The Project Gutenberg EBook of Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
(part 4 of 4: S-Z and supplements), by Various

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Title: Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary (part 4 of 4: S-Z and supplements)

Author: Various

Editor: Thomas Davidson

Release Date: January 28, 2012 [EBook #38700]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage.




London: 47 Paternoster Row
W. & R. CHAMBERS, Limited
EDINBURGH: 339 High Street


The Arrangement of the Words.—Every word is given in its alphabetical order, except in cases where, to save space, derivatives are given after and under the words from which they are derived. Each uncompounded verb has its participles, when irregular, placed after it. Exceptional plurals are also given. When a word stands after another, with no meaning given, its meanings can be at once formed from those of the latter, by adding the signification of the affix: thus the meanings of Darkness are obtained by prefixing the meaning of ness, state of being, to those of Dark.

Many words from French and other tongues, current in English usage, but not yet fairly Anglicised, are inserted in the list of Foreign Phrases, &c., at the end, rather than in the body of the Dictionary.

The Pronunciation.—The Pronunciation is given immediately after each word, by the word being spelled anew. In this new spelling, every consonant used has its ordinary unvarying sound, no consonant being employed that has more than one sound. The same sounds are always represented by the same letters, no matter how varied their actual spelling in the language. No consonant used has any mark attached to it, with the one exception of th, which is printed in common letters when sounded as in thick, but in italics when sounded as in then. Unmarked vowels have always their short sounds, as in lad, led, lid, lot, but, book. The marked vowels are shown in the following line, which is printed at the top of each page:—

fāte, fär; mē, hėr; mīne; mōte; mūte; mōōn; then.

The vowel u when marked thus, ü, has the sound heard in Scotch bluid, gude, the French du, almost that of the German ü in Müller. Where more than one pronunciation of a word is given, that which is placed first is more accepted.

The Spelling.—When more than one form of a word is given, that which is placed first is the spelling in current English use. Unfortunately our modern spelling does not represent the English we actually speak, but rather the language of the 16th century, up to which period, generally speaking, English spelling was mainly phonetic, like the present German. The fundamental principle of all rational spelling is no doubt the representation of every sound by an invariable symbol, but in modern English the usage of pronunciation has drifted far from the conventional forms established by a traditional orthography, with the result that the present spelling of our written speech is to a large extent a mere exercise of memory, full of confusing anomalies and imperfections, and involving an enormous and unnecessary strain on the faculties of learners. Spelling reform is indeed an imperative necessity, but it must proceed with a wise moderation, for, in the words of Mr Sweet, 'nothing can be done without unanimity, and until the majority of the community are convinced of the superiority of some one system unanimity is impossible.' The true path of progress should follow such wisely moderate counsels as those of Dr J. A. H. Murray:—the dropping of the final or inflexional silent e; the restoration of the historical -t after breath consonants; uniformity in the employment of double consonants, as in traveler, &c.; the discarding of ue in words like demagogue and catalogue; the uniform levelling of the agent -our into -or; the making of ea = ĕ short into e and the long ie into ee; the restoration of some, come, tongue, to their old English forms, sum, cum, tung; a more extended use of z in the body of words, as chozen, praize, raize; and the correction of the worst individual monstrosities, as foreign, scent, scythe, ache, debt, people, parliament, court, would, sceptic, phthisis, queue, schedule, twopence-halfpenny, yeoman, sieve, gauge, barque, buoy, yacht, &c.

Already in America a moderate degree of spelling reform may be said to be established in good usage, by the adoption of -or for -our, as color, labor, &c.; of -er for -re, as center, meter, &c.; -ize for -ise, as civilize, &c.; the use of a uniform single consonant after an unaccented vowel, as traveler for traveller; the adoption of e for œ or æ in hemorrhage, diarrhea, &c.

The Meanings.—The current and most important meaning of a word is usually given first. But in cases like Clerk, Livery, Marshal, where the force of the word can be made much clearer by tracing its history, the original meaning is also given, and the successive variations of its usage defined.

The Etymology.—The Etymology of each word is given after the meanings, within brackets. Where further information regarding a word is given elsewhere, it is so indicated by a reference. It must be noted under the etymology that whenever a word is printed thus, Ban, Base, the student is referred to it; also that here the sign—is always to be read as meaning 'derived from.' Examples are generally given of words that are cognate or correspond to the English words; but it must be remembered that they are inserted merely for illustration. Such words are usually separated from the rest by a semicolon. For instance, when an English word is traced to its Anglo-Saxon form, and then a German word is given, no one should suppose that our English word is derived from the German. German and Anglo-Saxon are alike branches from a common Teutonic stem, and have seldom borrowed from each other. Under each word the force of the prefix is usually given, though not the affix. For fuller explanation in such cases the student is referred to the list of Prefixes and Suffixes in the Appendix.


acc.according.gram.grammar.phil., philos.philosophy.
anat.anatomy.i.e.that is.physiol.physiology.
archit.architecture.impers.impersonal.pol. econ.political economy.
astrol.astrology.infin.infinitive. Pr.Bk.Book of Common
astron.astronomy.inten.intensive.Prayer. participle.
c. (circa)about.math.mathematics.Prof.Professor.
c., cent.century.mech.mechanics. pron.pronoun;;
coll., colloq.colloquially.min.mineralogy.prov.provincial.
comp.comparative.mod.modern.q.v.which see.
conch.conchology.Mt.Mount.R.C.Roman Catholic.
contr.contracted.n., ns.noun, nouns.refl.reflexive.
cook.cookery.nat. hist.natural history.rel.related; relative.
dat.dative.neut.neuter.Shak.Shakespeare. plural.sig.signifying.
der.derivation.n.sing.noun singular.sing.singular.
dial.dialect, dialectal.N.T.New Testament.spec.specifically.
eccles.ecclesiastical history.orig.originally.superl.superlative.
elect.electricity.O.S.old style.term.termination.
entom.entomology.O.T.Old Testament.teleg.telegraphy.
esp.especially.p., part.participle.Tenn.Tennyson.
ety.etymology.p.adj.participial adjective.Test.Testament.; theatricals.
fol.followed; following.paleon.paleontology.trig.trigonometry.
fort.fortification.palm.palmistry.ult.ultimately. participle.v.i.verb intransitive.
fut.future.pass.passive.voc.vocative. tense.v.t.verb transitive.

Ar.Arabic.Gael.Gaelic.O. Fr.Old French.
Eng.English.L. L.Low or Late Latin.Turk.Turkish.
Finn.Finnish.M. E.Middle English.U.S.United States.





the nineteenth letter in our alphabet, its sound that of the hard open sibilant: as a medieval Roman numeral—7—also 70; S—70,000.—Collar of ss, a collar composed of a series of the letter s in gold, either linked together or set in close order.

Sab, sab, n. (Scot.) a form of sob.

Sabadilla, sab-a-dil′a, n. a Mexican plant, whose seeds yield an officinal alkaloid, veratrine, employed chiefly in acute febrile diseases in strong healthy persons.—Also Cebadill′a, Cevadill′a.

Sabaism, sā′bā-izm. Same as Sabianism.—Also Sā′bæism, Sā′beism, Sā′bæanism.

Sa′bal, sā′bal, n. a genus of fan-palms.

Sabalo, sab′a-lō, n. the tarpon. [Sp.]

Sabaoth, sa-bā′oth, armies, used only in the B. phrase, 'the Lord of Sabaoth': erroneously for Sabbath. [Heb. tsebāōth, pl. of tsābā, an army—tsābā, to go forth.]

Sabbath, sab′ath, n. among the Jews, the seventh day of the week, set apart for the rest from work: among Christians, the first day of the week, in memory of the resurrection of Christ, called also Sunday and the Lord's Day: among the ancient Jews, the seventh year, when the land was left fallow: a time of rest.—adj. pertaining to the Sabbath.—n. Sabbatā′rian, a very strict observer of the Sabbath: one who observes the seventh day of the week as the Sabbath.—adj. pertaining to the Sabbath or to Sabbatarians.—ns. Sabbatā′rianism; Sabb′ath-break′er, one who profanes the Sabbath; Sabb′ath-break′ing, profanation of the Sabbath.—adjs. Sabb′athless (Bacon), without Sabbath or interval of rest: without intermission of labour; Sabbat′ic, -al, pertaining to, or resembling, the Sabbath: enjoying or bringing rest.—n. Sabbat′ical-year, every seventh year, in which the Israelites allowed their fields and vineyards to lie fallow.—adj. Sabb′atine, pertaining to the Sabbath.—v.i. and v.t. Sabb′atise, to keep the Sabbath: to convert into a Sabbath.—n. Sabb′atism, rest, as on the Sabbath: intermission of labour.—Sabbath-day's journey, the distance of 2000 cubits, or about five furlongs, which a Jew was permitted to walk on the Sabbath, fixed by the space between the extreme end of the camp and the ark (Josh. iii. 4); Sabbath School (see Sunday school).—Witches' Sabbath, a midnight meeting of Satan with witches, devils, and sorcerers for unhallowed orgies and the travestying of divine rites. [L. Sabbatum, gener. in pl. Sabbata—Gr. Sabbaton—Heb. Shabbāth, rest.]

Sabbatia, sa-bā′ti-a, n. a genus of small North American herbaceous plants of the gentian family. [From Sabbati, an 18th-cent. Italian botanist.]

Sabbaton, sab′a-ton, n. a strong, armed covering for the foot, worn in the 16th century. [Sabot.]

Sabean, sā-bē′an, n. an Arabian, native of Yemen.—adj. pertaining to Saba in Arabia.

Sabeline, sab′e-lin, adj. pertaining to the sable.—n. the skin of the sable.

Sabella, sā-bel′ä, n. a genus of tubiculous annelids or sea-worms.—ns. Sabellā′ria; Sabellarī′idæ.

Sabellian, sā-bel′i-an, n. a follower of Sabellius, a 3d-century heretic, banished from Rome by Callistus.—adj. pertaining to Sabellius or his heresy.—n. Sabell′ianism, the heresy about the distinction of Persons in God held by Sabellius and his school—the Trinity resolved into a mere threefold manifestation of God to man, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit not distinct subsistences, but merely one and the same person in different aspects.

Saber=Sabre (q.v.).

Sabian, sā′bi-an, n. a worshipper of the host of heaven—sun, moon, and stars—also Tsā′bian.—ns. Sā′bianism, Sā′baism, the worship of the host of heaven, an ancient religion in Persia and Chaldea: the doctrines of the Sabians or Mandæans (see Mandæan). [Heb. tsābā, a host.]

Sabine, sā′bīn, n. one of an ancient people of central Italy, ultimately subjected by Rome, 241 B.C.

Sable, sā′bl, n. a Siberian species of Marten, with lustrous dark-brown or blackish fur: its fur: a fine paint-brush made of sable: the colour black: (pl.) black clothes, mourning clothes.—adj. of the colour of the sable's fur: blackish, dark-brown: made of the fur of the sable.—v.t. to sadden.—adjs. Sā′ble-stoled; Sā′ble-vest′ed. [O. Fr. sable—Russ. sabolĭ.]

Sablière, sab-li-ār′, n. a sand-pit. [Fr.]


Sabot, sä-bō′, n. a wooden shoe, worn by the French peasantry: a piece of soft metal attached to a projectile to take the groove of the rifling.—n. Sabotier′, a wearer of wooden shoes: a Waldensian. [Fr. sabot—Low L. sabbatum, a shoe.]

Sabre, sā′bėr, n. a heavy one-edged sword, slightly curved towards the point, used by cavalry.—v.t. to wound or kill with a sabre.—ns. Sā′bre-bill, a South American bird: a curlew; Sā′bre-fish, the hair-tail or silver eel.—adj. Sā′bre-toothed, having extremely long upper canine teeth.—n. Sā′bre-wing, a humming-bird. [Fr. sabre—Ger. säbel, prob. from the Hung. szablya.]

Sabre-tache, sā′bėr-tash, n. an ornamental leather case worn by cavalry officers at the left side, suspended from the sword-belt.—Also Sā′bre-tash. [Fr. sabre-tache—Ger. säbeltasche, säbel, a sabre, Ger. tasche, a pocket.]

Sabrina-work, sa-brī′na-wurk, n. a variety of appliqué embroidery-work.

Sabulous, sab′ū-lus, adj. sandy, gritty.—n. Sabulos′ity, sandiness, grittiness. [L. sabulum, sand.]

Saburra, sā-bur′ä, n. a foulness of the stomach.—adj. Saburr′al.—n. Saburrā′tion, sand-baking: the application of a hot sand-bath.

Sac, sak, n. (bot., zool.) a sack or bag for a liquid.—adjs. Sac′cāte, -d, pouched: pouch-like; Sac′cular, like a sac, sacciform; Sac′culate, -d, formed in a series of sac-like expansions: encysted.—ns. Sacculā′tion, the formation of a sac: a series of sacs; Sac′cule, Sac′culus, a small sac:—pl. Sac′culi. [Fr.,—L. saccus, a bag.]

Sac, sak, n. (law) the privilege of a lord of manor of holding courts. [A.S. sacu, strife.]

Saccade, sa-kād′, n. a violent twitch of a horse by one pull: a firm pressure of the bow on the violin-strings so that two are sounded at once. [Fr.]

Saccata, sa-kā′tä, n. the molluscs as a branch of the animal kingdom.

Saccharilla, sak-a-ril′a, n. a kind of muslin.

Saccharine, sak′a-rin, adj. pertaining to, or having the qualities of, sugar.—n. Sac′charāte, a salt of a saccharic acid.—adjs. Sacchar′ic, pertaining to, or obtained from, sugar and allied substances; Saccharif′erous, producing sugar, as from starch.—v.t. Sac′charify, to convert into sugar.—ns. Saccharim′eter, Saccharom′eter, an instrument for measuring the quantity of saccharine matter in a liquid; Saccharim′etry, Saccharom′etry; Sac′charin, a white crystalline solid slightly soluble in cold water, odourless, but intensely sweet; Saccharin′ity.—v.t. Sac′charise, to convert into sugar:—pr.p. sac′charīsing; pa.p. sac′charīsed.adjs. Sac′charoid, -al, having a texture resembling sugar, esp. loaf-sugar.—n. Sac′charose, the ordinary pure sugar of commerce.—adj. Sac′charous.—n. Sac′charum, a genus of grasses, including the sugar-cane. [Fr. saccharin—L. saccharum, sugar.]

Saccharite, sak′a-rīt, n. a fine granular variety of feldspar.

Saccharocolloid, sak-a-rō-kol′oid, n. one of a large group of the carbohydrates.

Saccharomyces, sak-a-rō-mī′sēz, n. a genus of the yeast fungi. [Low L. saccharum, sugar, Gr. mykēs, a mushroom.]

Sacciform, sak′si-form, adj. having the form of a sac: baggy.—adj. Saccif′erous.

Saccobranchia, sak-ō-brang′ki-a, a division of tunicates with saccate gills.—adj. and n. Saccobranch′iāte. [Gr. sakkos, a sack, brangchia, gills.]

Saccolabium, sak-ō-lā′bi-um, n. a genus of orchids. [L. saccus, a sack, labium, a lip.]

Saccomyoid, sak-ō-mī′oid, adj. having cheek-pouches. [Gr. sakkos, sack, mys, a mouse.]

Saccopharyngidæ, sak-o-fā-rin′ji-dē, n. a family of lyomerous fishes, including the bottle-fish, noted for swallowing fishes larger than themselves.

Saccos, sak′os, n. a tight sleeveless vestment worn by Oriental patriarchs and metropolitans during divine service, corresponding to the Western dalmatic. [Gr. sakkos, a sack.]

Sacellum, sā-sel′um, n. a little sanctuary, a small uncovered place consecrated to a divinity: a canopied altar-tomb:—pl. Sacell′a. [L., dim. of sacrum, neut. of sacer, consecrated.]

Sacerdotal, sas-ėr-dō′tal, adj. priestly.—v.t. Sacerdō′talise, to render sacerdotal.—ns. Sacerdō′talism, the spirit of the priesthood: devotion to priestly interests, priestcraft: the belief that the presbyter is a priest in the sense of offering a sacrifice in the eucharist; Sacerdō′talist, a supporter of sacerdotalism.—adv. Sacerdō′tally. [L. sacerdos, a priest—sacer, sacred, dăre, to give.]

Sachem, sā′chem, n. a chief of a North American Indian tribe, a sagamore: one of the Tammany leaders.—ns. Sā′chemdom, Sā′chemship.

Sachet, sa-shā, n. a bag of perfume. [Fr.]

Sack, sak, n. a large bag of coarse cloth for holding grain, flour, &c.: the contents of a sack: (also Sacque) a woman's gown, loose at the back, a short coat rounded at the bottom: a measure of varying capacity.—v.t. to put into a sack: (slang) to dismiss.—ns. Sack′-bear′er, any bombycid moth of the family Psychidæ; Sack′cloth, cloth for sacks: coarse cloth formerly worn in mourning or penance.—adj. Sack′clothed.—ns. Sacked′-frī′ar, a monk who wore a coarse upper garment called a saccus; Sack′er, a machine for filling sacks; Sack′-fil′ter, a bag-filter; Sack′ful, as much as a sack will hold; Sack′-hoist, a continuous hoist for raising sacks in warehouses; Sack′ing, coarse cloth or canvas for sacks, bed-bottoms, &c.; Sack′-pack′er, in milling, a machine for automatically filling a flour-sack; Sack′-race, a race in which the legs of competitors are encased in sacks.—Get the sack, to be dismissed or rejected; Give the sack, to dismiss. [A.S. sacc—L. saccus—Gr. sakkos—Heb. saq, a coarse cloth or garment, prob. Egyptian.]

Sack, sak, v.t. to plunder: to ravage.—n. the plunder or devastation of a town: pillage.—ns. Sack′age; Sack′ing, the storming and pillaging of a town.—adj. bent on pillaging.—Sack and fork (Scot.), the power of drowning and hanging. [Fr. sac, a sack, plunder (saccager, to sack)—L. saccus, a sack.]

Sack, sak, n. the old name of a dry Spanish wine of the sherry genus, the favourite drink of Falstaff.—n. Sack′-poss′et, posset made with sack.—Burnt sack, mulled sack. [Fr. sec (Sp. seco)—L. siccus, dry.]

Sackbut, sak′but, n. a kind of trumpet, the predecessor of the trombone: (B.) a kind of stringed instrument resembling the guitar. [Fr. saquebute—Sp. sacabuchesacar, to draw out, buche, the maw or stomach, prob. Old High Ger. būh (Ger. bauch), the belly.]

Sack-doodle, sak-dōōd′l, v.i. to play on the bagpipe.

Sackless, sak′les, adj. (Scot.) guiltless: innocent: guileless. [A.S. sacleás, without strife, sacu, strife, -leás, -less.]

Sacodes, sā-kō′dēz, n. a genus of beetles of the family Cyphonidæ. [Gr. sakos, a shield, eidos, form.]

Sacque, sak. See Sack (1).

Sacra, sā′kra, n. a sacral artery:—pl. Sā′cræ (-krē).

Sacral, sā′kral, adj. See Sacrum.

Sacrament, sak′ra-ment, n. an holy ordinance instituted by Christ as an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace (Baptism and the Lord's Supper—amongst Roman Catholics, also Confirmation, Penance, Holy Orders, Matrimony, and Extreme Unction): the Lord's Supper specially: an oath of obedience taken by Roman soldiers on enlistment: any solemn obligation: materials used in a sacrament.—v.t. to bind by an oath.—adj. Sacramen′tal, belonging to or constituting a sacrament.—ns. Sacramen′talism, the attachment of excessive importance to the sacraments: the doctrine that there is in the sacraments themselves a special direct spiritual efficacy to confer grace; Sacramen′talist, one who holds this view.—adv. Sacramen′tally.—ns. Sacramentā′rian, one who holds a high or extreme view of the efficacy of the sacraments: (obs.) one who rejects the doctrine of the real presence in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper; Sacramentā′rianism, the holding of extreme views with regard to the efficacy of sacraments.—adj. Sacramen′tary, pertaining to the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, or to the sacramentarians.—n. a book containing all the prayers and ceremonies used at the celebration of the R.C. sacraments: a sacramentarian. [L. sacramentum, a sacred thing—sacrāre, to consecrate—sacer, sacred.]

Sacrarium, sā-krā′ri-um, n. the part of a church where the altar is, the sanctuary: in ancient Rome, any sacred place, the place where the Penates were stored.—n. Sac′rary (obs.), a holy place.—v.t. Sā′crate (obs.), to consecrate.

Sacrarium, sā-krā′ri-um, n. the complex sacrum of any bird.

Sacre. Same as Saker.

Sacred, sā′kred, adj. set apart or dedicated, esp. to God: made holy: proceeding from God: religious: entitled to respect or veneration: inviolable: devoted to destruction: opposed to secular, as sacred music or history: not liable to punishment.—adv. Sā′credly.—n. Sā′credness.—Sacred ape, the hanuman of India; Sacred beetle, an Egyptian scarab; Sacred cat, the house cat of Egypt, sacred to Pasht; Sacred fish, one of the fresh-water fishes of the Nile; Sacred Heart (R.C.), the physical heart of Christ, adored with special devotion since the 18th century. [O. Fr. sacrer—L. sacrāre—L. sacer, sacred.]

Sacrificati, sak-ri-fi-kā′tī, in the early church, those who sacrificed to idols in persecution, but returned as penitents afterwards.

Sacrifice, sak′ri-fīs, v.t. to offer up, esp. on the altar of a divinity: to destroy or give up for something else: to devote or destroy with loss or suffering: to kill.—v.i. to make offerings to God.—n. the fundamental institution of all natural religions, primarily a sacramental meal at which the communicants are a deity and his worshippers, and the elements the flesh and blood of a sacred victim: the act of sacrificing or offering to a deity, esp. a victim on an altar: that which is sacrificed or offered: destruction or loss of anything to gain some object: that which is given up, destroyed, or lost for some end: mere loss of profit.—n. Sacrif′icant, one who offers a sacrifice.—adj. Sacrif′icātory, offering sacrifice.—n. Sac′rificer, a priest.—adj. Sacrifi′cial, relating to, or consisting in, sacrifice: performing sacrifice.—adv. Sacrifi′cially.—Sacrifice hit, in base-ball, a hit to enable another player to score or to gain a base.—Eucharistic sacrifice, the supposed constant renewal of the sacrifice of Christ in the mass. [O. Fr.,—L. sacrificiumsacer, sacred, facĕre, to make.]

Sacrilege, sak′ri-lej, n. profanation of a sacred place or thing: the breaking into a place of worship and stealing therefrom.—n. Sac′rileger (obs.).—adj. Sacrilē′gious, polluted with sacrilege: profane: violating sacred things.—adv. Sacrilē′giously.—ns. Sacrilē′giousness; Sac′rilēgist, one guilty of sacrilege. [Fr. sacrilège—L. sacrilegiumsacer, sacred, legĕre, to gather.]

Sacrist, sā′krist, n. a sacristan: a person in a cathedral who copies out music for the choir and takes care of the books.—ns. Sā′cring, consecration; Sā′cring-bell, in R.C. churches, a small bell rung to call attention to the more solemn parts of the service of the mass; Sac′ristan, an officer in a church who has charge of the sacred vessels and other movables: a sexton; Sac′risty, an apartment in a church where the sacred utensils, vestments, &c. are kept: vestry. [Low L. sacristia, a vestry, sacristanus, sacrista, a sacristan—L. sacer.]

Sacrosanct, sak′rō-sangkt, adj. very sacred or inviolable.—n. Sacrosanc′tity. [L. sacrosanctussacer, sacred, sanctus, pa.p. of sancīre, to hallow.]

Sacrum, sā′krum, n. a triangular bone situated at the lower part of the vertebral column (of which it is a natural continuation), and wedged between the two innominate bones, so as to form the keystone to the pelvic arch.—adj. Sā′cral.—n. Sācral′gia, pain in the region of the sacrum.—adjs. Sācrocos′tal, connected with the sacrum and having the character of a rib (also n.); Sācroil′iac, pertaining to the sacrum and ilium; Sācrolum′bar, pertaining to sacral and lumbar vertebræ; Sācropū′bic, pertaining to the sacrum and to the pubes; Sācrorec′tal, pertaining to the sacrum and the rectum; Sācrosciat′ic, pertaining to the sacrum and the hip; Sācrover′tebral, pertaining to the sacrum and that part of the vertebral column immediately anterior to it. [L. sacrum (os, bone), sacred.]

Sad, sad (comp. Sad′der, superl. Sad′dest), adj. sorrowful: serious: cast down: calamitous: weary: sombre: stiff: doughy: dejected: troublesome: sober, dark-coloured: (obs.) ponderous, heavy.—v.t. to grieve.—v.t. Sad′den, to make sad: to render heavy: to grow hard.—v.i. to grow sad.—adjs. Sad′-eyed (Shak.), having an expression of sadness in the eyes; Sad′-faced (Shak.), having an expression of sadness in the face; Sad′-heart′ed (Shak.), having the heart full of sadness.—adv. Sad′ly.—n. Sad′ness. [A.S. sæd, sated, weary; cf. Dut. zat, Ger. satt; L. sat, satis.]

Saddening, sad′n-ing, n. a method of applying mordants in dyeing and printing cloths, so as to give duller shades to the colours employed.

Saddle, sad′l, n. a seat or pad, generally of leather, for a horse's back: anything like a saddle, as a saddle of mutton, veal, or venison—a butcher's cut, including a part of the backbone with the ribs on one side: a part of the harness used for drawing a vehicle: the seat on a bicycle: (naut.) a block of wood fastened to some spar, and shaped to receive the end of another spar.—v.t. to put a saddle on, to load: to encumber.—n. Sadd′le-back, a hill or its summit when shaped like a saddle: a raccoon oyster: the great black-backed gull: the harp-seal: a variety of domestic geese: the larva of the bombycid moth: (archit.) a coping thicker in the middle than at the edges.—adj. Sadd′le-backed, having a low back and an elevated head and neck.—ns. Sadd′le-bag, one of two bags united by straps for carrying on horseback; Sadd′le-bar, a bar for sustaining glass in a stained-glass window; Sadd′le-blank′et, a small blanket folded under a saddle; Sadd′le-bow, the arched front of a saddle from which the weapon often hung; Sadd′le-cloth, the housing or cloth placed under a saddle.— Sadd′le-feath′ers, the long slender feathers which droop from the saddle or rump of the domestic cock.—ns. Sadd′le-girth, a band passing round the body of a horse to hold the saddle in its place; Sadd′le-horse, a horse suitable for riding; Sadd′le-joint, a joint made in plates of sheet-iron so that the margins interlock: (anat.) a joint admitting movement in every direction except axial rotation; Sadd′le-lap, the skirt of a saddle; Sadd′le-plate, the bent plate which forms the arch of the furnace in locomotive steam-boilers; Sadd′le-quern, an ancient quern for grinding grain; Sadd′ler, a maker of saddles: the harp-seal; Sadd′le-rock, a variety of the oyster; Sadd′le-roof, a roof having two gables; Sadd′ler-cor′poral, a non-commissioned officer in the household cavalry, with the charge of the saddles; Sadd′ler-ser′geant, a sergeant in the cavalry who has charge of the saddlers: (U.S.) a non-commissioned staff-officer of a cavalry regiment; Sadd′lery, occupation of a saddler: materials for saddles: articles sold by a saddler.—adjs. Sadd′le-shaped, shaped like a saddle: (bot.) bent down at the sides: (geol.) bent down at each side of a ridge; Sadd′le-sick, galled with much riding.—ns. Sadd′le-tree, the frame of a saddle.—Put the saddle on the right horse, to impute blame where it is deserved. [A.S. sadol, sadel; cf. Dut. zadel, Ger. sattel.]

Sadducee, sad′ū-sē, n. one of a Jewish sceptical school or party of aristocratic traditionists in New Testament times.—adj. Saddūcē′an, of or relating to the Sadducees.—ns. Saddūcee′ism, Sadd′ūcism, scepticism. [Gr. Saddoukaios—Heb. Tsedūqīm, from their supposed founder Zadok, or from the race of the Zadokites, a family of priests at Jerusalem since the time of Solomon.]

Sadina, sa-dē′na, n. a clupeoid fish resembling a sardine. [Sp. sardina.]

Sad-iron, sad′-ī′urn, n. a smoothing-iron: a box-iron.

Sadr, sad′r, n. the lote-bush.

Sad-tree, sad′-trē, n. the night jasmine.

Sae, sā, adv. the Scotch form of so.

Safe, sāf, adj. unharmed: free from danger or injury: secure: securing from danger or injury: no longer dangerous: clear: trusty: sound: certain.—n. a chest or closet for money, &c., safe against fire, thieves, &c., generally of iron: a chest or cupboard for meats: (coll.) a safety-bicycle.—v.t. to safeguard.—v.t. Safe′-conduct′ (Spens.).—ns. Safe′-con′duct, a writing, passport, or guard granted to a person to enable him to travel with safety; Safe′-depos′it, a safe storage for valuables; Safe′guard, he who, or that which, guards or renders safe: protection: a guard, passport, or warrant to protect a traveller: a rail-guard at railway switches: (zool.) a monitor lizard.—v.t. to protect.—n. Safe′-keep′ing, preservation from injury or from escape.—adv. Safe′ly, in a safe manner.—ns. Safe′ness; Safe′-pledge, a surety for one's appearance at a day assigned; Safe′ty, freedom from danger or loss: close custody: a safeguard: Safe′ty-arch (archit.), an arch built in the body of a wall to relieve the pressure, as over a door or window; Safe′ty-belt, a belt made of some buoyant material, or capable of being inflated, for helping a person to float; Safe′ty-bī′cycle, a low-wheeled bicycle; Safe′ty-buoy, a buoy for helping a person to float: a life-preserver; Safe′ty-cage (mining), a cage by which a fall would be prevented in case of the breakage of the rope by means of safety-catches; Safe′ty-chain, a check-chain of a car-truck: a safety-link; Safe′ty-fuse, a waterproof woven tube enclosing an inflammable substance which burns at a regular rate; Safe′ty-hoist, a hoisting-gear so arranged as to prevent its load being thrown precipitately down in case of accident; Safe′ty-lamp, a lamp surrounded by wire-gauze, used for safety in mines on account of the inflammable gases; Safe′ty-lock, a lock that cannot be picked by ordinary means: in firearms, a lock with some device for preventing accidental discharge; Safe′ty-match, a match which can be ignited only on a surface specially prepared for the purpose; Safe′ty-pā′per, a paper so prepared as to resist alteration by chemical or mechanical means; Safe′ty-pin, a pin in the form of a clasp with a guard covering its point; Safe′ty-plug, a plug of soft metal in an opening in a steam-boiler, so as to melt when the temperature rises to its fusing-point, and allow of an escape of steam; Safe′ty-rein, a rein for preventing a horse from running away; Safe′ty-stop, a contrivance for preventing accidents in machinery; Safe′ty-tube, a tube used in chemical operations to prevent the bursting of vessels by gas, and for other purposes; Safe′ty-valve, a valve in the top of a steam-boiler, which lets out the steam when the pressure is too great for safety. [O. Fr. sauf—L. salvus; prob. allied to solus.]

Saffian, saf′i-an, n. a name applied to skins tanned with sumac and dyed in bright colours. [Russ.]

Safflower, saf′flow-ėr, n. an annual herbaceous composite plant, cultivated all over India for its red dye—Carthamine. [O. Fr. saflor, through It. from Ar. usfūrsafrā, yellow.]

Saffo, saf′ō, n. (obs.) a bailiff: a catchpole. [It.]

Saffron, saf′run, n. a bulbous plant of the crocus kind with deep-yellow flowers: a colouring substance prepared from its flowers.—adj. having the colour of saffron: deep yellow.—adj. Saff′rony.—n. Saf′ranine, a coal-tar producing yellowish colour used in dyeing. [O. Fr. safran (It. zafferano)—Ar. za‛farānsafrā, yellow.]

Sag, sag, v.i. to bend, sink, or hang down: to yield or give way as from weight or pressure: to hang heavy: to make leeway.—n. a droop.—adj. loaded. [M. E. saggen, from Scand.; Sw. sacka, to sink down; cf. Ger. sacken, to sink.]

Saga, sä′ga, n. a tale, historical or fabulous, in the old prose literature of Iceland.—n. Sä′gaman, a narrator of sagas. [Ice. saga, pl. sögursegja, say.]

Sagacious, sa-gā′shus, adj. keen or quick in perception or thought: acute: discerning and judicious: wise.—adv. Sagā′ciously.—ns. Sagā′ciousness, Sagac′ity, acuteness of perception or thought: acute practical judgment: shrewdness. [L. sagax, sagacissagīre, to perceive quickly.]

Sagamore, sag′a-mōr, n. a chief among some tribes of American Indians—prob. conn. with sachem.

Sagapenum, sag-a-pē′num, n. a fetid gum-resin, the concrete juice of a Persian species of Ferula, formerly used in hysteria, &c. [Gr. sagapēnon.]

Sagathy, sag′a-thi, n. (obs.) a woollen stuff. [Fr. sagatis—L. saga, a mantle.]

Sage, sāj, n. any plant of genus Salvia, of the mint family, esp. Common or Garden Sage, used for flavouring meats.—ns. Sage′-app′le, a gall formed on a species of sage; Sage′-bread, bread baked from dough mixed with a strong infusion of sage in milk; Sage′-brush, a collective name of various shrubby species of Artemisia in the western United States; Sage′-cock, -grouse, a large North American grouse; Sage′-green, a gray slightly mixed with pure green; Sage′-rabb′it, a small hare or rabbit abounding in North America; Sage′-rose, a plant of the genus Cistus: an evergreen shrub of tropical America; Sage′-sparr′ow, a fringilline bird characteristic of the sage-brush of North America; Sage′-thresh′er, the mountain mocking-bird of west North America; Sage′-will′ow, a dwarf American willow.—adj. Sā′gy, full of, or seasoned with, sage.—Apple-bearing sage, a native of southern Europe, with large reddish or purple bracts, and bearing on its branches large gall-nuts; Meadow Sage, or Meadow clary, a common ornament of meadows in the south of England, with bluish-purple flowers; Oil of sage, an essential oil, yielded by the sage, once much used in liniments against rheumatism. [O. Fr. sauge (It. salvia)—L. salviasalvus, safe.]

Sage, sāj, adj. discriminating, discerning, wise: well judged.—n. a wise man: a man of gravity and wisdom.—adv. Sage′ly.—n. Sage′ness.—Seven sages, or wise men (see Seven). [Fr. sage (It. saggio, savio), from a L. sapius (seen in ne-sapius), wise—sapĕre, to be wise.]

Sagene, sā′jēn, n. a fishing-net. [L.,—Gr. sagēnē.]

Sagene, sā′jēn, n. a Russian unit of long measure, of seven English feet.

Sagenite, sāj′en-īt, n. acicular crystals of rutile occurring in reticulated forms embedded in quartz.—adj. Sagenit′ic. [Gr. sagēnē, a drag-net.]

Sageretia, saj-e-rē′ti-a, n. a genus of polypetalous plants belonging to the buckthorn order. [Named from Aug. Sageret, 1763-1852.]

Sagesse, sazh-es′, n. wisdom. [Fr.]

Saggar, Sagger, sag′ar, -ėr, n. a box of hard pottery in which porcelain is enclosed for baking—also v.t.ns. Sagg′ard; Sagg′ar-house, a house in which unbaked vessels are put into saggars. [Safeguard.]

Sagina, sa-jī′na, n. a genus of polypetalous plants of the pink family.—v.t. Sag′inate, to pamper: to fatten.—n. Saginā′tion. [L. sagināre, to fatten.]

Sagitta, saj′it-a, n. a northern constellation—the Arrow: a genus of small pelagic worms.—adj. Sag′ittal, arrow-shaped: (anat.) straight, pertaining to the sagittal suture.—adv. Sag′ittally.—ns. Sagittā′ria, a genus of aquatic plants, some species with sagittate leaves and white flowers; Sagittā′rius, the Archer, one of the signs of the zodiac; Sag′ittary, a centaur: a public building in Venice.—adj. of or like an arrow.—adjs. Sag′ittāte, -d, Shaped like an arrow-head, as a leaf; Sagittiling′ual, having a long slender tongue, as a woodpecker. [L. sagitta, an arrow.]

Sago, sā′go, n. a nutritive farinaceous substance produced from the pith of several East Indian palms.—n. Sā′go-palm. [Malay sāgu.]

Sagra, sā′gra, n. a genus of phytophagous beetles of brilliant colours.

Saguaro, sa-gwar′ō, n. the giant cactus.

Saguin, sag′win, n. a South American monkey.—Also Sag′oin, Sag′ouin.

Saguinus, sag-ū-ī′nus, n. a genus of South American marmosets.

Sagum, sā′gum, n. a military cloak worn by ancient Roman soldiers. [L., prob. of Celt. origin.]

Sahib, sä′ib, n. a term of respect given in India to persons of rank and to Europeans. [Hind. sāhib—Ar. sāhib.]

Sahlite, sä′līt, n. a variety of augite, from the silver-mines of Sahla in Sweden.

Sai, sä′i, n. a South American monkey. [Braz.]

Saibling, sāb′ling, n. the char.

Saic, sä′ik, n. a Turkish or Grecian vessel common in the Levant. [Fr. saïque—Turk. shāīqa.]

Said, sed, pa.t. and pa.p. of say: the before-mentioned, as the said witness.

Saiga, sī′gä, n. a west Asian antelope. [Russ.]

Saikless. Same as Sackless.

Sail, sāl, n. a sheet of canvas, &c., spread to catch the wind, by which a ship is driven forward: a ship or ships: a trip in a vessel: a fleet: arm of a windmill: speed: a journey.—v.i. to be moved by sails: to go by water: to begin a voyage: to glide or float smoothly along.—v.t. to navigate: to pass in a ship: to fly through.—adj. Sail′able, navigable.—n. Sail′-boat, a boat propelled by a sail.—adjs. Sail′-borne; Sail′-broad (Milt.), broad or spreading like a sail.—n. Sail′-cloth, a strong cloth for sails.—adj. Sailed, having sails set.—ns. Sail′er, a sailor: a boat or ship with respect to its mode of sailing, or its speed; Sail′-fish, the basking shark: the quill-back; Sail′-fluke, the whiff; Sail′-hoop, a mast-hoop; Sail′ing, act of sailing: motion of a vessel on water: act of directing a ship's course: the term applied to the different ways in which the path of a ship at sea, and the variations of its geographical position, are represented on paper, as great circle sailing, Mercator's sailing, middle latitude sailing, oblique sailing, parallel sailing, plane sailing; Sail′ing-ice, an ice-pack through which a sailing-vessel can force her way.— Sail′ing-instruc′tions, written directions by the officer of a convoy to the masters of ships under his care.—n. Sail′ing-mas′ter, a former name for the navigating officer of a war-ship.—adj. Sail′less, destitute of sails.—ns. Sail′-liz′ard, a large lizard having a crested tail; Sail′-loft, a loft where sails are cut out and made; Sail′-māk′er, a maker of sails: in the United States navy, an officer who takes charge of the sails; Sail′or, one who sails in or navigates a ship: a seaman; Sail′or-fish, a sword-fish; Sail′or-man, a seaman; Sail′or-plant, the strawberry geranium; Sail′or's-choice, the pin-fish: the pig-fish; Sail′or's-purse, an egg-pouch of rays and sharks; Sail′-room, a room in a vessel where sails are stowed.—adj. Sail′y, like a sail.—n. Sail′-yard, the yard on which sails are extended.— Stay′-sails, triangular sails, suspended on the ropes which stay the masts upon the foresides—from the jib-boom, bowsprit, and deck in the case of the foremast, and from the deck in the case of the mainmast.—Sail close to the wind, to run great risk; Sailors' Home, an institution where sailors may lodge, or aged and infirm sailors be permanently cared for.—After sail, the sails carried on the mainmast and mizzen-mast; Fore-and-aft sails, those set parallel to the keel of a ship, as opp. to Square sails, those set across the ship; Full Sail, with all sails set; Make sail, to spread more canvas, in sailing; Set sail, to spread the sails, to begin a voyage; Shorten sail, to reduce its extent; Strike sail, to lower the sail or sails: (Shak.) to abate one's pretensions of pomp or superiority; Take the wind out of one's sails, to deprive one of an advantage; Under sail, having the sails spread. [A.S. segel, cf. Dut. zeil, Ger. segel.]

Saimiri, sī′mi-ri, n. a squirrel monkey.

Sain, sā′in (Shak.), pa.p. of say.

Sain, sān, v.t. (Scot.) to bless so as to protect from evil. [A.S. segnian—L. signāresignum, mark.]

Sainfoin, sān′foin, n. a leguminous fodder-plant.—Also Saint′foin. [Fr., sain, wholesome, foin, hay—L. sanum fœnum.]

Saint, sānt, n. a sanctified or holy person: one eminent for piety: one of the blessed dead: one canonised by the R.C. Church: an image of a saint: an angel: (pl.) Israelites as a people: Christians generally.—v.t. to salute as a saint.—adj. Saint′ed, made a saint: holy: sacred: gone to heaven: canonised.—n. Saint′hood.—adj. Saint′ish, somewhat saintly, or affectedly so.—n. Saint′ism, the character or quality of a saint: sanctimoniousness.—adjs. Saint′-like, Saint′ly, like or becoming a saint.—adv. Saint′lily.—n. Saint′liness.—adj. Saint′-seem′ing, appearing like a saint.—n. Saint′ship, the character of a saint.—Saint's day, a day set apart for the commemoration of a particular saint; St Agnes's flower, the snowflake; St Andrew's cross, a North American shrub; St Andrew's Day, 30th November; St Anthony's fire, erysipelas; St Anthony's nut, the pig-nut or hawk-nut; St Audrey's necklace, a string of holy stones; St Barbara's cress, the yellow rocket; St Barnaby's thistle, the English star-thistle; St Bennet's herb, the herb bennet; St Bernard, a kind of dog; St Blase's disease, quinsy; St Cassian beds, a division of the Triassic series; St Crispin's Day, 25th October; St David's Day, 1st March; St Domingo duck, a West Indian duck; St Domingo grebe, the smallest grebe in America; St Elmo's fire (see Elmo's fire); St George's Day, 23d April; St George's ensign, the distinguishing flag of the British navy, a red cross on a white field; St Hubert's disease, hydrophobia; St John's bread, the carob bean: ergot of rye; St John's Day, 27th December; St John's hawk, a blackish variety of the rough-legged buzzard; St Julien, an esteemed red Bordeaux wine from the Médoc region; St Leger, the name of a race run at Doncaster, so called since 1778 from Col. St Leger; St Luke's summer, a period of pleasant weather about the middle of October; St Martin's evil, drunkenness; St Martin's summer, a season of mild, damp weather in late autumn; St Nicholas's Day, 6th December; St Patrick's Day, 17th March; St Peter's finger, a belemnite; St Peter's fish, the dory; St Peter's wort, a name of several plants; St Pierre group, a thick mass of shales in the upper Missouri region; St Swithin's Day, 15th July; St Valentine's Day, 14th February; St Vitus's dance, chorea.—All-Saints' Day, a feast observed by the Latin Church on 1st November, in the Greek Church on the first Sunday after Pentecost; Communion of the Saints, the spiritual fellowship of all true believers, the blessed dead as well as the faithful living, mystically united in each other in Christ; Intercession, Perseverance, of saints (see Intercession, Perseverance); Latter-day saints, the Mormons' name for themselves; Patron saint, a saint who is regarded as a protector, as St George of England, St Andrew of Scotland, St Patrick of Ireland, St David of Wales, St Denis of France, St James of Spain, St Nicholas of Russia, St Stephen of Hungary, St Mark of Venice, &c. [Fr.,—L. sanctus, holy.]

Saint-Simonism, sānt-sī′mon-izm, n. the socialistic system founded by the Comte de Saint-Simon (1760-1825).—ns. Saint-Simō′nian (also adj.); Saint-Simō′nianism; Saint-Sī′monist.

Sair, sār, adj. (Scot.) sore.—adv. Sair′ly.

Sair, sār, v.t. to serve: to fit: to satisfy: to give alms.—n. Sair′ing, as much as serves the turn: enough.

Saith, seth, v.t. and v.i. 3d pers. sing. pres. indic. of say.

Saith, sāth, n. (Scot.) the coalfish. [Gael. savidhean.]

Saiva, sī′va, n. a votary of Siva.—n. Sai′vism.

Sajou, sa-jōō′, n. a South American monkey.

Sake, sak′e, n. a Japanese fermented liquor made from rice: a generic name for all spirituous liquors.

Sake, sāk, n. cause: account: regard, as 'for my sake': contention: fault: purpose.—For old sake's sake, for the sake of old times, for auld langsyne. [A.S. sacu, strife, a lawsuit; Dut. zaak, Ger. sache; A.S. sacan, to strive, Goth. sakan. Seek is a doublet.]

Saker, sā′kėr, n. a species of falcon: a species of cannon. [Fr.,—Low L. falco sacer, sacred falcon.]

Saki, sak′i, n. a genus of long-tailed South American monkeys.

Sakieh, sak′i-e, n. a Persian wheel used in Egypt for raising water.—Also Sak′ia, [Ar. saqieh.]

Sal, sal, n. a large gregarious timber tree of north India, with hard, dark-brown, coarse-grained, durable wood. [Hind. sāl.]

Sal, sal, n. salt, used in chemistry and pharmacy with various adjectives, as Sal′-alem′broth, a solution of equal parts of corrosive sublimate and ammonium chloride—also Salt of wisdom; Sal′-ammō′niac, chloride of ammonium, with a sharp, saline taste; Sal′-seignette′, Rochelle salt; Sal′-volat′ile, a solution of carbonate of ammonia in alcohol—a common remedy for faintness. [L.]

Salaam, Salam, sa-läm′, n. a word of salutation in the East, chiefly among Mohammedans: homage.—v.i. to perform the salaam. [Ar. salām, peace; Heb. shalām, to be safe.]

Salable, Salableness, Salably. Same as Saleable, &c. See Sale.

Salacious, sal-ā′shi-us, adj. lustful: lecherous.—adv. Salā′ciously, lustfully: lecherously.—ns. Salā′ciousness, Salac′ity, lust, lecherousness. [L. salaxsalīre, to leap.]

Salad, sal′ad, n. a preparation of raw herbs (lettuce, endive, chicory, celery, mustard and cress, water-cress, onions, radishes, tomatoes, chervil, &c.) cut up and seasoned with salt, vinegar, &c.: a dish of some kind of meat, chopped, seasoned, and mixed with a salad.—ns. Salad-bur′net, the common burnet, used as a salad; Sal′ading, herbs for salads: the making of salads; Sal′ad-oil, olive-oil, used in dressing salads; Sal′ad-plate, a small plate for salad; Sal′ad-rock′et, the garden rocket; Sal′ad-spoon, a large and long-handled spoon for stirring and mixing salads, made of wood or other material not affected by vinegar.—Salad days, days of youthful inexperience. [Fr. salade—Old It. salatasalare, to salt—L. sal, salt.]

Salagramma, sä-lä-grä′mä, n. a stone sacred to Vishnu.

Salal-berry, sal′al-ber′i, n. a berry-like plant of California, about the size of a common grape.

Salam. See Salaam.

Salamander, sal′a-man-dėr, n. a genus of tailed Amphibians, nearly related to the newts, harmless, but long dreaded as poisonous, once supposed able to live in fire: (her.) a four-legged creature with a long tail surrounded by flames: a poker used red-hot for kindling fires: a hot metal plate for browning meat, &c.—adjs. Salaman′driform; Salaman′drine, like a salamander: enduring fire; Salaman′droid—also n. [Fr. salamandre—L.,—Gr. salamandra; of Eastern origin.]

Salamba, sa-lam′ba, n. a contrivance for fishing used at Manila and elsewhere in the East.

Salamis, sal′a-mis, n. a genus of lepidopterous insects.

Salangane, sal′ang-gān, n. a Chinese swift which constructs edible nests.

Salary, sal′a-ri, n. a recompense for services: wages.—v.t. to pay a salary.—adj. Sal′aried, receiving a salary. [O. Fr. salarie (Fr. salaire, It. salario)—L. salarium, salt-money, sal, salt]

Salda, sal′da, n. a genus of true bugs.

Sale, sāl, n. act of selling: the exchange of anything for money: power or opportunity of selling: demand: public showing of goods to sell: auction.—adj. Sale′able, that may be sold: in good demand.—n. Sale′ableness.—adv. Sale′ably.—ns. Sale′room, an auction-room; Sales′man, a man who sells goods:—fem. Sales′woman.—adj. Sale′-tongued, mercenary.— Sale′wares, merchandise.—n. Sale′work, work or things made for sale, or merely for sale: work carelessly done.—Forced sale, a sale compelled by a creditor; Terms of sale, the conditions imposed on a purchaser. [Scand., Ice. sala.]

Sale, sāl, n. (Spens.) a kind of basket-like net, made of sallows or willows. [A.S. sealh, willow.]

Salebrous, sal′ē-brus, adj. rough, rugged.—n. Salebros′ity. [Fr.,—L. salebrosus, rough.]

Salep, sal′ep, n. the dried tubers of Orchis mascula: the food prepared from it.—Also Sal′op. [Ar.]

Saleratus, sal-e-rā′tus, n. sodium bicarbonate, used in baking-powders.—Also Salærā′tus. [L. sal aeratus, aerated salt.]

Salewe, sal-ū′, v.t. (Spens.) to salute. [Salute.]

Salian, sā′li-an, adj. pertaining to a tribe of Franks on the lower Rhine.—n. one of this tribe.—adj. Sal′ic, denoting a law among the Salian Franks limiting the succession of certain lands to males—extended in the 14th century to the succession to the crown of France. [Fr. salique—Low L. Lex salica.]

Salian, sā′li-an, adj. pertaining to the Salii or priests of Mars in ancient Rome.—Salian hymns, songs sung by these, with dances, &c.

Saliant, sāl′i-ant, adj. Same as Salient.

Saliaunce, sal-i-äns′, n. (Spens.). See Salience.

Salicetum, sal-i-sē′tum, n. a thicket of willows:—pl. Salicē′tums, Salicē′ta.

Salicin, -e, sal′i-sin, n. a bitter crystalline glucoside, obtained from the bark of willows and poplars.—n. Sal′icylāte, a salt of salicylic acid.—adjs. Sal′icylāted, combined with salicylic acid; Salicy′lic, obtained from the willow.—Salicylate of sodium, a product occurring in small white crystals, used very largely in acute rheumatism. [L. salix, salicis, a willow.]

Salicornia, sal-i-kor′ni-a, n. a genus of apetalous plants—the glass-wort, marsh-samphire. [Fr.,—L. sal, salt, cornu, a horn.]

Salient, sā′li-ent, adj. leaping or springing: (fort.) projecting outwards, as an angle: prominent: striking: (geom.) denoting any angle less than two right angles: (her.) of a beast of prey nearly rampant.—n. Sā′lience, the quality or condition of being salient: projection: (Spens.) a leaping, assaulting, onslaught.—adv. Sā′liently. [Fr.,—L. saliens, -entis, pr.p. of salīre, to leap.]

Salière, sa-lyār′, n. a saltcellar. [Fr.]

Saliferous, sā-lif′ėr-us, adj. bearing salt.—Saliferous system, the Triassic, from its rich deposits. [L. sal, salis, salt, ferre, to bear.]

Salify, sal′i-fī, v.t. to combine with an acid in order to make a salt:—pa.t. and pa.p. sal′ified.adj. Salifī′able.—n. Salificā′tion, the act of salifying.

Saline, sā′līn, or sā-līn′, adj. consisting of, or containing, salt: partaking of the qualities of salt.—n. an effervescent powder used as a gentle aperient: a salt-spring.—ns. Salī′na, salt-works; Salinā′tion, the act of washing in salt liquor; Sal′ine, Sal′in, a salt, reddish substance obtained from the ashes of potato-leaves; Saline′ness.—adjs. Salinif′erous; Salin′iform.—ns. Salin′ity; Salinom′eter, Salim′eter, a hydrometer for measuring the amount of salt in any given solution.—adj. Salī′no-terrene′, composed of salt and earth.—v.t. Sal′ite, to season with salt.—n. Sal′itral, a place where saltpetre occurs. [Fr.,—L. salinussal, salt.]

Salique, sal′ik, or sa-lēk′. Same as Salic (see Salian).

Saliva, sa-lī′va, n. the spittle, one of the digestive fluids, mainly the product of the salivary glands.—adjs. Salī′val, Sal′ivant, producing salivation.—n. Salī′va-pump, a device for carrying off the accumulating saliva.—adj. Sa′livary, pertaining to, secreting, or containing saliva.—n. that which produces salivation.—v.t. Sal′ivāte, to produce an unusual amount of saliva.—n. Salivā′tion, an unusual flow of saliva.—adj. Sal′ivous, like spittle. [Fr.,—L., allied to Gr. sialon, saliva.]

Salix, sā′liks, n. a genus of apetalous trees and shrubs, the willows. [L.]

Sallee-man, sal′ē-man, n. a Moorish pirate.—Also Sall′ee-rō′ver. [Sallee, on the coast of Morocco.]

Sallet, sal′et, n. a light kind of helmet of the 15th century, with projection behind, used by foot-soldiers. [O. Fr. salade, through It. celata, a helmet, from L. cælata, figured—cælāre, to engrave.]

Sallie, sal′i, n. (Scot.) a hired mourner at a funeral.

Sallow, sal′ō, n. a tree or low shrub of the willow kind—(Scot.) Sauch.—adj. Sall′owy, abounding in sallows. [A.S. sealh; Ger. sahl.]

Sallow, sal′ō, adj. of a pale, yellowish colour.—v.t. to tinge with a sallow colour.—adj. Sall′owish, somewhat sallow.—ns. Sall′ow-kitt′en, a kind of puss-moth; Sall′ow-moth, a British moth of a pale-yellow colour; Sall′owness.—adj. Sall′owy. [A.S. salo, salu; cf. Dut. zaluw, and Old High Ger. salo.]

Sally, sal′i, n. a leaping or bursting out: a sudden rushing forth of troops to attack besiegers: excursion: outburst of fancy, wit, &c.: levity: a projection.—v.i. to rush out suddenly: to mount:—pa.t. and pa.p. sall′ied.n. Sall′y-port, a passage by which a garrison may make a sally: a large port for the escape of a crew when a fire-ship is set on fire. [Fr. sailliesaillir (It. salire)—L. salire, to leap.]

Sally, sal′i, n. a kind of stone-fly: a wren.—n. Sall′ypick′er, one of several different warblers.

Sally-lunn, sal′i-lun, n. a sweet spongy tea-cake. [From the name of a girl who sold them in the streets of Bath about the close of the 18th century.]

Sally-wood, sal′i-wōōd, n. willow-wood.

Salmagundi, sal-ma-gun′di, n. a dish of minced meat with eggs, anchovies, vinegar, pepper, &c.: a medley, miscellany.—Also Salmagun′dy. [Fr. salmigondis—It. salami, pl. of salame, salt meat—L. sal, salt, conditi, pl. of condito, seasoned—L. condīre, -ītum, to pickle.]

Salmi, Salmis, sal′mi, n. a ragout of roasted woodcocks, &c., stewed with wine, morsels of bread, &c. [Fr. salmis—It. salame, salt meat.]

Salmiac, sal′mi-ak, n. sal-ammoniac.

Salmon, sam′un, n. a large fish, brownish above, with silvery sides, the delicate flesh reddish-orange in colour—ascending rivers to spawn: the upper bricks in a kiln which receive the least heat.—ns. Sal′mō, the leading genus of Salmonidæ; Salm′on-col′our, an orange-pink; Salm′onet, a young salmon; Salm′on-fish′ery, a place where salmon-fishing is carried on; Salm′on-fly, any kind of artificial fly for taking salmon; Salm′on-fry, salmon under two years old; Salm′oning, the salmon industry, as canning; Salm′on-kill′er, a sort of stickleback; Salm′on-leap, -ladd′er, a series of steps to permit a salmon to pass up-stream.—adj. Salm′onoid.—ns. Salm′on-peal, -peel, a grilse under 2 lb.; Salm′on-spear, an instrument used in spearing salmon; Salm′on-spring, a smolt or young salmon of the first year; Salm′on-tack′le, the rod, line, and fly with which salmon are taken; Salm′on-trout, a trout like the salmon, but smaller and thicker in proportion; Salm′on-weir, a weir specially designed to take salmon.—Black salmon, the great lake trout; Burnett salmon, a fish with reddish flesh like a salmon; Calvered salmon, pickled salmon; Cornish salmon, the pollack; Kelp salmon, a serranoid fish; Kippered Salmon, salmon salted and smoke-dried; Quoddy salmon, the pollack; Sea salmon, the pollack; White salmon, a carangoid Californian fish. [O. Fr. saulmon—L. salmo, from salīre, to leap.]

Salnatron, sal-nā′tron, n. crude sodium carbonate.

Salomonic. Same as Solomonic.

Salon, sa-long′, n. a drawing-room: a fashionable reception, esp. a periodic gathering of notable persons, in the house of some social queen: the great annual exhibition of works by living artists at the Palais des Champs Elysées in Paris. [Fr.]

Saloon, sa-lōōn′, n. a spacious and elegant hall or apartment for the reception of company, for works of art, &c.: a main cabin: a drawing-room car on a railroad: a liquor-shop.—ns. Saloon′ist, Saloon′-keep′er, one who retails liquor. [Fr. salonsalle; Old High Ger. sal, a dwelling, Ger. saal.]

Saloop, sa-lōōp′, n. a drink composed of sassafras tea, with sugar and milk. [Salep.]

Salop. Same as Salep.

Salopian, sal-ō′pi-an, adj. pertaining to Shropshire (L. Salopia), as the ware, a name given to Roman pottery found in Shropshire.

Salpa, sal′pa, n. a remarkable genus of free-swimming Tunicates.—adjs. Sal′pian; Sal′piform.

Salpicon, sal′pi-kon, n. stuffing, chopped meat. [Fr.]

Salpiglossis, sal-pi-glos′is, n. a genus of gamopetalous plants, native to Chili, with showy flowers resembling petunias, [Gr. salpingx, a trumpet, glōssa, tongue.]

Salpinctes, sal-pingk′tes, n. the rock-wrens. [Gr. salpingktēs, a trumpeter.]

Salpingitis, sal-pin-jī′tis, n. inflammation of a Fallopian tube.—adjs. Salpingit′ic, Salpin′gian, pertaining to a Fallopian or to a Eustachian tube.—n. Sal′pinx, a Eustachian tube or syrinx. [Gr. salpingx, a trumpet.]

Salpornis, sal-por′nis, n. a genus of creepers inhabiting Asia and Africa. [Gr. salpingx, a trumpet, ornis, a bird.]

Salsaginous, sal-saj′i-nus, adj. saltish: growing in brackish places.

Salsamentarious, sal-sa-men-tā′ri-us, adj. (obs.) salted.

Salse, sals, n. a mud volcano: a conical hillock of mud. [Fr.,—L. salsus, salīre, to salt.]

Salsify, sal′si-fi, n. a biennial plant growing in meadows throughout Europe, whose long and tapering root has a flavour resembling asparagus—also Sal′safy—often called Oyster-plant.—Black salsify, the related scorzonera. [Fr.,—It. sassefrica, goat's-beard—L. saxum, a rock, fricāre, to rub.]

Salsilla, sal-sil′a, n. one of several species of Bomarea, with edible tubers. [Sp., dim. of salsa, sauce.]

Salsola, sal′sō-la, n. a genus of plants, including the salt-wort and prickly glass-wort.—adj. Salsolā′ceous. [L. salsussalīre, to salt.]

Salt, sawlt, n. chloride of sodium, or common salt, a well-known substance used for seasoning, found either in the earth or obtained by evaporation from sea-water: anything like salt: seasoning: piquancy: abatement, modification, allowance: an experienced sailor: that which preserves from corruption: an antiseptic: (chem.) a body composed of an acid and a base united in definite proportions, or of bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine, with a metal or metalloid: (obs.) lust.—v.t. to sprinkle or season with salt: to fill with salt between the timbers for preservation.—adj. containing salt: tasting of salt: overflowed with, or growing in, salt-water: pungent: lecherous: (coll.) costly, expensive—ns. Salt′-block, a salt-evaporating apparatus; Salt′-bott′om, a flat piece of ground covered with saline efflorescences: Salt′-bush, an Australian plant of the goose-foot family; Salt′-cake, the crude sodium sulphate occurring as a by-product in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid; Salt′-cat, a mixture given as a digestive to pigeons; Salt′er, one who salts, or who makes, sells, or deals in salt, as in Drysalter: a trout leaving salt-water to ascend a stream; Sal′tern, salt-works; Salt′-foot, a large saltcellar marking the boundary between the superior and inferior guests; Salt′-gauge, an instrument for testing the strength of brine; Salt′-glaze, a glaze produced upon ceramic ware by putting common salt in the kilns after they have been fired.—adj. Salt′-green (Shak.), sea-green.—ns. Salt′-group, a series of rocks containing salt, as the Onondaga salt-group; Salt′-hold′er, a saltcellar; Salt′-horse, salted beef; Salt′ie, the salt-water fluke or dab; Salt′ing, the act of sprinkling with salt: the celebration of the Eton 'Montem.'—adj. Salt′ish, somewhat salt.—adv. Salt′ishly, so as to be moderately salt.—ns. Salt′ishness, a moderate degree of saltness; Salt′-junk, hard salt beef for use at sea.—adj. Salt′less, without salt: tasteless.—n. Salt′-lick, a place to which animals resort for salt.—adv. Salt′ly.—ns. Salt′-marsh, land liable to be overflowed by the sea or the waters of estuaries; Salt′-marsh cat′erpillar, the hairy larva of an arctiid moth; Salt′-marsh hen, a clapper-rail; Salt′-marsh terr′apin, the diamond-backed turtle; Salt′-mine, a mine where rock-salt is obtained; Salt′ness, impregnation with salt; Salt′-pan, a pan, basin, or pit where salt is obtained or made; Salt′-pit, a pit where salt is obtained; Salt′-rheum, a cutaneous eruption; Salts, Epsom salt or other salt used as a medicine.—adj. Salt′-sliv′ered, slivered and salted, as fish for bait.—ns. Salt′-spoon, a small spoon for serving salt at table; Salt′-spring, a brine-spring; Salt′-wa′ter, water impregnated with salt, sea-water; Salt′-works, a place where salt is made; Salt′-wort, a genus of plants of many species, mostly natives of salt-marshes and sea-shores, one only being found in Britain, the Prickly S., which was formerly burned for the soda it yielded.—adj. Salt′y (same as Saltish).—Salt a mine, to deposit ore in it cunningly so as to deceive persons who inspect it regarding its value; Salt of lemon, or sorrel, acid potassium oxalate, a solvent for ink-stains; Salt of soda, sodium carbonate; Salt of tartar, a commercial name for purified potassium carbonate; Salt of vitriol, sulphate of zinc; Salt of wormwood, carbonate of potash.—Above the salt, at the upper half of the table, among the guests of distinction; Attic salt, wit; Below the salt, at the lower half of the table; Be not worth one's salt, not to deserve even the salt that gives relish to one's food; Bronzing salt, used in burning gun-barrels; Epsom salts, magnesium sulphate, a cathartic; Essential salts, those produced from the juices of plants by crystallisation; Glauber's salt, or Horse salts, a well-known cathartic, used in woollen dyeing; Lay salt on the tail of, to catch; Neutral salt, a salt in which the acid and the base neutralise each other; Rochelle salt, sodium potassium tartrate, a laxative; Spirits of salt, the old name for muriatic or hydrochloric acid; Take with a grain of salt, to believe with some reserve. [A.S. sealt; cf. Ger. salz, also L. sal, Gr. hals.]

Saltant, sal′tant, adj. leaping: dancing: (her.) salient.—v.i. Sal′tāte, to dance.—n. Saltā′tion, a leaping or jumping: beating or palpitation: (biol.) an abrupt variation.— Saltatō′ria, a division of orthopterous insects including grass-hoppers, locusts, and crickets.—adjs. Saltatō′rial, Saltatō′rious; Sal′tatory, leaping: dancing: having the power of, or used in, leaping or dancing. [L. saltans, pr.p. of saltāre, -ātum, inten. of salīre, to leap.]

Saltarello, sal-ta-rel′ō, n. a lively Italian dance in triple time, diversified with skips, for a single couple—also the music for such: an old form of round dance. [It.,—L. saltāre, to dance.]

Saltcellar, sawlt′sel-ar, n. a small table vessel for holding salt. [For salt-sellar, the last part being O. Fr. saliere—L. salariumsal, salt.]

Saltierra, sal-tyer′a, n. a saline deposit in the inland lakes of Mexico. [Sp.,—L. sal, salt, terra, land.]

Saltigrade, sal′ti-grād, adj. formed for leaping, as certain insects.—n. one of a certain tribe of spiders which leap to seize their prey. [L. saltus, a leap, gradi, to go.]

Saltimbanco, sal-tim-bangk′ō, n. (obs.) a mountebank: a quack. [It.]

Saltire, Saltier, sal′tēr, n. (her.) an ordinary in the form of a St Andrew's Cross.—adj. Sal′tierwise. [O. Fr. saultoir, sautoir—Low L. saltatorium, a stirrup—L. saltāre, to leap.]

Saltpetre, sawlt-pē′tėr, n. the commercial name for nitre.—adj. Saltpē′trous. [O. Fr. salpestre—Low L. salpetra—L. sal, salt, petra, a rock.]

Saltus, sal′tus, n. a break of continuity in time: a leap from premises to conclusion. [L., a leap.]

Salubrious, sa-lū′bri-us, adj. healthful: wholesome.—adv. Salū′briously.—ns. Salū′briousness, Salū′brity, [L. salubrissalus, salutis, health.]

Salue, sal-ū′, v.t. (Spens.) to salute.

Salutary, sal′ū-tar-i, adj. belonging to health: promoting health or safety: wholesome: beneficial.—n. Salūdador′ (obs.), a quack who cures by incantations.—adv. Sal′ūtarily, in a salutary manner: favourably to health.—n. Sal′ūtariness.—adj. Salūtif′erous, health-bearing.—adv. Salūtif′erously. [L. salutarissalus, health.]

Salute, sal-ūt′, v.t. to address with kind wishes: to greet with a kiss, a bow, &c.: to honour formally by a discharge of cannon, striking colours, &c.—n. act of saluting: the position of the hand, sword, &c. in saluting: greeting: a kiss: a complimentary discharge of cannon, dipping colours, presenting arms, &c., in honour of any one.—ns. Salūtā′tion, act of saluting: that which is said in saluting, any customary or ceremonious form of address at meeting or at parting, or of ceremonial on religious or state occasions, including both forms of speech and gestures: (obs.) quickening, excitement: the Angelic Salutation (see Ave); Salūtatō′rian, in American colleges, the member of a graduating class who pronounces the salutatory oration.—adv. Salū′tatorily.—adj. Salū′tatory, pertaining to salutation.—n. a sacristy in the early church in which the clergy received the greetings of the people: an oration in Latin delivered by the student who ranks second.—n. Salū′ter. [L. salutāre, -ātumsalus, salutis.]

Salvage, sal′vāj, adj. (Spens.). Same as Savage.

Salvage, sal′vāj, n. compensation made by the owner of a ship or cargo in respect of services rendered by persons, other than the ship's company, in preserving the ship or cargo from shipwreck, fire, or capture: the goods and materials so saved.—n. Salvabil′ity, the possibility or condition of being saved.—adj. Sal′vable.—n. Sal′vableness.—adv. Sal′vably. [Fr.,—L. salvāre, -ātum, to save.]

Salvation, sal-vā′shun, n. act of saving: means of preservation from any serious evil: (theol.) the saving of man from the power and penalty of sin, the conferring of eternal happiness: (B.) deliverance from enemies.—v.t. to heal, to cure: to remedy: to redeem: to gloss over.—ns. Salvā′tionism; Salvā′tionist.—Salvation Army, an organisation for the revival of evangelical religion amongst the masses, founded by William Booth about 1865, reorganised on the model of a military force in 1878; Salvation Sally, a girl belonging to the Salvation Army.

Salvatory, sal′va-tō-ri, n. (obs.) a repository: a safe.

Salve, säv, n. (B.) an ointment: anything to cure sores.—v.t. to heal, help.—ns. Salv′er, a quacksalver, a pretender; Salv′ing, healing, restoration. [A.S. sealf; Ger. salbe, Dut. zalf.]

Salve, sal′vē, v.t. (Spens.) to salute.—Salve Regina (R.C.), an antiphonal hymn to the Blessed Virgin said after Lauds and Compline, from Trinity to Advent—from its opening words. [L. salve, God save you, hail! imper. of salvēre, to be well.]

Salvelinus, sal-ve-lī′nus, n. a genus of Salmonidæ, the chars. [Prob. Latinised from Ger. salbling, a small salmon.]

Salver, sal′vėr, n. a plate on which anything is presented.—adj. Sal′ver-shaped, in the form of a salver or tray. [Sp. salva, a salver, salvar, to save—Low L. salvāre, to save.]

Salvia, sal′vi-a, n. a large genus of gamopetalous Labiate plants, including the sage.

Salvinia, sal-vin′i-a, n. a genus of heterosporous ferns—formerly called Rhizocarpeæ or Pepperworts.

Salvo, sal′vō, n. an exception: a reservation. [L., in phrase, salvo jure, one's right being safe.]

Salvo, sal′vō, n. a military or naval salute with guns: a simultaneous discharge of artillery: the combined cheers of a multitude:—pl. Salvos (sal′vōz). [It. salva, a salute—L. salve, hail!]

Sal-volatile, sal′-vo-lat′i-le. See Sal.

Salvor, sal′vor, n. one who saves a cargo from wreck, fire, &c. [See Salvage.]

Sam, sam, adv. (Spens.) together.—v.t. to collect, to curdle milk. [A.S. samniansamen, together.]

Samara, sā-mar′a, or sam′-, n. a dry indehiscent, usually one-sided fruit, with a wing, as in the ash, elm, and maple—the last a double samara.—adjs. Sam′ariform; Sam′aroid. [L.]

Samare, sa-mär′, n. an old form of women's long-skirted jacket.

Samaritan, sa-mar′i-tan, adj. pertaining to Samaria in Palestine.—n. an inhabitant of Samaria, esp. one of the despised mixed population planted therein after the deportation of the Israelites: the language of Samaria, an archaic Hebrew, or rather Hebrew Aramaic, dialect: a charitable person—from Luke, x. 30-37.—n. Samar′itanism, charity, benevolence.—Samaritan Pentateuch, a recension of the Hebrew Pentateuch, in use amongst the Samaritans, and accepted by them as alone canonical.

Samaveda, sä-ma-vā′da, n. the name of one of the four Vedas. [Sans.]

Sambo, sam′bō, n. a negro: properly the child of a mulatto and a negro. [Sp. zambo—L. scambus, bow-legged.]

Sambucus, sam-bū′kus, n. a genus of gamopetalous trees and shrubs of the honeysuckle family—the elders. [L.]

Sambuke, sam′būk, n. an ancient musical instrument, probably a harp.—Also Sambū′ca. [Gr. sambykē—Heb. sabeka.]

Sambur, sam′bur, n. the Indian elk.—Also Sam′boo. [Hind. sambre.]

Same, sām, adv. (Spens.). Same as Sam.

Same, sām, adj. identical: of the like kind or degree: similar: mentioned before.—adj. Same′ly, unvaried.—n. Same′ness, the being the same: tedious monotony.—All the same, for all that; At the same time, still, nevertheless. [A.S. same; Goth. samana; L. similis, like, Gr. homos.]

Samia, sā′mi-a, n. a genus of bombycid moths, belonging to North America.

Samian, sā′mi-an, adj. pertaining to, or from, the island of Samos, in the Greek Archipelago.—n. (also Sā′miot, Sā′miote) a native of Samos.—Samian earth, an argillaceous astringent earth; Samian stone, a goldsmiths' polishing-stone; Samian ware, an ancient kind of pottery, brick-red or black, with lustrous glaze.

Samiel, sā′mi-el, n. the simoom. [Turk. samyeli—Ar. samm, poison, Turk. yel, wind.]

Samisen, sam′i-sen, n. a Japanese guitar.

Samite, sam′it, n. a kind of heavy silk stuff. [O. Fr. samit—Low L. examitum—Gr. hexamiton, hex, six, mitos, thread.]

Samlet, sam′let, n. a parr: a salmon of the first year. [Prob. salmon-et.]

Sammy, sam′i, v.t. to moisten skins with water.—n. a machine for doing this.

Samnite, sam′nīt, adj. and n. pertaining to an ancient Sabine people of central Italy, crushed by the Romans after a long struggle: a Roman gladiator armed with shield, sleeve on right arm, helmet, shoulder-piece, and greave.

Samoan, sa-mō′an, adj. and n. pertaining to Samoa in the Pacific.—Samoan dove, the tooth-billed pigeon.

Samolus, sam′ō-lus, n. a genus of herbaceous plants of the primrose family. [L.]

Samosatenian, sam-ō-sa-tē′ni-an, n. a follower of Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch, the Socinus of the 3d century.

Samothracian, sam-ō-thrā′si-an, adj. belonging to the island of Samothrace in the Ægean Sea.

Samovar, sam′ō-vär, n. a tea-urn used in Russia, commonly of copper, the water in it heated by charcoal in a tube extending from top to bottom. [Russ. samovarŭ, prob. Tartar.]

Samoyed, sa-mō′yed, n. one of a Ural-Altaic race between the Obi and the Yenisei.—adj. Samoyed′ic.

Samp, samp, n. Indian corn coarsely ground: a kind of hominy, also porridge made from it.


Sampan, sam′pan, n. a small boat used in China and Japan.—Also San′pan. [Chin. san, sam, three, pan, a board.]

Samphire, sam′fīr, or sam′fėr, n. an herb found chiefly on rocky cliffs near the sea, used in pickles and salads. [Corr. from Fr. Saint Pierre, Saint Peter.]

Sampi, sam′pī, n. a character, sampi representing a sibilant in early Greek use, later obsolete except as a numeral sign for 900.

Sample, sam′pl, n. a specimen: a part to show the quality of the whole: an example.—v.t. to make up samples of: to place side by side with: to match: to test by examination.—ns. Sam′pler, one who makes up samples (in compounds, as wool-sampler); Sam′ple-room, a room where samples are shown: (slang) a grog-shop; Sam′ple-scale, an accurately balanced lever-scale for weighing ten-thousandths of a pound. [Short for esample, from O. Fr. essample—L. exemplum, example.]

Sampler, sam′plėr, n. a pattern of work: a piece of ornamental embroidery, worsted-work, &c., containing names, figures, texts, &c.—n. Sam′plary (obs.), a pattern, an example. [Formed from L. exemplar.]

Sampsuchine, samp-sōō′chēn, n. (obs.) sweet marjoram.

Samshoo, Samshu, sam′shōō, n. an ardent spirit distilled by the Chinese from rice: any kind of spirits. [Chin. san, sam, three, shao, to fire.]

Samson-post, sam′son-pōst, n. a strong upright stanchion or post for various uses on board ship.

Samurai, sam′ōō-rī, n. sing. (also pl.) a member of the military class in the old feudal system of Japan, including both daimios, or territorial nobles, and their military retainers: a military retainer, a two-sworded man. [Jap.]

Samyda, sam′i-da, n. a genus of shrubs, native to the West Indies. [Gr. sēmyda, the birch.]

Sanable, san′a-bl, adj. able to be made sane or sound: curable.—ns. Sanabil′ity, San′ableness, capability of being cured; Sanā′tion (obs.), a healing or curing.—adj. San′ative, tending, or able, to heal: healing.—ns. San′ativeness; Sanatō′rium (see Sanitary).—adj. San′atory, healing: conducive to health. [L. sanabilissanāre, -ātum, to heal.]

Sanbenito, san-be-nē′tō, n. a garment grotesquely decorated with flames, devils, &c., worn by the victims of the Inquisition—at an auto-de-fe—for public recantation or execution. [Sp., from its resemblance in shape to the garment of the order of St Benedict—Sp. San Benito.]

Sancho, sang′kō, n. a musical instrument like the guitar, used by negroes.

Sancho-pedro, sang′kō-pē′drō, n. a game of cards—the nine of trumps called Sancho, the five Pedro.

Sanctify, sangk′ti-fī, v.t. to make sacred or holy: to set apart to sacred use: to free from sin or evil: to consecrate: to invest with a sacred character: to make efficient as the means of holiness: to secure from violation:—pa.t. and pa.p. sanc′tifīed.n. Sanctanim′ity, holiness of mind.—v.t. Sanctif′icāte.—n. Sanctificā′tion, act of sanctifying: state of being sanctified: that work or process of God's free grace whereby the new principle of spiritual life implanted in regeneration is developed until the whole man is renewed in the image of God: consecration.—adj. Sanc′tified, made holy: sanctimonious.—adv. Sanctifī′edly, sanctimoniously.—n. Sanc′tifier, one who sanctifies: the Holy Spirit.—adv. Sanc′tifyingly.—adj. Sanctimō′nious, having sanctity: holy, devout: affecting holiness.—adv. Sanctimō′niously.—ns. Sanctimō′niousness, Sanc′timony, affected devoutness, show of sanctity; Sanc′titude, holiness, goodness, saintliness: affected holiness; Sanc′tity, quality of being sacred or holy: purity: godliness: inviolability: a saint, any holy object.—v.t. Sanc′tuarise (Shak.), to shelter by sacred privileges, as in a sanctuary.—ns. Sanc′tūary, a sacred place: a place for the worship of God: the most sacred part of the Temple of Jerusalem: the Temple itself: the part of a church round the altar: an inviolable asylum, refuge, a consecrated place which gives protection to a criminal taking refuge there: the privilege of taking refuge in such a consecrated place; Sanc′tum, a sacred place: a private room; Sanc′tus, the ascription, 'Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts,' from Isa. vi.: a musical setting of the same.—Sanctum sanctorum, the Holy of Holies: any specially reserved retreat or room.—Odour of sanctity, the aroma of goodness. [Fr.,—L. sanctificāre, -ātumsanctus, sacred, facĕre, to make.]

Sanction, sangk′shun, n. act of ratifying, or giving authority to: confirmation: support: a decree, a law.—v.t. to give validity to: to authorise: to countenance.—adjs. Sanc′tionable; Sanc′tionary. [Fr.,—L. sanctīre.]

Sand, sand, n. fine particles of crushed or worn rocks, used in founding: force of character: (pl.) lands covered with sand: a sandy beach: moments of time, from the use of sand in the hour-glass.—v.t. to sprinkle with sand.—ns. Sand′-bag (fort.), a canvas bag filled with sand or earth, forming a ready means of giving cover against an enemy's fire, or of tamping the charge in a mine: an engraver's leather cushion, &c.; Sand′-bag′ger, a robber who uses a sand-bag to stun his victims; Sand′-ball, a ball of soap mixed with fine sand for the toilet; Sand′-band, a guard-ring to keep sand from working into the axle-box; Sand′-bank, a bank of sand formed by tides and currents; Sand′-bath, a vessel of hot sand for heating vessels without direct exposure to the fire: a bath in which the body is covered with warm sea-sand: saburration; Sand′-bear, the Indian badger; Sand′-bed, the bed into which the iron from the blast-furnace is run; Sand′-bird, a sandpiper: a shore bird; Sand′-blast, sand driven by a blast of air or steam for cutting and engraving figures on glass or metal.—adj. Sand′-blind, afflicted with partial blindness, in which particles of sand seem to float before the eyes.—ns. Sand′-blind′ness; Sand′-blow′er, a sand bellows; Sand′-box, a box with a perforated top for sprinkling sand on writing, a contrivance formerly used by way of blotting-paper: a box with sand to prevent the wheels of a rail from slipping; Sand′-brake, a device for stopping trains automatically; Sand′-bug, a burrowing crustacean: a digger-wasp; Sand′-bur, a weed found in the plains of the western United States; Sand′-canal′, the stone canal of an echinoderm; Sand′-cherr′y, the dwarf cherry; Sand′-cock, the redshank; Sand′-crab, the lady-crab; Sand′-crack, a crack in a horse's hoof: a crack in a moulded brick before burning; Sand′-crick′et, a name applied to certain large crickets in the western United States; Sand′-dab, a kind of plaice; Sand′-dart, a British noctuid moth; Sand′-dart′er, -div′er, a small etheostomine fish of the Ohio valley; Sand′-doll′ar, a flat sea-urchin; Sand′-drift, a mound of drifted sand; Sand′-dune, a ridge of loose sand drifted by the wind.—adj. Sand′ed (Shak.), marked with yellow spots: sprinkled with sand: short-sighted.—ns. Sand′-eel, a small eel-like fish, which buries itself in the sand when the tide retires; Sand′erling, a genus of birds of the snipe family, characterised by the absence of a hind-toe, common on the coast, eating marine worms, small crustaceans, and bivalve molluscs; Sand′-fence, a barrier in a stream of stakes and iron wire; Sand′-fish, a fish of the genus Trichodon; Sand′-flag, sandstone which splits up into flagstones; Sand′-flea, the chigoe or jigger; Sand′-flood, a moving mass of desert sand; Sand′-floun′der, a common North American flounder; Sand′-fly, a small New England biting midge; Sand′-glass, a glass instrument for measuring time by the running out of sand; Sand′-grass, grass that grows by the sea-shore; Sand′-grouse, a small order of birds, quite distinct from the true grouse, having two genera, Pterocles and Syrrhaptes, with beautiful plumage, heavy body, long and pointed wings, very short legs and toes; Sand′-heat, the heat of warm sand in chemical operations; Sand′-hill, a hill of sand; Sand′-hill crane, the brown crane of North America; Sand′-hill′er, one of the poor whites living in the sandy hills of Georgia; Sand′-hop′per, a small crustacean in the order Amphipoda, often seen on the sandy sea-shore, like swarms of dancing flies, leaping up by bending the body together, and throwing it out with a sudden jerk: a sand-flea; Sand′-horn′et, a sand-wasp; Sand′iness, sandy quality, esp. as regards colour; Sand′ing, the process of testing the surface of gilding, after it has been fired, with fine sand and water: the process of burying oysters in sand.—adj. Sand′ish (obs.).—ns. Sand′-jet (see Sand′-blast); Sand′-lark, a wading-bird that runs along the sand: a sandpiper; Sand′-liz′ard, a common lizard; Sand′-lob, the common British lug or lob worm; Sand′-mar′tin, the smallest of British swallows, which builds its nest in sandy river-banks and gravel-pits; Sand′-mā′son, a common British tube-worm; Sand′-mole, a South African rodent; Sand′-mouse, the dunlin: a sandpiper; Sand′-natt′er, a sand-snake; Sand′-pā′per, paper covered with a kind of sand for smoothing and polishing; Sand′-peep, the American stint: the peetweet; Sand′-perch, the grass-bass; Sand′piper, a wading-bird of the snipe family, which frequents sandy river-banks, distinguished by its clear piping note.— Sand′-pipes, perpendicular cylindrical hollows, tapering to a point, occurring in chalk deposits, and so called from being usually filled with sand, gravel, or clay.—ns. Sand′-pit, a place from which sand is extracted; Sand′-plov′er, a ring-necked plover; Sand′-pride, a very small species of lamprey found in the rivers of Britain; Sand′-pump, a long cylinder with valved piston for use in drilling rocks—a Sand′-sludg′er: a sand-ejector, modified from the jet-pump, used in caissons for sinking the foundations of bridges; Sand′-rat, a geomyoid rodent, esp. the camass rat; Sand′-reed, a shore grass; Sand′-reel, a windlass used in working a sand-pump; Sand′-ridge, a sand-bank; Sand′-roll, a metal roll cast in sand; Sand′-run′ner, a sandpiper; Sand′-sau′cer, a round mass of agglutinated egg-capsules of a naticoid gasteropod, found on beaches; Sand′-scoop, a dredge for scooping up sand; Sand′-screen, a sand-sifter; Sand′-screw, an amphipod which burrows in the sand; Sand′-shark, a small voracious shark; Sand′-shot, small cast-iron balls cast in sand; Sand′-shrimp, a shrimp; Sand′-skink, a European skink found in sandy places; Sand′-skip′per, a beach flea; Sand′-snake, a short-tailed boa-like serpent; Sand′-snipe, the sandpiper; Sand′-spout, a moving pillar of sand; Sand′star, a starfish: a brittle star; Sand′-stone, a rock formed of compacted and more or less indurated sand (Old Red Sandstone, a name given to a series of strata—along with the parallel but nowhere coexisting Devonian—intermediate in age between the Silurian and Carboniferous systems); Sand′-storm, a storm of wind carrying along clouds of sand; Sand′-suck′er, the rough dab; Sand′-throw′er, a tool for throwing sand on newly sized or painted surfaces; Sand′-trap, a device for separating sand from running water; Sand′-vī′per, a hog-nosed snake; Sand′-washer, an apparatus for separating sand from earthy substances; Sand′-wasp, a digger-wasp.—v.t. Sand′-weld, to weld iron with sand.—ns. Sand′-worm, a worm that lives in the sand; Sand′-wort, any plant of the genus Arenaria.—adj. Sand′y, consisting of, or covered with, sand: loose: of the colour of sand.—n. a nick-name for a Scotsman (from Alexander).—ns. Sand′y-car′pet, a geometrid moth; Sand′y-lav′erock (Scot.), a sand-lark. [A.S. sand; Dut. zand, Ger. sand, Ice. sand-r.]

