum, L. (Small Bedstraw.) Stems weak, ascending (5–20´ high), branching, mostly roughened backwards on the angles; leaves in whorls of 4 to 6, linear or oblanceolate, the margins and midrib rough; peduncles scattered, 1–7-flowered; corolla-lobes and stamens often only 3.—Sphagnous bogs and wet ground, throughout the continent. Exceedingly variable.—Var. pusíllum, Gray, the smallest form; leaves only in 4's, 3–4´´ long, narrow, in age often reflexed; peduncles 1-flowered. In cold bogs, northward.—Var. latifòlium, Torr., the larger and broadest-leaved form; leaves 6 or 7´´ long, often 2´´ wide. From Canada, south and west. (Eu., Asia.)

10. G. concínnum, Torr. & Gray. Stems low and slender (6–12´ high), with minutely roughened angles; leaves all in 6's, linear, slightly pointed, veinless, the margins upwardly roughened; peduncles 2–3 times forked, diffusely panicled; pedicels short.—Dry hills, Penn. to Va., west to Minn., Iowa, and Ark.

[+][+] Leaves cuspidately mucronate or acuminate.

11. G. aspréllum, Michx. (Rough Bedstraw.) Stem much branched, rough backwards with hooked prickles, leaning on bushes (3–5° high); leaves in whorls of 6, or 4–5 on the branchlets, oval-lanceolate, with almost prickly margins and midrib; peduncles short, 2–3 times forked.—Alluvial ground, N. Eng. to N. C., west to Minn., Iowa, and Mo.

12. G. triflòrum, Michx. (Sweet-scented Bedstraw.) Stem (1–3° long) bristly-roughened backward on the angles; leaves elliptical-lanceolate, bristle pointed, with slightly roughened margins (1–2´ long); peduncles 3-flowered, the flowers all pedicelled, greenish; fruit beset with hooked bristles.—Rich woodlands, throughout the continent. Sweet-scented in drying. (Eu.)

§ 3. Perennial; fruit a berry; leaves in 4's, 1-nerved.

13. G. hispídulum, Michx. Hirsute-pubescent, scabrous, or sometimes nearly smooth, 1–2° high, diffusely branched; leaves oblong or oval, mucronate (3–6´´ long), pedicels solitary or commonly 2 or 3 from the small involucral whorl, all naked, or one of them bracteolate; flowers white; berry purple, glabrate.—Dry or sandy soil, southern N. J. to Fla., along the coast.


Calyx-lobes lanceolate, persistent. Corolla funnel-form, the limb 4–5-lobed. Stamens 4–5. Style filiform, 2-cleft, stigmas capitate. Fruit dry, twin, of 2 indehiscent 1-seeded carpels.—A slender procumbent herb, with square stems, lanceolate pungent leaves in whorls of 4–6, and small subsessile blue or pinkish flowers surrounded by a gamophyllous involucre. (Named for Dr. William Sherard, patron of Dillenius.)

S. arvénsis, L. The only species; sparingly naturalized from Eu.

Order 53. VALERIANÀCEÆ. (Valerian Family.)

Herbs, with opposite leaves and no stipules; the calyx-tube coherent with the ovary, which has one fertile 1-ovuled cell and two abortive or empty ones; the stamens distinct, 1–3, fewer than the lobes of the corolla, and inserted on its tube.—Corolla tubular or funnel-form, often irregular, mostly 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in the bud. Style slender; stigmas 1–3. Fruit indehiscent, 1-celled (the two empty cells of the ovary disappearing), or 3-celled, two of them empty, the other 1-seeded. Seed suspended, anatropous, with a large embryo and no albumen.—Flowers in panicled or clustered cymes. (Roots often odorous and antispasmodic.)

1. VALERIÀNA, Tourn. Valerian.

Limb of the calyx of several plumose bristles (like a pappus) which are rolled up inward in flower, but unroll and spread as the seed-like 1-celled fruit matures. Corolla commonly gibbous near the base, the 5-lobed limb nearly regular. Stamens 3.—Perennial herbs, with thickened strong-scented roots, and simple or pinnate leaves. Flowers in many species imperfectly diœcious or dimorphous. (A mediæval Latin name of uncertain origin.)

[*] Root spindle-shaped, large and deep (6–12´ long); leaves thickish.

1. V. édulis, Nutt. Smooth, or minutely downy when very young; stem straight (1–4° high), few-leaved; leaves commonly minutely and densely ciliate, those of the root spatulate and lanceolate, of the stem pinnately parted into 3–7 long and narrow divisions; flowers in a long and narrow interrupted panicle, nearly diœcious; corolla whitish, obconical (2´´ long).—Wet plains and prairies, Ohio and Ont. to Iowa, Minn., and westward. June.

[*][*] Root fibrous; leaves thin. (Stems 1–3° high.)

2. V. sylvática, Banks. Smooth or minutely pubescent; root-leaves ovate or oblong, entire, rarely with 2 small lobes; stem-leaves pinnate, with 3–11 oblong-ovate or lanceolate nearly entire leaflets; cyme at first close, many-flowered; corolla inversely conical (3´´ long, rose-color or white).—Wet ground, Newf. to southern N. Y., N. Mich., westward and northward. June.

3. V. pauciflòra, Michx. Smooth, slender, surculose; root-leaves ovate, heart-shaped, toothed, pointed, sometimes with 2 small lateral divisions; stem-leaves pinnate, with 3–7 ovate toothed leaflets; branches of the panicled cyme few-flowered; tube of the (pale pink) corolla long and slender (½´ long).—Woods and alluvial banks, Penn. to S. Ill., Mo., and Tenn. June.

2. VALERIANÉLLA, Tourn. Corn Salad. Lamb-Lettuce.

Limb of the calyx obsolete or merely toothed. Corolla funnel-form, equally or unequally 5-lobed. Stamens 3, rarely 2. Fruit 3-celled, two of the cells empty and sometimes confluent into one, the other 1-seeded.—Annuals and biennials, usually smooth, with forking stems, tender and rather succulent leaves (entire or cut-lobed towards the base), and white or whitish cymose-clustered and bracted small flowers.—Our species all have the limb of the calyx obsolete, and are so much alike in aspect, flowers, etc., that good characters are only to be taken from the fruit. They all have a rather short corolla, the limb of which is nearly regular. (Name a diminutive of Valeriana.)

[*] Corolla bluish; fruit with a corky mass at the back of the fertile cell.

V. olitòria, Poll. Fruit flattish, obliquely rhomboidal; empty cells as large as the fertile, contiguous, the thin partition at length breaking up.—Old fields, N. Y. to Penn. and La. (Nat. from Eu.)

[*][*] Corolla white; no corky mass behind the fertile cell.

[+] Fertile cell broader than the empty ones; cross-section of fruit triangular.

1. V. chenopodifòlia, DC. Stems with long internodes and few forks; glomerate cymes few, slender-peduncled; bracts broadly lanceolate; fruit glabrous or pubescent, 2´´ long. (Fedia Fagopyrum, Torr. & Gray.)—Moist grounds, western N. Y. to Minn., south to Va. and Ky.

[+][+] Fertile cell as broad as the empty ones, beaked; cross-section quadrate.

2. V. radiàta, Dufr. Fruit ovate-tetragonal, downy-pubescent (sometimes glabrous); empty cells as thick as the oblong-ovate fertile one, or thicker, a broad shallow groove between them. (Fedia radiata, Michx.)—Low grounds, Penn. to Minn., Tex., and Fla.

3. V. stenocárpa, Krok. Fruit oblong-tetragonal, commonly glabrous; oblong fertile cell thicker than the linear-oblong approximate empty ones. (Fedia stenocarpa, Engelm.)—W. Mo. and E. Kan. to Tex.

[+][+][+] Fertile cell much the narrowest, dorsally 1-nerved; section roundish.

4. V. Woodsiàna, Walp. Fruit 1´´ long or more; fertile cell ovate, tipped with a tooth; empty ones inflated, with oblong depression (sometimes an open cavity) in the middle.—Moist grounds, N. Y. and Penn. to Tex.

Var. umbilicàta, Gray. Empty cells becoming confluent, vesicular by incurvation of the circular margin, forming a deep and round umbilication. (Fedia umbilicata, Sulliv.)—N. Y. to Ohio and southward.

Var. patellària, Gray. Fruit saucer-shaped, emarginate at base and apex, winged by the divergent cells. (Fedia patellaria, Sulliv.)—Same range.

Order 54. DIPSÀCEÆ. (Teasel Family.)

Herbs, with opposite or whorled leaves, no stipules, and the flowers in dense heads, surrounded by an involucre, as in the Composite Family; but the stamens are distinct, and the suspended seed has albumen.—Represented by the following introduced species and by the cultivated Sweet Scabious (Scabiosa atropurpurea).

1. DÍPSACUS, Tourn. Teasel.

Involucre many-leaved, longer than the chaffy leafy-tipped and pointed bracts among the densely capitate flowers; each flower with a 4-leaved calyx-like involucel investing the ovary and fruit (achene). Calyx-tube coherent with the ovary, the limb cup-shaped, without a pappus. Corolla nearly regular, 4-cleft. Stamens 4, inserted on the corolla. Style slender.—Stout and coarse biennials, hairy or prickly, with large oblong heads. (Name from διψάω, to thirst, probably because the united cup-shaped bases of the leaves in some species hold water.)

1. D. sylvéstris, Mill. (Wild Teasel.) Prickly; leaves lance-oblong; leaves of the involucre slender, longer than the head; bracts (chaff) tapering into a long flexible awn with a straight point.—Roadsides; rather rare. (Nat. from Eu.) Suspected to be the original of

2. D. Fullònum, L., the Fuller's Teasel, which has a shorter involucre, and stiff chaff to the heads, with hooked points, used for raising a nap upon woollen cloth; it has escaped from cultivation in some places. (Adv. from Eu.)

(Addendum) 2. SCABIOSA, Tourn. Scabious.

Characters of Dipsacus, but the green leaves of the involucre and involucels not rigid nor spinescent. (Name from scabies, the itch, from its use as a remedy.)

S. austràlis, Wulf. Perennial, sparsely branched, nearly glabrous, 1½–3° high; leaves narrowly lanceolate to linear, the lower oblanceolate, slightly toothed or entire; heads short-oblong; calyx obtusely short-lobed; corolla pale blue.—Central N. Y. and Penn.; rare. (Adv. from Eu.)

Order 55. COMPÓSITÆ. (Composite Family.)

Flowers in a close head (the compound flower of the older botanists), on a common receptacle, surrounded by an involucre, with 5 (rarely 4) stamens inserted on the corolla, their anthers united in a tube (syngenesious).—Calyx-tube united with the 1-celled ovary, the limb (called a pappus) crowning its summit in the form of bristles, awns, scales, teeth, etc., or cup-shaped, or else entirely absent. Corolla either strap-shaped or tubular; in the latter chiefly 5-lobed, valvate in the bud, the veins bordering the margins of the lobes. Style 2-cleft at the apex (in sterile flowers usually entire). Fruit seed-like (achene), dry, containing a single erect anatropous seed, with no albumen.—An immense family, in temperate regions chiefly herbs, without stipules, with perfect, polygamous, monœcious or diœcious flowers. The flowers with a strap-shaped (ligulate) corolla are called rays or ray-flowers; the head which presents such flowers, either throughout or at the margin, is radiate. The tubular flowers compose the disk; and a head which has no ray-flowers is said to be discoid. When the head contains two sorts of flowers it is said to be heterogamous; when only one sort, homogamous. The leaves of the involucre, of whatever form or texture, are termed scales. The bracts or scales, which often grow on the receptacle among the flowers, are called the chaff; when these are wanting, the receptacle is said to be naked.—The largest order of Phænogamous plants. The genera are divided by the corolla into three series, only two of which are represented in the Northern United States. The first is much the larger.

Systematic Synopsis.


Corolla tubular in all the perfect flowers, regularly 5- (rarely 3–4-) lobed, ligulate only in the marginal or ray-flowers, which when present are either pistillate only, or neutral (with neither stamens nor pistil).

Tribe I. VERNONIACEÆ. Heads discoid; the flowers all alike, perfect and tubular, never yellow. Branches of the style long and slender, terete, thread-shaped, minutely bristly-hairy all over.—Leaves alternate or scattered.

