Project Gutenberg's A Racial Study of the Fijians, by Norman E. Gabel

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

Title: A Racial Study of the Fijians

Author: Norman E. Gabel

Release Date: March 14, 2012 [EBook #39140]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Charlene Taylor, Jude Eylander, Joseph Cooper
and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at

Illustration: Simplified map of Fiji showing four regional divisions of population made by the author.





Vol. 20, No. I



Editors: C. W. Meighan, Harry Hoijer. Eshref Shevky
Volume 20, No. 1. pp. 1-44, plates 1-15

Submitted by editors April 11, 1957
Issued March 27, 1958
Price. $1.00

University of California Press
Berkeley and Los Angeles

Cambridge University Press
London, England

Manufactured in the United States of America

[Pg v.]



Introduction                       1
The problem and procedure       1
The habitat                     2
History                         3
Population                       3
Racial background               4
Acknowledgments                 4
Measurements and indices           5
General                         5
Weight                         5
Stature                       5
Span                           5
Span-stature index             5
The trunk                       5
Sitting height                 5
Relative sitting height       5
Biacromial                     6
Relative shoulder breadth     6
Bi-iliac                       6
Shoulder-hip                   6
Chest breadth                 6
Chest depth                   6
Thoracic                       6
Arms and legs                   6
Arm length                     6
Humeral length                 6
Radial length                 7
Radial-humeral                 7
Leg length                     7
Tibial length                 7
Calf circumference             7
The head                         7
Head circumference             7
Head length                   7
Head breadth                   7
Cephalic index                 7
Head height                   8
Length-height                 8
Breadth-height                 8
Cranial module                 8
Minimum frontal               8
Fronto-parietal               8
The face                         8
Bizygomatic                   8
Cephalo-facial                 9
Zygo-frontal                   9
Total face height             9
Total facial index             9
Upper face height             9
Upper facial index             9
Bigonial                       9
Fronto-gonial                 9
Zygo-gonial                    10
Nasal height                 10
Nasal breadth                 10
Nasal index                   10
Nasal depth                   10
Nasal-depth index             10
Mouth breadth                 10
Lip thickness                  10
Ear length                    10
Ear breadth                    11
Ear index                      11
Bicanine breadth              11
Morphological observations        12
Pigmentation                    12
Skin color: exposed            12
Skin color: unexposed          12
Hair color                    13
Eye color                      13
Hair                            13
Hair form                      13
Hair texture                  14
Head hair quantity            14
Hair length                    14
Baldness                      14
Beard quantity                14
Body hair                      15
Grayness: head                15
Grayness: beard                16
The face                        16
Prognathism: total            16
Prognathism: mid-facial        16
Prognathism: alveolar          16
Malar projection: lateral      16
Malar projection: frontal      16
Gonial angles                  16
Palate shape                  16
Chin prominence                17
Chin type                      17
The head                        17
Temporal fullness              17
Occipital protrusion          17
Lambdoidal flattening          17
Occipital flattening          17
Median sagittal crest          17
Parietal bosses                17
Cranial asymmetry              17
Facial asymmetry              18
Eyes                            18
Eye folds: external            18
Eye fold: median              18
Eye folds: internal            18
Eye obliquity                  18
Eye opening                    18
Forehead                        18
Brow ridges                    18
Forehead height                19
Forehead slope                19
Nose                            19
Nasion depression              19
Root height                    19
Root breadth                  19
Nasal septum                  19
Bridge height                  19
Bridge breadth                19
Nasal profile                  19
Nasal-tip thickness            20
Nasal-tip inclination          20
Nasal wings                    20
Mouth                            20
Lip thickness: membranous      20
Lip thickness: integumental    20
Lip eversion                  20
Lip seam                      20
Teeth                            21
Bite                          21
Caries                        21
Crowding                      21
Tooth eruption                21
Wear                          21
Ears                            21
Ear helix                      21
Darwin's point                21
Ear-lobe type                  22
Ear-lobe size                  22
Ear protrusion                22
Ear slant                      22
Body build                      22
Body build: endomorph          22
Body build: mesomorph          22
Body build: ectomorph          22
Summary                          23
Conclusions                        25
Literature cited                  26
Plates                            27


Simplified map of Fiji showing four regional divisions of population made by the author ... frontispiece

[Pg 1]





This paper concerns itself with a physical survey of the native male population of Fiji. The main objective is a description of these people by means of anthropometric procedure.[1] The treatment includes, first, a description of the Fijians as a whole, second, a comparison with neighboring people, and third, regional differences among the Fijians themselves.


The data used in this survey were secured in 1954 during a stay of seven months in Fiji. My plan was to obtain anthropometric samples from several parts of the archipelago; this plan was only slightly altered as time and transportation facilities directed. Each of the three main administrative districts into which the islands are divided were visited and within each district samples were secured from most of the constituent provinces. The original sample consisted of 880 subjects. Later, 65 subjects were excluded for various reasons: some were part Samoan or Tongan, a few were Rotumans, and others were immature. The number finally used stands at 815.

A limited amount of comparative material has been included in order to help locate the Fijians in the overall Pacific picture. These data were drawn from W. W. Howells, "Anthropometry and Blood Types in Fiji and the Solomon Islands" in The American Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Papers, volume 33, part 4, 1933, and from L. R. Sullivan, "A Contribution to Tongan Somatology" based on the field studies of E. W. Gifford and W. C. McKern, in Memoires of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, volume 8, number 4, 1922. The latter report provides comparison with what may be termed western Polynesians who are also the nearest Polynesians to the Fijians. The Fijian data in Howell's paper make it possible for me to check some of my own Fijian material, and the Solomon Island data in the same report provide a Melanesian measuring stick.

Since an over-all description of the Fijians is the initial concern of this paper, each physical trait measured or derived from measurement is tabulated according to range, average, and deviation. Traits observed but not measured are presented according to degree of development, e.g., absent, medium, and pronounced, and according to percentage of occurrence. Further statistical manipulation is not deemed necessary for the writer's purposes.

It is well established that the Fijians are a mixed people. They are regarded, and with good reason, as a hybrid of, mainly, Melanesian and Polynesian components. Their geographical location, their history, and their physical appearance bear this out.

The proportions of Polynesian and Melanesian elements are, of course, not evenly distributed throughout Fiji. Even superficial observation indicates that the natives range from strongly Melanesian to markedly Polynesian. To demonstrate how this variability follows certain regional trends, the data have been broken down into four geographical areas. This subdivision rests on several considerations and merits further comment.

One of the subgroups represents the people of the mountainous interior of Viti Levu, the main island of Fiji (see accompanying map). This region may be regarded as something of a refuge area. Fijians from this relatively isolated locality might reasonably be expected to exhibit more of the earlier racial elements of the total composition. It should be pointed out, however, that the degree of isolation associated with this; interior; group is not extreme. Fiji tradition and history indicate extensive interregional movement. Particularly in early historic times, when the advent of firearms and other Western culture greatly stimulated intergroup warfare and cannibalism, there was much moving about from one region to another. With all this, the interior people still remained, as indeed they are today, more apart from the rest of the population and less subject to outside influence.

The second segment chosen for interregional comparison is in the central Lau Islands and is designated in this paper as the "eastern" group. Lying as they do, at the eastern end of Fiji, they are closest to Tonga, the nearest Polynesian neighbors. Tongan contact with Fiji in prehistoric as well as more recent times is well established. [2] It is in the Lau Islands that Polynesian cultural affinities are most marked. Hence, it seems a logical choice for a second and separate glance in the racial history.

The third comparative sample might be termed an intermediate group. It is taken from the coastal villages of eastern Viti Levu, largely from the provinces of Rewa and Tailevu. This area is geographically between the "interior" and "eastern" groups and is referred to in this paper as the "coastal" group.

The final regional division represents the northwestern parts of Viti Levu. This is the place where, according to Fiji tradition, their [Pg 2] ancestors first landed after migrating from the west. [3] Fijian legend, which gives this hint of their ancestry, does not include a physical description of these immigrants. Nor does it define the physical appearance of the earlier people whom the newcomers encountered and with whom they mingled. On the rather slim hope that anthropometry might shed a little light on this questionable phase of Fijian history, this area, along with the first three, has received separate treatment.


The islands of Fiji are centrally located in the southwest Pacific. Over three hundred islands and islets make up the archipelago, which spreads between latitudes 15' and 22' south of the equator for 300 miles. The international date line runs through Fiji at the Koro Sea and the Moala Island group.

The total land area of the islands is about the equivalent of the state of Delaware, somewhat over 7,000 square miles. Two great islands account for nearly 95 per cent of the total area: Viti Levu, the largest, is over 4,000 square miles, and Vanua Levu, about half as large. Over 90 per cent of the native population lives on these two islands although nearly a hundred other islands are inhabited.

Most of the islands are made up of volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The largest islands rest on a submerged portion of an ancient land mass, sometimes called the Melanesian continent, which goes back in time to the Paleozoic and, in its prime, intermittently connected Fiji with southeastern Asia and Australia. Subsequent submergence, followed by cycles of volcanic upbuilding, erosion, and more submergence over eons of time, gave the big islands their upper foundations. The last extensive volcanic activity and land uplift occurred in the Pleistocene and accounts for many of the present mountain masses. The final touches to the Fiji profile have been wrought by more recent weathering and erosion. Sedimentation is still going on at river mouths and along the coasts, where deltas are being built and mangrove thickets flourish.

Many of the smaller islands are old limestone masses that were pushed up from the sea. Unlike the high craggy volcanic islands, these are lower and flat-topped. Typically, they contain a basin-shaped depressed area that is surrounded by a rim. These depressions are usually fertile and heavily forested.

Coral islands make up the third variety of land forms. These are always small and low. Their small size, thinner soil, and lack of fresh water make them much less suitable for human habitation. But even a thin layer of soil produces a luxurious vegetation.

Fringing and barrier reefs are abundant throughout the archipelago, surrounding nearly every island. The most striking of these formations is the Great Sea Reef, which forms an arc of nearly 300 miles along the western fringe of Fiji and encloses large areas of coral-infested sea.

Moderately high mountains give to the larger islands a generally rugged terrain. The more extensive ranges lie across the path of the prevailing south and easterly winds producing windward and leeward climatic areas. On the windward side rainfall is heavy and rather evenly distributed over the year. Here the valleys and mountain slopes support a typical dense tropical growth. The leeward side, however, receives much less moisture and has wet and dry seasons. Scattered patches of trees and grasses cover the ground, whereas heavy stands of forest are confined to valley bottoms and higher mountain slopes. The mountainous interior of Viti Levu contains a number of peaks over 3,000 feet, the highest of which is Mt. Victoria, 4,341 feet.