Sandal, san′dal, n. a kind of shoe consisting of a sole bound to the foot by straps: a loose slipper: a half-boot of white kid: a strap for fastening a slipper: an india-rubber shoe.—adj. San′dalled, wearing sandals: fastened with such. [Fr.,—L. sandalium—Gr. sandalon, prob. from Pers.]

Sandal, san′dal, n. a long narrow boat used on the Barbary coast. [Ar.]

Sandalwood, san′dal-wōōd, n. a compact and fine-grained tropical wood, remarkable for its fragrance. [Fr. sandal—Low L. santalum—Late Gr. santalon.]

Sandarac, san′da-rak, n. a friable, dry, almost transparent, tasteless, yellowish-white resin, imported from Mogador, Morocco: red sulphuret of arsenic—also San′darach.—n. San′darac-tree, a native of the mountains of Morocco. [Fr. sandaraque—L. sandaraca—Gr. sandarakē—Sans. sindūra, realgar.]

Sandemanian, san-de-mā′ni-an, n. a follower of Robert Sandeman (1718-71), a Glassite (q.v.).

Sandiver, san′di-vėr, n. the saline scum which forms on glass during its first fusion: glass-gall: product of glass-furnaces.—Also San′dever. [O. Fr. suin de verre, suint de verresuin, grease, de, of, verre, glass—L. vitrum.]

Sandix, san′diks, n. red lead.—Also San′dyx. [L.,—Gr. sandix, vermilion.]

Sandwich, sand′wich, n. two slices of bread with ham, &c., between, said to be named from the fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718-92), who had such brought to him at the gaming-table that he might play on without stopping.—v.t. to lay or place between two layers, to fit tight between two objects.—n. Sand′wich-man, a man who perambulates the streets between two advertising boards.

Sane, sān, adj. sound in mind or body: healthy: not disordered in intellect.—adv. Sane′ly.—n. Sane′-ness. [L. sanus; akin to Gr. saos, sōs, sound.]

Sang, sang, pa.t. of sing.—n. a Scotch form of song.

Sang, sang, n. blood, in heraldic use.—adj. Sang′lant, bloody or dropping blood.—n. Sang-de-bœuf, a deep-red colour peculiar to Chinese porcelain.

Sang, sang, n. a Chinese wind-instrument.

Sangar, sang′gar, n. a stone breastwork: a low wall of loose stones, used as cover for soldiers. [Hindi sangar, war, entrenchment; from the Sanskrit.]

Sangaree, sang-ga-rē′, n. a West Indian beverage, of wine, sugar or syrup, water, and nutmeg, drunk cold.—v.t. and v.i. to make or drink such. [Sp. Sangría.]

Sang-froid, sang-frwo′, n. coolness, indifference, calmness. [Fr., sang, blood, froid, cold.]

Sanglier, sang′li-ėr, n. (her.) a wild boar used as a bearing. [Fr., orig. porc sanglier—Low L. singularis (porcus), the wild boar.]

Sangraal, san-grāl′, n. in medieval legends, the holy cup supposed to have been used at the Last Supper.—Also Sang′real. [Cf. Grail.]

Sangrado, san-grä′do, n. one who lets blood—from the leech in Gil Blas.

Sanguine, sang′gwin, adj. abounding with blood, bloody: bloodthirsty: ruddy, red: ardent, hopeful, confident: characterised by a fullness of habit.—n. the colour of red.—v.t. (obs.) to stain with blood.—n. Sang′sue, a leech—also Sang′uisuge.—adjs. Sanguic′olous, living in the blood, as a parasite; Sanguif′erous, receiving and conveying blood, circulatory.—ns. Sanguificā′tion; San′guifier.—adj. Sanguif′luous, flowing with blood.—v.i. San′guify, to make blood.—v.t. to convert into blood.—n. Sanguinā′ria, a genus of the poppy family, one species, the Blood-root or Puccoon of North America, much used by the Indians for staining.—adv. San′guinarily.—n. San′guinariness.—adj. San′guinary, bloody: attended with much blood-shed: bloodthirsty.—n. the yarrow: the blood-root.—adj. San′guineless, destitute of blood.—adv. San′guinely, hopefully, confidently.—n. San′guineness, sanguine character, ardour: ruddiness: plethora.—adj. Sanguin′eous, sanguine: resembling or constituting blood.—ns. Sanguin′ity, sanguineness; Sanguin′olence, Sanguin′olency.—adj. Sanguin′olent, tinged with blood: sanguine.—ns. Sanguisorbā′ceæ, Sanguisor′beæ, a sub-order of Rosaceæ, containing about 150 species; Sanguisū′ga, a genus of leeches.—adjs. Sanguisū′gent, Sanguisū′gous, blood-sucking; Sanguiv′olent, bloodthirsty; Sanguiv′orous, feeding on blood, as a vampire—also Sanguiniv′orous. [Fr.,—L. sanguineussanguis, sanguinis, blood.]

Sanhedrim, Sanhedrin, san′hē-drim, -drin, n. the supreme ecclesiastical and judicial tribunal of the Jews down to 425 A.D.: any similar assembly, a parliament. [Heb. sanhedrin—Gr. synedrionsyn, together, hedra, a seat.]

Sanhitâ, san′hi-ta, n. the name of that portion of the Vedas which contains the Mantras or hymns.

Sanicle, san′ik′l, n. a plant of the genus Sanicula, the common wood-sanicle long supposed to have healing power. [Fr.,—L. sanāre, to heal.]

Sanidine, san′i-din, n. a clear glassy variety of orthoclase. [Gr. sanis, sanidos, a board.]

Sanies, sā′ni-ēz, n. a thin discharge from wounds or sores.—adj. Sā′nious. [L.]

Sanify, san′i-fī, v.t. to make healthy. [L. sanus, sound, facĕre to make.]

Sanitary, san′i-tar-i, adj. pertaining to, tending, or designed to promote health.—n. Sanitā′rian, a promoter of sanitary reforms.—adv. San′itarily.—ns. San′itary-ware, coarse-glazed earthenware for sewer-pipes; Sanitā′tion, the science of sanitary conditions and of preserving health, synonymous with Hygiene—usually restricted, however, to the methods and apparatus for making and maintaining houses healthy; Sanitō′rium (incorrectly, Sanitā′rium), a health station, particularly for troops.—Sanitary science, such science as conduces to the preservation of health.

Sanity, san′i-ti, n. state of being sane: soundness of mind or body. [L. sanitassanus, sane.]

Sanjak, san′jak, n. an administrative subdivision of a Turkish vilayet or eyalet.—Also San′jakāte. [Turk.]

Sank, sangk, pa.t. of sink.

Sankhya, san′kyä, n. one of the six great systems of orthodox Hindu philosophy.

Sannup, san′up, n. the husband of a squaw: a brave.—Also Sann′op. [Amer. Ind.]

Sans, sanz, prep. (Shak.) without, wanting.—n. Sans′-appel′, a person from whose decision there is no appeal.—Sans nombre (her.), repeated often, and covering the field; Sans souci, without care: free and easy. [O. Fr. sans, senz—L. sine, without.]

Sansa, san′sa, n. a musical instrument of percussion, a tambourine.

Sansculotte, sanz-kōō-lot′, n. a name given in scorn, at the beginning of the French Revolution, by the court party to the democratic party in Paris.—n. Sansculot′terie.—adj. Sansculot′tic.—ns. Sansculot′tism; Sansculot′tist. [Fr. sansculotte, sans, without—L. sine, without, culotte, breeches, cul, breech—L. culus, the breech.]

Sansevieria, san-sev-i-ē′ri-a, n. a genus of monocotyledonous plants of the order Hæmodoraceæ, native to southern Africa and the East Indies, yielding bowstring-hemp. [Named after the Neapolitan Prince of Sanseviero (1710-71).]

Sanskrit, sans′krit, n. the ancient literary language of India, the easternmost branch of the great Indo-Germanic (Indo-European, Aryan) stock of languages.—n. Sans′kritist, one skilled in Sanskrit. [Sans. samskrita, perfected, polished, from Sans. sam, together, krita, done, perfected, from kri, cog. with L. creāre, to create.]

Santa Claus, san′ta klawz, n. a famous nursery hero, a fat rosy old fellow who brings presents to good children on Christmas Eve.

Santalaceæ, san-ta-lā′sē-ē, n. an order of apetalous plants, the sandalwood family.—adjs. Santalā′ceous; Santal′ic, pertaining to sandalwood.—ns. San′talin, the colouring matter of red sandalwood; San′talum, the type genus of the sandalwood family.

Santir, san′tėr, n. a variety of dulcimer used in the East.—Also San′tur.

Santolina, san-tō-lī′na, n. a genus of composite plants, of the Mediterranean region, of tribe Anthemideæ, including the common lavender-cotton.

Santon, san′ton, n. an Eastern dervish or saint. [Sp. santonsanto, holy—L. sanctus, holy.]

Santonine, son′to-nin, n. a colourless crystalline poisonous compound contained in Santonica. [Gr. santonicon, a wormwood found in the country of the Santones in Gaul.]

Sap, sap, n. the vital juice of plants: (bot.) the part of the wood next to the bark: the blood: a simpleton: a plodding student.—v.i. to play the part of a ninny: to be studious.—ns. Sap′-bee′tle a beetle which feeds on sap; Sap′-col′our, a vegetable juice inspissated by slow evaporation, for the use of painters.—adj. Sap′ful, full of sap.—ns. Sap′-green, a green colouring matter from the juice of buckthorn berries; Sap′head, a silly fellow.—adj. Sap′less, wanting sap: not juicy.—ns. Sap′ling, a young tree, so called from being full of sap: a young greyhound during the year of his birth until the end of the coursing season which commences in that year; Sap′ling-cup, an open tankard for drinking new ale; Sap′piness.—adj. Sap′py, abounding with sap: juicy: silly.—ns. Sap′-tube, a vessel that conveys sap; Sap′-wood, the outer part of the trunk of a tree, next the bark, in which the sap flows most freely: albumen.—Crude sap, the ascending sap. [A.S. sæp; Low Ger. sapp, juice, Ger. saft.]

Sap, sap, v.t. to destroy by digging underneath: to undermine: to impair the constitution.—v.i. to proceed by undermining:—pr.p. sap′ping; pa.t. and pa.p. sapped.—n. a narrow ditch or trench by which approach is made from the foremost parallel towards the glacis or covert-way of a besieged place.—n. Sap′per, one who saps. [O. Fr. sappe—Low L. sapa, a pick, prob. from Gr. skapanē, a hoe.]

Sapajou, sap′a-zhōō, n. a name sometimes applied to all that division of American monkeys which have a prehensile tail, and sometimes limited to those of them which are of a slender form, as the genera Ateles or spider-monkey, Cebus, &c.—Also Sajou′.

Saperda, sā-pėr′da, n. a genus of long-horned beetles, mostly wood-borers. [Gr. saperdēs, a fish.]

Saphenous, sa-fē′nus, adj. prominent, as a vein of the leg.—n. Saphē′na, a prominent vein or nerve. [Gr. saphēnēs, plain.]

Sapid, sap′id, adj. well-tasted: savoury: that affects the taste.—n. Sapid′ity, savouriness.—adj. Sap′idless, insipid.—n. Sap′idness. [Fr.,—L. sapidussapĕre, to taste.]

Sapience, sā′pi-ens, n. discernment: wisdom: knowledge: reason.—adjs. Sā′pient, wise: discerning: sagacious, sometimes used ironically; Sāpien′tial.—adv. Sā′piently. [L. sapiens, sapientis, pr.p. of sapĕre, to be wise.]

Sapindus, sā-pin′dus, n. a genus of polypetalous trees, as Soapberry. [L. sapo Indicus, Indian soap.]

Sapium, sā′pi-um, n. a genus of apetalous plants belonging to the Euphorbiaceæ, including the Jamaica milkwood or gum-tree, &c.

Sapi-utan, sap′i-ōō′tan, n. the wild ox of Celebes.—Also Sap′i-ou′tan. [Malay, sapi, cow, ūtān, woods.]

Sapo, sā′pō, n. the toad-fish. [Sp., a toad.]

Sapodilla, sap-ō-dil′a, n. a name given in the West Indies to the fruit of several species of Achras, the seeds aperient and diuretic, the pulp subacid and sweet. [Sp. sapotillasapota, the sapota-tree.]

Saponaceous, sap-o-nā′shus, adj. soapy: soap-like.—n. Sapōnā′ria, a genus of polypetalous plants, including the soapwort.—adj. Sapon′ifīable.—n. Saponificā′tion, the act or operation of converting into soap.—v.t. Sapon′ify, to convert into soap:—pr.p. sapon′ifying; pa.p. sapon′ified.n. Sap′onin, a vegetable principle, the solution of which froths when shaken, obtained from soapwort, &c. [L. sapo, saponis, soap.]

Saporific, sap-o-rif′ik, adj. giving a taste.—ns. Sā′por; Saporos′ity.—adj. Sap′ōrous. [L. sapor, saporis, taste, facĕre, to make.]

Sapotaceæ, sap-o-tā′sē-ē, n. a natural order of trees and shrubs, often abounding in milky juice, including the gutta-percha tree—one species yields the star-apple, another the Mammee-Sapota or American marmalade. [Sapodilla.]

Sappan-wood, sa-pan′-wōōd, n. the wood of Cæsalpinia sappan, used in dyeing.

Sapper, sap′ėr, n. a soldier employed in the building of fortifications, &c.

Sapphic, saf′ik, adj. pertaining to Sappho, a passionate Greek lyric poetess of Lesbos (c. 600 B.C.): denoting a kind of verse said to have been invented by Sappho.—ns. Sapph′ic-stan′za, a metre of Horace, the stanzas of four verses each, three alike, made up of four trochees, with a dactyl in the third place; Sapph′ism, unnatural passion between women; Sapph′ō, a humming-bird.

Sapphire, saf′īr, or saf′ir, n. a highly transparent and brilliant precious stone, a variety of Corundum, generally of a beautiful blue colour—the finest found in Ceylon: (her.) a blue tincture.—adj. deep pure blue.—n. Sapph′ire-wing, a humming-bird.—adj. Sapph′irine, made of, or like, sapphire.—Green sapphire, the Oriental emerald; Red sapphire, the Oriental ruby; Violet sapphire, the Oriental amethyst. [Fr.,—L. sapphirus—Gr. sappheiros—Heb. sappīr, sapphire.]

Sapping, sap′ing, n. the act of excavating trenches.

Sapples, sap′lz, (Scot.) soapsuds.

Sapremia, sap-rē′mi-a, n. a condition of blood-poisoning.—adjs. Saprē′mic, Sapræ′mic. [Gr. sapros, rotten, haima, blood.]

Saprogenous, sap-roj′e-nus, adj. engendered in putridity.—Also Saprogen′ic. [Gr. sapros, rotten, -genēs, producing.]

Saproharpages, sap-rō-här′pa-jēz, n. a group of vultures. [Gr. sapros, rotten, harpax, a vulture.]

Saprolegnia, sap-rō-leg′ni-a, n. a genus of fungi, causing a destructive salmon-disease. [Gr. sapros, rotten, legnon, an edge.]

Sap-roller, sap′-rōl′ėr, n. a gabion employed by sappers in the trenches.

Sapromyza, sap-rō-mī′za, n. a large group of reddish-yellow flies. [Gr. sapros, rotten, myzein, to suck.]

Saprophagous, sap-rof′a-gus, adj. feeding on decaying matter.—n. Saproph′agan, one of the saprophagous beetles. [Gr. sapros, rotten, phagein, to eat.]

Saprophyte, sap′rō-fīt, n. a plant that feeds upon decaying vegetable matter.—adjs. Saprophyt′ic, Saproph′ilous.—adv. Saprophyt′ically.—n. Sap′rophytism. [Gr. sapros, rotten, phyton, a plant.]

Saprostomous, sap-ros′tō-mus, adj. having a foul breath. [Gr. sapros, rotten, stoma, mouth.]

Sap-rot, sap′-rot, n. dry-rot in timber.

Sapsago, sap′sā-gō, n. a greenish Swiss cheese. [Ger. schabzieger.]

Sap-shield, sap′-shēld, n. a steel plate for shelter to the sapper.

Sap-sucker, sap′-suk′ėr, n. the name in the United States of all the small spotted woodpeckers.—adj. Sap′-suck′ing.

Sapucaia, sap-ōō-kī′a, n. a Brazilian tree, whose urn-shaped fruit contains a number of finely-flavoured oval seeds or nuts.

Sapyga, sā-pī′ga, n. a genus of digger-wasps.

Saraband, sar′a-band, n. a slow Spanish dance, or the music to which it is danced; a short piece of music, of deliberate character, and with a peculiar rhythm, in ¾-time, the accent being placed on the second crotchet of each measure. [Sp. zarabanda; from Pers. sarband, a fillet for the hair.]

Saracen, sar′a-sen, n. a name variously employed by medieval writers to designate the Mohammedans of Syria and Palestine, the Arabs generally, or the Arab-Berber races of northern Africa, who conquered Spain and Sicily and invaded France.—adjs. Saracen′ic, -al.—n. Sar′acenism.—Saracenic architecture, a general name for Mohammedan architecture. [O. Fr. sarracin, sarrazin—Low L. Saracenus—Late Gr. Sarakēnos—Ar. sharkeyn, eastern people, as opposed to maghribe, 'western people'—i.e. the people of Morocco.]

Sarafan, sar′a-fan, n. a gala-dress. [Russ.]

Sarangousty, sar-an-gōōs′ti, n. a material used as a preservative of walls, &c., from damp.

Sarbacand, sar′ba-känd, n. a blow-gun.—Also Sar′bacane.

Sarcasm, sär′kazm, n. a bitter sneer: a satirical remark in scorn or contempt: irony: a gibe.—adjs. Sarcas′tic, -al, containing sarcasm: bitterly satirical.—adv. Sarcas′tically. [Fr.,—L. sarcasmus—Gr. sarkasmossarkazein, to tear flesh like dogs, to speak bitterly—sarx, sarkos, flesh.]

Sarcel, sär′sel, n. the pinion of a hawk's wing.—adjs. Sar′celled (her.), cut through the middle—also Sar′celé, Sar′cellée; Dem′i-sar′celed, -sar′celled, partly cut through. [O. Fr. cercel—L. circellus, dim. of circulus, a circle.]

Sarcelle, sar-sel′, n. a long-tailed duck, a teal.

Sarcenchyme, sar-seng′kīm, n. one of the soft tissues of sponges.—adj. Sarcenchym′atous. [Gr. sarx, flesh, enchyma, an infusion.]

Sarcenet. See Sarsenet.

Sarcina, sar-sī′na, n. a genus of schizomycetous fungi, in which the cocci divide in three planes forming cubical clumps:—pl. Sarcī′næ (-nē).—adjs. Sarcī′næform, Sarcin′ic.—n. Sarcin′ūla. [L. sarcina, a package.]

Sarcine, sär′sin, n. a nitrogenous substance obtained from the muscular tissue of the horse, ox, hare, &c.—same as Hypoxanthine. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh.]

Sarciophorus, sär-si-of′ō-rus, n. a genus of spur-winged plovers, including the crested wattled lapwings, &c. [Gr. sarkion, a piece of flesh, sarx, flesh, pherein, to bear.]

Sarcitis, sar-sī′tis, n. myositis. [Gr. sarx, flesh.]

Sarcobasis, sär-kob′a-sis, n. a fruit consisting of many dry indehiscent cells. [Gr. sarx, flesh, basis, a base.]

Sarcobatus, sär-kob′a-tus, n. an anomalous genus of North American shrubs of the goose-foot family—the only species the greasewood of the western United States. [Gr. sarx, flesh, batis, samphire.]

Sarcoblast, sär′kō-blast, n. the germ of sarcode.—adj. Sarcoblas′tic. [Gr. sarx, flesh, blastos, a germ.]

Sarcocarp, sär′kō-karp, n. (bot.) the fleshy part of a drupaceous pericarp or a stone-fruit. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh, karpos, fruit.]

Sarcocele, sär′kō-sēl, n. a fleshy tumour of the testicle. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh, kēlē, tumour.]

Sarcocephalus, sär-kō-sef′-a-lus, n. a genus of gamopetalous plants of the natural order Rubiaceæ, native to the tropics of Asia and Africa—including the country-fig, Guinea peach, African cinchona, &c. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh, kephalē, the head.]

Sarcocol, sär′kō-kol, n. a semi-transparent resin or gum imported from Arabia.—n. Sarcōcol′la, a genus of apetalous shrubs of the order Penæaceæ, native to South Africa. [Gr., a Persian gum.]

Sarcocystis, sär-kō-sis′tis, n. a genus of parasitic sporozoa or Gregarinida, common but apparently harmless in butcher-meat.—n. Sarcocystid′ia, the division of sporozoa including the foregoing.—adj. Sarcocystid′ian. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh, kystis, the bladder.]

Sarcode, sär′kōd, n. another term for protoplasm.—n. Sarcō′des, n. a genus of gamopetalous plants of the order Monotropeæ; including the Californian snow-plant.—adjs. Sarcod′ic, Sar′codous; Sar′coid, resembling flesh. [Gr. sarkodēs, from sarx, flesh, eidos, resemblance.]

Sarcolemma, sär-kō-lem′a, n. a membrane which invests striped muscular tissue.—adj. Sarcolemm′ic. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh, lemma, a skin.]

Sarcolemur, sär′kō-lē-mur, n. a genus of extinct Eocene mammals found in North America. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh, and lemur.]

Sarcolobe, sär′kō-lōb, n. a thick fleshy cotyledon, as of the bean. [Gr. sarx, flesh, lobos, a lobe.]

Sarcology, sär-kol′o-ji, n. the division of anatomy which treats of the soft parts of the body.—adjs. Sarcolog′ic, -al.—n. Sarcol′ogist. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh, logos, discourse.]

Sarcoma, sär-kō′ma, n. a tumour or group of tumours, often malignant: any fleshy excrescence: (bot.) a fleshy disc:—pl. Sarcō′mata.—n. Sarcomatō′sis, sarcomatous degeneration.—adj. Sarcom′atous. [Gr. sarkōmasarx, flesh.]

Sarcophaga, sär-kof′a-ga, n. a genus of dipterous insects, the flesh-flies: a former division of marsupials.—adjs. Sarcoph′agal, flesh-devouring; Sarcoph′agous, feeding on flesh.—n. Sarcoph′agy.

Sarcophagus, sär-kof′a-gus, n. a kind of limestone used by the Greeks for coffins, and so called because it was thought to consume the flesh of corpses: any stone receptacle for a corpse: an 18th-century form of wine-cooler:—pl. Sarcoph′agī, Sarcoph′aguses. [L.,—Gr. sarkophagossarx, flesh, phagein, eat.]

Sarcophilus, sär-kof′i-lus, n. a genus of carnivorous marsupials containing the Tasmanian devil.—n. Sar′cophile, any animal of this genus.—adj. Sarcoph′ilous, fond of flesh. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh, philein, to love.]

Sarcophyte, sär-kof′i-tē, n. a monotypic genus of parasitic and apetalous plants native to South Africa. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh, phyton, a plant.]

Sarcopsylla, sär-kop-sil′a, n. a genus of American insects, including the jigger or chigoe. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh, psylla, a flea.]

Sarcoptes, sär-kop′tēz, n. the itch-mites.—adj. Sarcop′tic. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh, koptein, to cut.]

Sarcoseptum, sär-kō-sep′tum, n. a soft septum. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh, and septum.]

Sarcosis, sär-kō′sis, n. flesh formation: a fleshy tumour. [Gr. sarkōsis.]

Sarcostemma, sär-kō-stem′a, n. a genus of gamopetalous plants of the order Asclepiadeæ, native to Africa, Asia, and Australia—including the flesh crown-flower. [Gr. sarx, flesh, stemma, wreath.]

Sarcostigma, sär-kō-stig′ma, n. a genus of polypetalous plants of the order Olacineæ—including the odal-oil plant. [Gr. sarx, flesh, stigma, a point.]

Sarcostyle, sär′kō-stīl, n. the mass of sarcode in the sarcotheca of a cœlenterate. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh, stylos, a pillar.]

Sarcotheca, sär-kō-thē′ka, n. the cup of a thread-cell: a cnida or nematophore. [Gr. sarx, sarkos, flesh, thēkē, a sheath.]

Sarcotic, sär-kot′ik, adj. causing flesh to grow.—adj. Sar′cous, fleshy. [Gr. sarkōtikossarkousthai, to produce flesh—sarx, flesh.]

Sard, särd, n. a variety of quartz, differing from cornelian only in its very deep-red colour, blood-red by transmitted light.—n. Sar′dachāte, a kind of agate containing layers of sard. [Gr. sardios (lithos), the Sardian (stone)—Sardeis, Sardis, in Lydia.]

Sarda, sär′da, n. a genus of scombroid fishes, the bonitos. [Gr. sardē, a fish.]

Sardel, Sardelle, sär′del, n. a slender herring-like fish. [O. Fr. sardelle—L. sarda.]

Sardine, sär-dēn′, n. a small fish of the herring family, abundant about the island of Sardinia, potted with olive-oil for export, the pilchard: a petty character. [Fr., (It. sardina)—L. sarda, sardina—Gr. sardēnē.]

Sardine, sär′din, n. the same as Sard.—Also Sar′dius. [O. Fr. sardine.]

Sardonic, sär-don′ik, adj. forced, heartless, or bitter, said of a forced unmirthful laugh—(obs.) Sardō′nian.—adv. Sardon′ically. [Fr. sardonique—L. sardonius, sardonicus—Gr. sardanios, referred to sardonion, a plant of Sardinia (Gr. Sardō), which was said to screw up the face of the eater, but more prob. from Gr. sairein, to grin.]

Sardonyx, sär′dō-niks, n. a variety of onyx consisting of layers of light-coloured chalcedony alternating with reddish layers of cornelian or sard: (her.) a tincture of sanguine colour when the blazoning is done by precious stones. [Gr. sardonyxSardios, Sardian, onyx, a nail.]

Sargasso, sär-gas′o, n. a genus of seaweeds, of which two species are found floating in immense quantities in some parts of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans—gulf-weed.—n. Sargass′um. [Sp.]

Sargus, sär′gus, n. a genus of sparoid fishes of the sub-family Sargi′na. [Gr. sargos, a mullet.]

Sari, sär′i, n. a Hindu woman's chief garment, consisting of a long piece of silk or cotton cloth wrapped round the middle: any long scarf. [Hind.]

Sarigue, sa-rēg′, n. a South American opossum. [Fr.,—Braz.]

Sark, särk, n. a shirt or chemise: the body garment. [A.S. syrce; Ice. serkr.]

Sarking, sär′king, n. (Scot.) thin boards for lining, the boarding on which slates are laid.

Sarkinite, sär′ki-nīt, n. a hydrous arseniate of manganese. [Gr. sarkinos, fleshy, sarx, sarkos, flesh.]

Sarlak, sär′lak, n. the yak.—Also Sar′lac, Sar′lyk.

Sarmatian, sär-mā′shi-an, adj. pertaining to the race who spoke the same language as the Scythians, and who are believed to have been of Median descent and so Iranian in stock, though some authorities think they belonged to the Ural-Altaic family: Polish, the term Sarmatia being sometimes rhetorically applied to Poland.

Sarmatier, sär-ma-ti-ā′, n. a dark-coloured polecat of eastern Europe.

Sarment, sär′ment, n. (bot.) a prostrate filiform stem or runner, as of a strawberry.—adjs. Sarmen′tose, Sarmen′tous, having sarmenta or runners.—n. Sarmen′tum, a runner. [L. sarmentum, a twig—sarpĕre, to prune.]

Sarn, särn, n. a pavement. [W. sarn.]

Saroh, sar′ō, n. an Indian musical instrument with three metal strings.

Sarong, sa-rong′, n. a garment covering the lower half of the body. [Malay.]

Saros, sā′ros, n. a Babylonian numeral=3600: an astronomical cycle of 6585 days and 8 hours.

Sarothrum, sa-rō′thrum, n. a brush of stiff hairs on the leg of a bee:—pl. Sarō′thra. [Gr. sarōtron, a broom.]

Sarplar, sär′plär, n. (obs.) packing-cloth: a large bale of wool containing 2240 pounds.—Also Sar′pler, Sar′plier. [O. Fr. serpilliere—Low L. serapellinus—L. xerampelinæ (vestes), of the colour of dead vine-leaves, dark-red (clothes)—Gr. xērampelinos, xēros, dry, ampelinosampelos, a vine.]

Sarracenia, sär-a-sē′ni-a, n. a genus of polypetalous plants—the side-saddle flower, pitcher-plant. [Named from Dr Sarrazin, who first sent them to Europe from Quebec.]

Sarrasin, sär′a-sin, n. a portcullis.—Also Sar′asin.

Sarrazin, sär′a-zin, n. buckwheat—Saracen wheat.

Sarrusophone, sa-rus′ō-fōn, n. a musical instrument of the oboe class. [From the inventor, a French bandmaster named Sarrus.]

Sarsaparilla, sär-sa-pa-ril′a, n. the dried root of several species of Smilax, native to tropical America, yielding a medicinal decoction.—Also Sar′sa. [Sp.,—zarza, bramble (prob. Basque, sartzia), parilla, a dim. of parra, a vine.]

Sarsen, sär′sen, n. a local name for the old inhabitants who worked the tin-mines in Cornwall and Devonshire—(the piles of old mining refuse are called attal-Sarsen and Jews' leavings).—Also Sars′den-stone, Sar′acen's-stone, a name given to the Greywethers of Cornwall.

Sarsenet, särs′net, n. a thin tissue of fine silk, plain or twilled, used for ladies' dresses and for linings, said to have been introduced from the East in the 13th century.—Also Sar′cenet, Sars′net. [O. Fr. sarcenet—Low L. Saracenatus, and Saracenicus (pannus), Saracen (cloth)—Saracenus, Saracen.]

Sarsia, sär′si-a, n. a genus of jelly-fishes. [Named from Professor Sars of Christiania.]

Sartage, sär′tāj, n. the clearing of woodland for agricultural purposes.—n. Sart, a strip of such.

Sartorius, sär-tō′ri-us, n. the muscle of the thigh by which the one leg is thrown across the other.—n. Sar′tor, a tailor.—adj. Sartō′rial, pertaining to a tailor or tailoring. [L. sartor, a tailor.]

Sash, sash, n. a band, ribbon, or scarf, worn as a badge or ornament, or a badge of distinction worn by officers—also v.t.n. Sash′ery, sashes collectively. [Pers. shast, a turban.]

Sash, sash, n. a case or frame for panes of glass.—v.t. to furnish with sashes.—ns. Sash′-door, a door having panes of glass; Sash′-frame, the frame in which the sash of a window is suspended; Sash′-window, a glazed window in which the glass is set in a sash.—French sash, a casement swinging on hinges. [Fr. châsse—L. capsa, a case.]

Sasia, sā′si-a, n. a genus of Indian pigmy woodpeckers.

Sasin, sas′in, n. the common Indian antelope.

Sasine, sā′sin, n. (Scots law) the act of giving legal possession of feudal property, infeftment: a form of seizin. [Fr. saisinesaisir, occupy.]

Sass, sas, n. (coll.) impudence: vegetables used in making sauces.—v.i. to be insolent in replies.

Sassaby, sas′a-bi, n. the bastard hartebeest of South Africa.

Sassafras, sas′a-fras, n. a tree of the laurel family, common in North America; also the bark of its root, a powerful stimulant.—Sassafras oil, a volatile aromatic oil distilled from the sassafras. [Fr. sassafras—Sp. sasafras—L. saxifragasaxum, a stone, frangĕre, to break.]

Sassanid, sas′a-nid, n. one of the Sassanidæ, the dynasty which ruled Persia from 218 A.D. to 639.—adj. Sassā′nian.

Sassarara. Same as Siserary.

Sasse, sas, n. a sluice on a navigable river. [Dut.]

Sassenach, sas′e-nah, n. a Saxon: an Englishman: a Lowlander. [Gael. Sasunnach.]

Sassolin, sas′ō-lin, n. native boracic acid—first found near Sasso in Florence.—Also Sass′olite.

Sassorol, sas′ō-rol, n. the rock-pigeon.—Also Sassorol′la.

Sat, sat, pa.t. and pa.p. of sit.

Satan, sā′tan, n. the enemy of men: the devil: the chief of the fallen angels.—adjs. Sātan′ic, -al, pertaining to, or like, Satan: devilish.—adv. Sātan′ically, diabolically: with malice or wickedness suiting the devil.—ns. Sātan′icalness, the quality of being fiendishly malicious or wicked; Sā′tanism, the devilish disposition; Sātanoph′any, an appearance or incarnation of Satan; Sātanophō′bia, fear of the devil; Sāth′anas, Satan; Sātan′ity. [O. Fr. Sathan, Sathanas—Low L. Satan, Satanas—Heb. sātān, enemy—sātan, to be adverse.]

Satara, sat′a-ra, n. a ribbed, hot-pressed, and lustred woollen cloth.

Satchel, sach′el, n. a small sack or bag, esp. for papers, books, &c. [Older form sachel—O. Fr. sachel—L. saccellus, dim. of saccus.]

Sate, sāt, v.t. to satisfy or give enough: to glut.—adj. Sate′less, insatiable. [L. satiāre, -ātumsatis, enough.]

Sate, sat. Same as Sat, pa.t. of sit.

Sateen, sa-tēn′, n. a glossy worsted, cotton, or even woollen fabric.—Also Satteen′.

Satellite, sat′el-līt, n. an obsequious follower: one of the small members of the solar system, attendant on the larger planets, by which their motions are controlled.—ns. Sat′ellite-sphinx, a large hawk-moth; Sat′ellite-vein, a vein accompanying an artery; Satelli′tium, an escort. [Fr.,—L. satelles, satellitis, an attendant.]

Satiate, sā′shi-āt, v.t. to satisfy or give enough: to gratify fully: to glut.—adj. glutted.—n. Sātiabil′ity.—adj. Sā′tiable, that may be satiated.—ns. Sātiā′tion; Sātī′ety, state of being satiated: surfeit. [L. satiāra, -ātumsatis, enough.]

Satin, sat′in, n. a closely woven silk with a lustrous and unbroken surface, sometimes figured.—adj. made of satin: resembling satin.—v.t. to make smooth and glossy like satin.—ns. Sat′in-bird, the satin bower-bird; Sat′in-car′pet, a particular kind of moth; Sat′in-dam′ask, a satin with an elaborate flower or arabesque pattern, sometimes raised in velvet pile; Sat′in-de-laine′, a thin glossy woollen fabric, a variety of cassimere; Sat′inet, a thin species of satin: a cloth with a cotton warp and woollen weft; Sat′inet-loom, a loom used for heavy goods, as twills, satinets, &c.; Sat′in-fin′ish, a finish resembling satin: a lustrous finish produced on silver by the scratch-brush, by the process called Satining; Sat′ining-machine′, a machine for giving a smooth surface to paper; Sat′in-leaf, the common alum-root; Sat′in-lisse, a cotton dress-fabric with satiny surface, usually printed with delicate patterns; Sat′in-pā′per, a fine, glossy writing-paper; Sat′in-sheet′ing, twilled cotton fabric with a satin surface; Sat′in-spar, a variety of calcite with a pearly lustre when polished; Sat′in-sparr′ow, an Australian fly-catcher; Sat′in-stitch, an embroidery stitch, flat or raised, repeated in parallel lines, giving a satiny appearance and making both sides alike; Sat′in-stone, a fibrous gypsum used by lapidaries; Sat′inwood, a beautiful ornamental wood from East and West Indies, having a smooth, satiny texture.—adj. Sat′iny, like, or composed of, satin. [Fr. satin (It. setino)—Low. L. setinus, adj.—L. seta, hair.]

Satiné, sat-i-nā′, n. a reddish hard wood of French Guiana.

Satire, sat′īr, or sat′ir, n. a literary composition, orig. in verse, essentially a criticism of man and his works, whom it holds up either to ridicule or scorn—its chief instruments, irony, sarcasm, invective, wit and humour: an invective poem: severity of remark, denunciation: ridicule.—adjs. Satir′ic, -al, pertaining to, or conveying, satire: sarcastic: abusive.—adv. Satir′ically.—n. Satir′icalness, the state or quality of being satirical.—v.t. Sat′irīse, to make the object of satire: to censure severely.—n. Sat′irist, a writer of satire. [Fr.,—L. satira, satura (lanx, a dish), a full dish, a medley.]

Satisfy, sat′is-fī, v.t. to give enough to: to supply fully: to please fully: to discharge: to free from doubt: to convince.—v.i. to give content: to supply fully: to make payment:—pa.t. and pa.p. sat′isfied.n. Satisfac′tion, state of being satisfied: gratification: comfort: that which satisfies: amends: atonement: payment, quittance: conviction: repairing a wrong, as by a duel.—adj. Satisfac′tive (obs.).—adv. Satisfac′torily.—n. Satisfac′toriness.—adjs. Satisfac′tory, satisfying: giving contentment: making amends or payment: atoning: convincing; Satisfī′able, capable of being satisfied.—n. Sat′isfīer.—adj. Sat′isfying, satisfactory.—adv. Sat′isfyingly.—Satisfaction theory (of the Atonement), the ordinary theory of Catholic orthodoxy that Christ made satisfaction to Divine justice for the guilt of human sin by suffering as the human representative, and that thus Divine forgiveness was made possible. [Fr. satisfaire—L. satisfacĕre, satis, enough, facĕre, to make.]

Sative, sā′tiv, adj. sown as in a garden. [L. sativusserĕre, to sow.]

Satrap, sā′trap, or sat′rap, n. a Persian viceroy or ruler of one of the greater provinces:—fem. Sā′trapess.—adjs. Sat′rapal, relating to a satrap or to a satrapy; Sā′trap-crowned, crested, like the golden-crested wren of North America.—n. Sat′rapy, the government of a satrap. [Gr. satrapēs, from Old Pers. khshatrapā or Zend shōithra-paiti—ruler of a region—shōithra, a region, paiti, a chief.]

Saturate, sat′ū-rāt, v.t. to fill: to unite with till no more can be received: to fill to excess: to soak: (opt.) to render pure, or of a colour free from white light.—adjs. Sat′ūrable, that may be saturated; Sat′ūrant, saturating; Sat′ūrate, saturated: (entom.) very intense, as 'saturate green.'—ns. Sat′ūrāter; Satūrā′tion, act of saturating: state of being saturated: the state of a body when quite filled with another. [L. saturāre, -ātumsatur, full, akin to satis, enough.]

Saturday, sat′ur-dā, n. the seventh or last day of the week, dedicated by the Romans to Saturn: the Jewish Sabbath. [A.S. Sæter-dæg, Sætern-dæg, day of Saturn—L. Saturnus.]

Satureia, sat-ū-rē′i-a, n. a genus of gamopetalous plants of the order Labiatæ—savory.

Saturn, sat′urn, or sā′-, n. the ancient Roman god of agriculture: one of the planets: (her.) a tincture, in colour black.— Saturnā′lia, the annual festival in honour of Saturn, a time of unrestrained license and enjoyment.—adjs. Saturnā′lian, pertaining to the Saturnalia: riotously merry: dissolute; Satur′nian, pertaining to Saturn, whose fabulous reign was called 'the golden age:' happy: pure: simple: denoting the verse in which the oldest Latin poems were written; Sat′urnine, grave: gloomy: phlegmatic—those born under the planet Saturn being so disposed: pertaining to lead.—n. Sat′urnist (obs.), a gloomy person.—Saturn's ring, a ring round and near the planet; Saturn's tree, an arborescent deposit of lead from a solution of lead acetate. [Saturnusserĕre, satum, to sow.]

Saturnia, sā-tur′ni-a, n. a genus of bombycid moths.

Saturnia, sā-tur′ni-a, n. lead poisoning, plumbism.

Saturnite, sat′ur-nīt, n. a mineral substance containing lead.

Satyr, sat′ėr, or sā′tėr, n. a silvan deity, represented as part man and part goat, and extremely wanton: a very lecherous person: a species of butterfly.—ns. Sat′yral (her.), a monster with a human head and the limbs of different animals; Satyrī′asis, morbid lasciviousness in men, corresponding to nymphomania in women—also Satyromā′nia.—adjs. Satyr′ic, -al, pertaining to satyrs.—ns. Satyrī′næ, the argus butterflies; Satyr′ium, a genus of small flowered orchids; Sat′yrus, the genus of orangs—simia. [L. satyrus—Gr. satyros.]

Sauba-ant, saw′ba-ant, n. a South American leaf-carrying ant.

Sauce, saws, n. a liquid seasoning for food, consisting of salt, &c.: fruit stewed with sugar: a relish: impudence.—v.t. to put sauce in to relish: to make poignant: to gratify the palate: to treat with bitter or pert language: to make suffer.—ns. Sauce′-alone′, a cruciferous plant with a strong garlic smell, Jack-by-the-hedge; Sauce′-boat, a vessel with a spout for holding sauce; Sauce′-box, an impudent person; Sauce′-cray′on, a soft, black pastel used for backgrounds; Sauce′pan, a pan in which sauce or any small thing is boiled; Sauce′pan-fish, the king-crab.—Poor man's sauce, hunger; Serve one with the same sauce, to requite one injury with another, to make to suffer. [Fr. sauce—L. salsa, neut. pl. of salsus, pa.p. of salīre, salsum, to salt—sal, salt.]

Saucer, saw′sėr, n. the shallow platter for a tea or coffee cup: anything resembling a saucer, as a socket of iron for the pivot of a capstan: (orig.) a small vessel to hold sauce.—adj. Sau′cer-eyed, having large round eyes. [O. Fr. saussiere—Low L. salsarium—L. salsa, sauce.]

Sauch, Saugh, sawh, n. (Scot.) the willow. [Sallow.]

Saucisse, sō-sēs′, n. a bag filled with powder for use in mines.—Also Saucisson′. [Fr.]

Saucy, saw′si, adj. (comp. Sau′cier, superl. Sau′ciest) sharp: pungent: insolent: overbearing: wanton: impudent, pert.—adv. Sau′cily.—n. Sau′ciness. [Sauce.]

Sauer-kraut, sour′-krout, n. a German dish consisting of cabbage sliced fine and suffered to ferment in a cask with salt, juniper-berries, cumin-seed, caraway-seeds, &c. [Ger.]

Saufgard, sawf′gärd, n. (Spens.). Safeguard.

Sauger, saw′gėr, n. the smaller American pike-fish.

Saul, a Scotch form of soul.

Saulge, sawlj, adj. (Spens.) sage.

Saulie, saw′li, n. (Scot.) a hired mourner.—Also Sall′ie.

Sault, sawlt, n. (obs.) a leap: an assault.

Sault, sō, n. a rapid in some Canadian rivers. [Fr.]

Saunt, a Scotch form of saint.

Saunter, sawn′tėr, v.i. to wander about idly: to loiter: to lounge: to stroll: to dawdle.—n. a sauntering: a place for sauntering: a leisurely ramble.—ns. Saun′terer; Saun′tering.—adv. Saun′teringly. [M. E. saunteren—Anglo-Fr. sauntrer, to adventure out. Cf. Adventure. Sometimes erroneously explained as from Fr. sainte terre, holy land, from pilgrimages.]

Saurian, saw′ri-an, n. a reptile or animal covered with scales, as the lizard.—adj. pertaining to, or of the nature of, a saurian.— Sau′ria, a division of reptiles formerly including lizards, crocodiles, dinosaurians, pterodactyls, &c.: a scaly reptile with legs, a lacertilian: one of the sauropsida.—n. Sauran′odon, a genus of toothless reptiles, whose fossil remains are found in the Rocky Mountains.—adj. Sauran′odont.—ns. Saurich′nite, the fossil track of a saurian; Saur′ōdon, a genus of fossil fishes of the Cretaceous age.—adj. Saur′oid, resembling the lizard: reptilian.—n. Saurom′alus, a genus of plump lizards, including the alderman-lizard.— Saurop′oda, an order of lizards containing gigantic dinosaurs.—adj. Saurop′odous.— Saurop′sida, the monocondyla, including birds and reptiles.—adj. Saurop′sidan.— Sauropteryg′ia, an order of fossil saurians, usually called Plesiosauria.—adj. Sauropteryg′ian. [Gr. saura, sauros, the lizard.]

Saurless, sawr′les, adj. (Scot.) savourless: tasteless.

Saurognathæ, saw-rog′nā-thē, a family of birds containing the woodpeckers and their allies.—n. Saurog′nāthism, the peculiar arrangement of the bones of their palates.—adj. Saurog′nāthous. [Gr. sauros, a lizard, gnathos, the jaw.]

Saurophagous, saw-rof′a-gus, adj. feeding on reptiles. [Gr. sauros, a lizard, phagein, to eat.]

Saurotherinæ, saw-rō-thē-rī′nē, the ground-cuckoos, a sub-family of Cuculidæ, the typical genus Saurothē′ra. [Gr. sauros, a lizard, thēr, a beast.]

Saururæ, saw-rōō′rē, a sub-class or order of Aves, of Jurassic age, based upon the genus Archæopteryx—also called Sauror′nithes.—adj. Sauru′rous, lizard-tailed, as the foregoing birds.

Saururus, saw-rōō′rus, n. a genus of apetalous plants of the order Piperaceæ.— Sauru′rēæ, a family of these. [Gr. sauros, a lizard, oura, a tail.]

Saurus, saw′rus, n. the genus of lizard-fishes.

Saury, saw′ri, n. the skipper, a species of the family Scomberesocidæ, with elongated body and head, the jaws produced into a sharp beak.

Sausage, saw′sāj, n. a gut stuffed with chopped meat salted and seasoned.—n. Sau′sage-poi′soning, poisoning by spoiled sausages. [Fr. saucisse—Low L. salcitia—L. salsus, salted.]

Saussurea, saw-sū′rē-a, n. a genus of composite plants of the order Cynaroideæ. [Named after the Swiss botanists, H. B. de Saussure (1740-99), and his son, Nic. Théodore de Saussure (1767-1845).]

Saussurite, saw-sū′rīt, n. a fine-grained compact mineral, of grayish colour.—adj. Saussurit′ic.

Saut, sawt, a Scotch form of salt.

Sauter, sō-tā′, v.t. to fry lightly and quickly. [Fr.]

Sautereau, sō-te-rō′, n. the jack or hopper of a pianoforte, &c. [Fr.]

Sauterelle, sō-te-rel′, n. an instrument for tracing angles. [Fr.]

Sauterne, sō-tėrn′, n. an esteemed white wine produced at Sauterne, in the Gironde, France.

Sautoire, Sautoir, sō-twor′, n. (her.) a ribbon worn diagonally. [Saltier.]

Sauvagesia, saw-vā-jē′si-a, n. a genus of polypetalous plants of the violet family. [Named from the French botanist P. A. Boissier de la Croix de Sauvages (1710-95).]

Sauvegarde, sōv′gärd, n. a monitor-lizard: a safeguard. [Fr.]

Savage, sav′āj, adj. wild: uncivilised: fierce: cruel: brutal: (her.) nude: naked.—n. a human being in a wild state: a brutal, fierce, or cruel person: a barbarian.—v.t. and v.i. to make savage, to play the savage.—n. Sav′agedom, a savage state: savages collectively.—adv. Sav′agely.—ns. Sav′ageness; Sav′agery, fierceness: ferocity: wild growth of plants; Sav′agism. [O. Fr. salvage—L. silvaticus, pertaining to the woods—silva, a wood.]

Savanna, Savannah, sa-van′a, n. a tract of level land, covered with low vegetation: a treeless plain.—ns. Savann′a-flow′er, a genus of the milk-weed family, West Indies; Savann′a-sparr′ow, the sparrow common through North America; Savann′a-watt′le, a name of certain West Indian trees, also called Fiddlewood. [Sp. savana, sabana, a sheet, a meadow—Low L. sabanum—Gr. sabanon, a linen cloth.]

Savant, sav-ang′, n. a learned man. [Fr., pr.p. of savoir, to know.]

Save, sāv, v.t. to bring safe out of evil: to rescue: to reserve: to spare: to deliver from the power of sin and from its consequences: to husband: to hoard: to be in time for: to obviate, to prevent something worse.—v.i. to be economical.—prep. except.—adjs. Sav′able, Save′able.—ns. Sav′ableness; Save′-all, a contrivance intended to save anything from being wasted.—v.t. Save′guard (Spens.), to protect.—ns. Sā′ver, one who saves; Save′-rev′erence, or Sir-reverence, an apologetic phrase in conversation to cover anything offensive.—adj. Sā′ving, disposed to save or be economical: incurring no loss: preserving from wrong: frugal: implying a condition, as a saving clause: exceptional: (theol.) securing salvation.—prep. excepting.—n. that which is saved: (pl.) earnings.—adv. Sā′vingly, so as to secure salvation.—ns. Sā′vingness; Sā′vings-bank, a bank for the receipt of small deposits by poor persons, and their accumulation at compound interest.—Save appearances, to keep up an appearance of wealth, comfort, or propriety. [Fr. sauver—L. salvāresalvus, safe.]

Saveloy, sav′e-loi, n. a kind of sausage made of meat chopped and seasoned, orig. of brains. [Fr. cervelat, cervelas, a saveloy—It. cervelatacervello, brain—L. cerebellum, dim. of cerebrum, the brain.]

Savigny, sa-vē′nyi, n. a red wine of Burgundy.

Savin, Savine, sav′in, n. a low much-branched and widely-spreading shrub (Juniperus Sabina), with very small imbricated evergreen leaves, its fresh tops yielding an irritant volatile oil, anthelmintic and abortifacient: the American red cedar. [O. Fr. sabine—L. sabina (herba), Sabine herb.]

Saviour, sā′vyur, n. one who saves from evil: a deliverer, a title applied to Jesus Christ, who saves men from the power and penalty of sin.

Savoir-faire, sav-wor-fār′, n. the faculty of knowing just what to do and how to do it: tact. [Fr.]

Savoir-vivre, sav-wor-vē′vr, n. good breeding: knowledge of polite usages. [Fr.]

Savonette, sav-ō-net′, n. a kind of toilet soap: a West Indian tree whose bark serves as soap.

Savory, sā′vor-i, n. a genus of plants of the natural order Labiatæ, nearly allied to thyme. The Common Savory gives an aromatic pungent flavour to viands. [Savour.]

Savour, Savor, sā′vur, n. taste: odour: scent: (B.) reputation: characteristic property: pleasure.—v.i. to have a particular taste or smell: to be like: to smack.—v.t. to smell: to relish: to season.—adv. Sā′vourily.—n. Sā′vouriness.—adjs. Sā′vourless, wanting savour; Sā′vourly, well seasoned: of good taste; Sā′voury, having savour or relish: pleasant: with gusto: morally pleasant. [Fr. saveur—L. saporsapĕre, to taste.]

Savoy, sa-voi′, n. a cultivated winter variety of cabbage, forming a large close head like the true cabbage, but having wrinkled leaves—originally from Savoy.—ns. Savoy′ard, a native of Savoy, since 1860 part of France; Savoy′-med′lar, a tree related to the June-berry or shad-bush.

Savvy, Savvey, sav′i, v.t. to know: to understand.—v.i. to possess knowledge.—n. general ability. [Sp. sabesaber, to know—L. sapĕre, to be wise.]

Saw, saw, pa.t. of see.

Saw, saw, n. an instrument for cutting, formed of a blade, band, or disc of thin steel, with a toothed edge.—v.t. to cut with a saw.—v.i. to use a saw: to be cut with a saw:—pa.t. sawed; pa.p. sawed or sawn.—ns. Saw′-back, the larva of an American bombycid moth; Saw′-bones, a slang name for a surgeon; Saw′dust, dust or small pieces of wood, &c., made in sawing; Saw′er; Saw′-file, a three-cornered file used for sharpening the teeth of saws; Saw′-fish, a genus of cartilaginous fishes distinguished by the prolongation of the snout into a formidable weapon bordered on each side by sharp teeth; Saw′-fly, the common name of a number of hymenopterous insects, injurious to plants; Saw′-frame, the frame in which a saw is set; Saw′-grass, a marsh plant of the southern states of the American Union, with long slender leaves; Saw′-horn, any insect with serrate antennæ; Saw′mill, a mill for sawing timber; Saw′pit, a pit where wood is sawed; Saw′-set, an instrument for turning the teeth of saws alternately right and left; Saw′-sharp′ener, the greater titmouse; Saw′-tā′ble, the platform of a sawing-machine; Saw′-tem′pering, the process by which the requisite hardness and elasticity are given to a saw.—adj. Saw′-toothed, having teeth like those of a saw: (bot.) having tooth-like notches, as a leaf.—ns. Saw′-whet, the Acadian owl; Saw′-whet′ter, the marsh titmouse; Saw′yer, one who saws timber: a stranded tree in a river in America: any wood-boring larva: the bowfin fish. [A.S. saga; Ger. säge.]

Saw, saw, n. a saying: a proverb: a degree: a joke. [A.S. sagusecgan, to say.]

Saw, saw, n. (Scot.) salve.

Sawder, saw′dėr, n. flattery, blarney.

Sawney, Sawny, saw′ni, n. a Scotchman. [For Sandy from Alexander.]

Sax, saks, n. a knife, a dagger: a slate-cutter's hammer. [A.S. seax, a knife.]

Sax, a Scotch form of six.

Saxatile, sak′sa-til, adj. rock inhabiting. [L. saxatilissaxum, a rock.]

Saxe, saks, n. (phot.) a German albuminised paper.

Saxhorn, saks′horn, n. a brass wind-instrument having a long winding tube with bell opening, invented by Antoine or Adolphe Sax, of Paris, about 1840.

Saxicava, sak-sik′a-va, n. a genus of bivalve molluscs.—adj. Saxic′avous. [L. saxum, a rock, cavus, hollow.]

Saxicola, sak-sik′ō-la, n. the stone-chats: the wheat-ear.—adjs. Saxic′ōline, Saxic′ōlous, living among rocks. [L. saxum, a rock, colĕre, inhabit.]

Saxifrage, sak′si-frāj, n. a genus of plants of the natural order Saxifrageæ or Saxifragaceæ, its species chiefly mountain and rock plants.—adjs. Saxifragā′ceous, Saxif′rāgal, Saxif′rāgant, Saxif′rāgous.—n. Saxif′rāgine, a gunpowder in which barium nitrate takes the place of sulphur.—adj. Saxig′enous, growing on rocks.—Burnet saxifrage, the Pimpinella Saxifraga, whose leaves are eaten as a salad; Golden saxifrage, a low half-succulent herb with yellow flowers. [Fr.,—L. saxum, a stone, frangĕre, to break.]

Saxon, saks′un, n. one of the people of North Germany who conquered England in the 5th and 6th centuries: the language of the Saxons: one of the English race: a native or inhabitant of Saxony in its later German sense: a Lowlander of Scotland: modern English.—adj. pertaining to the Saxons, their language, country, or architecture.—n. Sax′ondom, the Anglo-Saxon world.—adj. Saxon′ic.—v.t. Sax′onise, to impregnate with Saxon ideas.—ns. Sax′onism, a Saxon idiom; Sax′onist, a Saxon scholar.—Saxon architecture, a style of building in England before the Norman Conquest, marked by the peculiar 'long and short' work of the quoins, the projecting fillets running up the face of the walls and interlacing like woodwork, and the baluster-like shafts between the openings of the upper windows resembling the turned woodwork of the period; Saxon blue, a deep liquid blue used in dyeing; Saxon green, a green colour; Saxon shore (Litus Saxonicum), in Roman times, the coast districts of Britain from Brighton northwards to the Wash, peculiarly exposed to the attacks of the Saxons from across the North Sea, and therefore placed under the authority of a special officer, the 'Count of the Saxon Shore.' [A.S. Seaxeseax, Old High Ger. sahs, a knife, a short sword.]

Saxony, sak′sni, n. a woollen material: flannel.

Saxophone, sak′sō-fōn, n. a brass wind-instrument, with about twenty finger-keys, like the clarinet. [Sax, the inventor—Gr. phōnē, the voice.]

Say, sā, v.t. to utter in words: to speak: to declare: to state: to answer: to rehearse: to recite: to take for granted.—v.i. to speak: to relate: to state:—pa.t. and pa.p. said (sed).—n. something said: a remark: a speech: a saw.—ns. Say′er, one who says: a speaker: one who assays; Say′ing, something said: an expression: a maxim; Say′-so, an authoritative declaration: a rumour, a mere report.—Say to, to think of.—It is said, or They say, it is commonly reputed; It says, equivalent to 'it is said;' That is to say, in other words. [A.S. secgan (sægde, gesægd); Ice. segja, Ger. sagen.]

Say, sā, n. (Spens.) assay, proof, temper (of a sword): (Shak.) taste, relish: a sample: trial by sample.—v.t. to assay, to try.—n. Say′master, one who makes proof. [A contr. of assay.]

Say, sā, n. a thin kind of silk: a kind of woollen stuff.—adj. (Shak.) silken. [O. Fr. saie—Low L. seta, silk—L. seta, a bristle.]

Say, sā, n. (Scot.) a strainer for milk.

Sayette, sā-et′, n. a kind of serge: a woollen yarn. [Fr. sayette, dim. of saye, serge.]

Saynay, sā′nā, n. a lamprey.

Sayon, sā′on, n. a medieval peasant's sleeveless jacket. [O. Fr.,—saye, serge.]

Sayornis, sā-or′nis, n. the pewit fly-catchers. [Thomas Say, an American ornithologist.]

Sbirro, sbir′rō, n. an Italian police-officer:—pl. Sbirri (sbir′rē). [It.]

'Sblood, sblud, interj. an imprecation. [God's blood.]

Scab, skab, n. a crust formed over a sore: a disease of sheep resembling the mange: a disease of potatoes, or a fungous disease of apples, &c.: a mean fellow: a workman who refuses to join a trades-union or to take part in a strike, or who takes the place of a man out on strike.—v.i. to heal over, to cicatrise: to form a new surface by encrustation.—n. (print.) a scale-board.—adj. Scab′bed, affected or covered with scabs: diseased with the scab: vile, worthless.—ns. Scab′bedness; Scab′biness.—adj. Scab′by, scabbed: injured by the attachment of barnacles to the carapace of a shell: (print.) of matter that is blotched or uneven.—n. Scab′-mite, the itch-mite. [A.S scæb (Dan. scab, Ger. schabe)—L. scabiesscabĕre, to scratch.]

Scabbard, skab′ard, n. the case in which the blade of a sword is kept: a sheath.—v.t. to provide with a sheath.—n. Scabb′ard-fish, a fish of the family Lepidopodidæ. [M. E. scauberk, prob. an assumed O. Fr. escauberc—Old High Ger. scala, a scale, bergan, to protect.]

Scabble, skab′l, v.t. to hew a stone to a level surface without making it smooth.—Also Scapp′le. [Prob. A.S. scafan, to shave.]

Scabellum, skā-bel′um, n. an ancient musical appliance, consisting of plates of metal, &c., fastened to the feet to be struck together. [L., also scabillum, dim. of scamnum, a bench.]

Scaberulous, skā-ber′ū-lus, adj. (bot.) slightly roughened. [Scabrous.]

Scabies, skā′bi-ēz, n. the itch. [L.,—scabĕre, to scratch.]

Scabiosa, skā-bi-ō′sa, n. a genus of herbaceous plants of the teasel family, as the Devil's-bit scabious, the Sweet scabious, &c.—the former long thought efficacious in scaly eruptions.

Scabious, skā′bi-us, adj. scabby: scurfy: itchy.—n. Scabred′ity, roughness: ruggedness.—adj. Scā′brid, rough.—n. Scabrit′ies, a morbid roughness of the inner surface of the eyelid.—adj. Scā′brous, rough to the touch, like a file: rugged: covered with little points: harsh: unmusical.—n. Scā′brousness. [L. scabiosusscabies, the itch.]

Scad, skad, n. a carangoid fish, also called Horse-mackerel: (Scot.) the ray. [Prob. shad.]

Scad, a Scotch form of scald.

Scaddle, skad′l, adj. (prov.) mischievous, hurtful.—n. hurt.—Also Scath′el, Skadd′le. [Scathe.]

Scæan, sē′an, adj. western, from the Scæan gate in Troy. [Gr. skaios, left.]

Scaff, skaf, n. (Scot.) food of any kind.

Scaffold, skaf′old, n. a temporary platform for exhibiting or for supporting something, and esp. for the execution of a criminal: a framework.—v.t. to furnish with a scaffold: to sustain.—ns. Scaff′oldage (Shak.), a scaffold, a stage, the gallery of a theatre; Scaff′older, a spectator in the gallery: one of the 'gods;' Scaff′olding, a scaffold of wood for supporting workmen while building: materials for scaffolds: (fig.) a frame, framework: disposing of the bodies of the dead on a scaffold or raised platform, as by the Sioux Indians, &c. [O. Fr. escafaut (Fr. échafaud, It. catafalco); from a Romance word, found in Sp. catar, to view—L. captāre, to try to seize, falco (It. palco), a scaffold—Ger. balke, a beam. Doublet catafalque.]

Scaff-raff, skaf′-raf, n. (Scot.) refuse: riff-raff.

Scaglia, skal′ya, n. an Italian calcareous rock, corresponding to the chalk of England.

Scagliola, skal-yō′la, n. a composition made to imitate the more costly kinds of marble and other ornamental stones.—Also Scal′iola. [It. scagliuola, dim. of scaglia, a scale, a chip of marble or stone.]

Scaith, skāth, n. (Scot.) damage.—adj. Scaith′less. [Scathe.]

Scala, skā′la, n. (surg.) an instrument for reducing dislocation: a term applied to any one of the three canals of the cochlea:—pl. Scā′læ.—adj. Scā′lable, that may be scaled or climbed.—ns. Scālade′, an assault, as an escalade—also Scalä′do; Scā′lar (math.), in the quaternion analysis, a quantity that has magnitude but not direction.—adj. of the nature of a scalar.— Scalā′ria, the ladder-shells or wentle-traps.—adjs. Scālar′iform, shaped like a ladder; Scā′lary, formed with steps. [L., a ladder.]

Scalawag, Scallawag, skal′a-wag, n. an undersized animal of little value: a scamp: a native Southern Republican, as opposed to a carpet-bagger, during the period of reconstruction after the American Civil War. [From Scalloway in the Shetland Islands, in allusion to its small cattle.]

Scald, skawld, v.t. to burn with hot liquid: to cook slightly, as fruit, in hot water or steam: to cleanse thoroughly by rinsing with very hot water.—n. a burn caused by hot liquid.—ns. Scald′er, one who scalds vessels: a pot for scalding; Scald′-fish, a marine flat fish; Scald′ing, things scalded; Scald′-rag, a nickname for a dyer.—Scalding hot, so hot as to scald. [O. Fr. escalder (Fr. échauder)—Low L. excaldāre, to bathe in warm water—ex, from, calidus, warm, hot.]

Scald, Skald, skald, n. one of the ancient Scandinavian poets.—adj. Scald′ic, relating to, or composed by, the Scalds. [Ice. skáld.]

Scald, skawld, n. scurf on the head.—adj. scurfy, paltry, poor.—ns. Scald′berry, the blackberry; Scald′-crow, the hooded crow; Scald′-head, a fungous parasitic disease of the scalp, favus. [Scall.]

Scaldino, skal-dē′nō, n. an Italian earthenware brazier:—pl. Scaldi′ni. [It.]

Scale, skāl, n. a ladder: series of steps: a graduated measure: (mus.) a series of all the tones ascending or descending from the keynote to its octave, called the gamut: the order of a numeral system: gradation: proportion: series.—v.t. to mount, as by a ladder: to ascend: to draw in true proportion: to measure logs: to decrease proportionally, as every part.—v.i. to lead up by steps: (Scot.) to disperse, to spill, to spread as manure.—ns. Scale′-board (print.), a thin slip of wood for extending a page to its true length, making types register, securing uniformity of margin, &c.; Scale′-pipette′, a tubular pipette with a graduated scale for taking up definite quantities of liquid; Scal′ing-ladd′er, a ladder used for the escalade of an enemy's fortress: a fireman's ladder: (her.) a bearing representing a ladder, with two hooks and two ferrules. [L. scala, a ladder—scandĕre, to mount.]

Scale, skāl, n. one of the small, thin plates on a fish or reptile: a thin layer: a husk: the covering of the leaf-buds of deciduous trees: a piece of cuticle that is squamous or horny: a flake: an encrustation on the side of a vessel in which water is heated.—v.t. to clear of scales: to peel off in thin layers.—v.i. to come off in thin layers.—ns. Scale′-arm′our, armour consisting of scales of metal overlapping each other: plate-mail; Scale′-back, a marine worm covered with scales.—adjs. Scale′-bear′ing, having scales, as the sea-mice; Scaled, having scales: covered with scales.—ns. Scale′-dove, an American dove having the plumage marked as with scales; Scale′-fish, a dry cured fish, as the haddock; Scale′-foot, the scabbard-fish; Scale′-in′sect, any insect of the homopterous family Coccidæ.—adj. Scale′less, without scales, as the scaleless amphibians.—n. Scale′-moss, certain plants which resemble moss.—adj. Scale′-patt′ern, having a pattern resembling scales.—ns. Scale′-quail, an American quail having scale-like markings of the plumage; Scā′ler, one who makes a business of scaling fish: an instrument used by dentists in removing tartar.—adjs. Scale′-tailed, having scales on the under side of the tail; Scale′-winged, having the wings covered with minute scales, as a butterfly.—ns. Scale′-work, scales lapping over each other; Scale′-worm, a scale-back: Scal′iness, the state of being scaly: roughness; Scal′ing, the process of removing scales from a fish, or encrustations from the interior of a boiler; Scal′ing-fur′nace, a furnace in which plates of iron are heated for the purpose of scaling them, as in tinning.—adj. Scal′y, covered with scales: like scales: shabby: (bot.) formed of scales. [A.S. sceale, scale, the scale of a fish; Ger. schale, shell.]

Scale, skāl, n. the dish of a balance: a balance, as to turn the scale—chiefly in pl.: (pl.) Libra, one of the signs of the zodiac.—v.t. to weigh, as in scales: to estimate.—ns. Scale′-beam, the beam or lever of a balance; Scale′-microm′eter, in a telescope, a graduated scale for measuring distances; Scāl′ing, the process of adjusting sights to a ship's guns.—Beam and scales, a balance; Gunter's scale, a scale for solving mechanically problems in navigation and surveying. [A.S. scále, a balance; Dut. schaal, Ger. schale; allied to preceding word.]

Scalene, skā-lēn′, adj. (geom.) having three unequal sides; (anat.) obliquely situated and unequal-sided.—n. a scalene triangle: one of several triangular muscles.—ns. Scālenohē′dron, a pyramidal form under the rhombohedral system, enclosed by twelve faces, each a scalene triangle; Scālē′num, a scalene triangle; Scālē′nus, a scalene muscle. [Fr.,—L. scalenus—Gr. skalēnos, uneven.]

Scaliola=Scagliola (q.v.).

Scall, skawl, n. (B.) a scab: scabbiness: in mining, loose ground.—adj. mean.—adjs. Scalled, Scald, scabby: mean. [Ice. skalli, bald head.]

Scallion, skal′yun, n. the shallot: the leek: the onion. [L. Ascalonia (cæpia), Ascalon (onion).]

Scallop, skol′up, n. a bivalve having a sub-circular shell with sinuous radiating ridges: one of a series of curves in the edge of anything: a shallow dish in which oysters, &c., are cooked, baked, and browned.—v.t. to cut the edge or border into scallops or curves: to cook in a scallop with crumbs of bread, &c.—p.adj. Scall′oped, having the edge or border cut into scallops or curves.—ns. Scall′op moth, a name applied to several geometrid moths; Scall′op-shell, a scallop, or the shell of one, the badge of a pilgrim. [O. Fr. escalope—Old Dut. schelpe, a shell; cf. Ger. schelfe, a husk.]

Scalma, skal′ma, n. a disease of horses. [Old High Ger. scalmo, pestilence; cf. Schelm.]

Scalops, skā′lops, n. a genus of American shrew-moles. [Gr. skalops, a mole—skallein, to dig.]

Scalp, skalp, n. the outer covering of the skull or brain-case, including the skin, the expanded tendon of the occipito-frontalis muscle, with intermediate cellular tissue and blood-vessels: the skin on which the hair grows: the skin of the top of the head, together with the hair, torn off as a token of victory by the North American Indians: the skin of the head of a noxious wild animal: (her.) the skin of the head of a stag with the horns attached: a bed of oysters or mussels (Scot. Scaup).—v.t. to cut the scalp from: to flay: to lay bare: to deprive of grass: to sell at less than recognised rates: to destroy the political influence of.—ns. Scal′per, one who scalps; a machine for removing the ends of grain, as wheat or rye, or for separating the different grades of broken wheat, semolina, &c.: one who buys and sells railroad tickets, &c., at less than the official rates, a ticket-broker: an instrument used by surgeons for scraping carious bones (also Scal′ping-ī′ron); Scal′ping-knife, a knife, formerly a sharp stone, used by the Indians of North America for scalping their enemies; Scal′ping-tuft, a scalp-lock.—adj. Scalp′less, having no scalp, bald.—n. Scalp′-lock, a long tuft of hair left by the North American Indians as a challenge. [Old Dut. schelpe, a shell; cf. Ger. schelfe, a husk; a doublet of scallop.]

Scalpel, skalp′el, n. a small surgical knife for dissecting and operating.—n. Scalpel′lum, one of the four filamentous organs in the proboscis of hemipterous insects:—pl. Scalpel′la.—adj. Scal′priform, chisel-shaped, specifically said of the incisor teeth of rodents. [L. scalpellum, dim. of scalprum, a knife—scalpĕre, to cut.]

Scamble, skam′bl, v.i. (obs.) to scramble: to sprawl.—v.t. to mangle: to squander.—ns. Scam′bler, a meal-time visitor; Scam′bling, a hasty meal.— Scam′bling-days, days in which meat is scarce.—adv. Scam′blingly, strugglingly. [Ety. dub.; prob. related to shamble.]

Scamel, Scammel, skam′el, n. a bar-tailed godwit.

Scamillus, skā-mil′us, n. a second plinth under a column:—pl. Scamill′i (ī). [L.]

Scammony, skam′o-ni, n. a cathartic gum-resin obtained from a species of convolvulus in Asia Minor.—adj. Scammō′niate, made with scammony. [Fr.,—L.,—Gr. skammōnia; prob. Persian.]

Scamp, skamp, n. a vagabond: a mean fellow.—v.i. Scam′per, to run with speed and trepidation.—n. a rapid run.—adj. Scam′pish, rascally. [O. Fr. escamper, to flee—It. scampare, to escape—L. ex, out, campus, a battlefield.]

Scamp, skamp, v.t. to do work in a dishonest manner without thoroughness—also Skimp.—n. Scam′per. [Prob. Ice. skamta, to dole out, to stint.]

Scan, skan, v.t. to count the feet in a verse: to examine carefully: to scrutinise.—v.i. to agree with the rules of metre:—pr.p. scan′ning; pa.t. and pa.p. scanned.—ns. Scan′ning; Scan′sion, act of counting the measures in a verse. [Fr. scander, to scan—L. scandĕre, scansum, to climb.]

Scand, skand, pa.t. of v.i. (Spens.) climbed.

Scandal, skan′dal, n. something said which is false and injurious to reputation: disgrace: opprobrious censure.—v.t. to defame, to aspire.—ns. Scan′dal-bear′er, a propagator of malicious gossip; Scandalisā′tion, defamation.—v.t. Scan′dalise, to give scandal or offence to: to shock: to reproach: to disgrace: to libel.—n. Scan′dal-mong′er, one who deals in defamatory reports.—adj. Scan′dalous, giving scandal or offence: calling forth condemnation: openly vile: defamatory.—adv. Scan′dalously.—ns. Scan′dalousness; Scan′dalum-magnā′tum, speaking slanderously of high personages, abbrev. Scan. Mag. [Fr. scandale—L. scandalum—Gr. skandalon, a stumbling-block.]

Scandalise, skan′da-līz, v.t. to trice up the tack of the spanker in a square-rigged vessel, or the mainsail in a fore-and-aft rigged one. [Scantle.]

Scandent, skan′dent, adj. climbing, as a tendril.

Scandinavian, skan-di-nā′vi-an, adj. of Scandinavia, the peninsula divided into Norway and Sweden, but, in a historical sense, applying also to Denmark and Iceland.—n. a native of Scandinavia. [L. Scandinavia, Scandia.]

Scandium, skan′di-um, n. an element discovered in 1879 in the Scandinavian mineral euxenite.

Scandix, skan′diks, n. a genus of umbelliferous plants, including shepherd's purse, Venus's comb, &c. [L.,—Gr., chervil.]

Scansion. See Scan.

Scansores, skan-sō′rēz, an old order of birds generally characterised by having two toes before opposed by two behind, by which they are enabled to climb.—adj. Scansō′rial, habitually climbing, as a bird: formed for climbing.—n. Scansō′rius, a muscle passing from the ilium to the femur in some vertebrata. [Low L., pl. of scansor, scansoris, a climber—L. scandĕre, scansum, to climb.]

Scant, skant, adj. not full or plentiful; scarcely sufficient: deficient.—n. scarcity: lack.—adv. scarcely: scantily.—v.t. and v.i. to limit: to stint: to begrudge.—adv. Scan′tily.—ns. Scan′tiness; Scan′-tity (obs.).—adv. Scant′ly, not fully or sufficiently, scarcely: narrowly: penuriously: scantily.—ns. Scant′ness, the condition or quality of being scant: smallness: insufficiency; Scant′-of-grace, a good-for-nothing fellow: a scapegrace.—adj. Scant′y, scant, not copious or full: hardly sufficient: wanting extent: narrow: small. [Ice. skamt, short, narrow, neut. of skammr, short.]

Scantle, skan′tl, v.t. to divide into pieces: to partition.—ns. Scant′let, a small pattern; Scant′ling, a little piece: a piece or quantity cut for a particular purpose: a certain proportion.—Scantling number, a number computed from the known dimensions of a ship. [O. Fr. eschantillon, a small cantle, escanteler, to break into cantles—es—L. ex, out, cantel, chantel, a cantle.]

Scantle, skan′tl, v.i. to fail: to be deficient.—n. a gauge by which slates are measured. [Prob. scant.]

Scapanus, skap′a-nus, n. a genus of North American shrew-moles. [Gr. skapanē, a mattock.]

Scape, skāp, n. an escape: a freak or fault.—v.t. to escape from: to miss: to shun.—ns. Scape′gallows, one who deserves hanging: a villain; Scape′grace, a graceless hare-brained fellow. [A contr. of escape.]

Scape, skāp, n. (bot.) a long, naked, radical peduncle: (entom.) the basal joint of antennæ: (ornith.) the stem of a feather: (archit.) the shaft of a column.—adjs. Scape′less (bot.), wanting a scape; Scap′iform, scape-like; Scapig′erous, scape-bearing. [L., scapus, Gr. skapos, a shaft; cf. skēptron, a staff.]

Scape, skāp, n. the cry of the snipe when flushed: the snipe itself. [Prob. imit.]

Scapegoat, skāp′gōt, n. a goat on which, once a year, the Jewish high-priest laid symbolically the sins of the people, and which was then allowed to escape into the wilderness (Levit. xvi.): one who is made to bear the misdeeds of another. [Escape and goat.]

Scapement, skāp′ment, n. the same as Escapement.—n. Scape′-wheel, the wheel which drives the pendulum of a clock. [Escapement.]

Scapha, skā′fa, n. the scaphoid fossa of the helix of the ear. [L., a skiff.]

Scaphander, skā-fan′dėr, n. a diver's water-tight suit; a genus of gasteropods. [Gr. skaphē, a boat, anēr, andros, a man.]

Scapharca, skā-far′ka, n. a genus of bivalve molluscs. [L. scapha, a skiff.]

Scaphidium, skā-fid′i-um, n. a genus of clavicorn beetles. [Gr. skaphidion, dim. of skaphē, a skiff.]

Scaphiopod, skaf′i-ō-pod, adj. spade-footed.—n. a spade-footed toad. [Gr. skaphion, a spade, pous, podos, a foot.]

Scaphirhynchus, skaf-i-ring′kus, n. a genus of tyrant-flycatchers: the shovel-heads or shovel-nosed sturgeons. [Gr. skaphē, a skiff, rhyngchos, snout.]

Scaphism, skaf′izm, n. a Persian punishment by which the victim was fastened in a hollow tree, and smeared over with honey to attract wasps, &c. [Gr. skaphē, anything hollowed out.]

Scaphites, skā-fī′tez, n. a genus of fossil cephalopods of the ammonite family. [Gr. skaphē, a boat.]

Scaphium, skā′fi-um, n. the keel of papilionaceous flowers: a genus of coleopterous insects. [L.,—Gr. skaphion, a basin.]

Scaphocephalic, skaf-ō-se-fal′ik, adj. boat-shaped, a term applied to a certain kind of deformed skull. [Gr. skaphē, a boat, kephalē, a head.]

Scaphoid, skaf′oid, adj. boat-like in form, noting two bones, one in the wrist and the other in the foot. [Gr. skaphē, a boat, eidos, form.]

Scaphopod, skaf′ō-pod, adj. having the foot fitted for burrowing, as a mollusc. [Gr. skaphē, a boat, pous, podos, a foot.]

Scapinade, skap-i-nād′, n. a process of trickery—from the name of the tricky valet in Molière's comedy, Les Fourberies de Scapin.

Scap-net, skap′-net, n. a net for catching minnows, &c. [Same as scoop-net.]

Scapolite, skap′ō-līt, n. a silicate of alumina and lime, occurring in long rod-like crystals. [Gr. skapos, a rod, lithos, a stone.]

Scapple, skap′l, v.t. to work without finishing, as stone before leaving the quarry. [Scabble.]

Scapula, skap′ū-la, n. the shoulder-blade.—adj. Scap′ūlar, pertaining to the shoulder.—n. a bandage for the shoulder-blade: (ornith.) the shoulder feathers: a long strip of cloth worn by some orders: two little pieces of cloth tied together by strings passing over the shoulders, worn by lay persons in token of devotion: a short cloak with a hood, a monastic working dress.—adj. Scap′ūlary, in form like a scapular.—n. a scapular.—adj. Scap′ūlated, having the scapular feathers notable in size or colour, as the scapulated crow.—n. Scap′ūlimancy. divination by means of shoulder-blades.—adj. Scapuliman′tic. [L. scapulæ, the shoulder-blades, prob. cog. with scapus, a shaft.]

Scapus, skā′pus, n. (archit.) the shaft of a column: (ornith.) the scape of a feather: a genus of Cœlenterates:—pl. Scā′pi (ī). [L., a shaft.]

Scar, skär, n. the mark left by a wound or sore: any mark or blemish: a cicatrice: (fig.) any mark resulting from injury, material or moral: (bot.) a mark on a stem after the fall of a leaf: in shells, an impression left by the insertion of a muscle: in founding, an imperfect place in a casting: a disfigurement.—v.t. to mark with a scar.—v.i. to become scarred:—pr.p. scar′ring; pa.t. and pa.p. scarred.—adjs. Scar′less, without scars: unwounded; Scarred. [O. Fr. escare—L. eschara—Gr. eschara, a scar produced by burning.]

Scar, skär, n. a precipitous bank or rock: a bare rocky place on the side of a hill.—n. Scar′-lime′stone, a mass of calcareous rock crowded with marine fossils. [Scand., Ice. skerskera, to cut.]

Scarab, skar′ab, n. an insect with wing-sheaths, a beetle: a gem, usually emerald, cut in the form of a beetle—also Scarabæ′us, Scar′abee.—n. Scar′aboid, an imitation scarab.—adj. like a scarab. [L. scarabæus; Gr. karabos.]

Scaramouch, skar′a-mowch, n. a buffoon: a bragging, cowardly fellow. [Fr.,—It. Scaramuccia, a famous Italian zany of the 17th century.]

Scarbroite, skär′brō-īt, n. a hydrous silicate of aluminium—from Scarborough.

Scarce, skārs, adj. not plentiful: not equal to the demand: rare: not common: parsimonious: deficient: short: scanty.—adj. Scarce′-beard′ed (Shak.), having a scanty beard.—adv. Scarce′ly, Scarce (B.), hardly, barely.—ns. Scarce′ment (archit.), a plain set-off or projection in a wall; Scarce′ness; Scarc′ity, state of being scarce: deficiency: rareness: niggardliness: want: famine.—Make one's self scarce, to decamp. [O. Fr. escars (Fr. échars), niggardly—Low L. scarpsus=ex-carpsus, for L. excerptus, pa.p. of excerpēreex, out of, carpēre, to pick.]

Scard, skärd, n. a shard or fragment.

Scardafella, skär-da-fel′a, n. an American genus containing the ground-doves.

Scare, skār, v.t. to drive away by frightening: to strike with sudden terror: to startle, to affright.—n. an imaginary alarm: a sudden panic.—adj. lean, scanty.—ns. Scare′-babe, a bugbear; Scare′-bug; Scare′crow, anything set up to scare away crows or other birds: a vain cause of terror: a person meanly clad: the black tern; Scare′-fire, a fire-alarm: a conflagration. [M. E. skerrenskerre, frightened—Ice. skjarr, timid.]