1. Elephantopus. Heads 3–5-flowered, several crowded together into a compound head. Involucre of 8 scales. Pappus of several chaffy bristles.

2. Vernonia. Heads several–many-flowered, separate. Involucre of many scales. Pappus double, the inner capillary, the outer of minute chaffy bristles.

Tribe II. EUPATORIACEÆ. Heads discoid, the flowers all alike, perfect and tubular, never yellow. Branches of the style thickened upward or club-shaped, obtuse, very minutely and uniformly pubescent; the stigmatic lines indistinct.

[*] Pappus a row of hard scales.

3. Sclerolepis. Head many-flowered. Scales of the involucre equal. Leaves whorled.

[*][*] Pappus of slender bristles.

[+] Achene 5-angled; bristles of the pappus roughish.

4. Mikania. Flowers and involucral scales only 4. Stems twining.

5. Eupatorium. Involucre of more than 4 scales and the flowers few or many. Stems not twining.

[+][+] Achene 10-ribbed; involucral scales striate-nerved.

6. Kuhnia. Pappus very strongly plumose. Scales of the involucre few.

7. Brickellia. Involucral scales in several series. Pappus merely scabrous.

8. Liatris. Pappus plumose or only barbellate. Corolla red-purple, strongly 5-lobed. Heads spicate or racemose, the involucre well imbricated.

9. Trilisa. Pappus minutely barbellate. Corolla rose-purple. Heads corymbed or panicled, the involucre little imbricated.

Tribe III. ASTEROIDEÆ. Heads discoid, the flowers all alike and tubular; or else radiate, the outer ones ligulate and pistillate. Anthers not caudate at base. Branches of the style in the perfect flowers flat, smooth up to where the conspicuous marginal stigmatic lines abruptly terminate, and prolonged above this into a flattened lance-shaped or triangular appendage which is evenly hairy or pubescent outside.—Leaves alternate. Receptacle naked (destitute of chaff) in all our species.

[*] 1. Ray-flowers yellow (in one species of Solidago whitish), or sometimes none at all.

[+] Pappus of not numerous slender bristles. Heads radiate. Involucre of firm scales with greenish tips, commonly coated with resin. West of the Mississippi.

10. Gutierrezia. Heads small, numerous. Ray and disk-flowers 3 or 4 each, all fertile. Pappus of several short chaffy scales. Suffrutescent; leaves very narrow.

11. Amphiachyris. Heads small. Ray-flowers 5–10; pappus coroniform. Disk-flowers infertile; pappus of several bristle-like scales. Annual; leaves very narrow.

12. Grindelia. Heads large, many-flowered. Flowers all fertile. Pappus of 2–8 rigid caducous awns. Coarse herbs with toothed leaves.

[+][+] Pappus (at least of the disk) of copious slender or capillary bristles.

[=] Pappus double.

13. Heterotheca. Resembling Chrysopsis, but the achenes of the ray thicker than those of the disk and without pappus or nearly so. Western.

14. Chrysopsis. Heads many-flowered; rays numerous. The outer pappus of very small chaffy bristles, much shorter than the inner of copious capillary bristles.

[=][=] Pappus simple.

15. Aplopappus. Heads many-flowered, many-radiate. Involucre hemispherical. Pappus of many unequal bristles. Western.

16. Bigelovia. Heads 3–4-flowered; rays none. Receptacle awl-shaped. Pappus a single row of capillary bristles.

17. Solidago. Heads few–many-flowered; rays 1–16. Pappus of numerous slender and equal capillary bristles.

18. Brachychæta. Heads 8–10-flowered, clustered; rays 4 or 5. Pappus a row of minute bristles shorter than the achene.

[*] 2. Ray-flowers white, blue, or purple, never yellow.

[+] Pappus none or very short, with or without a few awns.

[++] Receptacle conical. Awns none.

19. Bellis. Achenes marginless, flattened; pappus none. Involucral scales equal.

20. Aphanostephus. Achenes prismatic; pappus coroniform. Outer scales shorter.

[++][++] Receptacle flat or convex. Pappus usually with awns.

21. Chætopappa. Achenes fusiform; pappus of 5 or fewer thin chaff and alternating awns. Western.

22. Boltonia. Achenes very flat, thick-winged; pappus of short bristles and usually 2–4 awns.

[+][+] Pappus of a single row of awns or coarse rigid bristles, or in the ray scale-like.

23. Townsendia. Low or stemless, with linear-spatulate leaves and large aster-like flowers.

[+][+][+] Pappus of numerous long and capillary bristles; receptacle flat.

24. Sericocarpus. Heads 12–20-flowered; rays 4 or 5. Involucre oblong or club-shaped, imbricated, cartilaginous. Achenes short, narrowed downward, silky.

25. Aster. Heads many-flowered, on leafy peduncles. Involucral scales unequal, loosely or closely imbricated. Achenes flattish; pappus simple (rarely double), copious.

26. Erigeron. Heads many-flowered, on naked peduncles. Involucre of narrow equal scales, little imbricated. Achenes flattened; pappus simple and rather scanty, or with some outer minute scales.

[*] 3. Rays none. Heads diœcious (all pistillate or all staminate).

27. Baccharis. Heads many-flowered. Pappus capillary. Smooth glutinous shrubs.

Tribe IV. INULOIDEÆ. Heads discoid (radiate only in Inula), the pistillate flowers mostly filiform and truncate. Anthers sagittate, the basal lobes attenuate into tails. Style-branches with unappendaged obtuse or truncate naked tips. Pappus capillary or none.

[*] 1. Receptacle naked. Involucre not scarious, imbricated. Not woolly.

28. Pluchea. Heads containing a few perfect but sterile flowers in the centre, and many pistillate fertile ones around them. Pappus capillary.

[*] 2. Receptacle chaffy. Involucral scales few, mostly scarious. Low floccose-woolly annuals; flowers as in n. 28.

29. Evax. Receptacle convex. Achenes obcompressed. Pappus none. Western.

30. Filago. Receptacle subulate. Achenes terete. Outer flowers without pappus.

[*] 3. Receptacle naked. Involucral scales many, scarious. Floccose-woolly herbs.

31. Antennaria. Heads diœcious. Pappus of sterile flowers club-shaped, of the fertile united at base and deciduous together.

32. Anaphalis. Heads diœcious or nearly so. Pappus not thickened above nor at all united at base.

33. Gnaphalium. Heads all fertile throughout. Pappus all capillary.

[*] 4. Corollas all somewhat broadly tubular and lobed. Involucre not scarious. Receptacle naked. Pappus none.

34. Adenocaulon. Head few-flowered and scales few; outer flowers pistillate. Somewhat woolly.

[*] 5. Heads radiate. Receptacle naked. Involucre herbaceous. Pappus copious.

35. Inula. Heads large, many-flowered. Flowers yellow. Stout perennial.

Tribe V. HELIANTHOIDEÆ. Heads radiate or discoid. Involucre not scarious (nut-like in fruit in n. 43, 44). Receptacle chaffy. Pappus never capillary, sometimes none. Anthers not caudate. Style-branches truncate or hairy-appendaged.

[*] 1. Heads radiate (obscurely so in n. 41, sometimes discoid in n. 36), the ray pistillate and fertile, the disk perfect but sterile.

[+] Achenes turgid, triangular-obovoid; pappus none.

36. Polymnia. Involucral scales in 2 rows, the 5 outer leaf-like, the inner small.

[+][+] Achenes flattened dorsally (obcompressed).

37. Silphium. Achenes wing-margined, in several rows; pappus none or 2 teeth. Scales thick, in several rows.

38. Berlandiera. Achenes wingless, 5–12 in one row, without pappus. Inner involucral scales obovate, outer smaller and more foliaceous. Western.

39. Chrysogonum. Achenes wingless, about 5; pappus a one-sided 2–3-toothed crown. Inner scales 5, chaff-like, the 5 outer longer and leaf-like.

40. Engelmannia. Achenes wingless, 8–10; pappus a scarious hispid crown. Outer scales (about 10) leaf-like, inner coriaceous with green tips. Western.

41. Parthenium. Rays 5, very short, persistent. Pappus of 2 small scales. Involucral scales short, roundish, in 2 rows.

[*] 2. Fertile flowers 1–5, the corolla none or reduced to a tube; staminate corolla funnel-form. Pappus none.

[+] Heads with 1–5 pistillate flowers. Receptacle chaffy.

42. Iva. Achenes short, thick. Involucre of few roundish scales.

[+][+] Heads of two sorts on the same plant, the upper staminate with an open cup-shaped involucre, the lower pistillate, of 1–4 flowers in a closed bur-like involucre.

43. Ambrosia. Scales of staminate involucre united. Fruit 1-seeded.

44. Xanthium. Scales of staminate involucre distinct. Fruit 1–4-celled, 1–4-beaked.

[*] 3. Heads radiate, or rarely discoid; disk-flowers all perfect and fertile. Anthers blackish. Pappus none, or a crown or cup, or of one or two chaffy awns, never capillary, nor of several uniform chaffy scales.—Leaves more commonly opposite.

[+] Involucre double; the outer forming a cup.

45. Tetragonotheca. Outer involucre 4-leaved. Achenes obovoid; pappus none.

[+][+] Involucre of one or more rows of separate scales.

[++] Chaff of the flat receptacle bristle-shaped.

46. Eclipta. Ray short. Involucral scales 10–12, in two rows, herbaceous.

[++][++] Chaff scale-like, embracing or subtending the achenes.

[=] Receptacle high, conical or columnar in fruit. Pappus none or a short crown.

47. Heliopsis. Rays fertile. Achenes 4-sided. Leaves opposite.

48. Echinacea. Rays rose-colored, pistillate, sterile. Achenes short, 4-sided. Chaff spinescent.

49. Rudbeckia. Rays neutral. Achenes 4-sided, flat at the top, marginless.

50. Lepachys. Rays few, neutral. Achenes flattened laterally and margined.

[=][=] Receptacle flat to convex. Achenes not winged nor very flat.

51. Borrichia. Achenes 3–4-angled; pappus a short 4-toothed crown. Shrubby.

52. Helianthus. Achenes flattened, bearing 2 very deciduous chaffy pointed scales.

[=][=][=] Receptacle convex (rarely conical). Achenes flat-compressed laterally, winged or wingless, 2-awned. Leaves decurrent.

53. Verbesina. Involucral scales closely imbricated in 2 or more rows.

54. Actinomeris. Scales few, soon deflexed. Achenes obovate, squarrosely spreading.

[*] 4. Rays few, neutral, or wanting. Achenes obcompressed, i.e., flattened parallel with the scales of the involucre (rarely terete). Involucre double; the outer spreading and often foliaceous. Receptacle flat. Leaves opposite.

55. Coreopsis. Pappus of 2 (or rarely more) scales, teeth, or awns, which are naked or barbed upward, sometimes obsolete or a mere crown.

56. Bidens. Pappus of 2 or more rigid and persistent downwardly barbed awns or teeth.

57. Thelesperma. Inner involucre connate to the middle. Achenes terete. Awns retrorsely bearded.

[*] 5. Heads radiate or discoid; disk-flowers all perfect and fertile. Achenes turbinate, 5-angled; pappus of several chaffy scales.

[+] Leaves alternate, entire. Disk-flowers purplish.

58. Baldwinia. Rays numerous, long, neutral. Involucre much imbricated. Receptacle deeply honey-combed.

59. Marshallia. Rays none. Involucre of narrow leafy equal scales. Receptacle chaffy.

[+][+] Leaves opposite, serrate. Disk-flowers yellow.

60. Galinsoga. Rays few, short, pistillate, whitish. Involucre of 4–5 thin ovate scales. Receptacle chaffy.

Tribe VI. HELENIOIDEÆ. Nearly as Tribe V., but receptacle not chaffy (somewhat so in n. 64). In our genera, the disk-flowers perfect and fertile; the pappus a row of several chaffy scales (bristly-dissected in n. 65); the involucre hardly at all imbricated (partly scarious in n. 61).

[*] Involucral scales distinct, not glandular-punctate.