Surface water is abundant on the bigger islands. Several large and navigable rivers drain Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. The Rewa River, on the east side of Viti Levu is the largest and is navigable for small craft for 70 miles. Smaller rivers and hundreds of streams are important sources of food and drink for the people of the interior.

Great flood plains are formed at the mouths of the larger rivers. These and the fertile flats that run back along the valleys contain the greatest population densities.

The climate is generally pleasant and healthful. Tropical extremes of heat and humidity are moderated by the prevailing trades, which usually supply cool and pleasant breezes from the east. Still, days of uncomfortable heat and oppressive humidity are not unknown; however, such periods are protracted only in the interior. The climate is far from uniform throughout the islands. The windward sides, where rainfall often exceeds a hundred inches, have a more even temperature and sunshine is more moderate. On the leeward sides there is less general cloudiness and more sunshine, especially during the dry season. The smaller islands generally resemble the leeward areas in climate.

Native plant and animal life, like much of the southwest Pacific, is southeastern Asiatic in type and in origin. In the more profuse and varied windward sides there are several general vegetation zones. Along the coasts and in the larger river basins occur alluvial vegetation largely dominated by several kinds of mangrove, which is densest in mud flats washed by the tide. In this zone trees are scattered, and many of them bear useful nuts and fruits. On the slopes and ridges behind the coastal belts are the great tropical rain forests. They make up a dense cover of evergreen trees interwoven with wild creepers and vines. Thick stands of shrubs and smaller trees add to the tropical profusion. Above 2,000 feet the forests thin out and become more heavily coated with moss and lichens, and ferns and orchids attach themselves to the branches. Beyond 3,000 feet is the cloud belt, and above this trees become stunted and are finally replaced by hardy shrubs that cling to the rocks and crags.

On the leeward sides, patches of rain forest are found only in the moister areas. More typical of this zone are thin-leaved trees interspersed in large expanses of meadow and grassland.

A number of native plants are very vital to the Fijian livelihood and some have modern economic importance. Several timber trees are essential to house building, canoe construction, and wood carving. The ubiquitous palms, here as elsewhere in the Pacific, are vital sources of food, drink, building, and weaving materials and cordage. The mangrove provides firewood, house poles, fishing fences, and traps, laths for bows and black dye for their hair and tapa. Valuable starch is secured from the sago palm, which is cut just before flowering, and the leaves are a common thatching material. Various reeds, canes, and bamboos and lianas are useful to Fiji economy. In the drier areas reeds and grasses provide material for house walls, thatch, fish fences, and arrow shafts. Several kinds of trees yield edible nuts and fruits.

Like other central-Pacific island groups, Fiji is poorly provided with indigenous mammals. A small gray rat is a considerable pest in garden and homes, and a large nocturnal bat, which is called a flying fox, lives in tree colonies and is often seen at dusk in banana groves or other feeding places. All the economically important animals of Fiji have been introduced, such as pigs, fowl, dogs, cattle, horses, sheep, and goats.

Bird life is diverse and interesting, although in a number of places introduced forms, like mynahs and turtle doves, have forced the native varieties back into the jungle. Several game birds such as doves, pigeons, and ducks are occasionally hunted.

Snakes and lizards are fairly common on the islands; none is poisonous. Some are eaten, but the practice is not usual. Snakes had a more important place in the former religious and totemic practices.

Much more vital to the native economy is the abundant and varied marine life. This, with gardening, provides the foundation of Fijian subsistence. Turtles, crabs, prawns, eels, to say nothing of scores of fishes, are hunted, trapped, poisoned, speared, and netted. The cycle of the balolo worm has here the same importance as in other Pacific islands.


The first western contact with Fiji was made in 1643 when Captain Abel Tasman entered Fijian waters and sighted several islands and reefs without realizing the nature of his discovery. Over a hundred years later, Captain Cook made a second contact by stopping at one of the southern Lau Islands. Real knowledge of the area began in 1792 when Captain Bligh sailed through the archipelago from the southeast to the northwest, following the famous mutiny of the Bounty. Bligh made an attempt to land, was attacked by natives, and continued through the islands with no more landings. He did, however, make a record of most of the islands he passed.

In the nineteenth century, commercial contacts began in the form of sandalwood trade. This profitable commodity brought Europeans and Americans first to the Sandalwood Coast on the west side of Vanua Levu. During this period the first systematic survey of Fijian waters was made by the U.S. Exploring Expedition in 1840. After little more than a decade the sandalwood supply was depleted to the point where trade virtually ceased.

As a result of this initial commercial contact, which was mainly around western Vanua Levu and eastern Viti Levu, some marked changes were effected in Fijian culture. After the sandalwood traders abandoned Fiji for more profitable fields, a number of deserters and ship-wrecked men remained. These beachcombers, along with firearms that had been introduced by trade or salvaged from wrecks, brought about the first striking alterations. Rival chiefs competed for the acquisition of muskets, gunpowder, and beachcombers. The latter in some instances became attached to royal households as dubious advisors and instructors in the use of guns, powder, and shot. Some of these coaches enjoyed a status resembling that of household pets.

The introduction of firearms changed the native political scene and increased the scope and destructiveness of warfare. For a time the rulers of Mbau in eastern Viti nearly monopolized the supply of muskets and white men. This established their political supremacy over rival [Pg 3] leaders. Larger and stronger political and military alliances, some resembling small kingdoms, developed for purposes of defense or aggression. As warfare grew more frequent, new diseases entered the islands and trade in liquor advanced.

After the third decade of the nineteenth century better elements began to enter Fiji and ensuing culture contact was not so consistently deplorable. Bŕche-de-mer traders and whalers began to visit the islands for trade goods and supplies. Some began to settle at the east end of Viti Levu. Missionaries came in the 1830's and the Christianization of Fiji began.

Internal conflict between rival chiefs, attacks on French, British, and American ships, with subsequent reprisals, continued and intensified. By mid-century, rivalry between the local kingdoms of Mbau and Rewa reached a peak. At this time the powerful ruler of Mbau, Thakombau, who dominated a large segment of eastern Viti Levu, had become hard pressed by his Rewa enemies. Thakombau submitted to the missionaries who had been pressing his conversion. With his support of the missionaries, the native struggles became a religious war between Christianity and paganism as well as between nativism and westernism. Thakombau's cause was rescued in 1855 when King George of Tonga brought an army of 2,000 warriors to Fiji and combined his strength with that of the kingdom of Mbau. Thenceforth Thakombau remained the paramount chief in eastern Fiji and for some twenty ensuing years ruled under the dominance of Tongan princes. Another Tongan chief, Ma'afu, arrived in 1848 and set up a political domain that rivaled the kingdom of Thakombau.

Throughout these struggles and particularly with the conversion of Thakombau and the leadership of the already Christianized Tongan chiefs, native religion, including cannibalism, rapidly declined. Meanwhile, English, Australian, and New Zealand settlers were augmenting earlier trade contacts. Plantations and trade centers developed, and in 1857 a British consul was appointed and set up at Levuka on the east coast of Viti Levu. A few years later Thakombau sought relief from the payment of indemnities to foreign powers and from internal harassments by an offer to cede his dominions to Great Britain. The initial offer was declined and the British consul was recalled in 1860.

The next ten years saw a continuation of political and military turmoil stemming from rival interests of native rulers, Tongan interlopers, and European immigrants. A second appeal to the British government resulted in an unconditional deed of cession on October 10, 1874, which marks the beginning of Fiji's status as a British Crown Colony.


Over 300,000 people live in the Fiji Islands. Of these about 140,000 are native Fijians. The others are arranged in the following divisions: [4]

Indians   154,803
Europeans   6,500
Part European  7,496
Rotumans  3,990
Chinese  3,857
Others  649

[Pg 4]

When Fiji became a British Crown Colony in 1874 the population was entirely native except for a handful of outsiders. At that time the population has been variously estimated at approximately 200,000. Shortly thereafter a measles epidemic reduced their number severely. This, with other epidemics and maladies for which they had little or no immunity or resistence, continued the decimation until by 1905 there were only 87,000. During the next decade they held their own, until in 1919 the influenza scourge brought them to their lowest level of 83,000. This was the last serious setback to their number; since that time the population has been on the upgrade.

A present threat to Fijian population, in the opinion of many, stems not from disease but from the Indian presence. This began in the latter part of the nineteenth century when Indian immigration of indentured laborers began. The influx went on until 1916 by which time some 40,000 to 50,000 Indians had come to Fiji and very few had returned to India. Since then, the Indians have increased more rapidly than the Fijians until they now outnumber them. This situation has, of course, created numerous problems beyond the scope of this paper.

It is significant to point out that intermarriage or interbreeding between Fijians and Indians is relatively slight. The amount of mingling of Fijians with Europeans or Orientals cannot be demonstrated statistically, but it has not been extensive. The Fijians, on the whole, retain pretty much of their prehistoric racial make-up.


It is well established that the Fijians are a mixed people, derived mainly from Melanesian and Polynesian sources. Both of these parental strains in turn are commonly believed to be racial blends. Hooton describes the Melanesians as Oceanic Negroes whose composition includes Negrito, Australoid, "plus convex-nosed Mediterranean plus minor fractions of Malay and Polynesian."[5] Birdsell sees the same three strains in Melanesia which he believes contribute to the Australians, namely Negrito, Murrayan, and Carpentarian, plus a small amount of Mongoloid. He believes they differ from Australians in being "basically negritic in their genetic composition as a result of the rain forest environment."[6] Polynesians, however, are usually thought to be derived from Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid strains in which the Caucasoid component is more often the strongest.

The composite character of the Fijians has been variously explained as far as order and time of the contributing elements are concerned. One theory regards a Negroid stock as aboriginal to which a Polynesian strain was later added. An early explanation of this sort is that of Fornander who held that the ancestors of the modern Polynesians coming from southeastern Asia via Indonesia in the early centuries A.D. made a prolonged stopover in Fiji as they moved eastward. This left a Polynesian imprint on the native Fijian physical appearance as well as on their language and culture.[7] Later on, Churchill added a second movement of Polynesians from the west about a thousand years later. This was used to explain a certain amount of Mongoloid elements that needed accounting for in western Polynesia.[8]

A differing interpretation brings the Polynesian influence into Fiji from the east in relatively recent times. Thomson, for example, regards it as mainly Tongan. There are many references in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to Tongan presence in Fiji; they came to trade, to fight, and merely to visit.