Scarf, skärf, n. a light decorative piece of dress worn loosely on the shoulders or as a band about the neck: a light handkerchief for the neck: a cravat:—pl. Scarfs, Scarves (obs.).—v.t. to cover, as if with a scarf.—adj. Scarfed, decorated with pendants.—ns. Scarf′-pin, an ornamental pin worn in a scarf; Scarf′-ring, an ornamental ring through which the ends or a scarf are drawn. [A.S. scearfe, a piece; Dut. scherf, a shred.]

Scarf, skärf, v.t. to join two pieces of timber endwise, so that they may appear to be used as one: to flay the skin from a whale.—n. in carpentry, a joint whose ends are united so as to form a continuous piece.—ns. Scar′fing; Scarf′ing-machine′, a machine for shaving the ends of leather belting to a feather edge; Scarf′-joint, a joint made by overlapping two pieces of timber that will fit each other; Scarf′-loom, a figure loom for weaving fabrics. [Scand., Sw. skarf, Norw. skarv, a joint; cf. Ger. scherben, to cut small; conn. with shear, v.]

Scarf, skärf, n. the cormorant—(Scot.) Scart, Skart. [Ice. skarfr.]

Scarfskin, skärf′skin, n. the surface skin. [Scurf.]

Scaridæ, skar′i-dē, a family of fishes including the parrot-fish.—Also Scā′rus. [Gr. skaros.]

Scarify, skar′i-fī, v.t. to scratch or slightly cut the skin, to make small cuts with a lancet, so as to draw blood: to loosen and stir together the soil: to harrow the feelings:—pa.t. and pa.p. scar′ifīed.ns. Scarificā′tion, act of scarifying; Scarificā′tor, an instrument with several lancets for scarifying or making slight incisions in the operation of cupping; Scar′ifier, one who scarifies: an instrument used for scarifying the soil, esp. a grubber with prongs. [Fr. scarifier—L. scarificāre, -ātum—Gr. skariphasthai—skariphos, an etching tool.]

Scarious, skā′ri-us, adj. (bot.) thin, dry, membranaceous: (zool.) scaly, scurfy.

Scaritid, skär′i-tid, adj. pertaining to carabid beetles of Scarites or related genera.

Scarlatina, skär-la-tē′na, n. a dangerous and highly-contagious fever, so named from the scarlet rash or eruption which accompanies it—also Scar′let-fēver.—adjs. Scarlati′nal, Scarlati′nous.

Scarlet, skär′let, n. a bright-red colour: scarlet cloth.—adj. of the colour called scarlet: dressed in scarlet.—v.t. to redden.—ns. Scar′let-ad′miral, the red-admiral, a butterfly; Scar′let-bean, the scarlet-runner; Scar′let-fē′ver, a contagious febrile disease (see Scarlatina); Scar′let-hat, a cardinal's hat; Scar′let-light′ning, the scarlet lychnis: the red valerian; Scar′let-run′ner, a bean with scarlet flowers which runs up any support; Scar′let-snake, a bright-red harmless snake of the southern states of the American Union; Scar′let-tī′ger, a British moth; Scar′let-wom′an, the woman referred to in Rev. xvii. 4, 5—Pagan Rome, Papal Rome, or a personification of the World in its anti-Christian sense. [O. Fr. escarlate (Fr. écarlate), through Low L. scarlatum—Pers. saqalāt, scarlet cloth.]

Scarmage, skär′māj, n. (Spens.) same as Skirmish.—Also Scar′moge.

Scarn-bee, skärn′-bē, n. (prov.) a dung-beetle. [Sharn.]

Scarp, skärp, n. (her.) a diminutive of the bend sinister, half its width: (obs.) a shoulder-belt. [O. Fr. escarpe, escharpe: cf. Scarf (1).]

Scarp, skärp, n. (fort.) any steep slope (same as Escarp).—v.t. to cut down a slope so as to render it impassable.—adj. Scarped. [O. Fr. escarpe—It. scarpa—Old High Ger. scharf; cf. Sharp.]

Scarpines, skär′pinz, an instrument of torture resembling the boot. [Fr. escarpins, shoes.]

Scarred, skärd, adj. marked by scars.—n. Scar′ring, a scar: a mark.—adj. Scar′ry, bearing or pertaining to scars: having scars.

Scart, skärt, v.t. (Scot.) to scratch: to scrape.—n. a slight wound: a dash or stroke: a niggard: a poor-looking creature.—adj. Scart′-free.

Scarus, skā′rus, n. a genus of fishes including the parrot-wrasses. [Scaridæ.]

Scary, skār′i, adj. causing fright: timid: fluttered.

Scat, Scatt, skat, n. a tax in the Shetland Islands.—ns. Scat′hold, open ground for pasture; Scat′land, land which paid duty for rights of pasture and peat. [A.S. sceat, a coin; Dut. schat, Ger. schatz.]

Scat, skat, interj. be off!—v.t. to scare away.

Scat, skat, n. (prov.) a brisk shower of rain.—adj. Scat′ty, showery. [Prob. conn. with scud.]

Scatch, skach, n. a bit for bridles. [Fr. escache.]

Scatches, skach′ez, stilts used for walking in dirty places. [O. Fr. eschace—Old Flem. schætse, a high shoe; Dut. schaats, pl. schaatsen, skates.]

Scate. Same as Skate, a fish.

Scath, Scathe, skāth, n. damage, injury: waste.—v.t. to injure.—adj. Scathe′ful, destructive.—n. Scathe′fulness, disadvantage: destructiveness.—adj. Scā′thing, damaging; blasting: scorching.—adv. Scā′thingly.—adjs. Scāth′less, without injury; Scā′thy (Scot.), mischievous: dangerous. [A.S. sceathu; Ger. schade, injury.]

Scatology, skā-tol′ō-ji, n. the knowledge of fossil excrement or coprolites: knowledge of the usages of primitive peoples about excrements, human and other.—adj. Scatolog′ical.—ns. Scat′omancy, Scatos′copy, divination of disease by inspection of excrement; Scatoph′aga, the dung-flies.— Scatophag′idæ, a family of acanthopterygian fishes.—adj. Scatoph′agous, feeding on excrement. [Gr. skōr, skatos, dung, logia—legein, to speak; manteia, divination; skopein, to view; phagein, to eat.]

Scatter, skat′ėr, v.t. to disperse in all directions: to throw loosely about: to strew: to sprinkle: to dispel: to put to flight: to drop: to throw shot too loosely.—v.i. to be dispersed or dissipated.—n. Scatt′erbrain, a thoughtless, giddy person.—adjs. Scatt′er-brained, giddy; Scatt′ered, widely separated: wandering: distracted: irregular.—ns. Scatt′erer, one who or that which scatters; Scatt′er-good, a spendthrift; Scatt′er-gun, a shot-gun; Scatt′ering, something scattered: dispersion: that which has been scattered: the irregular reflection of light from a surface not perfectly smooth.—adj. dispersing: rare, sporadic: diversified.—adv. Scatt′eringly, in a dispersed manner: here and there.—ns. Scatt′erling (Spens.), one who has no fixed abode: a vagabond; Scatt′ermouch, any Latin or Levantine, in Pacific slang.—adj. Scatt′ery, dispersed: sparse: few and far between. [A.S. scateran, scaterian; cf. Shatter.]

Scaturient, skā-tū′ri-ent, adj. gushing like water from a fountain. [L. scaturīre, to gush out.]

Scaud, skäd, v.t. (Scot.) to scald: to scold.

Scaup, skawp, n. a sea-duck of genus Aythya, of northern regions, related to the pochard. [Ice. skálp—in skálp-hæna.]

Scauper, skaw′pėr, n. a tool with semicircular face, used by engravers. [Prob. scalper.]

Scaur, skär, a Scotch form of scare.

Scaur, skawr, n. a precipitous bank or rock.—Also Scar. [Scar.]

Scaury, skä′ri, n. a young gull in Shetland. [Scand., Sw. skiura.]

Scavage, skav′āj, n. a duty or toll anciently exacted by mayors, &c., on goods exposed for sale.

Scavenger, skav′en-jėr, n. one who cleans the streets: an animal which feeds on carrion: a child employed to pick up loose cotton from the floor in a cotton-mill.—ns. Scav′agery, street-cleansing; Scav′aging.—v.t. Scav′enge, to cleanse.—ns. Scav′enger-bee′tle, a beetle which acts as a scavenger; Scav′enger-crab, any crab which feeds on decaying animal matter; Scav′engering; Scav′engerism; Scav′engery.—Scavenger's daughter, an instrument of torture by pressure with an iron hoop, invented by Sir W. Skevington, Lieutenant of the Tower under Henry VIII. [Orig. scavager, an inspector of goods for sale, and also of the streets; from scavage, duty on goods for sale—A.S. sceawian, to inspect; cf. Show.]

Scavernick, skav′ėr-nik, n. (Cornish) a hare.

Scavilones, skav′i-lōnz, men's drawers worn in the sixteenth century under the hose.

Scazon, skā′zon, n. in ancient prosody, a metre, the rhythm of which is imperfect toward the close of the line or period. [Gr. skazōn, limping.]

Scelerate, sel′e-rāt, adj. (obs.) wicked, villainous.—n. a villain—also Scel′erat.—adjs. Scel′erous, Sceles′tic. [O. Fr.—L. sceleratusscelus, crime.]

Scelides, sel′i-dēz, the posterior limbs of a mammal.—n. Scel′idosaur, a dinosaur of the genus Scelidosaurus.—adjs. Scelidosau′rian; Scelidosau′roid.— Scelidosau′ridæ, a family of mailed dinosaurs.—ns. Scelidosau′rus, the typical genus of Scelidosauridæ; Scelio (sē′li-ō), a genus of hymenopterous insects parasitic in the eggs of grasshoppers and locusts; Scelop′orus (U.S.), the common brown fence-lizard. [Gr. skelis, skelidos, a leg.]

Scelp, skelp, n. long strips of iron used in forming a gun-barrel.—Also Skelp.

Scena, sē′na, n. the stage of an ancient theatre (pl. Scenæ, sē′nē): an elaborate dramatic solo (It., pron. shā′nä; pl. Sce′ne).—n. Scenario (she-nä′ri-ō), a skeleton libretto of a dramatic work. [L.]

Scend, send, n. the upward angular displacement of a vessel—opposed to Pitch, the correlative downward movement.—v.i. to heave upward. [A corr. of send, influenced by ascend.]

Scene, sēn, n. a picture of the place of an action: a large painted view: place of action, occurrence, or exhibition: the part of a play acted without change of place: (orig.) the stage of a theatre on which the actors perform: a series of landscape events connected and exhibited: a number of objects presented to the view at once: spectacle: view: any unseemly or ill-timed display of strong feeling between persons.—v.t. to exhibit: to display.—ns. Scene′-dock, the space in a theatre adjoining the stage, where scenery is stored when not in use; Scene′-man, one who manages the scenery in a theatre; Scene′-paint′er, one whose employment it is to paint scenery for theatres; Scē′nery, the painted representation on a stage: the appearance of anything presented to the eye: general aspect of a landscape; Scene′-shift′er (same as Scene-man).—adjs. Scē′nic, -al, pertaining to scenery: dramatic: theatrical.—adv. Scē′nically.—adjs. Scēnograph′ic, -al, drawn in perspective.—adv. Scēnograph′ically.—n. Scēnog′raphy, the art of perspective: representation in perspective.—Behind the scenes, at the back of the visible stage; Make a scene, to make a noisy or otherwise unwelcome exhibition of feeling. [L. scena—Gr. skēnē, a covered place, a stage.]

Scent, sent, v.t. to discern by the sense of smell: to perfume: to have some suspicion of.—v.i. to become odoriferous: to smell.—n. a perfume: odour: sense of smell: chase followed by the scent: course of pursuit: scraps of paper strewed on the ground by the pursued in the boys' game of hare and hounds.—ns. Scent′-bag, the pouch of an animal which secretes an odoriferous substance; Scent′-bott′le, a small bottle for holding perfume; Scent′-box.—adjs. Scent′ed, perfumed; Scent′ful, highly odoriferous: quick of scent: having a good nose, as a dog.—n. Scent′-gland, a glandular organ which secretes such substances as musk or castoreum.—adv. Scent′ingly, allusively: not directly.—adj. Scent′less, having no scent or smell: destructive of scent.—ns. Scent′-or′gan, a scent-gland; Scent′-vase, a vessel with a pierced cover designed to contain perfumes. [Fr. sentir—L. sentīre, to feel.]

Sceptic, -al, Skeptic, -al, skep′tik, -al, adj. pertaining to the philosophical school in ancient Greece of Pyrrho and his successors: doubting: hesitating to admit the certainty of doctrines or principles: (theol.) doubting or denying the truth of revelation.—ns. Scep′sis, Skep′sis, philosophic doubt; Scep′tic, one who is sceptical: (theol.) one who doubts or denies the existence of God or the truths of revelation.—adv. Scep′tically.—n. Scep′ticalness.—v.i. Scep′ticise, to act the sceptic.—n. Scep′ticism, that condition in which the mind is before it has arrived at conclusive opinions: doubt: the doctrine that no facts can be certainly known: agnosticism: (theol.) doubt of the existence of God or the truth of revelation. [L. scepticus—Gr. skeptikos, thoughtful, skeptesthai, to consider.]

Sceptre, sep′tėr, n. the staff or baton borne by kings as an emblem of authority: royal power.—v.t. to invest with royal power.—adjs. Scep′tral, regal; Scep′tred, bearing a sceptre: regal.—n. Scep′tredom, reign.—adjs. Scep′treless, powerless, as a sceptreless king; Scep′try, bearing a sceptre, royal. [L. sceptrum—Gr. skēptronskēptein, to lean.]

Scerne, sėrn, v.t. (obs.) to discern. [Discern.]

Sceuophylacium, skū-ō-fi-lā′shi-um, n. (Gr. Church) the repository of the sacred vessels.—n. Sceuoph′ylax, a sacristan, church treasurer. [Gr. skeuos, a vessel, phylax, a watcher.]

Schæfferia, shef-fē′ri-a, n. a genus of polypetalous plants, the yellow-wood. [Named from Schaeffer, an 18th-cent. German botanist.]

Schalenblende, shä′len-blend, n. a variety of native zinc-sulphide. [Ger., schale, shell, blende, blende.]

Schappe, shap′pe, n. a fabric woven from spun silk.

Schediasm, skē′di-azm, n. cursory writing on a loose sheet. [Gr. schediasmaschedon, near.]

Schedule, shed′ūl, n. a piece of paper containing some writing: a list, inventory, or table.—v.t. to place in a schedule or list. [O. Fr. schedule (Fr. cédule)—L. schedula, dim. of scheda, a strip of papyrus—L. scindĕre, to cleave; or from Gr. schedē, a leaf.]

Scheelite, shē′līt, n. native calcium tungstate. [From the Swedish chemist, K. W. Scheele (1742-86).]

Scheik. Same as Sheik.

Schelly, shel′i, n. a white fish.

Schelm, skelm, n. (Scot.) a rascal.—Also Schel′lum, Shelm, Skel′lum. [O. Fr. schelme—Old High Ger. scalmo, plague; cf. Ger. schelm, a rogue.]

Scheltopusik, shel′to-pū-sik, n. a Russian lizard.

Schema, skē′ma, n. the image of the thing with which the imagination aids the understanding in its procedure: scheme, plan, outline generally: a diagrammatic outline or synopsis of anything: (Gr. Church) the monastic habit.—adj. Schemat′ic.—v.t. Schē′matise, to arrange in outline.—v.i. to make a plan in outline.—ns. Schē′matism, form or outline of a thing: (astrol.) the combination of the heavenly bodies; Schē′matist, a projector.

Scheme, skēm, n. plan: something contrived to be done: purpose: plot: a combination of things by design: a specific organisation for some end: an illustrative diagram: a system: a statement in tabular form: a representation of the aspect of the heavenly bodies at a given time.—v.t. to plan: to contrive.—v.i. to form a plan.—n. Scheme′-arch, an arch less than a semicircle.—adj. Scheme′ful.—n. Schē′mer.—adj. Schē′ming, given to forming schemes: intriguing.—adv. Schē′mingly, by scheming.—n. Schē′mist, a schemer: an astrologer.—adj. Schē′my, cunning: intriguing. [L. schema—Gr. schēma, form—echein, schēsein, to hold.]

Schepen, skā′pen, n. a Dutch magistrate. [Dut.]

Scheroma, ske-rō′ma, n. inflammation of the eye without discharge. [Gr. xēros, dry.]

Scherzo, sker′tsō, n. (mus.) a passage or movement of a lively character, forming part of a musical composition of some length, as a symphony, quartette, or sonata.—adj. Scherzan′do, playful. [It. scherzo, a jest, scherzare, to play—Teut.; Mid. High Ger. scherz (Ger. scherz, Dut. scherts), jest.]

Schesis, skē′sis, n. habitude.—adj. Schet′ic, constitutional: habitual. [Gr.,—echein, to have.]

Schiavone, ski-a-vō′ne, n. a backed, hilted broadsword of the 17th century. [It., the Doge's bodyguard, the Schiavoni or Slavs being armed with it.]

Schiedam, skē-dam′, n. Hollands gin, named from the town near Rotterdam where it is chiefly made.

Schiller, shil′ėr, n. the peculiar bronze-like lustre observed in certain minerals, as hypersthene, &c., due to internal reflection.—ns. Schillerisā′tion, the process by which microscopic crystals have been developed in other minerals so as to give a submetallic sheen by internal reflection; Schill′erite, or Schill′er-spar rock, enstatite schillerised. [Ger.]

Schindylesis, skin-di-lē′sis, n. an articulation formed by the fitting of one bone into a groove in another, as in the sphenoid bone and vomer.—adj. Schindylet′ic. [Gr.,—schindylein; to cleave, schizein, to cleave.]

Schinus, skī′nus, n. a genus of South American trees, of order Anacardiaceæ, the leaves yielding abundantly a fragrant, resinous, or turpentine-like fluid. [Gr. schinos, the mastic-tree.]

Schipperke, ship′pėr-ke, n. a breed of dogs of the same group as the Eskimo and Pomeranian dog, but with almost no tail, favourites of the Belgian bargees. [Flem., 'little skipper.']

S-chisel, es-chiz′el, n. a cutting tool in well-boring.

Schisiophone, skiz′i-ō-fōn, n. an induction balance for detecting flaws in iron rails. [Gr. schisis, a cleaving, phōnē, sound.]

Schism, sizm, n. a separation in a church, from diversity of opinion or discipline, breach of unity without justifiable cause, also the tendency towards such.—ns. Schis′ma (mus.), the difference between a pure and an equally tempered fifth; Schismat′ic, one who separates from a church on account of difference of opinion.—adjs. Schismat′ic, -al, tending to, or of the nature of, schism.—adv. Schismat′ically.—n. Schismat′icalness.—v.i. Schis′matise, to practise schism: to make a breach in the communion of the church:—pr.p. schis′matīsing; pa.p. schis′matīsed.Great, or Greek, schism, the separation of the Greek Church from the Latin, finally completed in 1054; Western schism, the division in the Western Church on the appointment by the Romans of Urban VI. to the papal chair in 1378, while the French cardinals elected Clement VII.—healed on the election of Martin V. by the Council of Constance in 1417. [L. schisma—Gr. schizein, to split.]

Schist, shist, n. a term properly applied to crystalline rocks with a foliated structure, as mica-schist, hornblende-schist, &c.—indurated clay-rocks with a fissile structure are sometimes erroneously described as schists.—adjs. Schistā′ceous, slate-gray; Schist′ic, Schist′ous, Schist′ose, like schist: slaty.—n. Schistos′ity, quality of being schistose. [Fr. schiste—Gr. schistosschizein, to split.]

Schizæa, skī-zē′a, n. a genus of ferns, with sporangia ovate, sessile, and arranged in spikes or panicles. [Gr. schizein, to split.]

Schizocarp, skiz′ō-kärp, n. a dry fruit which splits at maturity into several closed one-seeded portions.—adj. Schizocar′pous. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, karpos, fruit.]

Schizocephaly, skiz-ō-sef′a-li, n. the practice of preserving the heads of warriors among Maoris, &c. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, kephalē, the head.]

Schizocœle, skiz′ō-sēl, n. a term applied to the perivisceral cavity of the Invertebrata, when formed by a splitting of the mesoblast.—adj. Schizocœ′lous. [Gr, schizein, to cleave, koilia, a hollow.]

Schizodon, skiz′ō-don, n. a genus of South American octodont rodents. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, odous, odontos, a tooth.]

Schizogenesis, skiz-ō-jen′e-sis n. reproduction by fission.—adjs. Schizogen′ic, Schizogenet′ic.—n. Schizog′ony. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, genesis, production.]

Schizognathous, skī-zog′nā-thus, adj. having the maxillo-palatine bones separate from each other and from the vomer, as in the gulls, plovers, &c.— Schizog′nāthæ, a subdivision of the carinate birds.—n. Schizog′nāthism. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, gnathos, the jaw.]

Schizomycetes, skiz-ō-mī-sē′tēz, n. a botanical term for Bacteria, in reference to their commonest mode of reproduction—by transverse division. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, mykēs (pl. mykētes), a mushroom.]

Schizonemertea, skiz-ō-nē-mer′tē-a, the sea-worms which have the head fissured.—adjs. Schizonemer′tean, Schizonemer′tine.

Schizoneura, skiz-ō-nū′ra, n. a genus of plant lice. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, neuron, a nerve.]

Scizophora, skī-zof′ō-ra, a division of dipterous insects. [Gr. schizein, cleave, pherein, bear.]

Schizopoda, skī-zop′ō-da, a group of crustaceans, having the feet cleft or double, including the opossum-shrimps and their allies.—adj. and n. Schiz′opod. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, pous, podos, the foot.]

Schizorhinal, skiz-ō-rī′nal, adj. having the nasal bones separate: having the anterior nostrils prolonged in the form of a slit. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, rhis, rhinos, the nose.]

Schizothecal, skiz-ō-thē′kal, adj. having the tarsal envelope divided, as by scutella—opp. to Holothecal. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, thēkē, a case.]

Schizotrochous, skī-zot′rō-kus, adj. with a divided disc, as a rotifer.— Schizot′rocha. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, trochos, a wheel.]

Schläger, shlā′gėr, n. the modern duelling-sword of German university students. [Ger.,—schlagen, to beat.]

Schegalia, shle-gā′li-a, n. a genus of birds of Paradise. [Named from the Dutch ornithologist Hermann Schlegel (1805-84).]

Schlich, shlik, n. the finer portions of crushed ore, separated by water. [Ger.]

Schmelze, schmel′tse, n. glass used in decorative work. [Ger. schmelz, enamel.]

Schnapps, Schnaps, shnaps, n. Holland gin, Hollands. [Ger. schnapps, a dram.]

Schneiderian, shnī-dē′ri-an, adj. pertaining to the mucous membrane of the nose—first described by the German anatomist C. V. Schneider (1614-80).

Schœnus, skē′nus, n. a genus of monocotyledonous plants of the sedge family. [Gr. schoinos, a rush.]

Scholar, skol′ar, n. a pupil: a disciple: a student: one who has received a learned education: a man of learning: a savant: in the English universities, an undergraduate partly supported from the revenues of a college.—ns. Schol′arch, the head of a school of philosophy; Schol′arism, the affectation of scholarship.—adjs. Schol′ar-like, Schol′arly, like or becoming a scholar.—n. Schol′arship, the character of a scholar: learning: maintenance for a scholar, a benefaction, the annual proceeds of a bequest permanently invested for this purpose.—adj. Scholas′tic, pertaining to a scholar or to schools: scholar-like: pertaining to the schoolmen: excessively subtle: pedantic.—n. one who adheres to the method or subtleties of the schools of the middle ages.—adv. Scholas′tically, in a scholastic manner: according to the methods of the schools of philosophy.—n. Scholas′ticism, the aims, methods, and products of thought which constituted the main endeavour of the intellectual life of the middle ages: the method or subtleties of the schools of philosophy: the collected body of doctrines of the schoolmen. [Low L. scholaris—L. schola.]

Scholiast, skō′li-ast, n. one of a class of ancient grammarians, mostly anonymous, who wrote short notes on the margins of the MSS. of ancient Greek and Roman classics, a writer of scholia: an annotator: a commentator.—adj. Scholias′tic, pertaining to a scholiast or to scholia.—ns. Schō′lion, Schō′lium, one of the marginal notes of the old critics on the ancient classics: (math.) an explanation tion added to a problem:—pl. Schō′lia, Schō′liums. [Gr. scholiastēsscholion, a scholium.]

School, skōōl, n. a place for instruction: an institution of learning, esp. for children: the pupils of a school: exercises for instruction: the disciples of a particular teacher, or those who hold a common doctrine: a large number of fish migrating together, a shoal: a system of training: any means of knowledge, esp. (mus.) a treatise teaching some particular branch of the art: a large hall in English universities, where the examinations for degrees, &c., are held—hence, one of these examinations (gen. pl.) also the group of studies taken by a man competing for honours in these: a single department of a university: (pl.) the body of masters and students in a college.—v.t. to educate in a school: to instruct: to admonish, to discipline.—adj. School′able, of school age.—ns. School′-board, a board of managers, elected by the ratepayers, whose duty it is to see that adequate means of education are provided for the children of a town or district; School′-boy, a boy attending a school: one learning the rudiments of a subject; School′-clerk, one versed in the learning of schools; School′-craft, learning; School′-dame, a schoolmistress.— School′-days, the time of life during which one goes to school.—ns. School′-divine′; School′-divin′ity, scholastic or seminary theology; School′-doc′tor, a schoolman; School′ery (Spens.), something taught, precepts; School′-fell′ow, one taught at the same school: an associate at school; School′girl a girl attending school.— School′-hours, time spent at school in acquiring instruction.—ns. School′-house, a house of discipline and instruction: a house used as a school: a schoolmaster's house; School′ing, instruction in school: tuition: the price paid for instruction: reproof, reprimand; School′-inspec′tor, an official appointed to examine schools; School′-ma'am, a schoolmistress; School′-maid, a school-girl; School′man, one of the philosophers and theologians of the second half of the middle ages; School′master, the master or teacher of a school, a pedagogue:—fem. School′mistress, a woman who teaches or who merely governs a school; School′-mate, one who attends the same school; School′-name, an abstract term, an abstraction; School′-pence, a small sum paid for school-teaching; School′-point, a point for scholastic disputation; School′-room, a room for teaching in: school accommodation; School′-ship, a vessel used for teaching practical navigation.—adj. School′-taught, taught at school or in the schools.—ns. School′-teach′er, one who teaches in a school; School′-teach′ing; School′-time, the time at which a school opens; School′-whale, one of a school of whales; Board′-school, a school under the control of a school-board.—Grammar school, High school, a school of secondary instruction, standing between the primary school and the university; National schools, those schools in Ireland which are under the commissioners of national education; Oxford school, a name given to that party which adopted the principles contained in the Tracts for the Times (cf. Tractarianism); Parochial schools, in Scotland, schools in every parish for general education; Primary school, a school for elementary instruction; Public school, an elementary or primary school: a school under the control of a school-board: an endowed classical school for providing a liberal education for such as can pay high for it—Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester, Westminster, Shrewsbury, Charterhouse, St Paul's, and Merchant Taylors′, &c.; Ragged school, a free school for destitute children's education and often maintenance, supported by voluntary efforts; Sunday school, a school held on Sunday for religious instruction; Tübingen school, a rationalistic school of theologians founded by F. C. Baur (1792-1860), which explained the origin of the Catholic Church as due to the gradual fusion of an antagonistic Judaistic and Gentile party, the various stages of fusion being capable of being traced in the extant documents.—The schoolmaster is abroad, a phrase of Brougham's implying that education and intelligence are now widely spread. [L. schola—Gr. scholē, leisure, a school.]


Schooner, skōōn′ėr, n. a sharp-built, swift-sailing vessel, generally two-masted, rigged either with fore-and-aft sails on both masts, or with square top and topgallant sails on the foremast: an old form of covered emigrant-wagon: a large drinking-glass.—n. Schoon′er-smack, a sharp-bowed schooner. [Coined in New England from the prov. Eng. scoon (Scot. scon), to make a flat stone skip along the surface of water; A.S. scúnian.]

Schorl, shorl, n. black tourmaline—also Shorl.—adjs. Schorlā′ceous, Schor′lous, Schor′ly. [Ger. schörl, prob. from Sw. skör, brittle.]

Schottische, sho-tēsh′, n. a dance resembling a polka, danced by a couple: music adapted for the dance.—Also Schottish′. [Ger., 'Scottish.']

Schout, skout, n. a municipal officer in the North American Dutch colonies. [Dut.]

Schrankia, shrang′ki-a, n. a genus of leguminous plants, whose six species are all American—including the sensitive-briar. [Named from the German naturalist F. von Paula Schrank (1747-1835).]

Schuchin, skuch′in, n. an obsolete form of escutcheon.

Schweinitzia, shwī-nit′zi-a, n. a genus of gamopetalous plants of the Indian-pipe family, including the sweet pine-sap or Carolina beech-drops. [The Amer. botanist L. D. von Schweinitz (1780-1834).]

Schwenkfelder, shwengk′fel-dėr, n. a member of a religious sect, founded by Caspar von Schwenkfeld (1490-1561), still found in Pennsylvania.—Also Schwenk′feldian.

Sciadiaceæ, sī-ad-i-ā′sē-ē, n. a family of fresh-water algæ, its typical genus Sciadium.

Sciagraphy, sī-ag′ra-fi, n. the art of casting and delineating shadows as they fall in nature: (archit.) the vertical section of a building to show its interior structure: the art of dialling.—ns. Scī′agraph; Scīag′rapher.—adjs. Scīagraph′ic, -al.—adv. Scīagraph′ically. [Gr. skiagraphiaskia, a shadow, graphein, to write.]

Sciamachy, sī-am′a-ki, n. Same as Sciomachy.

Sciametry, sī-am′e-tri, n. the doctrine of eclipses. [Gr. skia, shadow, metrein, to measure.]

Sciara, sī′a-ra, n. a genus of gnats or midges. [Gr. skiaros, shady—skia, a shadow.]

Sciath, sī′ath, n. an oblong shield of wicker-work formerly used in Ireland. [Ir. sciath.]

Sciatheric, -al, sī-a-ther′ik, -al, adj. pertaining to a sundial. [Gr. skiathēronskia, shadow, theran, catch.]

Sciatica, sī-at′i-ka, n. a neuralgic affection of the great sciatic nerve.—adjs. Sciat′ic, -al, pertaining to, or affecting, the hip, ischiac.—adv. Sciat′ically. [Low L. sciatica—Gr. ischion.]

Science, sī′ens, n. knowledge systematised: truth ascertained: pursuit of knowledge or truth for its own sake: knowledge arranged under general truths and principles: that which refers to abstract principles, as distinguished from 'art:' pre-eminent skill: trade: a department of knowledge.—n. Scib′ile, something capable of being known.—adjs. Scī′enced, versed, learned; Scī′ent, knowing; Scien′tial (Milt.), producing science: skilful; Scientif′ic, -al (obs.), producing or containing science: according to, or versed in, science: used in science: systematic: accurate.—adv. Scientif′ically.—ns. Scī′entism, the view of scientists; Scī′entist, one who studies science, esp. natural science.—adjs. Scientis′tic.—adv. Scī′ently, knowingly.—n. Scient′olism, false science, superficial knowledge.—Scientific frontier, a term used by Lord Beaconsfield in 1878 in speaking of the rectification of the boundaries between India and Afghanistan, meaning a frontier capable of being occupied and defended according to the requirements of the science of strategy, in opposition to 'a hap-hazard frontier.'—Absolute science, knowledge of things in themselves; Applied science, when its laws are exemplified in dealing with concrete phenomena; Dismal science, political economy; Gay science, a medieval name for belles-lettres and poetry generally, esp. amatory poetry; Inductive science (see Induct); Liberal science, a science cultivated from love of knowledge, without view to profit; Mental science, mental philosophy, psychology; Moral science, ethics, the science of right and wrong, moral responsibility; Occult science, a name applied to the physical sciences of the middle ages, also to magic, sorcery, witchcraft, &c.; Sanitary science (see Sanitary); The exact sciences, the mathematical sciences; The science, the art of boxing; The seven liberal sciences, grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy—these were the seven Terrestrial sciences, as opposed to the seven Celestial sciences, civil law, Christian law, practical theology, devotional theology, dogmatic theology, mystic theology, and polemical theology. [Fr.,—L. scientiasciens, -entis, pr.p. of scīre, to know.]

Scil, an abbreviation of scilicet.

Scilicet, sil′i-set, adv. to wit, namely, videlicet.

Scilla, sil′a, n. a genus of liliaceous plants, as the squill. [L.,—Gr. skilla, a sea-onion.]

Scillocephalus, sil-ō-sef′a-lus, n. a person with a conical cranium.—adjs. Scilloceph′alous. [Gr. skilla, a squill, kephalē, a head.]

Scimitar, sim′i-tar, n. a short, single-edged curved sword, broadest at the point end, used by the Turks and Persians.—n. Scim′itar-pod, a strong, shrubby climber of the tropics. [O. Fr. cimeterre—Old It. cimitara—Turk.,—Pers. shimshīr (perh. 'lion's claw,' sham, a claw, shīr, sher, a lion); or perh. through Sp. cimitarra, from Basque cimeterra, something 'with a fine edge.']

Scincoid, sing′koid, n. one of a family of saurian reptiles, the typical genus of which is the Scin′cus or skink.—adjs. like a skink. [L. scincus—Gr. skingkos, a kind of lizard, eidos, form.]

Scindapsus, sin-dap′sus, n. a genus of climbing plants.

Scintilla, sin-til′a, n. a spark: a glimmer: the least particle: a trace: a genus of bivalve molluscs: a genus of lepidopterous insects.—adjs. Scin′tillant; Scin′tillante (mus.), brilliant.—v.i. Scin′tillate, to throw out sparks: to sparkle.—n. Scintillā′tion, act of throwing out sparks: shining with a twinkling light.—adj. Scintilles′cent, scintillating feebly.—n. Scintillom′eter, an instrument for measuring the intensity of scintillation of the stars. [L., a spark.]

Sciography, sī-og′ra-fi, n. Same as Sciagraphy.

Sciolism, sī′ō-lizm, n. superficial knowledge.—n. Scī′olist, one who knows anything superficially: a pretender to science.—adjs. Scīolis′tic, pertaining to, or partaking of, sciolism: pertaining to, or resembling, a sciolist; Scī′olous. [L. sciolus, dim. of scius, knowing—scīre, to know.]

Sciolto, shi-ol′tō, adj. (mus.) free, unrestrained. [It.]

Sciomachy, sī-om′a-ki, n. a battle or fighting with shadows: imaginary or futile combat.—Also Sciam′achy. [Gr. skiamachia, skiomachiaskia, shadow, machē, battle.]

Sciomancy, sī′ō-man-si, n. divination by means of the shades of the dead.

Scion, sī′on, n. a cutting or twig for grafting: a young member of a family: a descendant. [O. Fr. sion, cion—L. section-em, a cutting—secāre, to cut.]

Scioptic, sī-op′tik, adj. noting a certain optical arrangement for forming images in a darkened room, consisting of a globe with a lens fitted to a camera, and made to turn like the eye—also Sciop′tric.—ns. Sciop′ticon; Sciop′tics. [Gr. skia, shadow, optikos, pertaining to sight.]

Sciotheism, sī′ō-thē-izm, n. ancestor-worship.

Sciotheric. Same as Sciatheric (q.v.).

Scious, scī′us, adj. (obs.) knowing.

Scire facias, sī′re fā′shi-as, n. (law) a writ to enforce the execution of judgments, or to quash them.

Scirpus, sir′pus, n. a genus of monocotyledonous plants, including the bulrushes. [L., a rush.]

Scirrhus, skir′us, or sir′us, n. (med.) a hardened gland forming a tumour: a hardening, esp. that preceding cancer.—adjs. Scirr′hoid, resembling scirrhus; Scirr′hous, hardened, proceeding from scirrhus. [L.,—Gr. skirros, skiros, a tumour.]

Scirtopod, sir′tō-pod, adj. having limbs fitted for leaping.— Scirtop′oda, an order of saltatorial rotifers. [Gr. skirtan, leap, pous, foot.]

Sciscitation, sis-i-tā′shun, n. (obs.) the act of inquiry: demand. [L.,—sciscitāri, to inquire—sciscĕre, to seek to know—scīre, to know.]

Scissel, sis′el, n. the clippings of various metals: scrap—also Sciss′il. [O. Fr. cisailleciselercisel, a chisel (q.v.). The spelling has been adapted in the interests of a fancied connection with L. scindĕre, scissum, to divide.]

Scissors, siz′orz, a cutting instrument consisting of two blades fastened at the middle: shears.—v.i. Scise, sīz (obs.), to cut: to penetrate.—adjs. Sciss′ible, Sciss′ile, capable of being cut.—ns. Scis′sion, the act of cutting: division: splitting; Scissipar′ity, reproduction by fission.—v.t. Sciss′or, to cut with scissors.—ns. Sciss′or-bill, a skimmer; Sciss′or-tail, an American bird, the scissor-tailed fly-catcher; Sciss′or-tooth, the sectorial tooth of a carnivore which cuts against its fellow; Scissū′ra (anat.), a fissure, a cleft; Scis′sure, a cleft: a fissure: a rupture: a division; Scissurel′la, a genus of gasteropods with a shell deeply cut. [Formerly written cisors—O. Fr. cisoires, conn. with Fr. ciseaux, scissors, from Late L. cisorium, a cutting instrument—L. cædĕre, cæsum, to cut.]

Sciuridæ, sī-ū′ri-dē, n. a family of rodent mammals containing the squirrels and their allies.—adjs. Scī′ūrine, Scī′ūroid.—ns. Sciūrop′terus, one of two genera of flying squirrels; Sciū′rus, a genus of Sciuridæ, the arboreal squirrels. [Gr. skiouros.]

Sclate, sklāt, n. an obs. or prov. form of slate.

Sclave, Sclavonian, &c. See Slav, Slavonic.

Sclera, sklē′ra, n. the sclerotic coat of the eye-ball.—n. Sclē′ragogy, severe discipline.—adj. Sclē′ral.—ns. Sclēran′thus, a genus of apetalous plants, including the knawel or German knot-grass; Sclere, in sponges, a skeletal element; Sclērench′yma, the hard parts of corals or plants.—adj. Sclerenchym′atous.—ns. Sclē′ria, a genus of monocotyledonous plants, of the sedge family; Sclerī′asis, sclerodermia; Sclē′rite, any hard part of the integument of arthropods.—adj. Sclerit′ic.—n. Sclē′robase, a dense corneous mass, as in red coral.—adj. Sclerobā′sic.—ns. Sclērobrā′chia, an order of brachiopods; Sclē′roderm, hardened integument or exo-skeleton, esp. of a coral: a madrepore.— Scleroder′mata, the scaly reptiles: the madrepores.—n. Sclēroder′mia, a chronic non-inflammatory affection of the skin, which becomes thick and rigid.—adjs. Scleroder′mic, Scleroder′mous, Sclerodermit′ic.—ns. Scleroder′mite; Sclē′rogen, the thickening matter of woody cells, as in walnut-shells, &c.—adjs. Sclerog′enous, producing sclerous tissue: mail-cheeked, as a fish; Sclē′roid, hard, scleritic.—ns. Sclērō′ma, sclerosis; Sclēromē′ninx, the dura mater; Sclērom′eter, an instrument for measuring the hardness of a mineral.—adjs. Sclērō′sal, Sclē′rosed.—ns. Sclērō′sis, a hardening: (bot.) the induration of a tissue; Sclēros′toma, a genus of nematode worms; Sclērō′tal, a bone of the eye-ball.—adj. relating to such.—adj. Sclērot′ic, hard, firm, applied esp. to the outer membrane of the eye-ball: pertaining to sclerosis: relating to ergot.—n. the outermost membrane of the eye-ball.—ns. Sclērotī′tis, inflammation of the sclerotic; Sclērō′tium, a hard, multicellular tuber-like body formed towards the end of the vegetative season by the close union of the ordinary mycelial filaments of Fungi.—adjs. Sclē′rous, hard or indurated: ossified or bony; Sclērur′ine, having stiff, hard tail-feathers, as a bird of the genus Sclerurus. [Gr. sklēros, hard.]

Scoat, skōt, v.t. to prop, to block, to scotch, as a wheel.—Also Scote. [O. Fr. ascouterascot, a branch—Teut., Old High Ger. scuz, a shoot; Ger. schuss.]

Scobby, skob′i, n. the chaffinch.—Also Scō′by.

Scobs, skobz, n. sawdust: shavings: dross of metals.—adj. Scob′iform, resembling sawdust or raspings.—n. Scobī′na, the pedicle of the spikelets of grasses. [L. scobisscabĕre, to scrape.]

Scoff, skof, v.t. to mock: to treat with scorn.—v.i. to show contempt or scorn: to deride, taunt, gibe.—n. an expression of scorn or contempt: an object of scoffing.—n. Scoff′er.—adv. Scoff′ingly, in a scoffing manner: with mockery or contempt. [Old Fris. schof; Ice. skaup, cf. Old Dut. schoppen, to scoff.]

Scoganism, skō′gan-izm, n. a scurrilous jesting. [From Scogan, the name of a famous jester.]

Scogie, skō′ji, n. (Scot.) a kitchen drudge.

Scold, skōld, v.i. to rail in a loud and violent manner: to find fault.—v.t. to chide rudely: to rebuke in words.—n. a rude, clamorous woman: a termagant.—ns. Scold′er; Scold′ing, railing: a rating; Scold′ing-stool, a cucking-stool. [Old Dut. scheldan; Ger. schelten, to brawl, to scold.]

Scolecida, skō-les′i-da, n. a class of worms consisting of the wheel-animalcules, turbellarians, trematode worms, &c.—adj. Scolec′iform.—ns. Scolecī′na, a group of annelids typified by the earth-worm—also Scoleī′na; Scol′ecīte, a hydrous silicate of aluminium and calcium.—adjs. Scolē′coid, like a scolex; Scolēcoph′agous, worm-eating, as a bird.—n. Scolecoph′agus, a genus of birds including the maggot-eaters or rusty grackles.— Scolecophid′ia, a division of angiostomous serpents.—adj. Scolecophid′ian, worm-like, as a snake.—n. Scō′lex, the embryo of an entozoic worm. [Gr. skōlēx, a worm.]

Scolia, skō-li-a, n. a genus of fossorial hymenopterous insects. [Gr. skōlos, a prickle.]

Scoliodon, skō-lī′ō-don, n. the genus containing the oblique-toothed sharks. [Gr. skolios, oblique, odous, odontis, a tooth.]

Scolisois, skol-i-ō′sis, n. lateral curvature of the spinal column.—adj. Scoliot′ic. [Gr.,—skolios, oblique.]

Scolite, skō′līt, n. a fossil worm or its trace. [Gr. skolios, oblique.]

Scollop. Same as Scallop.

Scolopaceous, skol-ō-pā′shi-us, adj. resembling a snipe.— Scolopac′idæ, a family of wading-birds containing snipes, &c.—adjs. Scol′opacine, Scol′opacoid.—n. Scol′opax. [L. scolopax, a snipe.]

Scolopendra, skol-ō-pen′dra, n. a genus of Myriapoda, having a long, slender, depressed body, protected by coriaceous plates, and having at least twenty-one pairs of legs: (Spens.) an imaginary fish or sea-monster.—adj. Scolopen′driform, Scolopen′drine.—n. Scolopen′drium, a genus of asplenioid ferns, generally called Hart's-tongue. [L.,—Gr. skolopendra, a milliped.]

Scolytus, skol′i-tus, n. typical genus of Scolyt′idæ, a family of bark beetles.—adj. Scol′ytoid. [Gr. skolyptein, to strip.]

Scomber, skom′bėr, n. a genus of acanthopterygian fishes typical of the family Scombridæ, to which belong mackerel, tunnies, bonitos, &c.—ns. Scomber′esox, the mackerel pikes, saury pikes, or sauries; Scomberom′orus, the Spanish mackerel and related species.—adjs. Scom′briform, Scom′brid, -al, Scom′broid. [L.,—Gr. skombros, a mackerel.]

Scomfish, skom′fish, v.t. (Scot.) to suffocate by bad air: to nauseate: to discomfit.—v.i. to be suffocated. [A corr. of obs. scomfit=discomfit.]

Scomm, skom, n. (obs.) a flout: a buffoon. [L. scomma—Gr. skōmma, a jest.]

Sconce, skons, n. a bulwark: a small fort: a protective headpiece, hence the head, the skull, brains, wits: a covered stall: a fine: a seat in an old-fashioned open chimney-place, a chimney-seat: a fragment of an icefloe.—v.t. to fortify: to tax, to fine lightly, at Oxford and Cambridge, for some irregularity. [O. Fr. esconcer, to conceal—L. abscondĕre, absconsum.]

Sconce, skons, n. the part of a candlestick for the candle: a hanging candlestick with a mirror to reflect the light: a lantern. [O. Fr. esconse—Low L. absconsa, a dark-lantern—abscondĕre, to hide.]

Sconcheon. Same as Squinch.

Scone, skōn, n. (Scot.) a soft cake fired on a griddle. [Perh. Gael. sgonn, a shapeless mass.]

Scoon, skōōn, v.t. to skim along like a vessel: (Scot.) to skip flat stones on the surface of water. [Scun.]

Scoop, skōōp, v.t. to lift up, as water, with something hollow: to empty with a ladle: to make hollow: to dig out: to dredge for grain: to get before a rival newspaper in publishing some important piece of news.—n. anything hollow for scooping: a large hollow shovel or ladle: a banker's shovel: a coal-scuttle: a haul of money made in speculation: a place hollowed out: a sweeping stroke: (Scot.) the peak of a cap: the act of beating another newspaper in publishing some news.—ns. Scoop′er, an engraver's tool; Scoop′ing, the action of the right whale in feeding; Scoop′-net, a hand-net; Scoop′-wheel, a wheel having buckets attached to its circumference, used for raising water. [Prob. Scand., Sw. skopa, a scoop; or Old Dut. schœpe, a shovel, Ger. schüppe, a shovel.]

Scoot, skōōt, v.i. to make off with celerity.—v.t. (Scot.) to squirt.—n. a sudden flow of water: a squirt. [A variant of shoot.]

Scopa, skō′pa, n. (entom.) a mass of stiff hairs like a brush.—n. Scopā′ria, a genus of pyralid moths: a genus of gamopetalous plants—the West Indian sweet bromweed.—adjs. Scopā′rious, scopiform; Scō′pate, covered with stiff hairs; Scōpif′erous, brushy; Scō′piform, broom-shaped.—ns. Scop′ula (entom.), a small brush-like organ; Scopulā′ria, in a sponge, the besom-shaped spicule.—adjs. Scop′ūlate, broom-shaped; Scop′ūliform, scopiform; Scop′ūliped, Scō′piped, having brushy feet, as solitary bees. [L. scopa, twigs.]

Scope, skōp, n. that which one sees, space as far as one can see: room or opportunity for free outlook: space for action: the end before the mind: intention: length of cable at which a vessel rides at liberty: a target.—adjs. Scope′ful, with a wide prospect; Scope′less, purposeless, useless. [It. scopo—Gr. skoposskopein, to view.]

Scope, skōp, n. (obs.) a bundle, as of twigs. [L. scopa, twigs.]

Scopelidæ, skō-pel′i-dē, a family of deep-water teleostean fishes, the typical genus Scop′elus. [Gr. skopelos, a rock.]

Scopidæ, skop′i-dē, an African family of wading-birds, as the shadow-birds, the typical genus Scō′pus.

Scopious, skō′pi-us, adj. (obs.) spacious.

Scopperil, skop′e-ril, n. a top: teetotum: the bone-foundation of a button. [Ice. skoppa, to spin.]

Scops, skops, n. the screech-owl. [Gr. skōps.]

Scoptic, skop′tik, adj. mocking: jesting. [Scomm.]

Scopulous, skop′ū-lus, adj. full of rocks. [L. scopulus—Gr. skopelos, a high rock.]

Scorbutic, -al, skor-bū′tik, -al, adj. pertaining to, resembling, or diseased with scurvy. [Low L. scorbutus, scurvy, prob. from Old Low Ger. schorbock, scurvy, Old Dut. scheurbuyck, scurvy. Prob. orig. meaning 'rupture of the belly,' for Old Dut. scheuren, to tear, buyck (mod. Dut. buik), the belly.]

Scorch, skorch, v.t. to burn slightly: to roast highly: to affect painfully with heat: to singe: to attack with virulence.—v.i. to be burned on the surface: to be dried up: (slang) to ride a bicycle furiously on a public highway.—ns. Scorched′-car′pet, -wing, British geometrid moths; Scorch′er, anything that scorches, a very caustic rebuke, criticism, &c.: one who rides a bicycle furiously on a road; Scorch′ing.—p.adj. burning superficially: bitterly sarcastic, scathing.—adv. Scorch′ingly.—n. Scorch′ingness. [O. Fr. escorcher, from Low L. excorticare—L. ex, off, cortex, corticis, bark; or prob. Scand., Norw. skrekka, to shrink.]

Scordato, skōr-dä′tō, adj. (mus.) put out of tune.—n. Scordatū′ra, in stringed musical instruments, an intentional departure from the normal tuning. [It.]

Score, skōr, n. a mark or notch for keeping count: a line drawn: the number twenty, once represented by a larger notch: a reckoning: a debt: the register of the various points of play in a game: account: reason: the original draught of a musical composition with all the parts, or its transcript.—v.t. to mark with notches or lines: to furrow: to set down: to charge: to engrave: to braid: to note: to enter: to make points, &c., in certain games.—v.i. to keep, or to run up, a score: to succeed in making points, &c., in a game.—ns. Scōr′er, one who keeps the marks in a game; Scōr′ing, the act of one who, or that which, scores: a deep groove made by glacial action: the act of repeatedly bringing a racer and his rider to the starting-point, so as to get a fair start.—Go off at score, to make a spirited start; Pay off old scores, to repay old grudges; Run up a score, to run up a debt. [A.S. scorsceran (pa.p. scoren), to shear.]

Scoria, skō′ri-a, n. dross or slag left from metal or ores after being under fire: a genus of geometrid moths:—pl. Scō′riæ, volcanic ashes.—adjs. Scō′riac, Scoriā′ceous.—ns. Scorificā′tion, the act or operation of reducing a body to scoria: a method of assaying by fusing the ore with metallic lead and borax in a scorifier; Scor′ifīer, a flat dish used in such a form of assaying.—adj. Scō′riform, like scoria.—v.t. Scō′rify, to reduce to slag.—adj. Scō′rious. [L.,—Gr. skōria.]

Scorn, skorn, n. disdain caused by a mean opinion of anything: extreme contempt: object of contempt.—v.t. to hold in extreme contempt: to disdain: to make a mock of.—v.i. to scoff: to jeer.—n. Scor′ner, one who scorns: (B.) one who scoffs at religion: a scoffer.—adj. Scorn′ful, full of scorn: contemptuous: disdainful.—adv. Scorn′fully.—ns. Scorn′fulness; Scor′ning.—Laugh to scorn (B.), to deride; Think scorn, to disdain or despise. [O. Fr. escarn, mockery—Old High Ger. skern, mockery.]

Scorodite, skor′ō-dīt, n. a hydrous arseniate of iron.—Also Skor′odite. [Gr. skorodon, skordon, garlic.]

Scorpæna, skor-pē′na, n. a genus of fishes, the typical genus of Scorpæ′nidæ, a family including the rose-fish, the Californian rock-fish, and their allies. [L.,—Gr. skorpaina, a fish.]

Scorper, skor′pėr, n. a gouging-chisel [For scauper.]

Scorpion, skor′pi-un, n. a name applicable to any member of the family Scorpionidæ, included along with spiders, mites, &c. in the heterogeneous class Arachnida—they have an elongated body, claws like the lobster, and a poisonous sting in the tail: one of the signs of the zodiac: (B.) a whip with points like a scorpion's tail: an old military engine: any person of virulent hatred or animosity.—n. Scor′pio, a scorpion: (astron.) a constellation and the eighth sign of the zodiac.—adj. Scor′pioid, curled like the tail of a scorpion.—n. Scor′pion-bug, a large predacious water-beetle.— Scorpiō′nes, true scorpions, a sub-order of Arachnida.—ns. Scor′pion-fish, a sea-scorpion; Scor′pion-fly, an insect having its abdomen curled like a scorpion; Scor′pion-grass, the forget-me-not: the mouse-ear; Scorpion′ida, an order of Arachnida, containing the Scorpiones or true scorpions; Scor′pion-lob′ster, a long-tailed crustacean; Scor′pion-plant, a Javan orchid with large creamy flower supposed to resemble a spider; Scor′pion-shell, a gasteropod distinguished by long, channelled spines; Scor′pion-spī′der, a whip-scorpion; Scor′pion-wort, a leguminous plant native of southern Europe; Scorpiū′rus, a genus of leguminous plants named scorpion's tail. [Fr.,—L. scorpio—Gr. skorpios.]

Scorse. Same as Scourse (2).

Scortatory, skor′ta-tō-ri, adj. pertaining to lewdness. [L. scortator, a fornicator—scortum, a whore.]

Scorza, skor′za, n. a variety of epidote. [It.]

Scorzonera, skor-zō-nē′ra, n. a genus of Old World herbs of the Aster family—Viper's Grass. [It., scorza, bark, nera, black, fem. of nero—L. niger, black.]

Scot, skot, n. a payment, esp. a customary tax—also Shot.—adj. Scot′-free, free from scot or payment: untaxed: unhurt, safe.—Scot and lot, an old legal phrase embracing all parochial assessments for the poor, the church, lighting, cleansing, and watching. [A.S. scot, sceotscéotan, to shoot.]

Scot, skot, n. a native of Scotland: one of the Scoti or Scots, a Celtic race who migrated from Ireland—the original Scotia—before the end of the 5th century.—n. Scō′tia, Scotland.—Scots Greys, a famous regiment of dragoons, established in 1683; Scots Guards, the Scottish force which served the kings of France from 1418 down to the battle of Minden (1759), nominally retained, however, down to 1830: a well-known regiment of Guards in the British army, formerly Scots Fusiliers.—Pound Scots, 1s. 8d. [A.S. Scottas, the Scots. Further ety. quite uncertain, whether Gael. sguit, a wanderer, Gr. Skythēs, a Scythian, &c.]

Scotch, skoch, adj. pertaining to Scotland, its people, language, customs, products, &c.—also Scot′tish, Scots.—n. the dialect of English spoken in Lowland Scotland: (coll.) Scotch whisky.—ns. Scotch′-hop, a child's game: hop-scotch; Scotch′man, Scots′man, a native of Scotland.—Scotch amulet, a British geometrid moth; Scotch and English, the boys' game of prisoner's base; Scotch barley, pot or hulled barley; Scotch bluebell, the harebell; Scotch bonnets, the fairy-ring mushroom; Scotch broth, broth made with pot-barley and plenty of various vegetables chopped small; Scotch cap, the wild black raspberry; Scotch catch, or snap, the peculiarity in Scotch music of the first of two tones played to the same beat being the shorter; Scotch curlies, a variety of kale; Scotch fir, or pine, the only species of pine indigenous to Britain, valuable for its timber, turpentine, tar, &c.; Scotch kale, a variety of kale; Scotch mist, a mist like fine rain; Scotch pebbles, varieties of agate and jasper; Scotch thistle, the national emblem of Scotland.

Scotch, skoch, v.t. to cut or wound slightly: to notch.—n. a notch, scratch.—n. Scotch′ing, a method of dressing stone with a pick.—Scotched-collops, or (erroneously) Scotch-collops, beef-steaks fried with onions. [Related to scutch, scratch.]

Scotch, skoch, n. a strut or drag for a wheel.—v.t. to prop or block with such.—n. Scote, a prop.—v.t. to stop or block.

Scoter, skō′tėr, n. a genus of northern sea-ducks, with bill gibbous at the base. [Prob. Ice. skotiskjóta, to shoot.]

Scotia, skō′ti-a, n. a concave moulding, as the base of a pillar. [Gr. skotia,—skotos, darkness.]

Scotice, skot′i-sē, adv. in the Scotch language or manner.—n. Scot′icism=Scotticism.

Scotism, skō′tizm, n. the metaphysical system of Johannes Duns Scotus, a native of Dunstane in Northumberland, Dun or Down in the north of Ireland, or Dunse in Berwickshire (1265 or 1274-1308), the great assailant of the method of Aquinas in seeking in speculation instead of in practice the foundation of Christian theology—his theological descendants were the Franciscans, in opposition to the Dominicans, who followed Aquinas.—n. Scō′tist, a follower of Duns Scotus.—adj. Scotis′tic.

Scotograph, skot′ō-graf, n. an instrument for writing in the dark, or for the use of the blind.—ns. Scotō′ma, a defect in the vision (obs. Scot′omy); Scot′ophis, a genus of carinated serpents of North America; Scotor′nis, a genus of African birds with very long tails; Scot′oscope, a night-glass. [Gr. skotos, darkness, graphein, to write.]

Scotticism, skot′i-sizm, n. a Scotch idiom.—v.t. Scott′icise.—n. Scottificā′tion.—v.t. Scott′ify (coll.), to give Scotch character to.

Scoundrel, skown′drel, n. a low worthless fellow: a rascal: a man without principle.—ns. Scoun′dreldom, scoundrels collectively; Scoun′drelism, baseness, rascality.—adv. Scoun′drelly. [For scunner-el, one who scunners, or who causes scunnering—A.S. scunian, to shun.]

Scoup, skowp, v.i. (Scot.) to run: to scamper. [Related to skip.]

Scour, skowr, v.t. to clean by rubbing with something rough: to cleanse from grease or dirt: to remove by rubbing: to cleanse by a current: to search thoroughly by scrubbing: to cleanse by brushing: to purge drastically.—n. the action of a strong current in a narrow channel: violent purging.—ns. Scour′age, refuse water after scouring; Scour′er, drastic cathartic; Scour′ing, in angling, the freshening of angle-worms for bait by putting them in clean sand; Scour′ing-ball, a ball composed of soap, &c., for removing stains of grease.— Scour′ing-drops, a mixture of oil of turpentine and oil of lemon used for removing stains.—ns. Scour′ing-rush, one of the horse-tails; Scour′ing-stock, in woollen manufacture, an apparatus in which cloths are treated to remove the oil and to cleanse them in the process of manufacture. [O. Fr. escurer—L. excurāre, to take great care of.]

Scour, skowr, v.i. to run with swiftness: to scurry along.—v.t. to run quickly over.—n. Scour′er, a footpad. [O. Fr. escourre—L. excurrĕre, to run forth.]

Scourge, skurj, n. a whip made of leather thongs: an instrument of punishment: a punishment: means of punishment.—v.t. to whip severely: to punish in order to correct.—n. Scour′ger, a flagellant. [O. Fr. escorgie (Fr. écourgée)—L. (scutia) excoriata, (a whip) made of leather—corium, leather.]

Scourse, skōrs, v.i. (Spens.) to run: to hurry. [O. Fr. escourser—L. excurrĕre, excursum, to run out.]

Scourse, skōrs, v.t. to barter, exchange.—v.i. to make an exchange.—n. (Spens.) discourse.—Also Scorse, Scoss. [Prob. discourse.]

Scout, skowt, n. one sent out to bring in tidings, observe the enemy, &c.: a spy: a sneak: in cricket, a fielder: the act of watching: a bird of the auk family: a college servant at Oxford, the same as gyp in Cambridge and skip in Dublin.—v.t. to watch closely.—n. Scout′-mas′ter, an officer who has the direction of army scouts. [O. Fr. escoute—escouter (It. ascoltare)—L. auscultāre, to listen—auris, the ear.]

Scout, skowt, v.t. to sneer at: to reject with disdain.—adv. Scout′ingly, sneeringly. [Scand.,—Ice. skúta, skúti, a taunt—skjóta, to shoot.]

Scout, skowt, v.i. (Scot.) to pour forth a liquid forcibly, esp. excrement.—n. the guillemot.

Scouter, skowt′ėr, n. a workman who uses jump-drills, wedges, &c. to scale off large flakes of stone.

Scouth, skowth, n. (Scot.) room: scope, plenty.

Scouther, skow′thėr, v.t. (Scot.) to scorch: to fire hastily, as on a gridiron.

Scovan, skō′van, n. a Cornish name for a vein of tin.

Scove, skōv, v.t. to cover with clay so as to prevent the escape of heat in burning.

Scoved, skōvd, adj. (prov.) smeared or blotched.—Also Scō′vy.

Scovel, skuv′l, n. (prov.) a mop for sweeping ovens.

Scow, skow, n. a flat-bottomed boat: a ferry-boat. [Dut. schouw.]

Scowl, skowl, v.i. to wrinkle the brows in displeasure: to look sour or angry: to look gloomy.—n. the wrinkling of the brows when displeased.—p.adj. Scow′ling.—adv. Scow′lingly. [Scand., Dan. skule, to scowl; Low Ger. schulen, to look slyly.]

Scowl, skowl, n. (prov.) old workings of iron ore.

Scowther, Scouther, skow′thėr, n. (prov.) a flying shower.

Scrab, skrab, n. a crab-apple.

Scrabble, skrab′l, v.i. to scrape or make unmeaning marks, to scrawl: to scramble or crawl along with difficulty.—v.t. to gather hastily.—n. a scramble.—v.t. Scrab, to scratch, to scrape.—Scrabbed eggs, a dish of hard-boiled eggs chopped up and seasoned. [A form of scrapple, freq. of scrape.]

Scraffle, skraf′l, v.i. to scramble: to wrangle: to be industrious: to shuffle. [A form of scrabble or scramble.]

Scrag, skrag, n. anything thin or lean and rough: the bony part of the neck.—v.t. to put to death by hanging.—adjs. Scrag′ged, Scrag′gy, lean and rough: uneven, rugged.—ns. Scrag′gedness, Scrag′giness.—adv. Scrag′gily.—adjs. Scrag′gly, rough-looking; Scrag′-necked, having a long, thin neck.—n. Scrag′-whale, a finner whale, having the back scragged. [Scand., Sw. prov. shraka, a tall tree or man, shrokk, anything shrivelled—Norw. skrekka, to shrink.]

Scraich, Scraigh, skrāh, v.i. (Scot.) to scream hoarsely: to screech, to shriek.—n. Scraich. [Gael. sgreach.]

Scramb, skramb, v.t. (prov.) to scrape together with the hands. [A variant of scramp.]

Scramble, skram′bl, v.i. to struggle to seize something before others: to catch at or strive for rudely: to wriggle along on all-fours.—v.t. to throw down to be scrambled for: to advance or push.—n. act of scrambling: a struggle for office.—n. Scram′bler.—adj. Scram′bling, confused and irregular.—adv. Scram′blingly, in a scrambling manner: irregularly: unceremoniously. [Prov. Eng. scramb, to rake together with the hands, or scramp, to snatch at; nearly allied to scrabble and scrape.]

Scramp, skramp, v.t. to catch at, snatch. [Scramble.]

Scran, skran, n. broken victuals: refuse—also Skran.—n. Scran′ning, the act of begging for food.—Bad scran to you! bad fare to you! an Irish imprecation. [Prob. Ice. skran, rubbish.]

Scranch, skransh, v.t. to grind with the teeth: to crunch.—Also Scraunch, Scrunch. [Prob. Dut. schransen, to eat heartily.]

Scranky, skrank′i, adj. (Scot.) scraggy: lank.

Scrannel, skran′l, adj. (Milt.) producing a weak, screeching noise: thin: squeaking.

Scranny, skran′i, adj. (prov.) lean and thin.

Scrap, skrap, n. a small piece: a remnant: a picture suited for preservation in a scrap-book: wrought-iron clippings: an unconnected extract.—v.t. to consign to the scrap-heap.—ns. Scrap′-book, a blank book for scraps or extracts, prints, &c.; Scrap′-heap, a place where old iron is collected; Scrap′-ī′ron, old iron accumulated for reworking; Scrap′-met′al, scraps or fragments of any kind of metal, which are only of use for remelting.—adv. Scrap′pily, in fragments, desultorily.—n. Scrap′piness, fragmentariness, disconnectedness.—adj. Scrap′py.—Go to the scrap-heap, to go to ruin. [Scand., Ice. skrap, scraps—skrapa, to scrape.]

Scrap, skrap, n. (slang) a fight, scrimmage.

Scrap, skrap, n. a snare for birds.

Scrape, skrāp, v.t. to make a harsh or grating noise on: to rub with something sharp: to remove by drawing a sharp edge over: to collect by laborious effort: to save penuriously: to erase.—v.i. to grub in the ground: to rub lightly: to draw back the foot in making obeisance: to play on a stringed instrument.—n. a perplexing situation: difficulty: a shave.—adj. Scrape′-good, miserly, stingy.—ns. Scrape′-penn′y, a miser; Scrap′er, an instrument used for scraping, esp. the soles of shoes outside the door of a house: a hoe: a tool used by engravers and others: a fiddler; Scrap′ing, that which is scraped off, as the scrapings of the street: shavings, hoardings; Scrap′ing-plane, a plane used by workers in metal and wood.—Scrape acquaintance with, to get on terms of acquaintance. [Scand., Ice. skrapa, to scrape; Dut. schrapen; A.S. scearpian.]

Scrapple, skrap′l, v.i. to grub about.—n. a mixture of meat-scraps, herbs, &c. stewed, pressed in cakes, sliced and fried. [Dim. of scrap.]

Scrat, skrat, n. a devil.—Also Old Scratch, the devil. [Cf. Ger. schratt, Ice. skratti, a goblin.]

Scratch, skrach, v.t. to mark the surface with something pointed, as the nails: to tear or to dig with the claws: to write hurriedly: to erase.—v.i. to use the claws in tearing or digging: to delete a name on a voting-paper.—n. a mark or tear made by scratching: a slight wound: the line in a prize-ring up to which boxers are led—hence test, trial, as in 'to come up to the scratch:' (pl.) a disease in horses: the time of starting of a player: in billiards, a chance stroke which is successful: a kind of wig, a scratch-wig: a scrawl.—adj. taken at random, as a 'scratch crew:' without handicap, or allowance of time or distance.—ns. Scratch′-back, a kind of toy, which, when drawn over a person's back, makes a sound as if his coat was torn; Scratch′-brush, a name given to various forms of brushes; Scratch′-coat, the first coat of plaster; Scratch′er, a bird which scratches for food.—adv. Scratch′ingly.— Scratch′ings, refuse matter strained out of fat when melted.—ns. Scratch′-weed, the goose-grass; Scratch′-wig, a wig that covers only part of the head; Scratch′-work, a kind of wall decoration.—adj. Scratch′y, ragged: scratching: of little depth.—Scratch out, to erase. [Explained by Skeat as due to the confusion of M. E. skratten, to scratch, with M. E. cracchen, to scratch: skratten standing for skarten, an extended form from Ice. sker-a, to shear; cracchen, again, stands for kratsen—Sw. kratsa, to scrape.]

Scrattle, skrat′l, v.i. (prov.) to scuttle.

Scraw, skraw, n. a turf, a sod. [Gael. scrath.]

Scrawl, skrawl, n. (U.S.) brushwood.

Scrawl, skrawl, v.t. and v.i. to scrape, mark, or write irregularly or hastily.—n. irregular or hasty writing: bad writing: a broken branch of a tree: the young of the dog-crab.—n. Scrawl′er.—adj. Scrawl′y, ill-formed. [A contr. of scrabble.]

Scrawm, skrawm, v.t. (prov.) to tear, to scratch. [Prob. Dut. schrammen, schram, a rent.]

Scrawny, skraw′ni, adj. wasted: raw-boned.—n. Scraw′niness. [Scranny.]

Scray, skrā, n. the sea-swallow. [W. ysgräell.]

Screak, skrēk, v.t. to scream: to creak.—n. a screech.

Scream, skrēm, v.i. to cry out with a shrill cry, as in fear or pain: to shriek.—n. a shrill, sudden cry, as in fear or pain: a shriek.—n. Scream′er, one who screams: a genus of South American birds about the size of the turkey, with loud, harsh cry: (U.S. slang) a bouncer.—Screaming farce, one highly ludicrous. [Scand., Ice. skræma, Sw. skrämma, to fear; cf. Screech, Shriek.]

Scree, skrē, n. débris at the base of a cliff.—Also Screes. [Ice. skritha, a landslip—skrítha, creep.]

Scree, skrē, n. (Scot.) a coarse sieve.

Screech, skrēch, v.i. to utter a harsh, shrill, and sudden cry.—n. a harsh, shrill, and sudden cry.—ns. Screech′er, the swift; Screech′-hawk, the night-jar; Screech′-mar′tin, the swift; Screech′-owl, a kind of screeching owl: the missel-thrush: the barn-owl; Screech′-thrush, the missel-thrush.—adj. Screech′y, shrill and harsh, like a screech: loud-mouthed. [M. E. scriken—Scand., Ice. shrækja, to shriek; cf. Gael. sgreach, to shriek.]

Screed, skrēd, n. a piece torn off: a shred: a long tirade: (Scot.) a strip of mortar: a rent, a tear.—v.t. to repeat glibly. [A.S. screáde, a shred.]

Screen, skrēn, n. that which shelters from danger or observation, that which protects from heat, cold, or the sun: (Scot.) a large scarf: an enclosure or partition of wood, stone, or metal work, common in churches, shutting off chapels from the nave, separating the nave from the choir, &c.: a coarse riddle for sifting coal, &c.—v.t. to shelter or conceal: to pass through a coarse riddle.—n. Screen′ing-machine′, an apparatus for sifting coal.— Screen′ings, the refuse matter after sifting. [O. Fr. escren (Fr. écran), from Old High Ger. scranna, a court; Ger. schranne, a bench.]

Screever, skrēv′ėr, n. one who writes begging letters.—v.t. Screeve, to write such.—n. Screev′ing, the writing of begging letters: drawing with coloured chalks on the pavement for coppers.

Screw, skrōō, n. a cylinder with a spiral groove or ridge on either its outer or inner surface, used as a fastening and as a mechanical power: a screw-propeller: a turn or twist to one side: a penny packet of tobacco put up in a paper twisted at both ends: a stingy fellow, an extortioner, a skinflint: a broken-winded horse: pressure: (U.S. slang) a professor who requires students to work hard: salary, Screwbolt. wages.—v.t. to apply a screw to: to press with a screw: to twist: to oppress by extortion: to force: to squeeze.—ns. Screw′-bolt, a bolt threaded at one end for a nut; Screw′-cut′ter, a hand-tool for cutting screws; Screw′-driv′er, an instrument for driving or turning screw-nails.—adj. Screwed (slang), tipsy, tight.—ns. Screw′-el′evator, a dentist's instrument: a surgeon's instrument for forcing open the jaws; Screw′er.—adj. Screw′ing, exacting: close.—ns. Screw′-jack (same as Jackscrew); Screw′-key, a lever for turning the nut of a screw; Screw′-machine′, a machine for making screws; Screw′-nail, a nail made in the form of a screw; Screw′-pile, a pile forced into the ground, and held there by a peculiar kind of screw at the lower extremity; Screw′-pine, a plant of the tropical genus Pandanus, or of the screw-pine family—from the screw-like arrangement of the clustered leaves; Screw′-plate, a plate of steel in which are a Screwpress. graduated series of holes, with internal screws used in forming external screws; Screw′-pod, the screw-bean Screw′-press, a press in which the force is applied by means of a screw; Screw′-propel′ler, a screw or spiral-bladed wheel at the stern of steam-vessels for propelling them: a steamer so propelled; Screw′-rudd′er, an application of the screw for the purpose of steering; Screw′-stair, a spiral staircase: a hanging stair; Screw′-steam′er, a steamer propelled by a screw; Screw′stone, a wheelstone: a fossil screw; Screw′-thread, the spiral ridge on the cylinder of a male screw, or on the inner surface of a female screw; Screw′-valve, a stop-cock opened and shut by means of a screw instead of a spigot; Screw′-ven′tilator, a ventilating Screwwrench. apparatus; Screw′-worm, the larva of a blow-fly; Screw′-wrench, a tool for grasping the flat sides of the heads of large screws.—adj. Screw′y, exacting: close: worthless.—A screw loose, something defective. [Earlier scrue. O. Fr. escrou, prob. L. scrobem, accus. of scrobs, a hole; or Low Ger. schruve, Dut. schroef, Ice. skrufa, Ger. schraube.]

Scribbet, skrib′et, n. a painter's pencil.

Scribble, skrib′l, v.t. to scratch or write carelessly: to fill with worthless writing.—v.i. to write carelessly: to scrawl.—n. careless writing: a scrawl.—ns. Scribb′ler, a petty author; Scribb′ling, the act of writing hastily or carelessly.—adv. Scribb′lingly.— Scribb′lings. [A freq. of scribe.]

Scribble, skrib′l, v.t. to card roughly, as wool.—ns. Scribb′ler, a machine for doing this, or a person who tends such; Scribb′ling, the first carding of wool or cotton; Scribb′ling-machine′, a coarse form of carding-machine. [Scand., Sw. skrubbla, to card.]

Scribble-scrabble, skrib′l-skrab′l, n. an ungainly fellow. [Reduplicated from scrabble.]

Scribe, skrīb, n. a writer: a public or official writer: a clerk, amanuensis, secretary: (B.) an expounder and teacher of the Mosaic and traditional law: a pointed instrument to mark lines on wood, &c.—v.t. to write: to record: to mark.—adjs. Scrī′bable, capable of being written upon; Scribā′cious, given to writing.—n. Scribā′ciousness.—adj. Scrī′bal, pertaining to a scribe.—ns. Scrī′bing; Scrī′bing-com′pass, an instrument used in saddlery and cooper-work; Scrī′bism. [Fr.,—L. scribascribĕre, to write.]

Scrieve, skrēv, v.i. (Scot.) to glide swiftly along. [Scand., Ice. skrefaskref, a stride.]

Scriggle, skrig′l, v.i. to writhe: to wriggle.—n. a wriggling. [Prob. Ice. shrika, to slip; Ger. schrecken, Dut. schrikken, to terrify.]

Scrike, skrīk, v.i. (Spens.) to shriek.

Scrim, skrim, n. cloth used for linings.

Scrime, skrīm, v.i. to fence.—n. Scrī′mer (Shak.), a fencer. [Fr. escrimer, to fence; cf. Skirmish.]

Scrimmage, skrim′āj, n. a skirmish: a general fight: a tussle. [Prob. a corr. of skirmish.]

Scrimp, skrimp, v.t. to make too small or short: to limit or shorten: to straiten.—adj. short, scanty.—adj. Scrimp′ed, pinched.—adv. Scrimp′ly, hardly: scarcely.—n. Scrimp′ness.—adj. Scrimp′y, scanty. [A.S. scrimpan; allied to scrimman, to shrink, and scrincan, to shrivel up.]

Scrimshaw, skrim′shaw, v.t. to engrave fanciful designs on shells, whales' teeth, &c.—n. any shell or the like fancifully engraved.

Scrine, skrīn, n. (Spens.) a cabinet for papers, a shrine. [O. Fr. escrin—L. scrinium, a shrine.]

Scringe, skrinj, v.i. to cringe. [A form of shrink.]

Scrip, skrip, n. that which is written: a piece of paper containing writing: a certificate of stock or shares in any joint-stock company subscribed or allotted.—ns. Scrip′-com′pany, a company having shares which pass by delivery; Scrip′-hold′er, one whose title to stock is a written certificate. [A variant of script—L. scribĕre, scriptum, to write.]

Scrip, skrip, n. a small bag: a satchel: a pilgrim's pouch: (her.) a bearing representing a pouch.—n. Scrip′page (Shak.), contents of a scrip. [Ice. skreppa, a bag; Ger. scherbe, a shred.]

Script, skript, n. (print.) type like written letters: a writing: (law) an original document: handwriting.—n. Scrip′tion, a handwriting. [O. Fr. escript—L. scriptumscribĕre, to write.]

Scriptorium, skrip-tō′ri-um, n. a writing-room, esp. that in a monastery.—adj. Scrip′tory, written.

Scripture, skrip′tūr, n. sacred writing: the Bible: a writing: a deed: any sacred writing.—adj. Scrip′tural, contained in Scripture: according to Scripture: biblical: written.—ns. Scrip′turalism, literal adherence to the Scriptures; Scrip′turalist, a literalist in his obedience to the letter of Scripture, a student of Scripture.—adv. Scrip′turally.—ns. Scrip′turalness; Scrip′ture-read′er, an evangelist who reads the Bible in cottages, barracks, &c.; Scrip′turist, one versed in Scripture.—The Scriptures, the Bible. [L. scripturascribĕre, to write.]

Scritch, skrich, n. a screech or shrill cry: a thrush. [A variant of screech.]

Scrivano, skriv-ä′nō, n. a writer: a clerk. [It.]

Scrive, skrīv, v.t. to describe: to draw a line with a pointed tool. [Scribe.]

Scrivener, skriv′en-ėr, n. a scribe: a copyist: one who draws up contracts, &c.: one who receives the money of others to lay it out at interest.—n. Scriv′enership. [O. Fr. escrivain (Fr. écrivain)—Low L. scribanus—L. scriba, a scribe.]

Scrobe, skrōb, n. a groove in the rostrum of weevils or curculios, or on the outer side of the mandible.—adjs. Scrobic′ulate, -d, having numerous shallow depressions.—n. Scrobic′ulus (anat.), a pit or depression. [L. scrobis, a ditch.]

Scrod, skrod, v.t. to shred.—n. a young codfish.—n. Scrod′gill, an instrument for taking fish. [Shred.]

Scroddle, skrod′l, v.t. to variegate, as pottery in different colours.—Scroddled ware, mottled pottery.

Scrofula, skrof′ū-la, n. a disease with chronic swellings of the glands in various parts of the body, esp. the neck, tending to suppurate: the king's evil.—adjs. Scrofulit′ic, Scrof′ulous, pertaining to, resembling, or affected with scrofula.—adv. Scrof′ulously.—n. Scrof′ulousness. [L. scrofulæscrofula, a little pig, dim. of scrofa, a sow.]

Scrog, skrog, n. (Scot.) a stunted bush: a thicket: brushwood: (her.) a branch.—adjs. Scrog′gie, Scrog′gy, covered with underwood. [Scrag.]

Scroll, skrōl, n. a roll of paper or parchment: a writing in the form of a roll: a rough draft of anything: a schedule: a flourish added to a person's signature as a substitute for a seal: in hydraulics, a spiral water-way placed round a turbine to regulate the flow of water: (anat.) a turbinate bone: (archit.) a spiral ornament, the volute of the Ionic and Corinthian capitals.—v.t. to draft: to write in rough outline.—adj. Scrolled, formed into a scroll: ornamented with scrolls.—ns. Scroll′-head, an ornamental piece at the bow of a vessel; Scroll′-wheel, a cog-wheel in the form of a scroll; Scroll′-work, ornamental work of scroll-like character. [O. Fr. escroue, acc. to Skeat from Old Dut. schroode, a shred.]

Scroop, skrōōp, v.i. to emit a harsh sound: to creak.—n. any crisp sound like that made when a bundle of yarn is tightly twisted. [Imit.]

Scrophularia, skrof-ū-lā′ri-a, n. the figwort genus of herbs, type of the Scrophulariaceæ or Scrophularineæ, a natural order containing almost 2000 known species, chiefly herbaceous and half-shrubby plants—Digitalis or Fox-glove, Calceolaria, Mimulus, Antirrhinum or Snap-dragon, Veronica or Speedwell, and Euphrasia or Eye-bright, &c.

Scrotum, skrō′tum, n. the bag which contains the testicles.—adjs. Scrō′tal, relating to the scrotum; Scrō′tiform, formed like a double bag.—ns. Scrotī′tis, inflammation of the scrotum; Scrō′tocele, a scrotal hernia. [L.]

Scrouge, skrowj, v.t.. to squeeze: to crowd—also Scrooge, Scrudge.—n. Scrou′ger, a whopper: something large. [Variant forms of shrug.]

Scrow, skrow, n. a roll: a scroll: a writing: clippings from hides. [Scroll.]

Scroyle, skroil, n. (Shak.) a scabby fellow: a mean fellow. [O. Fr. escrouelles, scrofula—L. scrofulæ.]

Scrub, skrub, v.t.. to rub hard, esp. with something rough.—v.i. to be laborious and penurious:—pr.p. scrub′bing; pa.t. and pa.p. scrubbed.—n. one who works hard and lives meanly: anything small or mean: a worn-out brush: low underwood: a bush: a stunted shrub: a worthless horse.—p.adj. Scrubbed (Shak.)=Scrubby.—ns. Scrub′ber, in Australia, an animal which breaks away from the herd: a machine for washing leather after the tanpit; Scrub′bing; Scrub′bing-board, a wash-board; Scrub′bing-brush, a brush with short, stiff bristles; Scrub′-bird, an Australian bird.—adj. Scrub′by, laborious and penurious: mean: small: stunted in growth: covered with scrub.—ns. Scrub′-grass, the scouring-rush; Scrub′-oak, a name of three low American oaks; Scrub′-rid′er, one who rides in search of cattle that stray from the herd into the scrub; Scrub′-rob′in, a bird inhabiting the Australian scrub; Scrub′stone, a species of calciferous sandstone; Scrub′-tur′key, a mound-bird; Scrub′-wood, a small tree. [A.S. scrob, a shrub.]

Scruff, skruf, n. the nape of the neck.—Also Skruff. [A variant of scuff, scuft.]

Scruffy, skruf′i, adj. Same as Scurfy.

Scrumptious, skrump′shus, adj. (slang) nice: fastidious: delightful.

Scrunch, skrunsh, v.t.. to crunch: to crush.—n. a harsh, crunching sound. [A variant of crunch.]

Scrunt, skrunt, n. (Scot.) a niggardly person.

Scruple, skrōō′pl, n. a small weight—in apothecaries' weight, 20 troy grains, ⅓ drachm, 124 ounce, and 1288 of a troy pound: a very small quantity: reluctance to decide or act, as from motives of conscience: difficulty.—v.i. to hesitate in deciding or acting.—n. Scru′pler.—adj. Scru′pulous, having scruples, doubts, or objections: conscientious: cautious: exact: captious.—adv. Scru′pulously.—ns. Scru′pulousness, Scrupulos′ity, state of being scrupulous: doubt: niceness: precision. [Fr. scrupule—L. scrupulus, dim. of scrupus, a sharp stone, anxiety.]

Scrutiny, skrōō′ti-ni, n. careful or minute inquiry: critical examination: an examination of the votes given at an election for the purpose of correcting the poll: in the early Church, the examination in Lent of the Catechumens: (R.C.) one of the methods of electing a pope, the others being acclamation and accession.—adj. Scru′table.—ns. Scrutā′tion, scrutiny; Scrutā′tor, a close examiner.—v.t.. Scru′tinate, to examine: to investigate.—n. Scrutineer′, one who makes a scrutiny, or minute search or inquiry.—v.t.. Scru′tinise, to search minutely or closely: to examine carefully or critically: to investigate.—n. Scru′tiniser.—adj. Scru′tinous.—adv. Scru′tinously.—Scrutin-de-liste, a method of voting for the French Chamber of Deputies, in which the voter casts his ballot for the whole number of deputies allotted to his department, choosing the candidates in any combination he pleases—opp. to Scrutin d'arrondissement, in which method the voter votes only for his local candidate or candidates, the arrondissement being the basis of representation. [O. Fr. scrutine—L. scrutiniumscrutāri, to search even to the rags—scruta, rags, trash.]