61. Hymenopappus. Rays none. Receptacle flat. Involucre colored. Western.

62. Actinella. Rays fertile, 3-toothed. Receptacle elevated. Involucre appressed. Western.

63. Helenium. Rays fertile or sterile, 3–5-cleft. Receptacle elevated. Involucre small, reflexed. Leaves decurrent.

64. Gaillardia. Ray 3-toothed, or none. Receptacle usually beset with fine fimbrillate chaff. Outer involucral scales loose and leafy. Pappus-chaff tipped with the projecting midvein. Western.

[*][*] Dotted with oil-glands. Involucral scales united into a cup.

65. Dysodia. Pappus a row of chaffy scales dissected into many bristles.

Tribe VII. ANTHEMIDEÆ. Distinguished from the last two tribes by the more or less dry and scarious imbricated scales of the involucre. Heads radiate (ray mostly white) or discoid, the perfect flowers sometimes sterile and the pistillate rarely tubular. Achenes small; pappus a short crown or none.—Mostly strong-scented; leaves alternate.

[*] Receptacle chaffy, at least in part. Heads radiate, many-flowered.

66. Anthemis. Achenes terete, angled or ribbed. Heads hemispherical, rather large.

67. Achillea. Achenes obcompressed. Heads small, campanulate or obovate.

[*][*] Receptacle naked.

[+] Heads rather large, pedunculate, radiate or rarely rayless.

68. Matricaria. Receptacle conical. Rays pistillate or none. Pappus crown-like or none.

69. Chrysanthemum. Receptacle flattish. Rays many, pistillate. Pappus none.

[+][+] Heads mostly small, discoid, corymbed or paniculate.

70. Tanacetum. Heads corymbed. Achene with broad summit; pappus a short crown.

71. Artemisia. Heads in panicled spikes or racemes. Achenes with narrow summit; pappus none.

Tribe VIII. SENECIONIDEÆ. Heads radiate or discoid, the involucre little or not at all imbricated, not scarious. Receptacle naked. Anthers tailless. Pappus capillary.

[*] Heads monœcious or subdiœcious, the perfect flowers mostly sterile, and the small (ligulate or tubular) ray-flowers in more than one row (at least in the fertile heads). Style-branches obtuse, not appendaged nor hispid. Leaves all radical.

72. Tussilago. Head solitary, yellow-flowered, monœcious.

73. Petasites. Heads corymbed, subdiœcious. Flowers white or purplish.

[*][*] Flowers all fertile. Style-branches truncate or capitellate, often appendaged. Involucral scales connivent-erect.

[+] Leaves opposite.

74. Arnica. Heads showy. Pappus rather rigid, scabrous.

[+][+] Leaves alternate. Pappus soft-capillary, copious.

75. Senecio. Heads usually radiate. Corollas yellow, 5-toothed.

76. Cacalia. Heads discoid. Corollas white or cream-colored, 5-cleft.

77. Erechtites. Heads discoid. Flowers whitish, the outer pistillate with filiform corollas.

Tribe IX. CYNAROIDEÆ. Flowers all tubular and perfect (the outer ray-like and neutral in n. 82). Involucre much imbricated. Anthers caudate, long-appendaged at tip. Style-branches short or united, obtuse, unappendaged, smooth, with often a pubescent ring below. Pappus mostly bristly.—Leaves alternate.

[*] Achenes attached by the base. Flowers all alike.

[+] Leaves not prickly. Style-branches partly distinct. Filaments glabrous.

78. Arctium. Involucral scales hooked at the tip. Pappus of short rough bristles.

[+][+] Leaves prickly. Style-branches coherent, usually a pubescent ring below.

79. Cnicus. Pappus bristles plumose. Receptacle densely bristly.

80. Carduus. Pappus-bristles not plumose. Receptacle densely bristly.

81. Onopordon. Pappus-bristles not plumose. Receptacle deeply honeycombed.

[*][*] Achenes attached obliquely. Marginal flowers often enlarged and ray-like.

82. Centaurea. Involucral scales appendaged. Pappus double and bristly, or very short or none.



Corolla ligulate in all the flowers of the head, and all the flowers perfect.—Herbs, with milky juice. Leaves alternate.

[*] Pappus none.

83. Lampsana. Involucre cylindrical, of 8 scales in a single row, 8–12-flowered.

[*][*] Pappus chaffy, or of both chaff and bristles.

84. Krigia. Involucre simple, not calyculate. Pappus of both chaff and bristles.

85. Cichorium. Involucre double. Pappus a small crown of many bristle-form scales.

[*][*][*] Pappus plumose.

86. Tragopogon. Involucre simple, not calyculate. Achenes long-beaked. Stems leafy.

87. Leontodon. Involucre calyculate. Achenes fusiform. Leaves radical.

88. Picris. Outer involucral scales spreading. Achenes terete. Stems leafy.

[*][*][*][*] Pappus composed entirely of capillary bristles, not plumose.

[+] Achenes not flattened, columnar or terete, often slender.

[++] Achenes not beaked.

[=] Flowers yellow or orange.

89. Hieracium. Involucre imbricated. Pappus tawny. Pilose perennials.

90. Crepis. Involucral scales in one row. Pappus white, soft. Not pilose.

[=][=] Flowers white or cream color or pinkish. Involucre calyculate.

91. Prenanthes. Achenes short, blunt. Pappus tawny or brown. Stems leafy and heads often nodding.

92. Lygodesmia. Achenes long, tapering. Pappus white. Stems nearly leafless; heads erect. Western.

[++][++] Achenes beaked (sometimes beakless in n. 93). Flowers yellow.

93. Troximon. Scapose. Involucre loosely imbricated. Achenes 10-ribbed.

94. Taraxacum. Scapose. Involucre calyculate. Achenes 4–5-ribbed.

95. Pyrrhopappus. Scapose or branched. Pappus reddish, the base surrounded by a soft villous ring.

96. Chondrilla. Stem branching, leafy. Involucre few-flowered, calyculate. Pappus white.

[+][+] Achenes flat or flattish. Pappus white, fine and soft. Involucre imbricated. Leafy-stemmed, with panicled heads.

97. Lactuca. Achenes more or less beaked. Flowers yellow or purplish.

98. Sonchus. Achenes flattish, not at all beaked. Flowers yellow.

The technical characters of the tribes, taken from the styles, require a magnifying-glass to make them out, and will not always be clear to the student. The following artificial analysis, founded upon other and more obvious distinctions, will be useful to the beginner.

Artificial Key to the Genera of the Tubulifloræ.

§ 1. Rays or ligulate flowers none; corollas all tubular (or rarely none).

[*] 1. Flowers of the head all perfect and alike.

Pappus composed of bristles:

Double, the outer of very short, the inner of longer bristles No. 2

Simple, the bristles all of the same sort.

Heads few-flowered, themselves aggregated into a compound or dense cluster 1

Heads separate, few-flowered or many-flowered.

Receptacle (when the flowers are pulled off) bristly-hairy 78, 79, 80

Receptacle deeply honeycomb-like 81

Receptacle naked.

Pappus of plumose or bearded stiff bristles. Flowers purple 8

Pappus of very plumose bristles. Flowers whitish 6

Pappus of slender but rather stiff rough bristles 4, 5, 7, 9, 16

Pappus of very soft and weak naked bristles 76, 77

Pappus composed of scales or chaff.

Receptacle naked. Leaves in whorls 3

Receptacle naked. Leaves alternate, dissected 61

Receptacle bearing chaff among the flowers 59, 64

Pappus of 2 or few awns or teeth 53, 57, barbed in 55, 56

Pappus none, or a mere crown-like margin to the fruit 36, 68, 71

[*] 2. Flowers of two kinds in the same head.

Marginal flowers neutral and sterile, either conspicuous or inconspicuous 82

Marginal flowers pistillate and fertile.

Receptacle elongated and bearing broad chaff among the flowers 29, 30

Receptacle convex, chaffy. Achene flat, 2-awned 52

Receptacle naked or bearing no conspicuous chaff.

Pappus of capillary bristles. Involucre imbricated 28, 32, 33

Pappus of capillary bristles. Involucre merely one row of scales 26, 73, 77

Pappus a short crown or none.

Achenes becoming much longer than the involucre 34

Achenes not exceeding the involucre 42, 70, 71

[*] 3. Flowers of two kinds in separate heads, the one pistillate, the other staminate.

Heads diœcious; in both kinds many-flowered. Pappus capillary 27, 31, 32, 79

Heads monœcious; the fertile 1–2-flowered and closed. Pappus none 43, 44

§ 2. Rays present; i.e. the marginal flowers or some of them with ligulate corollas.

[*] 1. Pappus of capillary bristles, at least in the disk. (Rays all pistillate.)

Rays occupying several rows 26, 72, 73

Rays in one marginal row, and

White, purple or blue, never yellow 17, 24, 25, 26, 73

Yellow, of the same color as the disk.

Pappus (at least in the disk) double, the outer short and minute 13, 14

Pappus simple.

Scales of the involucre equal and all in one row. Leaves alternate 75

Scales of the involucre in two rows. Leaves opposite 74

Scales of the involucre imbricated. Leaves alternate 10, 11, 15, 17, 35

[*] 2. Pappus a circle of awns or rigid bristles (at least in the disk).

Ray yellow, awns few (2–8) 12

Ray rose-color 23

[*] 3. Pappus a circle of chaffy scales, dissected into bristles 65

[*] 4. Pappus a circle of thin chaffy scales or short chaffy bristles.

Heads several-flowered. Receptacle chaffy 60

Heads 8–10-flowered. Receptacle naked 18

Heads many-flowered. Receptacle deeply honeycombed 58

Heads many-flowered. Receptacle naked 62, 63

Heads many-flowered. Receptacle chaffy 64

[*] 5. Pappus none, or a cup or crown, or of 2 or 3 awns, teeth, or chaffy scales corresponding with the edges or angles of the achene, often with intervening minute bristles or scales.

[+] Receptacle naked.

Achene flat, wing-margined. Pappus of separate little bristles and usually 2–4 awns 22

Achene flat, marginless. Pappus none. Receptacle conical 19

Achene terete or angled. Pappus none. Receptacle flattish 69

Achene angled. Pappus a little cup or crown (or none). Receptacle conical 20, 68

Achene fusiform. Pappus of few scales, usually with alternating awns 21

[+][+] Receptacle chaffy.

Rays neutral (rarely pistillate but sterile); the disk-flowers perfect and fertile.

Receptacle mostly elevated (varying from convex to columnar), and

Chaffy only at the summit; the chaff deciduous. Pappus none 66

Chaffy throughout. Achene flattened laterally if at all 48, 49, 50, 52, 54

Receptacle flat or flattish. Achene flattened, parallel with the scales or chaff 55, 56

Receptacle flat. Achene terete, 2-awned 57

Rays pistillate and fertile; the disk-flowers also perfect and fertile.

Achene much flattened laterally, 1–2-awned 53

Achene flattened parallel with the scales and chaff. Pappus none 67

Achene 3–4-angular, terete or laterally flattish, awnless.

Receptacle convex or conical. Leaves alternate, dissected 66

Receptacle conical. Leaves opposite, simple.

Achene obovoid. Involucre a leafy cup 45

Achene 4-angular. Involucre of separate scales 47

Receptacle flat. Leaves opposite and simple 46, 51

Rays pistillate and fertile; the disk-flowers staminate and sterile (pistil imperfect).

Receptacle chaffy 36–41

1. ELEPHÁNTOPUS, L. Elephant's-foot.

Heads discoid, 2–5-flowered, several together clustered into a compound pedunculate head; flowers perfect. Involucre narrow, flattened, of 8 oblong dry scales. Achenes 10-ribbed; pappus of stout bristles, chaffy-dilated at the base.—Perennials, with alternate leaves and purplish flowers. (Name composed of ἔλεφας, elephant, and ποῦς, foot.)

[*] Stem leafy; upper leaves very like the basal.

1. E. Caroliniànus, Willd. Somewhat hairy, corymbose, leafy; leaves ovate-oblong, thin.—Dry soil, Penn. to Ill. and Kan., and southward.

[*][*] Stem scape-like, with a few bract-like leaves or naked.

2. E. tomentòsus, L. Somewhat hairy; basal leaves obovate to narrowly spatulate, silky and prominently veined beneath; heads large; pappus-scales attenuate.—Va., Ky., and southward.