Hocart believes the Polynesians at one time occupied most of Fiji until they were driven eastward to Tonga and Samoa by native Melanesians.[9] Howells tentatively suggests another possibility: originally all of Fiji was occupied by Polynesians except perhaps for some Melanesian tribes in the mountainous interior of Viti Levu. Around the eleventh century a wave of immigrants from the west reached Fiji. "The newcomers, taking possession of the archipelago, partly amalgamated with and partly pushed out the Polynesian tenants, just as did the hill tribes of Hocart's theory, the refugees fleeing to Somoa and Tonga."[10] Howells associates this immigration with the Fijian tradition of an arrival of ancestral families from across the western sea.

This Fijian tradition of their own origin includes a landing on the west coast of Viti Levu at Nandi by an ancestral chief and his sons who came across the sea from the west. Several of his sons moved eastward and eventually founded families with native wives in various parts of the archipelago. These families ultimately became consolidated into present-day tribes or federations. Most Fijian social units derive their origin from this or similar legendary immigrations. These eposodes occurred eight or ten and, in one case, fifteen generations ago.[11] Where these ancestors came from or what their racial affiliations were is not described in the stories. On the basis of supposed similarities of place-names, claims have been made for Africa as the place of origin, but the validity of them is dubious. It is likely that these traditions refer only to the more recent immigrations from the west. As to the racial make-up of the ancestors, it is commonly believed that they were Polynesians who, after settling in various parts of Fiji, took native wives, presumably Melanesian, and originated many of the existing family lines. This assumption does not rest on any actual physical reference to their appearance but on such cultural data as their patrilineal succession and their tradition of strong hereditary chieftainship.


I am indebted to a number of people of Fiji whose assistance and co÷peration were helpful. Thanks are due to Sir Ronald Garvey, governor of Fiji, whose approval of my project gave administrative sanction. Mr. G. Kingsley Roth, the Secretary for Fijian Affairs, secured for me the co÷peration of the Fijian Affairs Department, which in turn gave me access to the proper native officers and leaders, furnished me with necessary transportation; he also gave me some sound advice. Also of the Fijian Affairs Office, Ratu Dr. Dobi helped me make the necessary contacts as my work took me from one area to another. Mr. Robbin H. Yarrow, safety officer of the Emperor Gold Mining Company, was most helpful during my stay at Vatukoula, where I secured an excellent sample of the northern provinces.

The young Fijian who acted as my interpreter, guide, and recorder was Joji Qalelawe; my especial thanks to him for his intelligent and cheerful co÷peration.

[Pg 5]




Total sample814105-300163.020.312.5

The average weight of 163 pounds, coupled with their rather tall stature, describes the Fijian as a large person, on the whole. Their generous weight does not reflect excessive obesity; the body build, as will be pointed out later, is prevailingly muscular and athletic. Variation among the regional samples is not significant; all the groups average more than 160 pounds.


Total sample815150.1-195.0172.56.13.5
Fiji (Howells)133158-190170.86.13.6
Solomons (Howells)85146-181160.26.84.2
Tonga (Sullivan)92160-188173.05.23.0

The stature of the Fijians is moderately tall. Howells' series of Fijians, as well as mine, indicate this category. In this measurement, the Fijians are similar to the Tongans. They are 12 cm. taller than the Melanesians.

Among the Fijian themselves, the interior people of the highlands are definitely shorter than the rest of the population.

Rumors still persist of remnants of pygmoid people in the interior mountains of Viti Levu. I found no evidence of them either in my travels in the interior or by extensive inquiries among natives and Europeans who had thorough knowledge of the whole island.


Total sample815155.0-208.0180.015.18.8

Span of the arms also reflects the generous proportions of the Fijians. Regional difference is not marked. Relative to stature, the hill people have the longer arms and the eastern natives the shortest. The greater relative arm length of the hill tribes seems to be owing more to deficiency of stature than to excessive arm length or shoulder breadth.

Span-Stature Index

Total sample81596.1-116.3104.38.58.15


Sitting Height

Total sample81575.1-10087.03.53.9
Fiji (Howells)13278-10188.33.063.46
Solomons (Howells)8569-9583.63.84.5

A total sitting height average of 87 cm. attests the generous general body length. A regional trend follows the same curve as that for stature. The eastern body length is greatest; it exceeds the over-all average by 1-1/2 cm. and is more than 4 cm. larger than the interior people who fall at the bottom of the scale of sitting height. Howells' Fijian series is close to my eastern average. Compared with the Solomon Islands natives, the Fijians are much more elongated.

Relative Sitting Height

Total sample81545-5850.41.53.0
Fiji (Howells)13246-5751.71.362.63
Solomons (Howells)8546-5752.11.642.92

The relative sitting height ratio for all Fijians is 50.4 per cent. The eastern average of 51 per cent indicates a little more legginess, whereas the interior groups tend somewhat to longer trunks.

[Pg 6]


Total sample81528-4739.78.26.2

The Fijians are generally a broad-shouldered people. The inhabitants of Ra and Ba have the highest average and the interior people are least broad-shouldered.

Relative Shoulder Breadth

Total sample81518-2722.31.35.8

Relative to total stature, shoulder breadth averages 22.3 per cent. No significant regional differences are indicated.


Total sample81523-4029.25.65.3

The Fijians, as a whole, are fairly broad-hipped; this condition holds with little variation in all the provinces.


Total sample81558-10173.74.35.8

The total shoulder-hip ratio describes the shoulders as 73.7 per cent as wide as the hips. These ratios do not vary greatly in different parts of Fiji. The somewhat higher index of the hill groups is owing largely to their narrower shoulders, whereas the superior shoulder breadth of the northwest provinces contributes mostly to the lower hip-shoulder index.

Chest Breadth

Total sample81524-3928.66.45.7

Broad chests are also characteristic in Fiji. The eastern men surpass the Viti Levu males, and the interior groups have the narrowest chests, but the regional variations are small.

Chest Depth

Total sample815184-30822.95.57.0

The chests of the Fijians are also fairly deep. The close similarity in chest depth of the interior group and the eastern sample is rather striking inasmuch as the former are nearly 4 cm. shorter in stature. This would indicate that the interior group, for their size, are relatively deep-chested.


Total sample81559-9676.44.66.0

The thoracic index shows that the Fijians are deep-chested relative to thoracic breadth as well as in absolute values. Again the interior people stand out for their deeper chests.


Arm Length

Total sample81545-8775.25.06.6

The over-all arm length is 75.2 cm. Shorter arms seem to be characteristic of the interior population where the average is nearly 2 cm. less than the over-all average. The eastern group has the longest arms; the other samples are intermediate.

Humeral Length

Total sample81526-3932.88.65.7

Length of the upper arm averages 33 cm. for all Fijians; the several provinces are closely similar in this trait.

Radial Length

Total sample81523-3527.64.15.1

Lower arm length is 27.6 cm. and also varies but little among the regional samples.


Total sample81565-11384.04.25.0

The radial-humeral ratio indicates that the lower arm of Fijians is 84 per cent as long as the upper arm. None of the subgroups deviates markedly from this average.

Leg Length[13]

Total sample81561-9884.310.512.5

Average leg length is 84.3 cm., and some regional differences are manifest. The legs of the hill people are shorter by 3 cm. than are the other groups. Their neighbors to the northwest and east have the longest legs, and the eastern are intermediate.

Tibial Length

Total sample81534-4940.98.36.9

Lower leg length is around 40 cm. for all Fijians. The regional pattern is similar to that of total leg length: shortest in the highlands, intermediate in the east, and longest in the coastal and northwestern districts.

Calf Circumference

Total sample81529-5737.66.77.1

[Pg 7]

The generous girth of the calf of the Fijians reflects their sturdily muscled legs. The eastern groups excel the other Fijians in this respect, whereas the interior groups have the lowest average for calf circumference.


Head Circumference

Total sample815410-630562.47.86.7

The head circumference average of 562.4 mm. Probably is a little on the large size because of the thick wiry hair of most Fijians; the eastern groups appear to have the largest heads and the northwestern groups show a rather abrupt drop.

Head Length[14]

Total sample815162-215187.99.45.0
Fiji (Howells)133164-208188.87.293.86
Solomons (Howells)85170-208188.56.53.5
Tonga (Sullivan)117173-213191.06.63.5

Total head length for all Fijians is 187.9 mm; longest heads occur in the interior. Both Howells' Fijian average and the Solomon Islands series are close to the above value. Gifford's Tongan head length of 191 mm. Somewhat exceeds the Fijian.

Head Breadth

Total sample815122-186155.96.87.7
Fiji (Howells)133135-170153.76.13.9
Solomons (Howells)85126-158144.75.23.6
Tonga (Sullivan)117145-167154.84.32.8

General head breadth is 155.9 mm., and considerable regional variation is shown. Fijians of the interior have the narrowest heads, whereas the coastal and eastern people have appreciably wider heads. Howells' series of Fijians are closest to my highland groups.

The Solomon Islanders are markedly narrower headed than the Fijians, whereas Sullivan's Tongan series is nearer the Fijian average.

[Pg 8]

Cephalic Index

Total sample81568-9983.06.47.7
Fiji (Howells)13368-9481.544.75.7
Solomons (Howells)8565-8876.83.95.1
Tonga (Sullivan)11773-8981.13.13.9

Most Fijians tend to brachycephaly. The eastern natives and those of the coastal series have the broadest heads. The interior people show definitely lesser values in this ratio than do the other groups. Howells' Fijian series is close to the northwestern Fijians in their mesocephaly, and so is the Tongan mean. The Solomon series borders on dolicocephaly.

Head Height

Total sample815110-154129.56.87.9

Head height averages do not differ greatly among the provinces. The interior and northwestern people have somewhat lower heads; the coastal and eastern people show slight superiority.


Total sample81555-8469.03.43.6

Relative to head length, the cranial vault of Fijians is high. The mountain people show the lowest relative head height, whereas the other provinces are nearer to the over-all average.


Total sample81566-10283.03.03.3
Interior15475- 9684.03.94.6
East12075- 9182.43.44.1
Coast21066- 9782.85.38.4
N.W.7973- 9281.28.69.7

Head height relative to total breadth is 83 per cent. In this ratio the interior groups have the highest index, a condition owing more to deficiency in cranial breadth than to superior head height.

Cranial Module

Total sample815141-176157.710.56.7

Head size as expressed by the cranial module averages 157.7 mm. for all Fijians. Regional fluctuation is unimportant.

Minimum Frontal

Total sample81599-125109.94.02.7

A minimum frontal diameter of 109.9 mm. indicates a fairly ample forehead breadth for the total sample. None of the subgroups depart much from this value.


Total sample81558-8970.64.36.1

Forehead breadth relative to total cranial width is 70.6 per cent. The greatest deviation from this average occurs in the interior where the fronto-parietal ratio is 72.2 per cent and lesser head breadth more than greater forehead width causes the higher index.