Scruto, skrōō′tō, n. a movable trap in theatres.

Scrutoire=Escritoire (q.v.).

Scruze, skrōōz, v.t. (Spens.) to squeeze. [Scrouge.]

Scry, skrī, v.t. (Spens.) to descry:—pa.t. scryde. [Formed by aphæresis from descry.]

Scry, skrī, v.t. (Scot.) to proclaim.—n. a cry: a flock of wild-fowl.

Scud, skud, v.i. to run quickly: (naut.) to run before the wind in a gale: (Scot.) to throw flat stones so as to skip along the water.—v.t. to skelp: (Scot.) to slap:—pr.p. scud′ding; pa.t. and pa.p. scud′ded.n. act of moving quickly: loose, vapoury clouds driven swiftly along: a swift runner: a beach flea: a form of garden hoe: a slap, a sharp stroke.—n. Scud′der, one who, or that which, scuds. [Scand., Dan. skyde, to shoot; cf. A.S. scéōtan, to shoot.]

Scuddick, skud′ik, n. (slang) anything of small value: a shilling.—Also Scutt′ock.

Scuddle, skud′l, v.i. (Scot.) to drudge.—v.t. to cleanse: to wash.—n. Scud′ler, a scullion.

Scudo, skōō′dō, n. an Italian silver coin of different values, usually worth about 4s.: the space within the outer rim of the bezel of a ring:—pl. Scu′di. [It.,—L. scutum, a shield.]

Scuff, skuf, n. (prov.) a form of scruff or scuft.

Scuff, skuf, v.i. to shuffle along the ground.—v.t. (Scot.) to graze slightly. [Sw. skuffa, to shove.]

Scuff, skuf, n. a scurf: a scale.

Scuffle, skuf′l, v.i. to struggle closely: to fight confusedly.—n. a struggle in which the combatants grapple closely: any confused contest.—n. Scuff′ler, one who, or that which, scuffles. [A freq. of Sw. skuffa, to shove, skuff, a blow.]

Scuffy, skuf′i, adj. having lost the original freshness: shabby, out of elbows, seedy.

Scuft, skuft, n. (prov.) the nape of the neck.—Also Scuff, Scruff. [Ice. skopt, skoft, the hair.]

Sculduddery, skul-dud′e-ri, n. (Scot.) grossness, obscenity, bawdry.—adj. bawdy.

Sculk. Same as Skulk.

Scull, skul, n. a short, light, spoon-bladed oar: a small boat: a cock-boat.—v.t. to propel a boat with a pair of sculls or light oars by one man—in fresh water: to drive a boat onward with one oar, worked like a screw over the stern.—ns. Scull′er, one who sculls: a small boat rowed by two sculls pulled by one man; Scull′ing. [Scand.; Ice. scál, a hollow, Sw. skålig, concave.]

Scull, skul, n. (Milt.) a shoal of fish. [Shoal.]

Scullery, skul′ėr-i, n. the place for dishes and other kitchen utensils. [Skeat explains as sculler-y, sculler being a remarkable variant of swiller, due to Scand. influence. Others refer to O. Fr. escuelier—Low L. scutellarius—L. scutella, a tray.]

Scullion, skul′yun, n. a servant in the scullery: a servant for drudgery-work: a mean fellow.—adj. Scull′ionly (Milt.), like a scullion: low, base. [Not allied to scullery. O. Fr. escouillon, a dish-clout—L. scopa, a broom.]

Sculp, skulp, v.t. to carve: to engrave: to flay.—Sculp′sit, he engraved or carved it—often abbreviated to Sc.

Sculpin, skul′pin, n. (slang) a mischief-making fellow: a name given to the Dragonet, and also in the United States to various marine species of Cottus or Bull-head.—Also Skul′pin.

Sculpture, skulp′tūr, n. the act of carving figures in wood, stone, &c.: carved-work: an engraving.—v.t. to carve: to form, as a piece of sculpture.—n. Sculp′tor, one who carves figures:—fem. Sculp′tress.—adj. Sculp′tūral, belonging to sculpture.—adv. Sculp′tūrally.—adjs. Sculp′tūred, carved, engraved: (bot., zool.) having elevated marks on the surface; Sculptūresque′, chiselled: clean cut: statue-like. [Fr.,—L. sculpturasculpĕre, sculptum, to carve.]

Sculsh, skulsh, n. rubbish: lollypops.

Scum, skum, n. foam or froth: the extraneous matter rising to the surface of liquids, esp. when boiled or fermented: refuse: offscourings, dregs.—v.t. to take the scum from: to skim:—pr.p. scum′ming; pa.t. and pa.p. scummed.—n. Scum′mer, an implement used in skimming.— Scum′mings, skimmings.—adj. Scum′my, covered with scum. [Scand., Dan. skum, froth; Ger. schaum, foam.]

Scumber, skum′bėr, v.i. to defecate, a hunting term applied to foxes.—n. fox-dung.—Also Scom′ber. [Prob. O. Fr. escumbrier, to disencumber.]

Scumble, skum′bl, v.t. to apply opaque or semi-opaque colours very thinly over other colours, to modify the effect.—n. Scum′bling, a mode of obtaining a softened effect in painting by overlaying too bright colours with a very thin coating of a neutral tint. [Freq. of scum.]

Scun, skun, v.i. to skim, as a stone thrown aslant on the water.—v.t. to cause to skip.—Also Scon, Scoon. [Scand., prob. skunna; Dan. skynde, to hasten.]

Scunner, skun′ėr, v.i. (Scot.) to become nauseated: to feel loathing.—n. a loathing, any fantastic prejudice. [A.S. scunian, to shun.]

Scup, skup, n. (Amer.) a swing.—v.i. to swing. [Dut. schop, a swing; Ger. schupf, a push.]

Scup, skup, n. a sparoid fish, the porgy.

Scupper, skup′ėr, n. a hole in the side of a ship to carry off water from the deck (often pl.).—ns. Scupp′er-hole, a scupper; Scupp′er-hose, a pipe of leather, &c., attached to the mouth of a scupper on the outside, to let the water run out and keep water from entering; Scupp′er-plug, a plug to stop a scupper. [O. Fr. escopir, to spit out—L. exspuĕreex-, out, spuĕre, to spit; or prob. from Dut. schoppen, to scoop away.]

Scuppernong, skup′ėr-nong, n. a cultivated variety of the muscadine, bullace, or southern fox-grape of the United States. [Amer. Ind.]

Scuppet, skup′et, n. a shovel.—Also Scopp′et.

Scur, skur, v.t. to graze, to jerk: to scour over.—v.i. to flit hurriedly.—Also Skirr. [A variant of scour.]

Scur, skur, n. (Scot.) a stunted horn.

Scurf, skurf, n. the crust or flaky matter formed on the skin: anything adhering to the surface: scum: a gray bull trout.—n. Scurf′iness.—adj. Scurf′y, having scurf: like scurf. [A.S. scurfsceorfan, to scrape; cf. Ger. schorf.]

Scurrilous, skur′ril-us, adj. using scurrility or language befitting a vulgar buffoon: indecent: vile: vulgar: opprobrious: grossly abusive.—adjs. Scur′ril, Scur′rile, buffoon-like: jesting: foul-mouthed: low.—n. Scurril′ity, buffoonery: low or obscene jesting: indecency of language: vulgar abuse.—adv. Scur′rilously.—n. Scur′rilousness. [L. scurrilisscurra, a buffoon.]

Scurrit, skur′it, n. (prov.) the lesser tern.

Scurry, skur′i, v.i. to hurry along: to scamper.—n. a flurry—also Skurr′y.—n. Hurr′y-scurr′y, heedless haste. [An extended form of scour.]

Scurvy, skur′vi, adj. scurfy: affected with scurvy: scorbutic: shabby: vile, vulgar, contemptible.—n. a disease marked by livid spots on the skin and general debility, due to an improper dietary, and particularly an insufficient supply of fresh vegetable food.—adv. Scur′vily, in a scurvy manner: meanly, basely.—ns. Scur′viness, state of being scurvy: meanness; Scur′vy-grass, a genus of cruciferous plants, efficacious in curing scurvy. [Scurf.]

Scuse, skūs, n. and v.=Excuse.

Scut, skut, adj. having a short tail like a hare's.

Scutage, skū′tāj, n. a tax, instead of personal service, which a vassal or tenant owed to his lord, sometimes levied by the crown in feudal times.—Also Es′cuage. [O. Fr. escuage—L. scutum, shield.]

Scutate, skūt′āt, adj. (bot.) shaped like a round shield: (zool.) having the surface protected by large scales. [L. scutātusscutum, shield.]

Scutch, skuch, v.t. to beat: to separate from the core, as flax.—n. a coarse tow that separates from flax in scutching.—ns. Scutch′er, one who dresses hedges: an implement used in scutching, esp. a beater in a flax-scutching machine, &c.; Scutch′ing-sword, a beating instrument in scutching flax by hand. [Prob. O. Fr. escousser, to shake off—Low L. excussāre—L. excutĕre, to shake off.]

Scutcheon, Scutchin, skuch′un, -in, n. (Spens.) escutcheon, shield, device on a shield. [Escutcheon.]

Scute, skūt, n. a shield: (zool.) a large scale, a plate, as the dermal scutes of a ganoid fish, a turtle, &c. [O. Fr. escut—L. scutum, a shield.]

Scutella, skū-tel′a, n. a genus of flat sea-urchins.—adj. Scū′tellar.—n. Scutellā′ria, a genus of gamopetalous plants, known as skullcaps.—adjs. Scū′tellate, -d, noting the foot of a bird when it is provided with the plates called scutella.—ns. Scutellā′tion; Scutell′era, a group-name for the true bugs (Scutelleridæ).—adjs. Scutell′iform, scutellate; Scutellig′erous, provided with a scutellum; Scutelliplan′tar, having the back of the tarsus scutellate.—n. Scutell′um (bot., entom.), a little shield:—pl. Scutell′a.— Scutibranchiā′ta, an order of gasteropod mollusca.—n. Scū′tifer, a shield-bearer.—adjs. Scutif′erous, bearing a shield: (zool.) scutigerous; Scū′tiform, having the form of a shield.—n. Scutig′era, a common North American species of centipede.—adjs. Scutig′erous, provided with a scute or scuta; Scū′tiped, having the shanks scaly, of birds. [L., dim. of scutra, a platter.]

Scutter, skut′ėr, v.i. to run hastily: to scurry.—n. a hasty run. [A variant of Scuttle (3).]

Scuttle, skut′l, n. a shallow basket: a vessel for holding coal. [A.S. scutel—L. scutella, a salver, dim. of scutra, a dish.]

Scuttle, skut′l, n. the openings or hatchways of a ship: a hole through the hatches or in the side or bottom of a ship.—v.t. to cut holes through any part of a ship: to sink a ship by cutting holes in it.—ns. Scutt′le-butt, -cask, a cask with a hole cut in it for the cup or dipper, for holding drinking-water in a ship; Scutt′le-fish, a cuttle-fish. [O. Fr. escoutille, a hatchway (Sp. escotilla), from Dut. schoot, the lap; Ger. schoss, bosom, a lap.]

Scuttle, skut′l, v.i. to scud or run with haste: to hurry.—n. a quick run: a mincing gait.—Also Scudd′le, Skutt′le. [Scud.]

Scuttler, skut′lėr, n. the striped lizard.

Scuttock. Same as Scuddick.

Scutulum, skū′tū-lum, n. one of the shield-shaped crusts of favus. [L., dim. of scutum, a shield.]

Scutum, skū′tum, n. a shield belonging to the heavy-armed Roman legionaries: a penthouse: (anat.) the knee-pan: (zool.) a large scale. [L.]

Scye, sī, n. the armhole of a garment. [Prob. sey—O. Fr. sier, to cut—L. secāre, to cut.]

Scylla, sil′a, n. a six-headed monster who sat over a dangerous rock on the Italian side of the Straits of Messina, over against the whirlpool of Charyb′dis on the Sicilian side.—n. Scyllæa (sil-ē′a), a genus of nudibranchiate gasteropods.— Scyllar′idæ (-dē), a family of long-tailed, ten-footed marine crustaceans.

Scyllidæ, sil′i-dē, a family of selachians, the typical genus Scyllium, including the dog-fish. [Gr. skylion, a dog-fish.]

Scymnidæ, sim′ni-dē, the sleeper-sharks.—n. Scym′nus, a genus of lady-birds: a genus of sharks. [Gr. skymnos, a whelp.]

Scyphidium, sif-id′i-um, n. a genus of ciliate infusorians. [Gr. skyphos, a cup.]

Scyphomedusæ, sif-o-med′ū-sē, a prime division of hydrozoans or a sub-class of Hydrozoa.

Scyphus, sīf′us, n. in Greek antiquities, a large drinking-cup: (bot.) a cup-shaped appendage to a flower.—adj. Scyph′iform.

Scytale, sit′a-lē, n. in Greek antiquities, a strip of parchment used for secret messages: the name of a coral snake.—n. Scytalī′na, a remarkable genus of eel-like fishes. [Gr. skytalē, a staff.]

Scythe, sīth, n. a kind of sickle: an instrument with a large curved blade for mowing grass, &c.—v.t. to cut with a scythe, to mow.—adj. Scythed, armed with scythes.—ns. Scythe′man, one who uses a scythe; Scythe′-stone, a whet for scythes. [A.S. síthe; Ice. sigdhr. Low Ger. seged.]

Scythian, sith′i-an, adj. pertaining to an ancient nomadic race in the northern parts of Asia.—n. one belonging to this race.—adj. Scyth′ic.

Scythrops, sī′throps, n. a genus of Australian horn-billed cuckoos. [Gr. skythros, angry, ōps, face.]

Scytodepsic, skī-tō-dep′sik, adj. pertaining to tanning. [Gr. skytos, skin, depsein, to soften.]

Scytodermatous, skī-tō-der′ma-tus, adj. having a tough, leathery integument. [Gr. skytos, hide, derma, skin.]

Scytodes, skī-tō′dez, n. a genus of spiders.—adj. Scytō′doid. [Gr. skytos, skin, eidos, form.]

Scytonema, sī-tō-nē′ma, n. a genus of fresh-water algæ.—adj. Scytonem′atoid. [Gr. skytos, skin, nēma, a thread.]

Scytosiphon, sī-tō-sīf′n, n. a genus of marine algæ. [Gr. skytos, skin, siphōn, a tube.]

Sdain, Sdeign, sdān, n. and v.t. (Spens.) same as Disdain.—adj. Sdeign′ful=Disdainful.

'Sdeath, sdeth, interj. an exclamation of impatience—for God's death.

Sea, sē, n. the great mass of salt water covering the greater part of the earth's surface: any great expanse of water less than an ocean: the ocean: the swell of the sea in a tempest: a wave: any widely extended mass or quantity, a flood: any rough or agitated place or element.—ns. Sea′-ā′corn, a barnacle; Sea′-add′er, the fifteen-spined stickle-back; Sea′-an′chor, a floating anchor used at sea in a gale; Sea′-anem′one, a kind of polyp, like an anemone, found on rocks on the seacoast; Sea′-ape, the sea-otter; Sea′-ā′pron, a kind of kelp; Sea′-arr′ow, a flying squid: an arrow-worm; Sea′-aspar′agus, a soft-shelled crab; Sea′-bank, the seashore; an embankment to keep out the sea; Sea′-bar, the sea-swallow or tern; Sea′-barr′ow, the egg-case of a ray or skate; Sea′-bass, a name applied to some perch-like marine fishes, many common food-fishes in America—black sea-bass, bluefish, &c.; Sea′-bat, a genus of Teleostean fishes allied to the Pilot-fish, and included among the Carangidæ or horse-mackerels—the name refers to the very long dorsal, anal, and ventral fins; Sea′-beach, the seashore; Sea′-bean, the seed of a leguminous climbing plant: a small univalve shell: the lid of the aperture of any shell of the family Turbinidæ, commonly worn as amulets; Sea′-bear, the polar bear: the North Pacific fur-seal; Sea′-beast (Milt.), a monster of the sea.—adjs. Sea′-beat, -en, lashed by the waves.—n. Sea′-beav′er, the sea-otter.— Sea′-bells, a species of bindweed.—ns. Sea′-belt, the sweet fucus plant; Sea′-bird, any marine bird; Sea′-bis′cuit, ship-biscuit; Sea′-blubb′er, a jelly-fish; Sea′-board, the border or shore of the sea; Sea′-boat, a vessel considered with reference to her behaviour in bad weather.—adjs. Sea′-born, produced by the sea; Sea′-borne, carried on the sea.—ns. Sea′-bott′le, a seaweed; Sea′-boy (Shak.), a boy employed on shipboard: a sailor-boy; Sea′-brant, the brent goose; Sea′-breach, the breaking of an embankment by the sea; Sea′-bream, one of several sparoid fishes: a fish related to the mackerel; Sea′-breeze, a breeze of wind blowing from the sea toward the land, esp. that from about 10 a.m. till sunset; Sea′-buckthorn, or Sallow-thorn, a genus of large shrubs or trees with gray silky foliage and entire leaves; Sea′-bum′blebee, the little auk; Sea′-bun, a heart-urchin; Sea′-bur′dock, clotbur; Sea′-cabb′age, sea-kale; Sea′-calf, the common seal, so called from the supposed resemblance of its voice to that of a calf; Sea′-canā′ry, the white whale; Sea′-cap (Shak.), a cap worn on shipboard: a basket-shaped sponge; Sea′-cap′tain, the captain of a ship, as distinguished from a captain in the army; Sea′-card, the card of the mariners' compass: a map of the ocean; Sea′-carnā′tion, a sea-pink; Sea′-cat, a name of various animals, as the wolf-fish, the chimæra, any sea-cat-fish; Sea′-cat′erpillar, a scale-back; Sea′-cat′-fish, a marine siluroid fish; Sea′-cat′gut, a common seaweed—sea-lace; Sea′-caul′iflower, a polyp; Sea′-cen′tiped, one of several large marine annelids; Sea′-change (Shak.), a change effected by the sea; Sea′-chart, a chart or map of the sea, its islands, coasts, &c.; Sea′-chest′nut, a sea-urchin; Sea′-chick′weed, a seaside species of sandwort; Sea′-clam, the surf clam used for food: a clamp for deep-sea sounding-lines; Sea′-coal, coal brought by sea, as distinguished from charcoal; Sea′coast, the coast or shore of the sea: the land adjacent to the sea; Sea′-cob, a sea-gull; Sea′-cock, a gurnard: the sea-plover: a valve communicating with the sea through a vessel's hull: a sea-rover or viking; Sea′-col′ander, a large olive seaweed; Sea′-cole′wort, sea-kale; Sea′-com′pass, the mariners' compass; Sea′-cook, a cook on shipboard; Sea′-coot, a black sea-duck; Sea′-cor′morant, a sea-crow; Sea′-corn, the string of egg-capsules of the whelk or similar gasteropod—also Sea′-ruff′le, Sea′-hon′eycomb, Sea′-neck′lace, &c.; Sea′-cow, the walrus: the rhytina: the dugong or manatee: the hippopotamus; Sea′-crab, a marine crab; Sea′-craft, skill in navigation; Sea′-craw′fish, a prawn or shrimp; Sea′-crow, a name of various birds, as the common skua, the chough, the coot, &c.; Sea′-cū′cumber, trepang or bêche-de-mer; Sea′-dace, a sea-perch: the common English bass; Sea′-daff′odil, a plant producing showy, fragrant flowers; Sea′-dai′sy, the lady's cushion; Sea′-dev′il, a name of various fishes, as the ox-ray, the angel-fish, &c.; Sea′-dog, the harbour-seal: the dog-fish: an old sailor: a pirate: (her.) a bearing representing a beast nearly like a talbot; Sea′-dott′erel, the turnstone; Sea′-dove, the little auk; Sea′-drag′on, a flying sea-horse; Sea′-drake, a sea-crow; Sea′-duck a duck often found on salt waters, having the hind-toe lobate: the eider-duck; Sea′-ea′gle, the white-tailed eagle: the bald eagle: the osprey: the eagle-ray; Sea′-ear, a mollusc, an ormer or abalone; Sea′-eel, a conger-eel; Sea′-egg, a sea-urchin: a sea-hedgehog: a whore's egg; Sea′-el′ephant, the largest of the seal family, the male about 20 feet long, an inhabitant of the southern seas; Sea′-fan, an alcyonarian polyp with a beautiful much-branched fan-like skeleton; Sea′fārer, a traveller by sea, a sailor.—adj. Sea′fāring, faring or going to sea: belonging to a seaman.—ns. Sea′-feath′er, a polyp, a sea-pen; Sea′-fenn′el, samphire; Sea′-fight, a battle between ships at sea; Sea′-fir, a sertularian polyp; Sea′-fire, phosphorescence at sea; Sea′-fish, any salt-water or marine fish; Sea′-foam, the froth of the sea: meerschaum; Sea′-fog, a fog, occurring near the coast.— Sea′-folk, seafaring people.—ns. Sea′-fowl, a sea-bird; Sea′-fox, or Fox-shark, the thresher, the commonest of the larger sharks occasionally seen off British coasts, over 12 feet long, following shoals of herrings, pilchards, &c.; Sea′front, the side of the land, or of a building, which looks toward the sea; Sea′-froth, the foam of the sea, seaweeds; Sea′-gage, -gauge, the depth a vessel sinks in the water: an instrument for determining the depth of the sea.— Sea′-gates, a pair of gates in a tidal basin as a safeguard against a heavy sea.—ns. Sea′-gher′kin, a sea-cucumber; Sea′-gill′iflower, the common thrift; Sea′-gin′ger, millipore coral.—adj. Sea′-girt, girt or surrounded by the sea.—ns. Sea′-god, one of the divinities ruling over or inhabiting the sea:—fem. Sea′-god′dess.—adj. Sea′-gō′ing, sailing on the deep sea, as opposed to coasting or river vessels.—ns. Sea′-goose, a dolphin: a phalarope; Sea′-gown (Shak.), a short-sleeved garment worn at sea; Sea′-grape, a genus of shrubby plants of the natural order Gnetaceæ, closely allied to the Conifers, and sometimes called Joint-firs: a glasswort: the clustered egg-cases of sepia and some other cuttle-fish; Sea′-grass, the thrift: grasswrack: a variety of cirrus cloud.—adj. Sea′-green, green like the sea.—ns. Sea′-grove, a grove in the bottom of the sea; Sea′-gull (same as Gull); Sea′-haar (Scot.), a chilling, piercing mist arising from the sea; Sea′-hall, a hall in the bottom of the sea; Sea′-hare, a name given to the genus Aplysia of nudibranch gasteropods; Sea′-hawk, a rapacious, gull-like bird: a skua; Sea-hedge′hog, a sea-urchin: a globe-fish: a sea-egg: a porcupine-fish; Sea′-hen (Scot.), the common guillemot: the great skua: the piper gurnard; Sea′-hog, a porpoise; Sea′-holl′y, the eryngo; Sea′-holm, a small uninhabited island: sea-holly; Sea′horse, the walrus: the hippopotamus or river-horse: the hippocampus; Sea′-hound, the dog-fish; Sea′-island cott′on, a fine long-stapled variety grown on the islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia; Sea′-jell′y, a sea-blubber; Sea′kale, a perennial plant with large, roundish, sinuated sea-green leaves, found on British seashores, the blanched sprouts forming a favourite esculent; Sea′-kid′ney, a polyp of the genus Renilla, so called from its shape; Sea′-king, a name sometimes given to the leaders of the early Scandinavian piratical expeditions; Sea′-kitt′ie, a kittiwake; Sea′-lace, a species of algæ—sea-catgut; Sea′-lam′prey, a marine lamprey; Sea′-lark, a sandpiper, as the dunlin: a ring-plover, as the ring-dotterel: the sea-titling; Sea′-lav′ender, a salt-marsh plant: marsh rosemary; Sea′-law′yer, a captious sailor, an idle litigious ′long-shorer, more given to question orders than to obey them: the mangrove snapper: a tiger-shark; Sea′-leech, a marine suctorial annelid.— Sea′-legs, ability to walk on a ship's deck when it is pitching or rolling.—ns. Sea′-lem′on, a doridoid; Sea′-len′til, the gulf-weed; Sea′-leop′ard, a seal of the southern seas, with spotted fur; Sea′-lett′er, -brief, a document of description that used to be given to a ship at the port where she was fitted out; Sea′-lev′el, the level or surface of the sea, generally the mean level between high and low water.—adj. Sea′-like, like or resembling the sea.—ns. Sea′-lil′y, a lily-star: a living crinoid; Sea′-line, the line where sky and sea seem to meet: lines used for fishing in deep water; Sea′-lin′tie (Scot.), the sea-titling: a sea-lark: the rock-lintie; Sea′-lī′on, a species of otary—from its barking-roar and the mane of the male: (her.) a monster consisting of the upper part of a lion combined with the tail of a fish; Sea′-liq′uor, brine; Sea′-liz′ard, a nudibranchiate gasteropod: a fossil reptile; Sea′-loach, a gadoid fish, a Motella; Sea′-long′worm, a nemertean worm; Sea′-louse, a parasitic isopod crustacean: the horse-shoe crab; Sea′-luce, the hake; Sea′-lungs, a comb-jelly; Sea′-mag′pie, a sea-pie: the oyster-catcher; Sea′maid (Shak.), a mermaid: a sea-nymph; Sea′-mall a sea-gull; Sea′man, a man below the rank of officer, employed in the navigation of a ship at sea: a sailor: a merman.—adjs. Sea′man-like, showing good seamanship; Sea′manly, characteristic of a seaman.—ns. Sea′manship, the art of navigating ships at sea; Sea′-man′tis, a squill; Sea′-marge, the marge or shore of the sea; Sea′mark, any mark or object on land serving as a guide to those at sea: a beacon; Sea′-mat, a very common genus of polyzoa; in the wrack of the seashore—also Hornwrack; Sea′-mel′on, a pedate holothurian; Sea′-mew, the common gull, any gull—also Sea′-maw (Scot.); Sea′-mile, a geographical mile, 6080 feet in length; Sea′-mink, a kind of American whiting; Sea′-monk, the monk-seal; Sea′-mon′ster, any huge marine animal; Sea′-moss, a kind of compound polyzoan: Irish moss, or carrageen; Sea′-mouse, a genus of Chætopod worms, covered with iridescent silky hairs; Sea′-mud, a rich saline deposit from salt-marshes; Sea′-muss′el, a marine bivalve; Sea′-need′le, the garfish; Sea′-nett′le, any of the stinging species of acalephæ; Sea′-nurse, a shark; Sea′-nymph, a goddess of the sea, esp. one of the Oceanids; Sea′-on′ion, the officinal squill; Sea′-ooze, sea-mud; Sea′-or′ange, a large, globose, orange-coloured holothurian; Sea′-orb, a globe-fish; Sea′-ott′er, a marine otter; Sea′-owl, the lump-fish or lump-sucker; Sea′-ox, the walrus; Sea′-ox′eye, a fleshy seashore plant; Sea′-pad, a star-fish; Sea′-pan′ther, a South African fish, brown with black spots; Sea′-parr′ot, a puffin: an auk; Sea′-pars′nip, an umbelliferous plant; Sea′-par′tridge, the English conner, a labroid fish; Sea′-pass, a passport, or document carried by neutral merchant-vessels to secure them against molestation; Sea′-pea, the beach-pea; Sea′-peach, a sea-squirt or ascidian; Sea′-pear, a sea-squirt; Sea′-pen, one of the radiate zoophytes somewhat resembling a quill; Sea′-perch, a sea-dace: a bass: the red-fish or rose-fish; Sea′-pert, the opah; Sea′-pheas′ant, the pintail or sprigtail duck; Sea′-pie, a sailor's dish made of salt-meat, vegetables, and dumplings baked: the oyster-catcher or sea-magpie: (her.) a bearing representing such a bird; Sea′-piece, a picture representing a scene at sea; Sea′-pig, a porpoise: the dugong; Sea′-pi′geon, the black guillemot; Sea′-pike, an edible American fish found on the Florida and Texas coasts, allied to the perches: the garfish or belone: the hake; Sea′-pin′cushion, the mermaid's purse: a star-fish; Sea′-pink, a sea-carnation; Sea′-plant, an alga; Sea′-poach′er, the armed bull-head; Sea′-por′cupine, any fish of the genus Diodon, whose body is covered with spines; Sea′-pork, an American compound ascidian; Sea′port, a port or harbour on the seashore: a town near such a harbour; Sea′-pudd′ing, a sea-cucumber; Sea′-pump′kin, a sea-melon; Sea′-purse, a sea-barrow: a skate-barrow; Sea′-quail, the turnstone; Sea′-rat, the chimera: a pirate; Sea′-rā′ven, the cormorant: the North American bull-head; Sea′-reed, the mat grass; Sea′-reeve, an officer in maritime towns; Sea′-risk, hazard of injury by sea; Sea′-rob′ber, a pirate; Sea′-rob′in, a common American name for fishes of the genus Prionotus, which represents in America the European gurnards: the red-breasted merganser; Sea′-rock′et, a cruciferous plant of genus Cakile; Sea′-rod, a kind of sea-pen, a polyp; Sea′-roll, a holothurian; Sea′-room, room or space at sea for a ship to be navigated without running ashore; Sea′-rose, a sea-anemone; Sea′-rose′mary, sea-lavender; Sea′-rō′ver, a pirate: a vessel employed in cruising for plunder; Sea′-rō′ving, piracy; Sea′-ruff, a sea-bream; Sea′-salt, common salt obtained from sea-water by evaporation; Sea′scape, a sea-piece; Sea′-scor′pion, a scorpion-fish: a cottoid-fish; Sea′-ser′pent, an enormous marine animal of serpent-like form, frequently seen and described by credulous sailors, imaginative landsmen, and common liars: a name applied to various marine venomous serpents; Sea′-serv′ice, service on board ship; Sea′-shark, the man-eater shark; Sea′-shell, a marine shell; Sea′shore, the land adjacent to the sea: (law) the ground between high-water mark and low-water mark; Sea′-shrub, a sea-fan.—adj. Sea′sick, affected with sickness through the rolling of a vessel at sea.—ns. Sea′sickness; Sea′side, the land beside the sea; Sea′-skim′mer, the skimmer bird; Sea′-slāt′er, the rock-slater; Sea′-sleeve, a cuttle-fish; Sea′-slug, a nudibranch, as a doridoid: a marine gasteropod with the shell absent or rudimentary; Sea′-snail, a fish of the genus Liparis, the sucker, the periwinkle; Sea′-snake, a sea-serpent; Sea′-snipe, a sandpiper: the snipe-fish; Sea′-sol′dier, a marine; Sea′-spī′der, a spider-crab; Sea′-spleen′wort, a fern—Asplenium marinum; Sea′-squid, a cuttle-fish; Sea′-squirt, any tunicate or ascidian—also Sea′-perch, Sea′-pear, Sea′-pork; Sea′-stick, a herring cured at sea at once; Sea′-stock, fresh provisions for use at sea; Sea′-straw′berry, a kind of polyp; Sea′-sun′flower, a sea-anemone; Sea′-sur′geon, one of a family of spiny-rayed Teleostean fishes living in tropical seas, esp. near coral-reefs—the name refers esp. to the members of the genus Acanthurus, characterised by a lancet-like spine ensheathed on each side of the tail; Sea′-swall′ow, a tern: the stormy petrel; Sea′-swine, a porpoise: the sea-hog: the ballan-wrasse; Sea′-tang, sea-tangle; Sea′-tan′gle, one of several species of seaweeds, esp. of genus Laminaria; Sea′-tench, the black sea-bream; Sea′-term, a word used by sailors or peculiar to ships or sailing; Sea′-thong, a cord-like seaweed; Sea′-tit′ling, the shore-pipit or sea-lark; Sea′-toad, the sea-frog: the sculpin: the great spider-crab; Sea′-tor′toise, a sea-turtle.—adj. Sea′-tost (Shak.), tossed upon or by the sea.—ns. Sea′-trout, a popular name for various species of the genus Salmo, but esp. for the common Salmo trutta; Sea′-trum′pet, a medieval musical instrument similar to the monochord: (bot.) a large seaweed; Sea′-turn, a gale from the sea; Sea′-tur′tle, the sea-pigeon: a tortoise; Sea′-umbrell′a, a pennatulaceous polyp; Sea′-ū′nicorn, the narwhal; Sea′-ur′chin, one of a class of Echinoderms, some with the body symmetrical and nearly globular (Echinus), others heart-shaped (Spatangus), others shield-shaped and flattened (Clypeaster)—in all cases the body walled in by continuous plates of lime; Sea′-vam′pire, a devil-fish or manta; Sea′view, a picture of a scene at sea; Sea′-wall, a wall to keep out the sea.—adj. Sea′-walled, surrounded by the sea.—n. Sea′-wane, wampum.—adj. Sea′ward, towards the sea.—adv. towards or in the direction of the sea.—adjs. Sea′ward-bound, outward-bound, as a vessel leaving harbour; Sea′ward-gaz′ing, gazing or looking towards the sea.—n. Sea′-ware, that which is thrown up by the sea on the shore, as seaweed, &c.— Sea′-wash′balls, the egg-cases of the common whelk.—ns. Sea′-wa′ter, water from the sea; Sea′-way, progress made by a vessel through the waves; Sea′weed, a general and popular name applied to a vast collection of lower plant-forms growing on the seacoast from high-water mark (or a little above that limit) to a depth of from 50 to 100 fathoms (rarely deeper), and all belonging to the sub-class of the Thallophyta, to which the name Algæ has been given; Sea′-whip, any alcyonarian like black coral; Sea′-whip′cord, a common form of seaweed, sea-thong; Sea′-whis′tle, the seaweed whose bladders are used by children as whistles; Sea′-wife, a kind of wrasse; Sea′-will′ow, a polyp with slender branches like the osier; Sea′-wing, a wing-shell: a sail; Sea′-with′-wind, a species of bindweed; Sea′-wold, an imaginary tract like a wold under the sea; Sea′-wolf, the wolf-fish: the sea-elephant: a viking, a pirate; Sea′-wood′cock, the bar-tailed godwit; Sea′-wood′louse, a sea-slater: a chiton; Sea′-worm, a marine annelid; Sea′-worm′wood, a saline plant found on European shores.—adj. Sea′worthy, fit for sea, able to endure stormy weather.—ns. Sea′worthiness; Sea′-wrack, coarse seaweeds of any kind.—At full sea, at full tide; At sea, away from land: on the ocean: astray; Go to sea, to become a sailor; Half-seas over, half-drunk; Heavy sea, a sea in which the waves run high; High seas, the open ocean; In a sea-way, in the position of a vessel when a heavy sea is running; Main sea, the ocean; Molten sea, the great brazen laver of 1 Kings, vii. 23-26; Ship a sea, to have a large wave washing in; Short sea, a sea in which the waves are choppy, irregular, and interrupted; The four seas, those bounding Great Britain. [A.S. ; Dut. zee, Ger. see, Ice. sær, Dan. .]

Seah, sē′a, n. a Jewish dry-measure containing nearly fourteen pints. [Heb.]

Seal, sēl, n. an engraved stamp for impressing the wax which closes a letter, &c.: the wax or other substance so impressed: that which makes fast or secure: that which authenticates or ratifies: assurance: the water left standing in the trap of a drain or sewer, preventing the upward flow of gas: the sigil or signature of a plant, &c., in medieval medicine: the sign of the cross, baptism, confirmation, the ineffaceable character supposed to be left on the soul by some sacraments.—v.t. to fasten with a seal: to set a seal to: to mark with a stamp: to make fast: to confirm: to keep secure: to close the chinks of: to secure against an escape of air or gas by means of a dip-pipe: to accept: to sign with the cross, to baptise or confirm.—adj. Sealed, certified by a seal: inaccessible.—ns. Seal′-engrav′ing, the art of engraving seals; Seal′er, one who seals: an inspector of stamps; Seal′ing, confirmation by a seal; Seal′ing-day (Shak.), a day for sealing anything; Seal′ing-wax, wax for sealing letters, &c.—also Seal′-wax; Seal′-pipe, a dip-pipe; Seal′-press, a stamp bearing dies for embossing any device upon paper or lead; Seal′-ring (Shak.), a signet-ring; Seal′-wort, Solomon's seal.—Seal of the fisherman, the papal privy seal impressed on wax, representing St Peter fishing.—Great seal, the state seal of the United Kingdom; Leaden seal, a disc of lead pierced with two holes through which are passed the ends of a twisted wire; Privy Seal, the seal appended to grants, and in Scotland authenticating royal grants of personal rights; Set one's seal to, to give one's authority or assent to; Under seal, authenticated. [O. Fr. seel—L. sigillum, dim. of signum, a mark.]

Seal, sēl, n. the name commonly applied to all the Pinnipedia except the morse or walrus—carnivorous mammals adapted to a marine existence; the two great families are Phocidæ (without external ears) and Otariidæ (having distinct though small external ears): (her.) a bearing representing a creature something like a walrus.—v.t. to hunt seals.—ns. Seal′-bird, the slender-billed shear-water; Seal′er, a man or a ship engaged in the seal-fishery; Seal′ery, a seal-fishing station: seal-fishery; Seal′-flow′er, the bleeding heart; Seal′ing, Seal′-fish′ing, the act of catching seals; Seal′-rock′ery, a place where many seals breed; Seal′skin, the prepared fur of the fur-seal used for women's jackets, a garment made of this.—Sealskin cloth, a cloth made of mohair with a nap, and dyed to resemble the fur of the seal. [A.S. seolh; Ice. selr, Sw. själ.]

Seam, sēm, n. (Shak.) grease, hog's lard.—v.t. to grease. [O. Fr. sain—L. sagina, grease.]

Seam, sēm, n. that which is sewed: a piece of plain sewing: the line formed by the sewing together of two pieces: a line of union: a vein or stratum of metal, ore, coal, &c.: a suture: (geol.) a thin layer between thicker strata.—v.t. to unite by a seam: to sew: to make a seam in.—ns. Seam′er, one who seams; Seam′ing-lace, a galloon, braiding, gold lace, &c. to sew upon seams in upholstery; Seam′ing-machine′, a power-tool for bending sheet-metal as required: a machine used to join fabrics lengthwise preparatory to printing, &c.—adj. Seam′less, without a seam: woven throughout.—ns. Seam′-press′er, an implement used to press down the newly-ploughed furrow: a goose or iron used by tailors to flatten the seams of cloth; Seam′-rent, a rent along a seam; Seam′-roll′er, in leather-working, a rubber for flattening down the edges of seams; Seam′-rubb′er; Seam′-set, a grooved punch used by tinmen; Seam′ster, one who sews:—fem. Seam′stress; Seam′stressy (Sterne), sewing.—adj. Seam′y, having a seam or seams.—n. Seam′y-side, the worst side or view of anything.—White seam (Scot.), underclothing in the process of making. [A.S. séamsíwian, to sew; Dut. zoom, Ger. saum.]

Seam, sēm, n. a load for a pack-horse, eight bushels of grain. [A.S. séam, a burden—L. sagma—Gr. sagma, a pack-saddle.]

Seamed, sēmd, adj. in falconry, not in good condition. [Prob. related to Seam (1).]

Sean, sēn, n. a drag-net: a seine. [Seine.]

Séance, sā′ängs, n. a sitting, as of some public body: a sitting for consideration or inquiry, esp. a meeting of spiritualists for the consultation of spirits. [Fr.,—L. sedēre, to sit.]

Seannachie, sen′a-hē, n. a bard among the Scottish Highlanders who recited the traditions of a clan.—Also Seann′achy, Senn′achie. [Gael. seanachaidh.]

Sear, sēr, n. the catch in a gun-lock by which it is held at cock or half-cock: a part of a gun-lock.—n. Sear′-spring, a spring in a gun-lock. [O. Fr. serre—L. sera, a bar.]

Sear, sēr, v.t. to dry up: to burn to dryness on the surface: to scorch: to cauterise: to render callous or insensible.—adj. dry, withered.—adj. Seared, dried up: burned: hardened.—ns. Seared′ness, hardness, insensibility; Sear′ness, dryness; Sear′wood, wood dry enough to burn. [A.S. seár, dry, seárian, to dry up; Low Ger. soor, Dut. zoor.]

Searce, sers, v.t. (Scot.) to sift through a sieve.—n. a sieve.

Search, sėrch, v.t. to look round to find: to seek; to examine: to inspect: to explore: to put to the test: to probe.—v.i. to seek for: to make inquiry.—n. the act of seeking or looking for: examination: inquiry: investigation: pursuit.—adj. Search′able, capable of being searched.—ns. Search′ableness, the state or quality of being searchable; Search′er, a seeker: an inquirer or examiner: a custom-house officer: an officer who formerly apprehended idlers on the street during church hours in Scotland: a sieve or strainer.—adj. Search′ing, looking over closely: penetrating: trying: severe.—adv. Search′ingly.—n. Search′ingness, the quality of being searching, penetrating, or severe.—adj. Search′less, unsearchable.—ns. Search′-light, an electric arc-light used on board ship and in military operations; Search′-warr′ant, a legal warrant authorising a search for stolen goods, &c.—Right of search, the right claimed by one nation to authorise the commanders of their cruisers to search private merchant-vessels for articles contraband of war. [O. Fr. cercher (Fr. chercher)—L. circāre, to go about—circus, a circle.]

Sease, sēz, v.t. (Spens.) to seize.

Season, sē′zn, n. one of the four periods of the year: the usual or proper time for anything: any particular time: any period of time, esp. of some continuance, but not long: seasoning, relish.—v.t. to mature: to prepare for use: to accustom or fit for use by any process: to fit for the taste: to give relish to: to mingle: to moderate, temper, or qualify by admixture: to inure, imbue, tinge, or taint: to preserve from decay.—v.i. to become seasoned or matured: to grow fit for use: to become inured.—adj. Sea′sonable, happening in due season: occurring in good, suitable, or proper time: timely, opportune.—n. Sea′sonableness.—adv. Sea′sonably.—adj. Sea′sonal.—adv. Sea′sonally.—n. Sea′soner, one who, or that which, seasons: a sailor, &c., who hires for the season: a loafer, a beach-comber.—Season ticket (see Ticket).—Close season, close time; In season, ripe, fit and ready for use: allowed to be killed, fit to be eaten, edible; In season and out of season, at all times; Out of season, inopportune; The four seasons, the ember or fast days of the Church on days set apart in each of the four seasons. [O. Fr. seson (Fr. saison)—L. satio, -onis, seedtime.]

Seasoning, sē′zn-ing, n. that which is added to food to give it greater relish: anything added to increase enjoyment: in diamond-cutting, the charging of the laps or wheels with diamond dust and oil.—n. Sea′soning-tub, a trough in which dough is set to rise.—adj. Sea′sonless, without relish: insipid.

Seat, sēt, n. that on which one sits: a chair, bench, &c.: the place or room where one sits, as in church, at a theatre, &c.: site: a place where anything is settled or established: post of authority: station: abode: a mansion: that part of the body or of a garment on which one sits: posture or situation on horseback: a right to sit: membership: sitting-room: a sitting: a sitting of eggs.—v.t. to place on a seat: to cause to sit down: to place in any situation, site, &c.: to establish: to fix: to assign a seat to: to furnish with seats: to fit accurately: to repair by making a seat new.—v.i. to lie down.—ns. Seat′-back, a loose ornamental covering for the back of a sofa or chair; Seat′-earth, in coal-mining, the bed of clay by which many coal-seams are underlain.—p.adj. Seat′ed, fixed, confirmed, located.—ns. Seat′-fas′tener, in a wagon, the screw-clamp for securing the seat to the body; Seat′ing, the act of furnishing with seats: haircloth: in shipbuilding, that part of the floor which rests on the keel; Seat′-lock, the lock of a reversible seat in railroad cars; Seat′-rail, a cross-piece between the legs, below the seat, of a chair, &c.; Seat′-worm, a pin-worm.—Seat of the soul, the sensorium.—Take a seat, to sit down. [A.S. sǽt, an ambush—sittan, to seat; or more prob. Ice. sæti, a seat—sat, pa.t. of sitja, to sit.]

Seave, sēv, n. a wick made of rush.—adj. Seav′y, overgrown with rushes.

Seax, sē′aks, n. a curved, one-edged sword, used by Germanic and Celtic peoples: (her.) a bearing representing a weapon like the seax. [A.S. seax.]

Sebaceous, sē-bā′shus, adj. pertaining to or secreting fat or fatty matter: (bot.) like tallow or wax, as the secretions of certain plants.—adj. Sēbac′ic, pertaining to or obtained from fat.—n. Sē′bāte, a salt formed by the combination of sebacic acid with a base.—adj. Sēbif′erous, sebaceous.—n. Sēborrhē′a, a disease of the sebaceous glands with excessive secretion—also Sēborrhœ′a.—adj. Sēborrhē′ic.—n. Sē′bum, the secretion of the sebaceous glands. [Low L. sebaceussebum, tallow.]

Se-baptist, sē-bap′tist, n. one who baptises himself.

Sebastomania, sē-bas-tō-mā′ni-a, n. religious insanity. [Gr. sebastos, reverenced, mania, madness.]

Sebat, sē-bat′, n. the fifth month of the Jewish civil year, and the eleventh of the ecclesiastical year, falling in part of January and February.

Sebesten, sē-bes′ten, n. a tree with plum-like fruit.—Also Sebes′tan. [Fr.,—Ar.]

Sebilla, sē-bil′a, n. in stone-cutting, a wooden bowl for holding the water used in sawing, &c. [Fr.]

Sebundy, sē-bun′di, n. a native soldier or local militiaman in India.—Also Sebun′dee. [Hind.]

Sec, sek, adj. dry, of wines. [Fr.]

Sec., sek, n. an abbreviation of secretary, secant, second; also of secundum, according to.

Secability, sek-a-bil′i-ti, n. capability of being divided. [L. secāre, to cut.]

Secale, sē-kā′lē, n. a genus of grasses including rye.

Secamone, sek-a-mō′nē, n. a genus of shrubby climbers.

Secant, sē′kant, adj. cutting: dividing.—n. a line that cuts another: a straight line from the centre of a circle to one extremity of an arc, produced till it meets the tangent to the other extremity.—n. Sē′cancy. [L. secans, secantis, pr.p. of secāre, to cut.]

Secco, sek′kō, n. (mus.) unaccompanied: plain. [It.]

Secede, sē-sēd′, v.i. to go away: to separate one's self: to withdraw from fellowship or association.—ns. Secē′der, one who secedes: one of a body of Presbyterians who seceded from the Church of Scotland about 1733; Seces′sion, the act of seceding: withdrawal: departure; Seces′sionism, the doctrine of secession; Seces′sionist, one who maintains the principle of secession.—War of Secession, in United States history, the civil war (1860-65) which resulted from the attempted withdrawal of eleven Southern States from the United States. [L. secedĕre, secessumse-, away, cedĕre, to go.]

Secern, sē-sern′, v.i. and v.t. to separate: to distinguish: to secrete.—adj. Secer′nent.—n. Secern′ment. [L. secernĕre, secretum, to separate.]

Secesh, sē-sesh′, n. and adj. (U.S. slang) secessionist.—n. Secesh′er.

Secessive, sē-ses′iv, adj. set apart: isolated.

Sechium, sē′ki-um, n. a genus of gourds. [Prob. Gr. sēkos, an enclosure.]

Seckel, sek′el, n. a variety of pear.

Seclude, sē-klōōd′, v.i. to shut apart: to keep apart.—adj. Sēclud′ed, retired: withdrawn from observation.—adv. Sēclud′edly.—ns. Sēclu′sion, the act of secluding: a shutting out: the state of being secluded or apart: separation: retirement: privacy: solitude; Sēclu′sionist.—adj. Sēclu′sive. [L. secludĕre, seclusumse-, apart, claudĕre, to shut.]

Secohm, sek′ōm, n. the practical unit of electrical self-induction—now more commonly Henry.—n. Sec′ohmmēter, an instrument for measuring the coefficient, of electrical self-induction. [Sec (ond) and ohm, the unit of resistance.]

Second, sek′und, adj. immediately following the first: the ordinal of two: next in position: inferior: other: another: favourable.—n. one who, or that which, follows or is second: one who attends another in a duel or a prize-fight: a supporter: the 60th part of a minute of time, or of a degree.—v.t. to follow: to act as second: to assist: to encourage: to support the mover of a question or resolution: (mus.) to sing second to: to put into temporary retirement in the army, as an officer when holding civil office (usually sēcond′).n. Sec′ond-ad′ventist, one who lives in expectation of a second coming of Christ to establish a personal kingdom on earth, a premillenarian.—adv. Sec′ondarily, in a secondary manner or degree: (B.) secondly.—n. Sec′ondariness.—adj. Sec′ondary, following or coming after the first: second in position: inferior: subordinate: deputed.—n. a subordinate: a delegate or deputy.—adjs. Sec′ond-best, next to the best: best except one—(Come off second-best, to get the worst of a contest); Sec′ond-class, inferior to the first, as a second-class carriage.—ns. Sec′onder, one who seconds or supports; Sec′ond-flour, flour of a coarser quality, seconds.—adj. Sec′ond-hand, received as it were from the hand of a second person: not new: that has been used by another.—n. a hand for marking seconds on a clock or watch.—adv. Sec′ondly, in the second place.—ns. Sec′ond-mark, the character ″ as the mark in mathematics for a second of arc, in architecture for inches, and as a sign for a second of time; Secon′do, the lower part in a duet.—adj. Sec′ond-rate, being second in power, size, rank, quality, or value.—ns. Sec′ond-sight (see Sight); Sec′onds-pen′dulum, a pendulum which makes one oscillation per second of mean time.—Secondary education, that which is higher than primary or elementary; Secondary formation, rocks, strata, the Mesozoic strata; Secondary planet, a moon or satellite; Secondary school, a school for higher education; Second childhood, a condition of mental weakness often accompanying old age; Second coming, the second coming of Christ, or Second Advent; Second cousin, the child of a cousin; Second estate, the House of Lords; Second guard, an additional guard to a sword; Second story, in America, the second range of rooms from the first level, called in England the first floor; Second thoughts, reconsideration. [Fr.,—L. secundussequi, secutus, to follow.]

Secret, sē′kret, adj. concealed from notice: removed from sight: unrevealed: hidden: secluded: retired: private: keeping secrets: reserved.—n. that which is concealed: anything unrevealed or unknown: privacy: the key or principle by which something is made clear: a form of steel skull-cap: one of the prayers in the Mass, immediately following the 'Orate, fratres,' said inaudibly by the celebrant: (pl.) any prayers said secretly and not aloud: the parts of the body which are concealed.—ns. Sē′crecy, the state of being secret: separation: concealment: retirement: privacy: fidelity to a secret: the keeping of secrets; Sē′cretage, a process in dressing furs.—adj. Sē′cret-false (Shak.), secretly false, while apparently sincere.—adv. Sē′cretly, in a secret manner: privately: unknown to others: inwardly.—n. Sē′cretness, the state of being secret.—Secret service, a department of government service.—Open secret, a secret which all may inquire into. [Fr.,—L. secretussecernĕre, secretumse-, apart, cernĕre, to separate.]

Secretary, sek′rē-tā-ri, n. one employed to write for another: a public officer entrusted with the affairs of a department of government, or of a company, &c.: a piece of furniture for writing, with drawers, pigeon-holes, &c. (also Secretaire′).—adj. Secretā′rial, pertaining to a secretary or his duties.—ns. Secretā′riate, the official position of secretary; Sec′retary-bird a raptorial serpent-eating bird resembling the crane, found in South Africa and the East—from the tufts of feathers at the back of its head like pens stuck behind the ear; Sec′retaryship.

Secrete, sē-krēt′, v.t. to make secret: to hide: to conceal: to produce from the circulating fluids, as the blood in animals, the sap in vegetables.—adj. separate, distinct.— Sēcrē′ta, the products of secretion.—n. Sēcrē′tion, the act of secreting or separating from a circulating fluid: that which is so secreted.—adj. Sēcrē′tional.—n. Sē′cretist, a dealer in secrets.—adjs. Sēcreti′tious, produced by secretion; Sēcrē′tive, tending to, or causing, secretion: given to secrecy or to keeping secrets.—adv. Sēcrē′tively.—ns. Sēcrē′tiveness, a phrenological organ supposed to indicate a turn for secrecy and concealment; Sēcrē′tor, a secreting organ.—adj. Sēcrē′tory, performing the office of secretion.—Secreting glands, true glands; Secreting organs, certain specialised organs of plants. [L. secernĕre, secretum.]

Sect, sekt, n. a body of men who unite in holding some particular views, esp. in religion and philosophy: those who dissent from an established church: a denomination: a school of philosophy: a party: faction: apparel: a part cut off.—adj. Sectā′rian, pertaining to, or peculiar to, a sect: bigotedly devoted to the interests of a sect, narrow, exclusive (also Sectā′rial).—n. one of a sect: one strongly imbued with the characteristics of a sect.—v.t. Sectā′rianise.—ns. Sectā′rianism, quality or character of a sectarian: excessive devotion to a sect; Sec′tarist; Sec′tary, one of a sect: a dissenter; Sectā′tor (obs.), an adherent of a school or party; Sec′tist; Sect′-mas′ter, the leader of a sect.—Sectarial marks, emblems marked on the foreheads of the different sects in India. [Fr. secte—L. secta, a school of philosophy—secāre, sectum, to cut off.]

Sectant, sek′tant, n. a portion of space cut off from the rest by three planes, but extending to infinity.

Section, sek′shun, n. act of cutting: a division: a portion: a distinct part of a book: the plan of any object cut through, as it were, to show its interior: the line formed by the intersection of two surfaces: the surface formed when a solid is cut by a plane: one of the squares, each containing 640 acres, into which the public lands of the United States are divided: (zool.) a group: the sign §, as a mark of reference.—v.t. to divide into sections, as a ship; to reduce to the degree of thinness required for study with the microscope.—adjs. Sec′tile, Sec′tive, capable of being cut.—n. Sectil′ity.—adj. Sec′tional, pertaining to a section or distinct part: local.—n. Sec′tionalism, the spirit of a class, commercial or political.—adv. Sec′tionally.—ns. Sec′tion-beam, in warping, a roller which receives the yarn from the spools; Sec′tion-cut′ter, an instrument used for making sections for microscopic work.—v.t. Sec′tionise, to render sectional in scope or spirit.—ns. Sec′tion-lin′er, a draftsman's instrument for ruling parallel lines; Sec′tion-plane, a cut surface; Sec′tioplanog′raphy, a method of laying down the sections of engineering work in railways; Sec′tiuncle, a petty sect.

Sector, sek′tur, n. that which cuts: that which is cut off: a portion of the circle between two radii and the intercepted arc: a mathematical instrument for finding a fourth proportional: an astronomical instrument: (mech.) a toothed gear, the face of which is the arc of a circle.—adjs. Sec′toral; Sectō′rial, adapted or intended for cutting.—n. a scissor-tooth. [L. sectorsecāre, to cut.]

Secular, sek′ū-lar, adj. pertaining to an age or generation: coming or observed only once in a century: permanent: lay or civil, as opposed to clerical: (geol.) gradually becoming appreciable in the course of ages: pertaining to the present world, or to things not spiritual: not bound by monastic rules.—n. a layman: an ecclesiastic, as a parish priest, not bound by monastic rules.—n. Secularisa′tion, the state of being secularised.—v.t. Sec′ularise, to make secular: to convert from spiritual to common use.—ns. Sec′ularism; Sec′ularist, one who, discarding religious belief and worship, applies himself exclusively to the things of this life: one who holds that education should be apart from religion; Secular′ity, state of being secular or worldly: worldliness.—adv. Sec′ularly.—n. Sec′ularness. [L. secularisseculum, an age, a generation.]

Secund, sē′kund, n. (bot., zool.) unilateral.

Secundarius, sek-un-dā′ri-us, n. a lay-vicar.

Secundate, sē-kun′dāt, v.t. to make prosperous.—n. Secundā′tion.

Secundine, sek′un-din, n. the afterbirth: (bot.) inner coat of an ovule, within the primine.

Secundogeniture, sē-kun′do-jen′i-tūr, n. the right of inheritance pertaining to a second son.

Seoundum, sē-kun′dum, prep. according to.—Secundum artem, artificially: skilfully: professionally; Secundum naturam, naturally; Secundum quid, in some respects only; Secundum veritatem, universally valid.

Secure, sē-kūr′, adj. without care or anxiety, careless (B.): free from fear or danger: safe: confident: incautious: in safe keeping: of such strength as to ensure safety.—v.t. to make safe: to guard from danger: to seize and confine: to get hold of: to make one's self master of: (obs.) to plight or pledge: to render certain: to guarantee: to fasten.—adj. Secūr′able, that may be secured.—n. Secur′ance, assurance, confirmation.—adv. Secūre′ly.—ns. Secūre′ment; Secūre′ness; Secūr′er, one who, or that which, secures or protects; Secūr′itan, one who dwells in fancied security; Secūr′ity, state of being secure: freedom from fear: carelessness: protection: certainty: a pledge: (pl.) bonds or certificates in evidence of debt or property.—Secure arms, to guard the firearms from becoming wet. [L. securusse- (for sine), without, cura, care.]

Securicula, sek-ū′-rik′ū-la, n. a little ax, a votive offering in this form.

Securifer, sē-kū′ri-fėr, n. a sawfly.—adjs. Secūrif′erous; Secū′riform, axe-shaped.

Securigera, sek-ū-rij′e-ra, n. a genus of leguminous plants—the hatchet-vetch, axe-fitch.

Securipalpi, sē-kūr-i-pal′pī, n. a group of beetles.

Securite, sek′ūr-īt, n. a modern high explosive in the form of a yellowish powder.

Sed, sed, n. a line fastening a fish-hook: a snood.

Sedan Chair.

Sedan, sē-dan′, n. a covered chair for one, carried on two poles, generally by two bearers: a hand-barrow for fish. [Invented at Sedan, in France.]

Sedate, sē-dāt′, adj. quiet: serene: serious.—adv. Sedāte′ly.—n. Sedāte′ness, composure: tranquillity.—adj. Sed′ative, tending to make sedate: moderating: allaying irritation or pain.—n. a medicine that allays irritation or pain. [L. sedāre, -ātum, to seat, akin to sedēre, to sit.]

Se defendendo, sē dē-fen-den′dō, n. the plea of a person charged with slaying another, that it was in his own defence.

Sedentaria, sed-en-tā′ri-a, the tubicolous worms: the sedentary spiders.

Sedentary, sed′en-tā-ri, adj. sitting much: passed chiefly in sitting: requiring much sitting: inactive: (zool.) not migratory: not errant: lying in wait, as a spider: not free-swimming: motionless, as a protozoan.—adj. Sē′dent, at rest.—adv. Sed′entarily.—n. Sed′entariness. [L. sedentariussedēre, to sit.]

Sederunt, sē-dē′runt, n. in Scotland, the sitting of a court.—Acts of sederunt, ordinances of the Scottish Court of Session. [L., 'they sat'—sedēre, to sit.]

Sedes impedita, sē′dez im-pē-dī′ta, a term for a papal or episcopal see when there is a partial cessation by the incumbent of his episcopal duties.—Sedes vacans (sē-dez vā′kanz), a term of canon law to designate a papal or episcopal see when vacant.

Sedge, sej, n. a kind of flag or coarse grass growing in swamps and rivers.—adj. Sedged, composed of sedge or flags.—ns. Sedge′-hen, a marsh-hen; Sedge′-war′bler, a reed-warbler, the sedge-wren.—adj. Sedg′y, overgrown with sedge. [Older form seg—A.S. secg; cf. Low Ger. segge.]

Sedge, sej, n. a flock of herons, bitterns, or cranes. [A variant of siege.]

Sedigitated, sē-dij′i-tā-ted, adj. having six fingers on one hand.


Sedilium, sē-dil′i-um, n. one of a row of seats in a Roman amphitheatre: a seat in the chancel of a church near the altar for the officiating clergyman—sometimes Sēdī′le:—pl. Sēdil′ia. [L.]

Sediment, sed′i-ment, n. what settles at the bottom of a liquid: dregs.—adj. Sedimen′tary, pertaining to, consisting of, or formed by sediment.—n. Sedimentā′tion. [L. sedimentumsedēre, to sit.]

Sedition, sē-dish′un, n. insurrection: any offence against the State next to treason.—n. Sēdi′tionary, an inciter to sedition.—adj. Sedi′tious, pertaining to, or exciting, sedition: turbulent.—adv. Sēdi′tiously.—n. Sedi′tiousness. [Fr.,—L. seditiose-, away, īre, ītum, to go.]

Seduce, sē-dūs′, v.t. to draw aside from rectitude: to entice: to corrupt: to cause a woman to surrender her chastity through persuasion, entreaty, under promise of marriage, &c.—ns. Sēdūce′ment, act of seducing or drawing aside: allurement; Sēdū′cer.—adj. Sēdū′cible.—adv. Sēdū′cingly.—n. Sēduc′tion, act of seducing or enticing from virtue, any enticement to evil: the act of fraudulently depriving an unmarried woman of her chastity.—adj. Sēduc′tive, tending to seduce or draw aside: assiduous.—adv. Sēduc′tively.—ns. Sēduc′tiveness; Sēduc′tor, one who leads astray. [L. seducĕrese-, aside, ducĕre, ductum, to lead.]

Sedulous, sed′ū-lus, adj. diligent: constant.—ns. Sēdū′lity, Sed′ulousness.—adv. Sed′ulously. [L. sedulussedēre, to sit.]

Sedum, sē′dum, n. a genus of polypetalous plants, as stone-crop. [L., a house-leek.]

See, sē, n. the seat or jurisdiction of a bishop or archbishop: a throne.—Holy See, the papal court. [O. Fr. se, siet—L. sedessedēre, to sit.]

See, sē, v.t. to perceive by the eye: to observe: to discover: to remark: to bring about as a result: to wait upon, escort: to receive: to consult for any particular purpose: to suffer, experience: to meet and accept by staking a similar sum: to visit: to discern: to understand.—v.i. to look or inquire: to be attentive: to apprehend: to consider:—pa.t. saw; pa.p. seen.—interj. look! behold!—adj. See′able, capable of being seen.—n. Sē′er, one who sees or who foresees, a prophet.—See about a thing, to consider it; See one through, to aid in accomplishing or doing, esp. something difficult or dangerous; See out, to see to the end: to outdo; See through one, to understand one thoroughly; See to, to look after: (B.) to behold; See to it, look well to it.—Have soon one's best days, to be now on the decline; Let me see, a phrase employed to express consideration. [A.S. séon; Ger. sehen, Dut. zien.]

See-bright, sē′-brīt, n. the common clary.

See-catchie, sē′-kach′i, n. the male fur-seal.

See-cawk, sē′-kawk, n. the common American skunk.

Seed, sēd, n. the thing sown: the male fecundating fluid, semen, sperm, milt, spat, the substance produced by plants and animals from which new plants and animals are generated: first principle: original: descendants: children: race: red-seed: a small bubble formed in imperfectly fused glass.—v.i. to produce seed: to grow to maturity.—v.t. to sow: to plant: to graft.—ns. Seed′-bag, a bag for seeds; Seed′-bed, a piece of ground for receiving seed; Seed′-bird, the water-wagtail; Seed′-bud, the bud or germ of the seed; Seed′-cake, a sweet cake containing aromatic seeds; Seed′-coat, the exterior coat of a seed; Seed′-cod, a basket for holding seed; Seed′-cor′al, coral in small and irregular pieces; Seed′-corn, corn to be used for sowing; Seed′-crush′er, an instrument for crushing seeds to express the oil; Seed′-down, the down on cotton, &c.; Seed′-drill, a machine for sowing seed in rows; Seed′-eat′er, a granivorous bird.—adj. Seed′ed, bearing seed, full-grown: sown: (her.) having the stamens indicated.—ns. Seed′-embroi′dery, embroidery in which seeds form parts of the design; Seed′er, a seed-drill: an apparatus for removing seeds from fruit: a seed-fish; Seed′-field, a field in which seed is raised; Seed′-finch, a South American finch; Seed′-fish, roe or spawn; Seed′-fowl, a bird that feeds on grain.—adj. Seed′ful, rich in promise.—ns. Seed′-gall, a small gall; Seed′-grain, corn for seed.—adv. Seed′ily.—ns. Seed′iness, the state of being seedy: shabbiness: exhaustion; Seed′ing; Seed′ing-machine′, an agricultural machine for sowing; Seed′ing-plough, a plough fitted with a hopper from which seed is automatically deposited; Seed′-lac (see Lac, 2); Seed′-leaf, a cotyledon; Seed′-leap, a seed-basket.—adj. Seed′less, having no seeds.—ns. Seed′ling a plant reared from the seed—also adj.; Seed′-lobe, a cotyledon or seed-leaf; Seed′ness (Shak.), seedtime; Seed′-oil, oil expressed from seeds.— Seed′-oy′sters, very young oysters; Seed′-pearls, very small or imperfect pearls strung together on horse-hair and attached to mother-of-pearl, &c., for ornament—used also in the composition of electuaries, &c.—ns. Seed′-plant′er, a seeder for planting seed on hills; Seed′-plot, a piece of nursery-ground, a hot-bed; Seed′-sheet, the sheet containing the seed of the sower; Seeds′man, one who deals in seeds: a sower:—pl. Seeds′men; Seed′-sow′er, a broadcast seeding-machine; Seed′-stalk, the funiculus; Seed′-tick, a young tick; Seed′time, the time or season for sowing seed; Seed′-vess′el, the pericarp which contains the seeds; Seed′-weev′il, a small weevil which infests seeds; Seed′-wool, cotton-wool from which the seeds have not been removed.—adj. Seed′y, abounding with seed: run to seed: having the flavour of seeds: worn out: out of sorts, looking or feeling unwell: shabby.—n. Seed′y-toe, a diseased condition of a horse's foot. [A.S. sǽdsáwan, to sow; Ice. sádh, Ger. saat.]

Seeing, sē′ing, n. sight: vision.—conj. since: because: taking into account.—n. See′ing-stone (obs.), a looking-glass, a divining crystal.

Seek, sēk, v.t. to go in search of: to look for: to try to find or gain: to ask for: to solicit: to pursue: to consult.—v.i. to make search or inquiry: to try: to use solicitation: (B.) to resort to:—pa.t. and pa.p. sought.—ns. Seek′er, an inquirer: one of a sect in the time of Cromwell: (anat.) tracer; Seek′-no-far′ther, a reddish winter apple; Seek′-sorr′ow (obs.), a self-tormentor.—Sought after, in demand, desired; To seek, to be sought: at a loss, without knowledge or resources, helpless. [A.S. sécan; cf. Dut. zoeken, Ger. suchen.]

Seel, sēl, v.t. to close the eyes of by sewing the eyelids together, as a hawk: to blind, hoodwink. [O. Fr. siller, cillercil—L. cilium, eyelash.]

Seel, sēl, n. (prov.) good fortune, happiness: opportunity, season.—n. Seel′iness.—adj. Seel′y (Spens.), silly, innocent: fortunate, happy, good: simple: trifling.—n. good fortune: bliss: (Scot.) opportunity. [A.S. sǽl, time—sǽl, propitious.]

Seel, sēl, v.i. to lean to one side, to pitch or roll.—n. a roll of a ship. [Prob. related to sail.]

Seelde, sēld, adv. (Spens.) seldom.

Seem, sēm, v.i. to appear: to have a show: to look: to pretend, to assume an air: to appear to one's self.—v.t. (B.) to befit: to become.—n. Seem′er.—adj. Seem′ing, apparent: specious: ostensible.—n. appearance: semblance: a false appearance: way of thinking.—adv. Seem′ingly.—n. Seem′ingness.—adj. Seem′less (Spens.), unseemly: indecorous.—n. Seem′liness.—adj. Seem′ly (comp. Seem′lier, superl. Seem′liest), becoming: suitable: decent: handsome.—adv. in a decent or suitable manner.—n. Seem′lyhed (Spens.), decent comely appearance.—It seems, it appears: it seems to me. [A.S. séman, to satisfy, to suit; or prob. direct from Scand., Ice. sæma, to honour, conform to.]

Seen, sēn, pa.p. of see.

Seen, sēn, adj. skilled, experienced: manifest.

Seep, sēp, v.i. to ooze gently: to trickle: to drain off.—n. Seep′age.—adj. Seep′y. [Sipe.]

Seer, sēr, n. one who foresees events: a prophet: a soothsayer.—n. Seer′ship.

Seer-fish, sēr′-fish, n. a longish scombroid fish, valuable for food.—Also Seir′-fish.

Seersucker, sēr-suk′ėr, n. a thin East Indian linen fabric.

Seesaw, sē′saw, n. motion to and fro, as in the act of sawing: a play among children, in which two seated at opposite ends of a board supported in the centre move alternately up and down.—adj. moving up and down, or to and fro: reciprocal.—v.i. to move backwards and forwards. [Prob. a redup. of saw.]

Seethe, sēth, v.t. to boil: to cook in hot liquid: to soak.—v.i. to be boiling: to be hot:—pa.t. seethed or sod; pa.p. seethed or sodd′en.n. Seeth′er. [A.S. seóthan; Ice. sjótha, Ger. sieden.]

Seetulputty, sē′tul-put-i, n. a Bengalese grass mat for sleeping on. [Hind.]

Seg, seg, n. a castrated bull.

Seg, seg, n. sedge: the yellow flower-de-luce.—n. Seg′gan (Scot.).

Seggar, seg′ar, n. a case of clay in which fine pottery is enclosed while baking in the kiln. [Saggar.]

Seggrom, seg′rom, n. the ragwort.

Seghol, se-gōl′, n. a vowel-point in Hebrew with sound of e in pen, placed under a consonant, thus seghol.—n. Segh′ōlāte, a dissyllabic noun form with tone-long vowel in the first and a short seghol in the second syllable.

Segment, seg′ment, n. a part cut off: a portion: (geom.) the part of a circle cut off by a straight line: the part of a sphere cut off by a plane: a section: one of the parts into which a body naturally divides itself: (her.) a bearing representing one part only of a rounded object.—v.t. and v.i. to divide or become divided.—adj. Segmen′tal, being a segment: in embryology, noting the rudimental venal organs.—adv. Segmen′tally.—adjs. Seg′mentary, Seg′mentate.—n. Segmentā′tion, the act of cutting into segments.—adj. Segmen′ted.—ns. Seg′ment-gear, a gear extending over an arc only of a circle, providing a reciprocating motion; Seg′ment-rack, a rack having a cogged surface; Seg′ment-saw, a circular saw used for cutting veneers; Seg′ment-shell, a modern form of projectile for artillery. [L. segmentumsecāre, to cut.]

Segnitude, seg′ni-tūd, n. sluggishness, inactivity, [L. segnitia, slowness, segnis, slow.]

Segno, sā′nyō, n. (mus.) a sign to mark the beginning or end of repetitions—abbreviated segno. [It.,—L. signum, a mark.]

Sego, sē′gō, n. a showy plant of the United States.

Segreant, seg′rē-ant, adj. an epithet of the griffin: (her.) equivalent to rampant and salient.

Segregate, seg′rē-gāt, v.t. to separate from others.—adj. separate from others of the same kind: (geol.) separate from a mass and collected together along lines of fraction.—n. Segregā′tion. [L. segregāre, -ātumse-, apart, grex, gregis, a flock.]

Seguidilla, seg-i-dēl′yä, n. a lively Spanish dance for two: music for such a dance.

Seiche, sāsh, n. a remarkable fluctuation of the level observed on the Lake of Geneva and other Swiss lakes, probably due to local variations in the barometric pressure. [Fr.]

Seidlitz, sēd′litz, adj. saline water of or from Seidlitz in northern Bohemia, also a saline aperient powder.

Seignior, Seigneur, sē′nyor, n. a title of honour and address in Europe to elders or superiors: the lord of a manor.—ns. Seign′iorage, Seign′orage, a royalty: a share of profit: a percentage on minted bullion; Seignioral′ty, the authority or the territory of a seignior or lord.—adjs. Seigniorial (sē-nyō′ri-al), Seigneu′rial, Signō′rial, manorial.—v.t. Seign′iorise, to lord it over.—ns. Seign′iory, Seign′ory, the power or authority of a seignior or lord: a domain, a lordship without a manor, or that of manor whose lands were held by free tenants: the elders forming the municipal council in a medieval Italian republic.—Grand Seignior, the Sultan of Turkey. [Fr. seigneur—L. seniorsenex, old. In Late. L. senior is sometimes equivalent to dominus, lord.]

Seil, sīl, v.t. (Scot.) to strain.—n. a strainer. [Sile.]

Seine, sān, or sēn, n. a large net for catching fish.—v.t. to catch with such.—ns. Seine′-boat; Seine′-en′gine, a steam-engine used in hauling seines; Seine′-gang, a body of men engaged in seining, with their boats and other gear; Sein′er, one who seines: a vessel engaged in purse-seining for mackerel; Sein′ing, the art of using the seine. [Fr.,—L. sagena—Gr. sagēnē, a fishing-net.]

Seirospore, sī′rō-spōr, n. one of the non-sexual spores arranged in a chain in certain florideous algæ.—adj. Seirospor′ic.

Seised, sēzd, adj. (Spens.) taken possession of.—n. Seis′in (Spens.), possession.

Seismograph, sīs′mō-graf, n. an instrument for registering the shocks and concussions of earthquakes, a seismometer.—adjs. Seis′mal; Seis′mic, belonging to an earthquake.—ns. Seis′mogram, the record made by a seismometer; Seismog′rapher.—adjs. Seismograph′ic, -al, connected with the seismograph.—n. Seismog′raphy, the study of earthquake phenomena.—adjs. Seismolog′ic, -al.—ns. Seismol′ogist, a student of earthquake phenomena; Seis′mologue, a catalogue of earthquake observations; Seismol′ogy, the science of earthquakes and volcanoes; Seismom′eter, an instrument for measuring shakings, tremors, and tiltings of the earth.—adjs. Seismom′etric, -al.—ns. Seismom′etry, the measuring the phenomena of earthquakes; Seis′moscope, a name of the simpler form of seismometer.—adj. Seismoscop′ic. [Gr. seismos, an earthquake, graphein, to write.]

Seison, sī′son, n. a genus of parasitic leech-like rotifers.

Seisura, sī-sū′ra, n. a genus of Australian fly-catchers.

Seity, sē′i-ti, n. something peculiar to one's self.

Seiurus, sī-ū′rus, n. the genus of birds including the American wagtails.

Seize, sēz,—v.t. to take possession of forcibly: to take hold of: to grasp: to apprehend by legal authority: to come upon suddenly: to lash or make fast.—v.i. to lay hold of with the claws: in metallurgy, to cohere.—adj. Seiz′able.—ns. Seiz′er; Seiz′ing, the act of taking hold: (naut.) the operation of lashing with several turns of a cord. [O. Fr. saisir (Prov. sazir, to take possession of)—Old High Ger. sazzan, to set, Ger. setzen, Eng. set.]

Seizin, Seisin, sē′zin, n. the taking possession of an estate as of freehold: the thing possessed—the same as Sasine (q.v.).—n. Seiz′or, one who takes legal possession.

Seizure, sē′zhūr, n. act of seizing: capture: grasp: the thing seized: a sudden attack.

Sejant, Sejeant, sē′jant, adj. (her.) sitting. [Fr. séant, pr.p. of seoir—L. sedēre, to sit.]

Sejoin, sē-join′, v.t. (obs.) to separate.—n. Sejunc′tion, separation.

Sejugous, sē′jōō-gus, adj. (bot.) having six pairs of leaflets. [L. sejugissex, six, jugum, a yoke.]

Sekos, sē′kos, n. in Greek antiquities, any sacred enclosure, a sanctuary, cella of the temple.

Sel, sel, n. (Scot.) self.

Selache, sel′a-kē, n. a genus of sharks.—adjs. Selā′chian, Sel′achioid. [Gr. selachos, a sea-fish.]

Selaginella, sē-laj-i-nel′a, n. a genus of heterosporous cryptogams, allied to club-moss.

Selah, sē′lä, n. in the Psalms, a transliterated Hebrew word (connected by Gesenius with sālāh, rest), supposed to be a direction in the musical rendering of a passage, probably meaning 'pause.'

Selandria, sē-lan′dri-a, n. a genus of saw-flies.

Selasphorus, sē-las′fō-rus, n. the genus of lightning hummers.

Selcouth, sel′kōōth, adj. (Spens.) rarely known, uncommon.—adv. Sel′couthly. [A.S. selcúth for seldcúthseld, seldom, cúth—known, cunnan, to know.]

Seld, seld, adj. (Spens.) rare, uncommon.—adv. seldom, rarely.—adjs. Seld′seen, rarely seen; Seld′-shown (Shak.), rarely shown. [Seldom.]

Seldom, sel′dum, adv. rarely: not often.—n. Sel′domness.—adv. Sel′dom-times. [A.S. seldum, seldanseld (adj.), rare; Ger. selten.]

Select, sē-lekt′, v.t. to pick out from a number by preference: to choose: to cull.—adj. picked out: nicely chosen: choice: exclusive.—adj. Selec′ted.—adv. Selec′tedly.—ns. Selec′tedness; Selec′tion, act of selecting: things selected: a book containing select pieces.—adj. Selec′tive.—adv. Selec′tively, by selection.—ns. Select′man, in New England towns, one of a board of officers chosen annually to manage various local concerns; Select′ness; Select′or.—Select meeting, in the Society of Friends, a meeting of ministers and elders.—Natural selection, the preservation of some forms of animal and vegetable life and the destruction of others by the ordinary operation of natural causes. [L. seligĕre, selectumse-, aside, legĕre, to choose.]

Selene, sē-lē′nē, n. (Gr. myth.) the goddess of the moon, the Latin Luna—also Phœbe: a genus of carangoid fishes, the moon-fishes.—n. Selē′niscope, an instrument for observing the moon.—adj. Selēnocen′tric, having relation to the centre of the moon.—ns. Selē′nograph, a delineation of the moon; Selēnog′rapher, a student of selenography.—adjs. Selēnograph′ic, -al.—ns. Selēnog′raphist, a selenographer; Selēnog′raphy, description of the moon.—adj. Selēnolog′ical, pertaining to the physiography of the moon.—ns. Selēnol′ogist, a selenographer; Selēnol′ogy, selenography.—adj. Selēnōtrop′ic, turning to the moon.—ns. Selēnot′ropism, Selēnot′ropy. [Gr. selēnē.]

Selenite, sel′en-īt, n. a transparent and beautiful variety of gypsum: a salt of selenium: a supposed inhabitant of the moon.—adjs. Selenit′ic; Selenitif′erous. [Gr. selēnitēs (lithos, stone), moon-like—selēnē, the moon.]

Selenites, sel-ē-nī′tez, a genus of coleopterous insects.

Selenium, sē-lē′ni-um, n. an element discovered by Berzelius in the refuse of a sulphuric-acid factory in 1817.—n. Sel′ēnate, a compound of selenic acid with a base.—adjs. Selen′ic, Selē′nious.—n. Sel′enide, a compound of selenium with one other element or radical—also Selē′niuret.—adjs. Selenif′erous; Selē′niuretted, containing selenium. [Gr. sēlēne, the moon.]

Selenodont, sē-lē′nō-dont, adj. having crescentic ridges on the crown, as molar teeth.

Seleucidæ, se-lū′si-dē, the descendants of Seleucus I., surnamed Nicator, who governed Syria from 312 B.C. to 65 B.C.

Seleucides, se-lū′si-dēz, n. a genus containing the twelve-wired bird of Paradise.