3. E. nudàtus, Gray. Strigose-puberulent; basal leaves thin, green, spatulate-obovate or oblanceolate, not prominently veined beneath; heads smaller; pappus scales broadly deltoid.—Del. and southward.

2. VERNÒNIA, Schreb. Iron-weed.

Heads discoid, 15–many-flowered, in corymbose cymes; flowers perfect. Involucre shorter than the flowers, of many much imbricated scales. Receptacle naked. Achenes cylindrical, ribbed; pappus double, the outer of minute scale-like bristles, the inner of copious capillary bristles.—Perennial herbs, with leafy stems, alternate and acuminate or very acute leaves and mostly purple flowers. Species very difficult. (Named for Wm. Vernon, an early English botanist who travelled in this country.)

[*] Heads large, 50–70-flowered.

1. V. Arkansàna, DC. Tall, rather glabrous; leaves linear-lanceolate, retrorsely denticulate; involucre very squarrose, the scales with long filiform tips.—Mo., Kan., and southward.

[*][*] Heads ½´ high or less, 15–40-flowered.

[+] Leaves narrowly linear, glabrous, veinless, mostly entire.

2. V. Jamèsii, Torr. & Gray. Low, nearly glabrous; heads few-flowered; scales obtuse or acute.—Plains of Neb. and southward.

[+][+] Leaves broader, mostly sharply denticulate or rigidly serrate, veined.

3. V. fasciculàta, Michx. Leaves linear to oblong-lanceolate; heads many, crowded; scales close, obtuse or the uppermost mucronate; achene smooth.—Low grounds, Ohio and Ky. to Dak., and southward. Aug.

4. V. altíssima, Nutt. Usually tall; leaves lanceolate or lance-oblong; cyme loose; scales close, obtuse or mucronate; achenes hispidulous on the ribs.—Low grounds, W. Penn. to Ill., and southward.—Heads variable, 2–4´´ high and the scales in few or many ranks; the var. grandiflòra, Nutt., with large heads, the involucre of 35–40 scales in many ranks.

5. V. Noveboracénsis, Willd. Rather tall; leaves long-lanceolate to lance-oblong; cyme open; involucre usually purplish; scales ovate and lance-ovate tipped with a slender cusp or awn.—Low grounds near the coast, Maine to Va., west to Minn., E. Kan., and southward. Aug.

Var. latifòlia, Gray. Leaves broader; heads few; scales merely acute or acuminate.—Penn. to Ohio and southward.

6. V. Baldwínii, Torr. Tomentulose; heads small, at first globose; leaves lance-oblong or -ovate; involucre hoary-tomentose, greenish, squarrose, the scales acute or acuminate.—Prairies and barren hills; E. Mo. to Kan. and Tex. July, Aug. Passes into n. 4.


Head discoid, many-flowered; flowers perfect. Involucral scales linear, equal, in 1 or 2 rows. Receptacle naked. Corolla 5-toothed. Achenes 5-angled; pappus a single row of 5 almost horny oval and obtuse scales.—A smooth perennial, with simple stems, rooting at the base, linear entire leaves in whorls of 4–6, and a terminal head of flesh-colored flowers. (Name composed of σκληρός, hard, and λεπίς, a scale, from the pappus.)

1. S. verticillàta, Cass.—In water; pine barrens, New Jersey and southward. Aug.

4. MIKÀNIA, Willd. Climbing Hemp-weed.

Heads discoid, 4-flowered. Involucre of 4 scales. Receptacle small. Flowers, achenes, etc., as in Eupatorium.—Twining perennials, climbing bushes, with opposite commonly heart-shaped and petioled leaves, and corymbose-panicled flesh-colored flowers. (Named for Prof. Mikan, of Prague.)

1. M. scándens, L. Nearly smooth, twining; leaves somewhat triangular-heart-shaped or halberd-form, pointed, toothed at the base.—Copses along streams, E. New Eng. to Ky., and southward. July–Sept.

5. EUPATÒRIUM, Tourn. Thoroughwort.

Heads discoid, 3–many-flowered; flowers perfect. Involucre cylindrical or bell-shaped, of more than 4 scales. Receptacle flat or conical, naked. Corolla 5-toothed. Achenes 5-angled; pappus a single row of slender capillary barely roughish bristles.—Erect perennial herbs, often sprinkled with bitter resinous dots, with generally corymbose heads of white, bluish, or purple blossoms, appearing near the close of summer. (Dedicated to Eupator Mithridates, who is said to have used a species of the genus in medicine.)

§ 1. EUPATORIUM proper. Receptacle flat.

[*] Heads cylindrical, 5–15-flowered; the purplish scales numerous, closely imbricated in several rows, of unequal length, slightly striate; stout herbs, with ample mostly whorled leaves, and flesh-colored flowers.

1. E. purpùreum, L. (Joe-Pye Weed. Trumpet-Weed.) Stems tall and stout, simple; leaves 3–6 in a whorl, oblong-ovate or lanceolate, pointed, very veiny, roughish, toothed; corymbs very dense and compound.—Varies greatly in size (2–12° high), etc., and with spotted or unspotted, often dotted stems, etc.,—including several nominal species.—Low grounds; common.

Var. amœ̀num, Gray. Low; leaves fewer, ovate or oblong; heads few, 3–5-flowered.—Mountains of Va. and N. Y.

[*][*] Heads 3–20-flowered; involucre 8–15 more or less imbricated and unequal scales, the outer ones shorter; flowers white.

[+] Leaves all alternate, mostly dissected; heads panicled, very small, 3–5-flowered.

2. E. fœniculàceum, Willd. (Dog-Fennel.) Smooth or nearly so, paniculately much-branched (3–10° high); leaves 1–2-pinnately parted, filiform.—Va., near the coast, and southward. Adv. near Philadelphia.

[+][+] Leaves long-petioled, the upper ones alternate; heads 12–15-flowered, in compound corymbs.

3. E. serótinum, Michx. Stem pulverulent-pubescent, bushy-branched (3–7° high); leaves ovate-lanceolate, tapering to a point, triple-nerved and veiny, coarsely serrate (3–6´ long); involucre very pubescent.—Alluvial ground, Md. to Minn., E. Kan., and southward.

[+][+][+] Leaves sessile or nearly so, with a narrow base, mostly opposite; heads mostly 5-flowered.

[=] Involucral scales with white and scarious acute tips.

4. E. álbum, L. Roughish-hairy (2° high), leaves oblong-lanceolate, coarsely toothed, veiny; heads clustered in the corymb; involucral scales closely imbricated, rigid, narrowly lanceolate, longer than the flowers.—Sandy and barren places, pine barrens of Long Island to Va., and southward.

Var. subvenòsum, Gray. Less rough; leaves 1–2´ long, finely toothed and less veiny.—Long Island and N. J.

5. E. leucólepis, Torr. & Gray. Minutely pubescent, simple (1–2° high); leaves linear-lanceolate, closely sessile, 1-nerved, obtuse, minutely serrate, rough both sides; corymb hoary.—Sandy bogs, Long Island, N. J., and southward.

[=][=] Scales not scarious or obscurely so, obtuse, at length shorter than the flowers.

6. E. hyssopifòlium, L. Minutely pubescent (1–2° high); leaves narrow, linear or lanceolate, elongated, obtuse, 1–3-nerved, entire, or the lower toothed, often crowded in the axils, acute at the base.—Sterile soil, Mass. to Va., E. Ky., and southward.

Var. laciniàtum, Gray. Leaves irregularly and coarsely toothed or laciniate.—Penn., Ky., and southward.

7. E. semiserràtum, DC. Minutely velvety-pubescent, branching (2–3° high); leaves lanceolate or oblong, triple-ribbed and veiny, serrate above the middle, tapering to the base, the lower slightly petioled; heads small. (E. parviflorum, Ell.)—Damp soil, Va. to Ark., and southward.—Leaves sometimes whorled in threes, or the upper alternate.

8. E. altíssimum, L. Stem stout and tall (3–7° high), downy; leaves lanceolate, tapering at both ends, conspicuously 3-nerved, entire, or toothed above the middle, the uppermost alternate; corymbs dense; scales of the involucre obtuse, shorter than the flowers.—Dry soil, Penn. to Minn. and Ky.—Leaves 3–4´ long, somewhat like those of a Solidago.

[+][+][+][+] Leaves sessile or nearly so, with a broad base, opposite or in threes; heads pubescent.

[=] Heads 5–8-flowered; leaves not clasping.

9. E. teucrifòlium, Willd. Roughish-pubescent (2–8° high); leaves ovate-oblong and ovate-lanceolate, obtuse or truncate at base, slightly triple-nerved, veiny, coarsely toothed or incised toward the base, the lower shortly petioled, the upper alternate; branches of the corymb few, unequal; scales of the involucre oblong-lanceolate, at length shorter than the flowers.—Low grounds, Mass. to Va., and southward near the coast.

10. E. rotundifòlium, L. Downy-pubescent (2° high); leaves roundish-ovate, obtuse, truncate or slightly heart-shaped at the base, deeply crenate-toothed, triple-nerved, veiny, roughish (1–2´ long); corymb large and dense; scales of the (5-flowered) involucre linear-lanceolate, slightly pointed.—Dry soil, R. I. to Va., near the coast, and southward.

Var. ovàtum, Torr. Usually taller, leaves ovate, acute, hardly truncate at base, more strongly serrate; heads 5–8-flowered. (E. pubescens, Muhl.)—Mass. to Va., near the coast.

11. E. sessilifòlium, L. (Upland Boneset.) Stem tall (4–6° high), smooth, branching; leaves oblong- or ovate-lanceolate, tapering from near the rounded sessile base to the sharp point, serrate, veiny, smooth (3–6´ long); corymb very compound, pubescent; scales of the 5-flowered involucre oval and oblong, obtuse.—Copses and banks, Mass. to Ill., and southward along the mountains.

[=][=] Leaves opposite, clasping or united at the base, long, widely spreading; heads mostly 10–15-flowered; corymbs very compound and large.

12. E. perfoliàtum, L. (Thoroughwort. Boneset.) Stem stout (2–4° high), hairy; leaves lanceolate, united at the base around the stem (connate-perfoliate), tapering to a slender point, serrate, very veiny, wrinkled, downy beneath (5–8´ long); scales of the involucre linear-lanceolate.—Low grounds; common and well-known.—Varies with the heads 30–40-flowered, or with some or all of the leaves separated and truncate at base.

Var. cuneàtum, Engelm. Leaves smaller, narrowed at base and separate, and heads fewer-flowered. Perhaps a hybrid with n. 7.—Mo. and southward.

13. E. resinòsum, Torr. Minutely velvety-downy (2–3° high); leaves linear-lanceolate, elongated, serrate, partly clasping, tapering to the point, slightly veiny beneath (4–6´ long); scales of the involucre oval, obtuse.—Wet pine barrens, N. J.—Name from the copious resinous globules of the leaves.

[*][*][*] Heads 8–30-flowered; involucral scales nearly equal, in one row; leaves opposite, ovate, petioled, triple-nerved, not resinous-dotted; flowers white.

14. E. ageratoìdes, L. (White Snake-root.) Smooth, branching (3° high); leaves broadly ovate, pointed, coarsely and sharply toothed, long-petioled, thin (3–5´ long); corymbs compound.—Rich woods; common northward.

15. E. aromáticum, L. Smooth or slightly downy; stems nearly simple; leaves on short petioles, ovate, rather obtusely toothed, not pointed, thickish.—Copses, Mass. to Va., and southward, near the coast.—Lower and more slender than n. 14, with fewer, but usually larger heads; not aromatic.

§ 2. CONOCLÍNIUM. Receptacle conical; involucral scales nearly equal, somewhat imbricated.

16. E. cœlestìnum, L. (Mist-flower.) Somewhat pubescent (1–2° high), leaves opposite, petiolate, triangular-ovate and slightly heart-shaped, coarsely and bluntly toothed; heads many-flowered, in compact cymes; flowers blue or violet. (Conoclinium cœlestinum, DC.)—Rich soil, N. J. to Mich., Ill., and southward. Sept.