Total sample815110-164145.75.03.4
Fiji (Howells)132130-159144.055.053.5
Solomons (Howells)84115-149138.05.54.0
Tonga (Sullivan)116131-159143.55.94.1

Broad faces are the rule among most of these people, as the total average of 145.7 mm. shows. Regional values for this criterion are closely alike in all parts of Fiji, the eastern showing a slight superiority in bizygomatic breadth.

Howells' Fiji series is slightly lower in this diameter as is the Tongan average. The Solomon Islands natives have definitely narrower faces.


Total sample81582-10893.55.76.1
Fiji (Howells)13285-11193.73.53.7
Solomons (Howells)8485-11195.43.84.0
Tonga (Sullivan)11685-10392.83.53.7

Face breadth relative to head width averages 93.5 per cent for all Fijians; Howell's series is much the same. The narrower heads of the interior people largely account for their higher index; otherwise there is general similarity in the several provinces.


Total sample81564-10075.53.03.9
Tonga (Sullivan)11663-8473.14.25.8

The ratio of forehead width to face breadth is 75.5. All of the regional averages for the zygo-frontal index are strikingly alike among the Fijians in every instance; the forehead is about three-quarters the breadth of the face. The Tongan ratio is a little lower.

Total Face Height

Total sample815100-147122.56.04.9
Fiji (Howells)133105-159121.86.95.7
Solomons (Howells)85100-129116.46.65.7
Tonga (Sullivan)116112-147128.26.85.3

Fijian faces have the moderate average height of 122.5 mm. Slightly shorter faces occur in the interior people, whereas the greatest total face height average occurs in the east. The Fijian of Howells' series is close to mine. The Tongan value for face height describes them as definitely longer faced. The Solomon Islanders depart in the other direction with decidedly shorter faces.

Total Facial Index

Total sample81568-10484.14.65.5
Fiji (Howells)13274-10584.75.06.0
Solomons (Howells)8474-9784.54.45.2
Tonga (Sullivan)11678-10289.34.45.0

[Pg 9]

Relative to maximum breadth, the Fijian face tends to shortness, although this is due largely to their generous facial breadth rather than absolute deficiency of height. The interior groups have the lowest values and the eastern groups show relatively broad faces.

The Tongan average is much higher than any of the Fijian values, whereas the Solomon Islanders show similarity to the Fijians in this feature.

Upper Face Height

Total sample81556-8470.25.17.3

The ratio of the upper face height to maximum facial breadth shows the Fijians of the interior to be relatively shorter faced and the eastern people longest. The coastal and northwestern series are intermediate.

Upper Facial Index

Total sample81537-6548.23.77.7

The ratio of the upper face height to maximum facial breadth shows the Fijians of the interior to be relatively shorter faced and the eastern people longest. The coastal and northwestern series are intermediate.


Total sample81595-146109.75.14.6
Tonga (Sullivan)11692-119104.85.85.5

Lower jaw breadth as expressed by the bigonial diameter indicates a tendency to broadness shared with little variation among all the subgroups. The Tongan value is considerably smaller.


Total sample81580-12299.95.55.5

Similarly the bigonial diameter in relation to forehead breadth is much the same in all groups, the general average nearly 100 per cent.

[Pg 10]


Total sample81565-8675.34.15.4
Tonga (Sullivan)11663-8773.24.66.2

Relative to face breadth, jaw width is 75.3 per cent with very little geographic variation.

Nasal Height

Total sample81542-6553.93.46.3
Fiji (Howells)13344-6352.43.97.4
Solomons (Howells)8540-5949.93.87.7
Tonga (Sullivan)11747-6557.43.96.8

The Fijian nose may be called medium long. Greatest nasal heights occur in the eastern and in the coastal series. The interior and northwestern groups have shorter noses. The Fijians of Howells' series fall near the short end of my averages. Natives of the Solomons are definitely lower in nasal height, whereas the Tongan's average is so much higher that one suspects a difference in the location of the nasion.

Nasal Breadth

Total sample81531-6246.73.47.3
Fiji (Howells)13337-5446.193.06.0
Solomons (Howells)8534-5144.62.86.3
Tonga (Sullivan)11738-5544.43.06.8

Broad noses are common to most Fijians. The greatest contrast is between the narrower-nosed eastern people and the interior people, among whom the widest noses occur. The nose of the Solomon Islanders is somewhat narrower, according to Howells' data, and the Tongan average is also lower.

Nasal Index

Total sample81561-11287.18.29.4
Fiji (Howells)13368-12388.88.39.3
Solomons (Howells)8568-11987.18.910.2
Tonga (Sullivan)11761-9877.67.69.8

Platyrrhini is the rule in Fiji, but individual and regional variations are great. There are some leptorrine subjects in every province, and there are some whose noses are broader than long. The interior people and the northwestern groups have the relatively broadest noses, whereas the eastern index is more moderate. The noses of Sullivan's Tongans are relatively longer than the Lauans. The Solomon Island average is identical with the Fijian.

Nasal Depth

Total sample81516-3222.02.93.2

Nasal depth averages 22 mm.; the regional variation is very small.

Nasal-Depth Index

Total sample81532-6047.26.86.8

Mouth Breadth

Total sample81529-7257.64.78.2

Mouth breadth averages show the interior groups to have widest mouths, the eastern people least wide, and the coastal and northwestern people intermediate.

Lip Thickness

Total sample8159-4522.43.86.9

Thick lips are characteristic of most Fijians. The interior average is highest for this diameter, whereas the northwestern Fijians have least-thick lips.

Ear Length

Total sample81555-8366.64.56.8
Tonga (Sullivan)11756-8166.04.66.9

[Pg 11]

Fijian ears on the whole tend to be long, as the average 66.6 mm. indicates. Regional differences are slight. Tongans closely resemble Fijians.

Ear Breadth

Total sample81524-5534.33.29.3
Tonga (Sullivan)11625-4234.52.67.6

Ear breadth is also generous, and regional differences hardly exceed 1.5 mm., including the Tongans.

Ear Index

Total sample81538-6251.65.09.7
Tonga (Sullivan)11641-6252.43.97.5

Length-breadth ear ratios indicate that coastal groups have somewhat broader, and the northwestern people the relative longest, ears.

Bicanine Breadth

Total sample81524-7239.811.719.4

Bicanine breadth is characteristically great among Fijians, reflecting the ample jaws and teeth. Widest diameters are seen in the east, followed by the hill people of the interior. The northwestern groups have the least bicanine diameter.

[Pg 12]



Skin Color: Exposed

BrunetSwarthyLt. BrnMed. BrnDk. BrnBlackTotal
No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Total sample1 .015 .630 4400 48377 460 0813
Interior0 00 01 155 3697 630 0153
East0 03 212 1099 836 60 0120
Coast0 01 07 385 41116 560 0209
N.W.0 00 01 142 5336 460 079
Fiji II0 00 00 0128 965 40 0133
Solomons0 00 00 04 579 932 385
Tonga(Range: Lt. Brown to Dk. Brown.)

Color of skin includes exposed and unexposed areas. The former was observed on the face, since the Fijians do not use any kind of face or head covering. This condition in the total series divides itself quite evenly between medium brown and dark brown. A few have light-brown skin; only six individuals are classified as swarthy and brunet. None was judged to be completely black. The Fijians of Howells' series are described as 96 per cent medium brown[15] and 5 per cent dark brown, a discrepancy I would attribute to personal judgment difference. The Solomon Islanders are markedly darker than the Fijians, the majority have dark-brown skin and 3 per cent are black, whereas 5 per cent have medium-brown complexions.

Tongan data on skin color cannot be directly adjusted to my statistics. Sullivan's comment on their skin color states that it is "a medium yellowish-brown where it is unexposed to the sun. Exposed parts of the skin of a few of the persons were a very dark chocolate" (Sullivan, 1922, p. 248).

Among the Fijians themselves, the greatest contrasts occur between the eastern and the interior groups of Viti Levu. Where 63 per cent of the latter have dark-brown skin, only 5 per cent of eastern fall into this category. The bulk of eastern (83 per cent) have medium-brown skin as against 36 per cent of hill people. The coastal and northwestern provinces are, like the total series, more evenly divided between medium and dark brown.

Skin Color: Unexposed

BrunetSwarthyLt. BrnMed. BrnDk. BrnBlackTotal
No. %No. %No.%No.%No. %No. %
Total sample6 19 1242 30545 6611 10 0813
Interior0 00 020 13133 870 00 0153
East3 34 377 6436 300 00 0120
Coast1 12 156 27148 712 10 0209
N.W.0 01 120 2557 721 10 079
Fiji II0 00 00 0127 965 40 0132
Solomons0 00 00 09 1174 872 285

Unexposed skin color was observed on the under surface of the upper arm near the armpit. The anticipated shift in color range results in a reduction of dark-skin incidence to a mere 1 per cent, and an increase in medium brown to 60 per cent and of light brown to 30 per cent.

Howells' describes 96 per cent of his Fijians as medium brown, 4 per cent dark brown, and none light brown. The Solomon Islanders seem definitely darker than the Fijians whether they are compared with Howells' or my series.

The eastern groups continues to contrast with the interior people. The former show a majority of 64 per cent in the light-brown category as compared with 13 per cent among the interior groups; the latter have a medium-brown incidence of 87 per cent against 30 per cent among Lauans.

[Pg 13]

Hair Color

BlackDk. BrnMed. BrnLt. BrnRed-BrnTotal
No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Total sample757 9331 51 00 018 2807
Interior145 958 50 00 00 0153
East114 956 50 00 00 0120
Coast193 9211 50 00 05 2204
N.W.70 895 60 00 04 575
Fiji II118 919 70 00 03 2130
Solomons55 6526 310 03 40 084
Tonga0 940 40 00 00 00

Black hair is the usual color, although 5 per cent are described as dark brown and a few red-brown. This latter variation is a rufous color (reddish-brown) and it may be a little more frequent than the data indicate because the Fijians frequently dye their hair with a substance extracted from mangrove bark. This intensifies the usual blackness of the hair and adds a satisfying gloss. More sophisticated natives have access to modern hair dye and lacking this, some have been known to resort to black shoe polish.

Hair bleaching is no longer practiced in Fiji.

The hair of the Solomons Islands is not so uniformly black, nearly a third have dark-brown hair and a few are light brown.