Self, self, n. one's own person: one's personal interest: one's own personal interest, selfishness: a flower having its colour uniform as opposed to variegated:—pl. Selves (selvz).—adj. very: particular: one's own: simple, plain, unmixed with any other.—ns. Self′-aban′donment, disregard of self; Self′-abase′ment, abasement through consciousness of unworthiness.—adj. Self′-absorbed′, absorbed in one's own thoughts.—ns. Self′-abuse′, the abuse of one's own person or powers: self-pollution; Self′-accusā′tion, the act of accusing one's self.—adjs. Self′-accus′atory; Self′-act′ing, acting of, or by, itself, specially denoting a machine or mechanism which does of itself something that is ordinarily done by manual labour.—n. Self′-activ′ity, an inherent power of acting.—adj. Self′-adjust′ing, requiring no external adjustment.—n. Self′-admis′sion (Shak.), admission of one's self.— Self′-affairs′ (Shak.), one's own affairs.—adjs. Self′-affect′ed (Shak.), affected well towards one's self; Self′-affright′ed (Shak.), frightened at one's self.—n. Self′-applause′, applause of one's self.—adjs. Self′-appoint′ed, nominated by one's self; Self′-approv′ing, implying approval of one's own conduct; Self′-assert′ing, given to asserting one's opinion: putting one's self forward.—n. Self′-asser′tion.—adj. Self′-assumed′, assumed by one's own act.—n. Self′-assump′tion, conceit.—adj. Self′-begot′ten, generated or originated by one's own powers.—n. Self′-bind′er, the automatic binding apparatus attached to some reaping-machines.—adj. Self′-blind′ed, led astray by one's self.—n. Self′-blood′ (obs.), direct progeny: suicide.—adj. Self′-born′, born or produced by one's self.—n. Self′-boun′ty (Shak.), native goodness.—adj. Self′-cen′tred, centred in self.—n. Self′-char′ity (Shak.), love of one's self.—adjs. Self′-clō′sing, shutting automatically; Self′-collect′ed, self-possessed: self-contained; Self′-col′oured, of the natural colour: dyed in the wool: coloured with a single tint: (hort.) uniform in colour.—ns. Self′-command′, self-control; Self′-complā′cency, satisfaction with one's self, or with one's own performances.—adj. Self′-complā′cent, pleased with one's self: self-satisfied.—n. Self′-conceit′, an over-high opinion of one's self, one's own abilities, &c.: vanity.—adj. Self′-conceit′ed, having a high opinion of one's self, of one's own merits, abilities, &c.: vain.—ns. Self′-conceit′edness; Self′-condemnā′tion, condemnation by one's own conscience: a self-condemning.—adjs. Self′-condemned′; Self′-condemn′ing.—n. Self′-con′fidence, confidence in, or reliance on, one's own powers: self-reliance.—adj. Self′-con′fident, confident of one's own powers: in the habit of relying on one's own powers.—adv. Self′-con′fidently.—adj. Self′-confī′ding, relying on one's own powers.—n. Self′-congratulā′tion, the act of felicitating one's self.—adjs. Self′-con′jugate, conjugate to itself; Self′-con′scious, conscious of one's acts or states as originating in one's self: conscious of being observed by others.—n. Self′-con′sciousness, the act or state of being self-conscious: consciousness of being observed by others.—adj. Self′-consid′ering, considering in one's own mind, deliberating.—n. Self′-consist′ency, consistency with one's self, or principles.—adjs. Self′-consist′ent; Self′-con′stituted, constituted by one's self; Self′-consū′ming, consuming one's self, or itself: Self′-contained′, wrapped up in one's self, reserved: of a house, not approached by an entrance common to others: complete in itself.—ns. Self′-contempt′, contempt for one's self; Self′-content′, self-complacency; Self′-contradic′tion, the act or fact of contradicting one's self: a statement of which the terms are mutually contradictory.—adj. Self′-contradict′ory.—n. Self′-control′, control or restraint exercised over one's self: self-command.—adj. Self′-convict′ed, convicted by one's own inner consciousness, or avowal.—n. Self′-convic′tion.—adjs. Self′-correspond′ing, corresponding to itself; Self′-cov′ered, clothed in one's native semblance.—ns. Self′-creā′tion, the act of coming into existence by the vitality of one's own nature; Self′-crit′icism, criticism of one's self; Self′-cult′ure, culture or education of one's self without the aid of teachers; Self′-dān′ger (Shak.), danger from one's self; Self′-deceit′, deception respecting one's self; Self′-deceiv′er, one who deceives himself; Self′-decep′tion, the act of deceiving one's own self; Self′-defence′, the act of defending one's own person, property, &c. (Art of self-defence, boxing, pugilism); Self′-delā′tion, accusation of one's self; Self′-delū′sion, delusion respecting one's self; Self′-denī′al, the denial of one's self: the non-gratifying of one's own appetites or desires.—adj. Self′-deny′ing.—adv. Self′-deny′ingly.—n. Self′-depend′ence, reliance on one's self.—adj. Self′-depend′ent.—n. Self′-depreciā′tion, depreciation of one's self.—adj. Self′-deprē′ciātive.—ns. Self′-despair′, a despairing view of one's prospects, &c.; Self′-destruc′tion, the destruction of one's self: suicide.—adj. Self′-destruc′tive.—n. Self′-determinā′tion, determination by one's self without extraneus impulse.—adjs. Self′-deter′mined; Self′-deter′mining.—n. Self′-devel′opment, spontaneous development.—adj. Self′-devō′ted.—n. Self′-devō′tion, self-sacrifice.—adj. Self′-devour′ing, devouring one's self.—ns. Self′-dispar′agement, disparagement of one's self; Self′-dispraise′, censure of one's self; Self′-distrust′, want of confidence in one's own powers.—adjs. Self′-ed′ucated, educated by one's own efforts alone; Self′-elect′ive, having the right to elect one's self.—n. Self-end′ (obs.), an end for one's self alone.—adj. Self′-endeared′, self-loving.—ns. Self′-enjoy′ment, internal satisfaction; Self′-esteem′, the esteem or good opinion of one's self; Self′-estimā′tion; Self′-ev′idence.—adj. Self′-ev′ident, evident of itself or without proof: that commands assent.—adv. Self′-ev′idently.—ns. Self′-evolū′tion, development by inherent power; Self′-exaltā′tion, the exaltation of self; Self′-exam′inant, one who examines himself; Self′-examinā′tion, a scrutiny into one's own state, conduct, &c., esp. with regard to one's religious feelings and duties; Self′-exam′ple, one's own example.—adj. Self′-ex′ecuting, needing no legislation to enforce it.—n. Self′-exist′ence.—adjs. Self′-exist′ent, existing of or by himself or itself, independent of any other cause; Self′-explan′atory, obvious, bearing its meaning in its own face.—n. Self′-explicā′tion, the power of explaining one's self.—adjs. Self-faced′, undressed or unhewn; Self-fed′, fed by one's self.—n. Self′-feed′er, a self-feeding apparatus.—adj. Self′-feed′ing, feeding automatically.—ns. Self′-fertilisā′tion; Self′-fertil′ity, ability to fertilise itself.—adjs. Self′-fig′ured, figured or described by one's self; Self′-flatt′ering, judging one's self too favourably.—n. Self′-flatt′ery, indulgence in reflections too favourable to one's self.—adjs. Self′-foc′using, focusing without artificial adjustment; Self′-forget′ful, devoted to others, and forgetful of one's own interests.—adv. Self′-forget′fully.—adjs. Self′-gath′ered, wrapped up in one's self; Self-glazed′, covered with glass of a single tint; Self′-glō′rious, springing from vainglory or vanity: boastful; Self′-gov′erning.—ns. Self′-gov′ernment, self-control: government by the joint action of the mass of the people: democracy; Self′-gratulā′tion, congratulation of one's self.—adj. Self′-harm′ing, injuring one's self.—n. Self-heal′, prunella: the burnet saxifrage.—adj. Self′-heal′ing, having the power of healing itself.—ns. Self-help′, working for one's self; Self′hood, existence as a separate person: conscious personality.—adj. Self′-ī′dolised, regarded with extreme complacency by one's self.—n. Self′-import′ance, a high estimate of one's own importance: egotism: pomposity.—adjs. Self′-import′ant; Self′-imposed′, taken voluntarily on one's self; Self′-im′potent (bot.), unable to fertilise itself.—n. Self′-indul′gence, undue gratification of one's appetites or desires.—adj. Self′-indul′gent.—n. Self′-infec′tion, infection of the entire organism from a local lesion.—adj. Self′-inflict′ed, inflicted by one's self.—n. Self′-in′terest, private interest: regard to one's self.—adj. Self′-in′terested.—n. Self′-involū′tion, mental abstraction.—adjs. Self′-involved′, wrapped up in one's self; Self′ish, chiefly or wholly regarding one's own self: void of regard to others (Selfish theory of morals, the theory that man acts from the consideration of what will give him the most pleasure).—adv. Self′ishly.—ns. Self′ishness; Self′ism; Self′ist; Self′-justificā′tion, justification of one's self.—adjs. Self′-kin′dled, kindled of itself; Self′-know′ing, knowing of one's own self: possessed of self-consciousness.—n. Self′-knowl′edge, the knowledge of one's own character, abilities, worth, &c.—adjs. Self-left′, left to one's self; Self′less, having no regard to self, unselfish.—ns. Self′lessness, freedom from selfishness; Self-life′, a life only for one's own gratification.—adjs. Self′-like, exactly similar; Self′-lim′ited (path.), tending to spontaneous recovery after a certain course.—n. Self-love′, the love of one's self: tendency to seek one's own welfare or advantage: desire of happiness.—adjs. Self′-lov′ing, full of self-love; Self′-lum′inous, possessing the property of emitting light; Self-made′, made by one's self; denoting a man who has risen to a high position from poverty or obscurity by his own exertions.—ns. Self′-mas′tery, self-command: self-control; Self′-met′tle (Shak.), mettle or spirit which is natural to one, and not artificially inspired; Self′-mō′tion, spontaneous motion.—adj. Self-moved′, moved spontaneously from within.—ns. Self′-mur′der, the killing of one's self: suicide; Self′-mur′derer; Self′-neglect′ing (Shak.), the neglecting of one's self; Self′ness, egotism: personality; Self′-offence′, one's own offence; Self′-opin′ion, the tendency to form one's own opinion irrespective of that of others.—adjs. Self′-opin′ionated, obstinately adhering to one's own opinion; Self′-orig′inating, springing from one's self.—ns. Self′-partial′ity, overestimate of one's own worth; Self′-percep′tion, the faculty of immediate perception of the soul by itself.—adjs. Self′-perplexed′, perplexed by one's own thoughts; Self′-pī′ous, hypocritical.—n. Self′-pit′y, pity for one's self.—adjs. Self-pleached′ (Tenn.), interwoven by natural growth; Self′-pleas′ing, gratifying one's own wishes; Self-poised′, kept well balanced by self-respect.—n. Self′-pollū′tion, self-abuse, masturbation.—adj. Self′-possessed′, calm or collected in mind or manner: undisturbed.—ns. Self′-posses′sion, the possession of one's self or faculties in danger: calmness; Self-praise′, the praise of one's self; Self′-preservā′tion, the preservation of one's self from injury, &c.—adjs. Self′-preser′vative, Self-preser′ving.—ns. Self-pride′, self-esteem; Self′-prof′it, self-interest.—adj. Self′-prop′agating, propagating one's self or itself.—ns. Self′-protec′tion, self-defence; Self′-realisā′tion, the attainment of such development as one's mental and moral nature is capable of.—adjs. Self′-recip′rocal, self-conjugate; Self′-record′ing, making, as an instrument, a record of its own state.—n. Self′-regard′, regard for one's own self.—adjs. Self′-regard′ing; Self′-reg′istering, registering itself: denoting an instrument or machine having a contrivance for recording its own operations; Self′-reg′ulated, regulated by one's self or itself; Self′-reg′ulating, regulating itself; Self′-reg′ulative.—n. Self′-relī′ance, reliance on one's own abilities.—adj. Self′-relī′ant.—n. Self′-renunciā′tion, self-abnegation.—adj. Self′-repel′ling, repelling by its own inherent power.—ns. Self′-repres′sion, the keeping of one's self in the background; Self′-reproach′, the act of reproaching or condemning one's self.—adj. Self′-reproach′ing, reproaching one's self.—adv. Self′-reproach′ingly.—n. Self′-reproof′, the reproof of one's own conscience.—adjs. Self′-reprov′ing, reproving one's self, from conscious guilt; Self′-repug′nant, self-contradictory: inconsistent.—n. Self′-respect′, respect for one's self or one's character.—adjs. Self′-respect′ful; Self′-respect′ing; Self′-restrained′, restrained by one's own will.—ns. Self′-restraint′, a restraint over one's appetites or desires: self-control; Self′-rev′erence, great self-respect.—adjs. Self′-rev′erent; Self′-right′eous, righteous in one's own estimation: pharisaical.—n. Self′-right′eousness, reliance on one's supposed righteousness: sense of one's own merit or goodness, esp. if overestimated.—adjs. Self′-right′ing, that rights itself when capsized; Self′-rolled′, coiled on itself.—n. Self′-sac′rifice, the act of yielding up one's life, interests, &c. for others.—adjs. Self′-sac′rificing, yielding, or disposed to yield, up one's life, interests, &c.; Self′-same, the very same.—ns. Self′-same′ness, sameness as regards self or identity; Self′-satisfac′tion, satisfaction with one's self.—adjs. Self′-sat′isfied, satisfied with the abilities, performances, &c. of one's self; Self′-sat′isfying, giving satisfaction to one's self.—ns. Self-scorn′, a mood in which one entertains scorn for a former mood of self; Self′-seek′er, one who looks only to his own interests.—adj. Self′-seek′ing, seeking unduly one's own interest or happiness.—n. the act of doing so.—adj. Self′-shin′ing, self-luminous.—n. Self′-slaugh′ter (Shak.), the slaughter of one's self: suicide.—adjs. Self′-slaugh′tered, killed by one's self; Self′-ster′ile (bot.), unable to fertilise itself; Self-styled′, called by one's self: pretended; Self′-subdued′ (Shak.), subdued by one's own power; Self′-substan′tial (Shak.), composed of one's own substance.—n. Self′-suffi′ciency.—adjs. Self′-suffi′cient, confident in one's own sufficiency: haughty: overbearing; Self′-suffic′ing.—ns. Self′-sugges′tion, determination by causes inherent in the organism; Self′-support′, the maintenance of one's self.—adjs. Self′-support′ed; Self′-support′ing.—n. Self′-surren′der, the yielding up of one's self to another.—adj. Self′-sustained′, sustained by one's own power.—ns. Self′-sus′tenance, self-support; Self-sustentā′tion.—adjs. Self′-taught, taught by one's self; Self′-think′ing, forming one's own opinions: of independent judgment; Self′-tor′turable (Shak.), capable of being tortured by one's self.—ns. Self′-tor′ture; Self-trust′, self-reliance; Self-view′, regard for one's own interest; Self′-vī′olence, violence inflicted upon one's self; Self-will′, obstinacy.—adj. Self-willed′, governed by one's own will.—ns. Self′-willed′ness; Self′-wor′ship, the idolising of one's self; Self′-wor′shipper; Self-wrong′ (Shak.), wrong done by a person to himself.—Be beside one's self (see Beside); Be one's self, to be in full possession of one's powers; By one's self, or itself, apart, alone: without aid of another person or thing. [A.S. self, seolf, sylf; Dut. zelf, Ger. selbe, Goth. silba.]

Selictar, sē-lik′tär, n. the sword-bearer of a Turkish chief. [Turk. silihdār—Pers. silahdār—Ar. silāh, arms, pl. of silh, a weapon.]

Selinum, sē-lī′num, n. a genus of umbelliferous plants—milk-parsley. [Gr. selinon, parsley.]

Selion, sel′yon, n. a ridge of land rising between two furrows. [O. Fr. seillon, Fr. sillon, a furrow.]

Seljuk, sel-jōōk′, n. a member of a Turkish family which, under Togrul Beg, grandson of a chief named Seljuk, overthrew the Abbaside califs of Bagdad about 1050, and gave way before the Osmanli or Ottoman princes.—adj. Selju′kian.

Sell, sel, n. a seat, a throne: (Spens.) a saddle: a saddler.—adj. Sell′iform, saddle-shaped. [O. Fr. selle—L. sella, for sedula, dim. of sedes, a seat.]

Sell, sel, v.t. to deliver in exchange for something paid as equivalent: to betray for money: to impose upon, cheat.—v.i. to have commerce: to be sold, to be in demand for sale:—pa.t. and pa.p. sōld.—n. a deception.—adj. Sell′able, that can be sold.—n. Sell′er, a furnisher: a vender: a small vessel for holding salt.—Sell one's life dearly, to do great injury to the enemy before one is killed; Sell one up, to sell a debtor's goods; Sell out, to dispose entirely of: to sell one's commission. [A.S. sellan, to hand over; cf. Ice. selja, Goth. saljan.]

Sellanders, sel′an-dėrs, n. an eruption in the tarsus of the horse. [Fr. solandre.]

Seltzer, selt′zėr, n. an effervescing alkaline mineral water brought from Nieder-Selters in Prussia.—n. Selt′zogene, a gazogene (q.v.).

Selvage, sel′vāj, n. that part of cloth which forms an edge of itself without hemming: a border: in mining, that part of a lode adjacent to the walls on either side: the edge-plate of a lock—also Sel′vedge.—adjs. Sel′vaged, Sel′vedged.—n. Selvagēē′, an untwisted skein of rope-yarn marled together. [Old Dut. selfegge, self, self, egge, edge.]

Selves, selvz, pl. of self.

Semantron, sē-man′tron, n. in the Greek Church, a long bar of wood struck with a mallet to summon worshippers. [Gr.,—sēmainein, to give a signal.]

Semaphore, sem′a-fōr, n. a contrivance for conveying signals, consisting of a mast with arms turned on pivots by means of cords or levers.—adjs. Semaphor′ic, -al, telegraphic—adv. Semaphor′ically. [Gr. sēma, a sign, pherein, to bear.]

Semasiology, sē-mā-si-ol′ō-ji, n. the science of the development of the meanings of words. [Gr. sēmasiasēmainein, to signify, legein, to speak.]

Semasphere, sem′a-sfēr, n. an aerostatic signalling apparatus. [Gr. sēma, a sign, sphaira, a ball.]

Sematic, sē-mat′ik, adj. significant: indicative, as of danger: ominous.—n. Sematol′ogy, the science of verbal signs in the operations of thinking and reasoning. [Gr. sēma, a sign.]

Sematrope, sem′a-trōp, n. an adaptation of the heliotrope for transmitting military signals. [Gr. sēma, a sign, trepein, to turn.]

Semblable, sem′bla-bl, adj. (Shak.) resembling, similar, like.—n. likeness, resemblance.—adv. Sem′blably (Shak.) in like manner.—n. Sem′blance, likeness: appearance: figure.—adj. Sem′blant, resembling, like.—n. (Spens.) resemblance, figure.—adj. Sem′blative (Shak.), resembling, fit, suitable.—v.i. Sem′ble (obs.), to appear: to dissemble: to practise the art of imitation.—adj. like. [Fr.,—sembler, to seem, to resemble—L. similis, like.]

Semé, se-mā′, adj. (her.) strewn or scattered over with small bearings, powdered. [Fr., sown, semer—L. semināre, to sow.]

Semeiology, Semiology, sē-mī-ol′ō-ji, n. the sum of knowledge of the signs and symptoms of morbid conditions, symptomatology: the science of gesture or sign-language.—n. Semeiog′raphy, the description of the signs or symptoms of disease.—adjs. Semeiolog′ic, -al, pertaining to semeiology; Semeiot′ic, relating to signs, symptomatic.—n. Semeiot′ics, the science of signs: semeiology or symptomatology. [Gr. sēmeion, a mark, legein, to say.]

Semeion, sē-mī′on, n. in ancient prosody, the unit of time: one of the two divisions of a foot: a mark in paleography indicating metrical or other divisions:—pl. Semei′a. [Gr. sēmeion, a mark.]

Semele, sem′e-lē, n. a genus of bivalves. [Gr. Semelē, the mother of Bacchus.]

Semen, sē′men, n. the impregnating fluid of male animals, usually whitish, viscid, containing innumerable spermatozoa. [L.]

Semencine, sē′men-sin, n. santonica.

Semese, se-mēs′, adj. half-eaten. [L. semesus, half-eaten, semi-, half, esusedĕre, to eat.]

Semester, sē-mes′tėr, n. one of the half-year courses in German universities.—adj. Semes′tral. [L. semestrissex, six, mensis, a month.]

Semi-, sem′i, a prefix of Latin origin, meaning 'half,' and also less accurately 'partly,' 'incompletely.'—n. and adj. Semiac′id, half-acid, sub-acid.—n. Sem′iangle, the half of a given angle.—adj. Semi-an′nual, half-yearly.—adv. Sem′i-an′nually, once every six months.—adj. Semian′nular, semicircular.—ns. Sem′i-an′thracite, coal intermediate between anthracite and semi-bituminous coal; Sem′i-ape, a lemur.—adjs. Sem′i-aquat′ic (zool., bot.), entering the water, but not necessarily existing by it; Sem′i-Ā′rian, relating to the Christology of the so-called Semi-Arians (Eusebius of Cæsarea, &c.) who held a middle ground between the Arian hetero-ousia and the orthodox homo-ousia or co-equality of the Son with the Father, asserting the homoi-ousia, or similarity of essence.—n. Sem′i-Ā′rianism.—adjs. Sem′i-artic′ulate, loose-jointed; Sem′i-attached′, partially bound by affection or interest; Semibarbā′rian, half-barbarian or savage: partially civilised.—n. Semibreve. Semibar′barism.—adj. Sem′i-bitū′minous, partly bituminous, as coal.—ns. Sem′ibrēve, a musical note, half the length of a breve = 2 minims or 4 crotchets; Sem′ibull, a bull issued by a pope between the time of his election and that of his coronation.—adjs. Sem′icalcā′reous, partly chalky; Sem′i-cal′cined, half-calcined; Semicartilag′inous, gristly; Semicentenn′ial, occurring at the completion of fifty years.—n. a celebration at the end of fifty years.—adj. Semichō′ric.—ns. Semichō′rus, a small number of selected singers; Sem′icircle, half a circle: the figure bounded by the diameter of a circle and half the circumference.—adjs. Sem′icircled; Semicir′cular.—adv. Semicir′cularly.—ns. Semicircum′ference, half of the circumference of a circle; Sem′icirque, a semicircular hollow; Semiclō′sure, half-closure; Sem′icolon, the point (;) marking a division greater than the comma; Semicō′lon-butt′erfly, a butterfly with a silver mark on the under side; Sem′i-col′umn, a half-column.—adjs. Sem′i-colum′nar, flat on one side and rounded on the other; Sem′i-complete′ (entom.), incomplete; Sem′i-con′fluent (path.), half-confluent; Sem′i-con′jugate, conjugate and halved; Sem′i-con′scious, half or imperfectly conscious; Sem′i-conver′gent, convergent as a series, while the series of moduli is not convergent.—n. Sem′icope, an outer garment worn by some of the monastic clergy in the Middle Ages.—adjs. Sem′icor′neous, partly horny; Semicor′onate.—n. Sem′icor′onet (entom.), a line of spines half surrounding a part.—adjs. Sem′i-costif′erous, half-bearing a rib; Semicrit′ical, related to a differential equation and its criticoids.—n. Sem′icrome (mus.), a sixteenth note.—adjs. Sem′icrustā′ceous, half-hard; Semicrys′talline, imperfectly crystallised.—n. Semicū′bium, a half-bath.—adjs. Semicylin′drical, resembling a cylinder divided longitudinally; Semidef′inite, half-definite: Sem′i-depend′ent, half-dependent; Sem′ides′ert, half-desert; Sem′idetached′, partly separated: noting one of two houses joined by a party-wall, but detached from other buildings.—ns. Sem′i-diam′eter, half the diameter of a circle: a radius; Sem′i-diapā′son, a diminished octave; Sem′i-diaphanē′ity, half-transparency.—adj. Semi′-diaph′anous, half-transparent.—n. Semidiur′na, a group of lepidopterous insects including the hawk-moth.—adj. Semidiur′nal, accomplished in half a day: (entom.) flying in twilight.—n. Sem′i-dome′, half a dome, esp. as formed by a vertical section.—adj. Sem′idoub′le, having the outermost stamens converted into petals.—n. a festival on which half the antiphon is repeated before and the whole antiphon after the psalm.—n. Sem′i-ef′figy, a representation of a figure seen at half-length only.—adj. Sem′i-ellip′tical, having the form of an ellipse which is cut transversely.—ns. Sem′i-fā′ble, a mixture of truth and fable; Sem′i-faience′, pottery having a transparent glaze instead of the opaque enamel of true faience; Sem′i-fig′ure, a partial human figure in ornamental design.—v.t. Sem′i-flex, to half-bend.—n. Sem′i-flex′ion.—adj. Sem′i-flos′cular.—n. Sem′i-flos′cule, a floret with a strap-shaped corolla.—adjs. Sem′i-flos′culōse, Sem′i-flos′culous, having the corolla split, flattened out, and turned to one side, as in the ligular flowers of composites; Semiflu′id, half or imperfectly fluid; Sem′i-formed, half-formed.—n. Sem′i-frā′ter, a secular benefactor of a religious house, having a share in its intercessory prayers and masses.—adjs. Sem′i-fused′, half-melted; Semiglō′bōse, Semiglob′ular, having the shape of half a sphere.—adv. Semiglob′ularly.—ns. Sem′i-god, a demi-god; Sem′i-independ′ence.—adjs. Sem′i-independ′ent, not fully independent; Sem′i-in′finite, limited at one end and extending to infinity; Sem′i-lig′neous, partially woody: (bot.) having a stem woody at the base and herbaceous at the top; Semi-liq′uid, half-liquid.—n. Semi-liquid′ity.—adjs. Sem′i-log′ical, half-logical, partly logical; Sem′i-lū′cent, half-transparent; Semi-lū′nar, half-moon shaped, as the semi-lunar bone of the wrist; Sem′i-lū′nate, having the form of a half-moon; Sem′i-malig′nant, not very malignant, said of tumours; Sem′i-matūre′, half-ripe.—n. Semimembranō′sus, a long muscle of the back of the thigh.—adjs. Semimem′branous (anat.), partly membranous; Sem′i-men′strual, half-monthly, esp. of an inequality of the tide.—n. Sem′i-met′al, in old chemistry, a metal that is not malleable, as zinc.—adjs. Sem′i-metal′lic; Sem′i-month′ly, occurring twice a month.—n. Semi-mūte′, one who, having lost the faculty of hearing, has also lost the faculty of speech—also adj.adj. Sem′i-nūde′, half-naked.—n. Sem′inymph, the pupa of an insect which undergoes only semi-metamorphosis.—adjs. Sem′i-obscure′, noting the wings of insects when deeply tinged with brownish-gray, but semi-transparent; Sem′i-offic′ial, partly official.—adv. Sem′i-offic′ially.—n. Sem′i-ō′pal, a variety of opal not possessing opalescence.—adj. Sem′i-opaque′, partly opaque.—n. Sem′i-op′tera, a genus of birds—the standard-wings.—adj. Sem′i-orbic′ular, having the shape of half a sphere.—n. Sem′i-or′dinate, half a chord bisected by the transverse diameter of a conic.—adjs. Sem′i-oss′eous, partly bony; Semiō′val, having the form of an oval; Semiovip′arous, imperfectly viviparous; Semipal′mate, half-webbed, as the toes of a bird.—ns. Semipalmā′tion; Semiparab′ola, one branch of a parabola being terminated at the principal vortex of the curve; Sem′iped, in prose, a half-foot.—adjs. Sem′ipedal; Sem′i-Pelā′gian, relating to the theology of the Semi-Pelagians (John Cassianus, &c.), who tried to find a middle course between the Augustinian doctrine of predestination and the Pelagian doctrine of the free-will of man.—n. Sem′i-Pelā′gianism.—adjs. Sem′i-pellū′cid, imperfectly transparent; Sem′ipen′niform, half-penniform; Sem′i-per′fect, nearly perfect; Sem′i-pis′cine, half-fish; Sem′i-plant′igrade, incompletely plantigrade: partly digitigrade; Sem′i-plas′tic, imperfectly plastic.—ns. Semiplotī′na, a group or sub-family of cyprinoid fishes; Sem′iplume, a feather of partly downy structure; Semiquavers. Semiquad′rate, an aspect of two planets when distant from each other 45 degrees; Sem′iquāver, a musical note, half the length of a quaver: something of short duration.—adjs. Sem′i-recon′dite, half-hidden; Sem′i-rē′flex, involuntarily performed, but not entirely independent of the will; Sem′i-reg′ular, pertaining to a quadrilateral having four equal sides, but only pairs of equal angles; Sem′i-retrac′tile, retractile to some extent.—n. Sem′i-ring, a bronchial half-ring.—adjs. Sem′i-sag′ittate (entom.), shaped like the barbed end of a fish-hook; Sem′i-sav′age, semi-barbarian; Sem′i-Sax′on, early Middle English (c. 1150-1250); Sem′i-sep′tate, half-partitioned.—ns. Sem′i-sex′tile, the position of planets when they are distant from each other the twelfth part of a circle, or 30°; Sem′i-smile, a faint smile.—adjs. Sem′i-solid, partially solid; Semispher′ical, having the figure of a half-sphere.—ns. Sem′i-spinā′lis, a deep muscular layer of the back; Sem′i-square, an aspect of two planets when 45 degrees from each other; Sem′i-steel, puddled steel.—adjs. Sem′i-supernat′ural, half-divine and half-human; Sem′i-sū′pinated, placed between supination and pronation.—ns. Sem′i-tan′gent, the tangent of half an arc; Sem′i-tendinō′sus, a fusiform muscle on the back of the thigh.—adjs. Semiten′dinous, tendinous for half its length; Semitērē′te, half-round; Semiter′tian, partly tertian and partly quotidian.—n. Sem′itone, half a tone: one of the lesser intervals of the musical scale, as from B to C.—adj. Semiton′ic.—n. Sem′i-transpā′rency.—adjs. Sem′i-transpārent, half or imperfectly transparent; Sem′i-trop′ical, subtropical; Sem′i-tū′bular, like the half of a tube divided longitudinally; Sem′i-tychon′ic, approximating to Tycho Brahe's astronomical system; Sem′i-un′cial, intermediate between uncial and minuscule.—n. a method of writing Latin and Greek in use in the sixth and seventh centuries.—adjs. Semivit′reous, partially vitreous; Semivit′rified, half-vitrified; Sem′ivive (obs.) half-alive; Sem′i-vō′cal, pertaining to a semivowel: imperfectly sounding.—n. Semivow′el, a half-vowel, a letter possessing the character of both a vowel and a consonant, usually only w and y, but sometimes including also the liquids l and r and the nasals m and n.—adj. Sem′i-week′ly, issued twice a week.—Semicylindrical leaf, a leaf elongated, flat on one side, round on the other.

Seminal, sem′in-al, adj. pertaining to seed: radical: rudimentary.—n. (obs.) a seed.—n. Seminal′ity, the germinating principle.—v.t. Sem′ināte, to sow: to propagate: to disseminate.—n. Seminā′tion, act of sowing: natural dispersion of seed: propagation.—adjs. Seminif′erous, seed-bearing: producing seed; Seminif′ic, producing seed.—ns. Seminificā′tion; Sem′inist, one who holds that the admixture of the male and female seed originates the new individual. [L. semen, seminis, seed—serĕre, to sow.]

Seminary, sem′in-ar-i, n. the original place whence anything is derived, a nursery: a place of education, esp. in branches of knowledge to be afterwards applied in practice, as theology, &c.: a group of advanced students working in some specific subject of study under a teacher—also and more commonly Seminär′ (the German name): a seminary priest.—n. Sem′inarist, a student at a seminary: a R.C. priest educated in a foreign seminary.

Seminole; sem′i-nōl, n. one of a tribe of American Indians, originally a vagrant branch of the Creeks, now mostly confined to the Indian Territory.

Semiography, Semiology, Semiotics. See Semeiography, Semeiology, Semeiotics.

Semiotellus, sē-mi-ō-tel′us, n. a widely distributed genus of hymenopterous parasites.

Semis, sē′mis, n. a bronze coin of the ancient Roman republic, half the value of an as.

Semispata, sem-i-spā′ta, n. a Frankish dagger. [L. semi-, half, spatha, a sword.]

Semita, sem′i-ta, n. a fasciole of the spatangoid sea-urchins.—adj. Sem′ital. [L., a path.]

Semitaur, sem′i-tawr, n. a fabulous animal, half-bull, half-man. [L. semi-, half, taurus, a bull.]

Semitic, sem-it′ik, adj. pertaining to the Semites, or supposed descendants of Shem, or their language, customs, &c.—also Shemit′ic.—ns. Sem′ite; Semitisā′tion.—v.t. Sem′itise, to render Semitic in language or religion.—ns. Sem′itism, a Semitic idiom; Sem′itist, a Hebrew scholar.—Semitic languages, Assyrian, Aramean, Hebrew, Phœnician, together with Arabic and Ethiopic. [Applied by J. G. Eichhorn in 1817 to the closely allied peoples represented in Gen. x. as descended from Shem.]

Semmit, sem′it, n. (Scot.) an undershirt. [Samite.]

Semnopithecinæ, sem-nō-pith-ē-sī′nē, n. a sub-family of catarrhine monkeys.—adjs. Semnopith′ecine, Semnopith′ecoid.—n. Semnopithē′cus, the typical genus of the foregoing sub-family, the sacred monkeys of Asia. [Gr. semnos, honoured, pithēkos, an ape.]

Semolina, sem-ō-lē′na, n. the particles of fine, hard wheat which do not pass into flour in milling: an article of food consisting of granules of the floury part of wheat.—Also Sem′ōla, Semōli′nō. [It. semola—L. simila, the finest wheat flour.]

Semostomæ, sē-mos′tō-mē, a sub-order of Discomedusæ, containing jelly-fishes.—adj. Sēmos′tomous, having long oral processes. [Gr. sēma, a mark, stoma, mouth.]

Semoted, sē-mō′ted, adj. (obs.) separated: remote.

Semotilus, sē-mot′i-lus, n. an American genus of leuciscine fishes, including the chub and dace. [Gr. sēma, a mark, ptilon, a feather.]

Semper idem, sem′pėr ī′dem, always the same. [L.]

Sempervirent, sem-pėr-vī′rent, adj. evergreen. [L. semper, always, virensvirēre, to be green.]

Semper vivum, sem′pėr vī′vum, n. a genus of polypetalous plants, including the house-leek. [L.]

Sempiternal, sem-pi-tėr′nal, adj. everlasting: endless—also Semp′itern.—v.t. Sempiter′nise, to perpetuate.—n. Sempiter′nity.—adj. Sempiter′nous.—n. Sempiter′num, a durable twilled woollen material. [L. sempiternussemper, ever, æternus, eternal.]

Semple, sem′pl, adj. a Scotch form of simple, esp. meaning of low birth, the opposite of Gentle.

Semplice, sem′plē-che, adj. (mus.) simple, without embellishments. [It.]

Sempre, sem′pre, adv. (mus.) in the same style throughout. [It.,—L. semper, always.]

Sempster, sem′stėr, Sempstress, sem′stres, n. a woman who sews. [Seamstress.]

Semuncia, sē-mun′shi-a, n. a Roman coin of four drachmas weight, the twenty-fourth part of the Roman pound.—adj. Semun′cial.

Sen., sēn, an abbreviation of Senior.

Sen, sen, n. a Japanese copper coin the hundredth part of a yen or dollar.

Señal, se-nyal′, n. (Amer.) a landmark. [Sp.]

Senary, sen′ar-i, adj. containing six: of or belonging to six.—n. Senā′rius, in Latin prosody, a verse of six feet. [L. senariusseni, six each—sex, six.]

Senate, sen′āt, n. a legislative or deliberative body, esp. the upper house of a national legislature, as of France, the United States, &c.: a body of venerable or distinguished persons: the governing body of the University of Cambridge.—ns. Sen′ate-house, a house in which a senate meets; Sen′ator, a member of a senate: in Scotland, the lords of session are called Senators of the College of Justice.—adj. Senatō′rial, pertaining to, or becoming, a senate or a senator.—adv. Senatō′rially, with senatorial dignity.—ns. Sen′atorship; Senā′tus, a governing body in certain universities.—Senātus academicus, the governing body of a Scotch university, consisting of the principal and professors; Senātus consult, a decree of the senate of ancient Rome. [L. senatussenex, senis, an old man.]

Sence, sens, n. an obsolete form of sense.

Sench, sensh, v.t. to cause to sink.

Sencion, sen′shi-on, N. (obs.) groundsel. [L. senecio.]

Send, send, v.t. to cause to go: to cause to be conveyed: to despatch: to forward: to compel: to throw: to hurl: to authorise: to grant: to drive: to dismiss: to commission: to diffuse: to bestow.—v.i. to despatch a message or messenger: (naut.) to pitch into the trough of the sea:—pa.t. and pa.p. sent.—n. (Scot.) a messenger, esp. one sent for the bride: a present: the impulse of a wave on a ship.—ns. Sen′der, one who sends: (teleg.) the instrument by which a message is transmitted; Sen′ding, despatching: pitching bodily into the trough of the sea; Send′-off, a start as on a journey.—Send for, to require by message to come or be brought; Send forth, or out, to give, put, or bring forth; Send to Coventry, to cut: to exclude from society. [A.S. sendan; Ice. senda, Goth. sandjan, Ger. senden.]

Sendal, sen′dal, n. a thin silk or linen. [O. Fr.,—Low L. cendalum—L. sindon—Gr. sindōn.]

Seneca-oil, sen′ē-kä-oil, n. crude petroleum.—Seneca's microscope, a glass globe filled with water.

Senecio, sē-nē′si-o, n. a genus of composite plants—ragwort, &c.—adj. Senē′cioid.

Senega, sen′ē-ga, n. the seneca snakeroot, the dried root of Polygala Senega, good for snake-bites.

Senegal, sen′ē-gal, n. a small African blood-finch, the fire-bird.

Senescence, sē-nes′ens, n. the state of growing old or decaying: decay by time.—n. Senec′titude.—adj. Senes′cent, growing old: decaying with the lapse of time. [L. senescens, -entis, pr.p. of senescĕre, to grow old—senex, old.]

Seneschal, sen′e-shal, n. a steward: a major-domo.—n. Sen′eschalship. [O. Fr., (Fr. sénéchal)—sin-s, old, skalks, a servant.]

Senex, sē′neks, n. a South American hawk: a Brazilian swift.

Seng-gung, seng′-gung, n. the teledu or Javan badger.

Sengreen, sen′grēn, n. the house-leek: (her.) a figure resembling it. [A.S. singrene; Ger. singrün.]

Senhor, se-nyōr′, n. the Portuguese form corresponding to the Spanish señor and Italian signor.

Senile, sē′nil, adj. pertaining to old age or attendant on it: aged.—n. Senil′ity, old age: the imbecility of old age. [L. senilissenex, senis, old.]

Senior, sēn′yor, adj. elder: older in office.—n. one older than another, the elder of two persons in one family bearing the same name: one older in office: an aged person: one of the older fellows of a college, a student in the fourth year of the curriculum.—v.i. Sē′niorise, to lord it over.—n. Sēnior′ity, priority of birth, or of service: a body of seniors—also Sē′niory (Shak.). [L., comp. of senex.]

Senna, sen′a, n. the purgative dried leaflets of several species of cassia. [Fr.,—Ar. sena.]

Sennet, sen′et, n. (Shak.) a particular set of notes on the trumpet or cornet.

Sennight, sen′nīt, n. a week. [Seven night.]

Sennit, sen′it, n. a sort of flat, braided cordage.—Also Sinn′et.

Senocular, sē-nok′ū-lar, adj. having six eyes.

Senonian, sē-nō′ni-an, n. (geol.) a division of the upper Cretaceous in France and Belgium.

Señor, se-nyōr′, n. a gentleman: in address, sir: as a title, Mr:—fem. Señora (se-nyō′ra), a lady: in address, madam: as a title, Mrs.—n. Señorita (sen-yō-rē′ta), a young lady: in address, miss: as a title, Miss. [Sp.]

Sens, sens, adv. (Spens.) since.

Sensation, sen-sā′shun, n. perception by the senses: the change in consciousness which results from the transmission of nervous impulses to the brain, feeling excited by external objects, by the state of the body, or by immaterial objects: a state of excited feeling.—adjs. Sen′sāte, -d, perceived by the senses; Sensā′tional, pertaining to sensation: having sensation: intended as a literary work to excite violent emotions: adhering to a philosophical sensationalism.—ns. Sensā′tionalism, the doctrine that our ideas originate solely in sensation, and that there are no innate ideas: sensualism: sensational writing; Sensā′tionalist, a believer in sensationalism: a sensational writer.—adj. Sensātionalist′ic.—adv. Sensā′tionally.—adjs. Sen′sative; Sensatō′rial, pertaining to sensation.—Sensation novels, novels that deal in violent effects, strained emotion, and usually improbable situations.

Sense, sens, n. a faculty by which objects are perceived: perception: discernment: understanding: power or soundness of judgment: reason: opinion: conviction: import: immediate consciousness.—ns. Sense′-bod′y, a sense-organ in acalephs supposed to have a visual or an auditory function; Sense′-cap′sule, a receptive chamber for sensory perception, connected with the ear, eye, and nose; Sense′-cen′tre, a centre of sensation.—adj. Sensed, chosen as to sense or meaning.—ns. Sense′-el′ement, an external sensation, as an element of perception; Sense′-fil′ament, a filament having the function of an organ of sense.—adjs. Sense′ful (Spens.), full of sense or meaning, reasonable, judicious, perceptive; Sense′less, without sense: incapable of feeling: wanting sympathy: foolish: unreasonable.—adv. Sense′lessly.—ns. Sense′lessness; Sense′-or′gan, any organ of sense, as the eye, ear, or nose; Sense′-percep′tion, perception by means of the senses; Sense′-rhythm, Hebrew parallelism; Sense′-skel′eton, the framework of a sense-organ; Sensibil′ity, state or quality of being sensible: actual feeling: capacity of feeling: susceptibility: acuteness of feeling: delicacy: mental receptivity.—adj. Sen′sible, capable of being perceived by the senses or by the mind: capable of being affected: easily affected: delicate: intelligent, marked by sense, judicious: cognisant: aware: appreciable: sensitive: amenable to.—n. Sen′sibleness.—adv. Sen′sibly.—adjs Sensifā′cient, producing sensation; Sensif′erous, Sensif′ic, Sensificā′tory; Sensig′enous, giving rise to sensation; Sen′sile, capable of affecting the senses.—ns Sen′sion, the becoming aware of being affected from without in sensation; Sen′sism, sensualism in philosophy; Sen′sist, a sensationalist.—n. Sensitisā′tion.—v.t. Sen′sitise, to render sensitive, to render capable of being acted on by actinic rays of light.—n. Sen′sitiser.—adj. Sen′sitive, having sense or feeling: susceptible to sensations: easily affected: pertaining to, or depending on, sensation.—adv. Sen′sitively.—ns Sen′sitiveness, Sen′sitivity, the state of being sensitive: keen sensibility: the state of being delicately adjusted, as a balance: (chem.) the state of being readily affected by the action of appropriate agents; Sensitom′eter, an apparatus for testing the degrees of sensitiveness of photographic films.—adjs Sensō′rial, pertaining to the sensorium, sensory; Sensoridigest′ive, partaking of digestive functions and those of touch, as the tongue of a vertebrate animal.—ns Sensō′rium, Sen′sory, the organ which receives the impressions made on the senses: the nervous centre to which impressions must be conveyed before they are received: the whole sensory apparatus of the body, the nervous system, &c.—adj. Sen′sual, pertaining to, affecting, or derived from the senses, as distinct from the mind: not intellectual or spiritual: given to the pleasures of sense: voluptuous: lewd: carnal: worldly.—n. Sensualisā′tion.—v.t. Sen′sualise, to make sensual: to debase by carnal gratification.—ns Sen′sualism, sensual indulgence: the doctrine that all our knowledge is derived originally from sensation: the regarding of the gratification of the senses as the highest end; Sen′sualist, one given to sensualism or sensual indulgence: a debauchee: a believer in the doctrine of sensualism.—adj. Sensualist′ic, sensual: teaching the doctrines of sensualism.—n. Sensual′ity, indulgence in sensual pleasures: lewdness.—adv. Sen′sually, in a sensual manner.—ns Sen′sualness; Sen′suism; Sen′suist.—adj. Sen′suous, pertaining to sense: connected with sensible objects: easily affected by the medium of the senses.—adv. Sen′suously.—n. Sen′suousness.—Sensitive flames, flames easily affected by sounds; Sensitive plant, one of certain species of Mimosa—from the peculiar phenomena of irritability which their leaves exhibit when touched or shaken; Sensuous cognition, cognition through the senses.—A sensitive person, one sensitive to mesmeric influence; The senses, or Five senses, sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. [Fr.,—L. sensussentīre, to feel.]

Sent, sent, n. (Spens.) scent, perception.

Sent, sent, pa.t. and pa.p. of send.

Sentence, sen′tens, n. opinion: a judgment pronounced on a criminal by a court or judge: a maxim: (gram.) a number of words containing a complete thought: sense: meaning: matter.—v.t. to pronounce judgment on: to condemn.—n. Sen′tencer, one who sentences.—adj. Senten′tial, pertaining to a sentence: comprising sentences.—adv. Senten′tially.—adj. Senten′tious, abounding with sentences or maxims: short and pithy in expression: bombastic, or affected in speech.—adv. Senten′tiously.—n. Senten′tiousness, brevity with strength.—Master of the Sentences, the great 12th-century schoolman, Peter Lombard (died 1160), from his work Sententiarum Libri IV., an arranged collection of sentences from Augustine, &c. [Fr.,—L. sententiasentīre, to feel.]

Sentient, sen′shi-ent, adj. discerning by the senses: having the faculty of perception and sensation: (phys.) noting those parts which on stimulation give rise to sensation.—n. the mind as capable of feeling.—ns Sen′tience, Sen′tiency.—adv. Sen′tiently, in a sentient or perceptive manner.

Sentiment, sen′ti-ment, n. a thought occasioned by feeling: opinion: judgment: sensibility: feeling: a thought expressed in words: a maxim: a toast: emotion: an exhibition of feeling, as in literature or art: (pl., phren.) the second division of the moral faculties.—adj. Sentimen′tal, having or abounding in sentiments or reflections: having an excess of sentiment or feeling: affectedly tender.—v.t. Sentimen′talise, to talk sentiment.—ns Sentimen′talism, Sentimental′ity, quality of being sentimental: affectation of fine feeling; Sentimen′talist, one who affects sentiment or fine feeling: one guided by mere sentiment: one who regards sentiment as more important than reason.—adv. Sentimen′tally. [Fr.,—Late L.,—L. sentīre, to feel.]

Sentine, sen′tēn, n. (obs.) a sink. [L. sentina.]

Sentinel, sen′ti-nel, n. a soldier or soldier-marine at a point with the duty of watching for the approach of an enemy, or guarding the gun-park, camp, magazine, or other locality: a sentry.—adj. acting as a sentinel.—v.t. to watch over, as a sentinel.—adj. Sen′tinelled, furnished with a sentinel.—Sentinel crab, a crab of the Indian Ocean with long eye-stalks. [Fr. sentinelle—It. sentinella, a watch, prob. the L. sentinator, one who pumps bilge-water out of a ship—sentina, the hold of a ship. Others explain Fr. sentinelle as a dim. of sentier, a path—Low L. semitarius—L. semita, a footpath.]

Sentisection, sen-ti-sek′shun, n. painful vivisection—opp. to Callisection.

Sentry, sen′tri, n. a sentinel: a soldier on guard to observe the approach of danger: a watch-tower.—ns Sen′try-box, a box to shelter a sentry; Sen′try-go, any active military duty. [Prob. a corr. of sentinel—Low L. semitarius—L. semita, a path.]

Senvy, sen′vi, n. (obs.) mustard-seed. [O. Fr. seneve—L. sinapi—Gr. sinapi, mustard.]

Senza, sen′tsa, prep. (mus.) without. [It.]

Sep, sep, an abbreviation for sepal.


Sepal, sep′al, or sē′pal, n. a leaf or division of the calyx of a flower.—adjs. Sep′aline, Sep′aloid, Sep′alous.—n. Sepal′ody, change of petals into sepals. [Fr. sépale—L. separ, separate.]

Separate, sep′a-rāt, v.t. to divide: to part: to withdraw: to set apart for a certain purpose: to sever.—v.i. to part: to withdraw from each other: to become disunited.—adj. separated: divided: apart from another: distinct.—n. Separabil′ity.—adj. Sep′arable, that may be separated or disjointed.—n. Sep′arableness.—advs. Sep′arably; Sep′arately.—ns Sep′arateness; Sep′arating-disc, an emery-wheel for cutting a space between teeth; Separā′tion, act of separating or disjoining: state of being separate: disunion: chemical analysis: divorce without a formal dissolution of the marriage-tie; Separā′tionist; Sep′aratism, act of separating or withdrawing, esp. from an established church; Sep′aratist, one who separates or withdraws, esp. from an established church, a dissenter: a name applied by the Unionists to those Liberals in favour of granting Home Rule to Ireland.—adj. Sep′arātive, tending to separate.—ns. Sep′arātor, one who, or that which, separates: a divider; Sep′arātory, a chemical vessel for separating liquids of different specific gravities; Sep′arātrix, the line separating light from shade on any partly illuminated surface; Separā′tum, a separate copy of a paper which has been published in the proceedings of a scientific society.—Separate estate, property of a married woman over which her husband has no right of control; Separate maintenance, a provision made by a husband for the sustenance of his wife where they decide to live apart. [L. separāre, -ātumse-, aside, parāre, to put.]

Sepawn=Supawn (q.v.).

Sephardim, se-fär′dēm, the Spanish-Portuguese Jews, descended from those expelled from Spain in 1492—as distinguished from Ashkenazim, or German-Polish Jews.—adj. Sephar′dic.

Sephen, sef′en, n. a sting-ray of the Indian Ocean, valued for shagreen.

Sephiroth, sef′i-roth, n. in the cabbala, the first ten numerals identified with Scripture names of God.

Sepia, sē′pi-a, n. a fine, brown pigment used as a water-colour—from the ink-bag of a few species of cuttle-fish: Indian or China ink: a genus of cuttle-fishes.— Sēpiā′cea, a group of cephalopods, same as Sēpiidæ.—n. Sēpiadā′rium, a genus of cuttles.—adjs. Sēpiā′rian, Sē′piāry, Sēpidā′ceous, Sē′pioid; Sē′pic, done in sepia, as a drawing.—ns. Sē′piost, Sepiostaire′, Sē′pium, cuttle-bone. [L.,—Gr. sēpia, the cuttle-fish.]

Sepiment, sep′i-ment, n. a hedge, a fence. [L. sæpimentum, a hedge.]

Sepose, sē-pōz′, v.t. (obs.) to set apart.—v.i. to go apart.—n. Sēposi′tion.

Sepoy, sē′poi, n. a native soldier, whether Hindu or Mohammedan, in the British army in India. [Hind. sipāhī, a soldier—Pers. sipāhī, a horseman.]

Seppuku, sep-puk′ōō, n. the hara-kiri. [Jap.]

Seps, seps, n. a genus of scincoid lizards. [Gr.]

Sepsis, sep′sis, n. putridity, rot: a genus of dipterous insects. [Gr. sēpsis, putrefaction.]

Sept, sept, n. in Ireland, a subdivision of a tribe: an enclosure, a railing.—adj. Sep′tal, belonging to a sept: partitional. [Probably a corr. of sect.]

Sept.=Septuagint; September.

Septan, sep′tan, adj. recurring every seventh day.

Septangle, sep′tang-gl, n. a figure with seven angles and seven sides.—adj. Septang′ūlar, having seven angles. [L. septem, seven, angulus, angle.]

Septaria, sep-tā′ri-a, n. a genus of shipworms—Teredo.

Septarium, sep-tā′ri-um, n. an ovate flattened nodule of argillaceous limestone or ironstone—turtle-stone:—pl. Septā′ria.—adj. Septā′rian.

Septate, -d, sep′tāt, -ed, adj. divided into compartments.

September, sep-tem′bėr, n. the ninth month of the year.—adj. Septem′bral.—n. Septem′brist, one of the perpetrators of the atrocious massacres in the prisons of Paris, Sept. 2-7, 1792.—September thorn, a British geometrid moth. [L. septem, seven.]

Septempartite, sep-tem-pär′tīt, adj. divided into seven parts.

Septemvir, sep-tem′vir, n. one of a board of seven men associated for certain duties.—n. Septem′virate, the office of septemvir.

Septenarius, sep-te-nā′ri-us, n. in Latin prosody, a verse consisting of seven feet.

Septenary, sep′te-nā-ri, adj. consisting of seven: lasting seven years: occurring once in seven years.— Sep′tenaries, the number seven, the heptad. [L. septenariusseptem, seven.]

Septenate, sep′te-nāt, adj. (bot.) having seven parts.

Septennial, sep-ten′i-al, adj. lasting seven years: happening every seven years.—n. Septenn′ate, a period of seven years.—adv. Septenn′ially.—n. Septenn′ium.—Septennial Act, a statute of 1716 fixing the existence of a parliament at seven years. [L. septennisseptem, seven, annus, a year.]

Septentrion, sep-ten′tri-on, n. (Shak.) the north.—adjs. Septen′trion, -al, northern.—adv. Septen′trionally.— Septentriō′nes, the constellation of the Great Bear, or the seven stars near the north pole-star, called Charles's Wain.

Septet, Septette, sep-tet′, n. a work for seven voices or instruments: a company of seven musicians.

Sept-foil, sept′-foil, n. a plant, the roots of which are used in medicine, tanning, &c.: a figure of seven equal segments of a circle used in the R.C. Church as a symbol of her seven sacraments, the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, &c. [Fr. sept—L. septem, seven, foil—L. folium, a leaf.]

Septicemia, sep-ti-sē′mi-a, n. sepsis, blood-poisoning—also Septicæ′mia.—n. Sep′tic, a substance that promotes the putrefaction of bodies.—adjs. Sep′tic, -al, promoting putrefaction.—adv. Sep′tically.—adj. Septicē′mic.—n. Septic′ity, tendency to promote putrefaction.—adj. Septif′erous, conveying putrid poison. [Formed from Gr. sēptikos, putrefying, haima, blood.]

Septicidal, sep-ti-sī′dal, adj. dividing the partitions, as when fruit splits asunder—also Sep′ticide.—adv. Sep′ticidally. [L. sæptum, a fence, cædĕre, to cut.]

Septifarious, sep-ti-fā′ri-us, adj. turned seven different ways.

Septiferous, sep-tif′e-rus, adj. having a septum or septa, septate.

Septifluous, sep-tif′lōō-us, adj. flowing in seven streams.

Septifolious, sep-ti-fō′li-us, adj. seven-leaved.

Septiform, sep′ti-form, adj. sevenfold, having seven parts: like a septum, septal.

Septifragal, sep-tif′rā-gal, adj. (bot.) breaking away from the partitions, said of the valves of a pod. [L. septum, a partition, frangĕre, fractum, to break.]

Septilateral, sep-ti-lat′ėr-al, adj. having seven sides. [L. septem, seven, latus, lateris, a side.]

Septillion, sep-til′yun, n. the product of a million raised to the seventh power, or a unit with forty-two ciphers affixed: in the United States, France, &c., the eighth power of a thousand.

Septimanarian, sep-ti-mā-nā′ri-an, n. a monk on duty for a week. [L. septimanusseptem, seven.]

Septime, sep′tēm, n. the seventh position assumed by a fencer after drawing his weapon from the scabbard. [L. septimus, seventh—septem, seven.]

Septimole, sep′ti-mōl, n. a group of seven notes to be played in the time of four or six: sign septimole.—Also Sep′tōle.

Septinsular, sept-in′sū-lar, adj. consisting of seven islands. [L. septem, seven, insula, island.]

Septisyllable, sep′ti-sil-a-bl, n. a word of seven syllables.

Septomaxillary, sep-tō-mak′si-lā-ri, adj. combining characters of a nasal septum and a maxillary bone.—n. a bone in some birds uniting the maxillopalatines of opposite sides.

Septonasal, sep-tō-nā′zal, adj. forming a nasal septum.—n. a bone of this kind.

Septuagenarian, sep-tū-aj-e-nā′ri-an, n. a person seventy years old.—adj. Septūag′enary, consisting of seventy.—n. one seventy years old. [L. septuagenariusseptuageni, seventy each—septem, seven.]

Septuagesima, sep-tū-a-jes′i-ma, n. the third Sunday before Lent—the seventieth day before Easter (the common but dubious explanation).—adj. Septuages′imal, consisting of seventy: counted by seventies. [L. septuagesimusseptem, seven. The name, like Quinquagesima and Sexagesima, was most probably adopted on a false analogy with Quadragesima, the Latin name of Lent.]

Septuagint, sep′tū-a-jint, n. the version in Hellenistic Greek of the Old Testament, said to have been made by 72 translators at Alexandria by command of Ptolemy Philadelphus (284-247 B.C.)—usually expressed by LXX.—adj. Septuagin′tal. [L. septuagintaseptem, seven.]

Septuary, sep′tū-ā-ri, n. (obs.) something composed of seven.


Septum, sep′tum, n. (bot., anat.) a partition separating two cavities: one of the radial plates of a coral:—pl. Sep′ta.—adj. Sep′tulate, having imperfect or spurious septa.—n. Sep′tulum, a little septum or small partition. [L.,—sæpīre, sepīre, to enclose.]

Septuple, sep′tū-pl, adj. sevenfold.—v.t. to make sevenfold: to multiply by seven.—n. Sep′tūplet, a septimole. [Low L. septuplusseptem, seven; on the analogy of quadruple.]

Sepulchre, sep′ul-kėr, n. a place of burial: tomb: a burial vault: a recess in some early churches in which the reserved sacrament, &c., were laid from Good Friday till Easter.—v.t. (Milt.) to place in a sepulchre: to bury or entomb.—adj. Sepul′chral, pertaining to a sepulchre, or to monuments erected for the dead: (fig.) deep, hollow in tone.—n. Sep′ulture, act of burying the dead: interment: burial.—v.t. to entomb. [Fr.,—L. sepulchrumsepelīre, sepultum, to bury.]

Sepurture, sep′ur-tūr, adj. (her.) raised above the back and opened, of a bird's wings.

Sequacious, sē-kwā′shus, adj. inclined to follow a leader: attendant: manageable: pliant: observing logical sequence or consistence.—ns. Sequā′ciousness, Sequac′ity, disposition to follow. [L. sequax, sequacissequi, to follow.]

Sequel, sē′kwel, n. that which follows, the succeeding part: result, consequence: (obs.) descendants: (Scots law) thirlage. [Fr.,—L. sequelasequi; Gr. hepesthai, to follow.]

Sequela, sē-kwē′la, n. that which follows: an inference, a corollary:—pl. Sē′quelæ.

Sequence, sē′kwens, n. state of being sequent or following: order of succession: a series of things following in a certain order, as a set of three or more cards in order of value: that which follows: consequence: (mus.) a regular succession of similar chords: in liturgics, a hymn in rhythmical prose, sung after the gradual and before the gospel.—adjs. Sē′quent, following, succeeding; Sēquen′tial.—n. Sēquential′ity.—adv. Sēquen′tially. [Fr.,—L. sequens, pr.p. of sequi, to follow.]

Sequester, sē-kwes′tėr, v.t. to separate: to withdraw from society: to seclude: to set apart: (law) to place anything contested into the hands of a third person till the dispute is settled: to hold the property of another till the profits pay the demands: to take possession of the estate of a bankrupt in order to distribute it among the creditors: to confiscate.—v.i. to renounce any interest in the estate of a husband.—n. (Shak.) the act of sequestering: an umpire.—adjs. Sēques′tered, retired, secluded; Seques′trable.—v.t. Sēques′trate (law), to sequester.—ns. Sēquestrā′tion, the Scotch legal term for bankruptcy: the act of sequestering, esp. the seizure of any one's property for the use of the state during dispute, or for the benefit of creditors: state of being separated: seclusion from society; Sēquestrā′tor, one who sequesters another's property: one to whom property is committed during dispute. [O. Fr. sequestrer—Low L. sequestrāre, -ātum—L. sequester, a depositary—sequi, to follow.]

Sequestrum, sē-kwes′trum, n. a necrosed section of bone.—n. Sequestrot′omy, the operation of removing such.

Sequin, sē′kwin, n. a gold Venetian coin of the 13th century=9s. 4d. [Fr.,—It. zecchinozecca, the mint; of Ar. origin.]

Sequoia, sē-kwoi′a, n. a small genus of gigantic evergreen coniferous trees belonging to California—Wellingtonia. [A Latinised form of the name of the Cherokee chief Sequoiah.]

Sera, sē′ra, n. a lock of any kind:—pl. Sē′ræ. [L.]

Sérac, sā-rak′, n. a name for the cuboidal masses into which the névé breaks when passing down a steep incline. [Swiss Fr.]

Seraglio, se-ral′yō, n. the ancient residence of the Sultan at Constantinople, enclosing within its walls a variety of mosques, gardens, and large edifices, the chief of which is the Harem: a place where women are kept, a place of licentious pleasure: an enclosure. [It. serraglio—Low L. serāre, to lock up, from L. sera, a door-bar. The word was confused with Pers. serai, a palace.]

Serai, se-rä′i, n. a khan, a caravansary: a seraglio for women. [Pers. serai, a palace.]

Seralbumin, sēr-al-bū′min, n. albumin of the blood.

Serang, se-rang′, n. the skipper of a small East Indian vessel, the boatswain of a lascar crew. [Pers. sarhang, a commander.]

Serape, se-rä′pe, n. a Mexican shawl worn by men, often gay-coloured.

Serapeum, Serapeium, ser-a-pē′um, n. a temple of Serapis, esp. that near Memphis.

Seraph, ser′af, n. an angel of the highest rank in the traditional angelology of the church, due to Dionysius the Areopagite, who places the seraphim at the head of the nine choirs of angels, the first rank being formed by the seraphim, cherubim, and throni:—pl. Seraphs (ser′afs), Seraphim (ser′af-im), celestial beings on either side of the throne of Jehovah, seen in prophetic vision by Isaiah, and by him alone (vi. 2-6): a geometrid moth.—adjs. Seraph′ic, -al, pertaining to, or becoming, a seraph: angelic: pure: sublime: refined.—adv. Seraph′ically. [Heb. Serāphīmsāraph, to burn.]

Seraphine, ser′a-fēn, n. a coarse-toned musical reed-instrument, played with a key-board—the precursor of the harmonium.

Serapias, se-rā′pi-as, n. a genus of orchids.

Serapis, ser-ā′pis, n. Apis honoured by the Romans under the attributes of Osiris: a genus of gasteropods: a genus of hymenopterous insects.

Seraskier, ser-as′kēr, n. a Turkish general, esp. the commander-in-chief or the minister of war.—n. Seras′kierate, the office of a seraskier. [Turk.,—Pers. sar, ser, head, Ar. ‛asker, army.]

Serb, serb, adj. Servian.—n. a Servian.

Serbonian, ser-bō′ni-an, adj. relating to a dangerous bog in Egypt, hence to any difficult situation.

Serdab, ser′dab, n. a secret chamber within the masonry of an ancient Egyptian tomb in which images of the deceased were stored. [Ar. serdāb.]

Sere. Same as Sear.

Sere, sēr, adj. (obs.) separate, several, many.

Sere, sēr, n. (obs.) a claw.

Serein, se-rang′, n. a fine rain which falls from a cloudless sky. [Fr.]

Serena, sē-rē′na, n. the damp, unwholesome air of evening.

Serenade, ser-e-nād′, n. evening music in the open air, esp. given by a lover to his mistress under her window at night: a piece of music suitable for such an occasion.—v.t. to entertain with a serenade.—ns. Serenā′der, one who serenades; Serenä′ta, an instrumental work for performance in the open air; Ser′enāte (Milt.), a serenade. [Fr.,—It. serenata, sereno, serene—L. serenus.]

Serene, sē-rēn′, adj. calm: unclouded: unruffled: an adjunct to the titles of certain German princes—a translation of Durchlaucht.—v.t. to tranquillise.—n. the chilly damp of evening: blight.—adv. Serēne′ly, calmly, coolly.—ns. Serēne′ness; Seren′itude; Seren′ity, state or quality of being serene, calmness, peace.—v.t. Serenise′, to make bright: to glorify. [L. serenus, clear.]

Serenoa, sē-rē′nō-a, n. a genus of dwarf palms in Florida.

Serf, sėrf, n. a slave attached to the soil and sold with it: a labourer rendering forced service in Russia: a menial.—ns. Serf′age, Serf′dom, condition of a serf. [Fr.,—L. servus, a slave.]

Serge, sėrj, n. a strong twilled fabric, once of silk, now usually of worsted.—n. Sergette′, a thin serge. [Fr.,—L. serica, silk—Seres, the Chinese.]

Sergeant, Serjeant, sär′jent, n. a non-commissioned officer of the army and marines next above a corporal, overlooking the soldiers in barracks, and assisting the officers in all ways in the field: a bailiff: a constable: a servant in monastic offices: a police-officer of superior rank.—ns. Ser′geancy, Ser′geantcy, Ser′geantship, office of a sergeant; Ser′geant-at-arms, an officer of a legislative body for keeping order, &c.; Ser′geant-fish, the cobra, so called from the lateral stripes; Ser′geant-mā′jor, the highest non-commissioned officer, employed to assist the adjutant: the cow-pilot, a fish; Ser′geantry, Ser′geanty, a kind of feudal tenure on condition of service due to the king only; Ser′jeant-at-arms, an officer who attends upon the Lord Chancellor with the mace, and who executes various writs of process in the course of a Chancery suit: a similar officer who attends on each House of Parliament, and arrests any person ordered by the House to be arrested; Ser′jeant-at-law, formerly in England the highest degree of barrister, once with exclusive audience in the Court of Common Pleas, their proper dress a violet-coloured robe with a scarlet hood, and a black coif, represented in modern times by a patch of silk at the top of the wig.—Grand sergeanty, a tenure of lands by special honorary service to the king; Petit sergeanty, a tenure of lands by a rent or tender. [Fr. sergent—L. serviens, -entis, pr.p. of servīre, to serve.]

Serial, sē′ri-al, adj. pertaining to, or consisting of, a series: appearing periodically.—n. a tale or other composition appearing in successive parts, as in a periodical: a publication issued in successive numbers, a periodical.—n. Sērial′ity.—advs. Sē′rially, Sē′riately, in a series or regular order.—adj. Sē′riāte, arranged in a series.—adv. Sē′riātim, one after another.—n. Sēriā′tion.

Serian, sē′ri-an, adj. Chinese—also Ser′ic.—ns. Ser′ica, a genus of melolonthine beetles; Sericā′ria, a genus of bombycid moths, containing the mulberry silkworm.—adjs. Ser′icate, -d, silky, covered with silky down; Sericeous (sērish′i-us), pertaining to, or consisting of, silk: (bot.) covered with soft silky hairs, as a leaf.— Seric′ides, a section of melolonthine beetles.—ns. Ser′icin, the gelatinous substance of silk; Ser′icite, a variety of potash mica.—adj. Sericit′ic.—ns. Sericocar′pus, a genus of composite plants of the United States; Sericos′tōma, the typical genus of caddis-flies; Serictē′rium, a spinning gland; Ser′iculture, the breeding of silkworms—also Ser′iciculture; Sericul′turist. [Gr. Sēres, the Seres, an Asiatic people who supplied the Greeks and Romans with their silk.]

Sericon, ser′i-kon, n. in the jargon of alchemy, a red tincture—opp. to Bufo, a black.

Seriema, ser-i-ē′ma, n. a long-legged, crested Brazilian bird.—Also Caria′ma.

Series, sē′ri-ēz, n.sing. and pl. a succession of things connected by some likeness: sequence: order: (math.) a progression of numbers or quantities according to a certain law.—Arithmetical series, a series whose terms progress by the addition or subtraction of a constant difference; Geometrical series, a series whose successive terms progress by a constant multiplier or divisor—the common ratio; Reciprocal series, a series each of whose terms is the reciprocal of the corresponding term of another series. [L.,—serĕre, sertum, to join.]

Serif, ser′if, n. the short cross-line at the ends of unconnected Roman types, as in H, l, d, y, &c.—Also Cer′iph and Ser′iph.

Seriform, sē′ri-form, adj. noting a section of the Altaic family of languages, comprising Chinese, &c.

Serilophus, sē-ril′ō-fus, n. an Indian genus of broadbills. [Gr. sērikos, silky, lophos, a crest.]

Serin, ser′in, n. a small fringilline bird like the canary.—n. Serinette′, a bird-organ. [Fr.,—L. citrinus, citrine, yellow.]

Seringa, se-ring′gä, n. a name of several Brazilian trees yielding india-rubber. [Port.]

Seringhi, ser-ing-gē′, n. a musical instrument of the viol class used in India.

Serinus, sē-rī′nus, n. a genus of birds of the fringilline family, including canaries. [Fr. serin.]

Seriola, sē-rī′ō-la, n. a genus of carangoid fishes, the amber fishes.

Serious, sē′ri-us, adj. solemn: in earnest: important: attended with danger: weighty: professedly religious.—adjs. Sē′rio-com′ic, -al, partly serious and partly comical.—adv. Sē′riously, gravely, deeply: without levity.—n. Sē′riousness. [Fr. serieux—L. serius, akin to severus, severe.]

Seriph. See Serif.

Serjeant. See Sergeant.

Sermocination, ser-mos-i-nā′shun, n. (obs.) speech-making: (rhet.) a form of prosopopœia in which one answers a question he has himself asked.

Sermon, sėr′mon, n. a discourse on a text of Scripture delivered during divine service: any serious address, any serious counsel, admonition, or reproof.—v.t. to tutor, to lecture.—ns. Sermol′ogus, a volume containing sermons by the Church fathers; Sermoneer′, a sermoniser; Ser′moner, a preacher; Ser′monet, a little sermon.—adjs. Sermon′ic, -al, having the character of a sermon.—n. Ser′moning, the act of preaching: a homily.—v.i. Ser′monise, to compose or preach sermons: to lecture: to lay down the law.—v.t. to preach a sermon to.—ns. Sermonī′ser, one who preaches or writes sermons; Sermō′nium, a historical play, formerly acted by the inferior orders of the Roman Catholic clergy; Sermun′cle, a little sermon. [L. sermo, sermonisserĕre, to join.]

Seroon, se-rōōn′, n. a crate or hamper in which Spanish and Levantine figs, raisins, &c. are usually packed.—n. Ser′on, a bale of about 200 lb. of Paraguay tea wrapped in hide. [Sp. seron.]

Seropurulent, sē-rō-pū′rōō-lent, adj. composed of serum mixed with pus.—adj. Serosanguin′olent, pertaining to bloody serum.

Serotine, ser′ō-tin, n. a small reddish vespertilionine bat. [L. serotinussero, late.]

Serotinous, sē-rot′i-nus, adj. (bot.) appearing late the season. [L. serotinus—sero, late.]

Serous, sē′rus, adj. resembling serum, thin, watery: secreting serum.—n. Seros′ity. [Serum.]

Serpent, sėr′pent, n. any member of the genus Ophidia, more popularly known as snakes—any reptile without feet which moves by means of its ribs and scales: a snake: a person treacherous or malicious: one of the constellations in the northern hemisphere: (mus.) a bass musical wind-instrument, entirely obsolete except in a few Continental churches, a tapered leather-covered wooden tube 8 feet long, twisted about like a serpent.—v.i. to wind along: to meander.—v.t. to girdle, as with the coils of a serpent.—ns. Serpentā′ria, the Virginia snakeroot; Serpentā′rius, the secretary-birds: the constellation Ophiuchus; Ser′pent-charm′er, one who charms or has power over serpents; Ser′pent-charm′ing, the art of charming or governing serpents; Ser′pent-cū′cumber, a long-fruited variety of the musk-melon; Ser′pent-dē′ity, the god of the Ophites, Abraxas; Ser′pent-eat′er, the secretary-bird: a wild goat in India and Cashmere; Ser′penteau, an iron circle with spikes to which squibs are attached, used in a breach.— Serpent′es, the second order of the third class of limbless reptiles.—ns. Ser′pent-fish, the snake-fish; Ser′pent-grass, the alpine bistort.—adjs. Serpent′iform, ophidian in structure: snake-like; Ser′pentine, resembling a serpent: winding, tortuous: spiral: crooked.—n. a kind of firework: a 16th-cent. form of cannon: a mineral composed of silica and manganese, generally occurring massive, colour some shade of green, also red and brownish-yellow.—v.i. to wind or wriggle like a serpent.—adv. Ser′pentinely.—adjs. Serpentin′ic, Ser′pentinous.—adv. Serpentī′ningly, with a serpentine motion.—v.t. Ser′pentinise, to convert into serpentine.—v.i. Ser′pentise, to wind: meander.—adj. Ser′pent-like, like a serpent.—ns. Ser′pent-liz′ard, a lizard of the genus Seps; Ser′pent-moss, a greenhouse plant from the West Indies; Ser′pentry, serpentine motion: a place infested by serpents: serpents collectively; Ser′pent-star, a brittle star; Ser′pent-stone, snake-stone, adder-stone; Ser′pent's-tongue, the adder's-tongue fern; Ser′pent-tur′tle, an enaliosaur; Ser′pent-withe, a twining plant of tropical America; Ser′pent-wood, an East Indian shrub; Ser′pent-wor′ship, one of the most ancient and widespread forms of primitive religion, and still existing amongst many savage peoples; Sea′-ser′pent (see Sea).—Serpentine verse, a verse which begins and ends with the same word.—The old serpent, Satan. [L. serpens, -entis, pr.p. of serpĕre, to creep; akin to Gr. herpein.]

Serpet, ser′pet, n. (obs.) a basket.

Serpette, sėr-pet′, n. a hooked pruning-knife. [Fr.]

Serpigo, sėr-pī′go, n. (Shak.) a skin eruption, herpes.—adj. Serpig′inous (-pij′-). [L. serpĕre, to creep.]

Serplath, ser′plath, n. (Scot.) 80 stone weight.

Serpolet, ser′pō-let, n. the wild thyme. [Fr.]

Serpula, ser′pū-la, n. a genus of sedentary Chætopod worms, living in twisted calcareous tubes fastened to shells and rocks in the sea, or even to other animals, such as crabs.—adj. Serpū′lian.—n. Ser′pulite, a fossil of the family Serpulidæ.—adjs. Serpulit′ic, Ser′puloid. [L. serpĕre, to creep.]

Serr, ser, v.t. (obs.) to crowd or press together.

Serra, ser′a, n. a saw, or saw-like part [L.]

Serradilla, ser-a-dil′a, n. a Port. bird's-foot clover.

Serranus, ser-rā′nus, n. the genus containing sea-perches or sea-bass.— Serran′idæ, the family of fishes containing among its genera Sea-bass, Rockfish, &c. [L. serra, a saw.]

Serrasalmo, ser-a-sal′mo, n. a genus of characinoid fishes, with compressed belly fringed with projecting scales. [L. serra, a saw, salmo, a salmon.]

Serrate, -d, ser′rāt, -ed, adj. notched or cut like a saw: (bot.) having small sharp teeth along the margin.—n. Serrā′tion, state of being serrated.—adj. Serratiros′tral, saw-billed, as a bird.—ns. Ser′rāture, a notching like that between the teeth of a saw; Serrā′tus, one of several muscles of the thorax.—adj. Ser′ricorn, having separate antennæ.— Serrif′era, a group of insects, including the sawflies and horntails.—adjs. Serrif′erous, having a serra or serrate organ; Ser′riform, toothed like a saw; Ser′riped, having the feet serrate; Serriros′trate, having the bill serrated with tooth-like processes.—n. Ser′ro-mō′tor, a steam reversing-gear, in marine engines.—adj. Ser′rous, like the teeth of a saw: rough.—n. Ser′rula, one of the serrated appendages of the throat of the mudfish:—pl. Ser′rulæ.—adjs. Ser′rulate, -d, finely serrate.—ns. Serrulā′tion, the state of being serrulate; Serrurerie′, ornamental wrought-metal work. [L. serratusserra, a saw.]

Serried, ser′rid, adj. crowded: pressed together.—v.t. Ser′ry, to crowd. [Fr. serrer, to crowd—L. sera, a door-bar.]

Sertularia, ser-tū-lā′ri-a, n. a common genus of Hydroids in which the branched horny investment of the plant-like colony forms a sessile cup around each polyp.—adj. Sertulā′rian. [L. serĕre, sertum, to plait.]

Serum, sē′rum, n. the watery part of curdled milk, whey: the thin fluid which separates from the blood when it coagulates. [L.]

Serval, sėr′val, n. a South African animal of the cat tribe, yellowish with black spots, valued for its fur—the Bush-cat, Tiger-cat. [Ger.]

Servant, sėr′vant, n. one who is in the service of another: a labourer: a domestic: one dedicated to God: (B.) a slave: one of low condition or spirit: a professed lover: a word of mere civility, as in 'your humble' or 'obedient servant' in letters, petitions, &c.—v.t. to subject.—ns. Ser′vant-girl, Ser′vant-maid, a female domestic servant; Ser′vant-man, a male servant; Ser′vantry, servants collectively; Ser′vantship, position or relation of a servant.—Servant out of livery, a servant of a higher grade, as a major-domo or butler; Servants' call, a whistle to call attendants; Servants' hall, the room in a house where the servants eat together. [Fr., pr.p. of servir, to serve—L. servīre, to serve.]

Servatory, sėr′va-tor-i, n. (obs.) that which preserves.

Serve, sėrv, v.t. to be a servant to, to work for and obey: to attend or wait upon: to work for: to obey: to be subservient or subordinate to: to wait upon at table, &c.: to do duty for: to treat, behave towards: to render worship to: to aid by good offices: to minister to a priest at mass: to comply with: to requite: to handle, manipulate: to furnish: (naut.) to bind with small cord: (law) to deliver or present formally: to furnish: to cover, of stallions, &c.: to deliver the ball in tennis.—v.i. to be employed as a servant, to discharge any regular duty: to be in subjection: to suffice, to avail, to be suitable or favourable.—n. in tennis, the act of the first player in striking the ball, or the style in which this is done.—ns. Ser′vage (obs.), servitude: the service of a lover; Ser′ver, one who serves: an attendant on the priest at the celebration of the Eucharist: the player who strikes the tennis-ball first: a salver, any utensil for distributing or helping at table.—Serve an office, to discharge the duties of an office; Serve a process or writ, to formally communicate a process or writ to the person to whom it is addressed; Serve an attachment, to levy such a writ on the person or goods by seizure; Serve an execution, to levy an execution on the person or goods by seizure; Serve a sentence, to undergo the punishment prescribed by a judicial sentence; Serve one a trick, to play a trick on one; Serve one out, to take revenge on some one; Serve one right, to treat one as he deserves; Serve one's time, to complete one's apprenticeship; Serve out, to deal or distribute; Serve the purpose of, to answer adequately an end for which something else is designed; Serve the turn, to suffice for one's immediate purpose or need; Serve time, to undergo a period of imprisonment, &c.; Serve up, to bring to table. [Fr. servir—L. servīre, to serve.]

Servian, ser′vi-an, n. a native of Servia: the language of Servia, belonging to the southern division of the Slav tongues, its nearest congeners Bulgarian, Slovenian, and Russian.

Service, sėr′vis, n. condition or occupation of a servant: a working for another: duty required in any office: military or naval duty: any liturgical form or office, public religious worship, religious ceremonial: a musical composition for devotional purposes: labour, assistance, or kindness to another: benefit: profession of respect: order of dishes at table, or a set of them: official function, use, employment: that which is furnished: a tree of rarely more than 30 feet high, with leaves and flowers like the Rowan-tree, but the former downy beneath—also Sorb.—ns. Serviceabil′ity, Ser′viceableness.—adj. Ser′viceable, able or willing to serve: advantageous: useful: capable of rendering long service, durable.—adv. Ser′viceably.—ns. Ser′vice-berr′y, a berry of the service-tree: (Scot.) the fruit of the white beam: a North American shrub, the shadbush; Ser′vice-book, a book of forms of religious service: a prayer-book; Ser′vice-box, a form of expansion joint, used in street-mains of steam-heating systems; Ser′vice-clean′er, a portable air-compressing pump and receiver for service-pipes; Ser′vice-line, one of two lines drawn across the court twenty-one feet from the net, in lawn-tennis; Ser′vice-mag′azine, a magazine for storing ammunition for immediate use; Ser′vice-pipe, a smaller pipe from a main-pipe to a dwelling; Ser′vice-tree, a tree of the pear family, with close-grained wood and an edible fruit; Ser′ving-mall′et, a piece of wood having a groove on one side to fit the convexity of a rope; Din′ner-ser′vice, a full set of dishes for dinner; Tā′ble-ser′vice, a set of utensils for the table; Wild′-ser′vice, a small species of service-tree, cultivated in England for its fruit and wood.—Service of an heir (Scots law), a proceeding before a jury to determine the heir of a person deceased.—Active service, service of a soldier, &c., in the field, against an enemy; At your service, a phrase of civility; Have seen service, to have been in active military service: to have been put to hard use; Plain service, in Anglican usage, an office which is simply read. [Fr.,—L. servitium.]

Servient, ser′vi-ent, adj. subordinate.

Serviette, ser-vi-et′, n. a table-napkin. [Fr.]

Servile, sėr′vīl, adj. pertaining to a slave or servant: slavish: meanly submissive: cringing: obedient: (gram.) secondary or subordinate.—n. a slave, a menial.—adv. Ser′vilely.—ns. Ser′vilism, the spirit of a servile class; Servil′ity (obs. Ser′vileness), state or quality of being servile: slavery: obsequiousness; Ser′ving-maid, a female domestic servant; Ser′ving-man, a male servant: a professed lover.—adj. Ser′vious, obsequious.—ns. Ser′vīte, one of a mendicant order of monks and nuns founded in Italy in the 13th century; Servit′ium (law), service; Ser′vitor, one who serves: a servant: a follower or adherent: a male servant, a menial: soldier: formerly in Oxford, an undergraduate partly supported by the college, his duty to wait on the fellows and gentlemen commoners at table; Ser′vitorship, the office or condition of a servitor; Ser′vitūde, state of being a slave: slavery: state of slavish dependence: menial service: compulsory servitude: (law) a burden affecting land or other heritable subjects, by which the proprietor is either restrained from the full use of his property or is obliged to suffer another to do certain acts upon it: service rendered in the army or navy: (obs.) servants collectively; Ser′vitūre (Milt.), servants collectively.—v.i. Ser′vulate.

Sesame, ses′a-mē, n. an annual herbaceous plant of Southern Asia, whose seed yields the valuable gingili-oil.—adjs. Ses′amoid, -al, denoting certain small bones found in the substance of the tendons at the articulations of the great toes, and in other parts of the body.—n. Ses′amum, the genus to which sesame belongs.—Open sesame, the charm by which the door of the robbers' cave flew open in the tale of 'Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves' in the Arabian Nights. [Fr.,—L.,—Gr.]

Sesban, ses′ban, n. a shrub of the bean family, with yellow flowers, native to Egypt.—Also Jyntee. [Fr.,—Ar. seisebān.]

Seseli, ses′el-i, n. a genus of umbelliferous plants, usually perennial, with erect branching stems—including the mountain meadow-saxifrage. [Gr.]

Sesha, sā′sha, n. the king of the serpents in Hindu mythology, having a thousand heads, the buttresses of the world.

Sesia, sē′shi-a, n. a genus of clear-winged moths. [Gr. sēs, seos, a moth.]

Sesquialteral, ses-kwi-al′te-ral, adj. one and a half more—also Sesquial′terate, Sesquial′terous.—n. Sesquial′tera (mus.), the interval of a perfect fifth, having the ratio of 2 to 3: a rhythm in which three minims are made equal to a preceding two. [L. sesquialter.]

Sesquiduple, ses-kwi-dū′pl, adj. of two and a half times.—adj. Sesquidū′plicate, being in the ratio of 2½ to 1, or 5 to 2.

Sesquipedalian, ses-kwi-pē-dā′li-an, adj. containing a foot and a half: often humorously said of a very long word—also Ses′quipedal.—ns. Sesquipedā′lianism, Sesquipedal′ity. [L. sesquipedalissesqui, one-half more, pes, ped-is, a foot.]

Sesquiplicate, ses-kwip′li-kāt, adj. noting the ratio of a cube to a square.

Sesquitertia, ses-kwi-ter′shi-a, n. (mus.) a perfect fourth, an interval having the ratio of 1 to 1⅓, or 3 to 4.—adjs. Sesquiter′tial, Sesquiter′tian, -al.

Sesquitone, ses′kwi-tōn, n. (mus.) a minor third, an interval equal to a tone and a half.

Sess, ses, n. Same as Cess.

Sessa, ses′a, interj. (Shak.) prob. a cry to urge to swiftness in running.


Sessile, ses′il, adj. (bot.) growing directly from the stem, without a foot-stalk, as some leaves. [L. sessilis, low—sedēre, sessum, to sit.]

Session, sesh′un, n. the sitting of a court or public body: the time it sits: the period of time between the meeting and prorogation of Parliament: the act of sitting, esp. the enthronement of Christ at the right hand of God the Father: (Scot.) the lowest Presbyterian church court, the kirk-session.—adj. Ses′sional, pertaining or belonging to a session or sessions.—n. Ses′sion-clerk, the official who officially records the transactions of a kirk-session.—Court of Session, the supreme civil court of Scotland. [Fr.,—L. sessio, sessionissedēre, sessum, to sit.]

Sesspool. Same as Cesspool.

Sestertius, ses-tėr′shi-us, n. a Roman silver coin, a quarter denarius, worth 2½ asses: a brass coin under the Empire, worth 4 asses—also Ses′terce:—pl. Sester′tii.—n. Sester′tium, a money of account equal to 1000 sestertii. [L., 'two-and-a-half'—semis, half, tertius, third.]

Sestet, Sestette, ses′tet, n. the last six lines of a sonnet forming two stanzas of three lines each: (mus.) same as Sextet. [It. sestettosesto—L. sextus, sixth.]

Sestina, ses-tē′na, n. an old French form of verse, originally consisting of six stanzas of six unrhymed lines, with a final triplet, the same terminal words being used in each stanza, but arranged differently. Modern sestinas are written on two or three rhymes.—Also Ses′tine. [It.,—L. sextus, sixth.]

Sestole, ses′tōl, n. (mus.) same as Sextuplet (q.v.).—Also Ses′tolet.