Heads discoid, 10–25-flowered; flowers perfect. Involucral scales thin, few and loosely imbricated, narrow, striate-nerved. Corolla slender, 5-toothed. Achenes cylindrical, 10-striate; pappus a single row of very plumose (white) bristles.—A perennial herb, resinous-dotted, with mostly alternate leaves, and paniculate-corymbose heads of cream-colored flowers. (Dedicated to Dr. Kuhn, of Pennsylvania, who carried the living plant to Linnæus.)

1. K. eupatorioìdes, L. Stems 2–3° high; pubescence minute; leaves varying from broadly lanceolate and toothed, to linear and entire.—Dry soil, N. J. to Minn., E. Kan., and southward. Sept. Very variable.—Var. corymbulòsa, Torr. & Gray, is a western form, stouter and somewhat more pubescent, the heads rather crowded.


Characters as in Kuhnia; involucral scales more numerous, and the bristles of the pappus merely scabrous or at the most barbellate or subplumose; leaves often all opposite. (Dr. John Brickell of Georgia, correspondent of Elliott and Muhlenberg.)

1. B. grandiflòra, Nutt. Nearly glabrous, 2–3° high; leaves deltoid, cordate, the upper deltoid-lanceolate, coarsely dentate-serrate, acuminate, 4´ long or less; heads about 40-flowered.—Shannon Co., Mo. (Bush), Kan. to Col., New Mex., and westward.

8. LIÀTRIS, Schreb. Button Snakeroot. Blazing-Star.

Head discoid, few–many-flowered; flowers perfect. Involucral scales well imbricated, appressed. Receptacle naked. Corolla 5-lobed, the lobes long and slender. Achenes slender, tapering to the base, 10-ribbed. Pappus of 15–40 capillary bristles, manifestly plumose or only barbellate.—Perennial herbs, often resinous-dotted, with simple stems from a roundish corm or tuber, rigid alternate narrow entire leaves (sometimes twisted so as to become vertical), and spicate or racemed heads of handsome rose-purple flowers, appearing late in summer or in autumn. (Derivation of the name unknown.)

[*] Pappus very plumose; scales of the 5-flowered involucre with ovate or lanceolate spreading petal-like (purple or sometimes white) tips, exceeding the flowers.

1. L. élegans, Willd. Stem (2–3° high) and involucre hairy; leaves linear, short and spreading; spike or raceme compact (3–20´ long).—Barren soil, Va. and southward.

[*][*] Pappus very plumose; scales of the cylindrical many-flowered involucre imbricated in many rows, the tips rigid, not petal-like; corolla-lobes hairy within.

2. L. squarròsa, Willd. (Blazing-Star, etc.) Often hairy (6´–2° high); leaves rigid, linear, elongated; heads usually few (1´ long); scales mostly with elongated and leaf-like spreading tips.—Dry soil, Penn. to Minn., and southward.—Var. intermèdia, DC. Heads narrow; scales shorter, erect or nearly so.—Ont. to Neb. and Tex.

3. L. cylindràcea, Michx. Commonly smooth (6–18´ high); leaves linear; heads few (½–{2/3}´ long); scales with short and rounded abruptly mucronate appressed tips.—Dry open places, Niagara Falls to Minn. and Mo.

[*][*][*] Pappus very plumose; heads 4–6-flowered; scales acuminate; corolla-lobes naked.

4. L. punctàta, Hook. Stout (10–30´ high), from a branching or globose rootstock; leaves narrowly linear or the upper acerose, rigid; heads usually many in a dense spike.—Minn. to Kan., and southward.

[*][*][*][*] Pappus not obviously plumose to the naked eye; corolla-lobes smooth inside.

5. L. scariòsa, Willd. Stem stout (2–5° high), pubescent or hoary; leaves (smooth, rough, or pubescent) lanceolate; the lowest oblong-lanceolate or obovate-oblong, tapering into a petiole; heads few or many, large, 25–40-flowered; scales of the broad or depressed involucre obovate or spatulate, very numerous, with dry and scarious often colored tips or margins.—Dry soil, New Eng. to Minn., and southward.—Widely variable; heads 1´ or less in diameter.

6. L. pycnostàchya, Michx. Hairy or smoothish; stem stout (3–5° high), very leafy; leaves linear-lanceolate, the upper very narrowly linear; spike thick and dense (6–20´ long), heads about 5-flowered (½´ long); scales of the cylindrical involucre oblong or lanceolate, with recurved or spreading colored tips.—Prairies, from Ind. to Minn., and southward.

7. L. spicàta, Willd. Smooth or somewhat hairy; stems very leafy, stout (2–5° high); leaves linear, the lower 3–5-nerved; heads 8–12-flowered ({1/3}–½´ long), crowded in a long spike; scales of the cylindrical-bell-shaped involucre oblong or oval, obtuse, appressed, with slight margins; achenes pubescent or smoothish.—Moist grounds; common from Mass. to Minn., and southward.—Involucre often resinous, very smooth.

Var. montàna, Gray. Low and stout; leaves broader, obtuse; spike short and heads large.—Mountain-tops, Va., and southward.

8. L. graminifòlia, Willd. Hairy or smoothish; stem (1–3° high) slender, leafy; leaves linear, elongated, 1-nerved; heads several or numerous, in a spike or raceme, 7–12-flowered; scales of the obconical or obovoid involucre spatulate or oblong, obtuse, or somewhat pointed, rigid, appressed; achenes hairy.—Va. and southward.—Inflorescence sometimes panicled, especially in

Var. dùbia, Gray. Scales of the involucre narrower and less rigid, oblong, often ciliate.—Wet pine barrens, N. J., and southward.

9. TRÍLISA, Cass.

Heads discoid, 5–10-flowered; flowers perfect. Involucral scales nearly equal, little imbricated. Receptacle naked. Corolla-lobes short-ovate or oblong. Achenes 10-ribbed; pappus of rather rigid bristles, not plumose.—Perennial herbs, fibrous-rooted, with broad entire leaves, obscurely or not at all punctate, and cymules of small heads in a thyrse or panicle. Flowers rose-purple, in autumn. (Name an anagram of Liatris.)

1. T. odoratíssima, Cass. (Vanilla-plant.) Very smooth; leaves pale, thickish, obovate-spatulate, or the upper oval and clasping; heads corymbed. (Liatris odoratissima, Willd.)—Low pine barrens, Va., and southward.—Leaves exhaling the odor of Vanilla when bruised.

2. T. paniculàta, Cass. Viscid-hairy; leaves narrowly oblong or lanceolate, smoothish, those of the stem partly clasping, heads panicled. (Liatris paniculata, Willd.)—Va. and southward.


Heads few–several-flowered, radiate; rays 1–6, pistillate. Involucre oblong-clavate; scales coriaceous with green tips, closely imbricated, the outer shorter. Receptacle small, naked. Achenes short, terete; pappus of about 9 chaffy scales, shorter in the ray-flowers.—Suffrutescent (our species), glabrous and often glutinous, much branched, with narrowly linear entire alternate leaves, and small heads of yellow flowers in fastigiate or paniculate cymes. (From Gutierrez, a noble Spanish family.)

1. G. Euthámiæ, Torr. & Gray. Low; leaves numerous, 1–2´ long; heads usually crowded, the disk- and short ray-flowers usually 3 or 4 each.—Dry plains, Mont. and Minn. to central Kan., southward and westward.


Heads hemispherical; rays 5–10. Disk-flowers perfect but infertile. Pappus of the ray minute, coroniform; of the disk-flowers of almost bristle-like scales, more or less dilated and united at base.—A diffusely much-branched annual, with heads solitary on the branchlets; otherwise as Gutierrezia. (From ἀμφί, around, and ἄχυρον, chaff.)

1. A. dracunculoìdes, Nutt. Rather low, slender; leaves narrowly linear, the upper filiform; disk-flowers 10–20, their pappus of 5–8 bristle-like chaff united at base and slightly dilated upward.—Plains, Kan. and southward.

12. GRINDÈLIA, Willd.

Heads many-flowered, radiate (or rayless); ray pistillate. Scales of the hemispherical involucre imbricated in several series, with slender more or less spreading green tips. Achenes short and thick, compressed or turgid, truncate, glabrous; pappus of 2–8 caducous awns. Coarse perennial or biennial herbs, often resinous-viscid, ours glabrous and leafy with sessile or clasping alternate and spinulose-serrate or laciniate rigid leaves, and large heads terminating leafy branches. Disk and ray yellow. (Prof. Grindel, a Russian botanist.)

1. G. squarròsa, Dunal. Leaves spatulate- to linear-oblong; involucre squarrose; achenes not toothed; pappus-awns 2 or 3.—Prairies, Minn., southward and westward; Evanston, Ill.—Var. nùda, Gray. Rays wanting. About St. Louis and westward.

2. G. lanceolàta, Nutt. Leaves lanceolate or linear; involucral scales erect or the lower tips spreading; achenes with 1 or 2 short teeth at the summit; awns 2.—Prairies, eastern Kan. to Ark., and southward.


Characters as in Chrysopsis, but the achenes of the ray thickish or triangular, without pappus or obscurely crowned, and those of the disk compressed, with a double pappus, the inner of numerous long bristles, the outer of many short and stout bristles.—(From ἕτερος, different, and θήκη, case, alluding to the unlike achenes.)

1. H. Lamárckii, Cass. Annual or biennial, 1–3° high, bearing numerous small heads; leaves oval or oblong, the lower with petioles auricled at base, the upper mostly subcordate-clasping.—S. E. Kan., and southward.

14. CHRYSÓPSIS, Nutt. Golden Aster.

Heads many-flowered, radiate; the rays numerous, pistillate. Involucral scales linear, imbricated, without herbaceous tips. Receptacle flat. Achenes obovate or linear-oblong, flattened, hairy; pappus in all the flowers double, the outer of very short and somewhat chaffy bristles, the inner of long capillary bristles.—Chiefly perennial, low herbs, woolly or hairy, with rather large often corymbose heads terminating the branches. Disk and ray-flowers yellow. (Name composed of χρυσός, gold, and ὄψις, aspect, from the golden blossoms.)

[*] Leaves narrowly lanceolate or linear; achenes linear.

1. C. graminifòlia, Nutt. Silvery-silky, with long close-pressed hairs; stem slender, often with runners from the base, naked above, bearing few heads; leaves lanceolate or linear, elongated, grass-like, nerved, shining, entire.—Dry sandy soil, Del. to Va., and southward. July–Oct.

2. C. falcàta, Ell. Stems (4–10´ high) very woolly; leaves crowded, linear, rigid, about 3-nerved, entire, somewhat recurved or scythe-shaped, hairy, or smooth when old, sessile; heads (small) corymbed.—Dry sandy soil on the coast, pine barrens of N. J. to Nantucket and Cape Cod, Mass. Aug.

[*][*] Leaves oblong or lanceolate, entire or slightly serrate, mostly sessile, veined, not nerved; achenes obovate, flattened.

3. C. gossýpina, Nutt. Densely woolly all over; leaves spatulate or oblong, obtuse (1–2´ long); heads larger than in the next.—Pine barrens, Va., and southward. Aug.–Oct.

4. C. Mariàna, Nutt. Silky with long and weak hairs, or when old smoothish; leaves oblong; heads corymbed, on glandular peduncles.—Dry barrens, from S. New York and Penn., southward, near the coast. Aug.–Oct.

5. C. villòsa, Nutt. Hirsute and villous-pubescent; stem corymbosely branched, the branches terminated by single short-peduncled heads; leaves narrowly oblong, hoary with rough pubescence (as also the involucre), bristly-ciliate toward the base.—Dry plains and prairies, Wisc. to Ky., and westward. July–Sept. Very variable.—Var. híspida, Gray. Low, hirsute and hispid, not canescent; heads small. Kan., west and southward.—Var. canéscens, Gray. Wholly canescent with short appressed pubescence; leaves narrow, mostly oblanceolate.—Kan. to Tex.

6. C. pilòsa, Nutt. Annual, soft-hirsute or villous; leaves oblong-lanceolate; involucre viscid; outer pappus chaffy and conspicuous—Kan. and southward.