Eye Color

BlackDk. BrnMed. BrnLt. BrnTotal
No. %No.%No. %No. %
Fiji I2 0550 68257 314 1813
Interior0 0131 8622 140 0153
East0 071 5948 401 1120
Coast0 0127 6181 391 0209
N.W1 153 6725 320 079
Fiji II0 0130 980 02 2132
Solomons0 085 1000 00 085
Tonga0 30 940 00 30

A little more than two-thirds of Fijians' eyes are described as dark brown. The remaining third have medium-brown eyes. There were four individuals who were light brown. Howells, with his Fijian series, is more generous with the darker designation; he designated 98 per cent as dark brown and 2 per cent light brown. His Solomons sample is described as dark brown without exception. The Tongan data also is recorded as more uniformly dark brown than my Fijians.

The Fijians of the interior of Viti Levu have more deeply pigmented eyes than the others; 86 per cent are classed as dark brown and only 14 per cent medium brown.


Hair Form

StraightLow WaveDeep WaveCurlFrizzWoolTotal
No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Total sample0 07 0.113 0.291 11.0702 8620 0813
Interior0 00 00 04 3149 970 0153
East0 01 110 837 3172 600 0120
Coast0 00 13 018 9188 900 0209
N.W.0 02 30 07 970 890 079
Fiji II0 00 00 019 1638 3359 51116
Solomons2 3.31 1.60 016 2617 2825 4161

Frizzly hair is the condition of over 85 per cent of Fijians; 11 per cent are curly-haired, whereas over twenty individuals have wavy hair. Straight hair is absent. The Fiji II series of Howell distinguishes between frizzly and wooly hair, which I do not. Their combined incidence is 83 per cent, quite close to my frequency of frizzly. Whether one does or does not distinguish between frizzly and wooly hair, there is no doubt that most Fijians have Negroid hair form. The Solomon Islanders are surprising with somewhat less Negroid hair form than the Fijians. Their combined percentage of frizzly and wooly is 69, which is nearly 20 per cent less than that of the Fijians. Twenty per cent have curly hair against 11 per cent among Fijians. Also, the only instances of straight hair occur in the Solomons.

In the Fijian breakdown, the interior groups have the most Negroid hair; 97 per cent have frizzly hair and 3 per cent have curly hair. The eastern people are the least Negroid in this respect; frizzly hair drops to 60 per cent, whereas curly hair advances to 30 per cent and wavy hair to 9 per cent. The coastal and northwestern series are closer to the interior groups with about 90 per cent frizzly hair.

[Pg 14]

Hair Texture

No. %No. %No. %
Total sample804 999 10 0813
Interior153 1000 00 0153
East116 974 30 0120
Coast208 1001 00 0209
N.W.78 991 10 079

Hair texture is prevailingly coarse; only 1 per cent of the total series shows medium coarseness and none have fine hair. This preponderance of coarse hair is much the same in all the provinces, although the eastern people do depart slightly with a 3 per cent incidence of medium-coarse hair.

It might be added that Fijian hair is quite stiff or wiry. For example, when the hair is unshorn, it stands out like a mop. A Fijian can insert a long stemmed flower in his hair and it will stay in place with no additional fastening.

Head Hair Quantity

No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Total sample0 061 7219 27533 650 0813
Interior0 026 1727 18100 650 0153
East0 05 424 2091 760 0120
Coast0 011 563 30135 650 0209
N.W.0 07 921 2751 650 079
Fiji II0 00 00 01 1132 92133
Solomons0 00 00 05 680 9485

Head hair quantity is pronounced in the majority of Fijians (65 per cent); it is moderate in 27 per cent and submedium in 7 per cent. Howells describes nearly all the Fijians as having very pronounced head hair—99 per cent, which would appear to be a personal difference in appraisal. In any case, the two series agree that Fijians have hair of more than moderate quantity. The Melanesians of the Solomons are also characterized by much head hair.

Regionally, the only significant variation in this trait is shown in the east, where more individuals have a submedium designation. In the absence of age data, this contrast cannot be fairly interpreted.

Hair Length

It might be observed here that although hair length was not included in this survey, on the basis of personal but unrecorded observation, the Fijians conform to the Melanesian pattern. Most Fijian men now cut their hair short in the Western style, but some still do not. Women generally trim their hair but not short. The natural length of head hair is intermediate between the short-haired African Negroes and the long-haired Caucasians and Mongolians.


No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Total sample731 9040 330 412 10 0813
Interior122 8012 812 87 50 0153
East112 933 34 31 10 0120
Coast194 9310 54 21 00 0209
N.W.72 911 13 43 40 079

The lack of age correlations also limits the value of data on baldness, but some meaning can nevertheless be extracted. Regardless of age, with an incidence of pronounced baldness of 1 per cent among all adult males and of 4 per cent for a moderate condition, it is a clear indication that Fijians are not prone to loss of head hair.

[Pg 15]

Beard Quantity

No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Total sample0 0234 29370 44208 261 .01813
Interior0 022 1467 4464 420 0153
East0 045 3859 4916 130 0120
Coast0 060 2994 4554 261 0209
N.W.0 022 2830 3827 340 079
Fiji II
  cheeks27 212 244 3446 3512 9131
  skin9 70 052 4056 4314 10131
  cheeks21 250 042 4922 260 085
  chin7 80 053 6225 290 085
  chin0 00 190 3150 00 00
  lower chk.0 40 370 1840 00 00

Moderate beard quantity is shown by 44 per cent of Fijians; the remainder are fairly evenly divided between the submedium and pronounced categories. Howells' series, which records beard quantity for the cheeks and chin separately, shows a higher frequency of pronounced and very pronounced designations. However, his data includes many individuals who have no beards at all. Both series are doubtless influenced by the fact that they contain a preponderance of young adult; a greater proportion of older men would have greatly raised the incidence of the pronounced categories.

Nearly all modern Fijians have adopted the Western practice of shaving. Examination of earlier pictures and written description of Fijians leaves no doubt that the majority of mature men possess luxurious beards when nature is unrestrained.

The natives of the Solomon Islands, according to Howells, are a little less bearded than the Fijians.

The Tongans are a little more heavily bearded than the Fijians.

Some geographical variation is indicated by my data. The interior people of Fiji have the highest incidence of face hair; 42 per cent are recorded as pronounced. Least endowed are the eastern Fijians, where 13 per cent have pronounced beards and 38 per cent are submedium. The coastal and northwestern series conform more closely to the overall distribution.

Body Hair[17]

No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Total sample0 0243 30328 40162 2080 10813
Interior0 031 2056 3741 2725 16153
East0 055 4645 3814 126 5120
Coast0 057 2782 3946 2224 11209
N.W.0 016 2036 4619 248 879
Tonga0 023 290 260 220 00

The body hair endowment is also not unimpressive. Forty per cent show a moderate condition, 20 per cent are pronounced, and 10 per cent very pronounced; none are totally devoid of body hair; 30 per cent are submedium. Chest hair among the Tongans is somewhat less in evidence; although the majority range from submedium to pronounced, 23 per cent are described as hairless.

The provincial distribution in Fiji follows that of face hair: the interior groups are hairiest and the eastern people least so.

The anatomical distribution of body hair deserves some comment, even though specific observations were made on the chest. Not infrequently the hair is heavier on the upper legs than on the chest. Occasionally, too, the back of the shoulders is quite hairy as well as the belly.

Grayness: Head

No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Total sample621 7682 1082 1028 33 3813
Interior80 5237 2419 1217 110 0153
East91 7613 1116 130 00 0120
Coast176 8414 717 82 10 0209
N.W.60 768 109 112 30 079

[Pg 16]

Grayness: Beard

No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Total sample610 7561 890 1152 60 0813
Interior72 4730 2020 1331 200 0153
East89 749 818 154 30 0120
Coast178 858 421 102 10 0209
N.W.60 766 811 142 30 079

Grayness of the hair data without corresponding age incidence is not particularly significant. It is clear, nevertheless, that premature grayness is not common. I would hazard the judgment that on the whole the Fijians show less tendency to grayness than do Caucasians.

The higher incidence of grayness of the interior sample of Fijians is likely due to a larger number of older men in that series.


Prognathism: Total

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I206 25306 38288 3513 2813
Interior40 2659 3952 342 1153
East54 4555 4611 90 0120
Coast47 2284 4073 355 2209
N.W.18 2329 3732 410 079
Tonga63 5326 2229 250 0118

Prognathism: Mid-Facial

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I517 64184 23109 133 1/2813
Interior133 8715 105 30 0153
East100 8317 143 30 0120
Coast122 5849 2337 181 1209
N.W.48 6120 2511 140 079

Prognathism: Alveolar

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I798 989 14 1/22 0813
Interior153 1000 00 00 0153
East120 1000 00 00 0120
Coast207 990 01 1/21 1/2209
N.W.76 {96}2 30 01 179

Slight and moderate total prognathism characterizes most Fijians.but it is pronounced in only 13 of the 813 subjects. A quarter of the series show no prognathism. The eastern people are least prognathic with a zero incidence of 45 per cent. The other regional sample are close to the general condition.

Mid-facial prognathism has a submedium incidence of 23 per cent and a medium of 13 per cent; the remainder lack the condition, except three individuals who are pronounced.

The coastal and northwestern groups have more frequent medium designations. Alveolar prognathism is almost entirely lacking in all groups.

Malar Projection: Lateral

No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I1 02 0264 32543 673 0813
Interior0 00 062 4191 590 0153
East0 00 025 2195 790 0120
Coast0 00 068 33141 670 0209
N.W.0 00 028 3550 631 179

Malar Projection: Frontal

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I4 1/20 0709 87100 12809
Interior0 00 0139 9114 9153
East0 00 0103 8617 14120
Coast1 00 0181 8727 13209
N.W.0 00 067 8512 1579

The facial contours generally include lateral malar projection; two-thirds show a pronounced condition and the balance are medium. The eastern people have high cheek bones oftener than do the others.

Frontal malar projection is also common but more often moderately so; 87 per cent show medium projection and 12 per cent are pronounced.

Gonial Angles

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I24 3459 56325 405 1813
Interior0 097 6355 361 1153
East1 165 5454 450 0120
Coast7 3110 5390 432 1209
N.W.3 449 6227 340 079

Palate Shape

ParabolicSm. ULg. USquareTotal
No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I493 612 0303 3715 2813
Interior94 610 059 390 0153
East81 680 038 321 1120
Coast131 630 071 347 3209
N.W.50 631 127 341 179

A fairly strong tendency to well-developed gonial angles is indicated; 40 per cent show pronounced angles and nearly all the rest are medium. These proportions hold pretty much for all groups.

Palate shape also attests to the well-developed jaws of Fijians; it is a large U in 37 per cent of the subjects; 2 per cent are square and the remainder parabolic.