Set, set, v.t. to make to sit: to place: to fix: to put in a condition for use, to make ready, to arrange, prepare, furnish, draw up: to render motionless: to determine beforehand: to obstruct: to plant, place so as to promote growth: to place a brooding fowl on a nest containing eggs: to fix in metal: to put and fix in its proper place, as a broken limb, &c.: to assign, as a price: to sharpen: to spread, as sails: to pitch, as a tune: to adapt music to: to frame, mount, or adorn with something fixed: to stud: to point, as a dog: to accompany part or the whole of the way: (Scot.) to let to a tenant: to compose, put into type: (prov.) to become, as a dress, &c.—v.i. to sink below the horizon: to decline: to become fixed: to congeal: to begin the growth of fruit: to have a certain direction in motion: to acquire a set or bend: to point out game: to apply (one's self):—pr.p. set′ting; pa.t. and pa.p. set.—n. Set′-back, a check to progress: an overflow.—adj. Set-by′ (Scot.), proud, reserved.—ns. Set′-down, a rebuke, snubbing; Set′-off, a claim set up against another: a counterbalance: an ornament; Set′-out, preparations: a display of dishes, dress, &c.: a company, clique; Set′-to, a conflict in boxing, argument, &c.; Set′-up, bearing of a person.—adj. hilarious, tipsy.—Set about, to begin; Set abroach, to tap and leave running: to give publicity to; Set against, to oppose; Set agoing, to make begin to move; Set apart, to separate from the rest, to reserve: (B.) to promote; Set aside, to put away, to omit or reject; Set at ease, to quiet, content; Set at naught (see Naught); Set at work, to put to a task; Set before, to put in front of one; Set by, to put aside: (B.) to value or esteem; Set by the compass, to note the bearing by the compass; Set down, to lay on the ground: to put down in writing: to fix in one's mind: to attribute, charge: to lay down authoritatively: to give a severe rebuke to; Set eyes on, to see, fix one's eyes on; Set forth, to exhibit, display: to praise, recommend: to publish: (B.) to set off to advantage: to set out on a journey; Set forward (B.), to further, promote; Set free, to release, put at liberty; Set in, to put in the way: to begin; Set in order, to adjust or arrange; Set little, much, &c., by, to regard, esteem little, much, &c.; Set off, to adorn: to place against as an equivalent; Set on (B.), to attack; Set on, or upon, to instigate: to employ: to fix upon: (B.) to attack; Set one's face, to turn one's self resolutely towards; Set one's hand to, to sign; Set one's self, to bend one's energies toward anything; Set one's self against, to discountenance, oppose; Set one's teeth, to set one's teeth together, as in a strong resolution; Set on fire, to apply fire; Set on foot, to set agoing, to start; Set out, to mark off, to assign: (Bacon) to publish, to adorn: to equip, to furnish: to recommend: to prove: to start; Set over, to appoint as ruler over; Set sail (see Sail); Set the fashion, to lead or establish the fashion; Set the teeth on edge (see Edge); Set to, to affix: to apply one's self; Set up, to erect, to exalt: to begin: to enable to begin: to place in view: (print.) to put in type: to begin a new course: to make pretensions. [A.S. settan; cog. with Ger. setzen, Ice. setja, Goth. satjan; settan is the weak causative of sittan, to sit.]

Set, set, adj. fixed: firm: determined: regular: established: having reached the full growth: (B.) seated.—n. a number of things similar or suited to each other, set or used together: a group of games played together: the full number of eggs set under a hen: the couples that take part in a square dance, also the movements in a country-dance or quadrille: a number of persons associated: direction, drift, tendency: act of setting: a young plant ready for setting out, a cutting, slip: the appearance of young oysters in a district in any season: a mine or set of mines on lease, a distance set off for excavation, a system of pumps in a mine (also Sett): a tool for dressing forged iron: any permanent change of shape or bias of mind: fit, way in which a dress hangs: the pattern of a tartan, &c.: bearing, carriage, build.—n. Set′-square, a triangular piece of wood having one of its angles a right angle, used in mechanical drawing.—Set fair, a barometric indication of steady, fair weather; Set piece, a piece of theatrical scenery with a supporting framework, as distinguished from a side-scene or drop-scene; Set speech, a speech carefully premeditated.

Seta, sē′tä, n. a bristle, stiff hair, a prickle.—adj. Sētā′ceous, consisting of bristles: bristle-shaped.—n. Setā′ria, a genus of grasses with flat leaves and tail-like bristly spikes.—adjs. Sētif′erous; Sē′tiform, having the form of a bristle; Sētig′erous (tij′), bearing bristles; Sētip′arous, producing bristles; Sētose′, Sē′tous, bristly. [L. seta, a bristle.]

Seton, sē′tn, n. (surg.) an artificially produced sinus or channel, through which some substance, as a skein of cotton or silk, or a long flat piece of india-rubber or gutta-percha, is passed so as to excite suppuration, and to keep the artificially formed openings patent: also the inserted material. [Fr. séton (It. setone)—Low L. seto—L. seta, a bristle.]

Settee, se-tē′, n. a long seat with a back, esp. a sofa for two. [Prob. a variant of settle (3).]

Settee, se-tē′, n. a single-decked Mediterranean vessel with long prow and lateen sails. [Prob. It. saettia.]

Setter, set′ėr, n. one who sets, as music to words: a dog which crouches when it scents the game: one who finds out the victims for thieves.—Setter forth, one who proclaims or promotes anything; Setter off, one who decorates; Setter on, an instigator; Setter out, one who expounds; Setter up, one who establishes.

Setter, set′ėr, v.t. (prov.) to cut an ox's dewlap, and treat with a seton.—ns. Sett′ering, the foregoing process; Sett′er-wort, the fetid hellebore.

Settima, set′ti-ma, n. (mus.) the interval of a seventh—(obs.) Set′timo. [It.,—L. septem.]

Setting, set′ing, n. act of setting: direction of a current of wind: the hardening of plaster: that which holds, as the mounting of a jewel: the mounting of a play, &c., for the stage: act of adapting to music.

Settle, set′l, v.t. to set or place in a fixed state: to fix: to establish in a situation or business: to render quiet, clear, &c.: to decide: to free from uncertainty: to quiet: to compose: to fix by gift or legal act: to adjust: to liquidate or pay: to colonise.—v.i. to become fixed or stationary: to fix one's residence or habits of life (often with down): to grow calm or clear: to sink by its own weight: to sink to the bottom: to cease from agitation.—adj. Sett′led, fixed, firmly seated or decided: quiet, sober.—ns. Sett′ledness; Sett′lement, act of settling: state of being settled: payment: arrangement: a colony newly settled: a subsidence or sinking of a wall, &c.: a sum newly settled on a woman at her marriage; Sett′ler, one who settles: a colonist; Sett′ling, the act of making a settlement: the act of subsiding: the adjustment of differences: sediment: dregs; Sett′ling-day, a date fixed by the Stock Exchange for the completion of transactions—in consols, once a month; in all other stocks, twice a month, each settlement occupying three days (contango-day, name-day, and pay-day). [A.S. setlan, to fix—setl, a seat.]

Settle, set′l, v.t. to decide, conclude: to fix, appoint: regulate: to pay, balance: to restore to good order.—v.i. to adjust differences or accounts: to meet one's pecuniary obligations fully. [A.S. sahtlian, to reconcile, saht, reconciliation—sacan, to contend. Confused in both form and meaning with the preceding.]

Settle, set′l, n. a long high-backed bench for sitting on: (B.) also, a platform lower than another part.—n. Sett′le-bed, a bed which is folded or shut up so as to form a seat by day. [A.S. setlsittan, to sit; Ger. sessel.]

Setule, set′ūl, n. a setula or little bristle.—adjs. Set′ūliform, Set′ūlose.

Setwall, set′wawl, n. the common European valerian. [O. Fr. citoual—Low L. zedoaria—Pers. zadwar.]

Setwork, set′wurk, n. in plastering, two-coat work on lath: boat-building in which the strakes are placed edge to edge and secured by inside battens.

Seven, sev′n, adj. and n. six and one.—adj. Sev′en-fold, folded seven times: multiplied seven times.—n. Sev′en-night, seven days and nights: a week, the time from one day of the week to the same again—also contr. Sennight (sen′nīt).adj. Sev′enth, last of seven, next after the sixth.—n. one of seven equal parts.—adv. Sev′enthly.—Seven cardinal, chief, or principal virtues (see Cardinal); Seven champions of Christendom, St George for England, St Andrew for Scotland, St Patrick for Ireland, St David for Wales, St Denis for France, St James for Spain, St Anthony for Italy; Seven deadly sins, pride, covetousness, lust, anger, gluttony, envy, and sloth; Seven dolours of the Blessed Virgin Mary (see Dolour); Seven free arts (see Arts); Seven gifts of the Holy Ghost, wisdom, understanding, counsel, ghostly strength or fortitude, knowledge, godliness, and the fear of the Lord; Seven sages, or wise men, Solon of Athens, Thales of Miletus, Pittacus of Mitylene, Bias of Priene in Caria, Chilon of Sparta, Cleobulus tyrant of Lindus in Rhodes, and Periander tyrant of Corinth; Seven Sleepers, seven Christian youths at Ephesus who took refuge in a cave about 250 A.D. in the persecution of Decius, were walled up by their pursuers, fell into a deep sleep, and only awoke in 447 under Theodosius II.; Seven stars, the Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn: the constellation Ursa Major: the Pleiades; Seven wise masters, the most common title given to a famous medieval collection of stories grouped round a central story of the birth, education, and trials of a young prince. Accused like Joseph, he is sentenced to death, but each one of the seven viziers gains a day, out of the fated seven during which the prince may not open his mouth, by two tales against women. At the end of the seventh day the prince is free to speak, and quickly clears his character; Seven wonders of the world, the Pyramids of Egypt, the Hanging (i.e. terraced) Gardens of Babylon, the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, the Statue of Jupiter at Athens by Phidias, the Mausoleum, erected by Artemisia at Halicarnassus, the Colossus at Rhodes, and the Pharos of Alexandria; Seven years' war (1756-63), the third and severest struggle for the possession of Silesia between Frederick the Great and the Empress Maria Theresa, together with the allies on both sides; it gave Silesia to Frederick, and to England the mastery of North America and India. [A.S. seofon; Dut. zeven, Ger. sieben, Goth. sibun, Gr. hepta, L. septem.]

Seventeen, sev′n-tēn, adj. and n. seven and ten.—adj. and n. Sev′enteenth, the seventh after the tenth. [A.S. seofontíeneseofon, tíen, ten.]

Seventy, sev′n-ti, adj. and n. seven times ten.—adj. Sev′entieth, last of seventy: the ordinal of 70.—n. a seventieth part.—The Seventy, the Jewish sanhedrim: the disciples sent out in Luke x.: the authors of the Septuagint—often LXX. [A.S. seofontigseofon, seven; Dut. zeventig, Ger. siebenzig.]

Sever, sev′ėr, v.t. to separate with violence: to cut apart: to divide: (B.) to keep distinct.—v.i. to make a separation, to act independently: to be rent asunder.—adj. Sev′erable.—n. Sev′erance, act of severing: separation. [Fr. sevrer, to wean—L. separāre, to separate.]

Several, sev′ėr-al, adj. distinct: particular: different: various: consisting of a number: sundry.—n. a woman's loose outer garment, capable of being worn as a shawl, or in other forms.—adv. Sev′erally.—n. Sev′eralty, sole tenancy of property. [O. Fr.,—L. separāre, to separate.]

Severe, sē-vēr′, adj. serious: grave: austere: strict: not mild: strictly adhering to rule: free from florid ornamentation, simple: sharp: distressing: inclement: searching: difficult to be endured.—adv. Sēvēre′ly.—ns. Sēvēre′ness; Sēver′ity, quality of being severe: gravity: harshness: exactness: inclemency. [Fr. sévère—L. severus.]

Sèvres, sā′vr, n. Sèvres porcelain.

Sew, sō, v.t. to join or fasten together with a needle and thread.—v.i. to practise sewing.—ns. Sew′er; Sew′ing; Sew′ing-cott′on, cotton thread for sewing; Sew′ing-machine′, a machine for sewing and stitching upon cloth, leather, &c., operated by any power.—Sew up one's stocking, to put one to silence.—Be sewed, or sewed up, to be stranded, of a ship: (coll.) to be brought to a stand-still, to be ruined: to be tipsy. [A.S. síwian, séowian; Old High Ger. siwan, Goth. siujan.]

Sew, sū, v.t. (Spens.) to follow, to solicit. [Sue.]

Sewel, sū′el, n. a scarecrow.—Also Shew′el. [Prob. related to shy.]

Sewer, sū′ėr, n. an officer who set down and removed the dishes at a feast. [O. Fr. asseourasseoir, to set down—L. ad, to, sedēre, to sit. Skeat makes it from M. E. sewen, to set meat, sew, pottage—A.S. seaw, juice.]

Sewer, sū′ėr, n. an underground passage for draining off water and filth.—ns. Sew′age, refuse carried off by sewers; Sew′erage, the whole sewers of a city: drainage by sewers; Sew′er-gas, the contaminated air of sewers.—Open sewer, a sewer of which the channel is exposed to the air. [O. Fr. seuwiere, a canal—L. ex, out, aqua, water.]

Sex, seks, n. the distinction between male and female: the characteristics by which an animal or plant is male or female, gender: the female sex, women generally, usually with the definite article.—adj. Sex′less, having no sex.—n. Sex′lessness.—adj. Sex′ūal, pertaining to sex: distinguished or founded on the sex: relating to the distinct organs of the sexes.—v.t. Sex′ūalise, to distinguish as sexed.—ns. Sex′ūalist, one who classifies plants according to the differences of the sexes; Sexūal′ity, state or quality of being sexual.—adv. Sex′ūally.—Sexual affinity, the instinctive attraction of one sex for another; Sexual organs, the organs of generation; Sexual selection, that province of natural selection in which sex comes into play. [Fr. sexe—L. sexussecāre, to cut.]

Sexagenarian, sek-sa-je-nā′ri-an, n. a person sixty years old.—adj. Sexag′enary, designating the number sixty.—n. a sexagenarian: something containing sixty.—ns. Sex′agene, an arc or angle of 60°; Sexages′ima, the second Sunday before Lent (see Septuagesima).—adj. Sexages′imal, pertaining to the number sixty: proceeding by sixties.—adv. Sexages′imally. [L. sexagenariussexaginta, sixty.]

Sexangle, sek′sang-gl, n. a figure with six angles, a hexagon.—adjs. Sex′angled, Sexang′ular.—adv. Sexang′ularly.

Sexcentenary, sek-sen′te-nā-ri, n. that which consists of 600: a 600th anniversary.—Also adj.

Sexdigitate, seks-dij′i-tāt, adj. having six fingers or toes.—n. Sexdig′itist.

Sexennial, seks-en′yal, adj. lasting six years: happening once in six years—also Sextenn′ial.—adv. Sexenn′ially. [L. sex, six, annus, a year.]

Sexfid, seks′fid, adj. (bot.) six-cleft.

Sexfoil, seks′foil, n. a plant or flower with six leaves.

Sexisyllabic, sek-si-si-lab′ik, adj. having six syllables.—n. Sex′isyllable, a word of six syllables.

Sexivalent, sek-siv′a-lent, adj. (chem.) having an equivalent of six. [L. sex, six, valensvalēre, to have strength.]

Sexlocular, seks-lok′ū-lär, adj. six-celled.

Sexpartite, seks′pär-tīt, adj. divided into six parts. [L. sex, six, partitus, divided.]

Sext, Sexte, sekst, n. (eccles.) the office of the sixth hour, originally said at midday: (mus.) the interval of a sixth.—adj. Sex′tan, recurring every sixth day. [L. sextus, sixth—sex, six.]

Sextain, seks′tān, n. a stanza of six lines.

Sextans, seks′tanz, n. an ancient Roman bronze coin, worth one-sixth of the as.—adjs. Sex′tantal; Sex′tic, of the sixth degree. [L.,—sex, six.]


Sextant, seks′tant, n. (math.) the sixth part of a circle: an optical instrument having an arc=the sixth part of a circle, and used for measuring angular distances.

Sextet, Sextette, seks-tet′, n. (mus.) a work for six voices or instruments: a musical company of six.

Sextile, seks′til, n. the position of two planets when at the distance of the sixth part of a circle (60°), marked thus *. [L.,—sex, six.]

Sextillion, seks-til′yun, n. a million raised to the sixth power, expressed by a unit with 36 ciphers attached: 1000 raised to the seventh power.

Sexto, seks′to, n. a size of book made by folding a sheet of paper into six leaves.—n. Sex′to-dec′imo, a size of book made by folding a sheet of paper into sixteen leaves: a book of this size.

Sexton, seks′tun, n. an officer who has charge of a church, attends the clergyman, digs graves, &c.: a burying-beetle.—ns. Sex′ton-bee′tle, a coleopterous insect of the genus Necrophorus; Sex′tonship, the office of a sexton. [A corr. of sacristan.]

Sextuple, seks′tū-pl,—adj. sixfold: (mus.) having six beats to the measure.—v.t. to multiply by six.—n. Sex′tūplet (mus.), a note divided into six parts instead of four.

'Sfoot, sfōōt, interj. (Shak.) a minced imprecation. [Abbrev. from God's foot. Cf. 'sblood.]

Sforzando, sfor-tsän′dō, adj. (mus.) forced, with sudden emphasis. Abbrev. sf. and sfz., or marked horizontal sforzando, vertical sforzando.—Also Sforzato (sfor-tsä′tō). [It., pr.p. of sforzare, to force—L. ex, out, Low L. fortia, force.]

Sgraffito, sgraf-fē′tō, n. (same as Graffito, q.v.): a kind of decorative work in pottery and superimposed metals, in which clays, &c., of different colours are laid one upon another, and the pattern is produced by cutting away the outer layers:—pl. Sgraffi′ti.

Shabby, shab′i,—adj. threadbare or worn, as clothes: having a look of poverty: mean in look or conduct: low: paltry.—adv. Shabb′ily.—n. Shabb′iness.—adj. Shabb′y-genteel′, keeping up or affecting an appearance of gentility, though really shabby. [An adj. formed from shab, an old by-form of scab—thus a doublet of scabby.]

Shabrack, shab′rak, n. a trooper's housing or saddle-cloth. [Fr.,—Ger. shabracke—Pol. czaprak.]

Shack, shak, v.i. to tramp or wander about.—n. a tramp, a vagabond.

Shack, shak, v.i. to shed or fall out, as ripe grain from the ear: to feed on stubble: (U.S.) to hibernate, to go into winter quarters.—n. grain, &c., fallen on the ground: liberty of winter pasturage: a hastily-built cabin, a rickety house.—ns. Shack′-bait, such bait as may be picked up at sea; Shack′le, stubble. [Shake.]

Shackle, shak′l, n. a curved bar, as of iron: a link or staple: a link securing two ankle-rings or two wrist-rings together, and so (pl.) fetters, manacles: a hinderance.—v.t. to fetter: to tie the limbs of: to confine.—ns. Shack′le-bolt, a bolt having a shackle on the end: (her.) a bearing representing a fetlock for hobbling a horse; Shack′le-joint, a peculiar kind of articulation seen in the exoskeleton of some fishes. [A.S. sceacul, scacul, a shackle—sceacan, to shake; cog. with Old Dut. schakel, a link of a chain, Ice. skökull, the pole of a cart.]

Shad, shad, n. a fish of the herring kind, but having the upper jaw deeply notched, and ascending rivers to spawn.—adj. Shad′-bell′ied, flat-bellied—opp. to Pot-bellied: sloping away gradually in front, cut away.—ns. Shad′-bird, the common American snipe: the sandpiper; Shad′-bush, the June-berry or service-berry; Shad′-fly, a May-fly; Shad′-frog, a large and very agile American frog; Shad′-wait′er, the pilot-fish or round-fish. [A.S. sceadda.]

Shaddock, shad′ok, n. a tree of the same genus as the orange, having larger leaves, flowers, and fruit. [Named from Captain Shaddock, who introduced it to the West Indies from China about 1810.]

Shade, shād, n. partial darkness: interception of light: obscurity: a shady place: protection: shelter: a screen: degree of colour: a very minute change: (paint.) the dark part of a picture: the soul separated from the body: a ghost: (obs., poet.) a bodily shadow: (pl.) the departed spirits, or their unseen abode, Hades.—v.t. to screen from light or heat: to shelter: to mark with gradations of colour: to darken: (Spens.) to foreshadow, represent.—adjs. Shā′ded, marked with gradations of colour: sheltered; Shade′ful, shady; Shade′less, without shade.—n. Shā′der.—adv. Shā′dily.—ns. Shā′diness; Shā′ding, the act of making a shade: the effect of light and shade, as in a picture; Shā′ding-pen, a pen with a broad flat nib.—adj. Shā′dy, having, or in, shade: sheltered from light or heat: (coll.) not fit to bear the light, of dubious honesty or morality. [A.S. sceaduscead, shade.]

Shadine, sha-dēn′, n. the menhaden, or American sardine.

Shadoof, sha-dōōf′, n. a contrivance for raising water by means of a long rod pivoted near one end, the shorter arm weighted to act as the counterpoise of a lever, the longer carrying a bucket which is lowered into the water—much used on the Nile for irrigation purposes.—Also Shaduf′. [Ar. shādūf.]

Shadow, shad′ō, n. shade caused by an object: darkness: shelter: security: favour: the dark part of a picture: an inseparable companion: a mystical representation: faint appearance: a ghost, spirit: something only in appearance.—v.t to shade: to cloud or darken: to shade, as a painting: to represent faintly: to hide, conceal: (coll.) to attend like a shadow, watch continuously and carefully.—ns. Shad′ow-fig′ure, a silhouette; Shad′owiness, the state of being shadowy or unsubstantial; Shad′owing, shading: gradation of light and colour.—adj. Shad′owless.—n. Shad′ow-stitch, in lace-making, a very delicate kind of ladder-stitch used in fine open-work.—adj. Shad′owy, full of shadow: dark: obscure: typical: unsubstantial: (rare) indulging in fancies.—Shadow of death, approach of death: terrible disaster. [A.S. sceadu; cog. with Old High Ger. scato, and perh. Gr. skotos, darkness, skia, shadow.]

Shafiite, shaf′i-īt, n. a member of one of the four principal sects of the Sunnites, or orthodox Muslims. [Ar. Shāfi'ī, the name of the founder.]

Shaft, shaft, n. anything long and straight, as the stem of an arrow, &c.: a long arrow, anything like an arrow in form or effect: the part of a column between the base and capital: the stem of a feather: the pole or thill of a carriage: the handle of a tool of any kind.—adj. Shaft′ed, having a shaft or handle.—ns. Shaft′-horse, the horse that is harnessed between the shafts of a carriage; Shaft′ing (mach.), the system of shafts connecting machinery with the prime mover.—Make a shaft or a bolt of it (Shak.), to take the risk and make the best of it—the shaft and the bolt being the arrows of the long-bow and the cross-bow respectively. [A.S. sceaft; prob. orig. pa.p. of scafan, to shave.]

Shaft, shaft, n. a well-like excavation sunk into a mine for pumping, hoisting, &c.: the tunnel of a blast-furnace. [Prob. in this sense from Ger. schacht, a shaft; cog. with foregoing.]

Shag, shag, n. woolly hair: cloth with a rough nap: a kind of tobacco cut into shreds.—adj. rough, hairy.—v.t. to roughen, make shaggy.—v.i. (Spens.) to hang in shaggy clusters.—adjs. Shag′-eared (Shak.), having shaggy or rough ears; Shag′ged, shaggy, rough.—n. Shag′gedness.—adv. Shag′gily.—n. Shag′giness.—adjs. Shag′gy, covered with rough hair or wool: rough: rugged; Shag′-haired, having long, rough hair. [A.S. sceacga, a head of hair; Ice. skegg, beard, skagi, cape (in Shetland, skaw).]

Shagreen, sha-grēn′, n. the skin of various sharks, rays, &c., covered with small nodules, used for covering small caskets, boxes, cigar and spectacle cases, &c.: a granular leather prepared by unhairing and scraping the skin of horses, asses, &c.—formerly Chagrin′.—adj. (also Shagreened′) made of, or covered with, shagreen. [Fr. chagrin—Turk. sāghrī, the back of a horse.]

Shah, shä, n. the monarch of Persia. [Pers.]

Shaheen, sha-hēn′, n. a peregrine falcon. [Pers. shāhīn.]

Shahi, shä′i, n. a Persian copper coin. [Pers. shāhī, royal.]

Shairl, shārl, n. a fine cloth woven from the hair of a Tibetan variety of the Cashmere goat.

Shairn, shārn, n. (Scot.) cow-dung.

Shaitan, shī′tan, n. the devil, any evil spirit or devilish person. [Ar.]

Shakal, shak′al, n. the same as Jackal.

Shake, shāk, v.t. to move with quick, short motions: to agitate: to make to tremble: to threaten to overthrow: to cause to waver: to give a tremulous note to.—v.i. to be agitated: to tremble: to shiver: to lose firmness:—pa.t. shook, (B.) shāked; pa.p. shāk′en,n. a rapid tremulous motion: a trembling or shivering: a concussion: a rent in timber, rock, &c.: (mus.) a rapid repetition of two notes: (slang) a brief instant.—n. Shake′down, a temporary bed, named from the original shaking down of straw for this purpose.—adj. Shāk′en, weakened, disordered.—ns. Shāk′er, one of a small communistic religious sect founded in Manchester about the middle of the 18th century, so nicknamed from a peculiar dance forming part of their religious service; Shake′-rag (obs.), a ragged fellow; Shāk′erism.—adv. Shāk′ily.—n. Shāk′iness.—adj. Shāk′y, in a shaky condition: feeble: (coll.) wavering, undecided: of questionable ability, solvency, or integrity: unsteady: full of cracks or clefts.—Shake down, or together, to make more compact by shaking; Shake hands, to salute by grasping the hand: (with) to bid farewell to; Shake off the dust from one's feet, to renounce all intercourse with; Shake the head, to move the head from side to side in token of reluctance, disapproval, &c.; Shake together (coll.), to get friendly with; Shake up, to restore to shape by shaking: (Shak.) to upbraid.—Great shakes (coll.), a thing of great account, something of value (usually 'No great shakes'). [A.S. sceacan, scacan.]

Shakespearian, shāk-spē′ri-an, adj. pertaining to, or in the style of, Shakespeare, or his works—also Shakespē′rian, Shakspear′ean, Shakspē′rian.—n. a student of Shakespeare (1564-1616).— Shakespeariā′na, details or learning connected with Shakespeare and his writings.—n. Shakespea′rianism, anything peculiar to Shakespeare.

Shako, shak′ō, n. a military cap of cylindrical shape, worn mostly by infantry, and generally plumed. [Hung. csako.]

Shale, shāl, n. clay or argillaceous material, splitting readily into thin laminæ.—adj. Shā′ly. [Ger. schale, a scale.]

Shale, shāl, n. a shell or husk. [A.S. sceale.]

Shall, shal, v.t. (obs.) to be under obligation: now only auxiliary, used in the future tense of the verb, whether a predictive or a promissive future (in the first person implying mere futurity; in the second and third implying authority or control on the part of the speaker, and expressing promise, command, or determination, or a certainty about the future. In the promissive future 'will' is used for the first person, and 'shall' for the second and third). [A.S. sceal, to be obliged; Ger. soll, Goth. skal, Ice. skal, to be in duty bound.]

Shalli, shal′i, n. a soft cotton stuff made in India, mostly red.

Shalloon, sha-lōōn′, n. a light kind of woollen stuff for coat-linings, &c., said to have been first made at Châlons-sur-Marne in France.

Shallop, shal′op, n. a light boat or vessel, with or without a mast. [O. Fr. chaluppe; Ger. schaluppe; prob. of East Ind. origin.]

Shallot, sha-lot′, n. a species of onion with a flavour like that of garlic.—Also Shalot′. [O. Fr. eschalote, formed from eschalone, escalone, whence Eng. scallion (q.v.).]

Shallow, shal′ō, n. a sandbank: a place over which the water is not deep: a shoal.—adj. not deep: not profound: not wise: trifling.—v.t. to make shallow.—v.i. to grow shallow.—adjs. Shall′ow-brained, -pā′ted, weak in intellect; Shall′ow-heart′ed, not capable of deep feelings.—adv. Shall′owly (Shak.), simply, foolishly.—n. Shall′owness. [Scand., Ice. skjálgr, wry; cf. Ger. scheel.]

Shalm. Same as Shawm (q.v.).

Shalt, shalt, 2d pers. sing. of shall.

Sham, sham, n. a pretence: that which deceives expectation: imposture.—adj. pretended: false.—v.t. to pretend: to feign: to impose upon.—v.i. to make false pretences:—pr.p. sham′ming; pa.t. and pa.p. shammed.—ns. Sham′-fight, a fight in imitation of a real one; Sham′mer, one who shams.—Sham Abraham (see Abraham-man). [Shame.]

Shamanism, sham′an-izm, n. a name applied loosely to the religion of the Turanian races of Siberia and north-eastern Asia, based essentially on magic and sorcery.—n. Sham′an, a wizard priest.—adj. Shaman′ic.—n. Sham′anist.—adj. Shamanis′tic. [Perh. Hind. shaman, idolater.]

Shamble, sham′bl, v.i. to walk with an awkward, unsteady gait.—n. a shambling gait.—adj. Sham′bling. [Skeat refers to Dut. schampelen—O. Fr. s'escamper, to decamp.]

Shambles, sham′blz, stalls on which butchers exposed their meat for sale, hence a flesh-market: a slaughter-house. [A.S. scamel (Ger. schämel), a stool—Low L. scamellum, for L. scabellum, dim. of scamnum, a bench.]

Shame, shām, n. the feeling caused by the exposure of that which ought to be concealed, or by a consciousness of guilt: the cause of shame, a person or thing to be ashamed of: disgrace, dishonour: (B.) the parts of the body which modesty requires to be concealed.—v.t. to make ashamed: to cause to blush: to cover with reproach: to drive or compel by shame.—adj. Shame′faced (properly Shame′fast, A.S. sceam-fæst), very modest or bashful.—adv. Shame′facedly.—ns. Shame′facedness, Shame′fastness, modesty.—adj. Shame′ful, disgraceful.—adv. Shame′fully.—n. Shame′fulness.—adj. Shame′less, immodest: done without shame: audacious.—adv. Shame′lessly.—n. Shame′lessness.—adj. Shame′-proof (Shak.), insensible to shame.—ns. Shā′mer, one who, or that which, makes ashamed; Shame′-reel, the first dance after the celebration of marriage, the bride being the best man's partner, the best maid the bridegroom's.—For shame, an interjectional phrase, signifying 'you should be ashamed!'—Put to shame, to cause to feel shame. [A.S. sceamu, scamu, modesty; Ice. skömm, a wound, Ger. scham.]

Shammatha, sha-mä′tha, n. the severest form of excommunication among the ancient Jews. [Heb.]

Shammy, sham′i, same as Chamois.—v.t. Sham′oy, to prepare leather by working oil into the skin.—n. Sham′oying.

Shampoo, sham-pōō′, v.t. to squeeze and rub the body, in connection with the hot bath: to wash thoroughly with soap and water.—ns. Shampoo′; Shampoo′er. [Hind. chāmpnā, squeeze.]

Shamrock, sham′rok, n. the national emblem of Ireland, a leaf with three leaflets, or plant having such leaves, sometimes supposed to be the Wood-sorrel, but the name is more frequently applied to some species of Clover, or to some common plant of some of the nearly allied genera, as the Bird's Foot Trefoil or the Black Medick. The Lesser Yellow Trefoil is the plant usually sold in Dublin on St Patrick's Day. [Ir. seamrog, Gael. seamrag, trefoil, dim. of seamar, trefoil.]

Shan, shan, adj. pertaining to the Shans, a number of tribes of common origin, who live on the borders of Burma, Siam, and China.

Shand, shand, n. (obs.) shame: (Scot.) base coin.—adj. worthless. [A.S. sceand, scand.]

Shandrydan, shan′dri-dan, n. a light two-wheeled cart: any rickety conveyance.—Also Shan′dry. [Ir.]

Shandygaff, shan′di-gaf, n. a mixture of bitter ale or beer with ginger-beer. [Ety. dub.]

Shanghai, shang-hī′, n. a long-legged hen with feathered shanks, said to have been introduced from Shanghai in China: (U.S.) a tall dandy.—v.t. (naut. ) to hocus a sailor and ship him while insensible: (U.S.) to get a person by some artifice into a jurisdiction where he can lawfully be arrested.

Shangie, shang′i, n. (Scot.) a shackle.

Shangti, shang′tē′, n. a Christian name in China for God. [Chin. shang, high, ti, ruler.]

Shank, shangk, n. the leg below the knee to the foot: the long part of any instrument, as of an anchor between the arms and ring: the part of a tool connecting the handle with the acting part: the part of a shoe connecting the sole with the heel.—v.i. to be affected with disease of the footstalk: to take to one's legs (with it).—v.t. (Scot.) to despatch unceremoniously.—adj. Shanked, having a shank: affected with disease of the shank or footstalk.—ns. Shank′-ī′ron, a shaping-tool for shoe-shanks: an iron plate inserted as a stiffening between the leather parts of a shank; Shank′-paint′er, a painter or small rope for fastening the shank of an anchor, when catted, to a ship's side. [A.S. sceanca, leg—sceacan, to shake; Dut. schonk, Low Ger. schake.]

Shanker, shangk′ėr, n. the same as Chancre.

Shanny, shan′i, n. the smooth blenny.

Sha'n't, shant (coll.), a contraction of shall not.

Shanty, shant′i, n. a mean dwelling or hut, a temporary house: a grog-shop. [Perh. from Ir. sean, old, tig, a house; others derive through Fr. chantier, a timber-yard, from L. cantherius, a rafter.]

Shanty, shant′i, n. a song with boisterous drawling chorus, sung by sailors while heaving at the capstan, or the like—also Chant′y, Chant′ie.—n. Shant′yman, the leader of such a chorus. [Prob. from Fr. chanter, to sing.]

Shape, shāp, v.t. to form: to fashion: to adapt to a purpose: to regulate: to direct: to conceive.—v.i. (Shak.) to take shape, to become fit:—pa.p. shāped, (B.) shāp′en.n. form or figure: external appearance: that which has form or figure: an appearance: particular nature: expression, as in words: a pattern: (cook.) a dish of rice, jelly, or the like cast in a mould and turned out when it has grown firm.—adjs. Shā′pable, Shape′able; Shaped, having a varied ornamental form; Shape′less, having no shape or regular form: (Shak.) effecting nothing.—ns. Shape′lessness; Shape′liness.—adj. Shape′ly, having shape or regular form: symmetrical.—ns. Shā′per, a metal planing machine, the tool with reciprocating motion; Shā′ping, representation, imagination.—Take shape, to assume a definite form or plan. [A.S. sceapan, scapan, to form, make; Ice. skapa, Ger. schaffen.]

Shard, shärd, n. dung. [Ety. dub.]

Shard, shärd, n. (Spens.) a boundary, division: (obs.) the leaves of the artichoke whitened. [Perh. from Ice. skardh (Ger. scharte, a notch), and ult. conn. with A.S. sceran, to divide.]

Shard, shärd, n. a fragment, as of an earthen vessel: the wing-case of a beetle.—adjs. Shard′-borne (Shak.), borne on shards, as beetles; Shar′ded (Shak.), provided with elytra or wing-cases. [A.S. sceard, a fragment—sceran, to divide.]

Share, shār, n. a part cut off: a portion: dividend: one of a number of equal portions of anything: a fixed and indivisible section of the capital of a company.—v.t. to divide into parts: to partake with others.—v.i. to have a part: to receive a dividend.—ns. Share′-brok′er, a broker or dealer in shares of railways, &c.; Share′holder, one who holds or owns a share in a joint fund or property; Share′-list, a list of the prices of shares of railways, banks, &c.; Shār′er.—Share and share alike, in equal shares.—Deferred shares (see Defer); Go shares, to divide equally; Ordinary shares, shares forming the common stock of a company. [A.S. scearusceran, to shear.]

Share, shār, n. the iron blade of a plough which cuts the ground.—v.t. to cut, cleave.—n. Share′-beam, the part of the plough to which the share is fixed. [A.S. scearsceran, to shear.]

Shark, shärk, n. a common name for most of the Elasmobranch fishes included in the sub-order Selachoidei—voracious fishes, mostly carnivorous, with large sharp teeth on the jaws—most numerous in the tropics. [Perh. L. carcharus—Gr. karcharos, jagged.]

Shark, shärk, n. a sharper, a cheat or swindler: an extortionate rogue.—v.i. to live like a swindler.—v.t. to pick up (with up or out).—ns. Shark′er; Shark′ing. [Prob. from preceding word.]

Sharn, shärn, n. (Scot.) dung of cattle. [A.S. scearn; cf. Ice. skarn.]


Sharp, shärp, adj. having a thin cutting edge or fine point: peaked or ridged: affecting the senses as if pointed or cutting: severe: keen, keenly contested: alive to one's interests, barely honest: of keen or quick perception: vigilant, attentive: pungent, biting, sarcastic: eager: fierce: impetuous: shrill: (phon.) denoting a consonant pronounced with breath and not voice, surd—as the sharp mutes, p, t, k.—n. an acute or shrill sound: (mus.) a note raised a semitone in the scale, also the character directing this: a long and slender sewing-needle—opp. to a blunt and a between: a small sword or duelling sword: a sharper, cheat: (pl.) the hard parts of wheat, middlings: an oysterman's boat—also Sharp′ie, Sharp′y.—v.t. (obs.) to sharpen.—v.i. to play the sharper, cheat.—adj. Sharp′-cut, cut sharply or definitely: well-defined: clear.—v.t. Sharp′en, to make sharp or keen, pungent or painful, active or acute.—v.i. to grow sharp.—ns. Shar′pener, one who sharpens; Sharp′er, a trickster: a swindler: a cheat.—adjs. Sharp′-eyed, sharp-sighted; Sharp′-ground, ground to a sharp edge; Sharp′-look′ing (Shak.), hungry-looking.—adv. Sharp′ly, quickly: to the moment: (mus.) above the true pitch.—n. Sharp′ness.—adjs. Sharp′-nosed, having a pointed nose: keen of scent, as a dog; Sharp′-set, ravenous.—ns. Sharp′-shoot′er, an old term applied in the army to riflemen when skirmishing or specially employed as marksmen; Sharp′-shoot′ing.—adjs. Sharp′-sight′ed, having acute sight: shrewd; Sharp′-vis′aged, having a thin face; Sharp′-wit′ted, having an acute wit.—Look sharp, to show eagerness, to act quickly. [A.S. scearp; Ice. skarpr, Gr. scharf.]

Shaster, shas′tėr, n. a text-book, an authoritative religious and legal book among the Hindus.—Also Shas′tra. [Sans. çāstraçās, to teach.]

Shatter, shat′ėr, v.t. to break or dash to pieces: to crack: to disorder: to render unsound.—v.i. to break into fragments.—n. a fragment: impaired state.—adjs. Shatt′er-brained, -pā′ted, disordered in intellect; Shatt′ery, brittle. [Scatter.]

Shauchle, shawh′l, v.i. (Scot.) to walk with shuffling, loose gait.—v.t. to distort, deform. [Perh. conn. with Ice. skjálgr, wry, squinting.]

Shave, shāv, v.t. to cut off the hair with a razor: to pare closely: to make smooth by paring: to cut in thin slices: to skim along the surface: to strip, swindle.—v.i. to remove hair by a razor:—pa.p. shāved or shā′ven.n. the act of shaving: a paring: a narrow miss or escape: a piece of financial knavery.—ns. Shave′-grass, the scouring-rush; Shave′ling, a monk or friar, from his shaven crown; Shā′ver, one who shaves: a barber: a sharp or extortionate dealer: (coll.) a chap, youngster; Shā′ving, the act of shaving: that which is shaved or pared off; Shā′ving-bā′sin, -bowl, -brush, a basin, bowl, brush, used by persons shaving.—Close, or Near, shave, a very narrow escape. [A.S. sceafan, scafan; Dut. schaven, Ger. schaben, L. scabĕre, to scrape, Gr. skaptein, to dig.]

Shavie, shā′vi, n. (Scot.) a trick or prank.—Also Skā′vie. [Perh. Dan. skæv, crooked; cf. Ger. schief, oblique.]

Shaw, shaw, n. a thicket, a small wood: (Scot.) a stem with the leaves, as of a potato. [A.S. scaga; Ice. skógr, Dan. skov.]

Shawl, shawl, n. a wrap made of wool, cotton, silk, or hair, used particularly by women as a loose covering for the shoulders: a kind of mantle.—v.t. to wrap in a shawl.—ns. Shawl′-dance, a graceful Oriental dance in which the dancer waves a scarf; Shawl′-matē′rial, a textile of silk and wool, soft and flexible, usually with Oriental designs, employed for dresses and parts of dresses for women; Shawl′-patt′ern, a coloured pattern, supposed to resemble an Eastern shawl, and applied to material of plainer design; Shawl′-pin, a pin used for fastening a shawl; Shawl′-strap, a pair of leather straps, fitted to a handle, used for carrying shawls, rugs, &c.; Shawl′-waist′coat, a vest or waistcoat with a large staring pattern like that of a shawl. [Pers. shāl.]

Shawm, Shalm, shawm, n. a musical instrument of the oboe class, having a double reed enclosed in a globular mouthpiece. [O. Fr. chalemie—L. calamus, a reed-pipe.]

Shay, n. See Chay.

Shayak, sha′yak, n. a coarse Tripoli woollen cloth.

Shaya-root, shā′ä-rōōt, n. the root of the so-called Indian madder, yielding a red dye.—Also Ché-root, Choy-root. [Tamil chaya.]

She, shē, pron. fem. the female understood or previously mentioned: sometimes used as a noun for a woman or other female. [Orig. the fem. of the def. art. in A.S.—viz. seó, which in the 12th century began to replace heó, the old fem. pron.]

Shea, shē′ä, n. the tree yielding the Galam butter or shea-butter.—Also Shē′a-tree and Karite.

Sheading, shē′ding, n. one of the six divisions or districts of the Isle of Man. [Shed.]

Sheaf, shēf, n. a quantity of things, esp. the stalks of grain, put together and bound: a bundle of arrows, usually 24 in number: any bundle or collection:—pl. Sheaves (shēvz).—v.t. to bind in sheaves.—v.i. to make sheaves.—adj. Sheaf′y. [A.S. sceáf—A.S. scúfan, to shove; Ger. schaub, Dut. schoof.]

Sheal, shēl, v.t. (Shak.) to shell, as peas.—n. Sheal′ing, the shell, pod, or husk, as of peas. [Shell.]

Sheal, Shiel, shēl, n. (Scot.) a hut used by shepherds, sportsmen, &c.: a shelter for sheep.—ns. Sheal′ing, Sheel′ing, Shiel′ing. [Either Ice. skáli, a hut, or Ice. skjól, a shelter; both cog. with sky, shade.]

Shear, shēr, v.t. to cut or clip: to clip with shears or any other instrument: (Scot.) to reap with a sickle.—v.i. to separate, cut, penetrate: in mining, to make a vertical cut in the coal:—pa.t. sheared, (obs.) shore; pa.p. sheared or shorn.—n. a shearing or clipping: a strain where compression is answered by elongation at right angles: curve, deviation.—ns. Shear′-bill, the scissor-bill, cut-water, or black skimmer; Shear′er; Shear′-hog, a sheep after the first shearing; Shear′ing, the act or operation of cutting with shears: what is cut off with shears: (Scot.) the time of reaping: the process of preparing shear-steel: (geol.) the process by which shear-structure (q.v.) has been produced; Shear′ling, a sheep only once sheared; Shear′man, one whose occupation is to shear cloth; Shears (pl. and sing.), an instrument for shearing or cutting, consisting of two blades that meet each other: a hoisting apparatus (see Sheers): anything resembling shears, as even a pair of wings (Spens.); Shear′-steel, steel suitable for the manufacture of shears and other edge-tools; Shear′-struc′ture (geol.), a structure often seen in volcanic rocks, due to the reciprocal compression and elongation of various parts under great crust movements; Shear′-wa′ter, a genus of oceanic birds allied to the petrels, and varying from 8½ to 14 inches in length. [A.S. sceran; Ice. skera, to clip, Ger. scheren, to shave.]

Sheat-fish, shēt′-fish, n. a fish of the family Siluridæ, the great catfish of central Europe.

Sheath, shēth, n. a case for a sword or other long instrument: a scabbard: any thin defensive covering: a membrane covering a stem or branch: the wing-case of an insect.—v.t. Sheathe (th), to put into a sheath: to cover with a sheath or case: to enclose in a lining.—adj. Sheathed (th), provided with, or enclosed in, a sheath: (bot., zool., and anat.) having a sheath, vaginate.—ns. Sheath′ing (th), that which sheathes, esp. the covering of a ship's bottom; Sheath′-knife, a knife carried in a sheath from the waist.—adjs. Sheath′less; Sheath′-winged, having the wings encased in elytra: coleopterous; Sheath′y, sheath-like.—Sheathe the sword, to put an end to war. [A.S. scéth, scǽth; Ger. scheide, Ice. skeithir.]

Sheave, shēv, n. the wheel of a pulley over which the rope runs: a sliding scutcheon for covering a keyhole.—n. Sheave′-hole. [Shive.]

Sheaved, shēvd, adj. (Shak.) made of straw.

Shebang, shē-bang′, n. (Amer.) a place, a store, a saloon, a gaming-house: a brothel.

Shebeen, she-bēn′, n. a place where intoxicating drinks are privately and unlawfully sold.—ns. Shebēē′ner, one who keeps a shebeen; Shebēē′ning. [Ir.]

Shechinah, shē-kī′na, n. Same as Shekinah.

Shecklaton, shek′la-ton, n. Same as Checklaton.

Shed, shed, v.t. to part, separate: to scatter, cast off: to throw out: to pour: to spill.—v.i. to let fall, cast:—pr.p. shed′ding; pa.t. and pa.p. shed.—n. a division, parting, as of the hair, and in watershed.—ns. Shed′der; Shed′ding. [A.S. sceádan, to separate; Ger. scheiden.]

Shed, shed, n. a slight erection, usually of wood, for shade or shelter: an outhouse: a large temporary open structure for reception of goods. [Shade.]

Sheeling. See under Sheal.

Sheen, shēn, n. brightness or splendour.—adj. (obs.) bright, shining.—v.i. (arch.) to shine, glitter.—adj. Sheen′y, shining, beautiful. [A.S. scéne, scýne, fair; Dut. schoon, Ger. schön, beautiful; prob. from the root of A.S. sceáwian, to look at.]

Sheeny, shēn′i, n. (slang) a sharp fellow, a cheat, a Jewish dealer.—adj. cheating.


Sheep, shēp, n.sing. and pl. the well-known ruminant mammal covered with wool: leather made from sheep-skin: a silly and timid fellow.—ns. Sheep′-bīt′er (Shak.), one who practises petty thefts; Sheep′-bīt′ing, robbing those under one's care, like an ill-trained shepherd-dog; Sheep′-cote, an enclosure for sheep; Sheep′-dog, a dog trained to watch sheep: (slang) a chaperon.—adj. Sheep′-faced, sheepish, bashful.—ns. Sheep′-farm′er, Sheep′-fold, a fold or enclosure for sheep: a flock of sheep; Sheep′-head, Sheep's′-head, a fool, a stupid and timid person: an American fish of the family Sparidæ, allied to the perches, so called from the shape and colour of the head; Sheep′-hook, a shepherd's crook.—adj. Sheep′ish, like a sheep: bashful: foolishly diffident.—adv. Sheep′ishly.—ns. Sheep′ishness; Sheep′-louse, a parasitic dipterous insect; Sheep′-mar′ket, a place where sheep are sold; Sheep′-mas′ter, a master or owner of sheep; Sheep′-pen, an enclosure for sheep; Sheep′-pest, the sheep-tick; Sheep′-pox, a contagious eruptive disease of sheep, variola ovina; Sheep′-run, a tract of grazing country for sheep; Sheep's′-eye, a modest, diffident look: a loving, wishful glance; Sheep's′-foot, a printer's tool with a claw at one end for prizing up forms; Sheep′-shank (Scot.), the shank of a sheep—hence something slender and weak: a nautical knot for temporarily shortening a rope; Sheep′-shearer, one who shears sheep; Sheep′-shearing; Sheep′-shears, a kind of shears used for shearing sheep; Sheep′-sil′ver, money formerly paid by tenants for release from the service of washing the lord's sheep; Sheep′-skin, the skin of a sheep: leather prepared from the skin of a sheep: a deed engrossed on sheep-skin parchment; Sheep′-steal′er; Sheep′-steal′ing; Sheep's′-wool, a valuable Florida sponge; Sheep′-tick, an insect which attacks the sheep, sucking its blood and raising a tumour; Sheep′walk, the place where the sheep pasture; Sheep′-wash, a lotion for vermin on the sheep, or to preserve its wool—also Sheep′-dip; Sheep′-whis′tling, tending sheep.—Black sheep, the disreputable member of a family or group. [A.S. sceáp; Ger. schaf.]

Sheer, shēr, adj. pure: unmingled: simple: without a break, perpendicular.—adv. clear: quite: at once. [Ice. skærr, bright; Ice. skírr, A.S. scír.]

Sheer, shēr, v.i. to deviate from the line of the proper course, as a ship: to turn aside.—n. the deviation from the straight line, or the longitudinal curve or bend of a ship's deck or sides.—ns. Sheer′-hulk, an old dismasted ship with a pair of sheers mounted on it for masting ships; Sheer′-leg, one of the spars.— Sheers, an apparatus for hoisting heavy weights, having usually two legs or spars spread apart at their lower ends, and bearing at their tops, where they are joined, hoisting-tackle. [Perh. Dut. scheren, to cut, withdraw.]

Sheet, shēt, n. a large, thin piece of anything: a large, broad piece of cloth in a bed: a large, broad piece of paper: a sail: the rope fastened to the leeward corner of a sail to extend it to the wind.—v.t. to cover with, or as with, a sheet: to furnish with sheets: to form into sheets.—ns. Sheet′-copp′er, -ī′ron, -lead, -met′al, copper, iron, lead, metal in thin sheets.—adj. Sheet′ed, with a white band or belt.—ns. Sheet′-glass, a kind of crown-glass made at first in the form of a cylinder, cut longitudinally, and opened out into a sheet; Sheet′ing, cloth used for bed-sheets: the process of forming into sheets; Sheet′-light′ning, lightning appearing in sheets or having a broad appearance; Sheet′-work, press-work.—A sheet (or Three sheets) in the wind, fuddled, tipsy; In sheets (print.), not folded, or folded but not bound. [A.S. scéte, scýte, a sheet—sceótan (pa.t. sceát), to shoot, project.]

Sheet-anchor, shēt′-angk′ur, n. the largest anchor of a ship, shot or thrown out in extreme danger: chief support: last refuge. [Shoot and anchor.]

Sheik, Sheikh, shēk, n. a man of eminence, a lord, a chief: a title of learned or devout me n. [Ar. sheikhshākha, to be old.]

Sheiling, shēl′ing, n. Same as Shealing.

Shekel, shek′l, n. a Jewish weight (about half-an-ounce avoirdupois) and coin (about 2s. 6d. sterling): (pl.) money (slang). [Heb. from shāqal, to weigh.]

Shekinah, Shechinah, shē-kī′na, n. the Divine presence which rested like a cloud or visible light over the mercy-seat. [Heb.,—shākhan, to dwell.]

Sheldrake, shel′drāk, n. a genus of birds of the Duck family Anatidæ, having the hind-toe free:—fem. Shel′duck. [A.S. scyld, a shield, and drake.]

Shelf, shelf, n. a board fixed on a wall, &c., for laying things on: a flat layer of rock: a ledge: a shoal: a sandbank:—pl. Shelves (shelvz).—adj. Shelf′y.—Put, Lay, on the Shelf, to put aside from duty or service. [A.S. scylfe, a plank, Ice. skjálf, a bench.]

Shell, shel, n. a term applied to the hard outer covering or skeleton of many animals, to the internal skeleton of some invertebrates, and to the outer covering-of the eggs of various animals: any framework: the outer ear: a testaceous mollusc: any frail structure: a frail boat: a rough kind of coffin: an instrument of music: a bomb: a hollow projectile containing a bursting charge of gunpowder or other explosive ignited at the required instant by means of either time or percussion fuses: the thin coating of copper on an electrotype: an intermediate class in some schools.—v.t. to break off the shell: to remove the shell from: to take out of the shell: to throw shells or bombs upon, to bombard.—v.i. to fall off like a shell: to cast the shell.—ns. Shellac (she-lak′, shel′ak), Shell′-lac, lac prepared in thin plates for making varnish, &c.—v.t. to coat with shellac.—ns. Shell′-back, an old sailor, a barnacle; Shell′-bark, either of two North American hickories.—adj. Shelled, having a shell, testaceous.—ns. Shell′er, one who shells or husks; Shell′fish, a popular term for many aquatic animals not fishes, esp. oysters, clams and all molluscs, and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters; Shell′-gun, a cannon used for throwing shells, esp. horizontally: Shell′-heap, a prehistoric accumulation of shells, &c., pointing back to a race that lived on shellfish; Shell′-ice, ice no longer supported by the water beneath; Shell′-jack′et, an undress military jacket; Shell′-lime, lime procured from the shells of shellfish by burning; Shell′-lime′stone, a limestone largely consisting of shells; Shell′-marl, a white earthy deposit, resulting from the accumulation of fragments of shells; Shell′-mound, a shell-heap; Shell′-or′nament, decoration in which any shell-form is prominent.—adj. Shell′proof, proof against, or able to resist, shells or bombs.—ns. Shell′-room, a magazine on board ship where shells are stored; Shell′-sand, sand consisting in great part of fragments of shells, and often containing a small proportion of organic matter, a very useful manure for clay soils, heavy loams, and newly-reclaimed bogs; Shell′work, work composed of or adorned with shells.—adj. Shell′y, consisting of a shell: testaceous.—Shell out, (slang), to hand over, as money. [A.S. scell, scyl; Dut. schel, Ice. skel.]

Shelta, shel′ta, n. a secret jargon of great antiquity spoken by Irish tinkers, beggars, and pipers.—Also Shelrū, Cainnt cheard, Gam cant, Bog-latin. [Shelrū, a perversion of the Irish béulra, language.]

Shelter, shel′tėr, n. that which shields or protects: a refuge: a retreat, a harbour: protection.—v.t. to cover or shield: to defend: to conceal.—v.i. to take shelter.—n. Shel′terer.—adjs. Shel′terless; Shel′tery, affording shelter. [Orig. sheltron—A.S. scyld-truma, shield-troop—scyld, shield, truma, troop—trum, firm.]

Shelty, Sheltie, shel′ti, n. a Shetland pony. [Perh. a dim. of Shetland pony.]

Shelve, shelv, v.t. to furnish with shelves: to place on a shelf; to put aside.—n. Shel′ving, the furnishing with shelves: the act of placing on a shelf: shelves or materials for shelves.

Shelve, shelv, v.i. to slope, incline.—n. a ledge.—n. Shel′ving, a shelving place: (rare) a bank.—adj. Shel′vy, sloping, shallow. [Prob. ult. from Ice. skelgja-sk, to come askew—skjálgr, wry.]

Shemitic. Same as Semitic.

Shend, shend, v.t. (Spens.) to disgrace, to reproach, to blame, also to overpower, to surpass:—pa.t. and pa.p. shent. [A.S. scendan, to disgrace—A.S. scand, sceand (Ger. schande), shame.]

She-oak, shē′-ōk, n. one of several shrubs of the Australian genus Casuarina.

Sheol, shē′ōl, n. the place of departed spirits. [Heb. she'ōl, a hollow place—shā'al, to dig out.]

Shepherd, shep′ėrd, n. one who herds sheep: a swain: a pastor:—fem. Shep′herdess.—v.t. to tend as a shepherd: to watch over, protect the interests of, or one's own interests in.—ns. Shep′herdism, pastoral life; Shep′herdling, a little shepherd; Shep′herd's-crook, a long staff, its upper end curved into a hook; Shep′herd's-dog, a dog specially trained to help in tending sheep, the collie or Scotch sheep-dog, &c.; Shep′herd's-flute, a flageolet or the like; Shep′herd's-nee′dle, an annual plant, called also Venus's comb; Shep′herd's-plaid, -tar′tan, a woollen cloth made with black and white checks: this form of pattern itself; Shep′herd's-pouch, -purse, an annual cruciferous plant, with compressed, somewhat heart-shaped seed-vessel; Shep′herd's-rod, -staff, a small kind of teasel.—Shepherd kings (see Hyksos).—The Good Shepherd, a title of Jesus Christ (John, x. 11); The Shepherds, a sect of fanatical shepherds in France about 1251 A.D., eager to deliver the imprisoned Louis IX. [A.S. sceáp-hyrde. Sheep and herd.]

Sheppy, Sheppey, shep′i, n. (prov.) a sheep-cote.

Sherbet, shėr′bet, n. a drink of water and fruit juices, sweetened and flavoured. [Through Turk. from Ar. sharbat, a drink—shariba, he drinks.]

Sherd, shėrd, n. See Shard.

Sherif, Shereef, she-rēf′, n. a descendant of Mohammed through his daughter Fatima: a prince or ruler: the chief magistrate of Mecca. [Ar. sharīf, noble, lofty.]

Sheriff, sher′if, n. the governor of a shire: (English law) the chief officer of the crown in every county or shire, his duties being chiefly ministerial rather than judicial: (Scots law) the chief magistrate and judge of the county: in the United States the office of sheriff is mainly ministerial, his principal duties to maintain peace and order, attend courts, guard prisoners, serve processes, and execute judgments.—ns. Sher′iffalty, Sher′iffdom, Sher′iffship, the office or jurisdiction of a sheriff; Sher′iff-clerk, in Scotland the registrar of the sheriff's court, who has charge of the records of the court; Sher′iff-dep′ute (Scot.), the sheriff proper, so called since the abolition of the heritable jurisdictions in 1748 to distinguish him from the earlier heritable Sher′iff-prin′cipal, whose title is now merged in that of the Lord-lieutenant; Sher′iff-off′icer, in Scotland, an officer connected with the sheriff's court, who is charged with arrests, the serving of processes, &c.; Sher′iff-sub′stitute, the acting sheriff in a Scotch county or city, like the sheriff-depute appointed by the crown, but unlike the sheriff-depute forced to reside within his judicial district, and forbidden to take other employment; Un′der-sher′iff, the deputy of an English sheriff who performs the execution of writs. [A.S. scir-geréfascir (Eng. shire), geréfa, a governor; cog. with Ger. graf, a count.]

Sherris, sher′is, n. (Shak.). Same as Sherry.

Sherry, sher′i, n. a name derived from Xeres or Jerez de la Frontera, near Cadiz, and applied to the better kind of white wines grown in the neighbourhood of Xeres.—Sherry cobbler, a cobbler made with sherry.—Natural sherry, a sherry having from two to four per cent. of spirit added to make it keep.

Shet, shet, adj. (U.S.) freed from.

Shetlander, shet′land-ėr, n. a native or inhabitant of Shetland.—Shetland lace, an open-work ornamental trimming made with woollen yarn for shawls, &c.; Shetland pony, a small sturdy and shaggy horse, usually nine to ten hands high, a shelty; Shetland wool, a thin but strong undyed worsted, spun from the wool of the sheep in the Shetland Islands, much used for knitting fine shawls, &c.

Sheuch, Sheugh, shōōh, or shyuh, n. (Scot.) a ditch.

Sheva, she-vä′, n. a Hebrew point (:) written below its consonant, and indicating properly the absence of a vowel (simple sheva). It is either unsounded, as at the close of a syllable (silent sheva), or given a short breathing or neutral sound, as at the beginning of a syllable (vocal sheva). Sometimes it is compounded with the short vowels, forming compound shevas.

Shew, shō. Same as Show.

Shewbread, shō′bred. Same as Showbread.

Shiah, shē′ä, n. a member of that Mohammedan sect which maintains that Ali, first cousin of Mohammed and husband of his daughter Fatima, was the first legitimate successor of the Prophet, rejecting the three califs of their opponents the Sunnis, as usurpers.—n. Shiism (shē′izm). [Ar. shī'a, sect.]

Shibboleth, shib′bō-leth, n. (B.) a test-word used by the Gileadites under Jephthah to detect the fleeing Ephraimites, who could not pronounce the sh (Judges, xii. 4-6): the criterion or watchword of a party. [Heb., an ear of corn, or a stream.]


Shield, shēld, n. a broad plate worn for defence on the left arm: anything that protects: defence: a person who protects: the shield-shaped escutcheon used for displaying arms.—v.t. to defend: (Shak.) to forfend, avert.—v.i. to be a shelter.—ns. Shiel′der; Shield′-fern, a fern, so called from its shape.—adj. Shield′less, defenceless.—adv. Shield′lessly.—n. Shield′lessness.—adj. Shield′-shaped, scutate. [A.S. scyld; Ger. schild, Ice. skiöldr, protection.]

Shieling. See under Sheal.

Shift, shift, v.t. to change in form or character: to put out of the way: to dress in fresh clothes.—v.i. to change about: to remove: to change one's clothes: to resort to expedients for some purpose: in violin-playing, to move the left hand from its original position next to the nut.—n. a change: in violin-playing, any position of the left hand except that nearest the nut: a squad or relay of men: a contrivance: an artifice: last resource: a chemise or woman's undermost garment (orig. signifying a change of body-linen).—adj. Shift′able, capable of being shifted.—ns. Shift′er, one who shifts: a trickster; Shift′iness, the character of being shifty.—adj. Shift′ing, unstable: shifty.—adv. Shift′ingly.—adj. Shift′less, destitute of shifts or expedients: unsuccessful, for want of proper means.—adv. Shift′lessly.—n. Shift′lessness.—adj. Shift′y, full of, or ready with, shifts, contrivances, or expedients.—Shift about, to vacillate: to turn quite round to the opposite point; Shift for one's self, to provide for one's self; Shift of crops, rotation of crops; Shift off, to defer: to put away.—Make shift, to find ways and means of doing something, contrive. [A.S. sciftan, to divide, Ice. skipta.]

Shiite, shē′īt, n. the same as Shiah (q.v.).—adj. Shiit′ic.

Shikar, shi-kär′, n. in India, hunting, sport.—ns. Shikar′ee, Shikar′i, a hunter. [Hind.]

Shiko, shik′ō, n. a posture of prostration in Burma.

Shillalah, shi-lā′la, n. an oak sapling, the oak or blackthorn cudgel of the conventional Irishman.—Also Shille′lah, Shillā′ly. [Prob. Shillelagh, an oak-wood in County Wicklow.]

Shilling, shil′ing, n. an English silver coin=12 pence.—Take the shilling, to enlist as a soldier by accepting the recruiting-officer's shilling—discontinued since 1879. [A.S. scilling; Ger. schilling.]

Shilly-shally, shil′i-shal′i, adv. in silly hesitation.—n. foolish trifling: irresolution.—v.i. to hesitate.—n. Shill′y-shall′ier, an irresolute person. [A reduplication of 'Shall I?']

Shilpit, shil′pit, adj. (Scot.) weak, washy: feeble-looking. [Ety. dub.]

Shily, same as Shyly. See Shy.

Shim, shim, n. (mach.) a thin slip used to fill up space caused by wear.—v.t. to wedge up. [Ety. dub.]

Shimmer, shim′ėr, v.i. to gleam tremulously, to glisten.—ns. Shimm′er, Shimm′ering, a tremulous gleam. [A.S. scimrianscíman, to shine; Ger. schimmern.]

Shin, shin, n. the large bone of the leg or the forepart of it: a bird's shank.—v.i. to climb a tree (with up): to tramp, trudge.—v.t. to climb a tree by swarming up it: to kick on the shins.—ns. Shin′-bone, the tibia; Shin′-piece, a piece of armour defending the forepart of the leg; Shin′-plas′ter (U.S.), a patch of brown-paper steeped in vinegar, &c., laid on a sore: a small paper note or promise to pay. [A.S. scina, the shin (esp. in the compound scin-bán, shin-bone); Dut. scheen, Ger. schiene.]

Shin, shin, n. a god, or the gods: the term used by Protestant missionaries in Japan and China for the Supreme Being.

Shindy, shin′di, n. the game of shinty, shinny, bandy-ball, or hockey: (slang) a row, disturbance.—Kick up a shindy, to make a disturbance.

Shine, shīn, v.i. to beam with steady radiance: to glitter: to be bright or beautiful: to be eminent.—v.t. to cause to shine:—pa.t. and pa.p. shone (shon), (B.) shīned.—adj. (Spens.) bright.—n. brightness: splendour: fair weather: (slang) disturbance, row, a trick.—n. Shī′ner, that which shines: (slang) a coin, esp. a sovereign: a small American fresh-water fish.—adj. Shī′ning.—adv. Shī′ningly.—n. Shī′ningness.—adj. Shī′ny, clear, unclouded: glossy.—Cause, or Make, the face to shine (B.), to be propitious; Take the shine out of (slang), to outshine, eclipse. [A.S. scínan; Ger. scheinen.]

Shingle, shing′gl, n. wood sawed or split thin, used instead of slates or tiles, for roofing houses: (U.S.) a small sign-board or plate.—v.t. to cover with shingles: to crop the hair very close.—adjs. Shing′led, Shing′le-roofed, having the roof covered with shingles.—ns. Shing′ler; Shing′ling. [Low L. scindula, a wooden tile—L. scindĕre, to split.]

Shingle, shing′gl, n. the coarse gravel on the shores of rivers or of the sea.—adj. Shing′ly. [Orig. single—Norw. singel, singling, shingle—singla, freq. of singa, to ring.]

Shingles, shing′glz, n. popular name for the disease Herpes zoster. [A corr. of L. cingulum, a belt or girdle—cingĕre, to gird.]

Shinny, shin′i, n. the game of bandy-ball or hockey. [Prob. Gael, sinteag, a bound.]

Shinti-yan, shin′ti-yan, n. the loose drawers worn by Moslem women.—Also Shin′tigan.

Shinto, shin′tō, n. the system of nature and hero worship forming the indigenous religion of Japan.—ns. Shin′tōism; Shin′tōist. [Jap.,=Chin. shin taoshin, god, tao, way, doctrine.]

Shinty, shin′ti, n. Same as Shinny.

Ship, ship, n. a vessel having three masts, with tops and yards to each: generally, any large sea-going vessel.—v.t. to put on board a ship: to engage for service on board a ship: to transport by ship: to fix in its place.—v.i. to engage for service on shipboard:—pr.p. ship′ping; pa.t. and pa.p. shipped.—ns. Ship′-bis′cuit, hard biscuit for use on shipboard; Ship′board, the deck or side of a ship; Ship′-boy, a boy that serves on board a ship; Ship′-break′er, one who breaks up vessels no longer fit for sea; Ship′-brok′er, a broker who effects sales, insurance, &c. of ships; Ship′builder, one whose occupation is to construct ships; Ship′building; Ship′-canal′, a canal large enough to admit the passage of sea-going vessels; Ship′-cap′tain, one who commands a ship; Ship′-car′penter, a carpenter who works at shipbuilding; Ship′-chand′ler, a dealer in cordage, canvas, and other ship furniture or stores; Ship′-chand′lery, the business wares of a ship-chandler; Ship′-fē′ver, typhus fever, as common on board crowded ships; Ship′ful, as much or as many as a ship will hold; Ship′-hold′er, a ship-owner; Ship′-lett′er, a letter sent by a vessel which does not carry mails; Ship′-load, the load or cargo of a ship; Ship′man, a sailor:—pl. Ship′men; Ship′master, the captain of a ship; Ship′mate, a companion in the same ship; Ship′ment, act of putting on board ship: embarkation: that which is shipped; Ship′-mon′ey, a tyrannical tax imposed by the king on seaports, revived without authorisation of parliament by Charles I. in 1634-37; Ship′-of-the-line, before steam navigation, a man-of-war large enough to take a place in a line of battle; Ship′-own′er, the owner of a ship or ships.—adj. Shipped (Shak.), furnished with a ship or ships.—ns. Ship′per; Ship′ping, ships collectively: tonnage: (Shak.) a voyage; Ship′ping-āg′ent, the agent of a vessel or line of vessels to whom goods are consigned for shipment.— Ship′ping-art′icles, articles of agreement, between the captain and his crew.—ns. Ship′ping-bill, invoice of goods embarked; Ship′ping-mas′ter, the official who witnesses signature by the sailors of the articles of agreement; Ship′ping-off′ice, the office of a shipping-agent, or of a shipping-master; Ship′-pound, a unit of weight in the Baltic ports; Ship′-rail′way, a railway by means of which vessels can be carried overland from one body of water to another.—adjs. Ship′-rigged (naut.), rigged like a ship, having three masts with square sails and spreading yards; Ship′shape, in a seaman-like manner: trim, neat, proper.—ns. Ship's′-hus′band, the owner's agent in the management of a ship; Ship′-tire (Shak.), a sort of head-dress, whether from its streamers or its general likeness to a ship; Ship′-way, the supports forming a sliding-way for the building, repairing, and launching of vessels; Ship′-worm, a genus (Teredo) of worm-like molluscs which perforate and live in timber, lining the cavity or tube with a calcareous encrustation; Ship′wreck, the wreck or destruction of a ship: destruction.—v.t. to destroy on the sea: to make to suffer wreck.—ns. Ship′wright, a wright or carpenter who constructs ships; Ship′yard, a yard where ships are built or repaired.—Ship a sea, to have a wave come aboard; Ship's papers, documents required for the manifestation of the property of a ship and cargo; Ship the oars (see Oar).—About ship! an exclamation to pull in the sheet preparatory to changing a ship's course during a tack; Make shipwreck of, to ruin, destroy; On shipboard, upon or within a ship; Take ship, or shipping, to embark. [A.S. scipscippan, to make—scapan, to shape; Goth. skip, Ice. skip, Ger. schiff.]

Shippen, ship′n, n. (prov.) a stable.—Also Ship′pon.

Shippo, ship-pō′, n. Japanese enamel, cloisonné.

Shipton, ship′ton, n. usually 'Mother Shipton,' a famous prophetess of popular English tradition, born near Knaresborough in 1488.

Shiraz, shē-räz′, n. a Persian wine. [Shiraz.]

Shire, shīr, shir (in county-names), n. a county, one of the larger divisions of England for political purposes—originally a division of the kingdom under a sheriff, the deputy of the ealdorman: a term also surviving as applied to certain smaller districts in England, as Richmondshire and Hallamshire.—ns. Shire′man, a sheriff; Shire′-moot, Shire′-mote, formerly in England a court of the county held periodically by the sheriff together with the bishop or the ealdorman. [A.S. scir, scire, a county, sciran, a secondary form of sceran, to cut off.]

Shirk, shėrk, v.t. to avoid, get off or slink away from.—n. Shir′ker.—adj. Shir′ky. [A form of shark.]

Shirl, shėrl, v.i. (prov.) to slide.

Shirr, Shir, shėr, n. a puckering made in a fabric by parallel gathering-threads.—v.t. to produce such.—adj. Shirred, having lines or cords inserted between the threads, as in certain elastic fabrics.—ns. Shirr′ing, decorative-shirred needlework; Shirr′ing-string, a cord used to gather the threads together in shirred-work. [Ety. dub.]

Shirt, shėrt, n. a short garment worn next the body by men: an interior lining in a blast-furnace.—v.t. to cover as with a shirt.—ns. Shirt′-frill, a fine cambric frill worn in the early years of the 19th century on the breast of the shirt; Shirt′-front, that part of the shirt which is open and covers the breast, generally of finer material, starched stiffly; Shirt′ing, cloth for shirts: shirts collectively.—adj. Shirt′less, without a shirt.—ns. Shirt′-sleeve, the sleeve of a shirt; Shirt′-waist, a woman's overgarment or blouse, coming to the waist and belted there.—Bloody shirt, a blood-stained shirt, as the symbol of murder; Boiled shirt, a white shirt clean washed; In one's shirt-sleeves, without the coat. [Scand.; Ice. skyrtaskortr, shortness.]

Shist, &c. See Schist, &c.

Shitepoke, shīt′pōk, n. the North American small green heron.

Shittah, shit′a, n. a tree whose durable wood—Shittim wood—was used in the construction of the Jewish Tabernacle and its furniture—prob. the Acacia seyal. [Heb. shittah, pl. shittīm.]

Shivaree, shiv′a-rē, v.t. (U.S.) to give a mock serenade to.—Also n. [A corr. of charivari.]

Shive, shīv, n. (Shak.) a slice, as of bread: a small bung for closing a wide-mouthed bottle. [Scand., Ice. skífa, a slice; Dut. schijf, Ger. scheibe.]

Shiver, shiv′ėr, n. a splinter, or small piece into which a thing breaks by sudden violence.—v.t. to shatter.—v.i. to fall into shivers.—n. Shiv′er-spar, a slaty calcite or calcium carbonate.—adj. Shiv′ery, brittle.—Shiver my timbers, a nautical imprecation. [Skeat explains shiver as a dim. of the foregoing shive, a thin slice, the same as prov. Eng. sheave, a thin disc of wood, wheel of a pulley—Ice. skífa, a slice; Dut. schijf, Ger. scheibe.]

Shiver, shiv′ėr, v.i. to shake or tremble: to shudder.—v.t. to cause to shake in the wind, as sails.—n. Shiv′ering.—adv. Shiv′eringly, with shivering or trembling.—adj. Shiv′ery, inclined to shiver.—The shivers (coll.), the ague, chills. [M. E. chiveren, a softened form of kiveren, supposed by Skeat to be a Scand. form of quiver, and a freq. of Ice. kippa, to pull, the spelling with sh being due to confusion with shiver (n.).]

Shizoku, shē-zō′kōō, n. the two-sworded men of Japan, the gentry proper.

Shoal, shōl, n. a great multitude of fishes swimming together.—v.i. to crowd.—adv. Shoal′wise, in shoals. [A.S. scólu, company—L. schola, school.]

Shoal, shōl, n. a shallow: a place where the water of a river, sea, or lake is not deep: a sandbank.—adj. shallow.—v.i. to grow shallow: to come upon shallows.—ns. Shoal′er, a coasting vessel; Shoal′iness; Shoal′ing, filling up with shoals; Shoal′-mark, a mark set up to indicate shoal-water; Shoal′ness, shallowness.—adj. Shoal′y, full of shoals or shallows: not deep. [Scand.; Ice. skálgr, oblique; cf. Shallow.]

Shock, shok, n. a violent shake: a sudden dashing of one thing against another: violent onset: an offence: a condition of prostration of voluntary and involuntary functions caused by trauma, a surgical operation, or excessive sudden emotional disturbance: (coll.) a sudden attack of paralysis, a stroke: an electrical stimulant to sensory nerves, &c.: any very strong emotion.—v.t. to shake by violence: to offend: to disgust: to dismay.—v.i. to collide with violence.—n. Shock′er (coll.), a very sensational tale.—adj. Shock′ing, offensive, repulsive.—adv. Shock′ingly.—n. Shock′ingness. [Prof. Skeat explains M. E. schokken, to shock, as from O. Fr. choc, a shock, choquer, to give a shock—Old High Ger. scoc, a shock, shaking movement. Cf. A.S. scóc, pa.t. of sceacan, to shake.]

Shock, shok, n. a heap or pile of sheaves of corn.—v.t. to make up into shocks or stooks.—n. Shock′er. [M. E. schokke—Old Dut. schocke.]

Shock, shok, n. a dog with long, shaggy hair: a mass of shaggy hair.—n. Shock′-dog, a rough-haired dog, a poodle.—adjs. Shock′-head, -ed, having a thick and bushy head of hair. [A variant of shag.]

Shod, shod, pa.t. and pa.p. of shoe.

Shoddy, shod′i, n. (orig.) the waste arising from the manufacture of wool: now applied to the wool of old woven fabrics reduced to the state in which it was before being spun and woven, and thus fit for remanufacture: the inferior cloth made from this substance: worthless goods: (coll.) pretence, sham, vulgar and baseless assumption.—adj. made of shoddy: inferior, trashy: pretentious, sham, counterfeit: ambitious by reason of newly-acquired wealth.—n. Shodd′yism. [Shed, to part—A.S. sceádan, to part.]

Shoe, shōō, n. a covering for the foot, not coming above the ankle: a rim of iron nailed to the hoof of an animal to keep it from injury: anything in form or use like a shoe:—pl. Shoes (shōōz).—v.t. to furnish with shoes: to cover at the bottom:—pr.p. shoe′ing; pa.t. and pa.p. shod.—ns. Shoe′-bill, the whalehead (Balæniceps); Shoe′black, one who blacks and cleans shoes or boots; Shoe′-black′ing, blacking for boots and shoes; Shoe′-boy, a boy who cleans shoes; Shoe′-brush, a brush for cleaning boots or shoes; Shoe′-buck′le, a buckle for fastening the shoe on the foot, by means of a latchet passing over the instep; Shoe′-hamm′er, a broad-faced hammer for pounding leather and for driving pegs, &c.; Shoe′horn, a curved piece of horn or metal used in putting on a shoe; Shoe′ing-horn, a shoehorn: (obs.) anything by which a transaction is facilitated; Shoe′-lace, a shoe-string; Shoe′-latch′et, a thong for holding a shoe, sandal, &c. on the foot; Shoe′-leath′er, leather for shoes: shoes or shoeing generally.—adj. Shoe′less, destitute of shoes.—ns. Shoe′maker, one whose trade or occupation is to make shoes or boots; Shoe′making; Shoe′-peg, a small peg of wood or metal for fastening different parts of a shoe together; Sho′er, one who furnishes shoes, a horse-shoer; Shoe′-stretch′er, a last having a movable piece for distending the leather of the shoe in any part; Shoe′-string, a string used to draw the sides of the shoe or boot together; Shoe′-tie, a cord or string for lacing a shoe: (Shak.) a traveller; Shoe′-work′er, one employed in a shoe-factory.—Another pair of shoes (coll.), quite a different matter; Be in one's shoes, or boots, to be in one's place; Die in one's shoes, to die by violence, esp. by hanging; Put the shoe on the right foot, to lay the blame where it rightly belongs. [A.S. sceó; Goth. skohs, Ger. schuh.]

Shog, shog, v.i. to shake, jog, move on, be gone.—v.t. to shake.—n. a jog, shock. [Celt., W. ysgogi, to wag, ysgog, a jolt.]

Shogun, shō′gōōn, n. the title of the commander-in-chief of the Japanese army during the continuance of the feudal system in Japan.—adj. Shō′gunal.—n. Shō′gunate. [Jap.,—sho, to hold, gun, army.]

Shone, shon, pa.t. and pa.p. of shine.

Shoo, shōō, interj. off! away! to scare away fowls, &c.—v.i. to cry 'Shoo!'—v.t. to drive away by calling 'Shoo!' [Cf. Fr. chou, Gr. sou.]

Shook, shook, pa.t. of shake.

Shool, shōōl, v.i. to saunter about, to beg.

Shooldarry, shōōl-där′i, n. a small tent with steep sloping roof and low sides. [Hind.]

Shoon, shōōn, an old pl. of shoe.

Shoot, shōōt, v.t. to dart: to let fly with force: to discharge from a bow or gun: to strike with a shot: to thrust forward: to pass rapidly through: to lay out, place in position: to hunt over, to kill game in or on: to send forth new parts, as a plant.—v.i. to perform the act of shooting: to variegate, to colour in spots or threads: to be driven along: to fly, as an arrow: to jut out: to germinate: to advance or grow rapidly: to hunt birds, &c., with a gun:—pa.t. and pa.p. shot.—n. act of shooting: a match at shooting, shooting-party: a young branch: (Shak.) a sprouting horn: a passage-way in a mine for letting one down: a sloping trough used for discharging articles or goods from a height: a river-fall, rapid.—adj. Shoot′able, that may be shot, or shot over.—ns. Shoot′er, one who, or that which, shoots; Shoot′ing, act of discharging firearms or an arrow: sensation of a quick pain: act or practice of killing game: right to kill game with firearms on a certain area: the district so limited; Shoot′ing-box, a small house in the country for use in the shooting season; Shoot′ing-gall′ery, a long room used for practice in the use of firearms; Shoot′ing-ī′ron (slang), a revolver; Shoot′ing-jack′et, a short kind of coat for shooting in; Shoot′ing-range, a place for practising shooting at targets at measured distances; Shoot′ing-star, a meteor or falling star; Shoot′ing-stick, a printer's tool of wood or metal, to be struck with a mallet, for driving quoins.—Shoot ahead, to get to the front among a set of competitors; Shoot over, to go out shooting: to hunt upon.—I′ll be shot (slang), a mild imprecation. [A.S. sceótan; Dut. schieten, Ger. schiessen, to dart.]

Shop, shop, n. a building in which goods are sold by retail: a place where mechanics work, or where any kind of industry is pursued: one's own business or profession, also talk about such.—v.i. to visit shops for the purpose of buying.—v.t. (slang) to imprison:—pr.p. shop′ping; pa.p. shopped.—ns. Shop′-bell, a small automatic bell hung to give notice of the opening of a shop-door; Shop′-board, a bench on which work, esp. that of tailors, is done; Shop′-boy, -girl, a boy or girl employed in a shop; Shop′-keeper, one who keeps a shop for the sale of goods by retail; Shop′keeping, the business of keeping a shop; Shop′-lift′er; Shop′-lift′ing, lifting or stealing anything from a shop; Shop′man, one who serves in a shop: a shopkeeper; Shopoc′racy, shopkeepers collectively; Shop′ping, the act of visiting shops to see and buy goods.—adj. Shop′py, commercial: abounding in shops: given to talking shop: concerning one's own pursuit.—ns. Shop′-walk′er, one who walks about in a shop and sees the customers attended to; Shop′woman, a woman employed in a shop.—adj. Shop′-worn, somewhat tarnished by being exposed in a shop.—Fancy shop, a shop where fancy goods are sold.—Shut up shop (coll.), to abandon any enterprise; The other shop (slang), a rival institution or establishment; The whole shop (slang), entirely; Talk shop (coll.), to converse unseasonably about one's own profession. [A.S. sceoppa, a treasury (influenced by O. Fr. eschoppe, a stall.)]

Shore, shōr, pa.t. of shear.

Shore, shōr, n. the coast or land adjacent to the sea, to a river, or lake.—v.t. (Shak.) to set on shore.—ns. Shor′age, duty on goods when brought on shore from a ship; Shore′-anch′or, the anchor lying towards the shore; Shore′-cliff, a cliff at the water's edge; Shore′-land, land bordering on a shore.—adj. Shore′less, having no coast: indefinite or unlimited.—n. Shores′man, a fisherman along shore: a sole or part owner of a vessel: a longshoreman.—adv. Shore′ward, towards the shore.—n. Shore′-whāl′ing, the pursuit of the whale near the shore. [A.S. scoresceran, to shear.]

Shore, shōr, n. a prop or support for the side of a building, or to keep a vessel in dock steady on the slips.—v.t. to prop (often with up).—ns. Shōr′er; Shōr′ing, the act of supporting with props: a set of props. [Skeat refers to Ice. skortha, a prop, esp. under a boat—skor-inn, pa.p. of skera, to shear.]

Shore, shōr, v.t. (Scot.) to warn, threaten: to offer. [Perh. a form of score, or another form of sure, equivalent to assure.]