Heads many-flowered, radiate; rays many, pistillate. Involucre hemispherical, of many closely imbricated scales in several series. Receptacle flat. Achenes short, turbinate to linear; pappus simple, of numerous unequal bristles.—Mostly herbaceous perennials, with alternate rigid leaves. Ray- and disk-flowers yellow. (From ἁπλόος, simple, and πάππος, pappus.)

1. A. ciliàtus, DC. Annual or biennial, glabrous, 2–5° high, leafy; leaves oval (or lower obovate), obtuse, dentate with bristle-pointed teeth; heads very large, few and clustered, the outer scales spreading; achenes glabrous, the central abortive.—Mo., Kan., and southward.

2. A. spinulòsus, DC. Perennial, branching, puberulent or glabrate, low; leaves narrow, pinnately or bipinnately parted, the lobes and teeth bristle-tipped; heads small, the appressed scales bristle-tipped; achenes pubescent.—Minn. to Kan., and southward.

3. A. divaricàtus, Gray. Annual, 1–2° high, slender and diffusely paniculate, rough-pubescent or glabrate; leaves rigid, narrow, entire or with a few spinulose teeth, much reduced above; heads small and narrow, the appressed scales subulate, attenuate; achenes silky.—Southern Kan.

16. BIGELÒVIA, DC. Rayless Golden-rod.

Heads 3–4-flowered, the flowers all perfect and tubular. Involucre club-shaped, yellowish; the rigid somewhat glutinous scales linear, closely imbricated and appressed. Receptacle narrow, with an awl-shaped prolongation in centre. Achenes somewhat obconical, hairy; pappus a single row of capillary bristles.—Flowers yellow. Leaves scattered, oblanceolate or linear, 1–3-nerved. A large western genus, few species approaching our limits. (Dedicated by De Candolle to Dr. Jacob Bigelow, author of the Florula Bostoniensis, and of the American Medical Botany.)

1. B. nudàta, DC. A smooth perennial; the slender stem (1–2° high) simple or branched from the base, naked above, corymbose at the summit, bearing small heads in a flat-topped corymb.—Low pine barrens, N. J. (rare), and southward. Sept.

17. SOLIDÀGO, L. Golden-rod.

Heads few–many-flowered, radiate; the rays 1–16, pistillate. Scales of the oblong involucre appressed, destitute of herbaceous tips (except n. 1 and 2). Receptacle small, not chaffy. Achenes many-ribbed, nearly terete; pappus simple, of equal capillary bristles.—Perennial herbs, with mostly wand-like stems and nearly sessile stem-leaves, never heart-shaped. Heads small, racemed or clustered; flowers both of the disk and ray (except n. 6) yellow. (Name from solidus and ago, to join, or make whole, in allusion to reputed vulnerary qualities.) Flowering in autumn.

Conspectus of Groups.

Heads small, sessile in flat-topped corymbs; leaves linear 41, 42

Heads all more or less pedicelled.

Involucral scales rigid, with spreading herbaceous tips 1, 2

Involucral scales without green tips.

Heads in a compound terminal corymb, not at all racemose 37–40

Heads small, mostly clustered in the axils of feather-veined leaves 3–7

Heads mostly large, in a terminal thyrse; leaves feather-veined.

Western species 8, 9

Northern or mountain species 10–12

Heads mostly small or middle-sized; inflorescence paniculate (sometimes thyrsoidal).

Leaves 3-ribbed; heads in 1-sided spreading panicled racemes.

Stem and leaves smooth and glabrous 29–32

Pubescent or scabrous 33–36

Leaves not 3-ribbed, or only obscurely triple-nerved.

Heads large; leaves thickish, very smooth, entire. Seashore 13

Panicle virgate or thyrsoid; leaves nearly entire 14–17

Heads very small in a short broad panicle; leaves nearly entire 18–20

Heads racemosely paniculate; leaves ample, the lower serrate 21–28

§ 1. VIRGAÙREA. Rays mostly fewer than the disk-flowers; heads all more or less pedicelled.

[*] Scales of the much imbricated and rigid involucre with abruptly spreading herbaceous tips; heads in clusters or glomerate racemes, disposed in a dense somewhat leafy and interrupted wand-like compound spike.

1. S. squarròsa, Muhl. Stem stout (2–5° high), hairy above; leaves large, oblong, or the lower spatulate-oval and tapering into a margined petiole, serrate, veiny; heads numerous; scales obtuse or acute; disk-flowers 16–24, the rays 12–16.—Rocky and wooded hills, Maine and W. Vt. to Penn., Ohio, and the mountains of Va.; rather rare.

2. S. petiolàris, Ait. Minutely hoary or downy; stem strict, simple (1–3° high); leaves small (½–2´ long), oval or oblong, mucronate, veiny, rough-ciliolate; the upper entire and abruptly very short-petioled, the lower often serrate and tapering to the base; heads few, in a wand-like raceme or panicle, on slender bracted pedicels; rays about 10, elongated; scales of the pubescent involucre lanceolate or linear-awl-shaped, the outer loose and spreading, more or less foliaceous.—S. W. Ill. to Kan. and southward.—The name is misleading, as the leaves are hardly petioled.

[*][*] Involucral scales without green tips and wholly appressed.

[+] Heads small (3´´ long), clustered along the stem in the axils of the feather-veined leaves, or the upper forming a thyrse.

[++] Achenes pubescent.

3. S. cæ̀sia, L. Smooth; stem terete, mostly glaucous, at length much branched and diffuse; leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, serrate, pointed, sessile; heads in very short clusters, or somewhat racemose-panicled on the branches.—Rich woodlands, common; west to S. E. Minn., Ill., and Ky.

4. S. latifòlia, L. Smooth or nearly so; stem angled, zigzag, simple or paniculate-branched (1–3° high); leaves broadly ovate or oval, very strongly and sharply serrate, conspicuously pointed at both ends (thin, 3–6´ long); heads in very short axillary clusters, or the clusters somewhat prolonged at the end of the branches; rays 3–4.—Moist shaded banks; common northward, and south along the mountains.

5. S. Curtísii, Torr. & Gray. Smooth or nearly so; stem angled, usually branched; leaves oblong to long-lanceolate with narrowed entire base, serrate above with subulate teeth; heads in small, loose clusters; rays 4–7.—Open woods at low elevations in the mountains of Va. and southward.

[++][++] Achenes glabrous; inflorescence more thyrsoid.

6. S. bícolor, L. Hoary or grayish with soft hairs; stem mostly simple; leaves oblong or elliptical-lanceolate, acute at both ends, or the lower oval and tapering into a petiole, slightly serrate; clusters or short racemes from the axils of the upper leaves, forming an interrupted spike or crowded panicle; scales very obtuse; rays (5–14) small, cream-color or nearly white.—Var. cóncolor, Torr. & Gray, has the rays yellow.—Dry copses, west to Minn. and Mo.

7. S. montícola, Torr. & Gray. Nearly glabrous; stem slender, 1–2° high; leaves oblong-ovate to lanceolate, acute or tapering at both ends, the lower sparingly serrate; heads small, the scales acutish; rays 5–6.—Alleghany Mts., from Md. southward.

[+][+] Heads mostly large (smaller in n. 12), many-flowered, forming an erect terminal thyrse; leaves feather-veined.

[++] Leaves numerous, short, sessile, entire, uniform in size and shape; western.

8. S. Bigelòvii, Gray. Cinereous-puberulent, 2° high; leaves oval and oblong, mostly obtuse at both ends; thyrse rather loose; involucre broad.—S. Kan. and southward. Probably running into the next.

9. S. Lindheimeriàna, Scheele. Less puberulent; leaves lanceolate or oblong, more acute; heads narrower and more densely clustered; achenes glabrous.—S. Kan. and southward.

[++][++] Northern or mountain species, bright green.

10. S. macrophýlla, Pursh. Stem stout (1–4° high), wand-like, pubescent near the summit, simple; leaves thin, ovate, irregularly and coarsely serrate with sharp salient teeth, large (lower 3–4´ long), all but the uppermost abruptly contracted into long and margined petioles; heads large (5–6´´ long), many-flowered, crowded in an oblong or wand-like raceme or contracted panicle (2–18´ long); scales loose and thin, long, lanceolate, taper-pointed; rays 8–10, elongated; achenes smooth. (S. thyrsoidea, E. Mey.)—Wooded sides of mountains, N. Maine to N. Y. (south to the Catskills), shore of L. Superior and northward.—Very near a European form of S. Virgaurea.

11. S. Virgaùrea, Linn. An extremely variable and confused species in the Old World, represented in North America by

Var. alpìna, Bigel. Dwarf (1–8´ high), with few (1–12) pretty large heads (3–4´´ long, becoming smaller as they increase in number); leaves thickish, mostly smooth, spatulate or obovate, mostly obtuse, finely serrate or nearly entire, the uppermost lanceolate; heads few in a terminal cluster or subsolitary in the upper axils; scales lanceolate, acute or acutish; rays about 12.—Alpine summits of Maine, N. H., and N. Y., and shore of L. Superior.

12. S. hùmilis, Pursh. Low (6–12´ high) and smooth, bearing several or numerous loosely thyrsoid smaller heads, which, with the peduncles, etc., are mostly somewhat glutinous; scales obtuse; rays 6–8, short; upper leaves lanceolate to linear, entire, the lower becoming spatulate and sparingly serrate. (S. Virgaurea, var. humilis, Gray.)—Rocky banks, W. Vt., along the Great Lakes, and northward; also on islands in the Susquehanna, near Lancaster, and at the Falls of the Potomac.—At the base of the White Mountains, on gravelly banks, occurs a form with the minutely pubescent stout stem 1–2° high, the leaves larger, broader, and coarsely toothed, and the heads very numerous in an ample compound raceme; rays occasionally almost white.

Var. Gillmàni, Gray. Larger (2° high), rigid, with compound ample panicle and laciniately toothed leaves.—Sand-hills of the lake-shores, N. Mich.

[+][+][+] Heads small or middle-sized (large in n. 13 and 17), panicled or sometimes thyrsoidal, not in a terminal corymbiform cyme; not alpine.

[++] Leaves veiny, not 3-ribbed, but sometimes obscurely triple-nerved.

[=] 1. Heads commonly large; leaves thickish, very smooth, entire, elongated.

13. S. sempérvirens, L. Smooth and stout (1–8° high); leaves lanceolate, slightly clasping, or the lower ones lanceolate-oblong, obscurely triple-nerved; racemes short, in an open or contracted panicle.—Salt marshes, or rocks on the shore, Maine to Va.—Heads showy; the golden rays 7–10. Varies, in less brackish swamps, with thinner elongated linear-lanceolate leaves, tapering to each end, and more erect racemes in a narrower panicle.

[=] 2. Heads small, in a narrow virgate or thyrsoid panicle; scales thin, acute; leaves nearly entire.

14. S. strícta, Ait. Very smooth throughout; stem strict and simple, wand-like (2–4° high), slender, beset with small and entire appressed lanceolate-oblong thickish leaves, gradually reduced upward to mere bracts, the lowest oblong-spatulate; heads crowded in a very narrow compound spicate raceme; rays 5–7. (S. virgata, Michx.)—Damp pine barrens, N. J. and southward.

15. S. pubérula, Nutt. Stem (1–3° high, simple or branched) and panicle minutely hoary; stem-leaves lanceolate, acute, tapering to the base, smoothish; the lower wedge-lanceolate and sparingly toothed, heads very numerous and crowded in compact short racemes forming a prolonged and dense narrow or pyramidal panicle; scales linear-awl-shaped, appressed; rays about 10.—Sandy soil, Maine to Va. and southward, mostly near the coast.

[=] 3. Heads middle-sized, in a thyrsoid panicle; involucral scales rather firm, obtuse; leaves entire or little serrate, smooth.

16. S. uliginòsa, Nutt. Smooth nearly throughout; stem simple, strict (2–3° high); leaves lanceolate, pointed, the lower tapering into winged petioles, partly sheathing at the base, sparsely serrulate or entire; racemes much crowded and appressed in a dense wand-like panicle; scales linear-oblong; rays 5–6, small. (S. stricta, Ait.)—Peat-bogs, Maine to Penn., Minn., and northward. Root-leaves 6–10´ long. Flowers earlier than most species, beginning in July.