Chin Prominence

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I2 0164 20593 7354 7813
Interior0 036 24110 727 5153
East0 025 2189 746 5120
Coast0 041 20153 7313 6207
N.W.1 111 1455 709 1176

Chin Type

No. %No. %
Fiji I673 83140 17813
Interior130 8523 15153
East112 938 7120
Coast162 7845 22207
N.W.62 8214 1876

A well-developed chin further typifies most Fijian faces; nearly three-quarters have a moderate chin prominence, 7 per cent are pronounced, and the remainder are submedium. This range is much the same in the subgroups.

The chin is commonly median although 17 per cent have the bilateral type. The bilateral chin is least frequent in Lau (7 per cent).


Temporal Fullness

No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I1 0563 69249 31813
Interior0 0113 7440 26153
East0 070 5850 42120
Coast1 0148 7160 29208
N.W.0 059 7520 2579

Occipital Protrusion

No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I13 2775 9525 3813
Interior4 3149 970 0153
East0 0116 974 3120
Coast3 1193 9213 6209
N.W.0 079 1000 079

A narrowness in the temporal part of the head is indicated. Sixty-nine per cent of the subject show submedium temporal fullness, whereas the remainder are moderate. This condition is not marked and may best be described as a discernable tendency.

[Pg 17]

The back of the head is generally rather flat as the 95 per cent incidence of occipital protrusion indicates. This is a natural condition; no intentional flattening is practiced by Fijians.

Lambdoidal Flattening

No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I754 9332 427 3813
Interior153 1000 00 0153
East113 945 42 2120
Coast188 9013 68 4209
N.W.72 913 44 579

Occipital Flattening

No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I809 1002 02 0813
Interior153 1000 00 0153
East120 1000 00 0120
Coast209 1000 00 0209
N.W.79 990 01 179

Median Sagittal Crest

No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I600 74177 2236 4813
Interior96 6346 3011 7153
East109 9110 81 1120
Coast160 7743 216 3209
N.W.53 5724 302 379

Parietal Bosses

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I17 2413 51381 472 0813
Interior1 1130 8522 140 0153
East4 366 5550 420 0120
Coast6 382 39120 571 0209
N.W.1 140 5138 480 079

A median sagittal crest though not striking is recorded in a number of cases. It has a submedium incidence of 22 per cent and pronounced 4 per cent. Among the interior people, the crest is more common. Because of the heavy, bushy, and wiry hair of Fijians it is probable that some instances of this feature were not detected by simple palpation, and the incidence may be higher than the data indicate.

Submedium development of the parietal bosses is rather common occurring in 51 per cent of the series. It is very common in the interior (85 per cent).

Cranial Asymmetry

No. %No. %No. %
Fiji813 1000 00 0813
Interior153 1000 00 0153
East119 1000 00 0119
Coast208 1000 00 0208
N.W.79 1000 00 079

[Pg 18]

Facial Asymmetry

No. %No. %No. %
Fiji806 1001 00 0807
Interior153 1000 00 0153
East117 980 02 2119
Coast206 990 02 1208
N.W.78 991 00 079

Cranial and facial assymetry are generally lacking, at least in any marked degree. Normal asymmetries of the face and head were ignored in this description.


Eye Folds: External

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji804 985 14 10 0813
Interior152 990 01 10 0153
East119 990 01 10 0120
Coast209 991 11 10 0208
N.W.78 990 01 10 079

Eye Fold: Median

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I782 963 1/225 33 1/2813
Interior152 990 01 10 0153
East108 901 110 81 1120
Coast202 971 05 21 0209
N.W.78 990 00 01 179

Eye Folds: Internal

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I778 964 030 41 0813
Interior151 990 02 10 0153
East102 851 117 141 0120
Coast203 970 06 30 0209
N.W.78 990 01 10 079
Fiji II116 897 5-1/27 5-1/20 0130
Solomons80 942 2-1/23 3-1/20 085
Tonga63 5733 309 86 5111

Eye folds are not a feature of the Fijian facial make-up. The external fold is present in only 2 per cent of the total series. The median fold shows a 96 per cent absence. The eastern groups exceed the other provinces with a 10 per cent occurrence. The internal eye fold has a total presence of 4 per cent and is also commoner in the east (14 per cent).

Eye Obliquity

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I251 31358 43201 253 1813
Interior92 6046 3014 91 1153
East33 2852 3545 380 0120
Coast47 22102 4958 282 1209
N.W.27 3432 4120 250 079

Eye Opening

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I0 075 9-1/2737 911 1/2813
Interior0 024 16128 841 1153
East0 013 11107 890 0120
Coast0 09 4200 960 0209
N.W.0 07 972 910 079

Some degree of eye obliquity is present in the majority of cases; 43 per cent show a submedium condition; 25 per cent are medium and three individuals have pronouncedly oblique eyes. The remainder, or 31 per cent, have no obliquity. In the east, the natives depart from this total distribution in opposite directions. The interior groups have much less eye obliquity; the eastern people, a great deal more. The other provinces are quite close to the total frequencies.

Eye opening height is preponderately moderate (91 per cent). The remaining 10 per cent with one exception show submedium eye opening. Regional variation is not great. The eastern and interior groups have a little higher frequency in the submedium class.


Brow Ridges

No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I0 0148 19364 44295 366 1813
Interior0 016 1069 4564 424 3153
East0 028 2342 3550 420 0120
Coast0 042 2099 4767 321 0209
N.W.0 019 2440 5119 241 179

Brow ridges are a marked feature of Fijians in general. None of them lack some supraorbital development. Forty-four per cent have medium brow ridges, 36 per cent are pronounced, and 1 per cent are very pronounced. The other 19 per cent are small. The interior and eastern groups share a little higher incidence of pronounced brow ridges; the other regions are nearer the total distribution of variations.

Forehead Height

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I0 0444 55369 450 0813
Interior0 090 5963 410 0153
East0 068 5752 430 0120
Coast0 0110 5399 470 0209
N.W.0 046 5833 420 079

Forehead Slope

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I8 1280 34460 5665 8813
Interior0 053 3587 5713 8153
East0 038 3272 6010 8120
Coast4 278 37113 5414 7209
N.W.2 327 3447 594 479
Tonga1 170 6045 390 0116

Forehead height is submedium in more than half the cases (55 per cent); the others are all medium. There is no significant variation among the subgroups.

A sloping forehead is quite characteristic of the Fijian head; 56 per cent are moderately sloping, 8 per cent are pronounced, and 34 per cent are submedium. Only 1 per cent have foreheads with no recession. Regional differences are very slight.


Nasion Depression

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I1 0170 21579 7163 8813
Interior0 041 27103 679 6153
East1 132 2785 712 2120
Coast0 045 22144 6910 10209
N.W.0 018 2356 716 679

Root Height

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I1 063 8555 67194 24813
Interior0 016 1096 6341 27153
East1 13 377 6439 33120
Coast0 010 5157 7542 20209
N.W.0 04 557 7218 2379

Root Breadth

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I0 01 0258 32554 68813
Interior0 00 038 25115 75153
East0 01 153 4466 55120
Coast0 00 067 32142 68209
N.W.0 00 024 3055 7079

Nasal Septum

No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I777 990 036 4813
Interior153 1000 00 0153
East118 980 02 2120
Coast196 940 013 6199
N.W.78 990 01 179

Bridge Height

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I0 054 7644 79115 14813
Interior0 013 8124 8116 10153
East0 01 198 8221 18120
Coast0 010 5173 8326 12209
N.W.0 07 960 7612 1579
Tonga0 021 2281 709 8111

Bridge Breadth

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I0 00 0265 33546 67813
Interior0 00 029 19124 81153
East0 00 072 6048 40120
Coast0 00 062 30147 70209
N.W.0 00 023 2956 7179

Nasal Profile

No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I14 2625 77173 21812
Interior0 0123 8030 20153
East1 188 7331 26120
Coast4 2171 8234 16209
N.W.1 159 7519 2479

Moderate nasion depression characterizes the majority of noses (71 per cent). Pronounced depression is recorded for 8 per cent, and submedium occurrence in 21 per cent. Only one individual lacks any depression. This distribution does not vary much among the provinces.

A well-elevated nasal root is also characteristic; 67 per cent show moderate elevation and 24 per cent pronounced, whereas 8 per cent are submedium; one individual is without any elevation. The interior Fijians have a little higher frequency of low nasal root (10 per cent), whereas the eastern people, with a 30 per cent incidence, excel in the pronounced category.

More striking is the breadth of the Fijian nasal root. It is pronounced [Pg 20] in 68 per cent and moderate in the remainder of the series. Pronounced breadth is commoner among the interior people (75 per cent) and least preponderant in the east (55 per cent).

The nasal septum is nearly always straight; the only departure from this condition is a 4 per cent incidence of convexity. Regional differences are not significant.

Nasal bridge height is commonly medium (79 per cent) in the totality of noses. Fourteen percent are pronouncedly high and 7 per cent are submedium. The several provinces do not depart very far from this distribution.

The Fijian nose shows a strong tendency to broadness of the bridge. Two-thirds show pronounced breadth of bridge and the remainder are medium. Pronounced broadness increases in the interior groups (81 per cent) and shows a marked decline in the east (40 per cent).

Nasal profiles are most often straight (77 per cent), but convex noses are not uncommon (21 per cent). Convexity is slightly more frequent in the east (26 percent), whereas in the coastal people its incidence drops to 16 per cent.

Nasal-Tip Thickness

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I1 0344 42461 581 0812
Interior0 055 3698 640 0153
East1 180 6739 330 0120
Coast0 094 45114 551 1209
N.W.0 027 3452 660 079

Nasal-Tip Inclination

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I731 9057 724 30 0812
Interior147 966 40 00 0153
East109 916 55 40 0120
Coast186 8916 87 30 0209
N.W.71 906 82 30 079

Nasal Wings

No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I0 0198 24615 76813
Interior0 025 16128 84153
East0 070 5850 42120
Coast0 042 20167 80209
N.W.0 016 2063 8079

The nasal tip is pronounced more often than not, 58 per cent showing this condition. The remaining 42 per cent have tips of medium thickness. Thicker tips occur more often in the interior (64 per cent) and in the northwest (66 per cent), least often in the east (33 per cent).

Usually the nasal tip is not inclined downward. Slight and moderate inclination has a combined incidence of only 10 per cent.

Flaring nasal wings are a common condition (76 per cent). This incidence rises to 84 per cent in the interior and drops to 42 per cent in the east.