Shorl, Shorlaceous. See Schorl.

Shorn, shorn, pa.p. of shear.—n. Shōr′ling, Shōre′ling, a newly-shorn sheep.

Short, short, adj. (comp. Short′er, superl. Short′est) not long in time or space: not tall: near at hand, early in date: scanty, lacking, insufficient: in error, deficient in wisdom, grasp, memory, &c.: narrow: abrupt, curt, sharp, uncivil: brittle, crumbling away readily: not prolonged in utterance, unaccented: (coll.) undiluted with water, neat: falling below a certain standard (with of): of stocks, &c., not having in possession when selling, not able to meet one's engagements, pertaining to short stocks or to those who have sold short.—adv. not long.—n. a summary account: a short time or syllable: whatever is deficient in number, quantity, &c.: a short sale, one who has made such: (pl.) small clothes, knee-breeches: the bran and coarse part of meal, in mixture.—ns. Short′age, deficiency; Short′-allow′ance, less than the regular allowance; Short′-and, the character '&,' the ampersand.—adj. Short′-armed, having short arms, not reaching far.—ns. Short′-bill, one having less than ten days to run; Short′-cake, a rich tea-cake made short and crisp with butter or lard and baked—also Short′-bread (Scot.): (U.S.) a light cake, prepared in layers with fruit between, served with cream; Short′-cir′cuit (electr.), a path of comparatively low resistance between two points of a circuit.— Short′-clothes, small clothes, the dress of young children after the first long clothes.—v.t. Short′-coat, to dress in short-coats.— Short′-coats, the shortened skirts of a child when the first long clothes are left off.—n. Short′coming, act of coming or falling short of produce or result: neglect of, or failure in, duty.— Short′-comm′ons (see Common).—n. Short′-cross, the short cross-bar of a printer's chase.—adjs. Short′-cut, cut short instead of in long shreds—of tobacco, &c.—also n.; Short′-dāt′ed, having short or little time to run from its date, as a bill.—n. Short′-divi′sion, a method of division with a divisor not larger than 12—opp. to Long-division.—v.t. Short′en, to make short: to deprive: to make friable.—v.i. to become short or shorter: to contract.—n. Short′-gown, a loose jacket with a skirt, worn by women, a bed-gown.—adj. Short′-grassed (Shak.), provided or covered with short grass.—n. Short′hand, an art by which writing is made shorter and easier, so as to keep pace with speaking.—adj. Short′-hand′ed, not having the proper number of servants, work-people, &c.—ns. Short′hander, a stenographer; Short′-horn, one of a breed of cattle having very short horns—Durham and Teeswater.—adj. Short′-horned.—n. Short′-hose, the stockings of the Highland dress, reaching to the knee, as opposed to the long hose formerly worn by Englishmen.—adjs. Short′-joint′ed, short between the joints: having a short pastern; Short′-legged (Shak.), having short legs; Short′-lived, living or lasting only for a short time.—adv. Short′ly, in a short time: in a brief manner: quickly: soon.—ns. Short′-mē′tre (see Metre); Short′ness; Short′-pull, a light impression on a hand-press; Short′-rib, one of the lower ribs, not reaching to the breast-bone, a false or floating rib.—adj. Short′-sight′ed, having sight extending but a short distance: unable to see far: of weak intellect: heedless.—adv. Short′-sight′edly.—n. Short′-sight′edness.—adjs. Short′-spō′ken, sharp and curt in speech; Short′-stā′ple, having the fibre short.—n. Short′-stop, the player at base-ball between the second and third base.—adjs. Short′-tem′pered, easily put into a rage; Short′-wind′ed, affected with shortness of wind or breath; Short′-wit′ted, having little wit, judgment, or intellect.—At short sight, meaning that a bill is payable soon after being presented; Be taken short (coll.), to be suddenly seized with a desire to evacuate fæces; Come, Cut, Fall, short (see Come, Cut, Fall); In short, in a few words; Make short work of, to settle some difficulty or opposition promptly; Take up short, to check or to answer curtly; The long and short, the whole. [A.S. sceort; Old High Ger. scurz; the Dut. and Sw. kort, Ger. kurz, are borrowed from L. curtus.]

Shot, pa.t. and pa.p. of shoot.

Shot, shot, adj. (Spens.) advanced in years.—n. a young pig. [Perh. pa.p. of shoot.]

Shot, shot, n. act of shooting: a marksman: a missile: flight of a missile, or the distance passed by it: small globules of lead: (gun.) solid projectiles generally: a small pellet, of which there are a number in one charge: range of shot, reach: one cast or set of fishing-nets: the act of shooting, one who shoots, a marksman: a plot of land, a square furlong: a stroke in billiards, &c.—v.t. to load with shot:—pr.p. shot′ting; pa.p. shot′ted.ns. Shot′-belt, a belt with a pouch for carrying shot; Shot′-cart′ridge, a cartridge containing small shot; Shot′-gauge, an instrument for measuring the size of round-shot; Shot′-gun, a smooth-bore gun for small shot, a fowling-piece; Shot′-hole, a hole made by a shot or bullet: a blasting-hole ready for a blast; Shot′-of-a-cā′ble, a length of rope as it comes from the rope-walk; Shot′-pouch, a pouch for small shot.—adjs. Shot′-proof, proof against shot; Shot′ted, loaded with ball and powder: having a shot or weight attached.—ns. Shot′-tow′er, a place where small shot is made by dropping molten lead through a colander in rapid motion from a considerable height into water; Shot′-win′dow, a projecting window in the staircases of old Scotch wooden houses.—A bad shot, a wrong guess; A shot in the locker, a last reserve of money, food, &c.

Shot, shot, adj. having a changeable colour, chatoyant, as silk, alpaca, &c.

Shot, shot, n. a reckoning, a share of a tavern-bill, &c.—adj. Shot′-free (Shak.), exempted from paying one's share of the reckoning or of expense. [Scot.]

Shotten, shot′n, p.adj. (Shak.) having ejected the spawn: shooting out into angles: dislocated, as a bone. [From shoot.]

Shough, shok, n. (Shak.). Same as Shock, a dog.

Should, shood, pa.t. of shall. [A.S. sceolde, pa.t. of sceal; cf. Shall.]


Shoulder, shōl′dėr, n. the part of the trunk between the neck and the free portion of the arm or fore-limb, the region about the scapula: the upper joint of the foreleg of an animal cut for market: anything resembling the shoulder, a rising part, a prominence: that which sustains, support, the whole might or effort: the whole angle of a bastion between the face and flank.—v.t. to push with the shoulder or violently: to take upon the shoulder: to fashion with a shoulder or abutment.—v.i. to force one's way forward.—ns. Shoul′der-belt, a belt that passes across the shoulder; Shoul′der-blade, the broad, flat, blade-like bone (scapula) of the shoulder; Shoul′der-block, a pulley-block left nearly square at the upper end and cut away towards the sheave; Shoul′der-bone, the humerus, shoulder-blade; Shoul′der-clap′per (Shak.), one who claps another on the shoulder or uses great familiarity, a bailiff.—adj. Shoul′dered, having shoulders of a specified kind.—ns. Shoul′der-knot, a knot worn as an ornament on the shoulder, now confined to servants in livery; Shoul′der-piece, a strap passing over the shoulder and joining the front and back part of a garment; Shoul′der-slip, a sprain of the shoulder.—adjs. Shoul′der-slipped, Shoul′der-shot′ten (Shak.), having the shoulder-joint dislocated.—n. Shoul′der-strap, a strap worn on or over the shoulder: (U.S.) a narrow strap of cloth edged with gold-lace worn on the shoulder to indicate military and naval rank.—Shoulder-of-mutton sail, a kind of triangular sail of peculiar form, used mostly in boats, very handy and safe, particularly as a mizzen; Shoulder to shoulder, with hearty and united action or effort.—Give, Show, or Turn the cold shoulder (see Cold); Put, or Set, one's shoulder to the wheel, to give personal help heartily; With one shoulder, with one consent. [A.S. sculder, sculdor; Ger. schulter, Dut. schouder.]

Shout, showt, n. a loud and sudden outcry expressing strong emotion, or to attract attention.—v.i. to utter a shout: (slang) to order drink for others by way of treat.—v.t. to utter with a shout.—n. Shout′er.—adv. Shout′ingly. [Ety. unknown.]

Shout, showt, n. (prov.) a light flat-bottomed boat used in duck-shooting.

Shove, shuv, v.t. to drive along by continuous pressure: to push before one.—v.i. to push forward: to push off.—n. act of shoving: a strong push, a forward movement of packed river-ice.—Shove off, to push off a boat with oar or boat-hook. [A.S. scofian; Dut. schuiven, Ger. schieben.]

Shovel, shuv′l, n. an instrument consisting of a broad blade or scoop with a handle, used for lifting loose substances.—v.t. to lift up and throw with a shovel: to gather in large quantities.—v.i. to use a shovel:—pr.p. shov′elling; pa.t. and pa.p. shov′elled.ns. Shov′el-board, Shove′-groat, Shuff′le-board, a game in which a piece of money or metal is driven with the hand toward a mark on a board: the board used in the game; Shov′elful, as much as a shovel will hold:—pl. Shov′elfuls; Shov′el-hat, a hat with a broad brim, turned up at the sides, and projecting in front—affected by Anglican clergy; Shov′el-head, the bonnet-headed shark: the shovel-headed sturgeon; Shov′eller, one who shovels: a genus of ducks, with mandibles very broad at the end; Shov′el-nose, a sturgeon with broad, depressed, shovel-shaped snout. [A.S. scofl, from scúfan, to shove; Ger. schaufel.]

Show, shō, v.t. to present to view: to enable to perceive or know: to inform: to teach: to guide: to prove: to explain: to bestow.—v.i. to appear, come into sight: to look:—pa.p. shōwn or shōwed.—n. act of showing: display: a sight or spectacle: parade: appearance: plausibility, pretence: a sign, indication.—ns. Show′-bill, a bill for showing or advertising the price, merits, &c. of goods; Show′-box, a showman's box out of which he takes his materials; Show′bread, among the Jews, the twelve loaves of bread shown or presented before Jehovah in the sanctuary; Show′-card, a placard with an announcement: a card of patterns; Show′-case, a case with glass sides in which articles are exhibited in a museum, &c.; Show′-end, that end of a piece of cloth which is on the outside of the roll for exhibition to customers; Show′er; Show′ing, appearance: a setting forth, representation; Show′man, one who exhibits shows; Show′-place, a place for exhibition: a gymnasium: (Shak.) a place where shows are exhibited; Show′-room, a room where a show is exhibited: a room in a warehouse, &c., where goods are displayed to the best advantage, a room in a commercial hotel where travellers' samples are exhibited.—Show a leg (vul.), to get out of bed; Show fight, to show a readiness to resist; Show forth, to give out, proclaim; Show off, to display ostentatiously; Show of hands, a raising of hands at a meeting to show approval of any proposal; Show one's hand (see Hand); Show one the door, to dismiss a person from one's house or presence; Show up, to expose to blame or ridicule. [A.S. scéawian; Dut. schouwen, Ger. schauen, to behold.]

Shower, show′ėr, n. a fall of rain or hail, of short duration: a copious and rapid fall: a liberal supply of anything.—v.t. to wet with rain: to bestow liberally.—v.i. to rain in showers.—ns. Show′er-bath, a bath in which water is showered upon one from above: the apparatus for giving a bath by showering water on the person; Show′eriness, the state of being showery.—adjs. Show′erless, without showers; Show′ery, abounding with showers. [A.S. scúr; Ice. skúr, Ger. schauer.]

Showy, shō′i, adj. making a show: cutting a dash: ostentatious: gay.—adv. Show′ily.—n. Show′iness.

Shrab, shrab, n. sherbet, liquor generally, spirits. [Hind. sharāb, wine.]

Shrank, shrangk, pa.t. of shrink.


Shrapnel, shrap′nel, n. a shell filled with musket-balls—from General Shrapnel (died 1842).

Shred, shred, n. a long, narrow piece cut or torn off: a strip, fragment, particle.—v.t. to cut or tear into shreds.—n. Shred′ding, the act of cutting into shreds: a shred.—adjs. Shred′dy, consisting of shreds, ragged; Shred′less.—n. Shred′-pie, mince-pie. [A.S. screáde; Ger. schrot, Scot. screed.]

Shrew, shrōō, n. a brawling, troublesome woman: a scold: a family of insectivorous mammals closely resembling, in general form and appearance, the true mice and dormice—the head long, muzzle long and pointed.—adj. Shrewd, of an acute judgment: biting, keen: sly, malicious, wicked, cunning, vixenish.—adv. Shrewd′ly.—n. Shrewd′ness.—adj. Shrew′ish, having the qualities of a shrew: peevish and troublesome: clamorous.—adv. Shrew′ishly.—ns. Shrew′ishness; Shrew′-mole, a genus of insectivorous mammals of the family Talpidæ, very closely allied to the moles.—adj. Shrew′-struck, poisoned or blasted by a shrew. [A.S. screáwa, a shrew-mouse, its bite having been supposed venomous; cf. Ger. scher-maus, a mole.]

Shriek, shrēk, v.i. to utter a shriek: to scream.—v.t. to utter shriekingly.—n. the shrill outcry caused by terror or anguish—(Spens.) Schriech, Shright, Shrike.—ns. Shriek′er; Shriek′-owl (same as Screech-owl). [Screech.]

Shrieve, shrēv, v.t. (Spens.) same as Shrive.—n. Shriev′alty (same as Sheriffalty).

Shrift, shrift, n. a confession made to a priest: absolution—esp. of a dying man. [A.S. scriftscrífan, to shrive.]

Shrike, shrīk, n. a genus of passerine birds which prey on insects and small birds, impaling its prey on thorns—hence called the Butcher-bird. [Ice. skríkja; cf. Shriek.]

Shrill, shril, adj. piercing: sharp: uttering an acute sound.—adjs. Shrill′-gorged (Shak.), shrill-throated; Shrill′ing (Spens.), sounding shrill.—n. Shrill′ness.—adjs. Shrill′-tongued, Shrill′-voiced (Shak.), having a shrill voice; Shrill′y, somewhat shrill.—adv. Shrill′y. [Skeat explains M. E. shril (Scotch skirl) as from Scand., Norw. skryla, skräla, to cry shrilly; cf. Low Ger. schrell.]

Shrimp, shrimp, n. a genus of edible crustaceans, of the order Decapoda, allied to lobsters, crayfish, and prawns: a little wizened or dwarfish person.—v.i. to catch shrimps.—ns. Shrimp′er, one who catches shrimps; Shrimp′ing, the act of catching shrimps; Shrimp′-net, a small-meshed net, on a hoop and pole, for catching shrimps. [Parallel to shrink; cf. Scotch scrimpit, pinched.]

Shrine, shrīn, n. a case or reliquary for relics: a sacred place: an altar: anything hallowed by its associations.—v.t. to enshrine.—adj. Shrī′nal. [A.S. scrín—L. scriniumscribĕre, to write.]

Shrink, shringk, v.i. to contract: to wither: to occupy less space: to become wrinkled by contraction: to recoil, as from fear, disgust, &c.—v.t. to cause to shrink or contract: to withdraw:—pa.t. shrank, shrunk; pa.p. shrunk.—n. act of shrinking: contraction: withdrawal or recoil.—adj. Shrink′able.—ns. Shrink′age, a contraction into a less compass: the extent of the reduction of anything in bulk by shrinking, evaporation, &c.; Shrink′er.—adv. Shrink′ingly, in a shrinking manner: by shrinking. [A.S. scrincan; akin to Ger. schränken, to place obliquely.]

Shrive, shrīv, v.t. to hear a confession from and give absolution to.—v.i. to receive confession: to make such:—pa.t. shrōve or shrīved; pa.p. shriv′en.ns. Shrī′ver, one who shrives: a confessor; Shrī′ving (Spens.), shift, confession; Shrīving-time (Shak.), time for confession. [A.S. scrífan, to write, to prescribe penance—L. scribĕre.]

Shrivel, shriv′l, v.i. and v.t. to contract into wrinkles: to blight:—pr.p. shriv′elling; pa.t. and pa.p. shriv′elled. [Perh. conn. with Old Northumbrian screpa, to become dry; cf. Norw. skrypa, to waste.]

Shroff, shrof, n. a banker or money-changer in India.—v.t. to inspect the quality of coins.—n. Shroff′age, such examination. [Hind. sarrāf—Ar. sarrāf.]

Shroud, shrowd, n. the dress of the dead, a winding-sheet: that which clothes or covers: any underground hole, a vault, burrow, &c.: (pl.) a set of ropes from the mast-heads to a ship's sides, to support the masts.—v.t. to enclose in a shroud: to cover: to hide: to shelter.—v.i. to take shelter.—adjs. Shroud′less, without a shroud; Shroud′y, giving shelter. [A.S. scrúd; Ice. skrúdh, clothing.]

Shroud, shrowd, v.t. (prov.) to lop the branches from, as a tree.—n. a cutting, a bough or branch, the foliage of a tree. [A variant of shred.]

Shrove-tide, shrōv′-tīd, n. the name given to the days immediately preceding Ash-Wednesday, preparatory to Lent—given up to football, cock-fighting, bull-baiting, &c.—ns. Shrove′-cake, a pancake for Shrove-tide; Shrove′-Tues′day, the day before Ash-Wednesday. [A.S. scrífan, to shrive.]

Shrow, shrō, n. (Shak.). Same as Shrew.

Shrub, shrub, n. a woody plant with several stems from the same root: a bush or dwarf tree.—v.t. (prov.) to win all a man's money at play.—adj. Shrub′beried, abounding in shrubbery.—ns. Shrub′bery, a plantation of shrubs; Shrub′biness, the state or quality of being shrubby.—adjs. Shrub′by, full of shrubs: like a shrub: consisting of shrubs; Shrub′less. [A.S. scrob; prov. Eng. shruff, light rubbish wood.]

Shrub, shrub, n. a drink prepared from the juice of lemons, currants, raspberries, with spirits, as rum. [A variant of shrab.]

Shruff, shruf, n. (prov.) refuse wood. [Shrub.]

Shrug, shrug, v.t. to draw up: to contract.—v.i. to draw up the shoulders, expressive of doubt, surprise, indifference, &c.:—pr.p. shrug′ging; pa.t. and pa.p. shrugged.—n. an expressive drawing up of the shoulders. [Scand., Dan. skrugge, to stoop.]

Shrunk, pa.t. and pa.p. of shrink.

Shuck, shuk, n. a husk, shell, or pod.—v.t. to remove such, to strip off.—ns. Shuck′er, one who shucks; Shuck′ing, the act of taking off the shuck: a shucking-bee.—interj. Shucks (slang), expressive of contempt or disappointment.

Shudder, shud′ėr, v.i. to tremble from fear or horror.—n. a trembling from fear or horror.—adj. Shudd′ering, trembling, tremulous.—adv. Shudd′eringly. [Cf. Old Dut. schudden; Ger. schaudern, to shudder.]

Shuffle, shuf′l, v.t. to change the positions of: to confuse: to remove or introduce by purposed confusion.—v.i. to change the order of cards in a pack: to shift ground: to evade fair questions: to move by shoving the feet along.—n. act of shuffling: an evasion or artifice.—n. Shuff′ler.—p.adj. Shuff′ling, evasive, as an excuse.—adv. Shuff′lingly, in a shuffling manner: with an irregular gait: evasively.—To shuffle off, to thrust aside, put off. [A by-form of scuffle, thus conn. with shove and shovel.]

Shug, shug, v.i. (prov.) to crawl, to shrug.

Shun, shun, v.t. to avoid: to keep clear of: to neglect:—pr.p. shun′ning; pa.t. and pa.p. shunned.—adj. Shun′less (Shak.), not able to be shunned: unavoidable.—ns. Shun′ner; Shun′pike, a byroad. [A.S. scunian; Ice. skunda, to speed.]

Shunt, shunt, v.t. to turn aside, to turn off upon a side-rail: to shove off, free one's self from.—v.i. to turn aside: to use a switch or shunt in railways and electrics.—n. a short side-rail for allowing the main-line to be kept free: (electr.) a conductor joining two points of a circuit, through which a part of the current is diverted.—ns. Shun′ter; Shun′ting. [A.S. scyndan, to hasten. Skeat derives from Ice. skunda, to speed.]

Shut, shut, v.t. to close, as a door: to forbid entrance into: to contract, close, or bring together the parts of: to confine: to catch in the act of shutting something.—v.i. to close itself: to be closed.—pr.p. shut′ting; pa.t. and pa.p. shut.—p.adj. made fast, closed: not resonant, dull: formed by closing the mouth and nose passages completely, said of consonants, as t, d, p: having the sound cut off sharply by a succeeding consonant, as the i in pin, &c.: freed from (with of).—ns. Shut′down, a discontinuance of work in a factory, &c.; Shut′ter, one who, or that which, shuts: a close cover for a window or aperture: (phot.) a device for opening and closing a lens.—v.t. to cover with shutters.—n. Shut′ter-dam, a form of movable dam having large gates opened and closed by a turbine.—Shut down, to stop working; Shut in, to enclose, to confine: to settle down, or fall (said, e.g., of evening); Shut off, to exclude; Shut out, to prevent from entering; Shut up, to close, to confine: (coll.) to cease speaking, to make one do so, to make it impossible to answer. [A.S. scyttan, to bar—sceótan, to shoot.]

Shuttle, shut′l, n. an instrument used for shooting the thread of the woof between the threads of the warp in weaving.—v.t. and v.i. to move to and fro, like a shuttle.—n. Shutt′lecock, a rounded cork stuck with feathers, driven with a battledore: the game itself.—adv. Shutt′lewise, in the manner of a shuttle.—adj. Shutt′le-wit′ted, flighty. [From base of A.S. sceótan, shoot; Dan. and Sw. skyttel.]

Shwanpan, shwän′pan, n. the Chinese abacus or reckoning board.—Also Swan′pan.

Shy, shī, adj. timid: reserved: cautious: suspicious: elusive, hard to find.—v.i. to start aside, as a horse from fear.—v.t. to avoid:—pa.t. and pa.p. shīed.—n. a sudden swerving aside.—advs. Shy′ly, Shi′ly.—ns. Shy′ness, Shī′ness (obs.); Shy′ster, a tricky lawyer.—Fight shy of (see Fight); Look shy at, or on, to regard with distrust. [A.S. sceóh; Ger. scheu, Dan. sky.]

Shy, shī, v.t. to fling, throw, toss.—v.i. to jerk.—n. a throw, a fling: a gibe, sneer: a trial.

Si, sē, n. the syllable used for the seventh tone of the scale, or the leading tone.

Sialogogue, sī-al′o-gog, n. a drug which increases the secretion of saliva—also Sial′agogue.—adjs. Sialogog′ic (-goj′-); Sī′aloid.—n. Sialorrhē′a, excessive flow of saliva. [Gr. sialon, saliva, agōgos, leading—agein, to lead.]

Siamang, sē′a-mang, n. the largest of the gibbons, found in Sumatra and Malacca. [Malay.]

Siamese, sī-am-ēz′, adj. pertaining or belonging to Siam, a country of Asia.—n. a native of Siam.—Siamese twins, two famous Siamese men (1811-74), joined from their birth by a cartilaginous band.

Sib, Sibbe, sib, adj. (Spens.) related by blood, akin.—n. a blood relation: a close ally. [A.S. sibb, relationship; Gr. sippe.]

Siberian, sī-bē′ri-an, adj. pertaining to Siberia, a country of Asia.—n. a native of Siberia.—n. Sibē′rite, rubellite from Siberia.

Sibilance, sib′i-lans, n. a hissing sound—also Sib′ilancy.—adj. Sib′ilant, making a hissing sound.—n. a sibilant letter, as s and z.—v.t. Sib′ilāte, to pronounce with a hissing sound.—n. Sibilā′tion, a hissing sound.—adjs. Sib′ilatory, Sib′ilous, hissing, sibilant. [L. sibilāre, -ātum, to hiss.]

Sibyl, sib′il, n. in ancient mythology, one of certain women possessing powers of divination and prophecy: a prophetess, an old sorceress.—adjs. Sibyl′lic, Sib′ylline, pertaining to, uttered, or written by sibyls: prophetical.—n. Sib′yllist, a believer in the so-called sibylline prophecies.—Sibylline Oracles, a series of pretended prophecies in Greek hexameters, written by Alexandrian Jews and Christians, and supposed to date from the 2d century B.C. down to the 3d century A.D., or, according to Ewald, even the 6th. [L.,—Gr. sibylla, not 'she who reveals the will of Zeus,' Dios boulē. The root is sib-, as in L. per-sibus, acute, Gr. sophos, wise.]

Sic, sik, adv. so, thus—printed within brackets in quoted matter to show that the original is being correctly reproduced, even though incorrect or wrong.—Sic passim, so throughout.

Sic, sik, Siccan, sik′an, adj. Scotch forms of such.—adj. Sic′-like, for such-like, of the same kind.

Sicambrian, si-kam′bri-an, n. one of a powerful ancient German tribe.

Sicanian, si-kā′ni-an, adj. pertaining to the Sicanians, an aboriginal pre-Aryan race in Sicily.

Sicca, sik′a, adj. newly coined. [Hind.]

Siccate, sik′āt, v.t. to dry.—n. Siccā′tion.—adj. Sicc′ative, drying: causing to dry.—n. Siccity (sik′si-ti), dryness. [L. siccāre, -ātumsiccus, dry.]

Sice, sīs, n. the number six at dice.

Sice, Syce, sīs, n. a groom, a mounted attendant.—Also Saice. [Hind, sāis—Ar. sāis.]

Siceliot, si-sel′i-ot, adj. pertaining to the Siceliots, the colonies of immigrant Greeks in Sicily, who gradually became assimilated with the native Siculi—also Sikel′iot.—n. a Greek settler in Sicily: a Siculian.

Sich, sich, adj. (Spens.) such.

Sicilian, si-sil′yan, adj. of or pertaining to Sicily, an island south of Italy.—n. a native of Sicily.—ns. Siciliä′no, a Sicilian popular dance in slow movement, also the music for such; Sicilienne′, a ribbed silk fabric.—Sicilian Vespers, the massacre of the French in Sicily on Easter Monday 1282—at the first stroke of the vesper-bell.

Sick, sik, adj. affected with disease: ill: inclined to vomit: disgusted: infirm: disordered: pining: depressed: indicating sickness: poor in quality: out of repair.—v.i. (Shak.) to grow sick.—ns. Sick′-bay, -berth, a compartment on a troop-ship, &c., for sick and wounded; Sick′-bed, a bed on which a person lies sick.—adj. Sick′-brained, mentally deranged.—v.t. Sick′en, to make sick: to disgust: to make weary of anything.—v.i. to become sick: to be disgusted: to become disgusting or tedious: to become weakened.—n. Sick′ener, any cause of disgust.—adj. Sick′ening, causing sickness or disgust, loathsome.—n. a scum which forms on the surface of mercury from grease, sulphides, arsenides, &c.—adv. Sick′eningly.—adj. Sick′-fall′en (Shak.), struck down with sickness.—ns. Sick′-flag, a yellow flag indicating disease on board a ship; Sick′-head′ache, headache accompanied with nausea.—adj. Sick′ish, somewhat sick.—adv. Sick′ishly.—ns. Sick′ishness; Sick′-leave, leave of absence from duty owing to sickness.—adj. Sick′lied (Shak.), tainted with the hue of sickness or disease.—adv. Sick′lily, in a sickly manner.—ns. Sick′liness, the state of being sickly, or of appearing so; Sick′-list, a list containing the names of the sick.—adjs. Sick′-listed, entered on the sick-list; Sick′ly, inclined to sickness: unhealthy: somewhat sick: weak: languid: producing disease: mawkish: feeble, mentally weak.—adv. in a sick manner: feebly.—v.t. (obs.) to make sickly or sickly-looking.—ns. Sick′ness, state of being sick, disease: disorder of the stomach: an enfeebled state of anything; Sick′-report′, a return regularly made of the state of the sick; Sick′-room, a room to which a person is confined by sickness.—adj. Sick′-thought′ed (Shak.), love-sick. [A.S. seóc; Ger. siech, Dut. ziek.]

Sick, sik, v.t. to set upon, chase: to incite to attack. [A variant of seek.]

Sicker, sik′ėr, adj. (Scot.) sure, certain, firm.—adv. (Spens.) surely, certainly—also Sicc′ar.—n. Sick′erness (Spens.), the state of being sicker or certain. [A.S. siker—L. securus; Ger. sicher.]

Sickle, sik′l, n. a hooked instrument for cutting grain.—n. Sic′kle-bill, a name applied to various birds with sickle-shaped bill.—adj. Sic′kled, bearing a sickle.—ns. Sic′kle-feath′er, one of the sickle-shaped middle feathers of the domestic cock; Sic′kleman, one who uses a sickle, a reaper.—adj. Sic′kle-shaped.—n. Sic′kle-wort, the self-heal. [A.S. sicol, sicel—L. secula, a sickle—secāre, to cut.]

Sicsac, sik′sak, n. the Egyptian courser, crocodile-bird, or black-headed plover.—Also Ziczac.

Siculian, si-kū′li-an, adj. pertaining to the Siculi, an ancient and most probably Aryan race of southern Italy who colonised Sicily.—adjs. Sic′ulo-Arā′bian; Sic′ulo-Pū′nic.

Sicyos, sis′i-os, n. a genus of plants of the order Cucurbitaceæ, the gourd family.

Sida, sī′da, n. a large genus of downy herbs of the mallow family. [Gr.]

Siddha, sid′da, n. one who has attained to Sid′dhi, accomplishment or perfection.—n. Siddhar′ta, an epithet of Buddha. [Sans.]

Siddow, sid′ō, adj. (prov.) soft, pulpy.

Side, sīd, n. the edge or border of anything: the surface of a solid: a part of a thing as seen by the eye: region, part: the part of an animal between the hip and shoulder: any party, interest, or opinion opposed to another: faction: line of descent: at billiards, a certain bias or kind of spinning motion given to a ball by striking it sidewise: (slang) a pretentious and supercilious manner, swagger.—adj. being on or toward the side: lateral: indirect.—v.i. to embrace the opinion or cause of one party against another.—v.t. (Spens.) to be on the same side with, to support: to cut into sides: to push aside, to set aside.— Side′arms, arms or weapons worn on the side, as a sword or bayonet.—ns. Side′-beam, either of the working-beams of a marine engine, placed below the crank-shaft, on each side of the cylinder, instead of a central beam above the crank-shaft; Side′board, a piece of furniture on one side of a dining-room for holding dishes, &c.: (pl.) side-whiskers, stiff standing collars (slang).— Side′-bones, enlargements situated above the quarters of a horse's feet, resulting from the conversion into bone of the elastic lateral cartilages.—ns. Side′box, a box or seat at the side of a theatre; Side′-chap′el, a chapel in an aisle or at the side of a church; Side′-comb, a small comb used to keep a lock of hair in place at the side of a woman's head; Side′-cous′in, a distant relative; Side′-cut, a cut from the side, an indirect attack; Side′-cut′ting, an excavation of earth along the side of a railway or canal to obtain material for an embankment.—adj. Sid′ed, having a side: flattened on one or more sides.—ns. Side′-dish, any supplementary dish at a dinner, &c., specially flavoured; Side′-drum, a small double-headed drum in military bands; Side′-glance, a glance to one side; Side′-is′sue, a subordinate issue aside from the main business; Side′light, light coming from the side, any incidental illustration: a window, as opposed to a sky-light, a window above or at the side of a door: one of the red or green lights carried on the side of a vessel under way at night; Side′-line, a line attached to the side of anything: any additional or extra line of goods sold by a commercial traveller: (pl.) the ropes binding the fore and hind feet on the same side of a horse.—adj. Side′ling, inclining to a side, sloping.—adv. sidewise, aslant.—n. Side′lock, a separate lock of hair worn at the side of the head.—adj. Side′long, oblique: not straight.—adv. in the direction of the side: obliquely.—n. the slope of a hill.—ns. Side′-note, a marginal note on a page, as opposed to a foot-note; Side′-part′ner (U.S.), one who shares a duty or employment with another alongside or alternately; Sid′er, a partisan: one living in any particular quarter of a city; Side′-rod, a coupling-rod of a locomotive: either of the rods of a side-beam engine connecting the cross-head on the piston-rod with the working-beam: either of the rods of a side-beam engine connecting the working-beams with the cross-head of the air-pump; Side′sadd′le, a saddle for women sitting, not astride, but with both feet on one side; Side′saddle-flower, a name sometimes given to a plant of the genus Sarracenia; Side′-screw, a screw on the front edge of a carpenter's bench to hold the work fast: one of the screws fastening the lockplate of a gun to the stock; Side′-scrip′tion (Scots law), an old method of authenticating deeds written on several sheets of paper pasted together, by signing the name across each junction; Side′-seat, a seat in a vehicle with the back against its side; Side′-show, an exhibition subordinate to a larger one; Side′-sleeve (Shak.), a loose hanging sleeve; Side′-slip, an oblique offshoot: a bastard; Sides′man, a deputy churchwarden: (Milt.) a partisan.—adj. Side′-split′ting, affecting the sides convulsively, as in boisterous laughter.—ns. Side′-stroke, a stroke given sideways; Side′-tā′ble, a table placed usually against the wall; Side′-view, a view on or from one side; Side′-walk, a foot-walk beside a street or road.—advs. Side′ways, Side′wise, toward or on one side.—adj. Side′-wheel, having side or paddle wheels.—ns. Side′-wind, a wind blowing laterally: any indirect influence or means; Sīd′ing, a short line of rails on which wagons are shunted from the main-line.—v.i. Sī′dle, to go or move side-foremost.—v.t. to cause to move sideways.—Side by side, placed with sides near each other.—Choose sides, to pick out opposing parties to contend with each other; Right, or Wrong, side, the side of anything (cloth, leather, &c.) intended to be turned outward or inward respectively; Take a side, to join one party in opposition to another; Take sides, to range one's self with one or other of contending parties; To one side, having a lateral inclination: out of sight. [A.S. síde; Ger. seite, Dut. zijde.]

Side, sīd, adj. (Scot.) wide, large: far. [A.S. síd, spacious.]

Sidereal, sī-dē′rē-al, adj. relating to a star or stars: starry: (astron.) measured by the apparent motion of the stars.—adj. Sid′eral (Milt.), relating to the stars: baleful, from astrology.—n. Siderā′tion, a sudden deprivation of sense, as a stroke of apoplexy: a blast of plants.—Sidereal day, the time between two successive upper culminations of a fixed star or of the vernal equinox, shorter than a solar day; Sidereal year (see Year). [L. sidus, sideris, a star.]

Siderite, sid′ėr-īt, n. the lodestone: native iron protocarbonate—also Chalybite, Spathic or Sparry iron, Junckerite. [L. sideritis, the lodestone—Gr. sidēritēs, of iron—sidēros, iron.]

Siderography, sid-ėr-og′ra-fi, n. steel-engraving.—adjs. Siderograph′ic, -al.—n. Siderog′raphist. [Gr. sidēros, iron, graphein, engrave.]

Siderolite, sid′e-rō-līt, n. a meteorite composed chiefly of iron. [Gr. sidēros, iron, lithos, stone.]

Sideromancy, sid′ėr-ō-mans-i, n. divination by burning straws, &c., on a red-hot plate of iron. [Gr. sidēros, iron, manteia, divination.]

Sideroscope, sid′ėr-o-skōp, n. an instrument for detecting minute degrees of magnetism by means of a combination of magnetic needles. [Gr. sidēros, iron, skopein, to view.]

Siderostat, sid′e-rō-stat, n. a heliostat adapted to sidereal time.—adj. Siderostat′ic. [L. sidus, sideris a star, Gr. statos, standing.]

Siege, sēj, n. a sitting down with an army round or before a fortified place in order to take it by force: a continued endeavour to gain possession: (Shak.) a seat, throne, station: (Shak.) excrement: the floor of a glass-furnace: a workman's bench.—v.t. to lay siege to.—ns. Siege′-piece, a coin, generally of unusual shape and rude workmanship, issued in a besieged place during stress of siege; Siege′-train, the materials carried by an army for the purpose of laying siege to a place.—State of siege, a condition of things in which civil law is suspended or made subordinate to military law; Minor state of siege, a modification of the more severe rule in cases of merely domestic trouble. [O. Fr. sege (Fr. siège), seat—Low L. assedium=L. obsidium, a siege—sedēre, to sit.]

Sield, sēld (Spens.). Cieled.

Sienese, si-e-nēz′, adj. pertaining to Siena, or Sienna, in central Italy, or its school of painting in the 13th and 14th centuries.

Sienite, Sienitic. Same as Syenite, &c.

Sienna, si-en′a, n. a fine orange-red pigment used in oil and water-colour painting. [It. terra di Siena, Sienna earth.]

Sierra, sē-er′ra, n. a ridge of mountains: a scombroid fish. [Sp., usually derived from L. serra, a saw. Some suggest Ar. sehrah, a desert place, whence also Sahara.]

Siesta, si-es′ta, n. a short sleep taken about midday or after dinner. [Sp.,—L. sexta (hora), the sixth (hour) after sunrise, the hour of noon.]

Sieur, sièr, n. a French title of respect, obsolete except in law-courts. [Fr.,—L. senior.]

Sieve, siv, n. a vessel with a bottom of woven hair or wire to separate the fine part of anything from the coarse: a person who cannot keep a secret.—v.t. to put through a sieve: to sift. [A.S. sife; Ger. seib.]

Siffle, sif′l, n. a sibilant râle.—v.i. to whistle, hiss.—ns. Siff′let, a theatrical whistle; Siff′leur, a whistler. [Fr. siffler—L. sibilāre.]

Sift, sift, v.t. to separate with, or as with, a sieve: to examine closely.—n. Sift′er, one who, or that which, sifts. [A.S. siftansife, a sieve.]

Sigh, sī, v.i. to inhale and respire with a long, deep, and audible breathing, as in love or grief: to sound like sighing.—v.t. to express by sighs.—n. a long, deep, audible respiration.—n. Sigh′er.—adj. Sigh′ful.—adv. Sigh′ingly. [A.S. sícan; Sw. sucka.]

Sight, sīt, n. act of seeing: view: faculty of seeing: that which is seen: a spectacle: an object of especial interest: space within vision: examination: a small opening for looking through at objects: a metal pin on the top of a barrel of a gun to guide the eye in taking aim: (slang) a great many or a great deal.—v.t. to catch sight of: to present to sight or put under notice.—adjs. Sight′ed, having sight of some special character, as short-sighted: fitted with a sight, as a firearm; Sight′less, wanting sight: blind: (Shak.) invisible: (Shak.) unsightly, ugly.—adv. Sight′lessly.—ns. Sight′lessness; Sight′liness.—adjs. Sight′ly, pleasing to the sight or eye: comely; Sight′-outrun′ning (Shak.), running faster than the eye can follow.—ns. Sight′-read′er, one who reads at sight, as musical notes, passages in a foreign tongue, &c.; Sight′-reading; Sight′-see′ing, the act of seeing sights: eagerness to see novelties or curiosities; Sight′-sē′er, one who is eager to see novelties or curiosities; Sights′man, a local guide; Sec′ond-sight, a gift of prophetic vision, long supposed in the Scottish Highlands and elsewhere to belong to particular persons.—At sight, without previous study or practice; At sight, After sight, terms applied to bills or notes payable on, or after, presentation; Lose sight of, to cease to see: to overlook; Out of sight, too far away to be seen: not in sight: (coll.) beyond comparison; Put out of sight, to remove from vision: (slang) to consume, as food. [A.S. siht, ge-sihtge-segen, pa.p. of seón, to see; Ger. sicht.]

Sight, sīt (Spens.)=Sighed.

Sigil, sij′il, n. a seal: a signature: an occult or magical mark.—adjs. Sig′illary, pertaining to a seal; Sig′illate, decorated, as pottery, with impressed patterns: (bot.) marked with seal-like scars.—ns. Sigillā′tion; Sigillog′raphy, knowledge of seals.— Sig′la, abbreviations of names, &c., on seals. [L. sigillum, dim. of signum, sign.]

Sigillaria, sij-il-ā′ri-a, n. a family of fossil lycopods, abundant in Carboniferous strata, with pillar-like trunks, the columnar stems ribbed and fluted longitudinally, the fluting marked by rows or whorls of scars left by fallen leaves.—adjs. Sigillā′rian, Sig′illaroid, Sigillā′rioid. [L. sigillum, a seal.]

Sigma, sig′ma, n. the Greek letter corresponding to our s—written Σ (capital), σ (small initial) or ς (small final).—adjs. Sig′mate, Sigmat′ic.—ns. Sigmā′tion, the adding of s at the end of a word or syllable; Sig′matism, repetition of s or the s-sound: defective pronunciation of this sound.—adjs. Sig′moid, -al, formed like s.

Sign, sīn, n. mark, token: proof: that by which a thing is known or represented: a word, gesture, symbol, or mark, intended to signify something else: a remarkable event: an omen: a miraculous manifestation: a memorial: something set up as a notice in a public place: (math.) a mark showing the relation of quantities or an operation to be performed: (med.) a symptom: (astron.) one of the twelve parts of the zodiac, each comprising 30 degrees of the ecliptic.—v.t. to represent or make known by a sign: to attach a signature to.—v.i. to give one's signature: to make a particular sign.—adj. Sign′able, capable of being, or requiring to be, signed.—ns. Sign′board, a board with a sign telling a man's occupation or articles for sale; Sign′er; Sig′net, the privy-seal: (B.) a seal.—adj. Sig′neted, stamped or marked with a signet.—n. Sig′net-ring, a ring with a signet or private seal.—adj. Sign′less, making no sign.—ns. Sign′-man′ual, the royal signature, usually only the initial of the sovereign's name, with R. for Rex or Regina; Sign′-paint′er, one who paints signs for shops, &c.; Sign′post, a post on which a sign is hung: a direction-post. [Fr. signe—L. signum.]

Signal, sig′nal, n. a sign for giving notice, generally at a distance: token: the notice given: any initial impulse.—v.t. and v.i. to make signals to: to convey by signals:—pr.p. sig′nalling; pa.t. and pa.p. sig′nalled.adj. having a sign: remarkable: notable: eminent.—ns. Sig′nal-book, a book containing a system of signals; Sig′nal-box, -cab′in, &c., a small house in which railway-signals are worked: the alarm-box of a police or fire-alarm system; Sig′nal-code, a code or system of arbitrary signals, esp. at sea, by flags or lights; Sig′nal-fire, a fire used for a signal; Sig′nal-flag, a flag used in signalling, its colour, shape, markings, and combinations indicating various significations; Sig′nal-gun, a gun fired as a signal.—v.t. Sig′nalise, to make signal or eminent: to signal.—ns. Sig′nal-lamp, a lamp by which signals are made by glasses or slides of different colours, &c.; Sig′nalling, the means of transmitting intelligence to a greater or less distance by the agency of sight or hearing.—adv. Sig′nally.—ns. Sig′nalman, one who makes signals and who interprets those made; Sig′nalment, the act of communicating by signals: description by means of marks; Sig′nal-post, a pole on which movable flags, arms, lights, are displayed as signals; Sig′nal-ser′vice, the department in the army occupied with signalling. [Fr.,—L. signalis, signum.]

Signature, sig′na-tūr, n. a sign or mark: the name of a person written by himself: (mus.) the flats and sharps after the clef to show the key: a sheet after being folded, the figure or letter at the foot of the page indicating such.—adj. Sig′nāte, designate: bearing spots resembling letters.—ns. Signā′tion, anything used as a sign, an emblem; Sig′natory, Sig′natary, Sig′nitary, one bound by signature to some agreement.—adj. having signed, bound by signature.—Doctrine of signatures, an inveterate belief in early medicine that plants and minerals bore certain symbolical marks which indicated the diseases for which nature had intended them as special remedies. [Fr.,—Low L. signatura—L. signāre, -ātum, to sign.]

Signieur, n. (Shak.). Same as Seignior.

Signify, sig′ni-fī, v.t. to make known by a sign or by words: to mean: to indicate or declare: to have consequence.—v.i. to be of consequence:—pa.t. and pa.p. sig′nifīed.adj. Sig′nifiable, that may be signified or represented by symbols.—n. Signif′icance, that which is signified: meaning: importance: moment—also Signif′icancy.—adj. Signif′icant, signifying: expressive of something: standing as a sign.—adv. Signif′icantly.—ns. Signif′icate, in logic, one of several things signified by a common term; Significā′tion, act of signifying: that which is signified: meaning.—adj. Signif′icātive, signifying: denoting by a sign: having meaning: expressive.—adv. Signif′icātively, in a significative manner: so as to betoken by an external sign.—ns. Signif′icātiveness, the quality of being significative; Signif′icātor, one who signifies: (astrol.) a planet ruling a house.—adj. Signif′icatory. [L. significāre, -ātum, signum, a sign, facĕre, to make.]

Signor, sē′nyor, n. an Italian word of address equivalent to Mr—also Signior.—ns. Signora (sē-nyō′ra), feminine of signor; Signorina (sē-nyō-rē′na), the Italian equivalent of Miss; Sig′nory, Sig′niory (same as Seigniory). [It. signore.]

Sike, sīk, n. (Scot.) a small stream of water.—Also Syke. [Ice. sík, síki, a ditch.]

Sikh, sēk, n. one of a religious sect of northern India, which became a great military confederacy—founded by Baba Nának (born 1469).—n. Sikh′ism. [Hind. Sikh, lit. follower or disciple.]

Sil, sil, n. a yellowish pigment of ancient painters.

Silage, sī′laj, n. the term applied to fodder which has been preserved by ensilage in a silo.

Sile, sīl, v.t. (prov.) to strain.—n. a sieve, a strainer or colander. [Low Ger. silen; Ger. sielen, to filter.]

Silence, sī′lens, n. state of being silent: absence of sound or speech: muteness: cessation of agitation: calmness: oblivion.—v.t. to cause to be silent: to put to rest: to stop.—interj. be silent!—adj. Sī′lent, free from noise: not speaking: habitually taciturn: still: not pronounced: of distilled spirit, without flavour or odour.—n. Silen′tiary, one who keeps order in an assembly.—adv. Sī′lently.—n. Sī′lentness=Silence. [L. silēre, to be silent.]

Silene, sī-lē′nē, n. a genus of plants of the natural order Caryophyllaceæ—the Bladder Campion, whose young shoots eat like asparagus—the Catchfly, a general name for many British species.

Silenus, sī-lē′nus, n. the foster-father of Bacchus, a little pot-bellied old man, bald-headed and snub-nosed, generally astride of an ass, drunk, and attended by a troop of satyrs.

Silesia, si-lē′shi-a, n. a thin brown holland for window-blinds, &c.: a thin twilled cotton.—adj. Silē′sian, pertaining to Silesia.

Silex, sī′leks, n. silica, as found in nature, occurring as flint, quartz, rock-crystal, &c. [L. silex, silicis, flint.]


Silhouette, sil-ōō-et′, n. a shadow-outline of the human figure or profile filled in of a dark colour.—v.t. to represent in silhouette: to bring out a shaded profile or outline view of. [Étienne de Silhouette (1709-67), French minister of finance for four months in 1759, after whom everything cheap was named, from his excessive economy. According to Littré, the making of such shadow-portraits was a favourite pastime of his; hence the name.]

Silica, sil′i-ka, n. silicon dioxide, or silicic anhydride, a white or colourless substance, the most abundant solid constituent of our globe, existing both in the crystalline and in the amorphous form, the best examples of the former being rock-crystal, quartz, chalcedony, flint, sandstone, and quartzose sand; of the latter, opal.—n. Sil′icate, a salt of silicic acid.—adjs. Sil′icāted, combined or impregnated with silica; Silic′ic, pertaining to, or obtained from, silica; Silicif′erous, producing or containing silica.—n. Silicificā′tion, conversion into silica.—v.t. Silic′ify, to convert into silica: to render silicious.—v.i. to become silicious or flinty:—pr.p. silic′ifying; pa.p. silic′ifīed.adjs. Silic′ious, Silic′eous, pertaining to, containing, or resembling silica.—n. Sil′icon, or Silic′ium, the base of silica, a non-metallic elementary substance, obtainable in three different forms, the amorphous, the graphitoid, and the crystalline. [L. silex, silicis, flint.]


Silicle, sil′i-kl, n. (bot.) a seed-vessel shorter and containing fewer seeds than a silique—also Sil′icule, Silic′ula.—adj. Silic′ulōse (bot.), having, pertaining to, or resembling silicles: husky.—ns. (bot.) Silique (si-lēk′), Sil′iqua, the two-valved elongated seed-vessel of the Cruciferæ.—adjs. Sil′iquiform, Sil′iquose, Sil′iquous (bot.), pertaining to, resembling, or bearing siliques. [L. silicula, dim. of siliqua, a pod.]

Silk, silk, n. the delicate, soft thread produced by the larvæ of certain bombycid moths which feed on the leaves of the mulberry, &c.: thread or cloth woven from it: anything resembling silk, the styles of maize, the silky lustre in the ruby, &c.—adj. pertaining to, or consisting of, silk.—n. Silk′-cott′on, the silky seed-covering of various species of Bombax.—adjs. Silk′en, made of silk: dressed in silk: resembling silk: soft: delicate; Silk′-fig′ured, having the ornamental pattern in silk.—ns. Silk′-gown, or The silk, the robe of a queen's or king's counsel, instead of the stuff-gown of the ordinary barrister—hence 'to take silk'=to be appointed Q.C.; Silk′-grass, Adam's needle, or bear-grass; Silk′iness; Silk′-man (Shak.), a dealer in silks; Silk′-mer′cer, a mercer or dealer in silks; Silk′-mill, a mill for the manufacture of silks; Silk′-pa′per, tissue-paper; Silk′-reel, a machine in which raw silk is unwound from the cocoons, and wound into a thread; Silk′-throw′er, -throw′ster, one who manufactures thrown-silk or organzine, silk thread formed by twisting together two or more threads or singles; Silk′-weav′er, a weaver of silk stuffs; Silk′worm, the bombycid moth whose larva produces silk; Silk′worm-gut, a material used by anglers for dressing the hook-end of the fishing-line, consisting of the drawn-out glands of the silkworm when these are fully distended.—adj. Silk′y, like silk in texture: soft: smooth: glossy. [A.S. seolc—L. sericum—Gr. sērikon, neut. of adj. Sērikos, pertaining to the SēresSēr, a native of China.]

Sill, sil, n. the timber or stone at the foot of a door or window: the lowest piece in a window-frame: (fort.) the inner edge of the bottom of an embrasure: the floor of a mine-passage, also a miner's term for bed or stratum. [A.S. syl; Ice. sylla, Ger. schwelle.]

Silladar, sil′a-där, n. a member of a troop of irregular cavalry. [Hind.]

Sillago, sil′a-gō, n. a genus of acanthopterygian fishes.

Sillery, sil′e-ri, n. a celebrated still white wine produced near Rheims—one of the most esteemed champagnes. [Sillery in Marne.]

Sillibub, sil′i-bub, n. a dish made of wine or cider mixed with milk into a curd, flavoured, whipped into a froth, or made solid by gelatine and water, and boiling.—Also Sill′abub.

Sillograph, sil′ō-graf, n. a satirist. [From the Silloi of Timon of Phlius, c. 280 B.C.]

Sillometer, si-lom′e-tėr, n. an instrument for measuring the speed of a ship without a log-line. [Fr. siller, to make way, Gr. metron, a measure.]

Sillon, sil′on, n. (fort.) a. work raised in the middle of a very wide ditch, an envelope. [Fr.]

Sillsallat, sil′sal-at, n. a salad of pickled herring, with morsels of meat, eggs, onion, and beet. [Sw.]

Silly, sil′i, adj. simple: harmless: foolish: witless: imprudent: absurd: stupid.—n. a silly person.—adv. Sill′ily.—ns. Sill′iness; Sill′y-how, a caul. [Orig. 'blessed,' and so 'innocent,' 'simple,' A.S. sǽlig, gesælig, timely—sǽl, time; Ger. selig, blest, happy, Goth. sels, good.]

Silo, sī′lō, n. a pit for packing and storing green crops for fodder in the state known as ensilage.—v.t. to preserve in a silo. [Sp.,—L. sirus—Gr. siros, a pit.]

Silpha, sil′fa, n. a genus of clavicorn beetles, the carrion-beetles. [Gr. silphē, a beetle.]

Silphium, sil′fi-um, n. a genus of American composites with resinous juice—prairie-dock, cup-plant, rosin-weed: an umbelliferous plant whose juice the ancient Greeks used—the Latin laserpitium.

Silphology, sil-fol′ō-ji, n. the science of larval forms. [Gr. silphē, a beetle, logialegein, to say.]

Silt, silt, n. that which is left by straining: sediment: the sand, &c., left by water.—v.t. to fill with sediment (with up).—v.i. to percolate through pores: to become filled up.—adj. Silt′y, full of, or resembling, silt. [Prov. Eng. sile, allied to Low Ger. sielen, Sw. sila, to let water off, to strain.]

Silurian, si-lū′ri-an, adj. belonging to Siluria, the country of the Silures, the ancient inhabitants of the south-eastern part of South Wales: applied by Murchison in 1835 to a series of rocks well developed in the country of the Silures, a subdivision of the Palæozoic, containing hardly any vertebrates and land plants.—adjs. Silū′ridan, Silū′rine, Silū′roid.—ns. Silū′rist, a Silurian, a name applied to the poet Henry Vaughan (1621-95); Silū′rus, Silūre′, the typical genus of Siluridæ, a family of physostomous fishes—the cat-fishes, &c.

Silvan, sil′van, adj. pertaining to woods, woody: inhabiting woods.—ns. Sil′va, Syl′va, the forest-trees collectively of any region. [Fr.,—L. silva.]

Silver, sil′vėr, n. a soft white metal, capable of a high polish: money made of silver: anything having the appearance of silver.—adj. made of silver: resembling silver: white: bright: precious: gentle: having a soft and clear tone: of high rank, but still second to the highest.—v.t. to cover with silver: to make like silver: to make smooth and bright: to make silvery.—v.i. to become silvery.—ns. Sil′ver-bath (phot.), a solution of silver-nitrate for sensitising collodion-plates for printing; Sil′ver-beat′er, one who beats out silver into thin foil.—adjs. Sil′ver-black, black silvered over with white; Sil′ver-bright (Shak.), as bright as silver; Sil′ver-bus′kined, having buskins adorned with silver.—ns. Sil′ver-fir, a coniferous tree of the genus Abies, whose leaves show two silvery lines on the under side; Sil′ver-fish, a name given to the atherine, to artificially bred gold-fish, the sand-smelt, the tarpon: any species of Lepisma, a thysanurous insect—also Bristletail, Walking-fish, Silver-moth, Shiner, &c.; Sil′ver-fox, a species of fox found in northern regions, having a rich and valuable fur; Sil′ver-glance, native silver sulphide; Sil′ver-grain, the medullary rays in timber.—adjs. Sil′ver-gray, having a gray or bluish-gray colour; Sil′ver-haired, having white or lustrous gray hair; Sil′ver-head′ed, having a silver head: with white hair.—ns. Sil′veriness, the state of being silvery; Sil′vering, the operation of covering with silver: the silver so used.—v.t. Sil′verise, to coat or cover with silver:—pr.p. sil′verīsing; pa.p. sil′verīsed.ns. Sil′verite, one who opposes the demonetisation of silver; Sil′ver-leaf, silver beaten into thin leaves; Sil′verling (B.), a small silver coin.—adv. Sil′verly (Shak.), with the appearance of silver.—adjs. Sil′vern, made of silver; Sil′ver-plā′ted, plated with silver.—n. Sil′ver-print′ing, the production of photographic prints by the use of a sensitising salt of silver.—adj. Sil′ver-shaft′ed, carrying silver arrows, as Diana.—ns. Sil′versmith, a smith who works in silver; Sil′ver-stick, an officer of the royal palace—from his silvered wand.—adjs. Sil′ver-tongued, plausible, eloquent; Sil′ver-voiced (Shak.), having a clear, sweet voice like the sound of a silver musical instrument; Sil′ver-white (Shak.), white like silver; Sil′very, covered with silver: resembling silver: white: clear, soft, mellow. [A.S. silfer, seolfor; Ice. silfr, Ger. silber.]

Simar, Simarre, si-mär′, n. a woman's robe: a scarf. [Fr. simarre—O. Fr. chamarre—Sp. chamarra, a sheep-skin coat, prob. Basque.]

Simarubaceæ, sim-a-rōō-bā′sē-ē, a natural order of tropical trees and shrubs—bitter, used in dysentery, &c.—including quassia, bitterwood, and ailanto.—adj. Simarubā′ceous.

Simbil, sim′bil, n. a shortish-legged African stork.

Simeonite, sim′ē-on-īt, n. a follower of the famous Cambridge evangelical preacher Charles Simeon (1759-1836), whose influence is perpetuated by the Simeon Trust, established for purchasing advowsons: a low-churchman—often Sim.

Simia, sim′i-a, n. an anthropoid ape: a monkey generally: the typical genus of Simiidæ, containing the orang-utans—the Simiidæ includes the anthropoid apes; Simiinæ is the higher of the two sub-families of Simiidæ, comprising the gorilla, chimpanzee, and orang.—adjs. Sim′ial, Sim′ian, Sim′ious, like an ape: anthropoid. [L.]

Similar, sim′i-lar, adj. like: resembling: uniform: (geom.) exactly corresponding in shape, without regard to size.—n. Similar′ity.—adv. Sim′ilarly.—n. Simil′itude, the state of being similar or like: resemblance: comparison: simile: (B.) a parable.—adj. Similitū′dinary. [Fr.,—L. similis, like.]

Simile, sim′i-le, n. something similar: similitude: (rhet.) a comparison to illustrate anything.— Simil′ia, things alike.—v.t. Sim′ilise, to liken, compare.—v.i. to use similitudes.—adv. Simil′liter, in like manner. [L., neut. of similis, like.]

Similor, sim′i-lōr, n. a yellow alloy used for cheap jewellery. [Fr.,—L. similis, like, aurum, gold.]

Simitar. Same as Scimitar (q.v.).

Simkin, sim′kin, n. the usual Anglo-Indian word for champagne.—Also Simp′kin.

Simmer, sim′ėr, v.i. to boil with a gentle, hissing sound: to be on the point of boiling out, as into anger.—n. a gentle heating. [Imit.; cf. Sw. dial. summa, to hum, Ger. summen.]

Simnel, sim′nel, n. a sweet cake of fine flour for Christmas, Easter, or Mothering Sunday.—Also Sim′lin. [O. Fr. simenel—L. simila, fine flour.]

Simon-pure, sī′mon-pūr, adj. authentic, genuine. [From Simon Pure, a character in Mrs Centlivre's comedy, A Bold Stroke for a Wife, who is counterfeited by an impostor.]

Simony, sim′on-i, n. the crime of buying or selling presentation to a benefice, so named from Simon Magus, who thought to purchase the gift of the Holy Spirit with money (Acts, viii.).—n. Simō′niac, one guilty of simony.—adjs. Simonī′acal, Simō′nious (obs.), pertaining to, guilty of, or involving simony.—adv. Simonī′acally.—n. Sī′monist, one who practises or defends simony.

Simoom, si-mōōm′, n. a hot suffocating wind which blows in northern Africa and Arabia and the adjacent countries from the interior deserts.—Also Simoon′. [Ar. samûmsamm, to poison.]

Simorhynchus, sim-ō-ring′kus, n. a genus of small North Pacific birds, the snub-nosed auklets. [Gr. simos, flat-nosed, hryngchos, snout.]

Simous, sī′mus, adj. flat or snub nosed: concave.—n. Simos′ity.

Simpai, sim′pī, n. the black-crested monkey of Sumatra.

Simper, sim′pėr, v.i. to smile in a silly, affected manner.—n. a silly or affected smile.—n. Sim′perer, one who simpers.—adj. Simp′ering.—adv. Sim′peringly, in a simpering manner: with a foolish smile. [Prob. Scand.; Norw. semper, smart.]

Simple, sim′pl, adj. single: undivided: resisting decomposition: elementary, undeveloped: plain, single, entire: homogeneous: open: unaffected: undesigning: true: clear: straightforward: artless: guileless: unsuspecting: credulous: not cunning: weak in intellect: silly: of mean birth—opposed to Gentle.—n. something not mixed or compounded: a medicinal herb: a simple feast—opposed to a double or semidouble.—v.i. to gather simples or medicinal plants.—adjs. Sim′ple-heart′ed, having a simple heart: guileless; Sim′ple-mind′ed, having a simple mind: unsuspecting: undesigning.—ns. Sim′ple-mind′edness, the state or quality of being simple-minded: artlessness; Sim′pleness, the state or quality of being simple: artlessness: simplicity: folly; Sim′pler, a gatherer of simples; Sim′pless (Spens.), simplicity; Sim′pleton, a weak or foolish person.—adv. Simplic′iter, simply, not relatively.—ns. Simplic′ity, the state or quality of being simple: singleness: want of complication: openness: clearness: freedom from excessive adornment: plainness: sincerity: artlessness: credulity, silliness, folly; Simplificā′tion, the act of making simple.—adj. Sim′plificātive.—n. Sim′plificātor, one who simplifies.—v.t. Sim′plify, to make simple: to render less difficult: to make plain:—pa.t. and pa.p. sim′plified.ns. Sim′plism, affected simplicity; Sim′plist, one skilled in simples.—adj. Simplis′tic.—adv. Sim′ply, in a simple manner: artlessly: foolishly: weakly: plainly: considered by itself: alone: merely: solely. [Fr.,—L. simplex, the same—sim- (L. semel), root of plicāre, to fold.]

Simson, Simpson, sim′son, n. (prov.) groundsel. [Earlier sencion—O. Fr. senecion—L. senecio.]

Simulacrum, sim-ū-lā′krum, n. an image, unreal phantom: a formal sign:—pl. Simulā′cra. [L.]

Simulate, sim′ū-lāt, v.t. to imitate: to counterfeit: to pretend: to assume the appearance of without the reality.—adjs. Sim′ulant, simulating: replacing, or having the form or appearance of, esp. in biology; Sim′ular, counterfeit, feigned.—n. one who pretends to be what he is not.—ns. Simulā′tion, the act of simulating or putting on what is not true: imitation in form of one word by another: resemblance, similarity; Sim′ulātor, one who simulates.—adj. Sim′ulātory. [L. simulāre, -ātum, to make (something) similar to (another thing)—similis, like.]

Simultaneous, sim-ul-tā′nē-us, adj. acting, existing, or happening at the same time: (math.) satisfied by the same values of the variables or unknown quantities—of a set of equations.—ns. Simultanē′ity, Simultā′neousness.—adv. Simultā′neously. [Low L. simultaneus—L. simul, at the same time.]

Simurg, si-mōōrg′, n. a monstrous bird of Persian fable.—Also Simorg′, Simurgh′.

Sin, sin, adv. (Spens.) since. [Since.]

Sin, sin, n. wilful violation of law: neglect of duty: neglect of the laws of morality and religion, any want of conformity unto, or transgression of, the law of God: wickedness, iniquity.—v.i. to commit sin: to violate or neglect the laws of morality or religion: to do wrong:—pr.p sin′ning; pa.t. and pa.p. sinned.—adjs. Sin′-born, born of sin; Sin′-bred, produced by sin.—ns. Sin′-eat′er, one of a class of men formerly employed in Wales to eat a piece of bread and drink a cup of ale placed on a bier, and so symbolically take upon themselves the sins of the deceased—due to the notion of the Levitical scapegoat (Levit. xvi. 21, 22); Sin′-eat′ing.—adj. Sin′ful, full of, or tainted with, sin: iniquitous: wicked: depraved: criminal: unholy.—adv. Sin′fully.—n. Sin′fulness.—adj. Sin′less, without sin: innocent: pure: perfect.—adv. Sin′lessly.—ns. Sin′lessness; Sin′ner, one who sins: an offender or criminal: (theol.) an unregenerate person.—v.i. (Pope) to act as a sinner (with indefinite it).—n. Sin′-off′ering, an offering for, or sacrifice in expiation of, sin.—adjs. Sin′-sick, morally sick from sin; Sin′-worn, worn by sin.—Like sin (slang), very much, very hard; Mortal, or Deadly, sin, such as wilfully violates the divine law and separates the soul from God—seven deadly sins, pride, covetousness, lust, anger, gluttony, envy, and sloth; Original sin, the innate depravity and corruption of the whole nature due to the sin of Adam as federal representative of the human race, and transmitted by ordinary generation to all his posterity; Venial sin, any transgression due to inadvertence, not alienating the friendship of God. [A.S. syn, sinn; Ice. syn-d, Ger. sünde, L. sons.]

Sinaitic, sī-na-it′ik, adj. pertaining to, made, or given at Mount Sinai.—Also Sinā′ic.

Sinapis, si-nā′pis, n. the officinal name of mustard.—n. Sin′apism, a mustard-plaster. [L.,—Gr. sinapi.]

Since, sins, adv. from the time that: past: ago.—prep. after: from the time of.—conj. seeing that: because: considering. [M. E. sins, sithens—A.S. síth-thám, lit. 'after that,' from síth, late (Ger. seit), and thám, dat. of thæt, that.]

Sincere, sin-sēr′, adj. clean: pure: (B.) unadulterated: being in reality what it is in appearance: unfeigned: frank: honest: true, virtuous.—adv. Sincēre′ly.—ns. Sincēre′ness, Sincer′ity, state or quality of being sincere: honesty of mind: freedom from pretence. [Fr.,—L. sincerus, clean, generally derived from sine, without, cera, wax; better from sin-, single, -cerus for an assumed scerus, bright.]

Sinciput, sin′si-put, n. the forepart of the head from the forehead to the vertex.—adj. Sincip′ital. [L., semi-; half, caput, the head.]

Sind, sīnd, v.t. (Scot.) to rinse.—Also Synd.

Sindon, sin′don, n. (Bacon) a wrapper. [L.,—Gr. sindōn, fine Indian cloth, muslin, a garment, prob. from India, or Sinde in India.]

Sine, sīn, n. a straight line drawn from one extremity of an arc perpendicular to the diameter that passes through the other extremity. [L. sinus, a curve.]

Sine, Syne, sīn, adv. (Scot.) after that: ago.—conj. since.

Sine, sī′ne, prep. without, as in Sine die, without day, of an adjournment; Sine quâ non, an indispensable condition, &c. [L.]

Sinecure, sī′nē-kūr (or sin′-), n. an ecclesiastical benefice without the cure or care of souls: an office with salary but without work.—adj. pertaining to such an office.—ns. Sī′necurism, the state of having a sinecure; Sī′necurist, one who holds a sinecure. [L. sine, without, cura, care.]

Sinew, sin′ū, n. that which joins a muscle to a bone, a tendon: muscle, nerve: that which supplies vigour.—v.t. to bind as by sinews: to strengthen.—adj. Sin′ewed, furnished with sinews: (Shak.) strong, vigorous.—n. Sin′ewiness, the state or quality of being sinewy.—adjs. Sin′ewless, having no sinews: without strength or power; Sin′ew-shrunk, applied to a horse which has become gaunt-bellied from being overdriven; Sin′ewy, Sin′ewous, furnished with sinews: consisting of, belonging to, or resembling sinews: strong: vigorous.—Sinews of war, money. [A.S. sinu; Ice. sin, Ger. sehne.]

Sinfonia, sin-fō-nē′a, n. symphony. [It.]

Sing, sing, v.i. to utter melodious sounds in musical succession: to make a small, shrill sound: to relate in verse: to squeal: to ring: to be capable of being sung.—v.t. to utter musically: to chant: to celebrate: to attend on: to effect by singing: to celebrate or relate in verse:—pa.t. sang or sung; pa.p. sung.—adj. Sing′able.—ns. Sing′ableness; Sing′er, one who sings: one whose occupation is to sing; Sing′ing, the act or art of singing; Sing′ing-bird, a bird that sings, a songster; Sing′ing-book, a song-book; Sing′ing-gall′ery, a gallery occupied by singers; Sing′ing-hinn′y, a currant cake baked on a girdle.—adv. Sing′ingly.—ns. Sing′ing-man (Shak.), one employed to sing, as in a cathedral; Sing′ing-mas′ter, a master who teaches singing; Sing′ing-school, a place where singing is taught; Sing′ing-voice, the voice as used in singing; Sing′ing-wom′an, a woman employed to sing.—Sing another song, or tune, to change one's tone or attitude, esp. to a humbler manner; Sing out, to call out distinctly, to shout; Sing small, to assume a humble tone: to play a minor part. [A.S. singan; Ger. singen, Goth. siggwan.]

Singe, sinj, v.t. to burn on the surface: to scorch:—pr.p. singe′ing; pa.t. and pa.p. singed.—n. a burning of the surface: a slight burn.—Singed cat, a person who is better than he looks. [A.S. besengan, the causative of singan, to sing, from the singing noise produced by scorching.]

Singhalese. Same as Cingalese.

Single, sing′gl, adj. consisting of one only: individual, unique: separate, private: alone: unmarried: not combined with others: unmixed: having one only on each side: straightforward: sincere: simple, normal: pure.—v.t. to separate: to choose one from others: to select from a number.—adjs. Sing′le-act′ing, acting effectively in one direction only—of any reciprocating machine or implement; Sing′le-breast′ed, with a single row of buttons or loops only, of a coat, corsage, &c.—n. Single-en′try, a system of book-keeping in which each entry appears only once on one side or other of an account.—adj. Sing′le-eyed, having but one eye: devoted, unselfish.—ns. Sing′le-flow′er, a flower containing a single set of petals, as a wild rose; Sing′le-foot, a gait of horses, the amble.—adjs. Sing′le-hand′ed, by one's self: unassisted: having only one workman; Sing′le-heart′ed, having a single or sincere heart: without duplicity.—adv. Sing′le-heart′edly.—adj. Sing′le-mind′ed, having a single or sincere mind: upright.—ns. Sing′le-mind′edness; Sing′leness, state of being single or alone: freedom from deceit: sincerity: simplicity.—adj. Sing′le-soled, having a single sole, as a shoe: poor.—ns. Sing′le-stick, a stick or cudgel for one hand: a fight or game with singlesticks; Sing′let, an undershirt or waistcoat; Sing′leton, in whist, a hand containing one card only of some suit; Sing′letree (the same as Swingletree); Sing′le-wom′an, an unmarried woman: (obs.) a whore.—adv. Sing′ly, one by one: particularly: alone: by one's self: honestly: sincerely. [O. Fr.,—L. sin-gulus, one to each, separate, akin to sem-el, once, Gr. ham-a.]

Singsong, sing′song, n. bad singing: drawling: a convivial meeting where every one must sing.—adj. monotonously rhythmical, drawling.—v.t. and v.i. to make songs: to chant monotonously.

Singspiel, sing′spēl, n. a semi-dramatic representation in which a series of incidents are set forth in alternate dialogue and song, now a kind of opera in which the music is subordinated to the words. [Ger., singen, to sing, spiel, play.]

Singular, sing′gū-lar, adj. alone: (gram.) denoting one person or thing: single: not complex or compound: standing alone, rare, unusual, uncommon: of more than common value or importance: unique, extraordinary, strange, odd: (B.) particular.—n. that which is singular: (logic) that which is not general, that which is here and now, that which is determinate in every respect.—n. Singularisā′tion.—v.t. Sing′ularise, to make singular.—ns. Sing′ularist, one who affects singularity; Singular′ity, the state of being singular: peculiarity: anything curious or remarkable: particular privilege or distinction: (math.) an exceptional element or character of a continuum.—adv. Sing′ularly, in a singular manner: peculiarly: strangely: so as to express one or the singular number. [Fr.,—L. singularis.]

Singult, sin′gult, n. a sigh.—adjs. Singul′tient, Singul′tous, affected with hiccup.—n. Singul′tus, a hiccup. [L. singultus, a sob.]

Sinhalese, sin′ha-lēz, n. and adj. the same as Cingalese and Singhalese.

Sinic, sin′ik, adj. Chinese.—adj. Sin′ian, a widely spread series of rocks in China, containing many trilobites and brachiopods.—ns. Sin′icism, Chinese manners and customs; Sin′ism, customs of China generally, esp. its ancient indigenous religion. [L. Sina, China, Sinæ, the Chinese, Gr. Sinai, the Chinese.]

Sinical, sin′ik-al, adj. pertaining to, employing, or founded upon sines.

Sinister, sin′is-tėr, adj. left: on the left hand: evil: unfair: dishonest: unlucky: inauspicious, malign.—adj. Sin′ister-hand′ed, left-handed.—advs. Sin′isterly; Sinis′tra (mus.), with the left hand; Sin′istrad, towards the left.—adj. Sin′istral, belonging or inclining to the left: reversed.—n. Sinistral′ity.—adv. Sin′istrally.—n. Sinistrā′tion, a turning to the left.—adj. Sin′istrous, on the left side: wrong: absurd: perverse.—adv. Sin′istrously. [L.]

Sinistrorse, sin′is-trors, adj. rising from left to right, as a spiral line.—Also Sinistrors′al. [L. sinistrorsus, sinistroversus, towards the left side—sinister, left, vertĕre, versum, to turn.]

Sink, singk, v.i. to fall to the bottom: to fall down: to descend lower: to fall gradually: to fall below the surface: to enter deeply: to be impressed: to be overwhelmed: to fail in strength.—v.t. to cause to sink: to put under water: to keep out of sight: to suppress: to degrade: to cause to decline or fall: to plunge into destruction: to make by digging or delving: to pay absolutely: to lower in value or amount: to lessen:—pa.t. sank, sunk; pa.p. sunk, sunk′en.n. a drain to carry off dirty water: a box or vessel connected with a drain for receiving dirty water: an abode of degraded persons: a general receptacle: an area in which a river sinks and disappears: a depression in a stereotype plate: a stage trap-door for shifting scenery: in mining, an excavation less than a shaft.—ns. Sink′er, anything which causes a sinking, esp. a weight fixed to a fishing-line; Sink′-hole, a hole for dirty water to run through; Sink′ing, a subsidence: a depression.—adj. causing to sink.—n. Sink′ing-fund, a fund formed by setting aside income every year to accumulate at interest for the purpose of paying off debt.—adj. Sink′ing-ripe (Shak.), dead-ripe, about to fall off.—n. Sink′room, a scullery. [A.S. sincan; Ger. sinken, Dut. zinken.]

Sink-a-pace, singk′-a-pās, n. (Shak.)=Cinquepace.

Sinologue, sin′ō-log, n. one versed in Chinese.—adj. Sinolog′ical (-loj′-).ns. Sinol′ogist; Sinol′ogy.

Sinople, sin′ō-pl, n. a ferruginous clay yielding the fine red pigment Sinō′pia or Sinō′pis. [Gr. sinōpis, a red earth brought from Sinope.]

Sinsyne, sin-sīn′, adv. (Scot.) since, ago.

Sinter, sin′tėr, n. a name given to rocks precipitated in a crystalline form from mineral waters. [Ger.]

Sinto, Sintoism=Shinto, Shintoism.

Sintoc, sin′tok, n. a Malayan tree with aromatic bark.—Also Sin′doc.

Sinuate, -d, sin′ū-āt, -ed, adj. curved: (bot.) with a waved margin.—v.t. to bend in and out.—ns. Sinuā′tion; Sinuos′ity, quality of being sinuous: a bend or series of bends and turns.—adjs. Sin′uous, Sin′uōse, bending in and out, winding, undulating: morally crooked.—adv. Sin′uously. [L. sinuatus, pa.p. of sinuāre, to bend.]

Sinupalliate, sin-ū-pal′i-āt, adj. having a sinuous pallial margin on the shell along the line of attachment of the mantle.—Also Sinupall′ial. [L. sinus, a fold, pallium, a mantle.]

Sinus, sī′nus, n. a bending: a fold: an opening: a bay of the sea: a recess on the shore: (anat.) a cavity or hollow of bone or other tissue, one of the air-cavities contained in the interior of certain bones: a channel for transmitting venous blood: a narrow opening leading to an abscess, &c.—n. Sī′nusoid, the curve of sines in which the abscisses are proportional to an angle, and the ordinates to its sine.—adj. Sinusoi′dal.—adv. Sinusoi′dally. [L. sinus, a curve.]

Sioux, sōō, n. (pl. Sioux, sōō or sōōz) the principal tribe of the Dakota family of American Indians in South Dakota and Nebraska—also adj.—Also Siouan (sōō′an).

Sip, sip, v.t. to sup or drink in small quantities: to draw into the mouth: to taste: to drink out of.—v.i. to drink in small quantities: to drink by the lips:—pr.p. sip′ping; pa.t. and pa.p. sipped.—n. the taking of a liquor with the lips: a small draught.—n. Sip′per. [A.S. syppan (assumed), sipian, to soak. Related to súpan, to sup, taste.]

Sipe, sīp, v.i. (prov.) to soak through.—Also Seep. [A.S. sipian, to soak; Dut. zijpen, to drop.]

Siphilis. Same as Syphilis (q.v.).


Siphon, sī′fun, n. a bent tube for drawing off liquids from one vessel into another.—v.t. to convey by means of a siphon.—n. Sī′phonage.—adjs. Sī′phonal, Sī′phonate, Sīphon′ic, pertaining to, or resembling, a siphon.—n. Sī′phon-bott′le, a glass bottle for containing aerated liquid, fitted with a glass tube reaching nearly to the bottom and bent like a siphon at the outlet.—adjs. Siphonif′erous; Sī′phoniform; Siphonostō′matous, having a siphonate mouth.—ns. Sī′phonostome, a siphonostomatous animal, as a fish-louse; Sī′phuncle, the siphon or funnel of tetrabranchiate cephalopods: a nectary.—adjs. Sī′phuncled, Siphunc′ular, Siphunc′ulate, -d.—ns. Siphunc′ulus; Sipunc′ulus, a genus of worms belonging to the class Gephyrea. [Fr.,—Gr., siphōnsiphlos, hollow.]

Sippet, sip′et, n. a small sop: (pl.) morsels of bread served in broth, &c.—v.i. Sipp′le, to sup in sips.

Sipylite, sip′i-līt, n. a niobite of erbium. [From Gr. Sipylos, one of the children of Niobe.]

Sir, sėr, n. a word of respect used in addressing a man: a gentleman: the title of a knight or baronet, used along with the Christian name and surname, as 'Sir David Pole:' formerly a common title of address for the clergy as a translation of L. dominus, the term used for a bachelor of arts, originally in contradistinction from the magister, or master of arts—hence Sir John=a priest.—v.t. to address as 'sir.' [O. Fr. sire, through O. Fr. senre, from L. senior, an elder, comp. of senex, old. Cf. the parallel forms Sire, Senior, Seignior, Signor.]

Sircar, sėr-kär′, n. a Hindu clerk.—Also Sirkar′, Circar′. [Hind. sarkār, a superintendent—sar, head, kār, Sans. kara, work.]

Sirdar, sėr-där′, n. a chief or military officer. [Hind. sardārsar, head, -dār, holding.]

Sire, sīr, n. one in the place of a father, as a sovereign: an elder, a progenitor: the male parent of a beast, esp. of a horse: (pl.) ancestors (poetry).—v.t. to beget, used of animals. [Sir.]

Siredon, sī-rē′don, n. a larval salamander:—pl. Sirē′dones.

Siren, sī′ren, n. (Gr. myth.) one of certain sea-nymphs who sat on the shores of an island between Circe's isle and Scylla, near the south-western coast of Italy, and sang with bewitching sweetness songs that allured the passing sailor to draw near, only to meet with death: a fascinating woman, any one insidious and deceptive: an instrument which produces musical sounds by introducing a regularly recurring discontinuity into an otherwise steady blast of air: an instrument for demonstrating the laws of beats and combination tones: an eel-like, amphibious animal, with only one pair of feet, inhabiting swamps in the southern states of North America.—adj. pertaining to, or like, a siren: fascinating.—n. Sirē′nia, an order of aquatic mammals now represented by the dugong (Halicore) and the manatee (Manatus).—adj. Sirē′nian.—v.i. Sī′renise, to play the siren. [L. siren—Gr. seirēn, prob. seira, a cord.]

Sirgang, sėr′gang, n. the Asiatic green jackdaw.

Sirih, sir′i, n. the betel-leaf. [Malay.]

Sirius, sir′i-us, n. the Dogstar or Canicula, the brightest star in the heavens, situated in the constellation of Canis Major, or the Great Dog.—n. Sirī′asis, sunstroke. [L.,—Gr. seirios.]

Sirloin, sėr′loin, n. the loin or upper part of the loin of beef. [Fr. surlongesur (—L. super, above) and longe (cf. Loin). The first syllable has been modified by confusion with Eng. sir, and an absurd etymology constructed to suit.]

Sirname, sėr′nām, n. a corr. of surname.

Sirocco, si-rok′o, n. a name given in Italy to a dust-laden dry wind coming over sea from Africa; but also applied to any south wind, often moist and warm, as opposed to the Tramontana or north wind, from the hills.—Also Sir′oc. [It. sirocco (Sp. siroco)—scharq, the east.]

Sirop, sir′op, n. a form of syrup: a kettle used in making sugar by the open-kettle process.

Sirrah, sėr′a, n. sir, used in anger or contempt. [An extension of sir.]

Sir-reverence, sėr-rev′e-rens, n. a corr. of save-reverence.

Sirup. See Syrup.

Sirvente, sir-vont′, n. a satirical song of the 12th-13th century trouvères and troubadours. [Fr.]

Sis, sis, n. a girl, a sweetheart.—Also Sis′sy. [From Cicely.]

Sisal-grass, sis′al-gras, n. the prepared fibre of the agave or American aloe, supplying cordage.—Also Sis′al-hemp.

Siscowet, sis′kō-et, n. a Lake Superior variety of the great lake trout.—Also Sis′kiwit, Sis′kowet.

Siserary, sis′e-rā-ri, n. a stroke, blow, originally a legal writ transferring a cause to a higher court.—With a siserary, with suddenness or vehemence. [A corr. of certiorari.]

Siskin, sis′kin, n. a genus of perching birds belonging to the family Fringillidæ, the true finches. [Dan. sisgen, Sw. siska, Ger. zeisig.]

Sist, sist, v.t. (Scots law) to present at the bar: cause to appear, summon: to delay, stop.—n. the act of staying diligence or execution on decrees for civil debts. [L. sistĕre, to make to stand.]


Sister, sis′tėr, n. a female born of the same parents: a female closely allied to or associated with another.—adj. closely related, akin.—v.t. and v.i. to resemble closely: to be a sister to: to be allied.—ns. Sis′terhood, state of being a sister, the duty of a sister: a society of females, a community of women living together under a religious rule, and with a common object for their united life; Sis′ter-hook, in a ship's rigging, one of a pair of hooks fitting closely together and working on the same axis—also Clip-hook and Clove-hook; Sis′ter-in-law, a husband's or wife's sister, or a brother's wife.—adjs. Sis′terless, having no sister; Sis′ter-like, Sis′terly, like or becoming a sister: kind: affectionate. [A.S. sweostor; Dut. zuster, Ger. schwester.]

Sistine, sis′tin, adj. pertaining to a pope of the name of Sixtus, esp. Sixtus IV. (1471-84) and Sixtus V. (1585-90)—also Six′tine.—Sistine Chapel, the Pope's chapel in the Vatican, built in 1473 by Sixtus IV., covered with magnificent frescoes by Michael Angelo and the great Florentine masters; Sistine Madonna, or Madonna of San Sisto, a famous painting by Raphael Santi, now at Dresden, representing the Virgin and Child in glory, St Sixtus on the left, St Barbara on the right, and two cherubs below.