17. S. speciòsa, Nutt. Stem stout (3–6° high), smooth; leaves thickish, smooth with rough margins, oval or ovate, slightly serrate, the uppermost oblong-lanceolate, the lower contracted into a margined petiole; heads somewhat crowded in numerous erect racemes, forming an ample pyramidal or thyrsiform panicle; peduncles and pedicels rough-hairy; scales of the cylindrical involucre oblong; rays about 5, large.—Var. angustàta, Torr. & Gray, is a dwarf form, with the racemes short and clustered, forming a dense interrupted or compound spike.—Copses, Maine to Minn., and southward.—A very handsome species; the lower leaves 4–6´ long and 2–4´ wide in the larger forms.

[=] 4. Heads very small in slender spreading secund clusters forming a mostly short and broad panicle; leaves entire or nearly so.

18. S. odòra, Ait. (Sweet Golden-rod.) Smooth or nearly so throughout; stem slender (2–3° high), often reclined; leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, shining, pellucid-dotted; racemes spreading in a small one-sided panicle; rays 3–4, rather large.—Border of thickets in dry or sandy soil, Maine and Vt. to Ky., and southward.—The crushed leaves yield a pleasant anisate odor; but an occasional form is nearly scentless.

19. S. tortifòlia, Ell. Stem scabrous-puberulent, 2–3° high; leaves linear, short, commonly twisted, roughish-puberulent or glabrate; rays very short.—Dry soil, coast of Va. and southward.

20. S. pilòsa, Walt. Stem stout, upright (3–7° high), clothed with spreading hairs; leaves oblong-lanceolate, roughish, hairy beneath, at least on the midrib, serrulate, the upper ovate-lanceolate or oblong and entire, closely sessile; racemes many, recurved, in a dense pyramidal panicle; rays 7–10, very short.—Low grounds, pine barrens of N. J. to Va. and southward.

[=] 5. Heads small or middle-sized, racemosely paniculate; leaves broad or ample, veiny, at least the lower serrate (or entire in n. 28); involucral scales obtuse.

21. S. pátula, Muhl. Stem strongly angled, smooth (2–4° high); leaves (4–8´ long) ovate, acute, serrate, pale, very smooth and veiny underneath, but the upper surface very rough, like shagreen; racemes rather short and numerous on the spreading branches; heads rather large.—Swamps; common.

22. S. rugòsa, Mill. Rough-hairy, especially the very leafy stem (1–6° high); leaves ovate-lanceolate, elliptical or oblong, often thickish and very rugose; racemes spreading; involucral scales linear; rays 6–9; the disk-flowers 4–7. (S. altissima, Torr. & Gray, not L.)—Borders of fields and copses; very common, presenting a great variety of forms; usually one of the lowest of common Golden-rods. It flowers early. Aug.–Sept.

23. S. ulmifòlia, Muhl. Stem smooth, the branches hairy; leaves thin, elliptical-ovate or oblong-lanceolate, pointed, tapering to the base, loosely veined, beset with soft hairs beneath; racemes panicled, recurved-spreading; involucral scales lanceolate-oblong; rays about 4.—Low copses; common.—Too near the last; distinguished only by its smooth stem and thin larger leaves.

24. S. Ellióttii, Torr. & Gray. Smooth; stem stout (1–3° high), very leafy; leaves elliptical or oblong-lanceolate, acute (2–3´ long), closely sessile, slightly serrate, strongly veined, thick, smooth both sides, shining above; heads in dense spreading racemes which are crowded in a close pyramidal panicle; peduncles and achenes strigose-pubescent. (S. elliptica, Torr. & Gray, not Ait.)—Swamps (fresh or brackish) near the coast, Mass. to N. J. and southward.—Heads showy, 3´´ long; the rays 8–12.

25. S. neglécta, Torr. & Gray. Smooth; stem stout (2–4° high), less leafy; leaves thickish, smooth both sides, opaque; the upper oblong-lanceolate, mostly acute and nearly entire; the lower ovate-lanceolate or oblong, sharply serrate, tapering into a petiole; racemes short and dense, at length spreading, disposed in an elongated or pyramidal close panicle; peduncles and achenes nearly glabrous.—Swamps, Maine to Md., Wisc., and Minn.—Heads rather large, crowded; the racemes at first erect and scarcely one-sided. Very variable, the forms approaching n. 16 and 27.

Var. linoìdes, Gray. The most slender form; radical leaves 4–8´ long and 4–6´´ wide, the upper very small, erect, branches of panicle rather few, one-sided; rays 2–5. (S. linoides, Torr. & Gray.)—Mass. to N. J.

26. S. Boòttii, Hook. Smooth, or scabrous-pubescent or below hirsute, slender, often branched, 2–5° high; leaves rather finely serrate, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, pointed; the upper small, oblong to narrowly lanceolate, often entire; heads loosely racemose; rays 1–5 or none; achenes pubescent.—Dry grounds, Va. and southward.

27. S. argùta, Ait. Smooth; stem angled; leaves (large and thin) ovate, and the upper elliptical-lanceolate, very sharply and strongly serrate (entire only on the branches), pointed at both ends, the lowest on margined petioles; racemes pubescent, spreading, disposed in an elongated open panicle; rays 6–7, large; achenes usually glabrous. (S. Muhlenbergii, Torr. & Gray.)—Copses and moist woods, N. H. to Penn., Ont., and N. E. Minn.—Racemes much shorter and looser than in the next; the involucral scales thin and more slender; the heads somewhat larger, fully 3´´ long.

28. S. júncea, Ait. Smooth throughout (1–3° high); radical and lower stem-leaves elliptical or lanceolate-oval, sharply serrate with spreading teeth, pointed, tapering into winged and ciliate petioles; the others lanceolate or narrowly oblong, slightly triple-nerved, tapering to each end, the uppermost entire; racemes dense, naked, at length elongated and recurved, forming a crowded and flat corymb-like panicle; rays 8–12, small. (S. arguta, Torr. & Gray.)—Var. scabrélla, Gray, is somewhat roughish-pubescent (Wisc. to Ky.).—Copses and banks; common. Well distinguished by its long or drooping racemes, and the closely appressed rigid scales of the involucre, small rays, etc. Heads seldom over 2´´ long, the scales small and pale.

[++][++] Leaves more or less plainly 3-ribbed; heads in one-sided spreading or recurved racemes, forming an ample panicle. Not maritime.

[=] Smooth and glabrous, at least the stem and bright green leaves.

a. Leaves firm and rather rigid; involucral scales thickish, obtuse, quite unequal.

29. S. Missouriénsis, Nutt. Smooth throughout (1–3° high); leaves linear-lanceolate, or the lower broadly lanceolate, tapering to both ends, with very rough margins; teeth, if any, sharp and rigid; heads and dense crowded racemes nearly as in n. 28; achenes nearly glabrous.—Dry prairies, from Wisc. and Ind. south and westward.—Heads 1½–2´´ long.

30. S. Shórtii, Torr. & Gray. Stem slender, simple (2–4° high), minutely roughish-pubescent above; leaves (the larger 2–3´ long) oblong-lanceolate, acute, the lower mostly serrate with a few fine teeth; racemes mostly short in a crowded panicle; achenes silky-pubescent.—Rocks at the Falls of the Ohio; Ark.—A handsome species; heads 3´´ long, narrow.

b. Leaves thinner; involucral scales thin, chiefly linear, obtuse.

31. S. serótina, Ait. Stem stout (2–7° high), smooth, often glaucous; leaves quite smooth both sides, lanceolate, taper-pointed, very sharply serrate, except the narrowed base, rough-ciliate; the ample panicle pubescent; rays 7–14, rather long. (S. gigantea, of previous ed.)—Copses and fence-rows; common, and presenting many varieties. Seldom very tall.

Var. gigantèa, Gray. Commonly tall, 5–8° high; leaves more or less pubescent or hispidulous beneath. (S. gigantea, Ait.; S. serotina of previous ed.)—Thickets and low grounds, Can. to Tex.

32. S. rupéstris, Raf. Stem smooth, slender, 2–3° high; leaves linear-lanceolate, tapering both ways, entire or nearly so; panicle narrow; heads very small; rays 4–6, very short.—Rocky river-banks, W. Va. to Ky. and Ind.

[=][=] Pubescent (at least the stem) or hispidulous-scabrous.

33. S. Canadénsis, L. Stem rough-hairy, tall and stout (3–6° high); leaves lanceolate, pointed, sharply serrate (sometimes almost entire), more or less pubescent beneath and rough above; heads small; rays very short.—Borders of thickets and fields; very common.—Varies greatly in the roughness and hairiness of the stem and leaves, the latter oblong-lanceolate or elongated linear-lanceolate;—in var. pròcera, whitish-woolly underneath; and in var. scàbra also very rough above, often entire, and rugose-veined.

34. S. nemoràlis, Ait. Clothed with a minute and close grayish-hoary (soft or roughish) pubescence; stem simple or corymbed at the summit (½–2½° high); leaves oblanceolate or spatulate-oblong, the lower somewhat crenate-toothed and tapering into a petiole; racemes numerous, dense, at length recurved, forming a large and crowded compound raceme or panicle which is usually turned to one side; scales of the involucre linear-oblong, appressed; rays 5–9.—Dry sterile fields; very common. Flowers very bright yellow, beginning early in Aug.—Var. incàna, Gray, of Minn., and westward, is a dwarf form, with rigid oval or oblong leaves, rather strongly serrate or entire, and the clusters of heads in a dense oblong or conical thyrse.

35. S. rádula, Nutt. Stem and oblong or obovate-spatulate leaves rigid and very rough, not hoary, the upper sessile; scales oblong, rigid; rays 3–6; otherwise nearly as in n. 34.—Dry hills, W. Ill., Minn. Kan., and southward.

36. S. Drummóndii, Torr. & Gray. Stem (1–3° high) and lower surface of the broadly ovate or oval somewhat triple-ribbed leaves minutely velvety-pubescent, some of the leaves almost entire; racemes panicled, short; scales of the involucre oblong, obtuse; rays 4 or 5.—S. W. Ill., Mo., and southward.

[+][+][+][+] Heads in a compound corymb terminating the simple stem, not at all racemose; leaves mostly with a strong midrib.

[++] Leaves flat, not 3-nerved.

37. S. rígida, L. Rough and somewhat hoary with a minute pubescence; stem stout (2–5° high), very leafy; corymb dense; leaves oval or oblong, copiously feather-veined, thick and rigid; the upper closely sessile by a broad base, slightly serrate, the uppermost entire; heads large, over 30-flowered; the rays 7–10.—Dry soil, N. Eng. to Minn., and southward.

38. S. Ohioénsis, Riddell. Very smooth throughout; stem wand-like, slender, leafy (2–3° high); stem-leaves oblong-lanceolate, flat, entire, obscurely feather-veined, closely sessile; the lower and radical ones elongated, slightly serrate toward the apex, tapering into long margined petioles; head numerous, on smooth pedicels, small, 16–20-flowered; the rays 6 or 7.—Moist meadows or prairies, W. New York to Ind. and Wisc.—Root-leaves 1° long; the upper reduced to 1–2´, with rough margins, like the rest.

[++][++] Leaves somewhat folded, entire, the lower slightly 3-nerved.

39. S. Riddéllii, Frank. Smooth and stout (2–4° high), very leafy, the branches of the dense corymb and pedicels rough-pubescent; leaves linear-lanceolate, elongated (4–6´ long), acute, partly clasping or sheathing, mostly recurved, the lowest elongated-lanceolate and tapering into a long keeled petiole; heads very numerous, clustered, 20–30-flowered; the rays 7–9.—Wet grassy prairies, Ohio to Minn. and Mo.; Ft. Monroe, Va.—Heads larger than in the last, 2–3´´ long. Stem-leaves upright and partly sheathing at the base, then gradually recurved-spreading.

40. S. Houghtònii, Torr. & Gray. Smooth; stem rather low and slender (1–2° high); leaves scattered, linear-lanceolate, acutish, tapering into a narrowed slightly clasping base, or the lower into margined petioles; heads few or several, 20–30-flowered; the rays 7–9.—Swamps, north shore of Lake Michigan; Genesee Co., N. Y. July, Aug.—Leaves rough-margined, 2–5´ long, 2–4´´ wide, 1-nerved, or the lower obscurely 3-nerved above; veins obscure. Heads large, nearly ½´ long. Scales of the involucre obtuse.