Lip Thickness: Membranous

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I19 2428 53364 452 0813
Interior10 743 28100 650 0153
East1 183 6936 300 0120
Coast1 1/288 42119 571 1/2209
N.W.4 539 4936 460 079
Tonga12 1097 847 60 0116

Lip Thickness: Integumental

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I4 1/2608 75201 250 0813
Interior1 1/2114 7538 250 0153
East1 1100 8319 160 0120
Coast2 1164 7843 210 0209
N.W.0 055 7024 300 079
Fiji II0 01 1/226 20106 80133
Solomons0 00 012 1473 8685

Lip Eversion

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I12 1333 41444 5524 3813
Interior0 063 4188 582 1153
East8 777 6435 290 0120
Coast0 063 30138 668 4209
N.W.1 126 3351 651 179

Lip Seam

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I33 4429 53343 428 1813
Interior1 179 5273 480 0153
East14 1277 6429 240 0120
Coast6 3105 5094 454 2209
N.W.3 444 5632 410 079

Fijian lips are Negroid in thickness in many instances. Membranous lips are thick in 45 per cent of the series, medium in 53 per cent, and submedium in 25 per cent. Thickest lips occur in the interior and coastal areas where the pronounced type registers 65 per cent and 57 per cent, respectively. In the east, lips are more moderate in thickness, and the pronounced category drops to 30 per cent.

Integumental lips also tend to be heavy but not so much as the mucous parts. Twenty-five per cent of the total Fijians have thick integumental lips and the remainder are moderate. Howells' Fiji II series classes 80 per cent as very pronounced and the remainder as pronounced. The Solomon Islanders, with an 86 per cent incidence of very pronounced, have the heaviest lips of all.

Lip eversion varies largely between moderate and submedium, 55 percent and 41 per cent, respectively. The interior and coastal Fijians show this trait a little more often than the others, whereas the eastern people have least lip eversion. The lip seam is present in nearly all cases, but not to a pronounced degree. Fifty-three per cent are submedium and 42 per cent are moderate. The eastern groups are definitely less endowed with this trait. The other provinces vary but little from the total distribution.

[Pg 21]



UnderE-ESubm. over+ overTotal
No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I2 0518 64274 3413 2807
Interior0 094 6159 390 0153
East0 073 6145 382 2120
Coast1 0130 6276 360 0207
N.W.1 149 6223 293 476
Fiji II4 350 3877 590 0131
Solomons1 137 4545 540 083


AbsentSubm.(1-4)+ (5-8)++ (9-16)+++ (17-x)Total
No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I645 7880 1058 722 38 1813
Interior130 8416 103 21 13 2153
East100 8310 124 32 14 3120
Coast153 7329 1416 88 43 1209
N.W.62 809 116 81 10 078


No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I685 84115 1413 20 0813
Interior134 8819 120 00 0153
East100 8317 143 30 0120
Coast180 8625 124 20 0209
N.W.64 8114 180 00 078

Tooth Eruption

No. %No. %
Fiji I796 9815 2811
Interior153 1000 0153
East119 991 1120
Coast199 958 4207
N.W.74 942 376


No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I184 23443 54144 1842 5813
Interior27 {18}58 {38}37 {24}31 {20}153
East26 {22}69 {57}24 {20}1 {1}120
Coast60 {29}120 {57}28 {13}1 {1/2}209
N.W.12 {15}47 {60}17 {22}2 {3}78

The jaws of Fijians have a rather distinctive frequency of edge-to-edge bite. I recorded this as 64 per cent, but Howells' series indicates a 38 per cent incidence.

The quality of Fijian teeth as reflected by frequency of caries is excellent. Nearly 80 per cent of the total show no tooth decay. The soundest teeth from this standpoint occur in the interior, the east, and the northwest. The coastal people show the highest incidence of caries, an interesting point since many of this sample come from around Suva and have more access to the Western processed foods.

Tooth crowding is quite uncommon to Fijians, a condition consistent with their generous jaw conformation. Crowding is noted in only 16 per cent of the series, and most of it is slight.

Tooth eruption is complete in nearly all the subjects. A 2 per cent incidence of incomplete eruption is entirely due to the immaturity of some of the young adults. No pathological suppression was noted.

Some wear of the teeth is recorded for more than three-quarters of the series, but lacking age incidence, the data has limited meaning. The Fijian diet is not abrasive the way, for instance, it is for the Indians of our Southwest, where the staple food is ground in stone mills.


Ear Helix

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I230 28511 6372 90 0813
Interior45 2999 659 60 0153
East29 2474 6217 140 0120
Coast58 28128 6123 110 0209
N.W.24 3051 654 50 079

Darwin's Point

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I761 9436 415 21 0813
Interior150 983 20 00 0153
East112 936 52 20 0120
Coast187 8913 64 41 0209
N.W.77 972 30 00 079

[Pg 22]

Ear-Lobe Type

No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I80 10531 65202 25813
Interior47 3174 4832 21153
East3 385 7132 27120
Coast9 4141 6759 28209
N.W.5 652 6622 2879

Ear-Lobe Size

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I176 22457 56178 222 0813
Interior49 3266 4338 250 0153
East16 1376 6327 231 1120
Coast31 15123 5955 260 0209
N.W.20 2547 5912 150 079

Ear Protrusion

No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I2 0262 32463 5786 11813
Interior1 147 3190 5915 10153
East0 031 2677 6412 10120
Coast1 075 36114 5519 9209
N.W.0 026 3349 624 579

Ear Slant

No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I416 51332 4165 8813
Interior78 5167 448 5153
East55 4652 4313 11120
Coast118 5674 3517 8209
N.W.38 4839 492 379

The Fijian ear is a moderately distinctive appendage from a racial standpoint. The helix shows moderate development on the whole and is submedium otherwise except for a 9 per cent incidence of pronounced appearance. Regional variation is small.

The Darwin's point is noted in a number of cases: 4 per cent to a submedium degree and 2 per cent medium.

The ear lobe is somewhat distinctive with a 65 per cent incidence of the attached condition and 10 per cent soldered. The remaining 25 per cent is free. This distinctiveness is more marked among the interior groups where the soldered type of lobe increases to 31 percent.

Ear-lobe size is moderate in more than half the series, pronounced in 22 per cent, and submedium in 22 per cent. Small lobes are commoner in the interior province.

Moderate ear protrusion is the commonest form followed by submedium. Marked projection is recorded as 11 per cent.

Ear slant either is lacking or slight in most instances; the series is rather evenly divided between these two categories, the zero category having a small majority. Moderate slant is noted for 8 per cent.


Body Build: Endomorph

No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I260 32334 42126 1546 633 412 1811
Interior49 3266 4326 175 36 41 1153
East30 2554 4521 185 48 71 1119
Coast77 3782 3928 1310 58 43 1209
N.W.26 3334 439 116 82 32 379

Body Build: Mesomorph

No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I1 {0.1}2 {0.2}33 4131 16227 28419 52813
Interior0 01 111 727 1841 2773 48153
East1 10 02 214 1238 3265 54120
Coast0 00 09 429 1467 32104 50209
N.W.0 01 12 315 1914 1847 5979

Body Build: Ectomorph

No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %No. %
Fiji I351 43195 24110 1488 1168 81 {0.1}813
Interior54 3556 3713 815 1015 100 0153
East49 4133 2815 1312 1011 90 0120
Coast84 4051 2436 1718 919 91 1209
N.W.39 4919 2411 146 84 50 079

Variations in body build have been expressed with the Sheldon method of somatotyping.[18] Accordingly, the Fijians are primarily and definitely mesomorphic, with endomorphy the second strongest component, and ectomorphy, third. About 80 per cent of the total series had a mesomorphic rating of 5 and 6 which leaves no doubt as to the prevailingly athletic physique. Endomorphy is seldom pronounced so that obesity may be described as no more than occasional. A pronounced linear build is likewise relatively infrequent.

The Fijian subgroups do not vary markedly from the over-all pattern.


The preceding data may be summarized from three points of view. The first will emphasize the physical features that are common to most Fijians. At the outset it should be pointed out that a "typical" Fijian does not exist, except as a statistical abstraction. The racial composition of the Fijian is complex and far from being homogeneous. There is no doubt, from the physical and cultural evidence, as well as the geographical location, that Fijians are related to both Melanesians and Polynesians. The second point is to give a precise indication of these affinities with Melanesia and Polynesia. A third concern of this analysis is the geographical variability within Fiji. This consists of a regional breakdown of the Fijian data into interior, eastern, coastal, and northwestern divisions, in order to demonstrate some of the local variation of the Melanesian-Polynesian ingredients and their possible meaning.

Body (pl. 1).

—In general size and appearance, the Fijian is tall and well proportioned. His body is fairly tall and well muscled, that is, predominately athletic in build. Obesity is relatively uncommon except in moderate degrees. This rather tall stature allies the Fijians more closely with the Polynesians. Shoulder, chest, and hip diameters also indicate that Fijians are generously endowed.

The Fijians who occupy the mountainous interior of the main island are less tall than the coastal and eastern people; they also have narrower shoulders, relatively deeper and narrower chests, whereas their arms and legs are somewhat shorter. The eastern Fijians are tallest of all subgroups.

Skin Color.

—Most Fijians have either medium- or dark-brown skin on the exposed facial surfaces. The more protected body areas show higher frequencies of medium brown and light brown. The Fijians are definitely less dark than the Melanesians but are darker, on the whole, than the Polynesians.

The interior hill tribes are darker than the eastern and coastal groups. The lightest average skin shade occurs in the east.

Hair (pls. 6 and 7).

—In several respects the hair is the most consistent endowment of the Fijians. In nearly all instances it is black, frizzly, and coarse. The only departure from this condition is an occasional instance of dark brown and a few instances of rufous shade. Curly hair is a more common exception in the east. The coastal and northwestern people are nearer to the interior condition of frizzly hair. All in all, the hair form is definitely Melanesian. Hair length [Pg 23] conforms to the general Melanesian condition, that is, intermediate between short Negroid and long Caucasiod or Mongoloid.

Considerable beard and body hair is common to Fijians (pls. 8 and 9). Moderate to pronounced beard is shown by nearly three-quarters of the total series, and body hair is even more prevelant. General hairiness is also exhibited by the Solomon Islanders and the Tongans in the comparative data. The interior tribes of Fiji are more hairy than the other groups. This prevelence of body and face hair seems to conform to parts of Melanesia where it may be regarded as an Australoid element. Its presence in the Tongan data does not seem to be representative of other Polynesians, who are generally described as more glabrous.

Head (pl. 2).

—Moderate brachycephaly is the commonest head form of Fijians, although the total range is great. In this respect the Fijians resemble the broad-headed Tongans, and are quite distinct from the longer-headed Melanesians. The Fijian head, despite its general brachycephaly, is rather compressed in the temporal area and submedium in parietal elevation. The back of the cranium is characteristically flattened, a natural conformation as no deformation is practiced.