Sistrum, sis′trum, n. a form of rattle used in ancient Egypt in connection with the worship of Isis.

Sisyphean, sis-i-fē′an, adj. relating to Sisyphus: incessantly recurring. [From Sisyphus, a king of Corinth, who was condemned in Tartarus to roll to the top of a hill a huge stone, which constantly rolled down again, making his task incessant.]

Sit, sit, v.i. to rest on the haunches: to perch, as birds: to rest: to remain, abide: to brood: to occupy a seat, esp. officially: to be officially engaged: to blow from a certain direction, as the wind: to be worn, to fit, to be becoming: to take an attitude of readiness, or for any special purpose: to hold a deliberative session.—v.t. to keep a seat, or good seat, upon: to seat, place on a seat:—pr.p. sit′ting; pa.t. and pa.p. sat.—n. a subsidence of the roof of a coal-mine: (slang) a situation.—adj. Sit′-fast, fixed, stationary.—n. a callosity of the skin under the saddle, often leading to ulcer.—ns. Sit′ter; Sit′ting, state of resting on a seat: a seat, a special seat allotted to a seat-holder, at church, &c.; also the right to hold such: the part of the year in which judicial business is transacted: the act or time of resting in a posture for a painter to take a likeness: an official meeting to transact business: uninterrupted application to anything for a time: the time during which one continues at anything: a resting on eggs for hatching, the number hatched at one time; Sit′ting-room, the parlour or most commonly used room in many houses.—Sit down, to take a seat: to pause, rest: to begin a siege; Sit loose, or loosely, to be careless or indifferent; Sit on, or upon, to hold an official inquiry regarding: (slang) to repress, check; Sit out, to sit, or to sit apart, during: to await the close of; Sit under, to be in the habit of hearing the preaching of; Sit up, to raise the body from a recumbent to a sitting position: to keep watch during the night (with). [A.S. sittan; Ger. sitzen, L. sedēre.]

Sitar, sit′ar, n. an Oriental form of guitar.

Site, sīt, n. the place where anything is set down or fixed: situation: a place chosen for any particular purpose: posture.—adj. Sī′ted (Spens.), placed, situated. [Fr.,—L. situssitum, pa.p. of sinĕre, to set down.]

Sith, sith, adv., prep., and conj. since—(obs.) Sith′ence, Sith′ens. [M. E. sithen—A.S. síth thám, after that, also written siththan. Cf. Since.]

Sithe, sīth, n. (Spens.) time. [A.S. síth, time.]

Sithe, sīth, n. (Shak.) a scythe.—v.t. (Shak.) to cut with a scythe.

Sithe, sīth, n. (Spens.) a sigh.

Sitology, sī-tol′ō-ji, n. the science of the regulation of diet.—Also Sitiol′ogy. [Gr. sitos, food, logialegein, to say.]

Sitophobia, sī-tō-fō′bi-a, n. morbid aversion to food. [Gr. sitos, food, phobia, fear.]

Sitta, sit′a, n. the genus of nut-hatches.—adj. Sit′tine. [Gr. sittē, a woodpecker.]

Situate, -d, sit′ū-āt, -ed, adj. set or permanently fixed: placed with respect to other objects: residing.—ns. Situā′tion, the place where anything is situated: position: temporary state: condition: any group of circumstances, a juncture: a critical point in the action of a play or the development the plot of a novel: office, employment; Sī′tus, site: the proper place of an organ, &c.: locality in law. [Low L. situatus—L. situĕre, to place.]

Sitz-bath, sitz′-bäth, n. a hip-bath: a tub adapted for such. [Ger. sitz-bad.]

Sium, sī′um, n. a genus of umbelliferous plants—the water-parsnips. [Gr. sion.]

Siva, sē′va, n. the third god of the Hindu Trimúrti or triad, representing the principle of destruction and of reproduction.—adj. Sivaist′ic.—n. Si′vaite. [Sans. çiva, happy.]

Sivan, siv′an, n. the third month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, answering to part of May and June. [Heb.]

Sivatherium, siv-a-thē′ri-um, n. a very large fossil ruminant found in India.

Six, siks, adj. and n. five and one: a figure denoting six units (6, or vi.): a playing-card with six spots, the face of a die bearing six spots, or that die itself: beer sold at six shillings a barrel, small beer: (pl.) in hymnology, a quatrain in trochaic measure, the lines of three feet or six syllables.—adj. Six′fold, folded or multiplied six times.—ns. Six′footer, a person six feet high; Six′pence, a silver coin=six pence.—adj. Six′penny, worth sixpence: cheap, worthless.—ns. Six′-shoot′er, a six-chambered revolver; Sixte, a parry in which the hand is on guard opposite the right breast, the point of the sword raised and moved a little to the right.—adjs. and ns. Six′teen, six and ten; Six′teenth, the sixth after the tenth.—adj. Sixth, the last of six: the ordinal of six.—n. the sixth part: (mus.) an interval of four tones and a semitone, or six intervals.—adv. Sixth′ly, in the sixth place.—Sixth hour, noon-tide.—Be at sixes and sevens, to be in disorder; Long sixes, candles weighing six to the pound, about 8 inches long; Short sixes, candles weighing six to the pound, about 4 inches long. [A.S. siex; Ger. sechs, Gael. se; also L. sex, Gr. hex, Sans. shash.]

Sixteenmo=Sexto-decimo (q.v.).

Sixty, siks′ti, adj. and n. six times ten.—adj. and n. Six′tieth, the sixth tenth: the ordinal of sixty. [A.S. sixtig.]

Sizar, sī′zar, n. the name of an order of students at Cambridge and Dublin—from the allowance of victuals made to them from the college buttery.—n. Sī′zarship. [Size, fixed quantity.]

Size, sīz, n. extent of volume or surface: magnitude: an allotted portion: (pl.) allowances (Shak.).—v.t. to arrange according to size: at Cambridge, to buy rations at a certain fixed rate: to measure.—v.i. to increase in size.—adjs. Sī′zable, Size′able, of suitable size: of considerable size or bulk; Sized, having a particular size.—ns. Sī′zer, one who, or that which, sizes or measures, a kind of gauge; Sī′zing, act of sorting articles according to size, esp. crushed or stamped ores in mining: an order for extra food from a college buttery.—Size up, to measure, consider carefully. [Contr. of assize (q.v.).]

Size, sīz, Sizing, sī′zing, n. a kind of weak glue, used as varnish: any gluey substance.—v.t. to cover with size.—adj. Sized, having size in its composition.—n. Sī′ziness.—adj. Sī′zy, size-like: glutinous.

Sizel=Scissel (q.v.).

Sizzle, siz′l, v.i. to make a sound as if frying.—n. a hissing sound; extreme heat.—n. Sizz′ling, a hissing.

Skain=Skein (q.v.).

Skainsmate, skānz′māt, n. (Shak.) a companion, a scapegrace.

Skald, n.=Scald, a poet.

Skat, skat, n. a game played with thirty-two cards as in Piquet, and said to have been invented in 1817 in Altenburg. Each of three players receives ten cards, the two others being laid aside (hence the name from O. Fr. escart, laying aside).

Skate, skāt, n. a kind of sandal or frame of wood on a steel blade for moving on ice.—v.i. to slide on, skates.—ns. Skā′ter; Skā′ting; Skā′ting-rink. [Dut. schaats; cf. also Dan. sköite.]

Skate, skāt, n. the popular name of several species of Ray, esp. those of the family Raiidæ and genus Raia, with greatly extended pectoral fins. [Ice. skata—Low L. squatus—L. squatina; cf. Shad.]

Skathe. Same as Scathe.

Skaw, skä, n. a promontory.—Also Scaw. [Ice. skagiskaga, to jut out.]

Skean, skēn, n. a dagger.—n. Skean-dhu (skēn′-dōō), the knife stuck in the stocking of the Highland dress. [Gael, sgian, a knife.]

Skeary, skē′ri, a dial. form of scary.

Skedaddle, skē-dad′l, v.t. (prov.) to spill, scatter.—v.i. (coll.) to scamper off.—n. a scurrying off. [Ety. unknown. Prob. conn. somehow with shed—A.S. sceádan, to pour.]

Skee, skē, n. a wooden runner for sliding down a declivity.—v.i. to slide on skees. [Dan. ski—Ice. skídh.]

Skeel, skēl, n. (Scot.) a milking-pail, a washing-tub. [Scand., Ice. skjóla.]

Skeely, skē′li, adj. (Scot.) skilful.

Skeesicks, skē′ziks, n. (U.S.) a rascal.

Skeeter, skē′tėr, n. a mosquito.

Skeg, skeg, n. a stump, branch: the after-part of a ship's keel.

Skeg, skeg, n. a wild-plum.

Skein, skān, n. a knot or number of knots of thread or yarn. [O. Fr. escagne, from Celt.; cf. Ir. sgainne, a skein.]

Skelder, skel′dėr, v.i. and v.t. to practise begging: to swindle.

Skeleton, skel′e-tun, n. the bones of an animal separated from the flesh and preserved in their natural position: the framework or outline of anything: a very lean and emaciated person: a very thin form of light-faced type.—adj. pertaining to a skeleton—also Skel′etal.—ns. Skeletog′eny (-toj′-); Skeletog′raphy; Skeletol′ogy.—v.t. Skel′etonise, to reduce to a skeleton.—n. Skel′eton-key, a key for picking locks, without the inner bits.—Skeleton in the cupboard, closet, house, &c., some hidden domestic source of sorrow or shame. [Gr. skeleton (sōma), a dried (body)—skeletos, dried—skellein, to dry, to parch.]

Skelloch, skel′oh, v.i. (Scot.) to cry out with a shrill voice.—n. a squeal.

Skellum, skel′um, n. (Scot.) a ne'er-do-well. [Dut. schelm, a rogue.]

Skelly, skel′i, v.i. (Scot.) to squint. [Cf. Dan. skele, Sw. skela, Ger. schielen, to squint.]

Skelp, skelp, v.t. (Scot.) to slap.—v.i. to move briskly along, to bound along.—n. a slap: a heavy fall of pelting rain: a large portion.—adj. Skelp′ing, very big or full. [Gael. sgealp, a slap.]

Skelter, skel′tėr, v.i. to hurry or dash along.

Skep, skep, n. a grain-basket, or beehive made of straw or wicker-work.—n. Skep′ful, as much as a skep will hold. [A.S. scep—Scand., Ice. skeppa.]

Skeptic=Sceptic; Skepsis=Scepsis.

Skerry, sker′i, n. a rocky isle. [Ice. sker.]

Sketch, skech, n. a first draft of any plan or painting: an outline, a short and slightly constructed play, essay, &c.: a short dramatic scene for representation by two persons: an artist's preliminary study of a work to be elaborated.—v.t. to make a rough draft of: to draw the outline: to give the principal points of.—v.i. to practise sketching.—adj. Sketch′able, capable of being sketched effectively.—ns. Sketch′book, a blank book used for sketching by an artist or writer: a printed volume of literary sketches; Sketch′er, one who sketches.—adv. Sketch′ily.—n. Sketch′iness.—adj. Sketch′y, containing a sketch or outline: incomplete, slight. [Dut. schets, It. schizzo—L. schediumschedius, made off-hand—Gr. schedios, sudden.]

Skew, skū, adj. oblique: intersecting a road, river, &c. not at right angles, as a bridge.—adv. awry: obliquely.—v.t. to turn aside.—n. a deviation, a mistake: a squint: (archit.) the sloping top of a buttress slanting off against a wall.—ns. Skew′-arch, an arch standing obliquely on its abutments; Skew′-back (archit.), the course of masonry on the top of an abutment with a slope for the base of the arch to rest against.—adj. Skew′-bald, spotted irregularly, piebald.—n. Skew′-bridge, a bridge having its arch or arches set obliquely on its abutments, as when a railway crosses a road, &c., at an oblique angle.—adjs. Skewed, distorted; Skew-gee′ (coll.), crooked.—n. Skew′-wheel, a bevel-wheel with teeth formed obliquely on the rim. [Old Dut. schūwen (Dut. schuwen); Ger. scheuen, to shun; cf. Shy.]

Skewer, skū′ėr, n. a pin of wood or iron for keeping meat in form while roasting.—v.t. to fasten with skewers. [Prov. Eng. skiver, prob. the same as shiver, a splinter of wood.]

Skiascopy, skī′a-skō-pi, n. the shadow-test for measuring the refraction of an eye.—Also Scī′ascopy. [Gr. skia, a shadow, skopein, to view.]

Skid, skid, n. a piece of timber hung against a ship's side to protect it from injury: a sliding wedge or drag to check the wheel of a wagon on a steep place: a slab put below a gun to keep it off the ground.—v.t. to check with a skid.—v.i. to slide along without revolving.—n. Skid′der, one who uses a skid. [Scand., Ice. skídh; A.S. scíd, a piece split off.]

Skiey, skī′i, adj. Same as Skyey.

Skiff, skif, n. a small light boat. [A doublet of ship.]

Skiff, skif, adj. (prov.) distorted: awkward.

Skill, skil, n. knowledge of anything: dexterity in practice.—v.i. to understand, to be dexterous in: to make a difference, to signify.—adj. Skil′ful, having or displaying skill: dexterous.—adv. Skil′fully.—n. Skil′fulness.—adjs. Skilled, having skill: skilful: expert; Skil′less (Shak.), wanting skill, artless. [Scand., as Ice. skil, a distinction, skilja, to separate.]

Skillet, skil′et, n. a small metal vessel with a long handle, used for boiling water, in cooking, &c. [Prob. from O. Fr. escuellette, dim of escuelle (Fr. écuelle)—L. scutella, dim. of scutra, a dish.]

Skilligalee, skil-i-ga-lē′, n. thin watery soup.—Also Skilligolee′, Skill′y. [Ety. dub.]

Skilling, skil′ing, n. a small coin formerly current in North Germany and Scandinavia, in value from ¼d. to 1d. [Dan.]

Skilts, skilts, short loose trousers.

Skilvings, skil′vingz, (prov.) the rails of a cart.

Skim, skim, v.t. to clear off scum: to take off by skimming: to brush the surface of lightly.—v.i. to pass over lightly: to glide along near the surface: to become coated over:—pr.p. skim′ming; pa.t. and pa.p. skimmed.—n. the act of skimming: what is skimmed off.—ns. Skim′mer, a utensil for skimming milk: a bird that skims the water; Skim′-milk, skimmed milk: milk from which the cream has been skimmed; Skim′ming, the act of taking off that which floats on the surface of a liquid, as cream: that which is taken off, scum.—adv. Skim′mingly, by skimming along the surface. [Scum.]

Skimble-skamble, skim′bl-skam′bl, adj. wandering, wild, rambling, incoherent.—adv. in a confused manner. [A reduplication of scamble.]

Skimmington, skim′ing-ton, n. a burlesque procession intended to ridicule a henpecked husband: a riot generally.—Also Skim′ington, Skim′merton, Skim′itry. [Ety. unknown.]

Skimp, skimp, v.t. to give scanty measure, to stint: to do a thing imperfectly.—v.i. to be parsimonious.—adj. scanty, spare.—adj. Skim′ping, sparing: meagre: done inefficiently.—adv. Skim′pingly.—adj. Skim′py. [A variant of scamp.]

Skin, skin, n. the natural outer covering of an animal body: a hide: the bark or rind of plants, &c.: the inside covering of the ribs of a ship: a drink of whisky hot.—v.t. to cover with skin: to cover the surface of: to strip the skin from, to peel: to plunder, cheat: to answer an examination paper, &c., by unfair means.—v.i. to become covered with skin: to sneak off:—pr.p. skin′ning; pa.t. and pa.p. skinned.—adj. Skin′-deep, as deep as the skin only: superficial.—ns. Skin′flint, one who takes the smallest gains: a very niggardly person; Skin′ful, as much as one can hold, esp. of liquor.—adj. Skin′less, having no skin, or a very thin one.—ns. Skin′ner; Skin′niness.—adjs. Skin′ny, consisting of skin or of skin only: wanting flesh; Skin′-tight, fitting close to the skin.—n. Skin′-wool, wool pulled from the skin of a dead sheep.—By, or With, the skin of one's teeth, very narrowly; Clean skins, unbranded cattle; Save one's skin, to escape without injury. [A.S. scinn; Ice. skinn, skin, Ger. schinden, to flay.]

Skink, skingk, n. drink.—v.i. and v.t. to serve drink.—n. Skink′er, one who serves drink, a tapster.—adj. Skink′ing (Scot.), thin, watery. [A.S. scencan, to pour out drink; Ger. schenken.]

Skink, skingk, n. an African lizard. [L. scincus—Gr. skingkos, the adda.]

Skink, skingk, n. (Scot.) a shin-bone of beef, soup made from such. [Cf. Dut. schonk, a bone; cf. Shank.]

Skio, skyō, n. in Orkney, a fisherman's hut.—Also Skeo. [Norw. skjaa, a shed.]

Skip, skip, v.i. to leap: to bound lightly and joyfully: to pass over.—v.t. to leap over: to omit:—pr.p. skip′ping; pa.t. and pa.p. skipped.—n. a light leap: a bound: the omission of a part: the captain of a side at bowls and curling: a college servant.—ns. Skip′jack, an impudent fellow: the blue-fish, saurel, &c.; Skip′-ken′nel, one who has to jump the gutters, a lackey; Skip′per, one who skips: a dancer: (Shak.) a young thoughtless person: a hesperian butterfly.—adj. Skip′ping, flighty, giddy.—adv. Skip′pingly, in a skipping manner: by skips or leaps.—n. Skip′ping-rope, a rope used in skipping. [Either Celt., according to Skeat, from Ir. sgiob, to snatch, Gael. sgiab, to move suddenly, W. ysgipio, to snatch away; or Teut., conn. with Ice. skopa, to run.]

Skip, skip, n. an iron box for raising ore running between guides, or in inclined shafts fitted with wheels to run on a track, a mine-truck.

Skipetar, skip′e-tär, n. an Albanian: the Albanian language. [Albanian skipetar, a mountaineer.]

Skipper, skip′ėr, n. the master of a merchant-ship.—Skipper's daughters, white-topped waves. [Dut. schipper; Dan. skipper.]

Skipper, skip′ėr, n. a barn, a shed in which to shelter for the night.—v.i. to shelter in such a place.—n. Skipp′er-bird, a tramp. [Prob. W. ysguber, a barn.]

Skippet, skip′et, n. (Spens.) a small boat. [Dim. of A.S. scip, ship.]

Skippet, skip′et, n. a round flat box for holding a seal, which used to be attached to the parchment by ribbons passing through the lid.

Skirl, skirl, v.t. and v.i. (Scot.) to shriek shrilly.—n. a shrill cry.—n. Skir′ling, a shrill sound.

Skirmish, skėr′mish, n. an irregular fight between two small parties: a contest.—v.i. to fight slightly or irregularly.—ns. Skir′misher, a soldier belonging to troops dispersed to cover front or flank, and prevent surprises; Skir′mishing. [O. Fr. escarmouche—Old High Ger. skerman, scirman, to fight.]

Skirr, skėr, v.t. (Shak.) to ramble over, to scour.—v.i. to run in haste. [Scurry.]

Skirret, skir′et, n. an edible water-parsnip: a perennial plant, native to China and Japan. [Sugar-root.]

Skirt, skėrt, n. the part of a garment below the waist: a woman's garment like a petticoat: the edge of any part of the dress: border: margin: extreme part.—v.t. to border: to form the edge of.—v.i. to be on the border: to live near the extremity.—ns. Skirt′-danc′ing, a form of ballet-dancing in which the flowing skirts are waved about in the hands; Skir′ter, a huntsman who dodges his jumps by going round about; Skir′ting, strong material made up in lengths for women's skirts: skirting-board; Skir′ting-board, the narrow board next the floor round the walls of a room.—Divided skirt, a skirt in the form of loose trousers. [Scand., Ice. skyrta, a shirt. A doublet of shirt.]

Skit, skit, n. any sarcastic squib, lampoon, or pamphlet. [Ice. skúti, a taunt.]

Skite, skīt, v.i. (Scot.) to glide or slip—also Skyte.—n. a sudden blow: a trick.—vs.i. Skit, to leap aside: to caper; Skit′ter, to skim lightly over: to void thin excrement: to draw a baited hook along the surface of water. [Scand., Sw. skutta, to leap, skjuta, to shoot.]

Skittish, skit′ish, adj. unsteady, light-headed, easily frightened: hasty, volatile, changeable: wanton.—adv. Skitt′ishly.—n. Skitt′ishness. [Skite.]

Skittles, skit′lz, a game of ninepins in which a flattened ball or thick rounded disc is thrown to knock down the pins—played in a Skitt′le-all′ey, or -ground. In American Bowls, the game is played with ten pins arranged in the form of a triangle, the missile being rolled along a carefully constructed wooden floor.—v.t. Skitt′le, to knock down.—n Skitt′le-ball, the ball thrown in playing at skittles. [A variant of shittle or shuttle.]

Skiver, skī′vėr, n. a kind of leather made of split sheep-skins, used for bookbinding, &c.—n. a machine for skiving leather.—v.t. Skive, to cut, pare off.—n. Skī′ving, the act of skiving: a piece skived off—of leather, usually on the flesh side. [From root of shive, shiver.]

Skiver, skī′vėr, v.t. (prov.) to run through, to skewer.

Skivie, skiv′i, adj. (Scot.) deranged: askew.

Sklent, a Scotch form of slant.

Skoal, skōl, interj. hail! a friendly exclamation of salutation before drinking, &c. [Ice. skál; Norw. skaal, a bowl, Sw. skål.]

Skolion, skō′li-on, n. a short drinking-song in ancient Greece, taken up by the guests in turn:—pl. Skō′lia. [Gr.]

Skrimmage. Same as Scrimmage.

Skryer, skrī′ėr, n. one who uses the divining-glass.

Skua, skū′a, n. a bird of the family Laridæ, esp. the Great Skua (Stercorarius catarrhactes), a rapacious bird about two feet long, the plumage predominantly brown, breeding in the Shetlands.—n. Skū′a-gull. [Norw.]

Skue, skū, an obsolete form of skew.

Skug, Scug, skug, n. (prov.) shelter.—v.t. to shelter: to expiate.—n. Skug′gery, Scug′gery, secrecy.—adjs. Skug′gy, Scug′gy, shady. [Ice. skuggi, a shade.]

Skug, skug, n. (prov.) a squirrel.

Skulduddery. See Sculduddery.

Skulk, skulk, v.i. to sneak out of the way: to lurk.—ns. Skulk, Skulk′er, one who skulks.—adv. Skulk′ingly.—n. Skulk′ing-place. [Scand., as in Dan. skulke, to sneak; conn. with Ice. skjöl, cover, hiding-place; also with Eng. scowl.]

Skull, skul, n. the bony case that encloses the brain: the head, the sconce, noddle: a crust formed on the ladle, &c., by the partial cooling of molten metal: in armour, the crown of the head-piece: (Scot.) a shallow, bow-handled basket.—n. Skull′cap, a cap which fits closely to the head: the sinciput.—adj. Skull′-less.—Skull and cross-bones, a symbolic emblem of death and decay. [Ice. skál, a shell; conn. with shell and scale, a thin plate.]


Skunk, skungk, n. a small North American carnivorous quadruped allied to the otter and weasel, defending itself by emitting an offensive fluid: a low fellow: (U.S.) a complete defeat.—v.t. to inflict such.—ns. Skunk′-bird, -black′bird, the male bobolink in full plumage. [Indian seganku.]

Skupshtina, skoopsh′ti-na, n. the national assembly of Servia, having one chamber and 178 deputies, three-fourths elected and one-fourth nominated by the crown.—Great Skupshtina, specially elected for discussing graver questions.


Sky, skī, n. the apparent canopy over our heads: the heavens: the weather: the upper rows of pictures in a gallery.—v.t. to raise aloft, esp. to hang pictures above the line of sight.—adjs. Sky′-blue, blue like the sky; Sky′-born, of heavenly birth.—n. Sky′-col′our, the colour of the sky.—adjs. Sky′-col′oured, blue, azure; Skyed, surrounded by sky; Sky′ey, like the sky: ethereal; Sky′-high, very high; Sky′ish (Shak.), like or approaching the sky, lofty.—n. Sky′lark, a species of lark that mounts high towards the sky and sings on the wing.—v.i. to engage in any kind of boisterous frolic.—ns. Sky′larking, running about the rigging of a ship in sport: frolicking; Sky′-light, a window in a roof or ceiling towards the sky for the admission of light; Sky′line, the horizon; Sky′-par′lour, a lofty attic; Sky′-pī′lot, a clergyman.—adj. Sky′-plant′ed, placed in the sky.—n. Sky′-rock′et, a rocket that ascends high towards the sky and burns as it flies.—v.i. to move like a sky-rocket, to rise and disappear as suddenly.—ns. Sky′sail, the sail above the royal; Sky′scape, a view of a portion of the sky, or a picture of the same; Sky′-scrāp′er, a sky-sail of a triangular shape: anything shooting high into the sky.—adj. Sky′-tinc′tured, of the colour of the sky.—adv. Sky′ward, toward the sky. [Ice. ský, a cloud; akin to A.S. scúa, Gr. skia, a shadow.]

Skye, skī, n. for Skye terrier. [See Terrier.]

Skyr, skir, n. curds. [Ice.]

Skyrin, skī′rin, adj. (Scot.) shining, showy.

Slab, slab, n. a thin slip of anything, esp. of stone, having plane surfaces: a piece sawed from a log.—v.t. to cut slabs from, as a log.—adj. Slab′-sid′ed, having long flat sides, tall and lank.—n. Slab′stone, flagstone. [Scand., Ice. sleppa, to slip, Norw. sleip, a slab of wood.]

Slab, slab, adj. thick.—n. mud.—adj. Slab′by, muddy. [Celt., Ir., and Gael. slaib, mud.]

Slabber, slab′ėr, v.i. to slaver: to let the saliva fall from the mouth: to drivel.—v.t. to wet with saliva.—n. Slabb′erer.—adj. Slabb′ery.—n. Slabb′iness.—adj. Slabb′y. [Allied to Low Ger. and Dut. slabbern; imit. Doublet slaver.]

Slack, slak, adj. lax or loose: not firmly extended or drawn out: not holding fast, weak: not eager or diligent, inattentive: not violent or rapid, slow.—adv. in a slack manner: partially: insufficiently.—n. that part of a rope, belt, &c. which is slack or loose: a period of inactivity: a slack-water haul of a net.—vs.i. Slack, Slack′en, to become loose or less tight: to be remiss: to abate: to become slower: to fail or flag.—v.t. to make less tight: to loosen: to relax: to remit: to abate: to withhold: to use less liberally: to check: (B.) to delay.—v.t. Slack′-bake, to half-bake.—adj.Slack′-hand′ed, remiss.—n. Slack′-jaw (slang), impudent talk.—adv. Slack′ly.—n. Slack′ness.—adj.Slack′-salt′ed, insufficiently salted.—n. Slack′-wa′ter, ebb-tide: slow-moving water, as that above a dam.—adj. pertaining to slack-water.—Slack away, to ease off freely; Slack-in-stays, slow in going about, of a ship; Slack off, to ease off; Slack up, to ease off: to slow. [A.S. sleac; Sw. slak, Ice. slakr.]

Slack, slak, n. coal-dross. [Ger. schlacke.]

Slack, slak, n. (Scot.) a cleft between hills: a common: a boggy place. [Scand., Ice. slakki, a hill-slope.]

Slade, slād, n. a little valley or dell; a piece of low, moist ground. [A.S. slæd, a plain; prob. Celt., Ir. slad.]

Slade, slād, n. a peat-spade.

Slae, a Scotch form of sloe.

Slag, slag, n. vitrified cinders from smelting-works, &c.: the scoriæ of a volcano.—v.i. to cohere into slag.—adj. Slag′gy, pertaining to, or like, slag. [Sw. slagg; cf. Ger. schlacke, dross.]

Slain, slān, pa.p. of slay.

Slaister, slās′tėr, n. (Scot.) a slobbery mess, slovenly work.—v.t. to bedaub.—v.i. to slabber: to move about in a dirty, slovenly manner.—adj. Slais′tery. [Prob. Sw. slaska, to dabble, slask, wet.]

Slake, slāk, v.t. to quench: to extinguish: to mix with water: to make slack or inactive.—v.i. to go out: to become extinct.—adj. Slake′less, that cannot be slaked: inextinguishable. [A.S. sleacian, to grow slack—sleccan, to make slack—sleac, slack.]

Slake, slāk, n. a channel through a swamp or morass: slime. [Ice. slakki, a hill-slope.]

Slake, slāk, v.t. (Scot.) to besmear.—n. a slabbery daub. [Prob. conn. with Ice. sleikja, to lick; Ger. schlecken, to lick.]

Slam, slam, v.t. or v.i. to shut with violence and noise: to throw down with violence: to win all the tricks in a card-game:—pr.p. slam′ming; pa.t. and pa.p. slammed.—n. the act of slamming: the sound so made: the winning of all the tricks at whist, &c. [Scand., Norw. slemma, Ice. slamra.]

Slam, slam, n. an old card-game.

Slam, slam, n. a shambling fellow. [Cf. Dut. slomp, Ger. schlampe.]

Slamkin, slam′kin, n. a loose 18th-century women's morning-gown.—Also Slam′merkin.

Slander, slan′dėr, n. a false or malicious report: malicious defamation by words spoken: calumny.—v.t. to defame: to calumniate.—n. Slan′derer.—adj. Slan′derous, given to, or containing, slander: calumnious.—adv. Slan′derously.—n. Slan′derousness, the state or quality of being slanderous. [O. Fr. esclandre—L. scandalum—Gr. skandalon.]

Slang, slang, n. a conventional tongue with many dialects, which are, as a rule, unintelligible to outsiders, such as Gypsy, Canting or Flash, Back-slang, and Shelta or Tinkers' Talk: any kind of colloquial and familiar language serving as a kind of class or professional shibboleth.—adj. pertaining to slang.—v.i. to use slang, and esp. abusive language.—v.t. to scold.—adv. Slang′ily.—n. Slang′iness.—adj. Slang′ular, slangy.—v.i. Slang′-whang, to talk slangily or boisterously.—n. Slang′-whang′er, an abusive and wordy fellow.—adj. Slang′y. [Explained by Skeat as Scand., Norw. sleng, a slinging, a device, a burthen of a song, slengja, to sling. Leland boldly makes it Romany, and orig. applied to everything relating to shows—in Hindustani, Swangi, also often Slangi.]

Slang, slang, n. a narrow strip of land.—Also Slank′et. Slang, slang, n. (slang) a counterfeit weight or measure: a travelling show, or a performance of the same: a hawker's license: a watch-chain: (pl.) convicts' leg-irons.

Slant, slant, adj. sloping: oblique: inclined from a direct line—also Slan′ting.—n. a slope: a gibe: (slang) a chance.—v.i. to turn in a sloping direction.—v.i. to slope, to incline towards: (Scot.) to exaggerate, to lie.—adj. Slantendic′ūlar, oblique: indirect.—advs. Slan′tingly, in a slanting direction: with a slope or inclination; Slant′ly, Slant′wise, in a sloping, oblique, or inclined manner.—Slant-of-wind, a transitory breeze of favourable wind. [Scand., Sw. slinta, to slide.]

Slap, slap, n. a blow with the hand or anything flat.—v.t. to give a slap to:—pr.p. slap′ping; pa.t. and pa.p. slapped.—adv. with a slap: suddenly, violently.—adj. (slang) first-rate.—adv. Slap′-bang, violently, all at once.—adj. dashing, violent.—n. a cheap eating-house.—adv. Slap′-dash, in a bold, careless way.—adj. off-hand, rash.—n. rough-cast harling: carelessly done work.—v.t. to do anything in a hasty, imperfect manner: to rough-cast with mortar.—n. Slap′per (slang), anything big of its kind.—adjs. Slap′ping, very large; Slap′-up, excellent, very grand. [Allied to Low Ger. slapp, Ger. schlappe; imit.]

Slap, slap, n. (Scot.) a gap in a fence: a narrow cleft between hills.—v.t. to break an opening in.

Slape, slāp, adj. (prov.) slippery, crafty. [Ice. sleipr, sleppr, slippery—slípa, to be smooth.]

Slapjack=Flapjack (q.v.).

Slash, slash, v.t. to cut by striking with violence and at random: to make long cuts: to ornament by cutting slits in the cloth in order to show some fine material underneath.—v.i. to strike violently and at random with an edged instrument: to strike right and left: to move rapidly.—n. a long cut: a cut at random: a cut in cloth to show colours underneath: a stripe on a non-commissioned officer's sleeve: a clearing in a wood.—adj. Slashed, cut with slashes: gashed.—ns. Slash′er, anything which slashes; Slash′ing, a slash in a garment: the felling of trees as a military obstacle, also the trees so felled.—adj. cutting mercilessly, unsparing: dashing: very big, slapping. [O. Fr. eslecher, to dismember—Old High Ger. slīzan, to split.]

Slash, slash, v.i. (Scot.) to work in wet.—n. a large quantity of watery food, as broth, &c.—adj. Slash′y, dirty, muddy. [Sw. slaska, dabble—slask, wet.]

Slat, slat, v.t. to strike, beat.—v.i. to flap violently.—n. a sudden sharp blow. [Scand., Ice. sletta, to slap, Norw. sletta, to cast.]

Slat, slat, n. a thin piece of stone, a slate: a strip of wood.—adj. made of slats.—adj. Slat′ted, covered with slats. [O. Fr. esclat—Old High Ger. slīzan, to slit.]

Slatch, slach, n. the slack of a rope: an interval of fair weather: a short breeze. [Slack.]

Slate, slāt, n. a highly metamorphosed argillaceous rock, fine-grained and fissile, and of a dull blue, gray, purple, or green colour—used in thin slabs of small size for ordinary roofs, and in larger slabs for dairy-fittings, wash-tubs, cisterns, tables, &c., and when polished for writing-slates and 'black-boards:' a piece of slate for roofing, or for writing upon: a preliminary list of candidates before a caucus.—adj. bluish-gray, slate-coloured.—v.t. to cover with slate: to enter on a slate.—ns. Slate′-axe, a slater's tool, a sax; Slate′-clay, a fissile shale.—adjs. Slā′ted, covered with slates; Slate′-gray, of a light slate colour.—ns. Slate′-pen′cil, a cut or turned stick of soft slate, or of compressed moistened slate-powder, for writing on slate; Slā′ter; Slā′tiness, the quality of being slaty; Slā′ting, the act of covering with slates: a covering of slates: materials for slating.—adj. Slā′ty, resembling slate: having the nature or properties of slate. [O. Fr. esclat—Old High Ger. slīzan, Ger. schleissen, to split.]

Slate, slāt, v.t. to abuse, criticise severely: (prov.) to set a dog at.—n. Slā′ting, a severe criticism. [A.S. slítan, to slit.]

Slater, slā′tėr, n. a terrestrial oniscid isopod, as the common Porcellio scaber.

Slather, slath′ėr, n. (slang) a large quantity.

Slattern, slat′ėrn, n. a woman negligent of her dress: an untidy woman.—v.i. Slatt′er (prov.), to be untidy or slovenly.—n. Slatt′ernliness.—adj. Slatt′ernly, like a slattern: negligent of person: slovenly: dirty: sluttish.—adv. negligently: untidily.—adj. Slatt′ery (prov.) wet. [From slatter, a freq. of slat, to strike (q.v.).]

Slaughter, slaw′tėr, n. a killing: a great destruction of life: carnage: butchery.—ns. Slaugh′terer; Slaugh′terhouse, a place where beasts are killed for the market; Slaugh′terman, a man employed in killing or butchering animals.—adj. Slaugh′terous, given to slaughter: destructive: murderous.—adv. Slaugh′terously. [Prob. Ice. slátr, butchers' meat, whence slátra, to slaughter cattle. The A.S. is sleahtsleán, to slay.]

Slav, Slave, släv, n. one belonging to any of the Slavonic groups of Aryans—Bulgarians, Czechs, Poles, Russians, Servians, Wends, &c.—adj. Slav′ic. [Slovene or Slovane, from Polish slovo, a word, thus meaning the people who spoke intelligibly, as distinguished from their neighbour, Niemets, the German, lit. the dumb man. Miklosich considers both to be tribal names.]

Slave, slāv, n. a captive in servitude: any one in bondage: a serf: one who labours like a slave: a drudge: one wholly under the will of another: one who has lost all power of resistance.—v.i. to work like a slave: to drudge.—adj. Slave′-born, born in slavery.—ns. Slave′-drī′ver, one who superintends slaves at their work; Slave′-fork, a long and heavy branch into the forked end of which a slave's neck is fixed to prevent his escaping from the slave-trader's gang.—adj. Slave′-grown, grown on land worked by slaves.—ns. Slave′-hold′er, an owner of slaves; Slave′-hold′ing; Slave′-hunt, a hunt after runaway slaves; Slā′ver, a ship employed in the slave-trade; Slā′very, the state of being a slave: serfdom: the state of being entirely under the will of another: bondage: drudgery; Slave′-ship, a ship used for transporting slaves.— Slave′-states, those states of the American Union which maintained domestic slavery before the Civil War—Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee.—ns. Slave′-trade, the trade of buying and selling slaves; Slave′-trā′der, a trader in slaves; Slā′vey (slang), a domestic drudge, a maid-servant.—adj. Slā′vish, of or belonging to slaves: becoming slaves: servile: mean: base: laborious.—adv. Slā′vishly.—ns. Slā′vishness; Slāvoc′racy, slave-owners collectively, or their interests, &c.; Slā′vocrat, a member of the slavocracy. [O. Fr. esclave—Mid. High Ger. slave (Ger. sclave), from Slav, above.]

Slaver, slav′ėr, n. spittle or saliva running from the mouth.—v.i. to let the saliva run out of the mouth.—v.t. to smear with saliva.—n. Slav′erer.—adv. Slav′eringly, in a slavering manner.—adj. Slav′ery, slabbery. [Slabber.]

Slavonic, sla-von′ik, adj. of or belonging to the Slavs, or their language—also Sclavon′ic, Slavō′nian, Sclavō′nian.—vs.t. Slavon′icise, Slav′onise, to render Slavonic in character, language, &c.—ns. Slav′ophil, one devoted to promoting the interests of the Slavonic peoples; Slav′ophilism, Slavophil feelings and aims; Slav′ophōbist, one who dreads the growth of Slav influence.

Slaw, slaw, n. sliced cabbage eaten as a salad. [Dut. slaa.]

Slay, slā, v.t. to strike: to kill: to put to death: to destroy:—pa.t. slew (slōō); pa.p. slain (slān).—n. Slay′er. [A.S. sleán; Ice. slá, Goth. slahan, Ger. schlagen, to strike.]

Sleave, slēv, n. the ravelled, knotty part of silk thread: (Shak.) floss-silk.—v.t. to separate, as threads:—pr.p. sleav′ing; pa.p. sleaved. [Cf. Dan. slöife, a loose knot, Sw. slejf, a knot of ribbon, Ger. schleife, a loop.]

Sleazy, slā′zi, or slē′zi, adj. thin and flimsy.—n. Slea′ziness. [Prob. Ger. schleissig, worn out, readily split—schleissen, to split.]

Sled, sled, Sledge, slej, n. a carriage with runners made for sliding upon snow: a sleigh: anything dragged without wheels along the ground.—v.t. and v.i. to convey, or to travel, in a sled.—p.adj. Sled′ded (Shak.), sledged.—ns. Sled′ding, the act of transporting on a sled; Sledge′-chair, a chair mounted on runners for ice. [Ice. sledhi; from a root seen in A.S. slídan, to slide.]

Sledge, slej, n. an instrument for striking: a large heavy hammer used chiefly by ironsmiths. [A.S. slecgsleán, to strike, slay (cf. Ger. schlägel, a beater—schlagen).]

Sleek, slēk, adj. smooth: glossy: soft, not rough: insinuating, plausible: dexterous.—v.t. to make smooth or glossy: to calm or soothe.—v.i. to glide.—advs. Sleek, Slick, neatly.—v.t. Sleek′en, to make smooth or sleek.—ns. Sleek′er, Slick′er, a tool for dressing the surface of leather.—adj. Sleek′-head′ed, having a smooth head.—n. Sleek′ing, the act of making smooth.—adj. Sleek′it (Scot.), having a smooth skin: sly, cunning, fair-spoken.—adv. Sleek′ly.—ns. Sleek′ness; Sleek′-stone, a smooth stone used for polishing anything.—adj. Sleek′y, smooth: sly, untrustworthy. [Scand., Ice. slíkr, sleek; cf. Dut. slijk, Ger. schlick, grease.]

Sleep, slēp, v.i. to take rest by relaxation: to become unconscious: to slumber: to rest: to be motionless or inactive: to remain unnoticed: to live thoughtlessly: to be dead: to rest in the grave:—pa.t. and pa.p. slept.—n. the state of one who, or that which, sleeps: slumber: rest: the dormancy of some animals during winter: (bot.) nyctitropism.—n. Sleep′er, one who sleeps: a horizontal timber supporting a weight, rails, &c.—adv. Sleep′ily.—n. Sleep′iness.—p.adj. Sleep′ing, occupied with, or for, sleeping: dormant.—n. the state of resting in sleep: (Shak.) the state of being at rest or in abeyance.—ns. Sleep′ing-car, -carriage, a railway-carriage in which passengers have berths for sleeping in; Sleep′ing-draught, a drink given to bring on sleep; Sleep′ing-part′ner (see Partner).—adj. Sleep′less, without sleep: unable to sleep.—adv. Sleep′lessly.—ns. Sleep′lessness; Sleep′-walk′er, one who walks while asleep: a somnambulist; Sleep′-walking.—adj. Sleep′y, inclined to sleep: drowsy: dull: lazy.—n. Sleep′yhead, a lazy person.—On sleep (B.), asleep. [A.S. slǽpanslǽp; Ger. schlaf, Goth. sleps.]

Sleet, slēt, n. rain mingled with snow or hail.—v.i. to hail or snow with rain mingled.—n. Sleet′iness.—adj. Sleet′y. [Scand., Norw. sletta, sleet.]

Sleeve, slēv, n. the part of a garment which covers the arm: a tube into which a rod or other tube is inserted.—v.t. to furnish with sleeves.—ns. Sleeve′-band (Shak.), the wristband; Sleeve′-butt′on, a button or stud for the wristband or cuff.—adjs. Sleeved, furnished with sleeves; Sleeve′less, without sleeves.—ns. Sleeve′-link, two buttons, &c., joined by a link for holding together the two edges of the cuff or wristband; Sleeve′-nut, a double-nut for attaching the joint-ends of rods or tubes; Sleeve′-waist′coat, Sleeved′-waist′coat, a waistcoat with long sleeves, worn by porters, boots, &c.—Hang on the sleeve, to be dependent on some one; Have in one's sleeve, to have in readiness for any emergency; Laugh in one's sleeve, to laugh behind one's sleeve, to laugh privately or unperceived; Leg-of-mutton sleeve, a woman's sleeve full in the middle, tight at arm-hole and wrist. [A.S. sléfe, sléf, a sleeve—slúpan, to slip; cog. with Ger. schlauf.]

Sleezy=Sleazy (q.v.).

Sleided, slād′ed, adj. (Shak.) unwoven. [Sley.]

Sleigh, slā, n. same as Sled.—ns. Sleigh′-bell, a small bell attached to a sleigh or its harness; Sleigh′ing, the act of riding in a sleigh or sled.

Sleight, slīt, n. cunning: dexterity: an artful trick.—n. Sleight′-of-hand, legerdemain. [Ice. slægth, cunning, slægr, sly.]

Slender, slen′dėr, adj. thin or narrow: feeble: inconsiderable: simple: meagre, inadequate, poorly furnished.—adv. Slen′derly.—n. Slen′derness. [Old Dut. slinder, thin, slinderen, to drag; cf. Ger. schlendern, to saunter.]

Slept, slept, pa.t. and pa.p. of sleep.

Sleuth-hound, slōōth′-hownd, n. a dog that tracks game by the scent, a blood-hound. [Slot.]

Slew, slōō, pa.t. of slay.

Sley, slā, n. the reed of a weaver's loom. [A.S. slǽsleán, to strike.]

Slice, slīs, v.t. to slit or divide into thin pieces.—n. a thin broad piece: a broad knife for serving fish.—n. Slī′cer, one who, or that which, slices: a broad, flat knife. [O. Fr. esclice—Old High Ger. slīzan, to split.]

Slick, slik, adj. smooth: smooth-tongued: dexterous in movement or action.—adv. in a smooth manner, deftly. [Sleek]

Slick, slik, n. ore finely powdered. [Ger. schlich.]

Slickensides, slik′en-sīdz, n. the smooth, polished, or striated, and generally glazed surfaces of joints and faults in rocks, considered to have been produced by the friction of the two surfaces during the movement of the rock.—adj. Slick′ensided. [Sleek.]

Slid, slid, pa.t. and pa.p. of slide.

Slidden, slid′n, pa.p. of slide.

Slidder, slid′ėr, v.i. to slip, slide.—adj. Slidd′ery, slippery. [A.S. sliderian, to slip, slidor, slippery:—slídan, to slide.]


Slide, slīd, v.i. to slip or glide: to pass along smoothly: to fall: to slip away quietly, to disappear: (slang) to slope, slip away from the police, &c.—v.t. to thrust along: to slip:—pa.t. slid; pa.p. slid or slidd′en.n. a smooth passage: the fall of a mass of earth or rock: a smooth declivity: anything, as a lid, that slides, a glass that slides in a frame in front of a magic-lantern, bearing the picture to be thrown on the screen, that part of a photographic plate-holder which serves to cover and uncover the negative: (mus.) a melodic embellishment, two notes sliding into each other: (slang) a biscuit covered with ice-cream.—adj. Slī′dable, capable of sliding or of being slid.—ns. Slī′der, one who, or that which, slides: the part of an instrument or machine that slides; Slide′-rest, an apparatus adapted to a turning-lathe for carrying the cutting-tool; Slide′-valve, a valve in a steam-engine, made to slide backward and forward to cover and uncover the openings through which steam enters the cylinder; Slī′ding, act of one who slides: falling: backsliding.—p.adj. slippery: movable, changing.—ns. Slī′ding-keel, an oblong frame let down vertically through the bottom of a vessel in order to deepen the draught and sustain against a side-wind; Slī′ding-rule (see Rule); Slī′ding-scale, a scale of duties which slide or vary according to the value or market prices: a sliding-rule; Slī′ding-seat, a kind of seat for racing-boats, moving with the swing of the rower's body; Slīdom′eter, an instrument indicating the strain put on a railway-carriage by sudden stoppage. [A.S. slídan, to slide; Dut. slidderen, to slip.]

Slight, slīt, adj. weak: slender: of little value: trifling: small: negligent: not decided, superficial, cursory: slighting, disdainful.—v.t. to disregard, as of little value: to neglect: (obs.) to demolish, smooth.—n. neglect: disregard, an act of discourtesy.—advs. Slight′ingly; Slight′ly.—n. Slight′ness. [Old Low Ger. slicht, plain; Dut. slecht, bad, Ger. schlecht, straight.]

Slight, slīt, n. (Spens.), sleight, device, trick.

Slily, slī′li, adv. See under Sly.

Slim, slim, adj. (comp. Slim′mer, superl. Slim′mest) very thin, weak, slender: slight, trivial, unsubstantial: delicate: crafty.—adv. Slim′ly.—adj. Slim′mish, somewhat slim.—n. Slim′ness.—adj. Slim′sy (U.S.), frail, flimsy. [Old Low Ger. slim, crafty; Dan. slem, worthless, Ger. schlimm, bad.]

Slime, slīm, n. glutinous mud: (B.) probably bitumen.—n. Slime′-pit, a pit of slime or viscous mire.—adv. Slīm′ily.—n. Slīm′iness.—adj. Slīm′y, abounding with, or consisting of, slime: glutinous. [A.S. slím; Ger. schleim.]

Sliness, slī′nes, n. Same as Slyness.

Sling, sling, n. a strap or pocket with a string attached to each end, for hurling a stone: a throw: a hanging bandage for a wounded limb: a rope with hooks, used in hoisting and lowering weights: a sweep or swing: a stroke as from a missile thrown from a sling.—v.t. to throw with a sling: to hang so as to swing: to move or swing by means of a rope: to cast.—v.i. to bound along with swinging steps: (slang) to blow the nose with the fingers:—pa.t. and pa.p. slung.—ns. Sling′er; Sling′stone, a stone to be thrown from a sling. [A.S. slingan, to turn in a circle; Ger. schlingen, to move or twine round.]

Sling, sling, n. toddy with grated nutmeg.

Slink, slingk, v.i. to creep or crawl away, as if ashamed: to sneak:—pa.t. and pa.p. slunk. [A.S. slincan, to creep; Low Ger. sliken, Ger. schleichen.]

Slink, slingk, v.t. to cast prematurely, as a calf.—v.i. to miscarry.—n. a calf prematurely born: the flesh of such: a bastard child.—adj. prematurely born: unfit for food: lean, starved: mean.—ns. Slink′-butch′er, one who kills and dresses for sale the carcasses of diseased animals; Slink′skin, the skin of a slink, or leather made from it.—adj. Slink′y, lean.

Slip, slip, v.i. to slide or glide along: to move out of place: to escape: to err: to slink: to enter by oversight.—v.t. to cause to slide: to convey secretly: to omit: to throw off: to let loose: to escape from: to part from the branch or stem:—pr.p. slip′ping; pa.t. and pa.p. slipped.—n. act of slipping: that on which anything may slip: an error, a fault, a slight transgression: an escape: a twig: a strip, a narrow piece of anything: a leash: a smooth inclined plane, sloping down to the water, on which a ship is built: anything easily slipped on: (print.) a long galley-proof before being made up into pages.—ns. Slip′-board, a board sliding in grooves; Slip′-dock, a dock having a floor that slopes so that the lower end is submerged; Slip′-knot, a knot which slips along the rope or line round which it is made; Slip′per, a loose shoe easily slipped on.—adj. (Spens.) slippery.—adj. Slip′pered, wearing slippers.—adv. Slip′perily, in a slippery manner.—ns. Slip′periness, Slip′piness.—adjs. Slip′pery, Slip′py, apt to slip away: smooth: not affording firm footing or confidence: unstable: uncertain; Slip′shod, shod with slippers, or shoes down at the heel like slippers: careless.—n. Slip′stitch.—Slip off, to take off noiselessly or hastily; Slip on, to put on loosely or in haste; Slip one's breath, or wind, to die; Slip the leash, to disengage one's self from a noose.—Give a person the slip, to escape stealthily from him. [A.S. slípan; Sw. slippa, Dut. slippen, to glide, Ger. schliefen.]

Slipe, slīp, n. in mining, a skip or sledge without wheels.

Slipslop, slip′slop, adj. slipshod, slovenly.—n. thin, watery food: a blunder.—v.i. to slip loosely about.—adj. Slip′sloppy, slushy, sloppy.

Slish, slish, n. (Shak.) a cut. [A corr. of slash.]

Slit, slit, v.t. to cut lengthwise: to split: to cut into strips:—pr.p. slit′ting; pa.t. and pa.p. slit.—n. a long cut: a narrow opening.—n. Slit′ter, anything which slits, a slitting-shears for sheet-metal.—adj. Slit′tered, cut into strips with square ends.—n. Slit′ting-mill, an establishment in which metal plates are cut into strips for nail-making: a rotating disc used by gem-cutters for slitting: a gang-saw used for resawing lumber for blind-slats, fence-pickets, &c. [A.S. slítan; Ger. schleissen.]

Slither, slith′ėr, v.i. to slide.—adj. slippery.—n. a limestone rubble.—adjs. Slith′ering, slow, deceitful; Slith′ery, slippery. [A variant of slidder.]

Sliver, sliv′ėr, or slī′vėr, v.t. to split, to tear off lengthwise, to slice.—n. a piece cut or rent off, a slice: a continuous strand of loose untwisted wool or other fibre.—v.i. Slive, to slide, skulk. [A.S. slífan, to cleave.]

Sloam, slōm, n. (prov.) in coal-mining, the under-clay.

Sloat, slōt, n. Same as Slot (1) and (2).

Slobber, slob′ėr, same as Slabber.—n. Slob, mire, muddy land.—adj. Slobb′ery, moist, wet.

Slocken, slok′n, v.t. to quench, extinguish.—Also Slok′en. [Ice. slokna, to go out.]

Sloe, slō, n. the blackthorn, producing white flowers before the leaves, the shoots making excellent walking-sticks: the austere fruit, a good preserve. [A.S. slá; Dut. slee, a sloe.]

Slog, slog, v.i. to hit hard.—n. Slog′ger, a hard hitter.

Slogan, slō′gan, n. a war-cry among the ancient Highlanders of Scotland. [Gael., contracted from sluagh-gairm, an army-cry.]

Sloid=Sloyd (q.v.).

Slombry, slom′bri, adj. (Spens.) sleepy.—v.i. Sloom (prov.), to slumber.—adj. Sloom′y, lazy, inactive.


Sloop, slōōp, n. a light boat: a one-masted cutter-rigged vessel, differing from a cutter, according to old authorities, in having a fixed bowsprit and somewhat smaller sails in proportion to the hull.—n. Sloop′-of-war, formerly a vessel, of whatever rig, between a corvette and a gun-vessel, constituting the command of a commander, carrying from ten to eighteen guns. [Dut. sloep, prob. O. Fr. chaloupe, shallop.]

Slop, slop, n. water carelessly spilled: a puddle: mean liquor or liquid food: (pl.) dirty water.—v.t. to soil by letting a liquid fall upon:—pr.p. slop′ping; pa.p. slopped.—ns. Slop′-bā′sin, -bowl, a basin for slops, esp. for the dregs of tea and coffee cups at table; Slop′-dash, weak cold tea, &c.: Slop′-pail, a pail for collecting slops; Slop′piness.—adj. Slop′py, wet: muddy. [A.S. sloppe, slyppe, cow-droppings—slúpan, to slip.]

Slope, slōp, n. any incline down which a thing may slip: a direction downward.—v.t. to form with a slope, or obliquely.—v.i. to be inclined, to slant: (slang) to decamp, disappear.—adv. in a sloping manner.—adv. Slope′wise, obliquely.—p.adj. Slō′ping, inclining from a horizontal or other right line.—adv. Slō′pingly, in a sloping manner: with a slope.—adj. Slō′py, sloping, inclined: oblique. [A.S. slípan, pa.t. sláp, to slip.]

Slops, slops, any loose lower garment that slips on easily, esp. trousers: ready-made clothing, &c.—ns. Slop′-sell′er, one who sells cheap ready-made clothes; Slop′-shop, a shop where ready-made clothes are sold; Slop′-work, the making of cheap cloth, any work superficially done; Slop′-work′er, one who does slop-work. [Scand., Ice. sloppr, a long robe—sleppa, to slip.]

Slosh, slosh, n. a watery mess.—v.i. to flounder in slush: to go about in an easy way.—adj. Slosh′y. [A form of slush.]

Slot, slot, n. a bar or bolt: a broad, flat, wooden bar which holds together larger pieces. [Allied to Low Ger. slot, Dut. slot, a lock.]

Slot, slot, n. a hollow, narrow depression, to receive some corresponding part in a mechanism: a ditch, the continuous opening between the rails in a cable tramway along which the shank of the grip moves.—n. Slot′ting-machine′, a machine for cutting slots or square grooves in metal. [Slit.]

Slot, slot, n. the track of a deer. [Ice. slóth, track, path; Scot. sleuth, track by the scent.]

Sloth, slōth, or sloth, n. laziness, sluggishness: a sluggish arboreal animal of tropical America, of two genera (Cholœpus, the two-toed sloth, and Bradypus, the three-toed sloth).—adj. Sloth′ful, given to sloth: inactive: lazy.—adv. Sloth′fully.—n. Sloth′fulness. [A.S. slǽwthsláw, slow.]

Slotter, slot′ėr, n. filth.—v.t. to foul.—adj. Slott′ery, foul.

Slouch, slowch, n. a hanging down loosely of the head or other part: clownish gait: a clown.—v.i. to hang down: to have a clownish look or gait.—v.t. to depress.—n. Slouch′-hat, a soft broad-brimmed hat.—p.adj. Slouch′ing, walking with a downcast, awkward manner: hanging down.—adj. Slouch′y, somewhat slouching. [Scand., Ice. slókr, a slouching fellow; slakr, slack.]

Slough, slow, n. a hollow filled with mud: a soft bog or marsh.—adj. Slough′y, full of sloughs: miry. [A.S. slóh, a hollow place; perh. from Ir. slocslugaim, to swallow up.]

Slough, sluf, n. the cast-off skin of a serpent: the dead part which separates from a sore.—v.i. to come away as a slough (with off): to be in the state of sloughing.—v.t. to cast off, as a slough.—adj. Slough′y, like, or containing, slough. [Scand.; Sw. dial. slug; cf. Ger. slauch, a skin.]

Slovak, slō-vak′, adj. pertaining to the Slovaks, a branch of the Slavs in the mountainous districts of N.W. Hungary, their language little more than a dialect of Czech.—n. one of this race, or his language.—adjs. Slovak′ian, Slovak′ish.

Sloven, sluv′n, n. a man carelessly or dirtily dressed:—fem. Slut.—n. Slov′enliness.—adj. Slov′enly, like a sloven: negligent of neatness or cleanliness: disorderly: done in an untidy manner.—adv. negligently.—n. Slov′enry (Shak.), slovenliness. [Old Dut. slof, sloef, Low Ger. sluf, slow, indolent.]

Slovenian, slō-vē′ni-an, adj. pertaining to the Slovenes, a branch of the South Slavonic stock to which the Serbs and Croats belong.

Slow, slō, adj. not swift: late: behind in time: not hasty: not ready: not progressive.—v.t. to delay, retard, slacken the speed of.—v.i. to slacken in speed.—n. Slow′back, a lazy lubber.—p.adj. Slow′-gait′ed (Shak.), accustomed to walk slowly.—ns. Slow′-hound, sleuth-hound; Slow′ing, a lessening of speed.—adv. Slow′ly.—ns. Slow′-match, generally rope steeped in a solution of saltpetre and lime-water, used for firing guns before the introduction of friction tubes, and sometimes for firing military mines, now superseded by Bickford's fuse, a train of gunpowder enclosed in two coatings of jute thread waterproofed; Slow′ness.—adj. Slow′-sight′ed, slow to discern; Slow′-winged, flying slowly.—n. Slow′-worm, a scincoid lizard, same as Blind-worm—by popular etymology 'slow-worm,' but, according to Skeat, really 'slay-worm,' A.S. slá-wyrm. [A.S. sláw; Dut. slee, Ice. sljór.]

Sloyd, Sloid, sloid, n. the name given to a certain system of manual instruction which obtains in the schools of Finland and Sweden, the word properly denoting work of an artisan kind practised not as a trade or means of livelihood, but in the intervals of other employment. [Sw. slöjd, dexterity.]

Slub, slub, v.t. to twist after carding to prepare for spinning.

Slubber, slub′ėr, v.t. to stain, to daub, slur over.—n. Slubb′er-degull′ion, a wretch.—adv. Slubb′eringly. [Dut. slobberen, to lap, Low Ger. slubbern.]

Sludge, sluj, n. soft mud or mire: half-melted snow.—adj. Sludg′y, miry: muddy. [A form of slush.]

Slue, Slew, slū, v.t. (naut.) to turn anything about its axis without removing it from its place: to turn or twist about.—v.i. to turn round:—pr.p. slū′ing; pa.p. slūed.—n. the turning of a body upon an axis within its figure.—adj. Slued, tipsy. [Scand., Ice. snua, to turn.]

Slug, slug, n. a heavy, lazy fellow: a name for land-molluscs of order Pulmonata, with shell rudimentary or absent—they do great damage to garden crops: any hinderance.—ns. Slug′-a-bed (Shak.), one who is fond of lying in bed, a sluggard; Slug′gard, one habitually idle or inactive.—v.t. Slug′gardise (Shak.), to make lazy.—adj. Slug′gish, habitually lazy: slothful: having little motion: having little or no power.—adv. Slug′gishly.—n. Slug′gishness. [Scand., Dan. slug, sluk, drooping, Norw. sloka, to slouch; Low Ger. slukkern, to be loose; allied to slack.]

Slug, slug, n. a cylindrical or oval piece of metal for firing from a gun: a piece of crude metal. [Prob. from slug above, or slug=slog, to hit hard.]

Slugga, slug′a, n. a deep cavity formed by the action of subterranean streams common in some limestone districts of Ireland. [Ir. slugaid, a slough.]

Slughorn, slug′horn, n. a word used to denote a kind of horn, but really a corruption of slogan.

Sluice, slōōs, n. a sliding gate in a frame for shutting off or regulating the flow of water: the stream which flows through it: that through which anything flows: a source of supply: in mining, a board trough for separating gold from placer-dirt carried through it by a current of water: the injection-valve in a steam-engine condenser.—v.t. to wet or drench copiously: to wash in or by a sluice: to flush or clean out with a strong flow of water.—adj. Sluic′y, falling in streams, as from a sluice. [O. Fr. escluse (Fr. écluse)—Low L. exclusa (aqua), a sluice (water) shut out, pa.p. of L. ex-cludĕre, to shut out.]

Slum, slum, n. a low street or neighbourhood.—v.i. to visit the slums of a city, esp. from motives of curiosity.—ns. Slum′mer, one who slums; Slum′ming, the practice of visiting slums.

Slumber, slum′bėr, v.i. to sleep lightly: to sleep: to be in a state of negligence or inactivity.—n. light sleep: repose.—ns. Slum′berer; Slum′bering.—adv. Slum′beringly, in a slumbering manner.—n. Slum′berland, the state of slumber.—adjs. Slum′berless, without slumber: sleepless; Slum′berous, Slum′brous, inviting or causing slumber; sleepy; Slum′bery, sleepy: drowsy. [With intrusive b from M. E. slumeren—A.S. sluma, slumber; cog. with Ger. schlummern.]

Slump, slump, v.i. to fall or sink suddenly into water or mud: to fail or fall through helplessly.—n. a boggy place: the act of sinking into slush, &c., also the sound so made: a sudden fall or failure.—adj. Slump′y, marshy. [Cf. Dan. slumpe, to stumble upon by chance; Ger. schlumpen, to trail.]

Slump, slump, v.t. to throw into a lump or mass, to lump.—n. a gross amount, a lump.—n. Slump′-work, work in the lump. [Cf. Dan. slump, a lot, Dut. slomp, a mass.]

Slung, pa.t. and pa.p. of sling.—n. Slung′-shot, a weight attached to a cord, used as a weapon.

Slunk, pa.t. and pa.p. of slink.—adj. Slunk′en (prov.), shrivelled.

Slur, slur, v.t. to soil; to contaminate: to disgrace: to pass over lightly: to conceal: (mus.) to sing or play in a gliding manner.—v.i. (print.) to slip in making the impression, causing the printing to be blurred:—pr.p. slur′ring; pa.t. and pa.p. slurred.—n. a stain: slight reproach or disparagement: (mus.) a mark showing that notes are to be sung to the same syllable.—p.adj. Slurred (mus.), marked with a slur, performed in a gliding style like notes marked with a slur. [Old Dut. slooren, sleuren, Low Ger. slüren, to drag along the ground.]

Slurry, slur′i, n. any one of several semi-fluid mixtures, esp. of ganister, used to make repairs in converter-linings.

Slush, slush, n. liquid mud: melting snow: a mixture of grease for lubrication: the refuse of the cook's galley in a ship.—v.t. to apply slush to, to grease: to wash by throwing water upon: to fill spaces in masonry with mortar (with up): to coat with a mixture of white-lead and lime the bright parts of machinery.—adj. Slush′y. [Cf. Slosh.]

Slut, slut, n. (fem. of Sloven) a dirty, untidy woman: a wench, a jade: a bitch.—adj. Slut′tish, resembling a slut: dirty: careless.—adv. Slut′tishly.—ns. Slut′tishness, Slut′tery. [Scand., Ice. slöttr, a dull fellow—slota, to droop.]

Sly, slī, adj. dexterous in doing anything so as to be unobserved: cunning: wily: secret: done with artful dexterity: illicit.—n. Sly′boots, a sly or cunning person or animal.—advs. Sly′ly, Slī′ly.—ns. Sly′ness, Slī′ness.—On the sly, slyly, secretly. [Prob. from Ice. slæg-r; cf. Ger. schlau.]

Slype, slīp, n. a. covered passage from the transept of a cathedral to the chapter-house, &c. [Slip.]

Smack, smak, n. taste: flavour: a pleasing taste: a small quantity: a flavour of something.—v.i. to have a taste: to have a quality. [A.S. smæc.]

Smack, smak, n. a generic name for small decked or half-decked coasters and fishing-vessels, most rigged as cutters, sloops, or yawls. [Dut. smak; Ger. schmacke, Ice. snekja.]

Smack, smak, v.t. to strike smartly, to slap loudly: to kiss roughly and noisily.—v.i. to make a sharp noise with, as the lips by separation.—n. a sharp sound: a crack: a hearty kiss.—adv. sharply, straight.—p.adj. Smack′ing, making a sharp, brisk sound, a sharp noise, a smack. [Prob. imit., Dut. smakken, to smite, Ger. schmatzen, to smack.]

Small, smawl, adj. little in quantity or degree: minute: not great: unimportant: ungenerous, petty: of little worth or ability: short: having little strength: gentle: little in quality or quantity.—adv. in a low tone; gently.—ns. Small′-ale, ale with little malt and unhopped; Small′-and-earl′y (coll.) an informal evening-party.— Small′-arms, muskets, rifles, pistols, &c., including all weapons that can be actually carried by a man.—n. Small′-beer, a kind of weak beer.—adj. inferior generally.— Small′-clothes, knee-breeches, esp. those of the close-fitting 18th-century form.—ns. Small′-coal, coal not in lumps but small pieces; Small′-craft, small vessels generally.— Small′-debts, a phrase current in Scotland to denote debts under £12, recoverable in the Sheriff Court.—n. Small′-hand, writing such as is ordinarily used in correspondence.— Small′-hours, the hours immediately following midnight.—adj. Small′ish, somewhat small.—ns. Small′ness; Small′-pī′ca (see Pica); Small′pox, or Variola, a contagious, febrile disease, of the class known as Exanthemata, characterised by small pocks or eruptions on the skin; Smalls, the 'little-go' or previous examination: small-clothes; Small′-talk, light or trifling conversation.— Small′-wares (see Ware).—In a small way, with little capital or stock: unostentatiously. [A.S. smæl; Ger. schmal.]

Smallage, smawl′āj, n. celery. [Small, Fr. ache—L. apium, parsley.]

Smalt, smawlt, n. glass melted, tinged blue by cobalt, and pulverised when cold.—n. Smal′tine, an arsenide of cobalt, often containing nickel and iron. [Low L. smaltum—Old High Ger. smalzjan (Ger. schmelzen), to melt.]

Smaragdine, sma-rag′din, adj. of an emerald green.—n. Smarag′dite, a peculiar variety of Amphibole, light grass-green in colour, with a foliated, lamellar or fibrous structure—occurring as a constituent of the rock called Eklogite. [L. smaragdinus—smaragdus—Gr. smaragdos, the emerald.]

Smart, smärt, n. quick, stinging pain of body or mind: smart-money: a dandy.—v.i. to feel a smart: to be punished.—adj. causing a smart: severe: sharp: vigorous, brisk: acute, witty, pert, vivacious: well-dressed, fine, fashionable: keen in business: creditable, up-to-the-mark.—v.t. Smart′en, to make smart, to brighten (with up).—adv. Smart′ly.—ns. Smart′-mon′ey, money paid by a recruit for his release before being sworn in: money paid for escape from any unpleasant situation or engagement: excessive damages: money allowed to soldiers and sailors for wounds; Smart′ness; Smart′-tick′et, a certificate granted to one entitled to smart-money; Smart′-weed, a name given to some of the Milkworts from their acrid properties, esp. Polygonum Hydropiper, or Waterpepper; Smart′y, a would-be smart fellow. [A.S. smeortan; Dut. smarten, Ger. schmerzen.]

Smash, smash, v.t. to break in pieces violently: to crush: to dash violently.—v.i. to act with crushing force: to be broken to pieces: to be ruined, to fail: to dash violently.—n. act of smashing, destruction, ruin, bankruptcy.—ns. Smash′er, one who smashes: (slang) one who passes bad money, bad money itself: anything great or extraordinary; Smash′ing.—adj. crushing: dashing.—n. Smash′-up, a serious smash. [Prob. Sw. dial. smaske, to smack.]

Smatch, smach, n. (Shak.) taste or tincture.—v.t. and v.i. to have a taste. [Smack.]

Smatter, smat′ėr, v.i. to talk superficially: to have a superficial knowledge.—ns. Smatt′erer; Smatt′ering, a superficial knowledge.—adv. Smatt′eringly, in a smattering manner. [M. E. smateren, to rattle, to chatter—Sw. smattra, to clatter; Ger. schnattern.]

Smear, smēr, v.t. to overspread with anything sticky or oily, as grease: to daub.—n. Smear′iness.—adj. Smear′y, sticky: showing smears. [A.S. smeru, fat, grease; Ger. schmeer, grease, Ice. smjör, butter.]

Smectite, smek′tīt, n. a greenish clay. [Gr. smēktissmēchein, to rub.]

Smectymnuus, smek-tim′nū-us, n. a name compounded of the initials of the five Puritan divines—Stephen Marshall, Edmund Calamy, Thomas Young, Matthew Newcomen, and William Spurstow, joint authors of An Answer (1641) to Bishop Hall's Humble Remonstrance to the High Court of Parliament (1641) in defence of the liturgy and episcopal government.

Smeddum, smed′um, n. fine powder: sagacity, spirit, mettle: ore small enough to go through the sieve. [A.S. smedema, fine flour.]

Smee, smē, n. the pochard: widgeon: pintail-duck.—Also Smeath.

Smegma, smeg′ma, n. a sebaceous secretion, esp. that under the prepuce: an unguent.—adj. Smegmat′ic. [Gr. smēgma.]

Smell, smel, v.i. to affect the nose: to have odour: to use the sense of smell.—v.t. to perceive by the nose:—pa.t. and pa.p. smelled or smelt.—n. the quality of bodies which affects the nose: odour: perfume: the sense which perceives this quality.—ns. Smell′er; Smell′-feast, a greedy fellow; Smell′ing, the sense by which smells are perceived; Smell′ing-bott′le, a bottle containing smelling-salts, or the like; Smell′ing-salts, a preparation of ammonium carbonate with lavender, &c., used as a stimulant in faintness, &c.; Smell′-trap, a drain-trap.—adj. Smell′y, having a bad smell.—Smell a rat (see Rat); Smell out, to find out by prying. [Allied to Low Ger. smelen, Dut. smeulen, to smoulder.]

Smelt, smelt, n. a fish of the salmon or trout family, having a cucumber-like smell and a delicious flavour. [A.S. smelt.]

Smelt, smelt, v.t. to melt ore in order to separate the metal.—ns. Smel′ter; Smel′tery, a place for smelting; Smel′ting; Smel′ting-fur′nace, -house, -works. [Scand., Sw. smälta, to smelt.]

Smerky, smėrk′i, adj. (Spens.) neat. [Smirk.]

Smew, smū, n. a bird of the family Anatidæ, in the same genus as the goosander and mergansers.

Smicker, smik′ėr, v.i. (obs.) to look amorously.—n. Smick′ering, an inclination for a woman.—adv. Smick′ly, amorously.

Smicket, smik′et, n. a smock.

Smiddy, smid′i, n. a smithy.

Smidgen, smij′en, n. (U.S.) a small quantity, a trifle.

Smift, smift, n. a piece of touchwood, &c., formerly used to ignite the train in blasting.—Also Snuff.

Smight, smīt, v.t. (Spens.) to smite.

Smilax, smī′laks, n. a genus of liliaceous plants, type of the tribe Smilaceæ—the roots of several species yield sarsaparilla.

Smile, smīl, v.i. to express pleasure by the countenance: to express slight contempt: to look joyous: to be favourable.—n. act of smiling: the expression of the features in smiling: favour: (slang) a drink, a treat.—ns. Smī′ler, one who smiles; Smī′let (Shak.), a little smile.—adj. Smī′ling, wearing a smile, joyous.—adv. Smī′lingly, in a smiling manner: with a smile or look of pleasure.—n. Smī′lingness, the state of being smiling. [Scand., Sw. smila, to smile.]

Smirch, smirch, v.t. to besmear, dirty: to degrade in fame, dignity, &c.—n. a stain. [A weakened form of smer-k, from M. E. smeren, to smear.]

Smirk, smėrk, v.i. to smile affectedly: to look affectedly soft.—n. an affected smile.—adjs. Smirk (obs.), Smirk′y, smart. [A.S. smercian; akin to smile.]

Smit, smit, obsolete pa.t. and pa.p. of smite.

Smit, smit, v.t. (prov.) to infect.—n. a stain: infection.—v.t. Smit′tle, to infect.—adj. infectious.—n. infection. [A.S. smittian, to spot, smitta, a spot, an intens. of smítan, to smite.]

Smitch, smich, n. a particle: dust.—n. (dim.) Smitch′el.

Smite, smīt, v.t. to strike with the fist, hand, or weapon: to beat: to kill: to overthrow in battle: to affect with feeling: (B.) to blast: to afflict.—v.i. to strike:—pa.t. smōte; pa.p. smitt′en.n. Smī′ter.—Smite off, to cut off; Smite out, to knock out; Smite with the tongue (B.), to reproach, to revile. [A.S. smítan; Dut. smijten, Ger. schmeissen.]

Smith, smith, n. one who forges with the hammer: a worker in metals: one who makes anything.—ns. Smith′ery, the workshop of a smith: work done by a smith—also Smith′ing; Smith′y, the workshop of a smith; Smith′y-coal, a kind of small coal much used by smiths. [A.S. smith; Ger. schmied.]

Smithereens, smith-ėr-ēnz′, (coll.) small fragments.

Smithsonian, smith-sō′ni-an, adj. pertaining to James Macie Smithson (1765—1829), founder of a great institution at Washington for ethnological and scientific investigations, organised by Congress in 1846.

Smitten, smit′n, pa.p. of smite.

Smock, smok, n. a woman's shift: a smock-frock.—v.t. to clothe in a smock or smock-frock.—adj. Smock′-faced, pale-faced.—ns. Smock′-frock, an outer garment of coarse white linen worn over the other clothes in the south of England; Smock′-race, a race for the prize of a smock. [A.S. smoc, perh. from A.S. smeógan, to creep into.]

Smoke, smōk, n. the vapour from a burning body—a common term for the volatile products of the imperfect combustion of such organic substances as wood or coal.—v.i. to emit smoke: to smoke out instead of upward, owing to imperfect draught: to draw in and puff out the smoke of tobacco: to raise smoke by moving rapidly: to burn, to rage: to suffer, as from punishment.—v.t. to apply smoke to: to dry, scent, or medicate by smoke: to inhale the smoke of: to use in smoking: to try to expel by smoking: to scent out, discover: to quiz, ridicule: to thrash.—ns. Smoke′-black, lampblack; Smoke′-board, a board suspended before the upper part of a fireplace to prevent the smoke coming out into the room; Smoke′-box, part of a steam-boiler where the smoke is collected before passing out at the chimney; Smoke′-consū′mer, an apparatus for burning all the smoke from a fire.—adj. Smoke′-dried.—v.t. Smoke′-dry, to cure or dry by means of smoke.—ns. Smoke′-house, a building where meat or fish is cured by smoking, or where smoked meats are stored; Smoke′-jack, a contrivance for turning a jack by means of a wheel turned by the current of air ascending a chimney.—adj. Smoke′less, destitute of smoke.—adv. Smokel′essly.—ns. Smoke′lessness; Smō′ker, one who smokes tobacco: a smoking-carriage: one who smoke-dries meat: an evening entertainment at which smoking is permitted; Smoke′-sail, a small sail hoisted between the galley-funnel and the foremast when a vessel rides head to the wind; Smoke′-shade, a scale of tints ranging from 0 to 10, for comparison of different varieties of coal, according to the amount of unburnt carbon in their smoke; Smoke′-stack, an upright pipe through which the combustion-gases from a steam-boiler pass into the open air.—adj. Smoke′-tight, impervious to smoke.—ns. Smoke′-tree, an ornamental shrub of the cashew family, with long light feathery or cloud-like fruit-stalks; Smoke′-wash′er, an apparatus for removing soot and particles of unburnt carbon from smoke by making it pass through water; Smoke′-wood, the virgin's bower (Clematis Vitalba), whose porous stems are smoked by boys.—adv. Smō′kily.—ns. Smō′kiness; Smō′king, the act of emitting smoke: the act or habit of drawing into the mouth and emitting the fumes of tobacco by means of a pipe or cigar—a habit of great sedative value: a bantering; Smō′king-cap, -jack′et, a light ornamental cap or jacket often worn by smokers; Smō′king-carr′iage, -room, a railway-carriage, -room, supposed to be set apart for smokers.—adj. Smō′ky, giving out smoke: like smoke: filled, or subject to be filled, with smoke: tarnished or noisome with smoke: (obs.) suspicious.—On a smoke (B.), smoking, or on fire. [A.S. smocian, smoca; Ger. schmauch.]

Smolder=Smoulder (q.v.).

Smolt, smōlt, n. a name given to young river salmon when they are bluish along the upper half of the body and silvery along the sides. [Smelt.]

Smooth, smōōth, adj. having an even surface: not tough: evenly spread: glossy: gently flowing: easy: regular: unobstructed: bland: mild, calm.—v.t. to make smooth: to palliate: to soften: to calm: to ease: (Shak.) to exonerate.—v.i. to repeat flattering words.—n. (B.) the smooth part.—adj. Smooth′-bore, not rifled.—n. a gun with smooth-bored barrel.—adjs. Smooth′-browed, with unwrinkled brow; Smooth′-chinned, having a smooth chin: beardless; Smooth′-dit′tied, sweetly sung, with a flowing melody.—v.t Smooth′en, to make smooth.—n. Smooth′er, one who, or that which, smooths: in glass-cutting, an abrading-wheel for polishing the aces of the grooves cut by another wheel: (obs.) a flatterer.—adj. Smooth′-faced, having a smooth air, mild-looking.—ns. Smooth′ing-ī′ron, an instrument of iron for smoothing clothes; Smooth′ing-plane, a small fine plane used for finishing.—adv. Smooth′ly.—n. Smooth′ness.—adjs. Smooth′-paced, having a regular easy pace; Smooth′-shod, having shoes without spikes; Smooth′-spō′ken, speaking pleasantly: plausible: flattering; Smooth′-tongued, having a smooth tongue: flattering. [A.S. smóthe, usually sméthe; Ger. ge-schmeidig, soft.]

Smore, smōr, a Scotch form of smother.

Smote, smōt, pa.t. and pa.p. of smite.

Smother, smuth′ėr, v.t. to suffocate by excluding the air: to conceal.—v.i. to be suffocated or suppressed: to smoulder.—n. smoke: thick floating dust: state of being smothered: confusion.—ns. Smotherā′tion, suffocation: a sailor's dish of meat buried in potatoes; Smoth′eriness.—adv. Smoth′eringly.—adj. Smoth′ery, tending to smother: stifling. [M. E. smorther—A.S. smorian, to smother; cf. Ger. schmoren, to stew.]

Smouch, smowch, n. a smack, a hearty kiss.—v.t. to kiss, to buss.

Smouch, smowch, v.t. to take advantage of, to chouse.

Smouched, smowcht, adj. blotted, dirtied, smutched.

Smoulder, smōl′dėr, v.i. to burn slowly or without vent.—adjs. Smoul′dring, Smoul′dry. [M. E. smolderensmolder=smor-ther, stifling smoke; cf. Smother.]

Smouse, Smous, smows, n. a peddler, a German Jew.

Smout, smowt, n. (slang) a printer who gets chance jobs in various offices.—v.i. to do occasional work.

Smudge, smuj, n. a spot, a stain: a choking smoke—v.t. to stifle: to fumigate with smoke.—n. Smud′ger, one who smudges: a plumber.—adj. Smud′gy, stained with smoke. [Scand., Sw. smuts, dirt, Dan. smuds, smut; Ger. schmutz.]

Smug, smug, adj. neat, prim, spruce: affectedly smart: well satisfied with one's self.—n. a self-satisfied person.—adj. Smug′-faced, prim or precise-looking.—adv. Smug′ly.—n. Smug′ness. [Dan. smuk, handsome; cf. Ger. schmuck, fine.]

Smug, smug, v.t. to seize without ceremony, to confiscate: (slang) to hush up.

Smuggle, smug′l, v.t. to import or export without paying the legal duty: to convey secretly.—ns. Smugg′ler, one who smuggles: a vessel used in smuggling; Smugg′ling, defrauding the government of revenue by the evasion of custom-duties or excise-taxes. [Low Ger. smuggeln, cog. with Ger. schmuggeln; Dut. smuigen, to eat secretly.]

Smuggle, smug′l, v.t. to fondle, cuddle.

Smur, smur, n. (Scot.) fine misty rain.—v.i. to drizzle.—adj. Smur′ry.

Smut, smut, n. a spot of dirt, soot, &c.: foul matter, as soot: Bunt, sometimes also Dust-brand, the popular name of certain small fungi which infest flowering land-plants, esp. the grasses, the name derived from the appearance of the spores, which are nearly black and very numerous: obscene language.—v.t. to soil with smut: to blacken or tarnish.—v.i. to gather smut: to be turned into smut:—pr.p. smut′ting; pa.t. and pa.p. smut′ted.n. Smut′-ball, a fungus of genus Tilletia: a puff-ball.—adj. Smut′tied, made smutty.—adv. Smut′tily.—n. Smut′tiness.—adj. Smut′ty, stained with smut: affected with smut or mildew: obscene, filthy. [Scand., Sw. smuts; Ger. schmutz, prob. from root of smite.]

Smutch, smuch, v.t. to blacken, as with soot.—n. a dirty mark. [A form of smut.]

Smyrniot, -e, smėr′niot, -ōt, n. a native or inhabitant, of Smyrna.—adj. of or pertaining to Smyrna.

Smyterie, Smytrie, smit′ri, n. (Scot.) a large number of individuals of small size.

Snabble, snab′l, v.t. (prov.) to plunder: to kill.—v.i. to gobble up.

Snabby, snab′i, n. (Scot.) the chaffinch.

Snack, snak, n. a share: a slight, hasty meal.—v.t. to snatch, to bite: to share. [A form of snatch.]

Snaffle, snaf′l, n. a bridle which crosses the nose and has a slender mouth-bit without branches.—v.t. to bridle: to clutch by the bridle.—ns. Snaff′le-bit, a kind of slender bit; Snaff′ling-lay, the trade of highwayman. [Dut. snavel, the muzzle; cf. Snap.]

Snag, snag, n. a sharp protuberance: a short branch: a projecting tooth or stump: a tree lying in the water so as to impede navigation—hence any stumbling-block or obstacle.—v.t. to catch on a snag: to entangle: to fill with snags, or to clear from such.—n. Snag′boat, a steamboat with appliances for removing snags.—adjs. Snag&