§ 2. EUTHÀMIA. Corymbosely much branched; heads small, sessile, in little clusters crowded in flat-topped corymbs; the closely appressed involucral scales somewhat glutinous; receptacle fimbrillate; rays 6–20, short, more numerous than the disk-flowers; leaves narrow, entire, sessile.

41. S. lanceolàta, L. Leaves lanceolate-linear, 3–5-nerved; the nerves, margins, and angles of the branches minutely rough-pubescent; heads obovoid-cylindrical, in dense corymbed clusters; rays 15–20.—River-banks, etc., in moist soil; common.—Stem 2–3° high; leaves 3–5´ long.

42. S. tenuifòlia, Pursh. Smooth, slender; leaves very narrowly linear, mostly 1-nerved, dotted; heads obovoid-club-shaped, in numerous clusters of 2 or 3, disposed in a loose corymb; rays 6–12.—Sandy fields, Mass. to Ill., and southward; common near the coast.

18. BRACHYCHÆ̀TA, Torr. & Gray. False Golden-rod.

Heads and flowers nearly as in Solidago, except the pappus, which is a row of minute rather scale-like bristles, shorter than the achene.—A perennial herb, with rounded or ovate serrate leaves, all the lower ones heart-shaped; the small yellow heads in sessile clusters racemed or spiked on the branches. (Name composed of βραχύς, short, and χίτη, bristle, from the pappus.)

1. B. cordàta, Torr. & Gray. Wooded hills, S. Ind. and E. Ky. to N. Ga. Oct.—Plant 2–4° high, slender, more or less pubescent.

19. BÉLLIS, Tourn. Daisy.

Heads many-flowered, radiate; the rays numerous, pistillate. Scales of the involucre herbaceous, equal, in about 2 rows. Receptacle conical, naked. Achenes obovate, flattened, wingless, and without any pappus.—Low herbs (all but our single species natives of the Old World), either stemless, like the true Daisy, B. perennis (which is found as an occasional escape from cultivation), or leafy-stemmed, as is the following. (The Latin name, from bellus, pretty.)

1. B. integrifòlia, Michx. (Western Daisy.) Annual or biennial, diffusely branched (4´–1° high), smoothish; leaves lanceolate or oblong, the lower spatulate-obovate; heads on slender peduncles; rays pale violet-purple.—Prairies and banks, Ky. and southwestward. March–June.


Involucral scales in few series, broadly lanceolate, the outer shorter. Achenes prismatic, the broad truncate apex bearing a short coroniform pappus. Otherwise as Bellis.—Southwestern leafy-stemmed and branching pubescent herbs, with solitary terminal daisy-like heads. (Ἀφανής, inconspicuous, and στέφος, crown; in allusion to the pappus.)

1. A. Arkansànus, Gray. Diffuse, 1° high; leaves oblong-spatulate to broadly lanceolate, the lower often toothed or lobed; rays white to purple, ½´ long; pappus mostly 4–5-lobed.—Plains of Kan. and southward.


Heads several-flowered, radiate; disk-flowers often sterile. Involucral bracts imbricated in 2 or more rows, the outer shorter. Receptacle flat, naked. Achenes fusiform or compressed; pappus of 5 or fewer thin nerveless paleæ, alternating with rough bristly awns, or these wanting.—Low southwestern branching annuals, with narrow entire leaves and solitary terminal heads; ray white or purple. (Χαίτη, a bristle, and πάππος, pappus.)

1. C. asteroìdes, DC. Slender, 2–10´ high, pubescent; involucres narrow, 2´´ long; rays 5–12; achenes pubescent.—Dry grounds, Vernon Co., Mo., and southward.

22. BOLTÒNIA, L'Her.

Heads many-flowered, radiate; the rays numerous, pistillate. Scales of the hemispherical involucre imbricated somewhat in 2 rows, appressed, with narrow membranaceous margins. Receptacle conical or hemispherical, naked. Achenes very flat, obovate or inversely heart-shaped, margined with a callous wing, or in the ray 3-winged, crowned with a pappus of several minute bristles and usually 2–4 longer awns.—Perennial and bushy-branched smooth herbs, pale green, with the aspect of Aster; the thickish leaves chiefly entire, often turned edgewise. Flowers autumnal; disk yellow; rays white or purplish. (Dedicated to James Bolton, an English botanist of the last century.)

[*] Heads middle-sized, loosely corymbed.

1. B. asteroìdes, L'Her. Stems 2–8° high; leaves lanceolate; involucral scales acuminate; pappus of few or many minute bristles and 2 awns or none. (B. glastifolia, L'Her., the awned form.)—Moist places along streams; Penn. to Ill., and southward to Fla. Sept., Oct.—Var. decúrrens, Engelm., a large form with the leaves alate-decurrent upon the stem and branches. Mo. (Eggert).

2. B. latisquàma, Gray. Heads rather larger; involucral scales oblong to ovate, obtuse or mucronate-apiculate; pappus-awns conspicuous.—W. Mo. and Kan.

[*][*] Heads small, panicled on the slender branches.

3. B. diffùsa, L'Her. Stem diffusely branched; leaves lance-linear, those on the branchlets very small and awl-shaped; rays short, mostly white; pappus of several very short bristles and 2 short awns.—Prairies of S. Ill. (Vasey), and southwestward. Aug.–Oct.


Heads many-flowered, the numerous ray-flowers (violet to white) in a single series, fertile. Involucre broad, the lanceolate scariously margined scales imbricated in several series. Receptacle flat, naked. Achenes obovate or oblong, flattened, with thickish margins and beset with forked-capitellate hairs; pappus a single row of long awns or coarse rigid bristles, or reduced in the ray to chaffy scales.—Low scarcely caulescent herbs, with linear to spatulate entire leaves and large heads. (Named for David Townsend, botanical associate of Dr. Darlington of Penn.)

1. T. serìcea, Hook. Acaulescent silky-pubescent perennial; heads sessile, solitary or few, ½–1´ high; ray-pappus mostly bristly.—Dry plains, central Neb., north and westward. April, May.

24. SERICOCÁRPUS, Nees. White-topped Aster.

Heads 12–20-flowered, radiate; the rays about 5, fertile (white). Involucre somewhat cylindrical or club-shaped; the scales closely imbricated in several rows, cartilaginous and whitish, appressed, with short and abrupt often spreading green tips. Receptacle alveolate-toothed. Achenes short, inversely pyramidal, very silky; pappus simple, of numerous capillary bristles.—Perennial tufted herbs (1–2° high), with sessile somewhat 3-nerved leaves, and small heads mostly in little clusters, disposed in a flat corymb. Disk-flowers pale yellow. (Name from σηρικός, silky, and καρπός, fruit.)

[*] Pappus rusty; leaves sparingly serrate, veiny, rather thin.

1. S. conyzoìdes, Nees. Somewhat pubescent; leaves oblong-lanceolate or the lower spatulate, ciliate; heads rather loosely corymbed, obconical (4–6´´ long).—Dry ground; Maine to Ohio, and southward. July.

[*][*] Pappus white; leaves entire, obscurely veined, firmer and smaller.

2 S. solidagíneus, Nees. Smooth, slender; leaves linear, rigid, obtuse, with rough margins, tapering to the base; heads narrow (3´´ long), in close clusters, few-flowered.—Thickets, S. New Eng. to Tenn., and southward. July.

3. S. tortifòlius, Nees. Hoary-pubescent; leaves obovate or oblong-spatulate, short (½–1´ long), vertical, both sides alike; heads rather loosely corymbed, obovoid (4–5´´ long).—Pine woods, Va. and southward. Aug.

25. ÁSTER, L. Starwort. Aster.

Heads many-flowered, radiate; the ray-flowers in a single series, fertile. Scales of the involucre more or less imbricated, usually with herbaceous or leaf-like tips. Receptacle flat, alveolate. Achenes more or less flattened; pappus simple, of capillary bristles (double in §§ 4 and 5).—Perennial herbs (annual only in §§ 7 and 8), with corymbed, panicled, or racemose heads; flowering in autumn. Rays white, purple, or blue; the disk yellow, often changing to purple. (Name ἀστήρ, a star, from the radiate heads of flowers.)

Conspectus of Groups.

Annuals, with copious fine soft pappus 53, 54

Pappus double 46–48

Scales closely imbricated, not green-tipped, often scarious-edged 49–52

Scales closely imbricated, scarcely at all herbaceous; leaves cordate, serrate 2, 3

Scales nearly equal, rigid, more or less foliaceous; pappus-bristles rigid, some thickened at top 1

Scales with herbaceous tips or the outer wholly foliaceous. Aster proper.

Pappus rigid; stem-leaves sessile, none cordate or clasping; heads few, large 4–8

Leaves silvery-silky both sides, sessile, entire 14, 15

Lower leaves more or less cordate, petiolate 17–24

Leaves entire, lower not cordate, cauline sessile with cordate-clasping base 16

Involucre (and branchlets) viscid or glandular; leaves not cordate, mostly entire, the cauline all sessile or clasping 9–13

Lower leaves all acute at base; not glandular nor viscid nor silky-canescent.

Smooth and glabrous, usually glaucous; scales coriaceous at base; leaves firm, usually entire 25–30

Hoary-pubescent or hirsute; scales squarrose; stem-leaves small, linear, entire 31, 32

Scales closely imbricated, not coriaceous at base; branches divaricate; heads many, small 33–35

Remaining species; branches erect or ascending.

Stem-leaves auriculate-clasping or with winged-petiole-like base; involucre lax 42–45

Stem-leaves sessile, but rarely cordate or auriculate at base 36–41

§ 1. HELIÁSTRUM. Pappus simple, coarse and rigid, the stronger bristles somewhat clavate; scales rigid, more or less foliaceous, nearly equal.

1. A. paludòsus, Ait. Stems 1° high; glabrous or nearly so; heads ½´ high, rather few, racemose or spicate; outer scales lax, foliaceous; rays purple; leaves linear, entire.—Mo. to Tex., thence to Car. and Ga.

§ 2. BIÒTIA. Involucre obovoid-bell-shaped; the scales regularly imbricated in several rows, appressed, nearly destitute of herbaceous tips; rays 6–18 (white or nearly so); achenes slender; pappus slightly rigid, simple; lower leaves large, heart-shaped, petioled, coarsely serrate; heads in open corymbs.

2. A. corymbòsus, Ait. Stem slender, somewhat zigzag; leaves thin, smoothish, coarsely and unequally serrate with sharp spreading teeth, taper-pointed, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, all but the uppermost heart-shaped at the base and on slender naked petioles; rays 6–9.—Woodlands; common; especially northward. July, Aug.—Plant 1–2° high, with smaller heads, looser corymbs, rounder and less rigid exterior involucral scales, and thinner leaves than the next; not rough, but sometimes pubescent.

3. A. macrophýllus, L. Stem stout and rigid (2–3° high); leaves thickish, rough, closely serrate, abruptly pointed; the lower heart-shaped (4–10´ long, 3–6´ wide), long-petioled; the upper ovate or oblong, sessile or on margined petioles; heads in ample rigid corymbs; rays 10–15 (white or bluish).—Moist woods; common northward, and southward along the mountains. Aug., Sept.—Involucre ½´ broad; the outer scales rigid, oblong or ovate-oblong, the innermost much larger and thinner.

§ 3. ASTER proper. Scales imbricated in various degrees, with herbaceous or leaf-like summits, or the outer entirely foliaceous; rays numerous; pappus simple, soft and nearly uniform (coarser and more rigid in the first group); achenes flattened. (All flowering late in summer or in autumn.)

[*] 1. Scales well imbricated, coriaceous, with short herbaceous mostly obtuse spreading tips; pappus of rigid bristles; stem-leaves all sessile, none heart-shaped or clasping; heads few, or when several corymbose, large and showy.

[+] Lowest leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, some rounded or subcordate at base.

4. A. Hervèyi, Gray. Slightly scabrous, 1–2° high, the summit and peduncles glandular-puberulent; leaves roughish, obscurely serrate, the lower ovate on nearly naked petioles, the upper lanceolate; heads loosely corymbose, ½´ high; involucre nearly hemispherical, t