The interior mountain tribes of Fiji have narrower heads and lower cranial indices than do the coastal and eastern groups. The interior people also have lesser head heights and a higher breadth-height index.

Forehead (pl. 10).

—Moderate to strongly developed supraorbital ridges are a common Fijian endowment. Similarly are low and sloping foreheads. These features have been observed in western Melanesia, where, like hairiness, they suggest Australoid of archaic Caucasoid elements.


—Broadness characterizes the Fijian face. Bizygomatic breadth locates them nearer to the Polynesians than to the narrower-faced Melanesians. Strongly developed malars are common, and they tend to project laterally more than frontally. Widest faces appear among the eastern people.

Bigonial and bicanine widths show that generous breadth includes the lower parts of the face, a condition born out by strong gonial angles.

Face length falls between the long-faced Tongans and the definitely shorter-faced Melanesians (pls. 3 and 4).

Some prognathism is common among Fijians, both total and mid-facial, but the condition is not universal nor pronounced. The eastern Fijians are the least prognathic (pl. 10).


—Dark brown is the prevailing eye color, although many subjects have medium-brown eyes. Eye folds are only occasional and eye-opening height is usually moderate. Slight eye obliquity is common, more so in the eastern sample.

Nose (pl. 4).

—Great variability marks the nasal area. The commonest condition is a broad and moderately long nose. Medium nasion depression is frequent; the root is wide and moderately elevated. Bridge breadth is often pronounced and the nasal profile is straight to convex. The nasal tip is characteristically thickened and nasal wings are usually flaring. On the whole, there is a great deal of Melanesian in the Fijian nose; it is Negroid, but not pronouncedly. Those aspects of the nose which may be termed Negroid are commoner in the interior hill people and the northwest and least evident in the east.

Lips (pl. 5).

—Thick and moderately everted lips occur in nearly half the series. This Negroid combination is more manifest in the interior and least in the east. Integumental lips tend to be heavy.

[Pg 24]


—The condition of the teeth is generally excellent. Most Fijians have broad, roomy jaws that permit complete and uncrowded tooth development. Dental caries are very infrequent. A rather high incidence of edge-to-edge bite is interesting.

Ears (pl. 5).

—The ears are usually moderate in length and tend to protrude. Ear lobes are commonly large and are more often attached or soldered than free.

[Pg 25]


On the whole the Fijians are predominately Melanesian but with numerous Polynesian affinities that vary with locality. The Melanesian qualities are in part Negroid or Negritoid and in part Australoid. The Negroid resemblances are best illustrated by frizzly black hair, broad noses with depressed nasion and flaring nostrils, thick lips, and dark pigmentation (pls. 11 and 12). Australoid elements are general hairiness, strong brow ridges, low, sloping foreheads, compressed parietal and temporal areas, and some prognathism (pl. 13). The presence of Australoid suggestions need not mean that they come from Australia, but that they form a part of the Melanesian make-up. This interpretation of the Melanesians as a hybrid people conforms with similar designations by such students as Birdsell[19] and Hooton.[20] Polynesian influence in Fiji is most clearly demonstrated by lighter pigmentation, tall and muscular body build, moderate brachycephaly, broad faces and jaws, high and fairly long noses and strong chins. I found much the same resemblances between Fijians and Polynesians as did Howells;[21] however, in my comparisons the Polynesian similarities are outweighed and outnumbered by a greater array of Melanesian characters. The essential Melanesian character of the Fijian population is further demonstrated by recent blood-analysis comparisons; the conclusions of Simmons et al., identify the Fijians as Melanesian.[22]

The Fijians who live in the interior of Viti Levu show the most frequent Melanesian traits (pls. 11 and 14). These people are shorter, have narrower shoulders and chests; their heads are narrower and lower vaulted; they have broader noses, thicker lips, are hairier, and have darker skins. This condition, occurring as it does in the mountainous interior, which may be regarded as a refuge area, supports the theory that the Melanesian is the earlier component in Fiji.

The eastern Fijians stand in considerable contrast to the interior tribes and are the most Polynesian in appearance (pl. 15). They have lighter skins, greater stature, and heavier musculature. Their heads are broader, as are their faces and jaws; their noses are larger, narrower, and higher bridged, and their chins are more pronounced.

The coastal sample might be called intermediate or a more even blend of Melanesian and Polynesian.

The northwestern people resemble the coastal tribes. This means they show fewer departures in either a Melanesian or Polynesian direction. This also means they do not tell us whether the legendary ancestors, who are supposed to have first landed in Fiji on the northwest coast of Viti Levu,[23] were Melanesian or Polynesian. These data may mean one of three things: (1) the Fijian tradition of a landing at this place eight or ten generations ago is groundless, (2) the immigration did take place but whatever racial traits predominated, whether Melanesian or Polynesian, have been homogenized and obscured by subsequent intermixture and by movements back and forth on Viti Levu, (3) the landing did occur but the ancestors were already a Melanesian-Polynesian blend when they arrived.

[Pg 26]


Birdsell. J. B.
1948. Racial Origin of the Extinct Tasmanians. Records of the Queen
Victoria Museum, Tasmania, Vol. II, No. 3.

Churchill, W.
1911. The Polynesian Wanderings. Carnegie Institute of Washington,
Publ. No. 134, Washington.

Derrick, R. A.
1951. History of Fiji. Printing and Stationery Dept., Suva, Fiji.
Fornander, A.
1878. The Polynesian Race. London.

Hocart, A. M.
1929. Lau Islands, Fiji. Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bull. 62,

Hooton, E. A.
1946. Up From the Ape. Macmillan Co., New York

Howells. W. W.
1933. Anthropometry and Blood Types in Fiji and the Solomon Islands.
American Museum of Natural History. Anthropological Papers, Vol. 33,
Pt. 4.

Roth, G. K.
1953. The Fijian Way of Life. Oxford University Press, London.

Simmon, R. T., J. J. Graydon, and G. Barnes
1945.  The Medical Journal of Australia, May 26.

Sullivan, L. R.
1922.  A Contribution to Tongan Somotology. Bernice P. Bishop Museum,
Vol. VIII, No. 4.

Thomson, B.
1908.  The Fijians: A Study of the Decay of Custom. Wm. Heinemann,


[Pg 29]


Stature: 173.3 cm.
Weight: 172.1 lbs.
Arm length: 75.1 cm.
Leg length: 82.2 cm.
Shoulder breadth: 41 cm.
Hip breadth: 29.1 cm.
Shoulder-hip index: 71.0
Chest breadth: 28.8 cm.
Chest depth: 22.8 cm.
Thoracic index: 75.7
Sitting height: 86.3 cm.
Sitting height-stature index: 50.0
Body build: Strongly mesomorphic

[Pg 30]


Head length: 187.2 mm.
Head breadth: 156.9 mm.
Cephalic index: 83.9
Head height: 128.6 mm.
Length-height index: 68.7
Length-breadth index: 81.1
Minimum frontal diameter: 109.8 mm.
Fronto-parietal index: 70.0

[Pg 31]


Bizygomatic breadth: 146.7 mm.
Cephalo-facial index: 93.2
Zygo-frontal index: 75.3
Bigonial breadth: 109.6 mm.
Fronto-gonial index: 100.1
Zygo-gonial index: 74.7
Bicanine breadth: 39.8
Total facial height: 122.3 mm.
Total facial index: 84.1
Upper facial height: 71.3
Upper facial index: 48.9
Nasal height: 53.1
Nasal breadth: 45.5
Nasal index: 85.6

[Pg 32]


Pronounced malars
Moderately long face
Wide gonia
Moderate chin
Moderate prognathism
Broad bridge
Wide root
Moderate length
Thick tip
Flaring nostrils
Straight profile

[Pg 33]


Moderately thick
Pronounced lip seam
Moderate eversion
Moderate size
Small lobe
Attached lobe
Moderate protrusion

[Pg 34]


Black color
Frizzly form
Pronounced quantity
Coarse texture
Intermediate length

[Pg 35]



[Pg 36]


20 per cent occurrence

[Pg 37]


26 per cent occurrence

[Pg 38]


No prognathism
High forehead
Moderate browridges
Moderate prognathism
Low, receding forehead
Pronounced browridges
Pronounced prognathism
Low, receding forehead
Very pronounced browridges

[Pg 39]


Shorter stature
Narrower shoulders
Deeper chest
Darker skin
Narrower head
Broader nose
Thicker lips

[Pg 40]


[Pg 41]


Heavier beard and body hair
Lower, more sloping forehead
More compressed parietals
More pronounced brow ridges
More prognathic

[Pg 42]


[Pg 43]


Lighter skin
Less beard and body hair
Wavy hair
Wider head
Higher, steeper forehead
Less prognathic
Higher, narrower nose
Moderately thick lips

[Pg 44]


[1] Hooton, 1946, pp. 735-763.

[2] Derrick, 1946, pp. 5-6.

[3] Ibid., pp. 7-8.

[4] Population statistics from "Fiji Information," of 1954, issued by Public Relations Office, Suva, Fiji.

[5] Hooton, 1946, p. 621.

[6] Birdsell, 1949, p. 120.

[7] Fornander, 1878.

[8] Churchill, 1911.

[9] Hocart, 1929, p. 236.

[10] Howells, 1933, p. 335.

[11] Roth, 1953, pp. 54, 55.

[12] One pound deducted for dress (usually shorts only).

[13] By subtracting sitting height from total stature.

[14] Cranial measurements are not distorted by cradling practice or other causes of deformation.

[15] Howells records skin color with the von Luschan scale. I have adjusted this scale to my own.

[16] + means medium or moderate; ++ means pronounced; +++ means very pronounced.

[17] Observation taken on the chest.

[18] W. H. Sheldon, The Variation of Human Physique, Harper and Bros., 1940.

[19] Birdsell, 1949, p. 120.

[20] Hooton, 1946, p. 621.

[21] Howells, 1933, p. 332.

[22] Simmons et al., 1945, pp. 3-4

[23] See pp. 1 and 4 of Introduction.

[Transcriber's Note: Figures incorrectly entered as zero have been calculated and inserted in {}.]

End of Project Gutenberg's A Racial Study of the Fijians, by Norman E. Gabel


***** This file should be named 39140-h.htm or *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:

Produced by Charlene Taylor, Jude Eylander, Joseph Cooper
and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties.  Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark.  Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission.  If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy.  You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research.  They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks.  Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial



To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at

Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United

1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or

1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (,
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.


1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal

defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS' WITH NO OTHER

1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.

Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need, are critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation web page at

Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at
809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email  Email contact links and up to date contact
information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official
page at

For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director

Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including checks, online payments and credit card donations.
To donate, please visit:

Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic

Professor Michael S. Hart is the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.